FACT or FICTION - National Child Passenger Safety Board

FACT or FICTION - National Child Passenger Safety Board
FACT or FICTION
Making our world safer
rev. June 2014
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Fact or Fiction
Inflatable seat belts
can be used to
install all car seats.
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2
Fact and Fiction
• Some car seat manufacturers
say YES.
• Others say NO.
• Child seat manufacturers
provide the answer. Check
the car seat owner’s manual or
call Manufacturer’s Customer
Service line to determine if the
car seat or booster seat can
be used with an inflatable seat
belt.
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3
Ex: Fact
http://www.britaxusa.com/support/inflatable-seat-belt-policy
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Ex: Fiction
http://clekinc.com/pdfs/foonf_2013_Owners_Manual_US_EN.pdf
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5
Ford Inflatable Seat Belts
• The system relies on two retractors,
one for shoulder and one for the lap
belt.
• Only the shoulder portion inflates.
• There is sufficient webbing to secure a
car seat.
• Inflation is much slower than
traditional airbag and the bag
pressure is very low.
• The seat-belt air bags fill with a cold
compressed gas instead of a heatWatch the video: http://bit.ly/1rjgz4V
generating chemical reaction like
traditional air bags.
Source: S.Sundarajan, PhD, Passive Safety & Advanced Engineering Dept., Ford Motor
Company
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Fact or Fiction
Ford is the only vehicle
manufacturer with inflatable
seat belts on the market
today.
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7
Fiction
In addition to Ford Motor Company, Mercedes-Benz has an
inflatable seat belt that they call a “BeltBag.”
http://bit.ly/1i5CxHQ
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Fact or Fiction
Correct installation of car seats includes:
1. Selection
2. Direction
3. Location
4. Installation
5. Harnessing
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Fact
New in the 2014 Technician Guide
Technician Guide, page 2-2
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Fact or Fiction
Car seats may
be installed near
side air bags
without risk of
injury.
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Fact
Technician Guide, page 5-5
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12
Fact or Fiction
It is acceptable to
lock the retractor
to hold a child in a
booster seat.
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13
Fact and Fiction
• If this child won’t stay in position, they may not be
mature enough for a booster and would be better
protected in a full harness (follow weight limits).
• Not all vehicle manufacturers permit retractors to
be locked/switched to restrain a child in a belt
positioning booster seat.
– If the manufacturer says not to do it, do not switch the retractor.
• Always read the vehicle owner’s manual and car
seat instructions.
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Example: Fact
• Harmony BPB recommends
that the switchable retractor
be engaged to hold the child
snugly.
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15
Example: Fiction
• The 2014 Nissan Altima specifically says NOT to use the
belt in the automatic locking mode when using BPB.
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16
Example: Fiction
• Chrysler Group LLC says NOT to use the belt in the
automatic locking mode when using BPB.
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17
Fact or Fiction
The term LATCH applies to both
vehicle and car seat hardware.
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18
Fact and Fiction
LATCH applies to the lower anchors and tethers
in a vehicle.
In the new Tech Guide (TG), we are more
careful about LATCH terms.
–Lower anchors and tether – NOT LATCH
–Tether – NOT top tether
–Lower anchor connectors – NOT attachments
–Tether connectors- NOT attachments
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Fact and Fiction
•Many owner’s manuals still use the term LATCH
•NHTSA still uses this term on their website
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20
Fact or Fiction
A seating position with a tether
anchor only and no lower
anchors IS NOT called
LATCH.
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Fact
• LATCH is an alternative system to install car
seats in vehicles using two lower anchors and
one tether.
• Each LATCH set in the vehicle is made up of
two lower anchor bars and one tether anchor.
• If you are referring to the lower anchors AND
tether it is a LATCH system.
Technician Guide, page 6-1
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Fact or Fiction
If there are lower anchors in
a vehicle position, there is
always a tether anchor for
that seating position.
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Fiction
Technician Guide, page 6-2
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24
Fact or Fiction
It is acceptable to install some
forward-facing combination
seats using LATCH even
when used as a booster seat.
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25
Fact
• Some forward-facing combination seats may
allow for connecting the car seat to the vehicle
using LATCH even when used as a booster
seat.
• However, some high-back booster seats can
only be used with a seat belt.
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26
Fact or Fiction
When a car seat manufacturer changes
the weight limits on their car seats, a
retesting of the seats must be done in
order to meet the Federal Motor Vehicle
Safety Standards.
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Fiction
Not always. If the new car seat weight limit is still within
the weight range of the original crash test dummy used,
then retesting is not necessary.
