Technical Guide DAN-LIQ-Turbine Meter-TG-0807 August 2007 Liquid Turbine Flow Meters Daniel® Liquid Turbine Flow Meter Technical Guide www.daniel.com Technical Guide DAN-LIQ-Turbine Meter-TG-0807 August 2007 TABLE OF CONTENTS Turbine Meter Parameters.............................................................................................................................. 1 The Daniel Series 1200 and 1500 Liquid Turbine Flow Meter Systems......................................................... 2 Turbine Meter Theory..................................................................................................................................... 3 Patented Floating Rotor................................................................................................................................. 4 Magnetic Pickoff of Rotor Velocity.................................................................................................................. 5 Turbine Meter Rotor and Bearing Design....................................................................................................... 6 Rimmed Rotors for Higher Resolution............................................................................................................ 7 Daniel Series 1200 Liquid Turbine Flow Meter............................................................................................... 8 Daniel Series 1200 Liquid Turbine Flow Meter Design Features................................................................... 9 Daniel Series 1200 Liquid Turbine Flow Meter Materials of Construction.................................................... 10 Daniel Series 1500 Liquid Turbine Flow Meter............................................................................................. 11 Daniel Series 1500 Liquid Turbine Flow Meter Design Features................................................................. 12 Daniel Series 1500 Liquid Turbine Flow Meter Materials of Construction.................................................... 13 Rangability of Liquid Turbine Flow Meters................................................................................................... 14 Liquid Turbine Flow Meter Performance with Different Specific Gravities.................................................... 14 Daniel Series 1500 Liquid Turbine Flow Meter Specific Gravity Adjustments.............................................. 15 Meter Performance in High Viscosity Liquids............................................................................................... 16 Installation and Operating Recommendations............................................................................................. 17 Back Pressure.............................................................................................................................................. 18 Turbine Meter Instrumentation..................................................................................................................... 19 FOREWORD Daniel Measurement and Control is a recognized leader in the field of flow measurement. The Company is engaged solely in the design and manufacture of flow measurement equipment for custody transfer and fiscal duty applications for both gas and liquid. Daniel offers both individual products and systems, with the largest installed base of packaged meter and prover systems. Daniel continues to be the leader in measurement systems. Daniel liquid turbine flow meters are the product of a continuous development process, and offer the best solution for modern liquid measurement requirements. The range of liquid turbine flow meters includes the Daniel Series 1200 and 1500 Liquid Turbine Flow Meters, each of which is designed for specific industry segments. The Daniel Series 1200 Liquid Turbine Flow Meter is designed for applications in loading terminals and is used on a variety of refined product loading applications. The Daniel Series 1500 Liquid Turbine Flow Meter utilizes proven technology in a robust package designed for pipeline applications. Daniel turbine meters have been proven on a variety of liquid metering applications, including crude oil, refined products, LPG, liquid ethylene and many other liquids. The characteristics of the turbine meter, which include excellent repeatability, longevity and simplicity, lend the technology to an increasing number of liquid measurement applications. Technical Guide DAN-LIQ-Turbine Meter-TG-0807 August 2007 TURBINE METER PARAMETERS These five terms are the most widely discussed parameters of turbine meter applications. Linearity is the measure of variation in signal output across the nominal flow range of the meter. The turbine meter will have a nominal K-factor (number of pulses output for a given volume measured) and this value varies across the flow range of the meter. Linearity is a measure of the variance of actual output from the average K-factor. With modern electronics, linearization of the meter registration is possible within a flow computer, and thus further improvements in measurement accuracy is possible. Repeatability is the ability of a meter to indicate the same reading each time the same flow conditions exist. Turbine meters exhibit excellent repeatability and, for many control applications, this is the most important parameter to be considered. Accuracy is a measure of how close to true or