320102cA Agricultural Equipment Technician Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) - Part A Electric Welding and Oxyfuel Cutting First Period Table of Contents Objective One ............................................................................................................................................... 2 Definitions................................................................................................................................................. 2 Basic Joints ............................................................................................................................................... 9 Welding Positions ................................................................................................................................... 10 Groove Weld Edge Preparations ............................................................................................................. 11 Weld Components ................................................................................................................................... 12 Structural Shapes .................................................................................................................................... 13 Objective Two............................................................................................................................................. 14 Machine Types ........................................................................................................................................ 14 Welding Currents .................................................................................................................................... 18 Objective Three ........................................................................................................................................... 21 Machine Installation and Maintenance ................................................................................................... 21 Objective Four ............................................................................................................................................ 26 Equipment Set-Up ................................................................................................................................... 26 Objective Five ............................................................................................................................................. 27 Types of Welding Electrodes .................................................................................................................. 27 The SMAW Process ................................................................................................................................ 28 The Core Wire......................................................................................................................................... 28 The Coating ............................................................................................................................................. 29 Electrode Classification System.............................................................................................................. 30 Objective Six............................................................................................................................................... 32 Dynamic and Static Loading Considerations .......................................................................................... 32 Types of Coatings ................................................................................................................................... 34 Specific Information on Mild Steel Electrodes ....................................................................................... 37 Electrode Selection Simplified................................................................................................................ 39 Metal Identification ................................................................................................................................. 41 Self-Test ...................................................................................................................................................... 44 Self-Test Answers ....................................................................................................................................... 49 Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) Part A NOTES Rationale Why is it important for you to learn this skill? The shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) (manual arc welding) process is commonly used in many phases of agricultural equipment repair. You must know the safety requirements, machine set-up and adjustments, electrode selection and puddle control techniques in order to make these necessary repairs. This module provides the information required to perform these welding operations. Outcome When you have completed this module you will be able to: Perform welding operations using arc welding equipment. Prerequisites At this point, you should have completed the following modules: 320102a Welding Safety 320102b Oxyfuel Equipment Objectives 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Define basic electricity terms related to arc welding. Describe selected machine types, welding currents and polarities. Describe care and maintenance procedures of arc welding equipment. Demonstrate equipment set-up and adjustments. Describe the electrode designation system. Select electrodes for specific applications. Introduction This module will cover safe operation and adjustment of arc welding machines. The module is designed to introduce you to puddle control techniques and to develop your hand skills at performing beads and fillet welds on mild steel using the SMAW process. This module presents information necessary to select the correct electrode for the application at hand. 320102cAp2.2.docx © 2011, Her Majesty the Queen in right of the Province of Alberta 1 NOTES Objective One When you have completed this objective you will be able to: Define basic electricity terms related to arc welding. Definitions In order for you to gain an understanding of basic electricity and welding power sources, you must first understand some basic terms associated with this subject matter. The following terms are used throughout the trade and you should become familiar with these terms in order to communicate with others in the trade. 2 Term Definition alternating current (AC) Alternating current (AC) is current that flows in one direction during any half cycle, then reverses and flows in the opposite direction during the next half cycle. The rate at which this alternating occurs is measured as cycles per second, with 60cycle AC being the most common in North America. amperage Amperage is also known as heat setting. Amperage is the current flow through the welding cables while welding. A welding machine is manufactured to have a maximum amperage output (for example, 200 amps, 250 amps or 300 amps). The operator can select the welding amperage, within the limits of the machine, to suit the requirements of the job at hand. This is the electrical property that causes the electrode, the parent metal, or both, to be melted. Amperage in arc welding is responsible for the following. Metal deposition rate (also known as burn-off rate). If the amperage is increased, there is a proportionate increase in the metal deposition rate of the electrode. A decrease in amperage results in a decrease of the metal deposition rate. Penetration: Increasing the amperage causes the arc to penetrate or burn deeper into the parent metal and lowering the amperage causes a decrease in penetration. arc In welding, an arc is created when there is enough amperage and voltage available at the electrode tip to overcome the natural resistance to the flow of electricity. This resistance is usually caused by the air gap between the electrode and the work. The heat of the arc melts the base plate and the electrode. 320102cAp2.2.docx © 2011, Her Majesty the Queen in right of the Province of Alberta NOTES Term Definition arc blow Arc blow is a condition encountered when welding with direct current that causes the arc to flare uncontrollably from side to side. Puddle control is very difficult and the subsequent weld quality is very poor. Arc blow is caused by magnetic fields being set up around the work. This is due to current travelling in the same direction for a prolonged period of time. Arc blow is not a problem when welding with AC because the reversals in the direction of current flow prevent the accumulation of magnetic fields being set up around the work. If it is not possible for you to change to an AC power source, arc blow can be minimized or eliminated by: changing the position of the ground clamp, using a different electrode angle or electrode inclination, welding toward a heavy tack or existing weld, welding in the opposite direction, positioning the object being welded on so it is in contact with the earth, using a lower current setting and/or wrapping the ground cable around the pipe a few times, as in pipe line welding. If that is not successful, wrap it in the opposite direction. arc voltage Arc voltage is the voltage output of the machine while welding is being done. It is the force that maintains the current flow across the arc between the electrode and the workpiece. Higher arc volts improve arc stability and also increase the amount of heat in the arc, thus causing the puddle to be more fluid. There is not an adjustment to the arc volts on most manual arc welding machines. The operator can influence the arc voltage by varying the length of the arc. 320102cAp2.2.docx © 2011, Her Majesty the Queen in right of the Province of Alberta 3 NOTES Term buzz box Definition The term buzz box is often used to describe an AC transformer type welding machine because of the typical buzzing sound made when welding with them. Figure 1 illustrates an inexpensive AC transformer type welding machine. Settings tend to be rather coarse; typically ten to twenty amps per step. Each step or tap is connected to a fixed position on the secondary coil in the machine. Figure 1 - AC transformer welder with step controls (taps). 