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AIRBUS 319/320/321
Operations Manual
A320 OPERATIONS MANUAL
BEFORE STARTING
HI DEFINITION TEXTURES
For the full benefit of Hi Definition texturing It is recommended you add the following line to
your FSX.CFG file
Texturemaxload=4096
You will find the file in c:\users\username\appdata\roaming\micrsosoft\fsx\
JOYSTICK THROTTLE CALIBRATION
When you first load the airbus you will need to calibrate your joystick throttle to allow
proper use of the thrust lever detents.
1. To do this open the MCDU from the menu, and press the MCDU MENU button
2. Press the Input Calibration button on LSK R3 (line select key right 3)
3. Select whether you have 1 or 2 throttle levers on your Joystick. LSK R5
4. Set MINIMUM Throttle on your joystick and then note the number that is displayed below
either
THROTTLE AXIS for single throttle mode
or
ENG1(2) THROT AXIS for dual throttle mode. 1 or 2 depending on which of the dual throttles
you are moving.
5. Enter this number into the green INPUT MIN Box using the MCDU Keypad
6. Set MAXIMUM Throttle on your joystick and note the number displayed as in step 4
7. Enter this number into the green INPUT MAX Box using the MCDU keypad
8. These setting will be saved so should not need recalibrating
FOR FLIGHT SIMULATION USE ONLY
COCKPIT FAMILIARISATION
Note: This does not currently support separate calibration for 1 & 2 throttles if your min max range for both is not identical the
differences should be so small it will not cause an issue.
2
A320 OPERATIONS MANUAL
COCKPIT FAMILIARISATION
ENJOY YOUR AIRBUS
FOR FLIGHT SIMULATION USE ONLY
3
A320 OPERATIONS MANUAL
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS ........................................................................................................ 2
INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................ 6
COCKPIT FAMILIARISATION .............................................................................................. 8
GENERAL OVERVIEW........................................................................................................................... 8
OVERHEAD PANEL ............................................................................................................................... 9
GLARESHIELD ...................................................................................................................................... 9
CAPTAIN & F/O PANEL ...................................................................................................................... 10
PEDESTAL .......................................................................................................................................... 12
SYSTEMS ........................................................................................................................ 13
ICE & RAIN PROTECTION ................................................................................................................... 13
ELECTRICAL........................................................................................................................................ 13
FIRE PROTECTION.............................................................................................................................. 16
FUEL .................................................................................................................................................. 17
A321 DIFFERENCES...................................................................... ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED.
PNEUMATICS, AIR CONDITIONING & PRESSURIZATION ................................................................... 20
PACKS ................................................................................................................................................ 21
PRESSURIZATION............................................................................................................................... 22
VENTILATION..................................................................................................................................... 23
HYDRAULICS, BRAKES & LANDING GEAR .......................................................................................... 23
FLIGHT CONTROLS ............................................................................................................................ 27
INSTRUMENT / NAV / COMM ........................................................................................................... 32
EFIS (ELECTRONIC FLIGHT INSTUMENT SYSTEM).............................................................................. 36
AUTO FLIGHT SYSTEM ....................................................................................................................... 40
FMA (FLIGHT MODE ANNUNCIATOR) ............................................................................................... 47
OXYGEN ............................................................................................................................................. 48
POWERPLANT.................................................................................................................................... 48
APU (AUXILIARY POWER UNIT)(PH 16.3.X, 7.1.X) ............................................................................. 50
FMS (FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM) ............................................................................................. 50
PROCEDURES.................................................................................................................. 61
TAXI ................................................................................................................................................... 61
TAKEOFF ............................................................................................................................................ 61
APPROACHES..................................................................................................................................... 62
WEIGHT LIMITS ................................................................................................................................. 70
OPERATIONAL LIMITS ....................................................................................................................... 70
SPEED LIMITS .................................................................................................................................... 70
TURBULENCE PENETRATION ............................................................................................................. 70
MAX FLAP SLATS (VFE) ...................................................................................................................... 71
ICE & RAIN PROTECTION ................................................................................................................... 71
FUEL .................................................................................................................................................. 71
LANDING GEAR.................................................................................................................................. 73
FLAPS/SLATS...................................................................................................................................... 73
AUTOPILOT / AUTOLAND .................................................................................................................. 73
FOR FLIGHT SIMULATION USE ONLY
COCKPIT FAMILIARISATION
LIMITS ............................................................................................................................ 70
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A320 OPERATIONS MANUAL
SELECTED LIMITATIONS .................................................................................................. 74
AVIONICS ........................................................................................................................................... 74
ENGINES (IAE V2527-A5) ................................................................................................................... 74
HYDRAULICS ...................................................................................................................................... 75
SPEEDS .............................................................................................................................................. 75
GENERAL LIMITATIONS AND SPECIFICATIONS ................................................................. 79
SYSTEMS ........................................................................................................................ 80
A TO Z - ABBREVIATIONS & ACRONYMS .......................................................................... 81
COCKPIT FAMILIARISATION
CREDITS AND COPYRIGHT ............................................................................................... 97
FOR FLIGHT SIMULATION USE ONLY
5
INTRODUCTION
W
elcome and thank you for purchasing the A320 X’treme ‘Prologue Version’. The
purpose of this manual is to provide you with the initial information and obtain the
skills required to fly the Airbus 320. We would like point out that the Prologue version does
not simulate all the intricate systems found on the Airbus 320 however it contains the basic
systems that makes it fly and operate like an Airbus.
In the X’treme version all systems will be implemented making it the most accurate Airbus
ever created for flight simulation. We will also provide you with a more comprehensive
manual in order to cover all the systems and obtain all the skills required to fly the aircraft
just like the professionals.
The Airbus 320 is a complex aircraft and it requires a certain degree of learning to really
understand how the aircraft works. During initial test flights and operations of the real
aircraft several pilots were left baffled and sometimes unable to recover from certain
situations due to the inability to understand its complex systems and automation. So we do
advise you to read through the manuals in order to fully understand and be able to fly one
of the most advanced airliners to date.
What makes the aircraft so unique?
The Airbus320 family consists of short to medium range, twin-engined narrow body aircraft.
It consists of the A318, A319, A320 and A321. Developed as a direct competitor to Boeing’s
737 and McDonnell Douglas’ MD80, the first member to be produced was actually the A320.
It was launched in March 1984, first flew in February 1987, and was first delivered in 1988 to
Air France. The family was soon extended to include the A321 (first delivered 1994), the
A319 (1996), and the A318 (2003).
Customers have the option to choose between two power plants, either the CFM56 or the
IAE V2500 engine. The A318 is powered by Pratt and Whitney’s PW6000 engines.
What made the aircraft so different and unique from other airliners was that it was the first
airliner to have a fly-by-wire (FBW) system implemented. One other unique feature was the
elimination of the control column and replaced by what is known as a side stick.
The FBW system replaced the conventional system of cables and hydraulics. In a
conventional aircraft when the pilot moves the yoke or stick or the rudder pedals, this
directly manipulates cables that displace the control surfaces. This is still used effectively on
light aircraft however on airliners since the control surfaces are bigger it requires a greater
effort from the pilot to operate, so the hydraulic system is used instead.
A320 OPERATIONS MANUAL
With FBW the aircraft is controlled through computers sensors. The sensors determine the
amount of deflection, or movement, needed in the control surfaces (using data such as
airplane altitude and airspeed) and send this information to hydraulic actuators which then
move the ailerons, elevators and rudder. The system is controlled by five dedicated
computers and operates all the primary and secondary flight controls by a combination of
electronic signalling and hydraulic jacks. Very high safety standards have been built into the
flight control systems, with system redundancy and with flight envelope protection, which
will not allow manoeuvres to exceed the aircraft’s structural and aerodynamic limitations.
One other feature is that all aircraft in the A320 family including even the larger A330 and
A340 all share the same cockpit layout which makes it easier for pilots to transition from
one aircraft to another, thus saving time and money for airline companies.
COCKPIT FAMILIARISATION
Today, the A320 has become Airbus Industrie’s best selling aircraft, with well over 8,000
aircraft ordered. Out of these a total of 5010 have been delivered.
FOR FLIGHT SIMULATION USE ONLY
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A319/320/321 OPERATIONS MANUAL
COCKPIT FAMILIARISATION
The Airbus X’treme ‘Prologue’ has both a 2D and a Virtual cockpit available.
In the 2D panel different panel views are available either through shortcuts or through the
FSX main menu.
Shortcuts
Shift + 2: VFR Panel View (Default View)
Shift + 3: VFR Panel View (Widescreen)
Shift + 4: IFR Panel
Shift + 5: IFR Panel (Widescreen)
Shift + 6: F/O Side VFR Panel View
Shift + 7: F/O Side VFR Panel View (Widescreen)
Shift + 8: F/O Side IFR Panel View
Shift + 9: F/O Side IFR Panel View (Widescreen)
For a larger display of the MFD screens (ie the PFD, ND and ECAM displays) click on the MFD
to get an expanded view. Expanded displays are pop-up windows and can be moved and
resized to your taste or even undocked and dragged to another monitor. An expanded
display can be closed by clicking on it.
GENERAL OVERVIEW
The image below gives a general overview of the A320 flightdeck with the main panels
shaded in grey:
A: Overhead Panel
B: Glareshield Panel
COCKPIT FAMILIARISATION
C: The Captain and
F/O Panel + Centre
Panel
D: Pedestal
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A319/320/321 OPERATIONS MANUAL
OVERHEAD PANEL
The overhead panel is split into two zones the Forward zone and the Aft zone.
Forward Zone:
- front of the panel is for most frequently used functions
- for system controls which is arranged in 3 main rows
 centre row for engine related systems
 lateral rows for other systems
Aft Zone

is mainly used for circuit breakers
PICTURE
GLARESHIELD
EFIS Control Panel
(Captain)
EFIS Control Panel (F/O)
Flight Control Unit (FCU)
The glareshield panel is divided into 3 parts:
Flight Contol Unit (FCU)
EFIS Control Panel
Acts as interface to control the PFD and ND
Barometric setting is also done through the EFIS Panel
Lateral Panels (No specific term assigned)
Contains master warning, master caution, sidestick priority and autoland lights.
COCKPIT FAMILIARISATION
Acts as an interface between FMGC and the flight crew for:
 selection of required guidance modes
 manual selection for SPD, MACH, HDG/TRK, ALT, VSPD
 Engage A/P (Auto Pilot), FD (Flight Director) ATHR (AutoThrust)
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A319/320/321 OPERATIONS MANUAL
CAPTAIN & F/O PANEL
The Captain and F/O panel each consists primarily of the Primary Flight Display (PFD) and
the Navigation Display (ND). Both form part of the EFIS system and contain a wealth of
Information
Captain’s Panel
PFD
F/O Panel
Upper
ECAM
ND
ND
PFD
Lower
ECAM
Centre Panel
Primary Flight Display (PFD)
The PFD is the outer display on the Captain
and F/O panels. It Provides combines several
conventional flight instrument indications
for centralized reference of flight data into
one display and provides information on:
Attitude and Guidance commands
Airspeed
Barometric and Radio Altitude
and Vertical speed
Heading and Track
Flight Mode Annunciations
Vertical and Lateral Deviations
COCKPIT FAMILIARISATION







Navigation Display (ND)
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FOR FLIGHT SIMULATION USE ONLY
A319/320/321 OPERATIONS MANUAL
The Navigation Display (ND) is the inboard
display which presents information for
navigating the aircraft including flight plan
route display, moving map, displays navaids,
waypoints/airports, tuned navaid bearing
pointers and information, TCAS (Traffic
Collision Avoidance System) etc...
It has 5 different modes of operation:
 ROSE ILS,
 ROSE VOR,
 ROSE NAV,
 ARC
 PLAN
Centre Panel
PICTURE
The Centre Panel is Primarily made up of two displays known as Electronic Centralised
Aircraft Monitoring (ECAM) displays. The upper display is the Engine and Warning/Memo
display.
The lower display is called the Systems display. Various system pages can be called up onto
the display via the ECAM control panel found on the pedestal.
COCKPIT FAMILIARISATION
Gear controls and indicator are also found on the centre panel.
Standby analog instruments which serve as a backup in case of an electronic system failure
are also found in the centre the panel. These include an airspeed indicator, altitude
indicator articficial horizon and a DDRMI (Digital Distance and Radio Magnetic Indicator).
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FOR FLIGHT SIMULATION USE ONLY
A319/320/321 OPERATIONS MANUAL
PEDESTAL
Several different functions are performed through the pedestal. Besides the Thrust levers
and engine control functions the main features are:
Multi Purpose and Control Display Unit
(MCDU): These act as an interface between
the flight crew and the FMGC through
which selection, modification or creation of
flight plans, lateral and vertical trajectories,
speed profiles etc. can be done.
The Radio Management Panel (RMP) is
used for tuning of all radio communications
and the radio navigation It also acts as a
back-up to the normal operation through
the FMGC.
The Systems Panel:
Used for switching the different system
pages on the lower ECAM display.
COCKPIT FAMILIARISATION
Flap lever, speed brake lever and
Transponder are also found on the centre
pedestal
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A319/320/321 OPERATIONS MANUAL
SYSTEMS
ICE & RAIN PROTECTION
Wing Anti-ice
Wing anti-ice heats the three outer wing slat panels on each wing.
Available for single-engine by using pack off and crossbleed open after ENG 1(2) SHUT
DOWN.
Wing Anti-Ice valves close automatically:
 On touchdown
 Leak detected
 Electrical power lost
Wing Anti-Ice is not permitted on ground or above TAT 10° C
APU bleed is NOT permitted for Wing anti-ice.
Note: Wing Anti-Ice test opens valves for 30 sec. on ground.
In normal use select Wing Anti-Ice:
 On after thrust reduction on take-off
 Off at FAF during approach
Engine Anti-ice
Engine A-I ducting is independent of wing A-I. Engine A-I valves will open automatically on
loss of electrical power. They close with air pressure available. Engine limits are automatically
reset when Engine A-I selected and continuous ignition is turned on for that engine as well.
Probe and Mast Heat / Window Heat / Rain Removal
All heat is turned on at low power on ground after the first engine start. In flight all heat
automatically goes to High. Can turn on manually on ground before engine start by pressing
pb to ON. Deselect to Auto after second engine start.
ELECTRICAL
All normal electrical power shifts automatically except the External Power which must have
the EXT PWR pushbutton selected to supply power to the AC bus tie.
1) On side engine generator
2) External Power
SYSTEMS
Normal priority for AC power is: (work across ELEC panel from GEN 2)
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A319/320/321 OPERATIONS MANUAL
3)
4)
5)
6)
APU
Off side engine generator
Emergency Generator (RAT)
Batteries
PH doesn’t use the On / Off side terms. Below is the official PH version of the Electrical
priorities:
1) Engine Generators
2) External Power
3) APU
4) Emergency Generator (RAT)
5) Batteries
The only way to power both AC busses from a single power source is through the AC BUS TIE.
The APU and EXT PWR both feed the AC BUS TIE. Both AC busses connect to the AC BUS TIE
as needed. APU will automatically power AC unless the EXT PWR or ENG GEN is on. If both
IDG’s are available then the AC busses will not be connected to the AC BUS TIE. If only one
ENG GEN (no APU or EXT PWR) is available the opposite AC bus will connect to it through the
AC BUS TIE.
The Electrical system is divided into two main branches. Both AC and DC are normally
separated into two branches with Engine 1 driving IDG (integrated drive generator) 1 and IDG
1 feeding AC BUS 1. AC BUS 1 then feeds DC BUS 1 through TR 1 (transformer rectifier). The
same happens on side 2.
As long as each engine IDG is available then the two sides remain electrically isolated. If there
is a loss of power on an AC bus then the remaining powered bus will automatically power the
unpowered AC bus through the AC BUS TIE. If the APU is then started it will automatically
power the bus tie and the failed AC bus. The AC BUS TIE will then be isolated from the normal
powered bus. IDG should not be disconnected when engine not turning (operating or
windmilling) and the IDG disconnect should not be pressed more than 3 seconds. IDG can
only be reconnected on the ground.
In case of TR failure the DC busses can be automatically connected through the DC BAT BUS.
Min Battery voltage is 25.5v. Check battery voltage with the BAT switch OFF. To charge
batteries turn them on by pressing their respective pb’s and connecting external power. A 20
min. charge is required if BAT voltage is not enough.
Part of the normal procedures for the Originating Checklist call for the check of both
SYSTEMS
Two batteries are installed. Battery charging is automatic and is controlled by the BCL
(Battery Charge Limiter). The BCL connects the battery to its respective DC BAT BUS during
battery charging and during APU start. The batteries have an automatic cut-off logic to
prevent complete battery run-down when the aircraft is unpowered and on the ground. This
will shut off the batteries at about 25% capacity to ensure APU start after overnight.
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A319/320/321 OPERATIONS MANUAL
batteries to make sure that they are charging properly. Turn off both batteries and then turn
them back on. Watch on the ECAM ELEC page to see that both batteries have initial current
charge rates of less than 60 amps and decrease the amperage within 10 secs.
If all AC (no RAT) is lost a static inverter is connected from HOT BAT 1 bus to AC ESS bus (not
SHED bus). BAT 2 will supply DC ESS (not SHED) in the event of loss of all AC (no RAT emerg.
gen.) regardless. Below 50 kts. AC ESS will no longer be supplied by the inverter and will be
unpowered. DC BAT will connect below 100 kts., it is not supplied above 100 kts. in loss of all
AC.
If both Main AC busses lose power and the airspeed is 100 kts. or more the RAT will
automatically deploy. The emergency generator will then power AC ESS BUS and DC ESS BUS.
During the 8 seconds it takes the RAT to deploy and supply power the batteries will supply
the ESS busses (not their shed busses) and the red FAULT light on the EMER ELEC PWR panel
will be on during those 8 seconds. The RAT emergency generator is lost at landing gear down
(A320) or about 125 kts (A319) and ND1 and MCDU1 will go out at that time due to loss of AC
shed bus. On landing the DC BAT bus is automatically connected to the batteries when
airspeed drops below 100 kts. When all AC is lost including the RAT emergency generator
BAT 1 will supply AC ESS through the static inverter and BAT 2 will supply DC ESS. When the
speed drops below 50 kts. the AC ESS bus is shed and power is lost to remaining CRT’s (PFD1,
ECAM upper). Note: min. RAT speed is 140 kts.
AC BUS 1 normally supplies power to AC ESS and DC BUS 1. If AC BUS 1 fails the pilot will
press the AC ESS FEED pb. This will put the AC ESS BUS on it’s alternate source, GEN 2
through AC BUS 2. When this is done the DC ESS BUS will become powered by ESS TR. DC
BUS 2 will automatically supply DC BAT BUS and DC BUS 1 after 5 secs.
APU will carry all busses on ground but will not supply main galley shed busses inflight.
Inflight if only one generator is supplying entire system then part (321: all galley power) of
the galley load and passenger in-seat power supply is shed.
GEN 1 Line – If there is smoke in the avionics compartment the amber SMOKE light will come
on in the GEN 1 LINE pushbutton. The procedure will call for the pilot to press the pb. This
will open the GEN 1 line contactor and depower AC bus 1. GEN 2 will then automatically pick
up AC BUS1 through the AC BUS tie. However, GEN 1 will still be powering two wing fuel
pumps, one in each wing inner tank. Note: this is not the complete smoke procedure, just the
beginning that deals with the GEN 1 LINE pb.
Circuit breakers are color coded. Green are monitored by ECAM. All other colors are not
monitored. The ECAM will display C/B TRIPPED ON OVHD PNL (or REAR PNL) if a green
SYSTEMS
In loss of all AC (RAT only) emergency the APU is allowed 3 min. for start after EMERG GEN
connects. The APU will not start inflight when on BAT only (this is due to the DC BAT BUS
being disconnected during Electrical Emergency configuration below 100 kts.). Lights
available in loss of all AC emergency are Capt. instrument lights, F/O dome light (if on DIM or
BRT) and compass/ice light .
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A319/320/321 OPERATIONS MANUAL
monitored breaker is tripped for more than a minute. Yellow breakers are pulled during the
procedure for flight on battery power only.
Red capped breakers are NEVER pulled in flight. Red caps are installed on the wing tip brakes
circuit breakers to prevent loss of flap asymmetry protection. All circuit breakers have a
letter (vertical) and number (horizontal) code.
When on the gate with normal APU or EXT PWR the GEN 1 & 2 amber FAULT lights will
normally be the only amber FAULT lights on in the overhead panel.
