Daniel® Liquid Turbine Flow Meter Technical Guide

Daniel® Liquid Turbine Flow Meter Technical Guide
Technical Guide
DAN-LIQ-Turbine Meter-TG-0807
August 2007
Liquid Turbine Flow Meters
Daniel® Liquid Turbine
Flow Meter Technical
Guide
www.daniel.com
Technical Guide
DAN-LIQ-Turbine Meter-TG-0807
August 2007
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Turbine Meter Parameters.............................................................................................................................. 1
The Daniel Series 1200 and 1500 Liquid Turbine Flow Meter Systems......................................................... 2
Turbine Meter Theory..................................................................................................................................... 3
Patented Floating Rotor................................................................................................................................. 4
Magnetic Pickoff of Rotor Velocity.................................................................................................................. 5
Turbine Meter Rotor and Bearing Design....................................................................................................... 6
Rimmed Rotors for Higher Resolution............................................................................................................ 7
Daniel Series 1200 Liquid Turbine Flow Meter............................................................................................... 8
Daniel Series 1200 Liquid Turbine Flow Meter Design Features................................................................... 9
Daniel Series 1200 Liquid Turbine Flow Meter Materials of Construction.................................................... 10
Daniel Series 1500 Liquid Turbine Flow Meter............................................................................................. 11
Daniel Series 1500 Liquid Turbine Flow Meter Design Features................................................................. 12
Daniel Series 1500 Liquid Turbine Flow Meter Materials of Construction.................................................... 13
Rangability of Liquid Turbine Flow Meters................................................................................................... 14
Liquid Turbine Flow Meter Performance with Different Specific Gravities.................................................... 14
Daniel Series 1500 Liquid Turbine Flow Meter Specific Gravity Adjustments.............................................. 15
Meter Performance in High Viscosity Liquids............................................................................................... 16
Installation and Operating Recommendations............................................................................................. 17
Back Pressure.............................................................................................................................................. 18
Turbine Meter Instrumentation..................................................................................................................... 19
FOREWORD
Daniel Measurement and Control is a recognized leader in the field of flow measurement. The Company is
engaged solely in the design and manufacture of flow measurement equipment for custody transfer and fiscal
duty applications for both gas and liquid. Daniel offers both individual products and systems, with the largest
installed base of packaged meter and prover systems. Daniel continues to be the leader in measurement
systems.
Daniel liquid turbine flow meters are the product of a continuous development process, and offer the best solution
for modern liquid measurement requirements.
The range of liquid turbine flow meters includes the Daniel Series 1200 and 1500 Liquid Turbine Flow Meters,
each of which is designed for specific industry segments. The Daniel Series 1200 Liquid Turbine Flow Meter is
designed for applications in loading terminals and is used on a variety of refined product loading applications.
The Daniel Series 1500 Liquid Turbine Flow Meter utilizes proven technology in a robust package designed for
pipeline applications.
Daniel turbine meters have been proven on a variety of liquid metering applications, including crude oil,
refined products, LPG, liquid ethylene and many other liquids. The characteristics of the turbine meter, which
include excellent repeatability, longevity and simplicity, lend the technology to an increasing number of liquid
measurement applications.
Technical Guide
DAN-LIQ-Turbine Meter-TG-0807
August 2007
TURBINE METER PARAMETERS
These five terms are the most widely discussed parameters of turbine meter applications.
Linearity is the measure of variation in signal output across the nominal flow range of the meter. The turbine
meter will have a nominal K-factor (number of pulses output for a given volume measured) and this value varies
across the flow range of the meter. Linearity is a measure of the variance of actual output from the average
K-factor. With modern electronics, linearization of the meter registration is possible within a flow computer, and
thus further improvements in measurement accuracy is possible.
Repeatability is the ability of a meter to indicate the same reading each time the same flow conditions exist.
Turbine meters exhibit excellent repeatability and, for many control applications, this is the most important
parameter to be considered.
Accuracy is a measure of how close to true or actual flow the instrument indication may be. It is generally
expressed as a percent of true volume for a specific flow range. This is a “worst case” rating. Accuracy at a
particular flow rate may be an order of magnitude better than “rated flow range accuracy.”
Resolution is a measure of the smallest increment of total flow that can be individually recognized, normally
defined by a single pulse. Turbine meters have an inherently high resolution.
Range is the ratio of maximum flow to minimum flow over which the specified linearity will be maintained. Normal
range (or “turn-down”) is given as 10:1, although this may be exceeded in many cases, depending on meter size
and required linearity.
Figure 1 - Flow Ranges
+0.15%
–0.15%
+0.02%
–0.02%
Page Technical Guide
DAN-LIQ-Turbine Meter-TG-0807
August 2007
THE DANIEL® SERIES 1200 AND 1500 LIQUID TURBINE FLOW METER SYSTEMS
The Daniel Series 1200 and 1500 Liquid Turbine Flow Meter Systems combine turbine meters and electronic
instrumentation to measure volumetric total flow and/or flow rate. Each Daniel turbine meter comprises of a
cylindrical housing containing a precise turbine rotor assembly. The magnetic pickoff, or pickoffs, are mounted
in a boss on the meter body. As fluid passes smoothly through the flow meter, it causes the rotor to revolve with
an angular velocity proportional to flow. The rotor blades or rim buttons passing through the magnetic field of the
pickoff generate a pulsing voltage in the coil of the pickoff assembly. Each voltage pulse represents a discrete
volume. The total number of pulses collected over a period of time represents the total volume metered.