actual flow the instrument indication may be. It is generally expressed as a percent of true volume for a specific flow range. This is a “worst case” rating. Accuracy at a particular flow rate may be an order of magnitude better than “rated flow range accuracy.” Resolution is a measure of the smallest increment of total flow that can be individually recognized, normally defined by a single pulse. Turbine meters have an inherently high resolution. Range is the ratio of maximum flow to minimum flow over which the specified linearity will be maintained. Normal range (or “turn-down”) is given as 10:1, although this may be exceeded in many cases, depending on meter size and required linearity. Figure 1 - Flow Ranges +0.15% –0.15% +0.02% –0.02% Page Technical Guide DAN-LIQ-Turbine Meter-TG-0807 August 2007 THE DANIEL® SERIES 1200 AND 1500 LIQUID TURBINE FLOW METER SYSTEMS The Daniel Series 1200 and 1500 Liquid Turbine Flow Meter Systems combine turbine meters and electronic instrumentation to measure volumetric total flow and/or flow rate. Each Daniel turbine meter comprises of a cylindrical housing containing a precise turbine rotor assembly. The magnetic pickoff, or pickoffs, are mounted in a boss on the meter body. As fluid passes smoothly through the flow meter, it causes the rotor to revolve with an angular velocity proportional to flow. The rotor blades or rim buttons passing through the magnetic field of the pickoff generate a pulsing voltage in the coil of the pickoff assembly. Each voltage pulse represents a discrete volume. The total number of pulses collected over a period of time represents the total volume metered. The sinusoidal signal from each pickoff has low amplitude and may not normally be relied upon for transmission distances over 20 feet (6 meters). The signal must, therefore, be amplified. This is achieved with a preamplification board mounted on the turbine meter. These pulse signals are typically transmitted to control room instrumentation such as flow computers, and may also be required to input to prover computers which calculate, display, transmit, control or record the flow sensed by the rotor. The results may be displayed as pulse-counts or standard engineering units, such as gallons, barrels, etc. All Daniel Series 1200 and 1500 Liquid Turbine Flow Meters have, as standard, the Universal Mounting Box (UMB) which may be fitted with one or two pickoffs and the dual channel preamplifier. The pickoff mountings are oriented so that the outputs from the pickups are 90º electrically out of phase. The Daniel Series 1500 Liquid Turbine Flow Meter may be supplied with two UMBs, offering up to four pulse outputs. Alternate pairs across the 2 UMBs are also 90º electrically out of phase. Figure 2 - Liquid Turbine Flow Meter System Flow Computer Daniel manufactures the Series 1200 and 1500 Liquid Turbine Flow Meters, the adjacent tube sections, and the electronic instrumentation. Each meter is precisely flow calibrated before shipment. The Meter Systems are used to provide measurement information in fluid transport, petroleum and chemical processing, custody transfer of liquids, blending systems, and in product batching in field or plant operations. The repeatability of the systems ensures quality measurement of fluids over a wide range of flow rates, temperatures, compositions and viscosities. Page Technical Guide DAN-LIQ-Turbine Meter-TG-0807 August 2007 TURBINE METER THEORY Daniel® Valves In Load Rack Duty The basic theory behind Daniel’s electronic liquid turbine meters is relatively simple. Fluid flow through the meter impinges upon the turbine blades which are free to rotate about an axis along the center line of the turbine housing. The angular (rotational) velocity of the turbine rotor is directly proportional to the fluid velocity through the turbine. These features make the turbine meter an ideal device for measuring flow rate. The output of the meter is taken by an electrical pickoff(s) mounted on the meter body. The output frequency of this electrical pickoff is proportional to the flow rate. In addition to its excellent rangeability, a major advantage of the turbine meter is that each electrical pulse is also proportional to a small incremental volume of flow. This incremental output is digital in form, and as such, can be totalized with a maximum error of one pulse regardless of the volume measured. The turbine meter and associated digital electronics form the basis of any liquid metering system. An expanding blade hanger assembly holds the turbine rotor in alignment with the fluid flow. The angle of the turbine blades to the stream governs the angular velocity and the output frequency of the meter. A sharper blade angle provides a higher frequency output. In general, the blade angle is held between 20º and 40º to the flow. Lower angles cause too low of an angular velocity and loss of repeatability, while larger angles cause excessive end thrust. FLOW RATE IS PROPORTIONAL TO ANGULAR VELOCITY Figure 3 below is a cross section of the internals of a Daniel turbine meter. Flow through the turbine meter is from left to right. The forward and rear suspension act as flow guides so that fluid motion through the meter is parallel to the meter centerline. Flow impinging upon the angular blade causes the rotor to spin at an angular velocity proportional to flow rate. Figure 3 - Liquid Turbine Flow Meter Cross Section