FIRE PROTECTION
Both engines and the APU each have two identical loops, A & B and a computer- FDU (Fire
Detection Unit). A fire warning is given when both loops reach the proper overheat
condition. If one loop fails the other loop is able to generate the warning by itself. A fire
warning is given if both loops fail within 5 seconds of each other. There is a red disc on the aft
fuselage to show thermal discharge for the APU fire bottle. The engines each have two
extinguishers, the APU one. Engines have sensing elements in three sections; pylon nacelle,
engine core and fan section. APU has sensing element in APU compartment.
APU fire on ground will auto shutdown, sound nose wheel well horn and APU FIRE light will
illuminate on external interphone panel. APU fire inflight must be manually shutdown (will
not auto shutdown) and extinguished. Note: APU will auto shutdown in air for other than
fire.
The front cargo compartment has two smoke detectors and the aft has four. There is one
smoke detector loop in the forward cargo and two smoke detector loops for the aft cargo. If
one smoke detector fails the system remains operational on the remaining detector. There is
one extinguisher bottle for fore and aft compartments with one nozzle forward and two aft.
Cargo fire gives: CRC, Master Warn light and Cargo smoke light.
ENG fire test: (7 items – 4 reds)
ENG 1 Test – press and hold
APU fire test: (BAT only 2 items – 1 red, AC 6 items – 3 red)
APU FIRE Test – press and hold (APU will not shutdown during test)
SYSTEMS
 ENG FIRE pb illuminated (red)
 SQUIB and DISCH lights illuminated (2)
 MASTER WARN illuminated (2) (red)
 CRC aural chime
 ENG 1 FIRE warning on E/WD (red)
 ENGINE page on SD
 FIRE light ENG 1 (on ENG panel) illuminated (red)
Repeat for ENG 2
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A319/320/321 OPERATIONS MANUAL
 APU FIRE pb illuminated (red) *
 SQUIB and DISCH light illuminated *
 MASTER WARN lights illuminated (2) (red)
 CRC aural chime
 APU FIRE warning on E/WD (red)
 APU page on SD
* BAT only (when doing Safety and Power On checklist on Battery only, no External power)
ENG FIRE pb pressed performs: (work down panel with 2,1,2,1,2 sequence – two on FIRE, one
on HYD, two on FUEL, one on ELEC, two on AIR COND)
FIRE HYD FUEL ELEC AIR COND -
Silences CRC, Arms squibs
Closes hydraulic fire valve
Closes low pressure fuel & engine IDG fuel return valves
Trips ENG GEN
Closes engine bleed & pack flow valves
(2)
(1)
(2)
(1)
(2)
APU FIRE pb pressed performs: (work down panel with 3, 0, 2,1,2 sequence)FIRE HYD FUEL ELEC AIR COND.-
Silences CRC, Shuts down APU, Arms sqib
(3)
(0)
(2)
(1)
(2)
Closes low pressure fuel valve & APU fuel pump off
Trips APU GEN
Closes APU bleed & Crossbleed valves
Smoke Detector test - press & release button for test. You should get (PH 3.4.1):





DISCH amber lights illuminate.
SMOKE red lights illuminate
MASTER WARN light illuminate
CRC
CARGO SMOKE on E/WD
This test will run twice after you select it once to test both channels.
lights only on first test.
Note: DISCH amber
FUEL
Outer
Wing Tank
707kg /
1,560lbs
(N/A A321)
Inner
Wing Tank
5,530kg /
12,190lbs
Center
Tank
6577kg /
14,500lbs
Inner
Wing Tank
5,530kg /
12,190lbs
Outer
Wing Tank
707kg /
1560lbs
(N/A A321)
Surge
tank
SYSTEMS
Surge
tank
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A319/320/321 OPERATIONS MANUAL
A319/320:
Total Left Wing Fuel
6,237kg / 13,750lbs
Total Center Fuel
6,577kg / 14,500
lbs
Total Right Wing Fuel
6,237kg / 13,750lbs
.
Total Fuel – A319/320: 42,000 lbs., A321: 52,500lbs (memory limitation)
Fuel Philosophy: Fuel in center last, fuel in center burned first (PH 9.1.1).
Takeoff on center tank prohibited (PH 2.8.3)
The center tank pumps run at a higher override pressure so the center tank fuel will be
burned before the wing tank fuel will be even though center and wing pumps are both
providing fuel pressure to the manifold at the same time.
Fuel is kept in outer wing tanks as long as possible to reduce wing bending moment.
If both pumps in same tank fail, only the inner wing tanks can suction feed. Center tank fuel
would be unusable.
APU fuel is drawn from the left fuel manifold. The APU normally uses the tank pump pressure
but has its own fuel pump that it will use if no other fuel pump pressure is available.
Losing one inner tank pump just requires turning off the pump switch (no chime)
Losing two center tank pumps will make any remaining center fuel unusable.
SYSTEMS
Losing one center pump requires opening crossfeed valve (one ECAM chime)
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Losing two inner tank pumps will put that wing on gravity (suction) feed. There is a chart to
determine safe altitudes for gravity feeding in the QRH pg. 39.
Normally fuel is run in Auto mode. This will run the wing tanks continuously and the center
tank on a schedule. The Auto mode schedule for the center tank is to run the center tank
pumps any time there is fuel in the center tank except when the slats are extended.
Exceptions to the Auto schedule (PH 9.1.7):
After engine start the center tanks will run for at least two minutes for a “test run” even if
the slats have already been extended. If slats are not extended pumps will continue to run as
normal until they are extended. The pumps will restart again after takeoff when the slats are
retracted.
After the center tanks run dry the pumps will continue to run for 5 more mins.
If IDG return fuel fills the outer wing tank the extra fuel will spill over into the inner wing
tank. If the inner wing tank fills completely up then the center tank pump on that side will be
automatically turned off to allow wing tank fuel to be burned until 1,100 lbs. has been used.
Then the center tank pump will turn on again. This prevents surge tank spillage.
The fuel in the outer wing tanks will gravity feed through two transfer valve openings when
inner wing tank fuel level reaches 748kg / 1,650 lbs. When either wing inner tank reaches the
748kg / 1,650 lbs. level a signal is sent to latch open all the transfer valves in both outer wing
tanks. This is a total of 4 valves, 2 in each outer wing tank. The transfer valves will remain
open for the rest of the flight and will close on the next refuel operation. If fuel is “sloshed”
during climb or descent it is possible for the transfer valves to be opened early due to a LO
LEVEL alert.
An ECAM caution is given if during Auto mode the center tank has more than 550 lbs. of fuel
while the left or right wing tank has less than 11,000 lbs. of fuel per wing. This would indicate
that the normal Auto schedule was not being followed.
The Crossfeed pb is normally extinguished when the valve is closed. It will show blue ON
when selected on and green OPEN when fully open.
There are two full levels for the inner wing tanks, a fueling full and an operational full. The
Note: In Auto the center tank pumps run all the time if center tank fuel is present so with all
fuel pumps on if you are on the gate with APU running (slats up) you will be using center tank
fuel. If operating in Manual mode the crew must ensure that the center tank pumps are off
when the wing tanks are completely full or when the center tank is empty.
Note: Unusable fuel is shown with a half amber box around the fuel quantity on ECAM. If the
SYSTEMS
fueling full is less than the operational full and that allows the extra IDG fuel room to collect
in normal circumstances without triggering the center tank pump turn-off for IDG return fuel.
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fuel quantity is in a degraded mode the ECAM fuel quantity will have dashes through the last
two digits. Refuel is shown on upper ECAM memo when refueling door is open.
PNEUMATICS, AIR CONDITIONING & PRESSURIZATION
The pneumatic system supplies high pressure air for:







Air conditioning
Pressurization
Engine starting
Wing anti-icing
Hydraulic reservoir pressurization
Aft cargo heat
Water tank pressurization
High pressure air can be supplied by:
 Engine bleed
 APU load compressor
High pressure ground connection
Controlled by BMC (Bleed Monitoring Computer)
Engine Bleeds close automatically when BMCs detect:
A APU bleed valve open
S Engine Start
O Over temperature
L Leak
O Over pressure
The valve will also automatically close pneumatically when:
 Low pressure
 Reverse flow
And is electrically closed when:
 ENG BLEED selected off
 ENG FIRE pb selected
The APU is ready for bleed when reaching 95% for two seconds or 99.5%. The AVAIL light will
show in the APU start pb and green APU AVAIL will show on EWD display when APU gen is
available for use.
SYSTEMS
The APU bleed will close for leaks
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The crossbleed valve can be operated in automatic or manual mode. There are two electric
motors for the valve, one for each mode. In automatic mode the crossbleed valve opens
automatically when using APU bleed air. During normal operation the crossbleed is closed to
isolate the two engine bleeds.
The crossbleed is manually set OPEN during the engine crossbleed start procedure.
The leak detection system uses a single loop for the pylons and APU to detect hot air temps
associated with duct leaks. Dual loops are used for the wings. If both of the dual loops detect
a leak a warning is given, unless there is a fault on one, then only one loop is required to give
a warning.
If a leak is detected:




The engine bleed air valve (APU bleed air valve) on that side is closed
Associated ENG (APU) BLEED FAULT light comes on
Crossbleed valve closes (except during engine start)
Left wing leak only – APU bleed air valve closes (except during ENG start)
PACKS
Airbus Gotcha’: Do not use external conditioned air when using packs (Unfortunately, there is
no cockpit indication of external air connected!
There are three air conditioning zones: Cockpit, FWD Cabin and AFT Cabin. The zones are
controlled by having the packs deliver all air at the lowest temp requested by any of the
three zones. Then hot air is added through the trim air valves to the other two zones as
needed to meet temp requirements. A/C zone temp selectors have a range of:
Cold 18°C/64°F, 12 o’clock 24°C/76°F, Hot 30°C/86°F
The AC pack can bypass bleed air around the air cycle machine (ACM) if the ACM fails and run
the bleed air through the primary heat exchanger directly. This allows the pack to operate as
a simple heat exchanger with reduced pack flow.
Pack flow will revert to HI during single pack operation or APU bleed source regardless of
selector position.
One Zone controller with two channels. Failure of the primary channel will result in fixed
temperature at 76° F with no optimization. Failure of the secondary as well will result in a
fixed temp of 68°F pack 1 and 50°F pack 2.
SYSTEMS
The Zone controller can override pilot selected pack flow (HI, NORM and LOW) as needed to
meet demands. It can also command higher APU speed or engine idle as needed.
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One Pack controller per pack. Two channels per controller. If primary fails the secondary the
pack air flow will be fixed at the pre-failure setting. No further optimization is available.
Further failure of the secondary will result in a fixed pack outlet temp of 59°F.
Pack controllers also regulate the cooling air flow through the ACM. During takeoff and
touchdown the controllers close the ram air inlet flaps to prevent ingesting debris.
Note: The Airbus 319/320 can be dispatched with one pack INOP up to FL310 or below as per
MEL 21-5201A
RAM air (PH 10.3.6)
RAM air is available for cabin ventilation in the event of loss of pressurization or smoke
removal. When the RAM AIR pb is selected the RAM air inlet opens.
When pressurization differential is less than 1 psi. the outflow valve will open to 50% to allow
exhaust. If above 1 psi. then the outflow will remain normal.
PRESSURIZATION
There are two identical independent pressurization systems. Control is normally fully
automatic. The system has one control panel, two controllers, one outflow valve and two
safety valves. The outflow valve has three DC motors: Primary, Backup and Manual.
Controllers can operate in automatic, semi-automatic and manual modes.
Automatic: Controller automatically takes the destination field elevation from the aircraft
database. The entire pressurization schedule is optimized by the system.
Semi-automatic: If the database is not available for some reason the pilot can select the
landing elevation from the LDG ELEV knob by pulling the selector out of the AUTO detent and
turning to the needed value.
Manual: Normally, the controllers take turns controlling by swapping after each leg. If the
active controller fails the backup automatically takes over. If both automatic systems fail the
pilot may control manually by pressing the CABIN PRESS MODE SEL to MAN. The primary and
backup outflow valve motors are depowered and the manual motor is activated. Now the
pilot can select vertical speed on the cabin using the MAN V/S CTL switch.
Ditching pb: The Ditching pb will close all exterior openings below the flotation line. This pb is
also used during deicing to prevent deicing fluid from entering the aircraft.
SYSTEMS
Abort mode: If the aircraft returns after takeoff the system will reset to departure field
elevation.
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Airbus Gotcha’: on ground with Ditching pb ON and all doors closed & external low pressure
connected a pressurization differential will build (PH 10.6).
Note: If the pilot suspects that pressurization is not performing normally but has not yet
failed press the MODE SEL pb to MAN for 10 secs. then return to AUTO. This will cause the
systems to swap (PH 10.6).
Depressurization: When cabin exceeds about 11,000’ the cabin may illuminate and Exit and
all cabin signs illuminate automatically. Masks will drop at 14,000’ and a PA regarding their
use will automatically start. (PH 15.1.3, 5.15.1, 5.15.5)
VENTILATION
The avionics are cooled through a system that uses two openings and two electric fans.
Conditioned air is also available for backup if needed. Yes, a computer controls the whole
thing (sigh).The intake is on the lower left side below the cockpit. A blower fan draws air in
and the extract fan on the right side exhausts the air out from a port below the cockpit on
the lower right side.
Open configuration: Only for ground operations, both the inlet and outlet vents are open and
both fans operate. Note: during heavy rain operations on ground select EXTRACT pb to
OVRD with both packs operating. This will prevent rain from entering the avionics bay.
Return to normal auto operation once airborne (see PH 3a.2 for parameters).
Closed configuration: Inflight mode and very cold ground operations. Both vents are closed,
however both fans run to circulate air past heat exchangers that are cooled by low outside
skin temperatures. Some air exhausted through cargo underfloor.
Intermediate configuration: Only for use inflight when warm, same as closed except reduced
opening to allow some additional exhaust of cooling air.
Abnormal configuration: Fault is detected in either the BLOWER or EXTRACT fan. Faulted fan
is off. Similar to closed except air conditioned air is added to the circulated air. ECAM will
direct configuration.
HYDRAULICS, BRAKES & LANDING GEAR
There are three hydraulic systems: green, blue and yellow. All three systems are independent
SYSTEMS
Smoke configuration: If smoke is detected in avionics both the BLOWER and EXTRACT fan
will have amber FAULT lights on and the GEN 1 LINE pb (on EMER ELEC PWR panel) has
amber SMOKE illuminated. Selecting BOTH fans to OVRD will cause the blower to stop but
the extract to continue operating. Conditioned air is added to attempt to clear the smoke.
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of each other and do not transfer fluid at any time. Each system has its own accumulator.
Priority valves ensure proper pressure to critical users when system pressure is low.
Green system – 1 pump: engine driven. Two power sources: engine 1 pump & PTU
Blue system – 2 pumps: 1 electric and the emergency RAT. Two sources of power: electric
pump & RAT pump.
Yellow system – 3 pumps: 1 engine, 1 electric & 1 hand pump. 4 sources of power: engine 2
pump, electric pump, hand pump and PTU.
Green is the “heavy” system with landing gear, flaps/slats, N/W STRG and Normal Brakes.
Blue is basically for redundancy with the only unique items on it being L & R spoiler 3 and the
Emergency Generator which are “backup” items themselves.
Yellow provides the ground service items of parking brake and cargo door.
The RAT and Yellow electric pumps do not normally run during flight. A hand pump is
provided on the Yellow system to provide the ability to open cargo doors with no electric
power on the aircraft. Blue electric operates any time inflight and on the ground when at
least one engine is operating.
The RAT hydraulic pump is for emergency use only and will only deploy manually for
hydraulic problems. For electrical problems it will deploy automatically above 100 kts. with
loss of all AC. Note: Min RAT speed 140 kts.
The PTU is able to transfer power but not fluid. It transfers power between the Green and
Yellow systems (the two with the engine pumps and heavy consumers). The PTU can transfer
power in either direction and is activated when a 500 psi differential is sensed between
Green and Yellow. The PTU can also be powered on the ground by the Yellow electric pump
to power Green hydraulic. Allows Yellow electric pump to power Green on ground.
The PTU is inhibited when
 First engine is being started. This is identified as when the nosewheel steering
disconnect pin is in and one ENG MASTER switch is ON. (PTU operation is tested on
second engine start)
 Cargo doors are operated (Yellow electric normally powers cargo doors, this prevents
draining low output of electric pump or accidentally powering Green Hydraulic)
SYSTEMS
 Parking brake is ON and only one ENG MASTER switch is ON
 PTU pb is off
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The engine pumps (Green and Yellow) each have Fire Shut Off Valves that close when the
Engine Fire Pushbuttons are selected open.
Brakes
The brakes are carbon, multidiscs actuated by two independent systems, Normal and
Alternate. The normal brakes are powered by the Green hydraulic system.
Normal brakes are available when:
 The A/SKID & N/W STRG switch is ON
 Green hydraulic pressure is available
 The parking brake is OFF
A BSCU (Brake and Steering Control Unit) control all normal braking functions (anti-skid,
autobrakes and brake temps.).
Minimum normal brake pressure is 2400 psi. w/ full pedal deflection (PH 3.4.1)
Anti-skid is deactivated below 20 kts.
Anti-skid may or may not be available when on alternate brakes. If antiskid is inop. Then
alternate brakes use 1000 psi max to prevent blowing tires.
The alternate brakes are powered by the Yellow hydraulic system and will automatically
become selected if Green hydraulic is insufficient for normal brakes. Yellow brakes have the
same capabilities as normal brakes except for autobrake capability.
Alternate brakes can be used with or without anti-skid. Anti-skid during alternate brakes
is inoperative when:




Electrical power failure
BSCU failure
A/SKID & N/W STRG switch turned off
Brake pressure supplied by Yellow accumulator only
A pressure indicator on the instrument panel indicates Yellow accumulator pressure and
Yellow left and right brake (parking brake) pressure on three needles.
Accumulators maintain good parking brake pressure for at least 12 hrs. The cargo door
SYSTEMS
Parking brake disables all other brake modes. Parking brake is on Yellow system.
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operation will restore parking brake (Yellow system) pressure.
Autobrakes are available on Normal Brakes (Green system) only. LO mode delays for 4
seconds after touchdown. MED mode delays for 2 seconds. MAX has no delay. Do not use
MAX for landing, MAX is RTO only.
The Green DECEL light in the auto brake pb’s indicates actual deceleration is within 80% of
the selected rate (does not indicate that the autobrake is activated).
Autobrakes activate when ground spoilers are extended. On takeoff they are not armed until
72 kts. 2 SEC’s are required for Autobrakes.
Brake Fans are installed in the main gear hubs. They will indicate an amber HOT when the
brakes are 300° C or more. Brake temps are shown on the ECAM WHEELS page. An arc will
appear above the hottest brake temp. If brake temp is above 300°
C then the temp will
turn amber. The brakes must be cooled below 300° C before takeoff. Pilot must manually
select brake fans on.
Note: Fans should only be used to cool to about 250°
Hot Brakes (PH 3.15) Maintenance action is required if there is:
 150° C difference in brake temps on the same strut and one brake 600° or
greater or 60° or less
 a mean 200° C difference between different trucks
 fuse plug melted
 brake temp exceeds 900°
Landing Gear
The Airbus Landing Gear:







Has enclosed gear bays
Is held by mechanical uplocks
Uses manual extension by gravity
Has no mechanical or visual check for gear position
Uses autobraking on the mains during retraction
Has a brake band in the nose gear well
Is hydraulically locked out from operation above 260 kts.
The gear doors will remain down after manual gravity extension.
The gear lights by the gear handle are powered through (hard wired) LGCIU 1, if LGCIU 1 is
SYSTEMS
The LGCIU controls the Airbus landing gear operation. The SD will show 2 green down
triangles on the WHEELS page for each gear down and locked. One green and one red
triangle still indicates down and locked. Red shows gear in transit and no triangle indicates
gear uplocked.
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not powered the lights will not operate.
The gear handle has a red down arrow that will illuminate if gear is up with flaps 3 or FULL
below about 700’ (landing configuration). ECAM will alert.
Nose Wheel Steering (PH 11.5.5)
Nose Wheel Steering gets inputs from: Capt. & F/O steering hand wheels (max deflection is
75°, starts reducing above 20 kts to 0° at 70 kts.),
Rudder pedals (max deflection is 6°,
starts reducing above 40 knots to 0° at 130 kts.), and Autopilot . A rudder disconnect is on
the hand steering wheel for use during Flight Control Check. A lever on the nose gear
deactivates steering to enable towing. A green NW STRG DISC message will show on ECAM
and will turn amber on second engine start when lever is activated.