The sinusoidal signal from each pickoff has low amplitude and may not normally be relied upon for
transmission distances over 20 feet (6 meters). The signal must, therefore, be amplified. This is achieved with a
preamplification board mounted on the turbine meter. These pulse signals are typically transmitted to control room
instrumentation such as flow computers, and may also be required to input to prover computers which calculate,
display, transmit, control or record the flow sensed by the rotor. The results may be displayed as pulse-counts or
standard engineering units, such as gallons, barrels, etc.
All Daniel Series 1200 and 1500 Liquid Turbine Flow Meters have, as standard, the Universal Mounting Box
(UMB) which may be fitted with one or two pickoffs and the dual channel preamplifier. The pickoff mountings are
oriented so that the outputs from the pickups are 90º electrically out of phase. The Daniel Series 1500 Liquid
Turbine Flow Meter may be supplied with two UMBs, offering up to four pulse outputs. Alternate pairs across the 2
UMBs are also 90º electrically out of phase.
Figure 2 - Liquid Turbine Flow Meter System
Flow Computer
Daniel manufactures the Series 1200 and 1500 Liquid Turbine Flow Meters, the adjacent tube sections, and the
electronic instrumentation. Each meter is precisely flow calibrated before shipment.
The Meter Systems are used to provide measurement information in fluid transport, petroleum and chemical
processing, custody transfer of liquids, blending systems, and in product batching in field or plant operations. The
repeatability of the systems ensures quality measurement of fluids over a wide range of flow rates, temperatures,
compositions and viscosities.
Page Technical Guide
DAN-LIQ-Turbine Meter-TG-0807
August 2007
TURBINE METER THEORY
Daniel® Valves In Load Rack Duty
The basic theory behind Daniel’s electronic liquid turbine meters is relatively simple. Fluid flow through the meter
impinges upon the turbine blades which are free to rotate about an axis along the center line of the turbine
housing. The angular (rotational) velocity of the turbine rotor is directly proportional to the fluid velocity through
the turbine. These features make the turbine meter an ideal device for measuring flow rate.
The output of the meter is taken by an electrical pickoff(s) mounted on the meter body. The output frequency of
this electrical pickoff is proportional to the flow rate. In addition to its excellent rangeability, a major advantage
of the turbine meter is that each electrical pulse is also proportional to a small incremental volume of flow. This
incremental output is digital in form, and as such, can be totalized with a maximum error of one pulse regardless
of the volume measured.
The turbine meter and associated digital electronics form the basis of any liquid metering system. An expanding
blade hanger assembly holds the turbine rotor in alignment with the fluid flow. The angle of the turbine blades to
the stream governs the angular velocity and the output frequency of the meter. A sharper blade angle provides a
higher frequency output. In general, the blade angle is held between 20º and 40º to the flow. Lower angles cause
too low of an angular velocity and loss of repeatability, while larger angles cause excessive end thrust.
FLOW RATE IS PROPORTIONAL TO ANGULAR VELOCITY
Figure 3 below is a cross section of the internals of a Daniel turbine meter. Flow through the turbine meter is from
left to right. The forward and rear suspension act as flow guides so that fluid motion through the meter is parallel
to the meter centerline. Flow impinging upon the angular blade causes the rotor to spin at an angular velocity
proportional to flow rate.
Figure 3 - Liquid Turbine Flow Meter Cross Section
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DAN-LIQ-Turbine Meter-TG-0807
August 2007
Figure 4 - Rotor Assembly Cross Section
Patented* Floating Rotor
Flowing fluid enters the turbine through the forward suspension. When it encounters the sharp angle of the cone,
the stream is deflected outward, increasing in velocity and causing a slight static pressure drop. As the fluid
leaves the blade area, flow has redistributed. Velocity is reduced slightly and the static pressure has increased
proportionally.
The difference between the two velocity pressures causes the rotor to move upstream into the fluid flow. This
upstream force would be great enough to cause the rotor to strike the forward thrust bearing, were it not for
the slight offset. The cross sectional area of the cone is slightly smaller than that of the rotor hub so that some
of the flow impinges directly upon the rotor hub, generating a downstream thrust. As a result, the rotor floats in
balance between upstream and downstream cones, pushed forward by the pressure difference across the blades
and pushed backward by the flow impingement. The only bearing surface other than the measured fluid is the
cemented carbide sleeve bearing insert. (See Figure 4)
In bi-directional meters, the downstream cone is replaced by a second upstream cone and rangeability in the
reverse flow direction is reduced.
* U.S. PATENT NO. 3,948,099, PATENTS IN OTHER COUNTRIES
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DAN-LIQ-Turbine Meter-TG-0807
August 2007
Surge And Pressure Relief Valves
MAGNETIC PICKOFF OF ROTOR VELOCITY
The angular velocity of the turbine rotor is taken through the turbine meter wall by means of a magnetic pickoff.
The stainless steel meter body is non-magnetic and offers negligible effect on a magnetic field set up by a
permanent magnet in the pickoff coil.
Turbine blades, made of a paramagnetic material (which properties cause it to be attracted by a magnet),
rotate past the pickoff coil, generating irregular shaped voltage pulses. The frequency of these pulses is linearly
proportional to the angular velocity of the rotor and thus to the flow rate. Additionally, each pulse is incrementally
proportional to a small unit of volume. The amplitude of the pulses will vary in proportion to blade velocity but is
not considered in the measurement process. Flow rate and total flow information is transmitted by frequency and
by counting (totalizing) the pulses.
