null  null
1402-VLZ PRO
14-CHANNEL
MIC/LINE MIXER
OWNER’S MANUAL
PHANTOM
ON
POWER
ON
CAUTION
STEREO
PLUG
MONO PLUG
1402-VLZPRO
14-CHANNEL MIC/LINE MIXER
WITH PREMIUM XDR TM MIC PREAMPLIFIERS
WARNING:
TIP OUT TO EFFECTS DEVICE
RING RETURN FROM EFFECTS
FOR USE AS AN EFFECTS LOOP
(TIP = SEND, RING = RETURN)
MANUFACTURING DATE
SERIAL NUMBER
TO REDUCE THE RISK OF FIRE OR ELECTRIC SHOCK, DO NOT
EXPOSE THIS EQUIPMENT TO RAIN OR MOISTURE. DO NOT REMOVE COVER.
NO USER SERVICEABLE PARTS INSIDE. REFER SERVICING TO QUALIFIED PERSONNEL.
RISK OF ELECTRIC SHOCK
DO NOT OPEN
INSERT ALL THE WAY IN TO
THE "SECOND CLICK"
DIRECT OUT WITH SIGNAL
INTERRUPTION TO MASTER
AVIS: RISQUE DE CHOC ELECTRIQUE — NE PAS OUVRIR
UTILISE UN FUSIBLE DE RECHANGE DE MÊME TYPE.
DEBRANCHER AVANT DE REMPLACER LE FUSIBLE
REPLACE WITH THE SAME TYPE FUSE AND RATING.
DISCONNECT SUPPLY CORD BEFORE CHANGING FUSE
XDRTM EXTENDED DYNAMIC RANGE MIC PREAMPLIFIERS ARE PROPRIETARY TO MACKIE DESIGNS, INC.
CONTROL
ROOM
MAIN
RIGHT
MAIN
LEFT
BALANCED
BALANCED
BAL/UNBAL
CAUTION:
6
L/3
5
2
3
4
1
MAIN
OUTPUT
LEVEL
CONCEIVED, DESIGNED, AND MANUFACTURED BY MACKIE DESIGNS INC • WOODINVILLE • WA • USA • MADE IN USA • FABRIQUE AU USA • COPYRIGHT ©1998 •
THE FOLLOWING ARE TRADEMARKS OR REGISTERED TRADEMARKS OF MACKIE DESIGN INC.: "MACKIE", "VLZ", "XDR", AND THE "RUNNING MAN" FIGURE • PATENT PENDING
TO REDUCE THE RISK OF
FIRE REPLACE WITH SAME
TYPE FUSE AND RATING
MIC 1
CHANNEL INSERT
( PRE-FADER / PRE EQ TIP SEND / RING RETURN
)
)
BAL /UNBAL
R/4
L
R
+4
MIC
120 VAC 50/60 Hz 25W
500mA/250V SLO-BLO
MIC 4
MIC 3
MIC 2
MIC PR
XDR
E
ALT
OUTPUT
MIC PR
XDR
E
MIC PR
XDR
E
MIC 5
MIC PR
XDR
E
MIC 6
MIC PR
XDR
E
LEFT/MONO
RIGHT
TAPE
INPUT
ALL BAL/UNBAL
1
1
MIC PR
XDR
E
TAPE
OUTPUT
BAL/UNBAL
L
1402-VLZ PRO
L
14-CHANNEL MIC/ LINE MIXER
WITH PREMIUM XDRTM MIC PREAMPLIFIERS
R
2
2
R
LINE IN 1
-10dGBAV
MIC IN
-10dGBAV
MIC IN
U
-10dGBAV
MIC IN
U
LINE IN 6
LOW CUT
75 Hz
18dB/OCT
-10dGBAV
MIC IN
U
-10dGBAV
MIC IN
U
0
60
+15dB -45dB
0
60
+15dB -45dB
0
60
+15dB -45dB
0
60
+15dB -45dB
60
0
+15dB -45dB
0
60
+15dB -45dB
TRIM
TRIM
TRIM
TRIM
TRIM
TRIM
AUX
1
U
AUX
1
U
+15
+15
OO
EQ
U
-15
U
-15
-12
-12
-12
EQ
U
HI
-12
-12
7
ALT 3–4
TAPE
0
LOW
LOW
LOW
LOW
LOW
LOW
LOW
LOW
LOW
80Hz
80Hz
80Hz
80Hz
80Hz
80Hz
80Hz
80Hz
80Hz
-15
+15
-15
+15
PAN
-15
+15
PAN
-15
+15
PAN
-15
+15
PAN
-15
+15
PAN
-15
+15
PAN
-15
2
U
80Hz
PAN
4
2.5kHz
+12
U
LOW
+15
10
MID
+12
+15
PAN
RIGHT
28
U
MID
2.5kHz
+12
U
-15
2
4
+15
PAN
7
PAN
ASSIGN
TO MAIN MIX
10
20
L
R
L
R
L
2
1
MUTE
L
R
L
4
3
L
R
L
6
MUTE
MUTE
R
L
R
L
R
L
7–8
9–10
11–12
13–14
ALT 3–4
ALT 3–4
ALT 3–4
MUTE
MUTE
NORMAL (AFL)
LEVEL SET (PFL)
R
ALT 3–4
MUTE
ALT 3–4
ALT 3–4
ALT 3–4
ALT 3–4
R
5
MUTE
MUTE
MUTE
ALT 3–4
ALT 3–4
R
SOLO
MODE
MUTE
dB
dB
SOLO
10
dB
SOLO
10
dB
SOLO
10
dB
SOLO
10
dB
SOLO
10
dB
SOLO
10
dB
SOLO
10
dB
SOLO
10
dB
SOLO
10
SOLO
30
RUDE
SOLO
LIGHT
PHANTOM POWER
CTL ROOM /SUBMIX
10
AUX
RETURN
0dB=0dBu
MAIN MIX
+15
U
MID
2.5kHz
-12
-15
+20
OO
LEFT
C-R/SOURCE
12kHz
+15
U
MID
+12
U
EFX TO
MONITOR
HI
12kHz
-15
+20
U NORMALLED
2
AUX 1
SELECT
EQ
U
HI
12kHz
+15
OO
PRE
POST
+15
OO
+10
AUX 1 MASTER
2
EFX
+15
1
OO
U
2
EQ
U
U
U
MON/
EFX
+15
OO
EFX
OO
PHONES
AUX
1
U
MON/
EFX
+15
U
2.5kHz
-12
AUX
1
U
OO
+15
-15
U
+12
U
LINE IN 13–14
2
HI
MID
-12
LINE IN 11–12
EFX
+15
2.5kHz
+12
U
LEVEL
+4
-10
MON/
EFX
+15
OO
R
LEVEL
+4
-10
AUX
1
U
OO
MONO
R
LINE IN 9–10
12kHz
-15
U
MID
2.5kHz
+12
U
R
LEVEL
+4
-10
EQ
U
+15
U
MID
2.5kHz
+12
U
R
LEVEL
+4
-10
+15
OO
HI
-15
BAL
OR
UNBAL
U
12kHz
+15
U
MID
2.5kHz
+12
U
-15
BAL
OR
UNBAL
2
EQ
U
HI
12kHz
+15
U
MID
-12
EQ
U
HI
12kHz
+15
2.5kHz
+12
U
-15
-15
U
MID
2.5kHz
-12
EQ
U
HI
12kHz
+15
BAL
OR
UNBAL
EFX
+15
OO
L
BAL
OR
UNBAL
U
2
EFX
+15
OO
L
+15
OO
U
2
EFX
+15
OO
EQ
U
HI
12kHz
+15
U
2
EFX
+15
OO
EQ
U
HI
12kHz
-15
U
2
EFX
MONO
L
MON/
EFX
+15
OO
MAIN OUT
MONO
L
AUX
1
U
MON/
EFX
+15
OO
AUX SEND
MONO
LINE IN 7–8
AUX
1
U
MON/
EFX
+15
OO
U
2
EFX
AUX
1
U
MON/
EFX
+15
OO
U
2
EFX
AUX
1
U
MON/
EFX
+15
OO
U
OO
AUX
1
U
MON/
EFX
MON/
EFX
+15
OO
STEREO AUX RETURN
BAL
OR
UNBAL
LOW CUT
75 Hz
18dB/OCT
LOW CUT
75 Hz
18dB/OCT
-10dGBAV
MIC IN
U
LINE IN 5
LINE IN 4
LOW CUT
75 Hz
18dB/OCT
LOW CUT
75 Hz
18dB/OCT
LOW CUT
75 Hz
18dB/OCT
U
LINE IN 3
LINE IN 2
BAL
OR
UNBAL
BAL
OR
UNBAL
BAL
OR
UNBAL
BAL
OR
UNBAL
BAL
OR
UNBAL
MAIN MIX
dB
dB
10
10
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
40
50
60
40
50
60
40
50
60
40
50
60
40
50
60
40
50
60
40
50
60
40
50
60
40
50
60
40
50
60
40
50
60
40
50
60
OO
OO
OO
OO
OO
OO
OO
OO
OO
OO
OO
OO
LEVEL
SET
CAUTION
AVIS
RISK OF ELECTRIC SHOCK
DO NOT OPEN
RISQUE DE CHOC ELECTRIQUE
NE PAS OUVRIR
CAUTION: TO REDUCE THE RISK OF ELECTRIC SHOCK
DO NOT REMOVE COVER (OR BACK)
NO USER-SERVICEABLE PARTS INSIDE
REFER SERVICING TO QUALIFIED PERSONNEL
ATTENTION: POUR EVITER LES RISQUES DE CHOC
ELECTRIQUE, NE PAS ENLEVER LE COUVERCLE. AUCUN
ENTRETIEN DE PIECES INTERIEURES PAR L'USAGER. CONFIER
L'ENTRETIEN AU PERSONNEL QUALIFIE.
AVIS: POUR EVITER LES RISQUES D'INCENDIE OU
D'ELECTROCUTION, N'EXPOSEZ PAS CET ARTICLE
A LA PLUIE OU A L'HUMIDITE
The lightning flash with arrowhead symbol within an equilateral
triangle is intended to alert the user to the presence of uninsulated
"dangerous voltage" within the product's enclosure, that may be
of sufficient magnitude to constitute a risk of electric shock to persons.
Le symbole éclair avec point de flèche à l'intérieur d'un triangle
équilatéral est utilisé pour alerter l'utilisateur de la présence à
l'intérieur du coffret de "voltage dangereux" non isolé d'ampleur
suffisante pour constituer un risque d'éléctrocution.
The exclamation point within an equilateral triangle is intended to
alert the user of the presence of important operating and maintenance
(servicing) instructions in the literature accompanying the appliance.
Le point d'exclamation à l'intérieur d'un triangle équilatéral est
employé pour alerter les utilisateurs de la présence d'instructions
importantes pour le fonctionnement et l'entretien (service) dans le
livret d'instruction accompagnant l'appareil.
SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS
1. Read Instructions — All the safety and operation
instructions should be read before this Mackie product is
operated.
2. Retain Instructions — The safety and operating
instructions should be kept for future reference.
3. Heed Warnings — All warnings on this Mackie product and
in these operating instructions should be followed.
4. Follow Instructions — All operating and other instructions
should be followed.
5. Water and Moisture — This Mackie product should not be
used near water – for example, near a bathtub, washbowl,
kitchen sink, laundry tub, in a wet basement, near a
swimming pool, swamp or salivating St. Bernard dog, etc.
6. Heat — This Mackie product should be situated away
from heat sources such as radiators, or other devices which
produce heat.
7. Power Sources — This Mackie product should be
connected to a power supply only of the type described in
these operation instructions or as marked on this Mackie
product.
8. Power Cord Protection — Power supply cords should be
routed so that they are not likely to be walked upon or
pinched by items placed upon or against them, paying
particular attention to cords at plugs, convenience receptacles,
and the point where they exit this Mackie product.
9. Object and Liquid Entry — Care should be taken so that
objects do not fall into and liquids are not spilled into the
inside of this Mackie product.
10. Damage Requiring Service — This Mackie product
should be serviced only by qualified service personnel when:
A. The power-supply cord or the plug has been
damaged; or
B. Objects have fallen, or liquid has spilled into
this Mackie product; or
C. This Mackie product has been exposed to rain;
or
D. This Mackie product does not appear to operate
normally or exhibits a marked change in
performance; or
E. This Mackie product has been dropped, or its
chassis damaged.
11. Servicing — The user should not attempt to service this
Mackie product beyond those means described in this
operating manual. All other servicing should be referred to the
Mackie Service Department.
12. To prevent electric shock, do not use this polarized plug
with an extension cord, receptacle or other outlet unless the
blades can be fully inserted to prevent blade exposure.
Pour préevenir les chocs électriques ne pas utiliser cette fiche
polariseé avec un prolongateur, un prise de courant ou une
autre sortie de courant, sauf si les lames peuvent être insérées
à fond sans laisser aucune pariie à découvert.
13. Grounding or Polarization — Precautions should be
taken so that the grounding or polarization means of this
Mackie product is not defeated.
14. This apparatus does not exceed the Class A/Class B
(whichever is applicable) limits for radio noise emissions from
digital apparatus as set out in the radio interference
regulations of the Canadian Department of Communications.
ATTENTION —Le présent appareil numérique n’émet pas de
bruits radioélectriques dépassant las limites applicables aux
appareils numériques de class A/de class B (selon le cas)
prescrites dans le règlement sur le brouillage radioélectrique
édicté par les ministere des communications du Canada.
15. To prevent hazard or damage, ensure that only
microphone cables and microphones designed to IEC 268-15A
are connected.
WARNING — To reduce the risk of fire or electric shock, do
not expose this appliance to rain or moisture.
READ THIS PAGE!!!
We realize that you must be dying to try out
your new Mackie 1402-VLZ PRO. Or you might be
one of those people that never read manuals.
Either way, all we ask is that you read this page
NOW, and the rest can wait until you’re good and
ready. But do read it — you’ll be glad you did.
LEVEL-SETTING PROCEDURE
Message to seasoned pros: do not set levels using the old “Turn the trim up until the
clip light comes on, then back off a hair”
trick. When a Mackie Designs mixer clip
light comes on, you really are about to clip.
We worked and slaved to come up with a
better system, one that provides low noise
and high headroom.
Other Nuggets of Wisdom
For optimum sonic performance, the channel and MAIN MIX FADERS should be set near
the “U” (unity gain) markings.
Always turn the MAIN MIX and CTL
ROOM/SUBMIX faders down before making
connections to and from your 1402-VLZ PRO.
If you shut down your equipment, turn off
your amplifier(s) first. When powering up,
turn on your amplifier(s) last.
Save the shipping box! You may need it
someday, and you don’t want to have to pay for
another one.
INSTANT MIXING
Adjusting input levels (Channels 1–6
only)
On the first six channels, it’s not even
necessary to hear what you’re doing to set
optimal levels. But if you’d like to: Plug
headphones into the PHONES jack, then set
the CTL ROOM/SUBMIX fader about one
quarter of the way up.
The following steps must be performed
one channel at a time:
1. Turn the TRIM, AUX SEND and FADER
controls fully down.
2. Set the EQ knobs at the center detent.
3. Connect the signal source to the input.
4. Engage (push in) the SOLO switch.
5. Engage the AFL/PFL switch in the
master section. A green LEVEL SET
light will congratulate you.
6. Play something into the selected input.
This could be an instrument, a singing
or speaking voice, or a line input such as
a CD player or tape recorder output. Be
sure that the volume of the input is the
same as it would be during normal use.
If it isn’t, you might have to readjust
these levels during the middle of the set.
7. Adjust the channel’s TRIM control so
that the display on the LED meters
stays around “0” and never goes higher
than “+7.”
8. If you’d like to apply some EQ, do so now
and return to step 7.
9. Disengage that channel’s SOLO switch.
10. Repeat for each of Channels 1–6.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Here’s how to get going
right away, assuming you
own a microphone and a
keyboard:
Plug your microphone into Channel 1’s
MIC IN.
Turn on the 1402-VLZ PRO.
Perform the Level Setting Procedure .
Connect cords from the MAIN OUTPUTS
(XLR, 1⁄4" or RCA, your choice) to your
amplifier.
Hook up speakers to the amp and turn it on.
Turn up the 1402-VLZ PRO’s Channel 1
FADER to the “U” marking and the MAIN
MIX fader one quarter of the way up.
Sing like a canary!
Plug your keyboard into stereo channel 7–8.
Slide that channel’s FADER to the “U”
marking.
Play like a madman and sing like a
canary! It’s your first mix!
Please write your serial number here for
future reference (i.e. insurance claims,
tech support, return authorization, etc.):
Purchased at:
Date of purchase:
Part No. 820-033-01 Rev. A1 04/99
©1999 Mackie Designs Inc., All Rights Reserved. Printed in the U.S.A.
3
INTRODUCTION
Thank you for choosing a Mackie Designs
professional compact mixer. The 1402-VLZ PRO
is equipped with our new precision-engineered
XDRTM Extended Dynamic Range premium
studio-grade mic preamp featuring:
• Full gain range from 0 to 60dB
• +22 dBu line signal handling capability
• 130 dB dynamic range
• Distortion less than 0.005%, 20Hz to 20kHz
• Bullet-proof RF rejection using DC pulse
transformer circuitry
• Made in Woodinville, Washington, USA
Now that you have your 1402-VLZ PRO, find
out how to get the most from it. That’s where
this manual comes in.
HOW TO USE THIS MANUAL
Since many of you folks will want to hook up
your 1402-VLZ PRO immediately, the first pages
you will encounter after the table of contents
are the everpopular hookup diagrams. These
show typical mixer setups for Record/Mixdown,
Video, Disc Jockey and Stereo PA. After this
section is a detailed tour of the entire mixer.
Every feature of the 1402-VLZ PRO is described
“geographically;” in other words, in order of where
it is physically placed on the mixer’s top or rear
panel. These descriptions are divided into the first
three manual chapters, just as your mixer is
organized into three distinct zones:
1. PATCHBAY: Along the top and back.
2. CHANNEL STRIP: The ten channel strips
on the left.
3. OUTPUT SECTION: The section on the right.
Throughout these chapters you’ll find illustrations, with each feature numbered. If you’re
curious about a feature, simply locate it on the
appropriate illustration, notice the number attached to it, and find that number in the
nearby paragraphs.
You’ll also find cross-references to these
numbered features within a paragraph. For
instance, if you see “To wire your own
cables: ,” simply find that number in the
manual and you’ve found your answer.
Finally, you’ll notice feature numbers like
this: . These numbers direct you to relevant
information.
This icon marks information that is critically
important or unique to the
1402-VLZ PRO. For your
own good, read them and
remember them. They will be on the final test.
And the final test score will go down on your
Permanent Record.
This icon will lead you
to in-depth explanations of
features and practical tips.
While not mandatory, they
usually have some valuable
nuggets of information.
THE GLOSSARY: A HAVEN OF
NON-TECHINESS FOR THE NEOPHYTE
Appendix is a fairly comprehensive
dictionary of pro-audio terms. If terms like “clipping,” “noise floor,” or “unbalanced” leave you
blank, flip to this glossary for a quick explanation.