Page Technical Guide DAN-LIQ-Turbine Meter-TG-0807 August 2007 Figure 4 - Rotor Assembly Cross Section Patented* Floating Rotor Flowing fluid enters the turbine through the forward suspension. When it encounters the sharp angle of the cone, the stream is deflected outward, increasing in velocity and causing a slight static pressure drop. As the fluid leaves the blade area, flow has redistributed. Velocity is reduced slightly and the static pressure has increased proportionally. The difference between the two velocity pressures causes the rotor to move upstream into the fluid flow. This upstream force would be great enough to cause the rotor to strike the forward thrust bearing, were it not for the slight offset. The cross sectional area of the cone is slightly smaller than that of the rotor hub so that some of the flow impinges directly upon the rotor hub, generating a downstream thrust. As a result, the rotor floats in balance between upstream and downstream cones, pushed forward by the pressure difference across the blades and pushed backward by the flow impingement. The only bearing surface other than the measured fluid is the cemented carbide sleeve bearing insert. (See Figure 4) In bi-directional meters, the downstream cone is replaced by a second upstream cone and rangeability in the reverse flow direction is reduced. * U.S. PATENT NO. 3,948,099, PATENTS IN OTHER COUNTRIES Page Technical Guide DAN-LIQ-Turbine Meter-TG-0807 August 2007 Surge And Pressure Relief Valves MAGNETIC PICKOFF OF ROTOR VELOCITY The angular velocity of the turbine rotor is taken through the turbine meter wall by means of a magnetic pickoff. The stainless steel meter body is non-magnetic and offers negligible effect on a magnetic field set up by a permanent magnet in the pickoff coil. Turbine blades, made of a paramagnetic material (which properties cause it to be attracted by a magnet), rotate past the pickoff coil, generating irregular shaped voltage pulses. The frequency of these pulses is linearly proportional to the angular velocity of the rotor and thus to the flow rate. Additionally, each pulse is incrementally proportional to a small unit of volume. The amplitude of the pulses will vary in proportion to blade velocity but is not considered in the measurement process. Flow rate and total flow information is transmitted by frequency and by counting (totalizing) the pulses. The permanent magnet produces a magnetic field which passes through the coil and is concentrated to a small point at the pickoffs. In Figures 5 and 6 below, as a turbine blade (A) moves into close proximity to the pickoff point, its magnetic properties cause the magnetic field to deflect to accommodate its presence. This deflection causes a voltage to be generated in the coil. As the blade passes under the pickoff point (B), this voltage decays, only to build back in the opposite polarity as the leaving blade - now in position (C). This causes the magnetic field to deflect in the opposite direction. So as each blade passes the pickoff, it produces a separate and distinct voltage pulse. Since the fluid surrounding each blade represents a discrete unit of volume, each electrical pulse also represents a discrete unit of volume. Turbine meter output is rated in pulses per gallon, pulses per liter, or other standard engineering units. Figure 5 - Assembly of Daniel® UMB showing dual pickoff configuration Figure 6 - Voltage Output, Peak to Peak ONE PULSE A ONE UNIT VOLUME B THIS 1/2 PULSE IS NOT USED BY READOUTS MAGNETIC SENSORS (PICKOFFS) C UNIVERSAL MOUNTING BOX (UMB) CLAMP O-RING INSULATOR PICKOFF #1 A B MAGNETIC SENSORS (PICKOFFS) C UNIVERSAL MOUNTING BOX (UMB) UMB MOUNTING BOX PAD Page BLADES THIS 1/2 PULSE IS NOT USED BY READOUTS C CLAMP O-RING INSULATOR PICKOFF #1 PICKOFF #2 A B C ONE UNIT VOLUME B PICKOFF #2 UMB MOUNTING BOX PAD BLADES ONE PULSE A Technical Guide DAN-LIQ-Turbine Meter-TG-0807 August 2007 TURBINE METER ROTOR AND BEARING DESIGN The primary differences in turbine meter technology are in the design of the rotor and bearings. The rotor is an assembly of up to twelve (in some designs this number is greater) blades locked into a hub, which rotates on a bearing or bearings. For light liquid applications that require viscosities of 5 cSt or less, and specific gravities of less than 0.75, the rotor does not normally need a rim (sometimes referred to as a shroud). For measuring the more viscous liquids and in larger size turbine meters (i.e. 8” and above) a rim is fitted to ensure sufficient rigidity in the rotor. A rim also offers the advantage of higher pulse resolution; with a bladed rotor the number of pulses per revolution is limited to the number of blades, and in a rimmed rotor the number of pulses per revolution corresponds to the number of buttons or slots in the rim. For intermittent duties on light, clean hydrocarbons that may be found at tank truck terminals, ball bearings may be used for a rotor bearing. Proper design of rotors with ball bearings will use two ball races and a short axle upon which the rotor is fitted. Where space is constrained the ball races may be fitted directly into the rotor hub. This design is particularly suited to low and varying flow rate applications, and is utilized on the Daniel Series 1200 Liquid Turbine Flow Meter, designed primarily for distribution applications such as load racks. In these installations, liquids handled are