A320/321 Flight Crew Training Manual

A320/321 Flight Crew Training Manual
PRELIMINARY PAGES
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PRELIMINARY PAGES
A318/A319/A320/A321
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PLP. PRELIMINARY PAGES
TABLE OF CONTENTS ....................................................................................................... 1/2
LIST OF EFFECTIVE SECTIONS/SUBSECTIONS ............................................................... 1/2
LIST OF EFFECTIVE OPERATIONS ENGINEERING BULLETINS ....................................... 1/2
LIST OF EFFECTIVE FLIGHT CREW TRAINING BULLETINS ............................................ 1/2
AIRCRAFT ALLOCATION TABLE ....................................................................................... 1/2
LIST OF MODIFICATIONS .................................................................................................. 1/2
IN. Introduction
OP. Operational Philosophy
NO. Normal Operations
AO. Abnormal Operations
SI. Supplementary Information
PIR. Preventing Identified Risks
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LIST OF EFFECTIVE SECTIONS/SUBSECTIONS
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Pages
Rev. Date
IN-010
Localization
GENERAL INTRODUCTION
Subsection Title
1/2 to 2/2
08 JUL 08
OP-010
INTRODUCTION
1/2 to 2/2
08 JUL 08
OP-020
FLIGHT CONTROLS
1/16 to 16/16
08 JUL 08
OP-030
AP / FD / ATHR
1/18 to 18/18
08 JUL 08
OP-040
ECAM
1/10 to 10/10
08 JUL 08
NO-010
GENERAL
1/4 to 4/4
08 JUL 08
NO-020
PRE START
1/20 to 20/20
08 JUL 08
NO-030
START
1/4 to 4/4
08 JUL 08
NO-040
TAXI
1/10 to 10/10
08 JUL 08
NO-050
TAKEOFF
1/10 to 10/10
08 JUL 08
NO-060
CLIMB
1/6 to 6/6
08 JUL 08
NO-070
CRUISE
1/14 to 14/14
08 JUL 08
NO-080
DESCENT
1/8 to 8/8
08 JUL 08
NO-090
HOLDING
1/2 to 2/2
08 JUL 08
NO-100
APPROACH GENERAL
1/16 to 16/16
08 JUL 08
NO-110
ILS APPROACH
1/6 to 6/6
08 JUL 08
NO-120
NON PRECISION APPROACH
1/10 to 10/10
08 JUL 08
NO-130
CIRCLING APPROACH
1/4 to 4/4
08 JUL 08
NO-140
VISUAL APPROACH
1/4 to 4/4
08 JUL 08
NO-150
PRECISION APPROACH
1/8 to 8/8
08 JUL 08
NO-160
LANDING
1/12 to 12/12
08 JUL 08
NO-170
GO AROUND
1/6 to 6/6
08 JUL 08
NO-180
TAXI IN
1/4 to 4/4
08 JUL 08
AO-010
GENERAL
1/6 to 6/6
08 JUL 08
AO-020
OPERATING TECHNIQUES
1/16 to 16/16
08 JUL 08
AO-022
AUTOFLIGHT
1/2 to 2/2
08 JUL 08
AO-024
ELECTRICAL
1/2 to 2/2
08 JUL 08
AO-026
FIRE PROTECTION
1/6 to 6/6
08 JUL 08
AO-027
FLIGHT CONTROLS
1/2 to 2/2
08 JUL 08
AO-028
FUEL
1/2 to 2/2
08 JUL 08
AO-029
HYDRAULIC
1/4 to 4/4
08 JUL 08
AO-032
LANDING GEAR
1/2 to 2/2
08 JUL 08
AO-034
NAVIGATION
1/8 to 8/8
08 JUL 08
AO-070
POWER PLANT
1/2 to 2/2
08 JUL 08
AO-090
MISCELLANEOUS
1/6 to 6/6
08 JUL 08
SI-010
ADVERSE WEATHER
1/16 to 16/16
08 JUL 08
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LIST OF EFFECTIVE SECTIONS/SUBSECTIONS
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Pages
Rev. Date
SI-020
Localization
FLYING REFERENCE
Subsection Title
1/4 to 4/4
08 JUL 08
SI-030
NAVIGATION ACCURACY
1/8 to 8/8
08 JUL 08
SI-040
1/4 to 4/4
08 JUL 08
SI-060
ZFW - ZFCG ENTRY ERRORSZFW ZFCG ENTRY ERRORS
TCAS
1/4 to 4/4
08 JUL 08
SI-070
USE OF RADAR
1/4 to 4/4
08 JUL 08
PIR-010
PREVENTING IDENTIFIED RISKS
1/6 to 6/6
08 JUL 08
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Identification
LIST OF EFFECTIVE OPERATIONS ENGINEERING BULLETIN
T(1) E(2) Rev. Date
Title
(1) Ecam Importance Type
(2) Documentary Unit Impacted by Ecam
No Operations Engineering Bulletin
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Identification
LIST OF EFFECTIVE FLIGHT CREW TRAINING BULLETIN
Rev. Date
Title
No Flight Crew Training Bulletin
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PRELIMINARY PAGES
A318/A319/A320/A321
AIRCRAFT ALLOCATION TABLE
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
This table gives, for each delivered aircraft, the cross reference between:
- The Manufacturing Serial Number (MSN).
- The Fleet Serial Number (FSN) of the aircraft as known by AIRBUS
S.A.S.
- The registration number of the aircraft as known by AIRBUS S.A.S.
- The aircraft model.
M
MSN
0781
0852
1320
1637
1720
1777
2180
FSN
FCA 0101
FCA 0002
FCA 0002
FCA 0003
FCA 0353
FCA 0403
FCA 0101
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
Registration Number
G-OOPH
G-OOPE
G-OOAR
G-OOPU
G-OOAV
G-OOPW
G-OOPX
Model
321-211
321-211
320-214
320-214
321-211
320-214
320-214
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AIRCRAFT ALLOCATION TABLE
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
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LIST OF MODIFICATIONS
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
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MODIFICATION
Linked SB
J0071
K2113
K2962
P2316
P3341
32-1136 02
P3379
P3511
P3560
P3686
P4089
P4319
22-1058 42
P4320
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Incorp.
Date
Title
08 JUL 08 WINGS-WING TIP FENCES-INTRODUCE WING
TIPS INCLUDING FENCESApplicable to: ALL
08 JUL 08 FUSELAGE - REAR FUSELAGE SECTION 16A DEFINE A321 BASIC STRUCTURE
Applicable to: MSN 0781-0852, 1720
08 JUL 08 HYDRAULIC POWER-BLUE MAIN HYDRAULIC
POWER-IMPROVE MAINTENANCE STATUS OF
BLUE HYDRAULIC RESERVOIR
Applicable to: MSN 1320-1637, 1777-2180
08 JUL 08 AUTO FLIGHT - ACTIVATE WINDSHEAR
FUNCTION
Applicable to: ALL
08 JUL 08 LANDING GEAR - WHEELS AND BRAKES INSTALL MESSIER GOODRICH WHEELS AND
BRAKES ON A321
Applicable to: MSN 0781-0852, 1720
08 JUL 08 INDICATING/RECORDING SYSTEMS GENERAL- DEFINE CPIP3
Applicable to: ALL
08 JUL 08 AUTO FLIGHT - FAC - INSTALL TWO FACS
P/N BAM 0509
Applicable to: ALL
08 JUL 08 AUTO FLIGHT - FMGC - PROVIDE TIME
CONSTRAINT AND TEN CHARACTERS RTE
IDENT FUNCTIONS
Applicable to: ALL
08 JUL 08 AUTO FLIGHT-FAC-INTRODUCE FAC P/N BAM
510
Applicable to: ALL
08 JUL 08 AUTO FLIGHT-FMGC-REDUCE VAPP FOR A320
CFM/IAE
Applicable to: MSN 1320-1637, 1777-2180
08 JUL 08 AUTO FLIGHT - FCU - DEFINE FLIGHT
DIRECTOR ENGAGEMENT IN CROSSED BARS
AT GO AROUND
Applicable to: MSN 0781, 1320-2180
08 JUL 08 AUTO FLIGHT-GENERAL-ACTIVATE GLOBAL
SPEED PROTECTION AND F/D
DISENGAGEMENT UPON SPEED
CONSTRAINTS
Applicable to: MSN 1320-2180
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MODIFICATION
Linked SB
P5168
P5518
32-1232 01
32-1336 01
P5768
P6054
34-1186 05
P6183
P6375
32-1201 04
P7519
22-1089 10
P7721
32-1247 02
P7790
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Date
Title
08 JUL 08 NAVIGATION - MMR - INSTALL COLLINS MMR
PROVIDING ILS AND GPS FUNCTION
Applicable to: MSN 1320-2180
08 JUL 08 LANDING GEAR-NORMAL BRAKINGINTRODUCE STD 8 BSCU (TWIN VERSION)
Applicable to: ALL
08 JUL 08 ELEC PWR-AC EMERGENCY GENERATIONACTIVATE A319/A321 ELECTRICAL
EMERGENCY CONFIGURATION ON A320 A/C
Applicable to: MSN 1320-1637, 1777-2180
08 JUL 08 NAVIGATION - MMR - ACTIVATE GPS
PRIMARY FUNCTION (HYBRID) IN SEXTANT
MMR (WITH HONEYWELL OR LITTON ADIRU)
Applicable to: ALL
08 JUL 08 NAVIGATION - MMR - REMOVE COLLINS MMR
PROVIDING ILS (FM IMMUNE) AND GPS
PRIMARY FUNCTION (PREVIOUS SPEC.)
Applicable to: MSN 1320-2180
08 JUL 08 LANDING GEAR-PARKING/ULTIMATE
EMERGENCY BRAKING-INTRODUCE A
PRESSURE SWITCH
Applicable to: MSN 0781-0852, 1637-2180
08 JUL 08 AUTOFLIGHT-FMGC-INSTALL FMGC CFM
C13042AA01 (EQUIPPED WITH FMS2)
HONEYWELL
Applicable to: MSN 1320-2180
08 JUL 08 LANDING GEAR-WHEELS AND BRAKESCANCEL MIXABILITY BETWEEN GOODRICH
BRAKES 2-1600-2 AND -3 AUTHOR. WITH
MOD 31803
Applicable to: MSN 1320-1637, 1777-2180
08 JUL 08 AUTO FLIGHT - FLIGHT MANAGEMENT AND
GUIDANCE SYSTEM - ACTIVATE FMA
ENHANCEMENT FUNCTION
Applicable to: MSN 2180
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INTRODUCTION
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INTRODUCTION
A318/A319/A320/A321
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
PRELIMINARY PAGES
TABLE OF CONTENTS
IN-PLP. PRELIMINARY PAGES
TABLE OF CONTENTS ....................................................................................................... 1/2
IN-010. GENERAL INTRODUCTION
FOREWORD.............................................................................................................................1/2
COMMENT - QUESTIONS - SUGGESTIONS ...........................................................................1/2
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INTRODUCTION
A318/A319/A320/A321
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
GENERAL INTRODUCTION
FOREWORD
Ident.: IN-010-00005422.0001001 / 12 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
The Flight Crew Training Manual (FCTM) is published as a supplement to the Flight
Crew Operating Manual (FCOM) and is designed to provide pilots with practical
information on how to operate the Airbus aircraft. It should be read in conjunction with
the FCOM. In the case of any conflict, the FCOM is the over-riding authority.
Airline training policy may differ in certain areas. Should this be the case, the airline
training policy is the over-riding authority.
COMMENT - QUESTIONS - SUGGESTIONS
Ident.: IN-010-00005423.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
FCTM holders and users are encouraged to submit questions and suggestions regarding
this manual to:
[email protected]
or
AIRBUS
1, rond point Maurice BELLONTE
31707 BLAGNAC CEDEX- FRANCE
ATTN: Flight Operations Support -- STLT
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
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INTRODUCTION
A318/A319/A320/A321
GENERAL INTRODUCTION
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
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OPERATIONAL
PHILOSOPHY
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OPERATIONAL PHILOSOPHY
A318/A319/A320/A321
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
PRELIMINARY PAGES
TABLE OF CONTENTS
OP-PLP. PRELIMINARY PAGES
TABLE OF CONTENTS ....................................................................................................... 1/2
OP-010. INTRODUCTION
INTRODUCTION......................................................................................................................1/2
OPERATIONAL GOLDEN RULES ............................................................................................1/2
OP-020. FLIGHT CONTROLS
INTRODUCTION.................................................................................................................... 1/16
NORMAL LAW....................................................................................................................... 1/16
ALTERNATE LAW ................................................................................................................. 5/16
DIRECT LAW ......................................................................................................................... 6/16
INDICATIONS ........................................................................................................................ 6/16
PROTECTIONS...................................................................................................................... 7/16
MECHANICAL BACKUP ..................................................................................................... 13/16
ABNORMAL ATTITUDES.................................................................................................... 14/16
SIDESTICK AND TAKEOVER P/B ...................................................................................... 15/16
OP-030. AP / FD / ATHR
AUTOPILOT/FLIGHT DIRECTOR ......................................................................................... 1/18
AUTOTHRUST (A/THR) ....................................................................................................... 4/18
AP, FD, A/THR MODE CHANGES AND REVERSIONS ...................................................... 10/18
TRIPLE CLICK ..................................................................................................................... 18/18
OP-040. ECAM
PURPOSE OF THE ECAM ..................................................................................................... 1/10
MAIN principles ...................................................................................................................... 1/10
ECAM HANDLING ................................................................................................................. 2/10
use of summaries..................................................................................................................... 8/10
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INTRODUCTION
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
INTRODUCTION
Ident.: OP-010-00005425.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
The Airbus cockpit is designed to achieve pilot operational needs throughout the aircraft
operating environment, while ensuring maximum commonality within the Fly by Wire
family.
The cockpit design objectives are driven by three criteria:
• Reinforce the safety of flight
• Improve efficiency of flight
• Answer pilot requirements in a continuously changing environment
Airbus operational rules result from the design concept, more particularly from the
following systems:
• The Fly by wire system with its control laws and protections, commanded through the
side stick,
• An integrated Auto Flight System (AFS) comprising:
- The FMS interfaced through the MCDU,
- The AP/FD interfaced through the FCU,
- The A/THR interfaced through the non back driven thrust levers,
- The FMA, providing Guidance targets and Information, to monitor the AFS
• A set of Display units (DU) providing information and parameters required by the crew
- To operate and to navigate the aircraft (the EFIS)
- To communicate (the DCDU)
- To manage the aircraft systems (the ECAM)
- FMA interface to provide Guidance targets and information to monitor the AFS/FD
• A Forward Facing Cockpit Layout with ”Lights out” or ”Dark Cockpit” concept
assisting the crew to properly control the various aircraft systems.
The operational rules applicable to these specific features are given in the other sections
of this chapter.
OPERATIONAL GOLDEN RULES
Ident.: OP-010-00005426.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
1. The aircraft can be flown like any other aircraft
2. Fly, navigate, communicate - in that order
3. One head up at all times
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INTRODUCTION
4. Cross check the accuracy of the FMS
5. Know your FMA at all times
6. When things don’t go as expected - take over
7. Use the proper level of automation for the task
8. Practice task sharing and back-up each other
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FLIGHT CONTROLS
INTRODUCTION
Ident.: OP-020-00005427.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
The relationship between the Pilot Flying’s (PF’s) input on the sidestick, and the
aircraft’s response, is referred to as control law. This relationship determines the
handling characteristics of the aircraft.
There are three sets of control laws, and they are provided according to the status of
the: Computers, peripherals, and hydraulic generation.
The three sets of control laws are:
• Normal law
• Alternate law
• Direct law.
NORMAL LAW
Ident.: OP-020-00005428.0001001 / 29 MAY 08
Applicable to: ALL
OBJECTIVES
The aim of normal law is to provide the following handling characteristics within the
normal flight envelope (regardless of aircraft speed, altitude, gross weight and CG):
• Aircraft must be stable and maneuverable
• The same response must be consistently obtained from the aircraft
• The Actions on the sidestick must be balanced in pitch and in roll.
The normal law handling characteristics, at the flight envelope limit are:
• The PF has full authority to achieve Maximum aircraft Performance
• The PF can have instinctive/immediate reaction, in the event of an emergency
• There is a reduced possibility of overcontrolling or overstressing the aircraft.
Normal Law is the law that is most commonly available, and it handles single failures.
CHARACTERISTICS IN PITCH
IN FLIGHT
When the PF performs sidestick inputs, a constant G-load maneuver is ordered, and
the aircraft responds with a G-Load/Pitch rate. Therefore, the PF’s order is
consistent with the response that is ”naturally” expected from the aircraft: Pitch
rate at low speed; Flight Path Rate or G, at high speed.
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So, if there is no input on the stick:
• The aircraft maintains the flight path, even in case of speed changes
• In case of configuration changes or thrust variations, the aircraft compensates for
the pitching moment effects
• In turbulence, small deviations occur on the flight path. However, the aircraft
tends to regain a steady condition.
AIRBUS PITCH CHARACTERISTIC
Sidestick pushed
Sidestick released
Sidestick released
Sidestick pulled
Sidestick released
+ 2.5 g
+ 1.0 g
0g
− 1.0 g
Operational Recommendation:
Since the aircraft is stable and auto-trimmed, the PF needs to perform minor
corrections on the sidestick, if the aircraft deviates from its intended flight path.
The PF should not fight the sidestick, or overcontrol it. If the PF senses an
overcontrol, the sidestick should be released.
AT TAKEOFF AND LANDING
The above-mentioned pitch law is not the most appropriate for takeoff and flare,
because the stable flight path is not what the PF naturally expects.
Therefore, the computers automatically adapt the control laws to the flight phases:
• GROUND LAW: The control law is direct law
• FLARE LAW: The control law is a pitch demand law.
Operational Recommendation:
Takeoff and landing maneuvers are naturally achieved. For example, a flare
requires the PF to apply permanent aft pressure on the sidestick, in order to
achieve a progressive flare. Whereas, derotation consists of smoothly flying the
nosegear down, by applying slight aft pressure on the sidestick.
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LATERAL CHARACTERISTICS
NORMAL CONDITIONS
When the PF performs a lateral input on the sidestick, a roll rate is ordered and
naturally obtained.
Therefore, at a bank angle of less than 33 ˚, with no input on the sidestick, a zero
roll rate is ordered, and the current bank angle is maintained. Consequently, the
aircraft is laterally stable, and no aileron trim is required.
However, lateral law is also a mixture of roll and yaw demand with:
- Automatic turn coordination
- Automatic yaw damping
- Initial yaw damper response to a major aircraft assymetry.
In addition, if the bank angle is less than 33 ˚, pitch compensation is provided.
If the bank angle is greater than 33 ˚, spiral stability is reintroduced and pitch
compensation is no longer available. This is because, in normal situations, there is
no operational reason to fly with such high bank angles for a long period of time.
AIRBUS LATERAL CHARACTERISTIC
Turn coordination provided
Pitch and bank remain constant
o
N
33°
33
°
to
ka
ngle
(When pilot releases the stick)
Re
tu
rn
67°
Ban
n
io
at es
°
ns uc
pe red o 33
m
t
co gle
n
h
tc a
Pi ank
B
Attitude maintained
limit
k
Ban
le
ang
67°
limit
Operational Recommendation:
During a normal turn (bank angle less than 33 ˚), in level flight:
• The PF moves the sidestick laterally (the more the sidestick is moved laterally,
the greater the resulting roll rate - e.g. 15 ˚/s at max deflection)
• It is not necessary to make a pitch correction
• It is not necessary to use the rudder.
In the case of steep turns (bank angle greater than 33 ˚), the PF must apply:
• Lateral pressure on the sidestick to maintain bank
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• Aft pressure on the sidestick to maintain level flight.
ENGINE FAILURE
In flight, if an engine failure occurs, and no input is applied on the sidestick, lateral
normal law controls the natural tendency of the aircraft to roll and yaw.
If no input is applied on the sidestick, the aircraft will reach an approximate 5 ˚
constant bank angle, a constant sideslip, and a slowly-diverging heading rate.
The lateral behavior of aircraft is safe.
However, the PF is best suited to adapt the lateral trimming technique, when
necessary. From a performance standpoint, the most effective flying technique, in
the event of an engine failure at takeoff, is to fly a constant heading with roll
surfaces retracted. This technique dictates the amount of rudder that is required,
and the resulting residual sideslip.
As a result, to indicate the amount of rudder that is required to correctly fly with an
engine-out at takeoff, the measured sideslip index is shifted on the PFD by the
computed, residual-sideslip value. This index appears in blue, instead of in yellow,
and is referred to as the beta target. If the rudder pedal is pressed to center the
beta target index, the PF will fly with the residual slip, as required by the engine-out
condition. Therefore, the aircraft will fly at a constant heading with ailerons and
spoilers close to neutral position.
BETA TARGET ON PFD
Blue Side Slip
target or
Bêta Target
Operational Recommendation:
In the case of an engine failure at takeoff, the PF must:
• Smoothly adjust pitch to maintain a safe speed (as per SRS guidance)
• Center the Beta target (there is no hurry, because the aircraft is laterally safe)
• When appropriate, trim the aircraft laterally using the rudder trim
• Apply small lateral sidestick inputs, so that the aircraft flies the appropriate
heading.
AVAILABLE PROTECTIONS
Normal Law provides five different protections (Refer to the ”Protections”
paragraph):
• High angle-of-attack protection
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FLIGHT CONTROLS
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MANUAL
•
•
•
•
Load factor protection
High pitch attitude protection
Bank angle protection
High speed protection.
ALTERNATE LAW
Ident.: OP-020-00005429.0001001 / 29 MAY 08
Applicable to: ALL
In some double failure cases, the integrity and redundancy of the computers and of the
peripherals are not sufficient to achieve normal law and associated protections. System
degradation is progressive, and will evolve according to the availability of remaining
peripherals or computers.
Alternate law characteristics (usually triggered in case of a dual failure):
- In pitch: same as in normal law with FLARE in DIRECT
- In roll: Roll DIRECT
- Most protections are lost, except Load factor protection.
At the flight envelope limit, the aircraft is not protected, i.e.:
- In high speed, natural aircraft static stability is restored with an overspeed warning
- In low speed (at a speed threshold that is below VLS), the automatic pitch trim stops
and natural longitudinal static stability is restored, with a stall warning at 1.03 VS1G.
In certain failure cases, such as the loss of VS1G computation or the loss of two ADRs,
the longitudinal static stability cannot be restored at low speed. In the case of a loss of
three ADRs, it cannot be restored at high speed.
In alternate law, VMO setting is reduced to 320 kt, and α FLOOR is inhibited. (On
A318, MMO setting is also reduced to M 0.77.)
OPERATIONAL RECOMMENDATION:
The handling characteristics within the normal flight envelope, are identical in pitch
with normal law.
Outside the normal flight envelope, the PF must take appropriate preventive actions
to avoid losing control, and/or avoid high speed excursions. These actions are the
same as those that would be applied in any case where non protected aircraft (e.g. in
case of stall warning: add thrust, reduce pitch, check speedbrakes retracted).
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
OP-020. P 5/16
08 JUL 08
OPERATIONAL PHILOSOPHY
A318/A319/A320/A321
FLIGHT CONTROLS
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
DIRECT LAW
Ident.: OP-020-00005430.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
In most triple failure cases, direct law triggers.
When this occurs:
• Elevator deflection is proportional to stick deflection. Maximum deflection depends on
the configuration and on the CG
• Aileron and spoiler deflections are proportional to stick deflection, but vary with the
aircraft configuration
• Pitch trim is commanded manually
Handling characteristics are natural, of high-quality aircraft, almost independent of the
configuration and of the CG. Therefore, the aircraft obviously has no protections, no
automatic pitch trim, but overspeed or stall warnings.
OPERATIONAL RECOMMENDATION:
The PF must avoid performing large thrust changes, or sudden speedbrake
movements, particularly if the center of gravity is aft. If the speedbrakes are out, and
the aircraft has been re-trimmed, the PF must gently retract the speedbrakes, to give
time to retrim, and thereby avoid a large, nose-down trim change.
INDICATIONS
Ident.: OP-020-00005431.0001001 / 27 JUN 08
Applicable to: ALL
The ECAM and PFD indicate any control law degradation.
ON THE ECAM
•
In ALTN Law:
FLT CTL ALTN LAW (PROT LOST)
MAX SPEED
320 kt(320 kt/M 0.77 on A318)
•
In Direct Law:
FLT CTL DIRECT LAW (PROT LOST)
MAX SPEED
320 kt/M 0.77
MAN PITCH TRIM USE
ON THE PFD
The PFD enhances the PF’s awarness of the status of flight controls.
Specific symbols (= in green), and specific formatting of low speed information on the
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
OP-020. P 6/16
08 JUL 08
OPERATIONAL PHILOSOPHY
A318/A319/A320/A321
FLIGHT CONTROLS
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
speed scale in normal law, indicate which protections are available.
When protections are lost, amber crosses (X) appear, instead of the green protection
symbols (=).
When automatic pitch trim is no longer available, the PFD indicates this with an
amber “USE MAN PITCH TRIM” message below the FMA.
Fly-by-Wire Status Awareness via the PFD
USE MAN PITCH TRIM
NORMAL
ALTN
DIRECT
Therefore, by simply looking at this main instrument (PFD), the flight crew is
immediately aware of the status of flight controls, and the operational consequences.
PROTECTIONS
Ident.: OP-020-00005434.0002001 / 27 JUN 08
Applicable to: ALL
OBJECTIVES
One of the PF’s primary tasks is to maintain the aircraft within the limits of the
normal flight envelope. However, some circumstances, due to extreme situations or
aircraft mishandling, may provoke the violation of these limits.
Despite system protections, the PF must not exceed deliberately the normal flight
envelope. In addition, these protections are not designed to be structural limit
protections (e.g. opposite rudder pedal inputs). Rather, they are designed to assist the
PF in emergency and stressful situations, where only instinctive and rapid reactions
will be effective.
Protections are intended to:
• Provide full authority to the PF to consistently achieve the best possible aircraft
performance in extreme conditions
• Reduce the risks of overcontrolling, or overstressing the aircraft
• Provide PF with an instinctive and immediate procedure to ensure that the PF
achieves the best possible result.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
OP-020. P 7/16
08 JUL 08
OPERATIONAL PHILOSOPHY
A318/A319/A320/A321
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
FLIGHT CONTROLS
BANK ANGLE PROTECTION
Bank angle protection prevents that any major upset, or PF mishandling, causes the
aircraft to be in a high-bank situation (wherein aircraft recovery is complex, due to the
difficulty to properly assess such a situation and readily react). Bank angle protection
provides the PF with full authority to efficiently achieve any required roll maneuver.
The maximum achievable bank angle is plus or minus:
• 67 ˚, within the Normal Flight envelope (2.5 g level flight)
• 40 ˚, in high Speed protection (to prevent spiral dive)
• 45 ˚, in high Angle-Of-Attack protection
HIGH SPEED PROTECTION
When flying beyond maximum design speeds VD/MD (which are greater that
VMO/MMO), there is an increased potential for aircraft control difficulties and
structural concerns, due to high air loads. Therefore, the margin between VMO/MMO
and VD/MD must be such that any possible overshoot of the normal flight envelope
should not cause any major difficulty.
High speed protection adds a positive nose-up G demand to a sidestick order, in order
to protect the aircraft, in the event of a dive or vertical upset. As a result, this enables
a reduction in the margin betwen VMO/MMO and VD/MD.
Therefore, in a dive situation:
• If there is no sidestick input on the sidestick, the aircraft will slightly overshoot
VMO/MMO and fly back towards the envelope.
• If the sidestick is maintained full forward, the aircraft will significantly overshoot
VMO/MMO without reaching VD/MD. At approximately VMO +16 / MMO
+0.04, the pitch nose-down authority smoothly reduces to zero (which does not
mean that the aircraft stabilizes at that speed).
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
OP-020. P 8/16
08 JUL 08
OPERATIONAL PHILOSOPHY
A318/A319/A320/A321
FLIGHT CONTROLS
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
airbus HIGH SPEED PROTECTION
a)
360
340
360
340
320
HSP
activation
320
b)
360
360
380
340
16
16
340
360
320
320
340
High speed protection activation: a) stick free
b) stick full forward
The PF, therefore, has full authority to perform a high speed/steep dive escape
maneuver, when required, via a reflex action on the sidestick.
Note: 1. An OVERSPEED warning is provided.
2. At high altitude, this may result in activation of the angle of attack
protection.
Depending on the ELAC standard, the crew may have to push on the stick
to get out of this protection law.
LOAD FACTOR PROTECTION
On commercial aircraft, high load factors can be encountered during evasive
maneuvers due to potential collisions, or CFIT …
Pulling ”g” is efficient, if the resulting maneuver is really flown with this ”g” number.
If the aircraft is not able to fly this trajectory, or to perform this maneuver, pulling
”g” will be detrimental.
On commercial aircraft, the maximum load that is structurally allowed is:
• 2.5 g in clean configuration,
• 2.0 g with the flaps extended.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
OP-020. P 9/16
08 JUL 08
OPERATIONAL PHILOSOPHY
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FLIGHT CONTROLS
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
AIRBUS LOAD FACTOR PROTECTION and safety
Ra2.5
di g
us
2.5 g trajectory when
aircraft within proper flight domain.
2.5 g pull
shallow trajectory when
a/c out of proper
flight domain.
On most commercial aircraft, the potential for an efficient 2.5 g maneuver is very
remote. Furthermore, as G Load information is not continuously provided in the
cockpit, airline pilots are not used to controlling this parameter. This is further
evidenced by inflight experience, which reveals that: In emergency situations, initial PF
reaction on a yoke or sidestick is hesitant, then aggressive.
With load factor protection, the PF may immediately and instinctively pull the
sidestick full aft: The aircraft will initially fly a 2.5 g maneuver without losing time.
Then, if the PF still needs to maintain the sidestick full aft stick, because the danger
still exists, then the high AOA protection will take over. Load factor protection
enhances this high AOA protection.
Load factor protection enables immediate PF reaction, without any risk of
overstressing the aircraft.
Flight experience has also revealed that an immediate 2.5 g reaction provides larger
obstacle clearance, than a hesitant and delayed high G Load maneuver (two-second
delay).
HIGH PITCH ATTITUDE PROTECTION
Excessive pitch attitudes, caused by upsets or inappropriate maneuvers, lead to
hazardous situations:
• Too high a nose-up u Very rapid energy loss
• Too low a nose-down u Very rapid energy gain
Furthermore, there is no emergency situation that requires flying at excessive
attitudes. For these reasons, pitch attitude protection limits pitch attitude to plus
30 ˚/minus 15 ˚.
Pitch attitude protection enhances high speed protection, high load factor protection,
and high AOA protection.
HIGH ANGLE-OF-ATTACK (AOA) PROTECTION
High AOA protection enables the PF to pull the sidestick full aft in dangerous
situations, and thus consistently achieve the best possible aircraft lift. This action on
the sidestick is instinctive, and the high AOA protection minimizes the risk of stalls or
control loss.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
OP-020. P 10/16
08 JUL 08
OPERATIONAL PHILOSOPHY
A318/A319/A320/A321
FLIGHT CONTROLS
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
High AOA protection is an aerodynamic protection:
• The PF will notice if the normal flight envelope is exceeded for any reason, because
the autopitch trim will stop, the aircraft will sink to maintain its current AOA
(alpha PROT, strong static stability), and a significant change in aircraft behavior
will occur.
• If the PF then pulls the sidestick full aft, a maximum AOA (approximately
corresponding to CL Max) is commanded. In addition, the speedbrakes will
automatically retract, if extended.
airbus AOA PROTECTION
VLS
CL
V prot
V Max
AOA
Max Full aftstick
Prot Stick Neutral
THS stopped
VLS Angle of attack
corresponding to
minimum allowed speed
Floor − ATHR function
In addition to this aerodynamic protection, there are three more energy features:
• If ATHR is in SPEED mode, the speed cannot drop below VLS, even if the target
speed is below VLS
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
OP-020. P 11/16
08 JUL 08
OPERATIONAL PHILOSOPHY
A318/A319/A320/A321
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
FLIGHT CONTROLS
• An aural low-energy ”SPEED SPEED SPEED” warning, warms the flight crew that
the energy of the aircraft is below a threshold under which they will have to increase
thrust, in order to regain a positive flight path angle through pitch control. It is
available in CONF 2, CONF 3, and CONF FULL.
The FAC computes the energy level with the following inputs:
- Aircraft configuration
- Horizontal deceleration rate
- Flight path angle
For example, if the aircraft decelerates at 1 kt/sec, and:
- The FPA is -3 ˚, the alert will trigger at approximately VLS -8,
- The FPA is -4 ˚, the alert will trigger at approximately VLS -2.
This alert draws the PF’s attention to the SPEED scale, and indicates the need to
adjust thrust.
It comes immediately before the ALPHA Floor.
• If the angle-of-attack still increases and reaches ALPHA Floor threshold, the A/THR
triggers TOGA thrust and engages (unless in some cases of one engine-out).
In case of an emergency situation, such as Windshear or CFIT, the PF is assisted in
order to optimize aircraft performance via the:
• A/THR: Adds thrust to maintain the speed above VLS
• Low energy warning ”SPEED, SPEED, SPEED”: Enhances PF awareness
• ALPHA FLOOR: Provides TOGA thrust
• HIGH AOA protection: Provides maximum aerodynamic lift
• Automatic speedbrake retraction: Minimizes drag.
OPERATIONAL RECOMMENDATIONS:
When flying at alpha max, the PF can make gentle turns, if necessary.
The PF must not deliberately fly the aircraft in alpha protection, except for brief
periods, when maximum maneuvering speed is required.
If alpha protection is inadvertently entered, the PF must exit it as quickly as
possible, by easing the sidestick forward to reduce the angle-of-attack, while
simultaneously adding power (if alpha floor has not yet been activated, or has been
cancelled). If alpha floor has been triggered, it must be cancelled with the instinctive
disconnect pushbutton (on either thrust lever), as soon as a safe speed is resumed.
In case of GPWS/SHEAR:
• Set the thrust levers to TOGA
• Pull the sidestick to full aft (For shear, fly the SRS, until full aft sidestick).
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
OP-020. P 12/16
08 JUL 08
OPERATIONAL PHILOSOPHY
A318/A319/A320/A321
FLIGHT CONTROLS
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
• Initially maintain the wings level
This immediately provides maximum lift/maximum thrust/minimum drag.
Therefore, CFIT escape maneuvers will be much more efficient.
PROTECTED A/C VERSUS NON PROTECTED A/C GO-AROUND TRAJECTORY
ALT (ft)
C
D
200
Initial a/c conditions:
Landing Conf.
VAPP
V/S − 1500ft/mn
A/
E
CT
ED
E
OT
CT
E
OT
PR
100
PR
N
NO
−100
INITIAL
ALTITUDE
DIST (ft)
1000
1500
2000
2500
GPWS PULL UP
Call out
The above-illustrated are typical trajectories flown by all protected or not protected
aircraft, when the PF applies the escape procedure after an aural ” GPWS PULL
UP” alert.
The graph demonstrates the efficiency of the protection, to ensure a duck-under
that is 50 % lower, a bucket-distance that is 50 % shorter, a safety margin that
more than doubles (due to a quicker reaction time), and a significant altitude gain
(± 250 ft). These characteristics are common to all protected aircraft, because the
escape procedure is easy to achieve, and enables the PF to fly the aircraft at a
constant AOA, close to the max AOA. It is much more difficult to fly the stick
shaker AOA on an aircraft that is not protected.
MECHANICAL BACKUP
Ident.: OP-020-00005432.0001001 / 29 MAY 08
Applicable to: ALL
The purpose of the mechanical backup is to achieve all safety objectives in MMEL
dispatch condition: To manage a temporary and total electrical loss, the temporary loss
of five fly-by-wire computers, the loss of both elevators, or the total loss of ailerons and
spoilers.
It must be noted that it is very unlikely that the mechanical backup will be used, due to
the fly-by-wire architecture. For example, in case of electrical emergency configuration,
or an all-engine flameout, alternate law remains available.
In the unlikely event of such a failure, mechanical backup enables the PF to safely
stabilize the aircraft, using the rudder and manual pitch trim, while reconfiguring the
systems.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
OP-020. P 13/16
08 JUL 08
OPERATIONAL PHILOSOPHY
A318/A319/A320/A321
FLIGHT CONTROLS
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
In such cases, the objective is not to fly the aircraft accurately, but to maintain the
aircraft attitude safe and stabilized, in order to allow the restoration of lost systems.
The pitch trim wheel is used to control pitch. Any action on the pitch trim wheel should
be applied smoothly, because the THS effect is significant due to its large size.
The rudder provides lateral control, and induces a significant roll with a slight delay. The
PF should apply some rudder to turn, and wait for the aircraft reaction. To stabilize and
level the wings, anticipate by releasing the rudder pedals.
A red “MAN PITCH TRIM ONLY” message appears on the PFD to immediately inform
the PF that the mechanical backup is being used.
back-up indication on PFD
MAN PITCH TRIM ONLY
ABNORMAL ATTITUDES
Ident.: OP-020-00005433.0001001 / 29 MAY 08
Applicable to: ALL
If the aircraft is, for any reason, far outside the normal flight envelope and reaches an
abnormal attitude, the normal controls are modified and provide the PF with maximum
efficiency in regaining normal attitudes. (An example of a typical reason for being far
outside the normal flight envelope would be the avoidance of a mid-air collision).
The so-called ”abnormal attitude” law is :
• Pitch alternate with load factor protection (without autotrim)
• Lateral direct law with yaw alternate
These laws trigger, when extreme values are reached:
• Pitch (50 ˚ up, 30 ˚ down)
• Bank (125 ˚)
• AOA (30 ˚, -10 ˚)
• Speed (440 kt, 60 kt)
• Mach (0.96, 0.1).
It is very unlikely that the aircraft will reach these attitudes, because fly-by-wire provides
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
OP-020. P 14/16
08 JUL 08
OPERATIONAL PHILOSOPHY
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FLIGHT CONTROLS
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
protection to ensure rapid reaction far in advance. This will minimize the effect and
potential for such aerodynamic upsets.
The effectiveness of fly-by-wire architecture, and the existence of control laws, eliminate
the need for upset recovery maneuvers to be trained on protected Airbus aircraft.
SIDESTICK AND TAKEOVER P/B
Ident.: OP-020-00005435.0001001 / 29 MAY 08
Applicable to: ALL
When the Pilot Flying (PF) makes an input on the sidestick, an order (an electrical
signal) is sent to the fly-by-wire computer. If the Pilot Not Flying (PNF) also acts on
the stick, then both signals/orders are added.
Therefore, as on any other aircraft type, PF and PNF must not act on their sidesticks at
the same time. If the PNF (or Instructor) needs to take over, the PNF must press the
sidestick takeover pushbutton, and announce: ”I have control”.
If a flight crewmember falls on a sidestick, or a mechanical failure leads to a jammed
stick (there is no associate ECAM caution), the ”failed” sidestick order is added to the
”non failed” sidestick order.
In this case, the other not affected flight crewmember must press the sidestick takeover
pushbutton for at least 40 s, in order to deactivate the ”failed” sidestick.
A pilot can at any time reactivate a deactivated stick by momentarily pressing the
takeover pushbutton on either stick.
In case of a ”SIDE STICK FAULT” ECAM warning, due to an electrical failure, the
affected sidestick order (sent to the computer) is forced to zero. This automatically
deactivates the affected sidestick. This explains why there is no procedure associated
with this warning.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
OP-020. P 15/16
08 JUL 08
OPERATIONAL PHILOSOPHY
A318/A319/A320/A321
FLIGHT CONTROLS
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
Intentionally left blank
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
OP-020. P 16/16
08 JUL 08
OPERATIONAL PHILOSOPHY
A318/A319/A320/A321
AP / FD / ATHR
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
AUTOPILOT/FLIGHT DIRECTOR
Ident.: OP-030-00005439.0001001 / 04 JUN 08
Applicable to: ALL
OBJECTIVE
The Auto Pilot (AP) and Flight Director (FD) assist the flight crew to fly the aircraft
within the normal flight envelope, in order to:
• Optimize performance in the takeoff, go-around, climb, or descent phases
• Follow ATC clearances (lateral or vertical)
• Repeatedly fly and land the aircraft with very high accuracy in CAT II and CAT III
conditions.
To achieve these objectives:
• The AP takes over routine tasks. This gives the Pilot Flying (PF) the necessary
time and resources to assess the overall operational situation.
• The FD provides adequate attitude or flight path orders, and enables the PF to
accurately fly the aircraft manually.
MANAGED AND SELECTED MODES
The choice of mode is a strategic decision that is taken by the PF.
Managed
Selected
To fly along the
pre−planned F−PLN,
entered in the MCDU
For specific ATC requests,
or when there is not sufficient
time to modify the MCDU F−PLN
Managed modes require:
• Good FMS navigation accuracy (or GPS PRIMARY)
• An appropriate ACTIVE F-PLN (i.e. the intended lateral and vertical trajectory is
entered, and the sequencing of the F-PLN is monitored).
If these two conditions are not fulfilled
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
Revert to selected modes
OP-030. P 1/18
08 JUL 08
OPERATIONAL PHILOSOPHY
A318/A319/A320/A321
AP / FD / ATHR
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
MAIN INTERFACES WITH THE AP/FD
MCDU
Long−term* interface
To prepare lateral or vertical
revisions, or to preset the speed
for the next phase.
FCU
Short−term interface
To select the ATC HDG,
expedite, speed, etc.
(quickly performed "head−up")
*The DIR TO function is an exception to this rule.
OPERATIONAL RECOMMENDATION:
With the FMS, anticipate flight plan updates by preparing:
• EN ROUTE DIVERSIONS
• DIVERSION TO ALTN
• CIRCLING
• LATE CHANGE OF RWY
in the SEC F-PLN. This enables the MCDU to be used for short-term actions.
TASKSHARING AND COMMUNICATIONS
The FCU and MCDU must be used, in accordance with the rules outlined below, in
order to ensure:
• Safe operation (correct entries made)
• Effective inter-pilot communication (knowing each other’s intentions)
• Comfortable operations (use ”available hands”, as appropriate)
MCDU entries are performed by the
PF, during a temporary transfer of
command to the PNF.
FCU entries are performed by:
− The PF, with the AP on.
− The PNF (upon PF request),
with the AP off.
A crosscheck must be performed.
FCU entries must be announced.
Time−consuming entries should be
avoided below 10000 feet.
Entries should be restricted to those that
have an operational benefit.
(PERF APPR, DIR TO, DIR TO
INTERCEPT, RAD NAV, LATE
CHANGE OF RUNWAY, ACTIVATE
SEC F−PLN, ENABLE ALTN)
Upon FCU entries:
The PF must check and announce the
corresponding PFD/FMA target and
mode.
The PNF must crosscheck and
announce "CHECKED".
AP/FD MONITORING
The FMA indicates the status of the AP, FD, and A/THR, and their corresponding
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
OP-030. P 2/18
08 JUL 08
OPERATIONAL PHILOSOPHY
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AP / FD / ATHR
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
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operating modes. The PF must monitor the FMA, and announce any FMA changes.
The flight crew uses the FCU or MCDU to give orders to the AP/FD. The aircraft is
expected to fly in accordance with these orders.
The main concern for the flight crew should be:
WHAT IS THE AIRCRAFT EXPECTED TO FLY NOW ?
WHAT IS THE AIRCRAFT EXPECTED TO FLY NEXT ?
If the aircraft does not fly as expected:
And, if in managed mode
Select the desired target
- Or, disengage the AP, and fly the aircraft manually.
AUTOPILOT (AP) OPERATION
The AP can be engaged within the normal flight envelope, 5 s after liftoff and at least
100 ft. It automatically disengages, when the aircraft flies significantly outside the
normal flight envelope limits.
The AP cannot be engaged, when the aircraft is outside the flight envelope. Flight
control laws are designed to assist the flight crew to return within the flight envelope,
in accordance with the selected strategy.
The AP may be used:
• For autoland: Down to the aircraft landing rollout, in accordance with the
limitations indicated in the FCOM
• For other approaches, down to:
- The MDA for straight in Non Precision Approach
- MDA - 100 ft for circling approach
- 160 ft for ILS approach with CAT1 displayed on FMA
- 500 ft for all others phases.
It may also be used, in case of:
• Engine failure: Without any restriction, within the demonstrated limits, including
autoland
• Abnormal configuration (e.g. slats/flaps failure): Down to 500 ft AGL. Extra
vigilance is required in these configurations. The flight crew must be ready to take
over, if the aircraft deviates from its intended, safe flight path.
The sidestick’s instinctive disconnect pushbutton should be used to disengage the AP.
Instinctive override action on the sidestick consists of pushing or pulling the sidestick,
when the AP is engaged. This action disengages the AP, and should be done as per
design, i.e. in case of an instinctive reaction (to an AP hard over for example).
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08 JUL 08
OPERATIONAL PHILOSOPHY
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AP / FD / ATHR
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
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USE OF THE FD WITHOUT THE AP
When manually flying the aircraft with the FDs on, the FD bars or the FPD symbol
provide lateral and vertical orders, in accordance with the active modes that the flight
crew selects.
Therefore:
- Fly with a centered FD or FPD
- If not using FD orders, turn off the FD.
It is strongly recommended to turn off both FDs, to ensure that the A/THR is in
SPEED mode, if the A/THR is active.
AUTOTHRUST (A/THR)
Ident.: OP-030-00005436.0002001 / 23 JUN 08
Applicable to: ALL
OBJECTIVE
The A/THR computer (within the FG) interfaces directly with the engine computer,
referred to as the FADEC.
The A/THR sends to the FADEC the thrust targets that are needed to:
• Obtain and maintain a target speed, when in SPEED mode
• Obtain a specific thrust setting (e.g. CLB, IDLE), when in THRUST mode.
INTERFACE
When the A/THR is active, the thrust lever position determines the maximum thrust
that the A/THR can command in SPEED or THRUST mode. Therefore, with A/THR
active, thrust levers act as a thrust limiter or a thrust-rating panel.
The A/THR computer does not drive back the thrust levers. The PF sets them to a
specific detent on the thrust lever range.
The A/THR system provides cues that indicate the energy of the aircraft:
• Speed, acceleration, or deceleration, obtained by the speed trend vector
• N1, and N1 command on the N1 gauge.
All these cues are in the flight crew’s direct line of vision.
In other words, the Thrust Lever Angle (TLA) should not be used to monitor correct
A/THR operation. Neither should the thrust lever position of a conventional
autothrottle, be considered a cue because, in many hazardous situations, the thrust
lever position can be misleading (e.g. engine failure, thrust lever jammed).
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
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OP-030. P 4/18
08 JUL 08
OPERATIONAL PHILOSOPHY
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AP / FD / ATHR
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
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The TLP determines MAX Thrust for the A/THR
Thrust Lever
Angle
(TLA)
CL
B
T
MC
5
60.0
TLA
CL
B
5
T
MC
60.0
NORMAL OPERATIONS
The A/THR can only be active, when the thrust levers are between IDLE and the
CLB detent.
When the thrust levers are beyond the CLB detent, thrust is controlled manually to
the thrust lever Angle, and the A/THR is armed . This means that the A/THR is
ready to be re-activated, when the flight crew sets the thrust levers back to the CLB
detent (or below).A/THR appears in blue on the FMA.
A/THR operating sectors _ all engines operating
ector
A
NS
RO
TH
B
MC
R
TH ed
AN rm
M RA
TH
A
CL
T
IDLE STOP
TOGA
AT TAKEOFF
The thrust levers are set either full forward to TOGA, or to the FLX detent. Thrust
is manually controlled to the TLA, and A/THR is armed. The FMA indicates this in
blue.
AFTER TAKEOFF
When the aircraft reaches THR RED ALT, the flight crew sets the thrust levers
back to the CLB detent. This activates A/THR. MAX CLB will, therefore, be the
maximum normal thrust setting that will be commanded by the A/THR in CLB,
CRZ, DES, or APPR, as required.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
OP-030. P 5/18
08 JUL 08
OPERATIONAL PHILOSOPHY
A318/A319/A320/A321
AP / FD / ATHR
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
THRUST LEVER(S) BELOW THE CLB DETENT
If one thrust lever is set to below the CLB detent, the FMA triggers a LVR ASYM
message, as a reminder to the flight crew (e.g. this configuration might be required
due to an engine’s high vibration level). However, if all thrust levers are set to below
the CLB detent, with the A/THR active, then the ECAM repeatedly triggers the
AUTO FLT A/THR LIMITED caution. This is because there is no operational
reason to be in such a situation, and to permanently limit A/THR authority on all
engines. In this case, all thrust levers should either be brought back to the CLB
detent, or the A/THR should be set to OFF.
THRUST LEVERS BEYOND THE CLB DETENT
If all thrust levers are set to beyond the CLB detent, when A/THR is active, the
flight crew manually controls thrust to the Thrust Lever Angle. The FMA displays
THR or MAN THR, and the A/THR is armed. As a reminder, CLB or LVR CLB
flashes on the FMA. This technique is most efficient, when the aircraft speed goes
significantly below the target. When the aircraft speed or acceleration is satisfactory,
the thrust levers should be brought back to the CLB detent. This re-activates the
A/THR.
Speed Drop in Approach: Recommended Recovery Technique
Push levers
Bring levers
beyond CLB
back into CLB detent
(if acceleration satisfactory)
IAS Iower than
target speed
with ATHR SPEED mode
Note:
MAN THR
with ATHR blue
Thrust Increases
When using this technique during approach (e.g. to regain VAPP), the
thrust levers should be moved past the CLB detent, but not beyond the
MCT. In most cases, it is not necessary to go beyond MCT, and the PF
may inadvertently advance thrust levers all the way to the TOGA stop, and
thereby engage go-around mode.
OPERATIONS WITH ONE ENGINE INOPERATIVE
The above-noted principles also apply to an one-engine inoperative situation, except
that A/THR can only be active, when the thrust levers are set between IDLE and
MCT.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
OP-030. P 6/18
08 JUL 08
OPERATIONAL PHILOSOPHY
A318/A319/A320/A321
AP / FD / ATHR
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
A/THR operating sectors - one engine inoperative
ector
S
ON
HR
AT
HR
NT ed
MA Arm
HR
AT
T
MC
IDLE
TOGA
In case of engine failure, the thrust levers will be in MCT detent for remainder of the
flight. This is because MCT is the maximum thrust that can usually be commanded by
the A/THR for climb or acceleration, in all flight phases (e.g. CLB, CRZ, DES or
APPR ).
TO SET AUTOTHRUST TO OFF
How to set A/THR off
SPD
HDG
305
LAT
ALT
LVL/CH
V/S
29000
HDG V/S
HDG
TRK
V/S
FPA
100
UP
1000
SPD
MACH
PUSH
TO
LEVEL
OFF
METRIC
ALT
AP1
AP2
ON
LOC
A/THR
1
ALT
APPR
A/THR
RECOMMENDED METHOD:
3
USE OF THE INSTINCTIVE
TO
DISCONNECT P/B
GA
NOT RECOMMENDED:
USE OF ATHR P/B ON FCU
FLX
M
C
T
2
COMMONLY USED AT LANDING:
THRUST LEVERS
SET TO IDLE
A
/
T
H
R
0
1) USE OF INSTINCTIVE DISCONNECT (I/D) PUSHBUTTON
If the I/D pushbutton is pressed when the thrust levers are in CLB detent, thrust
will increase to MAX CLB. This may cause a not desired thrust change. For
example, during approach, A/THR in SPEED mode, commands approximately N1
55 %. If the PF presses the I/D pushbutton, the A/THR is set to off, and thrust
goes to MAX CLB. This will perturbate the approach.
Therefore, the recommended technique for setting A/THR to off is:
- Return the thrust levers to approximately the current thrust setting, by observing
the TLA symbol on the thrust gauge
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
OP-030. P 7/18
08 JUL 08
OPERATIONAL PHILOSOPHY
A318/A319/A320/A321
AP / FD / ATHR
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
- Press the I/D pushbutton
This technique minimizes thrust discontinuity, when setting A/THR to off.
recommended technique to set A/THR off
A/THR ON
Press I/D
Bring thrust
5
55.0
levers to actual
thrust
N1 55
5
A/THR OFF
55.0
2) THRUST LEVERS SET TO IDLE
If thrust levers are set to IDLE, A/THR is set to off. This technique is usually used
in descent, when the A/THR is in THR IDLE, or at landing. During flare, with the
A/THR active, the thrust levers are set to the CLB detent. Then, when thrust
reduction is required for landing, the thrust levers should be moved smoothly and
set to the IDLE stop. This will retard thrust, and set A/THR to off. As a reminder,
the ”RETARD” aural alert will sound. In flare, this aural alert will occur at 20 ft,
except in the case of autoland, where it occurs at 10 ft.
It should be noted that, when the thrust levers are set back to IDLE and A/THR set
to off: The A/THR can be reactivated by pressing the pushbutton on the FCU, and
returning the thrust levers to the applicable detent. The thrust levers should be
immediately returned to the applicable detent, in order to avoid an ECAM ”AUTO
FLT A/THR LIMITED” message
3) USE OF THE FCU PUSHBUTTON
Use of the FCU pushbutton is considered to be an involuntary A/THR off command
(e.g. in the case of a failure). When pressed, thrust is frozen and remains locked at
the value it had when the flight crew pressed the A/THR pushbutton, as long as the
thrust levers remain in the CLB or MCT detent.
If thrust levers are out of detent, thrust is manually controlled and, therefore,
unlocked.
An ECAM caution and an FMA message trigger during thrust lock:
- THR LK appears in amber on the FMA
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
OP-030. P 8/18
08 JUL 08
OPERATIONAL PHILOSOPHY
A318/A319/A320/A321
AP / FD / ATHR
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
- The ECAM caution is:
AUTOFLT: A/THR OFF
THR
MOVE
LEVERS
ENG: THRUST LOCKED
THR
MOVE
LEVERS
In this case, when the flight crew moves the thrust levers out of detent, full manual
control is recovered, and the THRUST LOCKED message disappears from the FMA.
This feature should not be used, unless the instinctive disconnect pushbuttons are
inoperative.
ALPHA FLOOR
When the aircraft’s angle-of-attack goes beyond the ALPHA FLOOR threshold, this
means that the aircraft has decelerated significantly (below ALPHA PROT speed):
A/THR activates automatically and orders TOGA thrust, regardless of the thrust lever
position.
The example below illustrates that:
• The aircraft is in descent with the thrust levers manually set to IDLE.
• The aircraft decelerates, during manual flight with the FD off, as indicated on the
FMA.
Speed scale and FMA indications in a typical A floor case
A FLOOR
A/THR
TOGA LK
When A Floor triggered
When out of A FLOOR
TOGA thrust
(although levers Idle)
TOGA LK
A/THR
When the speed decreases, so that the angle-of-attack reaches the ALPHA FLOOR
threshold, A/THR activates and orders TOGA thrust, despite the fact that the thrust
levers are at IDLE.
When the aircraft accelerates again, the angle-of-attack drops below the ALPHA
FLOOR threshold. TOGA thrust is maintained or locked. This enables the flight crew
to reduce thrust, as necessary. TOGA LK appears on the FMA to indicate that TOGA
thrust is locked. The desired thrust can only be recovered by setting A/THR to off,
with the instinctive disconnect pushbutton.
ALPHA floor is available, when the flight controls are in NORMAL LAW, from liftoff
to 100 ft RA at landing. It is inhibited in some cases of engine failure.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
OP-030. P 9/18
08 JUL 08
OPERATIONAL PHILOSOPHY
A318/A319/A320/A321
AP / FD / ATHR
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
A/THR USE - SUMMARY
Use of A/THR is recommended during the entire flight.
It may be used in most failures cases, including:
• Engine failure, even during autoland
• Abnormal configurations
A/THR use in flight
At THR RED ALT (until landing)
Thrust levers: CLB (or MCT in case of engine failure)
A/THR active (white on FMA) in speed or thrust mode
In APPROACH
Thrust levers: CLB (or MCT in case of engine failure)
A/THR active in speed mode
At TAKE OFF
Thrust levers: TOGA or FLEX
A/THR armed (blue on FMA)
Hold the thrust levers and push them forward (not
above MCT) temporarily if required for additional thrust
FLARE and LANDING
Thrust levers: IDLE when required
A/THR off
GO AROUND
Thrust levers: TOGA
A/THR armed (blue on FMA)
Note: no automatic RETARD except
in autoland. This explains
why the RETARD call out comes
at 20 ft in all cases, except
AUTOLAND where it comes at
10 ft.
A/THR should be monitored via the:
• FMA -- SPEED / SPEED TREND on the PFD
• N1/N1 command (EPR) on the ECAM E/WD.
AP, FD, A/THR MODE CHANGES AND REVERSIONS
Ident.: OP-030-00005437.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: MSN 0781-0852
INTRODUCTION
The flight crew manually engages the modes.
However, they may change automatically, depending on the:
• AP, FD, and A/THR system integration
• Logical sequence of modes
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
OP-030. P 10/18
08 JUL 08
OPERATIONAL PHILOSOPHY
A318/A319/A320/A321
AP / FD / ATHR
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
• So-called ”mode reversions”.
AP, FD, ATHR SYSTEM INTEGRATION
There is a direct relationship between aircraft pitch control, and engine thrust control.
This relationship is designed to manage the aircraft’s energy.
• If the AP/FD pitch mode controls a vertical trajectory (e.g. ALT, V/S, FPA, G/S):
A/THR controls speed
• If the AP/FD pitch mode controls a speed (e.g. OP CLB, OP DES):
A/THR controls thrust (THR CLB, THR IDLE)
• If no AP/FD pitch mode is engaged (i.e. AP is off and FD is off):
A/THR controls speed
Therefore, any change in the AP/FD pitch mode is associated with a change in the
A/THR mode.
