Car Safety Seats - SANG Pediatrics

Car Safety Seats - SANG Pediatrics
Newborns, Infants, and Toddlers
CAR SAFETY SEATS Car Safety Seat Checkup Using acar safety seat correctly makes a big difference. Even the seat
appropriate for your child's size may not properly protect your child in a
crash unless it is used correctly. So take a minute to check to be sure.
,. Does your car have air bags?
• Never place a rear-facing car safety seat in the front seat of a vehicle
that has afront passenger air bag. If the air bag inflates, it will hit the
back of the car safety seat, right where your baby's head is, and could
cause serious injury or death.
• The safest place for all children younger than 13 years to ride is in the
backseat.
• If an older child must ride in the front seat, achild in aforward-facing car
safety seat with ahamess may be the best choice. Just be sure the vehicle
seat is moved as far back from the dashboard (and the air bag) as possible.
,.15 your child fating the right way for weight.
height. and age?
• All infants and toddlers should ride in arear-facing car safety seat until
they are 2 years of age ill: until they reach the highest weight or height
allowed by their car safety seat's manufacturer.
• All children 2 years or older, or those younger than 2 years who have
outgrown the rear-facing weight or height limit for their car safety seat,
should use aforward-facing car safety seat with a harness for as long
as possible, up to the highest weight or height allowed by their car
safety seat's manufacturer.
,. 15 the harness snug?
• Harnesses should fit snugly against your child's body. Check the car
safety seat instructions on how to adjust the straps.
• The chest
should be placed at armpit level to keep the harness
straps on the shoulders.
,. Has your child outgrown the forward-fating seat?
• All children whose weight or height is above the forward-facing limit for
their car safety seat should use a belt-positioning booster seat until the
vehicle seat belt fits properly, typically when they have reached 4 feet 9
inches in height and are between 8 and 12 years of age
• Aseat belt fits properly when the shoulder belt crosses the middle of the
chest and shoulder, the lap belt is low and snug across the thighs, and
the child is tall enough so that when he sits against the vehicle seat back,
his legs bend at the knees and his feet hang down.
,. Does the car safety seat fit correctly in
your vehicle?
• Not all car safety seats fit properly in all vehicles.
• Read the section on car safety seats in the owner's manual for your car.
Patient Education for Children, Teens, and Parents ~~
Is the seat belt in the right place and
pulled tight?
• Route the seat belt through the
correct path. Convertible seats have
different belt paths for when they are
used rear-facing or forward-facing
(check your instructions to
make sure).
• Pull the belt tight. Apply weight into
the seat with your hand while tighten­
ing the seat belt or lower anchor
strap. When the car safety seat is
installed, be sure it does not move
more than an inch side to side or
toward the front of the car.
• Check the owner's manual for your
car to see if you need a locking clip.
• It is best to use the tether that comes
with your car safety seat to the
highest weight allowed by the vehicle
and car safety seat manufacturers.
Check the vehicle owner's manual
and car safety seat instructions for
how and when to use the tether and
lower anchors.
Figure 1, Infant-only car safety
seat.
Figure 2, Forward-facing car
safety seat.
,. Can you use the LATCH
system?
• LATCH (Lower Anchors and Tethers
for Children) is an attachment system
that eliminates the need to use seat
belts to secure the car safety seat.
• Vehicles with the LATCH system have
anchors located in the back seat. Car
Figure 3. Belt-positioning
safety seats that come with LATCH
booster seat.
have attachments that fasten to
these anchors.
• Nearly all passenger vehicles and all
car safety seats made on or after
September 1,2002, come with LATCH
• Unless both the vehicle and the car safety seat have this system, seat
belts are still needed to secure the car safety seat.
• Always follow car safety seat and vehicle manufacturer instructions,
including weight limits, for lower anchors and top tether anchors.
Remember, limits can vary from manufacturer to manufacturer.
© 2011 American Academy of Pediatrics
113
Newborns, Infants, and Toddlers
~ Do
you have the instructions for the car
safety seat?
• Follow them and keep them with the car safety seat.
• Be sure to send in the registration card that comes with the car safety
seat. It will be important in case the seat is recalled.
•• Has the car safety seat been recalled?
• You can find out by calling the manufacturer or the National Highway
Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) Vehicle Safety Hot Line at
888/327-4236 or the NHTSA Web site at www,safercar.gov,
• Be sure to follow the manufacturer's instructions for making any
needed repairs to your car safety seat.
~ Are
you using a used car safety seat?
• Do not use acar safety seat that has been in acrash, has been recalled,
is too old (check with the manufacturer), has any cracks in its frame, or
is missing parts.
• Make sure it has a label from the manufacturer and instructions,
• Gall the car safety seat manufacturer if you have Questions about the
safety of your seat.
The information contained in this publication should not be used as a substitute
for the medical care and advice of your pediatrician, There may be variations
in treatment that your pediatrician may recommend based on individual facts
and circumstances,
J.
Although the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) is not a testing or standard­
setting organization, this guide sets forth AAP recommendations based on the
peer-reviewed literature available at the time of its publication and sets forth
some of the factors that parents should consider before selecting and using
a car safety seat.
Listing of resources does not imply an endorsement by the American Academy
of Pediatrics (AAP). The AAP is not responsible for the content of the resources
mentioned in this publication, Phone numbers and Web site addresses are as
current as possible, but may change at any time,
Illustrations by Wendy Wray.
from your doctor
Questions
If you have Questions or need help installing your car safety seat, find a
certified child passenger safety (CPS) technician. A list of certified CPS
techniCians is available by state or ZIP code at http://cert,safekids,org
(information is available for children with special needs and in Spanish).
A list of inspection stations-where you can go to learn how to correctly
install acar safety seat-is available in English and Spanish at
www,seatcheck.org or toll-free at 866/SEATCHECK (866/732-8243).
You can also get this information by calling the toll-free NHTSA Vehicle
Safety Hot Line at 888/327-4236, from 8:00 am to 10:00 pm ET, Monday
through Friday,
The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) offers more information in the
brochure Car Safety Seats: AGuide for Families, Ask your pediatrician about this
brochure or visit the official AAP Web site for parents, HealthyChildren.org,
American Academy
of Pediatrics
DEDICATED TO THE HEALTH OF ALL CHILDREN" 114
Patient Education for Children, Teens, and Parents ,he Amene«n Al;ademy of PedialJics is an organization of 61J.1lOO ptlmaJ)' care PJdiatJicians, PJdiatr>:; medical sulJsp€cialists,
and ifflatr>:; surg·cai SOOCialists (le(Jicaled 10 ~Ie heatttr, safely, and well·be'~ of ;"fanls, children. _nls, and )'OUng adulls.