Nose wheel steering is enabled with hydraulic pressure when:





Nose gear doors closed
A/SKID & N/W STRG switch on
Towing control lever in normal position
At least one engine operating
Aircraft on ground
FLIGHT CONTROLS
Flight Control Laws
Multiple failures are required to revert from normal law. “Multiple failures of redundant
systems”
Normal FlightTakeoff
Flight Mode
Blend from
firect to Normal
Inflight
Flight Mode
Normal
Landing
Flight Mode
Normal with slight
Pitch down added at
50’ for flare
On Ground
Ground Mode
Direct
Normal Law: for a given amount of sidestick deflection a given amount of G loading (pitch,
elevators) or roll rate (roll, ailerons, spoilers) regardless of airspeed. Pitch is always kept in
trim automatically. Flare mode gives slight pitch down after 50’ for flare. Bank past 33°
requires constant input or will automatically return to 33°. “Hard” protections. Green equals
signs “=”
SYSTEMS
On Ground
Ground Mode
Direct
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Normal Law Protections (think of as “A320 mode”):
Bank
Roll rate
proportional
to sidestick
deflection
67° Max
(at 45°
autopilot
disconnect)
Yaw
Turn
Coordination
& Yaw
Dampening
Pitch
Load factor
proportional to
stick deflection
Max 30° nose
up Max 15°
nose down
Low Speed
Non overrideable
AOA Protection
Alpha Prot Low
Energy Warn
Alpha Floor
Alpha Max
High Speed
Non
overrideable
nose up
command
prevents
overspeed at
Vmo/Mmo
Load
Clean
Flap
S1
+2.5G/1.0G
Flaps
Extended
+2.0G/1.0G
Alternate Law:
Flight control will revert to alternate law after multiple failures of redundant systems.
Autotrim still available. “Soft” protections. No protection in roll, roll goes to direct. Pitch goes
to direct for landing when landing gear extended (no “flare mode”). It is possible to be in
Alternate law without speed Stability and/or Yaw
Dampening. Aircraft can stall. Amber “X’s”
Alternate Law Protections (think of as “737-300 mode”):
Bank
Roll Direct
No Protections
Yaw
Yaw
Dampening
Pitch
Load factor
proportional
to stick
deflection
No flare mode
goes to direct
for landing
Low Speed
Low Speed
stability
Overrideable
nose down
command to
prevent stall
High Speed
High speed
stability
Overrideable
nose up
command to
prevent
overspeed
Load
Clean Flap
S1
+2.5G/1.0G
Flaps
Extended
+2.0G/1.0G
Abnormal Law:
This is entered by the aircraft being in an extreme unusual attitude (about double normal
limits). When back to normal attitude aircraft is in Alternate Law except does not go to direct
SYSTEMS
Direct Law:
Lowest level of flight control law. Proportional movement between sidestick deflection and
flight control deflection. No autotrimming. No protections. The default mode on the ground
in all cases (think about it, if you are on the ground you cannot have a G load or roll rate).
This mode is most like a regular airplane (“DC-9 mode”).
Amber “USE MAN PITCH TRIM”
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law on landing and no pitch protections. Computer reverts to Abnormal when it sees the
aircraft in unusual attitude because computer logic says aircraft should not have been
allowed by normal law protections into this attitude in the first place, therefore computer
sees something is wrong.
Mechanical Backup:
Pitch through horizontal stab trim, Lateral through rudders, Differential power. Both stab and
rudder use cables going to controller and require hydraulic power. Bottom line here, very
little “manual reversion” and if no hydraulic power you are a lawn dart. Red “MAN PITCH
TRIM ONLY”.
Fly-by-wire, no feedback except for rudder and horizontal stab trim.
Two ELAC’s – Elevator, aileron and stabilizer control.
Three SEC’s – Spoiler and standby elevator and stabilizer control.
Two FAC’s – Electrical rudder control (other warning functions also provided).
FCDC’s (Flight Control Data Concentrators) process information from ELAC’s and
SEC’s and send data to the EIS and CFDS.
Pitch – Controlled by elevators and horizontal stab. Electrically controlled by ELAC or
SEC and hydraulically actuated.
Elevator – Each elevator has two hydraulic power sources and two actuators (one
active and one in damping mode).
Elevator priorities:
ELAC 2 ELAC 1 SEC 2 SEC 1
Left Elevator – Blue and Green hyd. Right Elevator – Yellow and Blue hyd.
Horizontal Stabilizer – Electrically controlled by one of three motors or mechanically
controlled by the pitch trim wheels (through cable) and hydraulically powered by green or
yellow hydraulic. After touchdown the stab trim is reset automatically to zero.
Horizontal Stab. Priorities:
ELAC 2 ELAC 1 SEC 2 SEC 1 (same as elevators).
Roll Control – provided by ailerons and spoilers. Electrically controlled by ELAC (ailerons) or
SEC (spoilers) and hydraulically actuated.
Ailerons – Each aileron is powered by Green and Blue hyd. and has two actuators (one active
SYSTEMS
Green and Yellow hyd., 3 electric motors.
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and the other damping). The ailerons droop 5° when the flaps are extended. If both ELAC’s
fail then droop is deactivated and the ailerons streamline and only spoilers are used for roll
control.
Aileron priorities:
ELAC 1 ELAC 2.
Green and Blue hyd.
Spoilers – Five spoilers are installed on each wing. From the wing root to wing tip they are
numbered 1 through 5. All are used as ground spoilers. Numbers 2 through 5 (the 4 outboard
spoilers) provide roll control. The middle three (2 – 4) provide inflight speed brakes. If a SEC
fails the spoiler(s) it controls is automatically retracted (if extended) and that spoiler(s)
deactivated. There is no reversion to other computers.
Spoiler priorities:
Spoilers 1 & 2 - SEC 3, Yellow and Green.
Spoilers 3 & 4 - SEC 1, Yellow and Blue.
Spoiler 5 - SEC 2, Green.
Speedbrakes and Ground Spoilers
Green SPD BRK memo on ECAM when speedbrakes extended. Flashes amber when thrust is
applied with speedbrake extended.
Speedbrake extension inhibited when (SAFE):
S - SEC 1 & 3 fail
A - Angle of Attack protection active (a prot)
F - Flaps at FULL setting
E - Elevator (L or R) fails (spoilers 3 and 4 only)
(Note: PH does not list but TOGA selection will inhibit speedbrakes)
If speedbrakes are out when inhibited they will automatically retract. Must restow
speedbrake handle for 10 seconds to regain. Do not use speedbrakes below 1000’ AFE.
If one speedbrake on one wing fails the corresponding one on the other wing will be
inhibited for symmetry.
Ground Spoilers are armed by raising the Speed Brake Lever. The speed brake lever does not
move with auto extension.
Partial Extension – On landing – Reverse selected on at least one engine with other at or near
idle –and– one main landing gear strut compressed
SYSTEMS
Ground Spoilers extend automatically:
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Full Extension – On landing or on takeoff above 72 kts. (rejected takeoff) – Both thrust levers
at idle (spoilers armed) –or– Reverse thrust selected on at least one engine with other at idle
(spoilers not armed) and both mains compressed.
Rudder – Rudder controls yaw. FAC 1 & 2 provide electric control through trim motors and
hydraulically actuated. Mechanically controlled by rudder pedals if FAC’s fail. Rudder trim is
automatic but can be done manually using electric RUD TRIM switch.
Y – Yaw functions, normal and alternate yaw
A – Airspeed (flight envelope protection - AoA, High and Low speed limits)
W – Windshear
L – Low Energy warning (speed, speed)
Alpha Prot - Angle of attack protection speed, top of amber tiger stripe.
S – Speedbrakes retract
A – Autopilot disconnects
P – Pitch trim inhibited
Flaps have overspeed protection at flap setting 1+F so that at 210 KIAS the flaps will
automatically retract to flaps 1. Slats have an alpha lock function that inhibits them from
retracting from position 1 to 0 when at a high angle of attack or low airspeed. There are 4
Wingtip Brakes (WTB) that will lock the flaps or slats in case of asymmetry, overspeed,
runaway or uncommanded movement. WTB’s cannot be released inflight. If flaps locked out,
slats can operate and visa versa.
Please note that on the A321 it is possible at very high gross takeoff weights that F speed will
exceed the flap speed for 1+F. In this case the flaps will automatically retract and the pilot
will select flaps 0 at F speed which will retract the remaining slats.
Sidesticks
Perhaps one of the most distinctive and noticeable differences in the Airbus 320 series from
other airliners is the sidestick. Most folks get comfortable with the sidestick within minutes.
However, the computerized flight controls that the sidestick activate require some new
features:
No feedback (feel) is given. Sidestick is spring loaded to neutral.
System algebraically sums the signals from both sticks if both are operated at the same time.
However, the total input is no more than the max input from a single stick.
A green sidestick priority light will flash during dual input and an audio “DUAL INPUT” will be
sounded.
SYSTEMS
A red Takeover pb in the sidestick (also serving as autopilot disconnect) allows one pilot to
override the other.
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The green sidestick priority light will flash in front of the pilot with control and a red arrow
light will illuminate in front of the pilot who has been deactivated when one pilot has taken
priority over the other.
Sidestick “locks” in place when on autopilot. Pilot action on sidestick (or trim wheel) at
any time will disconnect the autopilot.
Last pilot to press Takeover pb has priority.
Pressing Takeover pb for 40 secs. will latch the priority condition (pilot does not have to.
continue to press Takeover pb). However, a deactivated sidestick can be reactivated by
momentarily pressing the Takeover pb on either sidestick.
INSTRUMENT / NAV / COMM
ECAM
The ECAM (Electronic Centralized Aircraft Monitoring) system is made up of two primary
components, two SDAC’s (System Data Acquisition Concentrators) and two FWC’s (Flight
Warning Computers). A loss of only one SDAC or only one FWC will not result in any loss of
function. The second computer can handle all functions alone. The SDAC’s receive data from
sensors and will send signals to 3 DMC’s (Display Management Computer) which generate
the screen image. The SDAC’s also send signals to the FWC. The FWC will generate various
warning/caution messages.
The E/WD (Engine/Warning Display) is the instrument panel display that shows normal
engine readings and ECAM messages. The SD (System Display) is directly below the E/WD
and normally shows system pages or status. For information on switching screens in case of
failures see EFIS later in this section.
If a FWC fails the Master Caution and Master Warning lights will indicate the failure (along
with a warning from ECAM). The failure will be indicated by the upper or lower light in both
the Master Caution and Warning light being out. If the #1 FWC fails then the captains upper
SYSTEMS
ECAM uses color to indicate the importance of the indication–
RED:
Immediate action required
AMBER: Awareness but no action required
GREEN: Normal operation
WHITE: Titles and remarks
CYAN: Actions to be carried out or limitations
MAGENTA: Special messages (i.e. inhibition messages)
Note: pulsing green or amber indications are approaching limits
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lights would be out and the F/O’s lower lights would be out. If #2 FWC fails the reverse lights
will go out.
Loss of both FWC’s will result in a loss of most warning capability. The dual failure of the
FWC’s will result in an amber caution with no aural.
ECAM system pages are controlled through the ECAM control panel. Captains will be using
the mnemonic FHED to check systems prior to departure.
F FUEL , balance, configuration, quantity
H HYD , Hydraulics quantity (pointers in boxes)
E ENG , Engine oil quantity (min. 12.5 qts.)
D DOOR/OXY , Doors armed, O2 pressure (note: overwing slides always armed)
Note: Press FUEL, HYD, ENG and then press ENG again to return to default
DOOR/OXY page.
ECAM Procedures
Upper ECAM (E/WD)
Primary Failures
underlined
“ECAM Actions”
ELEC DC BUS 1 FAULT
Secondary Failures
starred
Affected Systems
*ELEC
Lower ECAM (SD)
Primary Failures
underlined
“ECAM Actions”
ELEC DC BUS 1 FAULT
Secondary Failures
starred
Affected Systems
*ELEC
Work in a “Z” fashion from upper left, upper right, lower left, lower right.
When an ECAM warning occurs the first pilot noting it should read the title.
Then the PF should call “ECAM Action”. The PNF should read the full line of action items.
Confirm all major actions before continuing to next, such as thrust lever movement, engine
master shutoff, engine fire pb selection or IDG disconnect. As you complete the items listed
in cyan (blue) they will be automatically cleared from the screen (think “Blue to Do”).
SYSTEMS
Appropriate systems page will be shown on lower ECAM (SD) to help identify problem
area(s).
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Continue until you reach the next underlined item. Read through any boxed item (note:
boxed items indicate failure of a primary system that will cause the loss of another system or
systems on the aircraft). When reaching the next underlined title or the end of the procedure
then proceed with clearing ECAM. Be sure to do ALL blue action items between underlined
titles before proceeding.
If there are too many steps to all be on the screen ECAM will put a green down arrow to
indicate that there is screen “overflow”. As you complete the items and they are cleared the
overflow items will automatically scroll up onto the screen.
Note: You may not be able to clear all blue items. In some cases ECAM will not have a way to
know that you have done an item, such as “contact ATC”. In these cases just clear ECAM
when all items are done.
When all action items finished the PNF asks, “Clear ECAM”? PF will reply, “Clear ECAM” if
ready to continue. Be sure that no further cyan messages remain that can be eliminated
before clearing. Some blue action items the computer cannot get feedback from, and these
will remain on the screen. ALWAYS CONFIRM AN ECAM CLEAR.
If the problem stops while doing action items some action items may clear or change
automatically. For example, if an engine fire goes out while running ECAM you will see the
ECAM ENGINE FIRE go away, the red FIRE pb on the FIRE panel and the red FIRE light on the
engine panel will go out and the LAND ASAP will change from red to orange.
When ECAM is cleared the next procedure will appear (additional primary failures are listed
in the “stack” on the right) or if all procedures are done then ECAM will automatically
present the first page of the affected systems on the SD. Affected systems (secondary
failures) are listed in amber on the top right of the screen with an *asterisk in front of them
(*F/CTL). After reviewing the screen you will clear it and the next system screen will be
shown. After each screen you should ask and confirm ready to clear the screen.
Example: PNF will then review all affected equipment shown in amber on Flight Control side.
When done PNF will ask, “Clear Flight Control”?
PF will reply, “Clear Flight Control” if ready to continue.
When all the affected system screens have been cleared the status page will come up
automatically. If Status or Inop Systems takes up more than one page on ECAM there will be
a green down arrow to indicate to “scroll” to the next page. In this case you will clear ECAM
to scroll to the rest of the procedure. After using clear to see additional Status or INOP
Systems pages you can press the STS key to see the first Status or INOP Systems page again.
The PF will reply, “Clear Status” if ready to finish.
SYSTEMS
PNF will then read all status items line by line. When done the PNF will ask “Clear Status”?
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Additional information on ECAM warnings may be obtained from the Pilots Handbook,
Chapter 21 if time permits.
A red LAND ASAP suggests landing at nearest suitable airport (more severe). An amber LAND
ASAP suggests the pilot should consider the seriousness of the situation and suitability of the
airport before landing (less severe).
Landing Distance Procedure – If the procedure directs you to do the landing distance
procedure (LDG DIST PROC) then you will look in the QRH performance section for the model
you are in (i.e. for A319 use A319 Performance) and find the LANDING DISTANCE WITHOUT
AUTOBRAKE – CONFIGURATION FULL table. ALWAYS use the Config Full table, even if landing
with less for the procedure. Find the applicable distance. Now take the reference distance
and go the LDG CONF APPR SPD table on QRH pg. 52 or 53 (depending on whether A319 or
A320). Please note that this is a reference distance only, if you have autobrake available you
should use it!
Find the appropriate equipment failure in the table and note the actual flap lever position
for landing. Please note that the actual flap and/or slat positions may not match the flap
lever position depending on what procedures you are accomplishing. Now note any speed
increment to be added. Finally note any landing distance multiplier. If there are multiple
failures and you need to apply more than one equipment failure you may need to adjust your
multiplier. If the multipliers all have asterisks take the highest multiplier. If any of the
multipliers don’t have asterisks then multiply the multipliers together and use the resulting
number as the total multiplier.
Once you have determined the total multiplier you can multiply this number times the
reference landing distance from the Config FULL table to find the minimum runway needed
for the procedure(s).
Add the speed increment (if any) to VLS and add any wind correction (see QRH pg. 55 or 56
for instructions) and put the resulting VAPP in the MCDU PERF APPR page under the LSK 5L.
When using speed increments ALWAYS USE SPEED SELECT on approach. Do not use managed
speed when speed increments have been applied. Use the VAPP set in the PERF APPR to
remind you what speed to select when on approach.
Note: ALWAYS use CONFIG FULL on the PERF APPR page when using the Landing Distance
Procedures no matter what flaps settings are used as the numbers are all referenced to
Config FULL charts. In other words DO NOT use Config 3 in the MCDU PERF APPR page if the
flap lever is positioned to Config 3 and DON’T press the LDG FLAP 3 pb on the overhead.
ECAM action should not be taken (except to cancel audio warning through the MASTER
WARN light) until:
 The flight path is stabilized and
SYSTEMS
Note: If ECAM directs to recycle Flaps/Slats – speed select below 200 kts. and select flaps 2.
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 The aircraft is higher than 1,000 AFE
EFIS (ELECTRONIC FLIGHT INSTUMENT SYSTEM)
The EFIS mainly consists of 2 displays the:
(1) Primary Flight Display (PFD)
(2) Navigation Display (ND)
which provide the flight crew with full-time flight guidance, navigation and system advisory
information for all flight phases. An (3) EFIS control panel is located at each end of the
glareshield and is used to control both Primary and Navigation Displays. This panel includes
controls to select various modes within the PFD.
A selector allows the barometric altimeter setting to be displayed on the PFD. Various
distance ranges can be selected on the ND, and two switches allow either the left or right
VOR/ADF bearing pointers to be displayed on the ND.
A failure of the DU Display Unit (display blank) means that you will have to swap screens to
view all information. The PFD has priority over the ND and the EW/D has priority over the SD.
This means that if the PFD display fails then the PFD will automatically display on the ND
display screen. However, if the ND fails the PFD will remain on its normal screen. If you wish
to view the ND you can press the PFD/ND XFR switch. In the same way the EW/D has priority
over the SD. If the SD needs to be displayed use the ECAM/NC XFR switch on the switching
panel to bring that screen up on the CAPT or F/O ND as selected. A failure of both the ECAM
screens (EW/D and SD) will require use of the ECAM/ND XFR switch on the switching panel to
FOR FLIGHT SIMULATION USE ONLY
SYSTEMS
A white diagonal line across the display means that the DMC (Display Management
Computer) has failed. The CRT itself is still working. Just switch to the standby DMC on the
switching panel to restore the displays as normal.
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view the EW/D screen on the ND display and by pressing the required system pb on the
ECAM Control Panel you can view the SD info on the ND as needed.
The ND has two brightness controls, outer and inner bezel control knobs. The outer ND bezel
controls brightness of the radar and terrain on the ND. The inner knob controls the
brightness of all the other normal ND display. Note that if the PFD/ND XFR button is used the
outer bezel is disabled and only the inner knob is available for brightness control.
STS in a white box will show on the bottom of the EW/D if there are any systems
downgraded to remind the crew of any status information. If there is a system advisory
message when the SD has failed the EW/D will flash a white ADV at the bottom of the screen
to notify the crew to select the SD for viewing.
The current airspeed is indicated by a fixed yellow reference line. A yellow speed trend arrow
will appear from the speed reference line to indicate the anticipated airspeed in 10 seconds.
Green Dot is a (gasp!) green dot on the speed scale and is available only when aircraft is clean
(flaps 0). It shows best lift over drag speed (L/D) and is also called VFTO(Final Takeoff speed).
Green dot is used during normal takeoff and the engine-out maneuver and gives best angle
of climb speed.
On the altitude scale the Landing Elevation is a blue line and is based on barometric
information. The Landing Elevation is available only in QNH (below 18,000’) and on approach.
Ground Reference display on the altitude scale is a red ribbon and is based on radar altimeter
information. Radar altimeter readout comes on screen in green below 2500’ AGL and goes
amber (if DH is entered) when 100’ above DH (CAT II/III). If an MDA has been entered the
altitude (note: this is the normal altitude readout, not the radar altimeter readout) will turn
amber below the MDA (CAT I / RNAV).