typically light, refined products. Pipeline applications often require continuous operation at fixed flow rates. Here the design of the turbine meter must offer sufficient longevity to minimize maintenance intervals. In these applications, tungsten carbide journal bearings are used, which offer exceptional longevity. As tungsten carbide is extremely hard wearing, designs utilizing this sort of bearing are often applied to more demanding measurement applications, such as crude oil. It should be noted here that the limitations on viscosity are related to the rangeability of the turbine flow meter. As the viscosity of the measured liquid increases, the K-factor variations at different flow rates increase. Thus to maintain the linearity of the meter at the required level, as the viscosity of the measured liquid increases, the turn-down, or rangeability of the meter must be reduced. So for typical pipeline applications, where the flow meter will operate at just one flow rate (or a very limited range of flow rates) a turbine meter may be used to measure flows of high viscosity liquids. The Daniel Series 1500 Liquid Turbine Flow Meter is designed for pipeline applications, and is equipped with robust internals suited to continuous measurement of a wide range of liquids. There may be a single hanger or hangers upstream and downstream of the rotor. In the Daniel Series 1200 Liquid Turbine Flow Meter there is a single upstream support for the rotor, and in the Daniel Series 1500 Liquid Turbine Flow Meter there are both upstream and downstream hangers. Bearings may be either ball bearings or tungsten carbide journal bearings. Since ball bearings are used to provide improved performance on low flow rates and on clean product, they are a reliable, cost effective solution. The Daniel Series 1200 Liquid Turbine Flow Meter deploys a cantilevered twin ball bearing design. Utilizing a rotating shaft on two ball bearing units, the Daniel Series 1200 Liquid Turbine Flow Meter is available in 1”, 1.5”, 2”, 3” and 4” line sizes. For more demanding applications, a tungsten carbide journal bearing assembly is available as an option. Lightweight bladed rotors of this type mounted on ball bearings are particularly suited to the intermittent duty cycles typical in loading rack applications. The design application is limited to clean refined products. In the event that the turbine is used on slightly dirty products, the use of tungsten carbide journal bearings is recommended. Tungsten carbide bearings are extremely hard wearing and used in turbine meters on a range of applications from LPGs to crude oils. Page Technical Guide DAN-LIQ-Turbine Meter-TG-0807 August 2007 RIMMED ROTORS FOR HIGHER RESOLUTION In the larger diameter Daniel Series 1500 Liquid Turbine Flow Meter (normally above 6” in line size), the resolution provided by a blade-type motor may be improved by the use of a rimmed (or shrouded) rotor. This construction is standard for Daniel meters of 8” and up. A lightweight stainless steel rim (or shroud) carries small paramagnetic buttons which provide a greater resolution of flow by generating more pulses per unit volume. Daniel Series 1200 and 1500 Liquid Turbine Flow Meters are supplied with one Universal Mounting Box (UMB) as standard. This is attached to a boss, which in turn is attached to the meter body. This assembly may house two pickoffs, which are oriented such that their outputs are 90º electrically out of phase. Figure 7 - Daniel® Series 1500 Liquid Turbine Flow Meter internals showing standard rimmed rotor Figure 8 - Daniel® Series 1500 Liquid Turbine Flow Meter internals showing high resolution rotor The Daniel® Series 1500 Liquid Turbine Flow Meter is also offered with a high resolution rotor. This rotor is designed with slots in the rim in place of paramagnetic buttons and provides a higher number of pulses per unit volume than the standard rotor which enables proving with a smaller pipe size prover. Page Technical Guide DAN-LIQ-Turbine Meter-TG-0807 August 2007 DANIEL® SERIES 1200 LIQUID TURBINE FLOW METER Daniel Series 1200 Liquid Turbine Flow Meters are designed specifically for load rack service where a vital characteristic is repeatability. The meter deploys a lightweight rotor which is supported on self-cleaning flow through ball bearings. As a result, the meter is versatile and is particularly suited to batch loading of light hydrocarbons. The meter has been used successfully on fluids with viscosities up to 6 centistokes. The meter can also be supplied with optional tungsten carbide bearings for more demanding applications The meter features an upstream expanding hanger which centers the internals in the body, with cantilevered support of the rotor. The stainless steel ball bearings or the tungsten carbide bearings and the shaft are housed in the meter hub. The meter will operate in any plane, and is frequently used in the vertical orientation with flow upward to save space at a load rack. The design includes an integral flow conditioning plate which allows operation without upstream flow straightening available on the 1.5”, 2”, 3” and 4” meters. This configuration is particularly valuable in vertical use at load racks. SEE DANIEL SERIES 1200 LIQUID TURBINE FLOW METER DATASHEET FOR MODEL SELECTION MATRIX UMB Cover Dual Channel Pre-amplifer Daniel® Series Figure 9 1200 Liquid Turbine Flow Meter (Shown with tungsten carbide