Arnerican Acadefll'/of Pediatrts CopjrighlC 2011
Web site-www.Heal1ryCllildrec.orgAmerit;ar.Al;aderny of Ped~trics
All r"ghts reserved.
© 2011 American Academy of Pediatrics
J..
Newborns, Infants, and Toddlers
CAR SAFETY SEATS Car Safety Seats:
A Guide for Families
Part I 2011 Safety Information
One of the most important jobs you have as aparent is keeping your child
safe when riding in a vehicle. Each year thousands of young children are
killed or injured in car crashes. Proper use of car safety seats helps keep
children safe. But with so many different car safety seats on the market,
it's no wonder many parents find this overwhelming,
The type of seat your child needs depends on several things, including
your child's size and the type of vehicle you have. The following information
from the American Academy of Pediatrics (MP) offers guidance on chOOSing
the most appropriate car safety seat for your child.
Note: The chart below is aquick guide on where to start your search;
however, it's important to read more about the features and how to use your
car safety seat. Additional safety tips are at the end of this handout. See
"Part 112011 Productlnfonmation" for a list of car safety seats.
Infants and toddlers-rear-facing
The AAP recommends that all infants should ride rear-facing starting with
"
their first ride home from the hospital. All infants and toddlers should ride in a
. . , Rear-Facing Car Safety Seat until they are 2 years of age or until they reach
the highest weight or height allowed by their car safety seat's manufacturer.
Types of rear-facing car safety seats
There are 3 types of rear-facing car safety seats: infant-only seats, convertible
seats, and 3-in-1 seats,
When children reach the highest weight or length allowed by the
manufacturer of their infant-only seat, they should continue to ride rear­
facing in aconvertible seat or 3-in-1 seat.
Type of car safety seats at a glance
Infant-only seats
• Are used for infants up to 22 to 35 pounds, depending on the model. • Are small and have carrying handles (and sometimes come as part of astroller system), • May come with abase that
Figure 1. Infant-only car safety seat.
can be left in the car, The seat
clicks into and out of the base so you don't have to install the seat each
time you use it. Parents can buy more than one base for additional vehicles.
• Are used only for travel (not for positioning outside the vehicle).
2. Convertible seats (used rear-facing)
• Can be used rear-facing, then "converted" to forward-facing for older
children, This means the seat can be used longer by your child. They are
bulkier than infant seats, however, and do not come with carrying handles
or separate bases.
• May have higher rear-facing weight (30-40 pounds) and height limits than
infant-only seats, which make them ideal for bigger babies.
• Usually have a5-point harness that attaches at the shoulders, at the hips,
and between the legs. Older convertible seats may have an overhead
shield-a padded tray-like shield that swings down over the child.
3. 3-in-1 seats (used rear-facing)
• Can be used rear-facing, forward-facing, or as abelt-positioning booster.
This means the seat may be used longer by your Child.
• Are often bigger in size so adequate space within the vehicle when rear­
facing should be determined.
• Do not have the convenience of acarrying handle or aseparate base; how­
ever, they may have higher rear-facing weight (35-40 pounds) and height
limits than infant-only seats, which make them ideal for bigger babies.
Age Group
Type of Seat
General Guidelines
Infantsltoddlers
Infant seats and rear-facing
convertible seats
All infants and toddlers should ride in a Rear-Facing Gar Safety Seat until they are 2 years of age
or until they reach the highest weight or height allowed by their car safety seat's manufacturer.
Toddlers/preschoolers
Convertible seats and
forward-facing seats
with harnesses
All children 2 years or older, or those younger than 2 years who have outgrown the rear-facing
weight or height limit for their car safety seat, should use a Forward-Facing Car Safety Seat
with a harness for as long as possible, up to the highest weight or height allowed by their car
safety seat's manufacturer.
Booster seats
All children whose weight or height is above the forward-facing limit for their car safety seat
should use a Belt-Positioning Booster Seat until the vehicle seat belt fits properly, typically when
they have reached 4 feet 9 inches in height and are between 8 and 12 years of age.
Seat belts
When children are old enough and large enough to use the vehicle seat belt alone, they should
always use lap and Shoulder Seat Belts for optimal-protection.
All children younger than 13 years should be restrained in the Rear Seats of vehicles for
optimal protection.
•School-aged children
Older children
Patient Education for Children. Teens, and Parents 2011 American Academy of Pediatrics
115
Newborns, Infants, and Toddlers
Installation tips for rear-facing seats
When using a rear-facing seat, keep the following in mind:
• Place the harnesses in your rear-facing seat in slots that are at or below your
baby's shoulders.
• Ensure that the harness is snug and that the harness clip is positioned at the
mid-chest level.
• Make sure the car safety seat is installed tightly in the vehicle. If you can move
the seat at the belt path more than an inch side to side or front to back, it's not
tight enough.
• Never place arear-facing car safety seat in the front seat of avehicle that has
an active front passenger air bag. If the air bag inflates, it will hit the back of the
car safety seat, right where your baby's head is, and could cause serious injury
or death.
• Be sure you know what kind of seat belts your vehicle has. Some seat belts
need locking clips to keep the belt locked into position. Locking clips come with
most new car safety seats. If you're not sure, check the owner's manual that
came with your vehicle. Locking clips are not needed in most newer vehicles,
and some seats have built-in lock-ofts to lock the belt
• If you are using aconvertible or 3-in-1 seat in the rear-facing position, make
sure the seat belt is routed through the correct belt path. Check the instructions
that came with the car safety seat to be sure.
• If your vehicle was made after 2002, it may come with the LATCH system,
which is used to secure car safety seats. See the next column for information
on using LATCH.
• Make sure the seat is at the correct angle so your infant's head does not flop
forward Many seats have angle indicators or adjusters that can help prevent
this. If your seat does not have an angle adjuster, tilt the car safety seat back by
putting arolled towel or other firm padding (such as apool noodle) under the
base near the point where the back and bottom of the vehicle seat meet.
• Still having trouble? There may be acertified child passenger safety (CPS)
technician in your area who can help. If you need installation help, see end of
this handout for information on how to locate aCPS technician.
(ommon Questions
a:
What if my baby's feet touch the back of the vehicle seat?
A: Your child can bend his legs easily and will be cornfortable in aconvertible
seat. Injuries to the legs are rare for children facing the rear.
a: What do I do if my baby slouches down or to the side in his car
safety seat?