4 circuit Any system of conductors that is designed to complete the path of an electric current is called a circuit. Current flows in the conductor when voltage is applied to it. core The core is the magnetic link between the primary and the secondary coils of a welding transformer. The core can be moved into, or out of, the coil as a method of current control. This type of current control is called movable shunt. A movable shunt means that the core can be moved into different positions thus, influencing the magnetic link between the primary and secondary coils. The shunt is usually moved mechanically by an external hand crank that controls its movement on a slide assembly. This allows for any setting between minimum and maximum of the machine's output potential. 320102cAp2.2.docx © 2011, Her Majesty the Queen in right of the Province of Alberta NOTES Term Definition coil A coil is usually made of insulated copper wire and is designed to have a certain number of turns of wire. The coil can be moved over or away from the core as a method of adjusting the welding current. Figure 2 illustrates an AC transformer type welding machine with a fixed primary coil, a fixed secondary coil and a movable shunt. Figure 2 - Coils and movable shunt in an AC welding machine. A conductor is a material or substance that is capable of conductor transmitting electricity. Most metals are good conductors because they offer little resistance to current flow. constant current (CC) Constant current (CC) is a term denoting a welding machine suitable for SMAW and GTAW. These machines typically produce a relatively high open circuit voltage to assist in establishing a welding arc. These machines produce a steep or drooping volt-amp curve. constant voltage (CV) Constant voltage is also known as constant potential A term denoting a welding machine suitable for GMAW, FCAW and SAW. These machines produce a relatively stable voltage regardless of the amperage output of the machine. These machines produce an almost flat volt-amp curve. 320102cAp2.2.docx © 2011, Her Majesty the Queen in right of the Province of Alberta 5 NOTES Term Definition cycle A cycle is one complete rotation of the sine wave pattern as illustrated in Figure 3. The sine wave begins at zero, climbs to its maximum positive value, then drops back through zero and becomes negative. It reaches its maximum negative value, then proceeds to zero again. This movement is one full cycle of AC current. With 60-cycle AC, the current changes direction 120 times per second. Figure 3 - One cycle of alternating current (sine wave). direct current (DC) Direct current (DC) is electric current that flows in one direction only and has either a positive or negative value. There is no change of current flow direction as there is with AC. The electron theory states that current flows from negative to positive. duty cycle All welding machines are rated by the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA). The rating is based on maximum output over a ten-minute time period. This rating is expressed as a percentage of the time that the machine can run at maximum rated output current before it must be allowed to cool down. For example, a machine rated at 300 amps with a 60% duty cycle can operate at maximum rated amperage for six minutes out of ten without causing damage by overheating. Also, if the machine was required to run continuously, it could safely run at 60% of 300 amps, or 180 amps maximum. (This is a rule of thumb calculation for estimating other than rated output). Exceeding duty cycle ratings can damage or ruin a welding power source. flux core arc welding (FCAW) Flux core arc welding uses GMAW equipment and process, but uses flux core wire rather than solid core wire. Shielding gas can be externally applied and/or obtained within the hollow electrode core. FCAW is used extensively in the fabrication industry for welding of carbon and alloy steels, stainless steels and hard surfacing applications. A generator is a machine used to create electricity of sufficient volume for welding. A shaft, with an electrical conductor, is rotated perpendicular to a magnetic field. Generators produce generator 6 320102cAp2.2.docx © 2011, Her Majesty the Queen in right of the Province of Alberta Term Definition either AC or DC depending on their internal configuration. gas metal arc welding (GMAW) Gas metal arc welding, (Figure 4), commonly referred to as MIG (metal inert gas) welding, is an arc welding process that fuses metal by heating it with an electric arc established between a continuously fed filler metal (consumable solid wire) electrode and the workpiece. Appropriate settings made by the operator maintain a constant burn-off rate of the wire electrode. Depending upon the power source and wire drive system used, the arc length is maintained automatically. Atmospheric contamination is prevented by using an externally applied shielding gas gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) NOTES Figure 4 - Gas metal arc welding process. Gas tungsten arc welding, (commonly referred to as TIG tungsten inert gas) is a process in which fusion welding is accomplished by the heat of an electric arc drawn between a non-consumable tungsten electrode and the workpiece. The electrode, arc, weld puddle and the adjacent heated area of the workpiece are protected from atmospheric contamination by an externally applied gaseous shield. Filler rod is added manually. GTAW is easily adapted for welding a wide variety of ferrous and non-ferrous metals with high quality control. inverter An inverter is a device that changes DC to AC. In welding machines, inverters are also used to increase the frequency of AC. metal inert gas (MIG) open circuit voltage (OCV) See GMAW. When a welding machine is turned on, but no current is flowing in the circuit, open circuit voltage is the potential force available to initiate the current flow when the arc is struck. Open circuit voltage is built into the machine and is not adjustable by the operator. 80 OCV is the maximum available for safety reasons. 320102cAp2.2.docx © 2011, Her Majesty the Queen in right of the Province of Alberta 7 NOTES 8 Term Definition A machine with high OCV will have superior operator appeal. The arc is easier to strike and the arc voltage will be higher, creating better arc stability. rectifier A rectifier is a device that changes AC to DC by allowing current to flow in one direction only. resistance Resistance is the property of an electrical conductor to oppose the flow of current, causing electrical energy to be turned into heat. Resistance is measured in ohms and is calculated by dividing voltage by amperage (Ohms = V/A). The air gap (arc length) offers resistance to current flow. It is this resistance to the flow of current across the arc that creates the heat needed for welding. reverse polarity (DCRP) Direct current reverse polarity, direct current electrode positive. In a SMAW DC welding circuit, reverse polarity occurs when the electrode cable is connected to the positive terminal of the welding machine. For more details, see the sections on Machine Types and Welding Currents in Objective Two. shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) Shielded metal arc welding is a manual arc welding process that fuses metal using the heat from an electric arc established between a consumable stick electrode and the workpiece. Appropriate settings made by the operator maintain a constant burn-off rate of the electrode. The operator controls the molten puddle and ultimately the finished weld by manually manipulating the arc length, the electrode angle relative to the workpiece and the rate of travel. The electrodes are supplied with a coating that breaks down during the welding process to produce a protective gaseous shield around the molten puddle and also a slag cover to protect the cooling weld. straight polarity (DCSP) Direct current straight polarity, direct current electrode negative. In a SMAW DC welding circuit, straight polarity occurs when the electrode cable is connected to the negative terminal of the welding machine. For more details, see the sections on Machine Types and Welding Currents in Objective Two. voltage Voltage is the electrical pressure or force that causes current to flow in a conductor or to cross the arc gap. Voltage in arc welding is responsible for the following. Starting the arc: With constant current welding machines, open circuit voltage needs to be quite high (80 volts) in order to initiate an arc. Maintaining the arc: Arc voltage must be present to maintain the arc (typically 17 to 40 volts). Puddle fluidity and puddle flow: Arc voltage directly affects both the width of the weld bead and the fluidity or wetness of the puddle. An increase in arc voltage causes an increase in puddle width and fluidity, while a decrease in arc voltage, causes the puddle to be 320102cAp2.2.docx © 2011, Her Majesty the Queen in right of the Province of Alberta NOTES Term Definition narrower and less fluid. welding machine (welding power source) A welding machine is an apparatus that is specifically designed to deliver an electric current of proper voltage to amperage ratio and of sufficient capacity for welding. Basic Joints Basic joints are shown in Figure 5. Figure 5 - Basic joints. 320102cAp2.2.docx © 2011, Her Majesty the Queen in right of the Province of Alberta 9 NOTES Welding Positions Welding positions are shown in Figure 6. Figure 6 - Welding positions. 10 320102cAp2.2.docx © 2011, Her Majesty the Queen in right of the Province of Alberta NOTES Groove Weld Edge Preparations Groove weld edge preparations are shown in Figure 7. Figure 7 - Groove weld edge preparations. 320102cAp2.2.docx © 2011, Her Majesty the Queen in right of the Province of Alberta 11 NOTES Weld Components Weld components include the following. Fillet Weld A fillet weld is shown in Figure 8. Figure 8 - Fillet weld. Groove Weld A groove weld is shown in Figure 9. Figure 9 - Groove weld. 12 320102cAp2.2.docx © 2011, Her Majesty the Queen in right of the Province of Alberta NOTES Structural Shapes Various structural shapes are shown in Figure 10. Figure 10 - Structural shapes. 