Nation`s First Statewide Seatbelt and Booster Seat Education

Nation`s First Statewide Seatbelt and Booster Seat Education
Journal of Behavioral Studies in Business
Nation’s First Statewide Seatbelt and Booster Seat Education Campaign:
Ollie Otter’s Child Booster Seat Safety Program
Ismet Anitsal
Tennessee Tech University
M. Meral Anitsal
Tennessee Tech University
Kevin Liska
Tennessee Tech University
ABSTRACT
Booster seats and seat belts are essential elements of children’s safety in vehicles. Ollie
Otter’s Child Booster Seat Safety Program has been initiated to ensure children’s and parents’
commitment to use seat belts and booster seats on a daily basis. This paper explains the details of
booster seat safety campaign and how it has been planned and run. Furthermore, children’s
responses to the message of campaign’s spokes character, Ollie Otter, in the forms of letters and
artworks were reported and content analyzed. Results indicated that Ollie Otter has quickly
achieved a status of credible safety advocate among K-4 children.
Keywords: booster seat, Ollie Otter, car safety, seat belts
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INTRODUCTION
Motor vehicle collisions kill many children from 4 to 8 in traffic accidents (Table 1,
Appendix). Riding unrestrained increases the risk factor for death and injury (Washington State
Booster Seat Coalition, 2003). However, only 19 percent of children in that age category are
restrained in booster seats (National SAFE KIDS Coalition, 2003). Booster seat usage has been
increasing lately (Wall Street Journal, 2004; Glassbrenner and Ye, 2007), still misuse of child
restraint systems can amplify a child’s injury risk in crash (NHTSA, 2006). Children who do not
exceed the requirements of age and weight for booster seat usage should not start using loosely
fitting seatbelts designed for adults either (Table 2, Appendix). This precaution will likely to
prevent abdominal and spinal-chord injuries as well as face and brain injuries due to misuse of
adult seatbelts by children (Wall Street Journal, 2003, CNW Group, 2008). Proper use of booster
seat can significantly reduce death and injury risk for children (Baltimore Sun, 2008; CNW
Group, 2008). Furthermore, in economic terms, “every dollar spent on a child safety seat saves
this country $32” (National SAFE KIDS Coalition, 2003).
Booster seats are used by children as a transition tool before they are ready to start using
adult safety belts, and after they outgrown using convertible seats (National Safety Belt
Coalition, 2007). “A booster seat raises your child up so that the safety belt fits right … The
shoulder belt should cross the child’s chest and rest snugly on the shoulder, and the lap belt
should rest low across the pelvis or hip area – never across the stomach area” (nhtsa.dot.gov,
2007) (Table 3, Appendix).
Does your child need a booster seat? Answers to a set of questions (Table 4, Appendix)
such as “Do the child’s knees bend comfortably at the edge of the auto seat?” and “Does the belt
cross the shoulder between the neck and arm?” are important before parents can make a decision
in booster seat usage. When at least one answer to those questions becomes “no,” the child
should use a booster seat (SafetyBeltSafe USA), cited in Wollenberg (2002). Beyond the above
mentioned decision making process which may seem quite practical to parents in functional
sense; parents should also know and obey the laws regarding seatbelt and booster seat use. More
than 30 years ago, “Tennessee was the first state in the nation to enact a law making it mandatory
for children to be restrained in a safety seat. … Today, Tennessee is one of only 18 states that
currently require children up to the age 8 to be restrained in a booster seat” (Tennessee
Department of Safety, 2008). As required by many states currently, “Children under 4′9″ tall
should ride with a booster seat” (adcouncil.org, 2007), usually from age 4 to 8 (Glassbrenner and
Ye, 2007).
To save lives, catastrophic injuries, and economic fallout, there is a current need for a
creative, adaptive, and ongoing program in Tennessee that aims to solve the problems of
awareness, interests, and the actual proper use of booster seats and seat belts. Furthermore, there
is an urgent need to go beyond a one-contact-communication point that communicates the major
problem. Instead, a major branding effort to build sustainable relationships among stakeholders
is to be implemented. It is also critical to implement a strong media plan with an integrative
process. This media plan can increase the frequency level of communication exposure, create a
positive impact and generate a constructive outcome among the many targeted stakeholders of
the nation’s first statewide seatbelt and booster seat education campaign in Tennessee.