For example: weight limit is changed from 30 pounds to
35 pounds and the crash test dummy used for original
testing weighs 36 pounds
When used in Booster mode, vehicle lower anchor and
tether anchor weight limits do not apply.
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28
Fact or Fiction
The information published
in the 2013 edition of The
LATCH Manual is provided
and approved by the car
seat and vehicle
manufacturers.
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Fact
100 percent of the vehicle and car seat
manufacturers contributed information and
illustrations to the 2013 edition of The LATCH
Manual.
These manufacturers also reviewed and confirmed
product information for inclusion in this edition.
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30
Fact or Fiction
Solid core pool noodles are better to
use than regular pool noodles (with a
hole in them) for use with car seats.
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Fiction
• There are no standards on pool noodles.
• Pool noodles vary in density whether they have a core or
not.
• Check the Manuals: Some
manufacturers, such as
Chicco, do not want pool
noodles used with their
infant bases or convertible
car seats.
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Fact or Fiction
These are the types of latchplates:
1. Locking
2. Switchable
3. Sliding
4. Sewn-on
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Fiction
• There is a new category of latchplate: Dynamic Locking.
• May look like traditional locking latchplates but are not
meant to secure car seats.
• One will need to take additional steps as recommended
in the vehicle owner’s manual to lock the seat belt that
has a dynamic locking latchplate.
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Fact: Dynamic Locking Latchplate
• Allows webbing of the seatbelt to pass through freely
and provide the same comfort and convenience of
traditional non-locking, sliding latchplates.
• In the event of a crash, the locking plate clamps the
lap belt webbing to prevent the webbing from slipping
through the latchplate. This holds the lower torso in
place during the crash.
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Fact or Fiction
Lockoffs are better than locking clips
to secure a car seat in place.
Lockoff
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Locking clip
Fiction
• Either a lock-off or locking clip is safe to use. They
perform the same function.
• Do NOT use a locking clip if a lock-off is present on
the car seat.
• A locking clip clamps the tightened lap-and-shoulder
belt together within 1” of the latchplate to make the lap
belt a fixed length.
• A lock-off also locks to make the lap belt a fixed
length.
• It is the fixed length lap belt that locks a car seat in
place.
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37
Fact or Fiction
Level indicators are for
assisting the caregiver to get
the correct angle for rear
facing car seats only.
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38
Fiction
• Level indicators are not
limited to rear facing only
seats.
– Safety 1st Rumi has an
indicator line for forward
facing.
– Chicco NextFit (image) has
angle indicators for rear and
forward facing positions.
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Fact or Fiction
Height and weight limits on car
seats stay constant so
checking labels is enough.
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40
Fiction
• CPS Technicians can’t go wrong following
the labels and instructions that come with
the car seat.
• Sometimes product use guidelines are
updated.
• May allow for longer use.
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Fact or Fiction
A small gap between the car seat
and vehicle seat back is not a
poor installation.
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42
Fact
• May be an issue with the headrest or
seat contour.
• Manufacturers may have specifics.
– Britax Next Generation convertibles, used
forward facing, allow a small gap between
the car seat and vehicle seat back. This is
okay as long as it is a snug installation. (in
FAQs)
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43
Fact or Fiction
Car seats can be used for no
more than 6 years.
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44
Fiction
• Each car seat manufacturer determines the
appropriate expiration date of their seats.
• While JPMA suggests replacing the car seats
after 6 years, some car seats are good for
longer periods of time.
– Example: The Radian RXT has an expiration of 10 years after
date of manufacture.
• Always check the labels on the car seat and
the owner’s manual.
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45
Fact or Fiction
Surveys indicate that most
families are using tethers
with forward facing
harnessed car seats.
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46
Fiction
• Only 28% of forward
facing car seats used
a tether.
• Of those who did, 59%
used it correctly.
A Look Inside American Family Vehicles: A National Study of 79,000 Car Seats, 2009-2010,
Safe Kids Worldwide, Sept 2011.
www.cpsboard.org
47
Fact or Fiction
The European belt routing is
not approved for use in the
United States.
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48
Fiction
This form of belt routing
has been used for many
years in the U.S. It is
used primarily for rearfacing only child seat
that has an open belt
path.
2013 LATCH Manual, page 74
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49
Fact or Fiction
Seat belt systems are taught in
two parts:
1. Precrash locking
2. Precrash non-locking
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Fiction
• In the 2014 curriculum,
seat belt systems are
taught as a whole with no
distinction between
precrash locking and
precrash nonlocking.
• Module 4 teaches about
latchplates and retractors.
