Rhinoceros Level 1 Training Manual v4.0

Rhinoceros Level 1 Training Manual v4.0
Rhinoceros
®
NURBS modeling for Windows
Training Manual
Level 1
Version 4.0
R40TML1—Sep-2008
Rhinoceros Level 1 Training Manual v4.0
© Robert McNeel & Associates 2008
All Rights Reserved.
Printed in U.S.A.
Copyright © by Robert McNeel & Associates. Permission to make digital or hard copies of part or all of this work for personal or classroom use is granted
without fee provided that copies are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage. To copy otherwise, to republish, to post on servers, or to
redistribute to lists requires prior specific permission. Request permission to republish from: Publications, Robert McNeel & Associates, 3670 Woodland Park
Avenue North, Seattle, WA 98103; FAX (206) 545-7321; e-mail [email protected]
Credits:
Phil Cook, Simply Rhino Limited, UK, www.simplyrhino.co.uk for the exercises on SmartTrack and Constraints.
Robert McNeel & Associates
ii
T A B L E
O F
C O N T E N T S
Table of Contents
List of Exercises ............................................................................ v
Part One: Introduction ............................................................... 1
Before You Start ............................................................................ 3
Course Objectives
3
Example Schedule
4
Rhino Basics ................................................................................. 5
The Rhino for Windows Interface
5
The Rhino Screen
6
Menus
7
Toolbars
7
Graphics Area
8
Command Area
11
The Mouse
11
Entering Commands
11
Help
13
View the Command Line History
14
View Recent Commands
14
Navigating Around the Model
20
Move Objects
22
Copy Objects
24
Changing the View of Your Model
25
Panning and Zooming
26
Resetting Your View
26
Part Two: Creating Geometry................................................. 31
Creating Two-Dimensional Objects ............................................ 33
Drawing Lines
33
Drawing Free-form Curves
36
Modeling Aids
37
Model Setup
39
Saving Your Work
40
Layers
40
Selecting Objects
45
Precision Modeling...................................................................... 49
Absolute Coordinates
Relative Coordinates
Polar Coordinates
Distance and Angle Constraint Entry
Robert McNeel & Associates
49
50
51
52
Object Snaps
58
Other modeling aids
62
Viewports and Construction Planes
67
Analysis Commands
74
Drawing Circles
76
Drawing Arcs
81
Drawing Ellipses and Polygons
87
Modeling Free-Form Curves
93
Modeling Helix and Spiral
96
Editing Objects...........................................................................103
Fillet
103
Blend
107
Chamfer
111
Move
115
Copy
117
Undo and Redo
118
Rotate
118
Group
119
Mirror
120
Join
121
Scale
121
Array
124
Trim
127
Split
129
Extend
130
Offset
133
Point Editing...............................................................................139
Nudge Controls
144
Part Three: 3-D Modeling and Editing .................................147
Creating Deformable Shapes .....................................................149
Modeling with Solids..................................................................165
Creating Surfaces ......................................................................173
Importing and Exporting Models ...............................................217
Importing and Exporting Rhino File Information
217
Rendering...................................................................................221
Rendering with Flamingo
228
iii
T A B L E
O F
C O N T E N T S
Dimensions................................................................................ 231
Dimensions
231
Making a 2-D Drawing from a 3-D Model
234
Layout and Printing ................................................................... 235
Layouts and Details
235
Printing
239
Part Four: Customizing Workspaces and Toolbars ......... 241
Rhino Settings ........................................................................... 243
Options
243
Document Properties
246
Custom Toolbar Layouts ........................................................... 247
Robert McNeel & Associates
iv
L I S T
O F
E X E R C I S E S
List of Exercises
Exercise
Exercise
Exercise
Exercise
Exercise
Exercise
Exercise
Exercise
Exercise
1—Rhino basics ..............................................................15
2—Display options ..........................................................27
3—Drawing lines ............................................................33
4—Drawing interpolated curves ........................................36
5—Drawing curves from control points ..............................37
6—Drawing lines and curves using mode functions .............38
7—Layers ......................................................................41
8—Selecting objects .......................................................43
9—Practice using selection options ...................................45
Exercise
Exercise
Exercise
Exercise
Exercise
Exercise
Exercise
Exercise
Exercise
Exercise
Exercise
Exercise
Exercise
Exercise
Exercise
Exercise
Exercise
Exercise
Exercise
Exercise
Exercise
Exercise
Exercise
Exercise
Exercise
Exercise
Exercise
Exercise
Exercise
Exercise
Exercise
Exercise
10Setting up a model ...................................................49
11—Entering absolute coordinates ....................................50
12—Entering relative coordinates .....................................50
13—Entering polar coordinates ........................................51
14—Distance constraint entry ..........................................52
15—Distance and angle constraint entry ...........................53
16—Practice using distance and angle constraint entry .......54
17—Practice using distance and angle constraints ..............57
18—Using object snaps ...................................................59
19—Smart Track ............................................................62
20 – Tab Constraint ........................................................63
21 – Project Constraint ...................................................64
22 – Planar Constraint ....................................................65
23—Viewports and construction planes .............................67
24—Modeling in 3-D space ..............................................69
25—Drawing circles ........................................................76
26—Using circle-related object snaps ................................80
27—Practice drawing arcs (1) ..........................................82
28—Practice drawing arcs (2) ..........................................86
29—Practice drawing ellipses and polygons .......................88
30—Practice drawing curves (1) .......................................93
31—Practice drawing curves (2) .......................................96
32—Drawing free-form curves .........................................99
33—Fillet..................................................................... 103
34—Chamfer ............................................................... 111
35—Practice with Fillet and Chamfer ............................... 113
36—Move .................................................................... 115
37—Copy .................................................................... 117
38—Rotate .................................................................. 118
39—Grouping .............................................................. 119
40—Mirror ................................................................... 120
41—Join ...................................................................... 121
Robert McNeel & Associates
Exercise
Exercise
Exercise
Exercise
Exercise
Exercise
Exercise
Exercise
Exercise
Exercise
Exercise
Exercise
Exercise
Exercise
Exercise
Exercise
Exercise
Exercise
Exercise
Exercise
Exercise
Exercise
Exercise
Exercise
Exercise
Exercise
Exercise
Exercise
Exercise
Exercise
Exercise
Exercise
Exercise
Exercise
42—Scale.................................................................... 121
43—Polar Array ........................................................... 124
44—Trim ..................................................................... 127
45—Split ..................................................................... 129
46—Extend ................................................................. 130
47—Offset ................................................................... 133
48—Practice ................................................................ 137
49—Practice ................................................................ 137
50—Practice ................................................................ 138
51—Practice ................................................................ 138
52—Control point editing .............................................. 140
53—Practice with curves and control point editing ............ 146
54—Creating a rubber duck ........................................... 150
55— Model a bar with text ............................................ 166
56—Basic techniques for making surfaces ....................... 174
57—Extruding surfaces ................................................. 177
58—Lofted surfaces ...................................................... 186
59—Revolved surfaces .................................................. 190
60—Using a rail revolve ................................................ 191
61—Using 1-rail sweeps to create surfaces ...................... 192
62—Using 2-rail sweeps to create surfaces ...................... 194
63—Using a network of curves to create surfaces............. 196
64— Practice using one-rail sweeps: .............................. 197
65— Creating a toy hammer: ........................................ 199
66— Creating a squeeze bottle: ..................................... 208
67— Exporting models .................................................. 218
68— Practice rendering a model .................................... 221
69— Practice dimensioning............................................ 232
70— Practice making a 2-D drawing for export ................ 234
71— Practice making layouts ......................................... 235
72— Practice printing ................................................... 239
73— Practice with options ............................................. 243
74— Practice with document properties .......................... 246
75— Customizing a toolbar layout .................................. 247
v
Part One:
Introduction
2
Notes:
1
Before You Start
This course guide accompanies the Level 1 training sessions. Level 1 shows you how to produce 3-D models using
NURBS geometry.
In class, you will receive information at an accelerated pace. For best results, practice at a Rhino workstation
between class sessions, and consult your Rhino reference manual and the Help file for additional information.
The Rhino for Windows Interface
Rhino uses NURBS for all curve
and surface geometry.
Duration:
3 days
Course Objectives
In Level 1, you learn how to:
 Utilize the features of the Rhino user interface
 Customize your modeling environment
 Create basic graphic objects—lines, circles, arcs, curves, solids, and surfaces
 Model with precision using coordinate input, object snaps, and SmartTrack tools
 Modify curves and surfaces with edit commands
 Use control point editing to modify curves and surfaces
 Analyze your model
 Display any portion of the model
 Export and import models to and from different file formats
 Render the model
Robert McNeel & Associates
3
Notes:
Example Schedule
Day 1
Topic
8-10AM
Introduction, Rhino Interface
10AM-12PM
Rhino Interface, Panning & Zooming
12-1PM
Lunch
1-3PM
Creating geometry
3 -5PM
Creating geometry
Day 2
Topic
8-10AM
Editing
10AM-12PM
Editing
12-1PM
Lunch
1-3PM
Editing
3 -5PM
Control point editing, modeling with
solids
Day 3
Topic
8-10AM
Surfacing
10AM-12PM
Surfacing
12-1PM
Lunch
1-3PM
Modeling practice
3 -5PM
Import-Export, Rendering,
Dimensioning, Printing, Customization
Robert McNeel & Associates
4
Notes:
2
Rhino Basics
The Rhino for Windows Interface
Before learning individual tools, we will be acquainted with the Rhino interface. The following exercises examine
the interface elements used in Rhino: the Rhino window, viewports, menus, toolbars, and dialog boxes.
There are many ways to access the commands in Rhino—the keyboard, menus, and toolbars. We will focus on the
menus in this class.
To open Rhino:

Double-click the Rhino icon from the Windows desktop.
Robert McNeel & Associates
5
Notes:
The Rhino Screen
Rhino divides its window into six areas that supply information or prompt you for input.
Screen Area
Description
Menu Bar
Access commands, options, and help.
Command area
Lists prompts, commands you enter, and information displayed by the command.
Toolbars
Access shortcuts to commands and options.
Graphics area
Displays the open model. Several viewports can be displayed. The default viewport layout displays four
viewports (Top, Front, Right, and Perspective).
Viewports
Displays different views of the model within the graphics area.
Status bar
Displays the coordinates of the pointer, the status of the model, options, and toggles.
Menu bar
Watch the command line to find
out what is happening.
Command
history window
Command
prompt
Standard toolbar
Graphics area
World axes icon
Viewport title
Main1 and Main2
toolbars
Osnap Toolbar
Status bar
Rhino screen
Robert McNeel & Associates
6
Notes:
Menus
Most of the Rhino commands can be found in the menus.
Rhino View menu
Toolbars
Rhino toolbars contain buttons that provide shortcuts to commands. You can float a toolbar anywhere on the
screen, or dock it at the edge of the graphics area
Rhino starts up with the Standard toolbar docked above the graphics area and the Main1 and Main2 toolbars
docked on the left.
Robert McNeel & Associates
7
Notes:
Tooltips
Tooltips tell what each button does. Move your pointer over a button without
clicking it. A small yellow tag with the name of the command appears. In
Rhino, many buttons can execute two commands. The tooltip indicates which
buttons have dual functions.
To start a Polyline, click the
LMB, to start the Line Segments
command click the RMB.
Flyouts
A button on a toolbar may include other command buttons in a
flyout toolbar. Usually the flyout toolbar contains variations on
the base command. After you select a button on the flyout, the
flyout disappears.
Buttons with flyouts are marked with a small white triangle in
the lower right corner. To open the flyout toolbar, hold down
the left mouse button for a moment or press the right mouse
button.
The Lines toolbar is linked to the Main1 toolbar.
After the flyout is open you can pick any of the
buttons on the toolbar to start a command.
Graphics Area
The Rhino graphics area, holding the viewports, can be customized to suit your preferences. The position of
viewports can be arranged in different configurations.
Robert McNeel & Associates
8
Notes:
Viewports
Viewports are windows in the graphics area that show you views of your model. To move and resize viewports,
drag the viewport title or borders. You can create new viewports, rename viewports, and use predefined viewport
configurations. Each viewport has its own construction plane that the cursor moves on and a projection mode.
To toggle between a small viewport and one that fills the graphics area, double-click the viewport title.
Rearranged Rhino screen. Command line at the bottom, single maximized viewport, and toolbars
docked in different locations.
Robert McNeel & Associates
9
Notes:
Viewport tabs
Viewport titles can be shown in tabs. The bold face tab designates the active viewport. Tabs make it easy to
switch between viewports when using maximized or floating viewports. To activate Viewport Tabs: From the View
menu, click Viewport Layout, and then click Show Viewport Tabs.
The tabs are located below the graphics area.
Robert McNeel & Associates
10
Notes:
Command Area
The command area displays commands and command prompts. It can be docked at the top or the bottom of the
screen or it can float anywhere. The command window shows two lines by default. To open a window that displays
the command history, press F2. The text in the Command History window can be selected and copied to the
Windows clipboard.
The Mouse
In a Rhino viewport, the left mouse button selects objects and picks locations. The right mouse button has several
functions including panning and zooming, popping up a context-sensitive menu, and acting the same as pressing
the Enter key. Use the left mouse button to select objects in the model, commands or options on the menus, and
buttons in the toolbars. Use the right mouse button to complete a command, to move between stages of
commands, and to repeat the previous command. The right mouse button is used to initiate commands from some
toolbar buttons.
Drag with the right mouse button to pan and rotate in viewports. Use the mouse wheel or hold down the Ctrl key
and drag with the right mouse button to zoom in and out in a viewport. You must press and hold the right mouse
button down to activate this feature.
Entering Commands
Use the command line to type commands, pick command options, type coordinates, type distances, angles, or
radii, type shortcuts, and view command prompts.
To enter information typed at the command line, press Enter, Spacebar, or right mouse button over a viewport.
Note: Enter and Spacebar perform the same function.
Shortcuts are customizable key combinations. You can program the function keys and Ctrl key combinations to
perform Rhino commands.
Clickable options
To use command options, click the option on the command line or type the underlined letter of the option and
press Enter. (The interior capitalization is meaningless.)
Robert McNeel & Associates
11
Notes:
Autocomplete command name
Type the first few letters of a command name to activate the autocomplete
command list. When enough letters of the command are typed so that it is
unique, the command name completes on the command line. Press Enter to
activate the command once the full command name appears. As you type
command names, the autocomplete command list appears. As you type more
letters, the list is narrowed down to the possible commands. Left click on the
command in the list to start it.
Repeating commands
To repeat the last command, right-click in a viewport, press Enter, or press the spacebar. To repeat previous
commands, right-click in the command line window and select from a list.
Canceling commands
To cancel a command, press Esc or enter a new command from a button or a menu.
Robert McNeel & Associates
12
Notes:
Help
Press F1 at any time to access Rhino Help. In addition to finding information about each command, Rhino help has
conceptual information as well as many examples and graphics to help you complete your model. When you are
confused or unsure about what to do, the first place you should look is the help file. You can also access help for a
specific command by starting the command and press F1.
In addition, the CommandHelp command displays the help topics in a dockable window and displays help for the
current command.
Most of the commands include short video clips that show how the command and the options work.
If Auto-update is checked, the help for the current command displays. If Auto-update is unchecked,
you can type the name of the command that you want displayed and press enter to display
the information.
Robert McNeel & Associates
13
Notes:
View the Command Line History
The command history window lists the last 500
command lines from the current Rhino session. Press
F2 to view the command history.
View Recent Commands
Right-click the command line to view recently used commands. To repeat
the command, select it from the popup menu.
The number of commands listed is set in Rhino Options. The default limit
is twenty commands. When you use your twenty-first command the first
one drops off the list.
Robert McNeel & Associates
14
Notes:
Exercise 1—Rhino basics
To get started:
1
On the Rhino Help menu, click Learn Rhino, Open Tutorial Models.
2
Double-click the Level 1 folder.
3
In the Open dialog box, select Start.3dm.
You will find this model in the Training folder. If you haven’t copied the files to your hard drive from the
Training folder on the Rhino CD, you should do this before you proceed.
Open
Two parallel viewports and one perspective viewport.
This model contains five objects: a cube, a cone, a cylinder, a sphere, and a rectangular plane.
Robert McNeel & Associates
15
4
From the View menu, click Viewport Layout, and then click 4 Viewports.
Notes:
4 Viewports
Three parallel viewports and one perspective viewport
5
In the Status Bar, click Snap to turn on the grid snap.
Grid snap may already be on in your system. Be careful that you do not turn it off instead of on. If grid snap is
on, the word ―Snap‖ will be black in the status bar. If it is off, the word ―Snap‖ will be gray.
Note: This is an important step. Grid snap only lets your cursor move in certain intervals. In this model, by
default, grid snap is set to one half of a grid line. Grid snap helps you line up your objects as if you were
building with LEGO blocks.
Robert McNeel & Associates
16
Notes:
6
7
Click the mouse in the Perspective
viewport to make it active.
Shaded Viewport
The viewport title highlights when it is
active. The active viewport is the viewport
where all your commands and actions take
place.
Click with the Right Mouse Button
(RMB) on the Perspective viewport title,
and then click Shaded.
The objects appear shaded. A shaded
viewport lets you preview the shapes. The
viewport will remain shaded until you
change it back to a wireframe view.
You can change any viewport to shaded
mode. Later we will discuss the other
viewport display options.
8
From the Render menu, click Render.
9
Rendering the model opens a separate render window. The
model displays in render colors previously assigned to the
objects. You can also set lights and a background color. You will
learn about doing this later.
You cannot manipulate the view in the render display window
but the image can be saved to a file.
Close the render window.
Shaded display.
Render
Render.
Robert McNeel & Associates
17
Notes:
10 In the Perspective
viewport, click and
drag with your right
mouse button held
down to rotate the
view.
The plane helps you
stay oriented. If the
objects disappear,
you are looking at
the bottom of the
plane.
11 Right click on the
Perspective
viewport title, and
then click X-ray.
X-Ray Viewport
Rotate the view in shaded display.
X-Ray shaded display.
12 Right click on the
Perspective
viewport title, and
then click Ghosted.
Ghosted Viewport
13 Right click on the
Perspective
viewport title, and
then click
Rendered.
Rendered Viewport
Ghosted shade display.
Robert McNeel & Associates
Rendered display
18
Notes:
14 Change to
Wireframe mode.
15 To rotate your view,
drag from the
bottom of the view
toward the top.
Wireframe Viewport
Right Click
You are now under
the objects looking
up.
16 Change to Shaded
mode.
The plane obscures
the objects. In
shaded mode, the
plane helps you see
when your viewpoint
is below the objects.
Looking at the objects from the bottom in
wireframe mode.
Looking at the objects from the bottom in
shaded mode.
To get back to your original view:

Press the Home key to undo your view changes.
If you are ―lost in space‖ in the perspective view:

From the View menu, click Viewport Layout, and then click 4 Viewports twice.
This takes you back to the default viewport settings.
Robert McNeel & Associates
19
Notes:
Navigating Around the Model
You have used the right mouse button to rotate in the Perspective viewport. You can hold Shift and drag with
the right mouse button to pan. Dragging the right mouse button to move around does not interrupt any
commands in progress.
What if …
To pan in a viewport:
Instead of panning or rotating,
something funny happened.
1
In the Perspective
viewport, hold the
Shift and drag with
the right mouse
button to pan the
view.
2
Pan the view in the
parallel viewports by
dragging with the
right mouse button.
In the parallel
viewports it’s not
necessary to press
the Shift key.
Robert McNeel & Associates
If you right-click quickly once in
viewport, the last command
starts again. You must hold the
right mouse button down while
panning or rotating.
Panning with Shift and the right
mouse button.
Panning in a parallel view with the right
mouse button.
20
Notes:
Zooming in and out
Sometimes you want to get closer to your objects or move back so you can see more. This is called zooming. As
with many things in Rhino, there are several ways to do this. The easiest way is to turn the mouse wheel to zoom
in and out. If you don’t have a wheel mouse, hold down the Ctrl key and drag up and down in a viewport with
the right mouse button.
To zoom in and out:
1
2
In the Perspective Viewport, roll the wheel on your mouse
forward to zoom in, roll it backward to zoom out.
The camera zooms at cursor position.
In the Perspective viewport, hold the Ctrl key, click and hold
the right mouse button, and drag the mouse up and down.
Drag up to zoom in.
Drag down to zoom out.
Zooming with ctrl and the right mouse
button.
Zooming extents
The Zoom Extents command, displays a viewport so the objects fill up the viewport as much as possible. You can
use this command to make everything visible.
To zoom extents in a viewport:

From the View menu, click Zoom, and then click Zoom Extents.
If you get lost, it is often handy to zoom extents in all your viewports at once, so there is a command to do
just that.
Zoom Extents
Left Click
To zoom extents in all viewports:

From the View menu, click Zoom, and then click Zoom Extents All.
Robert McNeel & Associates
Zoom Extents All Viewports
Right Click
21
Notes:
Move Objects
Dragging follows the construction plane of the current viewport.
Now drag the objects around. You can drag in any viewport. In this model, Snap is set to one-half of a grid line.
Using this snap, you should be able to line objects up with each other.
To move objects:
1
Click the cone and drag it.
The cone highlights to show it is selected.
The selected cone highlights.
2
Drag the cone in the Perspective viewport until it lines up with
the cylinder.
It will be inside the cylinder.
The cone moves on the base that is represented by the grid. This
base is called a construction plane. Each viewport has its own
construction plane. When you start Rhino, the Perspective
viewport has the same construction plane as the Top viewport.
You will learn more about using construction planes later.
Drag the cone to move it.
Robert McNeel & Associates
22
Notes:
3
In the Front viewport, drag the cone to the top of the cylinder.
Watch what happens in the Perspective viewport.
There are many times when you have to watch what is happening
in other viewports to accurately place your objects.
Move the cone in the Front viewport.
4
Click in the Perspective viewport.
5
Change the viewport to a Rendered Display.
Rendered Display.
Try on Your Own
1
Re-open the model. Do not save changes.
2
Drag the objects around.
Use the Front viewport to move the objects vertically and the Top or Perspective viewport to move them
horizontally.
Robert McNeel & Associates
23
Notes:
Copy Objects
To create more objects, copy the shapes.
To start with a new model:
1
From the File menu, click Open.
2
Do not save the changes.
3
In the Open dialog box, select Start.3dm.
To copy objects:
1
Click the box to select it.
2
From the Transform menu, click Copy.
3
Click somewhere in the Top viewport.
Copy
It usually helps to click a spot that relates to the object like the
middle or near a corner.
Select and copy the box.
4
5
6
Click where you
want the first copy.
Zoom in closer if
you like.
Click other places
to make more
copies of the box.
When you have
enough copies,
press Enter.
Robert McNeel & Associates
24
Notes:
Try on Your Own