Note: For this reason, the FMA displays the A/THR mode and the AP/FD vertical
mode columns next to each other.
THE LOGICAL SEQUENCE OF MODES
In climb, when the flight crew selects a climb mode, they usually define an altitude
target, and expect the aircraft to capture and track this altitude. Therefore, when the
flight crew selects a climb mode, the next logical mode is automatically armed.
For example:
AP/FD mode capture and tracking (1)
OP CLB
ALT
ALT*
Capture
Condition
ALT
Tracking
Condition
The flight crew may also manually arm a mode in advance, so that the AP/FD
intercepts a defined trajectory.
Typically, the flight crew may arm NAV, LOC-G/S, and APPNAV-FINAL. When the
capture or tracking conditions occur, the mode will change sequentially.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
OP-030. P 11/18
08 JUL 08
OPERATIONAL PHILOSOPHY
A318/A319/A320/A321
AP / FD / ATHR
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
AP/FD mode capture and tracking (2)
HDG
NAV
ALT
G/S
NAV
HDG
LOC
ALT
G/S
LOC*
ALT LOC
G/S
These logical mode changes occur, when the modes are armed. They appear in blue
on the FMA.
MODE REVERSIONS
GENERAL
Mode reversions are automatic mode changes that unexpectedly occur, but are
designed to ensure coherent AP, FD, and A/THR operations, in conjunction with
flight crew input (or when entering a F-PLN discontinuity).
For example, a reversion will occur, when the flight crew:
• Changes the FCU ALT target in specific conditions
• Engages a mode on one axis, that will automatically disengage the associated
mode on the other axis
Due to the unexpected nature of their occurrence, the FMA should be closelymonitored for mode reversions.
FLIGHT CREW CHANGE OF FCU ALT TARGET u ACTIVE VERTICAL MODE NOT
POSSIBLE
FCU change resulting reversion to VS mode
DOWN, while in
OP CLB (CLB)
FCU ALT Target
Change
While ALT *
V/S (FPA)
UP, while in OP DES (DES)
This reversion to the V/S (FPA) mode on the current V/S target does not modify
the pitch behaviour of the aircraft.
It is the flight crew’s responsibility to change it as required.
FLIGHT CREW HDG OR TRK MODE ENGAGEMENT u DISENGAGEMENT OF
ASSOCIATED MODE ON THE VERTICAL AXIS
This reversion is due to the integration of the AP, FD, and A/THR with the FMS.
When the flight crew defines a F-PLN, the FMS considers this F-PLN as a whole
(lateral + vertical). Therefore, the AP will guide the aircraft along the entire FFCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
OP-030. P 12/18
08 JUL 08
OPERATIONAL PHILOSOPHY
A318/A319/A320/A321
AP / FD / ATHR
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
PLN:
• Along the LAT F-PLN (NAV -- APP NAV modes)
• Along the VERT F-PLN (CLB -- DES -- FINAL modes).
Vertical managed modes can only be used, if the lateral managed NAV mode is
used. If the flight crew decides to divert from the lateral F-PLN, the autopilot will
no longer guide the aircraft along the vertical F-PLN.
Therefore, in climb:
Lateral mode change and vertical mode reversion
OP CLB HDG
CLB NAV
If HDG or TRK mode is
engaged,
CLB reverts to OP CLB
In descent:
Lateral mode change and vertical mode reversion
DES NAV
If HDG or TRK mode is
engaged,
FINAL APP
or
APP NAV FINAL
G/S LOC
V/S HDG
or
The vertical mode reverts
to V/S
FPA TRK
This reversion to V/S (FPA) mode on the current V/S target does not modify the
pitch behavior of the aircraft. It is the flight crew’s responsibility to adapt pitch, if
necessary.
THE AIRCRAFT ENTERS A F-PLN DISCONTINUITY
NAV mode is lost, when entering a F-PLN discontinuity. On the lateral axis, the
aircraft reverts to HDG (or TRK) mode. On the vertical axis, the same reversion (as
the one indicated above) occurs.
THE PF MANUALLY FLIES THE AIRCRAFT WITH THE FD ON, AND DOES NOT
FOLLOW THE FD PITCH ORDERS
If the flight crew does not follow the FD pitch orders, an A/THR mode reversion
occurs. This reversion is effective, when the A/THR is in THRUST MODE (THR
IDLE, THR CLB), and the aircraft reaches the limits of the speed envelope (VLS,
VMAX):
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
OP-030. P 13/18
08 JUL 08
OPERATIONAL PHILOSOPHY
A318/A319/A320/A321
AP / FD / ATHR
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
reversion to speed mode
FD ON
THR IDLE
OP DES
THR IDLE
DES
If the flight crew
pitches
The aircraft up,
And the speed
decreases
To VLS
FD ON
SPEED
V/S
SPEED
V/S
A/THR REVERTS TO SPEED MODE
FD ON
THR CLB
OP CLB
THR CLB
CLB
If the flight crew
pitches
The aircraft down, SPEED
And the speed
increases
To VMAX
FD ON
SPEED
V/S
V/S
A/THR REVERTS TO SPEED MODE
AP, FD, A/THR MODE CHANGES AND REVERSIONS
Ident.: OP-030-00005437.0002001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: MSN 1320-2180
INTRODUCTION
The flight crew manually engages the modes.
However, they may change automatically, depending on the:
• AP, FD, and A/THR system integration
• Logical sequence of modes
• So-called ”mode reversions”.
AP, FD, ATHR SYSTEM INTEGRATION
There is a direct relationship between aircraft pitch control, and engine thrust control.
This relationship is designed to manage the aircraft’s energy.
• If the AP/FD pitch mode controls a vertical trajectory (e.g. ALT, V/S, FPA, G/S):
A/THR controls speed
• If the AP/FD pitch mode controls a speed (e.g. OP CLB, OP DES):
A/THR controls thrust (THR CLB, THR IDLE)
• If no AP/FD pitch mode is engaged (i.e. AP is off and FD is off):
A/THR controls speed
Therefore, any change in the AP/FD pitch mode is associated with a change in the
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
OP-030. P 14/18
08 JUL 08
OPERATIONAL PHILOSOPHY
A318/A319/A320/A321
AP / FD / ATHR
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
A/THR mode.
Note: For this reason, the FMA displays the A/THR mode and the AP/FD vertical
mode columns next to each other.
THE LOGICAL SEQUENCE OF MODES
In climb, when the flight crew selects a climb mode, they usually define an altitude
target, and expect the aircraft to capture and track this altitude. Therefore, when the
flight crew selects a climb mode, the next logical mode is automatically armed.
For example:
AP/FD mode capture and tracking (1)
OP CLB
ALT
ALT*
Capture
Condition
ALT
Tracking
Condition
The flight crew may also manually arm a mode in advance, so that the AP/FD
intercepts a defined trajectory.
Typically, the flight crew may arm NAV, LOC-G/S, and APPNAV-FINAL. When the
capture or tracking conditions occur, the mode will change sequentially.
AP/FD mode capture and tracking (2)
HDG
NAV
ALT
G/S
NAV
HDG
LOC
ALT
G/S
LOC*
ALT LOC
G/S
These logical mode changes occur, when the modes are armed. They appear in blue
on the FMA.
MODE REVERSIONS
GENERAL
Mode reversions are automatic mode changes that unexpectedly occur, but are
designed to ensure coherent AP, FD, and A/THR operations, in conjunction with
flight crew input (or when entering a F-PLN discontinuity).
For example, a reversion will occur, when the flight crew:
• Changes the FCU ALT target in specific conditions
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
OP-030. P 15/18
08 JUL 08
OPERATIONAL PHILOSOPHY
A318/A319/A320/A321
AP / FD / ATHR
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
• Engages a mode on one axis, that will automatically disengage the associated
mode on the other axis
• Manually flies the aircraft with the FD on, but does not follow the FD orders,
which leads to the aircraft to the limits of the flight envelope.
Due to the unexpected nature of their occurrence, the FMA should be closelymonitored for mode reversions.
FLIGHT CREW CHANGE OF FCU ALT TARGET u ACTIVE VERTICAL MODE NOT
POSSIBLE
FCU change resulting reversion to VS mode
DOWN, while in
OP CLB (CLB)
FCU ALT Target
Change
While ALT *
V/S (FPA)
UP, while in OP DES (DES)
This reversion to the V/S (FPA) mode on the current V/S target does not modify
the pitch behaviour of the aircraft.
It is the flight crew’s responsibility to change it as required.
FLIGHT CREW HDG OR TRK MODE ENGAGEMENT u DISENGAGEMENT OF
ASSOCIATED MODE ON THE VERTICAL AXIS
This reversion is due to the integration of the AP, FD, and A/THR with the FMS.
When the flight crew defines a F-PLN, the FMS considers this F-PLN as a whole
(lateral + vertical).
Therefore, the AP will guide the aircraft along the entire F-PLN:
• Along the LAT F-PLN (NAV -- APP NAV modes)
• Along the VERT F-PLN (CLB -- DES -- FINAL modes).
Vertical managed modes can only be used, if the lateral managed NAV mode is
used. If the flight crew decides to divert from the lateral F-PLN, the autopilot will
no longer guide the aircraft along the vertical F-PLN.
Therefore, in climb:
Lateral mode change and vertical mode reversion
OP CLB HDG
CLB NAV
If HDG or TRK mode is
engaged,
CLB reverts to OP CLB
In descent:
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
OP-030. P 16/18
08 JUL 08
OPERATIONAL PHILOSOPHY
A318/A319/A320/A321
AP / FD / ATHR
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
Lateral mode change and vertical mode reversion
DES NAV
If HDG or TRK mode is
engaged,
FINAL APP
or
V/S HDG
or
APP NAV FINAL
The vertical mode reverts
to V/S
G/S LOC
FPA TRK
This reversion to V/S (FPA) mode on the current V/S target does not modify the
pitch behavior of the aircraft. It is the flight crew’s responsibility to adapt pitch, if
necessary.
THE AIRCRAFT ENTERS A F-PLN DISCONTINUITY
NAV mode is lost, when entering a F-PLN discontinuity. On the lateral axis, the
aircraft reverts to HDG (or TRK) mode. On the vertical axis, the same reversion (as
the one indicated above) occurs.
THE PF MANUALLY FLIES THE AIRCRAFT WITH THE FD ON, AND DOES NOT
FOLLOW THE FD PITCH ORDERS
If the flight crew does not follow the FD pitch orders, an A/THR mode reversion
occurs. This reversion is effective, when the A/THR is in THRUST MODE (THR
IDLE, THR CLB), and the aircraft reaches the limits of the speed envelope (VLS,
VMAX):
Reversion to speed mode
FD ON
THR IDLE
OP DES
THR IDLE
DES
If the flight crew
pitches
The aircraft up,
And the speed
decreases
To VLS
FD ON
SPEED
V/S
SPEED
V/S
A/THR REVERTS TO SPEED MODE
FD ON
THR CLB
OP CLB
THR CLB
CLB
If the flight crew
pitches
The aircraft down, SPEED
And the speed
increases
To VMAX
SPEED
FD ON
V/S
V/S
A/THR REVERTS TO SPEED MODE
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
OP-030. P 17/18
08 JUL 08
OPERATIONAL PHILOSOPHY
A318/A319/A320/A321
AP / FD / ATHR
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
A/THR in SPEED mode automatically readjusts thrust to regain the target speed.
The FD bars will disappear, because they are not being followed by the PF.
TRIPLE CLICK
Ident.: OP-030-00005438.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: MSN 2180
The ”triple click” is an aural alert. It is an attention-getter, designed to draw the flight
crew’s attention to the FMA.
The PFD FMA highlights a mode change or reversion with a white box around the new
mode, and the pulsing of its associated FD bar.
The reversions, described in the previous paragraph, are also emphasized via the triple
click aural alert.
Note: The triple click also appears in the following, less usual, cases:
• SRS u CLB (OPCLB) reversion: If, the flight crew selects a speed on the FCU
• The V/S selection is ”refused” during ALT *: The flight crew pulls the V/S
knob, while in ALT*
• The V/S target is not followed, because the selected target is too high, and
leads to VMIN/VMAX.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
OP-030. P 18/18
08 JUL 08
OPERATIONAL PHILOSOPHY
A318/A319/A320/A321
ECAM
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
PURPOSE OF THE ECAM
Ident.: OP-040-00005443.0001001 / 09 JUN 08
Applicable to: ALL
The Electronic Centralized Aircraft Monitoring (ECAM) system is a main component of
Airbus’ two-crewmember cockpit, which also takes the ”dark cockpit” and ”forwardfacing crew” philosophies into account.
The purpose of the ECAM is to:
• Display aircraft system information
• Monitor aircraft systems
• Indicate required flight crew actions, in most normal, abnormal and emergency
situations.
As the ECAM is available in most failure situations, it is a significant step in the
direction towards a paperless cockpit and the reduction of memory items.
MAIN PRINCIPLES
Ident.: OP-040-00005444.0001001 / 02 JUN 08
Applicable to: ALL
INFORMATION PROVIDED WHEN NEEDED
One of the main advantages of the ECAM is that it displays applicable information to
the flight crew, on an ”as needed” basis. The following outlines the ECAM’s operating
modes:
• Normal Mode:
Automatically displays systems and memos, in accordance with the flight phase.
• Failure Mode:
Automatically displays the appropriate emergency/abnormal procedures, in addition
to their associated system synoptic.
• Advisory Mode:
Automatically displays the appropriate system synoptic, associated with a drifting
parameter.
• Manual Mode:
Enables the flight crew to manually select any system synoptic via the ECAM
Control Panel (ECP).
Most warnings and cautions are inhibited during critical phases of flight (T/O
INHIBIT -- LDG INHIBIT), because most system failures will not affect the aircraft’s
ability to continue a takeoff or landing.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
OP-040. P 1/10
08 JUL 08
OPERATIONAL PHILOSOPHY
A318/A319/A320/A321
ECAM
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
FAILURE LEVELS
The ECAM has three levels of warnings and cautions. Each level is based on the
associated operational consequence(s) of the failure. Failures will appear in a specific
color, according to a defined color-coding system, that advises the flight crew of the
urgency of a situation in an instinctive, unambiguous manner. In addition, Level 2 and
3 failures are accompanied by a specific aural warning: A Continuous Repetitive Chime
(CRC) indicates a Level 3 failure, and a Single Chime (SC) indicates a Level 2 failure.
Failure Level
Priority
Color Coding
Level 3
Level 2
Level 1
Safety
Abnormal
Degradation
Red
Amber
Amber
Aural
Warning
CRC
SC
None
Recommended Crew Action
Immediate
Awareness, then action
Awareness, then Monitoring
When there are several failures, the FWC displays them on the Engine Warning
Display (E/WD) in an order of priority, determined by the severity of the operational
consequences. This ensures that the flight crew sees the most important failures first.
FEEDBACK
The ECAM provides the flight crew with feedback, after action is taken on affected
controls:
• The System Synoptic:
Displays the status change of affected components.
• The Memo:
Displays the status of a number of systems selected by the flight crew (e.g. anti
ice).
• The Procedures:
When the flight crew performs a required action on the cockpit panel, the ECAM
usually clears the applicable line of the checklist (except for some systems or
actions, for which feedback is not available).
The ECAM reacts to both failures and pilot action.
ECAM HANDLING
Ident.: OP-040-00005445.0001001 / 26 JUN 08
Applicable to: ALL
Task sharing is essential to effective ECAM operation, particularly in the case of
abnormal operations.
NORMAL OPERATIONS
On ground, the ECAM MEMO is reviewed for feedback on temporarily-selected items
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(e.g. SEAT BELTS/IGNITION/ENG A/I), and to check whether IRs are aligned. If
alignment is not complete, the time remaining will be displayed. It is, therefore, not
necessary to refer to the OVHD panel.
In cruise, the main systems should periodically be reviewed during flight (ENG,
BLEED, ELEC AC/DC, HYD, FUEL, F/CTL), to ensure that they are operating
normally, and to detect any potential problem in advance.
The ECAM MEMO must be included in the instrument review. In cruise, in most of
the cases, it should be blank. It helps to make the flight crew aware of any system
that a flight crewmember temporarily selected, but forgot to deselect.
A STS label, displayed at the bottom of the E/WD, indicates that there is a STATUS
to be reviewed. Therefore, when a C/L calls for STATUS review, press STS, only if
the label appears.
If there is a STS at engine shutdown, it will pulse at the bottom of the E/WD. If this
is the case, the STATUS page should be reviewed for help in completing the technical
log.
ADVISORY MODE
The flight crewmember that first notices an advisory announces: ”ADVISORY on XYZ
system”. Then, the PF requests the PNF to review the drifting parameter. If time
permits, the PNF may refer to the QRH non normal procedures section, containing
recommended actions in various advisory situations.
FAILURE MODE
TASK SHARING RULES
When the ECAM displays a warning or a caution, the first priority is to ensure that
a safe flight path is maintained. The successful outcome of any ECAM procedure
depends on: Correct reading and application of the procedure, effective task sharing,
and conscious monitoring and crosschecking.
It is important to remember that, after ECAM ACTIONS announcement by the PF:
• The PF’s task is to fly the aircraft, navigate, and communicate.
• The PNF’s task is to manage the failure, on PF command.
The PF usually remains the PF for the entire flight, unless the Captain decides to
take control.
The PF will then control the aircraft’s flight path, speed, configuration, and engines.
The PF will also manage navigation and communication, and initiate the ECAM
actions to be performed by the PNF, and check that the actions are completed
correctly.
The PNF has a considerable workload: Managing ECAM actions and assisting the
PF on request. The PNF reads the ECAM and checklist, performs ECAM actions on
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PF command, requests PF confirmation to clear actions, and performs actions
required by the PF. The PNF never touches the thrust levers, even if requested by
the ECAM.
Some selectors or pushbuttons (including the ENG MASTER switch, FIRE
pushbutton, IR, IDG and, in general, all guarded switches) must be completely
crosschecked by both the PF and PNF, before they are moved or selected, to
prevent the flight crew from inadvertently performing irreversible actions.
To avoid mistakes in identifying the switches, Airbus’ overhead panels are designed
to be uncluttered. When the ECAM requires action on overhead panel pushbuttons
or switches, the correct system panel can be identified by referring to the white
name of the system on the side of each panel. Before performing any action, the
PNF should keep this sequence in mind: ”System, then procedure/selector, then
action” (e.g. ”air, crossbleed, close”). This approach, and announcing an intended
selection before action, enables the PNF to keep the PF aware of the progress of
the procedure.
It is important to remember that, if a system fails, the associated FAULT light on
the system pushbutton (located on the overhead panel) will come on in amber, and
enable correct identification.
When selecting a system switch or pushbutton, the PNF should check the SD to
verify that the selected action has occurred (e.g. closing the crossbleed valve should
change the indications that appear on the SD).
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Crew Coordination
1. The PNF should review the overhead panel and/or associated SD to analyze and
confirm the failure, prior to taking any action, and should bear in mind that the
sensors used for the SD may be different from the sensors that trigger the failure.
2. In case of a failure during takeoff or go-around, ECAM actions should be delayed
until the aircraft reaches approximately 400 ft, and is stabilized on a safe
trajectory. This is an appropriate compromise between stabilizing the aircraft and
delaying action.
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3. When the ECAM displays several failures, the sequence (action, then request and
confirmation, before clearance) should be repeated for each failure. When all
necessary actions are completed, amber messages and red titles will no longer
appear on the E/WD.
4. When the ECAM displays several system pages, the sequence (request and
confirmation before clearance) should be repeated for each system page.
5. The PF may call out ”STOP ECAM” at any time, if other specific actions must
be performed (normal C/L, or performing a computer reset). When the action is
completed, the PF must call out: ”CONTINUE ECAM”.
6. When slats are extended, the SD automatically displays the STATUS, unless if
the page is empty. The STS should be carefully reviewed, and the required
procedure applied.
7. When ECAM actions have been completed, and the ECAM status has been
reviewed, the PNF may refer to the FCOM procedure for supplementary
information, if time permits. However, in critical situations the flight should not
be prolonged only to consult the FCOM.
IF THE ECAM WARNING (OR CAUTION) DISAPPEARS WHILE APPLYING THE
PROCEDURE
If an ECAM warning disappears, while a procedure is being applied, the warning can
be considered no longer applicable. Application of the procedure can be stopped.
For example, during the application of an engine fire procedure, if the fire is
successfully extinguished with the first fire extinguisher bottle, the ENG FIRE
warning disappears, and the procedure no longer applies. Any remaining ECAM
procedures should be performed as usual.
SOME ADDITIONAL REMARKS
• There are very few memory items:
- Emergency descent initiation
- Immediate actions, in case of an unreliable speed indication
- Loss of braking
- Windshear (reactive and predictive)
- EGPWS and GPWS
- TCAS
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• LAND ASAP (As Soon As Possible):
- RED LAND ASAP :
Land as soon as possible at the nearest suitable airport at which a safe
approach and landing can be made.
- AMBER LAND ASAP:
Advice to the flight crew to consider landing at the nearest suitable airport.
Note: The CLOSEST AIRPORTS MCDU page may help the flight crew to
determine the nearest suitable airport: This page displays the four
airports that are the nearest to the aircraft’s current position. These
airports are found in the navigation database, and are displayed
regardless of their suitability. The flight crew should keep in mind that
the four closest airports are sorted according to distance, and should refer
to the Estimated Time of Arrival (ETA).
• OEB Reminder
Some Operational Engineering Bulletins (OEBs) contain information that may
impact flight crew action, in the event of a system failure. OEBs are filed in the
QRH.
If the OEB reminder function is activated for an ECAM warning/caution, the
ECAM will display the : ”Refer to QRH Proc” line, when necessary. This line may
appear instead of the procedure, or it may be added to the ECAM STATUS.
In such failure cases, the flight crew should refer to the applicable procedure in
the QRH.
• Some procedures require reference to the QRH
IN CASE OF AN ECAM SYSTEM FAULT
DISPLAY UNIT FAILURE
If one ECAM screen fails, the remaining one will display the E/WD. However, in
such a case, if a failure or advisory occurs, the system or status page are not
displayed automatically. The PNF can display a system synoptic on the remaining
display unit, by pressing the assigned system pushbutton on the ECP. The synoptic
will appear, as long as the pushbutton is pressed.
Therefore, in the case of an advisory and/or failure (indicated by an ADV flag that
pulses in white on the bottom of the E/WD), the PNF must call up the affected
system synoptic, by pressing the related pushbutton.
To review two or three pages of status messages: The PNF should release the STS
pushbutton for less than two seconds, then press and hold it again.
A double ECAM screen configuration can be recovered using the ECAM/ND
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switching selector:
• If the Captain is the PNF, the switch should be set to ”CPT”.
• If the First Officer is the PNF, the switch should be set to ”F/O”.
The applicable ND screen will then display the second ECAM image.
DMC FAILURES
In case all of the ECAM DMC channels fail, each flight crewmember may display
the engine standby page on their respective ND (generated by the DMCs’ EFIS
channel).
ECP FAILURE
In the case of an ECP failure, the CLR, RCL, STS, ALL and EMER CANCEL keys
will continue to operate, because they are hardwired to the FWC/DMC. Therefore,
the ”ALL” key can be used to scroll all SD pages and display the desired one (by
releasing the key, when the desired SD page appears).
FLUCTUATING CAUTION
Any fluctuating caution can be deleted with the EMER CANCEL pushbutton. When
pressed, the EMER CANCEL pushbutton deletes both the aural alert, and the
caution for the remainder of the flight. This is indicated on the STATUS page, by
the ”CANCELLED CAUTION” title. Any caution messages that have been inhibited
via the EMER CANCEL pushbutton can be recalled by pressing and holding the
RCL key for more than three seconds.
The EMER CANCEL pushbutton inhibits any aural warning that is associated with a
red warning, but does not affect the warning itself.
USE OF SUMMARIES
Ident.: OP-040-00005446.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
GENERAL
Summaries consist of QRH procedures, and are designed to assist the flight crew to
manage applicable actions, in the event of an EMER ELEC CONFIG or a dual
hydraulic failure.
In any case, ECAM actions should be applied first (actions and STATUS review). The
PNF should refer to the applicable QRH summary, only after announcing: ”ECAM
ACTIONS COMPLETED”.
When a failure occurs, and after performing the ECAM actions, the PNF should refer
to the ”CRUISE” section of the summary, to determine the landing distance
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coefficient. Due to the fact that normal landing distances also appear on this page,
the PNF can compute the landing distance with the failure, and decide whether or not
to divert.
APPROACH PREPARATION
As usual, approach preparation includes a review of the ECAM STATUS.
After reviewing the STATUS, the PNF should refer to the ”CRUISE” section of the
summary, to determine the VREF correction, and compute the VAPP.
This assumes that the PNF is aware of the computation method, and uses the VREF
displayed on the MCDU (with the updated destination). The summary provides a
VREF table, in the event that failure results in the loss of the MCDU.
The LANDING and GO-AROUND sections of the summary should be used for the
approach briefing.
APPROACH
To perform the APPR PROC, the APPROACH section of the summary should be
read (mainly because of the flap extension procedure, that does not entirely appear on
the ECAM).
This assumes that the recommendations, provided in this part of the summary are
sufficient for understanding, and that it will not be necessary for the flight crew to
consult the ”LANDING WITH FLAPS (SLATS) JAMMED” paper procedure.
The PNF should then review the ECAM STATUS, and check that all the APPR PROC
actions have been completed.
sequence
QRH SUMMARY
E/WD
PROC
3
1
CRUISE
5
In cruise
Decision
Vapp
APPR
SD
STATUS
2
Approach
preparation
4
8
7
LANDING
Approach
6
Briefing
GO AROUND
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
NO-PLP. PRELIMINARY PAGES
TABLE OF CONTENTS ....................................................................................................... 1/6
NO-010. GENERAL
INTRODUCTION......................................................................................................................1/4
USE OF NORMAL CHECK LIST ..............................................................................................1/4
COMMUNICATION ..................................................................................................................2/4
NO-020. PRE START
MEL ....................................................................................................................................... 1/20
HANDLING OF MAINTENANCE MESSAGES ON ECAM STATUS PAGE ............................. 3/20
SECURED AND TRANSIT STOP ........................................................................................... 3/20
SAFETY EXTERIOR INSPECTION ........................................................................................ 4/20
PRELIMINARY COCKPIT PREPARATION ............................................................................ 4/20
EXTERIOR INSPECTION ....................................................................................................... 5/20
ADIRS INITIALIZATION......................................................................................................... 6/20
COCKPIT PREPARATION ..................................................................................................... 7/20
MISCELLANEOUS ................................................................................................................ 20/20
NO-030. START
ENGINE AUTO START............................................................................................................1/4
average idle engine parameters ..................................................................................................2/4
ENGINE START MALFUNCTION ............................................................................................2/4
MANUAL ENGINE START.......................................................................................................2/4
TAILPIPE FIRE ........................................................................................................................3/4
ENGINES WARM UP PERIOD .................................................................................................3/4
After Start Flow Pattern ...........................................................................................................3/4
NO-040. TAXI
POWERPUSH......................................................................................................................... 1/10
TAXI ROLL AND STEERING ................................................................................................. 1/10
figures ..................................................................................................................................... 4/10
BRAKE CHECK ...................................................................................................................... 5/10
CARBON BRAKE WEAR........................................................................................................ 5/10
TAXI SPEED AND BRAKING ................................................................................................ 5/10
BRAKE TEMPERATURE ...................................................................................................... 6/10
BRAKING ANOMALIES.......................................................................................................... 6/10
Brake Fans r* .......................................................................................................................... 7/10
FLIGHT CONTROL CHECK ................................................................................................... 7/10
Takeoff Briefing Confirmation ................................................................................................. 8/10
TAXI WITH ONE ENGINE SHUTDOWN ............................................................................... 8/10
MISCELLANEOUS .................................................................................................................. 9/10
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TAXI FLOW PATTERN ....................................................................................................... 10/10
NO-050. TAKEOFF
THRUST SETTING ................................................................................................................ 1/10
TAKEOFF ROLL .................................................................................................................... 1/10
TYPICAL AIRCRAFT ATTITUDE AT TAKEOFF AFTER LIFT-OFF ..................................... 2/10
ROTATION ............................................................................................................................ 2/10
AIRCRAFT GEOMETRY......................................................................................................... 3/10
TAIL STRIKE AVOIDANCE.................................................................................................... 3/10
MAXIMUM DEMONSTRATED CROSSWIND FOR TAKE-OFF ............................................ 5/10
AP ENGAGEMENT ............................................................................................................... 5/10
VERTICAL PROFILE .............................................................................................................. 6/10
LATERAL PROFILE ............................................................................................................... 6/10
THRUST REDUCTION ALTITUDE ........................................................................................ 6/10
ACCELERATION ALTITUDE ................................................................................................. 7/10
TAKE-OFF AT HEAVY WEIGHT........................................................................................... 7/10
IMMEDIATE TURN AFTER TAKE-OFF ................................................................................ 8/10
LOW ALTITUDE LEVEL-OFF ................................................................................................ 8/10
NOISE ABATEMENT TAKE-OFF .......................................................................................... 8/10
NO-060. CLIMB
GENERAL.................................................................................................................................1/6
AP/FD CLIMB MODES ...........................................................................................................1/6
AP/FD CLIMB MODES ...........................................................................................................3/6
SPEED CONSIDERATIONS......................................................................................................4/6
VERTICAL PERFORMANCE PREDICTIONS............................................................................5/6
LATERAL NAVIGATION ..........................................................................................................5/6
10 000 ft FLOW PATTERN .....................................................................................................6/6
NO-070. CRUISE
PREFACE ............................................................................................................................... 1/14
FMS USE................................................................................................................................ 1/14
FMS USE: MISCELLANEOUS................................................................................................. 4/14
COST INDEX ......................................................................................................................... 4/14
SPEED CONSIDERATIONS.................................................................................................... 5/14
ALTITUDE CONSIDERATIONS ............................................................................................. 6/14
STEP CLIMB.......................................................................................................................... 6/14
EFFECT OF ALTITUDE ON FUEL CONSUMPTION ............................................................. 9/14
FUEL MONITORING .............................................................................................................. 9/14
FUEL TEMPERATURE ........................................................................................................ 10/14
APPROACH PREPARATION ............................................................................................... 10/14
APPROACH BRIEFING ........................................................................................................ 12/14
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NO-080. DESCENT
PREFACE .................................................................................................................................1/8
COMPUTATION PRINCIPLES .................................................................................................1/8
GUIDANCE AND MONITORING ..............................................................................................2/8
MODE REVERSION .................................................................................................................6/8
MODE REVERSION .................................................................................................................6/8
DESCENT CONSTRAINTS.......................................................................................................6/8
10 000 ft FLOW PATTERN .....................................................................................................8/8
NO-090. HOLDING
PREFACE .................................................................................................................................1/2
HOLDING SPEED AND CONFIGURATION..............................................................................1/2
IN THE HOLDING PATTERN ..................................................................................................1/2
NO-100. APPROACH GENERAL
PREFACE ............................................................................................................................... 1/16
INITIAL APPROACH .............................................................................................................. 1/16
INTERMEDIATE APPROACH................................................................................................ 5/16
FINAL APPROACH ................................................................................................................ 8/16
VAPP ................................................................................................................................... 10/16
GROUND SPEED MINI ........................................................................................................ 11/16
NO-110. ILS APPROACH
PREFACE .................................................................................................................................1/6
INITIAL APPROACH ................................................................................................................1/6
INTERMEDIATE APPROACH..................................................................................................2/6
FINAL APPROACH ..................................................................................................................2/6
ILS RAW DATA .......................................................................................................................4/6
NO-120. NON PRECISION APPROACH
PREFACE ............................................................................................................................... 1/10
APPROACH STRATEGY........................................................................................................ 1/10
LIMITATIONS ........................................................................................................................ 1/10
INITIAL APPROACH .............................................................................................................. 2/10
INTERMEDIATE APPROACH................................................................................................ 3/10
FINAL APPROACH ................................................................................................................ 7/10
REACHING THE MINIMA ...................................................................................................... 8/10
LOC ONLY APPROACH......................................................................................................... 8/10
LOC BACK COURSE APPROACH ......................................................................................... 9/10
NO-130. CIRCLING APPROACH
PREFACE .................................................................................................................................1/4
APPROACH PREPARATION ...................................................................................................1/4
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FINAL INSTRUMENT APPROACH ..........................................................................................2/4
CIRCLING APPROACH ............................................................................................................2/4
NO-140. VISUAL APPROACH
INITIAL APPROACH ................................................................................................................1/4
INTERMEDIATE/FINAL APPROACH ......................................................................................2/4
NO-150. PRECISION APPROACH
GENERAL.................................................................................................................................1/8
DEFINITION.............................................................................................................................1/8
FLIGHT PREPARATION ..........................................................................................................2/8
APPROACH PREPARATION ...................................................................................................3/8
APPROACH PROCEDURE .......................................................................................................5/8
FAILURE AND ASSOCIATED ACTIONS..................................................................................7/8
AUTOLAND IN CAT 1 OR BETTER WEATHER CONDITIONS ..............................................7/8
NO-160. LANDING
PREFACE ............................................................................................................................... 1/12
MAIN GEAR CLEARANCE ..................................................................................................... 1/12
FLARE.................................................................................................................................... 2/12
MAXIMUM DEMONSTRATED CROSSWIND FOR LANDING ............................................... 3/12
CALL OUT ............................................................................................................................. 3/12
DEROTATION ....................................................................................................................... 4/12
ROLL OUT ............................................................................................................................. 4/12
BRAKING .............................................................................................................................. 5/12
FACTORS AFFECTING LANDING DISTANCE....................................................................... 8/12
CLEARANCE AT TOUCH DOWN ........................................................................................ 10/12
TAIL STRIKE AVOIDANCE.................................................................................................. 10/12
NO-170. GO AROUND
PREFACE .................................................................................................................................1/6
CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT GO-AROUND ..............................................................................1/6
AP/FD GO-AROUND PHASE ACTIVATION............................................................................1/6
GO-AROUND PHASE...............................................................................................................2/6
ENGINES ACCELERATION ......................................................................................................3/6
LEAVING THE GO-AROUND PHASE .....................................................................................4/6
REJECTED LANDING ..............................................................................................................5/6
NO-180. TAXI IN
BRAKE FANS r* ......................................................................................................................1/4
BRAKE TEMPERATURE .........................................................................................................1/4
ENGINES COOLING PERIOD ...................................................................................................2/4
TAXI WITH ONE ENGINE SHUTDOWN .................................................................................2/4
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AFTER LANDING FLOW PATTERN .......................................................................................3/4
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INTRODUCTION
Ident.: NO-010-00005440.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
The NORMAL OPERATIONS Chapter outlines the techniques that should be applied
for each flight phase, in order to optimize the use of Airbus aircraft. This chapter must
be read in parallel with the FCOM, which provides normal procedures, and their
associated tasksharing, callouts, and checklists.
All of these flying techniques are applicable to normal conditions.
Other techniques applicable to adverse weather conditions, Refer to SI-010 GENERAL.
There are flow patterns at the end of some flight phases to indicate where the actions
are to be performed. All flight crewmembers must apply the flow patterns, to ensure
that the flight crew performs the actions necessary for a specific flight phase, before
completing an applicable checklist.
USE OF NORMAL CHECK LIST
Ident.: NO-010-00005441.0001001 / 27 JUN 08
Applicable to: ALL
Airbus’ NORMAL CHECKLIST takes into account ECAM information, and includes only
those items that can directly impact flight safety and efficiency, if actions are not
correctly performed. These checklists are of a ”non-action” type (i.e. all actions should
be completed from memory before the flight crew performs the checklist).
The NORMAL CHECKLIST includes 9 flight phases. The BEFORE START, BEFORE
TAKEOFF, and AFTER TAKEOFF checklists are divided in two sections: The ”Down
to the Line” section, and the ”Below the Line” section. This format is designed to help
flight crews to manage the workload.
For example, the ”BEFORE START - Down to the Line” checklist may be called out, as
soon as the Load and Trim Sheet is available and takeoff data is set. On the other hand,
the ”BEFORE START - Below the Line” checklist may be called out after obtaining
start-up clearance.
The Pilot Flying (PF) requests the NORMAL CHECKLIST, and the Pilot Non Flying
(PNF) reads it. The checklist actions are referred to as ”challenge/response”-type
actions. The PF ”responds” to the ”challenge” only after checking the current status of
the aircraft.
If the configuration does not correspond to the checklist response, the PF must take
corrective action before ”responding” to the ”challenge”. If corrective action is not
possible, then the PF must modify the response to reflect the real situation (with a
specific answer). When necessary, the other flight crewmember must crosscheck the
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validity of the response. The challenger (PNF) waits for a response before proceeding
with the checklist. For the checklist items that are identified as ”AS RQRD”, the
response should correspond to the real condition or configuration of the system.
The PNF must announce ”LANDING CHECKLIST COMPLETED”, after reading and
completing the checklist.
COMMUNICATION
Ident.: NO-010-00005442.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
EMERGENCY CALL
Some abnormal/emergency procedures require flight and cabin crews to use specific
phraseology when communicating with each other. To ensure effective communication
between the flight and cabin crews, the standard phraseology may be recalled at the
preflight phase.
FROM
cockpit
TO
cabin
Cockpit
Cabin
cockpit
cabin
cockpit
cabin
cabin
cockpit
PHRASEOLOGY
Passenger Address (PA) System:
”PURSER TO COCKPIT,
PLEASE!”
Passenger Address (PA) System:
”ATTENTION CREW! AT
STATIONS!”
Passenger Address (PA) System:
”CABIN CREW and
PASSENGERS REMAIN
SEATED!”
Passenger Address (PA) System:
”PASSENGERS EVACUATE!”
Interphone:
”PRIO CAPT”
REMARKS
The Purser, or any other cabin
crewmember, must go to the cockpit
An emergency evacuation may soon be
required.
The captain decides that an evacuation is
not required
The captain orders an immediate
evacuation
Any crew member can make such a call.
The flight crew must reply.
CROSS-COCKPIT COMMUNICATION
The term ”cross-cockpit communication” refers to communication between the PF
and the PNF. This communication is vital for any flight crew. Each time one flight
crewmember adjusts or changes information and/or equipment on the flight deck, the
other flight crewmember must be notified, and an acknowledgement must be obtained.
Such adjustments and changes include:
• FMGS alterations
• Changes in speed or Mach
• Tuning navigation aids
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-010. P 2/4
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
GENERAL
• Flight path modifications
• System selections (e.g. anti-ice system).
When using cross-cockpit communication, standard phraseology is essential to ensure
effective flight crew communication. This phraseology should be concise and exact,
and is defined in the FCOM (Refer to FCOM/PRO-NOR-SOP-27
COMMUNICATIONS AND STANDARD TERMS).
The flight crew must use the headset:
• From the ENGINE START phase until the TOP OF CLIMB phase
• From The TOP OF DESCENT phase until the aircraft is parked.
STERILE COCKPIT RULE
When the aircraft is below 10 000 ft, any conversation that is not essential should be
avoided: This includes conversations that take place in the cockpit, or between the
flight and cabin crewmembers. It is important to adhere to this policy, in order to
facilitate communication between both of the flight crew, and to ensure the effective
communication of emergency or safety-related information, between flight and cabin
crew members.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-010. P 3/4
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
GENERAL
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
Intentionally left blank
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-010. P 4/4
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
PRE START
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
MEL
Ident.: NO-020-00005447.0001001 / 11 JUN 08
Applicable to: ALL
GENERAL
The Master Minimum Equipment List (MMEL) is published by the aircraft
manufacturer. It is a certified document that enables an aircraft to be dispatched, with
some equipment, or functions inoperative. Some limitations, operational procedures
and/or maintenance procedures may have to be performed. The Minimum Equipment
List (MEL) is published by the operator, and approved by local authorities. It must be
at least as restrictive as MMEL. The MMEL cannot be used to replace the MEL.
Aircraft can be dispatched with one, or more, secondary airframe part/parts missing.
In this case, the flight crew must refer to the Configuration Deviation List (CDL), in
the Aircraft Flight Manual.
MMEL PHILOSOPHY
To introduce an item in the MMEL, the manufacturer must demonstrate first that the
consequences of the system failure are no more than minor on the flight. The
manufacturer must demonstrate then, that the next critical failure, i.e. the failure that
has the most critical effect on aircraft operation when added to the initial failure,
maintains the level of safety.
In some cases, this level of safety is maintained provided (o) or (m) procedures are
observed.
As an example, the aircraft dispatch with one pack inoperative induces a flight level
limitation whereas a pack failure in flight does not induce a flight level limitation.
ATA 100 FORMAT
All items/equipment listed in the MEL are identified using the Air Transport
Association (ATA) format. The ATA is the official reference for the classification of
aircraft systems and/or functions. The aircraft systems/functions are classified with six
digits.
For example, 21-52-01 refers to:
21: ATA 21: Air conditioning
52: Air-cooling system
01: Air conditioning pack
MEL DESCRIPTION
The MEL has four parts:
• ECAM warnings/ MEL entry
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-020. P 1/20
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
PRE START
• List of items that may be inoperative for dispatch
• Associated operational procedures
• Associated maintenance procedures
MEL OPERATIONAL USE
The MEL usually applies to revenue flights, and should be consulted before taxi out. If
a failure occurs during taxi out, and before the take off roll starts, the decision to
continue the flight is subject to pilot judgment and good airmanship. The Captain
may consult the MEL before deciding to continue the flight (particularly if the failure
has an effect on the takeoff performance).
During preliminary cockpit preparation, the flight crew must press the RCL P/B, for
at least 3 s, in order to recall any previous cautions or warnings that have been
cleared or cancelled. The flight crew should consult the technical logbook to confirm
that the indications are compatible with the MEL.
A failure may occur if a Circuit Breaker (C/B) disengages. When on ground, do not
re-engage any fuel pump C/Bs. The flight crew may re-engage any other tripped
C/Bs, provided that the action is coordinated with the maintenance team, and the
cause of the tripped C/B is identified.
The MEL section 0 is called ECAM Warnings/MEL Entry. The purpose of this section
is to help the flight crew to determine the MEL entry point, when an ECAM
caution/warning message triggers. The ECAM Warnings/MEL Entry section provides
the relationship between the ECAM caution/warnings, and MEL items, if applicable.
If a failed item does not appear in the MEL, it is not possible to dispatch the aircraft.
However, items that do not affect the airworthiness of the aircraft, such as galley
equipment, entertainment systems, or passenger convenience items, do not appear in
the MEL: The dispatch applicability of these items is not relevant to the MEL.
In most cases, if the failed item appears in the MEL, the dispatch of the aircraft is
authorized, provided that all dispatch conditions are fulfilled:
• Check the rectification time interval has not expired
• Consider location and, where repair is possible
• (*) Means that an INOP placard is required
• (O) Means that a specific operational procedure or limitation is required (all listed in
the MEL OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES Chapter)
• (M) Means that a specific maintenance procedure is required.
When the MEL requires both maintenance and operational procedures, the
maintenance procedures must be performed before applying the operational
procedures.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-020. P 2/20
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
PRE START
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
MMEL symbol
A318/319/320/321
MASTER MINIMUM EQUIPMENT LIST
MASTER MINIMUM EQUIPMENT LIST
1 . SYSTEM AND SEQUENCE NUMBERS
AUTO FLIGHT
01−22
SEQ 001
P7
REV 27
2 . RECTIFICATION INTERVAL
3 . NUMBER INSTALLED
4 . NUMBER REQUIRED FOR DISPATCH
ITEM
5 . REMARKS OR EXCEPTIONS
82−01 Multipurpose Control
Display Unit (MCDU)
C − 1
*
MCDU 1 or MCDU 2 must be operative.
83−01 FMGC
C 2 1
* (o)
Except for ER operations, one may
be inoperative.
Refer to 22−10−01, and
Refer to 22−10−02, and
Refer to 22−72−01.
83−02 FMA Indication on PFD
AI AP related Indication
C 1 −
a) One or more indications may be
imperative on one FMA.
C − −
b) Except for ER operations, one or
− or −
These symbols indicate requirements for a specific procedure:
(m) maintenance,
(o) operational,
(*) requires a placard in the cockpit.
If some items are mandatory for ETOPS dispatch, a mention ”ER” (Extended Range)
is added but mandatory items for CATII, CATIII operations, RNP and RVSM may be
not mentioned in the MMEL. However, the MEL should include these requirements.
If it is not the case,
• Mandatory items for CATII/III are available in QRH
• Mandatory items for RVSM are available in FCOM (Refer to FCOM/PRO-SPO-50
REQUIRED EQUIPMENT/FUNCTIONS FOR RVSM)
• Mandatory items for RNP are available in FCOM (Refer to FCOM/PRO-SPO-51
BRNAV IN EUROPEAN AIRSPACE)
HANDLING OF MAINTENANCE MESSAGES ON ECAM STATUS PAGE
Ident.: NO-020-00005448.0002001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
Dispatch with maintenance message displayed on ECAM STATUS page is allowed
without specific conditions except for:
• AIR BLEED: Refer to MEL 36-00-01.
SECURED AND TRANSIT STOP
Ident.: NO-020-00005449.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
If the last checklist performed by the flight crew is SECURING THE AIRCRAFT C/L,
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-020. P 3/20
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
PRE START
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
the aircraft is in SECURED STOP. After a SECURED STOP, the flight crew must
perform all items in the Standard Operations Procedure (SOP), for the next flight.
If the last checklist performed by the flight crew is PARKING C/L, the aircraft is in
TRANSIT STOP.
After a TRANSIT STOP, items indicated by (*), are the only steps to be completed for
TRANSIT PREPARATION. i.e. PRELIMINARY COCKPIT PREPARATION,
EXTERIOR INSPECTION, and COCKPIT PREPARATION.
SAFETY EXTERIOR INSPECTION
Ident.: NO-020-00005450.0001001 / 11 JUN 08
Applicable to: ALL
Safety exterior inspection is performed to ensure that the aircraft and its surroundings
are safe for operations. Items that should be checked include:
• Chocks in place
• Doors status
• Ground crew present
• Aircraft environment
PRELIMINARY COCKPIT PREPARATION
Ident.: NO-020-00005451.0001001 / 25 JUN 08
Applicable to: ALL
OBJECTIVES
The objectives of the preliminary cockpit preparation are:
• To ensure that all safety checks are performed before applying electrical power:
- The RCL pb is pressed for at least 3 s to display the cautions and warnings from
the previous flight.
- The technical logbook and MEL are checked at this stage.
• To check the liquid levels i.e. oil, hydraulic and oxygen pressure using
- The HYD pb is pressed to check the hydraulic level
- The ENG pb is pressed to check engine oil level (Refer to FCOM/PRO-NORSOP-04-C BEFORE WALK-AROUND - ECAM)
- The DOOR pb is pressed, to check the oxygen pressure level
• To check the position of surface control levers e.g. slats/flaps, parking brake.
During the Preliminary Cockpit Preparation, the flight crew must also review all OEBs
applicable to the aircraft. The flight crew must pay a particular attention to the red
OEBs, and more particularly to the red OEBs that must be applied before the ECAM
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-020. P 4/20
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
PRE START
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
procedure.
OXYGEN
The ECAM S/D DOOR page displays the oxygen pressure. When the oxygen pressure
is below a defined threshold, an amber half box highlights the value. This advises the
flight crew that the bottle should be refilled. The flight crew should refer to the
minimum flight crew oxygen pressure (Refer to FCOM/LIM-35 COCKPIT FIXED
OXYGEN SYSTEM). The prolonged dispatch of the aircraft in such condition is not
recommended.
EXTERIOR INSPECTION
Ident.: NO-020-00005452.0001001 / 11 JUN 08
Applicable to: ALL
Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) outline the various elements that the flight crew
must review in greater detail. The objectives of the exterior inspection are:
• To obtain a global assessment of the aircraft status. Any missing parts or panels will
be checked against the Configuration Deviation List (CDL) for possible dispatch and
any potential operational consequences.
• To ensure that main aircraft surfaces are in adequate position relative to surface
control levers.
• To check that there are no leaks e.g. engine drain mast, hydraulic lines.
• To check the status of the essential visible sensors i.e. AOA, pitot and static probes.
• To observe any possible abnormalities on the landing gear status:
- Wheels and tires status (cut, wear, cracks)
- Safety pins are removed
- Brakes status (Brake wear pin length with parking brake ON)
- Length of oleo. Any difference between the two main landing gears shall be
reported.
• To observe any possible abnormality on the engines:
- Fan blades, turbine exhaust, engine cowl and pylon status
- Access door closed
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-020. P 5/20
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
PRE START
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
ADIRS INITIALIZATION
Ident.: NO-020-00005453.0001001 / 11 JUN 08
Applicable to: ALL
ALIGNMENT: Gyro and altimeters get ready for
NAV computation
2 steps
INITIALIZATION: Navigation starting point is set
ALIGNMENT
At the beginning of the pre-flight checks, the crew sets the ADIRS selectors to NAV,
in order to start alignment.
The alignment takes approximately 10 min, and must be completed before pushback
(before any aircraft movement).
IN TRANSIT:
ADIRS re-alignment is only necessary, if one of the ADIRS displays a residual
ground speed greater than 5 kt.
In this case, a rapid re-alignment should be performed on all 3 IRSs (by setting all
the ADIRS to OFF, then all back to ON within 5 s). The fast alignment takes
approximately one minute. It involves setting the ground speed to 0, and updating
the IRS position to the position of the coordinates on the INITA page (usually
airport reference coordinates).
A complete re-alignment is only recommended for Long-range flights, especially if
flown outside radio NAVAID coverage with Aircraft not equipped with GPS.
INITIALIZATION
The F-PLN origin airport coordinates are extracted from the FMS database. These
coordinates appear on the MCDU INITA page, and are normally used for initialization.
They are the airport reference coordinates.
If a high navigation performance is desired, (i.e. for long-range flights without GPS
and without radio navigation updates, or if low RNP operation is expected), the crew
should adjust the airport reference coordinates to the gate coordinates, provided that
this data is published or available on board. In this case, the flight crew should use the
slew keys successively for Latitude and Longitude, instead of inserting the coordinates
on the scratchpad, (in order to avoid errors).
When performing the BEFORE START C/L, the flight crew will check that the IRS
IN ALIGN ECAM MEMO no longer appears, to indicate that the ADIRS are in NAV
mode.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-020. P 6/20
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
PRE START
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
The crew will check on the POSITION MONITOR page, that the distance between
IRS and FMS position is lower than 5 nm. This will permit to detect any gross error
for IRS initialization, which is not visible as long as GPS PRIMARY is available.
Checking runway and SID display on the ND in comparison with the aircraft symbol
representing the aircraft present position, (ARC or NAV mode, range 10 nm) during
taxi, is a good way to check the global consistency of FMGS entries (Position and
flight plan).
”RESET IRS TO NAV” MCDU MESSAGE
When the ADIRS are in NAV mode, and new origin airport coordinates are inserted,
the RESET IRS TO NAV message triggers.
This occurs in transit, when the flight crew enters a new CO-RTE, or enters a new
FROM-TO airport pair on the INIT A page, and does not re-align the ADIRS.
In this case, check the coordinates on the INITA page and compare them with:
• The coordinates of the origin airport, that are provided on the Airport chart, in
order to detect a possible error in airport entry
• The ADIRS position (IRS monitor page).
In most cases the ADIRS position and the airport position do not differ significantly.
Therefore, the message may be cleared without realigning the IRSs.
COCKPIT PREPARATION
Ident.: NO-020-00005454.0001001 / 27 JUN 08
Applicable to: MSN 0781-0852
FLOW PATTERN
The scan pattern varies, depending on the pilot status, i.e PF, PNF, CM1, or CM2,
and the areas of responsibility:
1. Overhead panel: Extinguish any white lights
2. Center instrument panel
3. pedestal
4. FMGS preparation, and when both pilots are seated:
5. Glareshield
6. Lateral consoles and CM1/CM2 panels
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-020. P 7/20
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
PRE START
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
Cockpit preparation flow pattern
FMGS PROGRAMMING
FMGS programming involves inserting navigation data, then performance data. It is to
be noted that:
• Boxed fields must be filled
• Blue fields inform the crew that entry is permitted
• Green fields are used for FMS generated data, and cannot be changed
• Magenta characters identify limits (altitude, speed or time), that FMS will attempt
to meet
• Yellow characters indicate a temporary flight plan display
• Amber characters signify that the item being displayed is important and requires
immediate action
• Small font signifies that data is FMS computed
• Large font signifies manually entered data.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-020. P 8/20
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
PRE START
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
1
2
Navigation
Status
Init A
F−PLN
(SEC F−PLN)
RAD NAV
3
DIR
PROG
PERF
INIT
DATA
F−PLN
RAD
NAV
FUEL
PRED
SEC
F−PLN
ATC
COMM
5
A
4B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
AIR
PORT
OFF
MCDU
MENU
M
C
F
A
2
Performance
Init B
PERF
1
DIR
PROG
PERF
INIT
DATA
F−PLN
RAD
NAV
FUEL
PRED
SEC
F−PLN
ATC
COMM
A
B
C
D
F
G
H
I
J
A
B
C
D
E
AIR
PORT
1
F
A
I
or
OFF
MCDU
MENU
E
M
C
D
NEXT
PAGE
This sequence of entry is the most practical. INIT B should not be filled immediately
after INIT A, because the FMGS would begin to compute F-PLN predictions. These
computations would slow down the entry procedure.
To obtain correct predictions, the fields of the various pages must be completed
correctly, with available planned data for the flight:
• DATA
The database validity, NAVAIDs and waypoints (possibly stored in previous flight),
and PERF FACTOR must be checked on the STATUS page.
• INIT A
The INIT A page provides access to aircraft present position. The flight crew will
check that it corresponds to the real aircraft position. (Refer to NO-020 ADIRS
INITIALIZATION).
The history wind is the vertical wind profile that has been encountered during the
previous descent and should be entered at this stage if it is representative of the
vertical wind profile for the next flight.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-020. P 9/20
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
PRE START
• F-PLN
The F-PLN A page is to be completed thoroughly including:
- The take-off runway
- SID
- Altitude and speed constraints
- Correct transition to the cruise waypoint
- Intended step climb/descents, according to the Computerized Flight Plan (CFP).
If time permits, the wind profile along the flight plan may be inserted using vertical
revision through wind prompt.
The flight crew should also check the overall route distance (6th line of the F-PLN
page), versus CFP distance.
• SEC F-PLN
The SEC F-PLN should be used to consider an alternate runway for take-off, a
return to departure airfield or a routing to a take-off alternate.
• RAD NAV
The RAD NAV page is checked, and any required NAVAID should be manually
entered using ident. If a NAVAID is reported on NOTAM as unreliable, it must be
deselected on the MCDU DATA/POSITION MONITOR/SEL NAVAID page.
• INIT B
The flight crew:
- Inserts the expected ZFWCG/ZFW, and block fuel to initialize a F-PLN
computation.
- Checks fuel figures consistent with flight preparation fuel figures.
The flight crew will update weight and CG on receipt of the load sheet.
After Engine start, the INIT B page is no longer available. The flight crew should
use the FUEL PRED page for weight and fuel data insertion, if required.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-020. P 10/20
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
PRE START
• PERF
The thrust reduction altitude/acceleration altitude (THR RED /ACC) are set to
default at 1 500 ft, or at a value defined by airline policy. The THR RED/ACC may
be changed in the PERF TAKE-OFF page, if required. The flight crew should
consider the applicable noise abatement procedure.
The one-engine-out acceleration altitude must:
- Be at least 400 ft above airport altitude
- Ensure that the net flight path is 35 ft above obstacles
- Ensure that the maximum time for takeoff thrust is not exceeded.
Therefore, there are generally a minimum and a maximum one engine out
acceleration altitude values. The minimum value satisfies the first two criteria. The
maximum value satisfies the last one. Any value between those two may be
retained.
The one engine out acceleration altitude is usually defaulted to 1 500 ft AGL and
will be updated as required.
The flight crew uses the PERF CLB page to pre-select a speed. For example, ”Green
Dot” speed for a sharp turn after take-off.
The crew may also check on the PROG page the CRZ FL, MAX REC FL and OPT
FL.
Once the FMGS has been programmed, the PNF should then cross check the
information prior to the take-off briefing.
*
When the predictions are available, the crew may print the PREFLIGHT DATA r.
This listing provides all the predictions which may be used during the initial part of
the flight.
TAKE-OFF BRIEFING
The PF should perform the takeoff briefing at the gate , when the flight crew
workload permits, Cockpit preparation has been completed and, before engine start.
The takeoff briefing should be relevant, concise and chronological. When a main
parameter is referred to by the PF, both flight crewmembers must crosscheck that the
parameter has been set or programmed correctly. The takeoff briefing covers the
following:
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-020. P 11/20
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
PRE START
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
Take off briefing with associated checks
1- Miscellaneous
Aircraft type and model (Tail strike awareness)
Aircraft technical status (MEL and CDL considerations, relevant OEB)
NOTAMS
Weather
RWY conditions
Use of ENG/Wing Anti Ice
ENG Start Procedure
Push Back
Expected Taxi Clearance
Use of Radar
Use of Packs for Takeoff
2- INIT B Page
Block Fuel (1)
Estimated TOW
Extra time at destination
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
(FOB on EW/D)
NO-020. P 12/20
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
PRE START
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
3- Takeoff Perf Page
TO RWY
TO CONF
FLEX / TOGA
(1)
(FLEX TOGA on E/WD)
(1)
(V1, V2 on PFD)
V1, VR, V2
TRANS ALT
THR RED / ACC Altitude
4- Flight Plan
Minimum Safe Altitude
First assigned FL
Flight Plan description
RAD NAV
(altitude target in blue on PFD)
(1)
(SID on MCDU FPLN page)
(1)
(RAD NAV on ND)
(1)
5- Abnormal Operations
For any failure before V1:
CAPT will call ”STOP” or ”GO”
In case of failure after V1:
continue TO, no actions before 400 ft AGL except gear up
reaching 400 ft AGL, ECAM actions
reaching EO ACC altitude, stop ECAM, push for ALT, acceleration and clean up
at green dot: OP CLB, MCT, continue ECAM, after TO C/L, status
ENG OUT routing: EOSID, SID, radar vector, immediate return ...