The permanent magnet produces a magnetic field which passes through the coil and is concentrated to a small
point at the pickoffs. In Figures 5 and 6 below, as a turbine blade (A) moves into close proximity to the pickoff
point, its magnetic properties cause the magnetic field to deflect to accommodate its presence. This deflection
causes a voltage to be generated in the coil. As the blade passes under the pickoff point (B), this voltage decays,
only to build back in the opposite polarity as the leaving blade - now in position (C). This causes the magnetic
field to deflect in the opposite direction. So as each blade passes the pickoff, it produces a separate and distinct
voltage pulse. Since the fluid surrounding each blade represents a discrete unit of volume, each electrical pulse
also represents a discrete unit of volume. Turbine meter output is rated in pulses per gallon, pulses per liter, or
other standard engineering units.
Figure 5 - Assembly of Daniel® UMB showing
dual pickoff configuration
Figure 6 - Voltage Output, Peak to Peak
ONE
PULSE
A
ONE
UNIT
VOLUME
B
THIS 1/2 PULSE
IS NOT USED
BY READOUTS
MAGNETIC
SENSORS
(PICKOFFS)
C
UNIVERSAL
MOUNTING
BOX
(UMB)
CLAMP
O-RING
INSULATOR
PICKOFF #1
A
B
MAGNETIC
SENSORS
(PICKOFFS)
C
UNIVERSAL
MOUNTING
BOX
(UMB)
UMB
MOUNTING
BOX PAD
Page BLADES
THIS 1/2 PULSE
IS NOT USED
BY READOUTS
C
CLAMP
O-RING
INSULATOR
PICKOFF #1
PICKOFF #2
A
B
C
ONE
UNIT
VOLUME
B
PICKOFF #2
UMB
MOUNTING
BOX PAD
BLADES
ONE
PULSE
A
Technical Guide
DAN-LIQ-Turbine Meter-TG-0807
August 2007
TURBINE METER ROTOR AND BEARING DESIGN
The primary differences in turbine meter technology are in the design of the rotor and bearings.
The rotor is an assembly of up to twelve (in some designs this number is greater) blades locked into a hub, which rotates
on a bearing or bearings. For light liquid applications that require viscosities of 5 cSt or less, and specific gravities of less
than 0.75, the rotor does not normally need a rim (sometimes referred to as a shroud). For measuring the more viscous
liquids and in larger size turbine meters (i.e. 8” and above) a rim is fitted to ensure sufficient rigidity in the rotor. A rim also
offers the advantage of higher pulse resolution; with a bladed rotor the number of pulses per revolution is limited to the
number of blades, and in a rimmed rotor the number of pulses per revolution corresponds to the number of buttons or
slots in the rim.
For intermittent duties on light, clean hydrocarbons that may be found at tank truck terminals, ball bearings may be used
for a rotor bearing. Proper design of rotors with ball bearings will use two ball races and a short axle upon which the rotor
is fitted. Where space is constrained the ball races may be fitted directly into the rotor hub. This design is particularly
suited to low and varying flow rate applications, and is utilized on the Daniel Series 1200 Liquid Turbine Flow Meter,
designed primarily for distribution applications such as load racks. In these installations, liquids handled are typically light,
refined products.
Pipeline applications often require continuous operation at fixed flow rates. Here the design of the turbine meter must offer
sufficient longevity to minimize maintenance intervals. In these applications, tungsten carbide journal bearings are used,
which offer exceptional longevity. As tungsten carbide is extremely hard wearing, designs utilizing this sort of bearing are
often applied to more demanding measurement applications, such as crude oil.
It should be noted here that the limitations on viscosity are related to the rangeability of the turbine flow meter. As the
viscosity of the measured liquid increases, the K-factor variations at different flow rates increase. Thus to maintain the
linearity of the meter at the required level, as the viscosity of the measured liquid increases, the turn-down, or rangeability
of the meter must be reduced. So for typical pipeline applications, where the flow meter will operate at just one flow rate
(or a very limited range of flow rates) a turbine meter may be used to measure flows of high viscosity liquids. The Daniel
Series 1500 Liquid Turbine Flow Meter is designed for pipeline applications, and is equipped with robust internals suited
to continuous measurement of a wide range of liquids.
There may be a single hanger or hangers upstream and downstream of the rotor. In the Daniel Series 1200 Liquid Turbine
Flow Meter there is a single upstream support for the rotor, and in the Daniel Series 1500 Liquid Turbine Flow Meter there
are both upstream and downstream hangers.
Bearings may be either ball bearings or tungsten carbide journal bearings. Since ball bearings are used to provide
improved performance on low flow rates and on clean product, they are a reliable, cost effective solution.
The Daniel Series 1200 Liquid Turbine Flow Meter deploys a cantilevered twin ball bearing design. Utilizing a rotating
shaft on two ball bearing units, the Daniel Series 1200 Liquid Turbine Flow Meter is available in 1”, 1.5”, 2”, 3” and 4” line
sizes. For more demanding applications, a tungsten carbide journal bearing assembly is available as an option.
Lightweight bladed rotors of this type mounted on ball bearings are particularly suited to the intermittent duty cycles typical
in loading rack applications. The design application is limited to clean refined products. In the event that the turbine is
used on slightly dirty products, the use of tungsten carbide journal bearings is recommended. Tungsten carbide bearings
are extremely hard wearing and used in turbine meters on a range of applications from LPGs to crude oils.
Page Technical Guide
DAN-LIQ-Turbine Meter-TG-0807
August 2007
RIMMED ROTORS FOR HIGHER RESOLUTION
In the larger diameter Daniel Series 1500 Liquid Turbine Flow Meter (normally above 6” in line size), the resolution
provided by a blade-type motor may be improved by the use of a rimmed (or shrouded) rotor. This construction is standard
for Daniel meters of 8” and up. A lightweight stainless steel rim (or shroud) carries small paramagnetic buttons which
provide a greater resolution of flow by generating more pulses per unit volume.