Make copies of more objects and move them around. See if you
can build something.
Changing the View of Your Model
When you add detail to your models, you will need to see different parts of your model with different
magnifications. You can use the view commands, the mouse, and the keyboard to change the view in a viewport.
Each view corresponds to the view through a camera lens. The invisible target of the camera is located in the
middle of the viewport.
Viewports
With Rhino, you can open an unlimited number of viewports. Each viewport has its own projection, view,
construction plane, and grid. If a command is active, a viewport becomes active when you move the mouse over
it. If a command is not active, you must click in the viewport to activate it.
Most viewport controls can be accessed through the viewport popup menu.
To open the popup menu, right click the viewport title.
Parallel vs. Perspective Projection
Unlike other modelers, Rhino lets you work in both parallel and perspective views.
To toggle a viewport between parallel and perspective view:
1
Right-click the viewport title, click Viewport Properties.
2
In the Viewport Properties dialog box, click Parallel or Perspective, and then click OK.
Robert McNeel & Associates
25
Notes:
Panning and Zooming
The simplest way to change the view is to hold down the Shift key and drag the mouse with right mouse button
held down. This pans the view. To zoom in and out, hold down the Ctrl key and drag up and down or use the
mouse wheel.
You can also use the keyboard to navigate:
Key
Action
+ Ctrl
Left Arrow
Rotate left
Pan left
Right Arrow
Rotate right
Pan right
Up Arrow
Rotate up
Pan up
Down Arrow
Rotate down
Pan down
Page Up
Zoom in
Page Down
Zoom out
Home
Undo View Change
End
Redo View Change
You can change your view in the middle of a command to see precisely where you want to select an object or
select a point.
There are additional Zoom controls that will be discussed in other exercises.
Resetting Your View
If you get lost, four view techniques can help you get back to a starting place.
To undo and redo view changes:

Click in a viewport, press your Home or End key on your keyboard to undo and redo view changes.
To set your view so you are looking straight down on the construction plane:

From the View menu, click Set View, and then click Plan.
To bring all your objects into view:

From the View menu, click Zoom, and then click Zoom Extents.
To bring all your objects into view in all viewports:

From the View menu, click Zoom, and then click Zoom Extents All.
Robert McNeel & Associates
26
Notes:
Exercise 2—Display options

Open the model
Camera.3dm.
You will use this to practice
changing views. You will
create views from six
directions and an oblique
perspective view.
Robert McNeel & Associates
27
Notes:
To change the number of viewports:
1
Make the Top viewport
active.
2
From the View menu, click
Viewport Layout, and then
click Split Horizontal.
3
Make the Front viewport
active.
4
From the View menu, click
Viewport Layout, and then
click Split Vertical.
5
Repeat this step for the Right
Viewport.
6
Right click on the Top
viewport title at the top, click
Set View, then, click
Bottom.
7
Right click on the Front
viewport title on the left, click
Set View, then, click Left.
8
Right click on the Right
viewport title on the right,
click Set View, then, click
Back.
Split Viewport Horizontally
Split Viewport Vertically
Bottom View
Left View
Each viewport is Split down the middle either horizontally or vertically.
Back View
To change the shape of viewports:
1
Move your cursor to the edge of a viewport until you see the resizing
or
button down, and drag the bar. If two viewports share the edge, both resize.
2
Move your cursor to the corner of a viewport until you see the resizing
cursor, hold the left mouse, and
drag the intersection in any direction. If several viewports touch at that corner, all resize.
Robert McNeel & Associates
cursor, hold the left mouse
28
Notes:
To synchronize the viewports:
1
Adjust the size shape of the
viewports.
2
Make the Front viewport
active.
3
From the View menu, click
Zoom, and then click Zoom
Extents.
4
Right click on the Front
viewport title, click Set
Camera, and then click
Synchronize Views.
5
Synchronize Views
Change the viewport displays
to one of the shaded viewport
settings.
All the views are sized to the same scale as the active viewport and aligned
with each other.
To zoom to a window:
1
From the View menu, click Zoom,
and then click Zoom Window.
2
Click and drag a window around a
portion of the model.
Robert McNeel & Associates
Zoom Window
29
Notes:
To zoom a selected object:
1
Select the shutter release.
2
From the View menu, click Zoom,
and then click Zoom Selected.
Zoom Selected
The view zooms to the selected
object.
To rotate the view:
1
In a perspective viewport, drag with right mouse button.
2
In a parallel viewport, use the arrow keys.
To maximize and restore a viewport:
1
Double-click the viewport title to maximize it.
2
Double-click the title of the maximized viewport to restore it to its smaller size and reveal the other viewports.
Robert McNeel & Associates
30
Part Two:
Creating Geometry
Notes:
3
Creating Two-Dimensional
Objects
Drawing Lines
The Line, Lines, and Polyline commands draw straight lines. The Line command draws a single line segment.
The Lines command draws multiple end-to-end line segments. The Polyline command draws a series of straight
joined segments (a single linear curve with multiple segments).
Option
Description
Close
Closes the shape by drawing a segment from the last point picked to the first point picked. This
ends the command.
Undo
Deletes the last point picked.
Exercise 3—Drawing lines
1
From the File menu, click New.
2
Do not save changes.
In the Template File dialog box, double click Small Object - Millimeters.3dm.
3
From the File menu, click Save As.
4
In the Save dialog box, type Lines, and then click Save.
Robert McNeel & Associates
33
To draw line segments:
1
From the Curve menu, click Line, and then click Line
Segments to begin the Lines command.
2
Pick a point in a viewport.
3
Pick another point in a viewport.
4
A line segment appears between the two points.
Pick another point.
5
Continue to pick points.
6
Additional segments appear.
Each segment meets but is not joined to the previous segment.
Press Enter to end the command.
Notes:
Line Segments
Right Click
To use the Close option:
1
Repeat the Lines command.
2
Pick a Start point.
3
Pick 3 or 4 more points.
4
Click Close.
The last line will end at the original start point. Line segments are individual lines that meet at a common
endpoint.
To draw a polyline:
1
From the Curve menu, click Polyline, and then click Polyline to
begin the Polyline command.
2
Pick a Start point.
3
Pick 3 or 4 more points.
4
Polyline
Left Click
Press Enter when done.
This makes an open polyline. A polyline is made of line segments
that are joined together. It is one object.
Robert McNeel & Associates
34
To use the Undo option:
1
Repeat the Polyline command.
2
Pick a Start point.
3
Pick 3 or 4 more points.
4
Click Undo on the command line.
5
Notice that your cursor moves back to the previous point and one segment of the polyline is removed.
Continue to pick points.
6
Press Enter or click Close to end the command.
Notes:
To draw a single line segment:
1
From the Curve menu, click Line, and then click Single Line to
begin the Line command.
2
Pick a Start point.
3
Line
Pick an End point.
The command ends after one segment is drawn.
To use the Bothsides option:
1
From the Curve menu, click Line, and then click Single Line to
begin the Line command.
2
Click Bothsides on the command line.
3
Pick a Middle point.
4
Pick an End point.
A segment is drawn with equal length on both sides of the middle
point.
Robert McNeel & Associates
35
Notes:
Drawing Free-form Curves
The InterpCrv and Curve commands draw free-form curves. The InterpCrv command draws a curve through
the points you pick. The Curve command uses control points to create a curve.
Option
Description
Close
Closes the shape by drawing from the last point picked to the first point picked. This ends the
command.
EndTangent
After choosing a point on another curve, the next segment will be tangent to the point you
picked and end the command.
Undo
Deletes the last point picked.
Degree
You can set the degree of the curve.
Knots
Determines how the interpolated curve is parameterized.
When you draw an interpolated curve, the points you pick are converted into knot values on
the curve. The parameterization means how the intervals between knots are chosen.
Sharp
When you make a closed curve, it will come to a point instead of making a smooth closure as
it normally does.
Exercise 4—Drawing interpolated curves
1
From the Curve menu, click Free-form, and then click
Interpolate Points.
2
Pick a Start point.
3
Continue picking points.
4
Click Close to make a closed curve or, press Enter to end the
command.
Robert McNeel & Associates
Curve: Interpolate Points
36
Notes:
Exercise 5—Drawing curves from control points
1
From the Curve menu, click Free-form, and then click Control
Points.
2
Pick a Start point.
3
Continue picking points.
4
Click Close to make a closed curve or, press Enter to end the
command.
Control Point Curve
Notice that most of the points
you pick are off the curve as
control points.
Modeling Aids
Modes are modeling aids that you can toggle on or off by pressing shortcut keys, a function key, typing a single
letter command, or clicking a button.
Click the Snap, Ortho, Planar or History panes on the status bar to toggle these modeling aids on and off.
Snap
Forces the marker to snap on grid intersections.
You can also toggle Snap on and off by pressing F9 or typing the letter S and pressing Enter.
Ortho
Restricts cursor movement to the points at a specified angle from the last point created. The default angle is 90
degrees.
You can also toggle Ortho on and off by pressing F8 or pressing and holding the Shift key down.
If Ortho is set to on, hold down the Shift key to toggle Ortho off. If Ortho is off, hold down the Shift key to toggle
Ortho on. F8 or Shift.
Robert McNeel & Associates
37
Notes:
Planar
This is a modeling aid similar to Ortho. This helps you model planar objects by forcing input to be on a plane
parallel to the construction plane that passes through the last point that you picked.
You can also toggle Planar On-Off by typing the letter P and pressing Enter.
History
Records history and updates history-aware objects. With History recording and Update turned on, a lofted surface
can be changed by editing the input curves.
In general, it is best to leave the Record option set to No and use the Record History status bar pane to
selectively record history. Recording history uses computer resources and makes saved files larger.
Grid
Pressing F7 hides or shows a reference grid in the current viewport of the graphics screen at the construction plane.
Exercise 6—Drawing lines and curves using mode functions
1
Toggle Snap on and draw some lines.
2
The marker snaps to each grid intersection.
Toggle Snap off, toggle Ortho on and draw some lines and curves.
You can only input points that are at 90 degree intervals from the last point. Using Snap and Ortho toggles
you can draw with precision. We will discuss other ways to get precision in a later session.
Robert McNeel & Associates
38
Notes:
Model Setup
In Rhino you can create full-size models using precise measurements. You might need to change the modeling
environment depending on the type of model you are creating; the default options may not always work.
To change the options:
1
From the File menu, click Properties.
2
In the Document Properties dialog box, under Rhino Options, click Modeling Aids.
3
Modeling Aids lets you control Ortho, Object Snap, Grid Snap, and other mode options.
Change the Ortho option to snap every 30 degrees.
4
In the Document Properties dialog box, click Grid.
5
In Grid properties, change the following settings.
Document Properties
You can change the appearance of the modeling environment by changing the grid elements. The grid
spacing, the frequency of the major lines, and the number of grid elements can be changed. The Grid dialog
box lets you configure grid settings.
6
Change the Grid Extents setting to 10.
7
Change the Minor grid lines every setting to 1.
8
Change the Major lines every setting to 4.
9
Change the Snap Spacing setting to .25, and click OK.
10 Draw some more lines and curves with Snap and Ortho on.
Notice that the marker now snaps between the grid intersections
and that Ortho snaps at every 30 degrees.
11 Try to draw the closed polyline to the right with Snap and Ortho
turned on.
The value for Grid extents is for
each quadrant.
30°
5.0
3.5
1.0
3.0
1.5
3.0
3.0
To reset the modeling aids options:
1
From the Tools menu, click Options.
2
In the Rhino Options dialog box, click Modeling Aids.
3
Change the Ortho options to snap every 90 degrees.
Robert McNeel & Associates
39
Notes:
Saving Your Work
Save your work periodically during a session to keep it from being accidentally deleted.
To save your model:

From the File menu, click Save.
Or, click one of the other options. You will have an opportunity to save your work.
Command
Description
Save
Saves your model and keeps it open.
SaveSmall
Save your model without render or analysis meshes and preview image to minimize file
size.
IncrementalSave
Save sequentially numbered versions of your model.
SaveAs
Saves your model to a specified file name, location, and format.
SaveAsTemplate
Save as a template.
Save
It is good practice to save your
model in stages under different
names, using the Save As
command. This lets you go back
to an earlier version of your
model for modifications if
necessary.
Layers
Rhino layers work like CAD layering systems. By creating objects on different layers, you can edit and view related
portions of a model separately or as a composite. You can create as many layers as you like.
You can display all layers simultaneously or turn any of them off. You
can lock layers so they are displayed but cannot be selected. Each
layer has a color. You can assign a name to each layer (for example,
Base, Body, Top) to organize the model or you can use preset layer
names (Default, Layer 01, Layer 02, Layer 03).
Edit Layers
The Layers window manages layers. Use it to set up layers for your
model.
Robert McNeel & Associates
40
Notes:
Exercise 7—Layers
To create a new layer:
1
From the Edit menu, click Layers, and then click Edit Layers.
2
In the Layers window, click New.
3
The new layer, Layer 06, appears in the list. Type Line and
press Enter.
4
Click New.
5
The new layer, Layer 06, appears again. Type Curve and press
Enter.
The Default layer is created automatically
when you start a new model with no
template. If you use a standard Rhino
template, a few additional layers are also
created.
To assign a color to a layer:
1
Click the Color patch on the Line row in the list.
2
In the Select Color dialog box, click Red from the list.
The right half of the sample rectangle turns red.
3
Hue, Sat, Val are the hue, saturation and value components of
the color.
R, G, and B are the red, green and blue components of the
color.
Click OK.
4
In the Layers window, the new color appears in the color bar
on the Line row of the layer list.
5
Repeat steps 1–3 to make the Curve layer Blue.
6
Click OK to close the dialog box,
Robert McNeel & Associates
Hue is controlled by moving the
line around the circular portion of
the color wheel.
Hue is the color that is referred to
as a scale ranging from red
through yellow, green and blue
and then circularly back to red.
Saturation and Value are
controlled by moving the small
circle around in the square
portion in the middle of the color
wheel.
Saturation is the vividness of
hue. Value is the relative
lightness or darkness of a color.
41
Notes:
To make a layer current:
1
In the Status Bar, click the Layer pane.
2
In the Layer popup, click Line.
3
Draw some lines.
4
The lines are on the Line layer and they are colored red.
To make a different layer current, click the Layer pane of the status bar.
5
Click Curve.
6
Draw some curves.
7
They are on the Curve layer and are colored blue.
Draw more lines and curves on each layer.
Clicking the name or
the checkbox sets the
current layer.
To lock a layer:
1
In the Status Bar, click the Layer pane.
2
In the Layer popup, click the Lock icon on the row for the Line layer.
Locking a layer turns it into a reference only layer. You can see and snap to objects on locked layers. You
cannot select any objects on locked layers. You cannot make a locked layer current without unlocking it.
To turn a layer off:
1
In the Status Bar, click the Layer pane.
2
In the Layer popup, click the On/Off icon (light bulb) in the row for Curve.
Turning a layer off makes all objects on it invisible.
Robert McNeel & Associates
42
Notes:
Exercise 8—Selecting objects
To select a single object:

Move your pointer arrow over the object and left-click.
The object turns yellow, which is the default highlight color.
To select more than one object:
1
Move your pointer arrow over the first object and left-click.
2
While holding the Shift key down, move your pointer over another object and left click.
To select more than one object using a window:
1
Move your pointer arrow into an open area to the left of the objects you want to select.
2
Hold your left mouse button down and drag diagonally to the right until you have several objects inside the
selection box.
3
The window selection box is a solid rectangle.
Release your mouse button.
4
All objects completely inside the selection box will be selected.
To add to your selection set, hold the Shift key down while making another selection.
To select more than one object using a crossing window:
1
Move your pointer arrow into an open area to the right of the objects you want to select.
2
Hold your left mouse button down and drag diagonally to the left until you have several objects inside or
touching the box.
3
The crossing selection box is a dotted rectangle.
Release your mouse button.
4
All objects inside or touching the box will be selected.
To add to your selection set, hold the Shift key down while making another selection.
Robert McNeel & Associates
43
To hide an object:
1
Select an object.
2
From the Edit menu, click Visibility, and then click Hide.
The object becomes invisible.
To show hidden objects:

From the Edit menu, click Visibility, and then click Show.
Notes:
Hide Objects
Show Objects
The Show command redisplays all hidden objects.
To lock an object:
1
Select an object.
2
From the Edit menu, click Visibility, and then click Lock.
The object becomes shaded gray. You can see the locked object, you can snap to it, but you cannot select it.
To unlock locked objects:

From the Edit menu, click Visibility, and then click Unlock.
Lock Objects
Unlock Objects
The Unlock command redisplays all locked objects.
To change an object from one layer to another:
1
Select an object.
2
From the Edit menu, click Layers, and then click Change Object Layer.
3
In the Layer for object dialog box, select the new layer for the object, and
click OK.
Robert McNeel & Associates
Change Object Layer
44
Notes:
Selecting Objects
Delete removes selected objects from the model. Use Delete to practice selecting objects.
Exercise 9—Practice using selection options
1
From the File menu, click Open.
2
In the Open dialog box click Delete.3dm and click Open, or
double-click Delete.3dm to open the model.
3
Select the square and the circle.
4
From the Edit menu, click Delete or press the Delete key.
The objects disappear.
Robert McNeel & Associates
45
To start the first practice:
1
Select one of the lines on the hexagon in the Top viewport.
2
Because there are several curves superimposed on each other,
the selection menu appears, allowing you to select one of the
curves.
Select the top curve from the list.
3
Notes:
From the Edit menu, click Delete.
Observe one disappear in the Perspective viewport.
4
5
6
In the Top viewport, use a crossing box to select the surface
and the polyline in the top right part of the drawing.
Both objects are selected.
From the Edit menu, click Delete.
Make a window to select the polyline and the cylinder in the
lower right part of the drawing.
Only those objects that are completely inside the window are
selected.
7
Hold the Ctrl key down and click on the cylinder to remove it
from the selection set.
8
From the Edit menu, click Delete.
9
Continue deleting objects in the drawing.
Practice using different selection methods to select and deselect
objects. Use crossing and window. The Shift key while selecting
will let you add to your selection set. The Ctrl key while selecting
will let you to remove objects from your selection set.
Robert McNeel & Associates
46
Notes:
To undo and redo deletions:
1
From the Edit menu, click Undo.
2
Each time you click, Undo takes you back one command.
From the Edit menu, click Redo.
3
Each time you click, the previous Undo is reinstated.
Undo all the deletions you made in the previous exercise.
Additional selection options
In addition to the selection options we just practiced, there are several other useful tools for selecting objects. In
the next exercise we will use some of these tools.
Command
Button
Menu Label
Description
SelAll
All Objects (Ctrl+A)
Select all objects.
SelNone
None (Esc)
Deselect all objects. Note: SelNone does not run inside a command to clear preselected objects.
Invert
Invert
Deselects all selected objects and selects all visible objects that were not previously
selected.
SelPrev
Previous Selection
Re-selects the previous selection set.
SelLast
Last Created
Objects
Selects the last changed objects.
SelPt
Points
Select all point objects.
SelCrv
Curves
Select all curves.
SelPolyline
Polylines
Select all polylines.
SelSrf
Surfaces
Select all surfaces.
SelPolysrf
Polysurfaces
Select all polysurfaces.
Robert McNeel & Associates
47
To select objects using select tools:
1
From the Edit menu, click Select Objects, and then click Curves.
2
All the curves are selected.
From the Edit menu, click Select Objects, and then click Invert.
3
Everything but the previously selected curves is selected.
From the Edit menu, click Select Objects, and then click None.
4
Everything is unselected.
From the Edit menu, click Select Objects, and then click Polylines.
5
All of the polylines are selected.
From the Edit menu, click Select Objects, and then click Surfaces.
6
The single surface is added to the selection set.
From the Edit menu, click Select Objects, and then click Polysurfaces.
7
The polysurfaces are added to the selection set.
From the Edit menu, click Select Objects, and then click None.
8
Draw a few lines and curves.
9
From the Edit menu, click Select Objects, and then click Last Created Objects.
The things you just created are selected.
Notes:
Select Curves
Invert Selection
Select Polylines
Select Surfaces
Select Polysurfaces
Select None
Select Last Created Object
Robert McNeel & Associates
48
Notes:
Set the units and tolerance of the
model before you begin.
4
Precision Modeling
You can change the tolerance
after you start, but objects
created before the change still
have the old tolerance value.
So far you have been drawing imprecise lines. Now you will try drawing lines at specific places. To do this you will
use coordinates.
Whenever you draw a curve, or create a solid primitive, Rhino asks you for a series of points. You can tell that
Rhino is asking for point input two ways: the command prompt has a prompt like Start of line, Start of
polyline, Start of curve, or Next point and the arrow-shaped cursor turns into a cross-shaped cursor.
Cross-shaped cursor
You can enter a point two ways: pick a point in a viewport with the mouse, or type coordinates at the command
line.
Rhino uses a fixed Cartesian coordinate system called the world coordinate system (WCS), based on three axes
(the x-, y-, and z-axes) that define locations in three-dimensional space.
Each viewport has a construction plane that defines coordinates for that viewport. We will work in the Top and
Perspective viewports where the two coordinate systems are the same.
Absolute Coordinates
The first forms of coordinates you will use are called absolute coordinates. Absolute coordinates are exact
locations relative to the x-, y-, and z-axes.
Exercise 10Setting up a model
1
From the File menu, click New.
2
Click Small Object - Millimeters.3dm, and then click Open.
3
From the File menu, click Save As. Name the model BOXES.
Use the BOXES.3dm model to learn how to draw with absolute coordinates.
Robert McNeel & Associates
49
Notes:
Exercise 11—Entering absolute coordinates
1
Double-click the viewport title to maximize the Top viewport.
2
From the Curve menu, click Polyline, and then click Polyline.
3
To Start type 0 and press Enter.
4
If you are going to start at the origin of the sheet (0,0,0) you can
simply type 0 as a shortcut.
For the Next point type 5,0 and press Enter.
5
For the Next point type 5,5 and press Enter.
6
For the Next point type 0,5 and press Enter.
7
Click Close to close the polyline.
0,5
5,5
Polyline
Left Click
0,0
5,0
Relative Coordinates
Absolute coordinates can be slow and cumbersome, but they do work. Most of the time, relative coordinates are
easier to use.
Every time you select a point, Rhino saves that point as the last
point.
Next Point
Relative coordinates are based on the last point entered, instead of
on the origin (0,0,0) of the construction plane.
Precede the x,y,z coordinates with a single R (upper or lower case) to
enter relative coordinates. Use the @ symbol instead of an R to start
relative coordinates if you prefer.
Change in Y
Last Point
Change in X
Exercise 12—Entering relative coordinates
From the Curve menu, click Polyline, and then click Polyline.
2
To Start type 8,0 and press Enter.
3
These are absolute coordinates.
For the Next point type R5,5 and press Enter.
4
These are relative coordinates.
For the Next point type R-5,0 and press Enter.
5
Click Close to close the polyline.
R-5,0
8,0
Robert McNeel & Associates
R5,5
5.00
1
5.00
50
Notes:
Polar Coordinates
Polar coordinates specify a point that is a distance and direction away from 0,0 in the current construction
plane.
0
12
15
0
Distance
30
Angle
180
0
Last Point
33
0
0
21
0
30
270
Instead of using x-, y-, and zcoordinates, enter relative polar
coordinates like this: Rdistance<angle.
240
Relative polar coordinates are
preceded by R or @; absolute polar
coordinates are not.
Next Point
60
For example, if you want a point
four units away from the
construction plane origin, at a 45°
angle anticlockwise from the
construction plane x-axis, type
4<45, and press Enter.
90
Vector directions in Rhino start with Zero degrees at 3 o'clock on a standard clock. They change in an anticlockwise direction as illustrated below.
Exercise 13—Entering polar coordinates
1
From the Curve menu, click Polyline, and then click Polyline.
2
To Start type 0,8 and press Enter.
3
For the Next point type R5<0 and press Enter.
4
For the Next point type R5<90 and press Enter.
5
For the Next point type R5<180 and press Enter.
6
Click Close to close the polyline.
R5<180
0,8
Robert McNeel & Associates
R5<90
R5<0
51
Notes:
Distance and Angle Constraint Entry
Using distance constraint entry, you can specify a point by typing a distance and pressing Enter. Then as you
move your cursor in any direction, the distance from the last point will be constrained. This is a good way to
specify a line length quickly.
Using angle constraint entry, you can specify an angle by typing < followed by a value and pressing Enter. The
next point is constrained to lines at multiples of the angle relative to the x-axis you specified.
Using the Shift key to toggle Ortho on and off:
When Ortho is off, hold the Shift key down to toggle it on. This method is an efficient way to draw perpendicular
lines. In the following example, draw a line five units long using distance constraints.
Exercise 14—Distance constraint entry
1
From the Curve menu, click Polyline, and then click Polyline.
2
To Start type 8,8 and press Enter.
3
For the Next point type 5 and press Enter.
4
Hold the Shift key down and pick a point to the right.
5
Ortho constrains the marker to 0 degrees.
For the Next point type 5 and press Enter.
6
Hold the Shift key down and pick a point up.
7
Ortho constrains the cursor to 90 degrees
For the Next point type 5 and press Enter.
8
Hold the Shift key down and pick a point to the left.
9
Ortho constrains the cursor to 180 degrees.
Click Close to close the polyline.
Robert McNeel & Associates
Distance Constraint
52
Notes:
Exercise 15—Distance and angle constraint entry
1
From the Curve menu, click Polyline, and then click Polyline.
2
To Start type 16,5 and press Enter.
3
For the Next point type 5 and press Enter, then type <45 and press
Enter.
4
Angle Constraint
As you drag your cursor around, the marker snaps to a distance of 5
and an angle of 45 degrees.
Pick a point down and to the right.
5
The angle constraint sets the angle.
For the Next point type 5 and press Enter, then type <45 and press
Enter.
6
Pick a point up and to the right.
7
The angle constraint sets the angle.
For the Next point type 5 and press Enter, then type <45 and press
Enter.
8
Pick a point up and to the left.
9
The angle constraint sets the angle.
Click Close to close the polyline.
10 Save your model. You will use this model for another exercise.
Robert McNeel & Associates
53
Notes:
Exercise 16—Practice using distance and angle constraint entry
1
Start a new model, use the Small Objects - Millimeters.3dm template. Save as Arrow.
Since the object is symmetrical, you will only draw the lower half of the model.
START MODEL AT -11,0
2.00
2.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
8.00
11.00
6.00
Draw the arrow with a polyline, using a combination of absolute coordinates (x,y), relative coordinates (Rx,y),
polar coordinates (Rdistance<angle), and distance constraint.
The following is an example of the command line input that you might use:
Absolute x,y
2
From the Curve menu, click Polyline, then click Polyline.
3
For the Start of Polyline type -11,0.
Relative x,y
4
For the Next point, type r-2,-2.
Distance constraint
5
For the Next point, type 8 and press Enter, turn Ortho on and then pick to the right.
Relative x,y
6
For the Next point, type r1,1.
Relative polar
7
For the Next point, type r11<0.
Distance constraint
8
For the Next point, type 1 and press Enter, turn Ortho on and then
pick down.
Relative x,y
9
For the Next point, type r6,2.
10 For the Next point, press Enter to end the command.
11 Save your model.
Robert McNeel & Associates
54
Notes:
To make a copy of the polyline:
1
Select the polyline.
2
From the Transform menu, click Copy.
3
For the Point to copy from, pick a point near the polyline.
4
For the Point to copy to, type 6 and press Enter, turn Ortho on and
pick above the selected polyline.
Copy
To make a mirror image of the polyline:
1
Select the original polyline.
2
From the Transform men, click Mirror
3
For the Start of mirror plane, type 0 and press Enter.
4
For the End of mirror plane, turn Ortho on and then pick to the right.
Mirror
To make it 3-D:
1
Select the original polyline and the mirror copy.
2
From the Solid menu and click Extrude Planar Curve, click Straight.
3
For the Extrusion distance, type 1 and press Enter.
Robert McNeel & Associates
Revolve
55
Your arrow is now a threedimensional model.
Notes:
To make it 3-D (alternate):
1
Select the copy of the polyline.
2
On the Status bar, click Osnap.
3
On the Osnap toolbar check End.
4
From the Surface menu, click Revolve.
5
For the Start of revolve axis, select the end of the polyline.
6
For the End of revolve axis, select the other end of the polyline along
the centerline.
7
Press Enter to use the default Start angle.
8
Press Enter to use the default Revolution angle.
Your arrow is now a threedimensional model.
Robert McNeel & Associates
56
Notes:
Exercise 17—Practice using distance and angle constraints
1
2
Start a new model using the Small
Objects – Millimeters.3dm
template. Save as V-Block.
4
45°
Double-click the viewport title in the
Front viewport to maximize it.
20
4
Create the following model in the
front construction plane.
3
4
Draw the object below using a
combination of absolute coordinates
(x,y), relative coordinates (rx,y),
and relative polar coordinates
(rdistance<angle).
Start your model at 0 in the Front
viewport.
18
4
6.54
4
4
8
10
20
120°
20
8
10
60
Try to create the model using a single polyline.
5
Double-click the viewport title of the Front viewport to restore your views.
6
Select the polyline.
7
From the Solid menu, click Extrude Planar Curve, and then click Straight.
8
For the Extrusion Distance type 60 and press Enter.
9
You can view the model as a three-dimensional object in the Perspective
viewport.
Save your model.
Robert McNeel & Associates
Extrude Planar Curve
57
Notes:
Object Snaps
Object Snaps are tools for specifying points on existing objects. Use osnaps for precision modeling and to get
accurate data. Object snaps are often referred to as osnaps. In Rhino, reliable modeling and easy editing depends
on objects actually meeting at specified points. Objects snaps give you precision you cannot get using the
―eyeball‖ method
To open the Osnap toolbar

Click the Osnap pane in the status bar.
This toolbar controls persistent object snaps. Use persistent objects snaps to maintain an object snap through
choosing several points without having to reactivate the object snap.
When an object snap is active, moving the cursor near an eligible point on an object causes the marker to jump to
that point and a tooltip to appear.
Check a box to turn on the object snap. You can place the toolbar anywhere on your desktop.
Command
Button
Description
End
End snaps to the end of a curve, surface edge corner or polyline segment end.
Near
Near snaps to the nearest point on an existing curve or surface edge.
Point
Point snaps to a control point or point object.
Mid
Midpoint snaps to the midpoint of a curve or surface edge.
Cen
Center snaps to the center point of a curve. This works best with circles and arcs.
Int
Intersection snaps to the intersection of two curves.
Perp
Knot
Perpendicular To snaps to the point on a curve that makes a perpendicular to the last selected point. It
doesn't work on the first point that a command prompts you to pick.
Tangent To snaps to the point on a curve that makes a tangent to the last selected point. It doesn't work
on the first point that a command prompts you to pick.
Quad snaps to the quadrant point. The quadrant point is the maximum or minimum direction on a curve
in the x or y construction plane direction.
Knot snaps to knot points on curves or surface edges.
Project
Projects the snap point to the construction plane.
SmartTrack
SmartTrack is a system of temporary reference lines and points that is drawn in the Rhino viewport
using implicit relationships among various 3-D points, other geometry in space, and the coordinate axes'
directions.
Temporarily turns off persistent object snaps, retaining settings
Tan
Quad
Disable
Robert McNeel & Associates
58
Notes:
Exercise 18—Using object snaps
1
Open the model Osnap.3dm.
2
Toggle Snap and Ortho off.
Using End and Midpoint object snaps:
1
Click the Osnap pane on the status bar.
You can leave the Osnap toolbar displayed.
Osnap bar with End and Mid on.
2
Check End and Mid.
You can check and clear individual object snaps to make modeling with precision easy.
3
From the Curve menu, click Polyline, and then
click Polyline.
4
For the Start of Polyline, move your cursor
close to the end of the line at the lower left
corner of the first square and pick when the
marker snaps to the end of the line.
5
The line starts exactly at that corner.
For the Next point, move your cursor close to
the midpoint of the vertical line at the right side
of the square on the right, pick when the
marker snaps to the midpoint.
The marker snaps to the midpoint of the line that the cursor touches, making the new line cross to the exact
midpoint of that side.
6
7
For the Next point, move your cursor close to the end of the line at the upper
left corner of the first square, pick when the marker snaps to the end of the
line.
The marker snaps to the end of the line.
Press Enter to end the command.
Robert McNeel & Associates
59
Using Near and Perpendicular to object snaps:
1
In the Osnap toolbar check Near and Perp,
clear End and Mid.
2
From the Curve menu, click Line, and then
click Single Line.
3
For the Start of line, pick on the lower edge of
the circle at the top right.
4
Notes:
The marker snaps to the point on the circle
nearest to where the cursor is positioned.
For the End of line, pick the top horizontal
edge of the second square.
The marker snaps to a point making a perpendicular to the previous point.
Using Intersection and Tangent to object snaps:
1
In the Osnap toolbar check Int and Tan; clear
Near and Perp.
2
From the Curve menu, click Line, and then
click Single Line.
3
For the Start of line, pick the intersection
where the diagonal line crosses the vertical line
on the first square.
The marker snaps to the intersection between
the two lines.
4
For the End of line, pick the top, left edge of the circle on the right.
The marker snaps to a point tangent to the circle.
Robert McNeel & Associates
60
Using Center of object snap:
1
In the Osnap toolbar check Cen, clear Int and
Tan.
2
From the Curve menu, click Line, and then
click Single Line.
3
For the Start of line, pick on the edge of a
circle.
4
Notes:
The marker snaps to the center of the circle.
For the End of line, pick on the edge of the
other circle.
The marker snaps to the center of the circle.
Using Quadrant of object snap:
1
In the Osnap toolbar check Quad, clear Cen.
2
From the Curve menu, click Polyline, and then
click Polyline.
3
For the Start of Polyline, pick a point on the
top edge of the first circle.
4
The marker snaps to the quadrant point of the
circle.
For the Next point, pick the left edge of the
circle.
The marker snaps to the quadrant point of the
circle.
5
For the Next point, pick the bottom edge of the circle.
6
For the Next point, pick the right edge of the circle.
7
Click Close to finish.
8
Use the SaveAs command to save the model. Name it Analyze. We will use it for a later exercise.
Robert McNeel & Associates
61
Notes:
Other modeling aids
As well as allowing the user to work in a completely unconstrained free-form manner Rhino has a number of
modeling aids and constraints that help with precision modeling. This section outlines these aids and constraints.
Exercise 19—Smart Track
Smart Track creates a set of temporary reference lines and points that work in conjunction with Rhino’s object
snaps. Using Smart Track obviates the need to create dummy reference lines and points. Smart Track works on 2D and 3-D objects. It can be used in conjunction with the Project and Planar constraints described later in this
section.
To use the Smart Track tool:
1
Open the Constraints.3dm model and maximize the Top Viewport.
2
Make sure that the following object snaps are turned on: End, Near, Point, Mid, Cen and Int.
3
Turn on Smart Track on the Osnap toolbar.
4
From the Curve menu, click Point Object,
then click Single Point.
5
Hover the cursor over the lower left corner of
the green rectangle, the End snap will be
displayed and a white marker point becomes
visible.
6
Repeat this process on the bottom left hand
corner of the gold rectangle.
7
Now move the cursor towards the apparent
intersection point of these two corners. Two
temporary construction lines are displayed.
8
The point is positioned on the intersection of
these two construction lines.
Click to place the Point Object.
Smart Track will work with any of the available
object snaps. Experiment with some
alternatives.
Robert McNeel & Associates
62
Exercise 20 – Tab Constraint
Notes:
The Tab constraint allows the user to fix a direction to a reference point and thereby constrain cursor movement.
The following example shows a simplistic use of the Tab constraint.
To use the Tab Constraint:
1
We will work with the Constraints.3dm file as
previous and again maximize Top view.
2
Turn off Smart Track.
3
From the Curve menu click Line, then click
Single Line.
4
For the Start of Line snap to the End of the
bottom left hand corner of the gold rectangle.
5
For the End of Line, hover the mouse over the
bottom left hand corner of the green rectangle,
when the End snap appears press the Tab
key.
6
Note that the line now becomes white and the
direction is constrained.
For the End of Line, drag your mouse to the
desired location and click.
The Tab constraint will work in conjunction
with all object snaps and all tools that require a
directional input, for example Move, Copy,
and Rotate.
Robert McNeel & Associates
63
Exercise 21 – Project Constraint
Notes:
By default 2-D geometry is created on the active construction plane. Object snaps override this behavior and
snapping to objects that are not on the construction plane will cause the geometry to be non-planar. The Project
constraint ignores objects snaps and pushes all the geometry onto the active construction plane.
To use the Project Constraint:
1
We will again work with the Constraints.3dm
file as previous.
2
Make sure that the Ortho constraint is On.
3
Turn Layer 01 off and turn Layer 02 on.
4
The surfaces on Layer 02 are located at different
elevations.
Working in Top viewport, draw a Polyline
around the perimeter of the three rectangles.
Notice how the how the planar nature of the
polyline is overridden by the object snaps.
5
Delete the Polyline.
6
Turn on the Project constraint on the Osnap
toolbar.
7
Again, working in Top viewport, draw a
Polyline around the perimeter of the three
rectangles.
Look in the Perspective viewport as you draw
the polyline and note how the object snaps for
the endpoints of the green and blue rectangles
are projected to the construction plane.
8
The Project constraint forces all the segments of the polyline onto the
construction plane. The resulting polyline is planar.
Save the File
Robert McNeel & Associates
64
Exercise 22 – Planar Constraint
Notes:
The Planar constraint limits successive picked locations to the same construction plane elevation as the previous
location. For example a command such as Polyline can be started off the construction plane and the Planar
constraint will override Rhino’s default behavior of snapping back to the construction plane.
To use the Planar Constraint:
We will first look at what happens with the Planar constraint Off. Then, we will turn the Planar constraint On to see
what changes.
1
We will again work with the Constraints.3dm
file as previous.
2
Turn off the Ortho and Planar constraints.
3
Start the Polyline command.
4
Working in the Top Viewport, start the Polyline
at the lower left corner of the Green rectangle.
5
Add some more segments without snapping to
any of the objects.
6
Look at the Perspective viewport and notice how
the polyline pulls back onto the construction
plane after the initial point.
To override this behavior and create a planar
curve delete the Polyline and turn on the
Planar constraint.
7
Draw the Polyline again.
8
Note how it now remains planar.
Delete the Polyline.
Robert McNeel & Associates
65
To create a Planar curve that starts above the active construction plane and references object snaps at
different heights:
Notes:
First we will draw a polyline without the Project constraint activated. Then we will use the Planar constraint in
conjunction with the Project constraint to see what changes.
1
Turn the Planar constraint On.
2
In the Top viewport, draw a new Polyline starting again at one of the corners
of the Green rectangle.
3
Create some additional points this time snapping to some of the Blue and
Gold rectangle corner points.
4
Look at the Perspective view and note how the object snaps override the
Planar constraint.
Delete the Polyline.
5
In the Perspective viewport, draw a new
Polyline starting again at one of the corners
of the Green rectangle.
6
After making the first point, turn the Project
constraint On.
7
Create some additional points, snapping to
some of the Blue and Gold rectangle corner
points.
Note that the points stay planar to the first
point, even though you are snapping to points
that are at different elevations.
Robert McNeel & Associates
66
Notes:
Viewports and Construction Planes
In the following exercise, we will practice using Osnaps while learning more about Viewports and Construction
planes.
Exercise 23—Viewports and construction planes

Open the Chair.3dm model.
Viewports
Viewports are windows in the Rhino graphics area that show you a view of your model. To move and resize
viewports, drag the viewport title or borders. The cursor moves along a construction plane, which is defined for
each viewport. You can create new viewports, rename viewports, and use predefined viewport configurations. To
activate a viewport click anywhere in the viewport and the title highlights. If you are in a command sequence, you
simply have to move your cursor into a viewport to activate it.
Construction planes
The construction plane is the guide used for modeling Rhino objects. Points you pick are always on the
construction plane unless you use coordinate input, elevator mode, or object snaps.
Each construction plane has its own axes, a grid,
and an orientation relative to the world coordinate
system.
The grid is a plane of perpendicular lines lying on
the construction plane. On default grids, every fifth
line is slightly thicker. The red line represents the
construction plane x-axis.
The green line represents the construction plane yaxis. The red and green lines meet at the
construction plane origin.
The icon in the left hand corner always shows world
coordinates, which are different from the
construction plane axes.
Default construction planes are provided with the
default viewports.
 The Top construction plane x- and y-axes align with the world x- and y-axes.
 The Right construction plane (x- and y-axes) align with the world y- and z-axes.
 The Front construction plane (x- and y-axes) align with the world x- and z-axes.
 The Perspective viewport uses the Top construction plane.
Robert McNeel & Associates
67
Next, we will turn on layers that illustrate how the default construction planes relate to each other. Each layer
contains an image for a chair. Later in this exercise we will create our own chair.