Magenta means managed and Blue means selected. For example if the commanded speed is
by pilot action (speed select) the speed target index (speed pointer) will be blue. If the
commanded speed is controlled by the FMGC (speed engage) the speed pointer will be
magenta.
When a new altitude is selected the new target altitude will appear above (during climb) or
below (during descent) the altitude scale. The new target altitude will move onto the scale
once it is within the altitude scale range (about 600’).
Takeoff Warning
Slats/Flaps
Pitch Trim
Speed Brakes
Sidestick Fault
Hot Brakes
Door Not Closed
SYSTEMS






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-the following are only triggered when takeoff power is set
 Parking Brake On
 Flex Temp Not Set (not displayed if thrust levers set in TOGA detent)
Altitude Alert
Altitude alert (tone and pulsing yellow altitude windows) is inhibited when:
 Slats are out and landing gear selected down
 Landing gear locked down
 Captured on glide slope
The tone is also inhibited when on autopilot and capturing a normal set target altitude,
but pulsing yellow window is still effective.
Windshear - prediction and detection
Windshear prediction is radar based and is available below 1500’ AGL. It looks out to 5 nm
ahead of aircraft. A warning message reading WINDSHEAR AHEAD will appear on PFD and
ND. Color of the warning will be red or amber depending on level of warning. Levels include
Advisory (display only) and the Warning and Caution messages have an aural warning alert as
well. Predictive warnings are inhibited during takeoff after 100 kts. until 50’ AGL and then
again inhibited on landing once below 50’ AGL. Windshear prediction uses the normal
weather radar and there is only one radar installed. If the normal radar is turned off the
windshear prediction will still operate normally if set to Auto. Prediction means that a
possible windshear is ahead of you. Predictive windshear will not warn for CAT (Clear Air
Turbulence), system must have precipitation to work.
Note: Predictive windshear is inhibited during takeoff after 100 kts up to 50’!
Windshear detection is controlled by the FAC’s and is based on GNADIRS information.
Windshear detection means that you are IN a windshear. Windshear detection (when
slats/flaps selected) is available 5 seconds after takeoff until 1300’ AGL and is again available
on landing from 1300’ AGL until 50’ AGL.
A red WINDSHEAR warning is shown on the PFD and an aural WINDSHEAR alert is
given three times during windshear detection.
Note: Windshear detection is NOT available until 5 secs. after takeoff!
The Global Navigation Air Data Inertial Reference System (say that five times fast!) provides
the FMGS with the data input it needs to navigate the aircraft. The FMGC decides which
signals are most accurate and provide a “synthetic” (best guess) aircraft position after
weighing all available data. The FMGC can also estimate the accuracy of its synthetic position
due to available sensors and data. This information will be used during RNAV approaches.
The IRU’s have laser ring gyros that provide a stable reference signal as well as provide
SYSTEMS
GNADIRS
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attitude information. Be very careful NOT to just turn off the IRU because it gives a bad nav
signal. It may still be giving good attitude information and can be selected to attitude
information only (ATT). The FMGC can track IR drift and predict aircraft position even when
GPS or ground based (VOR/DME) signals are lost.
GNADIRS also provides the aircraft with needed air data information such as altitude, mach,
temperatures, airspeed, etc. Failure of an associated air data reference DOES NOT fail the IR!
The failed ADR can be turned off by deselecting its pb and still maintain all IR and GPS
functions.
The system is very accurate and reliable with a high degree of redundancy using three
GNADIRS units and multiple navigation signal inputs from GPS and IR. The FMGC also takes
VOR/DME signals (PH 13.3.1, 17.3.1) into account along with the GNADIRS data to compute
aircraft position. The third GNADIR is basically a standby that can be selected if #1 or #2 fail.
Amber FAULT light:
 Steady, IR lost
 Flashing, may be available in ATT only, NAV lost
White ALIGN light:
 Steady, in align mode (normal)
 Flashing



ALIGN fault
No entry in 10 mins.
1° difference in lat. & long. from shutdown position
 Extinguished, alignment is complete (normal)
Note: DO NOT move aircraft during alignment.
EGPWS (PH 13.3.9)
Standby Nav, remote tuning (PH 13.4.3, 3B.5.1)
SYSTEMS
Enhanced GPWS provides all normal aural GPWS functions as well as the enhanced terrain
avoidance features. The enhanced function is database (computer) driven but it is shown in a
radar format. Please note that the radar is NOT being used for terrain detection but the
DISPLAY will override the weather radar image display when the terrain on ND pb (TERR ON
ND) is selected. If the TERR ON ND pb is not selected and a warning is generated the terrain
display will come on automatically and override weather radar display. The Terrain “sweep”
is a distinctive middle to the sides to make it obviously different from the normal radar. The
enhanced terrain feature can be shut off using the TERR pb on the overhead without losing
any of the normal GPWS functions.
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When normal radio navigation is not available you can use the backup nav mode, Standby
Nav (STBY NAV), also known as remote tuning. Select Rose VOR for the ND. Press the
guarded NAV button on the RMP and the green light will come on indicating that you are
now using Standby Nav. To use VOR nav press the VOR button. Then tune the VOR frequency
with the normal selector knob in the STBY/CRS window. Press to transfer the freq to active
and now you can select the course on the STBY/CRS window using the inner knob of the
selector.
To tune an ILS first select Rose ILS on the ND. Then press the ILS button on the FCU. Then
press the guarded NAV button on the RMP. Then press the ILS button in the STBY NAV area
of the RMP. Now tune the ILS frequency by using the normal RMP selector to tune the freq.
in the STBY/CRS window. Then press the transfer button to make the frequency active. Now
you can select the ILS course using the inner knob of the selector.
Note: The ILS STBY NAV will display onside tuning on the PFD and offside tuning on the ND.
This allows comparison of the signals during approach.
Note: If the STBY NAV is being used during the electrical emergency configuration only RMP
1 has power.
RADNAV Nav, manual tuning: Select the RADNAV key on the MCDU. Enter the VOR ident on
LSK 1R or 1L and the course on LSK 2R or 2L. Select VOR Rose for the ND.
To manually tune an ILS use the same technique by putting the ILS ident on LSK 3R
and then select ILS Rose for the ND. Press the ILS pb to see DME on PFD.
Communications (PH 13.5): Comms are monitored by ECAM for “stuck mike”.
All RMP’s will tune any radio. ACP’s may be switched in case of failure using Audio
Switching panel on overhead.
AUTO FLIGHT SYSTEM
First, a little general autoflight theory! The Airbus has three “layers” or levels control if you
wish to call it that. The first or lowest level is manual control. This would be the pilot
controlling through the sidestick and the thrust levers.
“Manual”
PILOT
Thrust
In this case the pilot is controlling any flight control movement by use of the sidestick, which
sends its signals through the appropriate computers to the hydraulic actuators and finally the
flight control itself. The pilot can command any flight control movement that stays within
SYSTEMS
Flight Controls
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Flight Control Normal Law. The same holds true for thrust. The pilot can manually control the
thrust levers to command any thrust level that stays within the normal engine operating
parameters. This is hand flying as you have always done. Do not confuse the flight control
computers (i.e. ELAC, SEC and FAC) with the flight management guidance computers (FMGC).
The next level of control is autoflight. This is when the autopilot and autothrust are engaged.
In this case the pilot is controlling the aircraft through the settings on the FCU for the
autopilot and the thrust levers. The pilot is telling the autopilot and autothrust directly what
is wanted. For example, if a heading of 90 is required the pilot just sets a heading of 90 in the
FCU and the autopilot holds that heading. If the pilot wants a climb of 1000 fpm then the
pilot sets 1000 fpm in the FCU.
“Autoflight”
PILOT
Autopilot
Flight Controls
Autothrust
Thrust
This level is basically the same as any other aircraft you have flown with autopilot and
autothrust. The autopilot and autothrust are controlling through the same flight control
system that the pilot uses when hand flying.
The final and most sophisticated level is computer guided. In this case the pilot enters the
desired settings in the FMGC and the computer calculates the proper flight path and track.
The FMGC then commands the autopilot and autothrust to properly maintain the computed
track and path.
If the pilot wishes to make changes or revisions to the flight plan then it is done to the FMGC
which then recalculates the needed information. For example, if the pilot wishes to change
the flight plan route to go direct to a new fix, the new fix is typed into the MCDU and entered
into the DIR page. The FMGC now computes the new course and commands the autopilot to
turn to the new heading.
“Computer Guided”
PILOT
FMGC
Autothrust
Thrust
Each higher level uses all the previous levels. In other words computer guided flight is also
using the autoflight and manual levels. The pilot can always “drop down” from one level to a
lower level by disengaging the appropriate equipment. For example, the pilot may be
climbing under computer control in Managed Climb. By selecting a vertical speed of 1500
fpm on the FCU the pilot has now put the vertical path in autopilot control. The FMGC is not
controlling the climb rate. If the pilot then disengages the autopilot the aircraft is now under
SYSTEMS
Autopilot
Flight Controls
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manual control and the pilot is now manually controlling the climb rate.
Two things that should be pointed out. You can have various levels of control at one time.
For example, the track may be computer guided by the FMGC while the vertical path is under
autopilot control. Another example is when the pilot is hand flying but using autothrust
(which is very common). In this case the flight controls are in manual but the thrust is in
autoflight.
The other thing to point out is that when hand flying the pilot may use the Flight Director so
that while the aircraft is under manual control the pilot is still getting autoflight or computer
guided assistance.
Autopilot (PH 14.1.6)
There are two autopilots installed. Normally you will only use one autopilot at a time (Capt.
using A/P 1 and F/O using A/P 2). However, for every ILS approach you will engage both
autopilots (except, of course, when the second is inop.).
The autopilot can be controlled either directly from the FCU (Flight Control Unit) or through
the MCDU and the FMGC. In both cases you must monitor engagement status on the FMA.
The FCU has four places to make inputs, Speed, Heading/NAV, Altitude and Altitude
Hold/Vertical Speed. In each case the knob for the selection can be pressed or pulled.
Pressing the knob will tell the autopilot to use the FMGC for guidance. Pulling the knob will
tell the autopilot to use a pilot selected value.
When the autopilot is engaged (push) on the FMGC for a setting a white dot will appear on
the LCD readout for that setting. If the autopilot is selected (pull) to a pilot set value the pilot
value will appear in the LCD readout. Always confirm settings on the FMA at the top of the
PFD.
Speed: Pull to select to KIAS or Mach by pilot, dial to needed speed. Press to engage in speed
mode in FMGC
Heading: Pilot can dial to set desired heading then pull to select HDG mode. Pressing HDG
knob will engage NAV and allow autopilot to track FMGC route.
Altitude: Value set by pilot, pulling will allow open climb/descent (full power climb, idle
descent), pressing will engage to allow managed climb/descent on FMGC
Memory and Non-memory autopilot limits (PH 2.13.1)
SYSTEMS
Altitude Hold/Vertical Speed: Pressing knob will engage an immediate level off. Pulling knob
will select vertical speed mode. Dial knob to select amount of climb or descent in hundreds of
feet per minute.
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After Takeoff (if SRS indicated)
Enroute
Non-precision approach
CAT 1 ILS Approach (no autoland)
Autoland
After a manual go-around
100’ AGL
500’ AGL (321: 900’)
MDA
40’ below DA
Touchdown
100’ AGL
Autothrust (PH 14.1.12)
The big picture on Airbus autothrust; During ground operations handle the thrust levers as on
a “normal” aircraft. At takeoff push the thrust levers up to 50% on N1 until both engines
stabilize, then push the thrust levers up to FLX/MCT (two clicks) or TOGA (three clicks). When
LVR CLB flashes (about 1000’) on the FMA reduce the thrust lever back to CL (one or two
clicks). The thrust will now be controlled through the FMGC or the FCU. The thrust levers in
normal operation will not move again until landing when at 50’ the PF will reduce the thrust
lever to idle and the autothrust will automatically disconnect at that point. There is no
physical connection between the thrust levers and the powerplant. It is all done
electronically which is called FADEC (Full Authority Digital Engine Control).
Thrust is now set by selecting Open Climb (OP CLB) or Open Descent (OP DES) or Managed
climb or descent. Managed climb or descent means that the FMGC is controlling in either.
Open mode simply means using either full climb thrust for climb or idle thrust for descent.
Autothrust controls to a limit in Open, either the climb limit or the idle limit.
The other “FCU” method to control thrust is to set vertical speed (V/S) which allows the
thrust to maintain speed and climb rate is controlled through pitch. In this case autothrust is
maintaining speed and is in Speed mode. Of course, during cruise and approach the altitude
or glide slope is held through pitch with the autothrust maintaining the required speed.
Managed thrust is controlled by the FMGC.
If you don’t get anything else out of this little discussion please understand that the
autothrust works in one of two modes, Open (controlling thrust) and Speed (controlling
speed). Further, Open mode can be either climb or idle thrust.
Most of the time if you are going to have a problem it is in the Open mode (controlling to
thrust). If you are having problems with thrust doing something other than what you think it
should you can possibly try:
 Select vertical speed (if in Open climb or descent), this will cause autothrust to go to
Speed mode.
 Select Speed Select (if in Managed speed), this will force the commanded speed to
SYSTEMS
 Turn off flight directors (if hand flying), this will cause autothrust to go to Speed
mode.
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 what you desire.
Arm A/THR (autothrust):
Arm on ground (with at least one FD on):
 Set thrust lever in FLX/MCT if FLX temp is set
 Set thrust lever to TOGA
Arm in flight:
 Press on the A/THR pb on FCU when thrust levers not in active range or setting thrust
levers out of active range. Blue A/THR in FMA.
Activate A/THR:
Note: on ground you will set takeoff thrust to either FLX/MCT or TOGA which are manual
thrust settings. When coming back to the CL detent after takeoff you are putting the thrust
levers to the A/THR active range, thus activating autothrust.
 A/THR pb pressed on when autothrust in active range
 Set thrust levers to active range when A/THR pb armed
 ALPHA FLOOR protection activated
Disconnect A/THR:
 Press instinctive disconnect pb on thrust levers
 Place both levers to idle detent
 Press off the A/THR pb on FCU when system active (green light goes out)
 Set one thrust lever beyond MCT or both beyond CL detent when RA is below 100’
Airbus Gotcha’: Warning: If autothrust is disconnected and then thrust levers are pulled back
from CL detent the thrust will immediately go the power selection commanded by the thrust
levers and indicated on the TLA donuts. Be sure power is at the intended setting when A/THR
is disconnected to avoid power surge.
SYSTEMS
Note: Pulling back the thrust levers from the CL detent during autothrust operation will allow
the pilot to limit autothrust upper limit but autothrust is still active until levers are at idle.
Chime and ECAM warning will sound every 5 seconds to remind pilot to either disconnect
autothrust or reset thrust levers to CL detent. The proper way to disconnect autothrust and
begin manual thrust operation is to bring thrust levers back until the TLA “donuts” are
matched to thrust indicators and then press instinctive disconnect pb on thrust lever.
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Alpha Floor – Angle of attack between Alpha Prot and Alpha Max at which the autothrust will
command TOGA regardless of thrust lever position.
Alpha Floor will give(PH 14.1.12):
 A FLOOR in green with flashing amber box on FMA and in amber on E/WD
 TOGA LK in green with a flashing amber box around it on the FMA when the AFLOOR
condition is left. TOGA thrust is frozen.
 To cancel ALPHA FLOOR or TOGA LK disconnect the autothrust.
ALPHA FLOOR is available in NORMAL law only.
ALPHA FLOOR is disabled at 100’ RA to let you land the aircraft.
ALPHA FLOOR is disabled if you press the instinctive disconnects for 15 secs.
THR LK – Thrust Lock occurs if the autothrust system fails. THR LK flashes on the FMA and
ECAM memo displays AUTO FLT A/THR OFF. The thrust will be frozen at the last commanded
setting until the pilot moves the thrust levers, then thrust will follow the movement of the
thrust levers and be controlled manually.
Make your flight instructor happy!: The following is in bold print because it will make your
life easier. Always match the TLA to the thrust before disconnecting (using instinctive
disconnect pb), no matter what kind of thrust situation you are in. This works in normal
autothrust, THRUST LOCK and TOGA LOCK. Although not always technically necessary, by
matching TLA to thrust you always avoid any unintentional thrust “excursions” and use
good practice. Think “Match and Mash”.
During every approach you will need to confirm autothrust is in SPEED mode on FMA or off
by 1000’.
Missing Link or AP/FD & A/THR interaction (PH14.1.5)
SYSTEMS
Well, OK, it isn’t that missing link but there is a link between the autopilot and/or flight
director and the autothrust. The A/THR and the AP/FD work together to maintain speed and
trajectory (altitude, glide slope, vertical speed). If one is maintaining speed the other will
maintain trajectory and visa versa. If you think about it you are used to doing this yourself
when flying manually. On climb you set climb power and maintain speed with pitch but when
leveling for cruise at altitude you use pitch to maintain altitude and power to hold speed. The
Flight Guidance acts in the exact same way. There are two basic ways the autoflight
maintains control.
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AP or FD in trajectory mode
(example: altitude hold, V/S, G/S )
A/THR in SPEED mode
maintain speed or MACH in cruise
and approach
OR
AP or FD in trajectory mode
(example: altitude hold, V/S, G/S )
A/THR in THR mode
Steady thrust set to either
THR CLB (OPEN CLB) or
THR IDLE (OPEN DES)
There are times that the autoflight cannot hold what has been set and will have to change
modes. This is called mode reversion when the modes change automatically without the pilot
calling for it. This is both a part of normal flying and also part of the system to prevent flight
outside the envelope.
An everyday example is during a climb the autopilot normally will control pitch to keep speed
in OPEN CLB and the autothrust will maintain climb thrust (THR CLB). On approaching level
off at the target altitude pitch will now revert from speed to vertical speed and thrust will
revert from climb thrust to speed. This will be true even if the pilot reselects a new altitude
before the level off is complete. The vertical speed mode will remain until the pilot reselects
something else.
Basically, be aware that if the autopilot is controlling pitch then the autothrust is controlling
speed and vice versa. Only one controls pitch or speed at a time, never both controlling the
same thing together.
A common reversion mode is if the aircraft is climbing in Open Climb or Managed Climb and
the pilot is suddenly given a new altitude. The new altitude is below the current altitude. The
mode will revert to V/S set to the current vertical speed upon reversion. The pilot can then
change the vertical speed to a descent or select Open Descent.
Reversions can also happen when hand flying if you don’t follow the flight director. If in Open
Climb or descent and you allow the speed to hit max or min the autothrust will go to SPEED
mode and attempt to regain the selected speed while the flight director bars will be
removed! Turn OFF FD when hand flying!
SYSTEMS
‘Airbus Gotcha’: or How to be an Airshow Pilot: You are hand flying with the flight director on
(bad thing!). You are getting ready to level off just prior to the Final Approach Fix on an
approach. However, you are not quite level at the set altitude and the FMA does not yet show
ALT* for capture. You are slowly leveling off just a little high without realizing it and as you
have been in Open descent the thrust remains in the commanded idle. Speed decays to below
VLS. Suddenly climb thrust is commanded even though you are now wanting to continue
descent. Sounds like a flyby to me!
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FMA (FLIGHT MODE ANNUNCIATOR)
The FMA allows the pilot to know what modes the autoflight systems are in and what can be
expected. There are times when changes will occur in the modes without pilot action. This
mode reversion cannot be tracked on the FCU, you must look at the FMA to know what is
actually happening. The FMA is broken into columns as shown below:
THRUST
VERTICAL
THR
VRT
COLUMN NAMES
LATERAL
APPROACH
CAPABILITY
STATUS
AUTOFLIGHT
ENGAGEMENT
STATUS
COLUMNS
ROWS
LAT
APP
STAT
ENGAG
STAT
Each column has rows for messages and memos. There are up to three rows available for
each column to use. The first three columns, Thrust, Vertical and Lateral have have the
following rules:
Top row, Green - Active
Middle row, Blue or Magenta – Engaged
ACTIVE, ENGAGED
MODES
ARMED MODES
MEMOS< SPECIAL
MESSAGES
MAN THR
ALT*
NAV
CAT3
AP1 +2
LVR
ASYM
G/S
SET
HOLD
LOC
SPEED
DUAL
DH100
1FD2
A/THR
Bottom row, Messages about flight control first priority
Bottom row, Messages about FMGS have second priority
AP1 +2
1FD2
A/THR
The FMA is at the top of the PFD and allows the pilots to see exactly what the various modes
of the auto flight system are. The above examples are just given to allow you to see what
type of messages would be in the FMA, not an actual flight situation. A starred message
(ALT*) means that portion is in the process of capturing. A boxed message means a reversion
SYSTEMS
This is what the FMA looks like at the top of the PFD:
MAN THR
ALT*
NAV
CAT3
LVR
G/S
LOC
DUAL
ASYM
DH100
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has just taken place. The PH has a complete list of all messages and meanings (PH 14.2.1).