(1)
Items that must be cross-checked on the associated display.
FMS UPDATING
When the load and trim sheet is available, the crew will:
• Updates the ZFWCG/ZFW
• Checks TOW consistent with load sheet
• Checks updated fuel figures
• Modify the FLEX TEMP and the take-off speeds as required
• Enter the THS position in PERF TAKE OFF page
When the predictions are available, the crew will print the pre-flight data.
COCKPIT PREPARATION
Ident.: NO-020-00005454.0002001 / 27 JUN 08
Applicable to: MSN 1320-2180
FLOW PATTERN
The scan pattern varies, depending on the pilot status, i.e PF, PNF, CM1, or CM2,
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-020. P 13/20
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
PRE START
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
and the areas of responsibility:
1. Overhead panel: Extinguish any white lights
2. Center instrument panel
3. pedestal
4. FMGS preparation, and when both pilots are seated:
5. Glareshield
6. Lateral consoles and CM1/CM2 panels
Cockpit preparation flow pattern
FMGS PROGRAMMING
FMGS programming involves inserting navigation data, then performance data. It is to
be noted that:
• Boxed fields must be filled
• Blue fields inform the crew that entry is permitted
• Green fields are used for FMS generated data, and cannot be changed
• Magenta characters identify limits (altitude, speed or time), that FMS will attempt
to meet
• Yellow characters indicate a temporary flight plan display
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-020. P 14/20
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
PRE START
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
• Amber characters signify that the item being displayed is important and requires
immediate action
• Small font signifies that data is FMS computed
• Large font signifies manually entered data.
1
2
Navigation
Status
Init A
F−PLN
(SEC F−PLN)
RAD NAV
3
DIR
PROG
PERF
INIT
DATA
F−PLN
RAD
NAV
FUEL
PRED
SEC
F−PLN
ATC
COMM
5
A
4B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
AIR
PORT
OFF
MCDU
MENU
M
C
F
A
2
Performance
Init B
PERF
1
DIR
PROG
PERF
INIT
DATA
F−PLN
RAD
NAV
FUEL
PRED
SEC
F−PLN
ATC
COMM
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
A
B
C
D
E
AIR
PORT
1
F
A
I
or
OFF
MCDU
MENU
M
C
D
NEXT
PAGE
This sequence of entry is the most practical. INIT B should not be filled immediately
after INIT A, because the FMGS would begin to compute F-PLN predictions. These
computations would slow down the entry procedure.
To obtain correct predictions, the fields of the various pages must be completed
correctly, with available planned data for the flight:
• DATA
The database validity, NAVAIDs and waypoints (possibly stored in previous flight),
and PERF FACTOR must be checked on the STATUS page.
• INIT A
The INIT A page provides access to aircraft present position. The flight crew will
check that it corresponds to the real aircraft position. (Refer to NO-020 ADIRS
INITIALIZATION).
The history wind is the vertical wind profile, that has been encountered during the
previous descent and should be entered at this stage if it is representative of the
vertical wind profile for the next flight.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-020. P 15/20
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
PRE START
• F-PLN
The F-PLN A page is to be completed thoroughly including:
- The take-off runway
- SID
- Altitude and speed constraints
- Correct transition to the cruise waypoint
- Intended step climb/descents, according to the Computerized Flight Plan (CFP).
If time permits, the wind profile along the flight plan may be inserted using vertical
revision through wind prompt.
The flight crew should also check the overall route distance (6th line of the F-PLN
page), versus CFP distance.
• SEC F-PLN
The SEC F-PLN should be used to consider an alternate runway for take-off, a
return to departure airfield or a routing to a take-off alternate.
• RAD NAV
The RAD NAV page is checked, and any required NAVAID should be manually
entered using ident. If a NAVAID is reported on NOTAM as unreliable, it must be
deselected on the MCDU DATA/POSITION MONITOR/SEL NAVAID page.
• INIT B
The flight crew:
- Inserts the expected ZFWCG/ZFW, and block fuel to initialize a F-PLN
computation.
- Checks fuel figures consistent with flight preparation fuel figures.
The flight crew will update weight and CG on receipt of the load sheet.
The FMS uses the trip wind for the entire flight from origin to destination. The trip
wind is an average wind component that may be extracted from the CFP. The trip
wind facility is available if the wind profile has not already been entered.
After Engine start, the INIT B page is no longer available. The flight crew should
use the FUEL PRED page for weight and fuel data insertion, if required.
The INIT B page should not be completed immediately after INIT A, because the
FMGS would begin to compute F-PLN predictions. This would slow down the entry
procedure.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-020. P 16/20
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
PRE START
• PERF
The thrust reduction altitude/acceleration altitude (THR RED /ACC) are set to
default at 1 500 ft, or at a value defined by airline policy. The THR RED/ACC may
be changed in the PERF TAKE-OFF page, if required. The flight crew should
consider the applicable noise abatement procedure.
The one-engine-out acceleration altitude must:
- Be at least 400 ft above airport altitude
- Ensure that the net flight path is 35 ft above obstacles
- Ensure that the maximum time for takeoff thrust is not exceeded.
Therefore, there are generally a minimum and a maximum one engine out
acceleration altitude values. The minimum value satisfies the first two criteria. The
maximum value satisfies the last one. Any value between those two may be
retained.
The one engine out acceleration altitude is usually defaulted to 1 500 ft AGL and
will be updated as required.
The flight crew uses the PERF CLB page to pre-select a speed. For example, ”Green
Dot” speed for a sharp turn after take-off.
The crew may also check on the PROG page the CRZ FL, MAX REC FL and OPT
FL.
Once the FMGS has been programmed, the PNF should then cross check the
information prior to the take-off briefing.
*
When the predictions are available, the crew may print the PREFLIGHT DATA r.
This listing provides all the predictions which may be used during the initial part of
the flight.
TAKE-OFF BRIEFING
The PF should perform the takeoff briefing at the gate , when the flight crew
workload permits, Cockpit preparation has been completed and, before engine start.
The takeoff briefing should be relevant, concise and chronological. When a main
parameter is referred to by the PF, both flight crewmembers must crosscheck that the
parameter has been set or programmed correctly. The takeoff briefing covers the
following:
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-020. P 17/20
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
PRE START
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
Take off briefing with associated checks
1- Miscellaneous
Aircraft type and model (Tail strike awareness)
Aircraft technical status (MEL and CDL considerations, relevant OEB)
NOTAMS
Weather
RWY conditions
Use of ENG/Wing Anti Ice
ENG Start Procedure
Push Back
Expected Taxi Clearance
Use of Radar
Use of Packs for Takeoff
2- INIT B Page
Block Fuel (1)
Estimated TOW
Extra time at destination
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
(FOB on EW/D)
NO-020. P 18/20
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
PRE START
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
3- Takeoff Perf Page
TO RWY
TO CONF
FLEX / TOGA
(1)
(FLEX TOGA on E/WD)
(1)
(V1, V2 on PFD)
V1, VR, V2
TRANS ALT
THR RED / ACC Altitude
4- Flight Plan
Minimum Safe Altitude
First assigned FL
Flight Plan description
RAD NAV
(altitude target in blue on PFD)
(1)
(SID on MCDU FPLN page)
(1)
(RAD NAV on ND)
(1)
5- Abnormal Operations
For any failure before V1:
CAPT will call ”STOP” or ”GO”
In case of failure after V1:
continue TO, no actions before 400 ft AGL except gear up
reaching 400 ft AGL, ECAM actions
reaching EO ACC altitude, stop ECAM, push for ALT, acceleration and clean up
at green dot: OP CLB, MCT, continue ECAM, after TO C/L, status
ENG OUT routing: EOSID, SID, radar vector, immediate return ...
(1)
Items that must be cross-checked on the associated display.
FMS UPDATING
When the load and trim sheet is available, the flight crew:
• Updates the ZFWCG/ZFW
• Checks that the TOW is consistent with the load sheet
• Checks the updated fuel figures
• Changes the FLEX TEMP and the take-off speeds as required
• Enters the THS position on the PERF TAKE OFF page
When the predictions are available, the flight crew prints out the pre-flight data.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-020. P 19/20
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
PRE START
MISCELLANEOUS
Ident.: NO-020-00005455.0001001 / 25 JUN 08
Applicable to: ALL
SEATING POSITION
To achieve a correct seating position, the aircraft is fitted with an eye-position
indicator on the centre windscreen post. The eye-position indicator has two balls on it.
When the balls are superimposed on each other, they indicate that the pilot’s eyes are
in the correct position.
The flight crew should not sit too low, to avoid increasing the cockpit cut-off angle,
therefore reducing the visual segment. During Low Visibility Procedures (LVP), it is
important that the pilot’s eyes are positioned correctly, in order to maximize the visual
segment, and consequently, increase the possibility of achieving the appropriate visual
reference for landing as early as possible.
After adjusting the seat, each pilot should adjust the outboard armrest, so that the
forearm rests comfortably on it, when holding the sidestick. There should be no gaps
between the pilot’s forearm and the armrest. The pilot’s wrist should not be bent
when holding the sidestick. This ensures that the pilot can accomplish flight
maneuvers by moving the wrist instead of lifting the forearm from the armrest.
Symptoms of incorrect armrest adjustment include over-controlling, and not being able
to make small, precise inputs.
The rudder pedals must then be adjusted to ensure the pilot can achieve both full
rudder pedal displacement and full braking simultaneously on the same side.
The armrest and the rudder pedals have position indicators. These positions should be
noted and set accordingly for each flight.
MCDU USE
When clear for start up and taxi, the PF will preferably display the MCDU PERF
TAKE OFF page whereas the PNF will display the MCDU F-PLN page.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-020. P 20/20
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
START
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
ENGINE AUTO START
Ident.: NO-030-00005456.0002001 / 16 JUN 08
Applicable to: ALL
Engines usually start using the Automatic Starting function. The Full Authority Digital
Engine Control (FADEC) systems control this engine Automatic Starting function, and
takes appropriate action, if engine parameters are exceeded. This function extends
significantly the duration of engine life.
The thrust levers must be confirmed at ”idle” before engine-start. If the thrust levers are
not at ”idle”, the thrust increases above idle after engine-start, and can result in a
hazardous situation. However, an ENG START FAULT ECAM warning triggers, to
indicate that the flight crew must set the thrust levers to ”idle”.
The engines are started in sequence, preferably engine 2 first, in order to pressurize
yellow hydraulic system, which supplies the parking brake accumulator.
When the ENG START selector is set to ”START”, the FADECs are electricallysupplied. When there is sufficient BLEED PRESS, the PF begins the start sequence by
setting the ENG MASTER switch to ON. The flight crew should monitor the start
sequence:
- Start valve opens
- N2 increases
- IGN A(B)
- Fuel flow
- EGT
- N1
- Oil pressure increases
- Start valve closes
- IGN indication off (Refer to FCOM/PRO-NOR-SOP-08 AUTOMATIC ENGINE
START)
After reaching the peak EGT, or when AVAIL is displayed, the PF can start engine 1.
The flight crew should check the relative engine vibration level.
When the ENG START selector is set to NORM, the packs return to the OPEN
position. APU Bleed should immediately be turned off, to avoid engine ingestion of
exhaust gas.
If the start is not successful, the flight crew must use the ECAM as usually done, and
avoid instinctively selecting the ENG MASTER switch to OFF. This would interrupt the
FADEC protective actions (e. g. cranking after hot start).
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-030. P 1/4
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
START
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
AVERAGE IDLE ENGINE PARAMETERS
Ident.: NO-030-00005457.0003001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
As soon as the engine-start is complete, the flight crew should check the stabilized
parameters. At ISA sea level:
N1 about 19.5 %
N2 about 58.5 %
EGT about 390 ˚C
FF about 275 kg/h- 600 lb/h
ENGINE START MALFUNCTION
Ident.: NO-030-00005458.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
Following an aborted engine start, the crew will consider an engine dry cranking prior
resuming a new engine start attempt. Starter limitations in FCOM, Refer to
FCOM/LIM-70 STARTER, must be observed.
MANUAL ENGINE START
Ident.: NO-030-00005459.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
The flight crew should only perform a manual start if:
• The EGT margins are low
• The residual EGT is high
• A dry crank is performed.
It may be appropriate to perform a manual start in high altitude operations, or after an
aborted engine start.
The MANUAL ENGINE START procedure is a ”read and do” procedure. Refer
to FCOM/99 Duref cible before starting a manual engine start.
The FADEC has limited control over the manual start process. It ensures that the engine
start valve closes at 50 % N2. It monitors engine parameters, and generates an
associated warning when necessary.
It is recommended that the flight crew use the stopwatch to ensure that the starter
engagement time remains within the limits.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-030. P 2/4
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
START
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
TAILPIPE FIRE
Ident.: NO-030-00005460.0001001 / 28 MAY 08
Applicable to: ALL
An engine tailpipe fire may occur at engine-start, and may be the result of either excess
fuel in the combustion chamber, or an oil leak in the low-pressure turbine. A tailpipe fire
is an internal fire within the engine. No critical areas are affected.
If the ground crew reports a tailpipe fire, the flight crew must perform the following
actions:
• Shut down the engine (MASTER switch set to OFF)
• Do NOT press the ENG FIRE pushbutton
• Crank the engine, by using either the bleed of the opposite the engine, the APU bleed,
or external pneumatic power (Set ENG START selector to CRANK, then set the
MAN START switch to ON).
Do NOT use the ENG FIRE pushbutton, this would stop power to the FADECs, and
would stop the motoring sequence. The fire extinguisher must not be used, as it will not
extinguish an internal engine fire. As a first priority, the engine must be ventilated.
If the ground crew reports a tailpipe fire, and bleed air is not readily available, a ground
fire-extinguisher should be used as last resort: Chemical or dry chemical powder causes
serious corrosive damage to the engine.
ENGINES WARM UP PERIOD
Ident.: NO-030-00005461.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
After engine-start, and in order to avoid thermal shock of the engine, the engine should
be operated at idle or near idle (Refer to FCOM/PRO-NOR-SOP-09-A AFTER START
- ENG MODE selector) before setting the thrust lever to high power. The warm-up can
include any taxi time at idle.
AFTER START FLOW PATTERN
Ident.: NO-030-00005462.0001001 / 26 JUN 08
Applicable to: ALL
When the engines have started, the PF sets the ENG MODE selector to NORM to
permit normal pack operation. At this time, the After Start Flow Pattern begins.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-030. P 3/4
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
START
NO-030. P 4/4
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
TAXI
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
POWERPUSH
Ident.: NO-040-00005463.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
If a Power Push Unit (PPU) is to be used for pushback, the PPU will be placed on the
left main landing gear and engine 2 will be started at the gate. This will pressurize the
yellow hydraulic circuit for parking brake. The nose wheel steering, on green hydraulic
circuit, is ensured via the PTU. Prior push back, check that there is no NWS DISC
memo on the EWD.
The flight crew is in charge of the steering according to ground indications through the
interphone. Due to a face-to-face situation between ground personnel and flight crew, a
clear understanding of directional phraseology is essential. The engine 1 will be started
when the power push is completed and PPU removed.
During power push, the crew will not use the brakes, unless required due to an
emergency and will not move flight controls or flap lever.
In case of emergency, the PPU should be immediately removed out of the evacuation
area. Nevertheless, cabin evacuation is possible with the PPU in place.
TAXI ROLL AND STEERING
Ident.: NO-040-00005464.0001001 / 30 MAY 08
Applicable to: ALL
Before taxi, check that the amber ”NWS DISC” ECAM message is off, to ensure that
steering is fully available.
THRUST USE
Only a little power is needed above thrust idle, in order to get the aircraft moving (N1
40 %). Excessive thrust application can result in exhaust-blast damage or Foreign
Object Damage (FOD). Thrust should normally be used symmetrically.
TILLER AND RUDDER PEDALS USE
Pedals control nosewheel steering at low speed (± 6 ˚ with full pedal deflection).
Therefore, on straight taxiways and on shallow turns, the pilot can use the pedals to
steer the aircraft, keeping a hand on the tiller. In sharper turns, the pilot must use the
tiller.
STEERING TECHNIQUE
The Nosewheel steering is ”by-wire” with no mechanical connection between the tiller
and the nosewheel. The relationship between tiller deflection and nosewheel angle is
not linear and the tiller forces are light.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-040. P 1/10
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
TAXI
STEERING
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
20
0
40
60
80
TILLER
Therefore, the PF should move the tiller smoothly and maintain the tiller’s position.
Any correction should be small and smooth, and maintained for enough time to enable
the pilot to assess the outcome. Being over-active on the tiller will cause
uncomfortable oscillations.
On straight taxiways, the aircraft is correctly aligned on the centerline, when the
centerline is lined-up between the PFD and ND.
Proper centerline following
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OFF
ON
PARK BRK
If both pilots act on the tiller or pedals, their inputs are added until the maximum
value of the steering angle (programmed within the BSCU) is reached.
When the seating position is correct, the cut-off angle is 20 ˚, and the visual ground
geometry provides an obscured segment of 42 ft (12.5 m). During taxi, a turn must
be initiated before an obstacle approaches the obscured segment. This provides both
wing and tail clearance, with symmetric thrust and no differential braking.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-040. P 2/10
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
TAXI
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
Asymmetric thrust can be used to initiate a tight turn and to keep the aircraft moving
during the turn. If nosewheel lateral skidding occurs while turning, reduce taxi speed
or increase turn radius. Avoid stopping the aircraft in a turn, because excessive thrust
will be required to start the aircraft moving again.
The flight crew should be aware that the main gear on the inside of a turn will always
cut the corner and track inside of the nosewheel track. For this reason, the
oversteering technique may be considered especially for A321 where main gear is 20 m
behind the pilot.
Oversteering technique
When exiting a tight turn, the pilot should anticipate the steer out. Additionally, the
pilot should allow the aircraft to roll forward for a short distance to minimize the
stress on the main gears.
In the event that one or more tires is/are deflated on the main landing gear, the
maximum permitted steering angle will be limited by the aircraft speed. Therefore,
with one tire deflated, the aircraft speed is limited to 7 kt and nosewheel steering can
be used. With two tires deflated, the aircraft speed is limited to 3 ktand nosewheel
steering angle should be limited to 30 ˚.
For turns of 90 ˚ or more, the aircraft speed should be less than 10 kt.
180 ˚ TURN
For turn of 180˚, the following procedure is recommended for making a turn in the
most efficient way.
For the CM1
• Taxi on the right hand side of the runway and turn left to establish a 25 ˚
divergence from the runway axis (using the ND or PFD) with a ground speed
between 5 kt and 8 kt
• When CM1 assesses to be physically over the runway edge, smoothly initiate a full
deflection turn to the right
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-040. P 3/10
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
TAXI
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
• Asymmetric thrust will be used during the turn. Anticipation is required to ensure
that asymmetric thrust is established before the turn is commenced, between 30 %
and 35 % (or 1.02 and 1.03 EPR), to maintain a continuous speed of approximately
5 to 8 kt throughout the manoeuvre
• It is essential to keep minimum ground speed during the turn in order not to need
to increase the thrust too significantly so as not to get stuck. It is a good practice
that the CM2 calls the GS from ND while in turn
• Differential braking is allowed, but a braked pivot turn is not recommended as a
general rule (i.e. braking to fully stop the wheels on one main gear), to avoid stress
on the landing gear assembly
• On wet or contaminated runway, more specifically when turning on the runway
white or yellow painted marking, tight turn lead to jerky rides of the nose wheel
which are noisy and uncomfortable.
For the CM2, the procedure is symmetrical (taxi on the left hand side of the runway).
Aircraft dimensions
180° TURN DONE BY CM1
CM1 PHYSICALLY
OVER THE RUNWAY EDGE
NOSEWHEEL
CLEARANCE : 1.6m (5.3ft)
MAIN GEAR
CLEARANCE : 2m (6.6ft)
R6
A
EFFECTIVE
TURN
STEERING 70°
ANGLE 75°
Y
MINIMUM
THEORITICAL
PAVEMENT
WIDTH FOR
180° TURN
*
R3
R
5
R4
THEORITICAL CENTER OF TURN FOR
MINIMUM TURNING RADIUS :
− SLOW CONDINUOUS TURNING
− SYMMETRICAL THRUST
− NO DIFFERENTIAL BRAKING
− DRY SURFACE
25°
FIGURES
Ident.: NO-040-00005465.0003001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: MSN 1320-1637, 1777-2180
Y
R3
R4
R5
R6
NWS Limit
Angle
Minimum Runway
Width with
Asymmetric Thrust
15 ft 1 in
4.61 m
45 ft 5 in
13.84 m
72 ft 2 in
21.99 m
60 ft
18.3 m
71 ft 1 in
21.91 m
75 ˚
30 m
99 ft
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-040. P 4/10
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
TAXI
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
FIGURES
Ident.: NO-040-00005465.0005001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: MSN 0781-0852, 1720
Y
R3
R4
R5
R6
NWS Limit
Angle
Minimum Runway
Width with
Asymmetric Thrust
16 ft 9 in
5.1 m
59 ft 1 in
18 m
74 ft 6 in
22.7 m
74 ft 2 in
22.6 m
80 ft 5 in
24.5 m
75 ˚
32 m
105 ft
It must be noted that since R6 > R4, wing obstacle clearance does not imply tail
obstacle clearance
BRAKE CHECK
Ident.: NO-040-00005466.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
When cleared to taxi, the PF should set the Parking Brake to ”OFF”. When the aircraft
starts to move, the PF should check the efficiency of the normal braking system by
gently pressing the brake pedals, to ensure that the aircraft slows down. The PNF
should also check the triple brake indicator to ensure that brake pressure drops to zero.
This indicates a successful changeover to the normal braking system.
CARBON BRAKE WEAR
Ident.: NO-040-00005467.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
Carbon brake wear depends on the number of brake applications and on brake
temperature. It does not depend on the applied pressure, or the duration of the braking.
The temperature at which maximum brake wear occurs depends on the brake
manufacturer. Therefore, the only way the pilot can minimize brake wear is to reduce
the number of brake applications.
TAXI SPEED AND BRAKING
Ident.: NO-040-00005468.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
On long, straight taxiways, and with no ATC or other ground traffic constraints, the PF
should allow the aircraft to accelerate to 30 kt, and should then use one smooth brake
application to decelerate to 10 kt. The PF should not ”ride” the brakes. The GS
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-040. P 5/10
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
TAXI
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
indication on the ND should be used to assess taxi speed.
BRAKE TEMPERATURE
Ident.: NO-040-00005469.0001001 / 28 MAY 08
Applicable to: ALL
The FCOM limits brake temperature to 300 ˚C before takeoff is started.
This limit ensures that, in the case of hydraulic fluid leakage, any hydraulic fluid, that
may come into contact with the brake units, will not be ignited in the wheelwell.
This limit does not ensure that, in the case of a high energy rejected takeoff, the
maximum brake energy limitation will be respected.
Thermal oxidation increases at high temperatures. Therefore, if the brakes absorb too
much heat, carbon oxidation will increase. This is the reason why the brakes should not
be used repeatedly at temperatures above 500 ˚C during normal operation. In addition,
after heavy braking, the use of brake fans r* can increase oxidation of the brake surface
hot spots, if the brakes are not thermally equalized.
BRAKING ANOMALIES
Ident.: NO-040-00005470.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: MSN 1320
If the ACCU PRESS drops below 1 500 PSI, the flight crew should be aware that the
Parking Brake can, quite suddenly, become less efficient. This explains the amber range
on the hydraulic pressure gauge of the ACCU PRESS.
If the flight crew encounters any braking problems during taxi, they should set the
A/SKID & N/W STRG Sw to OFF. They should not apply pressure to the pedals while
setting the A/SKID & N/W STRG Sw to OFF. Then, the PF should refer to the triple
brake indicator and modulate the pressure as necessary.
When parking brake is ON, pressing the pedals has no effect on braking. Consequently,
if for any reason the aircraft moves forward while the park brake is ON, the parking
brake must be released in order to get braking efficiency from the pedals.
BRAKING ANOMALIES
Ident.: NO-040-00005470.0002001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: MSN 0781-0852, 1637-2180
If the ACCU PRESS drops below 1 500 PSI, the flight crew should be aware that the
Parking Brake can, quite suddenly, become less efficient. This explains the amber range
on the hydraulic pressure gauge of the ACCU PRESS.
If the flight crew encounters any braking problems during taxi, they should set the
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-040. P 6/10
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
TAXI
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
A/SKID & N/W STRG Sw to OFF. They should not apply pressure to the pedals while
setting the A/SKID & N/W STRG Sw to OFF. Then, the PF should refer to the triple
brake indicator and modulate the pressure as necessary.
BRAKE FANS r*
Ident.: NO-040-00005471.0001001 / 28 MAY 08
Applicable to: MSN 1320-1637, 1777-2180
Brake fans cool the brakes, and the brake temperature sensor. Therefore, when the
brake fans are running, the indicated brake temperature will be significantly lower than
the indicated brake temperature when the brake fans are off.
Therefore, as soon as the brake fans are switched on, the indicated brake temperature
decreases almost instantaneously. On the other hand, when the brake fans are switched
off, it will take several minutes for the indicated brake temperature to increase and
match the real brake temperature.
When the fans are running, the difference between the indicated and the actual brake
temperature can range from 50 ˚C (when the actual brake temperature is 100 ˚C) to
150 ˚C (when the actual brake temperature is 300 ˚C). Therefore, before takeoff, if
the fans are running, the flight crew should refer to the indicated brake temperature.
When the indicated brake temperature is above 150 ˚C, takeoff must be delayed.
Brake fans should not be used during takeoff, in order to avoid Foreign Object Damage
to fans and brakes.
FLIGHT CONTROL CHECK
Ident.: NO-040-00005472.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
At a convenient stage, before or during taxi, and before arming the autobrake, the PF
silently applies full longitudinal and lateral sidestick deflection. On the F/CTL page, the
PNF checks and calls out full travel of elevators and ailerons, and correct deflection and
retraction of spoilers. As each full travel/neutral position is reached, the PNF calls out:
• ”Full up, full down, neutral”
• ”Full left, full right, neutral”
The PF silently checks that the PNF calls are in accordance with the sidestick order.
The PF then presses the PEDAL DISC pb on the nose wheel tiller and silently applies
full left and full right rudder and then returns the rudder to neutral. The PNF follows on
the rudder pedals and, when each full travel/neutral position is reached, calls out:
• ”Full left, full right, neutral”
Full control input must be held for sufficient time for full travel to be reached and
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-040. P 7/10
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
TAXI
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
indicated on F/CTL page.
The PNF then applies full longitudinal and lateral sidestick deflection, and on the
F/CTL page, silently checks full travel and correct sense of all elevators and ailerons,
and correct deflection and retraction of all spoilers.
If this check is carried out during taxiing, it is essential that the PF remains head-up
throughout the procedure.
TAKEOFF BRIEFING CONFIRMATION
Ident.: NO-040-00005473.0001001 / 28 MAY 08
Applicable to: ALL
Takeoff briefing should usually be a brief confirmation of the full takeoff briefing made
at the parking bay and should include any changes that may have occurred, e.g. change
of SID, change in runway conditions etc.
If ATC clears the aircraft to maintain a specific heading after takeoff, turn the FCU
HDG selector to disarm the NAV. The current aircraft heading will be displayed on the
FCU and the ND, and the flight crew can then set the cleared heading. Once airborne,
and above 30 ft, RA, RWY TRK engages. To apply the clearance, the FCU HDG knob
should be pulled. Once cleared to resume the SID, a HDG adjustment may be necessary
to intercept the desired track for NAV capture.
TAXI WITH ONE ENGINE SHUTDOWN
Ident.: NO-040-00005474.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
Brake life and fuel savings may govern company policy on permitting aircraft to taxi
with one engine shut down. However, if taxiing out with one engine shutdown, the crew
should be aware of the following:
• It is recommended to retain the use of engine 1 during taxi to maintain the green
hydraulic system for normal braking and NWS.
• Before releasing the parking brake, the yellow electrical pump will be set ON to
pressurize the yellow hydraulic system (ALT/PARK BRK) and avoid PTU operation.
The crew will check the hydraulic yellow accumulator pressure.
• Slow or tight turns in the direction of the operating engine may not be possible at
high gross weights.
• It is not possible for ground personnel to protect the engine against fire, when the
aircraft moves away from the ramp.
• The remaining engines should be started with sufficient time for engine warm-up
before takeoff.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-040. P 8/10
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
TAXI
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
• Any faults encountered during or after starting the remaining engine may require a
return to the gate for maintenance and thus generate a further departure delay.
• Taxi with one engine shut down may require higher thrust than usual. Caution must,
therefore, be exercised to avoid excessive jet-blast and the risk of Foreign Object
Damage (FOD).
• The use of APU is recommended but the APU bleed should be switched off to avoid
ingestion of exhaust gases by the air conditioning system.
• Before ENG2 start,
- The yellow pump is set off to check correct operation of the PTU
- APU BLEED is set back to ON for ENG2 bleed start.
MISCELLANEOUS
Ident.: NO-040-00005475.0001001 / 28 MAY 08
Applicable to: ALL
STROBE LIGHT r*
When the STROBE lights are set to AUTO, they come on automatically when the
aircraft is airborne. The ON position can be used to turn on the lights on ground for
crossing, backtracking or entering a runway.
PACKS
If the takeoff has to be achieved without air bleed fed from the engines for
performance reasons, but air conditioning desired, the APU bleed may be used with
packs ON, thus maintaining engine performance level and passenger comfort. In case
of APU auto shut down during takeoff, the engine thrust is frozen till the thrust is
manually reduced. The packs revert to engine bleed which causes an increase of EGT
to keep N1/EPR.
If the takeoff is performed with one pack unserviceable, the procedure states to set the
failed pack to OFF. The takeoff may be performed with the other pack ON (if
performances permit) with TOGA or FLEX thrust, the pack being supplied by the
onside bleed. In this asymmetric bleed configuration, the N1 takeoff value is limited to
the value corresponding to the bleed ON configuration and takeoff performance must
be computed accordingly.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-040. P 9/10
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
TAXI
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
TAXI FLOW PATTERN
Ident.: NO-040-00005476.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
TAXI FLOW PATTERN
°
9 0
m bar
4
113°
20 NM
18:35
1.6
EPR
4
EGT
°C
420
10
4
100.
N1
%
1
F.F
1530
8
30
+99.
440
95.
N2
%
8
14
KG/H
1500
FOB: 13000
LDG GEAR
KG
UNLK
S
10
4
1.503
CL
1.223
1
8
T/O MEMO
4
AUTOBRAKE
1.2
1.6
1.223
1
3
ALT
6
1.4
1.2
2
7
°
1.4
1
15
UNLK
UNLK
ON
2
AUTO/BRK
99. 9 +
SEAT BELTS
HOT
F
FLAP
1
MAX
* FLT CTL
5
LO
MED
DECEL
DECEL
ON
ON
3
3
30
3°
NM
35
A/SKID &
N/W STRG
ON
DECEL
ON
OFF
VOR2
ATH
UP
9 0 1
2
DME L
DME R
AVIONIC−−−−
24
33 0 3
15 18 21
V
O
R
ADF
CABIN−−−SLIDE
6 9 12
27 30
4
3
SLIDE−−−CABIN
EMER
−−−SLIDE
EXIT
EMER
SLIDE−−−
EXIT
4
1
3
1
BRAKES
PSI 1000
DOWN
DY HR
M
MO
I
DATE
−−−−CARGO
CABIN−−−SLIDE
0
0
CABIN−−−SLIDE
SET
V/S
PRESS
ACCU
SLIDE−−−CABIN
−−−−CARGO
V
O
R
ADF
C
m bar
50
SLIDE−−−CABIN
R
U
N
min.
MO
40
400 Ft/MN
N
10
CHR
h
T
3
ALT
6
CKPT OXY
1850 PSI
U
7
DOOR/OXY
UTC
h
min.
DY
20
ET
ET
RUN
ST
OP
CHR
RST
0
0
0
4
T.O.
CONFIG
0
0
ENG
BLEED
PRESS
APU
COND
DOOR
0
EMER
CANC
EL/AC
WHEEL
EL/DC
FUEL
ALL
F/CTL
T/O CONFIG
RADAR/PWS
OVHD INTEG LT
MAN V/S
MAN V/S
OFF
1
ENG
1
GND
SPEED
BRAKE
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
0
MAN V/S
BRT
2
ENG
2
ARMED
RET
RET
1/2
1/2
0
0
1
1
2
2
ATC
NO-040. P 10/10
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
TAKEOFF
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
THRUST SETTING
Ident.: NO-050-00005477.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
The PF should announce ”Take-off”. The PF then applies power in as follows:
If cross wind is at or below 20 kt and there is no tail wind
• From idle to 1.05 EPR / 50 % N1 by reference to the TLA indicator on the EPR /
N1 gauge.
• When the engine parameters have stabilized, to the FLX/MCT or TOGA detent as
appropriate.
Thrust Lever Angle
TLA symbol
25.9
1.014
In case of tailwind or if cross wind is greater than 20 kt:
• From idle to 1.05 EPR / 50 % N1 by reference to the TLA indicator on the EPR /
N1 gauge.
• Once stabilized, from 1.05 EPR / 50 % N1 to 1.15 EPR / 70 % N1 by reference to
the TLA indicator on the EPR / N1 gauge.
• Then, to FLX / TOGA, as required to reach take-off thrust by 40 kt groundspeed.
This procedure ensures that all engines will accelerate similarly. If not properly applied,
this may lead to asymmetrical thrust increase, and, consequently, to severe directional
control problem.
If the thrust levers are not set to the proper take-off detent, e.g. FLX instead of TOGA,
a message comes up on the ECAM.
TAKEOFF ROLL
Ident.: NO-050-00005478.0001001 / 03 JUL 08
Applicable to: ALL
Once the thrust is set, the PF announces the indications on the FMA. The PNF must
check that the thrust is set by 80 kt and must announce ”Thrust Set”.
The Captain must keep his hand on the thrust levers when the thrust levers are set to
TOGA/FLX notch and until V1.
On a normal takeoff, to counteract the pitch up moment during thrust application, the
PF should apply half forward (full forward in cross wind case) sidestick at the start of
the takeoff roll until reaching 80 kt. At this point, the input should be gradually reduced
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-050. P 1/10
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
TAKEOFF
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
to be zero by 100 kt.
The PF should use pedals to keep the aircraft straight. The nosewheel steering authority
decreases at a pre-determined rate as the groundspeed increases (no more efficiency at
130 kt) and the rudder becomes more effective. The use the tiller is not recommended
during takeoff roll, because of its high efficiency, which might lead to aircraft
overreaction.
For crosswind takeoffs, routine use of into wind aileron is not necessary. In strong
crosswind conditions, small lateral stick input may be used to maintain wings level, if
deemed necessary due to into wind wing reaction, but avoid using large deflections,
resulting in excessive spoiler deployment which increase the aircraft tendency to turn
into the wind (due to high weight on wheels on the spoiler extended side), reduces lift
and increases drag. Spoiler deflection becomes significant with more than a third
sidestick deflection.
As the aircraft lifts off, any lateral stick input applied will result in a roll rate demand,
making aircraft lateral control more difficult. Wings must be level.
In case of low visibility takeoff, visual cues are primary means to track the runway
centerline. The PFD yaw bar provides an assistance in case of expected fog patches if
ILS available.
TYPICAL AIRCRAFT ATTITUDE AT TAKEOFF AFTER LIFT-OFF
Ident.: NO-050-00005479.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
At take off, the typical all engine operating attitude after lift-off is about 15 ˚.
ROTATION
Ident.: NO-050-00005480.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
Rotation is conventional. During the takeoff roll and the rotation, the pilot flying scans
rapidly the outside references and the PFD. Until airborne, or at least until visual cues
are lost, this scanning depends on visibility conditions (the better the visibility, the
higher the priority given to outside references). Once airborne, the PF must then
controls the pitch attitude on the PFD using FD bars in SRS mode which is then valid.
Initiate the rotation with a smooth positive backward sidestick input (typically 1/3 to
1/2 backstick). Avoid aggressive and sharp inputs.
The initial rotation rate is about 3 ˚/s.
If the established pitch rate is not satisfactory, the pilot must make smooth corrections
on the stick. He must avoid rapid and large corrections, which cause sharp reaction in
pitch from the aircraft. If, to increase the rotation rate, a further and late aft sidestick
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-050. P 2/10
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
TAKEOFF
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
input is made around the time of lift-off, the possibility of tailstrike increases
significantly on A321.
During rotation, the crew must not chase the FD pitch bar, since it does not give any
pitch rate order, and might lead to overreaction.
Once airborne only, the crew must refine the aircraft pitch attitude using the FD, which
is then representative of the SRS orders. The fly-by-wire control laws change into flight
normal law, with automatic pitch trim active.
AIRCRAFT GEOMETRY
Ident.: NO-050-00005481.0003001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: MSN 1320-1637, 1777-2180
Tail strike pitch attitude
L/G compressed
L/G extended
11.7 ˚
13.5 ˚
AIRCRAFT GEOMETRY
Ident.: NO-050-00005481.0005001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: MSN 0781-0852, 1720
Tail strike pitch attitude
L/G compressed
L/G extended
9.7 ˚
11.2 ˚
TAIL STRIKE AVOIDANCE
Ident.: NO-050-00005482.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
INTRODUCTION
If tailstrike it is not a concern for the A318, the importance of this subject increases
as fuselage length increases. Therefore, it is particularly important for A321 operators.
Tail strikes can cause extensive structural damage, which can jeopardize the flight and
lead to heavy maintenance action. They most often occur in such adverse conditions
as crosswind, turbulence, windshear, etc.
MAIN FACTORS
EARLY ROTATION
Early rotation occurs when rotation is initiated below the scheduled VR. The
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-050. P 3/10
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
TAKEOFF
potential reasons for this are:
• The calculated VR is incorrect for the aircraft weight or flap configuration.
• The PF commands rotation below VR due to gusts, windshear or an obstacle on
the runway.
Whatever the cause of the early rotation, the result will be an increased pitch
attitude at lift-off, and consequently a reduced tail clearance.
ROTATION TECHNIQUE
The recommendation given in the ROTATION TECHNIQUE paragraph should be
applied.
A fast rotation rate increases the risk of tailstrike, but a slow rate increases take-off
distance. The recommended rate is about 3 ˚/s, which reflects the average rates
achieved during flight test, and is also the reference rate for performance
calculations.
CONFIGURATION (NOT APPLICABLE TO A318)
When performance is limiting the takeoff weight, the flight crew uses TOGA thrust
and selects the configuration that provides the highest takeoff weight.
When the actual takeoff weight is lower than the permissible one, the flight crew
uses FLEX TO thrust. For a given aircraft weight, a variety of flap configurations
are possible. Usually, the flight crew selects the configuration that provides the
maximum FLEX temperature. This is done to prolong engine life. The first degrees
of flexible thrust have an impact on maintenance costs about 5 times higher than
the last one.
The configuration that provides the maximum FLEX temperature varies with the
runway length.
On short runways, CONF 3 usually provides the highest FLEX temperature, and the
tail clearance at lift off does not depends on the configuration.
On medium or long runways, the second segment limitation becomes the limiting
factor, and CONF 2 or CONF 1+F becomes the optimum configuration, in term of
FLEX temperature. In these cases, the tail clearance at lift off depends on the
configuration. The highest flap configuration gives the highest tailstrike margin.
TAKEOFF TRIM SETTING
The main purpose of the pitch trim setting for take-off is to provide consistent
rotation characteristics. Take-off pitch trim is set manually via the pitch trim wheel.
The aircraft performs a safe takeoff, provided the pitch trim setting is within the
green band on the pitch trim wheel.
However, the pitch trim setting significantly affects the aircraft behaviour during
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-050. P 4/10
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
TAKEOFF
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
rotation:
• With a forward CG and the pitch trim set to the nose-down limit the pilots will
feel an aircraft ”heavy to rotate” and aircraft rotation will be very slow in
response to the normal take off stick displacement.
• With an aft CG and the pitch trim set to the nose-up limit the pilots will most
probably have to counteract an early autorotation until VR is reached.
In either case the pilot may have to modify his normal control input in order to
achieve the desired rotation rate, but should be cautious not to overreact.
CROSSWIND TAKEOFF
It is said in the TAKEOFF ROLL paragraph that care should be taken to avoid
using large deflection, resulting in excessive spoiler deployment. A direct effect of
the reduction in lift due to the extension of the spoilers on one wing will be a
reduction in tail clearance and an increased risk of tailstrike.
OLEO INFLATION
The correct extension of the main landing gear shock absorber (and thus the
nominal increase in tail clearance during the rotation) relies on the correct inflation
of the oleos.
ACTION IN CASE OF TAILSTRIKE
If a tailstrike occurs at take-off, flight at attitude requiring a pressurized cabin must
be avoided and a return to the originating airport should be performed for damage
assessment.
MAXIMUM DEMONSTRATED CROSSWIND FOR TAKE-OFF
Ident.: NO-050-00005483.0001001 / 28 MAY 08
Applicable to: ALL
The maximum demonstrated crosswind at takeoff is 29 knots, with gusts up to 38 knots.
AP ENGAGEMENT
Ident.: NO-050-00005484.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
The AP can be engaged 5 s after take-off and above 100 ft RA.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-050. P 5/10
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
TAKEOFF
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
VERTICAL PROFILE
Ident.: NO-050-00005485.0002001 / 28 MAY 08
Applicable to: ALL
SRS engages when the thrust levers are set to the applicable detent for takeoff and will
remain engaged until the acceleration altitude.
The SRS pitch command is the minimum of the following pitches:
• Pitch required to fly V2 +10 in All Engine Operative case (AEO)
• Pitch required to fly IAS at the time of failure (with minimum of V2 and maximum of
V2+15) in One Engine Inoperative case (OEI)
• Maximum pitch attitude of 18 ˚ (22.5 ˚ in case of windshear)
• Pitch required to climb a 120 ft/min minimum vertical speed.
This explains why, during takeoff, the IAS which is actually flown in most cases is
neither V2+10 (AEO) nor V2 (OEI).
LATERAL PROFILE
Ident.: NO-050-00005486.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
Under most circumstances, the crew can expect to follow the programmed SID. In this
case, NAV is armed on selecting the thrust levers to the applicable detent for take-off
and engages once above 30 ft RA.
THRUST REDUCTION ALTITUDE
Ident.: NO-050-00005487.0001001 / 28 MAY 08
Applicable to: ALL
At the thrust reduction altitude, ”LVR CLB” flashes on the FMA. When manual flying,
lower slightly the nose, as applicable, to anticipate the pitch down FD order. Bring the
thrust levers back to CLB detent. The A/THR is now active (A/THR on the FMA
changes from blue to white).
The FD pitch down order depends upon the amount of thrust decrease between TOGA
or FLX and CLB.
If takeoff was performed packs OFF, the packs will be selected back to ON after thrust
reduction because of the potential resulting EGT increase. They will be preferably
selected sequentially to improve passenger’s comfort.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-050. P 6/10
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
TAKEOFF
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
ACCELERATION ALTITUDE
Ident.: NO-050-00005488.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
At the acceleration altitude, the FD pitch mode changes from SRS to CLB or OP CLB
mode. The speed target jumps:
• Either to the managed target speed e.g. speed constraint, speed limit or ECON climb
speed
• Or to the preselected climb speed (entered by the pilot on the MCDU PERF CLB
page before takeoff).
If green dot speed is higher than the managed target speed (e.g. speed constraint
220 kt) displayed by the magenta triangle on the PFD speed scale, the AP/FD will
guide the aircraft to green dot (as per the general managed speed guidance rule). If
required by ATC, the crew will select the adequate target speed (below green dot) on
the FCU.
During takeoff phase, F and S speeds are the minimum speeds for retracting the
surfaces:
• At F speed, the aircraft accelerating (positive speed trend): retract to 1.
• At S speed, the aircraft accelerating (positive speed trend): retract to 0.
If the engine start selector had been selected to IGN START for take-off, the PNF
should confirm with the PF when it may be deselected.
TAKE-OFF AT HEAVY WEIGHT
Ident.: NO-050-00005489.0001001 / 25 APR 08
Applicable to: ALL
If take-off is carried out at heavy weight, two protections may intervene:
• The Automatic Retraction System (ARS)
• The Alpha Lock function
THE AUTOMATIC RETRACTION SYSTEM
While in CONF 1+F and IAS reaches 210 kt (VFE CONF1+F is 215 kt), the ARS is
activated. The ARS automatically retracts flaps to 0 ˚. The VFE displayed on the
PFD change from VFE CONF1+F to VFE CONF 1. As the aircraft accelerates above
S speed, the flap lever can be selected to 0. If IAS decreases below VFE CONF1+F,
the flaps will not extend back to 1+F.
THE ALPHA LOCK FUNCTION
The slats alpha/speed lock function will prevent slat retraction at high AOA or low
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-050. P 7/10
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
TAKEOFF
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
speed at the moment the flap lever is moved from Flaps 1 to Flaps 0. ”A. LOCK”
pulses above the E/WD Slat indication. The inhibition is removed and the slats retract
when both alpha and speed fall within normal values. This is a normal situation for
take-off at heavy weight. If Alpha lock function is triggered, the crew will continue the
scheduled acceleration, allowing further slats retraction.
IMMEDIATE TURN AFTER TAKE-OFF
Ident.: NO-050-00005490.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
Obstacle clearance, noise abatement, or departure procedures may require an immediate
turn after take-off. Provided FD commands are followed accurately, the flaps and slats
may be retracted using the normal procedure as FD orders provide bank angle limits
with respect to speed and configuration.
LOW ALTITUDE LEVEL-OFF
Ident.: NO-050-00005491.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
If the aircraft is required to level off below the acceleration altitude, ALT* engages and
target speed goes to initial climb speed. The ”LVR CLB” message flashes on the FMA.
In this case, the crew should expect a faster than normal acceleration, and be prepared
to retract the flaps and slats promptly.
NOISE ABATEMENT TAKE-OFF
Ident.: NO-050-00005492.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
Noise Abatement Procedures will not be conducted in conditions of significant
turbulence or windshear.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-050. P 8/10
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
TAKEOFF
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
noise abatement procedure
Procedure NADP 1 :
alleviating noise close to the aerodrome
Maintain positive rate of climb.
Accelerate smoothly to en−route climb speed.
Retract flaps/slats on schedule.
3000 ft
Climb at V 2+ 10 to 20 kt
Maintain reduced power
Maintain flaps/slats in the take−off configuration
800 ft
Initiate power reduction at or above 800 ft
Take−off thrust
V2+ 10 to 20 kt
Not to scale
Runway
Procedure NADP 2 :
alleviating noise distant from the aerodrome
Transition smoothly to en−route climb speed
3000 ft
Not before 800 ft and whilst maintaining a positive
rate of climb accelerate toward Green Dot and reduce power
with the initiation of the first flap/flat retraction
or
when flaps/slats are retracted and whilst maintaining
a positive rate of climb, reduce power and climb at
Green Dot + 10 to 20kt
800 ft
Take−off thrust
V2 + 10 to 20 kt
Not to scale
Runway
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-050. P 9/10
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
TAKEOFF
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
Intentionally left blank
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-050. P 10/10
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
CLIMB
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
GENERAL
Ident.: NO-060-00005493.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
During the climb, the thrust levers are in the CL detent, the A/THR is active in thrust
mode and the FADECs manage the thrust to a maximum value depending upon ambient
conditions.
AP/FD CLIMB MODES
Ident.: NO-060-00005494.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: MSN 0781-0852
The AP/FD climb modes may be either
• Managed
• Selected
MANAGED
The managed AP/FD mode in climb is CLB. Its use is recommended as long as the
aircraft is cleared along the F-PLN.
SELECTED
*
The selected AP/FD modes in climb are OP CLB, V/S and EXPED r.
OP CLB is to be used if ATC gives radar vector or clears the aircraft direct to a given
FL without any climb constraints.
The use of low values of V/S, e.g. less than 1 000 ft/min, may be appropriate for
small altitude changes as it makes the guidance smoother and needs less thrust
variation.
In areas of high traffic density, low values of vertical speed will reduce the possibility
of nuisance TCAS warnings.
If the crew selects a high V/S, it may happen that the aircraft is unable to climb with
this high V/S and to maintain the target speed with Max Climb thrust, for
performance reasons. In that case, the AP/FD will guide to the target V/S, and the
A/THR will command up to Max Climb thrust, in order to try to keep the target
speed; but the aircraft will decelerate and its speed might reach VLS. When VLS is
reached the AP/FD reverts to OP CLB and the aircraft accelerate to initial target
speed.
Whenever V/S is used, pilots should pay particular attention to the speed trend as
V/S takes precedence over speed requirements.
The EXPED mode r* is used to climb with maximum vertical gradient i.e. the target
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-060. P 1/6
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
CLIMB
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
speed becomes green dot. Its use should be avoided above FL 250.
The crew should be aware that altitude constraints in the MCDU F-PLN page are
observed only when the climb is managed, i.e. when CLB is displayed on the FMA.
Any other vertical mode will disregard any altitude constraints.
A likely scenario would be, when the FCU altitude is set above an altitude constraint
and the pilot selects V/S when below that constraint to avoid a potential TCAS TA.
In this case, the aircraft will disregard the altitude constraint.
AP/FD CLIMB MODES
Ident.: NO-060-00005494.0002001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: MSN 1320-1777
The AP/FD climb modes may be either
• Managed
• Selected
MANAGED
The managed AP/FD mode in climb is CLB. Its use is recommended as long as the
aircraft is cleared along the F-PLN.
SELECTED
*
The selected AP/FD modes in climb are OP CLB, V/S and EXPED r.
OP CLB is to be used if ATC gives radar vector or clears the aircraft direct to a given
FL without any climb constraints.
The use of low values of V/S, e.g. less than 1 000 ft/min, may be appropriate for
small altitude changes as it makes the guidance smoother and needs less thrust
variation.
In areas of high traffic density, low values of vertical speed will reduce the possibility
of nuisance TCAS warnings.
If the crew selects a high V/S, it may happen that the aircraft is unable to climb with
this high V/S and to maintain the target speed with Max Climb thrust, for
performance reasons. In that case, the AP/FD will guide to the target V/S, and the
A/THR will command up to Max Climb thrust, in order to try to keep the target
speed; but the aircraft will decelerate and its speed might reach VLS. When VLS is
reached the AP will pitch the aircraft down so as to fly a V/S, which allows
maintaining VLS.
Whenever V/S is used, pilots should pay particular attention to the speed trend as
V/S takes precedence over speed requirements.
The EXPED mode r* is used to climb with maximum vertical gradient i.e. the target
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-060. P 2/6
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
CLIMB
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
speed becomes green dot. Its use should be avoided above FL 250.
The crew should be aware that altitude constraints in the MCDU F-PLN page are
observed only when the climb is managed, i.e. when CLB is displayed on the FMA.
Any other vertical mode will disregard any altitude constraints.
A likely scenario would be, when the FCU altitude is set above an altitude constraint
and the pilot selects V/S when below that constraint to avoid a potential TCAS TA.
In this case, the aircraft will disregard the altitude constraint.
AP/FD CLIMB MODES
Ident.: NO-060-00005494.0005001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: MSN 2180
The AP/FD climb modes may be either
• Managed
• Selected
MANAGED
The managed AP/FD mode in climb is CLB. Its use is recommended as long as the
aircraft is cleared along the F-PLN.
SELECTED
*
The selected AP/FD modes in climb are OP CLB, V/S and EXPED r.
OP CLB is to be used if ATC gives radar vector or clears the aircraft direct to a given
FL without any climb constraints.
The use of low values of V/S, e.g. less than 1 000 ft/min, may be appropriate for
small altitude changes as it makes the guidance smoother and needs less thrust
variation.
In areas of high traffic density, low values of vertical speed will reduce the possibility
of nuisance TCAS warnings.
If the crew selects a high V/S, it may happen that the aircraft is unable to climb with
this high V/S and to maintain the target speed with Max Climb thrust, for
performance reasons. In that case, the AP/FD will guide to the target V/S, and the
A/THR will command up to Max Climb thrust, in order to try to keep the target
speed; but the aircraft will decelerate and its speed might reach VLS. When VLS is
reached the AP will pitch the aircraft down so as to fly a V/S, which allows
maintaining VLS. A triple click is generated.
Whenever V/S is used, pilots should pay particular attention to the speed trend as
V/S takes precedence over speed requirements.
The EXPED mode r* is used to climb with maximum vertical gradient i.e. the target
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-060. P 3/6
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
CLIMB
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
speed becomes green dot. Its use should be avoided above FL 250.
The crew should be aware that altitude constraints in the MCDU F-PLN page are
observed only when the climb is managed, i.e. when CLB is displayed on the FMA.
Any other vertical mode will disregard any altitude constraints.
A likely scenario would be, when the FCU altitude is set above an altitude constraint
and the pilot selects V/S when below that constraint to avoid a potential TCAS TA.
In this case, the aircraft will disregard the altitude constraint.
SPEED CONSIDERATIONS
Ident.: NO-060-00005495.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
The climb speed may be either:
• Managed
• Selected
MANAGED
The managed climb speed, computed by the FMGS, provides the most economical
climb profile as it takes into account weight, actual and predicted winds, ISA deviation
and Cost Index (CI). The managed climb speed also takes into account any speed
constraints, e.g. the default speed limit which is 250 kt up to 10 000 ft.
SELECTED
If necessary, the climb speed can be either pre-selected on ground prior to take-off on
the MCDU PERF CLIMB page or selected on the FCU as required.
On ground, prior take-off, speed target at acceleration altitude can be pre-selected on
the MCDU PERF CLIMB page. It is to be used when the F-PLN has a sharp turn
after take-off, when high angle of climb is required or for ATC clearance compliance.
Once airborne, the speed can be selected on FCU to achieve the maximum rate of
climb or the maximum gradient of climb.
The speed to achieve the maximum rate of climb, i.e. to reach a given altitude in the
shortest time, lies between ECON climb speed and green dot. As there is no indication
of this speed on the PFD, a good rule of thumb is to use turbulence speed to achieve
maximum rate.
The speed to achieve the maximum gradient of climb, i.e. to reach a given altitude in
a shortest distance, is green dot. The MCDU PERF CLB page displays the time and
distance required to achieve the selected altitude by climbing at green dot speed.
Avoid reducing to green dot at high altitude, particularly at heavy weight, as it can
take a long time to accelerate to ECON mach.
Pilots should be aware that it is possible to select and fly a speed below green dot but
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-060. P 4/6
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
CLIMB
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
there would be no operational benefit in doing this.
When selected speed is used, the predictions on the F-PLN page assume the selected
speed is kept till the next planned speed modification, e.g. 250 kt /10 000 ft, where
managed speed is supposed to be resumed. Consequently, the FM predictions remain
meaningful.
When IAS is selected in lower altitude, there is an automatic change to Mach at a
specific crossover altitude.
Finally, as selected speed does not provide the optimum climb profile, it should only
be used when operationally required, e.g. ATC constraint or weather.
VERTICAL PERFORMANCE PREDICTIONS
Ident.: NO-060-00005496.0001001 / 27 MAY 08
Applicable to: ALL
The MCDU PROG page provides the crew with the MAX REC ALT and with the OPT
ALT information (See cruise section). This information is to be used to rapidly answer
to ATC: ”CAN YOU CLIMB TO FL XXX?”
The MCDU PERF CLB page provides predictions to a given FL in terms of time and
distance assuming CLB mode. This FL is defaulted to the FCU target altitude or it may
be manually inserted. The level arrow on the ND assumes the current AP engaged
mode. This information is to be used to rapidly answer to ATC: ”CAN YOU MAKE FL
XXX by ZZZ waypoint?”. The crew will use a PD (Place/Distance), i.e. ZZZ,-10
waypoint if the question is ”CAN YOU MAKE FL XXX , 10 nm before ZZZ point?”
LATERAL NAVIGATION
Ident.: NO-060-00005497.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
If the aircraft is following the programmed SID, the AP/FD should be in NAV. If ATC
vectors the aircraft, HDG will be used until a time when clearance is given to either
resume the SID or track direct to a specific waypoint. In either case, the crew must
ensure that the waypoints are properly sequenced.