Given the societal challenges of deaths and injuries among children in automobile
accidents, Ollie Otter seatbelt and booster seat safety program has been initiated as a positive and
coordinated statewide educational program in Tennessee. The goal of this program is to help
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create awareness, develop interest, and lead action for a greater use of booster seats for children
and seat belts (www.seatbeltvolunteer.org, 2009). More importantly, it is often a problem to
avoid a short term enthusiastic effort of creating awareness and utilization, which stems from one
or two promotional impressions in a short period of time. Consequently, it is essential to
continue to find creative marketing and promotional strategies that are sustainable and build
effective relationships with the various market targets and the stakeholders of Tennesseans. In
sum, a creative and intervention marketing program is a must to lower vehicle occupant injuries
and deaths from the lack of child safety seat usage. Greater usage rates must be increased to
avoid the human and overwhelming misery of child death and injuries. This project aims build a
sustainable and ongoing liaison for an important Tennessee social entrepreneurial venture. The
present study introduces the nation’s first statewide seatbelt and booster seat education campaign
in Tennessee. Specifically, the purpose of this study is three fold: (1) to introduce Ollie Otter’s
child booster seat safety program, (2) to explore the content of art work drawn by children and
(3) evaluate children’s messages to Ollie in order to better understand how children interpret the
messages they received.
Ollie, the seatbelt safety mascot, and an educated child restraint seat advocate made
series of presentations on booster seat safety to students (K-4) in Tennessee’s elementary
schools. Then children have completed their artworks and messages to Ollie. All the artworks
and messages have been posted in the campaign’s public website (www.seatbeltvolunteer.org,
2009). The current research draws its qualitative data from this website (Figure 1, Appendix).
OLLIE OTTER’S CHILD BOOSTER SEAT SAFETY PROGRAM
Ollie Otter is Tennessee’s booster seat and seatbelt safety mascot. He is the spokes
character who has been visiting K-4 schools in Tennessee as a very special guest to help
accomplish three major objectives of seatbelt and booster seat education campaign: (1) “to
promote the use of booster seats,” (2) to “encourage students to wear their seatbelts” and (3) “to
raise awareness of roadway construction site safety” (Brewer, 2009). In every school he visits,
several volunteers join Ollie Otter. Those volunteers come from the schools being visited (e.g.,
principal, home room teachers, safety education coordinator), booster seat /seat belt advocates
who completed the online education program on the subject, and representatives from Safety
Education with Tennessee Highway Patrol.
Seatbelt and booster seat education campaign in Tennessee is mainly sponsored by three
organizations: (1) Tennessee Road Builders Association, (2) Governor’s Highway Safety Office,
and (3) Tennessee Tech University (TTU). Tennessee Tech University’s Business Media Center
does all strategic and tactical marketing and management activities. TTU Business Media Center
trains volunteers via online education programs through Tennessee Board Regents Online
Continuing Education program, prepares volunteers to perform as Ollie Otter character,
coordinates all volunteer activities and presentations statewide. There are currently 214 volunteer
advocates who have already completed the online education program in this seatbelt and booster
seat education program as indicated in the campaign’s website as of January 24
(www.seatbeltvolunteer.org, 2009). The activities of these advocates are listed and continuously
updated in the campaign’s website. Examples of such activities conducted by an advocate in the
program, Susan Cook, include the following: (a) Wartburg Car Seat Checkpoint, (b) Ollie
attended Regional Governor's Highway Safety Office meeting, (c) Ollie attended the Oak Ridge
Safety Expo, (d) Ollie attended the Hola! Knoxville Hispanic Heritage Festival, (e) Ollie
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attended the "Down Syndrome Awareness Group Buddy Walk, (f) Ollie attended car seat
checkpoint in Campbell County at Rainbow Chevrolet, (g) Ollie attended "Halloween in the
City," (h) Ollie attended "Union County Health Fair" and “helped measure children to get their
correct height and educate parents about the importance of using booster seats until the adult seat
belt system fits appropriately” (www.seatbeltvolunteer.org, 2009).