A PLUG FOR THE CONNECTORS SECTION
MIC 1
MIC 3
MIC 2
MIC PR
XDR
E
MIC PR
XDR
E
MIC 4
MIC PR
XDR
E
MIC 5
MIC PR
XDR
E
MIC 6
MIC PR
XDR
E
LEFT/MONO
MIC PR
XDR
E
RIGHT
TAPE
INPUT
ALL BAL/UNBAL
1
1
2
2
TAPE
OUTPUT
BAL/UNBAL
L
1402-VLZPRO
L
14-CHANNEL MIC/ LINE MIXER
WITH PREMIUM XDRTM MIC PREAMPLIFIERS
R
R
-1C0dGBAV
MI
U
IN
-1C0dGBAV
MI
U
IN
-1C0dGBAV
MI
U
LINE IN 5
LINE IN 4
IN
-1C0dGBAV
MI
U
IN
-1C0dGBAV
MI
U
IN
-1C0dGBAV
MI
U
IN
0
60
+15dB -45dB
0
60
+15dB -45dB
0
60
+15dB -45dB
0
60
+15dB -45dB
0
60
+15dB -45dB
TRIM
TRIM
TRIM
TRIM
TRIM
TRIM
AUX
1
U
AUX
1
U
HI
-15
-12
-15
-15
-15
HI
-15
-15
-15
-15
28
4
MID
MID
MID
MID
MID
MID
MID
2.5kHz
2.5kHz
2.5kHz
2.5kHz
2.5kHz
2.5kHz
2.5kHz
ALT 3–4
TAPE
+12
-12
+12
LOW
-12
+12
U
-12
+12
U
-12
+12
U
-12
+12
U
-12
U
+15
-15
PAN
1
0
LOW
LOW
LOW
LOW
LOW
80Hz
80Hz
80Hz
80Hz
80Hz
80Hz
80Hz
80Hz
80Hz
-15
+15
-15
+15
PAN
R
L
+15
PAN
R
L
-15
+15
PAN
R
L
4
3
MUTE
ALT 3–4
MUTE
ALT 3–4
-15
+15
PAN
R
L
5
MUTE
ALT 3–4
-15
+15
PAN
R
L
+15
-15
+15
PAN
2
4
OUTPUT SECTION
7
PAN
ASSIGN
TO MAIN MIX
10
20
R
L
R
L
9–10
R
L
11–12
MUTE
ALT 3–4
MUTE
ALT 3–4
MUTE
ALT 3–4
-15
PAN
7–8
6
MUTE
ALT 3–4
-15
2
+12
U
LOW
2
MUTE
ALT 3–4
-12
LOW
+15
L
+12
U
LOW
PAN
R
-12
LOW
CHANNEL STRIPS
80Hz
+12
U
10
7
MID
2.5kHz
U
NORMAL (AFL)
LEVEL SET (PFL)
R
SOLO
MODE
13–14
MUTE
ALT 3–4
MUTE
ALT 3–4
dB
SOLO
10
dB
SOLO
10
dB
SOLO
10
dB
SOLO
10
dB
SOLO
10
dB
SOLO
10
dB
SOLO
10
dB
SOLO
10
PHANTOM POWER
dB
SOLO
10
SOLO
MAIN MIX
dB
dB
10
10
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
40
50
60
40
50
60
40
50
60
40
50
60
40
50
60
40
50
60
40
50
60
40
50
60
40
50
60
40
50
60
40
50
60
40
50
60
OO
OO
OO
OO
OO
OO
OO
OO
OO
OO
OO
OO
4
30
RUDE
SOLO
LIGHT
CTL ROOM /SUBMIX
dB
10
AUX
RETURN
RIGHT
0dB=0dBu
MAIN MIX
+15
+20
OO
LEFT
U
MID
2.5kHz
-12
EFX TO
MONITOR
12kHz
+15
U
+20
U NORMALLED
2
AUX 1
SELECT
C-R/SOURCE
HI
12kHz
+15
U
OO
PRE
POST
EQ
U
HI
12kHz
+15
U
1
+10
AUX 1 MASTER
2
EFX
+15
OO
EQ
U
HI
12kHz
+15
OO
U
2
EFX
+15
OO
EQ
U
ARCANE MYSTERIES ILLUMINATED
U
U
MON/
EFX
+15
OO
U
2
EFX
+15
OO
PHONES
AUX
1
U
MON/
EFX
+15
OO
U
2
U
AUX
1
U
MON/
EFX
+15
EFX
12kHz
+15
U
LEVEL
+4
-10
LINE IN 13–14
AUX
1
U
OO
EQ
U
HI
12kHz
+15
U
LEVEL
+4
-10
LINE IN 11–12
MID
+12
L
-15
LEVEL
+4
-10
LINE IN 9–10
+15
OO
EQ
U
HI
12kHz
+15
U
R
2.5kHz
U
-15
HI
12kHz
+15
U
R
U
2
EFX
+15
OO
EQ
U
R
MON/
EFX
U
2
EFX
+15
OO
EQ
U
HI
12kHz
+15
U
U
2
EFX
+15
OO
EQ
U
HI
12kHz
-15
U
2
EFX
+15
OO
EQ
U
L
BAL
OR
UNBAL
R
+15
OO
MONO
L
BAL
OR
UNBAL
AUX
1
U
+15
OO
MONO
L
BAL
OR
UNBAL
LEVEL
+4
-10
MON/
EFX
+15
OO
MAIN OUT
MONO
L
BAL
OR
UNBAL
LINE IN 7–8
AUX
1
U
MON/
EFX
+15
OO
U
2
EFX
+15
OO
EQ
AUX
1
U
MON/
EFX
+15
OO
U
2
EFX
+15
U
AUX
1
U
MON/
EFX
+15
OO
U
OO
AUX
1
U
MON/
EFX
MON/
EFX
+15
AUX SEND
MONO
LOW CUT
75 Hz
18dB/OCT
0
60
+15dB -45dB
OO
STEREO AUX RETURN
BAL
OR
UNBAL
LINE IN 6
LOW CUT
75 Hz
18dB/OCT
LOW CUT
75 Hz
18dB/OCT
LOW CUT
75 Hz
18dB/OCT
LOW CUT
75 Hz
18dB/OCT
BAL
OR
UNBAL
PATCHBAY
LINE IN 3
LINE IN 2
LOW CUT
75 Hz
18dB/OCT
BAL
OR
UNBAL
BAL
OR
UNBAL
BAL
OR
UNBAL
BAL
OR
UNBAL
LINE IN 1
Appendix
is a section on connectors:
XLR connectors, balanced connectors, unbalanced connectors and special hybrid
connectors.
LEVEL
SET
Appendix discusses some of the down ’n’
dirty practical realities of microphones, fixed
installations, grounding, and balanced versus
unbalanced lines. It’s a goldmine for the neophyte and even the seasoned pro might learn a
thing or two.
CONTENTS
LEVEL-SETTING PROCEDURE ............................ 3
HOOKUP DIAGRAMS ....................................... 6
PATCHBAY DESCRIPTION ............................... 10
MIC INPUTS ............................................ 10
PHANTOM POWER .................................. 10
LINE INPUTS ........................................... 11
LOW CUT ................................................ 11
TRIM ...................................................... 11
+4 / –10 ................................................ 11
OUTPUT SECTION DESCRIPTION ..................... 21
MAIN MIX .............................................. 21
VLZ2 MIX ARCHITECTURE ........................ 21
SOURCE MATRIX ..................................... 21
CONTROL ROOM / SUBMIX .................... 22
SOLO MODE: AFL / PFL ........................... 22
RUDE SOLO LED ...................................... 22
ASSIGN TO MAIN MIX ............................. 23
STEREO LINE INPUTS ............................... 12
METERS .................................................. 23
AUX TALK ............................................... 24
EFFECTS: SERIAL OR PARALLEL? ............... 12
INSERT ................................................... 13
AUX 1 SELECT ......................................... 24
AUX 1 MASTER ....................................... 24
AUX RETURNS ........................................ 13
AUX RETURNS ........................................ 24
EFX TO MONITOR ................................... 25
TAPE IN .................................................. 14
XLR MAIN OUTPUTS ............................... 14
MAIN OUTPUT LEVEL ............................... 15
MAIN OUTPUTS ................................ 15
1⁄4"
TAPE OUTPUT ......................................... 15
PHONES ................................................. 16
ALT 3/4 ................................................. 16
CONTROL ROOM ..................................... 16
AUX SEND 1 & 2 ..................................... 16
POWER CONNECTION .............................. 17
FUSE ....................................................... 17
POWER SWITCH ...................................... 17
JACK NORMALLING ................................. 25
MODIFICATIONS ............................................ 26
1402-VLZ PRO BLOCK DIAGRAM .................... 30
GAIN STRUCTURE DIAGRAM .......................... 32
SPECIFICATIONS ............................................ 33
SERVICE INFO ............................................... 34
APPENDIX A: Glossary .................................. 35
APPENDIX B: Connections .............................. 44
APPENDIX C: Balanced Lines, Phantom Powering,
Grounding and Other Arcane Mysteries .................. 47
PHANTOM SWITCH ................................. 17
CHANNEL STRIP DESCRIPTION ....................... 18
“U” LIKE UNITY GAIN ............................. 18
FADER .................................................... 18
SOLO ...................................................... 18
MUTE/ALT 3–4 ....................................... 18
PAN ....................................................... 19
CONSTANT LOUDNESS ! ! ! ....................... 19
3-BAND EQ ............................................. 19
AUX SEND .............................................. 20
5
HOOKUP DIAGRAMS
4-track Recorder
out (play)
in (record)
IMPORTANT:
ALL Channel Insert
plugs are inserted
to the SECOND click.
in
1
1
Stereo Compressor
out
1
in
2
2
CHANNEL INSERTS
Guitar Effects
3
4
5
3
4
6
L
MONO
INPUTS
10 R
MONO
L
13 MONO
14 R
L
R
L
R
IN-TAPE-OUT
CNTRL ROOM
OUTPUTS
MAIN
OUT
OUT
PHONES
in
(record)
out
(play)
out
6
in
Mono Processor
out
L
1
R
2
Mono in / stereo out
Reverb
L
Digital Delay
in
out
1
2
L
R
L
R
Power
Amplifier
FULL SYMMETRY DUAL DIFFERENTIAL HIGH CURRENT DESIGN
CH
CH
1
2
OL
OL
PWR
PWR
ON
HIGH RESOLUTION
STUDIO MONITOR
OFF
ON
HIGH RESOLUTION
STUDIO MONITOR
Studio Monitors
1402-VLZ PRO 4-Track Record / 2-Track Mix
6
in
L
12 R
2-track Mixdown Deck
5
R
AUX
OUT
11
CHANNEL
9
AUX RETURNS
L
MONO
8 R
ALT 3/4
OUT
7
MAIN
OUT
Keyboard or other line-level input
out
OFF
V/O Mic
in Compressor
1
1
1
out
3
4
5
Audio out
10
R
11
L
MONO
12 R
CD Player
L
L
13 MONO
14 R
L
R
R
1
L
2
in
CNTRL ROOM
OUTPUTS
R
L
Note: Aux Return #2
can be used as an
extra stereo input
,
R
L
R
Power
Amplifier
FULL SYMMETRY DUAL DIFFERENTIAL HIGH CURRENT DESIGN
CH
CH
1
2
OL
OL
PWR
PWR
ON
HIGH RESOLUTION
STUDIO MONITOR
Mackie Designs: Video Setup
scene #1 _ 23:94:10 Time Base
out
Multi Effect Processor
in
OUT
L out
R
R
L
PHONES
Time code DAT
L
IN-TAPE-OUT
SMPTE Control
R
2
MAIN
OUT
R
AUX RETURNS
L
MONO
R
AUX
OUT
9
Audio out
L
1
ALT 3/4
OUT
R
INPUTS
L
5
L
MONO
8 R
MAIN
OUT
7
Audio out
R
Video Deck #3
4
6
CHANNEL
L
L
3
6
Video Deck #1
Video Deck #2
2
CHANNEL INSERTS
2
Keyboard or other
line-level input
Multi - VCR Video Switcher
with time code Interface
(optional)
Master Video Deck
OFF
ON
HIGH RESOLUTION
STUDIO MONITOR
Studio Monitors
1402-VLZ PRO Video Setup
7
OFF
in
1
1
Stereo Compressor
out
1
in
CHANNEL INSERTS
2
Turntable
3
1
4
Phono Preamps
5
3
2
out
3
out
in
4
6
6
4
R
CD Player
L out
L
11 MONO
12 R
out
14 R
in
L
2-track
Deck
R
L
1
L
R
R
Triggered Lights
org
in
2
Multi Effect
Processor
out
L
Stereo EQ
OUT
CNTRL ROOM
OUTPUTS
in
(record)
Power
Amplifier
red
FULL SYMMETRY DUAL DIFFERENTIAL HIGH CURRENT DESIGN
CH
CH
1
2
red
Left PA Speaker
People dancing
on the floor
1402-VLZ PRO Disc Jockey Setup
8
in
out
PHONES
out
(play)
R
IN-TAPE-OUT
L
2
MAIN
OUT
R
L
13 MONO
R
R
R
L Sampler
L
AUX
OUT
MONO
10 R
*Note: Aux Return #2 can
be used as an extra stereo input
1
ALT 3/4
OUT
L
INPUTS
L out
9
CHANNEL
CD Player
AUX RETURNS
L
MONO
8 R
MAIN
OUT
7
out
5
RIAA
RIAA
Stereo Compressor
in
Right PA Speaker
Vocal Mics
1
3
4
4
5
5
2
CHANNEL INSERTS
2
1
in
out
in
out
1
Stereo Compressor
3
in Mono Compressor
out
4
5
Bass Preamp
6
6
Stereo Guitar Effects
L
MONO
org
org
INPUTS
10 R
L
11 MONO
12 R
AUX RETURNS
9
Keyboard or other
line-level input
L
1
R
2
L
R
out
AUX
OUT
Drum
Machine
CHANNEL
MONO
8 R
1
ALT 3/4
OUT
7
L
L
2
in
L
13 MONO
Power Amp
Mono EQ out
R
,
14 R
Multi Effect
Processor
in
R
CH
CH
1
2
L
R
Stereo EQ
OUT
red
Power
Amplifier
MAIN
OUT
CNTRL ROOM
OUTPUTS
in
(record)
L
PHONES
out
(play)
R
IN-TAPE-OUT
2-track
Deck
L
MAIN
OUT
FULL SYMMETRY DUAL DIFFERENTIAL HIGH CURRENT DESIGN
red
FULL SYMMETRY DUAL DIFFERENTIAL HIGH CURRENT DESIGN
CH
CH
1
2
This setup can be easily reconfigured to
become a Mono PA setup.
A. Stereo sources should feed the
left mono side of channel input only.
B. Pan each channel hard left.
C. Connect Mono PA system to
Left PA Speaker
Left main output.
in
out
Right PA Speaker
1402-VLZ PRO Stereo PA
9
Stage Monitors
1402-VLZ PRO PATCHBAY DESCRIPTION
Professional ribbon, dynamic and condenser
mics will all sound excellent through these inputs. The 1402-VLZ PRO’s mic inputs will
handle any kind of mic level you can toss at
them, without overloading. Be sure to perform
the Level Setting Procedure: .
At the risk of stating the obvious, this is
where you plug everything in: microphones,
line-level instruments and effects, headphones, and the ultimate destination for your
sound: a tape recorder, PA system, etc.
MIC INPUTS (Channels 1–6)
PHANTOM POWER
We use phantom-powered, balanced microphone inputs just like the big studio
mega-consoles, for exactly the same reason:
This kind of circuit is excellent at rejecting
hum and noise. You can plug in almost any
kind of mic that has a standard XLR-type male
mic connector. To learn how signals are
routed from these inputs: . If you wire your
own, connect them like this:
Most modern professional condenser mics
are equipped for Phantom Power, which lets
the mixer send low-current DC voltage to the
mic’s electronics through the same wires that
carry audio. (Semi-pro condenser mics often
have batteries to accomplish the same thing.)
“Phantom” owes its name to an ability to be
“unseen” by dynamic mics (Shure SM57/SM58,
for instance), which don’t need external power
and aren’t affected by it anyway.
The 1402-VLZ PRO’s phantom power is globally controlled by the PHANTOM switch on
the rear panel .
Never plug single-ended
(unbalanced) microphones or instruments
into the MIC IN jacks if the
PHANTOM power is on.
Do not plug instrument outputs into the
MIC IN jacks with PHANTOM power on unless
you know for certain it is safe to do so.
2
SHIELD
HOT
1
3
COLD
SHIELD
1
COLD 3
HOT
2
SHIELD
1
3
COLD
2
HOT
Pin 1 = Ground or shield
Pin 2 = Positive (+ or hot)
Pin 3 = Negative (– or cold)
MIC 1
MIC 4
MIC 3
MIC 2
MIC PR
XDR
E
MIC PR
XDR
E
MIC PR
XDR
E
MIC 5
MIC PR
XDR
E
MIC 6
MIC PR
XDR
E
MIC PR
XDR
E
LEFT/MONO
RIGHT
TAPE
INPUT
ALL BAL/UNBAL
1
1
TAPE
OUTPUT
BAL/UNBAL
L
L
R
2
2
R
LINE IN 1
LINE IN 2
U
-10dGBAV
MIC IN
LINE IN 3
U
-10dGBAV
MIC IN
LINE IN 4
U
-10dGBAV
MIC IN
BAL
OR
UNBAL
LINE IN 5
LOW CUT
75 Hz
18dB/OCT
LOW CUT
75 Hz
18dB/OCT
LOW CUT
75 Hz
18dB/OCT
LOW CUT
75 Hz
18dB/OCT
BAL
OR
UNBAL
BAL
OR
UNBAL
BAL
OR
UNBAL
BAL
OR
UNBAL
U
-10dGBAV
MIC IN
BAL
OR
UNBAL
LINE IN 6
LOW CUT
75 Hz
18dB/OCT
U
-10dGBAV
MIC IN
LOW CUT
75 Hz
18dB/OCT
U
-10dGBAV
MIC IN
0
60
+15dB -45dB
0
60
+15dB -45dB
0
60
+15dB -45dB
0
60
+15dB -45dB
0
60
+15dB -45dB
0
60
+15dB -45dB
TRIM
TRIM
TRIM
TRIM
TRIM
TRIM
10
STEREO AUX RETURN
AUX SEND
MAIN OUT
MONO
MONO
MONO
L
L
L
L
BAL
OR
UNBAL
BAL
OR
UNBAL
BAL
OR
UNBAL
BAL
OR
UNBAL
R
R
R
R
LEVEL
+4
-10
LINE IN 7–8
LEVEL
+4
-10
LINE IN 9–10
MONO
LEVEL
+4
-10
LEVEL
+4
-10
LINE IN 11–12
LINE IN 13 –14
LINE INPUTS (Channels 1–6)
These six line inputs share circuitry (but
not phantom power) with the mic preamps,
and can be driven by balanced or unbalanced
sources at almost any level. You can use these
inputs for virtually any signal you’ll come
across, from instrument levels as low as –40dB
to operating levels of –10dBV to +4dBu, since
there is 40dB more gain available than on
Channels 7–14. To learn how signals are
routed from these inputs: .
To connect balanced lines to these inputs,
use a 1⁄4" Tip-Ring-Sleeve (TRS) plug, the type
found on stereo headphones:
RING SLEEVE
SLEEVE RING TIP
it out makes the low stuff you do want much
more crisp and tasty. Not only that, but LOW
CUT can help reduce the possibility of feedback in live situations and it helps to conserve
the amplifier power.
Another way to consider LOW CUT’s function is that it actually adds flexibility during
live performances. With the addition of LOW
CUT, you can safely use LOW equalization on
vocals . Many times, bass shelving EQ can
really benefit voices. Trouble is, adding LOW
EQ also boosts stage rumble,
mic handling clunks and
breath pops. LOW CUT removes all those problems so
0
you can add low EQ without
losing a woofer.
Here’s what the combination of LOW EQ and LOW Low Cut with Low EQ
CUT looks like in terms of
frequency curves.
+15
+10
+5
–5
–10
TIP
RING
TIP
SLEEVE
Tip = Positive (+ or hot)
Ring = Negative (– or cold)
Sleeve = Shield or ground
To connect unbalanced lines to these inputs, use a 1⁄4" mono (TS) phone plug or
standard instrument cable:
SLEEVE
SLEEVE
TIP
TIP
TIP
SLEEVE
Tip = Signal
Sleeve = Ground
Line inputs 1–6 are a good place to connect
older instruments that need more gain. You
can correct weak levels by adjusting the corresponding channel’s TRIM control .
LOW CUT (Channels 1–6)
The LOW CUT switch, often referred to as a
High Pass Filter (all depends on how you look
at it), cuts bass frequencies below 75Hz at a
rate of 18dB per octave.
We recommend
that you use LOW
CUT on every micro0
phone application
except kick drum,
bass guitar, bassy
synth patches, or reLow Cut
cordings of
earthquakes. These aside, there isn’t much
down there that you want to hear, and filtering
+15
+10
+5
–5
–10
–15
20Hz
100Hz
1kHz
10kHz 20kHz
–15
20Hz
100Hz
1kHz
TRIM (Channels 1–6)
If you haven’t already, please read the Level
Setting Procedure .
TRIM adjusts the input sensitivity of the mic
and line inputs connected to Channels 1
through 6. This allows signals from the outside
world to be adjusted to optimal internal operating levels.
If the signal originates through the XLR
jack, there will be 0dB of gain with the knob
fully down, ramping to 60dB of gain fully up.
Through the 1⁄4" input, there is 15dB of attenuation fully down and 45dB of gain fully up,
with a “U” (unity gain) mark at 10:00.
This 15dB of attenuation can be very handy
when you are inserting a signal that is very hot,
or when you want to add a lot of EQ gain, or
both. Without this “virtual pad,” a scenario like
that might lead to channel clipping.