bearings) Pickoffs UMB Housing O-ring Flow Conditioning Plate Hanger Blades Shaft Sleeve Thrust Washer Outlet Diffuser Cap Rotor Assembly with Bearing Hanger Hub Page Technical Guide DAN-LIQ-Turbine Meter-TG-0807 August 2007 DANIEL® SERIES 1200 LIQUID TURBINE FLOW METER DESIGN FEATURES The following data is applicable for Daniel Series 1200 Liquid Turbine Flow Meter calibrated on mineral spirits. Size (Inches) Standard Extended Standard Extended Standard Extended Flow Range Flow Range Flow Range Flow Range Flow Range Flow Range BBL/Hr BBL/Hr M3/Hr M3/Hr USGPM USGPM 1 8.6 - 86 99 1.36 - 13.7 15.8 6.0 - 60 69 1.5 18.6 - 186 214 2.96 - 29.6 34 13 - 130 150 2 31.5 - 315 362 50 - 50 57.5 22 - 220 253 3 93 - 930 1.071 14.8 - 148 170 65 - 650 750 4 143 - 1,430 1,785 23 - 230 284 100 - 1,000 1,250 Linearity Size (Inches) Standard Linearity Premium Linearity 1 +/-0.25% N/A 1.5 +/-0.25% +/-0.15% 2 +/-0.25% +/-0.15% 3 +/-0.15% N/A 4 +/-0.15% N/A Repeatability: +/-0.02% at any point throughout the minimum to extended maximum flow range. Nominal K- factor Size Page K-factor (Inches) Pulses/BBL Pulses/M3 Pulses/US Gal 1 33,600 211,360 800 1.5 16,800 105,680 400 2 7,560 47,556 180 3 2,184 13,877 52 4 966 6,077 23 Technical Guide DAN-LIQ-Turbine Meter-TG-0807 August 2007 DANIEL® SERIES 1200 LIQUID TURBINE FLOW METER MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION Standard Optional 1” and 1.5” Stainless Steel Body/Flanges NA 2” - 4” Carbon Steel 304 Stainless Steel Suspension Anodized Aluminum None Rotor Blades 400 Series Stainless Steel None Rotor Hub Aluminum None Shaft 304 Stainless Steel None Bearings 430 Stainless Steel Tungsten Carbide Flow Conditioning Plate Delrin® 150 Aluminum Viscosity and Specific Gravity Low specific gravities or high viscosities will reduce the flow range of the meter. Daniel® Series 1200 Liquid Turbine Flow Meter Page 10 Technical Guide DAN-LIQ-Turbine Meter-TG-0807 August 2007 DANIEL® SERIES 1500 LIQUID TURBINE FLOW METER The Daniel Series 1500 Liquid Turbine Flow Meter is designed for applications requiring rugged dependability with high accuracy and throughput. Used on pipelines, marine loading and other demanding systems, the internals used are well proven in the Daniel PT meter. The Daniel Series 1500 Liquid Turbine Flow Meter utilizes these internals in a body designed to accept a Universal Mounting Box (UMB) and the latest pickoff and pre-amplifier technology. With upstream and downstream self-centering hangers, highly durable rotor assembly utilizing tungsten carbide sleeve and journal bearings, and a floating rotor design, the Daniel Series 1500 Liquid Turbine Flow Meter is suited to those applications where downtime is unacceptable. In such applications, dual pulse transmission is normally used to allow the meter instrumentation (normally a flow computer) to check the fidelity of pulse transmission. The single UMB housing contains 1 or 2 pickoffs and a dual channel preamplifier. When configured with 2 pickoffs the square wave outputs are 90º electrically out of phase. The Daniel Series 1500 Liquid Turbine Flow Meter (2” and up) is available with a second UMB as an option. For meters 3” and above in this configuration, it is thus possible to have up to 4 matched pulse outputs. Corresponding pairs are then 90º electrically out of phase. The Daniel Series 1500 Liquid Turbine Flow Meter utilizes only tungsten carbide journal bearings. In applications with fluids of adequate lubricity, a film of the measured fluid lubricates the journal which contributes to the enormous longevity of this design. These bearings are extremely hard (Rockwell A-94) and are polished with diamond paste to a smoothness of two micro-inches (a mirror finish). The rotor may be blade-type or rimmed-type. Rimmed (or shrouded) rotors have the advantages of greater structural strength and the possibility of higher resolution, as a greater number of paramagnetic buttons than of blades may be used on the stainless steel rim. A bladed rotor is limited to 1 pulse per blade per revolution, with the practical limit for the blades being 12. With a rim, or shroud, there may be up to 64 pulses (buttons) per rotor revolution. The high resolution (HR) rotor option for the Series 1500 rotor is available in 6” through 16” sizes. In this design the rotor rim is a slotted 400 series stainless steel, designed with twice as many slots in the HR rotor as buttons on the standard rotor. SEE DANIEL SERIES 1500 LIQUID TURBINE FLOW METER DATASHEET FOR MODEL SELECTION MATRIX Figure 10 - Daniel® Series 1500 Liquid Turbine Flow Meter Pickoff A Downstream Cone Hanger Blades Pickoff B Upstream Cone Flow Conditioning Plate (optional) Hanger Blades Hanger Hub Rotor Assembly Hanger Hub Page 11 Shaft Deflector Ring Technical Guide DAN-LIQ-Turbine Meter-TG-0807 August 2007 The deployment of this high resolution rotor in each of the sizes available gives a nominal K-factor twice that of the standard meter and allows for proving with a smaller size prover. The rimmed design is available as an option on 3”-6” turbines, and is standard on 8” and larger. Whatever the design of meter and rotor configuration, the blades are locked and welded into the desired angular position, forming a solid, one piece rotor. In the Daniel Series 1500 Liquid Turbine Flow Meter both up and downstream shaft supports are deployed. The expanding hanger principle is used to ensure positive