The crew should keep in mind that the use of HDG mode e.g. following ATC radar
vectors, will revert CLB to OP CLB and any altitude constraints in the MCDU F-PLN
page will not be observed unless they are selected on the FCU.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-060. P 5/6
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
CLIMB
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
10 000 FT FLOW PATTERN
Ident.: NO-060-00005498.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
10 000 ft FLOW PATTERN
MECH
ALL
FWD
AFT
WING
ENG 1
ENG 2
FAULT
FAULT
FAULT
ON
ON
ON
ON
RAIN RPLNT
−2
MAN V/S CTL MODE SEL
OFF
UP
A
U
T
O
14
A
U 12
T
O 10
FAULT
OVRD
DN
APU
OFF
ON
ON
NAV
2
OFF
OFF
OFF
L
R
LAND LIGHTS
ON
SLOW
2
FAST
1
BRT
ON
1
OFF
2
OFF
OFF
ON
SLOW
BRT
OFF
DIM
SEAT BELTS
OFF
NO SMOKING
ON
ON
FAST
SIGNS
EMER EXIT LT
A
U
T
O
AVAIL
ON
RAIN RPLNT
OFF
TEST
DIM
FAULT
ON
ON
WIPER
ANN LT
BRT
OFF
OFF
RWY TURN OFF
ON
ON
ON
6
OVHD INTEG LT
INIT LT
STBY COMPASS DOME
MASTER SW
A
U
T
O
0
4
8
WIPER
OFF
ON
OFF
OFF
3
ARPT
VOR.D
NDB
WPT
CSTR
412VU
QFE QNH
100
UP
1000
40
20
10
AP 1
160
AP 2
ROSE
VOR
ILS
NAV
EFIS OPTION
ADF
ALT
A/THR
APPR
PLAN in Hg
mb
PULL
STD
ENG
ADF
F/O
VOR
OFF
ILS
MASTER
WARN
SIDE STICK PRIORITY
2
VOR
OFF
CHRONO
ARC
320
1
DN
LOC
80
MASTER
CAUT
FD
311VU
9 0 1
2
7
3
ALT
6
m bar
4
LDG GEAR
UNLK
MAX
UNLK
UNLK
HOT
ON
A/SKID &
N/W STRG
AUTO/BRK
LO
MED
MAX
DECEL
DECEL
DECEL
ON
ON
ON
UP
ECAM MEMO
DME R
3
15
21
ADF
12
24
33
6
30
DME L
V
O
R
ON
OFF
4
PRESS
ACCU
V
O
R
3
0
4
1
3
1
0
ADF
BRAKES
PSI 1000
DOWN
DY HR
MO
DATE
T
M
G
SET
MIN
R
U
N
50
CHR
h
40
min
GMT
h
min
10
20
ET
RUN
ET
STOP
RST
0
0
T.O.
CONFIG
0
0
0
CHR
0
5
EMER
CANC
ENG
BLEED
PRESS
EL/AC
EL/DC
APU
COND
DOOR
WHEEL
F/CTL
FUEL
ALL
NAVAIDS
SEC F−PLN
OPT/MAX ALT
EFIS Option:
The PF will select CSTR for grid MORA
The PNF will select ARPT
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-060. P 6/6
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
CRUISE
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
PREFACE
Ident.: NO-070-00005499.0002001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
Once the cruise flight level is reached, ”ALT CRZ” is displayed on the FMA. The cruise
Mach number is targeted and cruise fuel consumption is optimized.
FMS USE
Ident.: NO-070-00005500.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: MSN 0781-0852
CRUISE FL
If the aircraft is cleared to a lower cruise flight level than the pre-planned cruise flight
level displayed on MCDU PROG page, the cruise Mach number will not be targeted.
The crew will update the MCDU PROG page accordingly.
When at cruise FL, the AP altitude control is soft. This means that the AP will allow
small altitude variation around the cruise altitude (typically ± 50 ft) to keep cruise
Mach before a readjustment of thrust occurs. This optimizes the fuel consumption in
cruise.
WIND AND TEMPERATURE
When reaching cruise FL, the crew will ensure that the wind and temperatures are
correctly entered and the lateral and vertical F-PLN reflect the CFP. Wind entries
should be made at waypoints when there is a difference of either 30 ˚ or 30 kt for
the wind data and 5 ˚C for temperature deviation. This will ensure that the FMS fuel
and time predictions are as accurate as possible.
FMS USE
Ident.: NO-070-00005500.0002001 / 26 MAY 08
Applicable to: MSN 1320-2180
CRUISE FL
If the aircraft is cleared to a lower cruise flight level than the pre-planned cruise flight
level displayed on MCDU PROG page, the cruise Mach number will not be targeted.
The crew will update the MCDU PROG page accordingly.
When at cruise FL, the AP altitude control is soft. This means that the AP will allow
small altitude variation around the cruise altitude (typically ± 50 ft) to keep cruise
Mach before a readjustment of thrust occurs. This optimizes the fuel consumption in
cruise.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-070. P 1/14
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
CRUISE
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
WIND AND TEMPERATURE
When reaching cruise FL, the crew will ensure that the wind and temperatures are
correctly entered and the lateral and vertical F-PLN reflect the CFP. Wind entries
should be made at waypoints when there is a difference of either 30 ˚ or 30 kt for
the wind data and 5 ˚C for temperature deviation. These entries should be made for
as many levels as possible to reflect the actual wind and temperature profile. This will
ensure that the FMS fuel and time predictions are as accurate as possible and provide
an accurate OPT FL computation.
STEP CLIMB
If there is a STEP in the F-PLN, the crew will ensure that the wind is properly set at
the first waypoint beyond the step (D on the following example) at both initial FL and
step FL.
T/C
*
A
B
*
C
*
D
FL350
FL310
270/50
280/55
310/60
320/65
300/50
FL350
FL310
* are the points where an entry shall be done.
If at D waypoint, the CFP provides the wind at FL 350 but not at FL 310, it is
recommended to insert the same wind at FL 310 as the one at FL 350. This is due to
wind propagation rules, which might affect the optimum FL computation.
ETP
ETP function should be used to assist the crew in making a decision should an enroute diversion be required. Suitable airport pairs should be entered on the ETP page
and the FMS will then calculate the ETP. Each time an ETP is sequenced, the crew
should insert the next suitable diversion airfield.
The SEC F-PLN is a useful tool and should be used practically. The ETP should be
inserted in the SEC F-PLN as a PD (Place/Distance) and the route to diversion
airfield should be finalized. By programming a potential en-route diversion, the crew
would reduce their workload should a failure occur. This is particularly true when
terrain considerations apply to the intended diversion route. When an ETP is
sequenced, the crew will
• Access the ETP page
• Insert the next applicable diversion airfield with associated wind
• Read new ETP
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-070. P 2/14
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
CRUISE
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
• Insert new ETP as a PD
• Copy active on the SEC F-PLN
• Insert the new diversion as New Dest in the SEC F-PLN from new ETP
DIV 2
STAR entry
TERRAIN
CRITICAL ROUTE
DIV 1
STAR entry
TERRAIN
NON−CRITICAL
ROUTE
Y
X
C
A
ESCAPE ROUTE
D
B
ETP
B/−50
DIV 1 airfield is closer
DIV 2 airfield is closer
SEC F−PLN to DIV 1
SEC F−PLN to DIV 2
The DATA/Stored Routes function in the MCDU can be used to store up to five
possible diversion routes. These routes can be entered into the SEC F-PLN using the
SEC INIT prompt. This prompt will only be available if the SEC F-PLN is deleted.
Refer to FCOM/DSC-22_20-60-40 USING THE SECONDARY FLIGHT PLAN
FUNCTION for further information.
CLOSEST AIRPORT
For diversion purpose, the crew can also use the CLOSEST AIRPORT page which
provides valuable fuel/time estimates to the four closest airports from the aircraft
position, as well as to an airport the crew may define. The fuel and time predictions
are a function of the average wind between the aircraft and the airport.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-070. P 3/14
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
CRUISE
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
FMS USE: MISCELLANEOUS
Ident.: NO-070-00005501.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: MSN 0781-0852
If ATC modifies the routing, the crew will revise the F-PLN. Once achieved and if
printer is installed, the crew may perform a new F-PLN print.
If there is weather, the crew will use the OFFSET function which can be accessed from
a lateral revision at PPOS. The crew will determine how many NM are required to avoid
the weather. Once cleared by ATC, the crew will insert the offset.
FMS USE: MISCELLANEOUS
Ident.: NO-070-00005501.0002001 / 26 MAY 08
Applicable to: MSN 1320-2180
If ATC requires a position report, the crew will use the REPORT page which can be
accessed from PROG page.
If ATC modifies the routing, the crew will revise the F-PLN. Once achieved and if
printer is installed, the crew may perform a new F-PLN print.
ATC requires a report on a given radial, the crew will use the FIX INFO page which can
be accessed from a lateral revision on F-PLN page at PPOS.
If ATC requires a report at a given time, the crew will insert a time marker pseudo
waypoint.
If there is weather, the crew will use the OFFSET function which can be accessed from
a lateral revision at PPOS. The crew will determine how many NM are required to avoid
the weather. Once cleared by ATC, the crew will insert the offset.
If ATC gives a DIR TO clearance to a waypoint far from present position, the crew will
use the ABEAM facility. This facility allows both a better crew orientation and the
previously entered winds to be still considered.
COST INDEX
Ident.: NO-070-00005502.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
The Cost Index (CI) is used to take into account the relationship between fuel and time
related costs in order to minimize the trip cost. The CI is calculated by the airline for
each sector. From an operational point of view, the CI affects the speeds (ECON
SPEED/MACH) and cruise altitude (OPT ALT). CI=0 corresponds to maximum range
whereas the CI=999 corresponds to minimum time.
The CI is a strategic parameter which applies to the whole flight. However, the CI can
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-070. P 4/14
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
CRUISE
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
be modified by the crew in flight for valid strategic operational reasons. For example, if
the crew needs to reduce the speed for the entire flight to comply with curfew
requirements or fuel management requirements (XTRA gets close to 0), then it is
appropriate to reduce the CI.
The SEC F-PLN can be used to check the predictions associated with new CI. If they
are satisfactory, the crew will then modify the CI in the primary The SEC F-PLN can be
used to check the predictions associated with new CI. If they are satisfactory, the crew
will then modify the CI in the primary F-PLN. However, the crew should be aware that
any modification of the CI would affect trip cost. However, the crew should be aware
that any modification of the CI would affect trip cost.
SPEED CONSIDERATIONS
Ident.: NO-070-00005503.0002001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
The cruise speed may be either:
• Managed
• Selected
MANAGED
When the cruise altitude is reached, the A/THR operates in SPEED/MACH mode.
The optimum cruise Mach number is automatically targeted. Its value depends on:
• CI
• Cruise flight level
• Temperature deviation
• Weight
• Headwind component.
The crew should be aware that the optimum Mach number will vary according to the
above mentioned parameters, e.g. it will increase with an increasing headwind, e.g.
+50 kt head wind equates to M +0.01.
Should ATC require a specific time over a waypoint, the crew can perform a vertical
revision on that waypoint and enter a time constraint. The managed Mach number
would be modified accordingly to achieve this constraint. If the constraint can be met
within a tolerance, a magenta asterix will be displayed on the MCDU; if the constraint
cannot be met, an amber asterix will be displayed. Once the constrained waypoint is
sequenced, the ECON Mach is resumed.
SELECTED
Should ATC require a specific cruise speed or turbulence penetration is required, the
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-070. P 5/14
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
CRUISE
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
pilot must select the cruise speed on the FCU. FMS predictions are updated
accordingly until reaching either the next step climb or top of descent, where the
programmed speeds apply again. The FMS predictions are therefore realistic.
At high altitude, the speed should not be reduced below GREEN DOT as this may
create a situation where it is impossible to maintain speed and/or altitude as the
increased drag may exceed the available thrust.
ALTITUDE CONSIDERATIONS
Ident.: NO-070-00005504.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
The MCDU PROG page displays:
• REC MAX FL
• OPT FL.
REC MAX FL
REC MAX FL reflects the present engine and wing performance and does not take
into account the cost aspect. It provides a 0.3 gbuffet margin. If the crew inserts a FL
higher than REC MAX into the MCDU, it will be accepted only if it provides a buffet
margin greater than 0.2 g. Otherwise, it will be rejected and the message ”CRZ
ABOVE MAX FL” will appear on the MCDU scratchpad. Unless there are overriding
operational considerations, e.g. either to accept a cruise FL higher than REC MAX or
to be held significantly lower for a long period, REC MAX should be considered as the
upper cruise limit.
OPT FL
OPT FL displayed on the MCDU is the cruise altitude for minimum cost when ECON
MACH is flown and should be followed whenever possible. It is important to note that
the OPT FL displayed on the PROG page is meaningful only if the wind and
temperature profile has been accurately entered. The crew should be aware that flying
at a level other than the OPT FL would adversely affect the trip cost.
For each Mach number, there will be a different OPT FL. Should an FMGS failure
occur, the crew should refer to the FCOM or QRH to determine the OPT FL. FCOM
and QRH charts are only provided for two different Mach numbers.
STEP CLIMB
Ident.: NO-070-00005505.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: MSN 0781-0852
Since the optimum altitude increases as fuel is consumed during the flight, from a cost
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-070. P 6/14
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
CRUISE
point of view, it is preferable to climb to a higher cruise altitude when the aircraft
weight permits. This technique, referred to as a Step Climb, is typically accomplished by
initially climbing approximately 2 000 ft above the optimum altitude and then cruising
at that flight level until approximately 4 000 ft below optimum.
The MCDU STEP ALT page may be called a vertical revision from the MCDU F-PLN
page or from the MCDU PERF CRZ page. Step climb can either be planned at waypoint
(STEP AT) or be optimum step point calculated by the FMGS (ALT). If predictions are
satisfactory in term of time and fuel saving, the crew will insert it in F-PLN provided it
is compatible with ATC.
It may be advantageous to request an initial cruise altitude above optimum if altitude
changes are difficult to obtain on specific routes. This minimizes the possibility of being
held at a low altitude and high fuel consumption condition for long periods of time. The
requested/cleared cruise altitude should be compared to the REC MAX altitude. Before
accepting an altitude above optimum, the crew should determine that it will continue to
be acceptable considering the projected flight conditions such as turbulence, standing
waves or temperature change.
OPT FL follow up
REC MAX
OPT
REC MAX
1
OPT
REC MAX
2
OPT
3
The diagram above shows three step climb strategies with respect to OPT and REC
MAX FL. Strategy 1 provides the best trip cost, followed by 2 then 3.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-070. P 7/14
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
CRUISE
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
STEP CLIMB
Ident.: NO-070-00005505.0002001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: MSN 1320-2180
Since the optimum altitude increases as fuel is consumed during the flight, from a cost
point of view, it is preferable to climb to a higher cruise altitude when the aircraft
weight permits. This technique, referred to as a Step Climb, is typically accomplished by
initially climbing approximately 2 000 ft above the optimum altitude and then cruising
at that flight level until approximately 4 000 ft below optimum.
The MCDU STEP ALT page may be called a vertical revision from the MCDU F-PLN
page or from the MCDU PERF CRZ page. Step climb can either be planned at waypoint
(STEP AT) or be optimum step point calculated by the FMGS (ALT). If predictions are
satisfactory in term of time and fuel saving, the crew will insert it in F-PLN provided it
is compatible with ATC.
The OPT STEP computation will be accurate if vertical wind profile has been properly
entered. Refer to FMS USE of this section. Refer to FCOM/PER-CRZ-AEO-ALT-20
WIND ALTITUDE TRADE FOR CONSTANT SPECIFIC RANGE to provide valuable
tables to assess the effect of the vertical wind profile on the optimum cruise flight level.
It may be advantageous to request an initial cruise altitude above optimum if altitude
changes are difficult to obtain on specific routes. This minimizes the possibility of being
held at a low altitude and high fuel consumption condition for long periods of time. The
requested/cleared cruise altitude should be compared to the REC MAX altitude. Before
accepting an altitude above optimum, the crew should determine that it will continue to
be acceptable considering the projected flight conditions such as turbulence, standing
waves or temperature change.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-070. P 8/14
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
CRUISE
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
OPT FL follow up
REC MAX
OPT
REC MAX
1
OPT
REC MAX
2
OPT
3
The diagram above shows three step climb strategies with respect to OPT and REC
MAX FL. Strategy 1 provides the best trip cost, followed by 2 then 3.
EFFECT OF ALTITUDE ON FUEL CONSUMPTION
Ident.: NO-070-00005506.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
The selected cruise altitude should normally be as close to optimum as possible. As
deviation from optimum cruise altitude increases, performance economy decreases. The
following table provide average specific range penalty when not flying at optimum
altitude.
FUEL MONITORING
Ident.: NO-070-00005508.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
The flight plan fuel burn from departure to destination is based on certain assumed
conditions. These include gross weight, cruise altitude, route of flight, temperature,
cruise wind and cruise speed. Actual fuel consumption should be compared with the
flight plan fuel consumption at least once every 30 min.
The crew should be aware that many factors influence fuel consumption, such as actual
flight level, cruise speed and unexpected meteorological conditions. These parameters
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-070. P 9/14
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
CRUISE
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
should normally be reflected in the FMS.
The crew must keep in mind that
• A significant deviation between planned and actual fuel figures without reason
• An excessive fuel flow leading to a potential imbalance
• An abnormal decrease in total fuel quantity (FOB+FU)
May indicate a fuel leak and the associated procedure should be applied.
FUEL TEMPERATURE
Ident.: NO-070-00005509.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
Fuel freeze refers to the formation of wax crystals suspended in the fuel, which can
accumulate when fuel temperature is below the freeze point (-47 ˚C for jet A1) and can
prevent proper fuel feed to the engines.
During normal operations, fuel temperature rarely decreases to the point that it becomes
limiting. However, extended cruise operations increase the potential for fuel temperatures
to reach the freeze point. Fuel temperature will slowly reduce towards TAT. The rate of
cooling of fuel can be expected to be in the order of 3 ˚C per hour with a maximum of
12 ˚C per hour in the most extreme conditions.
If fuel temperature approaches the minimum allowed, the ECAM outputs a caution.
Consideration should be given to achieving a higher TAT:
• Descending or diverting to a warmer air mass may be considered. Below the
tropopause, a 4 000 ft descent gives a 7 ˚C increase in TAT. In severe cases, a
descent to as low as 25 000 ft may be required.
• Increasing Mach number will also increase TAT. An increase of M 0.01 produces
approximately 0.7 ˚C increase in TAT.
In either case, up to 1 h may be required for fuel temperature to stabilise. The crew
should consider the fuel penalty associated with either of these actions.
APPROACH PREPARATION
Ident.: NO-070-00005510.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
The latest destination weather should be obtained approximately 15 min prior to
descent and the FMGS programmed for the descent and arrival. During FMGS
programming, the PF will be head down, so it is important that the PNF does not
become involved in any tasks other than flying the aircraft. The fuel predictions will be
accurate if the F-PLN is correctly entered in terms of arrival, go-around and alternate
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-070. P 10/14
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
CRUISE
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
routing.
The FMGS will be programmed as follows:
DIR
PROG
PERF
INIT
DATA
F−PLN
RAD
NAV
FUEL
PRED
SEC
F−PLN
ATC
COMM
OFF
MCDU
MENU
F-PLN
Lateral:
- Landing runway, STAR, Approach and Go-around procedure.
- F-PLN to alternate.
Vertical:
- Altitude and Speed constraints,
- Compare vertical F-PLN on MCDU with approach chart
MCDU F-PLN page vs approach chart crosscheck
FROM
NO SEQ
SPD / ALT
UTC
T−P
1432
CD33R
C324°
FD33R
161 /
BRG319°
1435
TRK324°
1437
C324°
MD33R
1438
C324°
TOU
DEST
LFBO33R
TIME
1438
3000
1NM
161 / *
4
3000
3.1
1520
3.1
550
161 / *
3
137 /
5
/+
900
DIST
EFBO
8
4.6
VOR
D5.0
D8.0
OCA (H) 938’ (439’)
D12.5
3000
324°
3.0
APT
Gnd speed − Kts
Descent Gradient 5.4%
MAP AT D5.0
Compare vertical
F−PLN on MCDU
with Approach Chart
499’
70
383
90
492
M
100
547
120
657
140
766
160
876
(2501’)
1520’
(1021’)
4.5
REIL
PAPI−L
TOU
117.7
on
324°
RAD NAV
Manually tune the VOR/DME and/or NDB if required. Check ILS ident, frequency
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-070. P 11/14
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
CRUISE
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
and associated course of destination airfield as required. It is not recommended
manually forcing the ILS identifier as, in case of late runway change, the associated
ILS would not be automatically tuned.
PROG
Insert VOR/DME or landing runway threshold of destination airfield in the BRG/DIST
field as required.
PERF
PERF APPR:
• Descent winds,
• Destination airfield weather (QNH, Temperature and wind) The entered wind
should be the average wind given by the ATC or ATIS. Do not enter gust values,
for example, if the wind is 150 kt/20-25 kt, insert the lower speed 150 kt/20 kt
(With managed speed mode in approach, ground speed mini-function will cope with
the gusts).
• Minima (DH for CATII or CATIII approach and MDA for others approaches)
• Landing configuration (wind shear anticipated or in case of failure).
PERF GO AROUND: Check thrust reduction and acceleration altitude.
FUEL PRED
Check estimated landing weight, EFOB and extra fuel.
SEC F-PLN
To cover contingencies e.g. runway change, circling or diversion.
Once the FMGS has been programmed, the PNF should then cross check the
information prior to the Approach briefing.
APPROACH BRIEFING
Ident.: NO-070-00005511.0001001 / 26 MAY 08
Applicable to: ALL
The main objective of the approach briefing is for the PF to inform the PNF of his
intended course of action for the approach. The briefing should be practical and relevant
to the actual weather conditions expected. It should be concise and conducted in a
logical manner. It should be given at a time of low workload if possible, to enable the
crew to concentrate on the content. It is very important that any misunderstandings are
resolved at this time.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-070. P 12/14
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
CRUISE
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
Associated cross check
PF briefing
Aircraft type and technical status
NOTAM
Weather
- Accessibility
- Runway in use
Fuel
FUEL PRED page
- Extra fuel
Descent
- TOD (time, position)
- MORA, STAR, MSA
- Altitude and speed constraints
F-PLN page
F-PLN page
Holding (if expected)
- Entry in holding pattern
- MHA and MAX speed
Approach
- Approach type
- Altitude and FAF identification
- Glide path
- MDA/DH
- Missed approach procedure
- Alternate considerations
-
PERF APPR and ND
F-PLN
PFD/FMA
PERF APPR
F-PLN
F-PLN
Landing
- Runway condition, length and width
- Tail strike awareness
- Use of Auto brake
- Expected taxi route
Radio aids
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
RAD NAV
NO-070. P 13/14
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
CRUISE
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
Intentionally left blank
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-070. P 14/14
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
DESCENT
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
PREFACE
Ident.: NO-080-00005512.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
The PF will set preferably the MCDU PROG or PERF page as required (PROG page
provides VDEV in NAV mode and BRG/DIST information, PERF DES page provides
predictions down to any inserted altitude in DES/OP DES modes) whereas the PNF will
set the MCDU F-PLN page.
If use of radar is required, consider selecting the radar display on the PF side and TERR
on PNF side only.
COMPUTATION PRINCIPLES
Ident.: NO-080-00005513.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
TOD AND PROFILE COMPUTATION
The FMGS calculates the Top Of Descent point (TOD) backwards from a position
1 000 ft on the final approach with speed at VAPP. It takes into account any descent
speed and altitude constraints and assumes managed speed is used. The first segment
of the descent will always be idle segment until the first altitude constraint is reached.
Subsequent segments will be ”geometric”, i.e. the descent will be flown at a specific
angle, taking into account any subsequent constraints. If the STAR includes a holding
pattern, it is not considered for TOD or fuel computation. The TOD is displayed on
the ND track as a white symbol:
descent path
TOD
ALT CSTR
ALT CSTR
250 KT
D
Idle
segment
VAPP
DECEL
Geometric
Segments
FAF
1000ft
Descent path
The idle segment assumes a given managed speed flown with idle thrust plus a small
amount of thrust. This gives some flexibility to keep the aircraft on the descent path if
engine anti-ice is used or if winds vary. This explains THR DES on the FMA.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-080. P 1/8
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
DESCENT
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
The TOD computed by the FMS is quite reliable provided the flight plan is properly
documented down to the approach.
MANAGED DESCENT SPEED PROFILE
The managed speed is equal to:
• The ECON speed (which may have been modified by the crew on the PERF DES
page, before entering DESCENT phase), or
• The speed constraint or limit when applicable.
GUIDANCE AND MONITORING
Ident.: NO-080-00005514.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
INTRODUCTION
To carry out the descent, the crew can use either the managed descent mode (DES)
or the selected descent modes (OP DES or V/S). Both descent modes can be flown
either with selected speed or managed speed.
The modes and monitoring means are actually linked.
The managed DES mode guides the aircraft along the FMS pre-computed descent
profile, as long as it flies along the lateral F-PLN: i.e. DES mode is available if NAV is
engaged. As a general rule when DES mode is used, the descent is monitored using
VDEV called ”yoyo” on PFD, or its digital value on the PROG page, as well as the
level arrow on the ND.
The selected OP DES or V/S modes are used when HDG is selected or when ALT
CSTR may be disregarded or for various tactical purposes. As a general rule when OP
DES or V/S modes are used, the descent is monitored using the Energy Circle,
(displayed if HDG or TRK modes and indicating the required distance to descend,
decelerate and land from present position) and the level arrow on the ND. When the
aircraft is not far away from the lateral F-PLN (small XTK), the yoyo on PFD is also
a good indicator.
MANAGED DESCENT MODE
The managed descent profile from high altitude is approximately 2.5 ˚.
As an estimation of the distance to touchdown is required to enable descent profile
monitoring, it is important to ensure that the MCDU F-PLN plan page reflects the
expected approach routing. Any gross errors noted in the descent profile are usually a
result of incorrect routing entered in the MCDU or non-sequencing of F-PLN
waypoints, giving a false distance to touchdown.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-080. P 2/8
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
DESCENT
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
DESCENT INITIATION
To initiate a managed descent, the pilot will set the ATC cleared altitude on the
FCU and push the ALT selector. DES mode engages and is annunciated on the
FMA. If an early descent were required by ATC, DES mode would give
1 000 ft/min rate of descent, until regaining the computed profile.
To avoid overshooting the computed descent path, it is preferable to push the FCU
ALT selector a few miles prior to the calculated TOD. This method will ensure a
controlled entry into the descent and is particularly useful in situations of high cruise
Mach number or strong upper winds.
If the descent is delayed, a ”DECELERATE” message appears in white on the PFD
and in amber on the MCDU. Speed should be reduced towards green dot, and when
cleared for descent, the pilot will push for DES and push for managed speed. The
speed reduction prior to descent will enable the aircraft to recover the computed
profile more quickly as it accelerates to the managed descent speed.
DESCENT PROFILE
When DES with managed speed is engaged, the AP/FD guides the aircraft along
the pre-computed descent path determined by a number of factors such as altitude
constraints, wind and descent speed. However, as the actual conditions may differ
from those planned, the DES mode operates within a 20 kt speed range around the
managed target speed to maintain the descent path.
managed descent: speed target range principle
More headwind
de
sc
en
tp
rof
ile
More tailwind
case a)
or ENG A/I ON
case b)
310
290
•
If the aircraft gets high on the computed descent path:
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-080. P 3/8
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
DESCENT
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
• The speed will increase towards the upper limit of the speed range, to keep
the aircraft on the path with IDLE thrust.
• If the speed reaches the upper limit, THR IDLE is maintained, but the
autopilot does not allow the speed to increase any more, thus the VDEV will
slowly increase.
• A path intercept point, which assumes half speedbrake extension, will be
displayed on the ND descent track.
• If speed brakes are not extended, the intercept point will move forward. If it
gets close to an altitude-constrained waypoint, then a message ”AIR
BRAKES” or ”MORE DRAG”, depending of the FMGS standard, will be
displayed on the PFD and MCDU.
This technique allows an altitude constraint to be matched with minimum use of
speedbrakes.
When regaining the descent profile, the speedbrakes should be retracted to
prevent the A/THR applying thrust against speedbrakes. If the speedbrakes are
not retracted, the ”SPD BRK” message on the ECAM memo becomes amber
and ”RETRACT SPEEBRAKES” is displayed in white on the PFD.
A/C above descent path
Predicted path
assuming 1/2 Spd
Brakes
Actual descent
path
ALT CSTR
•
Descent path
as per F PLN
If the aircraft gets low on the computed descent path:
The speed will decrease towards the lower limit of the speed range with idle
thrust. When the lower speed limit is reached the A/THR will revert to
SPEED/MACH mode and apply thrust to maintain the descent path at this
lower speed. The path intercept point will be displayed on the ND, to indicate
where the descent profile will be regained.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-080. P 4/8
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
DESCENT
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
A/C below descent path
Descent path as per F PLN
Predicted shallow
converging path
•
If selected speed is used:
The descent profile remains unchanged. As the selected speed may differ from
the speed taken into account for pre-computed descent profile and speed
deviation range does not apply, the aircraft may deviate from the descent profile
e.g. if the pilot selects 275 kt with a pre-computed descent profile assuming
managed speed 300 kt, VDEV will increase.
SELECTED DESCENT
There are 2 modes for flying a selected descent, namely OP DES and V/S. These
modes will be used for pilot tactical interventions.
V/S mode is automatically selected when HDG or TRK mode is selected by the pilot,
while in DES mode. Furthermore, in HDG or TRK mode, only V/S or OP DES modes
are available for descent.
To initiate a selected descent, the pilot should set the ATC cleared altitude on the
FCU and pull the ALT selector. OP DES mode engages and is annunciated on the
FMA. In OP DES mode, the A/THR commands THR IDLE and the speed is
controlled by the THS.
Speed may be either managed or selected. In managed speed, the descent speed is
displayed only as a magenta target but there is no longer a speed target range since
the pre-computed flight profile does not apply.
The AP/FD will not consider any MCDU descent altitude constraints and will fly an
unrestricted descent down to the FCU selected altitude.
If the crew wishes to steep the descent down, OP DES mode can be used, selecting a
higher speed. Speedbrake is very effective in increasing descent rate but should be
used with caution at high altitude due to the associated increase in VLS.
If the pilot wishes to shallow the descent path, V/S can be used. A/THR reverts to
SPEED mode. In this configuration, the use of speedbrakes is not recommended to
reduce speed, since this would lead to thrust increase and the speed would be
maintained.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-080. P 5/8
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
DESCENT
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
MODE REVERSION
Ident.: NO-080-00005515.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: MSN 0781-0852
If a high V/S target is selected, the autopilot will pitch the aircraft down to fly the
target V/S. Thus the aircraft will tend to accelerate, while A/THR commands idle
thrust to try to keep the speed. When IAS will reach a speed close to VMO or VFE, the
descent mode will revert to OP DES to regain the initial target speed.
MODE REVERSION
Ident.: NO-080-00005515.0002001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: MSN 1320-1777
If a high V/S target is selected (or typically after a DES to V/S reversion), the autopilot
will pitch the aircraft down to fly the target V/S. Thus the aircraft will tend to
accelerate, while A/THR commands idle thrust to try to keep the speed. When IAS will
reach a speed close to VMO or VFE, the autopilot will pitch the aircraft up, so as to fly
a V/S allowing VMO or VFE to be maintained with idle thrust.
MODE REVERSION
Ident.: NO-080-00005515.0005001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: MSN 2180
If a high V/S target is selected (or typically after a DES to V/S reversion), the autopilot
will pitch the aircraft down to fly the target V/S. Thus the aircraft will tend to
accelerate, while A/THR commands idle thrust to try to keep the speed. When IAS will
reach a speed close to VMO or VFE, the autopilot will pitch the aircraft up, so as to fly
a V/S allowing VMO or VFE to be maintained with idle thrust.
Triple click will be triggered.
DESCENT CONSTRAINTS
Ident.: NO-080-00005516.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: MSN 0781-0852
Descent constraints may be automatically included in the route as part of an arrival
procedure or they may be manually entered through the MCDU F-PLN page. The
aircraft will attempt to meet these as long as DES mode is being used.
The crew should be aware that an ATC ”DIR TO” clearance automatically removes the
requirement to comply with the speed/altitude constraints assigned to the waypoints
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-080. P 6/8
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
DESCENT
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
deleted from the F-PLN.
Following the selection of HDG, DES mode will switch automatically to V/S, and
altitude constraints will no longer be taken into account.
DESCENT CONSTRAINTS
Ident.: NO-080-00005516.0002001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: MSN 1320-2180
Descent constraints may be automatically included in the route as part of an arrival
procedure or they may be manually entered through the MCDU F-PLN page. The
aircraft will attempt to meet these as long as DES mode is being used.
The crew should be aware that an ATC ”DIR TO” clearance automatically removes the
requirement to comply with the speed/altitude constraints assigned to the waypoints
deleted from the F-PLN. However, if intermediate waypoints are relevant, e.g. for terrain
awareness, then ”DIR TO” with ABEAMS may be an appropriate selection as
constraints can be re-entered into these waypoints if required.
Following the selection of HDG, DES mode will switch automatically to V/S, and
altitude constraints will no longer be taken into account.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-080. P 7/8
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
DESCENT
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
10 000 FT FLOW PATTERN
Ident.: NO-080-00005517.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
10 000 ft FLOW PATTERN
MECH
ALL
FWD
AFT
WING
ENG 1
ENG 2
FAULT
FAULT
FAULT
ON
ON
ON
ON
RAIN RPLNT
−2
MAN V/S CTL MODE SEL
OFF
UP
A
U
T
O
14
A
U 12
T
O 10
FAULT
OVRD
DN
APU
OFF
ON
ON
NAV
2
OFF
OFF
OFF
L
R
LAND LIGHTS
ON
SLOW
2
FAST
1
BRT
ON
ON
1
OFF
SIGNS
EMER EXIT LT
ON
2
OFF
OFF
FAST
DIM
SEAT BELTS
OFF
NO SMOKING
ON
A
U
T
O
OFF
ON
SLOW
BRT
OFF
OFF
AVAIL
ON
RAIN RPLNT
OFF
TEST
DIM
FAULT
ON
WIPER
ANN LT
BRT
ON
OFF
RWY TURN OFF
ON
ON
ON
6
OVHD INTEG LT
INIT LT
STBY COMPASS DOME
MASTER SW
A
U
T
O
0
4
8
WIPER
OFF
OFF
3
ARPT
NDB
VOR.D
WPT
CSTR
EFIS OPTION
412VU
QFE QNH
100
UP
1000
20
40
10
AP 1
160
AP 2
ALT
A/THR
APPR
2
3
ALT
m bar
ADF
4
LDG GEAR
UNLK
UNLK
MAX
UNLK
HOT
MASTER
WARN
mb
PULL
STD
SIDE STICK PRIORITY
F/O
VOR
OFF
4
311VU
9 0 1
6
PLAN in Hg
ENG
2
VOR
OFF
CHRONO
ARC
ILS
320
ADF
7
NAV
ROSE
VOR
1
DN
LOC
80
ILS
MASTER
CAUT
FD
LS P/B
ON
A/SKID &
N/W STRG
AUTO/BRK
LO
MED
MAX
DECEL
DECEL
DECEL
ON
ON
ON
ON
OFF
UP
DME R
3
15
21
ADF
12
24
33
6
30
DME L
V
O
R
PRESS
ACCU
V
O
R
3
0
4
1
3
1
0
ADF
BRAKES
PSI 1000
DOWN
DY HR
MO
DATE
T
M
G
SET
MIN
R
U
N
50
CHR
h
40
min
GMT
h
min
10
20
ET
RUN
ET
CHR
STOP
RST
0
0
0
5
0
RADIO NAV
T.O.
CONFIG
0
0
EMER
CANC
ENG
BLEED
PRESS
EL/AC
EL/DC
APU
COND
DOOR
WHEEL
F/CTL
FUEL
6
ALL
NAV ACCY
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-080. P 8/8
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
HOLDING
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
PREFACE
Ident.: NO-090-00005518.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
Whenever holding is anticipated, it is preferable to maintain cruise level and reduce
speed to green dot, with ATC clearance, to minimize the holding requirement. As a rule
of thumb, a M 0.05 decrease during 1 h equates to 4 min hold. However, other
operational constraints might make this option inappropriate.
A holding pattern can be inserted at any point in the flight plan or may be included as
part of the STAR. In either case, the holding pattern can be modified by the crew.
HOLDING SPEED AND CONFIGURATION
Ident.: NO-090-00005519.0001001 / 28 APR 08
Applicable to: ALL
If a hold is to be flown, provided NAV mode is engaged and the speed is managed, an
automatic speed reduction will occur to achieve the Maximum Endurance speed when
entering the holding pattern. The Maximum Endurance speed is approximately equal to
Green Dot and provides the lowest hourly fuel consumption.
If the Maximum Endurance speed is greater than the ICAO or state maximum holding
speed, the crew should select flap 1 below 20 000 ft and fly S speed. Fuel consumption
will be increased when holding in anything other than clean configuration and Maximum
Endurance speed.
IN THE HOLDING PATTERN
Ident.: NO-090-00005520.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
The holding pattern is not included in the descent path computation since the FMGS
does not know how many patterns will be flown. When the holding fix is sequenced, the
FMGS assumes that only one holding pattern will be flown and updates predictions
accordingly. Once in the holding pattern, the VDEV indicates the vertical deviation
between current aircraft altitude and the altitude at which the aircraft should cross the
exit fix in order to be on the descent profile.
The DES mode guides the aircraft down at -1 000 ft/min whilst in the holding pattern
until reaching the cleared altitude or altitude constraint.
When in the holding pattern, LAST EXIT UTC/FUEL information is displayed on the
MCDU HOLD page. These predictions are based upon the fuel policy requirements
specified on the MCDU FUEL PRED page with no extra fuel, assuming the aircraft will
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-090. P 1/2
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
HOLDING
divert. The crew should be aware that this information is computed with defined
assumptions e.g.:
• Aircraft weight being equal to landing weight at primary destination
• Flight at FL 220 if distance to ALTN is less than 200 nm, otherwise FL 310
performed at maximum range speed.
• Constant wind (as entered in alternate field of the DES WIND page).
• Constant delta ISA (equal to delta ISA at primary destination)
• Airway distance for a company route, otherwise direct distance.
Alternate airport may be modified using the MCDU ALTN airport page which can be
accessed by a lateral revision at destination.
To exit the holding pattern, the crew should select either:
• IMM EXIT (The aircraft will return immediately to the hold fix, exit the holding
pattern and resume its navigation) or
• HDG if radar vectors or
• DIR TO if radar vectors or
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-090. P 2/2
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
APPROACH GENERAL
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
PREFACE
Ident.: NO-100-00005521.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
This section covers general information applicable to all approach types. Techniques,
which apply to specific approach types, will be covered in dedicated chapters.
All approaches are divided into three parts (initial, intermediate and final) where various
drills have to be achieved regardless of the approach type.
the approach parts and associated actions
IAF
Initial Appr
FM NAV ACCY check
Select FLYING REF (attitude/bird)
Activate APPR Phase
D
Intermediate Appr
Regulate A/C deceleration and conf
Manage final axis interception
Final Appr
Monitor appr mode engagement
Monitor trajectory with raw data
Be stabilized at 1000 ft (500 ft)
FAF
INITIAL APPROACH
Ident.: NO-100-00005522.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: MSN 0781-0852
NAVIGATION ACCURACY
Prior to any approach, a navigation accuracy check is to be carried out. On aircraft
equipped with GPS however, no navigation accuracy check is required as long as GPS
PRIMARY is available.
Without GPS PRIMARY or if no GPS is installed, navigation accuracy check has to be
carried out. The navigation accuracy determines which AP modes the crew should use
and the type of display to be shown on the ND.
THE FLYING REFERENCE
It is recommended to use the FD bars for ILS approaches and the FPV called ”bird”
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-100. P 1/16
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
APPROACH GENERAL
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
with FPD for non-precision or circling approach approaches.
APPROACH PHASE ACTIVATION
Activation of the approach phase will initiate a deceleration towards VAPP or the
speed constraint inserted at FAF, whichever applies.
When in NAV mode with managed speed, the approach phase activates automatically
when sequencing the deceleration pseudo-waypoint . If an early deceleration is
required, the approach phase can be activated on the MCDU PERF APPR page.
When the approach phase is activated, the magenta target speed becomes VAPP.
When in HDG mode, e.g. for radar vectoring, the crew will activate the approach
phase manually.
There are two approach techniques:
• The decelerated approach
• The stabilized approach
THE DECELERATED APPROACH
This technique refers to an approach where the aircraft reaches 1 000 ft in the
landing configuration at VAPP. In most cases, this equates to the aircraft being in
CONF 1 and at S speed at the FAF. This is the preferred technique for an ILS
approach. The deceleration pseudo-waypoint assumes a decelerated approach
technique.
THE STABILIZED APPROACH
This technique refers to an approach where the aircraft reaches the FAF in the
landing configuration at VAPP. This technique is recommended for non-precision
approaches. To get a valuable deceleration pseudo waypoint and to ensure a timely
deceleration, the pilot should enter VAPP as a speed constraint at the FAF.
STABILIZED VERSUS DECELERATED APPROACH
FAF
FAF
Ldg Conf/VAPP
at FAF
STABILIZED APPR
Conf1/S speed
at FAF
DECELERATED APPR
F-PLN SEQUENCING
When in NAV mode, the F-PLN will sequence automatically. In HDG/TRK mode, the
F-PLN waypoints will sequence automatically only if the aircraft flies close to the
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-100. P 2/16
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
APPROACH GENERAL
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
programmed route. Correct F-PLN sequencing is important to ensure that the
programmed missed approach route is available in case of go-around and to ensure
correct predictions. A good cue to monitor the proper F-PLN sequencing is the TO
waypoint on the upper right side of the ND, which should remain meaningful.
If under radar vectors and automatic waypoint sequencing does not occur, the F-PLN
will be sequenced by either using the DIR TO RADIAL IN function or by deleting the
FROM WPT on the F-PLN page until the next likely WPT to be over flown is
displayed as the TO WPT on the ND.
INITIAL APPROACH
Ident.: NO-100-00005522.0002001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: MSN 1320-2180
NAVIGATION ACCURACY
Prior to any approach, a navigation accuracy check is to be carried out. On aircraft
equipped with GPS however, no navigation accuracy check is required as long as GPS
PRIMARY is available.
Without GPS PRIMARY or if no GPS is installed, navigation accuracy check has to be
carried out. The navigation accuracy determines which AP modes the crew should use
and the type of display to be shown on the ND.
THE FLYING REFERENCE
It is recommended to use the FD bars for ILS approaches and the FPV called ”bird”
with FPD for non-precision or circling approach approaches.
APPROACH PHASE ACTIVATION
Activation of the approach phase will initiate a deceleration towards VAPP or the
speed constraint inserted at FAF, whichever applies.
When in NAV mode with managed speed, the approach phase activates automatically
when sequencing the deceleration pseudo-waypoint. If an early deceleration is required,
the approach phase can be activated on the MCDU PERF APPR page. When the
approach phase is activated, the magenta target speed becomes VAPP.
When in HDG mode, e.g. for radar vectoring, the crew will activate the approach
phase manually.
There are two approach techniques:
• The decelerated approach
• The stabilized approach
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-100. P 3/16
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
APPROACH GENERAL
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
THE DECELERATED APPROACH
This technique refers to an approach where the aircraft reaches 1 000 ft in the
landing configuration at VAPP. In most cases, this equates to the aircraft being in
CONF 1 and at S speed at the FAF. This is the preferred technique for an ILS
approach. The deceleration pseudo waypoint assumes a decelerated approach
technique.
THE STABILIZED APPROACH
This technique refers to an approach where the aircraft reaches the FAF in the
landing configuration at VAPP. This technique is recommended for non-precision
approaches. To get a valuable deceleration pseudo waypoint and to ensure a timely
deceleration, the pilot should enter VAPP as a speed constraint at the FAF.
STABILIZED VERSUS DECELERATED APPROACH
FAF
FAF
Ldg Conf/VAPP
at FAF
STABILIZED APPR
Conf1/S speed
at FAF
DECELERATED APPR
F-PLN SEQUENCING
When in NAV mode, the F-PLN will sequence automatically. In HDG/TRK mode, the
F-PLN waypoints will sequence automatically only if the aircraft flies close to the
programmed route. Correct F-PLN sequencing is important to ensure that the
programmed missed approach route is available in case of go-around and to ensure
correct predictions. A good cue to monitor the proper F-PLN sequencing is the TO
waypoint on the upper right side of the ND, which should remain meaningful.
If under radar vectors and automatic waypoint sequencing does not occur, the F-PLN
will be sequenced by either using the DIR TO RADIAL IN function or by deleting the
FROM WPT on the F-PLN page until the next likely WPT to be over flown is
displayed as the TO WPT on the ND.
Using DIR TO or DIR TO RADIAL IN function arms the NAV mode. If NAV mode is
not appropriate, pull the HDG knob to disarm it.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-100. P 4/16
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
APPROACH GENERAL
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
INTERMEDIATE APPROACH
Ident.: NO-100-00005523.0001001 / 26 MAY 08
Applicable to: MSN 0781-0852
The purpose of the intermediate approach is to bring the aircraft at the proper speed,
altitude and configuration at FAF.
DECELERATION AND CONFIGURATION CHANGE
Managed speed is recommended for the approach. Once the approach phase has been
activated, the A/THR will guide aircraft speed towards the maneuvering speed of the
current configuration, whenever higher than VAPP, e.g. green dot for CONFIG 0, S
speed for CONFIG 1 etc.
To achieve a constant deceleration and to minimize thrust variation, the crew should
extend the next configuration when reaching the next configuration maneuvering speed
+10 kt (IAS must be lower than VFE next), e.g. when the speed reaches green dot
+10 kt, the crew should select CONFIG 1. Using this technique, the mean
deceleration rate will be approximately 10 kt/NM in level flight. This deceleration rate
will be twice i.e. 20 kt/NM, with the use of the speedbrakes.
If selected speed is to be used to comply with ATC, the requested speed should be
selected on the FCU. A speed below the manoeuvring speed of the present
configuration may be selected provided it is above VLS. When the ATC speed
constraint no longer applies, the pilot should push the FCU speed selector to resume
managed speed.
When flying the intermediate approach in selected speed, the crew will activate the
approach phase. This will ensure further proper speed deceleration when resuming
managed speed; otherwise the aircraft will accelerate to the previous applicable
descent phase speed.
In certain circumstances, e.g. tail wind or high weight, the deceleration rate may be
insufficient. In this case, the landing gear may be lowered, preferably below 220 kt (to
avoid gear doors overstress), and before selection of Flap 2. Speedbrakes can also be
used to increase the deceleration rate but the crew should be aware of:
• The increase in VLS with the use of speedbrakes
• The limited effect at low speeds
• The speed brake auto-retraction when selecting CONF 3 (A321 only) or CONF full.
(Not applicable for A318)
INTERCEPTION OF FINAL APPROACH COURSE
To ensure a smooth interception of final approach course, the aircraft ground speed
should be appropriate, depending upon interception angle and distance to runway
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-100. P 5/16
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
APPROACH GENERAL
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
threshold. The pilot should refer to applicable raw data (LOC, needles), XTK
information on ND and wind component for the selection of an appropriate IAS.
If ATC provides radar vectors, the crew will sequence the F-PLN by checking that the
TO WPT, on upper right hand corner of ND, is the most probable one and
meaningful. This provides:
• A comprehensive ND display
• An assistance for lateral interception (XTK)
• A meaningful vertical deviation
• The go around route to be displayed.
When established on the LOC, a DIR TO should not be performed to sequence the FPLN as this will result in the FMGS reverting to NAV mode. In this case, the LOC will
have to be re-armed and re-captured, increasing workload unduly.
The final approach course interception in NAV mode is possible if GPS is PRIMARY
or if the navigation accuracy check is positive.
If ATC gives a new wind for landing, the crew will update it on MCDU PERF APPR
page.
Once cleared for the approach, the crew will press the APPR P/B to arm the
approach modes when applicable.
INTERMEDIATE APPROACH
Ident.: NO-100-00005523.0002001 / 26 MAY 08
Applicable to: MSN 1320-2180
The purpose of the intermediate approach is to bring the aircraft at the proper speed,
altitude and configuration at FAF.
DECELERATION AND CONFIGURATION CHANGE
Managed speed is recommended for the approach. Once the approach phase has been
activated, the A/THR will guide aircraft speed towards the maneuvering speed of the
current configuration, whenever higher than VAPP, e.g. green dot for CONFIG 0, S
speed for CONFIG 1 etc.
To achieve a constant deceleration and to minimize thrust variation, the crew should
extend the next configuration when reaching the next configuration maneuvering speed
+10 kt (IAS must be lower than VFE next), e.g. when the speed reaches green dot
+10 kt, the crew should select CONFIG 1. Using this technique, the mean
deceleration rate will be approximately 10 kt/NM in level flight. This deceleration rate
will be twice i.e. 20 kt/NM, with the use of the speedbrakes.
If selected speed is to be used to comply with ATC, the requested speed should be
selected on the FCU. A speed below the manoeuvring speed of the present
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-100. P 6/16
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
APPROACH GENERAL
configuration may be selected provided it is above VLS. When the ATC speed
constraint no longer applies, the pilot should push the FCU speed selector to resume
managed speed.
When flying the intermediate approach in selected speed, the crew will activate the
approach phase. This will ensure further proper speed deceleration when resuming
managed speed; otherwise the aircraft will accelerate to the previous applicable
descent phase speed.
In certain circumstances, e.g. tail wind or high weight, the deceleration rate may be
insufficient. In this case, the landing gear may be lowered, preferably below 220 kt (to
avoid gear doors overstress), and before selection of Flap 2. Speedbrakes can also be
used to increase the deceleration rate but the crew should be aware of:
• The increase in VLS with the use of speedbrakes
• The limited effect at low speeds
• The speed brake auto-retraction when selecting the landing configuration. (Not
applicable for A318)
INTERCEPTION OF FINAL APPROACH COURSE
To ensure a smooth interception of final approach course, the aircraft ground speed
should be appropriate, depending upon interception angle and distance to runway
threshold. The pilot should refer to applicable raw data (LOC, needles), XTK
information on ND and wind component for the selection of an appropriate IAS.
If ATC provides radar vectors, the crew will use the DIR TO RADIAL IN-BND facility.
This ensures:
• A proper F-PLN sequencing
• A comprehensive ND display
• An assistance for lateral interception
• The VDEV to be computed on reasonable distance assumptions.
However, considerations should be given the following:
• A radial is to be inserted in the MCDU. In the following example, the final approach
course is 90 ˚ corresponding to radial 270 ˚.
• Deceleration will not occur automatically as long as lateral mode is HDG
When established on the LOC, a DIR TO should not be performed to sequence the FPLN as this will result in the FMGS reverting to NAV mode. In this case, the LOC will
have to be re-armed and re-captured, increasing workload unduly.
The final approach course interception in NAV mode is possible if GPS is PRIMARY
or if the navigation accuracy check is positive.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-100. P 7/16
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
APPROACH GENERAL
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
use of DIR TO radial in facility
FAF
INTCPT
RADIAL 270
090
XTK
dist
If ATC gives a new wind for landing, the crew will update it on MCDU PERF APPR
page.
Once cleared for the approach, the crew will press the APPR P/B to arm the
approach modes when applicable.
FINAL APPROACH
Ident.: NO-100-00005524.0001001 / 02 JUL 08
Applicable to: ALL
FINAL APPROACH MODE ENGAGEMENT MONITORING
The crew will monitor the engagement of G/S* for ILS approach, FINAL for fully
managed NPA or will select the Final Path Angle (FPA) reaching FAF for selected
NPA. If the capture or engagement is abnormal, the pilot will either use an
appropriate selected mode or take over manually.
FINAL APPROACH MONITORING
The final approach is to be monitored through available data. Those data depends on
the approach type and the result of the navigation accuracy check.
Approach type
ILS
Managed NPA
Managed NPA
Selected NPA
Navigation accuracy check
GPS primary
Non GPS PRIMARY
Accuracy check negative
Data to be monitored
LOC, GS deviation, DME and/or OM
VDEV, XTK and F-PLN
VDEV, XTK, Needles, DME and ALT
Needles, DME and ALT, Time
USE OF A/THR
The pilot should use the A/THR for approaches as it provides accurate speed control.
The pilot will keep the hand on the thrust levers so as to be prepared to react if
needed.
During final approach, the managed target speed moves along the speed scale as a
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-100. P 8/16
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
APPROACH GENERAL
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
function of wind variation. The pilot should ideally check the reasonableness of the
target speed by referring to GS on the top left on ND. If the A/THR performance is
unsatisfactory, the pilot should disconnect it and control the thrust manually.
If the pilot is going to perform the landing using manual thrust, the A/THR should be
disconnected by 1 000 ft on the final approach.
GO-AROUND ALTITUDE SETTING
When established on final approach, the go-around altitude must be set on FCU. This
can be done at any time when G/S or FINAL mode engages. However, on a selected
Non Precision Approach, i.e. when either FPA or V/S is used, the missed approach
altitude must only be set when the current aircraft altitude is below the missed
approach altitude, in order to avoid unwanted ALT*.
TRAJECTORY STABILIZATION
The first prerequisite for safe final approach and landing is to stabilize the aircraft on
the final approach flight path laterally and longitudinally, in landing configuration, at
VAPP speed, i.e:
• Only small corrections are necessary to rectify minor deviations from stabilized
conditions
• The thrust is stabilized, usually above idle, to maintain the target approach speed
along the desired final approach path
Airbus policy requires that stabilized conditions be reached at 1 000 ft above airfield
elevation in IMC and 500 ft above airfield elevation in VMC.
If, for any reason, one flight parameter deviates from stabilized conditions, the PNF
will make a callout as stated below:
Exceedance and associated PNF callout
Parameter
IAS
Exceedance
VAPP +10 kt / -5 kt
V/S
< -1 000 ft/min
Pitch attitude
+10 ˚ / -2.5 ˚
Bank angle
7 ˚
ILS only
NPA only
(1)
Localizer
Glide slope
Course
Altitude at check
points
”SINK RATE”
”PITCH”
(1)
Excess Deviation
Callout
”SPEED”
”BANK”
1/4 dot PFD
1 dot PFD
Excess deviation: 1/2 dot on PFD (or
2.5 ˚ (VOR)/5 ˚ (ADF))
Deviation
”LOCALIZER”
”GLIDE SLOPE”
“COURSE”
“ xFT HIGH (LOW)”
The pitch attitude upper threshold becomes +7.5 ˚ or A321.
Following a PNF flight parameter exceedance call out, the suitable PF response will
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-100. P 9/16
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
APPROACH GENERAL
be:
• Acknowledge the PNF callout, for proper crew coordination purposes
• Take immediate corrective action to control the exceeded parameter back into the
defined stabilized conditions
• Assess whether stabilized conditions will be recovered early enough prior to landing,
otherwise initiate a go-around.
REACHING THE MINIMA
Decision to land or go-around must be made at MDA/DH at the latest. Reaching the
MDA/DH, at MINIMUM call out:
• If appropriate visual reference can be maintained and the aircraft is properly
established, continue and land.
• If not, go-around.
The MDA/DH should not be set as target altitude on the FCU. If the MDA/DH were
inserted on the FCU, this would cause a spurious ALT* when approaching MDA/DH,
resulting in the approach becoming destabilised at a critical stage.
AP DISCONNECTION
During the final approach with the AP engaged, the aircraft will be stabilised.
Therefore, when disconnecting the AP for a manual landing, the pilot should avoid the
temptation to make large inputs on the sidestick.
The pilot should disconnect the autopilot early enough to resume manual control of
the aircraft and to evaluate the drift before flare. During crosswind conditions, the
pilot should avoid any tendency to drift downwind.
Some common errors include:
- Descending below the final path, and/or
- reducing the drift too early.
VAPP
Ident.: NO-100-00005525.0004001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
The approach speed (VAPP) is defined by the crew to perform the safest approach. It is
function of gross weight, configuration, headwind, A/THR ON/OFF, icing and
downburst.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-100. P 10/16
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
APPROACH GENERAL
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
Gross weight
Configuration
VAPP=VLS +
Max
5 kts for severe icing
5 kts for A/THR ON
1/3 of steady headwind (limited to 15 kts)
In most cases, the FMGC provides valuable VAPP on MCDU PERF APPR page, once
tower wind and FLAP3 or FLAP FULL landing configuration has been inserted
(VAPPfmgc = VLS + MAX of {5 kt, 1/3 tower head wind component on landing RWY
in the F-PLN}).
The crew can insert a lower VAPP on the MCDU APPR page, down to VLS, if landing
is performed with A/THR OFF, with no wind, no downburst and no icing.
He can insert a higher VAPP in case of strong suspected downburst, but this increment
is limited to 15 kt above VLS.
In case of strong or gusty crosswind greater than 20 kt, VAPP should be at least VLS
+5 kt; the 5 kt increment above VLS may be increased up to 15 kt at the flight crew’s
discretion.
The crew will bear in mind that the wind entered in MCDU PERF APPR page considers
the wind direction to be in the same reference as the runway direction e. g. if airport is
magnetic referenced, the crew will insert magnetic wind. The wind direction provided by
ATIS and tower is given in the same reference as the runway direction whereas the wind
provided by VOLMET, METAR or TAF is always true referenced.
VAPP is computed at predicted landing weight while the aircraft is in CRZ or DES
phase. Once the approach phase is activated, VAPP is computed using current gross
weight.
Managed speed should be used for final approach as it provides Ground Speed mini (GS
mini) guidance, even when the VAPP has been manually inserted.
GROUND SPEED MINI
Ident.: NO-100-00005526.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: MSN 0781-0852
PURPOSE
The purpose of the ground speed mini function is to keep the aircraft energy level
above a minimum value, whatever the wind variations or gusts.
This allows an efficient management of the thrust in gusts or longitudinal shears.
Thrust varies in the right sense, but in a smaller range (± 15 % N1) in gusty
situations, which explains why it is recommended in such situations.
It provides additional but rational safety margins in shears.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-100. P 11/16
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
APPROACH GENERAL
It allows pilots ”to understand what is going on” in perturbed approaches by
monitoring the target speed magenta bugs: when target goes up = head wind gust.