OXYGEN
Crew oxygen is supplied from one cylinder. A green over pressure disk is located on the
outside of the aircraft skin below the Captains windows. Blowout of this green disk indicates
thermal discharge. Crew oxygen is turned on using a pb in the overhead panel. Crew oxygen
pressure is indicated on the SD and if low the pressure indication will have an amber box
around it. However, the Airbus low pressure is not the same as the US Airways limit,
therefore the amber box should be ignored and crew action to check pressure is not required
until pressure is less than 1000 psi. A chart is available on PH pg. 3-34 to indicate amount
needed for number of crewmembers. Masks are full- face and have clear “tear-off” strips. If
face mask has surface contamination, the tear-off strip can be removed to clear an area to
see through.
Passenger oxygen is chemical generated. Masks will automatically deploy when cabin
altitude exceeds 14,000’. Oxygen generators last approximately 13 minutes. When masks are
deployed a pre-recorded PA announcement is automatically broadcast on their use.
Passenger oxygen SYS ON light only means that the signal was sent, some masks may not
deploy and F/A’s may have to manually open.
POWERPLANT
(non-memory)
319: CFM 56-5B6/P rated at 23,500 lbs. thrust
320: CFM 56-5B4/P rated at 27,000 lbs. thrust
321: CFM 56-5B3/P rated at 32,000 lbs. thrust
Max Starting Temp:
Max Continuous Temp:
TOGA Temp:
725°C
915°C
950°C (5 mins.)
Single engine taxi prohibited (PH 2.14.4)
12.5 qts. Min for dispatch (PH 2.14.5)
FADEC controlled (Full Authority Digital Engine Control) (PH 16.1.3)
Three idle modes:
 Modulated:
 Approach:
 Reverse:
Varies with demand, in flight with flaps at 0
Depends only on altitude, activated when flaps not at 0
Selected when on ground and thrust levers at idle, slightly higher than
SYSTEMS
Each FADEC is a two channel computer with one channel active and the other used
as.backup. Each FADEC has its own alternator that powers it once N2 is above a certain value.
If the alternator fails normal ships power will take over.
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forward idle.
Five Thrust Lever Detents:
 TOGA:
Takeoff go-around
 FLX/MCT:
Flex takeoff, Max continuous
 CL:
Climb thrust
 IDLE:
Idle thrust for forward and reverse
 FULL REV:
Maximum reverse thrust
Continuous ignition provided automatically (with Mode selector in NORM) when:
 Engine ANTI ICE on
 Engine flameout inflight detected
 EIU fails
Continuous ignition may be selected manually by positioning the ENG MODE selector to
IGN/START
Normal Start Sequence:
Note: start ENG 2 first to pressurize Yellow Hydraulics for parking brake
 ENG Mode selector to IGN/START (wait 15 secs. before ENG Master ON)
 ENG Master switch to ON
At 16 % ignition ON
At 22% starts fuel flow
At 50% start valve closes, ignition off
Engine idle should stabilize at about 58%
 ENG mode selector to NORM
Normal Idle – 2,4,6,6 – Approx. 20% N1, 400° C EGT, 60% N2, 600 lbs/hr FF
Manual Start Sequence:
 ENG Mode selector to IGN/START
 ENG MAN START pb ON
 At Max Motoring (min. 20% N2) select ENG Master switch ON
Fuel and ignition will begin when ENG Master selected ON
At 50% start valve closes, ignition off
 At idle, about 58%, ENG MAN START pb OFF
 ENG mode selector to NORM
Note: Run engines at or near idle for 2 mins. and run engine for 5 mins. before applying
takeoff thrust, run engines at least 3 mins. after landing.
SYSTEMS
N2 background “grays out” during start, return to normal when stabilized at idle Ignition A or
B will show on SD during normal start, A & B during manual start
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APU (AUXILIARY POWER UNIT)(PH 16.3.X, 7.1.X)
APU can supply can electrical up to 39,000’ and supply full electrical load up to 25,000’ and
bleed air up to 20,000’. Electrical takes precedence over bleed air. APU bleed is NOT
permitted for Wing anti-ice. The APU is fed fuel from left fuel manifold. If no other fuel boost
is available the APU will activate a separate dedicated APU fuel pump. In flight (above 100
kts.) on bat only the APU will not start (RAT failed). With RAT (loss of
GEN 1 & 2) the APU is allowed 3 minutes for a start attempt.
The APU can supply the entire electrical system on the ground. In the air the APU will not
supply the main galley shed busses.
The APU will auto shutdown and fire the extinguisher bottle on the ground but not inflight.
Inflight the APU must be manually shut down and extinguished for fire. If the APU SHUT OFF
pushbutton on the external panel or the APU FIRE pb on the overhead FIRE panel is pressed
the APU will shutdown but the extinguisher will not automatically fire. Note: APU will auto
shutdown inflight for reasons other than fire.
The APU generator will automatically come online if engine gens. or external is not already
online. The APU is ready for bleed and electrics when reaching 95% for two seconds or
99.5%. The AVAIL light will show in the APU start pb and green APU AVAIL will show on EWD
display when APU gen is available for use.
APU bleed may be selected on whenever needed and APU will allow bleed to come online
after allowing time for EGT to stabilize. On shutdown the APU Master is pushed off. The APU
will continue to run for cooling period before shutting down. If the APU Master is pressed
back on before the APU shuts down the APU will continue to run. When shutting the APU
down for the Parking & Securing checklist wait 2 mins. After APU Avail light goes out before
switching batteries off. If APU is left running, leave batteries on for fire protection.
FMS (FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM)
the aircraft is doing to “know” what mode it should be in. The FMS will have many different
ways to identify a mode change but it will need to change modes during every flight. The
pilot should be aware of the modes and their changes. The Airbus is no different. For vertical
planning the FMGC has modes called Flight Phases that are named Preflight, Takeoff, Climb,
Cruise, Descent, Approach, Go Around and Done. In addition the FMS needs to know when
the aircraft is in taxi, engine-out and landing modes. With the pilot entering the proper
needed data during initialization the FMS is able to properly plan and control a flight through
all the necessary phases or modes.
Further, the pilot must enter a route of flight to allow for lateral planning. This will also
SYSTEMS
A little general theory: All FMS systems that I have used function or think in a “Mode”
pattern. This is to say that the FMS must always be in a mode or phase and be aware of what
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involve modes, in this case, takeoff runway, SID (if applicable), enroute, STAR (if applicable)
and approach/go around and landing runway. The pilot will enter the needed route data
before flight and modify it inflight as necessary.
Some changes the pilot will make are considered Strategic (entire flight) and some are
Tactical (current flight phase or mode). As you learn the different functions of the FMGC and
the Autoflight system be aware of whether a function is Strategic or Tactical.
If a page is longer than one screen can show you will use the scroll or slew keys (up/down
arrow keys, ) to show additional information. If there is more than one page to a key you
can press the NEXT PAGE key to see the succeeding pages. Sometimes additional information
can be accessed from a page and you will see an on screen prompt ( <, >, or * ) to present
that new page. See PH 17.6.1 for full information.
FMGC Stuff: Now for some general info on the FMGC!
F-Plan Key: When you select the F-Plan key the default (normal) Flight Plan view will have
the FROM waypoint at the top of the MCDU screen (first line). The next (second) line will be
the TO waypoint and all succeeding waypoints will continue down the screen.
The FROM waypoint is usually the last VOR or intersection you crossed but it can also be
PPOS (Present Position) or T-P (Turning Point). PPOS simply means that you are not on any
nav segment and the FMGC is just tracking where you are with no nav guidance available.
This will occur after takeoff when the runway is automatically cleared and you don’t have a
nav segment to join yet. T-P will show when you use the Direct function, which we will go
over later. The second line is the TO waypoint and is in white while most of the rest of the
lines are in green. However, it is possible that a pseudo waypoint may be on line two and
therefore it may be white but not the TO waypoint. We will go over pseudo waypoints later
as well.
DISCONTINUITY is a line that shows two points are not joined and they do not form a
segment. If DISCONTINUITY is showing then the FMGC will NOT continue to the next
waypoint. This is something that you want if you will be given radar vectors at a certain point.
You will most commonly see DISCONTINUITY after the runway when initializing when you will
expect radar vectors to your first fix and after the last fix on your route prior to beginning
your approach. There are times when you will need to clear a DISCONTINUITY and we will
look at that in a moment.
The scratchpad is the bottom line of the MCDU and is where you will enter data. After you
SYSTEMS
You can always scroll up or down on the F-Plan page but the FROM will always be at the top
when you select the F-Plan key. Think of the FROM as being what is behind you. Think of the
TO as being what is just ahead of you. The FROM is important because to use lateral
navigation you must define a nav segment for the FMGC to follow and this means that you
must have two points for any given nav situation to define a segment. This will become more
clear when we go over Reroutes.
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type info into the scratchpad you will then select it up into the FMGC by using the LSK (Line
Select Keys) on either side of the MCDU. Note that you cannot select data from the FMGC
into the scratchpad. You will also get various warnings in the scratchpad and they can be
cleared by pressing the CLR key in the bottom right hand corner of the keys.
AIRPORT Key: The AIRPORT key simply allows the pilot quick access to any airport that is
entered into the flight plan. This would include the departure airport, arrival airport and the
alternate airport. Press this key and the display will place the next available airport in the
FMGC flight plan on the first (top) line in the MCDU. This just gives the pilot a fast way to
“scroll” the flight plan display to the next airport.
NEXT PAGE Key: The NEXT PAGE key gives access to additional information for some screens
when there is more than can be shown on one screen. Think of NEXT PAGE as scrolling
horizontally. The F-PLAN and INIT screens use the NEXT PAGE function. When there is more
than one page the pages are referred to as PAGE A and PAGE B as in INIT PAGE B. This would
require you to select INIT and then press NEXT PAGE to access INIT PAGE B.
↑↓ Keys: The ↑↓ keys (up/down arrows, slew keys) allow the pilot to scroll a page
vertically. You will also use them for changing values. This is most commonly used when
adjusting the LAT/LONG that is stored for the airport to the gate value when initializing on
INIT. You will also very commonly use them for scrolling the F-Plan screen to see waypoints
that continue in the flight plan beyond the MCDU screen display.
DIR Key: The DIR key allows the pilot to go direct to any waypoint entered. The TO waypoint
will become whatever is entered as the direct and the FROM waypoint will become a T-P
(position the aircraft is at when the DIR is entered).
PERF Key: The PERF key allows the pilot to see and enter data for the various phases of
flight. You will use this key when initializing to enter takeoff information, changing climb,
cruise and descent speeds and entering approach data. Only the preflight and done phases
do not have pages. Press the PERF key and then press the LSK at the bottom of the screen to
move to the next or previous phase page.
RADNAV Key: The RADNAV key stands for Radio Navigation and is the page to check when
you wish to determine which navaids are being tuned. Normally the Airbus will autotune the
radios and you will not be aware of what navaids are being utilized. However, there are times
that you will need to “lock” a frequency for tuning, such as when a DME is used for departure
FUEL PRED Key: The FUEL PRED key allows the pilot to view fuel prediction info on
destination, alternate and fuel management data. This is the page to use to enter Weight and
SYSTEMS
on a SID. Just press the RADNAV key and then type the navaid identifier (you may also use
the frequency by using a leading slash, for example /115.0) in the scratchpad. Then select the
identifier to the VOR1 or 2 LSK at the top of the MCDU. This will keep that side tuned to that
frequency. You can use the DDRMI to see raw data. The “locked” identifier will be in LARGE
letters.
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Balance data. If the INIT page B is showing on the MCDU on engine start the FMGC will
automatically “rollover” to FUEL PRED for weight data to be entered. Gross weight and CG
data are entered on LSK 3L. For example, 144,190 lbs. with a MAC of 23.2 would be entered
as: 144.2/23.2
INIT Key: The INIT key is used when getting ready during preflight. You initialize the FMGC
from this page. This page will be gone over in more detail later.
SEC F-PLN Key: The SEC F-PLN key allows the pilot to have a second flight plan to use for
what-if scenarios or to load anticipated changes that might occur in the primary flight plan.
You are able to copy the primary flight plan in order to make changes to it or you can
program a new flight plan.
Airbus Gotcha’: If Secondary flight plan is different from Active flight plan you must
be on Heading to activate.
The DATA key will allow the pilot to view the various sources of data for the FMGC and
determine whether it is valid or not.
MCDU MENU Key: The MCDU MENU key allows selection whether to work in FMGC or
ACARS or another area such as AIDS. Only one MCDU can be set to ACARS at one time. If the
opposite side is selected to ACARS then you will “locked” out of ACARS until it is selected
back out of ACARS.
CLR Key: The CLR (clear) key is a delete key. You can use it to delete characters or phrases in
the scratch pad or to delete data from the FMGC. To clear the scratch pad just press the CLR
key and the last entered character will be deleted. If you continue pressing the entire phrase
in the scratchpad will be cleared. The CLR key can also get rid of warning messages. To delete
data entered into the FMGC press the CLR key while there is nothing in the scratchpad. CLR
will be entered into the scratchpad. Now select CLR to the LSK that corresponds to the data
you wish to delete. This is how to delete a discontinuity. Press the CLR key and then press the
LSK that corresponds to the discontinuity and it will be deleted with the waypoints on either
side of the discontinuity now joined as a segment.
T/C – Top of Climb
T/D – Top of Descent
S/C or S/D – Start of Climb or Descent for Step Climb/Descent
SPD LIM – Speed Limit
DECEL – Deceleration to approach phase
I/P – Intercept Point
SYSTEMS
Pseudo Waypoints: OK, besides just sounding weird what are pseudo waypoints anyway?
Basically they are lines of information on the Flight Plan page that are not something that you
can navigate to. They are mostly to do with vertical profile information and are therefore not
for lateral navigation. Pseudo waypoints will consist of the following:
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Please note that while you cannot navigate laterally using the pseudo waypoints they will
show on your ND using various symbols. If a pseudo waypoint is on the second line of the
MCDU it will be white even though it cannot be the TO waypoint. The MCDU logic simply
makes the second line white whether it is actually the TO waypoint or not.
Initializing the FMGC:
When initializing the FMGC during pre-flight use these pages to enter data:
DIFRSIFP
D DATA
I INIT PAGE A
F F-PLAN
R RAD NAV
S SEC F-PLAN
I INIT PAGE B
F FUEL PRED
P PERF
The training dept. uses DIFSIP but I add a few letters to help in line operation. Use what they
want during training and then decide if you wish to add your own.
Note: Allow at least 3 minutes after initial power up on a cold airplane for all internal tests to
be completed before pressing buttons. (PH 3.4.1)
DATA:
Press DATA key, then A/C Status. Check database validity and dates. Enter BIAS from flight
plan on PERF for performance factor on LSK 6R.
INIT Page A:
Press INIT key. Enter the city pair codes in FROM/TO. For example, for Charlotte to Phoenix
use KCLT/KPHX or use company route number such as KCLTKPHX1. If company route is
available and correct you may insert it. Otherwise press return.
Enter the alternate city code. Example: for Greensboro use KGSO.
Check lat/long coordinates. If gate coordinates are available use the scroll keys (up/down
arrow keys,
) to adjust coordinates. It is safer to use the airport coordinates from the
database and to scroll in the gate adjustments as this avoids the pilot typing in gross errors
that are not caught.
Cost Index. Enter 70 unless release specifies 35.
SYSTEMS
Enter flight number. Type in USA followed by the flight number. For example for flight 121
type USA121 . Note: USA is just to help identify the flight number
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Cruise flight level. Enter intended cruise altitude on the CRZ FL (350 for 35,000’) and modify
the anticipated cruise temperature with /TEMP (/-49 for minus 49).
Press the ALIGN IRS key (LSK 3R). ALIGN IRS should be pressed within 15 minutes of turning
GNADIRS to NAV to avoid excessive drift. DO NOT move aircraft during align
process.
F-PLAN:
Press F-PLAN key to program the filed route. Do a lateral revision from the departure airport.
To do this press the LSK 1L on the left side of the MCDU next to the departure airport code.
Then select DEPARTURE. Now select RWY for anticipated departure
runway, then SID if needed and TRANS if needed.
Airbus Gotcha’: Delete the pseudo altitude waypoint for the runway (not necessary for FMS
departure routes). Be sure to leave a discontinuity between the runway and the
first fix (again, not if using FMS departure).
Insert first fix or waypoint in flight plan route. If there is victor or jet airway routing from the
fix then use a lateral revision to enter the needed airway. For example for a route from BOS
VOR on Jet 75 that ends at CMK press the left LSK next to BOS in the flight plan. Now enter
J75/CMK in the VIA/ GO TO. Then INSERT if OK. Any fix that is a direct with no published
route you can simply press on the next line. For example to go direct from BOS to CMK
simply press CMK on the line below BOS LSK. This will place CMK after BOS in the flight plan
as the next fix.
Note: pressing a fix on top of a fix places the new fix ahead of the previous one and a
discontinuity is in between the two fixes now. You will need to clear the discontinuity if you
want to join the fixes to make a segment.
Enter any vertical restrictions (cross LAX VOR at or above 10,000’) by typing the altitude in
the scratch pad and pressing it on the right LSK for that fix. You can also enter a vertical
revision by pressing the right LSK for that fix and putting it into the proper field. If you have
an at or above clearance put a + in front of the altitude before entering it (use – for at or
below)
Example: at or above 10,000’ use +10000, at or below FL240 use –240.
Enter any anticipated arrival and approach by pressing the left LSK (lateral revision) for the
destination airport. Enter appropriate Arrival, Transition and Runway Approach and Insert if
Check distance at bottom of F-Plan page against the total distance showing on Release. This
is a gross check and should be close but does not need to be exact as arrival and approach
routings may add mileage not on release.
SYSTEMS
OK.
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RAD NAV:
Press the RAD NAV key and be sure that if a DME mileage is needed during a departure that
you enter the ID for the station here. For example, when doing the HORNET departure off of
18R you need the CLT DME 1.6 nm fix. Press CLT into the 1L or 1R LSK (Capt. or F/O) to “lock”
CLT into the autotuning. The DME mileage will be shown on the DDRMI DME readout. If you
are not using a DME for departure make sure that no station is “locked” by ensuring that the
stations are in “little” letters instead of “big” (or bold) letters. This will ensure proper
autotuning of the VOR’s. If you do “lock” a station for departure make sure that you clear it
after takeoff.
Note: if the DME is from ILS then press the ID for the ILS into the ILS/FREQ on LSK 3L and
press the ILS pb to display the ILS DME on the PFD (not DDRMI). If nothing is showing in the
RADNAV page then check to make sure that STBY NAV is not selected on the RMP. I suggest
making RADNAV part of your personal 10,000’ check.
Press the Sec F-Plan key. Press the LSK for Copy Active. This will give you a “practice copy” of
the flight plan with which you can later play “what if” scenarios with if you should so choose
or to enter possible route changes (such as different than filed arrivals) to quickly activate as
an active flight plan if needed.
Note: If Secondary is different from Active flight plan you must be on Heading to activate. If
Secondary has been copied then PERF will be available as a prompt on SEC page.
INIT Page B:
Press the INIT key. Press the NEXT PAGE key. This will take you to the second INIT page.
Check that the reserve time is 45 min. on FINAL/TIME line.
FUEL PRED:
After engine start you will use the FUEL PRED key to enter W&B. Enter the actual gross
weight (RAMP weight) from the W&B printout. Also, enter the CG and you will not have to
enter the fuel as the FMGC reads it on it’s own. Example:
133.6/24.8
Note: If you receive the Weight and Balance printout before taxi you can go enter the
available Performance numbers on the PERF page and then go back to the FUEL PRED page
after engine start to enter the W&B numbers.
speeds on their LSK’s. Enter FLEX temp if needed. Enter THR RED/ACC (thrust
reduction/accelerate) and ENG OUT ACC altitudes from W&B printouts. Enter the flaps
setting and stab trim settings in units of UP or DN on the FLAPS/THS LSK (example: 1/0.5DN
or 2/1.0UP). If using an intersection departure enter the distance from the end of the runway
to the intersection on the TO SHIFT LSK. Now type the “0” speed in the scratchpad. Select
SYSTEMS
PERF:
Press the PERF key and you will now be on the PERF TAKEOFF page. Enter V1, V2 and VR
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NEXT PHASE and put the “0” speed in the CLIMB *SPD LSK.