A: Blanket rolls rnay be placed on both
sides of the infant and asmall diaper
or blanket between the crotch strap
and the infant Do not place padding
under or behind the infant or use any
sort of car safety seat insert unless
it carne with the seat or was made by
the rnanufacturer of the seat.
a: can I adjust the straps when my
baby is wearing thicker clothing,
like in the winter?
A: Yes, but make sure the harnesses
are still snug. Also remember to
tighten the straps again after the
thicker clothes are no longer needed.
Ideally, dress your baby in thinner
116
Figure 2. Car safety seat witll asmall
cloth between crotch strap and infant,
retainer clip positioned at the
the infant's chest, and blanket
sides of the infant
Patient Education for Children. Teens. and Parents
layers instead of a bulky coat or snowsuit, and tuck a blanket around your
baby over the buckled harness straps if needed.
a: Are rear-facing convertible seats OK to use for preemies?
A: Prernature infants should be tested while stili in the hospital to make sure
they can ride safely in a reclined position. Babies who need to lie flat dur­
ing travel should ride in acrash-tested car bed. Very srnall infants who
can ride safely in areclined position usually fit better in infant-only seats;
however, if you need to use aconvertible seat, choose one without atray­
shield harness. The shields often are too big and too far frorn the body to
fit correctly and the child's face could hit the shield in acrash.
J
a: What is LATCH?
A: LATCH (Lower Anchors and Tethers for Children) is an attachrnent systern
for car safety seats. Lower anchors can be used instead of the seat belt
to install the seat and rnay be easier to use in sorne cars. The top tether
improves the safety provided by the seat and is irnportant to use for all
forward-facing seats. Read the vehicle owner's rnanual and the car safety
seat instructions for weight limits for lower anchors and top tethers.
Vehicles with the LATCH systern have anchors located in the back seat.
Car safety seats that corne with LATCH have attachments that fasten
to these anchors. Nearly all passenger vehicles and all car safety seats
rnade on or after September 1, 2002, corne with LATCH. However, unless
both your vehicle and the car safety seat have the lower anchor system,
you will still need to use seat belts to install the car safety seat.
Toddlers and preschooters-forward-facing
All children 2 years or older, or those younger than 2 years who have
outgrown the rear-facing weight or height limit for their car safety seat,
should use a Forward-Facing Car Safety Seat with a harness for as long
as possible, up to the highest weight or height allowed by their car safety
seat's rnanufacturer. It is best for children to ride in aseat with a harness
as long as possible, at least to 4 years of age. If your child outgrows his
seat before reaching 4 years of age, consider using a seat with a harness
approved for higher weights and heights.
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Types of car safety
restraints
There are 5types of car
safety restraints that can
be used forward-facing.
1. Convertible seats­
Seats that"convert" from
rear-facing to forward­
facing seats. These
include 3-in-1 seats.
Figure 3. Forward-facing Gar safety seat.
2. Forward-facing only­
These seats can be used forward-facing with aharness for children who weigh
up to 40 to 80 pounds (depending on the model).
3. Combination seat with harness-These seats can be used forward-facing with
aharness for children who weigh up to 40 to 80 pounds (depending on the
model) or without the harness as abooster (up to 80-100 pounds).
4. Built-in seats-Some vehicles come with forward-facing seats built in. Weight
and height limits vary Read your vehicle owner's manual or contact the
manufacturer for details about how to use these seats.
2011 American Academy of Pediatrics
J
NelNborns, Infants, and Toddlers
5. Travel vests-These can be worn by children between 20 and 168 pounds and
can be an alternative to traditional forward-facing seats. They are useful for
when avehicle has lap-only seat belts in the rear or for children whose weight
has exceeded that allowed by car safety seats. These vests may require use of
atop tether.
Installation tips for forward-facing seats
Make sure the car safety seat is installed tightly in the vehicle and that the
harness fits the child snugly.
To switch a convertible or 3-in-1 seat frorn rear-facing to forward-facing
• Move the shoulder straps to the slots that are at or above your child's shoulders.
On some convertible seats, the top harness slots must be used when facing
forward. Check the instructions that came with the seat to be sure.
• You may have to adjust the recline angle of the seat. Check the instructions to
be sure.
• Make sure the seat belt runs through the forward-facing belt path. When
making these changes, always follow the car safety seat instructions.
• If your vehicle was made after 2002, it should come with the LATCH system,
which is used to secure car safety seats. See "What is LATCH?" on the
previous page.
Atether is a strap that attaches to the top of a car safety seat and to an
anchor point in your vehicle (see your vehicle owner's manual to find where
the tether anchors are in your vehicle). Tethers give important extra protection
by keeping the car safety seat and the child's head from moving too far
forward in acrash or sudden stop. All new cars, minivans, and light trucks
have been required to have tether anchors since September 2000. New
forward-facing car safety seats come with tethers. Check the car safety seat
instructions and vehicle owner's manual for information about the top weight
limit and locations of the tether anchors.
Common questions
Q: What if I drive more children than can be buckled safely in the
backseat?
A: It's best to avoid this, especially if your vehicle has air bags in the front
seat. All children younger than 13 years should ride in the back seat. If
absolutely necessary, achild in aforward-facing car safety seat with a
harness may be the best choice to ride in front. Just be sure the vehicle
seat is moved as far back away from the dashboard (and the air bag)
as possible.
Q: What do I need to know if my child will be driven by someone else,
such as for child care or school?
A: If your child is being driven by someone else, make sure
• The car safety seat your child will be using fits properly in the vehicle
used for transport.
• The car safety seat being used is appropriate for the age and size of
your child.
• The person in charge of transporting your child knows how to install
and use the car safety seat correctly.
Child care programs and schools should have written guidelines for
transporting children. These guidelines should include the following:
• All drivers must have avalid driver's license. In some states, school bus
drivers need to have aspecial type of license.
• Staff-to-child ratios for transport should meet or exceed those required for
the classroom.
Patient Education for Children. Teens. and Parents • Every child should be supervised during transport, either by school staff or a
parent volunteer, so the driver can focus on driving.
• School staff, teachers, and drivers should know what do to in an emergency,
know how to properly use car safety seats and seat belts, and be aware of
other safety requirements.
Q: Should my child ride in a car safety seat on an airplane?