Notes:
Turn the CP-Top, CP-Front, CP-Right layers
on.
Each of the layers contain an image of a
view of a tubular chair.
Notice that all the Chair images intersect at
the origin of the model (0,0,0).
When you draw on any viewport the
geometry will be located on the construction
plane, unless you use Osnaps, Planar mode,
or Elevator mode.
Robert McNeel & Associates
68
Notes:
Exercise 24—Modeling in 3-D space
Rhino makes it easy to draw in 3-D space. You can draw on a different
construction plane by simply moving your cursor into a different viewport.
Another useful tool for modeling in 3-D space is elevator mode.
In the following exercise we will draw in different viewports and use elevator
mode to move some points in 3-D space.
Elevator mode lets you pick points that are off the construction plane.
Elevator mode requires two point picks to completely define the point. The
first specifies the base point. The second specifies how far the final point is
above or below the base point.
After the base point is specified, the marker is constrained to a tracking line
perpendicular to the construction plane that passes through the base point.
Pick a second point to specify the coordinate of the desired point. You can
pick a point with the mouse, or type a single number to specify the height
above the construction plane. Positive numbers are above the construction
plane; negative numbers are below.
You will use Snap, Ortho and Elevator mode to draw in different viewports.
1
Toggle Planar off and Snap on. Toggle Ortho
on as needed.
2
Turn on the Point osnap.
3
From the Curve menu, click Polyline, and then
click Polyline.
4
Move your cursor into the Front viewport.
5
To Start click at the lower left side of the
tubular chair image.
6
Use coordinate input and the image to draw the
first part of the chair frame.
7
After you complete the profile lines, move your cursor to the Right viewport to draw a horizontal line.
Robert McNeel & Associates
69
Notes:
8
Move your cursor to the Front viewport until it
snaps to the point at the lower end of the
diagonal line. Don’t click at this time.
9
While the cursor is locked onto the point, hold
down the Ctrl key, and pick.
Holding the Ctrl key while clicking with the left
mouse button activates elevator mode.
10 Release the Ctrl key, move your cursor to the
Perspective viewport and drag the point until
it snaps to the last point, and pick.
11 Continue drawing the rest of the chair frame
using the same technique.
Snap to the next point in the Front viewport,
activate elevator mode, then move your mouse
to the Perspective viewport to position the point.
12 For the last segment you can click Close on the
command line or snap to the start point and
click.
Robert McNeel & Associates
70
To make a custom construction plane:
Notes:
We now want to draw along the chair back, so we will change the construction plane.
1
On the Status Bar, click Osnap, and check
End.
2
Change to the Perspective viewport and turn
on the Grid, if necessary, by pressing F7.
3
From the View menu, click Set CPlane, and
then click 3 Points.
4
For the CPlane origin, pick vertex (1).
5
For X axis direction, pick vertex (2).
6
For the CPlane orientation, pick vertex (3).
Set Cplane by 3 points
The construction plane is aligned with the back
of the chair.
To create a named construction plane
1
From the View menu, click Set CPlane, then click Named CPlanes.
2
In the Named CPlanes dialog, click Save.
3
In the Save CPlanes dialog, type ChairBack, then click OK.
Named CPlanes
You have a custom cplane that can be restored as needed. This custom cplane is saved to the file.
Robert McNeel & Associates
71
To create a named view:
1
2
Notes:
From the View menu, click Set View, click
Plan.
The view changes. You are looking straight down
on the new construction plane.
From the View menu, click Set View, click
Named Views.
3
In the Named Views dialog, click Save.
4
In the Save Views dialog, type ChairBack,
then click OK.
Plan View of CPlane
Edit Named Views
This creates a custom view that can be restored
as needed.
5
Change back to the Perspective view.
6
From the View menu, click Set View, then click Perspective.
7
Draw some lines on the new construction plane.
Perspective View
To make it solid:
1
Change to the Chair Frame layer.
2
Select the chair frame.
3
From the Solid menu, click Pipe.
4
For the Start and End Radius, type 3 and press Enter.
Pipe
The chair has a solid frame.
5
Save the model.
Robert McNeel & Associates
72
On your own:
Notes:
Try some variations and add some features.
Robert McNeel & Associates
73
Notes:
Analysis Commands
Rhino provides analysis tools for finding lengths, angles, areas, distances, and the volume and centroid of solids.
Additional commands let you analyze curve curvature, determine continuity between curves, and find unjoined
edges.
Command
Description
Distance
Displays the distance between two points.
Length
Displays the length of a curve object or surface edge.
Angle
Displays the angle between two lines.
Radius
Measures the radius of curvature of a curve, circle, or arc at the point where you pick the curve
and displays it on the command line.
EvaluatePt
The Cartesian coordinates of the point, in both world and construction plane coordinates are
displayed on the command line in x,y,z format.
To find the distance between two points:
1
Open the Analyze.3dm that you saved from an earlier exercise.
2
If you didn’t get a chance to save the model, open the Analyze-01.3dm
instead.
From the Analyze menu, click Distance.
3
Pick the intersection where a diagonal line intersects a vertical line.
4
Pick the intersection where the other diagonal line intersects the same
vertical line.
5
Distance
Use object snaps.
Press F2 to display the information.
CPlane angles and deltas: xy = 90 elevation = 0
dx = 0 dy = 3.077 dz = 0
World angles and deltas: xy = 90 elevation = 0
dx = 0 dy = 3.077 dz = 0
Distance = 3.077 millimeters
To find the length of a line:
1
From the Analyze menu, click Length.
2
Select the line between the centers of the circles.
Length
Length = 8.000 millimeters
Robert McNeel & Associates
74
To measure the angle between two lines:
1
From the Analyze menu, click
Angle.
2
Select a point that defines the vertex
of an angle line.
3
Select a point that defines the end of
an angle line.
4
Use object snaps as appropriate.
Select a point that defines the vertex
of the second angle line.
5
Select a point that defines the end of the second angle line.
Notes:
Angle
The angle displays on the command line in the following format: Angle = 21.7711
To measure the radius of a circle:
1
2
From the Analyze menu, click Radius.
Select one of the circles.
Radius
This also measures the radius of a point on a curve.
The radius displays on the command line in the following format:
Radius = 2.5
To evaluate a point:
1
From the Analyze menu, click Point.
2
Snap to the end point of the tangent line.
Evaluate Point
The x,y,z point is displayed for the world coordinate plane and the current
construction plane.
Point in world coordinates = 8.203,11.488,0.000
CPlane coordinates = 8.203,11.488,0.000
Robert McNeel & Associates
75
Notes:
Drawing Circles
You can create circles using a center point and radius, center point and a diameter, two points on the diameter,
three points on the circumference, and tangent points to two coplanar curves and a radius.
Button
Command
Description
Circle
Draw a circle using the center and radius.
Circle 3Point
Draw a circle through three points on its circumference
Circle Diameter
Draw a circle using two diameter points.
Circle Tangent,
Tangent, Radius
Draw a circle tangent to two curves with a given radius.
Circle Tangent to 3
Curves
Draw a circle tangent to three curves.
Circle AroundCurve
Draw a circle perpendicular to a curve at the chosen point.
Deformable
Draws an approximation of a circle with a defined number of control points..
Vertical
Draw a circle perpendicular to the construction plane.
Exercise 25—Drawing circles
Open the Circles.3dm.
R2.00
R4.00
TTR
7.50
15.00

Ø4.00
2P
10.00
20.00
Robert McNeel & Associates
76
To draw a center, radius circle:
1
From the Curve menu, click Circle, and then click Center, Radius.
2
For the Center of circle snap to the intersection of the centerlines.
3
For the Radius type 4 and press Enter.
Notes:
Circle: Center, Radius
A circle is created around the centerline intersection.
To divide a curve by the number of segments:
For the next part of this exercise, we need to find some specific points to
locate the two of the circles. We will use the Divide command to create the
points.
1
From the Curve menu, click Point Object, then click Divide Curve by,
and then click Number of segments.
2
Select the bottom line as the curve to divide, press Enter.
3
For the Number of segments type 4 and press Enter.
A line is divided into four segments with a point at the end of each
segment.
To draw a diameter circle:
1
Turn On the Point osnap.
2
From the Curve menu, click Circle,
and then click 2 Points.
3
For the Start of diameter pick snap
to the second point from the left end
of the line you divided.
4
For the End of diameter type 4 and
press Enter, then turn Ortho on and
pick to the straight up.
5
Circle: Diameter
A circle is created with the two points you picked as the diameter, and the diameter was constrained to a
value of 4.
Repeat these steps for the second diameter circle.
Robert McNeel & Associates
77
To draw a tangent, tangent, radius circle:
1
From the Curve menu, click Circle,
and then click Tangent, Tangent,
Radius.
2
For the First tangent curve, select
the top line.
3
For the Second tangent curve,
select the left line.
4
For the Radius, type 2 and press
Enter.
Notes:
Circle: Tangent, Tangent, Radius
A circle is created that is tangent to
the two lines you selected with a
radius of 2.
5
Repeat these steps for the second TTR circle.
Robert McNeel & Associates
78
To make it 3-D:
1
Select the lines that form the rectangle.
2
From the Solid menu, click Extrude Planar Curve, and then click
Straight.
3
Notes:
For the Extrusion Distance, type 2 and press Enter.
The rectangle generates a box.
4
Select the four smaller circles.
5
From the Solid menu, click Extrude Planar Curve, and then click
Straight.
6
For the Extrusion Distance type, -6 and press Enter.
The circles generate cylinders.
7
Select the large circle in the center.
8
From the Solid menu, click Extrude Planar Curve, and then click
Straight.
9
For the Extrusion Distance ,type 4 and press Enter.
The circle generates a cylinder.
Robert McNeel & Associates
79
Notes:
Exercise 26—Using circle-related object snaps
1
Open the Link.3dm.
2
Complete the model as shown.
3
Draw the three large circles first.
4
Snap to the centerline intersections to place the
circles.
Draw the small holes next.
Use object snaps to snap to the centers of the
large circles
Robert McNeel & Associates
80
Notes:
To draw the tangent lines:
1
From the Curve menu, click Line, and then
click Tangent to 2 Curves.
2
For the first tangent point pick on the edge of
one of the circles near where you want the
tangent line to attach.
3
For the second tangent point pick on the
edge of another circle. Rhino will find the
tangent points for you.
4
Continue to use this command to complete the
model.
Line Tangent to 2 Curves
Drawing Arcs
You can create arcs using various points on the arc and construction geometry.
You can continue an existing curve with an arc to an existing curve, to a point or by an angle.
Button
Command
Description
Arc
Draw an arc from the center, start, and angle.
Arc : Start, End, Point on Arc
Draw an arc from three points.
Arc: Start, End, Direction
Draw an arc from start point, end point, and the direction from the start
point. The direction can be entered after the start point is entered or
after the end point is entered.
Arc: Tangent, Tangent, Radius
Creates an arc from tangents and radius.
Arc: Start End Radius
Creates an arc from start point, end point, and radius.
Convert Output=arcs
Converts a curve to arc segments that are joined together.
Arc options
Option
Description
Deformable
Creates an arc shaped NURBS curve
Extension
Extend a curve with an arc.
Robert McNeel & Associates
81
Notes:
Exercise 27—Practice drawing arcs (1)

Open the model
Arc1.3dm.
Arc: Start, End, Direction
Arc: Start, End, Radius
R2.00
R2.00
R2.00
4.00
R6.00
Ø2.00
R3.00
Arc: TTR
Arc: Center, Start, End
2.00
7.00
Extend Curve:
By Arc
Extend Curve:
By Arc to a Point
To draw a center, start, end or angle arc:
1
From the Curve menu, click Arc, and then click Center, Start, Angle.
2
For the Center of arc snap to the center of the circle at the lower left.
3
For the Start of arc snap to the end of the line.
4
For the End point or angle snap to the end of the other line.
Robert McNeel & Associates
Arc: Center, Start, Angle
82
To draw a start, end, direction arc:
1
From the Curve menu, click Arc, and then click Start, End, Direction.
2
For the Start point snap to the upper end of the vertical line.
3
For an End point snap to the adjacent end of the horizontal line at the
top.
4
Toggle Ortho on and drag straight up for the tangent at the start point
and pick.
5
Make another Direction Arc at the upper right.
6
For the Start point snap to the right end of the horizontal line.
7
For an End point type R2,-2 and press Enter.
8
Toggle Ortho on and drag straight down for the tangent at the start point
and pick.
Notes:
Arc: Start, End, Direction at Start
To add more arc segments using extension option:
1
From the Curve menu, click Arc, and then click Center, Start, Angle.
2
Click Extension on the command line.
3
For the Select near curve end pick near the end of the arc you just
made.
4
For the End of arc, type 4 and press Enter.
5
With Ortho on pick a point below the first point.
Arc: Center, Start, Angle
The arc will be tangent to the curve you chose.
Robert McNeel & Associates
83
To add more arc segments using the extension option:
1
From the Curve menu, click Arc, and then click Center, Start, Angle.
2
Click Extension on the command line.
3
For the Select near curve end pick near the end of the arc you just
made.
4
For the End of arc, snap to the end of the horizontal line.
Notes:
Extend: By Arc to Point
To draw a tangent, tangent, radius arc:
1
From the Curve menu, click Arc, and then click Tangent, Tangent,
Radius.
2
For the First tangent curve pick the lower right side of the top circle.
3
For the Radius type 3 and press Enter.
4
For the Second tangent curve pick the upper right side of the lower
circle.
5
Move your cursor and pick when the correct arc is displayed.
6
From the Curve menu, click Arc, and then click Tangent, Tangent,
Radius.
7
For the First tangent curve pick the upper left side of the top circle.
8
For the Radius type 6 and press Enter.
9
For the Second tangent curve pick the lower left side of the lower
circle.
Arc Tangent, Tangent, Radius
10 Move your cursor and pick when the correct arc is displayed.
Robert McNeel & Associates
84
To make it solid:
Notes:
First you will have to trim the two small circles, then you can extrude the remaining curves.
1
Select the two arcs you just
completed.
2
From the Edit menu, click Trim.
3
For the objects to trim pick on the
inner edge of each small circle.
4
You will be left with a slot.
Use the Circle command to draw the
circle concentric to the arc on the
right.
5
Select all the curves.
6
From the Solid menu, click Extrude Planar Curve, and then click
Straight.
7
For the Extrusion distance type 1 and press Enter.
The curves have been extruded and capped.
Robert McNeel & Associates
85
Notes:
Exercise 28—Practice drawing arcs (2)
Draw construction centerlines first: use their intersection point to draw your arcs and circles.
1
Start a new model, use the Small Objects Inches.3dm template. Save as Arc2.
2
Create this model using object snaps and the
Line, Circle, and Arc commands.
To make it solid:
1
Select the curves.
2
From the Solid menu, click Extrude Planar Curve, and then click
Straight.
3
For the Extrusion distance type 1 and press Enter.
The curves have been extruded and capped.
Robert McNeel & Associates
86
Notes:
Drawing Ellipses and Polygons
You can draw ellipses from the center or by the ends. You can draw polygons from a center point or an edge. You
can draw a rectangle from diagonal corners or by choosing three points.
Ellipses
Button
Command
Description
Ellipse
Draw an ellipse by specifying the center point and axis ends.
Ellipse Diameter
Draw an ellipse by specifying the axis ends.
Ellipse FromFoci
Draw the ellipse from the focus points
AroundCurve
Draw an ellipse whose axis is perpendicular to a curve.
Command
Description
Polygon
Creates a polygon from its center and radius.
Polygon Edge
Draw a polygon by specifying the ends of one edge.
Polygon Star
Draw a star from a polygon.
Polygons
Button
Polygon options
Option
Description
NumSides
Specify the number of sides for the polygon.
Circumscribed
Draw a polygon that is circumscribed about a radius. The default is to draw a polygon that is inscribed in a
specified radius.
Rectangles
Button
Command
Description
Rectangle
Draw a rectangle using opposite corners.
Rectangle Center
Draw a rectangle from center and a corner.
3Point
Draw a rectangle through three points.
Vertical
Draw a rectangle that is perpendicular to the construction plane.
Rounded
Create a rectangle with rounded corners (arc or conic).
Robert McNeel & Associates
87
Notes:
Exercise 29—Practice drawing ellipses and polygons

Start a new model,
use the Small
Objects Millimeters.3dm
template. Save as
Toy.
20
19
9 8
5
8
14
18
4 10
R1.5 for all
polygons
To draw a rectangle from diagonal corners:
1
From the Curve menu, click Rectangle, and then click Corner to
Corner.
2
For the First Corner, type -10,-5 and press Enter.
3
For the Length, type 20 and press Enter.
4
For the Width, type 10 and press Enter.
Robert McNeel & Associates
Rectangle
88
Draw rectangles from a center point with a length and width, and rounded corners:
1
From the Curve menu, click Rectangle, and then click Center, Corner.
2
Type R, and press Enter to give the rectangle rounded corners.
3
For the Center of rectangle, type 0 and press Enter.
4
For the Length, type 19 and press Enter.
5
For the Width, type 9 and press Enter.
6
For the Radius, type 1, and press Enter.
Notes:
Rectangle: Center, Corner
If you are creating a rounded rectangle, you can choose to select a point
in the corner to set its curvature instead of typing a radius value.
7
To change the type of corner, click Corner on the command line to toggle from circular rounded corners to
conic rounded corners.
Repeat these steps for a second rounded rectangle with a length of 18 and a width of 8 with .5 radius
corners.
To draw an ellipse from its center and axis ends:
1
From the Curve menu, click Ellipse, and then click From Center.
2
For the Ellipse center, type 0 and press Enter.
3
For the End of first axis, type 4, and press Enter.
4
Toggle Ortho on and pick to the right.
5
For the End of second axis, type 2.5, and press Enter.
6
Pick a point.
Ellipse
To draw a polygon from its center and radius:
1
From the Curve menu, click Polygon, and then click Center, Radius.
2
Click NumSides on the command line, type 3 and press enter to change
the number of sides for the polygon.
3
For the Center, type -7,-2 and press enter to locate the center point for
the polygon.
4
For the Corner, type 1.5, and press Enter.
5
Pick a point to orient the polygon.
6
Continue drawing the rest of the polygons. Use the same radius for each
one.
Robert McNeel & Associates
Polygon
89
To make the rounded rectangles solid:
1
Select the larger rounded rectangle.
2
From the Solid menu, click Extrude Planar Curve, and then click
Straight.
3
Drag it down to set the thickness and click.
4
Select the smaller rounded rectangle.
5
From the Solid menu, click Extrude Planar Curve, and then click
Straight.
6
Click Bothsides on the command line.
7
Drag it down until it is slightly above the previous solid and click.
Notes:
Extrude closed planar curve
The smaller rounded rectangle is protruding out of the larger one.
To make the rounded rectangle hollow:
1
Select the solid outer rounded rectangle.
2
From the Solid menu, click Difference.
3
Select the inner rounded rectangle, and press Enter.
Robert McNeel & Associates
Boolean Difference
90
To make the rectangle solid:
1
Select the rectangle.
2
From the Solid menu, click Extrude Planar Curve, and then click
Straight.
3
Set the Bothsides option to No.
4
Drag it up to set the thickness and click.
Notes:
To make the ellipse solid:
1
Select the ellipse.
2
From the Solid menu, click Extrude Planar Curve, and then click
Straight.
3
Set the Bothsides option to Yes.
4
Pick to set the thickness.
To cut the ellipse solid from the rectangle:
1
Select the solid rectangle.
2
From the Solid menu, click Difference.
3
Select the solid ellipse, and press Enter.
Robert McNeel & Associates
91
To extrude the polygons:
1
Select the polygons.
2
From the Solid menu, click Extrude Planar Curve, and then click
Straight.
3
Pick to set the thickness.
Notes:
To cut holes with the solid polygons:
1
Select the solid rectangles.
2
From the Solid menu, click Difference.
3
On the command line click DeleteInput.
4
For the second set of surfaces or polysurfaces, select the solid
polygons and press Enter.
Holes will be cut, but the objects will remain.
Robert McNeel & Associates
92
Notes:
Modeling Free-Form Curves
The use of free-form curves allows more flexibility to create complex shapes.
Button
Command
Description
Curve
Curve by control points draws a curve from specified control points. Control
points mostly do not lie on the curve, but they determine its shape.
InterpCrv
Interpolated curve creates a curve going through specified interpolate points.
These points lie on the curve and determine its curvature.
Conic
Draws a conic curve, which is part of an ellipse, parabola, or hyperbola.
Option
Description
Undo
Allows you to back up one point.
Close
Makes a closed curve.
Autoclose
Move the cursor close to the start point of the curve, and pick.
The curve will close automatically. Press ALT to suspend autoclose.
Sharp
If Yes, when you make a closed curve, it will have a kink at the start/end point instead of making a
smooth (periodic) closure.
Degree
Allows you to set the degree of the curve.
Exercise 30—Practice drawing curves (1)
1
Open the model Curve.3dm.
In this exercise, you will learn how to make a curve by control points, an interpolated curve, and a conic curve
to compare the differences between the three methods.
A common method to create with free-form curves is to draw lines that are accurately measured to use as
guidelines or a background image made from a sketch or a photograph. In this exercise the guidelines have
been created for one of the exercises and an image has been included for the other exercise.
2
In the Osnap toolbar, check End and Near, clear all others.
3
If you click End with your right mouse, it will clear all the others.
Toggle Ortho and Snap off.
Robert McNeel & Associates
93
To draw a curve by control points:
1
From the Curve menu, click Free-form, and then click Control Points.
2
For the Start of Curve, snap to the end point of the polyline guideline.
3
For the Next point, snap on the polyline guideline using the Near object
snap.
4
Continue to snap to the guideline until you get to the end.
5
Press Enter.
A free-form curve is drawn. The control points, while on the guideline,
were not on the curve itself except at the two ends.
Notes:
Control Point Curve
Control points control the
curvature of the curve, but the
points are usually not on the
curve.
To draw a curve interpolate through points:
1
Change to the Interpolated Curve layer.
2
From the Curve menu, click Free-form, and then click Interpolate
Points.
3
For the Start of Curve, snap to the intersection of the centerline and the
image using the Near object snap.
4
For the Next point, continue to pick points along the edge of the image
until you get to the other end, then use the Near object snap to snap to
the intersection of the centerline and the image.
5
Press Enter.
Curve: Interpolate Points
A free-form curve is created from specified interpolate points. These
points lie on the curve and determine its curvature.
To draw a conic curve:
1
Change to the Conic layer.
2
From the Curve menu, click Conic.
3
Snap to the point (1) at the lower left.
4
Snap to the point (2) above and to the right from the previous point.
5
Snap to the point (3) in between the previous points.
6
Pick a point for the desired curvature.
Robert McNeel & Associates
Conic
94
To make the control point curve into a surface:
1
Select the control point curve.
2
From the Surface menu, click
Revolve.
3
For the Start of revolve axis, snap
either end of the curve.
4
For the End of revolve axis, snap to
the other end of the curve.
5
For the Start angle, click FullCircle.
Notes:
Revolve
To make the interpolated curve into a surface:
1
Select the interpolated curve.
2
From the Surface menu, click
Revolve.
3
For the Start of revolve axis, snap
either end of the curve.
4
For the End of revolve axis, snap to
the other end of the curve.
5
For the Start angle, click FullCircle.
Robert McNeel & Associates
95
Notes:
Modeling Helix and Spiral
The use of free-form curves allows more flexibility to create complex shapes. If you need to control precision, you
can make construction lines that define your overall parameters.
Button
Command
Description
Helix
Draw a helix. User can specify a radius, the number of turns, the length and
direction of the axis.
Spiral
Draw a spiral. User can specify two radii, the number of turns, the length and
direction of the axis.
Option
Description
Vertical
The helix or spiral axis will be perpendicular to the construction plane in the active viewport.
AroundCurve
Select a curve for the helix or spiral to wind around to create "phone cord" shapes.
Flat
Lets you draw a planar spiral.
Mode
Determines whether the number of turns or the distance between turns is used to create the helix
or spiral
Turns
Allows you to set the number of turns along the axis.
Pitch
Allows you to set the distance between turns along the axis.
ReverseTwist
Allows you to reverse the twist direction of the helix or spiral.
Exercise 31—Practice drawing curves (2)
1
Open the model Helix-Spiral.3dm.
In this exercise, you will learn how to make a curve by control points, an interpolated curve, and a conic
curve to compare the differences between the three methods.
A common method to create with free-form curves is to draw lines that are accurately measured to use as
guidelines. In this exercise the guidelines have been created for you.
2
In the Osnap toolbar, check End and Point, clear all others.
3
If you click End with your right mouse, it will clear all the others.
Toggle Ortho and Snap off.
Robert McNeel & Associates
96
To draw a helix
1
Change to the Helix layer.
2
From the Curve menu, click Helix.
3
For the Start of axis, snap to the end of the vertical line (1) in the
Perspective viewport.
4
For the End of axis, snap to the end of the vertical line (2) in the
Perspective viewport.
5
Click Mode on the command line until it is set to Mode=Turns.
6
Click Turns on the command line.
7
For the Number of turns, type 10 and press Enter.
8
Pick the point (3) to the right of the axis line.
Notes:
Helix
A helix with 10 turns and a radius of 20 is created.
To draw a spiral:
1
Change to the Spiral layer.
2
From the Curve menu, click Spiral.
3
For the Start of axis, snap to the end of the other vertical line (1) in the
Perspective viewport.
4
For the End of axis, snap to the other end of the same line (2).
5
Click Mode on the command line until it is set to Mode=Pitch.
6
Click Pitch on the command line.
7
For the Pitch, type 15 and press Enter.
8
Click ReverseTwist on the command line until it is set to Reverse
Twist=Yes.
9
Snap the point (3) for the radius of the base of the spiral.
Spiral
10 Snap to the other point (4) for the ending radius.
A spiral is created with a reverse twist and a pitch of 15.
Robert McNeel & Associates
97
To draw a helix around a curve:
1
Change to the HelixAlongCurve layer.
2
From the Curve menu, click Helix.
3
Click AroundCurve.
4
Select the free-form curve.
5
Click Mode=Turns.
6
Click Turns
7
Type 25 and press Enter.
8
Click ReverseTwist=No.
9
For the Radius type 5 and press Enter.
Notes:
Helix
10 Pick a point for the Start point.
A helix is created around the curve.
Robert McNeel & Associates
98
Notes:
Exercise 32—Drawing free-form curves
In the following exercise we will draw the guidelines and free-form curves
for a toy screwdriver.
1
Start a new model, use the Small Objects - Millimeters.3dm
template. Save as Screwdriver.
2
Create Construction and Curve layers.
Make them different colors.
To create the construction lines:
1
Change to the
Construction layer.
2
Draw a Polyline, in the
Top viewport, using these
dimensions for the
guideline.
50
20
8
18
6
42
25
3
11
10
A good starting point for the Polyline would be -70,0.
To create the curve by control points:
1
Change to the
Curve layer.
2
Use the Curve
command to draw
the shape for the
toy screwdriver.
3
Save your model.
Robert McNeel & Associates
99
To make it solid:
1
Toggle Snap and Ortho on.
2
Select the curve.
3
From the Surface menu and click
Revolve.
4
For the Start of revolve axis, snap
to the end of the curve.
5
For the End of revolve axis, snap to
the other end of the curve.
6
For the Start angle, click FullCircle.
Notes:
Revolve
Your model is now a three-dimensional surface.
Add details on your own:
Since we haven’t discussed many of the commands that you need to complete this model, use Command Help
for assistance. Following is a list of procedures for one method to finish the model.
1
In the Top view draw a Single Line
that will be used to slice the flat part
from the screwdriver blade.
2
Extrude the line to make a surface
that intersects the blade end.
3
Use the Dir command to check the
normal direction of the surface.
4
Make sure the direction arrows are
pointing toward the blade. Use the
Flip option if needed.
Robert McNeel & Associates
100
Notes:
5
Mirror the surface around the origin
to get a surface for cutting both sides
of the blade.
6
Use the BooleanDifference
command to remove the surfaces
from the blade.
7
Draw a Curve along the top of the
handle to be used for cutting
grooves.
8
9
If you do this in the Front viewport,
you will eliminate any problems that
might arise from having one of the
slots along the seam of the surface.
Use the Pipe command to make a
surface on the curve.
Use the ArrayPolar command to
make copies of the pipe around the
handle.
Robert McNeel & Associates
101
Notes:
10 Use the BooleanDifference
command to remove the pipes from
the handle.
11 Try using the Render command to
make a rendering of the finished
screwdriver.
Robert McNeel & Associates
102
Notes:
5
Editing Objects
Once you create objects, you can move and edit them to produce complex and detailed variations.
Fillet
Fillet connects two lines, arcs, circles, or curves extending or trimming them to touch or to join with a circular arc.
Option
Description
Radius
Sets the fillet radius. A radius of 0 extends or trims the curves to a corner, but does not create a fillet.
Join
Yes, joins the fillet to the curves.
No, does not join the fillet to the curves.
Trim
Yes, trims the curves to the fillet arc.
No, does not trim the curves.
Exercise 33—Fillet