When taking off from an intersection you should enter the amount of distance the
intersection is from the end of the runway. For example, in PIT it is common to use runway
28L intersection P. From the Jepps Airport Advisory pages you can determine the distance
available for takeoff (or just ask Ground Control!). Subtract that from the full runway length
and you have the intersection 1500’ from the end of the runway. Enter 1500 on the TO SHIFT
LSK.
Note: If you enter data on the PERF page before the W&B numbers are put in the FUEL PRED
page you will not have the “0” climb speed available. You will need to return to the PERF
page to enter this speed after entering W&B numbers in the FUEL PRED page.
If approach data (PERF APPR) is not entered within about 150nm of destination then MCDU
will give error message saying so.
Airbus Gotcha’: If not within 200 nm of destination then aircraft will not initiate descent in
PERF DESCENT mode. Descent will be made in PERF CRUISE mode.
During descent in cruise mode the FMGC will not “see” crossing restrictions in the flight plan.
Airbus Gotcha’: The aircraft will not initiate descent automatically when reaching a descent
point (known as T/D or Top of Descent). The pilot must set in new altitude and then push the
ALT knob to enter Managed Descent.
Airbus Gotcha’: The pilot cannot change the Descent data once the FMGC is in Descent
Phase. If you wish to make a change to the FMGC descent speed once you are in Descent
Phase, enter a new cruise altitude below your current altitude into the PROG page. This will
cause the FMGC to revert back to Cruise Phase and allow you to enter a new descent speed
in the PERF DES page.
The FMGC may plan a much slower speed for descent in Descent Phase than in Cruise Phase.
If the aircraft begins a descent and enters the Descent Phase when you wish to make a faster
cruise descent you can enter a new cruise altitude on the PROG page below your current
altitude. The FMGC will now revert back to Cruise Phase until crossing the new altitude. Be
aware, however, that the FMGC does not “see” crossing restrictions when descending in
Cruise Phase and will only descend at a set vertical speed.
Airbus Gotcha’: Managed Climb/Descent is not available on heading. You must be on NAV to
use Managed Climb/Descent.
the autopilot will automatically engage NAV with no other action on the pilot’s part. In other
words, the autopilot will change modes automatically from HDG to NAV when a DIR is
entered in the FMGC. The point here is to be sure of where the waypoint
SYSTEMS
Airbus Gotcha’: When the aircraft is in HDG mode and the pilot enters direct to a waypoint
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is when you enter DIR as the airplane will automatically turn to the new waypoint as soon as
it computes the new course. DIR will always turn the shortest distance to the point. If the
aircraft begins to go the wrong place or turn the wrong direction (for example turn left
instead of an assigned right turn) use HDG mode until you can correct the problem.
Airbus Gotcha’: WARNING: Do not use the UPDATE AT LSK on the PROG page! The Update At
feature (PH 17.6.44) will shift the FMGC to the new position. This will destroy the accuracy of
your FMGC. Note: it does not affect the IRU’s.
Airbus Gotcha’: Changing the arrival or runway after putting in crossing restrictions will
delete the crossing restrictions and you will have to re-enter them.
To enter a new waypoint you have several options. Of course, you can always just type in the
name if you know it, in this case BURLS intersection on the SHINE arrival into CLT. If you do
not remember the format for creating a new waypoint just type HELP and press a LSK just as
you would enter a waypoint. You will then be shown the three formats for new waypoints to
be entered.
LAT/LONG (latitude / longitude)
P/B/D (Place / Bearing / Distance)
Example: 3551.5N/08158.3W
Example: CLT/314/64
P-B/P-B (Place – Bearing / Place – Bearing) Example: CLT–314/HMV–171
Note: waypoint “slewing” or uptrack/downtrack on the course using a + or – is NOT
available. Use a P/B/D on the course if possible.
Note: In the flight plan on the MCDU a P/B/D is shown as a PBD. The pilot created waypoints
will be numbered so the first PBD is shown as PBD01 and the second as PBD02 and so on.
The P-B/P-B waypoints are shown as PBX so they appear as PBX01, PBX02 and so forth.
LAT/LONG waypoints are shown as LL01, LL02 and so
forth.
To make a lateral revision to flight plan (F-PLAN button selected on FMGC) press a LSK on the
left side of the MCDU (LSK 1L through 6L). To make a vertical revision press a LSK on the right
hand side of the MCDU (LSK R1 through R6).
To enter a new destination (diversion not to alternate) use a lateral revision on any waypoint
in flight plan (NOT current destination) and then enter NEW DEST on LSK 4R.
Airbus Gotcha’: Autopilot must be in Heading Select to delete a TO or FROM
waypoint.
SYSTEMS
To enter holding into flight plan use a lateral revision on intended hold point then press the
HOLD LSK on 3L.
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REROUTES NOTE: YOU MUST BE ON HDG TO CHANGE A TO OR FROM WAYPOINT
One area that gives many new Airbus pilots problems is making changes to the FMGC flight
plan once under way. There are several very common ways to enter reroutes into the FMGC,
depending on the nature of the reroute.
Direct: Press the DIR key and type in the fix (VOR or intersection). Press the LSK 1L key to
enter the fix. The FMGC will automatically enter a T-P (turning point) to create a FROM
waypoint and the fix that is entered will become the TO waypoint.
Direct then as filed: Use the above method or press the DIR key and then find the cleared fix
in the flight plan. Press the LSK next to the desired waypoint and it will become the TO
waypoint. Using either method all waypoints before the fix are now cleared and the
remainder of the flight plan will be available as filed.
Note: if you are on heading when DIR is used the mode will change to Managed
automatically (in other words, when you go direct in heading mode the aircraft will
automatically engage NAV and go to the direct fix).
Heading to intercept then as filed: Select the cleared intercept heading on the HDG selector
on the FCU. Then you must determine if the segment you have been cleared to
join exists in your flight plan. If it does you only have to clear any waypoints that are ahead of
the segment until you have the proper fix as the TO waypoint. Use the CLR key to clear any
unwanted waypoints then engage NAV.
If the needed segment is not available you must build it. As above first select the intercept
heading. Then type in the fix that will become the FROM. Remember, in this case you have to
create a NAV leg (segment) that does not currently exist in the FMGC. After typing the new
FROM select it to the LSK 2L key and it will become the TO. Now enter the TO fix on the next
line if it does not already exist. This creates the new leg segment. Now clear the T-P (turning
point) on 1L (clearing the T-P allows each fix to move to its proper TO and FROM
position).You can now add any other needed fixes until on the original route. Then clear any
remaining discontinuities. Then engage Managed NAV.
New SID: Press the LSK 1L key for the departure airport. Now select DEPARTURE, then select
the departure runway. If you are using a SID select the appropriate SID note: you may have
SYSTEMS
Offset: To parallel your current course use a lateral revision at the FROM waypoint. Type in
the amount of distance (up to 50 nm) to the side you wish to parallel the current course and
right or left of course. For example for 20 miles left of course type 20L and for 35 miles right
of course type 35R. Now select the amount into the OFFSET prompt on LSK 2L. You can see
the anticipated new offset course on the ND. If you wish to adjust it press ERASE and type in
the new amount. Once satisfied with the new course press INSERT. Aircraft will take a 45° cut
to the new course. To resume the original course access the same OFFSET prompt and clear
or go DIRECT to a fix on the original flight plan.
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to scroll to see all available SIDS). If there is a transition to the SID you can select it on the
right side of the MCDU. Once everything is selected press INSERT.
New STAR: Find the destination airport in the Flight Plan (you can scroll or use the AIRPORT
key). Press the left LSK for the airport for the lateral revision page. Now select ARRIVAL on
LSK 1R. Select the appropriate STAR ( NOTE: you may have to scroll to see all available
STARS). Now select any transition as needed on the right hand side of the MCDU. When all
has been selected press the INSERT prompt on the 6R LSK. If a transition is used that is
already in the flight plan then there will not be a discontinuity to clear in the flight plan.
However, if you do not have a transition then please be aware that the arrival and the flight
plan will not have a common point and therefore will have a discontinuity.
New Route: To enter a new route you will program just like you did for the flight plan
initialization. Take a lateral revision (left LSK) from the last common fix. Then use the VIA/
GOTO in the following format J75/BOSOX. If the new flight plan ends in a common fix then
there will be no discontinuity and no fixes to clear. However, if the routing results in no
common fix then you will need to go back and clear all the old fixes.
Holding: Press the left LSK for a lateral revision at the holding fix. If the fix does not appear in
your flight plan (you are really having a bad day!) then use DIR first to enter the fix. Now
press the HOLD selection on LSK 3L. If the hold is as published then check all data on the
DATABASE HOLD page and if it is all good then press INSERT on LSK 6R. If you need to make
changes or there is no published hold (COMPUTED HOLD) then make the needed changes to
the Inbound Course, Turn Direction (L or R), and the time or distanced needed for legs. Once
all data for the hold is good press the INSERT selection on LSK 6R. For immediate hold, take
lateral revision at FROM waypoint and select <HOLD.
New Destination: Make a lateral revision from any waypoint in the flight plan (not an
airport) by pressing the left LSK for that waypoint. Now select the NEW DEST prompt by
typing in the new airport identifier (example: KCLT for Charlotte) and pressing the LSK 4R
key. You may now go to the flight plan to modify the arrival information as needed for the
new destination.
SYSTEMS
New Alternate: Press the left LSK for a lateral revision from the destination airport. The
select the <ALTN prompt on LSK 5L. Enter the new airport identifier on the blue line on LSK 3L
over the old alternate or in the brackets if there was no alternate. Now press LSK 3L again to
select the new alternate. Now press INSERT. Alternate should now be
entered in the flight plan and on the FUEL PRED page.
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PROCEDURES
TAXI
No more than 40% N1 for breakaway thrust without clearance. (PH 18.2.3)
Max taxi speed on straightaway – 30 kts.
Max taxi speed on turns approx. 10 kts.
Minimum pavement width for 180° turn: 100’ (A321 105’)
During taxi in icing conditions longer than 30 mins. run-up engines to at least 70% N1 for
approx. 15 secs. to shed fan ice (PH 3.6).
Note: Do not exceed 75% N1 (A321 70%) on both engines with parking brake ON (PH
3.6).
TAKEOFF
Make your flight instructor happy!: When setting power for takeoff, the thrust levers should
be set to 50% on the TLA (doughnut) and once both engines stabilize at 50% then position
both levers to FLEX or TOGA. The 50% setting will be at about the H on the thrust lever index
where the pedestal says A/THR (to give you an idea of how far forward the thrust lever goes).
Make an initial setting on the thrust levers and then adjust on the TLA to 50%.
Do not use aileron into the wind during a crosswind (PH 18.3.4). During a takeoff with
crosswind exceeding 20 kts. or CG more than 34% (PH 18.3.2) apply full forward sidestick to
be taken out by 80 to 100 kts. Ensure the aileron is neutralized by looking at the “control
pointer cross” on the PFD or relax the sidestick to center during the takeoff roll. This will
ensure that you do not have any roll in the initial rotation and liftoff. During crosswind
takeoff when selecting TOGA power after engines stabilize at 50% then increase to 70% N1
and stabilize, then increase to FLEX or TOGA by 40 kts. Ground speed.
Airbus Gotcha’: If on taxi out you do not have the V speeds showing in your PFD (after entry
in MCDU), make sure that your Flight Director is turned on.
On takeoff, PF should have the F-PLN page, PNF the PERF-TAKEOFF page
PROCEDURES
Airbus Gotcha’: It is possible for the F/O to occasionally enter the wrong W&B data. An easy
way for both the Capt. and F/O to double-check their work is to look at the Gross Weight
shown in the bottom right hand corner of the SD after engine start and W&B is entered. This
number should be very close to the Ramp weight shown on the W&B printout and similar to
the TPS numbers. If you manage to still takeoff with the wrong gross weight entered, you will
eventually get a gross weight mismatch error message once the aircraft has computed its
inflight weight. To correct this just enter the proper weight in the PROG page after
subtracting the current fuel used from the original Ramp weight.
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Use a radar tilt of 5-8° UP if radar required during takeoff. (PH 3.8 pg. 3-46)
Normally set a departure heading for selection at 400’. Note: set the heading you will need
at 400’. If you are using a SID departure where NAV is required engage NAV prior to takeoff
and NAV mode will engage at 30’ automatically. (PH 17.4.3)
Use ARC or ROSE NAV on takeoff on your EFIS ND settings. Do not fly around in PLAN. Only
use PLAN as a momentary reference inflight.
RTO – Rejected Takeoff (PH 18.3.6)
ECAM will inhibit all warnings/cautions that are not paramount from 80 kts. to 1500’ AGL.








The captain calls the “reject”. F/O verify braking and notify tower
Thrust Levers idle (when the thrust levers go to idle the ground spoilers extend,
which then trigger the autobrakes)
Monitor autobraking (brake manually only if autobrakes do not function)
Select Full Reverse
Maintain slight forward pressure on sidestick
Stop aircraft
Inform passengers and flight attendants
Note: If necessary, maximum reverse may be used until aircraft comes to complete stop.
APPROACHES
Approved Approaches (FOM 5.10.3):ILS, ILS/DME, LDA, LDA/DME, RNAV, ASR..
Note: LDA approaches must have Glide Slope (POH 18.6.8)
Before any approach you must enter the applicable approach data (PH 3.12 & PH 18.x) and
then activate the approach on the PERF APPR page of the MCDU.
Activating the approach will drive managed speed to approach speeds. Suggest activating the
approach when out of 10,000’ and on selected speed.
Airbus training suggests Flaps 3 as preferred landing flaps where able.
When using approaches that utilize barometric settings (MDA, DA) such as ILS CAT I, LDA and
RNAV the minimums setting is on the MDA line (line select key 2R) on the PERF APPR page.
Autocallouts are not available at 100 above and minimums when using the MDA setting.
When using approches that utilize radar altimeter (DH, AH) such as ILS CAT II and CAT III the
PROCEDURES
Note: If flaps 3 is to be used then CONF3 should be selected on PERF APPR page (PH 17-145)
and the overhead GPWS LDG FLAP 3 pb OFF (PH 3.12).
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minimums setting is on the DH line (line select key 3R) on the PERF APPR page. Autocallouts
will be made at 100 above and minimums.
Make your flight instructor happy!: Use Noun/Verb when commanding changes on the FCU
(Flight Control Unit) (POH 18.1.3). For Example:
“Speed Select 170” – pilot selects new speed of 170
“Speed Engage” – speed controlled by FMGC, known as managed speed.
“Heading Select” – selects heading to previously dialed or current heading “Heading
Select 280” – pilot selects new heading of 280.
“Nav Engage” – track controlled by FMGC route
“
Speed
Heading/Nav
Open/Managed Climb (Descent)
Vertical Speed
“Speed Select “
or
“Speed Engage”
“Heading Select”
or
Heading/Nav
Open Climb (Descent) Select
or
Climb (Descent) Engage
Vertical Speed Plus (Minus)
Or
“Altitude Hold”
 Select is always knob pulled to you (pilot is “taking” the control of the autopilot).
When using select if you are changing the amount from what is in the window then
say amount after saying select.
 Engage (Hold) is always knob pushed away from you (pilot is “giving” control of
autopilot to FMGC).
Make your flight instructor happy!: When putting the landing gear up, disarm the ground
spoilers by pressing the speedbrake handle down. When putting the landing gear down arm
the ground spoilers by pulling the handle up.
Make your flight instructor happy!: When making any change in modes such as arming an
approach or turning off the flight director or autopilot make sure you look at FMA (at the top
of the PFD) to see what mode you actually are in.
On every approach be sure that by 1000’-
PROCEDURES
Make your flight instructor happy!: When extending flaps to the final position say “Flaps Full”
not Flaps 4, and when retracting flaps to the fully retracted position say “Flaps 0 ( zero )”, not
Flaps Up.
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 Speedbrake is stowed
 SPEED is showing in FMA or autothrust off
 Not on Open Descent (inside FAF for instrument approaches) (PH 2.13.2)
Airbus Gotcha’: If you find that you cannot get the proper ILS frequency and course showing
on the PFD when you select the ILS pb, then check your RAD/NAV page and see if a navaid has
been entered and is locking out autotuning. Also be sure that an RMP NAV pb is not selected
as this will turn on the NAV backup mode and disable FMGC tuning. I have also seen this
simply “glitch” and not display when it should. We were able to fix it by reselecting the
runway/approach.
On all instrument approaches (except CAT II,III) PNF calls “100 above”, then at minimums,
“Minimums, runway in sight” or “Minimums, no contact”. PF responds to minimums calls
with either “Landing” or “Go Around” .
Remember: WAFPPP for working in the sim.
W eather
A dvise (ATC, F/A’s, company)
F –PLN (insert new destination if needed, then new approach)
P ERF (ACTIVATE and CONFIRM, then insert approach data on PERF APPR)
P ROG (if RNAV approach, insert .3 nm RNP)
P RELIMINARY (call for Preliminary Landing checklist)
All approaches must be briefed on the following 6 – 3 – 2 outline (PH 3–52, FOM 5.10.1). Use
the following aids during your approach briefing:
Approach chart:
 Approach name and runway
 Approach chart date
 Highest MSA
 TDZE
 Final approach verification altitude (not required for visuals)
 Required visibility (not required for visuals)
PFD (be sure ILS pb is selected for ILS):
 ILS frequency (does not apply for RNAV approaches)
 Final approach course
 DA, DH or AH as applicable (not required for visuals)
also include in brief any other considerations such as noise, windshear, anti-icing, runway
conditions, 10-7 page engine-out procedures, etc.
PROCEDURES
F-PLN page:
 Glide path angle
 Missed approach procedure review (not required for visuals)
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Note: for RNAV approaches be sure to enter 0.3 RNP on the PROG page to ensure FMGC
accuracy prior to the approach. Be sure to check that the 0.3 is showing on both MCDUs.
ILS APPROACHES
ILS pb should be selected before approach briefing so pilot can read ILS freq., and course off
of PFD. This allows the pilot to double-check the actual ILS being used as well as ensures that
the ILS pb is selected before the approach begins. If wrong ILS freq. is showing make sure
that RADNAV ILS is cleared.
Note: if ILS pb is not selected when approach is armed then ILS will flash in amber on the PFD
DA - If the approach uses a DA then the barometric altimeter is being used and no
autocallout will be made for 100 above or minimums. Enter DA information in MDA position
on approach page in MCDU (PERF APPR).
DH or AH - If DH or AH is being used then radio altimeter is being used and autocallouts are
available for 100 above and minimums. Use the DH line select key for entry of minimums
information in MCDU (PERF APPR).
When cleared for approach press the APPR pb on FCU. Then press to engage the second
autopilot on FCU. Both autopilots should be engaged for ILS approaches. Note
blue GS and LOC on FMA indicating glideslope and localizer are armed for capture.
CAT II/III APPROACHES
Captain must brief:
 F/O must make 400’ Land Green.
 100 Above procedures (Captain - “Continuing”)
 Minimums procedures (Captain - “Landing” or “Go Around”)
AH stands for Alert Height and allows for continuing the approach only on electronic
indications (no visual confirmation of runway environment required). The Airbus 320/319
requires that CAT 3 Dual be annunciated in the FMA before AH is used. When entering Radar
Altimeter information in the FMGC on the Approach page use 100’ in the DH window for the
AH. Autocallouts will be made at 100 above and Minimums as DH is being selected on the
Approach page. This will allow the pilot to have a reminder at 100’ AGL but the approach
may be continued as long as all indications are normal and the reported RVR remains at or
above the minimum for the approach. This means that the runway may not be seen by the
pilots before touchdown. When shooting a CAT II or III approach the PF must make callout of
CAT 3 dual (or single ) or CAT 2 based on FMA information when armed for approach.
NOTE: Above 8,200’ AGL (max valid radar altimeter range) FMA will show CAT 1, confirm
PROCEDURES
Note: any RA not AUTH approaches are based on inner marker. You may use the inner
marker GS crossing altitude in the MDA as a reminder.
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FMA below 5,000’ AGL.