A: Most infant, convertible, and forward-facing seats can be used on air­
planes, but booster seats and travel vests cannot. The Federal Aviation
Administration (FAA) and the AAP recommend that when flying, children
should be securely fastened in certified child restraints until 4 years of age,
and then should be secured with the airplane seat belts. This will help keep
them safe during takeoff and landing or in case of turbulence. Check the
label on your car safety seat or call the car safety seat manufacturer before
you travel to see if your seat is certified for use on an airplane. You can also
consider using arestraint made only for use on airplanes and approved by
the FAA.
School-aged children-booster seats
Booster seats are for older children who have outgrown their forward-facing
car safety seats. All children whose weight or height is above the forward­
facing limit for their car safety seat should use aBelt-Positioning Booster
Seat until the vehicle seat belt fits properly, typically when they have reached
4 feet 9 inches in height and are between 8 and 12 years of age. The owner's
manual that comes with your car safety seat will tell you the height and weight
limits for the seat. As a general guideline, achild has outgrown his forward­
facing seat when anyone of the following is true:
• He reaches the top weight or height allowed for his seat with aharness. (These
limits are listed on the seat and also included in the instruction booklet.)
• His shoulders are above the top harness slots.
• His ears have reached the top of the seat.
Types of booster seats
Booster seats are deSigned to
raise the child up so that the
lap and shoulder seat belts
fit properly. High-back and
backless booster seats are
available. They do not come
with harness straps but are
used with the lap and shoulder
Figure 4. Belt-positioning booster seat.
seat belts in your vehicle, the
same wayan adult rides. Booster seats should be used until your child can
correctly fit in lap and shoulder seat belts. Booster seats typically include
aplastiC clip or guide to help ensure the correct use of the vehicle lap and
shoulder belts. See the instruction booklet that came with the booster seat for
directions on how to use the guide or Clip.
Installation tips for booster seats
Booster seats must be used with a lap and shoulder belt. When using a
booster seat, make sure
• The lap belt lies low and snug across your child's upper thighs.
• The shoulder belt crosses the middle of your child's chest and shoulder.
© 2011 American Academy of Pediatrics
117
Newborns, Infants, and Toddlers
Common guestions
Shopping for car safety seats
Q: What if my car only has lap belts in the back seat?
A: Lap belts work fine with infant-only, convertible, and forward-facing seats.
If your car only has lap belts, use aforward-facing car safety seat with a
harness and higher weight limits. Other options are
• Check to see if shoulder belts can be installed in your vehicle.
• Use atravel vest (some can be used with lap belts).
• Consider buying another car with lap and shoulder belts in the back seat.
When shopping for a car safety seat, keep the following tips in mind:
• No one seat is the "best" or "safest." The best seat is the one that fits your
child's size, is correctly installed, fits well in your vehicle, and is used properly
every time you drive.
• Don't decide by price alone. Ahigher price does not mean the seat is safer or
easier to use.
• Avoid used seats if you don't know the seat's history. Never use acar safety
seat that
- Is too old. Look on the label for the date it was made. Check with the
manufacturer to find out how long it recommends using the seat.
Has any visible cracks on it.
Does not have alabel with the date of manufacture and model number.
Without these, you cannot check to see if the seat has been recalled.
- Does not come with instructions. You need them to know how to use
the seat.
- Is missing parts. Used car safety seats often come without important parts. Check with the manufacturer to make sure you can get the right parts. Was recalled. You can find out by calling the manufacturer or by contacting the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) Vehicle Safety Hotline at 888/327-4236. You can also visit the NHTSA Web site at www.safercar.gov. • Do not use seats that have been in amoderate or severe crash. Seats that
were in a minor crash may still be safe to use, but some car safety seat
manufacturers recommend replacing the seat after any crash, even a minor
one. The NHTSA considers acrash minor if all of the following are true:
The vehicle could be driven away from the crash. - The vehicle door closest to the car safety seat was not damaged. - No one in the vehicle was injured.
The air bags did not go off.
You can't see any damage to the car safety seat.
If you are unsure, call the manufacturer of the seat. See "Manufacturer
phone numbers and Web sites" at the end of Part II for manufacturer
contact information.
Q: Is there adifference between high-back and backless boosters?
A: Both types of boosters are designed to raise your child so the seat belts
fit properly and both will reduce your child's risk of injury in acrash. High­
back boosters are useful in vehicles that do not have head rests or have
low seat backs. Many seats that look like high-back boosters are actually
combination seats. They come with harnesses that can be used for smaller
children and can then be removed for older children. Backless boosters
are usually less expensive and are easier to move from vehicle to vehicle.
Backless boosters can be safely used in vehicles with headrests and high
seat backs.
Older children-seat belts
Seat belts are made for adults. Your child should stay in abooster seat until
adult seat belts fit correctly (usually when the child reaches about 4 feet
9 inches in height and is between 8 and 12 years of age). When children
are old enough and large enough to use the vehicle seat belt alone, they
should always use Lap and Shoulder Seat Belts for optimal protection.
Using a seat belt
1. An adult seat belt fits correctly when
• The shoulder belt lies across the middle of the chest and shoulder, not
the neck or throat.
• The lap belt is low and snug across the upper thighs, not the belly.
• Your child is tall enough to sit against the vehicle seat back with her
knees bent without slouching and can stay in this position comfortably
throUghout the trip.
2. Other pOints to keep in mind when using seat belts include
• Make sure your child does not tuck the shoulder belt under her arm or
behind her back. This leaves the upper body unprotected, putting your
child at risk of severe injury in acrash or with sudden braking,
• Never allow anyone to "share" seat belts. All passengers must have their
own car safety seats or seat belts.
Common Questions
Q: I've seen products that say they can help make the seat belt fit
better. Should we get one of these?
A: No, these products should not be used. In fact, they may actually
interfere with proper seat belt fit by causing the lap belt to ride too
high on the stomach and making the shoulder belt too loose. They
can even damage the seat belt. This rule applies to car safety seats
too; do not use any extra products unless they came with the seat.
There are no federal safety standards for these products and until there
are, the AAP does not recommend they be used, As long as children
are riding in the correct restraint for their size, they should not need to
use any additional devices,
118
Patient Education for Children. Teens, and Parents
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About air bags
Front air bags
All new cars come with front air bags, When used with seat belts, air bags
work very well to protect teenagers and adults. However, air bags can be
very dangerous to children, particularly those riding in rear-facing car safety
seats, and to preschool and young school-aged children who are not properly
restrained. If your vehicle has afront passenger air bag, infants in rear-facing
seats must ride in the back seat. Even in a relatively low-speed crash, the
air bag can inflate, strike the car safety seat, and cause serious brain injury
and death.