Daniel Series 1200 and 1500 Liquid Turbine Flow Meters are supplied with one Universal Mounting Box (UMB) as
standard. This is attached to a boss, which in turn is attached to the meter body. This assembly may house two pickoffs,
which are oriented such that their outputs are 90º electrically out of phase.
Figure 7 - Daniel® Series
1500 Liquid Turbine Flow
Meter internals showing
standard rimmed rotor
Figure 8 - Daniel® Series
1500 Liquid Turbine Flow
Meter internals showing high
resolution rotor
The Daniel® Series 1500 Liquid Turbine Flow Meter is also offered with a high resolution rotor. This rotor is designed
with slots in the rim in place of paramagnetic buttons and provides a higher number of pulses per unit volume than the
standard rotor which enables proving with a smaller pipe size prover.
Page Technical Guide
DAN-LIQ-Turbine Meter-TG-0807
August 2007
DANIEL® SERIES 1200 LIQUID TURBINE FLOW METER
Daniel Series 1200 Liquid Turbine Flow Meters are designed specifically for load rack service where a vital
characteristic is repeatability. The meter deploys a lightweight rotor which is supported on self-cleaning flow through
ball bearings. As a result, the meter is versatile and is particularly suited to batch loading of light hydrocarbons. The
meter has been used successfully on fluids with viscosities up to 6 centistokes. The meter can also be supplied with
optional tungsten carbide bearings for more demanding applications
The meter features an upstream expanding hanger which centers the internals in the body, with cantilevered support
of the rotor. The stainless steel ball bearings or the tungsten carbide bearings and the shaft are housed in the meter
hub. The meter will operate in any plane, and is frequently used in the vertical orientation with flow upward to save
space at a load rack.
The design includes an integral flow conditioning plate which allows operation without upstream flow straightening
available on the 1.5”, 2”, 3” and 4” meters. This configuration is particularly valuable in vertical use at load racks.
SEE DANIEL SERIES 1200 LIQUID TURBINE FLOW METER DATASHEET FOR MODEL SELECTION MATRIX
UMB Cover
Dual Channel
Pre-amplifer
Daniel® Series
Figure 9 1200
Liquid Turbine Flow Meter
(Shown with tungsten carbide bearings)
Pickoffs
UMB Housing
O-ring
Flow
Conditioning Plate
Hanger
Blades
Shaft
Sleeve
Thrust
Washer
Outlet
Diffuser
Cap
Rotor
Assembly
with
Bearing
Hanger
Hub
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DAN-LIQ-Turbine Meter-TG-0807
August 2007
DANIEL® SERIES 1200 LIQUID TURBINE FLOW METER DESIGN FEATURES
The following data is applicable for Daniel Series 1200 Liquid Turbine Flow Meter calibrated on mineral spirits.
Size
(Inches)
Standard
Extended
Standard
Extended
Standard
Extended
Flow Range Flow Range Flow Range Flow Range Flow Range Flow Range
BBL/Hr
BBL/Hr
M3/Hr
M3/Hr
USGPM
USGPM
1
8.6 - 86
99
1.36 - 13.7
15.8
6.0 - 60
69
1.5
18.6 - 186
214
2.96 - 29.6
34
13 - 130
150
2
31.5 - 315
362
50 - 50
57.5
22 - 220
253
3
93 - 930
1.071
14.8 - 148
170
65 - 650
750
4
143 - 1,430
1,785
23 - 230
284
100 - 1,000
1,250
Linearity
Size (Inches)
Standard Linearity
Premium Linearity
1
+/-0.25%
N/A
1.5
+/-0.25%
+/-0.15%
2
+/-0.25%
+/-0.15%
3
+/-0.15%
N/A
4
+/-0.15%
N/A
Repeatability: +/-0.02% at any point throughout the minimum to extended maximum flow range.
Nominal K- factor
Size
Page K-factor
(Inches)
Pulses/BBL
Pulses/M3
Pulses/US Gal
1
33,600
211,360
800
1.5
16,800
105,680
400
2
7,560
47,556
180
3
2,184
13,877
52
4
966
6,077
23
Technical Guide
DAN-LIQ-Turbine Meter-TG-0807
August 2007
DANIEL® SERIES 1200 LIQUID TURBINE FLOW METER MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION
Standard
Optional
1” and 1.5” Stainless Steel
Body/Flanges
NA
2” - 4” Carbon Steel
304 Stainless Steel
Suspension
Anodized Aluminum
None
Rotor Blades
400 Series Stainless Steel
None
Rotor Hub
Aluminum
None
Shaft
304 Stainless Steel
None
Bearings
430 Stainless Steel
Tungsten Carbide
Flow Conditioning Plate
Delrin® 150
Aluminum
Viscosity and Specific Gravity
Low specific gravities or high viscosities will reduce the flow range of the meter.
Daniel® Series 1200 Liquid Turbine Flow Meter
Page 10
Technical Guide
DAN-LIQ-Turbine Meter-TG-0807
August 2007
DANIEL® SERIES 1500 LIQUID TURBINE FLOW METER
The Daniel Series 1500 Liquid Turbine Flow Meter is designed for applications requiring rugged dependability with
high accuracy and throughput. Used on pipelines, marine loading and other demanding systems, the internals
used are well proven in the Daniel PT meter. The Daniel Series 1500 Liquid Turbine Flow Meter utilizes these
internals in a body designed to accept a Universal Mounting Box (UMB) and the latest pickoff and pre-amplifier
technology.