Open the model Fillet.3dm.
Rules to follow when filleting
curves:
The curves must be coplanar.
The created fillet is determined
by picking on the curve portion to
keep.
The radius cannot be so large
that it runs past the end of the
curve.
Robert McNeel & Associates
103
To fillet lines at a zero radius:
1
From the Curve menu, click Fillet Curves.
2
Click Radius to change the radius.
3
Type 0, and press Enter.
4
This Radius option remains the default until you
change it.
Select an outer vertical line.
5
Select an adjacent horizontal line.
Notes:
Fillet Curves
Remember to pick on the part of
the line that you want to keep.
The ends of the lines are trimmed to a corner.
6
Press Enter to repeat the command.
7
Fillet the other corners, as shown.
To join the filleted objects:
1
Select lines you just filleted.
2
From the Edit menu, click Join.
The objects are joined together. Curves join
only if they touch.
Robert McNeel & Associates
Join
104
To fillet lines using an arc:
1
From the Curve menu, click Fillet Curves.
2
Type 2 and press Enter to change the radius.
3
This is another method to change the radius.
Click Join to change the Join option to Yes.
4
This option joins the curves as they are filleted.
Select an outer vertical line.
5
Select an adjacent horizontal line.
6
The ends of the lines are trimmed to a radius.
Press Enter to repeat the command.
7
Fillet the other corners as shown.
8
Press Enter to repeat the command.
9
Type 1 and press Enter.
Notes:
This radius will be used for the smaller object.
10 Select an inner vertical line.
11 Select an adjacent horizontal line.
12 Fillet the other corners as shown.
Robert McNeel & Associates
105
To fillet circles:
1
From the Curve
menu, click
Fillet Curves.
2
Type 3 and press
Enter.
3
Select the right
edge of a circle.
4
Select the right
edge of the
other circle.
5
Repeat the command for the left side of the
circles.
6
Select the two fillets you just created.
7
From the Edit menu, click Trim.
8
For the objects to trim pick on the inner edge of
each circle.
Notes:
To fillet and join arcs and lines:
1
From the Curve menu, click Fillet Curves.
Set Join=Yes and Trim=Yes.
2
Select the line in the lower left part of the
viewport.
3
4
Make sure you pick on the left half of the line.
Select the adjacent arc right above the selected
line.
Repeat this procedure for the two arcs below
the line and the arc you just filleted.
Robert McNeel & Associates
106
To fillet the corners of a closed polyline:
1
Select the closed polyline.
2
From the Curve menu, click Fillet Corners.
3
For the Fillet radius, type 2 and press Enter.
Notes:
Fillet corners
All corners are filleted at once.
Blend
Blending is another method to connect lines, arcs, or curves. There are two blend commands that work on curves,
Blend (default blend) and BlendCrv (adjustable blend). Blend offers many additional options for how the curves
connect.
Option
Description
Perpendicular
When Continuity=Tangent or Curvature, allows you to blend a curve to a surface edge perpendicular to the
surface with continuity.
AtAngle
When Continuity=Tangent or Curvature, orients the direction of the blend curve other than perpendicular to
the edge.
Continuity
Continuity describes the relationship between curves and surfaces. Types of continuity: Position (G0),
Tangent (G1), and Curvature (G2).
To blend two curves:
1
From the Curve menu, click Blend Curves.
2
Select the Curves to blend near the ends that you want to connect.
3
The arcs are connected with a smooth curve. The default continuity is
Curvature.
Delete the blend curve.
Robert McNeel & Associates
Blend Curves
107
Notes:
To blend two curves with Adjustable curve blend:
1
2
3
Since there is no menu pick for this command, type
BlendCrv on the command line or select the Adjustable
curve blend icon from the Curve Tools toolbar.
Adjustable curve blend
Select the Curves to blend near the ends that
you want to connect.
You will see a preview of the default blend with
control points displayed.
For the control point to adjust, select the point
(1) and drag it further up the curve and click.
4
For the next control point to adjust, select the
point to the right of (2), drag it closer to (2) and
click.
5
After making your adjustments, press Enter to
make the blend.
Robert McNeel & Associates
108
To make a lofted surface with closed curves:
1
Change to the Surfaces layer.
2
Select the two squares in the upper left part of
the Top viewport.
3
Change to the Perspective viewport.
4
From the Surface menu, click Loft.
The two squares show a seam direction arrow.
They should point the same direction.
If the seams don’t line up at corresponding
points on the two curves, drag the seam point
until it does.
5
Press Enter.
6
In the Loft Options dialog box, click OK.
7
A surface is generated between the two closed
polylines.
Repeat the procedure for the rounded squares.
8
In the Loft Options dialog box, click OK.
9
Save your model.
Robert McNeel & Associates
Notes:
The curves in this model are at
two different elevations. You are
going to connect the curves at
different elevations with a
surface.
Loft
109
To make a lofted surface with open curves:
1
Repeat the Loft command for the three open
curves.
2
In the Loft Options dialog box, change the
Style to Loose, click Preview.
3
Change the Style to Straight sections, click Preview.
4
Change the Style to Normal.
5
For the Cross-section curve options, change
to Rebuild with, change the number of
control points to 12, click Preview.
6
Change to Refit within, click Preview.
Robert McNeel & Associates
Notes:
110
Notes:
Chamfer
Chamfer connects two curves by extending or trimming them to intersect or to join with a beveled line. Chamfer
works on convergent or intersecting curves.
Option
Description
Distances
The first chamfer distance specifies the distance from the chamfer end on the first curve to the point where
the two curves would intersect. The second chamfer distance specifies the distance of the chamfer end on
the second curve to the intersection point.
A chamfer distance of 0 trims or extends that curve to the intersection point. If the chamfer distance is nonzero, a chamfer line is created that far from the intersection, and the curve is extended to the chamfer line. If
you enter 0 for both distances, the curves are trimmed or extended to their intersection, but no chamfer line is
created.
Exercise 34—Chamfer