“The fully-costumed Ollie Otter character encourages children to wear their seatbelts and
educates them about Tennessee’s booster seat law” (Brewer, 2009). Ollie’s messages to the
students are simple and includes statements such as “Under 4'9", it's Booster Time!” and “Wear
Seatbelts, Everyday!” Specifically, while entertaining children, Ollie Otter communicates
Tennessee state law on the use of a booster seat: every child who is under 4-feet-9 inches tall or
younger than 9 years old should ride with a booster seat. An orange and white construction site
barrel is also displayed during Ollie’s visits to schools. The purpose of representing Ollie’s home
is to teach the importance of roadway safety near construction work zones (Brewer, 2009). Ollie
says “Wear Seatbelts Everyday!” and distributes a number of items children and schools to
reinforce his message. Those include measuring poster, quick setup display, bookmarks, CDROM toolkit, newsletter, coffee mugs, window cling, t-shirts, mouse pads and coloring books.
Children can enjoy Ollie’s Kid’s Club (Figure 2, Appendix) (seatbeltvolunteer.org, 2009). Ollie
also sings his song, Ollie the Otter (John Farrell, 2008), with children to reinforce the importance
of booster seat use in children’s minds.
PROGRAM METHOD
Ollie Otter’s Year 1 program was predominantly centered on facilitating K-4 classroom
presentations by Ollie the Seatbelt safety mascot and an educated child restraint seat advocate in
predominantly rural locations with a special effort made to reach out to all 95 Tennessee
counties. Ollie Otter’s Year 2 program has been continuing state-wide efforts and will reach into
all 95 Tennessee counties to cultivate, train, and mobilize individual seatbelt safety advocates for
as many of Tennessee’s individual 1,156 public elementary schools as possible. Ollie’s Seatbelt
and Booster Seat Safety Program was initiated in Tennessee on October 1, 2007 to help 57,184
children from 2,928 classrooms in 154 schools from K-4 in Tennessee. Ollie Otter, spokes
character for the booster seat program, has already impacted over 13 percent of Tennessee’s
1,156 elementary schools in its first year as of September 30, 2008 (Brewer 2008).
A core part of our project has been classroom presentations by Ollie and a trained
volunteer seatbelt advocate. Each public school has identified an individual to be recognized and
trained as their school’s “Ollie Otter’s Seatbelt Safety Advocate”. Online Training has also been
developed, tested, and improved during Ollie Otter’s Year 1. Training infrastructure has been
provided by the project partner, The Tennessee Board of Regents (TBR) who will continue to
offer infrastructure for the online training through the Tennessee Board of Regents Campus
Collaborative Program. The Seatbelt Safety Advocate course will be instructed by the Business
Media Center at Tennessee Technological University.
Since children from 4 to 8 years of age are one of the major segments being served, the
Business Media Center staff and associates have strengthened lesson plan and handouts for
teachers to use. Internet infrastructure has been developed to encourage teachers who want to
actively participate to send Ollie Otter artwork and letters. During Ollie Otter’s Year 1, over 120
teachers sent Ollie mail. Teachers have emphasized that this exercise allows for important
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reinforcement of Ollie Otter’s message while at the same time developing core student
competencies such as writing, drawing, and communicating.
After having fun with Ollie and listening to him about booster seat safety in his school
visits, children K-4 created an art work on the topic and delivered their written messages to Ollie.
All the artwork and messages to Ollie are displayed on the campaigns website to the public. A
sample of 613 pictures drawn by students from kindergarten to 4th grade was pulled from the
campaign website and content analyzed (Table 5, Appendix).