320102cAp2.2.docx © 2011, Her Majesty the Queen in right of the Province of Alberta 13 NOTES Objective Two When you have completed this objective you will be able to: Describe selected machine types, welding currents and polarities. Machine Types There are three main types of welding machines. They are: alternating current (AC) transformers, AC/DC transformer-rectifiers and generators and alternators. Alternating Current Transformers Alternating current transformer welding power sources convert the typical high voltage, low amperage alternating current available at an electrical outlet in your shop, to low voltage, high amperage AC current that is suitable for welding. Figure 11 is an AC transformer type welding power source that has a welding current range of 40 to 225 amperes. It produces a smooth AC arc for welding a wide variety of materials including low carbon, low alloy and stainless steels. Figure 11 - AC transformer welding power source. (Courtesy Lincoln Electric) Table 1 outlines advantages and disadvantages of the AC transformer. AC Transformers Advantages Low initial cost Low maintenance Lower operating costs Generally quiet operation No accumulative arc blow Disadvantages Not portable No choice of polarity Limited electrode selection More difficult to strike and maintain an arc Restricted welding processes Table 1 - Advantages and disadvantages of an AC transformer. 14 320102cAp2.2.docx © 2011, Her Majesty the Queen in right of the Province of Alberta NOTES AC-DC Transformer-Rectifier Power Sources AC-DC transformer-rectifier welding machines are AC transformers to which a rectifier is added. The rectifier unit is made up of diodes that are capable of allowing current to flow in one direction only, thus changing AC to DC. Table 2 outlines advantages and disadvantages of the AC-DC transformer-rectifier. AC-DC Transformer-Rectifiers Advantages May have AC and DC output capability Full selection of electrodes Choice of polarity Few moving parts Disadvantages Generally more costly than transformers Arc blow can be a factor with DC Not portable Requires a relatively clean, cool environment Quiet Table 2 - Advantages and disadvantages of an AC-DC transformer-rectifier. The welder in Figure 12 is using an AC-DC transformer-rectifier welding power source to lay a root bead using direct current reverse polarity with an E41010 (E6010) electrode. Figure 12 - Transformer rectifier power source. (Courtesy Miller Electric Mfg. Co.) 320102cAp2.2.docx © 2011, Her Majesty the Queen in right of the Province of Alberta 15 NOTES Generators and Alternators Generator and alternator power sources may be driven by gasoline, diesel or propane fuelled engines or by an electric motor. These machines are available to provide output of AC only, both AC and DC or DC only. Many machines can provide welding current as well as auxiliary AC to operate power tools. These power sources provide a smooth, constant, stable arc and thus have good operator appeal. The main advantage of the engine driven machines is portability. For example, commercial garage door installers or commercial sign installers often equip their rigs with small engine driven AC alternators (Figure 13). Figure 13 - Engine driven AC alternator. (Courtesy Miller Electric Mfg. Co.) The welding machine in Figure 14 is a DC generator driven by a diesel engine. Notice the dual controls for setting voltage and amperage. This unit also has the capability of producing 3000 watts of AC auxiliary power to run power tools and other equipment. Figure 14 - DC generator power source driven by diesel engine. (Courtesy of Lincoln Electric) 16 320102cAp2.2.docx © 2011, Her Majesty the Queen in right of the Province of Alberta Figure 15 is an example of an engine driven alternator design that also has the capability of producing 3000 watts of AC auxiliary power. The control panel features a stepped coarse amperage control and a fine amperage adjustment rheostat arrangement. NOTES Figure 15 - Engine driven AC alternator design welder. (Courtesy Miller Electric Mfg. Co.) Table 3 outlines advantages and disadvantages of the DC generator and alternator. DC Generators and Alternators Advantages Choice of polarity Smoother arc than with AC May be portable Full choice of electrodes Often have auxiliary power output to run lights and power tools Disadvantages High initial cost Higher maintenance costs than transformer sets Higher operating costs than transformer sets Generally noisier than transformer sets Arc blow is a factor with DC Table 3 - Advantages and disadvantages of a DC generator and alternator. 320102cAp2.2.docx © 2011, Her Majesty the Queen in right of the Province of Alberta 17 NOTES Welding Currents The two types of current used in welding are: direct current (DC) and alternating current (AC). Direct Current Direct current flows in one direction only and has either a positive or negative value. There is no change of direction as there is with AC. The electron theory states current flows from negative to positive. The operator can select the direction of current flow across the arc by connecting the electrode to the negative pole (straight polarity) or the electrode to the positive pole (reverse polarity). Each polarity produces unique welding characteristics. All SMAW electrodes will function on DC. Some rods will work best on straight polarity and some are designed to be used with reverse polarity. Given a choice, most welders will prefer to use DC rather than AC because of superior versatility and arc stability. Direct Current Straight Polarity Direct current straight polarity (DCSP), direct current electrode negative. In a SMAW DC welding circuit, straight polarity occurs when the electrode cable is connected to the negative terminal of the welding machine. You may be able to remember the terminology if you think of the negative sign (–) as being a straight line. Using straight polarity with SMAW results in the following electrode and arc characteristics. The electrode melts somewhat faster, which results in faster metal deposit. Approximately two thirds of the arc energy is associated with the electrode (negative terminal). Penetration is shallow. Metal flow is somewhat wider. Figure 16 is an illustration of a DC welding machine that is connected to straight polarity. Figure 16 - Straight polarity (electrode negative). 18 320102cAp2.2.docx © 2011, Her Majesty the Queen in right of the Province of Alberta NOTES Direct Current Reverse Polarity Direct current reverse polarity (DCRP), direct current electrode positive. In a SMAW DC welding circuit, reverse polarity occurs when the electrode cable is connected to the positive terminal of the welding machine. Using reverse polarity with SMAW results in the following electrode and arc characteristics. The electrode melts somewhat slower and allows slower metal deposit. Approximately two thirds of the arc energy is associated with the base metal (negative terminal). Penetration is deeper, especially with a short arc length. Metal flow is generally narrow, unless a longer arc length is used. Reverse polarity is the preferred choice when welding in deep grooves, when welding in vertical and overhead positions and for multi-pass welds. The E6010, E6011 and E7018 electrodes that you will use most often in relation to repair and modification of agricultural machinery and equipment are designed to be used on reverse polarity rather than straight polarity. When in doubt, choose reverse polarity. Figure 17 is an illustration of a DC welding machine that is connected to reverse polarity. Figure 17 - Reverse polarity (electrode positive). NOTE To test for polarity, you can use an E6010 electrode. With normal heat settings for the electrode and using reverse polarity, the arc is fairly quiet (sounds like bacon frying), deeply penetrating and with minimal spatter. With the same current setting and using straight polarity, the arc emits a loud hissing sound with shallow penetration and there is much more spatter and smoke fumes emitting from the arc. 320102cAp2.2.docx © 2011, Her Majesty the Queen in right of the Province of Alberta 19 NOTES Alternating Current (AC) Alternating current reverses or changes direction of flow according to the number of cycles per second that the current is being produced. In North America, 60 cycle current is standard. With AC, the welding arc is somewhat less stable due to the changing of current flow across the arc. Some electrodes will loose the arc when used on AC. With alternating current, there can be no fixed polarity. The arc characteristics and weld results using AC is an average of the weld characteristics between direct current electrode positive and direct current electrode negative. Figure 18 shows a single cycle of alternating current. Figure 18 - One cycle of alternating current (sine wave). 20 320102cAp2.2.docx © 2011, Her Majesty the Queen in right of the Province of Alberta NOTES Objective Three When you have completed this objective you will be able to: Describe care and maintenance procedures of arc welding equipment. Machine Installation and Maintenance Here are some guidelines you should follow when installing electric welding machines. Install the machine in an area as dust free as possible that is sheltered from wet or rainy conditions, is handy to the work area, but is protected from damage due to work activities. Make sure there is plenty of air movement for the fan motor unit to help keep the machine cool. Installation must meet applicable electrical codes and be performed only by qualified personnel. DANGER Input current for most industrial quality welding machines is potentially deadly. Do not attempt to install the equipment unless you are qualified to do so. Do not attempt to repair cracked or torn input cables unless you are qualified to do so. Input power must be compatible with the machine manufacturer's recommendations. Machines must be properly grounded to prevent electrical shock. All electrical connections must be clean and tight. The following are some guidelines to follow with respect to machine maintenance. Blow out internal components periodically with high-volume, low-pressure air, following the manufacturer's recommendations. Lubricate any bearings, bushings or mechanical controls by following the manufacturer's recommendations. Ensure that all electrical connections are clean and tight and that insulation is not cracked or torn. On engine driven machines, follow the engine manufacturer's recommendations for service requirements. 