COMPUTATION
This minimum energy level is the energy the aircraft will have at landing with the
expected tower wind; it is materialized by the ground speed of the aircraft at that
time which is called GS mini:
GS mini = VAPP - Tower head wind component
In order to achieve that goal, the aircraft ground speed should never drop below GS
mini in the approach, while the winds are changing. Thus the aircraft IAS must vary
while flying down, in order to cope with the gusts or wind changes. In order to make
this possible for the pilot or for the A/THR, the FMGS continuously computes an IAS
target speed, which ensures that the aircraft ground speed is at least equal to GS
mini; the FMGS uses the instantaneous wind component experienced by the aircraft:
IAS Target Speed = GS mini + Current headwind component
This target speed is limited by VAPP in case of tailwind or if instantaneous wind is
lower than the tower wind.
example
20 kts headwind
(a)
VLS=130 kts
Tower wind=20 kt Head wind
Vapp=130 + 1/3 HW
=137 kt
GS mini=Vapp − HW
=117 kt
40 kts headwind
(b)
(c)
10 kts Tailwind
Tower wind
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-100. P 12/16
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
APPROACH GENERAL
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
(a)
Current wind
= tower wind
(b)
Head wind gust
(c)
Tailwind gust
Vapp is the IAS target
The IAS target increases
Ground speed = GS mini
The IAS increases
GS mini is maintained
The IAS target decreases
(not below Vapp)
The IAS decreases
GS increases
Thrust slightly increases
Thrust slightly decreases
160
140
160
120
140
140
GS
117
GS mini
GS
GS
117
GS mini
GS
GS
147
GS mini
GS
GROUND SPEED MINI
Ident.: NO-100-00005526.0002001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: MSN 1320-2180
PURPOSE
The purpose of the ground speed mini function is to keep the aircraft energy level
above a minimum value, whatever the wind variations or gusts.
This allows an efficient management of the thrust in gusts or longitudinal shears.
Thrust varies in the right sense, but in a smaller range (± 15 % N1) in gusty
situations, which explains why it is recommended in such situations.
It provides additional but rational safety margins in shears.
It allows pilots ”to understand what is going on” in perturbed approaches by
monitoring the target speed magenta bugs: when target goes up = head wind gust.
COMPUTATION
This minimum energy level is the energy the aircraft will have at landing with the
expected tower wind; it is materialized by the ground speed of the aircraft at that
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-100. P 13/16
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
APPROACH GENERAL
time which is called GS mini:
GS mini = VAPP - Tower head wind component
In order to achieve that goal, the aircraft ground speed should never drop below GS
mini in the approach, while the winds are changing. Thus the aircraft IAS must vary
while flying down, in order to cope with the gusts or wind changes. In order to make
this possible for the pilot or for the A/THR, the FMGS continuously computes an IAS
target speed, which ensures that the aircraft ground speed is at least equal to GS
mini; the FMGS uses the instantaneous wind component experienced by the aircraft:
IAS Target Speed = GS mini + Current headwind component
This target speed is limited by VFE -5 in case of very strong gusts, by VAPP in case
of tailwind or if instantaneous wind is lower than the tower wind.
example
20 kts headwind
(a)
VLS=130 kts
Tower wind=20 kt Head wind
Vapp=130 + 1/3 HW
=137 kt
GS mini=Vapp − HW
=117 kt
40 kts headwind
(b)
(c)
10 kts Tailwind
Tower wind
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-100. P 14/16
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
APPROACH GENERAL
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
(a)
Current wind
= tower wind
(b)
Head wind gust
(c)
Tailwind gust
Vapp is the IAS target
The IAS target increases
Ground speed = GS mini
The IAS increases
GS mini is maintained
The IAS target decreases
(not below Vapp)
The IAS decreases
GS increases
Thrust slightly increases
Thrust slightly decreases
160
140
160
120
140
140
GS
117
GS mini
GS
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
GS
117
GS mini
GS
GS
147
GS mini
GS
NO-100. P 15/16
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
APPROACH GENERAL
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
Intentionally left blank
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-100. P 16/16
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
ILS APPROACH
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
PREFACE
Ident.: NO-110-00005529.0001001 / 26 MAY 08
Applicable to: ALL
This chapter deals with some characteristics of the ILS approach. Recommendations
mentioned in APPROACH GENERAL chapter apply.
For CAT1 ILS, the crew will insert DA/DH values into MDA (or MDH if QFE function
is available) field on the MCDU PERF APPR page, since these values are baro
referenced.
For CATII or CATIII ILS, the crew will insert DH into DH field on MCDU PERF APPR
page, since this value is a radio altitude referenced.
INITIAL APPROACH
Ident.: NO-110-00005531.0006001 / 17 JUN 08
Applicable to: ALL
NAVIGATION ACCURACY
When GPS PRIMARY is available, no NAV ACCURACY monitoring is required. When
GPS PRIMARY is lost the crew will check on MCDU PROG page that the required
navigation accuracy is appropriate. If NAV ACCURACY DOWNGRAD is displayed,
the crew will use raw data for navigation accuracy check. The navigation accuracy
determines which AP modes the crew should use and the type of display to be shown
on the ND.
NAVIGATION ACCURACY
GPS PRIMARY
NAV ACCUR HIGH
NAV ACCUR LOW and NAV
ACCURACY check ≤1 nm
ND
PF
PNF
ARC or ROSE NAV with navaid raw data
AP/FD mode
ARC or ROSE NAV
or ROSE ILS with
navaid raw data
HDG or TRK
GPS PRIMARY LOST and NAV
ACCUR LOW and NAV ACCURACY
check >1 nm
ROSE ILS
NAV
GPS PRIMARY LOST and Aircraft
flying within unreliable radio navaid
area
FLYING REFERENCE
The crew will select HDG V/S on the FCU i.e. ”bird” off.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-110. P 1/6
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
ILS APPROACH
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
APPROACH PHASE ACTIVATION
For a standard ILS, the crew should plan a decelerated approach. However, if the G/S
angle is greater than 3.5 ˚ or if forecast tail wind at landing exceeds 10 kt (if
permitted by the AFM), a stabilized approach is recommended.
If FAF is at or below 2 000 ft AGL and if deceleration is carried out using selected
speed, the crew should plan a deceleration in order to be able to select CONFIG. 2
one dot below the G/S.
MISCELLANEOUS
The ILS or LS PB is to be checked pressed in the first stage of the approach. The
crew will check that
• LOC and GS scales and deviations are displayed on PFD
• IDENT is properly displayed on the PFD. If no or wrong ident displayed, the crew
will check the audio ident.
INTERMEDIATE APPROACH
Ident.: NO-110-00005533.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
INTERCEPTION OF FINAL APPROACH COURSE
When cleared for the ILS, the APPR pb should be pressed. This arms the approach
mode and LOC and GS are displayed in blue on the FMA. At this stage the second
AP, if available, should be selected.
If the ATC clears for a LOC capture only, the crew will press LOC p/b on the FCU.
If the ATC clears for approach at a significant distance, e.g. 30 nm, the crew should
be aware that the G/S may be perturbed and CAT 1 will be displayed on FMA till a
valid Radio Altimeter signal is received.
FINAL APPROACH
Ident.: NO-110-00005534.0001001 / 03 JUL 08
Applicable to: ALL
GLIDE SLOPE INTERCEPTION FROM ABOVE
The following procedure should only be applied when established on the localizer.
There are a number of factors which might lead to a glide slope interception from
above. In such a case, the crew must react without delay to ensure the aircraft is
configured for landing before 1 000 ft AAL. In order to get the best rate of descent
when cleared by ATC and below the limiting speeds, the crew should lower the
landing gear and select CONF 2. Speedbrakes may also be used, noting the
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-110. P 2/6
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
ILS APPROACH
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
considerations detailed in the sub-section ”Deceleration and configuration change”
earlier in this chapter. The recommended target speed for this procedure is VFE 2 5 kt. When cleared to intercept the glide slope, the crew should:
• Press the APPR pb on FCU and confirm G/S is armed.
• Select the FCU altitude above aircraft altitude to avoid unwanted ALT*.
• Select V/S 1 500 ft/min initially. V/S in excess of 2 000 ft/min will result in the
speed increasing towards VFE
A/C high above G/S - recommended g/s capture technique
FCU alt
selected
above
A/C altitude
SPEED V/S − 1500
GS
FCU alt
selected
to Go Around
altitude
SPEED G/S*
G/S INTCPT
It is vital to use V/S rather than OP DES to ensure that the A/THR is in speed mode
rather than IDLE mode. The rate of descent will be carefully monitored to avoid
exceeding VFE . When approaching the G/S, G/S*will engage. The crew will monitor
the capture with raw data (pitch and G/S deviation). The go-around altitude will be
set on the FCU and speed reduced so as to be configured for landing by 1 000 ft.
In such a situation, taking into account the ground obstacles and if ATC permits, it
may be appropriate to carry out a 360 ˚turn before resuming the approach.
MISCELLANEOUS
Close to the ground, avoid large down corrections. Give priority to attitude and sink
rate. (Refer to NO-160 TAIL STRIKE AVOIDANCE).
In case of a double receiver failure, the red LOC/GS flags are displayed, ILS scales are
removed, the AP trips off and the FDs revert to HDG/VS mode.
In case of an ILS ground transmitter failure, the AP/FD with LOC/GS modes will
remain ON. This is because such a failure is commonly transient. In such a case, ILS
scales and FD bars are flashing. If R/A height is below 200 ft, the red LAND warning
is triggered. If this failure lasts more than several seconds or in case of AUTOLAND
warning, the crew must perform a go-around.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-110. P 3/6
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
ILS APPROACH
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
ILS RAW DATA
Ident.: NO-110-00005536.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
INITIAL APPROACH
FLYING REFERENCE
The ”bird” is to be used as the flying reference.
APPROACH PHASE ACTIVATION
The approach technique is the stabilized approach.
INTERMEDIATE APPROACH
The TRK index will be set to the ILS course and, once established on the LOC, the
tail of the bird should be coincident with the TRK index. This method allows accurate
LOC tracking taking into account the drift.
Should the LOC deviate, the pilot will fly the bird in the direction of the LOC index,
and when re-established on the LOC, set the tail of the bird on the TRK index again.
If there is further LOC deviation, a slight IRS drift should be suspected. The bird is
computed out of IRS data. Thus, it may be affected by IRS data drift amongst other
TRK. A typical TRK error at the end of the flight is 1 ˚ to 2 ˚.
The ILS course pointer and the TRK diamond are also displayed on PFD compass.
FINAL APPROACH
When 1/2 dot below the G/S, the pilot should initiate the interception of the G/S by
smoothly flying the FPV down to the glide path angle. The bird almost sitting on the
-5 ˚ pitch scale on PFD, provides a -3 ˚ flight path angle. Should the G/S deviate,
the pilot will make small corrections in the direction of the deviation and when reestablished on the G/S, reset the bird to the G/S angle.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-110. P 4/6
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
ILS APPROACH
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
TRK index selected to FINAL CRS
and corrected as per IRS TRK drift
FPA =
10
31
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
32
10
33
34
NO-110. P 5/6
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
ILS APPROACH
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
Intentionally left blank
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-110. P 6/6
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
NON PRECISION APPROACH
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
PREFACE
Ident.: NO-120-00005538.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
This chapter deals with some characteristics of the Non Precision Approach (NPA).
Recommendations mentioned Refer to NO-100 PREFACE.
NPA are defined as:
• VOR approach
• NDB approach
• LOC, LOC-BC approach
• R-NAV approach.
APPROACH STRATEGY
Ident.: NO-120-00005540.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
The overall strategy of NPA completion is to fly it ”ILS alike” with the same mental
image or representation and similar procedure. Instead of being referred to an ILS beam,
the AP/FD guidance modes and associated monitoring data are referred to the FMS FPLN consolidated by raw data. LOC only approach is the exception where LOC mode
and localizer scale are to be used. This explains why the crew must ensure that the FMS
data is correct, e.g. FMS accuracy, F-PLN (lateral and vertical) and proper leg
sequencing.
The use of AP is recommended for all non-precision approaches as it reduces crew
workload and facilitates monitoring the procedure and flight path.
LIMITATIONS
Ident.: NO-120-00005541.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
Lateral and vertical managed guidance (FINAL APP) can be used provided the following
conditions are met:
• The approach is defined in the navigation database
• The approach has been crosschecked by the crew with the published procedure
• The final approach is not modified by the crew.
If one engine is inoperative, it is not permitted to use the autopilot to perform NPAs in
the following modes: FINAL APP, NAV V/S, NAV/FPA. Only FD use is permitted
(Refer to FCOM/LIM-22-10 USE OF NAV AND FINAL APP MODES FOR NONFCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-120. P 1/10
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
NON PRECISION APPROACH
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
PRECISION APPROACH). In others words, if the use of the autopilot is preferred, its
use will be limited to TRK/FPA or HDG/VS modes.
INITIAL APPROACH
Ident.: NO-120-00005543.0002001 / 17 JUN 08
Applicable to: ALL
NAVIGATION ACCURACY
The navigation accuracy check is most essential since it determines
• The AP/FD guidance mode to be used
• The ND display mode to be used
• Which raw data which are to be used.
NAVIGATION ACCURACY
GPS PRIMARY
NAV ACCUR HIGH
NAV ACCUR LOW and NAV
ACCURACY checK ≤1 nm
GPS PRIMARY LOST and NAV
ACCUR LOW and NAV
ACCURACY check > 1 nm
Approach
guidance
Managed
(3)
Selected
ND
PF
AP/FD mode
PNF
NAV-FPA or
APPNAV/FINAL (3)
ARC or ROSE NAV (1) with
navaid raw data
ROSE VOR
(2)
ARC or ROSE
NAV or ROSE
(2)
VOR with
navaid raw data
TRK-FPA
GPS PRIMARY LOST and
aircraft flying within unreliable
radio navaid area
(1) For VOR approach, one pilot may select ROSE VOR
(2) For LOC approach, select ROSE ILS
(3) The managed vertical guidance can be used provided the approach coding in the navigation database
has been validated.
Should a NAV ACCY DNGRADED or a GPS PRIMARY LOST message is displayed
before a managed non-precision approach, the crew should proceed as follow:
Message
GPS PRIMARY LOST
NAV ACCY DNGRADED
(1)
VOR, ADF, VOR/DME approach
Cross-check the navigation
accuracy:
If positive, continue managed
approach (1)
If negative, revert to selected
approach with raw data.
GPS approach
Interrupt the approach
-
If HIGH accuracy is lost on one FMGC, the approach can be continued with the AP/FD associated to
the other FMGC.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-120. P 2/10
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
NON PRECISION APPROACH
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
FLYING REFERENCE
The ”bird” is to be used as the flying reference
APPROACH PHASE ACTIVATION
The stabilized approach technique is recommended. The crew will set VAPP as a
speed constraint at FAF in order to get a meaningful deceleration pseudo waypoint.
INTERMEDIATE APPROACH
Ident.: NO-120-00005545.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: MSN 0781-0852
INTERCEPTION OF FINAL APPROACH COURSE
It is essential to have a correct F-PLN in order to ensure proper final approach
guidance. Indeed the NAV and APPR NAV modes are always guiding the aircraft
along the F-PLN active leg and the managed vertical mode ensures VDEV =0, VDEV,
being computed along the remaining F-PLN to destination. Hence, the crew will
monitor the proper sequencing of the F-PLN, more specifically if HDG mode is
selected, by checking that the TO WPT, on upper right hand corner of ND, is the
most probable one and meaningful.
F-PLN sequence in approach
FAF
C
B
FAF
C
B
A
Radar vectors: pilot has not cleared A, B.
A is still TO WPT − Hence no proper guidance
available nor predictions.
A
Radar vectors: pilot has monitored the TO WPT and cleared
successively A and B when no longer probable. Hence VDEV
is meaningful and APPR NAV or NAV may be armed.
When ATC gives radar vector and clears for final approach course interception, the
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-120. P 3/10
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
NON PRECISION APPROACH
crew will:
- For managed approach
• Select HDG according to ATC
• Select APPR p/b on FCU
• Check on FMA the final approach mode engagement
If the green solid line intercepts the F-PLN active leg (1), this creates an
INTERCPT point with final approach axis. APP NAV will engage when intercepting
the final approach course.
If the green solid line intercepts the PRE NAV engagement path (2), APP NAV
engages when intercepting the final approach course. The PRE NAV engagement
path is at least 1 nm and may be longer depending on aircraft speed.
HDG or TRK may be used to smooth the final approach course interception. When
close to the final approach course, DIR TO function may be used.
If the green solid line does not intercept the PRE NAV engagement path (3), APP
NAV will not engage.
XTK is related to the beam and the ND gives a comprehensive display.
Additionally, the VDEV becomes active and represents the vertical deviation, which
may include a level segment. The VDEV/brick scale will only be displayed if ILS or
LS pb is not pressed. If the ILS or LS pb is pressed by mistake, the V/DEV will
flash in amber on the PFD.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-120. P 4/10
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
NON PRECISION APPROACH
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
FD33L
CD33L
Pre−NAV
engagement path
INTCPT
XTK
FROM
UTC
CD33L
C32 6 °
FD33L
C32 6 °
MD33L
1528
12 3
SPD / ALT
250/
2240
B RG3 5 4 °
15 4 4
"/
T RK 3 2 6 °
15 4 5
C32 6 °
TOUA
C32 6 °
NOPTA
DE ST
UT C
LFBO33L
1545
6 3 . 0°
* 1810
3 3 . 0°
55 0
12 3 /
5
/+
90 0
17
/
D I ST EFOB
9
5.6
3
2
1
SPEED
ALT
HDG
FINAL
APP NAV
AP1
MDA 700
1FD2
A/THR
- For selected approach
• Select appropriate TRK on FCU in order to establish final course tracking with
reference to raw data. When established on the final course, the selected track will
compensate for drift.
The final approach course interception will be monitored through applicable raw data.
INTERMEDIATE APPROACH
Ident.: NO-120-00005545.0002001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: MSN 1320-2180
INTERCEPTION OF FINAL APPROACH COURSE
It is essential to have a correct F-PLN in order to ensure proper final approach
guidance. Indeed the NAV and APPR NAV modes are always guiding the aircraft
along the F-PLN active leg and the managed vertical mode ensures VDEV =0, VDEV,
being computed along the remaining F-PLN to destination. Hence, the crew will
monitor the proper sequencing of the F-PLN, more specifically if HDG mode is
selected, by checking that the TO WPT, on upper right hand corner of ND, is the
most probable one and meaningful.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-120. P 5/10
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
NON PRECISION APPROACH
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
F-PLN sequence in approach
FAF
C
FAF
C
B
B
A
A
Radar vectors: pilot has monitored the TO WPT and cleared
successively A and B when no longer probable. Hence VDEV
is meaningful and APPR NAV or NAV may be armed.
Radar vectors: pilot has not cleared A, B.
A is still TO WPT − Hence no proper guidance
available nor predictions.
If ATC gives radar vectors for final approach course interception, the crew will use
DIR TO FAF with RADIAL INBND facility. This creates an ILS alike beam which will
be intercepted by NAV and APPR NAV modes. Additionally, the VDEV is realistic,
XTK is related to the beam and the ND gives a comprehensive display.
F-PLN in approach
FAF
INTCPT
RWY 09
RADIAL 270
XTK
DEV
/V
YOYO
on of
functi
dist
When cleared for final approach course interception, the pilot will either
- For managed approach
Press APPR p/b on FCU. On the FMA, APP NAV becomes active and FINAL
becomes armed. The VDEV or ”brick” scale becomes active and represents the
vertical deviation, which may include a level segment. The VDEV/brick scale will
only be displayed if ILS or LS pb is not pressed. If the ILS or LS pb is pressed by
mistake, the V/DEV will flash in amber on the PFD
- For selected approach
Select adequate TRK on FCU in order to establish final course tracking with
reference to raw data. When established on the final course, the selected track will
compensate for drift.
The final approach course interception will be monitored through applicable raw data.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-120. P 6/10
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
NON PRECISION APPROACH
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
FINAL APPROACH
Ident.: NO-120-00005546.0002001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
It is essential that the crew does not modify the final approach in the MCDU FPLN
page.
The final approach will be flown either
• Managed or
• Selected
MANAGED
For a managed approach, FINAL APP becomes active and the FM manages both
lateral and vertical guidance. The crew will monitor the final approach using
• Start of descent blue symbol on ND
• FMA on PFD
• VDEV, XTK, F-PLN on ND with GPS PRIMARY
• VDEV, XTK, F-PLN confirmed by needles, distance/altitude
If FINAL APPR does not engage at start of descent, the crew will select FPA
convergent to the final path so as to fly with VDEV=0. Once VDEV=0, the crew may
try to re-engage APPR.
In some NPAs, the final approach flies an ”idle descent” segment from one altitude
constraint to another, followed by a level segment. This is materialized by a magenta
level off symbol on ND followed by a blue start of descent.
Final approach trajectory with idle descent segment
ALT 1
ALT 2
ALT 1
ALT 2
SELECTED
For a selected approach, the Final Path Angle (FPA) should be preset on the FCU
1 nm prior to the FAF at the latest. A smooth interception of the final approach path
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-120. P 7/10
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
NON PRECISION APPROACH
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
can be achieved by pulling the FPA selector 0.2 nm prior to the FAF. If GPS is
PRIMARY, the crew will monitor VDEV, XTK and F-PLN. Additionally, for VOR or
ADF approaches, the crew will monitor raw data.
REACHING THE MINIMA
Ident.: NO-120-00005548.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
When approaching MDA, the pilot flying should expand the instrument scan to include
outside visual cues.
Reaching MDA, ”MINIMUM” is either monitored or called by the crew. The current
altitude value becomes amber.
If the required conditions are not met by MDA, a missed approach must be initiated.
When the required visual conditions are met to continue the approach, the AP must be
disconnected, the FDs selected off, Bird ON and continue for visual approach.
LOC ONLY APPROACH
Ident.: NO-120-00005550.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
LOC ONLY approaches may be flown using the LOC signal for lateral navigation and
FPA for vertical guidance. General recommendations mentioned above still apply i.e.
stabilized approach technique, use of the bird. Some additional recommendations need
to be highlighted.
INITIAL APPROACH
The crew will select LS p/b on the EIS control panel.
INTERMEDIATE APPROACH
The crew will press LOC p/b on the FCU when cleared to intercept. He will monitor
the LOC armed mode and then LOC capture.
FINAL APPROACH
Approaching FAF, the crew will select FPA. When established on the final path, the
crew will monitor:
• Lateral displacement with LOC deviation
• Vertical displacement with DME and ALT, ”yoyo”, chrono
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-120. P 8/10
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
NON PRECISION APPROACH
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
LOC BACK COURSE APPROACH
Ident.: NO-120-00005552.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
LOC-BC approaches may be flown using the Bird with reference to the LOC-BC signal
for lateral guidance and FPA for vertical guidance. General recommendations mentioned
above still apply i.e. stabilized approach technique and use of the bird. Some additional
recommendations need to be highlighted.
GENERAL
The LOC BC approach consists in using the LOC signal of the opposite runway for
lateral approach management.
The ILS will be manually entered in the MCDU RAD NAV page using:
• Either the ident (ILS stored in the FMS database). RWY/ILS MISMATCH message
may be triggered and will be disregarded.
• Or the frequency (ILS not stored in the FMS database).
In both cases, the front course will be entered in the CRS field.
INITIAL APPROACH
The crew will select ROSE ILS and TRK/FPA. The crew will not select ILS or L/S
* as it would provide reverse deviation.
p/b on the EIS control panel and ISIS r,
INTERMEDIATE APPROACH
When clear for approach, the crew will intercept manually LOC/BC using the blue
TRK index with reference with LOC/BC lateral deviation on ND. The crew will not
arm LOC or APPR modes.
FINAL APPROACH
Approaching the FAF, the crew will select the FPA corresponding to the final
approach path, LOC deviation (proper directional guidance), DME/ALT, time, yoyo.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-120. P 9/10
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
NON PRECISION APPROACH
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
Intentionally left blank
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-120. P 10/10
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
CIRCLING APPROACH
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
PREFACE
Ident.: NO-130-00005554.0001001 / 26 MAY 08
Applicable to: ALL
The circling approach is flown when the tower wind is such that the landing runway is
different from the runway fitted with an instrument approach, which is used for the
descent and approach in order to get visual with the airfield.
APPROACH PREPARATION
Ident.: NO-130-00005556.0001001 / 26 MAY 08
Applicable to: ALL
The approach preparation follows the same schema as described in APPROACH
PREPARATION section in the CRUISE chapter. However, some characteristics need to
be highlighted:
FPLN
Lateral: STAR, instrument approach procedure.
Vertical: Insert F speed as constraint at FAF since the approach will be flown CONF
3, landing gear down and F speed (stabilized approach). Check altitude constraints.
RAD NAV
Manually tune the VOR/DME of destination airfield as required.
PROG
Insert VOR/DME of destination airfield in the BRG/DIST field as required. Check
NAV ACCY if required by comparing BRG/DIST data to raw data.
PERF
PERF APPR: Descent winds, destination airfield weather, minima and landing flap
selection (wind shear anticipated or in case of failure).
PERF GO AROUND: Check thrust reduction and acceleration altitude.
FUEL PRED
Check estimated landing weight and extra fuel.
SEC F-PLN
When planning for a circling approach, the landing runway will be inserted into the
SEC F-PLN. The crew will update the SEC F-PLN as follows:
• SEC F-PLN then COPY ACTIVE
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-130. P 1/4
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
CIRCLING APPROACH
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
• Lateral revision on destination and insert landing runway
• Keep the F-PLN discontinuity
FINAL INSTRUMENT APPROACH
Ident.: NO-130-00005557.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
The crew will fly a stabilized approach at F speed, configuration 3 and landing gear
down.
CIRCLING APPROACH
Ident.: NO-130-00005558.0001001 / 25 JUN 08
Applicable to: ALL
When reaching circling minima and with appropriate visual reference for circling,
• Level OFF
• Select TRK/FPA
• Select a TRK of 45 ˚ away from the final approach course (or as required by the
published procedure)
• When wings level, start the chrono.
• Once established downwind, activate the SEC F-PLN to take credit of the ”GS mini”
protection in final approach when managed speed is used. Additionally, the landing
runway will be shown on the ND and the 10 nm range should be selected to assist in
positioning onto final approach.
• By the end of the downwind leg, disconnect the AP, select both FDs off and keep the
A/THR
• When leaving the circling altitude, select the landing configuration
• Once fully configured, complete the Landing Checklist.
Once the SEC F-PLN is activated, the go-around procedure in the MCDU will be that
for the landing runway rather than the one associated with the instrument approach just
carried out. Therefore, if visual references were lost during the circling approach, the goaround would have to be flown using selected guidance, following the pre-briefed missed
approach procedure.
For circling approach with one engine inoperative, Refer to AO-020 CIRCLING ONE
ENGINE INOPERATIVE.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-130. P 2/4
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
CIRCLING APPROACH
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
Low Visibility Circling Approach
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-130. P 3/4
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
CIRCLING APPROACH
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
Intentionally left blank
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-130. P 4/4
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
VISUAL APPROACH
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
INITIAL APPROACH
Ident.: NO-140-00005560.0001001 / 26 MAY 08
Applicable to: MSN 0781-0852
The crew must keep in mind that the pattern is flown visually. However, the XTK is a
good cue of the aircraft lateral position versus the runway centreline. This is obtained
when sequencing the F-PLN until the TO WPT (displayed on the ND top right hand
corner) is on the final approach course.
The crew will aim to get the following configuration on commencement of the downwind
leg:
• Both AP and FDs will be selected off
• BIRD ON
• A/THR confirmed active in speed mode, i.e. SPEED on the FMA.
• Managed speed will be used to enable the ”GS mini” function
• The downwind track will be selected on the FCU to assist in downwind tracking.
• The downwind track altitude will be set on FCU
INITIAL APPROACH
Ident.: NO-140-00005560.0002001 / 26 MAY 08
Applicable to: MSN 1320-2180
The crew must keep in mind that the pattern is flown visually. However, the XTK is a
good cue of the aircraft lateral position versus the runway centreline. This is obtained
when pressing DIR TO CI RADIAL IN.
The crew will aim to get the following configuration on commencement of the downwind
leg:
• Both AP and FDs will be selected off
• BIRD ON
• A/THR confirmed active in speed mode, i.e. SPEED on the FMA.
• Managed speed will be used to enable the ”GS mini” function
• The downwind track will be selected on the FCU to assist in downwind tracking.
• The downwind track altitude will be set on FCU
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-140. P 1/4
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
VISUAL APPROACH
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
INTERMEDIATE/FINAL APPROACH
Ident.: NO-140-00005562.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
Assuming a 1 500 ft AAL circuit, the base turn should be commenced 45 s after passing
abeam the downwind threshold (± 1 s/kt of head/tailwind).
The final turn onto the runway centreline will be commenced with 20 ˚ angle of bank.
Initially the rate of descent should be 400 ft/min, increasing to 700 ft/min when
established on the correct descent path
The pilot will aim to be configured for landing at VAPP by 500 ft AAL, at the latest. If
not stabilised, a go-around must be carried out.
visual approach
VISUAL APPROACH
WHEN FLAPS 2
TURNING
BASE
L/G DOWN
SPLRS ARMED
FLAPS 2
ABM
THRESHOLD
SPD
GREEN DOT
OR BELOW
START TIME
FLAPS 1
ABM
RUNWAY
PERF KEY : PRESSED
ACTIVATE APPROACH PHASE
CHECK SPD MANAGED
SELECT GO AROUND ALTITUDE
1500FT
45 SEC 1 SEC/1KT OF
GO AROUND
WIND
SET GA THRUST
ROTATE TO SRS
RETRACT FLAPS ONE STEP
POSITIVE CLIMB
L/G UP
WHEN L/G DOWN
REV IDLE
FLAPS 3
CHECK VFE THEN
FLAPS FULL
BRAKES
500 FT
TOUCH DOWN
A/C STABILIZED
WITH FLAPS FULL
AT TARGET SPEED
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
REVERSE
NOTE : THIS PATTERN ASSUMES THE USE OF
MINIMUM GROUND SPEED (MANAGED).
IF NOT SELECT SPEEDS MANUALLY
ACCORDING TO FLAPS CONFIGURATION :
S AFTER FLAPS 1 SELECTION
F AFTER FLAPS 2 SELECTION
VAPP AFTER FLAPS FULL SELECTION
NO-140. P 2/4
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
VISUAL APPROACH
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
ARPT
in.Hg
ROSE
VOR
hPa
NDB
WPT
ARC
PULL
STD
ILS
20
PLAN
80
10
160
ENG
1
CSTR
40
NAV
ADF
FD
VOR.D
320
2
VOR
ADF
VOR
ILS
OFF
OFF
ILS APP
211 TAS 211
118 / 15
GS
33
30
27
0
CI15R 310°
11.1 NM
9.52
1rn.
24
3
LFBO
1SR
FBO
IN−GND
6
2.9L
21
2.5
D145E
9
18
15
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
12
5
NO-140. P 3/4
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
VISUAL APPROACH
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
Intentionally left blank
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-140. P 4/4
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
PRECISION APPROACH
GENERAL
Ident.: NO-150-00005563.0001001 / 23 MAY 08
Applicable to: ALL
CAT II and CAT III approaches are flown to very low DH (or without DH) with very low
RVR. The guidance of the aircraft on the ILS beam and the guidance of the aircraft
speed must be consistently of high performance and accurate so that an automatic
landing and roll out can be performed in good conditions and, the acquisition of visual
cues is achieved and the aircraft properly stabilized. Hence,
• The automatic landing is required in CAT III operations including roll out in CAT IIIB.
• The automatic landing is the preferred landing technique in CAT II conditions
• Any failures of the automated systems shall not significantly affect the aircraft
automatic landing system performance
• The crew procedures and task sharing allow to rapidly detect any anomaly and thus
lead to the right decision
DEFINITION
Ident.: NO-150-00005564.0001001 / 25 JUN 08
Applicable to: ALL
DECISION HEIGHT
The Decision Height (DH) is the wheel height above the runway elevation by which a
go around must be initiated unless appropriate visual reference has been established
and the aircraft position and the approach path have been assessed as satisfactory to
continue the automatic approach and landing safely. The DH is based on RA.
ALERT HEIGHT
The Alert Height (AH) is the height above the runway, based on the characteristics of
the aeroplane and its fail-operational automatic landing system, above which a CATIII
approach would be discontinued and a missed approach initiated if a failure occurred
in one of the redundant parts of the automatic landing system, or in the relevant
ground equipment.
In others AH definition, it is generally stated that if a failure affecting the failoperational criteria occurs below the AH, it would be ignored and the approach
continued (except if AUTOLAND warning is triggered). The AH concept is relevant
when CAT 3 DUAL is displayed on FMA.
On single aisle Airbus family, the AH =100 ft.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-150. P 1/8
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
PRECISION APPROACH
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
CAT 3 SINGLE
CAT 3 SINGLE is announced when the airborne systems are fail passive which means
that a single failure will lead to the AP disconnection without any significant out of
trim condition or deviation of the flight path or attitude. Manual flight is then
required. This minimum DH is 50 ft.
CAT 3 DUAL
CAT 3 DUAL is announced when the airborne systems are fail-operational. In case of
a single failure, the AP will continue to guide the aircraft on the flight path and the
automatic landing system will operate as a fail-passive system. In the event of a failure
below the AH, the approach, flare and landing can be completed by the remaining
part of the automatic system. In that case, no capability degradation is indicated.
Such a redundancy allows CAT III operations with or without DH.
CAT II OR CAT III APPROACHES
CAT II
CAT IIIA
CAT IIIB
(1)
ICAO
100 ft ≤ DH < 200 ft
FAA
100 ft ≤ DH < 200 ft
JAA
100 ft ≤ DH < 200 ft
RVR
RVR ≥ 350 m
RVR ≥ 1 200 ft
350 m ≤ RVR < 800 m
1 200 ft ≤ RVR < 2 400 ft
RVR ≥ 300 m
RVR ≥ 1 000 ft
DH
No DH or DH < 100 ft
No DH or DH < 100 ft
RVR
RVR ≥ 200 m
RVR ≥ 700 ft
RVR ≥ 200 m
RVR ≥ 700 ft
DH
DH < 100 ft
(1)
RVR ≥ 200 m
RVR ≥ 700 ft
DH
No DH or DH < 50 ft
No DH or DH < 50 ft
No DH or DH < 50 ft
RVR
50 m ≤ RVR < 200 m
150 ft ≤ RVR < 700 ft
50 m ≤ RVR < 200 m
150 ft ≤ RVR < 700 ft
75 m ≤ RVR < 200 m
250 ft ≤ RVR < 700 ft
DH ≥ 50 ft if fail passive
FLIGHT PREPARATION
Ident.: NO-150-00005566.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
In addition to the normal flight preparation, the following preparation must be
performed when CAT II or CAT III approach is planned:
• Ensure that destination airport meets CAT II or CAT III requirements
• Check aircraft required equipment for CAT II or CAT III in QRH
• Check that crew qualification is current
• Consider extra fuel for possible approach delay
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-150. P 2/8
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
PRECISION APPROACH
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
• Consider weather at alternate
APPROACH PREPARATION
Ident.: NO-150-00005567.0001001 / 23 MAY 08
Applicable to: ALL
LIMITATIONS
• The crew will check that tower wind remains within the limit for CAT II or CAT III
approaches (Refer to FCOM/LIM-22-20 MAXIMUM WIND CONDITIONS FOR
CAT II OR CAT III AUTOMATIC APPROACH LANDING AND ROLL OUT)
• The autoland maximum altitude must be observed.
AIRCRAFT CAPABILITY
The failures that may affect the aircraft’s CAT II or CAT III capability are listed in the
QRH. Most of these failures are monitored by the FMGS and the landing capability
will be displayed on the FMA once the APPR pb is pressed, i.e. CAT II, CAT III
SINGLE, CAT III DUAL. However, there are a number of failures which affect the
aircraft’s landing capability which are not monitored by the FMGS and, consequently,
not reflected on the FMA. It is very important, therefore, that the crew refer to the
QRH to establish the actual landing capability if some equipment are listed
inoperative.
AIRPORT FACILITIES
The airport authorities are responsible for establishing and maintaining the equipment
required for CAT II/III approach and landing. The airport authorities will activate the
LVP procedures as the need arises based on RVR. Prior to planning a CAT II/III
approach, the crew must ensure that LVP are in force.
CREW QUALIFICATION
The captain must ensure that both crew members are qualified and that their
qualification is current for the planned approach.
SEATING POSITION
The crew must realise the importance of eye position during low visibility approaches
and landing. A too low seat position may greatly reduce the visual segment. When the
eye reference position is lower than intended, the visual segment is further reduced by
the cut-off angle of the glareshield or nose. As a rule of thumb, an incorrect seating
position which reduces the cut-off angle by 1 ˚ reduces the visual segment by
approximately 10 m (30 ft).
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-150. P 3/8
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
PRECISION APPROACH
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
USE OF LANDING LIGHTS
The use of landing lights at night in low visibility can be detrimental to the acquisition
of visual reference. Reflected lights from water droplets or snow may actually reduce
visibility. The landing lights would, therefore, not normally be used in CAT II/III
weather conditions.
APPROACH STRATEGY
Irrespective of the actual weather conditions, the crew should plan the approach using
the best approach capability. This would normally be CAT III DUAL with autoland,
depending upon aircraft status. The crew should then assess the weather with respect
to possible downgrade capability.
Conditions
CAT I
CAT II
Flying technique
Manual flying or
AP/FD, A/THR
DA (DH) Baro ref
Visibility
Possible with
precautions
AP/FD, A/THR
down to DH
Minima & weather
Autoland
Recommended
CAT III
WITH DH
NO DH
AP/FD/ATHR and Autoland
DH with RA
RVR
Mandatory
GO AROUND STRATEGY
The crew must be ready mentally for go-around at any stage of the approach. Should
a failure occur above 1 000 ft RA, all ECAM actions (and DH amendment if required)
should be completed before reaching 1 000 ft RA, otherwise a go-around should be
initiated. This ensures proper task sharing for the remainder of the approach. Any
alert generated below 1 000 ft should lead to a go-around.
APPROACH BRIEFING
Before commencing a CAT II/III approach a number of factors must be considered by
the crew. In addition to the standard approach briefing, the following points should be
emphasised during an approach briefing for a low visibility approach:
• Aircraft capability
• Airport facilities
• Crew qualification
• Weather minima
• Task sharing
• Call-outs
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-150. P 4/8
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
PRECISION APPROACH
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
• Go-around strategy
APPROACH PROCEDURE
Ident.: NO-150-00005568.0001001 / 25 JUN 08
Applicable to: ALL
TASK SHARING
The workload is distributed in such a way that the PF primary tasks are supervising
and decision making and the PNF primary task is monitoring the operation of the
automatic system.
The PF supervises the approach (trajectory, attitude, speed) and takes appropriate
decision in case of failure and at DH. Since the approach is flown with AP/FD/ATHR, the PF must be continuously ready to take-over
• If any AP hard over is experienced
• If a major failure occurs
• If any doubt arises
The PF announces ”LAND”, when displayed on FMA.
The PNF is head down throughout the approach and landing. The PNF monitors:
• The FMA and calls mode change as required (except ”LAND”)
• The Auto call out
• The aircraft trajectory or attitude exceedance
• Any failures
The PNF should be go-around minded.
SOME SYSTEM PARTICULARS
• Below 700 ft RA, data coming from the FMS is frozen e.g. ILS tune inhibit.
• Below 400 ft RA, the FCU is frozen.
• At 350 ft, LAND must be displayed on FMA. This ensures correct final approach
guidance.
• Below 200 ft, the AUTOLAND red light illuminates if
- Both APs trip off
- Excessive beam deviation is sensed
- Localizer or glide slope transmitter or receiver fails
- A RA discrepancy of at least 15 ft is sensed.
• Flare comes at or below 40 ft
• THR IDLE comes at or below 30 ft
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-150. P 5/8
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
PRECISION APPROACH
• RETARD auto call out comes at 10 ft for autoland as an order. (Instead of 20 ft
for manual landing as an indication)
VISUAL REFERENCE
Approaching the DH, the PF starts to look for visual references, progressively
increasing external scanning. It should be stressed that the DH is the lower limit of the
decision zone. The captain should come to this zone prepared for a go-around but
with no pre-established judgement.
Required conditions to continue
• With DH
In CAT II operations, the conditions required at DH to continue the approach are
that the visual references should be appropriate to monitor the continued approach
and landing and that the flight path should be acceptable. If both these conditions
are not satisfied, it is mandatory to initiate a go-around. A 3 lights segment and a
lateral light element is the minimum visual cue for JAR OPS.
In CAT III operations, the condition required at DH is that there should be visual
references which confirm that the aircraft is over the touch down zone. Go-around is
mandatory if the visual references do not confirm this. A 3 lights segment is
required by JAR OPS for fail passive system and 1 centerline light segment for fail
operational system.
• Without DH
The decision to continue does not depend on visual references, even though a
minimum RVR is specified. The decision depends only on the operational status of
the aircraft and ground equipment. If a failure occurs prior to reaching the AH, a
go-around will be initiated. A go-around must nevertheless be performed if
AUTOLAND warning is triggered below AH. However, it is good airmanship for the
PF to acquire visual cues during flare and to monitor the roll out.
Loss of visual reference
• With DH before touch down
If decision to continue has been made by DH and the visual references subsequently
become inappropriate a go-around must be initiated.
A late go-around may result in ground contact. If touch down occurs after TOGA is
engaged, the AP remains engaged in that mode and A/THR remains in TOGA. The
ground spoilers and auto-brake are inhibited.
• With DH or without DH after touch down
If visual references are lost after touch down, a go-around should not be attempted.
The roll-out should be continued with AP in ROLL OUT mode down to taxi speed.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-150. P 6/8
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
PRECISION APPROACH
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
FLARE/LANDING/ROLL OUT
During the flare, decrab and roll-out, the PF will look outside to assess that the
autoland is properly carried out, considering the appropriate visual references.
For CAT II approaches, autoland is recommended. If manual landing is preferred, the
PF will take-over at 80 ft at the latest. This ensures a smooth transition for the
manual landing.
Select maximum reverse at main landing gear touch down.
The use of auto-brake is recommended as it ensures a symmetrical brake pressure
application. However, the crew should be aware of possible dissymmetry in case of
crosswind and wet runways.
The PNF will use standard call out. Additionally, he will advise ATC when aircraft is
properly controlled (speed and lateral trajectory).
FAILURE AND ASSOCIATED ACTIONS
Ident.: NO-150-00005570.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
As a general rule, if a failure occurs above 1 000 ft AGL, the approach may be
continued, ECAM actions completed, approach briefing update performed and a higher
DH set if required.
Below 1 000 ft (and down to AH in CAT3 DUAL), the occurrence of any failure implies
a go-around and a reassessment of the system capability. Another approach may be
under taken according to the new system capability. It has been considered that below
1 000 ft, not enough time is available for the crew to perform the necessary switching,
to check system configuration and limitation and brief for minima.
In CAT3 DUAL and below AH, as a general rule, a single failure does not necessitate a
go-around. A go-around is required if the AUTOLAND warning is triggered.
AUTOLAND IN CAT 1 OR BETTER WEATHER CONDITIONS
Ident.: NO-150-00005571.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
The crew may wish to practice automatic landings in CAT I or better weather conditions
for training purposes. This type of approach should be carried out only with the airline
authorization. The crew should be aware that fluctuations of the LOC and/or GS might
occur due to the fact that protection of ILS sensitive areas, which applies during LVP,
will not necessarily be in force. It is essential, therefore, that the PF is prepared to take
over manually at any time during a practice approach and rollout, should the
performance of the AP become unsatisfactory.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-150. P 7/8
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
PRECISION APPROACH
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
Intentionally left blank
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-150. P 8/8
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
LANDING
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
PREFACE
Ident.: NO-160-00005573.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
When Transitioning from IMC to VMC, the crew will watch the bird versus the aircraft
attitude symbol in the center of the PFD. This provides a good assessment of the drift,
thus in which direction to look for the runway.
But, then
• Do not turn towards the runway
• Do not duck under
MAIN GEAR CLEARANCE
Ident.: NO-160-00005575.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
The boxed images below are the one to retain to ensure about 20 ft wheel clearance at
threshold.
use of VASI/TVASI/PAPI
VASI
T.VASI
High
Very high
High
Above
Above path
On path
On path
Below
Low
Very low
Below path
White
Red
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
Well below
NO-160. P 1/12
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
LANDING
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
use of VASI/TVASI/PAPI
PAPI
High
Above
White
Red
On path
Below
Low
This technique will ensure that performance margins are not compromised and provide
adequate main gear clearance.
FLARE
Ident.: NO-160-00005576.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
PITCH CONTROL
When reaching 50 ft, auto-trim ceases and the pitch law is modified to flare law.
Indeed, the normal pitch law, which provides trajectory stability, is not the best
adapted to the flare manoeuvre. The system memorizes the attitude at 50 ft, and that
attitude becomes the initial reference for pitch attitude control. As the aircraft
descends through 30 ft, the system begins to reduce the pitch attitude at a
predetermined rate of 2 ˚ down in 8 s. Consequently, as the speed reduces, the pilot
will have to move the stick rearwards to maintain a constant path. The flare technique
is thus very conventional.
From stabilized conditions, the flare height is about 30 ft. This height varies with
different parameters, such as weight, rate of descent, wind variations...
Avoid under flaring.
- The rate of descent must be controlled prior to the initiation of the flare (rate not
increasing)
- Start the flare with positive backpressure on the sidestick and holding as necessary
- Avoid forward stick movement once Flare initiated (releasing back-pressure is
acceptable)
At 20 ft, the ”RETARD” auto call-out reminds the pilot to retard thrust levers. It is a
reminder rather than an order. The pilot will retard the thrust levers when best
adapted e.g. if high and fast on the final path the pilot will retard earlier. In order to
assess the rate of descent in the flare, and the aircraft position relative to the ground,
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-160. P 2/12
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
LANDING
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
look well ahead of the aircraft. The typical pitch increment in the flare is
approximately 4 ˚, which leads to -1 ˚ flight path angle associated with a 10 kt
speed decay in the manoeuvre. A prolonged float will increase both the landing
distance and the risk of tail strike.
LATERAL AND DIRECTIONAL CONTROL
FINAL APPROACH
In crosswind conditions, a crabbed-approach should be flown.
FLARE
The objectives of the lateral and directional control of the aircraft during the flare
are:
- To land on the centerline
- And, to minimize the loads on the main landing gear.
During the flare, rudder should be applied as required to align the aircraft with the
runway heading. Any tendency to drift downwind should be counteracted by an
appropriate lateral (roll) input on the sidestick.
In the case of a very strong cross wind, the aircraft may be landed with a residual
drift (up to about 5 ˚) to prevent an excessive bank (up to about 5 ˚).
Consequently, combination of the partial de-crab and wing down techniques may be
required.
MAXIMUM DEMONSTRATED CROSSWIND FOR LANDING
Ident.: NO-160-00005578.0001001 / 16 JUN 08
Applicable to: ALL
With a good reported braking action, the maximum demonstrated crosswind at landing
is 33 knots, with gusts up to 38 knots.
CALL OUT
Ident.: NO-160-00005579.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: MSN 1320-1637, 1777-2180
If pitch attitude exceeds 10 ˚, the PNF will announce ”PITCH”.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-160. P 3/12
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
LANDING
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
CALL OUT
Ident.: NO-160-00005579.0002001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: MSN 0781-0852, 1720
If pitch attitude exceeds 7.5 ˚, the PNF will announce ”PITCH”.
DEROTATION
Ident.: NO-160-00005581.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
When the aircraft is on the ground, pitch and roll control operates in Direct Law.
Consequently, when the aircraft touches down, the pilot flies the nose down
conventionally, varying sidestick input as required, to control the derotation rate.
After touch down, when reverse thrust is selected (on at least one engine) and one main
landing gear strut is compressed, the ground spoilers partially extend to establish ground
contact. The ground spoilers fully extend when both main landing gears are compressed.
A small nose down term on the elevators is introduced by the control law, which
compensates the pitch up tendency with ground spoiler extension.
It is not recommended to keep the nose high in order to increase aircraft drag during the
initial part of the roll-out, as this technique is inefficient and increases the risk of tail
strike. Furthermore, if auto brake MED is used, it may lead to a hard nose gear touch
down.
ROLL OUT
Ident.: NO-160-00005583.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
NORMAL CONDITIONS
During the roll out, the rudder pedals will be used to steer the aircraft on the runway
centreline. At high speed, directional control is achieved with rudder. As the speed
reduces, the Nose Wheel Steering (NWS) becomes active. However, the NWS tiller
will not be used until taxi speed is reached.
CROSSWIND CONDITIONS
The above-mentioned technique applies. Additionally, the pilot will avoid setting stick
into the wind as it increases the weathercock effect. Indeed, it creates a differential
down force on the wheels into the wind side and differential drag due to spoiler
retraction.
The reversers have a destabilizing effect on the airflow around the rudder and thus
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-160. P 4/12
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
LANDING
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
decrease the efficiency of the rudder. Furthermore they create a side force, in case of a
remaining crab angle, which increases the lateral skidding tendency of the aircraft.
This adverse effect is quite noticeable on contaminated runways with crosswind. In
case a lateral control problem occurs in high crosswind landing, the pilot will consider
to set reversers back to Idle.
At lower speeds, the directional control of the aircraft is more problematic, more
specifically on wet and contaminated runways. Differential braking is to be used if
necessary. On wet and contaminated runways, the same braking effect may be
reached with full or half deflection of the pedals; additionally the anti skid system
releases the brake pressure on both sides very early when the pilot presses on the
pedals. Thus if differential braking is to be used, the crew will totally release the pedal
on the opposite side to the expected turn direction.
BRAKING
Ident.: NO-160-00005584.0001001 / 30 JUN 08
Applicable to: ALL
Once on the ground, the importance of the timely use of all means of stopping the
aircraft cannot be overemphasised. Three systems are involved in braking once the
aircraft is on the ground:
• The ground spoilers
• The thrust reversers
• The wheel brakes
THE GROUND SPOILERS
When the aircraft touches down with at least one main landing gear and when at least
one thrust lever is in the reverse sector, the ground spoilers partially automatically
deploy to ensure that the aircraft is properly sit down on ground. Then, the ground
spoilers automatically fully deploy. This is the partial lift dumping function.
The ground spoilers contribute to aircraft deceleration by increasing aerodynamic drag
at high speed. Wheel braking efficiency is improved due to the increased load on the
wheels. Additionally, the ground spoiler extension signal is used for auto-brake
activation.
THRUST REVERSERS
Thrust reverser efficiency is proportional to the square of the speed. So, it is
recommended to use reverse thrust at high speeds.
Select maximum reverse at main landing gear touch down.
The maximum reverse thrust is obtained at N1 between 70 % and 85 % and is
controlled by the FADEC.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-160. P 5/12
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
LANDING
A slight pitch-up, easily controlled by the crew, may appear when the thrust reversers
are deployed before the nose landing gear touches down.
Below 70 kt, reversers efficiency decreases rapidly. Additionally, the use of high levels
of reverse thrust at low speed can cause engine stalls.
Therefore, it is recommended to smoothly reduce the reverse thrust to idle at 70 kt.
However, the use of maximum reverse is allowed down to aircraft stop in case of
emergency.
If airport regulations restrict the use of reverse, select and maintain reverse idle until
taxi speed is reached.
Stow the reversers before leaving the runway to avoid foreign object ingestion.
WHEEL BRAKES
Wheel brakes contribute the most to aircraft deceleration on the ground. Many factors
may affect efficient braking such as load on the wheels, tire pressure, runway
pavement characteristics and runway contamination and braking technique. The only
factor over which the pilot has any control is the use of the correct braking technique,
as discussed below.
ANTI-SKID
The anti-skid system adapts pilot applied brake pressure to runway conditions by
sensing an impending skid condition and adjusting the brake pressure to each
individual wheel as required. The anti-skid system maintains the skidding factor (slip
ratio) close to the maximum friction force point. This will provide the optimum
deceleration with respect to the pilot input. Full pedal braking with anti-skid
provides a deceleration rate of 10 kt/sec.
BRAKES
The use of auto brake versus pedal braking should observe the following guidelines:
• The use of A/BRAKE is usually preferable because it minimizes the number of
brake applications and thus reduces brake wear. Additionally, the A/BRAKE
provides a symmetrical brake pressure application which ensures an equal braking
effect on both main landing gear wheels on wet or evenly contaminated runway.
More particularly, the A/BRAKE is recommended on short, wet, contaminated
runway, in poor visibility conditions and in Auto land.
• The use of LO auto brake should be preferred on long and dry runways whereas
the use of MED auto brake should be preferred for short or contaminated
runways. The use of MAX auto brake is not recommended.
• On very short runways, the use of pedal braking is to be envisaged since the pilot
may apply full pedal braking with no delay after touch down.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-160. P 6/12
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
LANDING
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
• On very long runways, the use of pedal braking may be envisaged if the pilot
anticipates that braking will not be needed. To reduce brake wear, the number of
brake application should be limited.
• In case of pedal braking, do not ride the brakes but apply pedal braking when
required and modulate the pressure without releasing. This minimizes brake wear.
The green DECEL light comes on when the actual deceleration is 80 % of the
selected rate. For example the DECEL light might not appear when the autobrake is
selected on a contaminated runway, because the deceleration rate is not reached
with the autobrake properly functioning. Whereas the DECEL light might appear
with LO selected on a dry runway while only the reversers achieve the selected
deceleration rate without autobrake being actually activated. In other words, the
DECEL light is not an indicator of the autobrake operation as such, but that the
deceleration rate is reached.
Since the auto brake system senses deceleration and modulates brake pressure
accordingly, the timely application of MAX reverse thrust will reduce the actual
operation of the brakes themselves, thus the brake wear and temperature.
Auto-brake does not relieve the pilot of the responsibility of achieving a safe stop
within the available runway length.
CROSS WIND CONDITIONS
The reverse thrust side force and crosswind component can combine to cause the
aircraft to drift to the downwind side of the runway if the aircraft is allowed to
weathercock into wind after landing. Additionally, as the anti-skid system will be
operating at maximum braking effectiveness, the main gear tire cornering forces
available to counteract this drift will be reduced.
FRICTION
FORCE
braking force and cornering force vs antiskid
BRAKING
CORNERING
Free rotation
12%
Locked Wheel
To correct back to the centreline, the pilot must reduce reverse thrust to reverse idle
and release the brakes. This will minimise the reverse thrust side force component,
without the requirement to go through a full reverser actuating cycle, and provide the
total tire cornering forces for realignment with the runway centreline. Rudder and
differential braking should be used, as required, to correct back to the runway
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-160. P 7/12
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
LANDING
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
centreline. When re-established on the runway centreline, the pilot should re-apply
braking and reverse thrust as required.
Directional Control during Crosswind Landing
Crosswind
component
Touchdown
with partial
decrab
Aircraft
skidding
sideways due
to fuselage/fin
side force and
reverse thrust
side force
Reverse
cancelled and
brakes
released
Reverse
thrust and
pedal braking
reapplied
Directional
control and
centerline
regained
FACTORS AFFECTING LANDING DISTANCE
Ident.: NO-160-00005586.0001001 / 16 MAY 08
Applicable to: ALL
The field length requirements are contained in the FCOM PER, LND LANDING. The
landing distance margin will be reduced if the landing technique is not correct. Factors
that affect stopping distance include:
• Height and speed over the threshold
• Glide slope angle
• Landing flare technique
• Delay in lowering the nose on to the runway
• Improper use of braking system
• Runway conditions (discussed in adverse weather).
Height of the aircraft over the runway threshold has a significant effect on total landing
distance. For example, on a 3 ˚ glide path, passing over the runway threshold at 100 ft
altitude rather than 50 ft could increase the total landing distance by approximately
300 m/950 ft. This is due to the length of runway used before the aircraft touches
down.
A 5 kt speed increment on VAPP produces a 5 % increase in landing distance with auto
brake selected.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-160. P 8/12
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
LANDING
For a 50 ft Threshold Crossing Height, a shallower glide path angle increases the
landing distance, as the projected touchdown point will be further down the runway.
Floating above the runway before touchdown must be avoided because it uses a large
portion of the available runway. The aircraft should be landed as near the normal
touchdown point as possible. Deceleration rate on the runway is approximately three
times greater than in the air.
Reverse thrust and speedbrake drag are most effective during the high-speed portion of
the landing. Therefore, reverse thrust should be selected without delay.
Speed brakes fully deployed, in conjunction with maximum reverse thrust and maximum
manual anti-skid braking provides the minimum stopping distance.
Operational factors affecting actual landing distance
(1)
Those coefficients are given as indications.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-160. P 9/12
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
LANDING
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
CLEARANCE AT TOUCH DOWN
Ident.: NO-160-00005587.0003001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: MSN 1320-1637, 1777-2180
Geometry limit at touch
down
Pitch attitude at
VAPP(Vref +5 kt) (1)
Pitch attitude at touch
down
13.5 ˚
3.3 ˚
7.6 ˚
(1)
(2)
Clearance
(2)
5.9 ˚
Flight path in approach: -3 ˚
Clearance = geometry limit - pitch attitude at touch down
CLEARANCE AT TOUCH DOWN
Ident.: NO-160-00005587.0006001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: MSN 0781-0852, 1720
Geometry limit at touch
down
Pitch attitude at
(1)
VAPP(Vref +5 kt)
Pitch attitude at touch
down
10.8 ˚
2.4 ˚
6.6 ˚
(1)
(2)
Clearance
(2)
4.2 ˚
Flight path in approach:-3 ˚
Clearance = geometry limit - pitch attitude at touch down
TAIL STRIKE AVOIDANCE
Ident.: NO-160-00005589.0001001 / 23 MAY 08
Applicable to: ALL
Although most of tail strikes are due to deviations from normal landing techniques, some
are associated with external conditions such as turbulence and wind gradient.