RESULTS
Children K-4 responded Ollie’s Seatbelt and Booster Seat Safety Program by providing
their artworks and messages to Ollie as a reflection of their understanding of Ollie’s messages
and his presentation on booster seat safety. In terms of the children’s messages to Ollie, it seems
that they learned a lot of important lessons about use of booster seats, road safety, the law and
buckling up. Children comments like “Thank you for the lesson”, “You suld allwase bukul up in
a car”, and “Buckling up can save people's lives” show that Ollie’s messages about seatbelt and
booster-seat safety are hitting home.
Ollie’s message encourages children to remember what to do to be safe since they have
been told the right thing to do by Ollie. They can teach to their sisters and brothers to use booster
seats. They can teach to their moms and dad to buckle up and slow down when they see orange
barrels, too. Children seem to understand consequences of not using seatbelts and booster seats.
Ollie told them to remember the price as well. When they need help, they feel they can ask help
from Ollie. Additional children’s responses to the questions are provided in Table 6, Appendix.
What children highlighted in their written messages to Ollie well corresponds what they
communicated in their art work too (Table 6, Appendix). The total sample size for the children’s
artwork analyzed was 613. Ollie was the dominant piece in children’s minds. Ollie appeared 82.7
percent of the times in all artwork. Ollie did not appear just because it was cool, but it seems that
his message was also so strong. Seat belt appeared 51.7 percent of all art work. Children (31.6
percent) need to be safe (27.6 percent) while traveling in car (24.1 percent). Once they use
seatbelt to secure booster seat (23.8 percent), they need to tell this to their friends (17.8 percent).
Of course everything depends on your height and age (15.7 percent). Once you secure yourself,
you need to pay attention to road safety (15.2 percent) and what is going on around on the road
(orange and white barrels, etc. 12.7 percent). When you love ice cream (7.8 percent), for
example, you would love cool Ollie (6.5 percent).
CONCLUSION
The primary target of this campaign was children from K-4 as well as the parents of these
children indirectly. As indicated by the content analysis and samples of pictures drawn, Ollie’s
messages seemed to reach children loud and clear. Children were also willing to share the safety
message with their friends, siblings and most importantly their parents. Children, who pay
attention to safety precautions and want to wear their seatbelts or think that it is cool to sit on the
booster seats, will encourage their parents to pay the same attention to safety of their family.
In order to keep Ollie fresh in minds and reinforce safety messages, other venues besides
elementary school education need to be pursued. Attending at regional events in Tennessee is an
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important part of the project. Trade shows, health fairs, county fairs, school law seminars, and
various school leaders’ conferences all allow important visibility for Ollie and his message.
Therefore displays have been set up and include posters, promotional brochures, labels, and
videos for viewing. Exhibiting at these events allow for senior level program knowledge to
support the grassroots efforts.
During Year 1, Ollie the Safety Seatbelt Mascot has already been invited to numerous
regional safety events including regional health education events hosted by the Department of
Health offices and Department of Safety and Department of Education. We expect that Ollie and
his seatbelt safety message will be a frequently requested addition to future state fairs and
sporting events. Also, the planned project will include continual participation and promotion of
the seat belt safety campaign at the annual national Tennessee Technological University Rural
Conference that encourages economic development and community services, where rural
government and community leaders attend.
Finally, multiple waves of academic research have been planned and conducted. The
objectives of these research activities include the measurement of parents’ awareness, interest,
attitudes and support towards booster seats, seatbelts and Ollie Otter Campaign. The results of
the future research will help to fine-tune the program further.
REFERENCES
AdCouncil (2007a), http://www.adcouncil.org/default.aspx?id=41, Accessed on 8-23-2007
AdCouncil (2007b),http://www.adcouncil.org/default.aspx?id=292 , Accessed on 8-23-2007
Advocates for Highway and Auto Safety (2007), “Booster Seat Law Chart (38 states and DC),”
February 24.
Baltimore Sun (2008), “Backseat Boosterism: Maryland’s Booster Seat Law Certain to Save
Lives,” Baltimore Sun, June 30.
Brewer, Julie (2008), Personal Interview, September 30.