With upstream and downstream self-centering hangers, highly durable rotor assembly utilizing tungsten carbide
sleeve and journal bearings, and a floating rotor design, the Daniel Series 1500 Liquid Turbine Flow Meter is
suited to those applications where downtime is unacceptable.
In such applications, dual pulse transmission is normally used to allow the meter instrumentation (normally a flow
computer) to check the fidelity of pulse transmission. The single UMB housing contains 1 or 2 pickoffs and a dual
channel preamplifier. When configured with 2 pickoffs the square wave outputs are 90º electrically out of phase.
The Daniel Series 1500 Liquid Turbine Flow Meter (2” and up) is available with a second UMB as an option.
For meters 3” and above in this configuration, it is thus possible to have up to 4 matched pulse outputs.
Corresponding pairs are then 90º electrically out of phase.
The Daniel Series 1500 Liquid Turbine Flow Meter utilizes only tungsten carbide journal bearings. In applications
with fluids of adequate lubricity, a film of the measured fluid lubricates the journal which contributes to the
enormous longevity of this design. These bearings are extremely hard (Rockwell A-94) and are polished with
diamond paste to a smoothness of two micro-inches (a mirror finish).
The rotor may be blade-type or rimmed-type. Rimmed (or shrouded) rotors have the advantages of greater
structural strength and the possibility of higher resolution, as a greater number of paramagnetic buttons than of
blades may be used on the stainless steel rim. A bladed rotor is limited to 1 pulse per blade per revolution, with
the practical limit for the blades being 12. With a rim, or shroud, there may be up to 64 pulses (buttons) per rotor
revolution.
The high resolution (HR) rotor option for the Series 1500 rotor is available in 6” through 16” sizes. In this design
the rotor rim is a slotted 400 series stainless steel, designed with twice as many slots in the HR rotor as buttons
on the standard rotor.
SEE DANIEL SERIES 1500 LIQUID TURBINE FLOW METER DATASHEET FOR MODEL SELECTION MATRIX
Figure 10 - Daniel® Series 1500
Liquid Turbine Flow Meter
Pickoff A
Downstream
Cone
Hanger Blades
Pickoff B
Upstream Cone
Flow
Conditioning
Plate
(optional)
Hanger Blades
Hanger Hub
Rotor
Assembly
Hanger Hub
Page 11
Shaft
Deflector Ring
Technical Guide
DAN-LIQ-Turbine Meter-TG-0807
August 2007
The deployment of this high resolution rotor in each of the sizes available gives a nominal K-factor twice that of
the standard meter and allows for proving with a smaller size prover.
The rimmed design is available as an option on 3”-6” turbines, and is standard on 8” and larger.
Whatever the design of meter and rotor configuration, the blades are locked and welded into the desired angular
position, forming a solid, one piece rotor.
In the Daniel Series 1500 Liquid Turbine Flow Meter both up and downstream shaft supports are deployed. The
expanding hanger principle is used to ensure positive self-centering of the internals. The shape of the internal
cones results in a reverse differential pressure that counterbalances the downstream thrust on the rotor, thus
allowing the rotor to float on a fluid cushion. This floating action ensures long life and minimal maintenance. (See
Figure 10)
DANIEL® SERIES 1500 LIQUID TURBINE FLOW METER DESIGN FEATURES
The following data is applicable for Daniel Series 1500 Liquid Turbine Flow Meter calibrated on mineral spirits or
water.
Size
(Inches)
Standard Flow
Range BBL/Hr
Min
Max
1
10
100
1.5
21
2
36
Extended
Max Flow
BPH w/20%
Duty Cycle
Standard Flow
Range M3/Hr
Extended
Min Flow
Range
USGPM
Standard Flow
Range USGPM
+ .75 (1”- 2.5”)
+ .50 (3”- 18”)
Min
Max
116
1
15
214
247
3
360
411
6
Extended Max
Flow Range
USGPM w/20%
Duty Cycle
Min
Max
5.6
7
70
81
34
12
15
150
173
57
20
25
250
288
2.5
57
571
657
9
91
32
40
400
460
3
100
1,000
1,150
16
159
56
70
700
805
4
184
1,850
2,126
29
294
104
129
1,295
1,488
6
420
4,200
4,830
67
668
235
294
2,940
3,381
8
850
8,500
9,776
135
1,351
476
595
5,950
6,843
10
1,200
12,000
13,800
191
1,908
672
840
8,400
9,660
12
1,800
18,000
20,700
286
2,862
1,008
1,260
12,600
14,490
16
2,800
28,000
32,200
445
4,452
1,568
1,960
19,600
22,540
18
4,000
40,000
46,000
636
6,359
2,240
2,800
28,000
32,200
Linearity
Size
(Inches)
Standard Linearity
Premium Linearity
1”- 2.5”
+/-0.25%
+/-0.15%
3”- 18”
+/-0.15%
+/-0.1%*
+/-0.07%*
Repeatability: +/-0.02% at any point throughout the
minimum to extended maximum flowrange.
Viscosity and Specific Gravity
Low specific gravities or high viscosities will reduce
the flow range of the meter.