self-centering of the internals. The shape of the internal cones results in a reverse differential pressure that counterbalances the downstream thrust on the rotor, thus allowing the rotor to float on a fluid cushion. This floating action ensures long life and minimal maintenance. (See Figure 10) DANIEL® SERIES 1500 LIQUID TURBINE FLOW METER DESIGN FEATURES The following data is applicable for Daniel Series 1500 Liquid Turbine Flow Meter calibrated on mineral spirits or water. Size (Inches) Standard Flow Range BBL/Hr Min Max 1 10 100 1.5 21 2 36 Extended Max Flow BPH w/20% Duty Cycle Standard Flow Range M3/Hr Extended Min Flow Range USGPM Standard Flow Range USGPM + .75 (1”- 2.5”) + .50 (3”- 18”) Min Max 116 1 15 214 247 3 360 411 6 Extended Max Flow Range USGPM w/20% Duty Cycle Min Max 5.6 7 70 81 34 12 15 150 173 57 20 25 250 288 2.5 57 571 657 9 91 32 40 400 460 3 100 1,000 1,150 16 159 56 70 700 805 4 184 1,850 2,126 29 294 104 129 1,295 1,488 6 420 4,200 4,830 67 668 235 294 2,940 3,381 8 850 8,500 9,776 135 1,351 476 595 5,950 6,843 10 1,200 12,000 13,800 191 1,908 672 840 8,400 9,660 12 1,800 18,000 20,700 286 2,862 1,008 1,260 12,600 14,490 16 2,800 28,000 32,200 445 4,452 1,568 1,960 19,600 22,540 18 4,000 40,000 46,000 636 6,359 2,240 2,800 28,000 32,200 Linearity Size (Inches) Standard Linearity Premium Linearity 1”- 2.5” +/-0.25% +/-0.15% 3”- 18” +/-0.15% +/-0.1%* +/-0.07%* Repeatability: +/-0.02% at any point throughout the minimum to extended maximum flowrange. Viscosity and Specific Gravity Low specific gravities or high viscosities will reduce the flow range of the meter. *5 to 1 turndown Page 12 Technical Guide DAN-LIQ-Turbine Meter-TG-0807 August 2007 Nominal K-Factor Size Pulses/BBL Nominal K-Factor Pulses/M3 Pulses/US Gal 1 21,000 (blade) 132,100 (blade) 500 (blade) 1.5 9,660 (blade) 60,766 (blade) 230 (blade) 2 5,334 (blade) 33,553 (blade) 127 (blade) 2.5 2,730 (blade) 17,173 (blade) 75 (blade) 3 2,016 (blade) 4,620 (rim) 12,682 (blade) 29,062 (rim) 48 (blade) 110 (rim) 4 1,000 (blade) 3,000 (rim) 6,290 (blade) 18,864 (rim) 23.8 (blade) 71.4 (rim) 6 235 (blade) 1,000 (rim) 2,000 (HR rim) 1478 (blade) 6,290 (rim) 12,580 (hr rim) 5.6 (blade) 23.8 (rim) 47.6 (hr rim) 8 500 (rim) 1,000 (hr rim) 3,145 (rim) 6,290 (hr rim) 11.9 (rim) 23.8 (hr rim) 10 250 (rim) 500 (hr rim) 1,572 (rim) 3,144 (hr rim) 6 (rim) 12 (hr rim) 12 200 (rim) 400 (hr rim) 1,258 (rim) 2516 (hr rim) 4.8 (rim) 9.6 (hr rim) 16 100 (rim) 200 (hr rim) 629 (rim) 1,258 (hr rim) 2.4 (rim) 4.8 (hr rim) 18 100 (rim) 629 (rim) 2.4 (rim) DANIEL® SERIES 1500 LIQUID TURBINE FLOW METER MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION Item Standard Optional Optional 304 Standard 1” and 1.5” NA 316 SS CS Standard 2” and up 304 SS 316 SS Suspension 304 SS 304 SS 316 SS Rotor Blades (Rim Type) 304 SS 304 SS 316 SS Rotor Blades (Blades Type) 430 SS 430 SS Nickel 200 Sleeve Bearings Tungsten Carbide Tungsten Carbide Tungsten Carbide Journal Bearings Tungsten Carbide Tungsten Carbide Tungsten Carbide Rotor Hub 430 SS 430 SS 316 SS Rotor Rim 3” and 4” 316 SS 316 SS 316 SS Rotor Rim 6” - 18” 304 SS 304 SS 316 SS Hi Mu 80 Hi Mu 80 Hi Mu 80 Cones 304 SS 304 SS 316 SS Shaft 316 SS 316 SS 316 SS Tolerance Ring 304 SS 304 SS 316 SS Meter body and flanges Rim Buttons Page 13 Technical Guide DAN-LIQ-Turbine Meter-TG-0807 August 2007 RANGEABILITY OF LIQUID TURBINE FLOW METERS The flow ranges indicated in the previous tables show a nominal flow range -- with a turndown of 10:1 - at which the turbine will report measurement repeatable to the indicated specification based on measurement of clean liquids such as water (specific gravity 1, viscosity 1 cSt) and mineral spirits (specific gravity 0.78, viscosity 1.8 cSt). Where liquids with properties outside of the range described by these liquids are to be measured, the meter flow range will be affected. Extended flow rates on intermittent duty cycles are permitted and shown in the flow meter design features table on page 12. It should also be noted that the use of the meter in the extended flow range should be limited to a 20% duty cycle. LIQUID TURBINE FLOW METER PERFORMANCE WITH DIFFERENT SPECIFIC GRAVITIES Liquid turbine meters are affected by changes in liquid density. When measuring liquids with specific gravities of 0.7 or less, the minimum flow rate of the meter must be increased to maintain the linearity of the meter within the required limits. In this application, the maximum flow rate may be increased to allow for greater rangeability. It is vital that proper back pressure be maintained (refer to page 18 for the formula for determining required back pressure). Failure to do so may result in flashing and cavitation, which will cause over ranging of, and damage to, the meter. Liquids with low specific gravities generally have high vapor pressures and high coefficients of thermal expansion. When measuring these liquids, it is extremely important that proper installation, measurement and proving practice be followed to provide stable temperatures and to negate the potential for poor measurement and possible system damage. The data on the following page are for the Daniel Series 1500 Liquid Turbine Flow Meter, and similar effects will be observed in all design of turbine meters. Page 14 Technical Guide DAN-LIQ-Turbine Meter-TG-0807 August 2007 DANIEL® SERIES 1500 LIQUID TURBINE FLOW METER SPECIFIC GRAVITY ADJUSTMENTS S.G. = 