+4 / –10 (Channels 7–14)
This switch adjusts the input sensitivity of
the line inputs on channels 7–14. If the sound
source is a “–10” device, engage this switch. If
you are unsure, leave the switch up and perform the Level Setting Procedure ,
substituting this switch for the TRIM knob and
then setting the switch to the appropriate gain
setting.
11
10kHz 20kHz
MIC 1
MIC 4
MIC 3
MIC 2
MIC PR
XDR
E
MIC PR
XDR
E
MIC PR
XDR
E
MIC 5
MIC PR
XDR
E
MIC 6
MIC PR
XDR
E
LEFT/MONO
RIGHT
TAPE
INPUT
ALL BAL/UNBAL
1
1
MIC PR
XDR
E
TAPE
OUTPUT
BAL/UNBAL
L
L
R
2
2
R
LINE IN 1
LINE IN 2
U
-10dGBAV
MIC IN
LINE IN 3
U
-10dGBAV
MIC IN
U
-10dGBAV
MIC IN
BAL
OR
UNBAL
LINE IN 5
LINE IN 4
LOW CUT
75 Hz
18dB/OCT
LOW CUT
75 Hz
18dB/OCT
LOW CUT
75 Hz
18dB/OCT
LOW CUT
75 Hz
18dB/OCT
BAL
OR
UNBAL
BAL
OR
UNBAL
BAL
OR
UNBAL
BAL
OR
UNBAL
U
-10dGBAV
MIC IN
BAL
OR
UNBAL
LINE IN 6
LOW CUT
75 Hz
18dB/OCT
U
-10dGBAV
MIC IN
STEREO AUX RETURN
LOW CUT
75 Hz
18dB/OCT
-10dGBAV
MIC IN
U
0
60
+15dB -45dB
0
60
+15dB -45dB
0
60
+15dB -45dB
0
60
+15dB -45dB
0
60
+15dB -45dB
0
60
+15dB -45dB
TRIM
TRIM
TRIM
TRIM
TRIM
TRIM
Dry Signal
Aux Send
Parallel
12
L
L
L
L
BAL
OR
UNBAL
BAL
OR
UNBAL
BAL
OR
UNBAL
BAL
OR
UNBAL
R
R
R
R
LEVEL
+4
-10
LEVEL
+4
-10
LINE IN 9–10
Parallel Device
(e.g. Reverb)
LEVEL
+4
-10
LEVEL
+4
-10
LINE IN 11–12
LINE IN 13 –14
Insert Return
Serial Device
(e.g. Compressor)
Signal Processor
MONO
The next two sections toss
the terms “serial” and “parallel” around like hacky sacks.
Here’s what we mean by them.
“Serial” means that the entire signal is
routed through the effects device. Examples:
compressor/limiters, graphic equalizers. Linelevel sources can be patched through a serial
effects device before or after the mixer or,
more conveniently, through the channel insert
jacks located on the rear of the mixer (INSERT
SEND/RETURN) .
“Parallel” means that a portion of the signal
in the mixer is tapped off to the device (AUX
SEND), processed and returned to the mixer
(AUX RETURN) to be mixed with the original
“dry” signal. This way, multiple channels can all
make use of the same effects device. Examples:
reverb, digital delay. (See diagrams below.)
Signal Processor
Channel Path
Dry Signal(s)
MONO
EFFECTS: SERIAL OR
PARALLEL?
These fully balanced inputs are designed for
stereo or mono, balanced or unbalanced signals, from –10dBV to +4dBu. They can be used
with just about any professional or semi-pro instrument, effect or tape player. To learn how
signals are routed from these inputs: . To
wire your own cables: .
In the stereo audio world, an odd-numbered
channel usually receives the “left signal.” For
example, you would feed the 1402-VLZ PRO’s
line inputs 7–8 a stereo signal by inserting the
device’s left output plug into the Channel 7
jack, and its right output plug into the Channel 8 jack.
When connecting a mono device (just one
cord), always use the Left (MONO) input and
plug nothing into the Right input — this way
the signal will appear on both sides. This trick
is called “jack normalling” .
Insert Send
MAIN OUT
MONO
LINE IN 7–8
STEREO LINE INPUTS (Channels 7–8,
9–10, 11–12 and 13–14)
Serial
AUX SEND
MONO
Processed
Signal
Output Section
Aux Return
Wet Signal
Processed
Signal
Dry Signal(s)
Mix Stage
INSERT (Channels 1–6)
WARNING: TO REDUCE THE RISK OF FIRE OR ELECTRIC SHOCK, DO NOT
These jacks, on the back of the 1402-VLZ
PRO, are where you connect serial effects such
as compressors, equalizers, de-essers, or filters
. Since most people don’t have more than a
few of these gadgets, we’ve included inserts for
just the first six channels. If you want to use this
kind of processing on Channels 7–14, simply
patch through the processor before you plug
into the 1402-VLZ PRO.
The INSERT points are after the TRIM and
LOW CUT controls, but before the channel’s
EQ and FADER controls. The send (tip) is
low-impedance (120 ohms), capable of
driving any device. The return (ring) is highimpedance (over 2.5k ohms) and can be
driven by almost any device.
INSERT cables must be wired thusly:
tip
SEND to processor
ring
sleeve
(TRS plug)
this plug connects to one of the
mixer’s Channel Insert jacks.
“tip”
“ring”
RETURN from processor
Tip = Send (output to effects device)
Ring = Return (input from effects device)
Sleeve = Common ground (connect shield to
all three sleeves)
Besides being used for inserting external
devices, these jacks can also be used as channel direct outputs; post-TRIM, post-LOW CUT,
and pre EQ. Check out the 4-track hookup diagram . Here’s three ways you can use the
INSERT jacks:
MONO PLUG
Channel Insert jack
Direct out with no signal interruption to master.
Insert only to first “click.”
MANUFACTURING DATE
SERIAL NUMBER
EXPOSE THIS EQUIPMENT TO RAIN OR MOISTURE. DO NOT REMOVE COVER.
NO USER SERVICEABLE PARTS INSIDE. REFER SERVICING TO QUALIFIED PERSONNEL.
AVIS: RISQUE DE CHOC ELECTRIQUE — NE PAS OUVRIR
UTILISE UN FUSIBLE DE RECHANGE DE MÊME TYPE.
DEBRANCHER AVANT DE REMPLACER LE FUSIBLE
ING.
FUSE
XDRTM EXTENDED DYNAMIC RANGE MIC PREAMPLIFIERS ARE PROPRIETARY TO MACKIE DESIGNS, INC.
CHANNEL INSERT
( PRE-FADER / PRE EQ TIP SEND / RING RETURN
)
)
6
5
4
3
2
1
OODINVILLE • WA • USA • MADE IN USA • FABRIQUE AU USA • COPYRIGHT ©1998 •
GN INC.: "MACKIE", "VLZ", "XDR", AND THE "RUNNING MAN" FIGURE • PATENT PENDING
AUX RETURNS
This is where you connect the outputs of
your parallel effects devices (or extra audio
sources). These balanced inputs are similar to
the stereo line inputs without EQ, Aux
Sends, Pan, Mute, and Solo. The circuits will
handle stereo or mono, balanced or unbalanced signals, either instrument level, –10dBV
or +4dBu. They can be used with just about
any pro or semi-pro effects device on the market. To learn how signals are routed from
these inputs, see .
One Device: If you have
just one parallel effects
device, use AUX RETURN
1 and leave AUX
RETURN 2 unplugged.
That way, the unused AUX RETURN 2
LEVEL control can be used to feed AUX
RETURN 1 to your stage monitors, via
the EFX TO MONITOR switch .
Mono Device: If you have an effects device with a mono output (1 cord), plug that
into AUX RETURN 1 LEFT and leave AUX
RETURN 1 RIGHT unplugged. That way the
signal will be sent to both sides, magically
appearing in the center as a mono signal.
This won’t work with AUX RETURN 2 —
you’ll need a Y-cord to feed the L/R bus. In
short, AUX RETURN 1 uses jack normalling.
AUX RETURN 2 does not use jack normalling.
MONO PLUG
Channel Insert jack
Direct out with signal interruption to master.
Insert all the way in to the second “click.”
STEREO
PLUG
Channel Insert jack
For use as an effects loop.
(TIP = SEND to effect, RING = RETURN from effect)
13
MIC 1
MIC 4
MIC 3
MIC 2
MIC PR
XDR
E
MIC PR
XDR
E
MIC PR
XDR
E
MIC 5
MIC PR
XDR
E
MIC 6
MIC PR
XDR
E
LEFT/MONO
RIGHT
TAPE
OUTPUT
TAPE
INPUT
ALL BAL/UNBAL
1
1
MIC PR
XDR
E
BAL/UNBAL
L
L
R
2
2
R
LINE IN 1
LINE IN 2
U
-10dGBAV
MIC IN
LINE IN 3
U
-10dGBAV
MIC IN
LINE IN 4
U
-10dGBAV
MIC IN
BAL
OR
UNBAL
LINE IN 5
LOW CUT
75 Hz
18dB/OCT
LOW CUT
75 Hz
18dB/OCT
LOW CUT
75 Hz
18dB/OCT
LOW CUT
75 Hz
18dB/OCT
BAL
OR
UNBAL
BAL
OR
UNBAL
BAL
OR
UNBAL
BAL
OR
UNBAL
U
-10dGBAV
MIC IN
BAL
OR
UNBAL
LINE IN 6
LOW CUT
75 Hz
18dB/OCT
U
-10dGBAV
MIC IN
LOW CUT
75 Hz
18dB/OCT
U
-10dGBAV
MIC IN
0
60
+15dB -45dB
0
60
+15dB -45dB
0
60
+15dB -45dB
0
60
+15dB -45dB
0
60
+15dB -45dB
0
60
+15dB -45dB
TRIM
TRIM
TRIM
TRIM
TRIM
TRIM
TAPE IN
These RCA jacks are designed to work with
semi-pro as well as pro recorders. To compensate for typically low levels, signals coming in
here will be automatically boosted by 6dB.
Connect your tape recorder’s outputs here,
using standard hi-fi (RCA) cables. To learn how
signals are routed from these inputs, see .
SLEEVE TIP SLEEVE TIP
Use these jacks for convenient tape playback of your mixes. You’ll be able to review a
mix, and then rewind and try another pass,
without repatching or disturbing the mixer
levels. You can also use these jacks with a portable tape or CD player to feed music to a PA
system between sets.
WARNING: Pushing
TAPE in the SOURCE
matrix and ASSIGN TO
MAIN MIX can create a
feedback path between
TAPE IN and TAPE OUT. Make sure your
tape deck is not in record, record-pause or
input monitor mode when you engage these
switches, or make sure the CTL ROOM /
SUBMIX fader is fully down (off).
14
STEREO AUX RETURN
AUX SEND
MAIN OUT
MONO
MONO
MONO
L
L
L
L
BAL
OR
UNBAL
BAL
OR
UNBAL
BAL
OR
UNBAL
BAL
OR
UNBAL
R
R
R
R
LEVEL
+4
-10
LINE IN 7–8
LEVEL
+4
-10
LINE IN 9–10
MONO
LEVEL
+4
-10
LEVEL
+4
-10
LINE IN 11–12
LINE IN 13 –14
Outputs? The 1402-VLZ PRO has plenty of
’em: XLR MAIN, 1⁄4" MAIN, TAPE, PHONES,
CONTROL ROOM and AUX SENDS. Let’s
take a peek.
XLR MAIN OUTPUTS
These low-impedance outputs are fully balanced and capable of driving +4dBu lines with
up to 28dB of headroom. This output is 6dB
hotter than other outputs. To learn how signals are routed to these outputs: .
To use these outputs, wire the XLR (balanced only) connectors like this:
2
SHIELD
HOT
COLD
SHIELD
COLD 3
HOT
1
3
2
SHIELD
COLD
2
Pin 1 = Ground
Pin 2 = Positive (+ or hot)
Pin 3 = Negative (– or cold)
1
3
1
HOT
MAIN OUTPUT LEVEL
For most music recording and PA applications, unbalanced lines are perfectly
acceptable. To use these outputs to drive unbalanced inputs, connect 1⁄4" TS (Tip-Sleeve)
phone plugs like this:
Engaging this switch pads the balanced
XLR MAIN OUTPUTS by 30dB, so you can feed
the microphone input of, say, another mixer.
Perfect for sending a submix to another mic
level input in boardroom or conference room
applications.
You can safely plug this output into an input
that provides 48V phantom power.
1⁄ 4"
SLEEVE
SLEEVE
TIP
TIP
TIP
Tip = + (hot)
Sleeve = Ground
MAIN OUTPUTS
SLEEVE
TAPE OUTPUT
These 1⁄4" jacks are balanced outputs capable of delivering 22dBu into a 600 ohm
balanced or unbalanced load. (Okay, we admit
it, that was a pretty technical sentence. See
the Glossary and Connections appendices if
you want to decode it.)
To learn how signals are routed to these 1⁄4"
outputs: .
To use these outputs to drive balanced inputs, connect 1⁄4" TRS (Tip-Ring-Sleeve)
phone plugs like this:
RING SLEEVE
These unbalanced RCA connections tap the
MAIN OUTPUTS to make simultaneous recording and PA work more convenient. Connect
these to your recorder’s inputs. To learn how
signals are routed to these outputs: .
MONO OUT: If you want to feed a mono
signal to your tape deck or other device, simply
use an RCA Y-cord to combine these outputs
(Radio Shack® #274-511, for instance). Do not
attempt this with any other outputs on the
1402-VLZ PRO.
SLEEVE RING TIP
SLEEVE TIP SLEEVE TIP
TIP
RING
Tip = + (hot)
Ring = – (cold)
Sleeve = Ground
TIP
SLEEVE
POWER
ON
PHANTOM
ON
14-CHANNEL MIC/LINE MIXER
WITH PREMIUM XDR TM MIC PREAMPLIFIERS
120 VAC 50/60 Hz 25W
500mA/250V SLO-BLO
CAUTION:
TO REDUCE THE RISK OF
FIRE REPLACE WITH SAME
TYPE FUSE AND RATING
STEREO
PLUG
MONO PLUG
1402-VLZPRO
MAIN
RIGHT
MAIN
LEFT
BALANCED
BALANCED
INSERT ALL THE WAY IN TO
THE "SECOND CLICK"
TIP OUT TO EFFECTS DEVICE
RING RETURN FROM EFFECTS
DIRECT OUT WITH SIGNAL
INTERRUPTION TO MASTER
FOR USE AS AN EFFECTS LOOP
(TIP = SEND, RING = RETURN)
CONTROL
ROOM
BAL/UNBAL
+4
MIC
R
L
MAIN
OUTPUT
LEVEL
CONCEIVED, DESIGNED, AND MANUF
THE FOLLOWING ARE TRADEMARKS OR REG
15
MIC 1
MIC 4
MIC 3
MIC 2
MIC PR
XDR
E
MIC PR
XDR
E
MIC PR
XDR
E
MIC 5
MIC PR
XDR
E
MIC 6
MIC PR
XDR
E
LEFT/MONO
MIC PR
XDR
E
RIGHT
TAPE
INPUT
ALL BAL/UNBAL
1
1
TAPE
OUTPUT
BAL/UNBAL
L
L
R
2
2
R
LINE IN 1
LINE IN 2
U
-10dGBAV
MIC IN
LINE IN 3
U
-10dGBAV
MIC IN
U
-10dGBAV
MIC IN
BAL
OR
UNBAL
LINE IN 5
LINE IN 4
LOW CUT
75 Hz
18dB/OCT
LOW CUT
75 Hz
18dB/OCT
LOW CUT
75 Hz
18dB/OCT
LOW CUT
75 Hz
18dB/OCT
BAL
OR
UNBAL
BAL
OR
UNBAL
BAL
OR
UNBAL
BAL
OR
UNBAL
U
-10dGBAV
MIC IN
BAL
OR
UNBAL
LINE IN 6
LOW CUT
75 Hz
18dB/OCT
U
-10dGBAV
MIC IN
LOW CUT
75 Hz
18dB/OCT
U
-10dGBAV
MIC IN
0
60
+15dB -45dB
0
60
+15dB -45dB
0
60
+15dB -45dB
0
60
+15dB -45dB
0
60
+15dB -45dB
0
60
+15dB -45dB
TRIM
TRIM
TRIM
TRIM
TRIM
TRIM
PHONES
AUX SEND
MAIN OUT
MONO
MONO
MONO
L
L
L
L
BAL
OR
UNBAL
BAL
OR
UNBAL
BAL
OR
UNBAL
BAL
OR
UNBAL
R
R
R
R
LEVEL
+4
-10
LINE IN 7–8
LEVEL
+4
-10
LINE IN 9–10
MONO
LEVEL
+4
-10
LEVEL
+4
-10
LINE IN 11–12
LINE IN 13 –14
ALT 3/4
The 1402-VLZ PRO’s stereo PHONES jack
will drive any standard headphone to very loud
levels. Walkperson-type phones can also be
used with an appropriate adapter. To learn
how signals are routed to these outputs: . If
you’re wiring your own cable for the PHONES
output, follow standard conventions:
RING SLEEVE
SLEEVE RIGHT LEFT
TIP
RIGHT
LEFT
SLEEVE
Tip = Left channel
Ring = Right channel
Sleeve = Common ground
WARNING: When we say
the headphone amp is
loud, we’re not kidding.
It can cause permanent
ear damage. Even intermediate levels may be painfully loud with
some earphones. BE CAREFUL!
Always turn the CTL ROOM/SUBMIX fader
all the way down before connecting headphones. Keep it down until you’ve put the
phones on. Then turn it up slowly. Why? “Engineers who fry their ears find themselves with
short careers.”
16
STEREO AUX RETURN
These 1⁄4" jacks are balanced outputs capable of delivering 22dBu into a balanced or
unbalanced load. To learn how signals are
routed to these outputs: . To wire your own
cables: .
CONTROL ROOM
These 1⁄4" jacks are balanced outputs capable of delivering 22dBu into a 600 ohm
balanced or unbalanced load. To learn how
signals are routed to these outputs: . To
wire your own cables: .
AUX SEND 1&2
These 1⁄4" jacks are also balanced outputs
capable of delivering 22dBu into a 600 ohm
balanced or unbalanced load. To learn how
signals are routed to these outputs: . To wire
your own cables: .
POWER CONNECTION
POWER SWITCH
Just in case you lose the cord provided with
the 1402-VLZ PRO, its power jack accepts a
standard 3-prong IEC cord like those found on
most professional recorders, musical instruments, and computers.
At the other end of our cord is — get this
— a plug! Not a black cube or, as we’re fond of
calling them, a “wall wart.” We did this for
some very good reasons:
The 1402-VLZ PRO has sophisticated power
requirements that a wall wart cannot provide.
Wall warts are inconvenient, fragile, radiate
huge hum fields, hog extra jacks on your
power strip and get in the way. If you lose a
wall wart, you’re in trouble, but if you lose the
1402-VLZ PRO’s power cord, you can get a new
one at any electronics, music, or computer
store. You can even buy them at Radio Shack®
(part # 287-1257). Can you tell that we hate
wall warts?
Plug the 1402-VLZ PRO into any standard
grounded AC outlet or into a power strip of
proper voltage.
WARNING: Disconnecting the plug’s ground
pin can be dangerous.
Please don’t do it.
If this one isn’t self-explanatory, we give up.
You can leave this switch on all the time; the
1402-VLZ PRO is conservatively designed, so
heat buildup isn’t a problem even in 24-hour-aday operation. There’s nothing that will burn out
or get used up. Or, just plug everything into a
good quality power strip for one-button turn-on.
You may notice that
the 1402-VLZ PRO feels
quite warm in the upperright corner. This is
perfectly normal.
(Perfectly normal. Is that redundant?)
In the output section there is a POWER
LED. If the power is on, so is the LED.
PHANTOM SWITCH
The Phantom Power Switch controls the
phantom power supply for condenser microphones plugged into channels 1-6 mic inputs
as discussed at the start of this section .
When turned on (or off), the phantom power
circuitry takes a few moments for voltage to
ramp up (or down). This is also perfectly normal. For an even closer look, refer to
Appendix C.
In the output section, next to the POWER
LED, is the PHANTOM LED. If the phantom
power is on, so is the LED.
FUSE
The 1402-VLZ PRO is fused for your (and its
own) protection. If you suspect a blown fuse,
disconnect the cord, pull the fuse drawer out
(located just below the cord receptacle) and
replace the fuse with a 500mA (0.5 amps) SLO
BLO, 5x20mm, available at electronics stores
or your dealer (or a 250mA SLO BLO 5x20mm
if your 1402-VLZ PRO is a 220V–240V unit).