320102cAp2.2.docx © 2011, Her Majesty the Queen in right of the Province of Alberta 21 NOTES Welding Cables Welding cables are flexible electrical lines consisting of many strands of fine copper wire encased in a rubber covering. Their primary purpose is to transmit welding current from the welding machine to the workpiece and back to the machine. Protect the cables from damage when not in use by coiling them up neatly and out of the sunshine and weather. When welding, position the cables such that they will not be subjected to damage from hot sparks, hot slag, hot metal and falling metal objects. Cables are available in eight standard sizes in order to accommodate the wide range of welding currents used with different processes or to match job conditions without significant voltage loss. In Table 4, the sizes of welding cables range from the smallest (#4) to the largest (#4/0). Welding Cable Size Numbers 4 Smallest 3 2 1 1/0 4Largest 2/0 3/0 4/0 Table 4 - Welding cable sizes numbering system. If you have to join two cables of different sizes together, the largest size cable should be connected to the power source and the smallest size cable should be connected to the electrode holder. Table 5 gives the recommended size of welding cable using the variables of amperage and distance from the power source. The distance is dependent on the total distance from the welding machine to the work and back to the machine. Some voltage drop may occur depending on the total length of the cables used. Recommended Welding Cables Sizes Amps 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 18 4 2 2 2 1 1/0 1/0 2/0 2/0 3/0 3/0 30 4 2 2 2 1 1/0 1/0 2/0 2/0 3/0 3/0 Distance in Metres from the Welding Machine 38 45 53 60 68 76 84 90 4 4 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 1/0 1/0 2/0 2/0 2 1 1/0 1/0 2/0 2/0 3/0 3/0 1 1/0 2/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 1/0 2/0 3/0 3/0 4/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 3/0 4/0 3/0 4/0 4/0 4/0 Table 5 - Recommended sizes of welding cables. 22 320102cAp2.2.docx © 2011, Her Majesty the Queen in right of the Province of Alberta 105 1/0 3/0 4/0 120 1/0 3/0 4/0 NOTES Cable Connectors and Cable Lugs Cable connectors are used to connect lengths of welding cable together. Cable connectors and lugs are sized by their amperage ratings. One convenient method of joining welding cables is to use a mechanical connector. The bare wire is inserted into the connector and the connector has a lug that is hammered to squeeze it onto the cable. These connectors must be thoroughly wrapped with electrical tape to prevent accidental arcing. A quick-connect type connector is also available with male and female ends that twist and lock together Figure 19A). Connectors are made of electrically conductive material such as brass or copper and must be clean and fit snugly together to provide good electrical transfer so overheating does not result. Lugs are used for attaching cables to machines, work clamps or work tables (Figure 19B). Lugs are usually made of copper and are not insulated so good electrical contact can be made. Connections must be clean and tight. It is important to use the correct size of lug or connector for the size of cable needed because an undersized lug or connector will overheat under high current load conditions. Figure 19 - Cable connectors and cable lugs. 320102cAp2.2.docx © 2011, Her Majesty the Queen in right of the Province of Alberta 23 NOTES Electrode Holders Electrode holders (also known as stingers) come in two basic types, which are listed below. The alligator jaw type (Figure 20A) clamps the bare end of the electrode in a spring-loaded jaw. The twist head type (Figure 20B) has the bare end of the electrode inserted in the head and then tightened into place by mechanical pressure as the head is twisted. Figure 20 - Electrode holders. All electrode holders are rated by their amperage carrying capacity (for example, 200 amp or 300 amp). The size of electrode holder you choose must match the amperage you are using and the size of welding cable you have. The twist head type electrode holder has a removable head that can be replaced without having to disconnect the welding cable and replace the entire holder. The handle of any type of electrode holder is well insulated to protect you from electric shock and heat. The insulated holder also prevents accidental arc strikes when the welding circuit is energized. 24 320102cAp2.2.docx © 2011, Her Majesty the Queen in right of the Province of Alberta NOTES Ground Clamps Ground clamps are used to complete the welding circuit. They may be a spring-loaded clamping device, a magnetic clamp, a C-clamp device or a lug welded to the work and then securely attached to the end of the work lead cable. Regardless of the type of ground clamp used, it is very important that you have a clean, tight connection. The spring-loaded clamping devices in Figure 21 make the location of the work lead easy to change, if required. Make sure the spring is forcing the clamp to make a tight connection on the work. These are the most common types for general purpose SMAW. Figure 21 - Spring-loaded work lead clamps. Be aware that a poor ground connection can cause accidental arcing. This accidental arcing may at best cause a surface cosmetic problem or may result in extremely hard and brittle spots to form on the workpiece affecting the metallurgical and structural integrity of the metal. Never connect the ground clamp onto a machined surface to avoid arcing damage to that surface. Also, never place the ground clamp where there is a danger of current passing through a bearing or bushing because arcing may occur within and damage the bearing parts and surfaces. This is particularly important when preparing to weld on machinery or machine components. Since a poor ground connection results in increased resistance to current flow, you may experience an unstable arc or overheating in your welding cables, especially at the cable connections. 320102cAp2.2.docx © 2011, Her Majesty the Queen in right of the Province of Alberta 25 NOTES Objective Four When you have completed this objective you will be able to: Demonstrate equipment set-up and adjustments. Equipment Set-Up When setting up for welding activities, the following items are worthy of consideration with respect to convenience and safety as well as performance. Position the welding power source nearby so it is convenient to make necessary adjustments, yet it is out of harm's way relative to flying grinding sparks, welding spatter and moving machinery. Lay out the cables neatly to minimize a tripping hazard and cable damage from welding fallout. Switch the machine on. Select welding current and polarity relative to the electrode to be used. Set the Amperage Follow this procedure to set the amperage. Make a rough estimate for a setting to start at. Base your estimate on past experiences using a similar electrode. Make proportional adjustments relative to wire size and coating thickness. Make reference to the electrode manufacturer's recommendations, if available. Set up a sample weld joint of similar thickness and position as the actual job at hand. Do some practice welds. By trial and error, observing the arc, puddle and weld characteristics and make fine tune adjustments to the amperage setting on the machine until you achieve the desired results. NOTE Avoid making amperage adjustments and polarity switching while the machine is actually welding. This is to avoid arcing within the machine components. You can leave the input power switch on, but simply stop welding, make adjustments, then continue welding. 26 320102cAp2.2.docx © 2011, Her Majesty the Queen in right of the Province of Alberta NOTES Objective Five When you have completed this objective you will be able to: Describe the electrode designation system. Types of Welding Electrodes The two types of welding electrodes are: non-consumable and consumable. Non-Consumable Electrodes Non-consumable electrodes are not intended to be consumed into the weld puddle. Nonconsumable electrodes are energized and usually form one of the electrical poles involved in the creation of an electric arc between the electrode and the workpiece. For example, with gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW), an electric arc is drawn between a nonconsumable tungsten electrode and the work. If filler metals are used, they are fed from an external source. The tungsten electrode's function is to enable the creation of an electric arc between itself and the workpiece. Consumable Electrodes When you are using shielded metal arc welding (SMAW), you are using consumable electrodes, which means the electrode is melted into the weld puddle (consumed). A consumable electrode therefore, is called a filler rod because the metal from the electrode is melted into the weld. Arc welding processes usually require filler metals in order to fill the weld joint and to produce desirable properties of the finished weld. The American Welding Society (AWS) and the Canadian Standards Association (CSA) have developed specifications for carbon steel filler rods when using SMAW. 320102cAp2.2.docx © 2011, Her Majesty the Queen in right of the Province of Alberta 27 NOTES The SMAW Process SMAW is also known as stick welding and the electrode is sometimes called a rod. The electrode has a metal core wire and is covered with material that is called the flux coating. The ingredients in the coating are responsible for different operating characteristics and different weld deposit properties of the electrode. The development of flux-coated electrodes has resulted in the capability for making welds with properties that equal or exceed those of the parent metal. The electrode is being consumed into the parent metal to form the weld bead and slag covering. Figure 22 illustrates a coated electrode. The size of the electrode is determined by the diameter of the core wire only. The thickness and composition of the flux coating is different, depending on which type of electrode you are using. Figure 22 - Coated SMAW electrode. The Core Wire For the common E60 and E70 series of electrodes, the core wire is generally from the same wire stock. (It is an SAE 1010 carbon steel with a carbon range of 0.05 to 0.15%). Wire Size Electrodes are available in the following wire sizes: 1/16" (1.6 mm), 3/32" (2.5 mm), 1/8" (3.2 mm), 5/32" (4.0 mm) and 3/16" (5.0 mm). In North America, electrodes are manufactured in imperial fractional diameters. The welder selects the wire size of a specific electrode type to suit the job at hand. Electrodes 1/8" in diameter are required most often for repair and fabrication welding in all positions. Smaller electrodes are selected to weld on light gauge metal. Larger electrodes are selected to make efficient large welds in the flat and horizontal positions on thick plate. Electrodes larger than 1/8" produce a large molten puddle which is difficult to control in the vertical and overhead positions. 