1 ( .7 to 1 ) Meter Size Minimum Linear BBL/Hr M /Hr 3 Maximum Linear USGPM BBL/Hr M3/Hr USGPM 1 10 1.59 7 100 15.90 70 1.5 21.4 3.40 15 214 34 150 2 35.7 5.68 25 357 56.76 250 2.5 57.1 9.08 40 571 90.78 400 3* 100 15.9 70 1,000 159 700 4* 185.7 29.52 130 1,850 295 1,295 6* 420 66.77 294 4,192 667.7 2,935 S.G. = 0.5 Meter Size Minimum Linear Maximum Linear BBL/Hr M /Hr USGPM BBL/Hr M3/Hr USGPM 1 22.9 3.64 16 116 36.4 81 1.5 50 7.95 35 246 79.5 172 3 2 84.3 13.40 59 411 134 288 2.5 134.3 21.35 94 657 213.5 460 3* 235.7 37.47 165 1,150 374.7 805 4* 435.7 69.27 305 2,127 692.7 1,489 6* 988.6 157.2 692 4,830 1,572 3,381 S.G. = 0.3 Meter Size Minimum Linear BBL/Hr Maximum Linear M /Hr USGPM 3 M3/Hr USGPM 1 32.9 5.23 23 116 52.3 81 1.5 71.4 11.35 50 246 113.5 172 2 118.6 18.56 83 411 185.6 288 2.5 190 32.21 133 657 322.1 460 3* 331.4 52.69 232 1,150 526.9 805 4* 612.8 97.43 429 2,127 974.3 1,489 6* 1,393 221.5 975 4,830 2,215 3,381 * Rim type rotor not recommended, use blade type rotor only. Page 15 BBL/Hr Technical Guide DAN-LIQ-Turbine Meter-TG-0807 August 2007 METER PERFORMANCE IN HIGH VISCOSITY LIQUIDS Increases in viscosity of the measured liquid will reduce the rangeability of the flow meter. Generally, the minimum flow rate of the meter will have to be increased to maintain the linearity rating of the meter. The increased flow rate may be determined according to the following ratio: Sizing ratio = Liquid Viscosity (Centistokes) Nominal Line Sizes Sizing Ratio Minimum Flow (% of Normal Maximum Flow Rate) 1 Use Normal Minimum Flow Rate 1.5 20% 2 25% 2.5 30% 3 35% 4 40% 5 45% 6 50% 7 55% 8 60% Example: The sizing ratio of a 4-inch turbine meter measuring a liquid of 8 cSt is 8/4, or 2. The normal maximum flow rate of this size of meter is 1450 GPM. The new minimum flow rate is 25% of 1450, or 362.5 GPM. The flow rate for this application is now 362-1450 GPM, with standard linearity (+/-0.15%) and repeatability of (+/-0.02%) maintained. Note: Use of the turbine meter on high viscosity liquids at the maximum extended flow range is allowable, but may increase the wear rate of the turbine. The pressure drop through the meter may be estimated (for low to medium viscosities) according to the following formula: DP = (PD) x (μ)1/4 x (SG)3/4 or DP = (PD) x (v)1/4 x (SG) Where: DP = Estimated pressure drop PD = Pressure drop for water at expected flow rate μ = Absolute viscosity in centipoises v = Kinematic viscosity in centistokes SG = Specific gravity Note: μ = (v) x (SG) Page 16 Technical Guide DAN-LIQ-Turbine Meter-TG-0807 August 2007 INSTALLATION AND OPERATING RECOMMENDATIONS For a turbine meter to perform without increased uncertainty and in a repeatable and accurate manner, the flowing stream must be free of rotational components. The internal assembly supports of a turbine meter offer a slight straightening effect, but additional flow straightening is normally required. Generally, upstream flow straightening is effected through the use of adequate upstream straightening sections, which often comprise a set of straightening vanes or a tube bundle. Guidance on this subject is offered in the API Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards, Chapter 5, Section 3. For turbine flow meters of 2-inches and less, straightening vanes are not normally used. For most installations, twenty diameters of upstream pipe should be provided for adequate flow straightening. (See Figure 11) Figure 11 - Small Diameter Meter Tube STRAINER 20D MINIMUM 5D MINIMUM FLOW TURBINE METER D= NOMINAL PIPE SIZE For line sizes 2-inches and larger, upstream flow straightening sections are normally supplied with straightening vanes. With this construction, the upstream straightening section need only be ten diameters in length. Daniel supplies upstream and downstream flow straightening sections in either carbon steel or stainless steel, as required by the application. The standard design offered is the two-section tube, with a single upstream and single downstream straightening section. The upstream section contains the tube bundle, which is securely located within the pipe section. (See Figure 12) Flow straightening sections may in fact be supplied in any configuration, with any line connection and to any specified length. In some installations, a three section flow straightening configuration is required. By using this configuration ready access to the straightening vanes is afforded. (See Figure 13) Figure 12 - Two-Section Meter Tube 5D MINIMUM 10D MINIMUM FLOW Figure 13 - Three-Section Meter Tube STRAINER LINE MODEL STRAIGHTENING VANE TURBINE METER METER TUBE 5D MINIMUM 10D MINIMUM FLOW METER TUBE FLANGE MODEL STRAIGHTENING VANE TURBINE METER METER TUBE D= NOMINAL PIPE SIZE Page 17 Technical Guide DAN-LIQ-Turbine Meter-TG-0807 August 2007 In some circumstances, the use of a Flow Conditioning Plate (FCP) is possible. The flow conditioning plate is available from 3” to 6” for the Daniel Series 1500 Liquid Turbine Flow Meter, and is standard on the Daniel Series 1200 Liquid Turbine Flow Meter (with the exception of the 1”). When supplied, the FCP is an integral part of the turbine meter. The FCP serves to reduce swirl in the same way as flow straightening sections, and is of particular significance where piping installations do not permit long upstream sections, such as in load racks where space is at a premium. BACK PRESSURE It is essential to maintain