DEVIATION FROM NORMAL TECHNIQUES
Deviations from normal landing techniques are the most common causes of tail strikes.
The main reasons for this are due to:
• Allowing the speed to decrease well below VAPP before flare
Flying at too low speed means high angle of attack and high pitch attitude, thus
reducing ground clearance. When reaching the flare height, the pilot will have to
significantly increase the pitch attitude to reduce the sink rate. This may cause the
pitch to go beyond the critical angle.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-160. P 10/12
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
LANDING
• Prolonged hold off for a smooth touch down
As the pitch increases, the pilot needs to focus further ahead to assess the aircraft’s
position in relation to the ground. The attitude and distance relationship can lead to
a pitch attitude increase beyond the critical angle.
• Too high flare
A high flare can result in a combined decrease in airspeed and a long float. Since
both lead to an increase in pitch attitude, the result is reduced tail clearance.
• Too high sink rate, just prior reaching the flare height
In case of too high sink rate close to the ground, the pilot may attempt to avoid a
firm touch down by commanding a high pitch rate. This action will significantly
increase the pitch attitude and, as the resulting lift increase may be insufficient to
significantly reduce the sink rate, the high pitch rate may be difficult to control after
touch down, particularly in case of bounce.
• Bouncing at touch down
In case of bouncing at touch down, the pilot may be tempted to increase the pitch
attitude to ensure a smooth second touch down. If the bounce results from a firm
touch down, associated with high pitch rate, it is important to control the pitch so
that it does not further increase beyond the critical angle.
APPROACH AND LANDING TECHNIQUES
A stabilized approach is essential for achieving successful landings. It is imperative
that the flare height be reached at the appropriate airspeed and flight path angle. The
A/THR and FPV are effective aids to the pilot.
VAPP should be determined with the wind corrections (provided in FCOM/QRH) by
using the FMGS functions. As a reminder, when the aircraft is close to the ground,
the wind intensity tends to decrease and the wind direction to turn (direction in
degrees decreasing in the northern latitudes). Both effects may reduce the head wind
component close to the ground and the wind correction to VAPP is there to
compensate for this effect.
When the aircraft is close to the ground, high sink rate should be avoided, even in an
attempt to maintain a close tracking of the glideslope. Priority should be given to the
attitude and sink rate. If a normal touchdown distance is not possible, a go-around
should be performed.
If the aircraft has reached the flare height at VAPP, with a stabilized flight path
angle, the normal SOP landing technique will lead to the right touchdown attitude
and airspeed.
During the flare, the pilot should not concentrate on the airspeed, but only on the
attitude with external cues.
Specific PNF call outs have been reinforced for excessive pitch attitude at landing.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-160. P 11/12
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
LANDING
After touch down, the pilot must ”fly” the nosewheel smoothly, but without delay, on
to the runway, and must be ready to counteract any residual pitch up effect of the
ground spoilers. However, the main part of the spoiler pitch up effect is compensated
by the flight control law itself.
BOUNCING AT TOUCH DOWN
In case of light bounce, maintain the pitch attitude and complete the landing, while
keeping the thrust at idle. Do not allow the pitch attitude to increase, particularly
following a firm touch down with a high pitch rate.
In case of high bounce, maintain the pitch attitude and initiate a go-around. Do not
try to avoid a second touch down during the go-around. Should it happen, it would be
soft enough to prevent damage to the aircraft, if pitch attitude is maintained.
Only when safely established in the go-around, retract flaps one step and the landing
gear. A landing should not be attempted immediately after high bounce, as thrust may
be required to soften the second touch down and the remaining runway length may be
insufficient to stop the aircraft.
CUMULATIVE EFFECTS
No single factor should result in a tail strike, but accumulation of several can
significantly reduce the margin.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-160. P 12/12
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
GO AROUND
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
PREFACE
Ident.: NO-170-00005592.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
Failure to recognize the need for and to execute a go-around, when required, is a major
cause of approach and landing accidents. Because a go-around is an infrequent
occurrence, it is important to be ”go-around minded”. The decision to go-around should
not be delayed, as an early go-around is safer than a last minute one at lower altitude.
CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT GO-AROUND
Ident.: NO-170-00005593.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
A go-around must be considered if:
• There is a loss or a doubt about situation awareness
• If there is a malfunction which jeopardizes the safe completion of the approach e.g.
major navigation problem
• ATC changes the final approach clearance resulting in rushed action from the crew or
potentially unstable approach
• The approach is unstable in speed, altitude, and flight path in such a way that
stability will not be obtained by 1 000 ft IMC or 500 ft VMC.
• Any GPWS, TCAS or windshears alert occur
• Adequate visual cues are not obtained reaching the minima.
AP/FD GO-AROUND PHASE ACTIVATION
Ident.: NO-170-00005594.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: MSN 0852
The go-around phase is activated when the thrust levers are set to TOGA, provided the
flap lever is selected to Flap 1 or greater. The missed approach becomes the active FPLN and the previously flown approach is strung back into the F-PLN.
For the go-around, the appropriate flying reference is the attitude, since it is dynamic
manoeuvre. So, if the ”bird” is ON, the PF will ask the PNF to select HDG/VS, in order
to remove the ”bird”. This also permits to replace the FPD by the FD bars, if the flight
director is in use.
If the autopilot or the flight director is in use, SRS and GA TRK modes engage.
If the autopilot and both flight directors are off, the PF will maintain 15 ˚ of pitch.
If TOGA thrust is not required during a go-around for any reason, e.g. an early go-
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-170. P 1/6
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
GO AROUND
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
around ordered by ATC, it is essential that thrust levers are set to TOGA momentarily
to sequence the F-PLN. If this is not done, the destination airfield will be sequenced and
the primary F-PLN will become PPOS - DISCONT- .
AP/FD GO-AROUND PHASE ACTIVATION
Ident.: NO-170-00005594.0002001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: MSN 0781, 1320-2180
The go-around phase is activated when the thrust levers are set to TOGA, provided the
flap lever is selected to Flap 1 or greater. The FDs bars are displayed automatically and
SRS and GA TRK modes engage. The missed approach becomes the active F-PLN and
the previously flown approach is strung back into the F-PLN.
For the go-around, the appropriate flying reference is the attitude, since it is dynamic
manoeuvre. This is why, if the ”bird” is ON, it is automatically removed, and the FD
bars automatically replace the FPD.
If TOGA thrust is not required during a go-around for any reason, e.g. an early goaround ordered by ATC, it is essential that thrust levers are set to TOGA momentarily
to sequence the F-PLN. If this is not done, the destination airfield will be sequenced and
the primary F-PLN will become PPOS - DISCONT-
GO-AROUND PHASE
Ident.: NO-170-00005595.0001001 / 02 JUL 08
Applicable to: MSN 0852
GO AROUND WITH FD ON
The SRS mode guides the aircraft with a maximum speed of VAPP or IAS at time of
TOGA selection (limited to maximum of VLS +25 with all engines operative or VLS
+15 with one engine inoperative with FMS 2) until the acceleration altitude where the
target speed increases to green dot.
Some FMS misbehaviour may prevent this automatic target speed increase. Should
this occur, pulling the FCU ALT knob for OP CLB manually disengages SRS mode
and allows the target speed to increase to green dot. It should be noted however, that
the target speed increases to green dot speed as soon as ALT* mode engages when
approaching the FCU clearance altitude.
The GA TRK mode guides the aircraft on the track memorised at the time of TOGA
selection. The missed approach route becomes the ACTIVE F-PLN provided the
waypoints have been correctly sequenced on the approach. Pushing for NAV enables
the missed approach F-PLN to be followed.
Above the go-around acceleration altitude, or when the flight crew engages another
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-170. P 2/6
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
GO AROUND
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
vertical mode (CLB, OP CLB), the target speed is green dot.
GO AROUND WITH FD OFF
The PF maintains 15 ˚ of pitch.
The crew will not select the FD ON before the acceleration altitude, since this would
not activate the SRS mode. (V/S mode would be activated, maintaining the V/S at
mode engagement).
At the thrust reduction/acceleration altitude, the crew will set the selected speed to
green dot before setting CLB thrust, since the autothrust will activate in selected
speed mode.
The crew will then set the FD ON , and select the appropriate modes.
GO-AROUND PHASE
Ident.: NO-170-00005595.0002001 / 02 JUL 08
Applicable to: MSN 0781, 1320-2180
The SRS mode guides the aircraft with a maximum speed of VAPP or IAS at time of
TOGA selection (limited to maximum of VLS +25 with all engines operative or VLS
+15 with one engine inoperative with FMS 2) until the acceleration altitude where the
target speed increases to green dot.
Some FMS misbehaviour may prevent this automatic target speed increase. Should this
occur, pulling the FCU ALT knob for OP CLB manually disengages SRS mode and
allows the target speed to increase to green dot. It should be noted however, that the
target speed increases to green dot speed as soon as ALT* mode engages when
approaching the FCU clearance altitude.
The GA TRK mode guides the aircraft on the track memorised at the time of TOGA
selection. The missed approach route becomes the ACTIVE F-PLN provided the
waypoints have been correctly sequenced on the approach. Pushing for NAV enables the
missed approach F-PLN to be followed.
Above the go-around acceleration altitude, or when the flight crew engages another
vertical mode (CLB, OP CLB), the target speed is green dot.
ENGINES ACCELERATION
Ident.: NO-170-00005596.0001001 / 23 MAY 08
Applicable to: ALL
When the pilot sets TOGA thrust for go-around, it takes some time for the engines to
spool up due to the acceleration capability of the high by pass ratio engines. Therefore,
the pilot must be aware that the aircraft will initially loose some altitude. This altitude
loss will be greater if initial thrust is close to idle and/or the aircraft speed is lower than
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-170. P 3/6
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
GO AROUND
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
VAPP.
altitude loss following a go-around
VAPP − stabilized thrust
Altitude loss
0
VAPP − idle thrust
−20
−40
1
2
3
4
5
6 Time (sec)
LEAVING THE GO-AROUND PHASE
Ident.: NO-170-00005597.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
The purpose of leaving the go-around phase is to obtain the proper target speed and
proper predictions depending upon the strategy chosen by the crew. During the missed
approach, the crew will elect either of the following strategies:
• Fly a second approach
• Carry out a diversion
SECOND APPROACH
If a second approach is to be flown, the crew will activate the approach phase in the
MCDU PERF GO-AROUND page. The FMS switches to Approach phase and the
target speed moves according to the flaps lever setting, e.g. green dot for Flaps 0.
The crew will ensure proper waypoint sequencing during the second approach in order
to have the missed approach route available, should a further go-around be required.
DIVERSION
Once the aircraft path is established and clearance has been obtained, the crew will
modify the FMGS to allow the FMGS switching from go-around phase to climb phase:
• If the crew has prepared the ALTN FPLN in the active F-PLN, a lateral revision at
the TO WPT is required to access the ENABLE ALTN prompt. On selecting the
ENABLE ALTN prompt, the lateral mode reverts to HDG if previously in NAV. The
aircraft will be flown towards the next waypoint using HDG or NAV via a DIR TO
entry.
• If the crew has prepared the ALTN FPLN in the SEC F-PLN, the SEC F-PLN will
be activated, and a DIR TO performed as required. AP/FD must be in HDG mode
for the ACTIVATE SEC F-PLN prompt to be displayed.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-170. P 4/6
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
GO AROUND
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
• If the crew has not prepared the ALTN FPLN, a selected climb will be initiated.
Once established in climb and clear of terrain, the crew will make a lateral revision
at any waypoint to insert a NEW DEST. The route and a CRZ FL (on PROG page)
can be updated as required.
REJECTED LANDING
Ident.: NO-170-00005598.0001001 / 24 APR 08
Applicable to: ALL
A rejected landing is defined as a go-around manoeuvre initiated below the minima.
Once the decision is made to reject the landing, the flight crew must be committed to
proceed with the go-around manoeuvre and not be tempted to retard the thrust levers in
a late decision to complete the landing.
TOGA thrust must be applied but a delayed flap retraction should be considered. If the
aircraft is on the runway when thrust is applied, a CONFIG warning will be generated if
the flaps are in conf full. The landing gear should be retracted when a positive climb is
established with no risk of further touch down. Climb out as for a standard go-around.
In any case, if reverse thrust has been applied, a full stop landing must be completed.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-170. P 5/6
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
GO AROUND
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
Intentionally left blank
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-170. P 6/6
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
TAXI IN
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
BRAKE FANS r*
Ident.: NO-180-00005601.0001001 / 21 APR 08
Applicable to: ALL
The use of brake fans could increase oxidation of the brake surface hot spots if brakes
are not thermally equalized, leading to the rapid degradation of the brakes. For this
reason, selection of brake fans should be delayed until approximately 5 min after
touchdown or just prior to stopping at the gate (whichever occurs first). Selecting brake
fans before reaching the gate allows avoiding blowing carbon brake dust on ground
personal.
BRAKE TEMPERATURE
Ident.: NO-180-00005602.0001001 / 23 MAY 08
Applicable to: MSN 1320-1637, 1777-2180
If there is a significant difference in brake temperature between the wheels of the same
gear, when reaching the gate, this materializes a potential problem with brake and a
maintenance action is due e.g. if one wheel reaches the limit temperature of 600 ˚C
while all others wheels brakes indicate less than 450 ˚C, this indicates that there is a
potential problem of brake binding or permanent brake application on that wheel.
Conversely, if one wheel brake is at or below 60 ˚C whereas the others are beyond
210 ˚C, this indicates that there is a potential loss of braking on that wheel. Selecting
brake fans r* before reaching the gate allows avoiding blowing carbon brake dust on
ground personal.
*
If brake temperature is above 500 ˚C with fans OFF r* (350 ˚C fans ON r),
use of the
parking brake, unless operationally necessary, should be avoided to prevent brake
damage.
If one brake temperature exceeds 900 ˚C, a maintenance action is due.
The MEL provides information regarding brake ground cooling time, both with and
*
without brake fans r.
BRAKE TEMPERATURE
Ident.: NO-180-00005602.0003001 / 23 MAY 08
Applicable to: MSN 0781-0852, 1720
If there is a significant difference in brake temperature between the wheels of the same
gear, when reaching the gate, this materializes a potential problem with brake and a
maintenance action is due. e.g. if one wheel reaches the limit temperature of 600 ˚C
while all others wheels brakes indicate less than 450 ˚C, this indicates that there is a
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
NO-180. P 1/4
08 JUL 08
NORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
TAXI IN
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
potential problem of brake binding or permanent brake application on that wheel.
Conversely, if one wheel brake is at or below 60 ˚C whereas the others are beyond
210 ˚C, this indicates that there is a potential loss of braking on that wheel. Selecting
brake fans r* before reaching the gate allows avoiding blowing carbon brake dust on
ground personal.
*
If brake temperature is above 500 ˚C with fans OFF r* (350 ˚C fans ON r),
use of the
parking brake, unless operationally necessary, should be avoided to prevent brake
damage.
If one brake temperature exceeds 800 ˚C, a maintenance action is due.
The MEL provides information regarding brake ground cooling time, both with and
*
without brake fans r.
ENGINES COOLING PERIOD
Ident.: NO-180-00005604.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
To avoid engine thermal stress, it is required that the engine be operated at, or near,
idle for a cooling period as described in FCOM (Refer to FCOM/PRO-NOR-SOP-25-A
PARKING - ENG MASTER 1 AND 2)
TAXI WITH ONE ENGINE SHUTDOWN
Ident.: NO-180-00005605.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
Refer to NO-040 TAXI WITH ONE ENGINE SHUTDOWN
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MANUAL
AFTER LANDING FLOW PATTERN
Ident.: NO-180-00005606.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
AFTER LANDING FLOW PATTERN
PNF
PF
ANTI−ICE
CALLS
MECH
ALL
FWD
AFT
PROBE/WINDOW
HEAT
EMER
ANTI ICE
WING
ENG 1
ENG 2
FAULT
FAULT
FAULT
ON
ON
ON
ON
RAIN RPLNT
UP
A
U
T
O
ON
SLOW
ON
NAV
2
ON
A
U
T
O
FAST
OFF
RWY TURN OFF
ON
OVRD
BRT
NO SMOKING
ON
A
U
T
O
OFF
ON
AVAIL
ON
6
OFF
N1 MODE
2
ON
WIPER
1
2
ON
ON
RAIN RPLNT
OFF
ANN LT
TEST
SLOW
BRT
DIM
OFF
OFF
OFF
OFF
ON
BRT
OFF
R
1
ON
2
4
DIM
FAULT
ON
OFF
L
MAN START
DITCHING
0
6
OVHD INTEG LT
INIT LT
STBY COMPASS DOME
MASTER SW
1
OFF
OFF
1
AUTO
−2
14
A
U 12
T
O 10
FAULT
DN
8
APU
OFF
ENG
CABIN PRESS LDG ELEV
MAN V/S CTL MODE SEL
OFF
WIPER
FAST
SIGNS
EMER EXIT LT
ON
OFF
OFF
APU
GRND SPLRS
0
1
0
0
0
T.O.
CONFIG
0
0
EMER
CANC
ENG
BLEED
PRESS
EL/AC
EL/DC
APU
COND
DOOR
WHEEL
F/CTL
DOOR
WHEEL
APU
FUEL
ALL
ALL
GND SPLRS ARMED
SPEED
BRAKE
RET
RET
1/2
1/2
OVHD INTEG LT
FULL
MAN V/S
MAN V/S
FULL
2
RADAR
OFF
ENG
1
SPEED
BRAKE
GND
ARMED
RET
RET
1/2
1/2
FULL
FULL
0
3
ENG
2
0
0
1
1
2
2
3
3
MAN V/S
5
4
0
FULL
BRT
FULL
PREDICTIVE WINDSHEAR
ATC
TCAS MODE SEL
FLAPS
OFF
ENG START SEL
ON
PARK BRK
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PRELIMINARY PAGES
TABLE OF CONTENTS
AO-PLP. PRELIMINARY PAGES
TABLE OF CONTENTS ....................................................................................................... 1/2
AO-010. GENERAL
PREFACE .................................................................................................................................1/6
LANDING DISTANCE PROCEDURE ........................................................................................1/6
Vapp DETERMINATION ..........................................................................................................1/6
IN FLIGHT LANDING DISTANCE CALCULATION FOLLOWING FAILURES ...........................4/6
AO-020. OPERATING TECHNIQUES
LOW SPEED ENGINE FAILURE............................................................................................. 1/16
REJECTED TAKEOFF ........................................................................................................... 1/16
INTRODUCTION TO EMERGENCY EVACUATION .............................................................. 4/16
The Emergency Evacuation Procedure ..................................................................................... 5/16
TASKSHARING IN CASE OF EMERGENCY EVACUATION ................................................. 7/16
ENGINE FAILURE AFTER V1 ................................................................................................ 7/16
ENGINE FAILURE DURING INITIAL CLIMB-OUT ............................................................... 11/16
ENGINE FAILURE DURING CRUISE .................................................................................... 11/16
ENGINE-OUT LANDING ...................................................................................................... 14/16
CIRCLING ONE ENGINE INOPERATIVE.............................................................................. 14/16
ONE ENGINE INOPERATIVE GO-AROUND ....................................................................... 15/16
Thrust Levers Management in case of Inoperative Reverser(s) ................................................ 15/16
AO-022. AUTOFLIGHT
FMGC FAILURE .......................................................................................................................1/2
AO-024. ELECTRICAL
INTRODUCTION TO EMERGENCY ELECTRICAL CONFIGURATION ....................................1/2
TECHNICAL BACKGROUND ...................................................................................................1/2
GENERAL GUIDELINES ...........................................................................................................1/2
REMAINING SYSTEMS............................................................................................................2/2
AO-026. FIRE PROTECTION
PREFACE .................................................................................................................................1/6
SMOKE DETECTION AND PROCEDURE APPLICATION.......................................................1/6
COORDINATION WITH CABIN CREW ..................................................................................2/6
SMOKE/FUMES/AVNCS SMOKE PAPER PROCEDURE ........................................................3/6
CARGO SMOKE .......................................................................................................................5/6
AO-027. FLIGHT CONTROLS
ABNORMAL FLAPS/SLATS CONFIGURATION ......................................................................1/2
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PRELIMINARY PAGES
TABLE OF CONTENTS
AO-028. FUEL
FUEL LEAK..............................................................................................................................1/2
AO-029. HYDRAULIC
HYDRAULIC GENERATION PARTICULARITIES .....................................................................1/4
DUAL HYDRAULIC FAILURES ................................................................................................1/4
REMAINING SYSTEMS............................................................................................................3/4
AO-032. LANDING GEAR
LDG WITH ABNORMAL L/G...................................................................................................1/2
Nose Wheel Steering Fault ........................................................................................................2/2
AO-034. NAVIGATION
ADR/IRS FAULT......................................................................................................................1/8
UNRELIABLE AIRSPEED INDICATIONS .................................................................................1/8
ADR CHECK PROC / UNRELIABLE SPEED INDICATION QRH PROCEDURE.......................4/8
DUAL RADIO ALTIMETER FAILURE .....................................................................................8/8
AO-070. POWER PLANT
ALL ENGINE FLAMEOUT........................................................................................................1/2
AO-090. MISCELLANEOUS
EMERGENCY DESCENT..........................................................................................................1/6
OVERWEIGHT LANDING ........................................................................................................3/6
CREW INCAPACITATION........................................................................................................4/6
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MANUAL
PREFACE
Ident.: AO-010-00005607.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
The ABNORMAL OPERATIONS chapter highlights techniques that will be used in
some abnormal and emergency operations. Some of the procedures discussed in this
chapter are the result of double or triple failures. Whilst it is very unlikely that any of
these failures will be encountered, it is useful to have a background understanding of the
effect that they have on the handling and management of the aircraft. In all cases, the
ECAM should be handled as described in FCTM (Refer to OP-040 PURPOSE OF THE
ECAM).
LANDING DISTANCE PROCEDURE
Ident.: AO-010-00005608.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
Should a failure occur with ”LANDING DISTANCE PROC....APPLY” message displayed
on the ECAM STATUS page, the crew will enter the LDG CONF/APP SPD/LDG
DIST/ CORRECTIONS FOLLOWING FAILURES table in QRH abnormal procedures
and read:
• The flap lever position for landing
• Delta VREF if required for VAPP determination
• The landing distance factor for landing distance calculation
VAPP DETERMINATION
Ident.: AO-010-00005609.0001001 / 01 JUL 08
Applicable to: ALL
BACKGROUND
Some failures affect the approach speed.
• Some failures (typically slat or flap failure) increase the VLS. In this case, the VLS
displayed on the PFD (if available) takes into account the actual configuration.
• In some others failures, it is required to fly at speed higher than VLS to improve the
handling characteristics of the aircraft. This speed increment is to be added to the
VLS displayed on the PFD when the landing configuration is reached.
In order to prepare the approach and landing, the crew needs to calculate the VAPP
in advance. The appropriate VLS is not necessarily available at that time on the PFD,
because the landing configuration is not yet established. Hence, VAPP is determined
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using VREF, which is the VLS of CONF FULL, and is available both in the MCDU
PERF APPR page and the QRH part 2. ∆VREF, extracted from the QRH part 2, is
then added.
VAPP = VREF + ∆VREF + APPRoach CORrection
The APPRoach CORrection (APPR COR) takes into account:
- The use of A/THR
- Ice accretion if applicable and
- Wind correction when required.
METHOD
•
If QRH shows a ∆VREF
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VAPP computation principle with ∆VREF
(1)
For ∆VREF ≤ 10 kt: apply speed increment to the VAPP
and/or additional factor to the landing distance if applicable
(See (2) and See (3) )
(2)
Multiply the landing distance by an additional factor of 1.1
(3)
In CONF 3, add another 5 kt speed increment and multiply
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the landing distance by an additional factor of 1.2 (instead of
1.1)
Then, if landing in CONF 3 is required, select CONF 3 on the MCDU (this ensures
proper operation of the GPWS).
When fully configured in final approach, the crew will check the reasonableness of
the final approach speed computed by the crew with regard to VLS on the PFD
speed scale.
•
If the QRH shows no ∆VREF:
The flight crew can use the MCDU VAPP, as computed by the FMS (the FMS
takes systematically into account the use of A/THR).
IN FLIGHT LANDING DISTANCE CALCULATION FOLLOWING FAILURES
Ident.: AO-010-00005610.0001001 / 01 JUL 08
Applicable to: ALL
GENERAL
The actual landing distance (from 50 ft above the runway surface until the aircraft
comes to the complete stop) is measured during specific flight tests for the
certification of the aircraft. This distance represents the absolute performance
capability of the aircraft. It is published without safety margin under the name
”LANDING DISTANCE WITHOUT AUTOBRAKE” in the QRH.
To compute the actual landing distance following any failure affecting the landing
performance, the crew multiplies the ”LANDING DISTANCE WITHOUT
AUTOBRAKE” CONFIGURATION FULL by the associated landing distance factor
found in the QRH. This actual landing distance following a failure is computed with
no safety margin.
The flight crew checks this actual landing distance against the Landing Distance
Available (LDA) of the runway used for landing applying the relevant safety margins.
The safety margins to be applied depend of the circumstances according to:
• the Captain judgement
• the Airline policy
• the applicable regulations
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Note: For example:
The US-FAA recommends to apply a minimum safety margin of 15 %
between the actual landing distance and the Landing Distance Available
(LDA) in case of
• in-flight determination of the landing distance
• normal and abnormal conditions (except in an emergency)
Ref: US-FAA SAFO 06012 dated 31 Aug 2006.
DRY RUNWAY
The landing distance calculation does NOT include the effect of thrust reversers.
Landing distance with failure = Landing distance See (1) x Failure factor ”dry” See (2) x
Additional factor (if applicable)See (3)
(1): LANDING DISTANCE WITHOUT AUTOBRAKE -- CONFIGURATION FULL
(QRH part 4 -- IN FLIGHT PERFORMANCE Refer to FCOM/99 Duref cible)
(2): Failure factor ”dry” from the “LDG CONF/APPR SPD/ LDG DIST
FOLLOWING FAILURES” table (QRH part 2 - ABNORMAL PROCEDURES). Refer
to FCOM/99 Duref cible
(3):Due to the use of A/THR or in case of ice accretion, if the ∆VREF ≤ 10 kt
(Refer to AO-010 Vapp DETERMINATION).
Reverse thrust credit:
For the failure cases for which ALL thrust reversers remain available it is possible to
include the effect of reverse thrust in the calculation.
Landing distance with failure = Landing distance See (1) x Reverse thrust credit See (4) x
Failure factor ”dry” See (2) x Additional factor (if applicable)See (3)
(4): LANDING DISTANCE WITHOUT AUTOBRAKE -- CONFIGURATION FULL CORRECTIONS table all Reversers operative (QRH part 4 -- IN FLIGHT
PERFORMANCE Refer to FCOM/99 Duref cible)
WET OR CONTAMINATED RUNWAY
The landing distance calculation includes the effect of all available thrust reversers.
Whatever is the failure, the actual landing distance found in the table ”LANDING
DISTANCE WITHOUT AUTOBRAKE” CONFIGURATION FULL must be corrected
by the reversers credit.
When applicable, the failure factors take into account the loss of one or more thrust
reversers due to the related failure.
Note: This method does not permit to compute the landing distance with NO
REVERSE thrust credit
Landing distance with failure = Landing distance See (1) x Reverse thrust credit See (4) x
Failure factor ”wet or contaminated” See (2) x Additional factor (if applicable)See (3)
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ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
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FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
LOW SPEED ENGINE FAILURE
Ident.: AO-020-00005612.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
If an engine failure occurs at low speed, the resultant yaw may be significant, leading to
rapid displacement from the runway centreline. For this reason, it is essential that the
Captain keeps his hand on the thrust levers once take-off thrust has been set.
Directional control is achieved by immediately closing the thrust levers and using
maximum rudder and braking. If necessary, the nosewheel tiller should be used to avoid
runway departure.
REJECTED TAKEOFF
Ident.: AO-020-00005614.0001001 / 03 JUL 08
Applicable to: ALL
FACTORS AFFECTING RTO
Experience has shown that a rejected takeoff can be hazardous, even if correct
procedures are followed. Some factors that can detract from a successful rejected
takeoff are as follows:
• Tire damage
• Brakes worn or not working correctly
• Error in gross weight determination
• Incorrect performance calculations
• Incorrect runway line-up technique
• Initial brake temperature
• Delay in initiating the stopping procedure
• Runway friction coefficient lower than expected
Thorough pre-flight preparation and a conscientious exterior inspection can eliminate
the effect of some of these factors.
During the taxi-out, a review of the takeoff briefing is required. During this briefing,
the crew should confirm that the computed takeoff data reflects the actual takeoff
conditions e.g. wind and runway condition. Any changes to the planned conditions
require the crew to re-calculate the takeoff data. In this case, the crew should not be
pressurised into accepting a takeoff clearance before being fully ready. Similarly, the
crew should not accept an intersection takeoff until the takeoff performance has been
checked.
The line-up technique is very important. The pilot should use the over steer technique
to minimize field length loss and consequently, to maximize the acceleration-stop
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distance available.
DECISION MAKING
A rejected takeoff is a potentially hazardous manoeuvre and the time for decisionmaking is limited. To minimize the risk of inappropriate decisions to reject a takeoff,
many warnings and cautions are inhibited between 80 kt and 1 500 ft. Therefore, any
warnings received during this period must be considered as significant.
To assist in the decision making process, the takeoff is divided into low and high
speeds regimes, with 100 kt being chosen as the dividing line. The speed of 100 kt is
not critical but was chosen in order to help the Captain make the decision and to
avoid unnecessary stops from high speed:
• Below 100 kt, the Captain will seriously consider discontinuing the takeoff if any
ECAM warning/caution is activated.
• Above 100 kt, and approaching V1, the Captain should be ”go-minded” and only
reject the takeoff in the event of a major failure, sudden loss of thrust, any
indication that the aircraft will not fly safely, any red ECAM warning, or any amber
ECAM caution listed below:
• F/CTL SIDESTICK FAULT
• ENG FAIL
• ENG REVERSER FAULT
• ENG REVERSE UNLOCK
If a tire fails within 20 kt of V1, unless debris from the tire has caused noticeable
engine parameter fluctuations, it is better to get airborne, reduce the fuel load and
land with a full runway length available.
The decision to reject the takeoff is the responsibility of the Captain and must be
made prior to V1 speed:
• If a malfunction occurs before V1, for which the Captain does not intend to reject
the takeoff, he will announce his intention by calling ”GO”.
• If a decision is made to reject the takeoff, the Captain calls ”STOP”. This call both
confirms the decision to reject the takeoff and also states that the Captain now has
control. It is the only time that hand-over of control is not accompanied by the
phrase ”I have control”.
RTO PROCEDURE
Should a RTO procedure is initiated, the following task sharing will be applied.
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(1): Announcing the deceleration means that the deceleration is felt by the crew, and
confirmed by the Vc trend on the PFD. The deceleration may also be confirmed by
the DECEL light (if the autobrake is on). However, this light only comes on when the
actual deceleration is 80 % of the selected rate, it is not an indicator of the proper
autobrake operation. For instance, the DECEL light might not appear on a
contaminated runway, with the autobrake working properly, due to the effect of the
antiskid.
If the takeoff is rejected prior to 72 kt, the spoilers will not deploy and the auto-brake
will not function.
If a rejected takeoff is initiated and MAX auto brake decelerates the aircraft, the
captain will avoid pressing the pedals (which might be a reflex action). Conversely, if
deceleration is not felt, the captain will press the brake pedals fully down.
If takeoff has been rejected due to an engine fire, the ECAM actions will be completed
until shutting down the remaining engines.
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Rejected takeoff flow pattern
INTRODUCTION TO EMERGENCY EVACUATION
Ident.: AO-020-00005615.0001001 / 22 MAY 08
Applicable to: ALL
GENERAL
The typical case, which may require an emergency evacuation, is an uncontrollable on
ground engine fire. This situation, which may occur following a rejected takeoff or
after landing, requires good crew coordination to cope with a high workload situation:
- In the rejected takeoff case, the Captain calls ”STOP”. This confirms that the
Captain has controls
- In all other cases, the Captain calls ”I HAVE CONTROLS” if required, to state the
control hand over.
DECISION MAKING
As soon as aircraft is stopped, and the parking brake is set, the captain notifies the
cabin crew and calls for ECAM ACTIONS. At this stage, the task sharing is defined as
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follow:
- The first officer carries out the ECAM actions until shutting down the remaining
engine
- The captain builds up his decision to evacuate depending on the circumstances.
Considerations should be given to:
• Fire remaining out of control after having discharged the agents
• Possible passenger evacuation of the aircraft on the runway
• Positioning the aircraft to keep the fire away from the fuselage, taking into
account the wind direction
• Communicating intentions or requests to ATC.
If fire remains out of control after having discharged the fire agents, the captain calls
for the EMERGENCY EVACUATION procedure located in the inside back cover of the
QRH.
THE EMERGENCY EVACUATION PROCEDURE
Ident.: AO-020-00005626.0001001 / 22 MAY 08
Applicable to: ALL
Some items need to be highlighted:
- It is essential that the differential pressure be zeroed.
In automatic pressurization mode, the crew can rely on the CPC, and the Delta P
check is therefore not applicable.
If MAN CAB PRESS is used in flight, the CAB PR SYS (1+2) FAULT procedure
requires selecting MAN V/S CTL to FULL UP position during final approach to cancel
any residual cabin pressure.
However, since the residual pressure sensor indicator, installed in the cabin door, is
inhibited with slides armed, an additional Delta P check is required by the
EMERGENCY EVACUATION procedure.
Since MAN CAB PRESS is never used for takeoff as at least one automatic cabin
pressure control must be operative for departure, the Delta P check does not apply to
the case of emergency evacuation following a rejected takeoff.
- CABIN CREW (PA)…ALERT reminds the captain for the ”CABIN CREW AT
STATION” call out. (In case of RTO, this is done during the RTO flow pattern).
Cabin crew must be aware that the flight crew is still in control of the situation. In
certain circumstances, this will avoid any unwanted or unnecessary evacuation initiated
by the cabin crew
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- EVACUATION…INITIATE requires the captain confirmation that the emergency
evacuation is still required. If still required, the captain:
• Notifies the cabin crew to start the evacuation
• Activates the EVAC command
• Advises ATC if required.
This will be done preferably in this order for a clear understanding by cabin crew.
On ground with engines stopped, only the right dome light is operational and the three
positions (BRT, DIM, OFF) of the DOME light sw remain available, allowing the
EMERGENCY EVACUATION procedure completion.
The crew will keep in mind that as long as the evacuation order is not triggered, the
crew may differ or cancel the passengers’ evacuation. As soon as the evacuation order is
triggered, this decision is irreversible.
When aircraft is on batteries power, the crew seats can only be operated mechanically.
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TASKSHARING IN CASE OF EMERGENCY EVACUATION
Ident.: AO-020-00005628.0001001 / 24 APR 08
Applicable to: ALL
When applying the EMERGENCY EVACUATION procedure, the F/O can select the
engine masters OFF and push the FIRE pb, without any confirmation from the Captain.
ENGINE FAILURE AFTER V1
Ident.: AO-020-00005617.0001001 / 22 MAY 08
Applicable to: ALL
AIRCRAFT HANDLING
If an engine fails after V1 the takeoff must be continued. The essential and primary
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tasks are linked to aircraft handling. The aircraft must be stabilized at the correct
pitch and airspeed, and established on the correct track prior to the initiation of the
ECAM procedure.
ON THE GROUND:
Rudder is used conventionally to maintain the aircraft on the runway centreline.
At VR, rotate the aircraft smoothly, at a slower rate than with all engines operation,
using a continuous pitch rate to an initial pitch attitude of 12.5 ˚. The combination
of high FLEX temperature and low V speeds requires precise handling during the
rotation and lift off. The 12.5 ˚ pitch target will ensure the aircraft becomes
airborne.
WHEN SAFELY AIRBORNE:
The SRS orders should then be followed which may demand a lower pitch attitude
to acquire or maintain V2.
With a positive rate of climb and when the Radio Altitude has increased, the PNF
will call ”positive climb”. This will suggest to the PF for landing gear retraction.
Shortly after lift off, the lateral normal law commands some rudder surface
deflection to minimize the sideslip (there is no feedback of this command to the
pedals). Thus, the lateral behavior of the aircraft is safe and the pilot should not be
in a hurry to react on the rudder pedals and to chase the beta target.
The blue beta target will replace the normal sideslip indication on the PFD. Since
the lateral normal law does not command the full needed rudder surface deflection,
the pilot will have to adjust conventionally the rudder pedals to center the beta
target.
When the beta target is centred, total drag is minimized even though there is a
small amount of sideslip. The calculation of the beta target is a compromise
between drag produced by deflection of control surfaces and airframe drag produced
by a slight sideslip. Centering the beta target produces less total drag than centering
a conventional ball, as rudder deflection, aileron deflection, spoiler deployment and
aircraft body angle are all taken into account.
The crew will keep in mind that the yaw damper reacts to a detected side slip. This
means that, with hands off the stick and no rudder input, the aircraft will bank at
about 5 ˚ maximum and then, will remain stabilized. Thus, laterally, the aircraft is
a stable platform and no rush is required to laterally trim the aircraft. Control
heading conventionally with bank, keeping the beta target at zero with rudder.
Accelerate if the beta target cannot be zeroed with full rudder. Trim the rudder
conventionally.
The use of the autopilot is STRONGLY recommended. Following an engine failure,
the rudder should be trimmed out prior to autopilot engagement.
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FCTM
AO-020. P 8/16
08 JUL 08
ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
OPERATING TECHNIQUES
Once AP is engaged, the rudder trim is managed through the AP and, hence,
manual rudder trim command, including reset, is inhibited.
THRUST CONSIDERATIONS
Consider the use of TOGA thrust, keeping in mind the following:
• For a FLEX takeoff, selecting the operating engine to TOGA provides additional
performance margin but is not a requirement of the reduced thrust takeoff
certification. The application of TOGA will very quickly supply a large thrust
increase but this comes with a significant increase in yawing moment and an
increased pitch rate. The selection of TOGA restores thrust margins but it may be
at the expense of increased workload in aircraft handling.
• TOGA thrust is limited to 10 min.
PROCEDURE
INITIATION OF THE PROCEDURE
The PNF will closely monitor the aircraft’s flight path. He will cancel any Master
Warning/Caution and read the ECAM title displayed on the top line of the E/WD.
Procedures are initiated on PF command. No action is taken (apart from cancelling
audio warnings through the MASTER WARNING light) until:
• The appropriate flight path is established and,
• The aircraft is at least 400 ft above the runway, if a failure occurs during takeoff,
approach or go-around.
A height of 400 ft is recommended because it is a good compromise between the
necessary time for stabilization and the excessive delay in procedure initiation. In
some emergency cases and provided the flight path is established, the PF may
initiate the ECAM actions before 400 ft.
Once the PF has stabilised the flight path, the PNF confirms the failure. If it is
necessary to delay the ECAM procedure, the PF should order ”Standby”, otherwise
he should announce ”ECAM actions”.
Priority must be given to the control of aircraft trajectory, and acceleration phase
should not be delayed for the purpose of applying the ENG FAIL ECAM procedure.
Should the PF require an action from the PNF during ECAM procedures, the order
”STOP ECAM” should be used. When ready to resume ECAM procedure, the order
”CONTINUE ECAM” should be used.
The procedure may be continued until ”ENG MASTER OFF” (in case of engine
failure without damage) or until AGENT 1 DISCH (in case of engine failure with
damage) before acceleration.
Note:
In case of ENG FIRE, fire drill remains high priority.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
AO-020. P 9/16
08 JUL 08
ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
OPERATING TECHNIQUES
ACCELERATION SEGMENT
At the engine-out acceleration altitude, push ALT to level off and allow the speed to
increase. If the aircraft is being flown manually, the PF should remember that, as
airspeed increases, the rudder input needed to keep the beta target centred will
reduce. Retract the flaps as normal. When the flap lever is at zero, the beta target
reverts to the normal sideslip indication.
FINAL TAKEOFF SEGMENT
As the speed trend arrow reaches Green Dot speed, pull for OPEN CLIMB, set THR
MCT when the LVR MCT message flashes on the FMA (triggered as the speed
index reaches green dot) and resume climb using MCT. If the thrust lever are
already in the FLX/MCT detent, move lever to CL and then back to MCT.
When an engine failure occurs after takeoff, noise abatement procedures are no
longer a requirement. Additionally, the acceleration altitude provides a compromise
between obstacle clearance and engine thrust limiting time. It allows the aircraft to
be configured to Flap 0 and green dot speed, which provides the best climb
gradient.
Once established on the final takeoff flight path, continue the ECAM until the
STATUS is displayed. At this point, the AFTER T/O checklist should be
completed, computer reset considered and OEBs consulted (if applicable). STATUS
should then be reviewed.
ONE ENGINE OUT FLIGHT PATH
The one engine out flight path will be flown according to the takeoff briefing made
at the gate:
• The EOSID (with attention to the decision point location)
• The SID
• Radar vectors...
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
AO-020. P 10/16
08 JUL 08
ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
OPERATING TECHNIQUES
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
Engine failure after V1
ENGINE FAILURE DURING INITIAL CLIMB-OUT
Ident.: AO-020-00005619.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
Proceed as above. If the failure occurs above V2 however, maintain the SRS commanded
attitude. In any event the minimum speed must be V2.
When an engine failure is detected, the FMGS produces predictions based on the engineout configuration and any pre-selected speeds entered in the MCDU are deleted.
ENGINE FAILURE DURING CRUISE
Ident.: AO-020-00005620.0001001 / 22 MAY 08
Applicable to: ALL
GENERAL
There are three strategies available for dealing with an engine failure in the cruise:
• The standard strategy
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
AO-020. P 11/16
08 JUL 08
ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
OPERATING TECHNIQUES
• The obstacle strategy
• The fixed speed strategy
The fixed speed strategy refers to ETOPS. It is discussed in FCOM 2 ”special
operations” and is discussed in a separate course.
Unless a specific procedure has been established before dispatch (considering ETOPS
or mountainous areas), the standard strategy is used.
Note: Pressing the EO CLR key on the MCDU restores the all engine operative
predictions and performance. Reverting to one engine-out performance again
is not possible.
PROCEDURE
As soon as the engine failure is recognized, the PF will simultaneously:
• Set MCT on the remaining engine(s)
• Disconnect A/THR
Then, PF will
• Select the SPEED according to the strategy
• If appropriate, select a HDG to keep clear of the airway, preferably heading towards
an alternate. Consideration should be given to aircraft position relative to any
relevant critical point
• Select the appropriate engine inoperative altitude in the FCU ALT window and pull
for OPEN DES
Then, PF will
• Require the ECAM actions
At high flight levels close to limiting weights, crew actions should not be delayed, as
speed will decay quickly requiring prompt crew response. The crew will avoid
decelerating below green dot.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
AO-020. P 12/16
08 JUL 08
ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
OPERATING TECHNIQUES
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
SPD
HDG
LAT
0.82
LVL/CH
ALT
V/S
FPA
100
AP2
ON
3
4
A/THR
HDG
ENG 1 FAIL
−ENG START SEL.......................IGN
−THR LEVER ...........................
1
IDLE
.IF NO RELIGHT AFTER 30 S :
........................OFF
−ENG MASTER 1
.IF DAMAGE :
−ENG 1 FIRE P/B.....................PUSH
−L+R INR TK SPLIT
......................ON
.IF NO DAMAGE :
−ENG 1 RELIGHT
.................INITIATE
THRUST LEVER
From CL to MCT
PUSH
TO
LEVEL
OFF
METRIC
ALT
AP1
A/THR
disconnect
UP
1000
SPD
MACH
SPD
V/S
25000
HDG V/S
HDG
TRK
TO
2
1
5
APPR
APPR
ALT
LAND ASAP
*HYD
*ELEC
*
6
ECAM ACTIONS
TO
GA
GA
FLX
M
C
T
FLX
M
CL
H
R
O
The A/THR is disconnected to avoid any engine thrust reduction when selecting speed
according to strategy or when pulling for OPEN DES to initiate the descent. With the
A/THR disconnected, the target speed is controlled by the elevator when in OPEN
DES.
Carrying out the ECAM actions should not be hurried, as it is important to complete
the drill correctly. Generally, there will be sufficient time to cross check all actions.
STANDARD STRATEGY
Set speed target M 0.78/300 kt. The speed of 0.78/300 kt is chosen to ensure the
aircraft is within the stabilised windmill engine relight in-flight envelope.
The REC MAX EO Cruise altitude, which equates to LRC with anti-icing off, is
displayed on the MCDU PROG page and should be set on the FCU. (One engine out
gross ceiling at long-range speed is also available in the QRH in case of double FM
failure).
If V/S becomes less than 500 ft/min, select V/S - 500 ft/min and A/THR on. This is
likely to occur as level off altitude is approached.
Once established at level off altitude, long-range cruise performance with one engine
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
AO-020. P 13/16
08 JUL 08
ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
OPERATING TECHNIQUES
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
out may be extracted from QRH or Refer to FCOM/PER-CRZ-OEI-GEN-10
PROCEDURE.
OBSTACLE STRATEGY
To maintain the highest possible level due to terrain, the drift down procedure must
be adopted. The speed target in this case is green dot. The procedure is similar to the
standard strategy, but as the speed target is now green dot, the rate and angle of
descent will be lower.
The MCDU PERF CRZ page in EO condition will display the drift down ceiling,
assuming green dot speed and should be set on FCU. (One engine out gross ceiling at
green dot speed is also available in the QRH and FCOM).
If, having reached the drift down ceiling altitude, obstacle problems remain, the drift
down procedure must be maintained so as to fly an ascending cruise profile.
When clear of obstacles, set LRC ceiling on FCU, return to LRC speed and engage
A/THR.
ENGINE-OUT LANDING
Ident.: AO-020-00005622.0001001 / 22 APR 08
Applicable to: ALL
Autoland is available with one engine inoperative, and maximum use of the AP should
be made to minimise crew workload. If required, a manual approach and landing with
one engine inoperative is conventional. The pilot should trim to keep the slip indication
centred. It remains yellow as long as the thrust on the remaining engine(s) is below a
certain value.
With flap selected and above this threshold value, the indicator becomes the blue beta
target. This is a visual cue that the aircraft is approaching its maximum thrust
capability.
Do not select the gear down too early, as large amounts of power will be required to
maintain level flight at high weights and/or high altitude airports.
To make the landing run easier, the rudder trim can be reset to zero in the later stages
of the approach. On pressing the rudder trim reset button, the trim is removed and the
pilot should anticipate the increased rudder force required. With rudder trim at zero, the
neutral rudder pedal position corresponds to zero rudder and zero nose wheel deflection.
CIRCLING ONE ENGINE INOPERATIVE
Ident.: AO-020-00005623.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
In normal conditions, circling with one engine inoperative requires the down wind leg to
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
AO-020. P 14/16
08 JUL 08
ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
OPERATING TECHNIQUES
be flown in CONF 3, with landing gear extended.
In hot and high conditions and at high landing weight, the aircraft may not be able to
maintain level flight in CONF 3 with landing gear down. The flight crew should check
the maximum weight showed in the QRH CIRCLING APPROACH WITH ONE ENGINE
INOPERATIVE procedure table. If the landing weight is above this maximum value, the
landing gear extension should be delayed until established on final approach.
If the approach is flown at less than 750 ft RA, the warning ”L/G NOT DOWN” will be
triggered. ”TOO LOW GEAR” warning is to be expected, if the landing gear is not
downlocked at 500 ft RA. Therefore, if weather conditions permit, it is recommended to
fly a higher circling pattern.
ONE ENGINE INOPERATIVE GO-AROUND
Ident.: AO-020-00005624.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
A one engine inoperative go-around is similar to that flown with all engines. On the
application of TOGA, rudder must be applied promptly to compensate for the increase
in thrust and consequently to keep the beta target centred. Provided the flap lever is
selected to Flap 1 or greater, SRS will engage and will be followed. If SRS is not
available, the initial target pitch attitude is 12.5 ˚. The lateral FD mode will be GA
TRK and this must be considered with respect to terrain clearance. ALT should be
selected at the engine inoperative acceleration altitude, with the flap retraction and
further climb carried out using the same technique as described earlier in ”ENGINE
FAILURE AFTER V1” section.
THRUST LEVERS MANAGEMENT IN CASE OF INOPERATIVE REVERSER(S)
Ident.: AO-020-00006319.0002001 / 25 JUN 08
Applicable to: ALL
PREFACE
This section provides recommendations on thrust levers management in case of
inoperative reverser(s). These recommendations are applicable in case of in-flight
failure (including engine failure) and/or in case of MEL dispatch with reverser(s)
deactivated.
AT LEAST ONE REVERSER OPERATIVE
If at least one reverser is operative, the general recommendation is to select the
reverser thrust on both engines during rejected takeoff (RTO) and at landing, as per
normal procedures.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
AO-020. P 15/16
08 JUL 08
ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
OPERATING TECHNIQUES
Note: The ENG 1(2) REVERSER FAULT ECAM caution may be triggered after the
reverser thrust is selected. This is to remind the flight crew that one reverser
is inoperative.
CAUTION In case of MEL dispatch with one reverser deactivated:
If the ENG (affected side) REVERSE UNLOCKED ECAM caution is
triggered during flight, the PF must not select the thrust lever on the
affected engine at landing.
NO REVERSERS OPERATIVE
If no reversers are operative, the general recommendation is to not select the reverser
thrust during RTO and at landing.
However, the PF still sets both thrust levers to the IDLE detent, as per normal
procedures.
BRIEFING
IMPORTANCE OF THE FLIGHT CREW BRIEFING
Among others, the aircraft status must be reviewed during the flight crew briefing.
Any particularities (operational consequences, procedures, associated task sharing
and callout) must be reviewed at that time. The flight crew must notably review:
• The status of the thrust reversers and if reverser thrust can be used
• Operational effect (aircraft handling during roll-out).
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
AO-020. P 16/16
08 JUL 08
ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
AUTOFLIGHT
FMGC FAILURE
Ident.: AO-022-00005631.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
SINGLE FMGC FAILURE
Should a single FMGC failure occur, the AP, if engaged on affected side, will
disconnect. The AP will be restored using the other FMGC. The A/THR remains
operative. Furthermore, flight plan information on the affected ND may be recovered
by using same range as the opposite ND. The crew should consider a FMGC reset as
detailed in QRH.
DUAL FMGC FAILURE
Should a dual FMGC failure occur, the AP/FD and A/THR will disconnect. The crew
will try to recover both AP and A/THR by selecting them back ON (The AP and
A/THR can be recovered if the FG parts of the FMGS are still available).
If both AP and A/THR cannot be recovered, the thrust levers will be moved to
recover manual thrust. The pilot will switch off the FDs and select TRK / FPA to
allow the blue track index and the bird to be displayed. The RMPs will be used to
tune the NAVAIDs.
The crew will refer to the QRH for computer reset considerations and then will Refer
to FCOM/PRO-SUP-22-A AUTOMATIC FMGS RESET AND
RESYNCHRONIZATION - FM RESET to reload both FMGC as required.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
AO-022. P 1/2
08 JUL 08
ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
AUTOFLIGHT
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
Intentionally left blank
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
AO-022. P 2/2
08 JUL 08
ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
ELECTRICAL
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
INTRODUCTION TO EMERGENCY ELECTRICAL CONFIGURATION
Ident.: AO-024-00005633.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
The procedure discussed in this section is the EMERGENCY ELECTRICAL
CONFIGURATION. Whilst it is very unlikely that this failure will be encountered, it is
useful:
• To refresh on the technical background
• To recall the general guidelines that must be followed in such a case
• To outline the main available systems according to the electrical power source.
TECHNICAL BACKGROUND
Ident.: AO-024-00005673.0002001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
The emergency electrical configuration is due to the loss of AC BUS 1 and 2. The RAT
extends automatically. This powers the blue hydraulic circuit which drives the emergency
generator. The emergency generator supplies both AC and DC ESS BUS.
Below 125 kt, the RAT stalls and the emergency generator is no longer powered. The
emergency generation network is automatically transferred to the batteries and AC
SHED ESS and DC SHED ESS BUS are shed.
Below 100 kt, the DC BAT BUS is automatically connected and below 50 kt, the AC
ESS BUS is shed.
GENERAL GUIDELINES
Ident.: AO-024-00005674.0002001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
As only PFD1 is available, the left hand seat pilot becomes PF. Once a safe flight path
is established, and the aircraft is under control, ECAM actions will be carried out.
This is a serious emergency and ATC should be notified using appropriate phraseology
(”MAYDAY”). Although the ECAM displays LAND ASAP in red, it would be unwise to
attempt an approach at a poorly equipped airfield in marginal weather. However,
prolonged flight in this configuration is not recommended.
AP/FD and ATHR are lost. The flight is to be completed manually in alternate and
then, when gear down, in direct law. Crews should be aware that workload is
immediately greatly increased.
As only the EWD is available, disciplined use of the ECAM Control Panel (ECP) is
essential, (Refer to OP-040 ECAM HANDLING).
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
AO-024. P 1/2
08 JUL 08
ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
ELECTRICAL
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
Consideration should be given to starting the APU as indicated by the ECAM and taking
into account the probability to restore using APU generator.
A clear reading of STATUS is essential to assess the aircraft status and properly
sequence actions during the approach.
The handling of this failure is referred to as a ”complex procedure”. A summary for
handling the procedure is included in the QRH, which will be referred to upon
completion of the ECAM procedure.
The ELEC EMER CONFIG SYS REMAINING list is available in QRH.
When landing gear is down, flight control law reverts to direct law.
The approach speed must be at least min RAT speed (140 kt) to keep the emergency
generator supplying the electrical network.
The BSCU are lost. Consequently, the NWS and anti skid are lost. Alternate braking
with yellow hydraulic pressure modulation up to 1 000 PSI will be used. Additionally,
reversers are not available.
RA 1+2 are lost with their associated call out. Call out will be made by PNF.
Approaching 50 kt during the landing roll, all CRTs will be lost.
REMAINING SYSTEMS
Ident.: AO-024-00005675.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
The electrical distribution has been designed to fly, navigate, communicate and ensure
passengers comfort. The ELEC EMER CONFIG SYS REMAINING list is available in
QRH. The significant remaining systems are:
FLY
NAVIGATE
COMMUNICATE
Significant remaining systems in ELEC EMER CONFIG
PFD1, alternate law
ND1, FMGC1,, RMP1, VOR1/ILS1
VHF1, HF1, ATC1
On BAT, some additional loads are lost such as FAC1 and FMGC1.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
AO-024. P 2/2
08 JUL 08
ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
FIRE PROTECTION
PREFACE
Ident.: AO-026-00005676.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
Fire and/or smoke in the fuselage present the crew with potentially difficult situations.
Not only will they have to deal with the emergency itself but also the passengers are
likely to panic should they become aware of the situation. It is essential therefore, that
action to control the source of combustion is not delayed.
An immediate diversion should be considered as soon as the smoke is detected. If the
source is not immediately obvious, accessible and extinguishable, it should be initiated
without delay.
SMOKE DETECTION AND PROCEDURE APPLICATION
Ident.: AO-026-00005677.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
The smoke will be identified either by an ECAM warning, or by the crew without any
ECAM warning.
If the smoke is detected by the crew, without any ECAM warning, the flight crew will
refer directly to the QRH SMOKE/FUMES/AVNCS SMOKE paper procedure.
If the ”AVIONICS SMOKE” ECAM caution is activated, the flight crew can refer
directly to the QRH SMOKE/FUMES/AVNCS SMOKE paper procedure, or apply first
the ECAM actions, before entering the QRH.
After the immediate actions, the ECAM displays a countdown (5 min). The flight crew
will take the opportunity of this countdown to switch to paper procedure. When the
paper procedure is entered, the flight crew will continue with this procedure, rather than
coming back to the ECAM.
If another ECAM SMOKE warning (e.g. LAVATORY SMOKE) is triggered, the flight
crew must apply the ECAM procedure. If any doubt exists about the smoke origin, the
flight crew will than refer to the QRH SMOKE/FUMES/AVNCS SMOKE paper
procedure
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
AO-026. P 1/6
08 JUL 08
ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
FIRE PROTECTION
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
smoke/fumes procedure architecture
C
R
E
W
C
O
O
R
D
I
N
A
T
I
O
N
(1)
(2)
(3)
ECAM
"AVIONICS SMOKE" caution
Crew (cockpit or
cabin) perception
without ECAM
warning
Other ECAM smoke
warning
SMOKE AVNCS VENT SMOKE
if perceptible smoke
−OXY MASK
ON
−CKPT/CABIN COM
ESTABLISH
−VENT EXTRACT
OVRD
−CABIN FANS
OFF
OFF
−GALLEYS
A320
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
1. 04
SMOKE LAVATORY SMOKE
−CKPT/CABIN COM
ESTABLISH
LAND ASAP
A320
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
1. 07
A320
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
1. 05
SMOKE/FUMES/AVNCS SMOKE
SMOKE/
FUMES
REMOVAL
IMMEDIATE
ACTIONS
IF REQUIRED :
− CREW OXY MASKS.............ON/100%/EMERG
IF SMOKE SOURCE IMMEDIATELY OBVIOUS,
ACCESSIBLE, AND EXTINGUISHABLE :
− FAULTY EQPT....................................ISOLATE
IF SMOKE SOURCE NOT IMMEDIATELY
ISOLARED :
− DIVERSION.........................................INITIATE
− DESCENT (FL 100 or MEA, or minimum
obstacle clearance altitude)..................INITIATE
C
R
E
W
C
O
M
M
U
N
I
C
A
Y
I
O
N
IF SMOKE BECOMES
THE GREATEST
THREAT
At ANY TIME of the procedure, if situation
becomes UNMANAGEABLE :
− IMMEDIATE LANDING...........CONSIDER
SMOKE/FUMES
REMOVAL
PROCEDURE
SMOKE/FUMES/AVNCS SMOKE
PROCEDURE
COORDINATION WITH CABIN CREW
Ident.: AO-026-00005680.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
Good coordination between cockpit and cabin crew is a key element .