Brewer, Julie (2009), Booster Seat Safety Program Held at Minor Hill Elementary: Campaign
Features Ollie the Otter Safety Mascot,” Press Release, January 16,
http://www.seatbeltvolunteer.org, Accessed on 1-24-2009.
CNW Group (2008), “Safe Kids Applauds New Booster Seat Laws to Protect Children,” News
Provided by Comtex, June 26.
Durbin, Dennis R.; Michael R. Elliott and Flaura. K. Winston (2003), “Belt-positioning Booster
Seats and Reduction in Risk of Injury Among Children in Vehicle Crashes,” Journal of
the American Medical Association, 289 (14), 2835-2840.
Ebel, Beth E.; Thomas D. Koepsell; Elizabeth E. Bennett and Frederick P. Rivara (2003), “Use
of Child Booster Seats in Motor Vehicles Following a Community Campaign,” Journal of
the American Medical Association, 289, 879-884.
Ehiri JE; Ejere HOD; Magnussen L; Emusu D; King W and Osberg JS (2006), “Interventions for
Promoting Booster Seat Use in Four to Eight Year Olds Traveling in Motor Vehicles
(Review),” Evidence-Based Child Health: A Cochrane Review Journal, published online
in Wiley InterScience, 854-888.
Farrell, John (2008), “Ollie the Otter” [Official song for Ollie Otter Seatbelt and Booster Seat
Safety Program in Tennessee – John Farrell wrote the lyrics and composed the song],
Hope River Music, [email protected]
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Higgins, Michelle (2005), “Car Seats for 8-Year-Olds; States Toughen Laws Requiring Kids to
Be Restrained in Vehicles; Finding One Your Child Will Use,” Wall Street Journal,
Eastern Edition, January 27, pg. D1.
Jacobs G.;Aeron-Thomas A.and Astrop A. (2000), “Estimating the Global Road Fatalities, TRL
Report #445, London: Transport Research Laboratory.
Glassbrenner, Donna and Jianqiang Ye (2007), “Booster Seat Use in 2006,” Traffic Safety Facts
Research Note, NHTSA’s National Center for Statistics and Analysis, August, DOT HS
810 796.
National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (1999), “Research Update: Booster Seats,”
http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/duip/research/boosterseat.htm, Accessed on 8-23-2007.
National Safety Council, http://www.nsc.org/traf/sbc.htm , Accessed on 8-23-2007
(NHTSA) National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (2006), “Traffic Safety Facts
Research Note 2005: Misuse of Child Restraints: Results of a Workshop to Review Field
Data Results.”
(NHTSA) National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (2007),
http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov/people/injury/childps/ParentGuide2005/pages/Why.htm ,
Accessed on 8-23-2007
National Safety Belt Coalition (2007), http://www.nsc.org/traf/sbc/sbcchild.htm , Accessed on 823-2007.
National SAFE KIDS Coalition (2003).
Ramirez, Elva (2007), “Reinventing the Wheel: Giving Your Pet a Joyride,” Wall Street Journal
(Eastern Edition), July 12, pg. B7.
seatbeltvolunteer.org (2009), http://www.seatbeltvolunteer.org, Accessed on 1-24-2009.
“State by State Booster Seat Legislation” (2008), http://www.djgusa.com/booster_laws/,
Accessed on August 11, 2008.
Tennessee Department of Safety (2008), “Bredesen Celebrates 30 Years of Keeping Children
Safe: Anniversary of Nation’s First Child Seat Law Commemorated,” January 17,
http://www.tennessee.gov/safety/newsreleases/2008/08011730yearsSafe.htm, Accessed
on
11-5-2008.
Wall Street Journal (1998), “Method of Using Child Booster Seats Divides Experts,” Eastern
Edition, March 13, pg. 1.
Wall Street Journal (2004), “Car Child-Restraint Use Rises; Deaths Fall,” Eastern Edition, May
3, pg. 1.
Washington State Booster Seat Coalition (2003), “Quick Facts on Booster Seats,” (June).
Wollenberg, Yvonne Chilik (2002), “Did Those Booster Seats Out of the Garage,” Medical
Economics, January 11, 79 (1), pg. 15.