If CAT 3 Dual is not shown in the FMA (for example CAT 3 Single or CAT 2 Single) then DH
must be used if doing a CAT II or III and runway must be seen. Dual will be shown when both
autopilots are in use, and Single when only one autopilot is in use or loss of some other
required redundant system. Engine- out approaches limited to CAT IIIA (CAT 3 Single,
requires 50’ DH). Captain retards throttles on the 10’ “Retard” callout, disconnect autopilot
by 60 kts. on runway.
The autoland fail light will flash red if the following conditions occur below 200’ while in
LAND mode (PH 14.1.6):
Both AP’s off below 200’ RA
Excessive LOC (¼ dot – above 15’ RA) or GLIDE (1 dot – above 100’ RA) deviation – LOC and
GLIDE scales flash
Loss of LOC (below 15’) or GLIDE (below 100’) signal
Difference between radar Altimeters is greater than 15’ (FD bars flash)
RNAV APPROACHES
All RNAV approaches must be flown with autopilot and flight director unless no ILS is
available and both autopilots have failed, then a manual FD RNAV is permitted.
RNAV approaches only use one autopilot. Second autopilot will not engage.
Enter 0.3 for required accuracy on PROG page (only needs to be entered on one MCDU but
make sure that the new value shows on both sides). This lowers the FMGC “tolerance” from
an enroute value to an approach value. RNAV approach must have a HIGH nav accuracy
showing with 0.3 nm value on the PROG page in FMGC before beginning the approach. Less
than required accuracy will create a NAV ACCURACY
DOWNGRADE message on MCDU. This is done to ensure that the FMGC generated position is
accurate enough for an RNAV approach.
When cleared for the RNAV approach press the APPR pb on FCU. Do NOT select the ILS pb!
ILS pb will disable the RNAV indications and flash amber V/DEV on the PFD.
Ensure APP NAV and FINAL are showing on FMA
Note: vertical guidance from F/D and “brick”, lateral guidance from F/D and ND.
3-2-1 – plan to extend landing gear at 3 miles from FAF, extend flaps 3 at 2 miles from FAF
PROCEDURES
Ensure the “hockey stick” (descent arrow symbol) is visible on ND for start of descent.
Remember “High Hockey Finals”
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and extend flaps FULL at 1 mile from FAF.
At start of descent ensure that missed approach altitude is set. Ensure FINAL is now showing
on FMA.
When visual on runway is acquired turn off autopilot. Autopilot will automatically disconnect
at DA minus 50’ if not already disconnected.
Note: PNF makes 100 above and minimums calls. Do NOT make the 500’ above speed and
sink callout as most RNAV minimums are at about the 500’ mark.
Airbus Gotcha’: Be sure to get down to final approach altitude prior to FAF to capture from
below!
LDA APPROACHES
LDA approaches use same procedures as ILS approaches, LDA must have glide slope, LDA in
database as LOC. KDCA Roselyn LDA is NOT authorized.
ASR APPROACHES
Ask for approach minimums for category C (A321 D) aircraft and missed approach procedure.
Controller will give you MDA and Descent Point (final approach fix) and one mile prior to DP.
Ask for other fixes to plan for configuration (i.e. 10, 5 & 2 miles from DP). Use “dial ahead” on
altitude. For example, when at initial altitude set MDA before reaching DP. When at MDA, set
to missed approach altitude. Round MDA up to next highest hundred (example: MDA is 740,
set 800). Max 1000 fpm descent. Use V/S (vertical speed) only, do not use Open Descent.
Turn off both Autopilot and Flight Director to descend below MDA.
ENGINE-OUT APPROACHES
Airbus Gotcha’: If an engine-out condition is detected by the FMGC the appropriate
performance page will be brought up on the MCDU with an amber EO CLR* on LSK 1R (PH
17.6.39 & 18.3.7). This is asking if you wish to force the FMGC back to normal two engine
data. If you press the EO CLR you will clear out the engine-out condition and the FMGC will
revert back to the normal two engine data. Of course if you get a spurious EO CLR* during
normal operations then you would want to clear the engine-out performance from the FMGC,
which is why the prompt is there. The point here is during engine-out operations do not press
the amber EO CLR* LSK!
Visual Approaches
PROCEDURES
All single-engine approaches follow the same procedures as normal two engine approaches
except that Flaps 3 will be used in all cases. The aircraft is certified forautolanding with single
engine operation down to CAT IIIA single which will require a DH of 50’.
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Airbus Gotcha’: Both Flight Directors should be turned off when cleared for visual pproach
and hand flying. This will ensure SPEED is showing for Thrust on the FMA and will help avoid
unwanted “thrust excursions”. Once established on the final if you have instrument guidance
(either ILS or RNAV) you may turn the F/D’s back on and select APPR if you will follow the
Flight Director.
Open descent prohibited below 1000’ AGL on a visual approach (PH 2.13.1)
When using speed select (manual speed selection – blue bug) I suggest the following speed
ranges for a given flap setting. Note that this is based on my observation of managed speed,
not on a written profile, and is simply my suggestion of comfortable speed ranges for a given
flap setting. Of course you are able to select from VMO down to VLS whenever needed but the
following are suggested as flexible and comfortable speeds to use in line operations. As well,
by using these “ranges” you have a visual reference in front of you at all times:
Flaps 0 – down to green dot
Flaps 1 – below green dot speed down to S speed (green S)
Flaps 2 – below VFE NEXT (amber equals sign) down to F speed (green F)
Flaps 3 – below VFE NEXT (amber equals sign) down to F speed (green F)
Flaps Full – before 1000’, below VFE NEXT (amber equals sign) down to F speed (green F)
Managed Speed – before 1000’
The alternate ILS technique (PH 18.6.6) works well for conservative Visual approaches as well
(assuming on glideslope). Use the glideslope intercept altitude from your approach briefing:
By 1,500 ‘ above glideslope intercept altitude – flaps 2 (turning base)
1,000’ above glideslope intercept altitude – gear down (Dot and a half G/S)
500’ above glideslope intercept altitude – flaps 3 (Half dot G/S)
Through glideslope intercept altitude – flaps FULL (G/S intercept)
GO AROUND
Note: If performance is not an issue during go-around the thrust levers may be brought back
immediately to the CLIMB detent once the go-around mode is activated. Once TOGA is used
please note that autothrust is now manually set and WILL NOT reduce until brought back to
the Climb detent by the pilot (as during a normal takeoff). This means that the autopilot (or
flight director) will not level out at a set altitude. If you are rapidly approaching an altitude in
TOGA you must bring the thrust levers back to the Climb detent. Even if you level off manually
the thrust will continue to accelerate the aircraft until reduced by the pilot to the Climb
detent. The long and short here, if you TOGA on go around be ready to reduce thrust sooner
PROCEDURES
Set thrust levers to TOGA, this will activate go around mode and (if turned off) will turn on
Flight Director. Go around flaps are to select one step up from the approach flap setting (i.e.
if flaps Full, then select flaps 3, if flaps 3 then select flaps 2). During acceleration when at F
speed go to flaps 1 whether you are at flaps 2 or 3.
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than normal if leveling at a low altitude.
LANDING NOTE: THESE ARE MY PERSONAL TIPS AND
NOT NECESSARILY PROCEDURES.
Bring thrust levers back to idle with no delay at the end of the runway or the 50’ call. The
aircraft has plenty of airspeed and energy with managed speed being flown and you will not
need to delay thrust reduction to ensure proper flare in normal conditions. Don’t let nose
drop when normal nose down pitch is added at 50’ in flare mode. I was used to flying smaller
(and shorter geared!) jets and found it helpful to move my aim point on the runway from the
1000’ marker to halfway between the 1000’ and 1500’. Try to have the flare started by the
10’ call.
On touch down use positive nose down to lower the nose. Be careful not to let the nose ride
up when reverse is selected. Select Full Reverse as you lower nose. As the aircraft slows
through 80 knots slowly push the thrust levers back toward idle reverse so as to be at or near
idle reverse at 60 knots. Be sure you push the thrust lever all the way back through the
detent into forward idle. Then retard the lever again against the stop to ensure minimum
forward thrust in idle.
Flaps 3 landings will tend to float more than Flaps Full. Be very careful when using Flaps 3 on
shorter runways that you ensure touch down in a timely manner. Aircraft seems to level out
in flare with Flaps 3 more quickly than with Flaps Full. Use a more “subtle” flare with Flaps 3
than with Flaps Full.
Crosswind Landings – Despite rumors, the Airbus uses conventional crosswind landing
technique. Two points however; first, as the Airbus uses roll rate for the ailerons the pilot
cannot HOLD the sidestick in the crossed control position. The sidestick must be released
once the bank angle is established. Think of “bumping” in the needed bank. It is more
intuitive than it sounds! Second, the sidestick is as sensitive in the flare as in cruise. Care
must be taken to use measured inputs to the sidestick. The PH recommends aligning the
aircraft with the runway centerline during the flare with the rudder. Maintain the aircraft
on the centerline with roll control. Release all roll input when the aircraft is on the ground.
EGPWS (PH 18.9)
TOGA thrust, Autopilot off, Sidestick FULL AFT until at safe altitude. Don’t change gear/flap
configuration until safe.
PROCEDURES
WINDSHEAR (PH 18.8.X)
Takeoff – use TOGA, use longest suitable runway, use Flaps 1+F Landing – Use Flaps 3,
consider increasing approach speed During a windshear encounter the PF should call:
“Windshear, TOGA”. The PNF should call altitude from radio altimeter and climb/descent
trend: “300’ descending, 200’ descending, 400’ climbing”, etc. Follow Flight Director.
Do not change gear/flap configuration until safe.
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LIMITS
WEIGHT LIMITS
Max Ramp
Max Takeoff
Max Landing
Max Zero Fuel
A319
75,931kg / 167,400lbs
75,477kg / 166,400lbs
62,505kg / 137,800lbs
58,513kg / 129,000lbs
Seats
120 – 12/108
A320
77,382kg / 170,600lbs
76,975kg / 169,700lbs
64,500kg / 142,200lbs
60963kg / 134,400 lbs
142 – 16/126
Shuttle - 150
A321
93,395kg / 205,900lbs
92,986kg / 205,000lbs
77,791kg / 171,500lbs
73,799kg / 162,700lbs
169 – 26/143
OPERATIONAL LIMITS
Max 90° crosswind component (including gusts) for Takeoff and Landing
Max 90° crosswind component (including gusts) For CAT II/III
Limiting tailwind component for takeoff and landing
Max operating altitude
29 knots
15 knots
10 knots
39,000 ft
SPEED LIMITS
Max operating speed (VMO):
Max operating speed (MMO )
Max gear extension (VLO )
Max gear retraction (VLO )
Max gear extended (VLE )
350 KIAS
.82M
250 KIAS
220 KIAS
280 KIAS / .67M
TURBULENCE PENETRATION
at or above 20,000 ft
275 KIAS / .76M
300 KIAS / .76M
below 20,000 ft
250 KIAS
270 KIAS
LIMITS
Model
A319/320
A321
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MAX FLAP SLATS (VFE)
Model
A319/320
A321
Position
VFE
VFE
1
230 KIAS
235 KIAS
1+F
215 KIAS
225 KIAS
2
200 KIAS
215 KIAS
3
185 KIAS
195 KIAS
FULL
177 KIAS
190 KIAS
ICE & RAIN PROTECTION
Engine anti-ice must be on during all ground and flight operations when icing conditions exist
except during climb and cruise when the temperature is below -40°C SAT.
Icing conditions exist on ground:
Icing conditions exist in flight:
OAT 10°C (50°F) or below
TAT 10°C (50°F) or below
Engine Anti-Ice

Engine anti-ice must be ON during all ground and flight operations when icing
conditions exist or are anticipated, except during climb and cruise when temperature
is below -40°C SAT.

Engine anti-ice must be ON prior to and during descent in icing conditions, including
temperatures below -40°C SAT.
Wing Anti-Ice

Wing anti-ice is not permitted on the ground (AFM), or in flight when TAT exceeds
10°C.
Use of APU bleed air for wing anti-ice is not permitted.
FUEL
Wingtanks
Centertank
Additional Centertanks
Total useable fuel
A319/A320
12,474kg / 27,500 lbs
6,577kg / 14,500 lbs
N/A
19,050kg / 42,000 lbs.
A321
12,474kg / 27,500 lbs
6,577kg / 14,500 lbs
4,763kg / 10,500 lbs
23814kg / 52,500 lbs.
Outer Wing Tanks
Inner Wing Tanks
Center Tank
Total
1,406kg / 3,100lbs
11,134kg / 25,000lbs
6,758kg / 14,900lbs
19,504kg / 43,000lbs
LIMITS
Fuel Capacity
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Fuel Imbalance - Maximum
Maximum difference between wing tanks for takeoff and landing – 2000kg/4410 lbs
Fuel Temperature
Maximum: 54°C
Minimum: -36°C
If fuel temperature is below minimum temp limit, change to a warmer altitude.
Fuel Usage
Takeoff with center tank supplying the engines is prohibited.
Landing Fuel - Minimum
Fuel at Touchdown: Ensures adequate fuel boost pump coverage during reverse thrust and
landing roll.
To Execute Go-Around: The required amount of fuel to execute go-around at runway
threshold to 1000' AGL, fly a VFR pattern, intercept a 3° glideslope at approx 2½ miles from
the runway and continue to landing.
Fuel Quantity Indicator Error: The maximum design quantity error for all tanks.
Minimum Desired Landing Fuel: Ensures sufficient fuel on board at the threshold in a worst
case scenario with max fuel quantity indicator error.
Fuel At Touchdown
To Execute Go-Around
Fuel Quantity Indicator Error
Minimum Desired Landing Fuel (Indicated)
180kg / 400lbs
365kg / 800lbs
180kg / 400
725kg / 1600
Operating Fuel Values
11kg / 25lbs
3084kg / 6800lbs
454kg / 1000lbs
544kg / 1200lbs
2267kg/ 5000lbs
132kg / 290
LIMITS
Taxi Fuel Per Minute (not included in takeoff weight)
Minimum for Dispatch (not including taxi fuel)
Minimum Hold for Contingencies (AFM Limit)
Minimum Alternate Fuel
Holding Fuel Per Hour
APU Fuel Per Hour
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LANDING GEAR
Max landing gear extension altitude:
25,000 ft.
FLAPS/SLATS
Max operating altitude w/ slats and/or flaps extended:
20,000 ft.
AUTOPILOT / AUTOLAND
100 ft. AGL
Autoland max winds:
Tailwind:
Crosswind other than CAT II/III:
Headwind:
10 knots
20 knots
30 knots
Non-memory limits:
Max tire speed
Max taxi speed in turn when greater than 167,550 lbs.
Max window open speed
Max windshield wiper operations speed (Vww)
Max continuous load on generator
Max continuous load on TRU
Max brake temp for takeoff
195 kts.
20 kts .
200 kts.
230 kts.
90 KVA
200 A
300° C
LIMITS
After Takeoff (if SRS is indicated)
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SELECTED LIMITATIONS
All references to airspeed or Mach Number relate to Indicated Airspeed or Indicated Mach
Number, unless otherwise noted. All references to altitude relate to Pressure Altitude,
unless otherwise noted.
AVIONICS
Autoland
Autoland is permitted using full flaps only.
Autoland - Maximum Winds
Headwind - 25 kts
Tailwind - 10 kts
Crosswind other than CAT II/III - 15 kts
Crosswind CAT II/III (AFM) - 10 kts
Autopilot Engaged - Minimum Altitude
After Takeoff/Go-Around - 30' AGL
Enroute - 500' AGL
Non-Precision Approaches - 50' Below MDA
Coupled Approaches - 50' AGL
Autoland (One or Two Autopilots) - Touchdown
ILS Approaches (AFM)
Do not arm the ILS APPR mode above 8200' AGL.
Inertial Reference System
In the NAV mode the IRU will not provide valid magnetic heading above 73° North and below
60° South. Flights above/below these latitudes are not permitted.
ENGINES (IAE V2527-A5)
Start
TakeOff/Go-Around
Maximum Continous
Time Limit
(minutes)
None
5
Unlimited
Instrument
Marking
Red
Red
Amber
EGT
(°C)
635
635
610
SELECTED LIMITATIONS
EGT and Thrust – Maximum
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Oil Quantity and Consumption (Quarts)
Minimum Before Engine Start (warm)
Minimum Before Engine Start cold/30C
Minimum When Engine is at Idle rpm
Estimated Consumption per Hour
17.0+est. warm) consumption
10.5 + est consumption
12.0
.6
Reverse Thrust
Reverse levers must remain in forward thrust range while in flight.
Prohibited for power back on the ground.
Maximum reverse thrust should not be used below 70kts.
RPM - Maximum
N1 - 100%
N2 - 100%
HYDRAULICS
Brake Temperature
Maximum Brake Temperature for Takeoff - 300°C
Flaps/Slats Extended Altitude
Maximum - 20,000 MSL
Speed Brakes (AFM)
IMC
VMC
Inflight With Flaps Retracted
Do not use from FAF inbound.
Do not use below 1000' AGL.
Do not use below 200 KIAS.
SPEEDS
Maximum - 200 KIAS
Design Maneuvering Speeds - Va (KIAS/Mach)
SELECTED LIMITATIONS
Cockpit Window Open Speed
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A319/320/321 OPERATIONS MANUAL
Speed
*Va
SL
248
*Only when in alternate or direct flight control laws
Pressure Altitude (1000 ft)
10.0
16.0
20.0
24.0
28.0
250
260
270
280
290
30.0
295
39.0
.78
2
3
200
185
22
22
15
20
TakeOff/Approach TakeOff/Approach/
Landing
FULL
177
27
40
Landing
Flaps/Slat Extended Speeds - Vfe (KIAS)
Config
VFE
Slats
Flaps
Remarks
1
230
18
0
Initial
Approach
1+F
215
18
10
TakeOff
Takeoff with Flaps 1
When Flaps 1 is selected for takeoff (1 + F), the flaps automatically retract to 0 at 210 KIAS.
Takeoff or Go-Around with Flaps 2 or 3
When Flaps 1 is selected, the 1+F configuration is obtained if airspeed is less than 210 KIAS.
The flaps automatically retract to configuration 0 at 210 KIAS.
Flaps Selection in Flight
When the flaps lever is moved from 0 to 1 in flight, only the slats are extended.
Landing Gear Limit Speeds - Vlo/Vle (KIAS/MACH)
Retraction - Vlo
Extension – Vlo
Extended – Vle
Maximum Tire Speed
220
250
280/.67
195 Knots (GroundSpeed)
Speed
Pressure Altitude
SL - 25,000
25,000 - 39000
350
.82
Vmo/Mmo
Minimum Control Speed Air - Vmca
Vmca - 119 KIAS
SELECTED LIMITATIONS
Maximum Operating Limit Speeds - Vmo/Mmo
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Minimum Control Speed Ground - Vmcg
Vmcg - 114 KIAS
Operating Speeds (KIAS/Mach)
Optimum Climb (FMGC Operative)
Standard Climb (FMGC Inoperative)
FL290 and above
10,000’ to FL290
Best Climb Rate
Best Climb Angle
Optimum Cruise (ECON)
Standard Cruise
FL310 and above
10,000’ to FL310
Optimum Descent (FMGC Operative)
Standard Descent (FMGC Inoperative)
10,000’ and above
ECON CLIMB
.78
290
280
220
Cost Index = 35
.
.80
300
ECON DES
.78
280
Stall Speeds
Stall Speeds apply to takeoff and landing altitudes only.
Flap Position
(1000 lbs)
0
1
1+F
2
3
FULL
170
179
140
134
125
124
121
160
170
136
130
120
119
117
150
161
132
125
116
115
113
140
154
127
119
112
111
109
130
144
121
115
108
107
105
120
138
116
110
104
103
101
110
132
111
105
99
98
96
100
126
106
100
95
94
92
90
119
100
95
90
89
87
80
114
95
90
85
84
82
SELECTED LIMITATIONS
Gross Weight
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Taxi Speed – Maximum
When takeoff weight is higher than 167,550 lbs, do not exceed 20 kts in a turn.
Structural Weights
77,383kg / 170,600lbs
76,997kg / 169,750
64500kg / 142,200
60962kg / 134,400
SELECTED LIMITATIONS
Maximum Taxi
Maximum Takeoff
Maximum Landing
Maximum Zero Fuel
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GENERAL LIMITATIONS AND SPECIFICATIONS
Center of Gravity Limits
The A320 has two certified CG envelopes. One is a curtailed (normal) envelope with a
forward limit of 25%. The other is a full envelope with a forward limit of 15%. Most airplane
combinations of fuel and passenger loading will operate in the curtailed envelope. When
load planning identifies an aircraft as having a forward CG use the Forward Center of Gravity
procedure in the takeoff section.