Open the model Chamfer.3dm.
To chamfer lines:
1
From the Curve menu, click
Chamfer.
2
For the Distance, type 1,1, and
press Enter, to set the distances.
3
Set Join=Yes.
4
Select one of the inner vertical lines.
5
Select an adjacent horizontal line.
6
Continue creating chamfers on all of
the corners.
7
Press Enter to repeat the command.
8
For the Distance, type 3,2 and
press Enter.
9
Select one of the outer horizontal
lines.
Chamfer Curves
10 Select an adjacent vertical line.
The first value is the distance along
the first curve selected, the second
value is the distance along the
second line selected.
Robert McNeel & Associates
111
Notes:
11 Continue creating chamfers on all of the corners as shown.
To turn the curves into surfaces:
1
Change to the Surfaces layer.
2
From the Edit menu, click Select Objects, and
then click Curves.
3
From the Surface menu, click Loft.
4
Adjust the seam line if necessary, press
Enter.
5
In the Loft Options dialog box, click OK.
6
A surface is generated between the two
chamfered rectangles.
Save your model.
Robert McNeel & Associates
Select Curves
112
Notes:
Exercise 35—Practice with Fillet and Chamfer
1
Open the model
Filletex.3dm.
2
Use Fillet and Chamfer to edit the
drawing as shown.
All fillets and rounds use a radius of
0.5 units.
Robert McNeel & Associates
113
To make it solid:
1
From the Edit menu, click Select Objects, and then click Curves.
2
From the Solid menu, click Extrude Planar Curve, and then click
Straight.
3
For the Extrusion distance, type 1 and press Enter.
Notes:
To fillet the top edge of the solid:
1
From the Solid menu, click Fillet Edge, and then click Fillet Edge.
2
Change the CurrentRadius to 0.25.
3
Select the edges around the top of the solid, press Enter.
Robert McNeel & Associates
114
Notes:
Move
Use Move to move objects without changing orientation or size.
Option
Description
Vertical
Moves the selected objects vertical to the current construction plane.
Exercise 36—Move
1
Open the model Move.3dm.
2
Turn off both Ortho and Snap so you can move objects freely.
3
Turn Cen object snap on.
To move using object snaps for placement:
1
Select the small circle at the bottom
left side of the Top viewport.
2
From the Transform menu, click
Move.
3
For the Point to move from, snap
to the center of the small circle.
4
For the Point to move to, snap to
the center of the arc at the lower left
of the object.
Robert McNeel & Associates
Move
115
To move using absolute coordinates:
1
From the Edit menu, click Select
Objects, and then click Curves.
2
From the Transform menu, click
Move.
3
For the Point to move from, snap
to the end of the line at the lower
part of the object.
4
For the Point to move to, type 0,0
and press Enter.
Notes:
The end of the line is exactly at point 0,0 in the Top viewport.
To move using relative coordinates:
1
Select the large slotted circle in the middle of the object.
You will move the slotted circle relative to the part.
2
From the Transform menu, click Move.
3
Pick any point in the Top viewport.
4
It is usually better if you pick near the object you are going to move.
For the Point to move to, type r0,-.25 and press Enter.
The circle moved down .25 units.
Robert McNeel & Associates
116
Notes:
Copy
Copy duplicates selected objects and places them in a new location. The command can repeat to create more than
one copy in the same command sequence.
Option
Description
Vertical
Copies the selected objects vertical to the current construction plane.
InPlace
Duplicates the object at the current location.
Exercise 37—Copy
To copy using object snaps for placement:
1
Select the small circle at the lower left of the object.
2
From the Transform menu, click Copy.
3
For the Point to copy from, snap to the center of the small circle.
4
For the Point to copy to, snap to the center of the arc at the upper left
of the object.
5
Pick to place the object, and press Enter.
Copy
To make multiple copies:
1
Select the small circle at the lower left of the object.
2
From the Transform menu, click Copy.
3
For the Point to copy from, snap to the center of the small circle.
4
For the Point to copy to, begin picking points on the screen.
5
Each time you pick, a circle will be copied to that location.
Press Enter to end the command.
6
Undo the multiple copies.
Robert McNeel & Associates
117
Notes:
Undo and Redo
If you make a mistake or do not like the results of a command, use Undo. If you decide you want those undone
results back after all, use Redo command. Redo restores the last thing undone.
Rhino
Button
Mouse
Button
Command
Description
Left-click or Ctrl+Z
Undo
Cancels the effects of the last command.
Right-click or Ctrl+Y
Redo
Restores the effects of undo.
The number of undos kept in memory can be set in Rhino Options on the General page.
If a command has an Undo option, type U to enter it, or click Undo on the command prompt.
You cannot use the Undo command after you exit the modeling session or open a different model.
Rotate
Use Rotate to move objects in a circular motion around a base point. For precise rotation, enter a number of
degrees to rotate. Positive numbers rotate counterclockwise; negative numbers rotate clockwise.
Option
Description
Copy
Duplicates the object as it is rotated
Exercise 38—Rotate
1
Select the large slotted circle in the middle of
the object.
2
From the Transform menu, click Rotate.
3
For the Center of rotation, snap to the center
of the slotted circle.
4
For the Angle, type -28 and press Enter.
Robert McNeel & Associates
Rotate 2-D
118
Notes:
Group
Grouping objects allows all members of the group to be selected as one. You can then apply commands to the
entire group.
Rhino
Button
Mouse
Button
Command
Description
Left-click or
Ctrl+G
Group
Makes a group from selected objects.
Left-click or
Ctrl+Shift+
G
Ungroup
Removes grouping.
Left-click
AddToGroup
To add objects to a group.
Left-click
RemoveFromGroup
To remove objects from a group.
Left-click
SetGroupName
To name groups
Exercise 39—Grouping
To group selected objects:
1
Select the two circles that you placed.
2
From the Edit menu, click Groups, and then click Group.
Group
To add objects to a group:
1
Select the polyline on the left, the original circle, and the slotted circle in
the center.
2
On the command line type
AddToGroup or pick the
AddToGroup icon from the
Grouping toolbar, press Enter.
3
Select one of the circles in the
previous group.
Add to group
The objects are part of the group.
Robert McNeel & Associates
119
Notes:
To remove an object from a group:
1
On the command line type RemoveFromGroup or pick the
RemoveFromGroup icon from the Grouping toolbar.
2
For the Select objects to remove from group, select the slotted circle,
press Enter.
Remove from group
The slotted circle is removed from the group.
Mirror
Mirror creates a copy of the objects flipped over a specified axis on the construction plane.
Exercise 40—Mirror
1
Select the group.
2
From the Transform menu, click
Mirror.
3
Type 0,0 or snap to the end of the
line at the lower right of the part.
4
Toggle Ortho on and pick directly
above the previous point.
Mirror
Since you mirrored a group, in
addition to having a mirror image
copy, you also have two groups.
5
Select the two groups.
6
From the Edit menu, click Groups, and then click Ungroup.
Robert McNeel & Associates
Ungroup
120
Notes:
Join
Join unites curves that meet at a common end, making a single curve. Join can unite curves that do not touch, if
you select them after the command has started. As you select non-touching curves, a dialog box asks if you want
to fill the gap.
Exercise 41—Join
1
Select the two polylines.
2
From the Edit menu, click Join.
Join
Scale
Scale changes the size of existing objects without changing their shape. This command scales three-dimensional
objects equally along all three axes. There are also 2-dimensional, one-dimensional, and non-uniform scale
commands.
Option
Description
Copy
Preserves the object as it creates a new scaled one.
Scale factor
Inputs a value for scale factor. Less than one reduces the size, more than one increases the size.
Exercise 42—Scale
1
From the Edit menu, click Select Objects, and then click Curves.
2
From the Transform menu, click Scale, and then click Scale 2-D.
3
For the Origin point, type 0 and press Enter.
4
Scale 2-D
For the Scale factor, type .75 and press Enter.
The whole part scaled to 75 percent of its original size.
Robert McNeel & Associates
121
To scale using the reference point option:
1
Select the slotted circle.
2
From the Transform menu, click Scale, and
then click Scale 2-D.
3
For the Origin point, snap to the center of the
slotted circle.
4
For the First reference point, snap to the
quadrant of the slotted circle.
Notes:
The radius of the slotted circle is the reference
for the scale factor.
5
For the Second reference point, type 1.375 and press Enter.
The slotted circle now has a larger radius of 1.375. Everything else was scaled
proportionally.
To make it solid:
1
From the Edit menu, click Select Objects, and then click Curves.
2
From the Solid menu, click Extrude Planar Curves, and then click
Straight.
3
For the Extrusion distance, type 1 and press Enter.
Robert McNeel & Associates
122
To scale in 3-D:
1
From the Edit menu, click Select Objects, and then click Polysurfaces.
2
From the Transform menu, click Scale, and then click Scale 3-D.
3
For the Origin point, type 0 and press Enter.
4
Notes:
Scale 3-D
For the Scale factor, type 1.5 and press Enter.
The solid is larger in every dimension.
To scale in one dimension:
1
From the Edit menu, click Select
Objects, and then click
Polysurfaces.
2
From the Transform menu, click
Scale, and then click Scale 1-D.
3
For the Origin point, type 0 and
press Enter.
4
For the First reference point, snap
to the Perpendicular point at the
top of the part.
5
Scale 1-D
For the Second reference point, type .5 and press Enter.
The object is half as thick.
Robert McNeel & Associates
123
Notes:
Array
Use the Array commands to make multiple copies of selected objects. Array Rectangular makes rows and columns
of objects. Array Polar copies objects in a circle around a center point
Exercise 43—Polar Array
To create a polar array:
1
Open the model Array.3dm.
2
Select the small circle in the Top viewport.
3
From the Transform menu, click Array, and
then click Polar.
4
For the Center of polar array, snap to the
center of the large circle.
5
For the Number of items, type 10 and press
Enter.
6
For the Angle to fill, check to see if it is set to
360, press Enter.
7
Polar Array
You must include the original and
the copies as the number in the
array.
The small circle is arrayed around the larger one.
Save your model.
To make the shape for the column:
1
Window select the circles.
2
From the Curve menu, click Curve Edit Tools,
then click Curve Boolean.
3
For the Regions to keep, click inside the large
curve.
4
The inside of the circle, excluding the smaller
circles is shaded.
On the command line, click DeleteInput, click
All, press Enter.
Robert McNeel & Associates
124
Notes:
To make the column:
1
Select the new polycurve.
2
From the Solid menu, click Extrude Planar Curve, then click Straight.
3
For the Extrusion distance, type 14, press Enter.
To make a partial polar array:
1
Turn on the Base layer.
2
Select the column base, the column, and the column cap.
3
From the Edit menu, click Groups, then click Group.
4
The three parts are grouped into one.
Select the group.
5
From the Transform menu, click Array, and then click Polar.
6
For the Center of polar array, type 0, press Enter.
7
For the Number of items, type 6 and press Enter.
8
For the Angle to fill, type -180, press Enter.
Six columns are arrayed to fill 180 degrees in the negative direction.
Robert McNeel & Associates
125
To create a rectangular array:
1
Select the same column group as the last exercise.
2
From the Transform menu, click Array, then click Rectangular.
3
For the Number in X direction, type 4, press Enter.
4
For the Number in Y direction, type 4, press Enter.
5
For the Number in Z direction, type 1, press Enter.
6
For the X spacing, type 12 and press Enter.
7
For the Y spacing, type 12 and press Enter.
Notes:
Rectangular Array
The columns are visible.
8
At this stage you can change the
number in each direction or the
spacing.
If you need to make a change, click
the option in the command line and
then make the adjustment.
9
Press Enter to accept.
10 Turn on all the layers to see the
result.
Robert McNeel & Associates
126
Notes:
Trim
Trim cuts and deletes portions of an object to make it end precisely at its intersection with another object.
Exercise 44—Trim
In this exercise, we will to pre-select the cutting objects.
To trim curves:
1
Open the model Trim-Split.3dm.
2
Zoom Window around the grid in the lower left
corner of the Top viewport.
3
Pre-select the cutting objects by selecting the
two outside vertical lines in the grid.
4
From the Edit menu, click Trim.
5
Select each of the horizontal lines at their left
and right ends.
6
Zoom Window
The lines are trimmed to the cutting edges.
Press Enter.
To trim surfaces:
1
Zoom Window around a sphere and surface in
the Perspective viewport.
2
Select the surface that intersects the sphere in
the Perspective viewport as the cutting
object.
Trim
3
From the Edit menu, click Trim.
Robert McNeel & Associates
127
Notes:
4
For the Object to trim, pick the right side of the sphere.
The sphere is trimmed at the surface.
5
Press Enter.
Robert McNeel & Associates
128
Notes:
Split
Splits one object with another into objects, splits a curve at a point you specify. The Split command breaks the
object where it intersects the cutting object but does not delete anything.
Exercise 45—Split
In this exercise, we will to pre-select the object or objects we are going to split.
To split a curve:
1
Zoom Window around the closed curve in the
lower right corner of the Top viewport.
2
Select the closed curve.
3
From the Edit menu, click Split.
4
Select the lines and press Enter.
Split
The curve is separated into four curves precisely
where the lines intersect it.
To split a surface:
5
From the View
menu, click
Zoom, and then
click Extents
All.
6
From the Edit
menu, click
Split.
7
Select the
sphere, and
press Enter.
8
Select the surface that intersects the sphere and press Enter.
The sphere is separated into two pieces precisely where the surface intersects it.
Robert McNeel & Associates
129
Notes:
Extend
Extend lengthens an object to make it end precisely at its intersection with another object or you can lengthen an
object when there is no intersection.
Exercise 46—Extend
1
Open the model Extend.3dm.
2
From the Curve
menu, click
Extend Curve,
and then click
Extend Curve.
3
For the
boundary
objects, select
the line at the
left and the
curve at the
right.
4
Press Enter.
5
For the curve to extend, select the left end of the line and the middle curve.
Extend Curve
The line and curve extend to touch the boundary edge on the left.
6
For the next curve to extend, click
Type=Natural on the command line.
7
Change to Type=Line.
8
Select left end of the bottom curve and the
right end of the line.
The curve and line extend to touch the
boundary. The extension is a straight segment.
Robert McNeel & Associates
130
Notes:
9
For the next curve to extend, click Type=Line
on the command line.
10 Change to Type=Arc.
11 Select the right end of the middle curve.
The curve extends with a tangent arc to touch
the boundary.
12 For the next curve to extend, click Type=Arc
on the command line.
13 Change to Type=Smooth.
14 Select the right side of the bottom curve.
The curve extends with a curvature (G2)
continuous extension to touch the boundary.
15 Press Enter to end the command.
To extend with a set extension length:
1
From the Curve menu, click Extend Curve,
and then click Extend Curve.
2
Enter extension length, type 4 and press
Enter.
3
Select the upper end of the curve on the right.
The curve extends exactly 4 units.
4
Press Enter to end the command.
Robert McNeel & Associates
131
To extend a curve dynamically:
1
From the Curve
menu, click
Extend Curve,
and then click
Extend Curve.
2
Press Enter for a
dynamic
extension.
3
Select the lower
end of the curve
on the right.
4
The curve continues with the cursor.
Click to end the extension.
5
Press Enter to end the command.
Notes:
To extend to a surface:
1
From the Curve menu, click Extend
Curve, and then click Extend
Curve.
2
For the boundary objects, select
the cylinder on the left and the
surface on the right.
3
Press Enter.
4
Change the type to Type=Arc.
5
Select both ends of the line and the
curve.
The curves extend to the surface of
the cylinder and to the surface.
Robert McNeel & Associates
132
Notes:
Offset
Offset creates an object parallel or concentric to another object. Use Offset to create specialized copies, such as
parallel lines, concentric circles, and concentric arcs, through specified points or at pre-set distances.
Exercise 47—Offset
1
Open the model Offset.3dm.
2
Maximize the Top viewport.
3
Select the line.
4
From the Curve menu, click Offset Curve.
5
For the Side to offset, pick on the upper right
side of the line.
Offset Curve
A parallel line is created.
To offset with the through point option:
1
Turn on the End osnap.
2
Select the circle.
3
From the Curve menu, click Offset Curve.
4
For the Side to offset, pick click
Throughpoint on the command line.
5
For the Thoughpoint, snap to the lower right
end of the line you offset.
A concentric circle is created that goes through
the endpoint of the line.
Robert McNeel & Associates
133
To offset a polyline with sharp corners:
1
Select the polyline.
2
From the Curve menu, click Offset Curve.
3
Type 1 and press Enter to change the offset distance.
4
Notes:
For the Side to offset, pick inside the polyline.
The polyline is offset with sharp corners.
To offset a polyline with round corners:
1
Select the polyline.
2
From the Curve menu, click Offset Curve.
3
Click Corner=Sharp on the command line.
4
Change the type to Corner=Round.
5
Pick outside the polyline.
The polyline is offset, but the corners are rounded with arcs.
Other corner options include Smooth and Chamfer. Smooth makes a tangent
curve that is smoother than an arc at each vertex, while Chamfer makes a
bevel at each vertex.
To offset a curve with the bothsides option:
1
Select the free-form curve.
2
From the Curve menu, click Offset Curve.
3
Click Bothsides on the command line.
4
For Side to offset, pick on either side of the curve.
5
Free-form curves are created on both sides of the selected curve.
Repeat this process on the arc.
Concentric arcs are created on both sides of the selected arc.
Robert McNeel & Associates
134
Notes:
To offset a surface:
1
Select one of the open surfaces.
2
From the Surface menu, click Offset Surface.
3
Place your cursor over the surface and click your
left mouse button.
Notice that the direction of the arrows changed.
The normal direction of the surface was flipped by
the mouse click. If you have a positive number for
offset distance, the surface will be offset in the
direction of the normal. If you have a negative
number it will offset the opposite direction.
Offset Surface
The normals should point toward the concave side of the
surface.
4
Press Enter.
The surface is offset in the direction of the normals.
Robert McNeel & Associates
135
To offset a surface to a solid:
1
Select the other open surface.
2
From the Surface menu, click Offset Surface.
3
Click on the surface to change the normal direction if necessary.
4
Choose the Solid option.
5
Press Enter to create the offset surface and the surfaces needed to make the
solid.
Notes:
To offset a polysurface:
Offsetting polysurfaces usually doesn’t give the desired results. In this example we will demonstrate some of the
problems.
1
Select the cylinder.
2
From the Surface menu, click Offset Surface.
3
The normals on a closed polysurface will always
point to the outside.
Press Enter.
Each surface of the polysurface is offset as a
separate piece.
Robert McNeel & Associates
136
Notes:
Exercise 48—Practice
1
Start a new model, use the Small
Objects - Inches.3dm template.
Save as Gasket1.
2
Use Circle, Arc, Trim, Fillet, and
Join to create the part shown.
3
Use Extrude Planar Curve >
Straight on the Solid menu to
create the 3-D part. The extrusion
thickness is .125.
Exercise 49—Practice
1
Start a new model, use the Small Objects - Inches.3dm
template. Save as Cam.
2
Use Circle, Arc, Line, Trim, Join, and Array to draw the
part shown.
3
Use Extrude Planar Curve > Straight on the Solid
menu to create the 3-D part. The extrusion thickness
is 0.5.
Robert McNeel & Associates
137
Notes:
Exercise 50—Practice
1
Start a new model, use the Small Objects Inches.3dm template. Save as Link.
2
Use Line, Arc, Trim, Offset, Join, Fillet and Circle to
draw the part shown.
3
Use Extrude Planar Curve > Straight on the Solid
menu to create the 3-D part. The extrusion thickness
is 0.5.
Exercise 51—Practice
1
Start a new model, use the Large Objects - Inches.3dm
template. Save as Building.
2
Use Line, Arc, Trim, Offset, Curve, Fillet and Circle to
draw the layout of the building shown.
40'0"
12'0"
16'0"
12'0"
16'0"
32'0"
16'0"
R1'6"
8'0
"
8 '0
"
6'0"
Robert McNeel & Associates
138
Notes:
6
Point Editing
You can display the control points or the edit points of an object so that you can adjust the shape of an object,
rather than manipulating the whole object at once. That is called control point editing.
You can use point editing on meshes, curves, and surfaces, but not on polysurfaces or solids.
Rhino’s curves are represented internally with non-uniform rational B-splines ( NURBS ). Three things determine
the shape of a NURBS curve:
 A list of points called control points
 Degree
 A list of numbers called knots
If you change any of these things, it changes the shape of the curve.
A few facts about control points, edit points, and knots
 Control points do not have to be on the curve.
 Edit points are always on the curve.
 Rhino lets you edit curves and surfaces by moving control points and edit points.
 Knots are parameters (that is, numbers, not points).
 Adding knots to a curve or surface lets you control the movement of the object during control-point
editing.
Robert McNeel & Associates
139
Exercise 52—Control point editing
In this exercise we are going to experiment with moving control points. Understanding how curves and lines react
when control points are moved is very important to understanding NURBS modeling.
To edit control points:
1
Open the model Control Point.3dm.
There are pairs of curves with different degrees
in the model.
2
Turn Ortho and Snap on.
3
From the Edit menu, click Select Objects, and
then click Curves.
4
From the Edit menu, click Control Points, and
then click Control Points On. (Press F10.)
5
In the Front viewport, select the middle row of
points.
6
Drag the points vertically, 8 units.
Control Points On
Notice that the degree 1 curves (polylines) come
to a point at each moved control point and the
control points are exactly on the curve.
The degree 3 and 5 curves are smooth. The
degree 3 curves have more curvature than the
degree 5 curves
Individual points have more influence on a small area of the curve with degree 3 curves, while points have
greater influence over a wider span of the curve with degree 5 curves.
Robert McNeel & Associates
140
To check the differences:
1
Turn off the control points by pressing the F11
key or use the Esc key.
2
Turn the Plane layer on.
3
Select the curves and the plane.
4
From the Curve menu, click Curve from
objects, then click Intersection.
Lines are shown on the surface showing the
intersections.
5
Note the difference between the degree 3 and 5 curves.
6
The higher the degree, the greater the influence over the span of a curve,
when you edit control points.
As you can see by the illustration, editing one point out of 11, on the
degree 5 curve, influenced most of the curve. The degree 3 curve has a
sharper curvature, because the influence of one point takes place over a
shorter span.
Undo twice, until you get back to seeing just the curves.
The intersections will disappear, and the Plane layer is off.
To continue editing control points:
1
In the Front viewport, select the third two rows
of points on either side of the center.
2
Drag the points vertically, 5 units.
3
Turn off the control points by pressing the F11
key or use the Esc key.
When a curve or polyline bends at a point, like
this, it is called a kink.
If you create a surface from a curve that has a
kink, it will have a seam at the kink.
Robert McNeel & Associates
141
To make a lofted surface:
1
Select the curves.
2
From the Surface menu, click Loft.
3
In the Loft options dialog box, click OK.
4
Because the degree 1 curves were included in the loft, a polysurface is created
with a seam at each kink.
Select the surface.
5
Turn on the control points.
6
The points do not turn on and the following message is displayed on the
command line: Cannot turn on points for polysurfaces.
Undo the loft.
To change the polylines into curves without kinks:
1
Select both polylines.
2
From the Edit menu, click Rebuild.
3
In the Rebuild Curve dialog box change the
point count to 11 and the degree to 3, and
click OK.
Rebuild
A degree 3 curve cannot have kinks. The curve
smoothes and changes shape.
Robert McNeel & Associates
142
To loft a surface over the curves:
1
Select all of the curves.
2
From the Surface menu, click Loft.
3
In the Loft Options dialog box, click OK.
4
A single surface appears over the curves. The
surface can be edited with control points.
Select the surface.
5
Turn on the control points.
Note that there are more control points than
what you started with. Rhino adds control points
to make the surface conform the original curves.
To rebuild a surface:
1
Turn off the control points.
2
Select the surface.
3
From the Edit menu, click Rebuild.
4
In the Rebuild Surface dialog, change the
point count to 8 in U direction and 13 in the V
direction. Change the degree to 3 for both U
and V. Check Delete input.
Rebuild Surface
The surface is smoother with fewer control
points.
Robert McNeel & Associates
143
Nudge Controls
Another method to move control points and other geometry in a more subtle way is to use the Nudge keys. The
nudge keys are the arrow keys on the keyboard activated with the Alt, Alt+Ctrl, and Alt+Shift keys.
To change the nudge settings:
1
From the Tools menu, click Options.
2
In the Options dialog box, on the
Modeling Aids page, note the Nudge
settings.
Any of these values can be changed.
Robert McNeel & Associates
144
To use Nudge keys to move control points:
1
Select one or two control points in the Front
viewport.
2
Hold down the Alt key down and press an arrow
key.
3
4
Notice that it moves (nudges) the point a small
amount.
Hold the Alt and the Ctrl key down and press
another arrow key.
The movement is much smaller.
Hold the Alt and the Shift key down and press
another arrow key.
The movement is magnified.
5
Hold the Alt and press the PageUp or PageDown key to nudge in the Z direction.
To use set points to adjust points:
1
Select all the
points in one
row along the
top of the
surface.
2
From the
Transform
menu, click Set
Points.
3
In the Set
Points dialog
box, check
Set XYZ Coordinates
Set Z, and uncheck Set X and Set Y.
4
In the Right viewport move the points and click.
5
The control points are aligned in the World Z direction.
Repeat this on some of the other rows of points.
Robert McNeel & Associates
145
Exercise 53—Practice with curves and control point editing
1
Start a new model, use the Small Objects Millimeters.3dm template. Save as Glass.
2
Use the Curve command to create a half crosssection of the glass.
3
Use control point editing to adjust the curve
until you get the desired shape.
To make it 3-D:
1
From the Surface menu, click Revolve.
2
Select the curve you created, and press Enter.
3
For the Start of revolve axis, pick one end of
the curve.
4
For the End of revolve axis, pick the other
end of the curve.
5
For the Start Angle, click Deformable=Yes.
6
This changes the structure of the revolved
surface to make it easier to deform without
creating kinks.
For the Start Angle, click FullCircle.
7
Save your model.
8
Experiment with adjusting the control points to
see what happens.
9
Incremental Save your model.
10 Delete the
surface.
11 Change the
original curve
and make
another
revolved
surface.
12 Incremental
Save your
model.
Robert McNeel & Associates
146
Part Three:
3-D Modeling and Editing
Notes:
7
Creating Deformable Shapes
When building models in Rhino, you should first determine which methods should be used for each part of the
project. There are two basic ways to model in Rhino—free-form and accurate. Some models require more
attention to exact dimensions because they might have to be manufactured or parts may have to fit together.
Sometimes it is the shape of the object, not the accuracy that is important. These techniques can be merged
together to create accurate, free-form shapes. This tutorial focuses only on the free-form, squishy aspect. The
exact size and placement of the objects is not critical. The overall form is the main objective.
This exercise shows:
 Simple surface creation
 Surface rebuilding
 Control point editing
 Curve creation ( drawing, projecting )
 Splitting surfaces with curves and surfaces
 Blending between two surfaces
 Lighting and rendering
When you model the rubber ducky, you will use similar modeling techniques for the head and the body. You will
create spheres that will be deformed to make the shapes.
If you need to know more about control points and surfaces, search the Rhino Help index for ―control points.‖
Robert McNeel & Associates
149
Notes:
Exercise 54—Creating a rubber duck
1
Start a new model, use the Small Objects - Millimeters.3dm template. Save
as Duck.
2
You can use layers to separate your parts, but for this model, it is not
necessary.
For more information about layers, look up ―layer‖ in the Rhino Help index.
Create the body and head shapes
The body and head of the ducky are created by modifying two spheres. The size and placement of the spheres
does not need to be exact.
To create the basic shapes:
1
From the Solid menu, click Sphere, and then click Center, Radius.
2
Pick a point in the Front viewport.
3
Pick another point in the same viewport to create a sphere.
4
Repeat this procedure for the second sphere.
Robert McNeel & Associates
Sphere
150
Notes:
To make the spheres deformable:
1
Select both
spheres.
2
From the Edit
menu, click
Rebuild.
3
In the Rebuild
Surface dialog
box, change the
Point Count to
8 for both U and
V.
4
Change the Degree to 3 for both U and V.
5
Check Delete Input, clear Current Layer, and
click OK.
Rebuild Surface
The spheres are now deformable. Having more
control points allows more control over smaller
parts of the surface. A degree-three surface will
have a smoother shape when deformed.
Robert McNeel & Associates
151
Notes:
To modify the body shape:
1
Select the large
sphere.
2
From the Edit
menu, click
Control Points,
and then click
Control Points
On.
3
In the Front
viewport select
the control points
near the bottom of the sphere.
4
To window select, drag a box left to right around the control points.
From the Transform menu, click Set Points.
5
In the Set Points dialog box check Set Z, and Align to World as illustrated
above.
6
Drag the selected control points up, snap to one of the upper most points.
Control Points On
Set XYZ Coordinates
This aligns all of the selected control points to the same world z-value (vertical in
Front viewport), flattening the surface.
To scale the sphere shape:
1
Turn off control points and select the body
shape.
2
From the Transform menu, click Scale, and
then click Scale1D.
3
For the Origin point, pick a point near the
center of the body sphere.
4
For the First reference point, with Ortho on,
pick a point to the right in the Front viewport.
5
For the Second reference point, pick a point
further to the right in the Front viewport.
Scale 1D
The body is shaped like an ellipsoid.
Robert McNeel & Associates
152
To reshape the chest and tail
1
Turn the control points on.
2
Window select the control points at the top right
of the body, and drag them to the right to bulge
out the chest.
3
Window select the control points at the upper
left edge of the body, and drag them up to form
the tail.
Notes:
Notice in the Top viewport that two control
points are selected, though in the Front
viewport, it looks like only one is selected. This
is because the second control point is directly
behind the one you can see in the Front
viewport.
Robert McNeel & Associates
153
Notes:
To add control for further shaping the tail:
Before we start to edit the tail further, we will add an additional set of points to the tail portion of the body.
1
From the Edit menu, click Control Points, and
then click Insert Knot.
2
For the Surface for knot insertion, pick the
body surface.
3
4
5
Insert Knot
A surface isocurve will be displayed. It will
either be in the U or the V direction.
Change the direction if necessary.
For the Point on surface to add knot, pick a