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TABLE 1 – BOOSTER SEATS: ESSENTIAL STATISTICAL FIGURES
According to NHTSA, “Up to 90% of children in the U.S. who should be
using booster seat are not” (adcouncil.org 2007a).
“Nationally, only 19% of children who should be restrained in booster seats
use them” (National SAFE KIDS Coalition 2003).
Who Does Not Use Booster Seats
OR Use It Incorrectly
“41 percent of 4- to 7-year old children [in U.S.] were restrained in booster
seats in 2006” (Glassbrenner and Ye 2007).
“One study found that 72% of nearly 3,500 observed child restraint systems
were misused in a way that could be expected to increase a child’s risk of
injury a crash” (NHTSA 2006).
Increase in
Child Restraint Use by Age
Five-year-olds: 59% in 2004 from 13% in 1999
Six-year-olds: 34% in 2004 from 4% in 1999
Seven-year-olds restrained in booster seats: 14% in 2004 from 4% in 1999
Eight-year-olds: 9% in 2004 from 0% in 1999
(Wall Street Journal 2004).
“In the United States, 1,791 children younger than 15 years were killed and
282,000 were injured as passengers in motor vehicle crashes in 1997”
(cdc.gov 1999).
Motor Vehicle Collisions
“Motor vehicle collusions are the single largest killer for children age 4-8
years” (Washington State Booster Seat Coalition 2003).
“Riding unrestrained is the greatest risk factor for death and injury among
child passengers” (Washington State Booster Seat Coalition 2003).
“Of the children ages 0 to 14 years who were killed in motor vehicle crashes
during 2005, nearly half were unrestrained” (NHTSA 2006).
Click or Ticket is the most successful seat belt enforcement campaigns ever,
helping create the highest national seat belt usage rate of 82 percent”
(adcouncil.org 2007b).
What Campaigns We Can Learn
From
“Ollie Otter’s Child Booster Seat Safety Program teaches Tennessee school
kids child booster seat laws and regulations for car booster seat requirements
in nation’s first statewide seatbelt and booster seat education campaign”
(seatbeltvolunteer.org, 2009).
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TABLE 2 – USE OF BOOSTER SEATS AND ITS CONSEQUENCES
“Devastating pattern of injuries that can happen to children who are bucked
into an ill-fitting seat belt during a crash” (CNW Group 2008).
Seat Belt Syndrome
“Seatbelts designed for adults can pose risk to children of abdominal and
spinal-chord injuries … Loosely fitting belts also can lead to injuries to the
face and brain sustained when the head strikes the knees or other surfaces”
(Wall Street Journal 2003).
“The back seat is generally the safest place in a crash. If your vehicle has a
passenger air bag, it is essential for children 12 and under to ride in back”
(National Safety Council 2007).
Child Safety Seat and Beyond
“Young children are safer riding in the back seat. But that advice may not be
true in … older cars … that were built before 1988. … Those vehicles don’t
have airbags, and few have shoulder belts in the back seat” (Wall Street
Journal 1998).
“The estimated direct annual costs of road traffic crashes are enormous, almost
5% in the USA (Jacobs et al. 2000), cited in Ehiri et al. 2006).
“Every dollar spent on a child safety seat saves this country $32” (National
SAFE KIDS Coalition 2003).
What Happens During a Collision
Can Booster Seat Protect?
“Children prematurely moved to seat belts are 4 times more likely to suffer
serious head injuries during a collision than children in child safety or booster
seats” (adcouncil.org 2007a).
“A properly used safety seat or booster reduces the chances of a child being
seriously injured or killed in a car crash by more than half” (Baltimore Sun
2008).
“The booster seats provide 60 percent more protection than seat belts alone,
for children four to nine years old” (CNW Group 2008).
What About Pets?
Do They Need Booster Seats?
“Pets roaming free in cars face the same dangers as passengers who don’t
buckle up. There are a number of pet-restraining options, including miniseat
belts and harnesses, even booster seats for small dogs” (Ramirez 2007).