Flight Load Acceleration Limits (G Load)
Clean Configuration Flaps Retracted and Slats
Extended
1.0 to +2.5
1.0 to +2.5
Flaps and Slats Extended
0.0 to +2.0
Pressure Altitude - Maximum
Takeoff and Landing - 8000'
Operating Altitude - 39,100'
Runway Slope
Maximum - +/- 2%
Winds - Maximum (Knots)
The following are the maximum demonstrated crosswinds with flight controls in normal and
direct law.
(with or without the yaw damper).
29
33
38
10
GENERAL LIMITATIONS
Crosswind -Takeoff
Crosswind -Landing
Crosswind with Gusts
Tailwind - Takeoff and
Landing 10
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ABBREVIATIONS
SYSTEMS
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A TO Z - ABBREVIATIONS & ACRONYMS
ACM – Air Cycle Machine
ADIRS - Air Data Inertial Reference System
ADIRU - Air Data Inertial Reference Unit, now replaced by GNADIRS
AMU - Audio Management Unit
ASAP – as in LAND ASAP, As Soon As Possible (this really is listed, I'm not making this
up)
A/SKID - Anti-skid
BSCU - Brakes Steering Control Unit (computer)
BTC - Bus Tie Contactor
CFDS - Centralized Fault Display System
CRC – Continuous Repetitive Chime, used to be called the fire bell.
DDRMI – Digital Distance and Radio Magnetic Indicator (RMI with DME)
DMC - Display Management Computer
DU - Display Unit (CRT, or "TV screen")
ECAM - Electronic Centralized Aircraft Monitoring
EIU - Engine Interface Unit
ELAC - Elevator Aileron Computer
EO - Engine Out
E/WD - Engine/Warning Display, upper display for aircraft systems.
FOM – Flight Ops Manual
FCU - Flight Control Unit (autoflight panel)
ABBREVIATIONS
FAC - Flight Augmentation Computer
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FMGC - Flight Management Guidance Envelope Computer
FMGS - Flight Management Guidance Envelope System
F-Plan - Flight Plan
FPA - Flight Path Angle
FWC - Flight Warning Computer
FWS - Flight Warning System
GCU - Generator Control Unit
GLC - Generator Line Contactor
GNADIRS – Global Navigation Air Data Inertial Reference System, GPS, Air Data information
and Inertial attitude/guidance all in one.
IDG – Integrated Drive Generator (the old CSD and generator all in one unit)
INIT - Initialization
L/G - Landing Gear
LGCIU - Landing Gear Control Interface Unit (I think this one is extra credit, we just called it
the linguini)
LSK - Line Select Key (keys used on MCDU screen)
MCDU - Multipurpose Control and Display Unit (this is the actual box used to enter data into
the FMGC, you getting all this?)
ND - Navigation Display (has all those nice little pictures on it to let you know where you are)
N/W – Nose Wheel
pb - pushbutton
PH – Pilots Handbook
PTU – Power Transfer Unit, pump that is able to transfer power (but not fluid) between the
green and yellow hydraulic systems
ABBREVIATIONS
PFD - Primary Flight Display (the display you will look at the most, has airspeed, altitude,
attitude, heading and more)
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QRH – Quick Reference Handbook
RAT - Ram Air Turbine, a backup pump for blue hydraulic
RMP - Radio Management Panel
SD - System Display, lower display for aircraft systems.
SDAC - System Data Acquisition Concentrator
SEC - Spoiler Elevator Computer
SFCC - Slat/Flap Control Computer
SRS - Speed Reference System
THS - Trimmable Horizontal Stabilizer (did you guess it?)
TLA - Thrust Lever Angle, the TLA indicator is a white “donut” on the N1 gauge.
TRU - Transformer Rectifier Unit, also known as TR, transformer rectifier
UTC - Universal Coordinated Time (a politically correct way to say Zulu or GMT)
WTB – Wing Tip Brake
XFR - Transfer
ZFCG - Zero Fuel Center of Gravity
ZFW – Zero Fuel Weight
ABBREVIATIONS
These are just my short list of favorites and there are many others but for the most part
these should get you by.
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ABBREVIATIONS
A319/320/321 OPERATIONS MANUAL
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Phoenix Simulations Software
A319 / 320 / 321
AOM
FOM STUFF
Minimum F/A staffing
Standard
Minimum for
Through flights
Complement
boarding and with passengers
deplaning
onboard
A319, A320 3 3 1
A321 4 4 2
FUEL
Variance: 1% or 500 lbs. whichever is greater
Fuel Vendor Fuel Slip Tolerance:
Gallons: 150 Liters: 600
Note: Fuel slip may not be passed through sliding cockpit window
Captain may increase GATE RELEASE fuel as needed. Relay new fuel amount to
dispatcher. Dispatch will check new fuel amount for load problems then contact
departure station. If fuel decrease is needed then dispatch must agree.
Note: Do not takeoff with less than T.O. MIN Fuel
When refueling with passengers on board a flight attendant must be stationed at main
door and jetway or stairs must be attached to aircraft.
Standard Operating Weight (SOW)
A319 – 91,000
A320 – 95,000
A321 – 112,000
Loading Last Minute Baggage
MANUAL BACKUP FLIGHT RELEASE FUEL
Reserves: 4500 lbs.
Approach: 600 lbs.
ABBREVIATIONS
Right engine must be shut down. Load forward compartment only.
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Taxi-out: 30 lbs./min.
APU burn: 200 lbs./hr.
76
Phoenix Simulations Software
A319 / 320 / 321
AOM
TAXIING
The captain is NOT required to stop only because a passenger leaves seat during taxi.
Use judgment to determine if stopping will create a greater possible hazard. When able
stop and re-seat passenger
If low visibility use SMGCS if published for RVR 1200 to 600. Below 600 RVR SMGCS
is REQUIRED to taxi.
Operations will cease when:
Dry snow up to 2 inches
Wet snow/slush/standing water – up to ¼ inch
(note: operations may continue with up to ½ inch with dispatch concurrence)
Nil Braking action:
Do not operate on any part of airport that has NIL braking action report unless by NonUSAirways pilot. Then only with concurrence of dispatcher and:
Greater than 8,000 ft. runway
Crosswind not over 15 kts.
Captain not on high mins.
STANDARD TAKEOFF MINIMUMS
LOWER THAN STANDARD TAKEOFF MINIMUMS
Chart lists required RVR’s for Domestic and Canada. This information is normally
available on Jepp charts for airport and in QRH OPS DATA. Also, note required lighting
and runway markings for specified RVR.
ABBREVIATIONS
1 statute mile or RVR 5000
Note: If published Takeoff minimums are higher than standard you must use the higher
published minimums.
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Note: Captain must always make takeoff if less than 1600 RVR or ¼ mi.
77
Phoenix Simulations Software
A319 / 320 / 321
AOM
Takeoff Alternate
Declare a takeoff alternate anytime weather conditions at the departure airport are
below CAT I landing minimum. Takeoff alternate must be within 1 hr. from departure
airport with one-engine inoperative. For planning purposes use:
Type
Aircraft
A319 320
A320 320
A321 320
Ave.
Distance
Fuel Flow Assumed
KIAS
NM
lbs./hr.
Altitude
373 6,900 11,000
368 6,900 10,000
373 8,200 11,000
Headsets / Boom Mikes
Headsets and Boom Mikes must be worn below 18,000 ft.
Oxygen
When one pilot leaves their station the remaining pilot must wear an oxygen mask when
above FL250.
MAX HOLDING SPEEDS AND LEG TIMING
Through 6000 ft. 200 KIAS, 1 min.
Above 6,000 through 14,000 ft. 230 KIAS (210 KIAS where published), 1 min.
Above 14,000 ft. 265 KIAS, 1 min. and 30 secs.
Destination weather must be at or above the lowest authorized landing minima,
compatible with aircraft type, at ETA. In addition, apply 15% additional runway if
destination airfield is forecast to be wet or slippery at ETA.
ABBREVIATIONS
DESTINATION WEATHER
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Phoenix Simulations Software
A319 / 320 / 321
AOM
Alternates
Alternate weather minima (AWM) apply for both destination and takeoff alternates.
Minima is based on straight in precision or non-precision approaches. For airports with
at least two appropriate approaches the approaches must be to separate, suitable
runways.
Note: IFR alternate weather minima are restrictive for dispatch (filing) purposes. Once
committed to an alternate airport, standard approach minima apply.
Facility Ceiling Visibility
1 nav aid CAT I HAT
+ 400 ft.
sm
CAT I visibility min. + 1
2 or more nav aids CAT I HAT of highest of
CAT I vis. mins. to
the two approaches +200 highest app. mins. + 1/2
ft.
sm
CAT II/III with 2 or more CAT II 300 ft. HAT RVR 400
nav aids (note: single
CAT III 200 ft. HAT RVR1800
engine CAT II/III
required)
Alternate is required unless weather for destination at ETA + 1hr. is at least:
Ceiling: 2000 ft. above airport elevation
Visibility: 3 sm.
Alternate weather must meet or exceed AWM for the planned approach at the ETA. A
second alternate will be filed if weather at both the destination and first alternate is
“marginal”.
Captain must contact MedLink prior to diverting. Flight Attendants can initiate call to
MedLink by calling on GTE Airfone with *872 (*USA). Pilot can use phone patch to (602)
239-3627.
ABBREVIATIONS
MEDICAL DIVERSIONS
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Phoenix Simulations Software
A319 / 320 / 321
AOM
AUTHORIZED INSTRUMENT APPROACHES
ILS, ILS/DME, LDA w/ glideslope, LDA DME w/ glideslope, ASR, RNAV
CAT I/II/III OPS
CAT I
CAT II
CAT IIIA Fail-Passive, employs decision height (DH)
CAT IIIA Fail-Operational, employs an alert height (AH)
CAT IIIB Fail-Operational, employs an alert height (AH)
Approach/
TDZ
MID RO
Min. Alt.
Req. Vis.
Circling/
3 sm visibility, min. ceiling 1000’
Pub. MDA
1000’ HAA or MDA whichever is higher
Non-precision/
RC
A
A
Pub. MDA/DA
2400 – ½ May sub if TDZ is
inop
CAT I
RC
A
A
RNAV /
2400 – ½ May sub if TDZ is
Pub. MDA/DA
inop
CAT I ILS/
RC
A
A
Pub. DA
1800 – ½ May sub if TDZ is
inop
CAT II /
RC
A A
100’ DH
1600
CAT II /
RC
A
RA
100’ DH
1200
May sub if RO is
inop
Canadian
RC
RC
CAT II /
1200
700
100’ DH
CAT IIIA /
RC
RC
RA
50’ DH (single)
700
700
100’ AH (dual)
CAT IIIB /
RC
RC
RA
ABBREVIATIONS
Approach Minima
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100’ AH (dual)
600
600
CAT IIIB /
RC
RC
RC
100’ AH (dual)
300
300
300
Note: 1 RVR may be temp. inop.
80
Phoenix Simulations Software
A319 / 320 / 321
AOM
C = controlling, R = required, A = advisory
Use CAT C for straight in approaches (A321 CAT D), CAT C for circling unless app.
speed is greater than 140 KIAS, then use CAT D (FOM 5.10.2)
Amended Release
A release must be amended or re-released when:
6 hrs. passes from ETD without aircraft proceeding under its own power
(International only).
a change is made inT.O. MIN FUEL, DECREASE IN GATE RELEASE FUEL, DESTINATION (REQUIRES
RE-RELEASE), ALTERNATE, NEW AIRCRAFT, MEL/CDL,
REMARKS
Flight takes off and returns to airport of departure (except when part of original
release)
Definition of Dispatch
Aircraft pushed back, taxied or towed from blocks for purposes of flight.
See table in FOM for dealing with MX discrepancies after dispatch.
You may not begin an approach (pass the FAF) with out reported visibility (RVR) at or
above the minimum visibility for that approach. If you are already on the final approach
segment and visibility is reported less than required for that approach, you may continue
the approach but you may not go below landing minimums unless the visibility is
reported at or above the required minimum visibility.
ABBREVIATIONS
Weather Below Minimums)
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F/A Emergency Notification – TEST Questions
T – how much Time
E – type of Emergency
S – brace Signal
T – Take special instructions
Least Risk Bomb Location
LRBL is center of RH aft door
81
Phoenix Simulations Software
A319 / 320 / 321
AOM
Takeoff Performance System
The TPS departure plan is highly recommended but NOT required for departure. The
TPS contains airport performance data and will help the crew in determining what power
and flap configurations will be needed for departure. As long as a valid W&B message
for the correct runway is received the TPS is not needed.
If the W&B is sent with proper weights but not the correct needed runway the pilot may
use the TPS data for the needed runway assuming that the actual W&B takeoff weight
is at or less than the TPS data. PTOW stands for Planned Takeoff Weight and ATOW
for Assumed Takeoff Weight (2000 lbs. difference).
ATC Clearance
Request clearance no earlier than 20 mins. prior to departure time.
Departure clearance is good for 2 hrs. past scheduled departure time.
If ATC changes the routing from what is filed the changed routing is shown as:
REVISED SEGMENT
*****
*****
on the PDC printout. The revised segment is what should be programmed into the
FMGC.
High Min Capt.
ABBREVIATIONS
Call Clearance Control to extend valid clearance time if necessary.
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Note: Notify dispatcher of High Mins. status if High Mins. will affect operations.
High Mins. CAT I limits:
During first 100 hrs. as Capt. PIC (does not include IOE time) use table on FOM
4-78 illustrating exemption 5549 to determine status
High Mins. CAT II/III limits:
100 hrs. PIC in A320/319/321
No CAT III
For CAT II - Use table illustrating exemption 5549 to determine status
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Phoenix Simulations Software
A319 / 320 / 321
AOM
Low Time F/O
Note: Notify Captain at beginning of trip, low time F/O may fly a “monitored” CAT II/III
approach.
During F/O’s first 100 hrs. (including IOE) Captain must make the takeoff or landing if:
Note: Captain must always make takeoff if less than 1600 RVR or ¼ mi. visibility
Pairing Limitations
ABBREVIATIONS
Contaminated runway
RVR less than 4000 or ¾ mile vis or less
Braking action less than GOOD
Crosswind exceeds 15 knots
Special Qualification Airport
Windshear
Always at Captains Discretion
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US Airways will not pair two pilots together who individually have less than 75 hrs. in
type and position.
Consolidation of Learning
Pilot must accumulate 100 hrs. in type and position (including IOE) within 120 days of
Type Rating or Proficiency Check. May be extended to 150 with Line Check.
Cockpit Door: (it isn’t FOM material but I couldn’t find anywhere else to put it)
(insert key with teeth down)
to unlock from outside cockpit door: turn key left
to lock from outside cockpit door: turn key right
to unlock from inside cockpit door: push lock down to show green
to lock from inside cockpit door: push lock up to show red
83
Phoenix Simulations Software
A319 / 320 / 321
AOM
LOGBOOK STUFF
Full power takeoffs must be logged every 30 days or 150 takeoffs. The pilot will be
notified in the release paperwork if a maximum thrust takeoff is required by the phrase
“MAX THRUST DEMO REQUIRED” on the TPS departure plan. The result (successful,
unsuccessful or not attempted) must be noted in the logbook.
Pilot MUST make logbook entry for MEL items if FR is noted for Follow up Required.
ABBREVIATIONS
Ensure that yellow page has been removed for any item signed off by mechanic. White
page stays in logbook.
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(PH 11.5.5) If M notation then Maintenance will complete required actions and if O
notation flight crew will complete required Operational items.
CAT II/III Recertification – see FOM 11.7
ADIRS accuracy – (PH 3.16) this check is done by Captain on every Parking Checklist,
to be done within two minutes of aircraft stop. Use chart on PH 3.16 to determine
acceptable limits. OK if 5 miles and 15 knots or less in all cases. Use Data Key, Position
Monitor to determine NAV accuracy. If ground speed on ND’s & IRU 3 TK/GS exceeds
15 knots, enter logbook entry for maintenance to track and verify, if exceeds 21 knots
enter logbook entry for IRU removal.
Hot Brakes – (PH3.15) Maintenance action is required if there is:
150° C difference in brake temps on the same strut and one brake 600° or
greater or 60° or less
a mean 200° C difference between different trucks
fuse plug melted
brake temp exceeds 900°
Any higher inspection will take the place of a Daily check.
see FOM 11. 3 for full list of logbook requirements
Phoenix Simulations Software
A319 / 320 / 321
AOM
Line Fixes
NOTE: on ground Flight Crew can reset any computer EXCEPT (PH 3b.2.1):
ECU (engine control unit) and/or EIU (engine interface unit) while engine is running.
BSCU (Brake Steering Control Unit) while taxiing, set parking brake first
To reset CB in air check chart listed in PH 3b.2.1
Airbus Gotcha’: Never pull the following CB’s in air:
SFCC (Slat/Flap Control Computer)
ECU and/or EIU
Reverser unlocked message on engine start
1. Engine Master OFF
2. Reset Engine Mode selector to NORM for 10 secs., then IGN/START
If this doesn’t work then:
3. Turn on ENG FADEC GRND PWR on overhead maintenance panel, then off
ABBREVIATIONS
Reset MCDU / FMGC
Captains – on overhead panel – MCDU – CB# B1, FMGC – CB# B2
F/O’s – behind F/O – MCDU – CB# N20, FMGC – CB# M17
Airbus Gotcha’: only reset one FMGC at a time in the air
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GPS Primary Lost showing on both ND’s after IRU’s align
If the GPS signal is not available after the IRU’s align a possible fix is:
1. Data Key
2. Position Monitor
3. SEL NAVAIDS
4. DESELECT *GPS showing (if SELECT *GPS is showing press LSK to change it)
this line shows what WILL BE selected.
Printer “spewing” maintenance codes after shutdown
MCDU Menu
AIDS
Programming
Password SFIM
Report Inhibit
Print NO (green)
Note: when changing printer paper roll make sure that the printer latch is completely
secured or printer will not function. Press SLEW to check.
No Water Pressure
If water has been serviced and there is no water pressure on ground (with APU bleed
on) then check the F/A CIDS panel. If red SYSTEM INOP light is on then press the
WTR SYSTEM DEPRE button.
No data showing on RADNAV page (after GNADIRS is aligned)
Make sure that the STBY NAV guarded NAV pb is not on (green light off).
ABBREVIATIONS
85
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CREDITS
A319/320/321 OPERATIONS MANUAL
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A319/320/321 OPERATIONS MANUAL
CREDITS
BlackBox Simulation
Graham Waterfield.
3d Modeling
Flight Dynamics
Sound Packs
Aircraft Textures
Antony Waterfield
Gauge Programming
Panel Artwork
Research & Development
Daniel Chircop
Manual Design & Content
Beta Test Lead
Beta Team
Daniel Chircop
Michael Perrone
Kevin Whitehead
Andrew Wilson
(A320 Pilot)
(A320 Pilot)
(A320 Pilot)
External Credits
Navigraph
Airac Nav Data
Peter Dowson
FSUIPC + Technical Assistance
Tony Grant
Promo Video Recording
COPYRIGHT NOTICE
This document grants the user no rights to use
the content for any purpose other than intended by BlackBox Simulation You may not
reverse engineer, decompile, or
CREDITS
All titles and copyrights in this PRODUCT are owned solely by BlackBox Simulation.
All title and intellectual property rights in the content which may be accessed through use of
the PRODUCT is the property of BlackBox Simulation and will be protected by applicable
copyright or other intellectual property laws and treaties.
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A319/320/321 OPERATIONS MANUAL
disassemble the PRODUCT in ANY WAY. The PRODUCT is licensed as a single product.
Its component parts may not be separated for use under ANY Circumstances. It is
Sounds
FORBIDDEN To use Any individual Parts
thereof other than as Intended by BlackBox Simulation
The PRODUCT is not to be offered for resale or rental or uploaded to ANY INTERNET WEBSITE
for Downloading. It is forbidden to sell this file, or any part of it, by
any means, including CD ROMs, shareware
bundles, commercial BBS systems or
shareware-sells by mail WITHOUT written
permission
CREDITS
This manual, nor any part of it, may be changed
reproduced without prior written notice of
the authors.
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