If two fuses blow in a row, something is
very wrong. Please call our toll-free number
(or the distributor in your country) and find
out what to do.
POWER
ON
PHANTOM
ON
CAUTION
STEREO
PLUG
MONO PLUG
1402-VLZPRO
14-CHANNEL MIC/LINE MIXER
WITH PREMIUM XDR TM MIC PREAMPLIFIERS
INSERT ALL THE WAY IN TO
THE "SECOND CLICK"
TIP OUT TO EFFECTS DEVICE
RING RETURN FROM EFFECTS
DIRECT OUT WITH SIGNAL
INTERRUPTION TO MASTER
FOR USE AS AN EFFECTS LOOP
(TIP = SEND, RING = RETURN)
RISK OF ELECTRIC SHOCK
DO NOT OPEN
WARNING:
TO REDUCE THE RISK OF FIRE OR ELECTRIC SHOCK, DO NOT
EXPOSE THIS EQUIPMENT TO RAIN OR MOISTURE. DO NOT REMOVE COVER.
NO USER SERVICEABLE PARTS INSIDE. REFER SERVICING TO QUALIFIED PERSONNEL.
MANUFACTURING DATE
SERIAL NUMBER
AVIS: RISQUE DE CHOC ELECTRIQUE — NE PAS OUVRIR
UTILISE UN FUSIBLE DE RECHANGE DE MÊME TYPE.
DEBRANCHER AVANT DE REMPLACER LE FUSIBLE
REPLACE WITH THE SAME TYPE FUSE AND RATING.
DISCONNECT SUPPLY CORD BEFORE CHANGING FUSE
XDRTM EXTENDED DYNAMIC RANGE MIC PREAMPLIFIERS ARE PROPRIETARY TO MACKIE DESIGNS, INC.
120 VAC 50/60 Hz 25W
500mA/250V SLO-BLO
CAUTION:
TO REDUCE THE RISK OF
FIRE REPLACE WITH SAME
TYPE FUSE AND RATING
MAIN
RIGHT
MAIN
LEFT
BALANCED
BALANCED
ALT
OUTPUT
CONTROL
ROOM
BAL/UNBAL
+4
MIC
R
CHANNEL INSERT
( PRE-FADER / PRE EQ TIP SEND / RING RETURN
)
)
BAL/UNBAL
L
R/4
L/3
6
5
4
3
2
1
MAIN
OUTPUT
LEVEL
CONCEIVED, DESIGNED, AND MANUFACTURED BY MACKIE DESIGNS INC • WOODINVILLE • WA • USA • MADE IN USA • FABRIQUE AU USA • COPYRIGHT ©1998 •
THE FOLLOWING ARE TRADEMARKS OR REGISTERED TRADEMARKS OF MACKIE DESIGN INC.: "MACKIE", "VLZ", "XDR", AND THE "RUNNING MAN" FIGURE • PATENT PENDING
17
CHANNEL STRIP DESCRIPTION
AUX
1
U
MON/
EFX
+15
OO
U
2
EFX
+15
OO
EQ
U
HI
12kHz
-15
+15
U
MID
2.5kHz
-12
+12
U
LOW
80Hz
-15
+15
PAN
L
The ten channel strips look alike, and
function identically. The only difference is
that the six on the left are for individual mics
or mono instruments and have more gain
available, while the next four are for either
stereo or mono line-level sources. (Each of
the stereo channel strips is actually two complete circuits. The controls are linked
together to preserve stereo.) We’ll start at the
bottom and work our way up…
R
“U” LIKE UNITY GAIN
1
MUTE
ALT 3–4
dB
10
5
U
5
10
20
30
40
50
60
OO
SOLO
Mackie mixers have a “U”
symbol on almost every level
control. This “U” stands for
“unity gain,” meaning no change in signal level.
Once you have adjusted the input signal to linelevel , you can set every control at “U” and your
signals will travel through the mixer at optimal
levels. What’s more, all the labels on our level
controls are measured in decibels (dB), so you’ll
know what you’re doing level-wise if you choose
to change a control’s settings.
You won’t have to check it here and check it
there, as you would with some other mixers. In
fact, some don’t even have any reference to actual dB levels at all! Ever seen those “0–10”
fader markings? We call these AUMs (Arbitrary
Units of Measurement), and they mean nothing in the real world. You were smart — you
bought a Mackie.
FADER
The FADER controls the channel’s level…
from off to unity gain at the “U” marking, on
up to 10dB of additional gain. Channels 1–6
use mono controls, and channels 7–14 use
stereo controls.
SOLO
This lovable switch allows you to hear signals
through your headphones or control room
without having to route them to the MAIN or
ALT 3–4 mixes. Folks use solo in live work to
preview channels before they are let into the
mix, or to just check out what a particular channel is up to anytime during a session. You can
solo as many channels at a time as you like.
Solo is also the key player in the Level
Setting Procedure .
Your 1402-VLZ PRO has “Dual-Mode Solo.”
A switch in the master section determines
18
which mode you’ll be hearing. With the
switch up, you’ll get “AFL” (After Fader Listen), which is post-FADER and post-PAN,
making it ideal for mixdown soloing. With the
switch down, you’re in “PFL” (pre-fader listen) mode. This is the required mode for the
Level Setting Procedure .
Soloed channels are sent to the SOURCE
mix , which ultimately feeds your CONTROL
ROOM, PHONES and METERS. Whenever
SOLO is engaged, all SOURCE selections
(MAIN MIX, ALT 3–4 and TAPE) are defeated,
to allow the soloed signal to do just that — solo!
MUTE/ALT 3–4
The dual-purpose MUTE/ALT 3-4 switch is a
Mackie signature. When Greg was designing
our first product, he had to include a mute
switch for each channel. Mute switches do just
what they sound like they do. They turn off the
signal by “routing” it into oblivion. “Gee, what a
waste,” Greg reasoned. “Why not have the
mute button route the signal somewhere else
useful…like a separate stereo bus?” So
MUTE/ALT 3-4 really serves two functions —
muting (often used during a mixdown or live
show), and signal routing (for multi-track and
live work) where it acts as an extra stereo bus.
To use this as a MUTE switch, all you have to
do is not use the ALT 3–4 outputs. Then, whenever you assign a channel to these unused
outputs, you’ll also be disconnecting it from the
MAIN MIX, effectively muting the channel.
To use this as an ALT 3–4 switch, all you
have to do is connect the ALT 3–4 outputs to
whatever destination you desire. Two popular
examples:
When doing multitrack recording, use the
ALT 3–4 outputs to feed your multitrack. With
most decks, you can mult the ALT 3–4 outputs,
using Y-cords or mults, to feed multiple tracks.
So, take ALT OUT LEFT and send it to tracks 1,
3, 5 and 7, and ALT OUT RIGHT and send it to
tracks 2, 4, 6 and 8. Now, tracks that are in
Record or Input modes will hear the ALT 3–4
signals, and tracks in Playback or Safe modes
will ignore them.
When doing live sound or mixdown, it’s often
handy to control the level of several channels
with one knob. That’s called Subgrouping. Simply assign these channels to the ALT 3–4 mix,
engage ALT 3–4 in the SOURCE matrix, and the
signals will appear at the CONTROL ROOM
and PHONES outputs. If you want the ALT 3–4
signals to go back into the MAIN MIX, engage
the ASSIGN TO MAIN MIX switch , and the
CTL ROOM/SUBMIX fader becomes the one
fader to control the levels of all channels assigned to ALT 3–4.
Another way to do the same thing is to assign the channels to the ALT 3–4 mix, then
patch out of the ALT OUT LEFT and RIGHT
back into an unused stereo channel (7–8, 9–10
or 11–12 or 13–14). If that’s your choice, don’t
ever engage the MUTE/ALT 3–4 switch on that
stereo channel, or you’ll have every dog in the
neighborhood howling at your feedback loop.
Another benefit of the ALT 3–4 feature is
that it can act as a “AFL” (After Fader Listen):
just engage a channel's MUTE/ALT 3–4 switch
and the ALT 3–4 switch in the SOURCE matrix
and you’ll get that channel, all by itself, in
the CONTROL ROOM and PHONES.
MUTE/ALT 3–4 is one of those controls that
can bewilder newcomers, so take your time and
play around with it. Once you’ve got it down,
you’ll probably think of a hundred uses for it!
PAN
PAN adjusts the amount of channel signal
sent to the left versus the right outputs. On
mono channels (ch. 1–6 or 7–14 with connections to the LEFT input only) these controls act
as pan pots. On stereo channels (7–14) with
stereo connections to LEFT and RIGHT inputs,
the pan knob works like the balance control on
your home stereo.
PAN determines the fate of the MAIN MIX
(1–2) and ALT 3–4 mix. With the PAN knob
hard left, the signal will feed either MAIN
LEFT (bus 1) or ALT LEFT (bus 3), depending
on the position of the ALT 3–4 switch. With the
knob hard right, the signal feeds MAIN RIGHT
(bus 2) or ALT RIGHT (bus 4). You’ll soon discover that maybe we should’ve called this an
1404-VLZ2, since it really is a 4-bus mixer.
CONSTANT
LOUDNESS ! ! !
The 1402-VLZ PRO’s PAN
controls employ a design
called “Constant Loudness.”
It has nothing to do with living next to a freeway.
As you turn the PAN knob from left to right
(thereby causing the sound to move from the left
to the center to the right), the sound will appear
to remain at the same volume (or loudness).
If you have a channel panned hard left (or
right) and reading 0dB, it must dip down
about 4dB on the left (or right) when panned
center. To do otherwise (the way Brand X compact mixers do) would make the sound appear
much louder when panned center.
3-BAND EQ
The 1402-VLZ PRO has
3-band equalization at
carefully selected points
— LOW shelving at 80Hz,
MID peaking at 2.5kHz, and HI shelving at
12kHz. “Shelving” means that the circuitry
boosts or cuts all frequencies past the
specified frequency. For example, rotating the
1402-VLZ PRO’s LOW EQ knob 15dB to the
right boosts bass starting at 80Hz and continuing down to the lowest note you never heard.
“Peaking” means that certain frequencies form
a “hill” around the center frequency — 2.5kHz
in the case of the MID EQ.
LOW EQ
This control gives you up to 15dB boost or
cut at 80Hz. The circuit is flat (no boost or
cut) at the center detent position.
+15
This frequency represents the
+10
punch in bass drums, bass guitar, +5
fat synth patches, and some really 0
serious male singers.
–5
Used in conjunction with the
–10
LOW CUT switch , you can
–15
100
boost the LOW EQ without inject- 20Low EQ
ing a ton of subsonic debris into
+15
the mix.
+10
MID EQ
Hz
Hz
20Hz
100Hz
1kHz
10kHz 20kHz
1kHz
10kHz 20kHz
+5
0
Short for “midrange,” this knob
provides 12dB of boost or cut, centered at 2.5kHz, also flat at the
center detent. Midrange EQ is
often thought of as the most dynamic, because the frequencies
that define any particular sound
are almost always found in this
range. You can create many interesting and useful EQ changes by
turning this knob down as well as
up.
HI EQ
–5
–10
–15
Low EQ with Low Cut
+15
+10
+5
0
–5
–10
–15
20Hz
100Hz
1kHz
10kHz 20kHz
1kHz
10kHz 20kHz
Mid EQ
+15
+10
This control gives you up to
+5
15dB boost or cut at 12kHz, and it 0
is also flat at the detent. Use it to –5
add sizzle to cymbals, and an over- –10
all sense of transparency or edge –1520
100
to keyboards, vocals, guitar and
Hi EQ
bacon frying. Turn it down a little
to reduce sibilance, or to hide tape hiss.
Hz
Hz
19
AUX
1
U
MON/
EFX
+15
OO
U
2
EFX
+15
OO
EQ
U
HI
12kHz
-15
+15
U
MID
2.5kHz
-12
+12
U
LOW
80Hz
-15
+15
PAN
L
With EQ, you can also screw things up royally. We’ve designed a lot of boost and cut into
each equalizer circuit, because we know
everyone will occasionally need that. But if you
max the EQs on every channel, you’ll get mix
mush. Equalize subtly and use the left sides of
the knobs (cut), as well as the right (boost).
Very few gold-record-album engineers ever use
more than about 3dB of EQ. If you need more
than that, there’s usually a better way to get it,
such as placing a mic differently (or using a
different kind of mic entirely).
AUX SEND
R
1
MUTE
ALT 3–4
dB
10
Moderation during EQ
SOLO
5
U
5
10
20
30
40
50
60
OO
These tap a portion of each channel signal
out to another source for parallel effects processing or stage monitoring. AUX send levels
are controlled by the channel’s AUX 1 and AUX
2 knobs and by the AUX 1 MASTER .
These are more than just effects and monitor sends. They can be used to generate
separate mixes for recording or “mix-minuses”
for broadcast. By using AUX 1 in the PRE
mode , these mix levels can be obtained independently of the channel’s GAIN control.
FADER
INPUT
TRIM
LOW CUT
INSERT
PAN
AUX 1 in POST-mode and AUX 2 are
post-LOW CUT, post-EQ and post-FADER. That
is, the sends obey the settings of these controls.
AUX 1 in PRE mode follows the EQ and LOW
CUT settings only. PAN and FADER have no effect on the PRE send (see diagram below).
All AUX send levels range from off through
unity (with their channel gain controls at the
center detent position) on up to 15dB of extra
gain (when turned fully clockwise). Chances
are you’ll never need this extra gain, but it’s
nice to know it’s there if you do.
Channel 7–14 AUX pots control the mono
sum of the channel’s stereo signals for each
AUX send. For instance, Channel 7 (left) and
8 (right) mix together to feed that channel’s
AUX send knobs.
We recommend going into a stereo reverb in
mono and returning in stereo. We have found
that most “stereo” reverbs’ second input just ties
up an extra AUX send and adds nothing to the
sound. There are exceptions, so feel free to try it
both ways. If your effects device is true stereo
all the way through, use AUX 1 to feed its LEFT
input and AUX 2 to feed the RIGHT input.
MUTE / ALT
"POST" SIGNAL OBEYS
MUTE STATUS
EQ
AUX SEND 2 KNOB
TO AUX SEND 2 OUTPUT
“Pre vs. Post”
Signal Flow Diagram
"POST" SIGNAL
"PRE" SIGNAL
AUX SEND 1 KNOB
TO AUX SEND 1 OUTPUT
AUX SEND 1 PRE/POST SWITCH
(IN MASTER SECTION)
20
OUTPUT SECTION DESCRIPTION
Still with us? Good for you. Here come the
tricky parts, where the mixing is really done.
MAIN MIX
As the name implies, this fader controls the
levels of signals sent to the MAIN OUTPUTS:
XLR , 1⁄4" and RCA TAPE OUT . All
channels and AUX RETURNS that are not
muted or turned fully down will wind up in the
MAIN MIX.
Fully down is off, the “U” marking is unity
gain, and fully up provides 10dB additional
gain. This additional gain will typically never
be needed, but once again, it’s nice to know it’s
there. These are the faders to pull down at the
end of the song when you want The Great
Fade-Out.
VLZ MIX
ARCHITECTURE
When designing a mixing
circuit, the lowest noise and
best crosstalk specs are achieved by using Very
Low Impedance (VLZ). To implement VLZ in a
mixer, the power supply must be able to deliver plenty of current to the circuitry. That’s
why those “wall wart” mixers are often noisy –
they can’t power a VLZ circuit.
At Mackie, audio quality is much more important than the price of wall warts. All of our
mixers employ VLZ and built-in power supplies
that deliver more than enough current, resulting in sonic specifications that rival consoles
upwards of $50,000!
Selections made in the SOURCE matrix deliver stereo signals to the CONTROL ROOM,
PHONES and METERS. With no switches engaged, there will be no signal at these outputs
and no meter indication.
The exception to that is the SOLO function
. Regardless of the SOURCE matrix selection, engaging a channel’s SOLO switch will
replace that selection with the SOLO signal,
also sent to the CONTROL ROOM, PHONES
and METERS. This is what makes the Level
Setting Procedure so easy to do.
WARNING: Pushing in
both the TAPE button (in
the SOURCE matrix) and
ASSIGN TO MAIN MIX
can create a feedback
path between TAPE IN and TAPE OUT.
Make sure your tape deck is not in record,
record-pause or input monitor mode when
you engage these switches, or make sure
the CONTROL ROOM / PHONES fader is
fully down (off).
U
U
OO
1
+10
OO
AUX 1 MASTER
+20
U NORMALLED
2
PRE
POST
AUX 1
SELECT
EFX TO
MONITOR
+20
OO
LEFT
C-R/SOURCE
AUX
RETURN
RIGHT
0dB=0dBu
28
10
MAIN MIX
7
4
ALT 3 – 4
2
0
SOURCE MATRIX
Typically, the engineer sends the MAIN MIX
to an audience (if live) or a mixdown deck (if
recording). But what if the engineer needs to
hear something other than the MAIN MIX?
With the 1402-VLZ PRO, the engineer has several choices of what to listen to. This is one of
those tricky parts, so buckle up.
Via the SOURCE switches, you can choose
to listen to any combination of MAIN MIX, ALT
3-4 and TAPE. By now, you probably know
what the MAIN MIX is. ALT 3-4 is that additional stereo mix bus. TAPE is the stereo signal
coming in from the TAPE IN RCA jacks .
2
TAPE
4
7
ASSIGN
TO MAIN MIX
10
LEVEL
SET
20
NORMAL (AFL)
LEVEL SET (PFL)
SOLO
MODE
30
RUDE
SOLO
LIGHT
PHANTOM POWER
CTL ROOM /SUBMIX
MAIN MIX
dB
dB
10
10
5
5
U
U
5
5
10
10
20
20
30
30
40
50
60
40
50
60
OO
OO
21
Now you know how to select the signals you
want to send to the engineer’s control room or
phones. From there, these signals all pass
through the same level control:
CTL ROOM / SUBMIX
This fader controls the levels of both the stereo CONTROL ROOM OUTPUTS and
PHONES OUTPUTS . The control range is
from off through unity gain at the “U” marking,
with 10dB of extra gain fully up.
When MAIN MIX is your SOURCE selection, those signals will pass through two level
controls on the way to your control room amp
and phones — the MAIN MIX fader and this
CTL ROOM / SUBMIX fader. This way, you
can send a nice healthy level to the MAIN
OUTPUTS (MAIN MIX fader at “U”), and a
quiet level to the control room or phones
(CTL ROOM / SUBMIX fader wherever you
like it).
When ALT 3-4 or TAPE is selected, or SOLO
is engaged, this fader will be the only one controlling these levels (channel controls not
withstanding).
U
U
OO
1
+10
OO
AUX 1 MASTER
+20
U NORMALLED
2
PRE
POST
AUX 1
SELECT
EFX TO
MONITOR
+20
OO
LEFT
C-R/SOURCE
AUX
RETURN
RIGHT
0dB=0dBu
28
10
MAIN MIX
7
4
ALT 3 – 4
2
0
2
TAPE
4
7
ASSIGN
TO MAIN MIX
10
20
NORMAL (AFL)
LEVEL SET (PFL)
SOLO
MODE
PHANTOM POWER
CTL ROOM /SUBMIX
22
30
RUDE
SOLO
LIGHT
MAIN MIX
dB
dB
10
10
5
5
U
U
5
5
10
10
20
20
30
30
40
50
60
40
50
60
OO
OO
LEVEL
SET
Whatever your selection, you can also use
the CONTROL ROOM OUTPUTS for other
applications. It's sound quality is just as impeccable as the MAIN MIX outputs. It can be
used as additional MAIN MIX output, which
may sound silly since there are already three,
but this one has its own level control. However,
should you do something like this, be sure that
you never engage a SOLO switch, as that will
interrupt your SOURCE selection.
SOLO MODE: AFL/PFL
Engaging a channel’s SOLO switch will
cause this dramatic turn of events: Any existing SOURCE matrix selections will be
replaced by the SOLO signal, appearing at
the CONTROL ROOM OUTPUTS, PHONES
OUTPUTS and at the METERS. The audible
SOLO levels are then controlled by the CTL
ROOM / SUBMIX fader. The SOLO levels appearing on the METERS are not controlled
by anything — you wouldn’t want that. You
want to see the actual channel level on the
METERS regardless of how loud you’re listening.
With the SOLO MODE switch in the up
position, you’re in AFL mode, meaning AfterFader Listen. You’ll hear the output of the
soloed channel — it will follow the
channel’s TRIM, EQ, FADER and PAN settings. It’s similar to muting all the other
channels, but without the hassle. Use AFL
mode during mixdown.