point midway between the tail and the center of
the body.
Press Enter to end the command.
A new set of isocurves and a new row of points have been added to the body.
6
Window select
the control
points at the
upper part of the
new isocurve,
and drag them
down to further
form the tail and
the body.
7
You can adjust
the control
points further
until you get the shape you want.
8
Save your model.
Robert McNeel & Associates
Remember to use a window to
select the control points. There
may be multiple control points in
the same location in this view.
154
Notes:
To create the head:
1
In the Front viewport, select the small sphere.
2
From the Edit menu, click Control Points, and
then click Control Points On.
3
Select the control points on the right side and
drag them to begin forming the bill.
4
Window select
the control
points further
back on the
same isocurve
and drag them
forward to widen
the bill.
5
Window select
control points at
the top of the bill
and drag them
down as shown.
6
Press Esc to turn
control points
off.
Robert McNeel & Associates
Remember to use a window to
select the control points. There
may be multiple control points in
the same location in this view.
155
Notes:
Separate the bill from the head
For the final rendering, the bill must be a different color from the body. To do this, they must be separate
surfaces. You can split a single surface into multiple surfaces many ways. The following technique is just one.
To split a surface with a curve:
1
In the Front viewport create a curve that looks
like the illustration on the right.
2
Select the head.
3
From the Edit menu, click Split.
4
For the Cutting object, pick the curve you just
created.
5
Press Enter.
The bill and head are now separate surfaces.
This will allow you to render the surfaces with
different colors.
Robert McNeel & Associates
156
Notes:
Create the duck’s neck
The ducky needs a neck. You will first make an edge on the surface of the head and a corresponding edge on the
surface of the body so you can create a blended surface between the two edges.
To trim the head and the body:
1
Draw a Line across the bottom of the head.
2
Make a copy of the line and adjust it so that it
intersects the top of the body as illustrated on
the right.
3
It is important that the lines intersect the
bottom of the head and the body completely.
Select the lines.
4
From the Edit menu, click Trim.
5
For the Object
to trim, pick the
bottom of the
head and the top
of the body.
6
Trim
The bottom of
the head and the
top of the body is
trimmed.
Save your
model.
Robert McNeel & Associates
157
Notes:
To create the blend surface between the head and body:
1
From the Surface menu, click Blend Surface.
2
For the Segment for first edge, pick the edge curve at the bottom of the
head.
3
If the whole edge is not selected, click All on the command line.
4
Press Enter to go to the next stage of the command.
5
For the Segment for second edge, pick the edge curve at the top of the hole
in the body.
6
If the whole edge is not selected, click All on the command line.
7
Press Enter to go to the next stage of the command.
8
In the Blend Bulge dialog box, check the
Preview check box.
9
Blend Surface
The blend surface between the body and the
head is displayed.
Make any adjustments you desire by moving
the slider bars in the dialog box, click OK when
finished.
If you check the box at the left of the sliders the
surface adjustments are symmetrical.
10 Save your model.
To join the parts:
1
Select the body the blend surface and the back of the head.
2
From the Edit menu, click Join.
The three surfaces are joined into one. The bill is left separate for rendering
purposes.
Robert McNeel & Associates
Join
158
To make an eye:
Notes:
For this part of the exercise we will make a curve and revolve it to get the surfaces for the eye.
1
Toggle Ortho and Snap on to help.
2
From the Curve menu, click Conic.
3
In the Front or Right viewport make a conic
curve as illustrated.
Start of Conic (1), End of Conic (2), Apex
(3), Curvature point.
4
Use SmartTrack, with Point, End and Int
osnaps on, to help place the two points as
illustrated.
These points will be used for placement of the
eye on the head.
5
From the Curve menu, click Point Object,
then click Multiple Points.
6
For the Location of point object, hover over
the end of the conic until the point activates,
drag you cursor down and click to place the
point.
7
The point should be placed above the lower end
of the conic.
This will be the insertion point for eye.
For the Location of point object, hover over
the point you just made until the point
activates, drag you cursor left and click when
you reach the intersection point.
This point is for scaling and rotating the eye.
Robert McNeel & Associates
159
To split the curve:
1
Draw a line that intersects the conic
2
Select the conic curve,
3
From the Edit menu, click Split.
4
Notes:
For the Cutting object, select the line.
Splitting the curve allows you to assign a
different color and material properties for the
eye and the pupil.
This step can be done at this stage or after
you make the surface.
To make the surface:
1
Select both parts of the conic curve.
2
From the Surface menu, click Revolve.
3
For the Start of revolve axis, snap to the
point.
4
For the End of revolve axis, snap to the end
of the conic.
5
For the Start Angle, click FullCircle.
Robert McNeel & Associates
160
To assign display color and material color:
1
Select the top of the eye.
2
From the Edit menu, click
Object Properties.
3
For the Display color, choose a
contrasting color.
4
In the Properties window, on
the Material page, click Basic,
click on the Color button, and
select a color for the pupil of
the eye, like black.
5
Repeat these steps for the
lower part of the surface. Set
the color for both object display
and material to white.
6
From the Render menu, click Render Preview to see the material color.
Notes:
Object Properties
To place the eye on the head:
1
2
In the Top viewport, select both parts of the eye.
From the Edit menu, click Groups, then click Group.
The eye parts are grouped as one object.
3
Select the group.
4
From the Transform menu, click Orient, then
click On Surface.
5
For Reference point 1, snap to the point at
the center of the eye.
6
For Reference point 2, snap to the point at
the edge of the eye.
7
For Surface to Orient on, pick the head.
Robert McNeel & Associates
161
Notes:
8
In the Orient on Surface dialog, check
Uniform and Rigid, click OK.
9
For the Point of surface to orient to, pick a
point on the head.
10 Mirror the eye to the other side of the head.
Render a picture of the ducky
Rendering creates a ―realistic‖ picture of your model with colors you assign. These render colors are different from
the layer colors you might be using, which control the display in wireframe and shaded mode.
To render the ducky:
1
Select the beak.
2
From the Edit menu, click Object Properties.
3
In the Properties window, on the Material page, click Basic and click the color swatch.
4
In the Select Color dialog box, select a color for the beak, like orange.
5
Select the body.
6
From the Edit menu, click Object Properties.
7
In the Properties window, on the Material page, check Basic and select a color for the body, like yellow.
8
From the Render menu, click Render.
Robert McNeel & Associates
Render
162
Notes:
To place lights:
1
From the Render menu, click Create
Spotlight.
2
Select a point in the middle of the model.
3
Drag the radius until it is approximately three
times as large as the model.
4
Pick a point in the Top viewport while holding
the Ctrl key down to activate elevator mode.
5
Create Spotlight
In the Front viewport pick a point slightly
above the object.
From the Render menu, click Render.
Robert McNeel & Associates
163
Notes:
Robert McNeel & Associates
164
Notes:
8
Modeling with Solids
Modeling solids in Rhino is easy. There are several commands that enable you create and edit solid objects.
Solids in Rhino are closed surfaces or polysurfaces that enclose a volume. Some of the solid primitives are closed
single-surfaces carefully edge-matched, others are polysurfaces.
Rhino’s polysurface objects are deformable by using the new UDT (Uniform Deformation Technology) tools. You
can also extract surfaces and deform the surfaces with control point editing like the last exercise.
In this part of the class we will focus on making some solids, separating the parts, making changes and then
joining the parts back together to make a solid.
Button
Command
Description
Box
Draw a rectangular box from two diagonal corners and a height.
Box 3Point
Draw a box from two adjacent corners, a point on the edge across from them, and a height.
Sphere
Draw a sphere from a center point and a radius.
Sphere 2Point
Draw a sphere from the two ends of a diameter.
Sphere 3Point
Draw a sphere from three points on its surface.
Cylinder
Draw a solid cylinder from a center point, a radius, and a height.
Tube
Draw a solid tube from a center point, two radii, and a height.
Cone
Draw a solid cone from a base point, a base radius, and a height.
TCone
Draw a truncated cone that ends in a circular plane from a base point, two radii, and a height.
Robert McNeel & Associates
165
Notes:
Button
Command
Description
Ellipsoid
Draw an ellipsoid from a center point, and three axis endpoints.
Torus
Draw a solid Torus from a center point, a radius for the center of the tube, and a tube radius.
Pipe
Draw a pipe around an existing curve. The pipe has a circular cross-section and optional caps at
the ends.
The Thick option lets you specify two radii at each end of the curve to create pipes with holes
bored through the middle like tubing.
TextObject
Draw text as outline curves, surfaces, or solids.
ExtrudeCrv
Draw a solid by extruding a closed planar curve vertically.
ExtrudeSrf
Creates a solid by extruding a surface vertically.
Cap
Creates planar surfaces to close planar holes in a surface or partial solid.
BooleanUnion
Boolean operation in Rhino to combine solids.
BooleanDifference
Boolean operation in Rhino to subtract surfaces and solids from one another.
BooleanIntersection
Boolean operation in Rhino to create the intersection of two surfaces or solids.
Exercise 55— Model a bar with text
In the following exercise we will make a solid primitive, extract some surfaces, rebuild a surface and deform it,
join the new surfaces into a solid, fillet the edges, add text to a surface, and do a Boolean operation on the solid.
1
Start a new model using the Small Objects - Millimeters template. Save as
Bar.
2
From the Solid menu, click Box, and then click Corner to Corner, Height.
3
For the First corner type 0,0 and press Enter.
4
For the Length type 15 and press Enter.
5
For the Width type 6 and press Enter.
6
For the Height type 1 and press Enter.
Robert McNeel & Associates
Box
166
To edit a surface:
1
From the Solid menu, click Extract Surface.
2
For the Surface to extract, select the top and
both end surfaces, press Enter.
3
Select the two ends and delete them.
4
Select the top surface.
5
From the Edit menu, click Rebuild.
6
In the Rebuild Surface dialog box, set the
Point count to 4 and the Degree to 3 for both
U and V, click OK.
7
Press F10 to turn Control Points On.
8
In the Right viewport, window select the
middle points.
9
Drag the points up approximately one unit.
Notes:
Extract Surface
Rebuild Surface
Control Points On
10 Press F11 to turn Control Points Off.
Robert McNeel & Associates
167
To make the bar solid:
1
Select all of the surfaces.
2
From the Edit menu, click Join.
3
The surfaces are joined making an open
polysurface.
Select the polysurface.
4
From the Solid menu, click Cap Planar Holes.
Two end caps are created.
Notes:
Cap Planar Holes
To fillet the edges:
1
From the Solid menu, click Fillet Edge, and
then click Fillet Edge.
2
Set the Current Radius=1.0.
3
For Select edges to fillet, pick the four
vertical edges, press Enter.
4
For Select fillet handle to edit, press Enter.
5
Repeat the Fillet Edge command.
6
Set the Current Radius=0.2.
7
For Select edges to fillet, window select the
entire bar to get the horizontal edges, press
Enter.
8
For Select fillet handle to edit, press Enter.
Robert McNeel & Associates
Fillet Edge
168
To make a copy of the bar on a different layer:
Notes:
We need to make a copy of the finished bar for the next part of this exercise. On one of the copies we will engrave
text, on the other we will emboss text.
1
Select the finished bar.
2
From the Edit menu, click Layers, then Copy
objects to layer.
3
In the Select layer to copy objects dialog, pick
Layer 01 and click OK.
4
Turn Layer 01 off.
Copy Objects to Layer
To make solid text:
1
Change the layer to Layer 02.
2
From the Solid menu, click Text.
3
In the Text Object dialog box, select a
bold Font, like Arial Black.
Text Object
Under Create click Solids.
Under Text size, set the Height to
3.00, the Solid thickness to 1.00,
check Group objects, click OK.
4
For the Insertion point position the
text in the center of the bar in the Top
viewport and click.
5
In the Front or Right viewport, drag the
text until it protrudes through the top
surface.
Robert McNeel & Associates
169
To engrave the text in the bar:
1
Select the bar.
2
From the Solid menu, click Difference.
3
For Select second set of surfaces or polysurfaces, set DeleteInput=Yes,
select the text, press Enter.
Notes:
The text is engraved into the bar.
Using a model for illustration
Occasionally you will want to use your 3-D model for illustration purposes. In this case we’re going to divide the
top surface into pieces. Each piece can then be assigned a material property. When the part is rendered or
displayed in a rendered viewport, it will appear like a label.
To make a label:
1
Turn Layer 01 on and turn the Default layer
off.
2
From the Solid menu, click Extract Surface.
3
Select the top surface, press Enter.
4
Select the lower part of the bar and Lock it.
5
Make the Top viewport active.
6
From the Solid menu, click Text.
7
In the Text Object dialog box, under Create,
click Curves, click OK.
8
For the Insertion point position the text in the
center of the bar in the Top viewport and click.
Robert McNeel & Associates
170
To split the top surface of the bar with the text:
1
In the Top or Perspective viewport, select the
extracted top surface.
2
From the Edit menu, click Split.
3
Select the text curves, press Enter.
4
Since the Group objects box was checked when
you created the text, you can pick all of the text
by clicking on one element.
The curves have split the surface. Each part of
the text is a separate surface.
Hide the original text curves.
5
Select the text surfaces.
6
Remember to leave the center of letters like R and O out of the selection set.
From the Edit menu, click Group, and then click Group.
7
The text surfaces are now grouped for easier selection.
Select the group.
8
In the Properties window, on the Material page, click Basic and select
another color for the text.
9
Right click on the Perspective viewport title.
Notes:
10 Select Rendered from the popup menu.
The letters render in a different color.
To emboss the text in the bar:
1
2
From the Edit menu, click Select Objects, and then click Previous
Selection.
This selects the text surfaces again.
From the Solid menu, click Extrude Surface, and then click Straight.
3
For the Extrusion distance, click Bothsides=Yes, Cap=Yes, and
DeleteInput=Yes on the command line.
4
For the Extrusion distance, type .1 and press Enter.
Extrude Surface
The surfaces are extruded perpendicular to the active construction plane by .1
in both directions. Notice that the top of the text follows the curvature of the
original surface and the bottom of the text penetrates into the bar.
Robert McNeel & Associates
171
Notes:
5
Hide the extruded text.
6
Don’t forget to delete the center of letters.
From the Surface menu, click Surface Edit
Tools, click Untrim.
7
For Select an edge to untrim, pick on the
edge of the text openings.
8
Unlock the bottom part of the bar and Join it
with top part.
9
Show the text.
Untrim
Boolean Union
10 Select the bar and the text.
11 From the Solid menu, click Union.
The text and the bar are joined into one closed
polysurface.
Robert McNeel & Associates
172
Notes:
9
Creating Surfaces
A Rhino surface is similar to a piece of stretchy fabric. It can take on many different shapes.
Surfaces are bounded by curves called edges. To visualize the surface shape Rhino displays a grid of isoparametric
curves (isocurves) on the surface.
Surfaces have an area, their shape can be changed by moving control points, and they can be meshed.
Button
Command
Description
SrfPt
Creates a surface by picking three or four points in space for corners.
EdgeSrf
Creates a surface by selecting two, three, or four existing curves whose ends meet exactly.
PlanarSrf
Creates a surface from planar curves that enclose an area.
Patch
Creates a surface that approximates a set of curves and/or point objects.
Revolve
Revolves a curve around an axis to create a surface.
Loft
Creates a surface from shape curves; the normal, loose, and tight options make a surface with
no creases as it passes over the shape curves.
The StraightSections option creates a surface with creases at each shape curve and straight
sections between the shapes curves.
Sweep1
Creates a surface from shape curves that follow along a rail curve that defines one edge of the
surface.
Sweep2
Creates a surface from shape curves that follow along two rail curves that define two edges of
the surface.
FilletSrf
Creates a fillet or round between two surfaces.
BlendSrf
Makes a smooth surface between two existing surfaces
Robert McNeel & Associates
173
Notes:
Button
Command
Description
RailRevolve
Revolves a shape curve holding one end along a rail curve. This command is very useful for
putting a smooth end cap on an irregularly shaped surface.
ExtrudeCrv
Extrudes a curve perpendicular to the construction plane with option to taper the surface with a
draft angle.
ExtrudeCrvAlongCurve
Extrudes a curve following along a second curve.
ExtrudeCrvToPoint
Extrudes a curve to a point.
Plane
Creates a rectangular planar surface parallel to the construction plane from two diagonal
points.
Plane 3Point
Creates a rectangular planar surface from 3 points.
Plane Vertical
Creates a rectangular planar surface from 3 points that is vertical to the construction plane.
Exercise 56—Basic techniques for making surfaces
In this exercise, you will model some simple surfaces.
1
Start a new model, use the Small Objects - Millimeters.3dm template.
Save as Surfaces.
2
Turn on Snap and Planar.
3
From the Surface menu, click Plane, and then click Corner to Corner.
4
For the First corner of plane, pick a point.
5
For the Other corner, pick another point to make a rectangular plane.
Plane: Corner to Corner
To create a vertical plane:
1
From the Surface menu, click Plane, and then click Vertical.
2
For the Start of edge, snap to the endpoint at the right side of the
surface.
3
For the End of edge, snap to the other endpoint at the right side of the
surface.
4
Drag your cursor up and pick.
Robert McNeel & Associates
Vertical Plane
174
To create a plane from 3 points:
1
From the Surface menu, click
Plane, and then click 3 Points.
2
For the Start of edge, snap to the
endpoint at the left of the first
surface.
3
For the End of edge, snap to the
other endpoint at the left side of the
first surface.
4
For the Height, use SmartTrack to track a point from the top of the vertical plane. Drag the tracking point
until the surface is tilted slightly and click.
Notes:
Rectangular Plane: 3 Points
To create a plane from corner points:
1
From the Surface menu, click
Corner Points.
2
For the First corner, snap to an
endpoint at the edge of the first
surface.
3
For the Second corner, snap to the
endpoint at the edge of the second
surface.
4
For the Third corner, snap to an
endpoint at the edge of the third
surface.
5
For the Fourth corner, snap to the other endpoint at the edge of the third surface.
Surface from 3 or 4 Corner Points
A surface will be created with corners at the points you selected.
Robert McNeel & Associates
175
To create a surface from planar curves:
1
Turn Planar mode on.
2
Draw a curve that starts and ends at the top of the two vertical surfaces
as shown below.
Notes:
Surface from Planar Curves
Planar mode keeps this curve on the same plane as the surface corners.
3
From the Surface menu, click
Planar Curves.
4
Select the curve you just created.
5
Select the top edge of the three
surfaces and press Enter.
A surface is created.
To create a surface from edge curves:
1
From the Surface menu, click Edge
Curves.
2
Select the four surface edges.
Surface from 2, 3, or 4 Edge
Curves
A surface is created.
Robert McNeel & Associates
176
Notes:
Exercise 57—Extruding surfaces
In this exercise, you will be creating a cordless phone using extrusions. To
aid in organizing the model, surface and curve layers have been created.
Make sure you change layers as you are making the extrusions.
To extrude a curve:
1
Open the model Extrude.3dm.
2
Make the Top Surface layer current.
3
Select the curve as shown.
4
From the Surface menu, click
Extrude Curve, and then click
Straight.
5
For the Extrusion distance,
type -3.5 and press Enter.
Extrude Straight
If the object being extruded is a
planar curve, the curve is extruded
perpendicular to the plane of the
curve.
Robert McNeel & Associates
177
To extrude a curve along another curve:
1
Select the curve (1) on the left of
the first extruded surface.
2
From the Surface menu, click
Extrude Curve, and then click
Along Curve.
3
Select the path curve (2) near its
right end.
The curve is extruded along the path
of the secondary curve.
Notes:
Extrude Along Curve
If you do not get the answer you
expected, undo and try picking
near the other end of the path
curve.
To extrude a curve with a taper ( draft angle ):
1
Select the curve on the right.
2
From the Surface menu, click
Extrude Curve, and then click
Tapered.
3
For the Extrusion distance, click
DraftAngle on the command line.
4
For the Draft angle, type -3 and
press Enter.
5
For the Extrusion distance, type
.375 and press Enter.
The curve is extruded with a three-degree draft angle in the positive direction on the y-axis.
Robert McNeel & Associates
178
To create a surface from planar curves:
1
From the Surface menu, click
Planar Curves.
2
Select the edge curves that bound
the openings of the tapered extrusion
at the top.
3
Press Enter.
Notes:
Surface from Planar Curves
A surface is created at the end.
4
Select the four surfaces.
5
From the Edit menu, click Join.
To make the extruded surfaces for the other half of the phone:
Next, we will repeat the previous steps for the other half of the phone.
1
Make the Bottom Surface layer
current.
2
Select the curve as shown.
3
From the Surface menu, click
Extrude Curve, and then click
Straight.
4
For the Extrusion distance,
type -3.5 and press Enter.
Extrude Straight
If the object being extruded is a
planar curve, the curve is extruded
perpendicular to the plane of the
curve.
Robert McNeel & Associates
179
Notes:
5
Select the curve (1) on the left of
the first extruded surface.
6
From the Surface menu, click
Extrude Curve, and then click
Along Curve.
7
Select the path curve (2) near its
right end.
The curve is extruded along the path
of the secondary curve.
8
Select the curve on the right.
9
From the Surface menu, click
Extrude Curve, and then click
Tapered.
10 For the Extrusion distance, type
-1.375 and press Enter.
The curve is extruded with a threedegree draft angle in the negative
direction on the y-axis.
11 From the Surface menu, click
Planar Curves.
12 Select the edge curves that bound
the openings of the tapered extrusion
at the top.
13 Press Enter.
A surface is created at the end.
14 Select the four surfaces.
15 From the Edit menu, click Join.
Robert McNeel & Associates
180
To create an extruded surface on both sides of a curve:
1
Turn on the Extrude Straightbothsides layer.
2
Select the freeform curve as shown.
3
From the Surface menu, click
Extrude Curve, and then click
Straight.
4
For the Extrusion distance, click
Bothsides on the command line.
5
For the Extrusion distance, drag
the extrusion and pick.
Notes:
Make sure the surface extends past the other surfaces in both directions.
The curve is extruded symmetrically from the curve.
To trim the surfaces:
1
Select the joined Top and Bottom
polysurfaces, and the surface you
just extruded.
2
From the Edit menu, click Trim.
3
For the Object to trim, pick the
outer edge of each surface.
Robert McNeel & Associates
181
To split the trimmed surface:
1
Select the trimmed extruded surface.
2
From the Edit menu, click Split.
3
For Select cutting objects, click Isocurve on the command line.
4
Drag you cursor along the surface to determine which isocurve direction
is selected. Click Toggle on the command line if it’s not the correct
direction.
5
For the Split point, snap to the intersection where all three surfaces
intersect.
Notes:
To join the surfaces:
Next you will join the surface and the polysurface for the Top and the Bottom of the handset.
1
Select the upper part of the split surface and the top polysurface
2
From the Edit menu, click Join.
3
Select the lower part of the split surface and the bottom polysurface
4
From the Edit menu, click Join.
Robert McNeel & Associates
182
To round the edges of the polysurfaces:
1
From the Solid menu, Fillet Edges,
then Fillet Edges. Use a radius of .2
to round the edges.
2
For the Select edges to fillet, select
the edges around the top of the top
polysurface and the two horizontal
edges at the front, press Enter.
3
For the Select fillet handle to edit,
click Preview.
4
Check to make sure the fillet is doing
what you expect, press Enter.
5
Repeat these steps for the Bottom
polysurface.
Notes:
Variable Radius Fillet
To create an extruded surface from a curve to a point:
1
Turn on the Extrude to a point layer.
2
Select the U-shaped curve.
3
From the Surface menu, click Extrude Curve, and then click To Point.
4
For the Point to extrude to, snap to the point object near the top
surface.
Extrude To Point
The curve is extruded to the point.
Robert McNeel & Associates
183
Notes:
5
Use the BooleanDifference
command (Solid menu > Difference)
to remove the surface from the top
of the phone.
If the result is not correct, flip the
normal of the top polysurface and the
extruded surface with the Dir
command. The normal of the top
polysurface and the extruded surface
should point toward each other.
6
Select the circle.
7
From the Surface menu, click Extrude Curve, and then click To Point.
8
For the Point to extrude to, snap to the point object inside the bottom
surface.
The curve is extruded to the point.
9
Use the BooleanDifference
command (Solid menu > Difference)
to remove the surface from the top
of the phone.
The normal of the bottom polysurface
and the extruded surface should point
toward each other.
10 Save your model as Phone.
Robert McNeel & Associates
184
To create the buttons:
1
Turn on the Curves for Buttons layer.
2
In the Front view, window select the first column of buttons.
3
Three curves are selected.
From the Solid menu, click Extrude Planar Curve, and then click
Straight.
4
Type -.2 and press Enter.
5
Repeat these steps for the other
columns of buttons.
6
Use the FilletEdge command (Solid
menu > Fillet Edge > Fillet Edge)
with a radius of .05 to round the
edges.
Notes:
The button edges are rounded.
7
Save your model.
Robert McNeel & Associates
185
Notes:
Exercise 58—Lofted surfaces
1
Open the model Loft.3dm.
2
Window select all of the curves.
3
From the Surface menu, click Loft.
A surface is fitted over the curves.
Loft
4
In the Loft Options dialog box, switch
Style to Straight sections, and then click
Preview.
A surface is fitted through the curves, but
the sections are straight between the
curves.
Robert McNeel & Associates
186
Notes:
5
In the Loft Options dialog box, switch
Style to Loose, and then click Preview.
A surface is created that uses the same
control points as the curves. The surface
follows the curves more loosely.
Use this option when you want the surface
to conform to the control points of the input
curve.
6
In the Loft Options dialog box, switch
Style to Normal, and then click OK.
7
Mirror the surface to create the
other half.
Mirror
8
Join the two halves.
Join
To make a seat:
1
Turn the Hull Curves layer off and
turn the Seat Curves, and Seat
layers on.
2
Make the Seat Curves layer
current.
3
In the Front view, select the
rounded rectangles.
4
From the Curve menu, click Curve
From Objects, and then click
Project.
Project to Surface
Project uses the current construction plane to determine the direction of projection. Make sure you select the
curves and surface to project onto in the Front viewport.
Robert McNeel & Associates
187
Notes:
5
For the Surface to project onto,
select the hull.
6
The curves will be projected to both
sides of the hull surface.
Select the curves on the surface.
7
From the Surface menu, click Loft.
8
In the Loft dialog, click OK.
A surface is fitted over the curves that fits exactly with the shape of the hull.
To create section curves from the surfaces:
1
Select the hull.
2
Change to the Sections layer.
3
From the Curve menu, click Curve
From Objects, and then click
Section.
4
For the Start of section, in the Top
viewport, pick a point to the left at
the center of the hull.
5
For the End of section, with Ortho on, drag a line to the right and pick.
Section
A curve is generated on the surface. Repeat this at various locations.
Robert McNeel & Associates
188
To create contour curves across the hull surfaces:
1
Select the hull.
2
Change to the Contours layer.
3
From the Curve menu, click Curve
From Objects, and then click
Contour.
4
For the Contour base point, snap to
the left end of the canoe.
5
For the Direction perpendicular to contour planes, snap to the other
end of the canoe.
6
Notes:
Contour
For the Distance between contours, type 12 and press Enter.
A curve is generated every foot along the hull.
To create an edge curve from the surfaces:
1
Change to the Top Rail layer.
2
From the Curve menu, click Curve
From Objects, and then click
Duplicate Edge.
3
Pick the top edge of the hull.
4
Pick the other top edge and press
Enter.
Duplicate Edge
Two curves are generated at the
edges of the hull
Robert McNeel & Associates
189
Notes:
Exercise 59—Revolved surfaces
1
Open the model
Revolve.3dm.
2
Select the freeform curve
3
From the
Surface menu,
click Revolve.
4
Select one end of
the curve for the
Start of
revolve axis.
5
Select the other end of the curve for the End of revolve axis.
6
Press Enter to use the default Start Angle.
7
Revolve
Press Enter to use the default Revolution Angle.
A surface is revolved around the axis line.
Robert McNeel & Associates
190
Notes:
Exercise 60—Using a rail revolve
Rail Revolve lets you revolve around an axis and along a path curve.
To create a rail revolve:
1
Open the model Rail
Revolve.3dm.
2
For the Profile Curve, select
the conic shaped curve.
3
From the Surface menu,
click Rail Revolve.
4
For the Rail curve, select
the heart shaped curve.
5
Select one end of the
RailRevolve axis line.
6
Select the other end of the RailRevolve axis line.
Rail Revolve
Right click this button
A surface is revolved around the axis that follows along the curve at the end of the object.
7
Turn the Bowl layer on and other layers off.
8
Repeat the previous steps to make a bowl.
Robert McNeel & Associates
191
Notes:
Exercise 61—Using 1-rail sweeps to create surfaces
One cross-section:
1
Open the model 1 Rail Sweep.3dm.
2
Select the two curves on the left.
3
From the Surface menu, click Sweep 1 Rail.
4
In the Sweep 1 Rail Options dialog, click OK.
Sweep 1 Rails
Two cross-sections:
1
Select the three curves in middle.
2
From the Surface menu, click Sweep 1 Rail.
3
In the Sweep 1 Rail Options dialog, check
Global shape blending.
4
In the Sweep 1 Rail Options dialog, click OK.
Multiple cross-sections:
1
Select the four curves on the right.
2
From the Surface menu, click Sweep 1 Rail.
3
In the Sweep 1 Rail Options dialog, uncheck
Global shape blending.
4
In the Sweep 1 Rail Options dialog, click OK.
Robert McNeel & Associates
192
To create a 1-rail sweep to a point:
1
Make Surface 02 layer group current
and turn off Surface 01 layer group.
2
From the Surface menu, click
Sweep 1 Rail.
3
For the Rail, select the open freeform curve.
4
For the Select cross section
curves, select the three closed curves,
then click Point on the command
line.
5
For the Pick end point, snap to the End of the free-form curve.
6
In the Sweep 1 Rail Options dialog, click OK.
Notes:
To create a roadlike 1-rail sweep:
1
Make Surface 03 layer group current
and turn off Surface 02 layer group.
2
Select the helix.
3
From the Surface menu, click
Sweep 1 Rail.
4
For the Select cross section
curves, select the closed curve, press
Enter.
5
Change the style to Roadlike Right,
click Preview.
6
Change the style to Roadlike Front,
click Preview.
7
Change the style to Roadlike Top,
click Preview, click OK.
Robert McNeel & Associates
193
Notes:
Exercise 62—Using 2-rail sweeps to create surfaces