28 320102cAp2.2.docx © 2011, Her Majesty the Queen in right of the Province of Alberta NOTES The Coating The coating (flux) on arc welding electrodes is a mixture of chemicals and binders baked onto the wire core. The burning or breaking down of the coating in the heat of the arc influences the weld quality and arc characteristics associated with each type of electrode. Functions of the Coating Functions of the coating are listed below. It stabilizes the arc. It provides ease of striking and helps maintain the arc. A gaseous shield is formed, thus excluding harmful oxygen and nitrogen from the molten puddle and the molten end of the electrode. It provides a slag cover over the deposited weld metal to exclude oxygen and nitrogen from the weld while it is cooling. The slag collects the impurities as they float to the surface of the puddle. The slag controls the shape and smoothness of the bead and controls the cooling rate, which improves the physical properties of the weld metal. It deoxidizes or dissolves oxides that form during the welding process and provides a cleaning action. It directs the arc from the end of the electrode. The wire core melts away faster than does the coating, thus creating a nozzle effect. It regulates the depth of penetration. Certain coating types cause a more forceful arc than do others. It serves as an insulator so an arc cannot be struck along the side of the electrode. Alloy elements are easily introduced into the weld deposit by way of the coating, rather than by using an alloy core wire. The properties of the weld can be influenced by the addition of alloys. Figure 23 illustrates the melting of the electrode in the arc column and the resulting weld metal deposit covered by the slag. Figure 23 - Electrode coating and formation of slag. 320102cAp2.2.docx © 2011, Her Majesty the Queen in right of the Province of Alberta 29 NOTES Electrode Classification System SMAW electrodes designed for repair and fabrication of carbon steel are manufactured in accordance with a number standards, such as CSA W48.1 and AWS A5.1, as designated by the Canadian Welding Bureau (CWB), the Canadian Standards Association (CSA) and the American Welding Society (AWS). These standards specify such things as alloy composition, weld metal strength and toughness, size, type of coating, welding position and type of current for various types of electrodes. They use a standard code system to place this information on each electrode. The lettering printed on each electrode indicates the classification number. Most of our electrodes are manufactured by American based companies and thus initially conform to the AWS classification system and are stamped with the AWS numbers. Electrodes sold in Canada are required to show the CWB/CSA classification system numbers. Many electrodes sold in Canada will be stamped with both numbering systems. The two systems use the same code. The only difference is that the Canadian system uses metric units (megapascals [Mpa]) to designate the tensile strength, while the American system uses imperial units (psi - pounds per square inch). The classification for mild steel electrodes is explained as follows (E48018 is used in this example). The letter E designates an electrode. Often the E is dropped or ignored in casual communication. In the CSA system, the first three digits, 480, designate the minimum tensile strength of the deposited weld metal in the as-welded condition in megapascals (MPa). In the AWS system, the comparable classification number would be E7018. The first two digits, 70, are used to indicate the tensile strength measured in 1000 pounds per square inch. The minimum tensile strength of this electrode is 70 000 psi. (See Table 6). Tensile Strength CSA (MPa) AWS (psi) x 1000 410 60 480 70 550 80 620 90 690 100 760 110 830 120 Table 6 - Tensile strength classification for CSA and AWS. 30 The second last digit, 1, indicates the position in which the electrode is suitable for depositing satisfactory welds. In this case, 1 indicates all positions. Figure 24 lists the welding positions indicated by the other digits: 2, 3 and 4. Information specific to the second last digit is the same for both AWS and CSA classifications. 320102cAp2.2.docx © 2011, Her Majesty the Queen in right of the Province of Alberta The last digit, 8, indicates the type of coating on the electrode, the current to be used with the electrode, the arc characteristics and job application. In this case, 8 indicates the electrode has a low-hydrogen coating, it operates on AC or DCRP current, it has a smooth arc with medium penetration and it can be used for dynamic loads. Information specific to the last digit is the same for both AWS and CSA classifications. NOTES The CSA classification system for mild steel electrodes is given in Figure 24. Figure 24 - CSA W48.1M1991 electrode classification system. 320102cAp2.2.docx © 2011, Her Majesty the Queen in right of the Province of Alberta 31 NOTES Objective Six When you have completed this objective you will be able to: Select electrodes for specific applications. Dynamic and Static Loading Considerations The type of loading that the finished weld is subjected to is an important consideration when selecting the electrode to be used. Dynamic Loading Dynamic loading takes place when a structure is subjected to rapidly changing loads, reversals of stress, sudden shock and vibration. Some examples of dynamic loading are crane booms, truck frames, front-end loaders and farm tillage equipment. Figure 25 illustrates a tower crane hoisting a load on a construction site. The crane boom is subjected to dynamic loading. Figure 25 - Dynamically loaded structure. 32 320102cAp2.2.docx © 2011, Her Majesty the Queen in right of the Province of Alberta NOTES Static Loading Static loading is loading that is stationary or relatively unchanging. Some examples of static loads are base plates, metal storage racks or beams that support building roofs. Figure 26 illustrates a metal platform that is bolted to the wall and supporting a gas vaporizer unit. This is an example of static loading because the load is steady. Figure 26 - Statically loaded structure. Some mild steel electrodes produce welds that perform poorly when they are subjected to rapid changes in loading, stress reversals, cyclic loading and fatigue loading conditions. Generally, welds made with mild steel electrodes that have low ductility and fracture toughness values will tend to fatigue, crack or shatter under dynamic loading conditions. Other electrodes produce welds that can stretch, give and bend with the forces similar to the proverbial oak tree swaying in the wind. Electrodes that can handle dynamic loads will also handle static loads, but welds made with rods for static loads will fail prematurely under dynamic loads. Most job applications in the agricultural and industrial fields will be dynamically loaded. Therefore, you should select electrodes for dynamic loads. 320102cAp2.2.docx © 2011, Her Majesty the Queen in right of the Province of Alberta 33 NOTES Types of Coatings The four types of coatings (fluxes) used for stick electrodes are: mineral (rutile), cellulose, low hydrogen (basic) and iron oxide. Mineral (Rutile) Electrodes Mineral electrodes have either a 2, 3 or a 4 in the last digit of their label; for example, E41012 (E6012), E41013 (E6013), E48014 (E7014 (E48014)), E48024 (E7024). Refer to Table 7. The name rutile refers to the relatively large amount of titania present in the flux. These are shallow penetration electrodes, which are easy to use in the flat and horizontal positions. They strike easily and operate with good arc stability. These electrodes develop a thick, medium to slow freezing slag, which requires the use of higher amperages to promote the slag to float up and separate. The puddle is relatively large and fluid and thus is somewhat difficult to control in the vertical and overhead positions. Mineral based electrodes are often chosen for work on sheet metal and for single pass fillet welds in the flat and horizontal positions. The finished weld is bright and shiny with fine ripples and a flat profile. Mineral based coatings produce the lowest volume of shielding gases to protect the weld pool from any type of coating. Therefore, welds deposited using them are susceptible to porosity. Mineral electrodes also deposit weld metal that is relatively low in toughness and ductility; thus, the welds produced do not stand up well under a dynamic load. Cellulose Electrodes Cellulose electrodes have either a 0 or a 1 as the last digit in their label (for example, E6010/E41010 or E6011/E41011). Refer to Table 7. The coating contains a large proportion of cellulose. Cellulose is an organic material that comes from wood pulp. When it is present in electrode coatings, it has two effects. First, it produces large volumes of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and hydrogen to shield the weld pool. Welds deposited with these electrodes very seldom contain porosity and have high ductility. The second effect of cellulose is it creates very deep penetration. As a result of this deep penetration characteristic, undercutting is possible if proper operating techniques are not used. Cellulose electrodes produce a light, fast freezing slag; therefore, the puddle freezes quickly giving the weld bead a characteristic rough appearance. Cellulose electrodes are used where deep penetration and sound weld metal is desirable, such as in the root pass when repair welding a crack in the main frame of an air-seeder. These electrodes are well suited to multi-pass welding in vertical and overhead positions. The welds produced stand up well under dynamic loads. Cellulose electrodes are intended to contain up to seven percent moisture in their coatings in order to operate properly. If they are stored in a heated electrode oven, they will become too dry and will be difficult to use. Cellulose coatings liberate large amounts of hydrogen into the arc and thus, welds made on heavy weldments, alloys and high carbon steels are prone to hydrogen induced cracking. 