Vehicles with no back seat or a back seat that is not made for passengers
are not the best choice for traveling with small children. However, the air bag
can be turned off in some of these vehicles if the front seat is needed for a
child passenger. See your vehicle owner's manual for more information.
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© 2011 American Academy of Pediatrics
Newborns, Infants, and Toddlers
Side air bags
Side air bags improve safety for adults in side-impact crashes, Read your
vehicle owner's manual for more information about the air bags in your
vehicle, Read your car safety seat manual and the vehicle owner's manual
for guidance on placing the seat next to aside air bag,
If you need installation help
If you have questions or need help installing your car safety seat, find a
certified CPS technician, Lists of certified CPS technicians and child seat
fitting stations are available on the following Web sites:
NHTSA
The NHTSA has out together the car safety seat Ease of Use Ratings to educate parents and caregivers about
car safety seat reatums and to assist them in finding the appropriate seat for their needs. YOIJ can view this list
at www.nhtsa.govlSafetylEase-of-Use.
Anhough the American I'cademy of Padiatrics (AAP) is mt a tesling or standard-setting organization, Ihis
guide sets forth the AAP mcommendations based on the peer-reviewed literature available at the time of its
publication, and sets forth some of the factors that paret1ts shouid consider before selecting and usmg acar
safety seat
The appearance of the name Amencan Academy ot Pediatrics does not constitute aguarantee or endorsement
of the products listed or the claims made. Phooe numbers and Web site addresses are as current as possible,
but may chenge at any lime.
The information contained in this publication should nol be used as a substitute for the medical care and advice
of your pediatrician. There may be vanatiOns in treatment that your pediatrician may recommend based on
individual facts and circumstances.
Prices are approximate and may vary,
www_nhtsa.gov (or call NHTSA Vehicle Safety Hotline at 888/327-4236)
SeatCheck www.seatcheck,org (or call 866/SEATCHECK [866/732-8243]) from your doctor
National Child Passenger Safety Certified Technicians http://cert,safekids.org/ (or call 877/366-8154) This site provides information in Spanish and also provides a list of CPS technicians with enhanced training in protection of children with special needs, Important reminders
1, Be agood role model. Make sure you always wear your seat belt This will
help your child form alifelong habit of buckling up
2, Never leave your child alone in or around cars. Any of the following can
happen when achild is left alone in or around avehicle:
• He can die of heat stroke because temperatures can reach deadly levels
in minutes,
• He can be strangled by power windows, retracting seat belts, sunroofs,
or accessories.
• He can knock the vehicle into gear, setting it in motion.
• He can be backed over when the vehicle backs up.
• He can become trapped in the trunk of the vehicle.
3. Always read and follow the manufacturer's instructions, If you do not have the
manufacturer's instructions for your car safety seat, write or call the company's
customer service department They will ask you for the model number, name of
seat, and date of manufacture, The manufacturer'S address and phone number
are on the label on the seat. Also be sure to follow the instructions in your
vehicle owner's manual about using car safety seats. Some manufacturers'
instructions may be available on their Web sites.
American Academy
of Pediatrics
DEDICATED TO THE HEALTH OF ALL CHILDREN"
Palient Education for Children, Teens, and Parents TMe American Academy of f'e(Jlatrics IS an organization 0160,000 primary care pediatncians. :)ediatrlc medical ~al!sts,
and pediatnc surgical speclaiists dedicated to the healttl, safety, and we1i·beff1g of infants, chl!d~en. ado!e9::erlts, arc :;0009 adJlts.
American Acade",y 01 Pediatrics
Web site- WN'N HeattnyChHdren.org Copynght © 2011
A~erican AcadefTY of Pediatrics
A' rv,flts reserved.
2011 American Academy of Pediatrics
119
!
r
I
Newborns, Infants, and Toddlers
CAR SAFETY SEATS
Infant-only seats (Manufadurers' names are boldfaced.)
CJ
(),
Name
Harness Type
Rear-fadng Weight Limits
Height limits
Price
Baby Trend EZ-Loc, EZ-Flex Loc, Flex-Loc,
Latch-Loc, Fixed Back, Adjustable Back
5-point
5-30 pounds
Up to 30"
$79.9~$129.99
Britax Chaperone
5-point
4-30 pounds
Up to 32"
$229.99
Chicco KeyFit Infant Car Seat, only sold as a
travel system 5-point
4-22 pounds
Up to 30"
$300
Chicco KeyFit 30 Infant Car Seat
5-point
4-30 pounds
Up to 30"
$180-$190 Combi Navette 22, available only through Child
Source
5-point
Birth-22 pounds
Up to 29"
$65
Combi Shuttle 33
5-point
Birth-33 pounds
Up to 33"
$170-$180
Combi Shuttle 35
5-point
Birth-35 pounds
Up to 33"
$199
Cosco Comfy Carry
5-point
4-22 pounds
Up to 29"
$59
CYBEXAton
5-point
4-30 pounds
Up to 30"
$189.95
Dream on Me/Mia Moda Certo Infant Car Seat
5-point
4-22 pounds
Up to 29"
$11~$139
Eddie Bauer Deluxe Infant Car Seat
5-point
5-22 pounds
19"-29"
$100
Evenflo Discovery 5
5-point
5-22 pounds
19"-29"
$50-$60
Evenflo Embrace
5-point
5-22 pounds
19"-29"
$80-$100
Evenflo Secure Ride 35
5-point
5-35 pounds
19"-32"
$150
The First Years Via
5-point
4-22 pounds
Up to 30"
$139.99
The First Years Via 35
5-point
4-35 pounds
Up to 30"
$169.99
Graco SnugRide
5-point
5-22 pounds
Up to 29"
$89-$109
Graco SnugRide 30
5-point
4-30 pounds
Up to 30"
$11~$139
Graco SnugRide 35
5-point
5-35 pounds
Up to 32"
$149-$169
Maxi-Cosi Mico Infant Car Seat
5-point
5-22 pounds
19"-29"
$170
Orbit Baby Infant Car Seat and Car Seat Base G2 5-point
4-22 pounds
19"-29"
$400
Peg Perego Primo Viaggio SIP 30/30
5-point
5-30 pounds
Up to 30"
$24~$299
Safety 1st Comfy Carry
5-point
4-22 pounds
Up to 29"
$69
Safety 1st Comfy Canry Elite
5-point
4-22 pounds
Up to 29"
$75
Safety 1st Designer
5-point
5-22 pounds
19"-29"
$65-$80
Safety 1st OnBoard 35
5-point
4-35 pounds
Up to 32"
$99
Safety 1st OnBoard 35 Air
5-point
4-35 pounds
Up to 32"
$15~$179
teutonia USA Hario 35
5-point
5-35 pounds
Up to 32"
$225
Patient Education for Children. Teens. and Parents
© 2011 American Academy of Pediatrics
121
Newborns, Infants, and Toddlers
Convertible seats
Name
Harness Type
Rear-Fadng Weight Limits.