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TABLE 3 – BOOSTER SEATS 101
What Is Booster Seat?
Why to Use Booster Seats
“A booster seat raises your child up so that the safety belt fits right – and can
better protect your child. The shoulder belt should cross the child’s chest and
rest snugly on the shoulder, and the lap belt should rest low across the pelvis
or hip area – never across the stomach area” (nhtsa.dot.gov 2007).
Booster seats are “used as a transition to safety belts by older kids who have
clearly outgrown their convertible seat and are not quite ready for the vehicle
belt system” (National Safety Belt Coalition 2007).
Who Needs to Use Booster Seats
“Safety belts are designed for adults, and children under 4′9″ tall should ride
with a booster seat” (adcouncil.org 2007a), usually from age 4 to 8
(Glassbrenner and Ye 2007).
The First Law on Booster Seat
“The first law on booster seat was enacted in 2000 in Washington state. …
That law, which went into effect in 2002, was spurred by the death in 1996 of
a 4-year-old Anton Skeen, who was riding in an SUV and strapped in with just
an adult seat belt” (Higgins 2005).
Booster Seat Law in TN
Up to age 9, children must be restrained.
Up to 60″ standing height, children must be restrained.
There is a penalty of $50 and potentially a CRS safety course.
Free or low-cost seats are not offered to low-income families.
Public transportation vehicles are exempt from booster seat laws.
Advocates for Highway and Auto Safety (2007)
TABLE 4 – DOES YOUR CHILD NEED A BOOSTER SEAT?
“If you answer to any one of the following questions as No, then your child should use a booster seat:”
1. “Does the child sit all the way back against the auto seat?”
2. “Do the child’s knees bend comfortably at the edge of the auto seat?”
3. “Does the belt cross the shoulder between the neck and arm?”
4. “Is the lap belt as low as possible, touching the thighs?”
5. “Can the child stay seated like this for the whole trip?”
Source: SafetyBeltSafe USA, cited in Wollenberg (2002)
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FIGURE 1 – OLLIE OTTER’S CHILD BOOSTER SEAT SAFETY PROGRAM:
Source: “Ollie Otter’s Child Booster Seat Safety Program,” http://www.seatbeltvolunteer.org/, Accessed on August 11, 2008
FIGURE 2 – OLLIE’S KIDS CLUB
Source: “Ollie Otter’s Child Booster Seat Safety Program,” http://www.seatbeltvolunteer.org/kids/index.html,
Accessed on August 11, 2008
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FIGURE 3 – SELECTED PICTURE GALLERIES OF OLLIE OTTER’S
CHILD BOOSTER SEAT SAFETY PROGRAM, TN
Source: “Ollie Otter’s Child Booster Seat Safety Program,” http://www.seatbeltvolunteer.org/, Accessed on August 11, 2008
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TABLE 5 – CHILDREN’S MESSAGES TO OLLIE
What It Is:
Important Lessons: In terms
of the children’s messages to
Ollie, it seems that they
learned a lot of important
lessons about use of booster
seats, road safety and the law.
Save Your Life. Children
said always buckle up to save
your life.
Ollie Is Cool. Children seem
to love Ollie Otter, the
mascot, and listen to what he
says. Because Ollie is cool.
Ollie is BFF (best friends
forever). He is fun, too. He is
the best otter in the world.
Therefore you had better
buckle up and use booster
seats unless you are 9 or 4'9".
Use booster seat. You otter
buckle up. Because Ollie
says so. Ollie teaches you and
you teach everyone. Tell your
parents the right thing to do:
buckle up and ride in a
booster seat if you are under
4'9".
Teach others to use booster
seats. Children can remember
what to do to be safe since
they have been told the right
thing to do by Ollie. They can
teach to their sisters and
brothers to use booster seats.
They can teach to their moms
and dad to buckle up and
slow down when they see
orange barrels, too.
Consequences: Children
seem to understand
consequences of not using
seatbelts and booster seats.
Ollie told them to remember
the price as well.