*5 to 1 turndown
Page 12
Technical Guide
DAN-LIQ-Turbine Meter-TG-0807
August 2007
Nominal K-Factor
Size
Pulses/BBL
Nominal K-Factor
Pulses/M3
Pulses/US Gal
1
21,000 (blade)
132,100 (blade)
500 (blade)
1.5
9,660 (blade)
60,766 (blade)
230 (blade)
2
5,334 (blade)
33,553 (blade)
127 (blade)
2.5
2,730 (blade)
17,173 (blade)
75 (blade)
3
2,016 (blade)
4,620 (rim)
12,682 (blade)
29,062 (rim)
48 (blade)
110 (rim)
4
1,000 (blade)
3,000 (rim)
6,290 (blade)
18,864 (rim)
23.8 (blade)
71.4 (rim)
6
235 (blade)
1,000 (rim)
2,000 (HR rim)
1478 (blade)
6,290 (rim)
12,580 (hr rim)
5.6 (blade)
23.8 (rim)
47.6 (hr rim)
8
500 (rim)
1,000 (hr rim)
3,145 (rim)
6,290 (hr rim)
11.9 (rim)
23.8 (hr rim)
10
250 (rim)
500 (hr rim)
1,572 (rim)
3,144 (hr rim)
6 (rim)
12 (hr rim)
12
200 (rim)
400 (hr rim)
1,258 (rim)
2516 (hr rim)
4.8 (rim)
9.6 (hr rim)
16
100 (rim)
200 (hr rim)
629 (rim)
1,258 (hr rim)
2.4 (rim)
4.8 (hr rim)
18
100 (rim)
629 (rim)
2.4 (rim)
DANIEL® SERIES 1500 LIQUID TURBINE FLOW METER MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION
Item
Standard
Optional
Optional
304 Standard 1”
and 1.5”
NA
316 SS
CS Standard 2”
and up
304 SS
316 SS
Suspension
304 SS
304 SS
316 SS
Rotor Blades (Rim Type)
304 SS
304 SS
316 SS
Rotor Blades (Blades Type)
430 SS
430 SS
Nickel 200
Sleeve Bearings
Tungsten Carbide
Tungsten Carbide
Tungsten Carbide
Journal Bearings
Tungsten Carbide
Tungsten Carbide
Tungsten Carbide
Rotor Hub
430 SS
430 SS
316 SS
Rotor Rim 3” and 4”
316 SS
316 SS
316 SS
Rotor Rim 6” - 18”
304 SS
304 SS
316 SS
Hi Mu 80
Hi Mu 80
Hi Mu 80
Cones
304 SS
304 SS
316 SS
Shaft
316 SS
316 SS
316 SS
Tolerance Ring
304 SS
304 SS
316 SS
Meter body and flanges
Rim Buttons
Page 13
Technical Guide
DAN-LIQ-Turbine Meter-TG-0807
August 2007
RANGEABILITY OF LIQUID TURBINE FLOW METERS
The flow ranges indicated in the previous tables show a nominal flow range -- with a turndown of 10:1 - at which
the turbine will report measurement repeatable to the indicated specification based on measurement of clean
liquids such as water (specific gravity 1, viscosity 1 cSt) and mineral spirits (specific gravity 0.78, viscosity 1.8
cSt).
Where liquids with properties outside of the range described by these liquids are to be measured, the meter flow
range will be affected.
Extended flow rates on intermittent duty cycles are permitted and shown in the flow meter design features table
on page 12. It should also be noted that the use of the meter in the extended flow range should be limited to a
20% duty cycle.
LIQUID TURBINE FLOW METER PERFORMANCE WITH DIFFERENT SPECIFIC GRAVITIES
Liquid turbine meters are affected by changes in liquid density. When measuring liquids with specific gravities of
0.7 or less, the minimum flow rate of the meter must be increased to maintain the linearity of the meter within the
required limits. In this application, the maximum flow rate may be increased to allow for greater rangeability.
It is vital that proper back pressure be maintained (refer to page 18 for the formula for determining required back
pressure). Failure to do so may result in flashing and cavitation, which will cause over ranging of, and damage to,
the meter. Liquids with low specific gravities generally have high vapor pressures and high coefficients of thermal
expansion. When measuring these liquids, it is extremely important that proper installation, measurement and
proving practice be followed to provide stable temperatures and to negate the potential for poor measurement and
possible system damage.
The data on the following page are for the Daniel Series 1500 Liquid Turbine Flow Meter, and similar effects will
be observed in all design of turbine meters.
Page 14
Technical Guide
DAN-LIQ-Turbine Meter-TG-0807
August 2007
DANIEL® SERIES 1500 LIQUID TURBINE FLOW METER SPECIFIC GRAVITY ADJUSTMENTS
S.G. = 1 ( .7 to 1 )
Meter Size
Minimum Linear
BBL/Hr
M /Hr
3
Maximum Linear
USGPM
BBL/Hr
M3/Hr
USGPM
1
10
1.59
7
100
15.90
70
1.5
21.4
3.40
15
214
34
150
2
35.7
5.68
25
357
56.76
250
2.5
57.1
9.08
40
571
90.78
400
3*
100
15.9
70
1,000
159
700
4*
185.7
29.52
130
1,850
295
1,295
6*
420
66.77
294
4,192
667.7
2,935
S.G. = 0.5
Meter Size
Minimum Linear
Maximum Linear
BBL/Hr
M /Hr
USGPM
BBL/Hr
M3/Hr
USGPM
1
22.9
3.64
16
116
36.4
81
1.5
50
7.95
35
246
79.5
172
3
2
84.3
13.40
59
411
134
288
2.5
134.3
21.35
94
657
213.5
460
3*
235.7
37.47
165
1,150
374.7
805
4*
435.7
69.27
305
2,127
692.7
1,489
6*
988.6
157.2
692
4,830
1,572
3,381
S.G. = 0.3
Meter Size
Minimum Linear
BBL/Hr
Maximum Linear
M /Hr
USGPM
3
M3/Hr
USGPM
1
32.9
5.23
23
116
52.3
81
1.5
71.4
11.35
50
246
113.5
172
2
118.6
18.56
83
411
185.6
288
2.5
190
32.21
133
657
322.1
460
3*
331.4
52.69
232
1,150
526.9
805
4*
612.8
97.43
429
2,127
974.3
1,489
6*
1,393
221.5
975
4,830
2,215
3,381
* Rim type rotor not recommended, use blade type rotor only.