Height Limits
Forward-Fadng Weight Limits.
Height limits
Price
BritaxAdvocate 70 CS
5-point
5-40 pounds, up to 49" 20-70 pounds, up 10 49"
$369.99
Britax Boulevard 70
5-poinl
5-40 pounds, up 10 49" 20-70 pounds, up 10 49"
$309.99
Britax Boulevard 70 CS
5-point
5-40 pounds, up 10 49" 20-70 pounds, up 10 49"
$329.99
Britax Maralhon 70
5-point
5-40 pounds, up 10 49" 20-70 pounds, up to 49"
$279.99
Britax Marathon Classic (ONLY sold
at Targel)
5-point
5-35 pounds, up 10 49"
20-65 pounds, up to 49"
$199.99
Britax Roundabout 50 Classic (ONLY
sold at Target)
5-point
5-35 pounds, up 10 49"
20-50 pounds, up 10 40"
$159.99
Britax Roundaboul 55
5-point
5-40 pounds, up 10 46" 20-55 pounds, up 10 46"
$199.99
Combi Coccoro
5-point
5-33 pounds 20-40 pounds
$200
Combi Zeus Turn
5-point
5-22 pounds 20-40 pounds
$300
Combi Zeus 360
5-point
5-33 pounds 20-40 pounds
$330
Cosco Scenera
5-poinl
5-35 pounds, 19"-36" 22-40 pounds, 34"-43"
$50
Cosco Scenera 40RF
5-point
5-40 pounds, 19"-40" 22-40 pounds, 34"-43"
$50-$60
Evenflo Momentum 65
5-poinl
5-40 pounds AND lop of head is at least 1"
below the top of the child reslraint headrest
20-65 pounds, less Ihan 50"
$160-$190
Evenflo Titan Elite
5-point 5-35 pounds
At least 19" AND top of head is at leasl 1"
below the top of the child restraint seat back
20-50 pounds, less Ihan 47"
$50-$100
Evenflo Tribule 5
5-poinl
5-35 pounds
AI least 19" AND top of head is at least 1"
below the top of the child restraint seat back
20-40 pounds, less than 40"
$45-$60
Evenflo Triumph Advance 65
LX, DLX, or Premier
5-point
5-40 pounds
At leasl1 9" AND lop of head is at least 1"
below the lop of Ihe child restraint seat back
20-65 pounds, less Ihan 50"
$140-$180
The First Years True Fit 630
5-point
5-22 pounds without upper seat back installed
5-35 pounds with upper seat back installed
23-65 pounds up to 50"
$189.99
The First Years True Fit Recline
C650
5-point
5-22 pounds withoul upper seat back installed
5-35 pounds with upper seat back installed
23-65 pounds, up to 50"
$199.99
The First Years True Fit Rebound
C670
5-point
5-22 pounds without upper seal back installed
5-35 pounds with upper seat back installed
23-65 pounds, up to 50"
$239.99
Graco ComforlSpor!
5-point
5-30 pounds 20-40 pounds, up to 40"
$79-$99
Graco My Ride 65
5-point
5-40 pounds 20-65 pounds, up to 50"
$149
Maxi-Cosi Priori
5-point
5-35 pounds, 19"-36" 22-40 pounds, 34"-43"
$200-$230
Orbit Baby Toddler Seal
5-poinl
15-35 pounds 20-50 pounds, up 10 49"
$360
$279.99
Recaro ProRIDE
5-poinl
5-35 pounds 20-70 pounds, up to 50"
Safety 1st Complete Air 65
5-point
5-40 pounds, 19"-40" 22-65 pounds, 34"-52"
$180
Safety 1st onSide Air
5-poinl
5-40 pounds, 19"-40" 22-40 pounds, 34"-43"
$100
Sunshine Kids Radian65SL Car
Seat
5-poinl
5-40 pounds
20-65 pounds, up to 53"
$229.99
Up to 65 pounds with lower anchors
Sunshine Kids Radian80SL Gar
Seat
5-poinl
5-45 pounds
$269.99
20-80 pounds, up 10 53"
Up 10 80 pounds with lower anchors
Sunshine Kids RadianXTSL Car Seat
5-point
5-45 pounds
20-80 pounds, up to 53"
$299.99
Up to 80 pounds with lower anchors
Tripleplay ProductslliUy Gold
5-n-1 Sit'n'Slroll
5-poinl
5-30 pounds
20-40 pounds
122
Patient Education for Children. Teens. and Parents $249.95
© 2011 American Academy of Pediatrics
J
Newborns, Infants, and Toddlers
3-in-l seats (Can be used rear-facing, forward-facing, or as a belt positioning booster.)
~
forward-facing Weight Limits, Booster Weight Limits,
Height Limits
Height Limits
Name
Rear-facing Weight Limits,
Height limits
Eddie Bauer Deluxe
5-35 pounds, 19"-36"
22--40 pounds, 34"-43"
40-80 pounds, 43"-52"
$120-$130
Eddie Bauer Deluxe 3-in-1
Convertible Car Seat
5-35 pounds, 19"-36"
22-50 pounds, 34"--45"
40-100 pounds, 43"-52"
$170-$180
Evenflo Symphony 65
5-40 pounds,
AND top of head is at least
1" below the top of the child
restraint headrest
20-65 pounds, 50" or less
40-100 pounds,
less than 57"
$200
Graco Smart Seat
5-40 pounds,
AND top of head is at least 1"
from top of seat
20-65 pounds
Maximum height 50"
30-100 pounds
Maximum height 57"
$299-$329
safety 1st AIHn-One, Alpha Omega
5-35 pounds, 19"-36"
22-50 pounds, 35"--45"
40-80 pounds, 43"-52"
$120-$130
safety 1st Alpha Omega Elite
5-35 pounds, 19"-36"
22-50 pounds, 34"--45"
40-100 pounds, 34"-52"
$160
Price
Combination seats (Can be used forward facing with 5-point harness or as belt-positioning booster.)