With the switch down, you’re in PFL mode,
meaning Pre-Fader Listen (post EQ). This
mode is required for the Level Setting Procedure and is handy for quick spot-checks of
channels, especially ones that have their
faders turned down.
In either mode, SOLO will not be affected
by a channel’s MUTE/ALT switch position.
RUDE SOLO LIGHT
This flashing Light Emitting Diode serves
two purposes — to remind you that at least
one channel is in SOLO, and to let you know
that you’re mixing on a Mackie. No other company is so concerned about your level of SOLO
awareness. If you work on a mixer that has a
solo function with no indicator lights, and you
happen to forget you’re in solo, you can easily
be tricked into thinking that something is
wrong with your mixer. Hence the RUDE
SOLO LIGHT. It’s especially handy at about
3AM when no sound is coming out of your
monitors but your multitrack is playing back
like mad.
ASSIGN TO MAIN MIX
Let’s say you’re doing a live show. Intermission is nearing and you’ll want to play a
soothing CD for the crowd to prevent them
from becoming antsy. Then you think, “But I
have the CD player plugged into the TAPE inputs, and that never gets to the MAIN
OUTPUTS!” Oh, but it does. Simply engage this
switch and your SOURCE matrix selection,
after going through the CTL ROOM / SUBMIX
fader, will feed into the MAIN MIX, just as if it
were another stereo channel.
Another handy use for this switch is to enable the ALT 3-4 mix to become a submix of
the MAIN MIX , using the CTL ROOM /
SUBMIX fader as its level control.
Side effects: (1) Engaging this switch will
also feed any soloed channels into the MAIN
MIX, which may be the last thing you want. (2)
If you have MAIN MIX as your SOURCE matrix
selection and then engage ASSIGN TO MAIN
MIX, the MAIN MIX lines to the SOURCE matrix will be interrupted, to prevent feedback.
Then again, why on earth would anyone want
to assign the MAIN MIX to the MAIN MIX?
METERS – MANY DISPLAYS IN ONE!
The 1402-VLZ PRO’s peak metering system
is made up of two columns of twelve LEDs. Deceptively simple, considering the multitude of
signals that can be monitored by it.
If nothing is selected in the SOURCE matrix
and no channels are in SOLO, the METERS
will just sit there and look stupid. To put them
to work, you must make a selection in the
SOURCE matrix (or engage a SOLO switch).
Why? You want the METERS to reflect what
the engineer is listening to, and as we’ve covered, the engineer is listening either to the
CONTROL ROOM outputs or the PHONES
outputs. The only difference is that while the
listening levels are controlled by the CTL
ROOM / SUBMIX fader, the METERS read the
SOURCE mix before that control, giving you
the real facts at all times, even if you’re not listening at all.
You may already be an
expert at the world of “+4”
(+4dBu=1.23V) and “–10”
(–10dBV=0.32V) operating
levels. Basically, what makes
a mixer one or the other is the relative 0dB VU
(or 0VU) chosen for the meters. A “+4” mixer,
with a +4dBu signal pouring out the back will
actually read 0VU on its meters. A “–10” mixer,
with a –10dBV signal trickling out, will read,
you guessed it, 0VU on its meters. So when is
0VU actually 0dBu? Right now!
At the risk of creating another standard,
Mackie’s compact mixers address the need of
both crowds by calling things as they are —
0dBu (0.775V) at the output shows as 0dB VU
on the METERS. What could be easier? By the
way, the most wonderful thing about standards
is that there are so many to choose from.
Thanks to the 1402-VLZ PRO’s wide dynamic
range, you can get a good mix with peaks flashing anywhere between –20 and +10dB on the
METERS. Most amplifiers clip at about +10dB,
and some recorders aren’t so forgiving either.
For best real-world results, try to keep your
peaks between “0” and “+7.”
Remember, audio meters are just tools to
help assure you that your levels are “in the
ballpark.” You don’t have to stare at them
(unless you want to).
23
AUX 1 SELECT
AUX TALK
First of all, there is no particular alliance between AUX
SEND 1 (or 2) and AUX
RETURN 1 (or 2). They’re
just numbers. They’re like two complete
strangers, both named Fred.
Here’s the whole idea behind sends and returns: sends are outputs, returns are inputs.
AUX SENDs tap signals off the channels, via
their AUX knobs , mix these signals, then
send them out via the AUX SEND jacks .
These outputs are fed to the inputs of a reverb or other device. From there, the outputs of
this external device are fed back to the mixer’s
AUX RETURN jacks . Then these signals are
sent through the AUX RETURN level controls,
and finally delivered to the MAIN MIX.
So, the original “dry” signals go from the
channels to the MAIN MIX and the affected
“wet” signals go from the Aux Returns to the
MAIN MIX, and once mixed together, the dry
and wet signals combine to create a glorious
sound. So, armed with this knowledge, let’s
visit the Auxiliary World:
U
U
OO
1
+10
OO
AUX 1 MASTER
+20
U NORMALLED
2
PRE
POST
AUX 1
SELECT
EFX TO
MONITOR
+20
OO
LEFT
C-R/SOURCE
AUX
RETURN
RIGHT
0dB=0dBu
28
10
MAIN MIX
7
4
ALT 3 – 4
2
0
2
TAPE
Besides being used to work effects into your
mix, Aux Sends serve another critical role —
that of delivering cue mixes to stage monitors,
so musicians can hear what they’re doing. On
the 1402-VLZ PRO, AUX SEND 1 can play either role, depending on the position of this
switch.
With the AUX 1 SELECT switch up (disengaged), AUX SEND 1 will tap a channel
pre-FADER and pre-MUTE/ALT 3-4, meaning
that no matter how you manipulate those controls as they feed the MAIN MIX, the AUX
SEND will continue to belt out a constant signal level. This is the preferred method for
setting up stage monitor feeds. EQ settings
will affect all AUX SENDS.
With the switch down, AUX SEND 1 becomes an ordinary effects send — post-FADER
and post-MUTE/ALT 3-4. This is a must for effects sends, since you want the levels of your
“wet” signals to follow the level of the “dry.”
AUX 1 MASTER
The AUX 1 MASTER provides overall level
control of AUX SEND 1, just before it’s delivered to the AUX 1 OUTPUT. (AUX SEND 2 has
no such control.) This knob goes from off
(turned fully down), to Unity gain at the center
detent, with 10dB of extra gain (turned fully
up). As with some other level controls, you may
never need the additional gain, but if you ever
do, you’ll be glad you bought a Mackie.
This is usually the knob you turn up when
the lead singer glares at you, points at his
stage monitor, and sticks his thumb up in the
air. (It would follow suit that if the singer
stuck his thumb down, you’d turn the knob
down, but that never happens.)
4
7
ASSIGN
TO MAIN MIX
10
20
NORMAL (AFL)
LEVEL SET (PFL)
SOLO
MODE
RUDE
SOLO
LIGHT
PHANTOM POWER
CTL ROOM /SUBMIX
24
30
MAIN MIX
dB
dB
10
10
5
5
U
U
5
5
10
10
20
20
30
30
40
50
60
40
50
60
OO
OO
LEVEL
SET
AUX RETURNS
These two controls set the overall level of
effects received from STEREO AUX RETURN inputs 1 and 2 . These controls are designed to
handle a wide range of signal levels, from off, to
unity gain at the detent, with 20dB gain fully
clockwise, to compensate for low-level effects.
Typically, these knobs can just live at the
center detent, and the effects device’s output
control should be set at whatever they call
Unity gain (check their manual). If that turns
out to be too loud or too quiet, adjust the effects device’s outputs, not the mixer. That way,
the mixer’s knobs are easy to relocate at the
center detent.
Signals passing through the AUX RETURN
level controls will proceed directly to MAIN
MIX , with one exception (see next paragraph). The AUX RETURNS do not have
MUTE/ALT 3-4 switches, so if you want
these signals to get to the ALT 3-4 mix, you’ll
have to patch the effects device’s outputs
into one of the stereo channels, and MUTE/
ALT that channel .
EFX TO MONITOR
The idea behind this great feature is simple:
If you want to add reverb or delay to the stage
monitor mixes, this is the switch for you. The
implementation leading up to the switch is the
tricky part:
With the switch up, AUX RETURN 1 and 2
behave normally — they deliver their signals
into the MAIN MIX. With the switch down,
AUX RETURN 1 still behaves normally, but
AUX RETURN 2’s level control will feed AUX
SEND 1 instead of the MAIN MIX.
Still with us? Good. So far, with the switch
down, we have AUX RETURN 1 feeding the
MAIN MIX and AUX RETURN 2 feeding AUX
SEND 1. Now, suppose you only have one effects device, and you want it to feed both the
MAIN MIX and AUX SEND 1. That’s where
“jack normalling” comes in.
courtesy of jack normalling. As soon as you
plug something in the RIGHT side, that
normalled connection is broken.
How does all this relate to the EFX TO
MONITOR switch? AUX RETURN 1’s inputs
are normalled to AUX RETURN 2. If you have
one effects device, plug it into AUX RETURN 1.
Plug nothing into AUX RETURN 2. Now the
signals feeding the AUX RETURN 1 inputs will
also be sent to the AUX RETURN 2 inputs.
Engage the EFX TO MONITOR switch, and
now the AUX RETURN 2 knob will become an
additional AUX SEND 1 knob for the signal at
the AUX RETURN 1 . Say that ten times!
Once again, AUX RETURN 1 will behave normally, as always.
Congratulations! You’ve just read about all
the features of your 1402-VLZ PRO. You’re
probably ready for a cold one. Go ahead. The
rest of the manual can wait.
JACK NORMALLING
Jack normalling (not to be confused with
Jack Normalling, Chicago Cubs utility infielder,
1952-61, .267 LBA) is a feature found on almost every mixer, keyboard and effects device.
These jacks have special spring-loaded pins
that connect to the signal pins, but when
something is plugged into the jack, that connection is broken.
These normalling pins can be used in all
sorts of ways. The ubiquitous phrase “LEFT
(MONO)” means that if you plug a signal into
the LEFT side and have nothing in the RIGHT
side, that signal is also fed to the right input,
U
U
OO
1
+10
OO
AUX 1 MASTER
+20
U NORMALLED
2
PRE
POST
AUX 1
SELECT
EFX TO
MONITOR
+20
OO
LEFT
C-R/SOURCE
AUX
RETURN
RIGHT
0dB=0dBu
28
10
MAIN MIX
7
4
ALT 3 – 4
2
0
2
TAPE
4
7
ASSIGN
TO MAIN MIX
10
LEVEL
SET
20
NORMAL (AFL)
LEVEL SET (PFL)
SOLO
MODE
30
RUDE
SOLO
LIGHT
PHANTOM POWER
CTL ROOM /SUBMIX
MAIN MIX
dB
dB
10
10
5
5
U
U
5
5
10
10
20
20
30
30
40
50
60
40
50
60
OO
OO
25
MODIFICATIONS
For most folks, the 1402-VLZ PRO works just
fine the way it is. But for special applications,
there are three signal routing changes that can
be performed easily on the 1402-VLZ PRO. Easy
for someone with soldering experience, that is.
If you don’t know how to solder, find a technician that can. This is NOT a good place to learn!
• Modification A changes AUX SEND 2 to be
pre-fader, pre-mute instead of post-fader,
post-mute.
• Mod B changes AUX SEND 1 (in post
mode) and AUX SEND 2 to receive signal
regardless of the channel’s MUTE/ALT
switch position, but still be post-fader
(GAIN knob).
• Mod C changes the SOURCE matrix’s
MAIN MIX selection to tap the stereo
signal before the MAIN MIX level control
(pre) instead of after (post).
UL Warning
Caution! These modification instructions
are for use by qualified personnel only. To
avoid electric shock, do not perform any servicing other than changing the fuse unless
you are qualified to do so. Refer all servicing
and modifying to qualified personnel.
Mackie Disclaimer
Any modification of any Mackie Designs
product must be performed by a competent
electronic technician. Mackie Designs accepts no responsibility for any damages or
injuries caused by any modification, regardless of the source of the modification
instructions or the qualifications of the technician performing them. In the case of such
damages, Mackie Designs may declare
warranty privileges void. BE CAREFUL!
A Note About Jumpers
When installing jumpers, do not run their
ends through holes in the circuit board.
Rather, solder them flat against the desired
pad (the flat silver area, possibly with a hole in
the middle). Make sure the ends of these flat
wires do not extend beyond the pad.
Jumper
BEFORE
Holes
AFTER
26
Solder
1. PRE-FADER MOD (AUX TO MONITOR)
This modification changes AUX SEND 2 to
be pre-fader, pre-mute instead of post-fader,
post-mute. (“Mute” refers to the channel’s
MUTE/ALT 3–4 switch.) In order to convert
the entire mixer, it must be done on each
channel, and is slightly more involved for the
stereo channels 7–14. The work area is on the
underside of the circuit board, near the channel AUX SEND knobs.
1. Remove all cords, including the power
cable, from the 1402-VLZ PRO.
2. Place the mixer upside-down on a dry,
non-marring surface.
3. Remove the screws that attach the bottom
cover. Keep track of what screws go where.
Remove the bottom cover.
4. Using a sharp “X-acto” type knife, cut the
conductor at point ‘A’ (channels 1–6) or
the conductors at points ‘AL’ and ‘AR’
(channels 7–14). Be careful to cut all the
way through the conductor, and do not cut
any nearby traces.
5. Add a jumper from point ‘B’ to the square pad
at point ‘A’ (channels 1–6) or from points ‘BL’
to ‘AL’ and ‘BR’ to ‘AR’ (channels 7–14).
6. Repeat for all channels.
7. Check your work very carefully, then put
the bottom cover back the way you found
it. You’re done!
Channels 1–6
JUMPERS
HERE
CUT
HERE
4
5
JUMPERS
HERE
CUT
HERE
JUMPERS
HERE
5
4
CUT
HERE
5
4
Channels 7–14
JUMPERS
HERE
CUT
HERE
5
4
JUMPERS
HERE
CUT
HERE
CUT
HERE
27
2. PRE-MUTE MOD
This modification changes AUX SEND 1 (in
post mode) and AUX SEND 2 to receive signal
regardless of the channel’s MUTE/ALT 3–4
switch position, but still be post-fader. In order
to convert the entire mixer, it must be done on
each channel, and is slightly more involved for
the stereo channels 7–14. The work area is on
the underside of the circuit board, near the
channel MUTE/ALT 3–4 switches.
1. Remove all cords, including the power
cable, from the 1402-VLZ PRO.
2. Place the mixer upside-down on a dry,
non-marring surface.
3. Remove the screws that attach the bottom
cover. Keep track of what screws go where.
Remove the bottom cover.
4. Using a sharp “X-acto” type knife, cut the
conductor at point ‘C’ (channels 1–6) or
the conductors at points ‘CL’ and ‘CR’
(channels 7–14). Be careful to cut all the
way through the conductor, and do not cut
any nearby traces.
5. Locate the 12 pins that comprise the
underside of each MUTE/ALT 3–4 switch.
6. Add jumpers as shown on the illustration
below — they’re not specifically marked on
the circuit board itself, so be careful.
7. Repeat for all channels.
8. Check your work very carefully, then put
the bottom cover back the way you found
it. You’re done!
Channels 1–6
JUMPERS
HERE
CUT
HERE
JUMPERS
HERE
6
CUT
HERE
4
JUMPERS
HERE
6
CUT
HERE
4
Channels 7–14
28
JUMPERS
HERE
6
JUMPERS
HERE
CUT
HERE
4
CUT
HERE
6
4
6
4
3. MAIN MIX SOURCE MOD
This modification changes the SOURCE
matrix’s MAIN MIX selection to tap the stereo
signal before the MAIN MIX level control
(pre) instead of after (post). This could be
especially handy for live work where the engineer wants to be able to control the MAIN MIX
level (sent to the house system) without
changing the level in his headphones. The
work area is on the underside of the circuit
board, near the MAIN MIX level control.
Caution: This modification also causes the
meters to indicate pre MAIN MIX levels. They
will not longer indicate the signal level at the
MAIN OUTS, but rather the signal level at the
PHONES and CONTROL ROOM outputs (when
MAIN MIX SOURCE is selected).
1. Remove all cords, including the power
cable, from the 1402-VLZ PRO.
2. Place the mixer upside-down on a dry, nonmarring surface.
3. Remove the screws that attach the bottom
cover. Keep track of what screws go where.
Remove the bottom cover.
4. Using a sharp “X-acto” type knife, cut the
conductor at points ‘XL’ and ‘XR’. Be careful
to cut all the way through the conductor,
and do not cut any nearby traces.
5. Add a jumper from point ‘YL’ to the square
pad at point ‘XL’ and from point ‘YR’ to the
square pad at point ‘XR’.
6. Check your work very carefully, then put
the bottom cover back the way you found
it. You’re done!
CUT
HERE
4
JUMPERS
HERE
5
29
MUTE / ALT
PAN
FADER
TRIM
1
MIC IN
75Hz
HPF
3
1
HI
2
80 2K5 12K
3
LO
2
MID
LOW CUT
4
AFL L
3-BAND EQ
LINE IN
AFL R
SOLO
PFL
MONO CHANNEL (1 OF 6)
LOGIC
AUX SEND 2
POST
PRE
AUX SEND 1
FADER
LO
MID
HI
MUTE / ALT
LINE IN L
1
80 2K5 12K
2
PAN
+4 /-10
3
4
LO
MID
HI
LINE IN R
80 2K5 12K
AFL L
3-BAND EQ
AFL R
STEREO CHANNEL (1 OF 4)
SOLO
PFL
LOGIC
AUX SEND 2
POST
PRE
AUX SEND 1
L IN
(MONO)
AUX RETURN 1
GAIN
R IN
L IN
AUX RETURN 2
MACKIE 1402-VLZ PRO
SIGNAL FLOW-- INPUTS
1/99
30
GAIN
R IN
EFX TO MONITOR
AFL L
AFL R
SOLO/PFL
LOGIC
INSERT
AUX 1 PRE
AUX 1 POST
AUX 2 POST
PHANTOM POWER (GLOBAL SWITCH)
MAIN L
MAIN R
ALT L
ALT R
1402-VLZ PRO BLOCK DIAGRAM
AFL L
AFL R
SOLO/PFL
LOGIC
AUX 1 PRE
AUX 1 POST
AUX 2 POST
MAIN L
MAIN R
ALT L
ALT R
TAPE OUT L
LINE OUT L
2
BAL OUT L
1
3
MAIN MIX
30dB PAD
MAIN FADERS
2
BAL OUT R
1
3
LINE OUT R
ALT OUT L
TAPE OUT R
ALT OUT R
ALT MIX
METERING
(0dBu = 0VU)
ALT
SOURCE
TAPE IN
L
22
10
7
4
2
0
2
4
7
10
20
30
TAPE
R
CONTROL ROOM &
PHONES MIX
RUDE
SOLO
LED
MAIN
SOLO RELAY
AFL L
AFL R
PFL
PFL LED
SOLO MIX
AFL (AFTER FADER LISTEN)/
PFL (PRE-FADER LISTEN)
CONTROL ROOM LEFT
ASSIGN TO MAIN
PHONES OUT
CONTROL ROOM &
PHONES FADER
AUX 1 PRE / POST
CONTROL ROOM RIGHT
AUX 1 LEVEL
AUX 1 OUT
AUX 1 MIX
AUX 2 OUT
AUX 2 MIX
MACKIE 1402-VLZ PRO
SIGNAL FLOW-- OUTPUTS
1/99
31
32
0dB
+12dB engaged
0dB
0dB
to ‘A’
to ‘A’
to ‘A’ ‘A’
LINE IN, Channels 7–14 +4 (dBu) / –10 (dBV)
Unity gain
+22dBu max in
LINE IN, Channels 1–6
45dB gain, TRIM up
15dB loss, TRIM down
+22dBu max in
MIC IN, Channels 1–6
60dB gain, TRIM up
0dB gain, TRIM down
+22dBu max in
–15dB down
HIGH
+15db up
+10dB up
PAN
AUX SEND
AUX MIX
C
OUTPUT
0dB
OUTPUT
0dB
+22dBu max out
Master AUX SEND
+10dB up
to ‘C’
+22dBu max out
0dB
–4dB center
CONTROL ROOM / PHONES
Channel AUX SEND
SOURCE Matrix
TAPE IN 6dB Boost
FADER
‘B’
+10dB up
C-R/PHONES MIX C-R/PHONES FADER
CHANNEL
MAIN MIX, ALT 3–4
From ‘B’
‘D’
EQ
–12dB down
MID
+12dB up
+16dBu max TAPE IN
–15dB down
LOW
+15dB up
MIX
FADER
MAIN MIX
INPUT
+22dBu max in
+10dB up
+28dBu max out (XLR)
AUX RETURN
LEVEL
+20dB up
OUTPUTS
0dB
to ‘D’
to ‘C’
–30dB XLR OUT, PAD engaged
0dB 1/4" Out and RCA Tape Out
+6dB XLR OUT
+22dBu max out (1/4" & RCA)
GAIN STRUCTURE DIAGRAM
SPECIFICATIONS
Main Mix Noise
Common Mode Rejection (CMR)
20Hz–20kHz bandwidth, 1/4" Main out, channels 1–6 Trim
@ unity gain, channel EQs flat, all channels assigned to
Main Mix, channels 1 and 3 Pan left, 2 and 4 Pan right.