In case of smoke in the cabin, it is essential that the cabin crew estimate and inform the
cockpit concerning the density of smoke and the severity of the situation.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
AO-026. P 2/6
08 JUL 08
ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
FIRE PROTECTION
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
SMOKE/FUMES/AVNCS SMOKE PAPER PROCEDURE
Ident.: AO-026-00005679.0001001 / 01 JUL 08
Applicable to: ALL
GENERAL
The SMOKE/FUMES/AVNCS SMOKE paper procedure implements a global
philosophy that is applicable to both cabin and cockpit smoke cases. This philosophy
includes the following main steps:
• Diversion to be anticipated
• Immediate actions
If smoke source not immediately isolated:
• Diversion initiation
• Smoke origin identification and fighting
u
Furthermore, at any time during the procedure application, if smoke/fumes becomes
the greatest threat, the boxed items will be completed.
The main steps of this global philosophy may be visualized in the
SMOKE/FUMES/AVNCS SMOKE QRH procedure.
SMOKE/FUMES/AVNCS SMOKE procedure presentation in QRH
LAND ASAP
A318
A319
A320
A321
Anticipate Diversion
REV 22
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
SEQ 200
1.06
SMOKE/FUMES/AVNCS SMOKE (CONT’D)
If AIR COND SMOKE SUSPECTED :
− APU BLEED .......................................... OFF
− VENT EXTRACT................................... AUTO
− PACK 1 .................................................. OFF
R
If smoke continues :
− PACK 1 ................................................ ON
− PACK 2 ................................................OFF
− CRG FWD ISOL VALVE...................... OFF
− CRG AFT ISOL VALVE ....................... OFF
Immediate
Actions
If smoke still continues :
− PACK 2 .............................................. ON
− VENT EXTRACT........................... OVRD
− SMOKE/FUMES REMOVAL........CONSIDER
IF CAB EQUIPMENT SMOKE SUSPECTED :
If smoke continues :
− EMER EXIT LT.......................................ON
− COMMERCIAL .................................... OFF
− SMOKE DISSIPATION ......................
CHECK
− FAULTY EQPT............. SEARCH/ISOLATE
At any time:
If smoke still continues or when faulty
equipment confirmed isolated :
− COMMERCIAL ............................. NORM
− SMOKE/FUMES REMOVAL ....... CONSIDER
IF CAB EQUIPMENT SMOKE SUSPECTED :
BOXED ITEMS
Initiate Diversion
If smoke continues :
− EMER EXIT LT.......................................ON
− COMMERCIAL .................................... OFF
− SMOKE DISSIPATION ..................CHECK
− FAULTY EQPT............. SEARCH/ISOLATE
If smoke still continues or when faulty
equipment confirmed isolated :
− COMMERCIAL ............................. NORM
− SMOKE/FUMES REMOVAL........CONSIDER
Consider
SMOKE/FUMES removal
A318
A319
A320
A321
Consider EMER
CONFIG
Consider IMMEDIATE
LANDING
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
REV 22
SEQ 200
1.06
SMOKE/FUMES/AVNCS SMOKE (CONT’D)
R
Source identification and fighting
If AIR COND SMOKE SUSPECTED :
− APU BLEED .......................................... OFF
− VENT EXTRACT................................... AUTO
− PACK 1 .................................................. OFF
If smoke continues :
− PACK 1 ................................................ ON
− PACK 2 ................................................OFF
................................................
− CRG FWD
ISOL VALVE.......................OFF
OFF
− CRG AFT ISOL VALVE.........................OFF
R
If smoke still continues :
A318
REV 22
− PACK 2 ..............................................
ON
A319
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
A320
1.06
SEQ 200
A321 ........................... OVRD
− VENT EXTRACT
− SMOKE/FUMES REMOVAL
............CONSIDER
SMOKE
(CONT’D)
IF CAB EQUIPMENTSMOKE/FUMES/AVNCS
SMOKE SUSPECTED
:
R
If AIR COND SMOKE SUSPECTED :
If smoke continues :
− APU BLEED .......................................... OFF
− EMER EXIT LT.......................................
ON
AUTO
− VENT EXTRACT...................................
− COMMERCIAL−....................................
OFF
PACK 1 ..................................................
OFF
− SMOKE DISSIPATION ......................
CHECK
If smoke continues :
− FAULTY EQPT............. SEARCH/ISOLATE
− PACK 1 ................................................ ON
If smoke still continues
faulty
................................................
OFF
− PACKor2when
equipment confirmed
isolated
:
− CRG
FWD ISOL
VALVE.......................OFF
− COMMERCIAL−.............................
NORM
CRG AFT ISOL VALVE
.........................OFF
− SMOKE/FUMES REMOVAL........ CONSIDER
If smoke still continues :
IF CAB EQUIPMENT −
SMOKE
SUSPECTED
:
PACK 2 .............................................. ON
If smoke continues : − VENT EXTRACT........................... OVRD
− SMOKE/FUMES REMOVAL
− EMER EXIT LT.......................................
ON............CONSIDER
R
IF....................................
CAB EQUIPMENT SMOKE
− COMMERCIAL
OFF SUSPECTED :
− SMOKE DISSIPATION
If smoke......................
continues CHECK
:
− FAULTY EQPT............. SEARCH/ISOLATE
− EMER EXIT LT.......................................ON
If smoke still continues
or when faulty
− COMMERCIAL
.................................... OFF
equipment confirmed
isolated
:
− SMOKE
DISSIPATION
..................CHECK
− COMMERCIAL−.............................
NORMSEARCH/ISOLATE
FAULTY EQPT.............
− SMOKE/FUMES REMOVAL........ CONSIDER
If smoke still continues or when faulty
equipment confirmed isolated :
− COMMERCIAL ............................. NORM
− SMOKE/FUMES REMOVAL........ CONSIDER
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
Air
Conditioning
Cabin
equipment
AVNCS/CKPT
(Electrical)
AO-026. P 3/6
08 JUL 08
ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
FIRE PROTECTION
CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT DIVERSION
Time is critical.
This is why a diversion must be immediately anticipated (as indicated by LAND
ASAP).
Then, after the immediate actions, if the smoke source cannot immediately identified
and isolated, the diversion must be initiated before entering the SMOKE ORIGIN
IDENTIFICATION AND FIGHTING part of the procedure.
IMMEDIATE ACTIONS
These actions are common to all cases of smoke and fumes, whatever the source.
Their objectives are:
• avoiding any further contamination of the cockpit/cabin,
• communication with cabin crew
• flight crew protection.
SMOKE ORIGIN IDENTIFICATION AND FIGHTING
The crew tries to identify the smoke source by isolating systems. Some guidelines may
help the crew to identify the origin of smoke:
• If smoke initially comes out of the cockpit’s ventilation outlets, or if smoke is
detected in the cabin, the crew may suspect an AIR COND SMOKE. In addition,
very shortly thereafter, several SMOKE warnings (cargo, lavatory, avionics) will be
triggered. The displayed ECAM procedures must therefore be applied.
• Following an identified ENG or APU failure, smoke may emanate from the faulty
item through the bleed system and be perceptible in the cockpit or the cabin. In
that case, it will be re-circulated throughout the aircraft, until it completely
disappears from the air conditioning system.
• If only the AVIONICS SMOKE warning is triggered, the crew may suspect an
AVIONICS SMOKE.
• If smoke is detected, while an equipment is declared faulty, the crew may suspect
that smoke is coming from this equipment.
According to the source he suspects, the crew will enter one of the 3 paragraphs:
1. IF AIR COND SMOKE SUSPECTED…
2. IF CAB EQUIPMENT SMOKE SUSPECTED…
3. IF AVNCS/COCKPIT SMOKE SUSPECTED…
Since electrical fire is the most critical case, he will also enter paragraph 3 if he
doesn’t know the source of the smoke, or if the application of paragraph 1 and/or 2
has been unsuccessful.
In this part of the procedure, the flight crew must consider setting the Emergency
Electrical Configuration, to shed as much equipment as possible. This is in order to
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
AO-026. P 4/6
08 JUL 08
ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
FIRE PROTECTION
attempt to isolate the smoke source.
If at least one battery is charging when one side and then the other side of the
electrical system are shed, the DC1, DC2, and BAT bus bars become inoperative for
the remainder of the flight. Therefore, the procedure for attempting to partially shed
the electrical system was removed from the smoke procedure. This change in the
procedure is to enable the flight crew to recover the normal electrical configuration for
landing, particularly to recover normal braking.
BOXED ITEMS
These items (applying SMOKE REMOVAL procedure, setting electrical emergency
configuration, or considering immediate landing) may be applied at any time, in the
procedure (but not before the immediate actions).
Once the first step of the smoke removal procedure have been applied, the flight crew
will come back to the SMOKE/FUMES/AVNCS SMOKE procedure, to apply the
appropriate steps, depending on the suspected smoke source while descending to
FL 100. Reaching FL 100, the smoke removal procedure will be completed.
CARGO SMOKE
Ident.: AO-026-00005678.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
The crew should be aware that, even after successful operation of the cargo fire bottle,
the CARGO SMOKE warning might persist due to the smoke detectors being sensitive
to the extinguishing agent.
On the ground, the crew should instruct the ground crew not to open the cargo door
until the passengers have disembarked and fire services are present.
If SMOKE warning is displayed on ground with the cargo compartment door open, do
not initiate an AGENT DISCHARGE. Request the ground crew to investigate and
eliminate the smoke source. On ground, the warning may be triggered due to a high
level of humidity.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
AO-026. P 5/6
08 JUL 08
ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
FIRE PROTECTION
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
Intentionally left blank
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
AO-026. P 6/6
08 JUL 08
ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
FLIGHT CONTROLS
ABNORMAL FLAPS/SLATS CONFIGURATION
Ident.: AO-027-00005681.0001001 / 22 MAY 08
Applicable to: ALL
CAUSES
Abnormal operation of the flaps and/or slats may be due to one of the following
problems:
• Double SFCC failure
• Double hydraulic failure (B+G or Y+G)
• Flaps/Slats jammed (operation of the WTB)
CONSEQUENCES
Abnormal operation of the flaps and slats has significant consequences since:
• The control laws may change
• The selected speed must be used
• A stabilized approach should be preferred
• The approach attitudes change
• Approach speeds and landing distances increase
• The go-around procedure may have to be modified.
Note: The FMS predictions do not take into account the slat or flap failures. Since
fuel consumption is increased, these predictions are not valid.
FAILURE AT TAKEOFF
Should a flap/slat retraction problem occur at takeoff, the crew will PULL the speed
knob for selected speed to stop the acceleration and avoid exceeding VFE. The
overspeed warning is computed according to the actual slats/flaps position.
The landing distance available at the departure airport and the aircraft gross weight
will determine the crew’s next course of action.
FAILURE DURING THE APPROACH
The detection of a slat or flap failure occurs with the selection of flap lever during the
approach. With A/THR operative, the managed speed target will become the next
manoeuvring characteristic speed e.g. S speed when selecting flap lever to 1. At this
stage, if a slat or flap failure occurs, the crew will:
• Pull the speed knob for selected speed to avoid further deceleration
• Delay the approach to complete the ECAM procedure
• Refer to LANDING WITH FLAPS OR SLATS JAMMED paper check list.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
AO-027. P 1/2
08 JUL 08
ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
FLIGHT CONTROLS
• Update the approach briefing
In the QRH, the line, ”SPEED SEL............VFE NEXT -5 kt” is designed to allow the
crew to configure the aircraft for landing whilst controlling the speed in a safe manner.
This procedure may involve reducing speed below the manoeuvring speed for the
current configuration which is acceptable provided the speed is kept above VLS. The
speed reduction and configuration changes should preferably be carried out wings
level.
The landing distance factors and approach speed increments are available in the QRH.
(Refer to AO-010 LANDING DISTANCE PROCEDURE)
Assuming VLS is displayed on the PFD, VAPP should be close to VLS + wind
correction, since this speed is computed on the actual slat/flap position.
The AP may be used down to 500 ft AGL. As the AP is not tuned for the abnormal
configurations, its behaviour can be less than optimum and must be monitored.
During the approach briefing, emphasis should be made of:
• Tail strike awareness
• The go-around configuration
• Any deviation from standard call out
• The speeds to be flown, following a missed approach
• At the acceleration altitude, selected speed must be used to control the acceleration
to the required speed for the configuration.
Consider the fuel available and the increased consumption associated with a diversion
when flying with flaps and/or slats jammed. Additionally, when diverting with
flaps/slats extended, cruise altitude is limited to 20 000 ft.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
AO-027. P 2/2
08 JUL 08
ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
FUEL
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
FUEL LEAK
Ident.: AO-028-00005682.0001001 / 22 MAY 08
Applicable to: ALL
Significant fuel leaks although rare, are sometimes difficult to detect. Fuel check will be
carried out by
• Checking that the remaining fuel added to the burnt fuel corresponds to the fuel on
board at the gate.
• Maintaining the fuel log and comparing fuel on board to expected flight plan fuel
would alert the crew to any discrepancy.
Fuel checks should be carried out when sequencing a waypoint and at least every
30 min. Any discrepancy should alert the crew and investigation should be carried out
without delay.
Should an engine failure occur, the ECAM requires the opening of the fuel X feed to
avoid fuel imbalance. In case of supposed or obvious engine damages, the opening of the
fuel X feed will be performed only after being certain that there is no fuel leak.
Any time an unexpected fuel quantity indication, ECAM fuel message or imbalance is
noted, a fuel leak should be considered as a possible cause. Initial indications should be
carefully cross-checked by reference to other means, including if possible, a visual
inspection.
If a leak is suspected, the crew should action the ”FUEL LEAK” abnormal checklist
available in QRH:
• If the leak is positively identified as coming from the engine, the affected engine is
shut down to isolate the fuel leak and fuel cross-feed valve may be used as required.
• If the leak is not from the engine or cannot be located, it is imperative that the crossfeed valve is not opened.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
AO-028. P 1/2
08 JUL 08
ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
FUEL
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
Intentionally left blank
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
AO-028. P 2/2
08 JUL 08
ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
HYDRAULIC
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
HYDRAULIC GENERATION PARTICULARITIES
Ident.: AO-029-00005683.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
PREFACE
The aircraft has three continuously operating hydraulic systems: green, blue and
yellow. A bidirectional Power Transfer Unit (PTU) enables the yellow system to
pressurize the green system and vice versa. Hydraulic fluid cannot be transferred from
one system to another.
PTU PRINCIPLE
In flight, the PTU operates automatically if differential pressure between green and
yellow systems exceeds 500 PSI. This allows to cover the loss of one engine or one
engine driven pump cases.
USE OF PTU IN CASE OF FAILURE
In case of reservoir low level, reservoir overheat, reservoir low air pressure, the PTU
must be switched OFF as required by ECAM to avoid a PTU overheat which may
occur two minutes later. Indeed, a PTU overheat may lead to the loss of the second
hydraulic circuit.
RECOMMENDATIONS
When required by the ECAM, the PTU should switched off without significant delay
in case of:
• HYD G(Y) RSVR LO LVL
• HYD G(Y) RSVR LO PR
• HYD G(Y) RSVR OVHT
However, if PTU has been switched off because of HYD G(Y) RSVR OVHT and the
alert disappears, affected pump may be restored and PTU switched back to AUTO.
DUAL HYDRAULIC FAILURES
Ident.: AO-029-00005684.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
PREFACE
Single hydraulic failures have very little effect on the handling of the aircraft but will
cause a degradation of the landing capability to CAT 3 Single.
Dual hydraulic failures however, although unlikely, are significant due to the following
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
AO-029. P 1/4
08 JUL 08
ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
HYDRAULIC
consequences:
• Loss of AP
• Flight control law degradation (ALTN)
• Landing in abnormal configuration
• Extensive ECAM procedures with associated workload and task-sharing
considerations
• Significant considerations for approach and landing.
GENERAL GUIDELINES
It is important to note that the AP will not be available to the crew but both FD and
A/THR still remain. Additionally, depending on the affected hydraulic circuits, aircraft
handling characteristics may be different due to the loss of some control surfaces. The
PF will maneuver with care to avoid high hydraulic demand on the remaining systems.
The PF will be very busy flying the aircraft and handling the communications with the
flight controls in Alternate Law.
A double hydraulic failure is an emergency situation, with red LAND ASAP displayed,
and a MAYDAY should be declared to ATC. A landing must be carried out as soon as
possible bearing in mind, however, that the ECAM actions should be completed prior
the approach.
PF will then require the ECAM actions. A clear reading of STATUS is essential to
assess the aircraft status and properly sequence actions during the approach.
This failure is called a ”complex procedure” and the QRH summary should be referred
to upon completion of the ECAM procedure. Refer to OP-040 USE OF SUMMARIES
While there is no need to remember the following details, an understanding of the
structure of the hydraulic and flight control systems would be an advantage. The
F/CTL SD page and the OPS DATA section of the QRH provide an overview of the
flight controls affected by the loss of hydraulic systems.
The briefing will concentrate on safety issues since this will be a hand-flown approach
with certain handling restrictions:
• Use of the selected speeds on the FCU.
• Landing gear gravity extension
• Approach configuration and flap lever position
• Approach speed VAPP
• Tail strike awareness
• Braking and steering considerations
• Go around call out, aircraft configuration and speed
The STATUS page requires, in each case, a landing gear gravity extension. The
LANDING GEAR GRAVITY EXTENSION procedure will be completed with reference
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
AO-029. P 2/4
08 JUL 08
ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
HYDRAULIC
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
to the QRH.
A stabilized approach will be preferred.
REMAINING SYSTEMS
Ident.: AO-029-00005685.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
Flight phase
Systems
Cruise
Auto pilot
Yaw damper
Control law
Landing
Stabilizer
Spoilers
Elevator
Aileron
Slats/Flaps
Go/around
L/G extension
Braking
Anti skid
Nose wheel
steering
Reverse
L/G retraction
HYD G+B SYS LO
PR
Inop
YD2 only
ALTN LAW and
DIRECT LAW when
L/G DN
Avail
2 SPLRS/wing
R ELEV only
Inop
FLAPS slow only
Gravity
ALTN BRK only
Avail
Inop
REV 2 only
Inop
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
Remaining systems
HYD G+Y SYS LO HYD B+Y SYS LO PR
PR
Inop
Inop
Inop
YD1 only
ALTN LAW and
NORM LAW
DIRECT LAW when
L/G DN
Avail
Inop See (1)
1 SPLR/wing
2 SPLRS/wing
Avail
L ELEV only
Avail
Avail
SLATS slow Only See SLATS/FLAPS slow
(2)
only
Gravity
Gravity
Y ACCU PRESS only
NORM BRK only
Inop
Avail
Inop
Inop
Inop
Inop
REV 1 only
Inop
AO-029. P 3/4
08 JUL 08
ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
HYDRAULIC
SYSTEMS PARTICULARITIES
1. The stabilizer is lost. In alternate law, the auto trim function is provided through the
elevators. At landing gear extension, switching to direct law, the auto trim function is
lost. However, the mean elevator position at that time is memorized, and becomes the
reference for centered sidestick position. This is why, in order to ensure proper
centered sidestick position for approach and landing, the procedure requires to wait for
stabilization at VAPP, before landing gear extension.
If this procedure is missed, the flare and pitch control in case of go-around may be
difficult.
The PFD message USE MAN PITCH TRIM after landing gear extension should thus
be disregarded.
Deceleration and auto trim function through elevators
CONF 3 and
VAPP
L/G DOWN
DIRECT LAW:
The centered side stick
position becomes the mean
value of the elevators
2. High pitch during approach should be expected. Approach briefing should outline it for
tail strike awareness and pitch attitude will be monitored during flare.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
AO-029. P 4/4
08 JUL 08
ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
LANDING GEAR
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
LDG WITH ABNORMAL L/G
Ident.: AO-032-00005686.0001001 / 22 MAY 08
Applicable to: ALL
This situation might occur following completion of a L/G GEAR NOT DOWNLOCKED
procedure. It is always better to land with any available gear rather than carry out a
landing without any gear.
In all cases, weight should be reduced as much as possible to provide the slowest
possible touchdown speed. Although foaming of the runway is not a requirement, full
advantage should be taken of any ATC offer to do so.
The passengers and cabin crew should be informed of the situation in good time. This
will allow the cabin crew to prepare the cabin and perform their emergency landing and
evacuation procedures.
If one or both main landing gears in abnormal position, the ground spoilers will not be
armed to keep as much roll authority as possible for maintaining the wings level. Ground
spoiler extension would prevent spoilers from acting as roll surfaces.
The crew will not arm the autobrake as manual braking will enable better pitch and roll
control. Furthermore, with at least one main landing gear in the abnormal position, the
autobrake cannot be activated (ground spoilers not armed).
With one main landing gear not extended, the reference speed used by the anti-skid
system is not correctly initialized. Consequently, the anti-skid must be switched off to
prevent permanent brake release.
In all cases, a normal approach should be flown and control surfaces used as required to
maintain the aircraft in a normal attitude for as long as possible after touchdown. The
engines should be shut down early enough to ensure that fuel is cut off prior to nacelle
touchdown, but late enough to keep sufficient authority on control surfaces in order to:
• Maintain runway axis
• Prevent nacelle contact on first touch down
• Maintain wing level and pitch attitude as long as possible.
Considering a realistic hydraulic demand, the hydraulic power remains available up to
approximately 30 s after the shut down of the related engine. It is the reason why the
recommendations to switch the ENG masters OFF are as follow:
• If NOSE L/G abnormal
Before nose impact
• If one MAIN L/G abnormal
At touch down.
• If both MAIN L/G abnormal
In the flare, before touch down
The reversers will not be used to prevent the ground spoilers extension and because the
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
AO-032. P 1/2
08 JUL 08
ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
LANDING GEAR
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
engine will touch the ground during roll out.
The engines and APU fire pbs are pushed when the use of flight controls is no longer
required i.e. when aircraft has stopped.
NOSE WHEEL STEERING FAULT
Ident.: AO-032-00006423.0001001 / 02 JUL 08
Applicable to: ALL
If the Nose Wheel Steering (NWS) is lost for taxiing, the flight crew can steer the
aircraft with differential braking technique. If the flight crew does not have experience
with this technique, he should preferably request a towing to return to the gate. The
flight crew can request the towing early in approach, if the failure has been triggered in
flight.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
AO-032. P 2/2
08 JUL 08
ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
NAVIGATION
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
ADR/IRS FAULT
Ident.: AO-034-00005687.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
Each ADIRS has two parts (ADR and IRS), that may fail independently of each other.
Additionally the IRS part may fail totally or may be available in ATT mode.
Single NAV ADR FAULT or NAV IRS FAULT are simple procedures, and only require
action on the switching panel as indicated by the ECAM.
Dual NAV ADR or NAV IRS failures will cause the loss of AP, A/THR and flight
controls revert to ALTN LAW.
Due to the low probability of a triple ADR failure, the associated procedure will not be
displayed on the ECAM. In this case, the crew will refer to QRH procedure for ADR 1 +
2 + 3 failure.
There is no procedure for IRS 1 + 2 + 3 failure but the ECAM status page will give
approach procedure and inoperative systems. In this unlikely event, the standby
instruments are the only attitude, altitude, speed and heading references.
Note: To switch off an ADR, the flight crew must use the ADR pushbutton. Do not
use the rotary selector, because this would also cut off the electrical supply to
the IR part.
UNRELIABLE AIRSPEED INDICATIONS
Ident.: AO-034-00005688.0001001 / 22 MAY 08
Applicable to: ALL
PREFACE
Most failures modes of the airspeed/altitude system are detected by the ADIRS. These
failures modes lead to the loss of corresponding cockpit indications and the triggering
of associated ECAM drills.
However, there may be some cases where the airspeed or altitude output is erroneous
without being recognized as such by the ADIRS. In these cases, the cockpit indications
appear normal but are actually false and pilots must rely on their basic flying skills to
identify the faulty source and take the required corrective actions. When only one
source provides erroneous data, a straightforward crosscheck of the parameters
provided by the three ADRs allows the faulty ADR to be identified. This identification
becomes more difficult in the extreme situation when two, or even all of three, sources
provide erroneous information.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
AO-034. P 1/8
08 JUL 08
ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
NAVIGATION
MAIN REASONS FOR ERRONEOUS AIRSPEED/ALTITUDE DATA
The most probable reason for erroneous airspeed and altitude information is
obstructed pitot tubes or static sources. Depending on the level of obstruction, the
symptoms visible to the flight crew will be different. However, in all cases, the data
provided by the obstructed probe will be false. Since it is highly unlikely that the
aircraft probes will be obstructed at the same time, to the same degree and in the
same way, the first indication of erroneous airspeed/altitude data available to flight
crews, will most probably be a discrepancy between the various sources.
CONSEQUENCES OF OBSTRUCTED PITOT TUBES OR STATIC PORTS
All aircraft systems, using anemometric data, have been built-in fault accommodation
logics. The fault accommodation logics are not the same for various systems but, all
rely on voting principle whereby when one source diverges from the average value, it is
automatically rejected and the system continues to operate normally with the
remaining two sources. This principle applies to flight controls and flight guidance
systems.
NORMAL SITUATION
Each ELAC receives speed information from all ADIRUs and compares the 3 values.
Pressure altitude information is not used by the ELAC.
Each FAC (Flight Augmentation Computer) receives speed information from all
ADIRUs and compares the 3 values.
ONE ADR OUTPUT IS ERRONEOUS AND THE TWO REMAINING ARE CORRECT
The ELAC and the FAC and/or FMGC eliminate it without any cockpit effect (no
caution, normal operation is continued), except that one display is wrong and CAT III
DUAL is displayed as INOP SYS on STATUS page.
TWO ADR OUTPUTS ARE ERRONEOUS, BUT DIFFERENT, AND THE REMAINING
ADR IS CORRECT, OR IF ALL THREE ARE ERRONEOUS, BUT DIFFERENT :
The autopilot and the auto thrust are disconnected (whichever autopilot is engaged).
The ELAC triggers the F/CTL ADR DISAGREE ECAM caution. Flight controls revert
to Alternate law (without high and low speed protection). On both PFDs, the ”SPD
LIM” flag is shown; no VLS, no VSW and no VMAX is displayed.
This situation is latched, until an ELAC reset is performed on ground, without any
hydraulic pressure.
However, if the anomaly was only transient, the autopilot and the autothrust can be
re-engaged when the disagree has disappeared.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
AO-034. P 2/8
08 JUL 08
ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
A318/A319/A320/A321
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
NAVIGATION
ONE ADR IS CORRECT, BUT THE OTHER TWO ADRS PROVIDE THE SAME
ERRONEOUS OUTPUT, OR IF ALL THREE ADRS PROVIDE CONSISTENT AND
ERRONEOUS DATA :
The systems will reject the ”good” ADR and will continue to operate normally using
the two ”bad” ADRs. This condition can be met when, for example, two or all three
pitot tubes are obstructed at the same time, to the same degree, and in the same way.
(Flight through a cloud of volcanic ash, takeoff with two pitots obstructed by foreign
matter (mud, insects)).
The following chart provides a non-exhaustive list of the consequences of various cases
of partially or totally obstructed pitot tubes and static ports on airspeed and altitude
indications. It should be noted that the cases described below cover extreme situations
(e.g. totally obstructed or unobstructed drain holes), and that there could be multiple
intermediate configurations with similar, but not identical, consequences.
FAILURE CASE
Water accumulated due to heavy rain. Drain holes
unobstructed.
CONSEQUENCES
Transient speed drop until water drains. IAS
fluctuations. IAS step drop and gradual return to
normal.
Permanent speed drop.
Water accumulated due to heavy rain. Drain holes
obstructed.
Ice accretion due to pitot heat failure, or transient
Total pressure leaks towards static pressure. IAS
pitot blocked due to severe icing. Unobstructed
drop until obstruction cleared/fluctuation, if
drain holes.
transient erratic A/THR is transient.
Ice accretion due to pitot heat failure, or pitot
Total pressure blocked. Constant IAS in level flight,
obstruction due to foreign objects. Obstructed drain
until obstruction is cleared.
holes.
In climb, IAS increases. In descent, IAS decreases.
Abnormal AP/FD/ATHR behavior :
a. AP/FD pitch up in OPN CLB to hold target IAS.
b. AP/FD pitch down in OPN DES to hold target
IAS
Total obstruction of static ports on ground.
Static pressure blocked at airfield level. Normal
indications during T/O roll. After lift-off altitude
remains constant. IAS decreases, after lift-off. IAS
decreases, when aircraft climbs. IAS increases, when
aircraft descends.
The above table clearly illustrates that no single rule can be given to conclusively
identify all possible erroneous airspeed/altitude indications cases.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
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AO-034. P 3/8
08 JUL 08
ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
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FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
NAVIGATION
ADR CHECK PROC / UNRELIABLE SPEED INDICATION QRH PROCEDURE
Ident.: AO-034-00005690.0001001 / 30 JUN 08
Applicable to: ALL
INTRODUCTION
The UNRELIABLE SPEED INDICATIONS / ADR CHECK PROC procedure has two
objectives: to identify and isolate the affected ADR (s), and, if not successful, to fly
the aircraft until landing without any speed reference.
It includes the following steps:
1. Memory items
2. Trouble shooting and isolation
3. Flight using Pitch/thrust references.
WHEN TO APPLY THIS PROCEDURE?
The flight crew may enter this procedure, either upon ECAM request (ADR
DISAGREE or ANTI-ICE PITOT caution), or because he suspects an erroneous
indication, without any ECAM warning.
Erroneous speed/altitude indication can be suspected by:
1. Speed discrepancy (between ADR1, 2, 3, and standby indication)
2. Fluctuating or unexpected increase/decrease/permanent indicated speed, or pressure
altitude.
3. Abnormal correlation of basic flight parameters (IAS, pitch, attitude, thrust, climb
rate) :
• IAS increasing, with large nose-up pitch attitude
• IAS decreasing, with large nose down pitch attitude
• IAS decreasing, with nose down pitch attitude and aircraft descending
4. Abnormal AP/FD/ATHR behavior
5. STALL warning, or OVERSPEED warnings, or a Flap RELIEF ECAM message, that
contradicts with at least one of the indicated speeds.
• Rely on the stall warning that could be triggered in alternate or direct law. It is
not affected by unreliable speeds, because it is based on angle of attack.
• Depending on the failure, the OVERSPEED warning may be false or justified.
Buffet, associated with the OVERSPEED VFE warning, is a symptom of a real
overspeed condition.
6. Inconsistency between radio altitude and pressure altitude.
7. Reduction in aerodynamic noise with increasing speed, or increase in aerodynamic
noise with decreasing speed.
8. Impossibility of extending the landing gear by the normal landing gear system.
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ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
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NAVIGATION
HOW TO APPLY THIS PROCEDURE?
Because the displayed information may be erroneous, the flying accuracy cannot be
assumed. Incorrect transponder altitude reporting could cause confusion. Therefore,
this is an emergency situation which requires to land as soon as possible, and a
MAYDAY should be declared to advise ATC and other aircraft of the situation.
PART 1: MEMORY ITEMS
If the safe conduct of the flight is affected, the flight crew applies the memory items.
They allow ″safe flight conditions″ to be rapidly established in all flight phases
(takeoff, climb, cruise) and aircraft configurations (weight and slats/flaps). The
memory items apply more particularly when a failure appears just after takeoff.
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ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
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NAVIGATION
Once the target pitch attitude and thrust values have been stabilized, as soon as
above safe altitude, the flight crew will enter the QRH abnormal procedures, to level
off the aircraft and perform trouble shooting. This should not be delayed, since using
the memory item parameters for a prolonged period may lead to speed limit
exceedance.
PART 2: TROUBLE SHOOTING AND ISOLATION
GENERAL
If the wrong speed or altitude information does not affect the safe conduct of the
flight, the crew will not apply the memory items, and will directly enter the QRH
abnormal procedures.
Depending of the cause of the failure, the altitude indication may also be unreliable.
There are however, a number of correct indications available to the crew. GPS
altitude and ground speed are available on MCDU GPS monitor page and RA may
be used at low altitude.
For affected ADR (s) identification, the flight crew may, either level off and stabilize
the flight using the dedicated table in PART 2, or, if for instance already stabilized
in climb, use the CLIMB table given in part 3. The trouble shooting will be more
accurate, using the level off table.
LEVEL OFF AND STABILIZATION (IF REQUIRED)
The table gives the proper pitch and thrust values for stabilization in level off
according to weight, configuration and altitude.
It must be noticed that, if the altitude information is unreliable, FPV and V/S are
also affected. In this case, the GPS altitude, if available, is the only means to
confirm when the aircraft is maintaining a level. When reliable, the FPV should be
used.
If the memory items have been maintained for a significant period of time, the
current speed may be quite above the target.
• If FPV is reliable, or if GPS altitude information is available:
- Maintain level flight (FPV on the horizon or constant GPS altitude)
- Adjust thrust according to the table
- Observe the resulting pitch attitude, and compare it with the recommended
table pitch target.
• If the aircraft pitch to maintain level flight is above the table pitch target,
the aircraft is slow, then increase thrust
• If the aircraft pitch to maintain level flight is below the table pitch target,
the aircraft is fast, then decrease thrust
When the pitch required to maintain level off gets close to the table pitch target,
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re-adjust thrust according to table thrust target.
This technique permits to stabilize the speed quickly, without inducing altitude
changes.
•
If FPV is not reliable and GPS altitude information is not available (no means to
ensure level flight):
Adjust pitch and thrust according to table, and wait for speed stabilization.
Expect a significant stabilization time and important altitude variations.
TROUBLE SHOOTING AND FAULT ISOLATION
When one indication differs from the others, flight crews may be tempted to reject
the outlier information. They should be aware, however, that in very extreme
circumstances, it may happen that two, or even all three ADRs may provide
identical and erroneous data.
BEWARE OF INSTINCTIVELY REJECTING AN OUTLIER ADR
Once the affected ADR has (or have) been positively identified, it (they) should be
switched OFF. This will trigger the corresponding ECAM warnings and associated
drills, which should be followed to address all the consequences on the various
aircraft systems.
In the extreme case where the affected ADR(s) cannot be identified or all speed
indications remain unreliable, 2 ADRs should be selected OFF to prevent the flight
control laws from using two coherent but unreliable ADR data. One must be kept
ON to keep the stall warning protection.
If at least one ADR remains reliable, the flight crew will use it (after having
confirmed its validity), and so, will stop the application of the ADR CHECK PROC
/ UNRELIABLE SPEED INDICATION PROC.
PART 3: FLYING WITHOUT ANY SPEED REFERENCE
When the trouble shooting procedure did not permit to identify at least one correct
indication, this part of the procedure gives pitch/thrust reference to fly the aircraft
safely, in all flight phases, down to landing.
The flight crew may enter directly this part if he knows already that no speed
information is reliable (for instance in case of dual pitot heating failure, plus an ADR
failure), or if level off for trouble shooting is not convenient from an operational point
of view, for instance in descent, close to destination.
When flying the aircraft with unreliable speed and/or altitude indications, it is
recommended to change only one flying parameter at a time i.e. speed, altitude or
configuration. For this reason, a wide pattern and a stabilized approach are
recommended.
For final approach, if available, an ILS (with a -3 ˚ G/S) will ensure path guidance.
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If final descent is started with stabilized speed (VAPP), flying a -3 ˚ flight path with
the recommended table thrust, the resulting pitch attitude should be close to the
recommended table pitch value. If an adjustment is required, vary the thrust, as
explain in the initial level off paragraph.
DUAL RADIO ALTIMETER FAILURE
Ident.: AO-034-00005689.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
The Radio Altimeters (RAs) provide inputs to a number of systems, including the GPWS
and FWC for auto-callouts. They also supply information to the AP and A/THR modes,
plus inputs to switch flight control laws at various stages. Although the ECAM
procedure for a RA 1 + 2 FAULT is straightforward, the consequences of the failure on
the aircraft operation require consideration.
Instead of using RA information, the flight control system uses inputs from the LGCIU
to determine mode switching. Consequently, mode switching is as follows:
• On approach, flare law becomes active when the L/G is selected down and provided
AP is disconnected. At this point, ”USE MAN PITCH TRIM” is displayed on the
PFD.
• After landing, ground law becomes active when the MLG is compressed and the pitch
attitude becomes less than 2.5 ˚
It is not possible to capture the ILS using the APPR pb and the approach must be flown
to CAT 1 limits only. However, it is possible to capture the localiser using the LOC pb.
Furthermore, the final stages of the approach should be flown using raw data in order to
avoid possible excessive roll rates if LOC is still engaged. Indeed, as the autopilot gains
are no longer updated with the radio altitude signal, the AP/FD behaviour may be
unsatisfactory when approaching the ground.
There will be no auto-callouts on approach, and no ”RETARD” call in the flare
The GPWS/EGPWS will be inoperative; therefore terrain awareness becomes very
important. Similarly, the ”SPEED, SPEED, SPEED” low energy warning is also
inoperative, again requiring increased awareness.
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08 JUL 08
ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
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POWER PLANT
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
ALL ENGINE FLAMEOUT
Ident.: AO-070-00005691.0001001 / 22 MAY 08
Applicable to: ALL
Following an all engine flame out, the flight deck indications change dramatically as the
generators drop off line. The RAT is deployed to supply the emergency generator and
pressurize the blue hydraulic circuit.
Control of the aircraft must be taken immediately by the left hand seat pilot, and a safe
flight path established.
When convenient, an emergency will be declared to ATC using VHF1. Depending on the
exact situation, assistance may be available from ATC regarding position of other
aircraft, safe direction etc.
Significant remaining systems in ALL ENGINES FLAME OUT
FLY
PFD1, Alternate law
NAVIGATE
RMP1, VOR1
COMMUNICATE
VHF1/HF1/ATC1
Note: The AP and pitch trim are not available. Rudder trim is recoverable.
If engine wind milling is sufficient, additional hydraulic power may be recovered.
The ECAM actions are displayed and allow coping with this situation. However, as the
ECAM cannot distinguish whether fuel is available or not, they provide a dimensioning
procedure which cover all cases. Furthermore, The ECAM procedure refers to paper
QRH for OPERATING SPEEDS, L/G GRAVITY EXTENSION and DITCHING or
FORCED LANDING.
It is the reason why the ENG DUAL FAILURE-- FUEL REMAINING or ENG DUAL
FAILURE - NO FUEL REMAINING procedures are available in the QRH. As they
distinguish whether fuel is available or not, these single paper procedures are optimized
for each case and include the required paper procedure until landing, including FORCED
LANDING and DITCHING. Consequently, the crew should apply the QRH procedure
and then, if time permits, clear ECAM warning to read status.
In the fuel remaining case,
• The actions should be commenced, with attention to the optimum relight speed
without starter assist (with wind milling). If there is no relight within 30 s, the ECAM
will order engine masters off for 30 s. This is to permit ventilation of the combustion
chamber. Then, the engine masters may be set ON again. Without starter assist (wind
milling), this can be done at the same time.
• If the crew wants to take credit of the APU bleed air, the APU should be started
below FL 250. Below FL 200, an engine relight should be attempted with starter
assist (using the APU bleed).
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• Green dot, which corresponds to the optimum relight speed with starter assist, is
displayed on the left PFD. With starter assist (APU bleed), only one engine must be
started at a time.
All engine flame out procedure
ENG: ALL ENG FLAME OUT
− ENG MODE SEL..........................ON
− THRUST LEVER.........................IDLE
OPTIMUM RELIGHT SPD
− EMER ELEC........................MAN ON
LAND ASAP
AUTO FLT
AUTO FLT
F/CTL
FUEL
− VHF.............................................USE
ENG: ALL ENG FLAME OUT−FUEL REMAINING
LAND ASAP
Engine relight attempts
ENG: ALL ENG FLAME OUT NO FUEL REMAINING
LAND ASAP
− OPTIMUM SPEED ............................................................................ GREEN DOT
− OPTIMUM SPEED ............................................................................ GREEN DOT
Secure cockpit and cabin
Secure cockpit and cabin
APPROACH PREPARATION
APPROACH PREPARATION
APPROACH
APPROACH
IF FORCED LANDING PREDICADED
Forced landing procedure
IF DITCHING predicaded
Ditching procedure
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
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IF FORCED LANDING PREDICADED
Forced landing procedure
IF DITCHING predicaded
Ditching procedure
AO-070. P 2/2
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ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
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MISCELLANEOUS
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
EMERGENCY DESCENT
Ident.: AO-090-00005694.0001001 / 21 APR 08
Applicable to: ALL
The emergency descent should only be initiated upon positive confirmation that cabin
altitude and rate of climb is excessive and uncontrollable. This procedure should be
carried out by the crew from memory. The use of AP and auto thrust is strongly
recommended for an emergency descent. The FCU selections for an emergency descent
progress from right to left, i.e. ALT, HDG, SPD.
At high flight levels, the speed brake should be extended slowly while monitoring VLS to
avoid the activation of angle of attack protection This would cause the speed brakes to
retract and may also result in AP disconnection. If structural damage is suspected,
caution must be used when using speed brakes to avoid further airframe stress. When
the aircraft is established in the descent, the PF should request the ECAM actions if any
or QRH.
The passenger oxygen MASK MAN ON pb should be pressed only when it is clear that
cabin altitude will exceed 14 000 ft.
When in idle thrust, high speed and speed brake extended, the rate of descent is
approximately 7 000 ft/min. To descend from FL 390 to FL 100, it takes
approximately 4 min and 40 nm. The crew will be aware that MORA displayed on ND
(if available) is the highest MORA within a 80 nm circle round the aircraft.
After taking off the emergency mask following an emergency descent, the crew should
close the mask box and reset the control slide in order to deactivate the mask
microphone.
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FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
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MISCELLANEOUS
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ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
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MISCELLANEOUS
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
OVERWEIGHT LANDING
Ident.: AO-090-00005692.0037001 / 24 JUN 08
Applicable to: MSN 0781-0852, 1720
Should an overweight landing be required, a long straight in approach, or a wide visual
pattern, should be flown in order to configure the aircraft for a stabilized approach.
At very high weights, VFE CONF1 is close to VLS clean. To select CONF 1, deselect
A/THR, decelerate to (or slightly below) VLS and select CONF 1 when below VFE.
When established at CONF 1, the crew can reengage A/THR and use managed speed
again.
The stabilized approach technique should be used, and VAPP established at the FAF.
The speed will be reduced to reach VLS at runway threshold, to minimize the aircraft
energy.
The crew will elect the landing configuration according to the ”maximum weight for goaround in CONF 3” table provided both in QRH and in FCOM:
• If aircraft weight is below the maximum weight for go-around in CONF 3, landing will
be performed CONF full (and go-around CONF 3) as it is the preferred configuration
for optimized landing performance
• If aircraft weight is above the maximum weight for go-around in CONF 3, landing will
be performed CONF 3 (and go-around CONF 1+F). The CONF 1+F meets the
approach climb gradient requirement in all cases (high weights, high altitude and
temperature).
If a go-around CONF 1+F is carried out following an approach CONF 3, VLS CONF
1+F may be higher than VLS CONF 3 +5 kt. The recommendation in such a case is to
follow SRS orders which will accelerate the aircraft up to the displayed VLS. It should be
noted, however, that VLS CONF 1+F equates to 1.23 VS1G whereas the minimum goaround speed required by regulations is 1.13 VS1G. This requirement is always satisfied.
The crew should be aware that the transition from -3 ˚ flight path angle to go around
climb gradient requires a lot of energy and therefore some altitude loss.
Taking into account the runway landing distance available, the use of brakes should be
modulated to avoid very hot brakes and the risk of tire deflation.
When the aircraft weight exceeds the maximum landing weight, structural considerations
impose the ability to touch down at 360 ft/min without damage. This means that no
maintenance inspection is required if vertical speed is below 360 ft/min. If vertical speed
exceeds 360 ft/min at touch down, a maintenance inspection is required.
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ABNORMAL OPERATIONS
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OVERWEIGHT LANDING
Ident.: AO-090-00005692.0038001 / 24 JUN 08
Applicable to: MSN 1320-1637, 1777-2180
Should an overweight landing be required, a long straight in approach, or a wide visual
pattern, should be flown in order to configure the aircraft for a stabilized approach.
The stabilized approach technique should be used, and VAPP established at the FAF.
The speed will be reduced to reach VLS at runway threshold, to minimize the aircraft
energy.
The crew will elect the landing configuration according to the ”maximum weight for goaround in CONF 3” table provided both in QRH and in FCOM:
• If aircraft weight is below the maximum weight for go-around in CONF 3, landing will
be performed CONF full (and go-around CONF 3) as it is the preferred configuration
for optimized landing performance
• If aircraft weight is above the maximum weight for go-around in CONF 3, landing will
be performed CONF 3 (and go-around CONF 1+F). The CONF 1+F meets the
approach climb gradient requirement in all cases (high weights, high altitude and
temperature).
If a go-around CONF 1+F is carried out following an approach CONF 3, VLS CONF
1+F may be higher than VLS CONF 3 +5 kt. The recommendation in such a case is to
follow SRS orders which will accelerate the aircraft up to the displayed VLS. It should be
noted, however, that VLS CONF 1+F equates to 1.23 VS1G whereas the minimum goaround speed required by regulations is 1.13 VS1G. This requirement is always satisfied.
The crew should be aware that the transition from -3 ˚ flight path angle to go around
climb gradient requires a lot of energy and therefore some altitude loss.
Taking into account the runway landing distance available, the use of brakes should be
modulated to avoid very hot brakes and the risk of tire deflation.
When the aircraft weight exceeds the maximum landing weight, structural considerations
impose the ability to touch down at 360 ft/min without damage. This means that no
maintenance inspection is required if vertical speed is below 360 ft/min. If vertical speed
exceeds 360 ft/min at touch down, a maintenance inspection is required.
CREW INCAPACITATION
Ident.: AO-090-00005696.0001001 / 22 MAY 08
Applicable to: ALL
GENERAL
Crew incapacitation is a real safety hazard which occurs more frequently than many of
the other emergencies. Incapacitation can occur in many form varying from obvious
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sudden death to subtle, partial loss of function. It may not be preceded by any
warning.
RECOGNITION
The keys to early recognition of the incapacitation are
• Routine monitoring and cross checking of flight instruments
• Crew members should have a very high index of suspicion of a subtle incapacitation
• If one crew member does not feel well, the other crew must be advised
• Others symptoms e.g. incoherent speech, pale fixed facial expression or irregular
breathing could indicate the beginning of an incapacitation.
ACTION
The recovery from a detected incapacitation of the fit pilot shall follow the sequence
below:
First phase
• Assume control, return the aircraft to a safe flight path, announce ”I have control”,
use the take-over pb and engage the on side AP as required.
• Declare an emergency to ATC
• Take whatever steps are possible to ensure the incapacitated pilot cannot interfere
with the handling of the aircraft. This may include involving cabin crew to restrain
the incapacitated pilot
• Request assistance from any medically qualified passenger
• Check if a type qualified company pilot is on board to replace the incapacitated
crew member
• Land as soon as practicable after considering all pertinent factors
• Arrange medical assistance after landing giving many details about the condition of
the affected crewmember
Second phase
• Prepare the approach and read the checklist earlier than usual
• Request radar vectoring and prefer a long approach to reduce workload
• Perform the landing from the fit pilot usual seat.
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SUPPLEMENTARY
INFORMATION
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SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION
A318/A319/A320/A321
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
PRELIMINARY PAGES
TABLE OF CONTENTS
SI-PLP. PRELIMINARY PAGES
TABLE OF CONTENTS ....................................................................................................... 1/2
SI-010. ADVERSE WEATHER
GENERAL............................................................................................................................... 1/16
COLD WEATHER OPERATIONS AND ICING CONDITIONS................................................. 1/16
TURBULENCE ....................................................................................................................... 8/16
WINDSHEAR........................................................................................................................ 10/16
VOLCANIC ASH ................................................................................................................... 14/16
SI-020. FLYING REFERENCE
GENERAL.................................................................................................................................1/4
THE ATTITUDE ......................................................................................................................1/4
THE FLIGHT PATH VECTOR .................................................................................................1/4
GO-AROUND ...........................................................................................................................4/4
SI-030. NAVIGATION ACCURACY
GENERAL.................................................................................................................................1/8
AIRCRAFT POSITION COMPUTATION ..................................................................................1/8
USE OF FMS............................................................................................................................4/8
AIRCRAFT POSITION AWARENESS AND OPERATIONAL CONSEQUENCES .......................5/8
SI-040. ZFW - ZFCG ENTRY ERRORSZFW - ZFCG ENTRY ERRORS
GENERAL.................................................................................................................................1/4
TECHNICAL BACKGROUND ...................................................................................................1/4
ZFW ENTRY ERROR AND OPERATIONAL CONSEQUENCES ...............................................2/4
OPERATIONAL RECOMMENDATIONS ..................................................................................3/4
SI-060. TCAS
TECHNICAL BACKGROUND ...................................................................................................1/4
OPERATIONAL RECOMMENDATIONS ..................................................................................2/4
SI-070. USE OF RADAR
GENERAL.................................................................................................................................1/4
FUNCTIONS ...........................................................................................................................1/4
OPERATIONAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR WEATHER DETECTION ..................................3/4
OTHER OPERATIONAL RECOMMENDATIONS .....................................................................4/4
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FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
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ADVERSE WEATHER
GENERAL
Ident.: SI-010-00005700.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
The adverse weather operation take into account the following topics:
• Cold weather operations and icing conditions
• Turbulence
• Windshear
• Volcanic ashes
COLD WEATHER OPERATIONS AND ICING CONDITIONS
Ident.: SI-010-00005701.0001001 / 30 JUN 08
Applicable to: ALL
PREFACE
Aircraft performance is certified on the basis of a clean wing. Ice accretion affects
wing performance. When the wing is clean, the airflow smoothly follows the shape of
the wing. When the wing is covered with ice, the airflow separates from the wing
when the Angle-Of-Attack (AOA) increases. Therefore, the maximum lift-coefficient is
reduced. As a result, the aircraft may stall at a lower AOA, and the drag may
increase.
The flight crew must keep in mind that the wing temperature of the aircraft may be
significantly lower than 0 ˚C, after a flight at high altitude and low temperature, even
if the Outside Air Temperature (OAT) is higher than 0 ˚C. In such cases, humidity or
rain will cause ice accretion on the upper wing, and light frost under the wing. (Only
3 mm of frost on the under side of the wing tank area is acceptable.)
EXTERIOR INSPECTION
When icing conditions on ground are encountered, and/or when ice accretion is
suspected, the Captain should determine, on the basis of the exterior inspection,
whether the aircraft requires ground deicing/anti-icing treatment. This visual
inspection must take into account all vital parts of the aircraft, and must be
performed from locations that offer a clear view of these parts.
COCKPIT PREPARATION
The following systems may be affected in very cold weather:
• The EFIS/ECAM (when the cockpit temperature is very low)
• The IRS alignment (may take longer than usual, up to 15 min)
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ADVERSE WEATHER
The probe and window heating may be used on ground. Heating automatically
operates at low power.
AIRCRAFT GROUND DE-ICING/ANTI-ICING
DE-ICING/ANTI-ICING FLUID
Deicing/anti-icing fluids must be able to remove ice and to prevent its accumulation
on aircraft surfaces until the beginning of the takeoff. In addition, the fluids must
flow off the surfaces of the aircraft during takeoff, in order not to degrade takeoff
performance.
Several types of fluids can be used. These fluids have different characteristics:
type 1
Low viscosity
Limited hold-over time
Used mainly for de-icing
type 2, 3, 4
High viscosity
Longer hold-over time
Used for de-icing and anti-icing
The holdover time starts from the beginning of the application of the fluid, and
depends on the type of fluid, and on the nature and severity of precipitation. The
flight crew should refer to applicable tables as guidelines. These tables must be used
in conjunction with the pre-takeoff check.
Depending upon the severity of the weather, de-icing/anti-icing procedure must be
applied either:
• In one step, via the single application of heated and diluted deicing/anti-icing
fluid: This procedure provides a short holdover time, and should be used in low
moisture conditions only. The holdover time starts from the beginning of the
application of the fluid.
• In two steps, by first applying the heated deicing fluid, then by applying a
protective anti-icing fluid: These two sprays must be applied consecutively. The
holdover time starts from the beginning of the application of the second fluid.
PROCEDURES
The following outlines the various procedures to be applied before and after
spraying:
• All ENG and APU BLEED pushbuttons must be set to OFF and the DITCHING
pushbutton must be set to ON, to prevent any engine ingestion of deicing/antiicing fluid.
• The aircraft can be deiced/anti-iced, with the engine and/or the APU running or
off. However, the APU or the engine should not be started during spraying.
• The aircraft must be deiced/anti-iced symmetrically on both sides.
• Keep bleeds off after spraying for a few minutes.
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• After spraying, keep bleeds off for a few minutes, and perform a visual inspection
of the aircraft surfaces.
• A deicing/anti-icing report must be filled out to indicate the type of fluid and
when the spraying began.
AFTER START
• Keep the engine bleeds off, with the engines running at higher N1.
• Keep the APU running with the bleed off for a few minutes after spraying.
• The slats/flaps and flight controls can be moved, because they no longer have ice.
TAXI OUT
On contaminated runways, the taxi speed should be limited to 10 kt, and any action
that could distract the flight crew during taxiing should be delayed until the aircraft is
stopped.
The following factors should be taken into account:
• At speeds below 10 kt, anti-skid de-activates.
• Engine anti-ice increases ground idle thrust.
• To minimize the risk of skidding during turns: Avoid large tiller inputs.
• On slippery taxiways: It may be more effective to use differential braking and/or
thrust, instead of nosewheel steering.
• On slush-covered, or snow-covered, taxiways: Flap selection should be delayed until
reaching the holding point, in order to avoid contaminating the flap/slat actuation
mechanism.
• When reaching the holding point: The ”Before Takeoff down to the line” checklist
must be performed.
• The flight crew must maintain the aircraft at an appropriate distance from the
aircraft in front.
• In icing conditions: When holding on ground for extended periods of time, or if
engine vibration occurs, thrust should be increased periodically, and immediately
before takeoff, to shed any ice from the fan blades.
For more details about this procedure, Refer to FCOM/PRO-NOR-SOP-09-A AFTER
START - ENG ANTI-ICE.
TAKEOFF
TAKEOFF PERFORMANCES
The use of FLEX thrust for takeoff on contaminated runways is prohibited.
If anti-ice is used at takeoff, the crew will apply the related performance penalty.
Slush, standing water, or deep snow reduces the aircraft takeoff performance
because of increased rolling resistance and the reduction in tire-to-ground friction. A
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higher flap setting will increase the runway limited takeoff weight, but will reduce
second segment limited takeoff weight.
TAKEOFF ROLL
Before the aircraft lines up on the runway for takeoff, the flight crew must ensure
that the airframe has no ice or snow.
Then, before applying thrust, the Captain should ensure that the nosewheel is
straight. If there is a tendency to deviate from the runway centerline, this tendency
must be neutralized immediately, via rudder pedal steering, not via the tiller.
On contaminated runways, the flight crew should ensure that engine thrust
advances symmetrically to help minimize potential problems with directional control.
MAXIMUM CROSS WIND
The following table provides the maximum crosswind that corresponds to the
reported runway-friction coefficient:
Reported Braking Action
Good/Medium
Reported Runway-Friction
Coefficient
0.39 to 0.36
Equivalent Runway
Condition
1
Maximum Crosswind
(knots)
29
Medium
0.35 to 0.3
2/3
25
Medium/Poor
0.29 to 0.26
2/3
20
Poor
≤0.25
-
3/4
15
4/5
5
Unreliable
The equivalent runway condition numbers, in the above table, correspond to the
following runway conditions:
1. Dry, damp, or wet runway (less than 3 mm waterdepth)
2. Runway covered with slush
3. Runway covered with dry snow
4. Runway covered with standing water with risk of aquaplaning or wet snow
5. Icy runway or high risk of aquaplaning
CLIMB/ DESCENT
Whenever icing conditions are encountered or expected, the engine anti-ice should be
turned on. Although the TAT before entering clouds may not require engine anti-ice,
flight crews should be aware that the TAT often decreases significantly, when entering
clouds.
In climb or cruise, when the SAT decreases to lower than -40 ˚C, engine anti-ice
should be turned off, unless flying near CBs.
If the recommended anti-ice procedures are not performed, engine stall, over-
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temperature, or engine damage may occur,
If it is necessary to turn on the engine anti-ice, and if ice accretion is visible because
engine anti-ice was turned on late, then apply the following procedure:
• Set the ENGINE START selector to IGN
• Retard one engine, and set the ENG ANTI-ICE pushbutton to ON
• Smoothly adjust thrust, and wait for stabilization
• Set the ENGINE START selector to NORM
• Repeat this procedure for the other engine
Wing anti-ice should be turned on, if either severe ice accretion is expected, or if there
is any indication of icing on the airframe.
HOLDING
If holding is performed in icing conditions, the flight crew should maintain clean
configuration. This is because prolonged flight in icing conditions with the slats
extended should be avoided.