34 320102cAp2.2.docx © 2011, Her Majesty the Queen in right of the Province of Alberta NOTES Low Hydrogen (Basic) Electrodes Low hydrogen electrodes that you will most likely encounter, have an 8 as their last digit (for example, E7018/E48018 or E7028/E48028). Refer to Table 7. The name basic refers to the large amount of lime or calcium carbonate that these coatings contain. This type of coating gives off very little hydrogen during the welding process and, by using high baking temperatures to reduce the chemically bound water, the weld metal they deposit can contain very low levels of hydrogen. It is for this reason that this type of electrode is known as low hydrogen. Low hydrogen electrodes deposit weld metal that is very tough and ductile enabling the welds to withstand dynamic loads. Penetration of the weld pool is shallower compared to cellulose rods. There is less carbon dioxide to shield the weld pool; therefore, low hydrogen rods must be used with a short arc length in order to prevent porosity. Certain steels are considered difficult to weld. They include thick components, medium and high carbon steels as well as alloy steels containing small amounts of chromium, nickel and molybdenum. When these alloy steels are welded with ordinary electrodes, it is common for cracks to develop within, under and around the weld bead. It has been determined this cracking is caused by free hydrogen contaminating the weld metal; thus, the development of low hydrogen electrodes containing practically no hydrogen bearing compounds. The coating is mainly lime with no cellulose or moisture present. Rods are baked to 315°C or more and the welding operator can usually spot these electrodes by the heat-discoloured ends of the electrodes (brown or blue). Metals that are prone to cracking still must be carefully preheated and cooled slowly to prevent cracking due to unequal expansion and contraction. Conditioning and Storage of Low Hydrogen Electrodes Low hydrogen electrodes must be kept dry. Electrodes that are exposed to the atmosphere absorb moisture. During welding, the moisture enters the arc and breaks down into hydrogen and oxygen. The hydrogen dissolves into the molten pool. During solidification, hydrogen is thrown out of solution and, under certain conditions, causes porosity. During cooling of the solid weld, more hydrogen is released as the solubility falls. Some of this hydrogen stays in the weld and may cause weld cracking. Some of it diffuses into the parent plate adjacent to the weld (the heat-affected zone) and may cause cracking in that region. Porosity can occur throughout the length of the weld, but is more prevalent at the start of a weld. This start porosity is always a concern when the arc is initially struck because the gaseous shield of carbon dioxide may not always have time to become fully effective. Increased moisture content in the coating increases the occurrence of porosity. Tests have shown that as little as 11/2% moisture in the coating will cause general porosity. 320102cAp2.2.docx © 2011, Her Majesty the Queen in right of the Province of Alberta 35 NOTES Low hydrogen electrodes are sold in moisture proof containers. It is advantageous for the low volume user to purchase electrodes in small containers to minimize the number of electrodes exposed when the container is opened. Opened electrodes can be stored with a moisture-absorbing agent in a resealable container. Long term storage of larger amounts of electrodes is best accomplished in an electrode oven at a temperature above the boiling point of water (120°C). Only take out only rods that will be used within one hour. It should be noted that a refrigerator cabinet with a light bulb does not maintain high enough temperatures for storing low hydrogen electrodes. Electrode storage ovens should not be used to provide hot lunches because this introduces moisture into the oven, which can be absorbed by the electrodes. If rods have gathered any moisture, they should be dried by baking at 315°C for two hours before using (Figure 27). Figure 27 - Electrode holding oven (rod oven) for low hydrogen electrodes. Storage of Other Electrodes Most non-low-hydrogen electrodes require some moisture content in the coating (5 to 7%). Do not store them in a heated oven. Store them in a loosely covered container in a shop environment. If more extreme weather conditions are involved, keep the rods in sealed containers to prevent changes in moisture content. 36 320102cAp2.2.docx © 2011, Her Majesty the Queen in right of the Province of Alberta NOTES Specific Information on Mild Steel Electrodes Some types of electrodes, for example, those with a 4 or an 8 as their last digit, also contain iron powder in their coatings. The iron powder is added to increase their deposition rate. It is melted along with the rest of the flux and adds to the volume of deposited filler metal. The iron powder also improves arc stability. Table 7 shows this. Electrode Characteristics Electrode E610 E41010 E6011 E41011 E6013 E41013 E7014 E48014 E7018 E48018 E7024 E48024 Power Supply DCRP only DCRP or AC DCRP, DCSP or AC DCRP, DCSP or AC DCRP or AC DCSP , DCRP or AC Tensile Strength 60 000 psi 410 MPa 60 000 psi 410 MPa Position Type of Coating Type of Slag Penetration All Cellulose All Cellulose 60 000 psi All (best flat Mineral Rutile 410 MPa or horizontal 70 000 psi All (best flat Mineral Rutile 480 MPa or horizontal 70 000 psi All 480 MPa Low Hydrogen 70 000 psi Flat or 480 MPa Horizontal Mineral Rutile Thin, Fast Freezing Thin, Fast Freezing Medium Freezing Heavy, Slow Freezing Medium Freezing Heavy, Slow Freezing Job Application Deep Dynamic Deep Dynamic Medium Static Shallow Static Medium Dynamic Shallow Static Table 7 - Practical information sheet commonly used for mild steel electrodes. The following text gives detailed descriptions of individual electrodes. E6010 (E41010) E6010 (E41010) is an all position electrode - D.C. (reverse polarity) high cellulose coating, which produces large volumes of carbon dioxide and water vapour providing the gaseous shield. The slag is fast freezing, is easily removed when cold and does not always cover the weld. The puddle freezes quickly so there is a tendency toward rougher appearing beads that are flat to convex in shape. Since cellulose breaks down easily under heat (82°C), the use of high amperage settings is not advised. Care must be taken to provide suitable storage as these rods will not operate to best advantage if too moist or too dry. For best results, moisture in the coatings should range between 5 - 7%. If rods are too dry, the end of the rod will fingernail (the coating will burn off to one side) and pinholes and blisters will occur in the crater. Excess moisture will cause an unstable arc and high spatter loss. The electrode tends to burn away faster than the coating, giving a deep cup on the rod end. This promotes deep penetration and narrow beads if a close arc is held, but may lead to serious undercut if care is not taken. The deposited metal quality is very good so there is little tendency toward porosity. Ductility is high, usually ranging from 23 - 35% elongation in 2", while tensile strength ranges from 60 000 to 70 000 psi (410 to 480 MPa). This rod is especially recommended for vertical and overhead welding and is excellent for multiple pass welds in groove joints. It produces welds that are excellent for dynamic loading. 320102cAp2.2.docx © 2011, Her Majesty the Queen in right of the Province of Alberta 37 NOTES E6011 (E41011) E6011 (E41011) is an all position electrode for use with AC or DC (usually reverse polarity). Use straight polarity on light gauge plate when less penetration is important. In this electrode, the cellulose content is lowered and ionizing agents, such as potassium feldspar or potassium titanate, are added to maintain a smoother arc and to improve the ease of striking the arc. It is designed to enable the use of alternating current for the same applications as E6010 (E41010). Physical properties of the welds are as good and often slightly better than those from E6010 (E41010). The moisture content should range between 5 - 7%. E6013 (E41013) E6013 (E41013) is an AC or DC electrode designed for alternating current. Flux is mainly rutile and cellulose with ionizing agents added to improve arc stability for AC welding. High current densities are not recommended because of flux breakdown. Spatter loss is low and beads are bright, smooth and flat. Slag removes easily. Penetration is shallow, but with careful slag removal, it may be used for multiple pass welding. The heavy slag and fluid puddle make vertical and overhead welding difficult. Ductility is low. These electrodes have good operator appeal and thus, are commonly used to initiate the welding student to the welding process. Because of the characteristic mechanical properties of the welds produced, you would be wise to select other electrodes described here for fabrication and repair of agriculture machinery. Care should be taken to use this rod only where static