Mic in to Insert Send out, max gain
Main Mix fader down, channel faders down: –100.0dBu
Main Mix fader unity, channel faders down: –86.5dBu
(90dB Signal-to-Noise Ratio, ref +4dBu)
Main Mix fader @ unity, channel faders @ unity: –84.5dBu
Total Harmonic Distortion (THD)
1kHz @ +14dBu, 20Hz–20kHz
1kHz:
better than –90dB
Maximum Levels
Mic in:
Tape in:
All other inputs:
Main Mix XLR out:
All other outputs:
+22dBu
+16dBu
+22dBu
+28dBu
+22dBu
Impedances
Mic in to Main out: 0.0007%
Attenuation (Crosstalk)
1kHz relative to 0dBu, 20Hz–20kHz
bandwidth, Line in, 1⁄4" Main Out, Trim @ unity
Main fader down:
Channel Alt / Mute switch engaged:
Channel fader down:
–85dBu
–84dBu
–83dBu
Mic in:
Channel Insert return:
All other inputs:
Tape out:
All other outputs:
EQ
High Shelving:
Mid Peaking:
Low Shelving:
Frequency Response
Mic input to any output
20Hz to 60kHz:
20Hz to 100kHz:
+0dB/–1dB
+0dB/–3dB
Equivalent Input Noise (EIN)
+/–15db @ 12kHz
+/–12dB @ 2.5kHz
+/–15db @ 80Hz
Power Consumption
120VAC, 50/60Hz, 25 watts
Mic in to Insert Send out, max gain
Fuse Rating
150 ohm termination:
120V:
220–240V:
500mA slo blo, 5 x 20mm
250mA slo blo, 5 x 20mm
2.9"
(7.4cm)
–129.5dBm unweighted
1.3 kilohms
2.5 kilohms
10 kilohms or greater
1.1 kilohms
120 ohms
2.9"
(7.4cm)
WEIGHT
9.5 lbs.
(4.5 kg.)
13.1" (33.27cm)
12.9" (32.8cm)
8 rack spaces
14" (35.6cm)
Mackie Designs is always striving to improve our mixers by incorporating new and improved
materials, components and manufacturing methods. Because we’re always trying to make things
better, we reserve the right to change these specifications at any time, without notice.
33
SERVICE INFO
Details concerning Warranty Service are
spelled out on the Warranty Card included with
your mixer (if it’s missing, let us know and we’ll
rush one to you).
If you think your 1402-VLZ PRO has a problem, please do everything you can to confirm it
before calling for service. Doing so might save
you from the deprivation of your mixer and the
associated suffering.
Of all Mackie products returned for service
(which is hardly any at all), roughly 50% are
coded “CND” — Could Not Duplicate, which
usually means the problem lay somewhere other
than the mixer. These may sound obvious to
you, but here’s some things you can check:
TROUBLESHOOTING
Bad Channel
• Is the MUTE/ALT 3–4 switch in the
correct position?
• Is the fader turned up?
• Try unplugging any INSERT devices
(Channels 1–6 only).
• Try the same source signal in another
channel, set up exactly like the
suspect channel.
Bad Output
• Is the associated level control (if any)
turned up?
• If it’s one of the Main outputs, try unplugging all the others. For example, if it’s the
1⁄4" Left Main out, unplug the RCA and XLR
Left outputs. If the problem goes away its
not the mixer.
• If it’s a stereo pair, try switching them
around. For example, if a left output is
presumed dead, switch the left and right
cords, at the mixer end. If the problem
stays on the left it’s not the mixer.
Noise
• Turn the channel fader and AUX
RETURN knobs down, one by one. If the
sound disappears, it’s either that channel or whatever is plugged into it, so
unplug whatever that is. If the noise
disappears, it’s from your whatever.
Power
• Our favorite question: Is the POWER
switch on?
• Check the fuse .
34
REPAIR
Service for the U.S. version of the 1402-VLZ
PRO is available only from Mackie Designs, located in sunny Woodinville, Washington.
(Service for mixers living outside the United
States can be obtained through local dealers
or distributors.) If your mixer needs service,
follow these instructions:
1. Review the preceding troubleshooting
suggestions. Please.
2. Call Tech Support at 1-800-258-6883, 8am
to 5pm PST, to explain the problem and
request an RA number. Have your mixer’s
serial number ready. You must have a
Return Authorization number, or we
may refuse the delivery.
3. Set aside the power cord, owner’s manual,
or anything else that you’ll ever want to see
again. We are responsible for the return of
the mixer only.
4. Pack the mixer in its original package,
including endcaps and box. This is VERY
IMPORTANT. When you call for the RA
number, please let Tech Support know if
you need a new box. Mackie is not responsible for any damage that occurs due to
non-factory packaging.
5. Include a legible note stating your name,
shipping address (no P.O. boxes), daytime
phone number, RA number and a detailed
description of the problem, including how
we can duplicate it.
6. Write the RA number in BIG PRINT on top
of the box.
7. Ship the mixer to us. We recommend
United Parcel Service (UPS). We suggest
insurance for all forms of cartage. Ship to
this address:
Mackie Designs
SERVICE DEPARTMENT
16220 Wood-Red Rd. NE
Woodinville, WA 98072
8. We’ll try to fix the mixer within three
business days. Ask Tech Support for the
latest turn-around times when you call for
your RA number. We normally send everything back prepaid using UPS BLUE
(Second Day Air). However, if you rush
your mixer to us by Next Day Air, we’ll ship
it back to you UPS RED (Next Day Air).
This paragraph does not necessarily apply
to non-warranty service.
APPENDIX A: GLOSSARY
This Glossary contains brief definitions of
many of the audio and electronic terms used in
discussions of sound mixing and recording. Many
of the terms have other meanings or nuances or
very rigorous technical definitions which we have
sidestepped here because we figure you already
have a lot on your mind. If you’d like to get more
information, you can call Mix Bookshelf at 1-800233-9604. We recommend the following titles: The
Audio Dictionary, by Glenn White; Tech Terms,
by Peterson & Oppenheimer; Handbook for
Sound Engineers, by Glen Ballou, Mackie Mixer
Book by Rudy Trubitt and Sound Reinforcement
Handbook, by Gary Davis.
AFL
An acronym for After Fade Listen, which is
another way of saying post-fader solo function.
assign
In sound mixers, assign means to switch or
route a signal to a particular signal path or
combination of signal paths.
attenuate
To reduce or make quieter.
aux
See next entry.
auxiliary
In sound mixers, supplemental equipment
or features that provide additional capabilities
to the basic system. Examples of auxiliary
equipment include: serial processors (equalizers, compressors, limiters, gates) and parallel
devices (reverberation and delay). Most mixers have aux send buses and aux return inputs
to accommodate auxiliary equipment.
balanced
In a classic balanced audio circuit, the two
legs of the circuit (+ and –) are isolated from
the circuit ground by exactly the same impedance. Additionally, each leg may carry the signal
at exactly the same level but with opposite polarity with respect to ground. In some balanced
circuits, only one leg actually carries the signal
but both legs exhibit the same impedance characteristics with respect to ground. Balanced
input circuits can offer excellent rejection of
common-mode noise induced into the line and
also make proper (no ground loops) system
grounding easier. Usually terminated with 1⁄4"
TRS or XLR connectors.
bandwidth
The band of frequencies that pass through a
device with a loss of less than 3dB, expressed
in Hertz or in musical octaves. Also see Q.
bus
An electrical connection common to three
or more circuits. In mixer design, a bus usually
carries signals from a number of inputs to a
mixing amplifier, just like a city bus carries
people from a number of neighborhoods to
their jobs.
Cannon
A manufacturer of electrical connectors
who first popularized the three-pin connector
now used universally for balanced microphone
connections. In sound work, a Cannon connector is taken to mean a Cannon XLR-3 mic
connector or any compatible connector.
cardioid
Means heart-shaped. In sound work, cardioid refers to the shape of the sensitivity
pattern of some directional microphones.
channel
A functional path in an audio circuit: an
input channel, an output channel, a recording
channel, the left channel and so on.
channel strip
The physical representation of an audio
channel on the front panel of a mixer; usually
a long, vertical strip of controls.
chorusing
An effect available in some digital delay
effects units and reverbs. Chorusing involves a
number of moving delays and pitch shifting,
usually panned across a stereo field. Depending on how used, it can be lovely or grotesque.
clipping
A cause of severe audio distortion that is
the result of excessive gain requiring the peaks
of the audio signal to rise above the capabilities of the amplifier circuit. Seen on an
oscilloscope, the audio peaks appear clipped
off. To avoid distortion, reduce the system gain
in or before the gain stage in which the clipping occurs. See also headroom.
35
condenser
dBV
Another term for the electronic component
generally known as a capacitor. In audio,
condenser usually refers to a type of microphone that uses a capacitor as the sound
pickup element. Condenser microphones
require electrical power to run internal amplifiers and maintain an electrical charge on the
capacitor. They are typically powered by internal batteries or “phantom power” supplied by
an external source, such as a mixing console.
A unit of measurement of audio signal level
in an electrical circuit, expressed in decibels
referenced to 1 VRMS across any impedance.
Commonly used to describe signal levels in
consumer equipment. To convert dBV to dBu,
add 2.2dB.
console
A term for a sound mixer, usually a large
desk-like mixer.
cueing
In broadcast, stage and post-production
work, to “cue up” a sound source (a record, a
sound effect on a CD, a song on a tape) means
to get it ready for playback by making sure you
are in the right position on the “cue,” making
sure the level and EQ are all set properly. This
requires a special monitoring circuit that only
the mixing engineer hears. It does not go out
on the air or to the main mixing buses. This
“cueing” circuit is the same as pre-fader (PFL)
solo on a Mackie mixer, and often the terms
are interchangeable.
dB
See decibel
dBm
A unit of measurement of audio signal level
in an electrical circuit, expressed in decibels
referenced to 1 milliwatt. The “m” in dBm
stands for “milliwatt.” In a circuit with an impedance of 600 ohms, this reference (0dBm)
corresponds to a signal voltage of 0.775 VRMS
(because 0.775 V across 600 ohms equals
1mw).
dBu
A unit of measurement of audio signal level
in an electrical circuit, expressed in decibels
referenced to 0.775 VRMS into any impedance.
Commonly used to describe signal levels
within a modern audio system.
dBv
A unit of measurement equal to the dBu but
no longer in use. It was too easy to confuse a
dBv with a dBV, to which it is not equivalent.
decibel (dB)
The dB is a ratio of quantities measured in
similar terms using a logarithmic scale. Many
audio system parameters measure over such a
large range of values that the dB is used to
simplify the numbers. A ratio of
1000V:1V=60dB. When one of the terms in the
ratio is an agreed upon standard value such as
0.775V, 1V or 1mw, the ratio becomes an absolute value, i.e., +4dBu, –10dBV or 0dBm.
delay
In sound work, delay usually refers to an
electronic circuit or effects unit whose purpose it is to delay the audio signal for some
short period of time. Delay can refer to one
short repeat, a series of repeats or the complex
interactions of delay used in chorusing or reverb. When delayed signals are mixed back
with the original sound, a great number of
audio effects can be generated, including phasing and flanging, doubling, Haas-effect
positioning, slap or slapback, echo, regenerative echo, chorusing and hall-like
reverberation. Signal time delay is central to
many audio effects units.
detent
A point of slight physical resistance (a clickstop) in the travel of a knob or slide control,
used in Mackie mixers to indicate unity gain.
dipping
The opposite of peaking, of course. A dip is
an EQ curve that looks like a valley, or a dip.
Dipping with an equalizer reduces a band of
frequencies. (See guacamole.)
doubling
A delay effect, where the original signal is
mixed with a medium (20 to 50 msec) delay.
When used carefully, this effect can simulate
double-tracking (recording a voice or instrument twice).
dry
Usually means without reverberation, or
without some other applied effect like delay or
chorusing. Dry is not wet, i.e. totally unaffected.
36
dynamic
EQ curve
In sound work, dynamic refers to the class
of microphones that generate electrical signals
by the movement of a coil in a magnetic field.
Dynamic microphones are rugged, relatively
inexpensive, capable of very good performance
and do not require external power.
A graph of the response of an equalizer,
with frequency on the x (horizontal) axis and
amplitude (level) on the y (vertical) axis.
Equalizer types and effects are often named after the shape of the graphed response curve,
such as peak, dip, shelf, notch, knee and so on.
dynamic range
equalization
The range between the maximum and minimum sound levels that a sound system can
handle. It is usually expressed in decibels as
the difference between the level at peak clipping and the level of the noise floor.
Equalization (EQ) refers to purposefully
changing the frequency response of a circuit,
sometimes to correct for previous unequal response (hence the term, equalization), and
more often to add or subtract level at certain
frequencies for sound enhancement, to remove
extraneous sounds, or to create completely
new and different sounds.
Bass and treble controls on your stereo are
EQ; so are the units called parametrics and
graphics and notch filters.
A lot of how we refer to equalization has to
do with what a graph of the frequency response would look like. A flat response (no
EQ) is a straight line; a peak looks like a hill, a
dip is a valley, a notch is a really skinny valley,
and a shelf looks like a plateau (or a shelf).
The slope is the grade of the hill on the graph.
Graphic equalizers have enough frequency
slider controls to form a graph of the EQ right
on the front panel. Parametric EQs let you vary
several EQ parameters at once. A filter is simply a form of equalizer that allows certain
frequencies through unmolested while reducing or eliminating other frequencies.
Aside from the level controls, EQs are probably the second most powerful controls on any
mixer (no, the power switch doesn’t count!).
echo
The reflection of sound from a surface such
as a wall or a floor. Reverberation and echo are
terms that can be used interchangeably, but in
audio parlance a distinction is usually made:
echo is considered to be a distinct, recognizable repetition (or series of repetitions) of a
word, note, phrase or sound, whereas reverberation is a diffuse, continuously smooth
decay of sound. Echo and reverberation can be
added in sound mixing by sending the original
sound to an electronic (or electronic/acoustic)
system that mimics natural echoes, and then
some. The added echo is returned to the blend
through additional mixer inputs. Highly echoic
rooms are called live; rooms with very little
echo are called dead. A sound source without
added echo is dry; one with reverb or echo
added is wet.
effects devices
External signal processors used to add reverb, delay, spatial or psychoacoustic effects to
an audio signal. An effects processor may be
used as an insert processor (serial) on a particular input or subgroup, or it may be used via
the aux send/return system(parallel). See also
echo, reverb.
fader
EIN
family of curves
Equivalent Input Noise. Specification that
helps measure the “quietness” of a gain stage by
deriving the equivalent input noise voltage necessary to obtain a given preamp's output noise.
Typically ranges from –125 to –129.5 dBm.
A composite graph showing on one chart
several examples of possible EQ curves for a
given equalizer or equalizer section.
Another name for an audio level control. Today, the term refers to a straight-line slide
control rather than a rotary control.
EQ
See equalization
37
filter
graphic EQ
A simple equalizer designed to remove certain ranges of frequencies. A low-cut filter
(also called a high-pass filter) reduces or
eliminates frequencies below its cutoff frequency. There are also high-cut (low-pass)
filters, bandpass filters, which cut both high
and low frequencies but leave a band of frequencies in the middle untouched, and notch
filters, which remove a narrow band but leave
the high and low frequencies alone.
A graphic equalizer uses slide pots for its
boost/cut controls, with its frequencies evenly
spaced through the audio spectrum. In a perfect world, a line drawn through the centers of
the control shafts would form a graph of the
frequency response curve. Get it? Or, the positions of the slide pots give a graphic
representation of boost or cut levels across the
frequency spectrum.
flanging
ground
The measure of how much a circuit amplifies a signal. Gain may be stated as a ratio of
input to output values, such as a voltage gain
of 4, or a power gain of 1.5, or it can be expressed in decibels, such as a line amplifier
with a gain of 10dB.
Also called earth. Ground is defined as the
point of zero voltage in a circuit or system, the
reference point from which all other voltages
are measured. In electrical systems, ground
connections are used for safety purposes, to
keep equipment chassis and controls at zero
voltage and to provide a safe path for errant
currents. This is called a safety ground.
Maintaining a good safety ground is always
essential to prevent electrical shock. Follow
manufacturer’s suggestions and good electrical
practices to ensure a safely grounded system.
Never remove or disable the grounding pin on
the power cord.
In computer and audio equipment, tiny currents and voltages can cause noise in the
circuits and hamper operation. In addition to
providing safety, ground provisions in these
situations serve to minimize the pickup, detection and distribution of these tiny noise
signals. This type of ground is often called
technical ground.
Quality audio equipment is designed to
maintain a good technical ground and also operate safely with a good safety ground. If you
have noise in your system due to technical
grounding problems, check your manual for
wiring tips or call technical support. Never disable the safety ground to reduce noise
problems.
gain stage
ground loop
An amplification point in a signal path,
either within a system or a single device.
Overall system gain is distributed between
the various gain stages.
A ground loop occurs when the technical
ground within an audio system is connected to
the safety ground at more than one place. Two
or more connections will allow tiny currents to
flow in the loops created, possibly inducing
noise (hum) in the audio system. If you have
noise in your system due to ground loops, check
your manual for wiring tips or call technical
support. Never disable the safety ground to reduce noise problems.
A term for phasing. Before digital delay effects units, phasing could be accomplished by
playing two tape machines in synchronization,
then delaying one slightly by rubbing a finger
on the reel flange. Get it?
FOH
An acronym for Front Of House. See house
and main house speakers.
frequency
The number of times an event repeats itself
in a given period. Sound waves and the electrical signals that represent sound waves in an
audio circuit have repetitive patterns that
range from a frequency of about 20 repetitions
per second to about 20,000 repetitions per second. Sound is the vibration or combination of
vibrations in this range of 20 to 20,000 repetitions per second, which gives us the sensation
of pitch, harmonics, tone and overtones. Frequency is measured in units called Hertz (Hz).
One Hertz is one repetition or cycle per second.
gain
38
Haas effect
level
A psychoacoustic effect in which the time of
arrival of a sound to the left and right ears affects our perception of direction. If a signal is
presented to both ears at the same time at the
same volume, it appears to be directly in front
of us. But if the signal to one ear, still at the
same volume, is delayed slightly (0 to 5 msec),
the sound appears to be coming from the earlier (non-delayed) side.
Another word for signal voltage, power,
strength or volume. Audio signals are sometimes classified according to their level.
Commonly used levels are: microphone level
(–40dBu or lower), instrument level (–20 to
–10dBu), and line level (–10 to +30dBu).
line level
A signal whose level falls between –10dBu
and +30dBu.
headroom
main house speakers
The difference between nominal operating
level and peak clipping in an audio system. For
example, a mixer operating with a nominal line
level of +4dBu and a maximum output level of
+22dBu has 18dB of headroom. Plenty of room
for surprise peaks.
The main loudspeakers for a sound reinforcement system. These are usually the
largest and loudest loudspeakers, and are usually positioned so that their sound seems to
come from the area of the main stage.
Hertz
mains
See main house speakers.
The unit of measure for frequency of oscillation, equal to 1 cycle per second. Abbreviated
Hz. KHz is pronounced “kay-Hertz” and is an
abbreviation for kilohertz, or 1000 Hertz.
master
house
mic amp
In Sound Reinforcement parlance, “house”
refers to the systems (and even persons) responsible for the primary sound reinforcement
in a given hall, building, arena or “house.” Hence
we have the house mixer or house engineer, the
house mix, the house mix amps, the main house
speakers and so on.