sufficient back pressure on the turbine meter to prevent flashing and cavitation. This is particularly important when measuring liquids with high vapor pressures, such as LPGs. The necessary back pressure required is given by the equation: BP = (meter ∆P X 2) + (VP X 1.25) BP = Back pressure required ∆P = Meter pressure drop at maximum flow VP = Equilibrium vapor pressure of the liquid at the operating temperature, pounds per square inch absolute (psia), (gauge pressure plus atmoshperic pressure.) The pulses per unit volume / flow range curves below illustrate the effects of back pressure. Not only does insufficient back pressure lead to measurement inaccuracy, the resultant flashing and cavitation is extremely damaging to the flow meter and pipework. Figure 14 - Effects of Back Pressure Page 18 Technical Guide DAN-LIQ-Turbine Meter-TG-0807 August 2007 TURBINE METER INSTRUMENTATION The turbine pickoff coil has a high impedance and offers only a low voltage output. Transmission of flow signals requires low impedance and high voltage, and so amplification of the pickoff signal is required. Daniel Series 1200 and 1500 Liquid Turbine Flow Meters are supplied with the UMB and a dual channel preamplifier as standard. The preamplifier shapes and conditions the pickoff output signal, rendering it suitable for transmission over distances of up to 3,000 feet, with the appropriate cabling. Powered Pulse Output Output: 0 to 5V square wave Frequency range: 0 to 5 kHz Loading: 1 kOhm internal pull-up Variable Voltage Output Output: 0 to supply voltage square wave Frequency range: 0 to 5 kHz Loading: 1 kOhm internal pull-up Open Collector Output The UMB allows for either one or two pickoffs. The outputs from the two pickoffs are 90o electrically out of phase, thus facilitating proper dual pulse fidelity checking. Output: Square wave Frequency range: 0 to 5 kHz Maximum voltage: 30 Vdc Maximum current: 125 mA Maximum power: 0.5 Watts Pickoff Specifications Type: 2-wire reluctance Transmission Distance Resistance: 600-900 Ohms Inductance: 250 mH max. Output: Sinusoidal 40mV p-p minimum @minimum flow with preamplifier load Without preamp: 20ft (6.1m) Belden 88442 or equivalent With preamp: 3,000ft (914m) Belden 8770 or equivalent Optional: 2, 3* or 4* pickoff coils *with dual UMB Hazardous Area Classifications UL / CUL Class 1, Division 1, groups C&D Nema 4 UL, CUL CE certified EEx d IIB T6 (ATEX) DUAL CHANNEL PREAMP TERMINAL IDENTIFICATION CUSTOMER CONNECTIONS TB1 1 2 3 PICKOFF TERMINAL IDENTIFICATION Figure 15 - Dual Channel Preamp Terminal Identification Customer Connections CUSTOMER CONNECTIONS 4 5 COMMON CHA. B OUTPUT COMMON CHA. A OUTPUT 1 2 PICKOFF +10 TO 30 VDC WHITE BLACK OR TB2 RED BLACK OR TB2 RED Page J3 J4 WHITE CHANNEL B JUMPER J1-CHAN. A INPUT J1-CHAN. B INPUT A N/A N/A CHANNEL B PREAMP JUMPER CONFIGURATIONS PICKOFF J1 PREAMP JUMPER CONFIGURATIONS 19J3 J4 PICKOFF WHITE BLACK OR RED TB3 CHANNEL A BLACK OR RED TB3 CHANNEL A 1 2 TB1 1 2 3 COMMON COMMON CHA. A OUTPUT 1 2 DUAL CHANNEL PREAMP +10 TO 30 VDC WHITE 4 5 CHA. B OUTPUT Inputs: Supply voltage: 10 - 30 Vdc Minimum input signal amplitude: 40mV p-p minimum 1 2 Preamplifier Performance Dual Channel Preamplifier JUMPER POSITIONS B 40mV. PP MIN 40mV. PP MIN OUT N/A N/A J2 JUMPER J1-CHAN. A INPUT J1-CHAN. B INPUT J3-CHAN. A OUTPUT J4-CHAN. B OUTPUT A N/A N/A 5V.PULSE 5V.PULSE JUMPER POSITIONS B 40mV. PP MIN 40mV. PP MIN SUP. VOLT. PULSE (10-30 VDC) SUP. VOLT. PULSE (10-30 VDC) OUT N/A N/A O.C. O.C. Emerson Process Management Daniel Measurement and Control, Inc. World Area Headquarters Houston, Texas, USA T: 713-467-6000, F: 713-827-3880 USA Toll Free 1-888-FLOW-001 www.daniel.com Calgary, Alberta, Canada T: 403-279-1879, F: 403-236-1337 Alberta Toll Free 1-800-242-3197 [email protected] [email protected] Stirling, Scotland - Europe, Middle East, Africa T: +44 (0) 1786 433400, F: +44 (0) 1786 433401 Singapore - Asia Pacific Emerson Process Management Asia Pacific Private Limited T: +65-6777-8211, F: +65-6770-8001 ©2007 Daniel Measurement and Control, Inc., All Rights Reserved. Printed in the USA. DAN-LIQ-Turbine Meter-TG-0807 Daniel Measurement and Control, Inc. (“Daniel”) is a wholly owned subsidiary of Emerson Electric Co., and a division of Emerson Process Management. The Daniel name and logo are registered trademarks of Daniel Industries, Inc. The Emerson logo is a registered trademark and service mark of Emerson Electric Co. All other trademarks are the property of their respective companies. The contents of this publication are presented for informational purposes only, and while every effort has been made to ensure their accuracy, they are not to be construed as warranties or guarantees, expressed or implied, regarding the products or services described herein or their use or applicability. All sales are governed by Daniel’s terms and conditions, which are available upon request. We reserve the right to modify or improve the designs or specifications of such products at any time. Daniel does not assume responsibility for the selection, use or maintenance of any product. Responsibility for proper selection, use and maintenance of any Daniel product remains solely with the purchaser and end-user. The Daniel Series 1200 and 1500 Liquid Turbine Flow Meters are protected by United States and International patents and patents pending.
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