Name
C
~
Weight Limits, Height
Limits With Harness
Weight Limits, Height
Limits as Booster
Price
Britax Frontier 85 Harness-2-Booster
2 years of age and 25-85 pounds,
30"-57"
40-120 pounds, 42"-65"
$279,99
Cosco High Back Booster
22--40 pounds, 34"--43"
40-80 pounds, 43"-52"
$50
Cosco Ventura
22-40 pounds, 34"--43"
40-80 pounds, 43"-52"
$60
Eddie Bauer Adjustable High Back Booster 22--40 pounds, 34"-43"
40-100 pounds, 43"--48"
$99
Eddie Bauer Deluxe High Back Booster
22--40 pounds, 34"--43"
40-100 pounds, 43"-52"
$120
Evenflo Express, Chase
20-40 pounds
At least 29" AND shoulders below
harness slots
40-100 pounds
43.5"-54" AND ears below top of child restraint
headrest
$50-$70
Evenflo Generations 65
20-65 pounds
40-100 pounds
44"-57" AND ears below top of child restraint headrest
$100
Evenflo Maestro
20-50 pounds
40-100 pounds
44"-57" AND ears below top of child restraint headrest
$80
Graco Nautilus
20-65 pounds
27"-52" if shoulders are below top
harness slots
High back: 30-100 pounds, 38"-57"
Backless: 40-100 pounds, 40"-57"
$179.99
Graco Nautilus Elite
20-65 pounds
27"-52" if shoulders are below top
harness slots
High back: 30-100 pounds, 38"-57"
Backless: 40-100 pounds, 40"-57"
$199.99
Kiddy World Plus
20-40 pounds, up to 40" with
protection shield
40-110 pounds, up to 60"
$269.99
K1DSEmbrace ToddlerlBooster Car Seat
22-65 pounds, 29"-52"
30-100 pounds, 38"-57"
$159.99
Recaro ProSPORT
20-90 pounds, 27"-50"
30-120 pounds, 37"-59"
$279.99
Safety 1st Go Hybrid Booster
22-65 pounds, 34"-52"
40-100 pounds, 43"-57"
$199.99
Safety 1st Rumi Air Booster or
Essential Air
22-65 pounds, 34"-52"
40-100 pounds, 43"-57"
$179
safety 1st Summit
22-40 pounds, 34"--43"
40-100 pounds, 43"-52"
$99.99
Safety 1st Vantage, Surveyor
22-40 pounds, 34"-43"
40-1 00 pounds, 43"-52"
$80
Patient Education for Children, Teens. and Parents
© 2011 American Academy of Pediatrics
123
Newborns, Infants, and Toddlers
Forward-facing only toddler seats
Name HamessType
weight limits
Height limits
Price
firstSEAT Revolution
5-point 22-60 pounds
Up to 50"
$299
J
Belt-positioning booster seats
Name
Type
Weight limits Height limits
Price
Britax Parkway SG
High back converts to
backless
4G-120 pounds (high back
and backless)
38"-63" (high back and
backless)
$119.99
Britax Parkway SGL
High back converts to
backless
4G-120 pounds with lower
anchors (high back and
backless)
38"-63" (high back and
backless)
$149.99
Chicco KeyFit Strada Booster
High back converts to
backless
High back: 33-100 pounds
Backless: 4G-100 pounds
High back: 38"-57"
Backless: 38"-57"
$150
Clek Olli Booster Seat
Backless
4G-120 pounds
40"-57" $79.99-$99.99
Clek Oobr Booster Seat
High back converts to
backless
High back: 33-1 00 pounds
Backless: 4G-100 pounds
High back: 38"-57"
Backless: 40"-57"
$274.99­
$299.99
Clek Ozzi Booster Seat
Backless
4G-120 pounds
40"-57" $69.99
Combi Kobuk Air Thru
High back
33-125 pounds
33"-57" $80
Cosco Ambassador, High Rise
Backless
3G-100 pounds
34"-57" $18
Cosco Complete Voyager
High back
4G-80 pounds
43"-52" $2G-$25
Cosco Protek High back
3G-100 pounds
34"-57"
$3G-$50
Cosco Pronto! High back
3G-1 00 pounds
34"-57"
$35
Cosco Disney Pronto!
Backless
4G-1 00 pounds 43"-57"
$24
CYBEX Solution X-fix
High back
33-100 pounds 38"-60"
$199.95
Evenflo Big Kid, Big Kid Amp
Backless
4G-100 pounds 40"-57" AND whose ears
below top of vehicle seat
headrest
$15-$25
Evenflo Big Kid
High back converts to
backless
High back: 3G-100 pounds
Backless: 4G-100 pounds
High back: 38"-57"
Backless: 40"-57" AND ears
below top of vehicle seat back
$3G-$60
Evenflo Maestro Booster
High back
4G-100 pounds
44"-57" AND ears below top
of child restraint headrest
$3G-$40
The First Years B505 Compass Booster
High back
3G-100 pounds
38"-57" $59.99
The First Years B540 Compass Booster
High back
3G-1 00 pou nds
38"-57" $79.99
The First Years Pathway B570 Booster
High back
3G-1 00 pou nds
38"-57" $99.99
Graco TurboBooster Backless
4G-100 pounds
40"-57"
$24.99-$29.99
Graco TurboBooster
High back converts to
backless
High back: 30-100 pounds
Backless: 4G-1 00 pounds
High back: 38"-57"
Backless: 40"-57"
$49.99-$69.99
Harmony Baby Armor Youth Booster Seat
High back converts to
backless
3G-110 pounds (high back
and backless)
34"-57" (high back and
backless)
$79.99
Harmony Cruz Youth Booster Seat
Backless
3G-11 0 pounds
34"-57" $18.99
3G-110 pounds (high back
and backless)
34"-57" (high back and
backless)
$49.99
Harmony Dreamtime Comfort Booster Seat High back converts to
backless
Harmony LiteRiderYouth Booster Seat
Backless
3G-1 00 pounds
34"-57" $13.50
Harmony SECURE Comfort Deluxe Booster
Seat
Backless
3G-110 pounds
34"-57"
$19.99
Jeffco Fibres Grizzly Bear
High back
4G-1 00 pounds 33"-57"
$119
124
Patient Education for Children. Teens. and Parents © 2011 American Academy of Pediatrics
J
J
Newborns, Infants, and Toddlers
Belt-positioning booster seats, continued
.