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51
Fact or Fiction
The 2014 amendment to
FMVSS 213 means I have to
weigh car seats to know the
maximum child weight the CR
can be installed with the lower
anchors.
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52
Fiction
• Anchor weight limits are not always stated in the
vehicle or car seat owner’s manual.
• You do not have to weigh most child restraints.
• Check the label – newer seats will state the maximum
weight for LATCH. This is always the weight limit to
use, in all vehicles.
• For older car seats, you can find the weight of the seat
in the LATCH manual, in Appendix A. You can use
this to calculate the weight limits for the vehicle.
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53
Fiction
• Anchor weight limits are not always stated in the
vehicle or car seat owner’s manual.
• You do not have to weigh most child restraints.
• Check the label – newer seats will state the maximum
weight for LATCH. This is always the weight limit to
use, in all vehicles.
• For older car seats, you can find the weight of the seat
in the LATCH manual, in Appendix A. You can use
this to calculate the weight limits for the vehicle.
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Fiction (cont.)
• Some Vehicle Manufacturers have made retroactive
changes to the weight limits for their anchorages. This
may supersede printed materials.
• To find the up-to-date weight limits for vehicles:
1. Vehicle weight limits are now available online. Check the list
on the cpsboard.org website under “Links for Techs”
www.cpsboard.org
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Fiction (cont.)
• If the vehicle isn’t listed in the online list:
2. Check the most recent LATCH manual.
3. Check the vehicle owner’s manual
4. If there is no weight limit listed in any of these resources,
then the default child weight limit to be used is “65 pounds
minus the CR weight.”
5. When published weights for the vehicle and the CR are in
conflict, use the more conservative (lower) weight limit.
6. When in doubt, use the safety belt to install the CR.
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Fact or Fiction
The 2014 Technician Guide
(TG) is available for me to
download.
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58
Fact
The Technician Guide is available for download from the National
CPS Board website: www.cpsboard.org
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Fact or Fiction
Children whose feet can reach
the back of the vehicle seat are
more likely to injure their legs in a
crash.
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Fiction
• Researchers found no elevated risk of injury for
children ages 12-23 months due to rear-facing car
seats.
• Lower extremity injuries are rare for children facing the
rear.
• Riding forward-facing does not eliminate a child’s risk
of lower extremity injuries. Children in forward-facing
car seats had a 76% increased risk of injury compared
to children in rear-facing car seats.
Bull,MJ, Durbin, DR. Rear-Facing car safety seats: Getting the message right. Pediatrics.2008
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Fact or Fiction
The 80/20 Car seat overhang
guideline does not always
apply.
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62
Fact
• Read CR instructions regarding the amount
of overhang, if any, that is allowed by each
manufacturer for each car seat.
Technician Guide, page 11-1
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Fact
• Some CRs require 100% of CR on the
vehicle seat.
Example: Graco Nautilus
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Fact or Fiction
Following the manufacturer’s
instructions, BEST PRACTICE
is the GOLD standard of
protection to safely transport a
child in a motor vehicle.
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Fact
• To safely transport a child in a motor vehicle,
BEST PRACTICE is the gold standard of
protection.
• It is based on the child’s age, height, weight,
and developmental levels.
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66
Fact or Fiction
The FAA requires the use of car
seats on airplanes for children
under age 2.
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67
Fiction
• FAA encourages, but does not require, the use of car
seats on airplanes for children under the age of 2.
• Car seats labeled as approved for use on airplanes
may be used.
• For children weighing 22-44 pounds, who are less than
40 inches tall and can sit unassisted, the FAA has
approved the AmSafe /Aviation CARES device for use
on airplanes only.
– The CARES system is not for use in motor vehicles.
Technician Guide, page 11-4
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68
Fact or Fiction
In an emergency, a rear-facing
car seat used by an uninjured
child, can be installed in a rearfacing ambulance seat.
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69
Fact and Fiction
In general rear facing seats can not be secured
to a rear-facing ambulance seat. However, if the
car seat manufacturer provides specific
approval, it would be appropriate.
Technician Guide, page 11-5
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Example: Fact
Diono Special Installation Guidelines for
Ambulances and other Emergency Response
Vehicles:
www.cpsboard.org
71
Fact or Fiction
Seat checks for recertification must
be done at a big event.
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Fiction
• Seat checks for recertification require that you work
with an Instructor or Technician Proxy.
• Seat checks for recertification do not have to be done
at a large event but they do require observation of
your technical and communication skills.
• The seat checks can be done at an inspection station,
public event or by appointment. At the discretion of the
Instructor or Tech Proxy, mock scenarios in vehicles
can also be used.
Source: April 2014 CPS Express
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