loading is encountered and never for dynamic loading. E7014 (E48014) E7014 (E48014) electrodes are actually a modification of the E6013 (E41013) class of electrode through the addition of iron powder. In general, E7014 (E48014) will produce welds with better physical properties than E6013 (E41013), will stand higher heats, has a better deposition rate and less spatter loss. Slag removal is considerably easier. Deposits are clean and smooth and tend to be flat to slightly convex in nature. E7014 (E48014) may be used with either AC or DC polarity and strikes and restrikes easily with good arc stability. Penetration is on the shallow side. These electrodes require higher amperages to promote slag separation from the puddle. The slow freezing puddle makes the puddle difficult to control in vertical and overhead positions. Choose the E7014 (E48014) for single pass fillet welds in all positions. Care should be taken to use this rod only where static loading is encountered and never for dynamic loading. E7024 (E48024) With E7024 (E48024) electrodes, performance is good on AC or DC straight or reverse polarity. The arc is smooth and quiet, spatter loss is low and deposition rates are high. Beads are slightly convex with a smooth, fine rippled appearance. Slag removal is easy. Penetration is shallow. Speed of welding is high. These welds are low in ductility. E7024 (E48024) electrodes are recommended for large single pass fillet welds in the horizontal and flat positions only. Care should be taken to use this rod only where static loading is encountered and never for dynamic loading. 38 320102cAp2.2.docx © 2011, Her Majesty the Queen in right of the Province of Alberta NOTES E7018 (E48018) E7018 (E48018) electrodes of this classification are of the low hydrogen type. Electrodes of this type find use in the welding of steels of the high sulphur and medium carbon alloy types, which are highly susceptible to hot cracking. They can be used on AC or DC reverse polarity. Arc stability is reduced on alternating current, but some electrode companies produce low hydrogen electrodes designed specifically for AC. A short arc is necessary to prevent porosity. High heats are used. Slag is heavy and seems quite fluid and is difficult to remove from deep grooves. Use3/32" diameter electrodes for vertical and overhead positions and rod sizes over 1/8" and over for flat and horizontal applications. Penetration tends to be medium to shallow and spatter loss is low. Undercutting is minimal. Welding speeds are good and deposits are clean and have desirable x-ray soundness. Electrodes of the E7018 (E48018) class are used extensively in the welding of pressure vessels and piping where corrosion and heat make the use of alloy steels more practical. The welds produced are excellent for dynamic loading. E7028 (E48028) E7028 (E48028) is a low hydrogen electrode containing approximately 50% iron powder in the coating and designed for high speed flat or horizontal fillet welding on heavy weldments of mild, low alloy or hard to weld steel. The physical properties of the deposited metal are remarkably good, including the low temperature impact strength. Very little hydrogen can be measured in the deposit, which is free from porosity and easily passes x-ray examinations. Welds on very heavy sections and on critical steels are free from under-bead cracking. Welding speeds and deposition rates are said to be higher than is possible with electrodes in the E7024 (E48024) classification. Stainless Steel Electrodes Stainless steel electrodes have coatings similar to low hydrogen. Electrode Selection Simplified When doing repair, modification or fabrication involving low and medium carbon steel and alloy steels, it is critical you use the correct filler rod to do the job. For the situations you will encounter, the rods of choice will be the cellulose based E6010 (E41010) and E6011 (E41011) and the low-hydrogen E7018 (48018). You will most often use 1/8" E6010/11 (E481010/11) for tacking and welding on 1/8" and thicker plate. You will use 3 /32" E6010/11 (E481010/11) on light gauge plate. When using low-hydrogen, choose 3 /32" E7018 (E48018) for vertical positions and when welding on thin plate. Choose 1/8" and larger E7018 (E48018) for flat and horizontal positions on thick plate. The following considerations will help you to make your selections. Type of Load Since most applications you will encounter in the agricultural and industrial field will be dynamic, you will do well if you use only dynamic electrodes (E6010 (E41010), E6011 (E41011), E7018 (E48018)). If the application is only static, these electrodes will still function well. 320102cAp2.2.docx © 2011, Her Majesty the Queen in right of the Province of Alberta 39 NOTES Power Source If you have a welding machine only capable of outputting AC, use E6011 (E41011) and E7018 (E48018). All 18s are supposed to work on AC, but some manufacturers produce a very unstable arc on AC and thus, are difficult to manage. Some companies produce E7018 (E48018) rods designed specifically for AC and thus, will be safer to use. If you have a welding machine capable of DC, you are not limited in your choice. Filler Material Compatible with Parent Material Choose filler rods that match or exceed the tensile strength, alloy content and other mechanical properties of the parent material. If the base metal is low carbon or mild steel, choose rods in the 60 000 psi to 70 000 psi (410 to 480 MPa) range. Higher tensile steel will require higher tensile rods (such as 80 000 psi (550 MPa) or higher). Medium to high carbon steel and alloy steels require the use of low-hydrogen electrodes (E7018 (48018), E8018 (E55018)). Very high carbon steels, high alloys and cast iron require the use of specific electrodes and specific welding procedures. Consult with a journeyman welder and your welding supplier for details. Position Flat and horizontal positions allow the use of a large fluid puddle. Place the object so the welding can be done in these positions, whenever possible. Many fillet welds can be done in large single passes rather than in many small passes. Use 1/8" and larger rods to maximize the fill rate. Use E7018 (E48018) if you desire a smooth finish. Vertical and overhead positions require the use of a smaller, fast freezing puddle. 1/8" E6010 (E41010) and E6011 (E41011) work well for position welding. Choose 3/32" when using low-hydrogen (E7018/E48018) in these positions. Joint Type Deep groove welds require an electrode with an aggressive deep digging arc. Joints with an open root gap require a fast freezing puddle. Choose E6010 (E41010) or E6011 (E41011) especially for the root pass. For fill and cap passes, single pass fillets and wideopen joints, the less aggressive faster filling E7018 (E48018) is a good option. Plate Thickness and Mass Thin and small pieces of metal require the use of low amperages and a small puddle. Choose small rods (3/32"). Thick plate requires higher currents and a larger puddle. Choose 1/8" and larger electrodes. Finish Low-hydrogen electrodes (E7018/E48018) will create welds with smooth surface finish. Cellulose based rods (E6010/11 (E41010/11)) leave a rougher surface texture. 40 320102cAp2.2.docx © 2011, Her Majesty the Queen in right of the Province of Alberta NOTES Metal Identification The following are some simple tests you can perform to determine the type of metal you are dealing with so you can ultimately select the appropriate electrode. Testing A quick and fairly accurate test for identifying a metal can be made by the study of the spark stream produced during grinding. The spark test is used mainly to test for carbon content in steels and to distinguish between cast steel and cast iron. For best results on steels, you should compare the spark of the unknown specimen with that of a known specimen. Make sure you use equal pressure against the grinding wheel and use a dark background to give good contrast. Most non-ferrous metals such as aluminum, magnesium and copper alloys will not show any sparks. Two exceptions of non-ferrous metals that show sparks are nickel and titanium. Figure 28 is an illustration of the sparks produced by low-carbon steel (also known as mild steel). The sparks are bright, long, straight and yellowish in colour. There is very little branching and few carbon bursts. Figure 28 - Spark test to identify low-carbon steel. Figure 29 is an illustration of the sparks produced by high-carbon steel. The sparks tend to burst and branch off more than they do with low-carbon steel. The sparks are a darker yellow-orange colour and burst nearer to the wheel. Some sparks follow around the wheel. Figure 29 - Spark test to identify high-carbon steel. 320102cAp2.2.docx © 2011, Her Majesty the Queen in right of the Province of Alberta 41 NOTES Figure 30 illustrates the sparks produced by cast iron. The spark stream produces many bursts that are red coloured near the grinder and orange-yellow further out. The spark stream is not as long as it is with carbon steels. To produce sparks with cast iron, you may have to apply considerably more pressure than with carbon steels. Figure 30 - Spark test to identify cast iron. Figure 31 is an illustration of the sparks produced by high-speed or cutting steel. The lines are orange with very little branching and end up in ball-shaped sparks. Figure 31 - Spark test to identify high-speed steel. Almost all tool steels contain alloying elements (besides carbon) which affect the spark stream. The spark stream may not be a reliable indicator of carbon content of high-speed steels since the effects of the other elements cannot be distinguished from those of carbon. 