Children’s Unedited Comments to Ollie the Otter:
Thank you for the lesson. … The safety tips helped a lot. … I learned about safety,
it’s the law. I learned about road safety. I need to be in a booster seat. … I can't ride
without a car seat.
Go slow and buckle up. … Be safe. Buckle up. … Bucle your setbelt. … You suld
allwase bukul up in a car. …Buckle up every time you get in a car. … Buckling up
can save people's lives. …The set belt is saf bekas it will stop you for gowing
therow the wendor. I like to be safe all wase sit in the back. … I lurned to set in the
middel so if the car gets hit on the side I mit not get hit as bad.
I love Ollie otter! … Ollie yor my BFF [Best Friends Forever] forever and you are
the coolist in the wrld. I had fun when you came. … Be safe have fun … I had fun I
wish you would come back. Listen to Ollie advice be safe. … Be safe with Ollie. …
You aro the best mascot. … Go Ollie go. … Your are cool. … Rocky road ice
cream. … Booster seats and seatbelts, rocky road ice cream, orange and white, you
otter buckle up. … Ollie's favorite things booster seats and seatbelts, food: rocky
road ice cream, color: orange and white, state: tennessee, motto: you otter buckle
up. … You must be 9 or 4'9" or in a booster seat. … Ollie Otter told us to always
wear a seat belt also he told us to ride in a car seat.
I ride in a booster like you said to. … If someone is note wering there seatbelt you
say you otter buckle up. … I love your motto you otter buckle up. I do think that
buliking up is important, some people think it isnt important but it is. … Thanks for
teaching me that I need to be in a booster. … If you are under 9 you have to be in a
booster seat. … I have to be in a booster seat because I'm not tall enough. … Now I
can tell my dad it is important to be in a booster if you are under 4ft 9. … You haft
to be 4 ft. 9nch to ride without a booster seat Ollie says so! …I learned cones at the
side of the road means slow down. Buckle up when you are in the car. Ride in a
booster seat. Where your other strap around your chest or you will go frontwards.
I can always remember to put on my seatbelt since you have tought me so much
about seat belts and booster seats and now I can always be safe no matter where I
go. … Put your seatbelt on. Seatbelts always come first. Booster seats first. …
Bukle up or be in a bustuer seat. … I use my booster seat to keep safe. … I sit in
my booster seat. … I ride in a booster seat. … Riding in a buster seat is verey safe
for me and my sister. ... I have to ride in a booster seat. My sister has to ride in a
seatbelt. My brother has to ride in a booster seat. … I have always sat in a booster
seat. My mom and dad always wear a seatbelt. My sister wears one to. … I wear a
seatbelt all the time even when I am in a booster seat. .... My mom she forgot my
babysiter's daughter's booster seat and I said mom where is her booster seat and she
said she dose not need one and I said at school they said if your not 4'9 you ride in a
booster seat.
If you don’t buckel up you will pay the price. … If you ever crash and you ain't in a
booster seat or a seat belt you will get hurt bad. … Never unbuckle your seatbelt or
you could get hurt. … Next time you can buy me a car seat. … I hope you help
other kids. … My mom said she's not going to waste money so I'm using my old car
seat. Well at least I'm safe.
Nation’s First Statewide Seatbelt, Page 13
Journal of Behavioral Studies in Business
TABLE 6 – CONCEPTS USED IN PICTURES DRAWN BY STUDENTS
FROM KINDERGARTEN TO 4TH GRADE
Concept
Frequency
Percent
Ollie
507
82.7
Seatbelt
317
51.7
Child
194
31.6
Safe
169
27.6
Car
148
24.1
Booster Seat
146
23.8
Friend
109
17.8
Height/ Age Requirement
96
15.7
Road
93
15.2
Orange/ White
78
12.7
Learning
77
12.6
Trees/ Flowers
59
9.6
Ice cream
48
7.8
Cool
40
6.5
House
27
4.4
Accident
18
2.9
Fun
18
2.9
Rainbow
14
2.3
7
1.1
613
100.0
Cheer
Total Sample Size
Nation’s First Statewide Seatbelt, Page 14
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