,
~
Jeffco Fibres Polar Bear
High back
30-100 pounds
33"-57"
$129
Jeffco Fibres Teddy Bear
High back
30-80 pounds
33"-57"
$109
Maxi-Cosi Rodi
High back
30-1 00 pounds
34"-57"
$130-$140
Maxi-Cosi Rodi XR
High back
30-100 pounds
34"-57"
$160
ProRider Booster Car Seat
Backless
33-80 pounds
60" or less
$17,95 (Online
ordering only)
Recaro ProBooster
High back
30-120 pounds
37"-61 "
$129.99 Recaro VIVO
High back
30-100 pounds
37"-59"
$89.99 Safety 1st Boost Air
High back
30-100 pounds
34"-57"
$79
Sunshine Kids Monterey Booster Seat
High back converts to
backless
30-120 pounds
Up to 63"
Up to 120 pounds with lower
anchors
$139,99
Sunshine Kids SantaFe Booster
Backless
30-120 pounds with lower
anchors
$69,95
38"-63"
Travel vests
Name
weight limits. Age limits
Price
E-Z-ON 103Z Adjustable Vest (rear zipper closure)
20-168 pounds, ages 2-adult
$120
E-Z-ON 203 Adjustable Vest (mini push button front closure)
20-100 pounds, ages 2-smaller-sized children (XSmall, Small)
$120
E-Z-ON 203/225 AII-in-One LATCH Vest
20-100 pounds, ages 2-smaller-sized children (XSmall, Small, Medium) $145
E-Z-ON 86Y Hamess
100-168 pounds
$60-80
E-Z-ON Kid-YC Hamess
Up to 100 pounds
$65
E-Z-ON 101 ZNon-adjustable Vest (rear zipper closure)
20-168 pounds, ages 2-adult
$120-$140
E-Z-ON 101 Push Button Non-adjustable Vest
101 Mini Push Button: 20-65 pounds
101 Standard Push Button: larger children-adult up to 168 pounds
$120-$140
Safety Angel Booster Hamess
30-100 pounds, must be used with abooster seat
$48
Safe Traffic Systems RideSafer Travel Vest
Small vest: 35-60 pounds, 3-6 years
Large vest: 50-80 pounds, 5-10 years
$124 (SM)
$129 (LG)
BuilHn (integrated) seats
Built-in or integrated child safety seats are available on selected models from some motor vehicle manufacturers. Check with the manufacturers for specifics.
Patient Education for Children. Teens, and Parents
© 2011 American Academy of Pediatrics
125
Newborns, Infants, and Toddlers
Manufacturer phone numbers and Web sites
For more information on the seats listed in this guide, please contact the individual manufacturers.
Baby Trend
800/328-7363
www.babytrend.com
Britax
888/427-4829
www.britaxusa.com
Chicco
877/424-4226
www.chiccousa.com
Clek
248/284-2462
www.clekinc.com
Comb!
800/992-6624 www.combi-intl.com Cosco,lnc. 800/544-1108 www.coscojuvenile.com CYBEX (Regal Lager, Inc.
distributor)
800/593-5522
www,regallager.com
Dream on Me/Mia Moda
732-748-1300
www.miamodainc.com
Eddie Bauer
800/544-11 08
www.djgusa.com/eddiebauer
Evenflo
800/233-5921
www.evenflo.com
E-Z-ON Products Inc. of
Florida
800/323-6598
www.ezonpro,com
The First Years 888/899-2229
www,learningcurve,com
firstSEAT
408/607-6294
www.firstseat.com
Graco Children's Products
Inc. (Newell Rubbermaid)
800/345-41 09
www.gracobabY.com
Harmony Juvenile Products
877/306-1001
www.harmonyjuvenile.com Jeffco Fibres (formerly
LaRoche Brothers)
800/225-7352 www.jeffcofibres,com
KiddyUSA
678/377 -3309
www.kiddyusa.com KIDSEmbrace
866/947-3287
www,kidsembrace.com
All products listed above meet Federal Motor Vellicle Safety Standard 213 as of the date of puOlicaiion. There
may be car safety seats available that are 10t listed in this publication. The following information is current as
of the date Of publication. Before buyi1g acar safety soot, check the nanufacturer's instructions for 'mpcrtant
safety information abOUI proper filtng and use.
Maxi-Cosi
8001951-4113
www.maxi-cosi.com
Orbit Baby
877/672-2229
www.orbitbaby.com
Peg Perego USA, Inc.
800/671-1701
www.pegperego.com
ProRider, Inc. 800/642-3123
www.prorider.com
Recaro North America
800/873-2276
www.recarokids.com
Safe Traffic System, Inc.
773/509-0530
www.safetrafficsystem,com
Safety 1st
800/544-11 08
www.safety1 st.com
Safety Angel
877/431-1678
www.safetyangel.com
Sunshine Kids Juvenile
Products
888/336-7909
www.skjp.com
teutonia USA (Newell Rubbermaid) 800/345-4109
www.teutoniausa.com
TriplePlay Products,
LLClUllyGold
800/829-1625
www,lillygold.com
From your doctor
The NHTSA has pullogether the car safety seat Ease of Use Ratings to educate parents and caregivers about
car safety seat features and to assist them in finding the appropriate seat for their needs You can view this list
al vNMnhlsa.dotgoviSaretyiEase-or-Use.
A1thougn ttle American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) IS not atesting or stllndard-setting organization, this
guide sets forth the AAP recommendations based on the peer-reviewed literature available at the time of its
puOllcalion, and sets forth some of the factors that parents should consider before selecting and using acar
salety seat.
Tr.e apnearance of the name American Academy 01 Pediatrics does not constitute aguarantee or endorsement
of the products listed or the claims made. Pp,one numbers and Web Sil; addresses are as current as possible.
but may change at any time.
Prices are approximate and may vary.
The information contained in this publication snould nol be used as asubstitute lor the medical care and advice
01 your pediatriC:an There may be variations in treatment tt.at your ped,atriclan may reconnend besed on
individual facts and circumstances.
American Academy
of Pediatrics
DEDICATED TO THE HEALTH OF ALL
126
The Al!'encan Academy 01 PediatIicS is an O!\Jil~2llton 0160.000 pnl'lary care pedialIic~ns, pedialIic med"'l subspe<:i~ists,
000 pediatric surgical ,peei.isls dedicated to the health. Sille1\'. aC1(l...,II-!lelng of ",!ants, children. ado~scecls, and young_
Arneocan Academy of Ped;atrics
CHILDREN~
Patient Education for Children, Teens, and Parents web Stte-WMV.HealthyCtlildrefU:rg
2011 American Academy of Pediatncs
j
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