42 320102cAp2.2.docx © 2011, Her Majesty the Queen in right of the Province of Alberta NOTES File Hardness Tests Another common method of identifying metals is by determining hardness. A quick method of determining hardness is to scratch the metal. This gives you a rough indication of the hardness or lets you compare two different metals. The Rockwell and Brinell hardness tests are the most common for precise and accurate measures of hardness. NOTE On most carbon steels, the Rockwell system uses a conical diamond penetrator applied on a surface at a specified load. After applying the load, the Rockwell hardness number is read directly from a gauge that measures the depth of the indentation. The number on the gauge is then equated to one of several scales, depending on the type of penetrator used and the applied load. Table 8 shows the Rockwell B and C scales. The Brinell hardness tester works on a similar principle except it measures the diameter of an impression made by a hardened steel ball on the surface of the test specimen. A new hand file can be used to determine the approximate hardness of a piece of steel. Table 8 lists the reaction of the file to certain metals and also provides the Rockwell and Brinell hardness ratings for the steels. Using a File to Measure Hardness File Reaction Type of Steel Brinell Rockwell B C File bites easily into metal. Low carbon 100 57 File bites into metal with some pressure. Medium carbon 200 93 File bites into metal with more pressure. High alloy 300 32 Metal can be filed, but with difficulty. High carbon 400 43 File will mark metal. Metal almost hard as file. Tool steel 500 52 Metal is harder than the file. Hardened tool steel 600 59 Table 8 - Using a file to measure hardness of steel. 320102cAp2.2.docx © 2011, Her Majesty the Queen in right of the Province of Alberta 43 NOTES Self-Test 1. Which term describes the voltage output of the machine while welding is being done? a) arc rectification b) arc blow c) arc voltage d) inductance 2. Electrode negative is: a) straight polarity. b) reverse polarity. c) AC transformer. d) alternating current. 3. Which term describes a noisy, uncontrollable arc that flares from side to side? a) arc voltage b) arc blow c) inductance d) resistance 4. Which current flows in one direction only and has either a positive or negative value? a) direct current b) alternating current c) open circuit voltage d) arc voltage 5. Which term expresses the strength of a current of electricity? a) amperage b) voltage c) electron d) conductor 6. When no current is flowing in the circuit, but the machine is turned on, you can measure the: a) constant current. b) open circuit voltage. c) alternating current. d) volt-amp curve. 7. Which term describes the property of an electrical conductor that opposes the flow of current? a) resistance b) inductance c) voltage d) amperage 44 320102cAp2.2.docx © 2011, Her Majesty the Queen in right of the Province of Alberta NOTES 8. Which welding machine transforms AC to DC? a) line transformer b) transformer rectifier c) DC generator d) AC transformer 9. Electrode positive means: a) straight polarity. b) reverse polarity. c) AC transformer. d) alternating current. 10. How can you change the polarity on an AC generator welding machine? a) Switch the cables at the machine. b) Reverse the direction of the motor. c) Change the polarity taps on the reactor coils. d) An AC generator has no fixed polarity. 11. Loose ground clamp connections, when using SMAW, may cause: a) electrical shock. b) magnetic arc blow. c) high burn-off rates. d) arcing at the work clamp. 12. Dynamically loaded structures are subject to: a) constant pressure. b) reversals of stress. c) loads that do not impact. d) stationary loading conditions. 13. In the AWS classification for SMAW mild steel electrodes, what does the last digit represent? a) The type of shielding gas produced by the melting flux. b) The amount of metallic powder that is added to the coating. c) The welding position in which the electrode may be satisfactorily operated. d) The major ingredient in the coating and recommended current for best results. 14. What do the first two digits in the AWS classification for carbon steel SMAW electrodes represent? a) current type and application b) as-welded minimum tensile strength c) recommended welding positions d) iron powder content of the coating in % 15. According to AWS, which number indicates the positions an E7024 can be used in? a) first number b) second number c) third number d) fourth number 320102cAp2.2.docx © 2011, Her Majesty the Queen in right of the Province of Alberta 45 NOTES 16. The CSA system uses what term to measure tensile strength? a) kilopascals b) joules per square metre c) megapascals d) watts per square metre 17. What is the difference between an E7018 and an E7028 electrode? a) E7018 has a lime-type coating; E7028 does not. b) E7018 can be used in all positions; E7028 cannot. c) E7018 has metallic powder in the coating; E7028 does not. d) E7018 is for static loading; E7028 is for dynamic loading. 18. What is one difference between an E7010 electrode and an E7018 electrode? a) core wire b) minimum as-welded tensile strength c) coating d) recommended welding positions 19. What is one characteristic of an E6010 electrode? a) deep penetration into the base metal b) produces a low hydrogen type weld deposit c) shallow penetration into the base metal d) wide metal flow and very fluid puddle 20. What is the major difference between the coatings of an E41010 and an E41011 electrode? a) There is no difference. b) An E41010 requires moisture but an E41011 does not. c) An E41010 has arc stabilizers added for AC welding. d) An E41011 has arc stabilizers added for AC welding. 21. Which electrode has a cellulose coating? a) E6010 b) E6013 c) E7014 (E48014) d) E7018 22. What is one purpose of the flux coating on a welding electrode? a) To promote the formation of oxides and nitrides in the weld puddle. b) To prevent undercut and arc blow and minimize distortion. c) To prevent the formation of a gaseous shield around the molten weld metal. d) To protect the molten weld puddle from atmospheric contamination. 23. Which last digit, in the classification of a SMAW mild steel electrode, describes a coating that is low-hydrogen? a) 0 b) 1 c) 4 d) 8 46 320102cAp2.2.docx © 2011, Her Majesty the Queen in right of the Province of Alberta 24. What is one function of the slag produced from electrode coatings? a) To add more nitrogen and oxygen to the weld. b) To help maintain the arc and control penetration. c) To add alloying elements to the weld deposit. d) To prevent the weld from cooling too rapidly. NOTES 25. What is the likely effect of using low hydrogen electrodes with a moisture content that exceeds acceptable limits? a) The weld metal will probably have porosity and may develop hydrogeninduced cracking. b) The slag produced will be difficult to remove, resulting in slag inclusions on subsequent passes. c) The excess steam rising out of the protective gaseous shield will make it hard to see the puddle. d) The deposited weld metal will look too much like the deposit of a cellulosecoated electrode. 26. What is the main purpose for keeping low hydrogen electrodes dry? a) To assist in producing and maintaining a stable, smooth arc. b) To minimize the possibility of hydrogen-induced cracking. c) To increase the electrode's deposition rate. d) To increase the shelf life of the electrodes in storage. 27. To weld thin materials, you would likely select an electrode with: a) deep penetration characteristics. b) a large diameter core wire. c) a small diameter core wire. d) a high as-welded tensile strength. 28. Which electrode works best for the root bead on groove welds with an open gap? a) E41013 b) E48028 c) E41010 d) E48024 29. What is the major advantage of using an E41010 for the root bead and E48018 electrodes for fill passes on one welded joint? a) The company can save money on the cost of electrodes because E41010 electrodes are cheaper. b) It is easier on the welding machine if the amperage changes periodically and E41010 electrodes use lower amperages. c) It takes advantage of the penetration qualities of the E41010 and the mechanical properties of the E48018. d) It will determine if welders can follow specific procedures before they attempt the B pressure test. 320102cAp2.2.docx © 2011, Her Majesty the Queen in right of the Province of Alberta 47 NOTES 30. Which electrode would be the best choice if the base metal properties were unknown? a) E7018 b) E7014 (E48014) c) E6011 d) E7024 31. What polarity is recommended for: a) E41010 _____________________________ b) E48018 _____________________________ 48 320102cAp2.2.docx © 2011, Her Majesty the Queen in right of the Province of Alberta NOTES Self-Test Answers 1. c) arc voltage 2. a) straight polarity. 3. b) arc blow 4. a) direct current 5. a) amperage 6. b) open circuit voltage. 7. a) resistance 8. b) transformer rectifier 9. b) reverse polarity. 10. d) An AC generator has no fixed polarity. 11. d) arcing at the work clamp. 12. b) reversals of stress. 13. d) The major ingredient in the coating and recommended current for best results. 14. b) as-welded minimum tensile strength 15. c) third number 16. c) megapascals 17. b) E7018 can be used in all positions; E7028 cannot. 18. c) coating 19. a) deep penetration into the base metal 20. d) An E41011 has arc stabilizers added for AC welding. 21. a) E6010 22. d) To protect the molten weld puddle from atmospheric contamination. 23. d) 8 24. d) To prevent the weld from cooling too rapidly. 25. a) The weld metal will probably have porosity and may develop hydrogen-induced cracking. 26. b) To minimize the possibility of hydrogen-induced cracking. 27. c) a small diameter core wire. 28. c) E41010 29. c) It takes advantage of the penetration qualities of the E41010 and the mechanical properties of the E48018. 30. a) E7018 31. a) E41010 DCRP only b) E48018 AC or DCRP 320102cAp2.2.docx © 2011, Her Majesty the Queen in right of the Province of Alberta 49 Alberta Apprenticeship Excellence Through Training and Experience Module Number 320102cA Version 2.2 The Individual Learning Modules Initiative is committed to continuous updating and is interested in your comments regarding technical accuracy and clarity of presentation. Please visit our web site to register your comment. To view the ongoing discussion go to the Bulletin Board. www.tradesecrets.gov.ab.ca/ilm The Individual Learning Modules Initiative would like to thank the many companies for their contribution and gratefully acknowledges their valuable input. A complete listing of contributors can be found at our web site.
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