Hz
See Hertz.
impedance
The A.C. resistance/capacitance/inductance
in an electrical circuit, measured in ohms. In
audio circuits (and other AC circuits) the impedance in ohms can often be much different
from the circuit resistance as measured by a
DC ohmmeter.
Maintaining proper circuit impedance relationships is important to avoid distortion and
minimize added noise. Mackie input and output
impedances are set to work well with the vast
majority of audio equipment.
input module
A holdover from the days when the only way
that real consoles were built was in modular fashion, one channel per module. See channel strip.
A control affecting the final output of a mixer.
A mixer may have several master controls, which
may be slide faders or rotary controls.
See mic preamp.
mic level
The typical level of a signal from a microphone. A mic level signal (usually but not
always coming from a microphone) is generally below –30dBu. With a very quiet source (a
pin dropping?) the signal can be –70dBu or
lower. It is also possible for some microphones
to deliver more signal than this, in which case
it may be referred to as a “hot” mic level. Alternatively, you can just say, “Boy, is that loud!”
mic pre
See mic preamp.
mic preamp
Short for microphone preamplifier. An amplifier that functions to bring the very low signal
level of a microphone (approximately –50dBu)
up to line level (approximately 0dBu). Mic
preamps often have their own volume control,
called a trim control, to properly set the gain for
a particular source. Setting the mic preamp
gain correctly with the trim control is an essential step in establishing good noise and
headroom for your mix.
knee
A knee is a sharp bend in an EQ response
curve not unlike the sharp bend in your leg.
Also used in describing dynamics processors.
39
mixer
noise floor
An electronic device used to combine
various audio signals into a common output.
Different from a blender, which combines various fruits into a common libation.
The residual level of noise in any system.
In a well designed mixer, the noise floor will
be a quiet hiss, which is the thermal noise
generated by bouncing electrons in the transistor junctions. The lower the noise floor and
the higher the headroom, the more usable dynamic range a system has.
monaural
Literally, pertaining to or having the use of
only one ear. In sound work, monaural has to do
with a signal which, for purposes of communicating audio information, has been confined to a
single channel. One microphone is a mono
pickup; many microphones mixed to one channel is a mono mix; a mono signal played through
two speakers is still mono, since it only carries
one channel of information. Several monaural
sources, however, can be panned into a stereo
(or at least two-channel, if you are going to be
picky) mix. Monaural SR is common for environments where stereo SR would provide an
uneven reproduction to the listener.
monitor
In sound reinforcement, monitor speakers
(or monitor headphones or in-the-ear monitors) are those speakers used by the
performers to hear themselves. Monitor speakers are also called foldback speakers. In
recording, the monitor speakers are those used
by the production staff to listen to the recording as it progresses. In zoology, the monitor
lizard is the lizard that observes the production staff as the recording progresses. Keep the
lizard out of the mixer.
mono
Short for monaural.
mult
Probably short for multiple. In audio work,
a mult is a parallel connection in a patch bay
or a connection made with patch cords to
feed an output to more than one input. A “Y”
cable is a type of mult connection. Also a
verb, as in “Why did you mult the flanger into
every input in the board?”
noise
Whatever you don’t want to hear. Could be
hum, buzz or hiss; could be crosstalk or digital
hash or your neighbor’s stereo; could be white
noise or pink noise or brown noise; or it could
be your mother-in-law reliving the day she had
her gallstone removed.
40
pan, pan pot
Short for panoramic potentiometer. A pan
pot is used to position (or even move back and
forth) a monaural sound source in a stereo mixing field by adjusting the source’s volume
between the left and right channels. Our brains
sense stereo position by hearing this difference
in loudness when the sound strikes each ear,
taking into account time delay, spectrum, ambient reverberation and other cues.
parametric EQ
A “fully” parametric EQ is an extremely
powerful equalizer that allows smooth, continuous control of each of the three primary
EQ parameters (frequency, gain, and bandwidth) in each section independently. “Semi”
parametric EQs allow control of fewer parameters, usually frequency and gain (i.e., they
have a fixed bandwidth, but variable center
frequency and gain).
peaking
The opposite of dipping, of course. A peak is
an EQ curve that looks like a hill, or a peak.
Peaking with an equalizer amplifies a band of
frequencies.
PFL
An acronym for Pre Fade Listen. Broadcasters would call it cueing. Sound folks call it being
able to solo a channel with the fader down.
phantom power
A system of providing electrical power for
condenser microphones (and some electronic
pickup devices) from the sound mixer. The system is called phantom because the power is
carried on standard microphone audio wiring in
a way that is “invisible” to ordinary dynamic microphones. Mackie mixers use standard +48
volt DC power, switchable on or off. Most quality
condenser microphones are designed to use +48
VDC phantom power. Check the manufacturer’s
recommendations.
Generally, phantom power is safe to use with
non-condenser microphones as well, especially
dynamic microphones. However, unbalanced
microphones, some electronic equipment (such
as some wireless microphone receivers) and
some ribbon microphones can short out the
phantom power and be severely damaged.
Check the manufacturer’s recommendations
and be careful!
phasing
A delay effect, where the original signal is
mixed with a short (0 to 10 msec) delay. The
time of the delay is slowly varied, and the
combination of the two signals results in a dramatic moving comb-filter effect. Phasing is
sometimes imitated by sweeping a comb-filter
EQ across a signal. A comb filter can be found
in your back pocket.
phone jack
Ever see those old telephone switchboards
with hundreds of jacks and patch cords and
plugs? Those are phone jacks and plugs, now
used widely with musical instruments and audio
equipment. A phone jack is the female connector,
and we use them in 1⁄4" two-conductor (TS) and
three-conductor (TRS) versions.
phone plug
The male counterpart to the phone jack,
right above.
phono jack
See RCA phono jack.
phono plug
See RCA phono plug.
post-fader
A term used to describe an aux send
(usually) that is connected so that it is affected by the setting of the associated channel
fader. Sends connected this way are typically
(but not always) used for effects. See prefader.
pot, potentiometer
In electronics, a variable resistor that varies
the potential, or voltage. In audio, any rotary
or slide control.
pre-fader
A term used to describe an aux send
(usually) that is connected so that it is not
affected by the setting of the associated channel fader. Sends connected this way are
typically (but not always) used for monitors
(foldback). See post-fader.
proximity effect
The property of many directional microphones to accentuate their bass response
when the source-to-mic distance is small,
typically three inches or less. Singers generally like this effect even more than singing in
the shower.
Q
A way of stating the bandwidth of a filter or
equalizer section. An EQ with a Q of .75 is broad
and smooth, while a Q of 10 gives a narrow,
pointed response curve. To calculate the
value of Q, you must know the center frequency of the EQ section and the frequencies
at which the upper and lower skirts fall 3dB
below the level of the center frequency. Q
equals the center frequency divided by the
difference between the upper and lower –3dB
frequencies. A peaking EQ centered at 10kHz
whose –3dB points are 7.5kHz and 12.5kHz
has a Q of 2.
RCA phono jack—or RCA jack
or phono jack
An RCA phono jack is an inexpensive connector (female) introduced by RCA and
originally used to connect phonographs to radio
receivers and phono preamplifiers. The phono
jack was (and still is) widely used on consumer
stereo equipment and video equipment but was
quietly fading into obscurity in the professional
and semi-professional sound world. Then phono
jacks began cropping up in early project-studio
multitrack recorders, which (unfortunately)
gave them a new lease on life since so many
stereo recorders are fitted with them we decided we’d have to put a couple on our mixers
for your convenience. But make no mistake: the
only thing that the phono jack (or plug) has
going for it is low cost.
RCA phono plug
The male counterpart to an RCA phono
jack. See above.
regeneration
Also called recirculation. A delay effect created by feeding the output of a delay back into
itself to cause a delay of the delay of the delay.
You can do it right on the front panel of many
effects units, or you can route the delay return
back into itself on your mixer. Can be a great
deal of fun at parties.
41
return
A return is a mixer line input dedicated to
the task of returning processed or added
sound from reverb, echo and other effects devices. Depending on the internal routing of
your mixer and your own inclination, you
could use returns as additional line inputs, or
you could route your reverb outputs to ordinary line inputs rather than the returns.
reverberation, reverb
The sound remaining in a room after the
source of sound is stopped. It’s what you hear
in a large tiled room immediately after you’ve
clapped your hands. Reverberation and echo
are terms that can be used interchangeably,
but in audio parlance a distinction is usually
made: reverberation is considered to be a diffuse, continuously smooth decay of sound,
whereas echo is a distinct, recognizable repetition of a word, note, phrase or sound.
Reverberation and echo can be added in sound
mixing by sending the original sound to an
electronic (or electronic/acoustic) system that
mimics natural reverberation, or worse. The
added reverb is returned to the blend through
additional mixer inputs. Highly reverberant
rooms are called live; rooms with very little reverberation are called dead. A sound source
without added reverb is dry; one with reverb or
echo added is wet.
RMS
An acronym for root mean square, a conventional way to measure AC voltage and audio
signal voltage. Most AC voltmeters are calibrated to read RMS volts. Other conventions
include average volts, peak volts and peak-topeak volts.
send
A term used to describe a secondary mix
and output of the input signals, typically used
for foldback monitors, headphone monitors or
effects devices. Mackie mixers call it an Aux
Send.
shelving
A term used to describe the shape of an
equalizer’s frequency response. A shelving
equalizer’s response begins to rise (or fall) at
some frequency and continues to fall (or rise)
42
until it reaches the shelf frequency, at which
point the response curve flattens out and remains flat to the limits of audibility. If you were
to graph the response, it would look like a shelf.
Or more like a shelf than a hiking boot. The EQ
controls on your stereo are usually shelving
equalizers. See also peaking and dipping.
slap, slapback
A single-delay echo without any repeats.
Also see echo.
solo
Italian for alone. In audio mixers, a solo circuit allows the engineer to listen to individual
channels, buses or other circuits singly or in
combination with other soloed signals.
SR
An acronym for Sound Reinforcement,
which refers to a system of amplifying acoustic
and electronic sounds from a performance or
speech so that a large audience can hear
clearly. Or, in popular music, so that a large audience can be excited, stunned or even
partially deafened by the tremendous amplification. Means essentially the same thing as PA
(Public Address).
stereo
Believe it or not, stereo comes from a Greek
word that means solid. We use stereo or
stereophony to describe the illusion of a continuous, spacious soundfield that is seemingly
spread around the listener by two or more related audio signals. In practice, stereo often is
taken to simply mean two channesl.
sweep EQ
An equalizer that allows you to “sweep” or
continuously vary the frequency of one or
more sections.
symmetrically balanced
See balanced.
tinnitus
The ringing in the ears that is produced
with prolonged exposure to high volumes. A
sound in the ears, such as buzzing, ringing, or
whistling, caused by volume knob abuse!
trim
VLZ
In audio mixers, the gain adjustment for the
first amplification stage of the mixer. The trim
control helps the mixer cope with the widely
varying range of input signals that come from
real-world sources. It is important to set the
trim control correctly; its setting determines
the overall noise performance in that channel
of the mixer. See mic preamp.
Acronym for very low impedance.
(Impedence is measured in ohms represented
by the Ω symbol, which is the last letter of the
Greek alphabet. This is how the letter Z is
used instead of I.) VLZ is one of the most important reasons why inherent noise levels on
Mackie mixing boards are so minuscule. Thermal noise is something that’s created by all
circuitry and usually transistors and resistors
are the worst culprits. The basic rule with
thermal noise is: the higher the impedance,
the more the noise. Mackie’s VLZ design reduces thermal noise by making internal
impedances as low as possible in as many
places as possible within the console. VLZ is
achieved by scaling down resistor values by a
factor of three or four – resulting in a corresponding reduction in thermal noise. This is
especially true for the console’s mixing buses.
TRS
Acronym for Tip-Ring-Sleeve, a scheme for
connecting three conductors through a single
plug or jack. 1⁄4" phone plugs and jacks and 1⁄ 8"
mini phone plugs and jacks are commonly
wired TRS. Since the plug or jack can carry
two signals and a common ground, TRS connectors are often referred to as stereo or
balanced plugs or jacks. Another common TRS
application is for insert jacks, used for inserting an external processor into the signal path.
In Mackie mixers the tip is send, ring is return,
and sleeve is ground.
TS
Acronym for Tip-Sleeve, a scheme for connecting two conductors through a single plug
or jack. 1⁄4" phone plugs and jacks and 1⁄8" mini
phone plugs and jacks are commonly wired TS.
Sometimes called mono or unbalanced plugs
or jacks. A 1⁄4" TS phone plug or jack is also
called a standard phone plug or jack.
unbalanced
volume
Electrical or sound level in an audio system.
Perhaps the only thing that some bands have too
much of.
VRMS
See RMS.
wet
With added reverberation or other effect
like echo, delay or chorusing.
XLR connector
See Cannon.
An electrical circuit in which the two legs of
the circuit are not balanced with respect to
ground. Usually, one leg will be held at ground
potential. Unbalanced circuit connections require only two conductors (signal “hot” and
ground). Unbalanced audio circuitry is less
expensive to build but under certain circumstances is more susceptible to noise pickup.
unity gain
A circuit or system that has its voltage gain
adjusted to be one, or unity. A signal will leave a
unity gain circuit at the same level at which it
entered. In Mackie mixers, unity gain is
achieved by setting all variable controls to the
marked “U” setting. Mackie mixers are optimized for best headroom and noise figures at
unity gain.
43
APPENDIX B: CONNECTIONS
“XLR” CONNECTORS
Mackie mixers use 3-pin female “XLR”
connectors on all microphone inputs, with
pin 1 wired to the grounded (earthed) shield,
pin 2 wired to the “high” (”hot” or positive polarity) side of the audio signal and pin 3
wired to the “low” (“cold” or negative polarity) side of the signal (Figure A). All totally
aboveboard and in full accord with the hallowed standards dictated by the AES (Audio
Engineering Society).
Use a male “XLR”-type connector, usually
found on the nether end of what is called a
“mic cable,” to connect to a female XLR jack.
2
SHIELD
HOT
COLD
SHIELD
COLD 3
HOT
1
3
1
3
1
2
SHIELD
COLD
2
HOT
1⁄ 4"
Figure A: XLR Connectors
1⁄ 4 "
TRS PHONE PLUGS AND JACKS
“TRS” stands for Tip-Ring-Sleeve, the three
connections available on a “stereo” 1⁄4" or
“balanced” phone jack or plug. See Figure B.
TRS jacks and plugs are used in several
different applications:
• Stereo Headphones, and rarely, stereo
microphones and stereo line connections.
When wired for stereo, a 1⁄4" TRS jack or
RING SLEEVE
plug is connected tip to left, ring to right
and sleeve to ground (earth). Mackie
mixers do not directly accept 1-plug-type
stereo microphones. They must be separated into a left cord and a right cord,
which are plugged into the two mic
preamps.
You can cook up your own adapter for a
stereo microphone adapter. “Y” two cables
out of a female 1⁄4" TRS jack to two male
XLR plugs, one for the Right signal and one
for the Left.
• Balanced mono circuits. When wired as a
balanced connector, a 1⁄4" TRS jack or plug is
connected tip to signal high (hot), ring to
signal low (cold), and sleeve to ground
(earth).
• Unbalanced Send/Return circuits. When
wired as send/return “Y” connector, a 1⁄4"
TRS jack or plug is connected tip to signal
send (output from mixer), ring to signal
return (input back into mixer), and sleeve
to ground (earth).
TS PHONE PLUGS AND JACKS
“TS” stands for Tip-Sleeve, the two connections available on a “mono” 1⁄4" phone jack or
plug (Figure C). TS jacks and plugs are used in
many different applications, always unbalanced.
The tip is connected to the audio signal and the
sleeve to ground (earth). Some examples:
• Unbalanced microphones
• Electric guitars and electronic instruments
• Unbalanced line-level connections
SLEEVE RING TIP
SLEEVE
TIP
TIP
TIP
SLEEVE
SLEEVE
44
TIP
TIP
RING
Figure B: 1⁄4" TRS Plugs
SLEEVE
Figure C: TS Plug
SWITCHED 1⁄4" PHONE JACKS
Switches can be incorporated into 1⁄4"
phone jacks, which are activated by inserting
the plug. These switches may open an insert
loop in a circuit, change the input routing of
the signal or serve other functions. Mackie
uses switches in the channel insert and bus insert jacks, input jacks and AUX returns. We
also use these switches to ground the line-level
inputs when nothing is plugged into them.
In most cases, the plug must be inserted
fully to activate the switch. Mackie takes
advantage of this in some circuits, specifying
circumstances where you are to insert the plug
only partially. See Special Mackie
Connections, later in this section.
RCA PLUGS AND JACKS
RCA-type plugs (also known as phono
plugs) and jacks are often used in home stereo
and video equipment and in many other applications
SLEEVE TIP SLEEVE TIP
(Figure D).
They are
unbalanced
Figure D: RCA Plug
and electrically identical to a 1⁄4" TS phone plug or jack
(See Figure C). Connect the signal to the center post and the ground (earth) or shield to
the surrounding “basket.”
UNBALANCING A LINE
In most studio, stage and sound reinforcement situations, there is a combination of
balanced and unbalanced inputs and outputs
on the various pieces of equipment. This usually will not be a problem in making
connections.
• When connecting a balanced output to an
unbalanced input, be sure the signal high
(hot) connections are wired to each other,
and that the balanced signal low (cold)
goes to the ground (earth) connection at
the unbalanced input. In most cases, the
balanced ground (earth) will also be
connected to the ground (earth) at the
unbalanced input. If there are ground-loop
problems, this connection may be left
disconnected at the balanced end.
• When connecting an unbalanced output to a
balanced input, be sure that the signal high
(hot) connections are wired to each other.
The unbalanced ground (earth) connection
should be wired to the low (cold) and the
ground (earth) connections of the balanced
input. If there are ground-loop problems, try
connecting the unbalanced ground (earth)
connection only to the input low (cold)
connection, and leaving the input ground
(earth) connection disconnected.
In some cases, you will have to make up special adapters to interconnect your equipment.
For example, you may need a balanced XLR female connected to an unbalanced 1⁄4" TS
phone plug.
SPECIAL MACKIE CONNECTIONS
The balanced-to-unbalanced connection
has been anticipated in the wiring of Mackie
jacks. A 1⁄4" TS plug inserted into a 1⁄4" TRS balanced input, for example, will automatically
unbalance the input and make all the right connections. Conversely, a 1⁄4" TRS plug inserted
into a 1⁄4" unbalanced input will automatically
tie the ring (low or cold) to ground (earth).
TRS Send/Receive Insert Jacks
Mackie’s single-jack inserts are the threeconductor, TRS-type 1⁄4" phone. They are
unbalanced, but have both the mixer output
(send) and the mixer input (return) signals in
one connector (See Figure F).
The sleeve is the common ground (earth) for
both signals. The send from the mixer to the
external unit is carried on the tip, and the return from the unit to the mixer is on the ring.
45
Using the Send Only on an Insert Jack
If you insert a TS (mono) 1⁄4" plug only
partially (to the first click) into a Mackie
insert jack, the plug will not activate the jack
switch and will not open the insert loop in the
circuit (thereby allowing the channel signal to
continue on its merry way through the mixer).
This allows you to tap out the channel or
bus signal at that point in the circuit without
interrupting normal operation.
If you push the 1⁄4" TS plug in to the second
click, you will open the jack switch and create
a direct out, which does interrupt the signal in
that channel. See Figure E.
NOTE: Do not overload or short-circuit the
signal you are tapping
from the mixer. That will
affect the internal signal.
MACKIE STEREO INPUTS AND RETURNS:
Mono, Stereo, Whatever
Stereo line inputs and stereo AUX returns
are a fine example of the Mackie philosophy
(which we just made up) of Maximum Flexibility with Minimum Headache. The inputs
and returns will automatically be mono or stereo, depending upon how you use the jacks.
Here’s how it works:
A mono signal should be patched into the
input or return jack labeled Left (MONO). The
signal will be routed to both the left and right
sides of the return circuit, and will show up in
the center of the stereo pair of buses it’s assigned to, or it can be “panned” with the
Balance control.
A stereo signal, having two plugs, should be
patched into the LEFT (MONO) and the
RIGHT input or return jacks. A jack switch in
the RIGHT jack will disable the mono function, and the signals will show up in stereo.
A mono signal connected to the RIGHT jack
will show up in the right bus only. You probably
will only want to use this sophisticated effect
for special occasions (weddings, bar mitzvahs,
Rush Limbaugh’s birthday party, etc.)
MULTS AND “Y”s
A mult or “Y” connector allows you to route
one output to two or more inputs by simply
providing parallel wiring connections. You can
make “Y”s and mults for the outputs of both
unbalanced and balanced circuits.