APPROACH
If significant ice accretion develops on parts of the wing that have not been deiced,
the aircraft speed must be increased (Refer to FCOM/PRO-SUP-30 OPERATIONS IN
ICING CONDITIONS).
When the temperature is lower than ISA -10, the target altitudes (provided by the
ATC) must be corrected, by adding the values that are indicated in the table below:
Height
Corrections to be Added
ISA -10
ISA -20
ISA -30
500
50
70
100
1 000
100
140
190
2 000
200
280
380
3 000
290
420
570
4 000
390
570
760
5 000
490
710
950
These corrections corresponds approximately to 4 x Delta ISA x Height (ft)/1000
LANDING
Obviously, landings should be avoided on very slippery runways. However, if it is not
possible to avoid such landings, the following factors (linked to operations on
contaminated runways) should be considered:
• Braking action
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• Directional control
BRAKING ACTION
The presence of fluid contaminants on the runway has an adverse effect on braking
performance, because it reduces the friction between the tires and the surface of the
runway. It also creates a layer of fluid between the tires and the runway surface, and
reduces the contact area. The landing distances, indicated in the QRH, provide a
good assessment of the real landing distances for specific levels of contamination.
A firm touchdown should be made and MAX reverse should be selected, as soon as
the main landing gear is on ground. Using reversers on a runway that is
contaminated with dry snow may reduce visibility, particularly at low speeds. In such
cases, reverse thrust should be reduced to idle, if necessary.
The use of MED auto-brake is recommended, when landing on an evenly
contaminated runway. It is possible that the DECEL light on the AUTO BRK panel
will not come on, as the predetermined deceleration may not be achieved. This does
not mean that the auto-brake is not working.
In the case of uneven contamination on a wet or contaminated runway, the
autobrake may laterally destabilize the aircraft. If this occurs, consider deselecting
the autobrake.
Typical landing distance factors versus runway condition
Required landing distance wet
1.92
Reference
50 ft
Dry runway
Wet runway
Compacted snow
Water and slush
Icy runway
1.0
1.4
1.6
2.0
3.5
Landing distance factors
DIRECTIONAL CONTROL
During rollout, the sidestick must be centered. This prevents asymmetric wheel
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loading, that results in asymmetric braking and increases the weathercock tendency
of the aircraft.
The rudder should be used for directional control after touchdown, in the same way
as for a normal landing. Use of the tiller must be avoided above taxi speed, because
it may result in nosewheel skidding, and lead to a loss of directional control.
When required, differential braking must be applied by completely releasing the
pedal on the side that is opposite to the expected direction of the turn. This is
because, on a slippery runway, the same braking effect may be produced by a full or
half-deflection of the pedal.
Landing on a contaminated runway in crosswind requires careful consideration. In
such a case, directional control problems are caused by two different factors:
• If the aircraft touches down with some crab and the reverse thrust is selected, the
side force component of reverse adds to the crosswind component and causes the
aircraft to drift to the downwind side of the runway.
• As the braking efficiency increases, the cornering force of the main wheels
decreases. This adds to any problems there may be with directional control.
If there is a problem with directional control:
- Reverse thrust should be set to idle, in order to reduce the reverse thrust sideforce component.
- The brakes should be released, in order to increase the cornering force.
- The pilot should return to the runway centerline, reselect reverse thrust, and
resume braking (Refer to NO-160 ROLL OUT).
The concept of equivalent runway condition is used to determine the maximum
recommended crosswind. The following table indicates the maximum recommended
crosswinds related to the reported braking actions:
Reported Braking Action
Equivalent Runway
Condition
1
Maximum Crosswind
(knots)
Good/Medium
Reported Runway Friction
Coefficient
0.39 to 0.36
Medium
0.35 to 0.3
2/3
25
Medium/Poor
0.29 to 0.26
2/3
20
Poor
≤0.25
-
3/4
15
4/5
5
Unreliable
29
TAXI IN
During taxi-in, after landing, the flaps/slats should not be retracted. This is because
retraction could cause damage, by crushing any ice that is in the slots of the slats.
When the aircraft arrives at the gate, and the engines are stopped, a visual inspection
should be performed to check that the slats/flaps areas are free of contamination.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
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ADVERSE WEATHER
They may then be retracted, with the electric pumps.
PARKING
At the end of the flight, in extreme cold conditions, cold soak protection is requested
when a longer stop over is expected.
TURBULENCE
Ident.: SI-010-00005703.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
PREFACE
The flight crew must use weather reports and charts to determine the location and
altitude of possible CBs, storms, and Clear Air Turbulence (CAT). If turbulence is
expected, the flight crew must turn on the seatbelt signs, in order to prepare
passengers and prevent injury.
TAKE-OFF
For takeoff in high turbulence, the flight crew must wait for the target speed +20 kt
(limited to VFE-5) before retracting the slats/flaps (e.g. the flight crew must wait for
F+20 kt before setting Flaps 1).
IN FLIGHT
USE OF RADAR
Areas of known turbulence, associated with CBs, must be avoided. Good
management of the radar tilt is essential, in order to accurately assess and evaluate
the vertical development of CBs. Usually, the gain should be left in AUTO.
However, selective use of manual gain may help to assess the general weather
conditions. Manual gain is particularly useful, when operating in heavy rain, if the
radar picture is saturated. In this case, reduced gain will help the flight crew to
identify the areas of heaviest rainfall, that are usually associated with active CB
cells. After using manual gain, it should be reset to AUTO, in order to recover
optimum radar sensitivity. A weak echo should not be a reason for the flight crew to
underestimate a CB, because only the wet parts of the CB are detected. The
decision to avoid a CB must be taken as early as possible, and lateral avoidance
should, ideally, be at 20 nm upwind.
USE OF AP AND A/THR
If moderate turbulence is encountered, the flight crew should set the AP and
A/THR to ON with managed speed.
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If severe turbulence is encountered, the flight crew should keep the AP engaged.
Thrust levers should be set to turbulence N1 (Refer to QRH), and the A/THR
should then be disconnected. Use of the A/THR is, however, recommended during
approach, in order to benefit from the GS mini.
If the aircraft is flown manually, the flight crew should be aware of the fact that
flight control laws are designed to cope with turbulence. Therefore, they should
avoid the temptation to fight turbulence, and should not over-control the sidestick.
VMO/MMO EXCEEDANCE
In turbulence, during climb, cruise or descent, the aircraft may slightly exceed
VMO/MMO with the autopilot (AP) engaged.
To prevent such an exceedance, adapt speed or Mach target.
If severe turbulence is known or forecasted, consider the use of turbulence speed.
If the current speed is close to the VMO (maximum operating speed), monitor the
speed trend symbol on the PFD.
If the speed trend reaches, or slightly exceeds, the VMO limit:
• Use the FCU immediately to select a lower speed target.
If the speed trend significantly exceeds the VMO red band, without high speed
protection activation:
• Select a lower target speed on the FCU and, if the aircraft continues to
accelerate, consider disconnecting the AP.
• Before re-engaging the AP, smoothly establish a shallower pitch attitude.
If the aircraft accelerates above VMO with the AP engaged, the AP will disengage
on reaching the high speed protection. The high speed protection will apply a noseup order up to 1.75 g, in addition to pilot input during VMO recovery. Therefore,
make a smooth pitch correction in order to recover proper speed.
Speedbrakes may be used in case of high speed exceedance, but the flight crew
should be aware of pitch influence. In addition, speedbrakes will be used with
caution, close to the ceiling.
High Speed Protection may also result in activation of the angle of attack
protection. Depending on the ELAC standard, the crew may have to push on the
stick to get out of this protection law.
In all events, check the AP engagement status, and re-engage it when appropriate.
It may have tripped and the associated aural warning may have been superseded by
the overspeed aural warning.
CONSIDERATIONS ON CAT
Clear Air Turbulence (CAT) can be expected by referring to weather charts and
pilot reports. However, the radar cannot detect CAT, because it is ”dry turbulence”.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
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08 JUL 08
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If CAT is encountered, the flight crew may consider avoiding it vertically, keeping in
mind that the buffet margin reduces as the altitude increases.
MISCELLANEOUS
• The flight crew must set the harness to on, check that the seat belts signs are on
and use all white lights in thunderstorms.
• Turbulence speeds are indicated in the QRH.
• It is not necessary to set the ENG START selector to IGN. In the case of an
engine flameout, the igniters will trigger automatically.
WINDSHEAR
Ident.: SI-010-00005705.0001001 / 21 MAY 08
Applicable to: ALL
BACKGROUND INFORMATION
WINSHEAR PHENOMENON
The windshear is mostly due to cool shaft of air, like a cylinder between 0.5 nm and
1.5 nm width that is moving downward. When the air encounters the ground:
• Mushrooms horizontally, causing horizontal wind gradient
• Curls inward at the edges, causing vertical air mass movement.
Flight safety is affected, because:
• Horizontal wind gradient significantly affects lift, causing the aircraft to descend
or to reach very high AOA.
• Vertical air mass movement severely affect the aircraft flight path.
Windshear phenomenon
AIRSHAFT
Aircraft 1nm width
Downward velocity up to 40kts
Headwind 40kts Tailwind 40kts
AWARENESS AND AVOIDANCE
Awareness of the weather conditions that cause windshear will reduce the risk of an
encounter. Studying meteorological reports and listening to tower reports will help
the flight crew to assess the weather conditions that are to be expected during
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takeoff or landing.
If a windshear encounter is likely, the takeoff or landing should be delayed until the
conditions improve, e.g. until a thunderstorm has moved away from the airport.
STRATEGY TO COPE WITH WINDSHEAR
The windshear and microburst are hazardous phenomena for an aircraft at takeoff
or landing. The strategy to cope with windshear is:
• Increasing flight crew awareness through the Predictive Windshear System (if
available)
• Informing the flight crew of unexpected air mass variations through FPV and
approach speed variations
• Warning the flight crew of significant loss of energy through ”SPEED, SPEED,
SPEED” and ”WINDSHEAR” aural warnings (if available).
• Providing effective tools to escape the shear through ALPHA FLOOR protection,
SRS pitch order, high AOA protection and Ground Speed mini protection.
Increasing flight crew awareness (if available)
When the airshaft of a microburst reaches the ground, it mushrooms outward
carrying with it a large number of falling rain droplets. The radar can measure
speed variations of the droplets, and as a result, assess wind variations. This
predictive capability to assess wind variations is performed by the Predictive
Windshear System (PWS). The PWS operates automatically below 2 300 ft AGL,
regardless of whether the radar is turned on or off. OFF.
Informing flight crew
The FPV associated with the approach speed variations (GS mini protection) is an
effective means for informing the flight crew of unexpected air mass variations:
Approach speed variations and lateral FPV displacement reflect horizontal wind
gradient. Vertical FPV displacement reflects the vertical air mass movement.
bird and target speed - wind interpretation
−140
DRIFT
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Warning the flight crew
The ”SPEED, SPEED, SPEED” low energy warning (if available) is based on the
aircraft speed, acceleration and flight path angle. This warning attracts the PF
eyes to the speed scale, and request rapid thrust adjustment. In windshear
conditions, it is the first warning to appear, before the activation of the alpha
floor. The following table provides some typical values of the speed at which the
warning could occur in two different circumstances.
Deceleration Rate
Flight Path Angle
Warning
-1 kt/second
-3 ˚
VLS -7 kt
-1 kt/second
-4 ˚
VLS -1 kt
In addition, the aircraft has a reactive windshear warning system. This system
triggers if the aircraft encounters windshear. In such a case, there is a
”WINDSHEAR WINDSHEAR WINDSHEAR” aural warning.
Providing effictive tools
There are three efficient tools to assist the flight crew to escape:
• The alpha floor protection
• the SRS AP/FD pitch law
• The high angle of attack protection
When the alpha floor protection is triggered, the A/THR triggers TOGA on all
engines. The FMA displays A FLOOR, that changes to TOGA LK, when the
aircraft angle-of-attack has decreased. TOGA/LK can only be deselected by
turning the A/THR off.
The SRS pitch mode ensures the best aircraft climb performance. Therefore, the
procedure requests following the SRS pitch bar and possibly full aft stick, in order
to follow the SRS orders and minimize the loss of height.
The high angle-of-attack protection enables the PF to safely pull full aft stick, if
needed, in order to follow the SRS pitch order, or to rapidly counteract a down
movement. This provides maximum lift and minimum drag, by automatically
retracting the speed brakes, if they are extended.
OPERATIONAL RECOMMENDATIONS
TAKE-OFF
Predictive windshear (”WINDSHEAR AHEAD” aural warning), if available
If predictive windshear aural warning is generated on the runway before take-off,
take-off must be delayed.
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If a predictive windshear aural warning is generated during the takeoff roll, the
Captain must reject the takeoff (the aural warning is inhibited at speeds greater
than 100 kt).
If the predictive windshear aural warning is generated during initial climb, the
flight crew must:
• Set TOGA
• Closely monitor the speed and the speed trend
• Ensure that the flight path does not include areas with suspected shear
• Change the aircraft configuration, provided that the aircraft does not enter
windshear.
Reactive windshear (WINSHEAR, WINSHEAR, WINSHEAR aural warning) or
windshear detected by pilot observation
If the windshear starts before V1 with significant speed and speed trend variations
and the captain decides that there is sufficient runway to stop the airplane, the
captain must initiate a rejected take-off.
If the windshear starts after V1, the crew will set TOGA and will apply the QRH
checklist actions from memory. The following points should be stressed:
• The configuration should not be changed until definitely out of the shear,
because operating the landing gear doors causes additional drag.
• The PF must fly SRS pitch orders rapidly and smoothly, but not aggressively,
and must consider the use of full backstick, if necessary, to minimize height
loss.
• The PNF should call wind variation from the ND and V/S and, when clear of
the shear, report the encounter to ATC.
APPROACH
Predictive windshear (if available)
In case the ”MONITOR RADAR DISPLAY” is displayed or the ADVISORY ICON
appears, the flight crew should either delay the approach or divert to another
airport. However, if the approach is continued, the flight crew should consider the
following:
• The weather severity must be assessed with the radar display.
• A more appropriate runway must be considered.
• A Conf 3 landing should be considered.
• The flight crew should increase VAPP displayed on MCDU PERF APP page up
to a maximum VLS +15 kt.
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• Using the TRK/FPA or ILS, for an earlier detection of vertical path deviation
should be considered.
• In very difficult weather conditions, the A/THR response time may not be
sufficient to manage the instantaneous loss of airspeed. Refer to NO-100 FINAL
APPROACH for the applicable technique description.
• In case the ”GO AROUND WINDSHEAR AHEAD” message is triggered, the
PF must set TOGA for go-around. The aircraft configuration can be changed,
provided that the windshear is not entered. Full back stick should be applied, if
required, to follow the SRS or minimize loss of height.
Reactive windshear (if available)
In case of the ”WINDSHEAR WINDSHEAR WINDSHEAR” aural warning, the PF
must set TOGA for go-around. However, the configuration (slats/flaps, gear)
must not be changed until out of the shear. The flight crew must closely monitor
the flight path and speed.
VOLCANIC ASH
Ident.: SI-010-00005706.0001001 / 21 MAY 08
Applicable to: ALL
PREFACE
Volcanic ash or dust consists of very abrasive particles, that may cause engine surge
and severe damage to aircraft surfaces that are exposed to the airflow. For this reason,
operations in volcanic ash must be avoided. However, if such operations cannot be
avoided, the operators should apply the following recommendations.
GROUND OPERATIONS
PRELIMINARY COCKPIT PREPARATION
The use of APU should be avoided whenever possible and the use of the Ground
Power Unit (GPU) should be preferred.
The wipers will not be used for any reason.
EXTERIOR INSPECTION
Maintenance personnel must remove ash that has settled on exposed lubricated
surfaces that can penetrate seals or enter the engine gas path, air conditioning
system, air data probes and other orifices on the aircraft. They must clean the
engines air inlet of any volcanic ash. In addition, they must clean the 25 ft area
around the engine inlet.
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ADVERSE WEATHER
ENGINE START
The use of an external pneumatic supply should be preferred when possible. If not
possible, the APU may be used to start the engines.
Before starting the engines, the crew must use dry cranking. This will blow out any
ash that may have entered the booster area.
TAXI
The flight crew must move forward the thrust levers smoothly to the minimum
required thrust to taxi, and must avoid any sharp or high-speed turns. The bleeds
must be kept OFF.
TAKE-OFF
It is advisable to use the rolling takeoff technique, and smoothly apply thrust.
IN FLIGHT
CRUISE
The flight crew must avoid flying into areas of known volcanic ash. If a volcanic
eruption is reported, while the aircraft is in flight, the flight must be rerouted to
remain clear of the affected area. The volcanic dust may spread over several
hundred miles. Whenever possible, the flight crew should stay on the upwind side of
the volcano.
Depending on outside conditions (night flight, clouds), volcanic dust might not be
visible.
However, several phenomena can indicate that the aircraft is flying through ash
cloud, for example:
• Smoke or dust in the cockpit
• Acrid odour similar to electrical smoke
• Engine malfunction, e.g. a rising EGT
• At night, the appearance of St Elmo fire, bright white or orange glow appearing in
engine inlets or sharp and distinct beams from the landing lights.
If an ash cloud is encountered, the applicable procedure is described in the QRH.
The essential actions to be taken are:
• 180 ˚ turn if possible. This is the quickest way to escape, because the ash cloud
lateral dimension is not known
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
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ADVERSE WEATHER
• Protecting the engines:
- Set A/THR to OFF
- Decrease engines thrust if possible and maximize engine bleed to increase the
engine surge margin
- Start the APU for further engine restart, if required
• Protecting the flight crew and passengers:
- Don the oxygen mask
- Consider oxygen for the passengers.
• Monitoring the flight parameters:
- Monitor the EGT and fuel flow, because an engine part may be eroded
- Monitor and cross-check the IAS because an IAS indication may be corrupted
A diversion to the nearest appropriate airport should be considered.
LANDING
The use of reverse should be avoided, unless necessary.
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FLYING REFERENCE
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
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GENERAL
Ident.: SI-020-00005709.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
Two flying references may be used on the PFD:
• The attitude
• The Flight Path Vector (FPV), called the ”bird”.
The pilot selects the flight reference with the HDG/VS TRK/FPA p/b on the FCU.
THE ATTITUDE
Ident.: SI-020-00005710.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
When HDG/VS is selected on the FCU, ”bird” is off, and the attitude is the flight
reference with HDG and VS as basic guidance parameters.
The attitude flight reference should be used for dynamic manoeuvres, for example, takeoff or go-around. An action on the sidestick has an immediate effect on the aircraft
attitude. The flight crew can monitor this flight reference directly and accurately during
these maneuvers.
THE FLIGHT PATH VECTOR
Ident.: SI-020-00005711.0001001 / 21 MAY 08
Applicable to: ALL
When TRK/FPA is selected on the FCU, the ”bird” (the FPV) is the flight reference
with the TRK and FPA as basic guidance parameters.
In dynamic manoeuvres, the ”bird” is directly affected by the aircraft inertia and has a
delayed reaction. As a result, the ”bird” should not be used as a flight reference in
dynamic manoeuvres.
The ”bird” is the flying reference that should be used when flying a stabilized segment
of trajectory, e.g. a non Precision Approach or visual circuit.
INFORMATION PRESENTATION
The FPV appears on the PFD as a symbol, known as ”the bird”. The bird indicates
the track and flight path angle in relation to the ground.
The track is indicated on the PFD by a green diamond on the compass, in addition to
the lateral movement of the bird in relation to the fixed aircraft symbol. On the ND,
the track is indicated by a green diamond on the compass scale. The difference in
angle between track and heading indicates the drift.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
SI-020. P 1/4
08 JUL 08
SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION
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FLYING REFERENCE
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
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The flight path angle is indicated on the PFD by the vertical movement of the bird in
relation to the pitch scale.
use of FPV
ITUD
INAL AXIS
A/C LONG
FPA
2
2
1
1
PITCH
ATTITUDE
FLIGHT
PATH ANGLE
1
IFT
3
35
H G
1 2
T K
IFT
WIND
With the flight directors (FDs) selected ON, the Flight Path Director (FPD) replaces
the HDG-VS Flight Director (FD). With both FDs pb set to off, the blue track index
appears on the PFD horizon.
PRACTICAL USES OF THE FPV
As a general rule, when using the bird, the pilot should first change attitude, and then
check the result with reference to the bird.
NON-PRECISION APPROACH
The FPV is particularly useful for non-precision approaches. The pilot can select
values for the inbound track and final descent path angle on the FCU. Once
established inbound, only minor corrections should be required to maintain an
accurate approach path. The pilot can monitor the tracking and descent flight path,
with reference to the track indicator and the bird.
However, pilots should understand that the bird only indicates a flight path angle
and track, and does not provide guidance to a ground-based radio facility.
Therefore, even if the bird indicates that the aircraft is flying with the correct flight
path angle and track, this does not necessarily mean that the aircraft is on the
correct final approach path.
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08 JUL 08
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VISUAL CIRCUITS
The FPV can be used as a cross-reference, when flying visual circuits. On the
downwind leg, the pilot should position the wings of the bird on the horizon, in
order to maintain level flight. The downwind track should be set on the FCU. The
pilot should position the tail of the bird on the blue track index on the PFD , in
order to maintain the desired track downwind.
On the final inbound approach, the track index should be set to the final approach
course of the runway. A standard 3 ˚ approach path is indicated, when the top of
the bird’s tail is immediately below the horizon, and the bottom of the bird is
immediately above the 5 ˚ nose down marker.
use of FPV in final approach
TRK index selected to FINAL CRS
and corrected as per IRS TRK drift
FPA =
10
31
32
10
33
34
FINAL APPROACH
The bird is a very useful flight reference, because it provides the trajectory
parameters, and quickly warns the pilot of downburst. In addition, together with the
GS MINI protection, it is an excellent indicator of shears or wind variations. The
position of the ”bird” in relation to the fixed aircraft symbol provides an immediate
indication of the wind direction. Therefore, when approaching the minima, the pilot
knows in which direction to search for the runway.
If the target approach speed symbol moves upward, this indicates that there is
headwind gust. If the bird drifts to the right, this indicates that there is wind from
the left.
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Bird and target speed- wind interpretation
−140
DRIFT
RELIABILITY
The FPV is computed from IRS data, therefore, it is affected by ADIRS errors. An
error may be indicated by a small track error, usually of up to ± 2 ˚. This can be
easily determined during the approach.
The FPV is also computed from static pressure information. Therefore, the bird must
be considered as not reliable, if altitude information is not reliable.
GO-AROUND
Ident.: SI-020-00005712.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: MSN 0852
For the go-around, the appropriate flight reference is the attitude, because go-around is
a dynamic maneuver. Therefore, if the ”bird” is on, the PF will ask the PNF to select
HDG/VS, in order to recover the FD bars.
GO-AROUND
Ident.: SI-020-00005712.0002001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: MSN 0781, 1320-2180
For the go-around, the appropriate flight reference is the attitude, because go-around is
a dynamic maneuver. Therefore, when performing a go-around, regardless of the
previously-selected flight reference, upon selection of TOGA, the FD bars are
automatically restored in SRS/GA TRK modes, and the ”bird” is automatically removed.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
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08 JUL 08
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NAVIGATION ACCURACY
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
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GENERAL
Ident.: SI-030-00005713.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
The primary function of the FMS is navigation i.e. to compute the aircraft’s position as
accurately as possible. The validity of all the others functions depends upon the accuracy
of the FMS position.
The accuracy of the FMS navigation determines the flight crew’s strategy for using the
AP/FD modes, in addition to the ND display.
AIRCRAFT POSITION COMPUTATION
Ident.: SI-030-00005715.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
WITHOUT GPS PRIMARY
PRINCIPLE
The FMS position is computed from the three IRS positions, that are combined to
provide a MIXIRS position. The radio position is also combined, if two DMEs, a
VOR/DME or a GPS supplemental are available. The GPS supplemental is
considered to be an additional form of NAVAID, and can be accepted, if it falls
within the radio position or the MIXIRS position.
INITIALISATION
Refer to NO-020 ADIRS INITIALIZATION
TAKE-OFF
Each FMGC uses the MIXIRS position as its position, until the thrust levers are
pushed forward to TOGA. The FMS position is then updated to the runway
threshold coordinates. The difference between the MIXIRS position and the FMS
position is referred to as the TO BIAS. The TO BIAS is added to the MIXIRS
position, for the subsequent FMS position.
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FMS position updating at take off
IRS1
MIX IRS
TO BIAS
IRS3
IRS2
RWY
IN FLIGHT
The original TO BIAS is continuously updated with the current radio aid.
updating BIAS principle
radio position
Updated FMS
position
Updated BIAS
MIX IRS
position
FMS position
tends to radio
position
TO BIAS
FMS position
If the radio position is lost, the system uses the updated BIAS to determine the
FMS position from the MIXIRS position.
NAVIGATION ACCURACY
The FMS computes the Estimated Position Error (EPE). The EPE is an estimate.
To compute the EPE, the FMS considers the immediately available navigation
means in the FMS position computation and applies defined tolerances for each of
them. These tolerances assume that the navigation means are working properly.
They ignore any possible excessive IRS drift or erroneous locations of NAVAIDs.
The MCDU PROG page displays the HIGH/LOW indications, according to the EPE.
These indications reflect the probable accuracy of the FMS navigation compared to
the determined accuracy criteria.
WITH GPS PRIMARY
PRINCIPLE
The GPS interfaces directly with the IRS that outputs a GPIRS position. When a
GPIRS position is available, it overrides the RADIO position, if available. Therefore,
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
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the FMS position tends toward the GPIRS position.
INITIALISATION
Refer to NO-020 ADIRS INITIALIZATION
TAKE-OFF
The FM position is automatically updated at the runway threshold. With FMS2, this
automatic position update is inhibited.
IN FLIGHT
The FM position tends to the GPIRS position as long as the GPS satellites are
available.
NAVIGATION ACCURACY
The GPS position is characterized by two parameters:
• integrity
• accuracy
The integrity is a direct function of the number of satellites in view of the aircraft. If
five or more satellites are in view, several combinations of the satellite signal may be
used to process ”several positions” and to carry out reasonableness tests on the
satellite signals themselves.
Accuracy functions in direct connection with the satellite constellation in view of the
aircraft. If the satellites are low on horizon, or not in appropriate positions, accuracy
will be poor. It is provided as a ”figure of merit”.
If the GPS position fulfils both the integrity and the accuracy criteria, GPS
PRIMARY is displayed on the MCDU PROG page and the GPS position is the best
raw data position available.
SUMMARY
Flight phase
On groundbefore Takeoff
Takeoff
FM POSITION
WITHOUT GPS PRIMARY
MIXIRS
WITH GPS PRIMARY
GPIRS
Updated at runway threshold (shift) (1)
With RADIO
Tends to RADIO
GPIRS
MIXIRS + BIAS
Without RADIO
GPIRS
The FMS position update at take-off is inhibited with FMS2 when GPS PRIMARY is active.
In flight
(1)
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NAVIGATION ACCURACY
USE OF FMS
Ident.: SI-030-00005717.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
The navigation accuracy is managed through several MCDU pages:
PROG PAGE
This page indicates GPS PRIMARY.
The PROG displays the estimated navigation accuracy in green. This provides the
EPE, if GPS PRIMARY LOST, or is computed by the GPS, if GPS PRIMARY is
displayed
The PROG page displays the required navigation accuracy in blue (this can be
changed). The required navigation accuracy thresholds are determined, depending on
the flight phase, or can be manually entered. These thresholds are used to change
from HIGH to LOW accuracy, or vice versa. These indications are used when flying
within RNP airspace.
SELECTED NAVAIDS PAGE
The SELECTED NAVAID page is accessible from DATA/POSITION MONITOR/
FREEZE/SEL NAVAIDS. It has a DESELECT prompt, that enables the flight crew to
prevent the FMS from using the GPS data to compute the position, in the case of a
major problem. GPS PRIMARY lost is then displayed on MCDU and ND. The GPS
can be reselected using the same page.
PREDICTIVE GPS PAGE (IRS HONEYWELL ONLY)
The PREDICTIVE GPS page is accessible from PROG page. The GPS PRIMARY
criteria depend upon the satellite constellation status (position and number) and this is
predictable. The crew can assess the GPS PRIMARY status at destination or
alternate.
ND/MCDU
A GPS PRIMARY message is displayed when GPS PRIMARY is again available. This
message is clearable.
A GPS PRIMARY LOST message is displayed when GPS PRIMARY is lost. This
message is clearable on MCDU but not on ND.
When the class of navigation accuracy is downgraded from HIGH to LOW (LOW to
HIGH), a NAV ACCUR DOWNGRADE (UPGRADE) is displayed on ND and MCDU.
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AIRCRAFT POSITION AWARENESS AND OPERATIONAL CONSEQUENCES
Ident.: SI-030-00005719.0001001 / 21 MAY 08
Applicable to: ALL
NAVIGATION ACCURACY INDICATIONS
The navigation accuracy indications are available on the MCDU PROG page. The
following guidelines apply:
• If GPS PRIMARY is displayed, no navigation cross-check is required
• If GPS PRIMARY LOST, navigation cross-check is required in climb, in cruise,
about every 45 min, before Top Of Descent, reaching TMA and IAF and whenever
a navigation doubt occurs.
• The crew will use, IRS only, LOW and NAV ACCUR DOWNGRAD messages as
indications to trigger a navigation accuracy check.
NAVIGATION ACCURACY CROSSCHECK TECHNIQUE
The principle consists in comparing the FMS position with the RADIO position
(aircraft real position).
navigation accuracy cross check technique 1
FMS BRG
DIST
RAW BRG
DIST
e
FMS
POS
AIRCRAFT REAL
POS
Two different techniques may be used:
• Either the crew will insert a radio ident in MCDU PROG page (which provides a
bearing/distance relative to FMS position) and will compare with raw data received
from the NAVAID which materializes the aircraft real position. This allows the error
Epsilon to be quantified.
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NAVIGATION ACCURACY
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• On the ND, the flight crew compares: The position of the needle and its associated
DME distance (the real position of the aircraft) with the position of the NAVAID
symbol and its associated distance, indicated by the range markers (these markers
provide a bearing/distance, in relation to the FMS position).
navigation accuracy cross check technique 2
ABC
80
80
ABC
78 nm
80
ABC
80
ABC
78 nm
Nav accuracy
check negative
Nav accuracy
check positive
OPERATIONAL CONSEQUENCES
The result of the navigation accuracy crosscheck dictates the strategy the pilot will
apply for the use of the ND display, the AP/FD modes, and EGPWS.
GPS PRIMARY
-
ND
PF
PNF
Arc or Rose NAV with raw
data when required
AP/FD mode
EGPWS
Lateral and
vertical
managed modes
ON
To be continued on next page
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NAVIGATION ACCURACY
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
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Continued from previous page
GPS
PRIMARY
LOST Or
No GPS
Cruise
Approach
(1)
(1)
Navigation accuracy Arc or Rose NAV with raw
Lateral and
check positive(≤
data when required
vertical
3 nm)
managed modes
ON
Navigation accuracy ARC or ROSE NAV may
Lateral and
check
vertical
be used with care and with
negative(>3 nm)
managed modes
raw data
with care with
raw data
Navigation accuracy Arc or Rose NAV with raw
Lateral and
check positive(≤
data
vertical
1 nm)
managed modes
OFF
Navigation accuracy
check
negative(>1 nm)
OFF
ROSE VOR or ILS as
required
Lateral and
vertical selected
modes
ON
A GPS defined Non Precision Approach must be interrupted if GPS PRIMARY LOST message is
displayed.
POSITION UPDATE
In case of an obvious and major map shift noticed by specific messages such as
”CHECK A/C POSITION, FM1/FM2 POS MISMATCH”, the aircraft position may
be updated on the MCDU PROG page. Two techniques are available:
The recommended technique is to carry out a FMS update over a beacon by pressing
the UPDATE prompt once estimating that the aircraft overflies the beacon using the
associated needle. The potential error induced is approximately 4 to 5 nm. When the
position update is achieved, the EPE is automatically set to a higher value and the
navigation accuracy is low.
The second technique consists in updating the FM position when flying over a
Point/Bearing/Distance (P/B/D) with reference to beacon raw data (Needle +
Distance) rather than the beacon itself. The potential for error is far less when the
distance is greater than 60 nm. The flight crew will keep in mind the potential 180 ˚
error on bearing.
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FM position update in flight
TOU
BEARING 210
60NM
TOU/210/60
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ZFW - ZFCG ENTRY ERRORSZFW - ZFCG ENTRY ERRORS
GENERAL
Ident.: SI-040-00005722.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
The aircraft Gross Weight (GW) and Centre of Gravity (CG) are computed
independently by the FM and FAC:
GW and CG values FM computed are used for:
• FM predictions and speeds
• ECAM (GW)
• MCDU (GW and CG)
GW and CG values FAC computed are used for:
• Flight control laws
• Computation of characteristic speeds (VLS, F, S, GD) for display on PFD
A ZFW or ZFWCG entry error in MCDU INIT B page induces calculation errors that are
to be highlighted.
TECHNICAL BACKGROUND
Ident.: SI-040-00005723.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
The GW and CG computation is as follows:
1. The pilot enters the ZFW and ZFWCG in the MCDU INIT B page
2. The FMGC computes the GW and CG from:
• The ZFW, ZFWCG inserted in the MCDU INIT B page
• The fuel quantities from the Fuel Quantity Indicator (FQI)
• The Fuel Flow from the FADEC.
3. This current GW and/or CG is used for:
• FM predictions and speeds
• ECAM (GW only)
• MCDU (GW and CG)
4. The FAC computes its own GW and CG from aerodynamic data.
5. GW and CG FAC computed are used for:
• Minor adjustments on the flight control laws
• Characteristic speeds (VLS, F, S, Green dot) display on PFD.
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ZFW - ZFCG ENTRY ERRORSZFW - ZFCG ENTRY ERRORS
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FQI
FADEC
2
ZFW
ZFWCG
1
D/R
PROG
PERF
F−PLN
RAD
NAV
FUEL
PRED
AIR
PORT
A
F
1
4
INIT
DATA
SEC
F−PLN
B
G
MCDC
MENU
C
H
I
3
K
L
5
6
P
Q
R
9
U
V
W
X
Y
/
Z
/
SP
OVHT
CLR
0
N
J
2
.
S
Predictions
Speeds
FM
E
8
7
M
D
O
T
MCDU
GW and CG
display
3
CG
GW
ECAM
PFD
Aero
data
FAC
4
FG
ELAC
GW display
Characteristic
speeds on PFD
Flight control laws
5
Flight control laws
Note: 1. On ground, FAC uses the GW FM computed.
2. In flight, at low altitude (below 15 000 ft), low speed (below 250 kt) and
flight parameters stabilized, GW FAC computed comes from aerodynamic
data. If these conditions are not met, GW FAC computed equates to the last
memorized GW - fuel used.
3. If the GW FM computed and FAC computed differs from a given threshold, a
”CHECK GW” message appears on the MCDU scratchpad.
ZFW ENTRY ERROR AND OPERATIONAL CONSEQUENCES
Ident.: SI-040-00005724.0001001 / 22 APR 08
Applicable to: ALL
If the pilot enters erroneous ZFW on MCDU INIT B page, this will affect as follows:
GW and, to a lesser degree, CG, computed by FM are erroneous. This induces the
following consequences:
• The FM predictions and speeds are erroneous
• Incorrect GW and CG on MCDU FUEL PRED page
• Incorrect GW displayed on ECAM
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ZFW - ZFCG ENTRY ERRORSZFW - ZFCG ENTRY ERRORS
FAC GW, which is based on FM GW on ground, will be updated only once airborne
through a specific slow calculation using AOA information. Consequently,
• Characteristic speeds on PFD at take-off are erroneous, but they are correct in flight
• SRS mode guidance is affected if computed VLS is above V2 as inserted in the
MCDU PERF TAKE-OFF page.
Note: 1. In flight, if the FM and FAC GW differ from a given threshold, a ”CHECK
GW” message is triggered on the MCDU.
2. Valpha prot, Valpha max, Vsw are not affected since based on aerodynamic
data.
ERRONEOUS FUEL ON BOARD ENTRY
As long as the engines are not started, the FM GW is erroneous and above-mentioned
consequences apply. Once the engines are started, the fuel figures are updated and
downstream data update accordingly.
It should be noted however, that the FOB on ECAM is correct since it is provided
from FQI data.
OPERATIONAL RECOMMENDATIONS
Ident.: SI-040-00005726.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
ZFW entries should be cross-checked by both crew members to avoid entry error.
If the ”CHECK GW” amber warning is displayed on the MCDU, a significant
discrepancy exists between the FM computed GW and the FAC computed GW.
The crew will compare the Load and Trim Sheet (LTS) figures with the FM GW and
fuel used:
• If an obvious entry error is detected, FM GW will be updated on the MCDU FUEL
PRED page.
• If FM and LTS GW are in accordance and appear to be correct, the FAC computed
GW should be suspected. (AOA sensor problem). Consequently, characteristic speeds
on PFD are erroneous and should be disregarded. Characteristic speeds should be
extracted from QRH.
• If FM and LTS GW are in accordance but LTS GW is suspected, FAC and QRH
characteristic speeds should be compared (to validate FAC outputs) and the most
appropriate applied.
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ZFW - ZFCG ENTRY ERRORSZFW - ZFCG ENTRY ERRORS
Intentionally left blank
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TCAS
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
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TECHNICAL BACKGROUND
Ident.: SI-060-00005727.0001001 / 21 MAY 08
Applicable to: ALL
GENERAL
A Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) provides the flight crew with
traffic information and warnings of potential conflicts with vertical avoidance
instructions. The TCAS can only detect and indicate other traffic, that is equipped
with a transponder.
The ND displays the traffic information, together with:
• The bearing and range to the intruder
• The intruder closure rate
• The relative altitude difference.
If the TCAS considers the intruder to be a potential collision threat, it generates a
visual and aural Traffic Advisory (TA). If it considers the intruder to be real collision
threat, it generates a visual and aural Resolution Advisory (RA).
INTRUDER CLASSIFICATION
Intruder
Display
No threat
traffic or others
Type of collision
threat
No threat
Aural warning
Crew action
-
-
Consider as No
threat
-
-
Potential threat
”TRAFFIC”
Establish visual contact. No
evasive maneuver
Collision threat
Preventive, e.g.
”MONITOR V/S”
Do not alter your flight path
and keep VS out of red sector
Corrective, e.g.
”CLIMB”
Smoothly and firmly (0.25 g)
follow VSI green sector within
5 s
Corrective, e.g.
”CLIMB NOW” or
”INCREASE CLIMB”
Smoothly and firmly (0.35 g)
follow VSI green sector within
2.5 s
-17 (w)
Proximate
-10 (w)
Traffic
Advisory (TA)
-09 (a)
Resolution
Advisory (RA)
-06 (r)
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TCAS
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OPERATIONAL RECOMMENDATIONS
Ident.: SI-060-00005731.0001001 / 25 JUN 08
Applicable to: ALL
The flight crew should select
• ABV in climb (+9 900 ft/-2 700 ft)
• ALL in cruise (+2 700 ft/ -2 700 ft)
• BELOW, if the cruise altitude is within 2 000 ftof FL 410, or in descent (+2 700 ft/
-9 900 ft)
• THRT in heavy traffic terminal area
• TA, in the case of:
- Engine failure
- Flight with landing gear down
- Known nearby traffic, that is in visual contact
- Operations at specific airports, and during specific procedures that an operator
identifies as having a significant potential for not wanted and not appropriate RAs,
e.g. closely spaced parallel runways, converging runways.
Pilots should comply with the vertical speed limitations during the last 2 000 ft of a
climb or descent. In particular, pilots should limit vertical speeds to 1 500 ft/min during
the last 2 000 ft of a climb or descent, especially when they are aware of traffic that is
converging in altitude and intending to level off 1 000 ft above or below the pilot’s
assigned altitude.
If a TA is generated:
• The PF announces: ”TCAS, I have controls”.
• The PF flies and announces the bearing and distance displayed on his ND.
• The PNF looks outside to get visual contact.
• No evasive maneuver should be initiated, only on the basis of a TA.
If a RA is generated:
• The flight crew must always follow the TCAS RA orders in the correct direction, even:
- If the TCAS RA orders are in contradiction with the ATC instructions
- At the maximum ceiling altitude with CLIMB, CLIMB or INCREASE CLIMB,
INCREASE CLIMB TCAS RA orders
- If it results in crossing the altitude of the intruder.
CAUTION If a pilot does not follow a RA, he should be aware that the intruder
may be TCAS equipped and may be maneuvering toward his aircraft in
response to a coordinated RA. This could compromize safe separation.
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TCAS
• The PF disconnects the AP, and smoothly and firmly follows the Vertical Speed
Indicator (VSI) green sector within 5 s, and requests that both FDs be disconnected.
Note: Both FDs must be disconnected once APs are disconnected:
- To ensure autothrust speed mode
- To avoid possible confusion between FD bar orders and, TCAS aural and
VSI orders
• The PNF disconnects both FDs, but will not try to see intruders.
• The PF will avoid excessive maneuvers, and keep the Vertical Speed outside the red
area of the VSI and within the green area. If necessary, the PF must use the full speed
range between Valpha max and Vmax.
• The PNF must notify ATC.
• The flight crew should never maneuver in the opposite direction of the RA, because
TCAS maneuvers are coordinated.
• In final approach, i.e. ”CLIMB”, ”CLIMB NOW”, ”INCREASE CLIMB”, the flight
crew will initiate a go-around.
When clear of conflict:
• The flight crew must resume normal navigation, in accordance with ATC clearance,
and using the AP, as required.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
SI-060. P 3/4
08 JUL 08
SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION
A318/A319/A320/A321
TCAS
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
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FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
SI-060. P 4/4
08 JUL 08
SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION
A318/A319/A320/A321
USE OF RADAR
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
GENERAL
Ident.: SI-070-00005738.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
The weather radar has two main functions:
• Weather detection
• Mapping.
Weather detection is the primary function. For weather detection, the radar detects
precipitation droplets. The strength of the echo is in proportion to the droplet size,
composition and quantity (e.g. the reflection of water particles is five times greater than
ice particles of the same size). Therefore, the weather radar does not detect weather
that has small droplets (e.g. clouds or fog), or that does not have droplets (e.g. clear air
turbulence).
Mapping is the secondary function. For mapping, the echo takes into account the
difference between incoming and outgoing signals. Any significant difference in the signal
is easily mapped (e.g. mountains or cities), but a small difference in the signal is not
mapped (e.g. calm sea or even ground).
FUNCTIONS
Ident.: SI-070-00005733.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
The flight crew uses the following controls to operate the radar:
TILT
”Tilt” is the angle between the antenna radar and the horizon, irrespective of the
aircraft’s pitch and bank angles. The antenna stabilizes by using IRS data.
A/C pitch
Tilt
To help avoid weather, it is important to effectively manage the tilt, taking into
account the flight phase and the ND range.
Usually, it is the appropriate tilt value that provides ground returns on the top of the
ND.
In case of overscanning, a cell may not be detected or may be underestimated, when
the radar beam scans the upper part of the cell. This occurs because, at high altitude,
this cell may have ice particles, and therefore the reflection of these particles is weak.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
SI-070. P 1/4
08 JUL 08
SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION
A318/A319/A320/A321
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
USE OF RADAR
If AUTO TILT function is installed, selecting AUTO ensures a proper tilt management
along the flight.
GAIN
Gain control is mostly used in AUTO/CAL mode. The detection or evaluation of cells
will always start in AUTO/CAL gain mode.
However, the gain may be manually tuned to detect the strongest part of a cell
displayed in red on the ND. If the gain is slowly reduced, the red areas (level 3 return)
will slowly become yellow areas (level 2 return), and the yellow areas will become
green areas (level 1). The last part of the cell to turn yellow is the strongest area.
The gain must then be reset to AUTO/CAL mode.
MODE
The operation modes are WX, WX+T, TURB, MAP.
WX+T or TURB modes are used to locate the wet turbulence area. TURB mode
detects wet turbulence within 40 nm, and is not affected by the gain. TURB mode
should be used to isolate turbulence from precipitation.
GCS r*
The Ground Clutter Suppression (GCS) operates in WX mode, and inhibits the ground
echoes on the ND.
It is sometimes difficult to differentiate between weather and ground returns. A
change in tilt rapidly changes the shape and color of ground returns and eventually
makes them disappear. This is not the case for weather.
RCT r*
The React (RCT) function is used temporarily to help detect weather or buildups
beyond of the weather already detected.
PWS
Refer to SI-010 WINDSHEAR on adverse weather.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
SI-070. P 2/4
08 JUL 08
SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION
A318/A319/A320/A321
USE OF RADAR
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
OPERATIONAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR WEATHER DETECTION
Ident.: SI-070-00005734.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
FLIGHT
PHASE
DETECTION AND MONITORING PROCEDURES
COMMENTS
TAXI
clear on parking area, set ND to lowest range,
TILT DOWN then UP;
Chek appearance/disappearance of ground
returns.
TILT ANTENNA
CHECK
(away from
people).
TAKEOFF
If weather is suspected, SLOWLY SCAN up to +
15°, then TILT + 4°.
Scanning
along
departure
path.
CLIMB
TILT angle
To avoid OVERSCANNING, TILT DOWNWARD as
function of
the A/C climbs, and maintain GND RETURNS ON
altitude and ND
TOP OF ND.
RANGE.
Use TILT slightly NEGATIVE to maintain ground
returns on top of ND:
CRUISE
Range 320
Range 160
Range 80
Range 40
TILT = 1 DN
TILT = 1,5 DN
TILT = 3,5 DN
TILT = 6 DN
In higher altitudes,
closing weather:
− Decrease ND
− TILT down
Use TURB to ISOLATE Turbulence − GAIN to
AUTO.
DESCENT
During DES, TILT UPWARD approximately + 1° /
10000 ft in higher altitudes, then + 1°/5000 ft
below 15000 ft.
APPROACH
TILT + 4°.
No ground
returns beyond
line of view.
Dnm = 1,23 ALT
ft
FL 370 D 240nm
Poor ground
returns over calm
sea / even
ground.
To avoid ground
returns.
Note: It is difficult to differentiate between weather returns and ground returns: A
change in TILT causes the shape and color of ground returns to change rapidly.
These ground returns eventually disappear. This is not the case for weather
returns.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
SI-070. P 3/4
08 JUL 08
SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION
A318/A319/A320/A321
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
USE OF RADAR
OTHER OPERATIONAL RECOMMENDATIONS
Ident.: SI-070-00005736.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
WEATHER AVOIDANCE
• When weather is suspected, scan for it by varying the radar tilt. If AUTOTILT or
MULTISCAN function is available, reselect AUTO after scanning.
• Do not underestimate a thunderstorm, even if echo is weak (only wet parts are
detected)
• Avoid all red + magenta cells by at least 20 nm
• Deviate upwind instead of downwind (less probability of turbulence or hail)
• Do not attempt to fly below a storm even visual (turbulence, shear, altimetry)
• Use TURB detection to isolate turbulence from precipitation
• There may be severe turbulence, up to 5 000 ft above a cell
• Storms with tops above 35 000 ft are hazardous
• Frequent and vivid lightning indicates a high probability of severe turbulence.
WEATHER PENETRATION
In the case of storm penetration, the flight crew must take full advantage of the radar.
For flight crew guidelines, in the case of turbulence, Refer to SI-010 TURBULENCE.
MAPPING
TILT and GAIN have to be adjusted harmoniously, because the ground returns vary
greatly with the angle of the radar beam which illuminates them.
• Use MAP to detect PROMINENT TERRAIN (mountain, city, and coastline)
• Adjust TILT and GAIN - Mapping coverage varies with tilt and aircraft altitude.
TILT ANGLE
AREA SCANNED AT FL 330
3 ˚ DN
72 nm to 190 nm
0 ˚ DN
47 nm to 190 nm
7 ˚ DN
36 nm to 70 nm
10 ˚ DN
26 nm to 41 nm
However, flight crew should NOT USE the weather radar as a terrain avoidance system.
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
SI-070. P 4/4
08 JUL 08
PREVENTING IDENTIFIED
RISKS
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PREVENTING IDENTIFIED RISKS
A318/A319/A320/A321
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
PRELIMINARY PAGES
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PIR-PLP. PRELIMINARY PAGES
TABLE OF CONTENTS ....................................................................................................... 1/2
PIR-010. PREVENTING IDENTIFIED RISKS
INTRODUCTION......................................................................................................................1/6
NORMAL OPERATIONS ..........................................................................................................2/6
SYSTEM OPERATIONS / FAILURES ......................................................................................3/6
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
PIR-PLP-TOC. P 1/2
08 JUL 08
PREVENTING IDENTIFIED RISKS
A318/A319/A320/A321
PRELIMINARY PAGES
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
TABLE OF CONTENTS
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FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
PIR-PLP-TOC. P 2/2
08 JUL 08
PREVENTING IDENTIFIED RISKS
A318/A319/A320/A321
PREVENTING IDENTIFIED RISKS
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
INTRODUCTION
Ident.: PIR-010-00005742.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
The aim of this chapter is to highlight some of the risks encountered by flight crews, in
order to improve:
- Flight crewmembers’ awareness of these risks
- Risk management.
These risks are categorized according to either:
- Flight phases, for the risks related to normal operations, or
- ATA chapters, for the risks more specifically related to the flight crews’ interaction
with systems, or to system failures.
For each risk, the following table provides:
- The flight phase or ATA chapter related to the risk
- A description of the risk
- A description of the consequences, if the flight crew does not correctly manage the
risk
- The type of consequences (who or what is affected by the risk), illustrated by one of
these 6 symbols:
• ”CONTROL”: Aircraft handling or control may be affected
• ”NAV”: Navigation may be affected
• ”GROUND PERSONNEL”: Possibility of injury to ground personnel
• ”FLIGHT”: it may not be possible to complete the flight, there may be a risk of
diversion.
• ”AIRCRAFT”: Possibility of damage to the aircraft
• ”PAX”: Possibility of injury to passengers.
- A reference to the FCTM chapter, section, and/or paragraph, where the related
explanations and recommendations (for prevention and/or recovery) are located.
RISK SYMBOLS
CONTROL
NAV
GROUND
PERSONNEL
FLIGHT
AIRCRAFT
PAX
NAV
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
PIR-010. P 1/6
08 JUL 08
PREVENTING IDENTIFIED RISKS
A318/A319/A320/A321
PREVENTING IDENTIFIED RISKS
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
NORMAL OPERATIONS
Ident.: PIR-010-00005743.0001001 / 21 APR 08
Applicable to: ALL
Flight
Phase
PREP
Risk
During takeoff
briefing, the flight
crew does not check
that the FMS SID
(including the
constraints) is correct.
TAKEOFF The flight crew calls
out “THRUST SET”
before reaching N1
value
CLIMB
The flight crew uses
/DESC
the V/S knob without
setting a target
In managed descent,
DESC
the flight crew uses
the speed brakes, in
an attempt to
descend below the
computed profile
DESC
APPR
APPR
The flight crew does
not set the TERR ON
ND switch to ON
The flight crew
activates approach
phase without
crosschecking with
each other
The flight crew clears
the F-PLN using the
DIR TO or DIR TO
RAD IN functions,
although the aircraft
is in radar vectoring
Consequences
Refer toFCTM
Erroneous trajectory
NAV
Engine check not valid
Refer to NO-020
COCKPIT
PREPARATION
Refer to NO-050
Takeoff Roll
Climb or descent does not stop
Unless the aircraft is above the
computed profile, the autothrust
increases thrust to remain on
the computed profile. The
expected increased rate of
descent will not be reached. In
addition, fuel consumption will
increase
Reduced situational awareness
NAV
NAV
The other flight crewmember
may perceive the speed change
as undue, and may react to it
NAV mode is armed. If this
mode setting is not relevant, it
may lead to an erroneous
trajectory
NAV
NAV
Refer to NO-080
GUIDANCE AND
MONITORING
Refer to NO-080
PREFACE
Refer to NO-010
COMMUNICATION
Refer to NO-100
INITIAL
APPROACH and
Refer to NO-100
INTERMEDIATE
APPROACH
To be continued on next page
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
PIR-010. P 2/6
08 JUL 08
PREVENTING IDENTIFIED RISKS
A318/A319/A320/A321
PREVENTING IDENTIFIED RISKS
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
Continued from previous page
Flight
Phase
APPR
ILS APPR
NPA
APPR
Risk
Consequences
The flight crew does
not sufficiently
monitor raw data
Any erroneous computation
leads to an erroneous trajectory
Glide slope
interception from
above: G/S not
rearmed
When the aircraft
reaches the minimum
altitude, the flight
crew sets the bird to
ON and the AP to
OFF, but does not set
the FDs to OFF.
The aircraft descends through
the glide slope axis, without
intercepting it
Refer toFCTM
NAV
NAV
The FDs orders may not be
correct below the minima.
Refer to NO-100
FINAL
APPROACH
Refer to NO-120
FINAL
APPROACH
Refer to NO-110
FINAL
APPROACH
Refer to OP-030
AUTOPILOT/FLIGHT DIRECTOR
Refer to NO-120
REACHING THE
MINIMA
SYSTEM OPERATIONS / FAILURES
Ident.: PIR-010-00005745.0001001 / 26 MAR 08
Applicable to: ALL
ATA
22
22
Risk
The flight crew uses
the instinctive
disconnect pushbutton
on the thrust levers to
disconnect autothrust,
without reducing the
Throttle Lever Angle
(TLA)
Alpha floor/TOGA
LOCK, with no
disconnection of
autothrust
Consequences
Immediate and undue speed
increase
TOGA thrust is maintained, with
an undue speed increase, and may
lead to overspeed
Csqce type
Refer to FCTM
Refer to OP-030
AUTOTHRUST
(A/THR)
Refer to OP-030
AUTOTHRUST
(A/THR)
To be continued on next page
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
PIR-010. P 3/6
08 JUL 08
PREVENTING IDENTIFIED RISKS
A318/A319/A320/A321
PREVENTING IDENTIFIED RISKS
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
Continued from previous page
ATA
22
22
27
27/32
28
34
34
Risk
The flight crew does
not use the correct
knob to change
heading or speed
The flight crew does
not sequence the
F/PLN
Consequences
Trajectory not correct
Erroneous computation (e.g. time,
fuel) and trajectory
At takeoff:
The flight crew does
When flaps/slats are locked, if the
not select the speed
after slat or flap failure flight crew does not select the
current speed, the aircraft
continues to accelerate and
possibly exceeds MAX Speed
In approach:
When flaps/slats are locked, if the
flight crew does not select the
current speed, the aircraft
continues to decelerate down to a
speed that is not consistent with
the real aircraft configuration
In the case of flight
Erroneous computation (i.e. time,
with slats/flaps
fuel), because the FMS does not
extended or landing
take into account the abnormal
gear extended, the
configuration
flight crew takes into
account the FMS
predictions
Fuel loss
The flight crew does
not check fuel before
fuel crossfeed
Error in the use of
Loss of transmission to ATC due
RMP
to an erroneous manipulation
(particularly when SEL is on)
The autothrust mode remains in
The flight crew
THR CLB or THR DES, which are
performs the TCAS
not the appropriate modes. This
procedure, but does
may lead to flight control
not set the FDs to
protection activation
OFF
Csqce type
NAV
Refer to FCTM
Refer to NO-120
INTERMEDIATE
APPROACH
Refer to AO-027
ABNORMAL
FLAPS/SLATS
CONFIGURATION
Refer to AO-027
ABNORMAL
FLAPS/SLATS
CONFIGURATION
Refer to AO-028
FUEL LEAK
NAV
Refer to SI-060
OPERATIONAL
RECOMMENDATIONS
To be continued on next page
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
PIR-010. P 4/6
08 JUL 08
PREVENTING IDENTIFIED RISKS
A318/A319/A320/A321
PREVENTING IDENTIFIED RISKS
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
Continued from previous page
ATA
34
70
70
80
Risk
The flight crew selects
ADR to OFF using the
ADIRS rotary selector,
instead of the ADR
pushbutton
In the case of an
engine failure after
takeoff, the flight crew
does not stabilize the
aircraft on the flight
path before performing
ECAM actions
In the case of an
engine failure in cruise,
the flight crew presses
the EO CLR key on
the MCDU
For EMERGENCY
DESCENT, the flight
crew turns but does
not pull the knobs, or
does both, but not in
the correct sequence,
with no FMA
crosscheck
Csqce type
Consequences
Irreversible loss of redundancy (the
associated IR is lost, and cannot
NAV
be recovered until the end of the
flight)
Refer to FCTM
Performing the ECAM actions
before the aircraft is stabilized on
the flight path, reduces efficiency
due to the PF’s high workload,
and may lead to a trajectory error
Refer to AO-020
ENGINE FAILURE AFTER V1
Pressing the EO CLR key on the
MCDU is an irreversible action
that leads to the loss of single
engine computation (discrepancy
between the computation and real
aircraft status)
The flight crew does not detect
that the descent is not engaged.
Delayed descent leads to limited
oxygen for passengers
Refer to AO-020
ENGINE FAILURE
DURING
CRUISE
FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
Refer to AO-034
ADR/IRS
FAULT
Refer to OP-030
AUTOPILOT/FLIGHT
DIRECTOR
PIR-010. P 5/6
08 JUL 08
PREVENTING IDENTIFIED RISKS
A318/A319/A320/A321
PREVENTING IDENTIFIED RISKS
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
MANUAL
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FCA A318/A319/A320/A321 FLEET
FCTM
PIR-010. P 6/6
08 JUL 08
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