Page 15
BBL/Hr
Technical Guide
DAN-LIQ-Turbine Meter-TG-0807
August 2007
METER PERFORMANCE IN HIGH VISCOSITY LIQUIDS
Increases in viscosity of the measured liquid will reduce the rangeability of the flow meter. Generally, the
minimum flow rate of the meter will have to be increased to maintain the linearity rating of the meter.
The increased flow rate may be determined according to the following ratio:
Sizing ratio = Liquid Viscosity (Centistokes)
Nominal Line Sizes
Sizing Ratio
Minimum Flow (% of Normal Maximum Flow Rate)
1
Use Normal Minimum Flow Rate
1.5
20%
2
25%
2.5
30%
3
35%
4
40%
5
45%
6
50%
7
55%
8
60%
Example:
The sizing ratio of a 4-inch turbine meter measuring a liquid of 8 cSt is 8/4, or 2. The normal maximum flow
rate of this size of meter is 1450 GPM. The new minimum flow rate is 25% of 1450, or 362.5 GPM. The flow
rate for this application is now 362-1450 GPM, with standard linearity (+/-0.15%) and repeatability of (+/-0.02%)
maintained.
Note: Use of the turbine meter on high viscosity liquids at the maximum extended flow range is allowable, but
may increase the wear rate of the turbine.
The pressure drop through the meter may be estimated (for low to medium viscosities) according to the following
formula:
DP = (PD) x (μ)1/4 x (SG)3/4
or
DP = (PD) x (v)1/4 x (SG)
Where:
DP = Estimated pressure drop
PD = Pressure drop for water at expected flow rate
μ = Absolute viscosity in centipoises
v = Kinematic viscosity in centistokes
SG = Specific gravity
Note: μ = (v) x (SG)
Page 16
Technical Guide
DAN-LIQ-Turbine Meter-TG-0807
August 2007
INSTALLATION AND OPERATING RECOMMENDATIONS
For a turbine meter to perform without increased uncertainty and in a repeatable and accurate manner, the flowing
stream must be free of rotational components. The internal assembly supports of a turbine meter offer a slight
straightening effect, but additional flow straightening is normally required.
Generally, upstream flow straightening is effected through the use of adequate upstream straightening sections,
which often comprise a set of straightening vanes or a tube bundle. Guidance on this subject is offered in the API
Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards, Chapter 5, Section 3.
For turbine flow meters of 2-inches and less, straightening vanes are not normally used. For most installations,
twenty diameters of upstream pipe should be provided for adequate flow straightening. (See Figure 11)
Figure 11 - Small Diameter
Meter Tube
STRAINER
20D
MINIMUM
5D
MINIMUM
FLOW
TURBINE METER
D= NOMINAL PIPE SIZE
For line sizes 2-inches and larger, upstream flow straightening sections are normally supplied with straightening
vanes. With this construction, the upstream straightening section need only be ten diameters in length.
Daniel supplies upstream and downstream flow straightening sections in either carbon steel or stainless steel, as
required by the application. The standard design offered is the two-section tube, with a single upstream and single
downstream straightening section. The upstream section contains the tube bundle, which is securely located within
the pipe section. (See Figure 12)
Flow straightening sections may in fact be supplied in any configuration, with any line connection and to any specified
length. In some installations, a three section flow straightening configuration is required. By using this configuration
ready access to the straightening vanes is afforded. (See Figure 13)
Figure 12 - Two-Section
Meter Tube
5D
MINIMUM
10D
MINIMUM
FLOW
Figure 13 - Three-Section
Meter Tube
STRAINER
LINE MODEL
STRAIGHTENING VANE
TURBINE
METER
METER TUBE
5D
MINIMUM
10D
MINIMUM
FLOW
METER TUBE
FLANGE MODEL
STRAIGHTENING VANE
TURBINE
METER
METER TUBE
D= NOMINAL PIPE SIZE
Page 17
Technical Guide
DAN-LIQ-Turbine Meter-TG-0807
August 2007
In some circumstances, the use of a Flow Conditioning Plate (FCP) is possible. The flow conditioning plate is
available from 3” to 6” for the Daniel Series 1500 Liquid Turbine Flow Meter, and is standard on the Daniel
Series 1200 Liquid Turbine Flow Meter (with the exception of the 1”). When supplied, the FCP is an integral
part of the turbine meter. The FCP serves to reduce swirl in the same way as flow straightening sections, and is
of particular significance where piping installations do not permit long upstream sections, such as in load racks
where space is at a premium.
BACK PRESSURE
It is essential to maintain sufficient back pressure on the turbine meter to prevent flashing and cavitation. This is
particularly important when measuring liquids with high vapor pressures, such as LPGs.
The necessary back pressure required is given by the equation:
BP = (meter ∆P X 2) + (VP X 1.25)
BP = Back pressure required
∆P = Meter pressure drop at maximum flow
VP = Equilibrium vapor pressure of the liquid at the operating temperature, pounds per square inch absolute
(psia), (gauge pressure plus atmoshperic pressure.)
The pulses per unit volume / flow range curves below illustrate the effects of back pressure. Not only does
insufficient back pressure lead to measurement inaccuracy, the resultant flashing and cavitation is extremely
damaging to the flow meter and pipework.