Remember: Only mult
or “Y” an output into several inputs. If you need
to combine several outputs into one input, you
must use a mixer, not a mult or a “Y.”
MONO PLUG
Channel Insert jack
Direct out with no signal interruption to master.
Insert only to first “click.”
tip
SEND to processor
ring
sleeve
this plug connects to one of the
mixer’s Channel Insert jacks.
Figure F
MONO PLUG
Channel Insert jack
Direct out with signal interruption to master.
Insert all the way in to the second “click.”
STEREO
PLUG
Channel Insert jack
For use as an effects loop.
(TIP = SEND to effect, RING = RETURN from effect)
Figure E
46
(TRS plug)
“tip”
“ring”
RETURN from processor
APPENDIX C: BALANCED LINES,
PHANTOM POWERING, GROUNDING
AND OTHER ARCANE MYSTERIES
Balanced Lines
What is it, exactly?
Balanced lines offer increased immunity to
external noise (specifically, hum and buzz).
Because a balanced system is able to minimize
noise, it is the preferred interconnect method,
especially in cases where very long lengths of
cable are being used. A long unbalanced cable
carries with it more opportunity for noise to
get into a system — having balanced inputs
means very little noise will enter the system
via snakes and other cables that typically must
run a long length. But regardless of length,
balanced lines are best.
The obvious external power source for any
modern microphone is a battery. About the
only electronic advantage that a battery has is
that its output is pure DC. The only other advantage is to the battery company — you have
to keep on buying them.
Tube microphones require several different
voltages for operation. This invariably means a
multi-conductor cable and non-standard (not
XLR) connectors. A tube microphone will always have an associated external power supply.
In the late 1960’s, Neumann (you know, the
folks that brought you the U47 and U87
microphones) converted its microphones to
solid-state, adopting a system of remote powering that they called, and trademarked,
Phantom Powering. Because of the trademark,
some manufacturers use terms like Simplex
Powering, etc. Over the years, the trademark
has become genericized and now refers to any
device that is powered according to DIN standard 45 596 (or maybe it’s DIN standard 45
595, we’re not exactly sure…).
So, why “Phantom” Powering? Because (like
the Phantom in the old comic strip) it’s there
when you need it, and invisible when you don’t.
This technology is not new; it actually predates
rocket science. Like many other things in audio, it was brought to you by the telephone
company, who used it to get an extra circuit
from a pair of wires. In effect, so does your
phantom powered microphone.
What is important is: phantom powering is
a compatible system. Your dynamic/ribbon
microphones as well as your condenser
microphones work side-by-side, from the
same microphone inputs, without further
thought on your part.
Technically speaking, phantom powering refers to a system where the audio signal is
applied to the balanced line in differentialmode, and the DC power is applied
common-mode. The audio travels via pins 2
and 3, the power travels between pins 2 and 3
simultaneously, and pin 1 is the ground for
both audio and power.
Phantom Powering and Microphones
History
Condenser (capacitor) microphones differ
from dynamic and ribbon microphones because they are not self-generating. That is,
they cannot generate electricity in response to
an impinging sound wave. A condenser microphone modifies an external source of
electricity to reflect the effects of a sound
wave striking its diaphragm.
Dynamic and ribbon microphones use
magnetism to generate electricity in response
to a sound wave: they are self-generating. Furthermore, both of these types of microphones
are inherently low-impedance devices. It is
possible to connect a dynamic microphone element directly to a balanced, low-impedance
mixer input. Many commercially made dynamic microphones do just that.
On the other hand, a condenser microphone
is an inherently high-impedance device. How
high? Verrrrrrry high. On the order of a billion
ohms (1 Gigaohm). This is high enough that
the inherent capacitance of a foot of shielded
cable would audibly reduce the output of the
microphone. All condenser microphones have
an impedance converter, in the form of a
vacuum tube or field-effect transistor (FET),
built into the microphone and located extremely close to the microphone element. The
impedance converter and the microphone element itself require an external power source.1
1
To be strictly correct, electret condenser microphones
are a bit different, as the microphone element does not require
a power source for operation (it is more or less permanently
self-polarized). Regardless, the impedance converter still requires an external source of power.
47
PHANTOM POWER DO & DON’T CHART
DO
If you are plugging in a condenser microphone, do verify that your microphone can
be phantom powered.
Worry about your other microphones as long
as their output is balanced and floating.
Ensure that the microphone’s output is low
impedance, balanced and floating. This is
especially important for vintage ribbon
microphones like the RCA 44BX and 77DX.
Connect microphones or devices that do not
conform to the DIN 45 596 standard.
Mute the sound system when turning the
phantom power on or off, or when connecting or disconnecting microphones. If you
forget, the resulting loud, nasty POP may be
your last.
Don’t connect A-B or T-system microphones
(another remote powering system) without
suitable adaptors.
Microphones that do not require power simply ignore the DC present between pin 2/pin 3
and pin 1. If you measure with a voltmeter
between pin 2 and pin 3, you will read 0 Volts
DC. This is what your dynamic microphone
sees. Measuring between pin 2 and pin 1, or
between pin 3 and pin 1, you will read the
phantom power voltage, usually 48V, without a
microphone connected. The dynamic microphone, as well as your balanced mixer input,
ignores this voltage.
Lately, the term phantom power has been
perverted to refer to any remote powering
system. In the strict sense of the DIN standard,
this is not true. Furthermore, microphones or
transducers that claim to use this system are
not compatible with the DIN standard and will
almost certainly be damaged if connected into
such a system. Fortunately, these systems use
tip-ring-sleeve phone plugs or miniature XLR
connectors and they are usually associated
with instrument pickup applications2.
Phantom powering is defined in DIN standard
45 596 or IEC standard 268–15A. Your Mackie
Designs mixer conforms to this standard.
What works?
To be compatible in a phantom powered
system, a device (microphone, preamp with a
microphone-style output, or direct box) must
have a balanced and floating, low-impedance
output. This includes all microphones commonly used for sound reinforcement and
2
There is another remote powering system called A-B or
T-system powering. It uses pins 2 and 3 to carry both power
and audio. It is not compatible with dynamic microphones or
phantom-powered microphones.
48
DON’T
recording, such as the Shure SM58, SM57,
Electro-Voice RE-15, RE-16, RE-20, ND series,
Beyer M160, M500, AKG D224, D12, D112, and
many others.
If you are fortunate enough to own any tube
condenser microphones, such as the AKG C12,
Neumann U47 or U67, these microphones may
be connected in a phantom powered system
and will operate without regard to the presence
or absence of phantom power. They will always
require their external power supply (which
must be plugged in and turned on).
What doesn’t work?
The list is short:
1. Microphones with unbalanced outputs.
2. Microphones with grounded center-tapped
outputs. Many old ribbon microphones were
supplied connected this way. Have a technician lift the ground from the center tap.
3. High-impedance microphones.
4. Microphones that exhibit leakage
between pin 2 or pin 3 and pin 1. These
microphones will sputter and crackle
when phantom power is applied and will
work fine when you turn off the phantom
power. Get the microphone repaired.
Do’s and Don’ts of Fixed Installations
If you install sound systems into fixed installations, there are a number of things that
you can do to make your life easier and that increase the likelihood of the sound system
operating in a predictable manner. Even if you
don’t do fixed installations, these are good
practices for any sound system, installed.
1. Do use foil-shielded snake cable for long
cable runs. Carefully terminate each end,
minimizing the amount of shielding
removed. Protect the exposed foil shield
with shrink sleeving or PVC sleeving.
Prevent adjacent shields from contacting
each other (electrically). Use insulating
sleeving on the drain wire (the one that
connects to pin 1) to prevent it from
contacting the connector shell.
2. Don’t connect the XLR connector shell to
pin 1 of the XLR connector (unless necessary for RFI shielding). Doing so is an
invitation for a ground loop to come visiting.
3. Do ensure that your speaker lines and AC
power lines are physically separated from
your microphone lines.
4. If you use floor pockets, use separate
pockets for inputs and speakers, or put the
connectors on opposite sides of the box so
that they may be shielded separately.
5. If your speaker lines run in the open, they
should be twisted pairs, at least 6 twists per
foot. Otherwise, run the speaker lines in
their own conduit. (Of course, conduit is
not too practical for portable systems, hehheh.)
6. Minimize the distance between the power
amplifiers and the speakers.
7. Use heavy gauge, stranded wire for speaker
lines. Ideally, the wire resistance should be
less than 6% (0.5dB power loss) of the load
impedance. Remember that the actual run
is twice as long as the physical length of
the run. See below.
Maximum wire run for 0.5dB power loss in feet
wire
res. per
2
4
8
gauge 1000 ft.
Ω
Ω
Ω
10
1.00
60
120
240
12
1.59
40
75
150
14
2.5
24
48
95
16
4.02
15
30
60
8. Ensure that the electrician uses the starground system for the safety grounds in
your electrical system. All of the audio
system grounds should terminate at the
same physical point. No other grounds
may come in contact with this ground
system.
9. Ensure that the AC power feeds are connected to the same transformer, and ideally,
the same circuit breaker.
10. Walk outside – look at the horizon, see any
radio towers? Locate potential sources of RF
interference and plan for them before you
begin construction. Know the frequency,
transmitter power, etc. You can get this
information by calling the station. Remember that many broadcast stations change
antenna coverage pattern and transmitter
power at night.
11. Don’t use hardware-store light dimmers.
12. Don’t allow for anything other than microphone inputs at stage/altar locations.
Supplying line inputs at these locations is
an invitation for misuse. Make all sources
look like microphones to the console.
13. Balance (or at least impedance balance)
all connections that are remote from the
console’s immediate location.
14. If you bridge an amplifier, don’t use 1⁄4"
phone plugs for speaker connectors.
Grounding
Grounding exists in your audio system for
two reasons: product safety and noise reduction. The third wire on the power cord exists
for product safety. It provides a low-resistance
path back to the electrical service to protect
the users of the product from electrical shock.
Hopefully, the resistance to ground through
the safety ground (third wire) is lower than
that through the user/operator to ground. If
you remove this connection (by breaking or
cutting the pin off, or by using a ‘ground
cheater’), this alternate ground path ceases to
exist, which is a safety hazard.
The metal chassis of the product, the
ground connections provided by the various
connectors, and the shields within your connecting cables provide a low potential point for
noise signals. The goal is to provide a lower impedance path to ground for noise signals than
through the signal wiring. Doing so helps minimize hum, buzz, and other extraneous
non-audio signals.
49
Many “authorities” tell you that shields
should only be connected at one end. Sometimes this can be true, but for most (99%)
audio systems, it is unnecessary. If you do everything else correctly, you should be able to
connect every component of your audio system
using standard, off-the-shelf connecting cables
that are available at any music store.
Here are some guidelines:
1. All return lines to the stage should be
balanced. At a minimum, they should be
impedance balanced. Remember that you can
balance a line by inserting a piece of equipment inline that has a balanced output.
8. Don’t cut the third pin off of the power
cord. Carry some ground-lifter adapters
and use them only when you have to plug
into an ancient two-wire outlet.
2. Run your own AC power wiring from the
stage for the mixer and related equipment.
Don’t use the “conveniently located” receptacle thoughtfully provided by the
management for your use. You have no idea
how it’s wired or grounded.
We love to hear what folks have created using our mixers. If you use your 1402-VLZ PRO
to track and/or mix a CD that is commercially
released, we’ll trade you a disc for a genuine
Mackie T-Shirt! By “commercially released,”
we mean “offered for sale,” even if it’s just being sold out the back door of a local Karaoke
joint. No hand-lettered covers, please and
thank you. Furthermore, if you send us an
interesting story or photograph about your
production, we might just use it somewhere!
To get your genuine 100% cotton Mackie
Celebrity T-shirt, send your CD (and optional
story or photo) to:
Mackie Designs
FREE T-SHIRT OFFER
attn: Communications Department
16220 Wood-Red Rd. NE
Woodinville, WA 98072
(Roll credits please) Manual written by Jeff
Gilbert, based on a short story by Ron Koliha,
now a major Broadway Musical. Manual then
defaced with proofreading pens in the hands of
Mackie’s legendary Tech Support staff. Manual
composed on a rinky-dink PC using a low-budget word processor, then converted to this
amazing piece of work using a 13-story 1000
gigawhopper Macintosh operated by Mackie’s
notorious Advertising staff (most notably Becky
Priebe). Please, feel free to let us know if you
find an error or stumble over a confusing paragraph. Thank you for reading the entire manual
(we know you have, or you wouldn’t be here).
3. Carry an outlet tester, available at any wellstocked hardware store. Use it to tell you if
the outlet you’re about to plug into is wired
correctly. Consider it cheap insurance.
4. If you carry enough equipment that you
need to wire directly into the electrical
service, then use a voltmeter to ensure that
the line voltage is correct, then use the
outlet tester mentioned in #3, above. Do
this before you connect any of your audio
equipment. Chances are that your 120V
gear won’t be too happy if it sees 220V for
any length of time.
5. Cables that are too long are less likely to
pick up hum if you uncoil them in their
entirety, and then find a place to stow the
excess. Leaving the excess coiled only
helps the cable pick up hum more efficiently.
6. Don’t run unbalanced lines to or from the
stage. It’s not the impedance, it’s the fact
that they’re unbalanced. It’s a good idea to
use a direct box to make the unbalanced
source look like a microphone.
7. For really extreme cases, you may need to
insert 1:1 or isolation transformers into
each return line from the front-of-house
location to your amp racks.
9. If you bundle your cables together, don’t
bundle AC wiring and audio wiring together. Bundle them separately.
10. If your sound system insists on humming,
you may need to teach it the words.
FREE T-SHIRT OFFER
Mackie, the "Running Man" figure, VLZ and XDR are trademarks or registered trademarks of
Mackie Designs Inc. Other brand names mentioned are trademarks or registered trademarks of
their respective holders and are hereby acknowledged.
© 1999 Mackie Designs Inc.
All rights reserved
50
51
NOTES:
MIC 1
R
+15
+12
+15
+15
+15
1
L
U
U
U
U
L
+15
EQ
2
EFX
MUTE
20
30
40
50
60
OO
20
30
40
50
60
OO
OO
40
50
60
30
+15
+15
+15
R
+15
+12
ALT 3–4
3
L
U
U
U
U
U
PAN
80Hz
LOW
2.5kHz
MID
12kHz
HI
EQ
2
EFX
MON/
EFX
AUX
1
SOLO
TRIM
MUTE
-15
-12
20
10
5
5
10
5
10
U
U
5
U
SOLO
dB
10
5
ALT 3–4
2
R
PAN
OO
OO
-15
-10dGBAV
MIC IN
0
60
+15dB -45dB
U
LOW CUT
75 Hz
18dB/OCT
BAL
OR
UNBAL
MIC 3
MIC PR
XDR
E
LINE IN 3
5
dB
10
dB
SOLO
PAN
80Hz
+15
80Hz
-15
LOW
LOW
U
+12
MID
2.5kHz
MID
2.5kHz
-12
HI
U
+15
+15
12kHz
U
U
MON/
EFX
AUX
1
HI
-15
OO
OO
U
12kHz
EQ
2
EFX
MON/
EFX
AUX
1
10
ALT 3–4
MUTE
-15
-12
OO
OO
OO
U
TRIM
-10dGBAV
MIC IN
0
60
+15dB -45dB
U
TRIM
-10dGBAV
MIC IN
LOW CUT
75 Hz
18dB/OCT
LINE IN 2
BAL
OR
UNBAL
MIC 2
MIC PR
XDR
E
0
60
+15dB -45dB
U
LOW CUT
75 Hz
18dB/OCT
LINE IN 1
BAL
OR
UNBAL
MIC PR
XDR
E
dB
OO
40
50
60
30
20
10
5
U
5
10
+15
+15
R
+15
+12
+15
4
U
U
U
U
U
ALT 3–4
PAN
80Hz
LOW
2.5kHz
MID
12kHz
HI
EQ
2
EFX
MON/
EFX
AUX
1
SOLO
TRIM
MUTE
-15
-12
L
OO
OO
-15
-10dGBAV
MIC IN
0
60
+15dB -45dB
U
LOW CUT
75 Hz
18dB/OCT
LINE IN 4
BAL
OR
UNBAL
MIC 4
MIC PR
XDR
E
dB
OO
40
50
60
30
20
10
5
U
5
10
+15
+15
R
+15
+12
+15
ALT 3–4
5
U
U
U
U
U
PAN
80Hz
LOW
2.5kHz
MID
12kHz
HI
EQ
2
EFX
MON/
EFX
AUX
1
SOLO
TRIM
MUTE
-15
-12
L
OO
OO
-15
-10dGBAV
MIC IN
0
60
+15dB -45dB
U
LOW CUT
75 Hz
18dB/OCT
LINE IN 5
BAL
OR
UNBAL
MIC 5
MIC PR
XDR
E
dB
OO
40
50
60
30
20
10
5
U
5
10
R
+15
+12
+15
+15
+15
ALT 3–4
6
U
U
U
U
U
PAN
80Hz
LOW
2.5kHz
MID
12kHz
HI
EQ
2
EFX
MON/
EFX
AUX
1
SOLO
TRIM
MUTE
-15
-12
L
OO
OO
-15
-10dGBAV
MIC IN
0
60
+15dB -45dB
U
LOW CUT
75 Hz
18dB/OCT
LINE IN 6
BAL
OR
UNBAL
MIC 6
MIC PR
XDR
E
dB
-15
OO
U
U
U
U
U
R
+15
+12
+15
+15
+15
ALT 3–4
MUTE
7– 8
-15
L
OO
OO
40
50
60
30
LEVEL
+4
-10
R
SOLO
PAN
80Hz
LOW
2.5kHz
MID
12kHz
HI
EQ
2
EFX
MON/
EFX
AUX
1
LINE IN 7–8
-12
20
10
5
U
5
10
dB
LEVEL
+4
-10
R
SOLO
SOLO
PAN
80Hz
LOW
2.5kHz
MID
12kHz
HI
EQ
L
U
U
U
R
+15
+12
+15
+15
+15
OO
40
50
60
30
dB
OO
40
50
60
30
20
10
5
U
5
10
dB
OO
40
50
60
30
20
10
5
U
5
10
MUTE
-15
-12
-15
OO
U
ALT 3–4
R
+15
+12
+15
MUTE
L
U
U
+15
2
EFX
OO
ALT 3–4
-15
-12
-15
U
+15
U
ALT 3–4
MUTE
PAN
80Hz
LOW
2.5kHz
MID
12kHz
HI
EQ
OO
U
MON/
EFX
AUX
1
13 –14
R
+15
+12
+15
+15
2
EFX
OO
U
LEVEL
+4
-10
R
BAL
OR
UNBAL
L
MONO
SOLO
PAN
80Hz
LOW
2.5kHz
MID
12kHz
HI
EQ
2
EFX
MON/
EFX
AUX
1
LINE IN 13 –14
11–12
L
U
U
U
+15
MON/
EFX
AUX
1
LINE IN 11–12
LEVEL
+4
-10
R
BAL
OR
UNBAL
L
MONO
9–10
-15
-12
-15
OO
U
U
LINE IN 9–10
OO
20
10
5
U
5
10
L
BAL
OR
UNBAL
L
BAL
OR
UNBAL
MONO
MONO
Session:
Date:
1402-VLZ PRO
14-CHANNEL MIC/ LINE MIXER
WITH PREMIUM XDRTM MIC PREAMPLIFIERS
OO
+10
EFX TO
MONITOR
dB
CTL ROOM/SUBMIX
OO
40
50
60
30
20
10
5
U
5
10
RIGHT
OO
40
50
60
30
20
10
5
U
5
10
dB
NORMAL (AFL)
LEVEL SET (PFL)
POWER
MODE
SOLO
ASSIGN
TO MAIN MIX
TAPE
ALT 3–4
MAIN MIX
C-R/SOURCE
AUX 1
SELECT
PHANTOM
PRE
POST
AUX 1 MASTER
U
2
1
U
MAIN MIX
RUDE
SOLO
LIGHT
-30
-20
-10
-7
-4
-2
0
+2
+4
+7
+10
1
R
L
TAPE
INPUT
LEVEL
SET
AUX
RETURN
2
NORMALLED
RIGHT
+20
+20
0dB=0dBu
+28
OO
OO
U
AUX SEND
2
1
ALL BAL/UNBAL
LEFT
STEREO AUX RETURN
LEFT/MONO
TAPE
OUTPUT
L
MAIN OUT
R
BAL/UNBAL
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