Figure 14 - Effects of Back Pressure
Page 18
Technical Guide
DAN-LIQ-Turbine Meter-TG-0807
August 2007
TURBINE METER INSTRUMENTATION
The turbine pickoff coil has a high impedance and
offers only a low voltage output. Transmission of flow
signals requires low impedance and high voltage, and
so amplification of the pickoff signal is required.
Daniel Series 1200 and 1500 Liquid Turbine Flow
Meters are supplied with the UMB and a dual channel
preamplifier as standard. The preamplifier shapes and
conditions the pickoff output signal, rendering it suitable
for transmission over distances of up to 3,000 feet, with
the appropriate cabling.
Powered Pulse Output
Output: 0 to 5V square wave
Frequency range: 0 to 5 kHz
Loading: 1 kOhm internal pull-up
Variable Voltage Output
Output: 0 to supply voltage square wave
Frequency range: 0 to 5 kHz
Loading: 1 kOhm internal pull-up
Open Collector Output
The UMB allows for either one or two pickoffs. The
outputs from the two pickoffs are 90o electrically out
of phase, thus facilitating proper dual pulse fidelity
checking.
Output: Square wave
Frequency range: 0 to 5 kHz
Maximum voltage: 30 Vdc
Maximum current: 125 mA
Maximum power: 0.5 Watts
Pickoff Specifications
Type: 2-wire reluctance Transmission Distance
Resistance: 600-900 Ohms
Inductance: 250 mH max.
Output: Sinusoidal 40mV p-p minimum @minimum flow with preamplifier load
Without preamp: 20ft (6.1m)
Belden 88442 or equivalent
With preamp: 3,000ft (914m)
Belden 8770 or equivalent
Optional: 2, 3* or 4* pickoff coils
*with dual UMB
Hazardous Area Classifications
UL / CUL Class 1, Division 1, groups C&D
Nema 4 UL, CUL
CE certified EEx d IIB T6 (ATEX)
DUAL CHANNEL PREAMP
TERMINAL IDENTIFICATION
CUSTOMER CONNECTIONS
TB1 1 2 3
PICKOFF
TERMINAL
IDENTIFICATION
Figure 15 - Dual
Channel
Preamp Terminal Identification
Customer Connections
CUSTOMER CONNECTIONS
4 5
COMMON
CHA. B OUTPUT
COMMON
CHA. A OUTPUT
1 2
PICKOFF
+10 TO 30 VDC
WHITE
BLACK OR
TB2
RED
BLACK OR
TB2
RED
Page
J3 J4
WHITE
CHANNEL B
JUMPER
J1-CHAN. A INPUT
J1-CHAN. B INPUT
A
N/A
N/A
CHANNEL B
PREAMP JUMPER CONFIGURATIONS
PICKOFF
J1
PREAMP JUMPER CONFIGURATIONS
19J3 J4
PICKOFF
WHITE
BLACK OR
RED
TB3
CHANNEL A
BLACK OR
RED
TB3
CHANNEL A
1 2
TB1 1 2 3
COMMON
COMMON
CHA. A OUTPUT
1 2
DUAL CHANNEL PREAMP
+10 TO 30 VDC
WHITE
4 5
CHA. B OUTPUT
Inputs:
Supply voltage: 10 - 30 Vdc
Minimum input signal amplitude: 40mV p-p minimum
1 2
Preamplifier Performance Dual Channel Preamplifier
JUMPER POSITIONS
B
40mV. PP MIN
40mV. PP MIN
OUT
N/A
N/A
J2
JUMPER
J1-CHAN. A INPUT
J1-CHAN. B INPUT
J3-CHAN. A OUTPUT
J4-CHAN. B OUTPUT
A
N/A
N/A
5V.PULSE
5V.PULSE
JUMPER POSITIONS
B
40mV. PP MIN
40mV. PP MIN
SUP. VOLT. PULSE (10-30 VDC)
SUP. VOLT. PULSE (10-30 VDC)
OUT
N/A
N/A
O.C.
O.C.
Emerson Process Management
Daniel Measurement and Control, Inc.
World Area Headquarters
Houston, Texas, USA
T: 713-467-6000, F: 713-827-3880
USA Toll Free 1-888-FLOW-001
www.daniel.com
Calgary, Alberta, Canada
T: 403-279-1879, F: 403-236-1337
Alberta Toll Free 1-800-242-3197
[email protected]
[email protected]
Stirling, Scotland - Europe, Middle East, Africa
T: +44 (0) 1786 433400, F: +44 (0) 1786 433401
Singapore - Asia Pacific
Emerson Process Management Asia Pacific Private Limited
T: +65-6777-8211, F: +65-6770-8001
©2007 Daniel Measurement and Control, Inc., All Rights Reserved. Printed in the USA.
DAN-LIQ-Turbine Meter-TG-0807
Daniel Measurement and Control, Inc. (“Daniel”) is a wholly owned subsidiary
of Emerson Electric Co., and a division of Emerson Process Management.
The Daniel name and logo are registered trademarks of Daniel Industries,
Inc. The Emerson logo is a registered trademark and service mark
of Emerson Electric Co. All other trademarks are the property of their
respective companies. The contents of this publication are presented for
informational purposes only, and while every effort has been made to ensure
their accuracy, they are not to be construed as warranties or guarantees,
expressed or implied, regarding the products or services described herein
or their use or applicability. All sales are governed by Daniel’s terms and
conditions, which are available upon request. We reserve the right to modify
or improve the designs or specifications of such products at any time. Daniel
does not assume responsibility for the selection, use or maintenance of any
product. Responsibility for proper selection, use and maintenance of any
Daniel product remains solely with the purchaser and end-user. The Daniel
Series 1200 and 1500 Liquid Turbine Flow Meters are protected by United
States and International patents and patents pending.
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