Open the model 2 Rail Sweep.3dm.
To create the base —Part 1:
In the first part of this exercise, we will explore one of the Sweep2 options. To
illustrate the option we will use one cross-section. In the second part we will use
the same rail curves with two cross-sections. Lastly, we will use two rails that
converge to a single point.
1
Change to the Base Surface layer.
2
From the Surface menu, click Sweep 2 Rails.
3
Select the two rail curves (1).
4
Select the cross-section curve (2).
5
Press Enter twice.
Sweep 2 Rails
Since we only picked one cross-section, the
surface doesn’t conform to the circle at the top
of the sweep.
6
7
In the Sweep 2 Rail Options dialog, check
Maintain height, click Preview.
Notice that the cross-section maintains the
same height thoughout the sweep.
In the Sweep 2 Rail Options dialog, click
Cancel.
Robert McNeel & Associates
194
To create the base—Part 2:
1
Select the two rail curves (1).
2
From the Surface menu, click Sweep 2 Rails.
3
Select both cross-section curves (2).
4
Press Enter twice.
5
In the Sweep 2 Rail Options dialog, click OK.
Notes:
A surface is created whose edges match the rail curves and the cross-section
curves.
To create the housing:
1
Turn the Housing Surface, Housing Curves,
and Mirror layers on.
2
Make the Housing Surface layer current.
3
From the Surface menu, click Sweep 2 Rails.
4
Select the two rail curves (1).
5
For the cross-section, select the outer edge of
the cylinder, press Enter twice.
6
In the Sweep 2 Rail Options dialog, click OK.
A surface is created.
To join the two parts:
1
Select the base
and the
housing
surfaces.
2
From the Solid
menu, click
Union.
3
Use FilletEdge
with a radius of
.25 to round the
intersecting
edge.
Robert McNeel & Associates
195
Notes:
Exercise 63—Using a network of curves to create surfaces
1
Open the model Networksurf.3dm.
2
From the Surface menu, click Curve
Network.
3
For Select curves in network, pick
the two edge curves and the crosssection curves, and press Enter.
4
In the Surface From Curve
Network dialog box, change the
edge matching to Curvature,
click OK.
A surface is created that has
curvature continuity with the other
two surfaces.
Robert McNeel & Associates
196
Notes:
Exercise 64— Practice using one-rail sweeps:
In this exercise you use one rail sweeps to make an end table with free-form tapered legs.
To create the legs:
1
Open the model
Table.3dm.
2
From the
Surface menu,
click Sweep 1
Rail.
3
Select the path
curve for the leg.
4
Select the shape
curve for both
ends of the leg.
5
Press Enter.
6
Press Enter.
7
In the Sweep 1 Rail Options dialog box, click OK.
The table leg is created. Note the nice transition from one cross-section curve to the other.
To create the brace:
1
Change to the
Braces layer.
2
Repeat the
previous process
to create the
brace.
Robert McNeel & Associates
197
To create the top and finish the table:
1
Change to the
Top layer.
2
From the
Surface menu,
click Sweep 1
Rail.
3
Select the
ellipse.
4
Select the shape
curve.
5
Press Enter.
6
In the Sweep 1 Rail Options dialog box, click OK.
7
The surface for the rim of top is created.
Select all of the surfaces you created.
8
From the Solid menu, click Cap Planar Holes.
9
Six caps were created.
Use Mirror to copy the brace and the leg to finish the model.
Notes:
Mirror them around 0,0 in the Top viewport.
Robert McNeel & Associates
198
Notes:
Exercise 65— Creating a toy hammer:
In this exercise you will use most of the techniques that you’ve learned in
the previous sessions.
Some models require more attention to detail. This is an example of a
model that requires precise modeling techniques. This exercise also requires
a number of different surface creation techniques. The technical drawing is
included to help you create a very precise model.
1
Open the model Hammer.3dm.
In addition the following layers have been created: Construction Lines, Curves, Handle, Tang, Head,
Hole, Cutout, and Claw. Use the appropriate layer when constructing the model.
40
19
ALL FILLETS AND ROUNDS 2mm.
R4
60
R50
8
90
R80
40
13
20
Ø12
32
42
R21
16
42
2
21
40
110
25
Draw outlines for the hammer in the Top viewport.
Drawing outlines helps while drawing the curves. You can either draw lines, polylines, or rectangles to create
the outlines. Use the dimensions on the technical drawing to get accurate outlines.
Robert McNeel & Associates
199
To create the claw:
Notes:
When modeling the shape of the claw, you will use circles, arcs, and curves. You can trim the circles and arcs and
then join them together to create a closed curve. You can rebuild the curve and adjust the control points to get a
more sculptural shape.
1
Change to the Curves layer
2
Draw a curve defining the shape of the claw in the Top viewport.
3
You can use a free-form curve or use a combination of arcs and circles
that are trimmed and joined to create the curve. Following is a systematic
approach to creating the curve for the claw part of the hammer using arcs
and circles.
Start by drawing two circles.
Use the Circle command (Curve menu > Circle > Tangent to 3 curves) to
create a circle at the lower end of the claw.
Draw the circles tangent to the construction geometry
4
Use the Circle command (Curve menu > Circle > Tangent, Tangent, Radius) to
create a circle at the upper end of the claw that is tangent to the upper right
corner with a 4 mm radius.
Draw the circles tangent to the construction geometry.
5
Use the Arc command (Curve menu > Arc >
Tangent, Tangent, Radius) to create arcs that
are tangent to the two circles.
Robert McNeel & Associates
200
Notes:
6
Use the Trim command (Edit menu > Trim) to trim the inside part of the
circles.
7
Use the Join command (Edit menu > Join) to join the arc segments.
8
Change to the Claw layer.
9
Select the joined segments.
10 Use the ExtrudeCrv command (Solid menu > Extrude Planar Curve >
Straight) to extrude the curve on both sides of the construction plane.
Robert McNeel & Associates
201
To create the head:
1
Change to the Curves layer.
2
Use the Curve command (Curve menu > Free-form > Control Points) to create
the curve for the cross-section of the head.
Notes:
Make sure the curve intersects the claw part. This makes joining the two pieces
easier.
3
Change to the Head layer.
4
Use the Revolve command (Surface menu >
Revolve) to revolve the curve.
5
Use the midpoint of the construction line for
the revolve axis.
Save your model.
To add the head to the claw part:
1
2
3
Use the BooleanUnion command (Solid menu
> Union) to join the head with the claw.
If the result is not correct, flip the normal of the
head surface with the Dir command. The normal
of the head surface should be towards out.
Use the FilletEdge command (Solid menu >
Fillet Edge) fillet the intersection between the
head and the claw.
Save your model.
Robert McNeel & Associates
202
To create slot for the claw part of the hammer:
1
2
Notes:
Use the Curve command (Curve menu > Freeform > Control Points) to draw a curve for the
slotted part of the claw.
Make sure the curve is symmetrical.
Use the Line command (Curve menu > Line >
Single Line) to draw a line between the
endpoints.
3
Use the Join command (Edit menu > Join) to
join the curve and the line.
4
Drag the closed curve closer to the claw.
5
Use the Rotate command (Transform menu >
Rotate) to rotate the curve to align more closely
with the curve of the claw.
6
Change to the Claw layer.
7
Use the ExtrudeCrv command (Solid menu >
Extrude Planar Curve > Straight) to extrude the
curve through the claw.
8
Save your model.
9
Use the BooleanDifference command (Solid
menu > Difference) to subtract the slot from
the claw.
10 Use the FilletEdge command (Solid menu >
Fillet Edge) to make the fillets around the top
and bottom of the claw, and the slot.
Robert McNeel & Associates
203
To create the shape curve for the tang and the handle:
Notes:
Create the shape curve for the tang in the Right viewport. This curve will also be used for the handle.
1
Change to the Curves layer and turn on
Ortho.
2
Use the Curve command (Curve menu > Freeform > Control Points) to draw a curve for the
upper cross-section of the tang.
Make sure the curve is symmetrical.
3
Use the Mirror command (Transform menu > Mirror) to create the other
curve.
4
Use the Join command (Edit > Join) to join the curves.
5
Save your model.
Robert McNeel & Associates
204
To create the tang:
1
Notes:
Use the Curve command (Curve menu > Freeform > Control Points) to draw one of the
curves for the tang of the hammer.
2
Make sure that it intersects the claw.
Use the Mirror command (Transform menu >
Mirror) to create the other curve.
3
Change to the Tang layer.
4
Use the Sweep2 command (Surface menu > Sweep 2 Rails) to make the
surface.
5
Use the Cap command (Solid menu > Cap Planar Holes) to make the tang a
closed polysurface.
6
Save your model.
To finish the hammer head:
1
Select the tang and the claw.
2
Use the BooleanUnion command (Solid menu
> Union) to join the tang with the claw and the
head.
3
Use the FilletEdge command (Solid menu >
Fillet Edge) to make the fillets at the
intersection between the tang and the claw.
4
The edge has a round on it.
Save your model.
Robert McNeel & Associates
205
To create the handle:
1
Change to the Curves layer.
2
Use the Curve command (Curve
menu > Free-form > Control Points)
to draw a curve for the top edge of
the handle.
3
Notes:
Make it start at the endpoint of the
tang profile curve and end on the
centerline.
Use the Mirror command (Transform
menu > Mirror) to make the other
half.
4
Change to the Handle layer.
5
Use the Sweep2 command (Surface
menu > Sweep 2 Rails) to make the
surface using the tang curve as the
profile curve.
6
A surface is created.
Use the Cap command (Solid menu
> Cap Planar Holes) to cap the open
end.
7
Save your model.
Robert McNeel & Associates
206
To create the hole for the handle:
1
2
3
Use the Circle command (Curve
menu > Circle > Center, Radius) to
make a circle 25mm from the end of
the handle.
You may have to draw a construction
line to help you position the circle.
Use the ExtrudeCrv command (Solid
menu > Extrude Planar Curve >
Straight) to extrude the curve on
both sides of the construction plane.
Make sure the extrusion intersects both sides of the handle.
Save your model.
4
Use the BooleanDifference command (Solid menu > Difference) to
subtract the hole from the handle.
5
Use the FilletEdge command (Solid menu > Fillet Edge) to make the
fillets at the edges of the hole.
6
Notes:
The edges have rounds on them.
Save your model.
Robert McNeel & Associates
207
Notes:
Exercise 66— Creating a squeeze bottle:
Some models require more attention to detail. This is an example of a model that requires precise modeling
techniques. This exercise also requires a number of different surface creation techniques.
The technical drawing is included to help you create a very precise model.
50
1
Start a new model, use the Small Objects - Inches.3dm template.
2
Save as Bottle.
3
Make the following layers: Construction, Curve, Bottle, BottleTop, Threads, Cap1, Cap2, and CapTop.
4
Change to the Construction layer.
Robert McNeel & Associates
208
Notes:
Create the bottle shape
To create the bottle shape, you will draw a curve that defines the bottom and top edge, and then draw a curve
that represents the side shape. You will then create a surface from these defining curves.
To draw the construction curves:
1
Use the Rectangle command (Curve menu >
Rectangle > Corner to Corner) to make
rectangles in the Front and Right views that
define the overall size of the bottle shape of the
bottle.
The rectangles will be used as guides for
building the bottle curves.
2
Use the Lock command (Edit menu >
Visibility > Lock) to lock the two rectangles.
3
Use the Ellipse command (Curve menu >
Ellipse > From Center) to make the shape for
the bottom of the bottle.
4
Snap to the intersection of the rectangles for the center of the ellipse.
5
Use the Move command (Transform menu > Move) to move the ellipse up
.25 in the Front view.
6
Use the Circle command (Curve menu > Circle > Center, Radius) to draw a
circle for the top shape of the bottle.
7
Snap to the intersection at the top of the rectangles for the center of the circle.
Robert McNeel & Associates
Rectangle
Ellipse
209
To draw the profile curves:
1
Change to the
Curve layer.
2
Use the Curve
command (Curve
menu > FreeForm > Control
Points) to define
the edge of the
bottle in the
Front and Right
viewport.
Notes:
Use the rectangle and object snaps to help you establish the correct size. The curve will be used to create the
surface of the bottle.
3
Use the Mirror command (Transform menu > Mirror) to create the other curves.
To create the surface for the bottle:
1
Change to the Bottle layer.
2
Use the Loft command (Surface menu > Loft) to make the bottle surface.
3
For Select curves to loft, select the profile curves in a clockwise direction,
press Enter.
4
In the Loft Options dialog, check Closed loft, set the Style=Normal,
click OK.
Robert McNeel & Associates
Loft
210
Notes:
Cap the top and bottom
If you close the bottle, thereby creating a solid, Rhino can calculate the bottle’s volume. If you were creating this
bottle in real life, knowing the volume would be important. Normally, a bottle would have to be designed to hold a
specified volume.
If the edges of the remaining open surfaces are planar curves, you can use the Cap command to close them. The
open edges on the bottle are the top circular shape and the bottom elliptical shape, and they are planar.
To cap the top and bottom:
1
Select the surface.
2
Use the Cap command (Solid menu > Cap Planar Holes) to close the holes.
Robert McNeel & Associates
Cap Planer Holes
211
Notes:
Flatten the sides
In this part of the exercise you will create a custom surfaces to trim an area on each side of the bottle for a label.
The new surface will have curvature in only one direction.
To create the trimming surface:
1
Change to the Curve layer.
2
In the Front viewport, draw three lines. One
line in the middle and one on each side.
3
Make sure the lines extend a little below and
above the height of the bottle.
In the Right viewport, Move the lines so that
they will intersect the bottle, like the illustration
on the right.
The technical drawing gives dimensions for
these curves, but for this exercise you can use
the construction rectangles to help. If you would
like to go further, try to figure out on your own
how to draw the curves to the exact
specifications.
4
Select the three curves you just created.
5
Use the Loft command (Surface menu > Loft)
to make the cutting surface.
6
In the Loft Options dialog, uncheck Closed loft,
click OK.
7
A lofted surface intersects the bottle.
Mirror the surface to the other side of the
bottle.
8
Save your model.
Robert McNeel & Associates
Loft
212
To remove the surface from the bottle:
1
Change to the Bottle layer.
2
Use the Dir command (Analyze menu >
Direction) to check the surface normal
direction. Flip the normals if necessary.
3
4
Notes:
Boolean Difference
The normals should be pointing toward the
center of the bottle.
Select the bottle.
Use the BooleanDifference command (Solid
menu > Difference) to subtract the two lofted
surfaces from the bottle.
Create the bottle’s top
To create the bottle throat, you are going to revolve a profile curve to create the surface, and then add threads.
To create the profile curve:
1
Change to the Curve layer.
2
In the Front viewport, use the Lines command (Curve menu > Line >
Line Segments) and the Arc command (Curve menu > Arc > Center,
Start, Angle) to create a profile curve for the outside and the inside of the
top.
3
Use the drawing to the right to draw the correct dimensions.
4
Begin the drawing anywhere in the viewport.
5
You will move it to a precise location after it is made.
Use the Join command (Edit menu > Join) to join the segments
together.
Robert McNeel & Associates
213
Notes:
Tip
When drawing line segments, you can use object snaps, the distance constraint, and ortho to draw
precisely. For example, for the first line type .5,7.25 for the starting point, then simply type .25 to
constrain the line to .25 units. Turn Ortho on and drag the line to the right and click. The line stops at .25
units from the beginning of the line. For the vertical line on the left, use the End object snap to pick the
end of the first line, type .375 to constrain the distance, and drag the line in an upward direction.
6
Use the Move command (Transform menu >
Move) to move the profile from the midpoint of
the bottom edge to the quadrant of the top of
the bottle.
7
Change to the Bottle Top layer.
To create the top surface:
1
Select the profile curve.
2
Use the Revolve command (Surface menu >
Revolve) to make the surface.
3
Type 0 and press Enter for the first axis point
4
Turn Ortho on and pick another point up or
down from the first point for the other axis
point.
5
Revolve
For the Start Angle, click FullCircle.
The top is created.
Note: Practice additional surface modeling techniques by creating threads on the bottle top and the caps for the
model. Use the technical drawing to help.
Robert McNeel & Associates
214
Notes:
Adding the threads
To add the threads, you will sweep a profile shape along a path drawn with the Helix command.
To create the path curve helix:
1
Change to the Curve layer.
2
From the Curve menu, click Helix.
3
Snap to the center point at the bottom of the area to be threaded.
4
Snap to the center at the top of the area to be threaded.
5
Click Turns.
6
Type 1.5 and press Enter.
7
Pick a point near the edge that is slightly smaller than the outside edge of the
area to be threaded.
Helix
To draw the thread profile:
1
Draw a triangle using the Polygon command
for the thread as shown below.
2
Select the triangle you created.
3
From the Transform menu, click Array, and
then click Along Curve.
4
Select the helix near the bottom.
5
In the Array Along Curve Options dialog,
change the Number of items to 5, click
Roadlike then click OK.
6
Click in the Top viewport.
7
It might be a good idea at this point to change
your perspective view so you can see the profile
curves more easily.
Delete the first and last profile curve.
You will use the remaining profile curves to
create a surface.
Robert McNeel & Associates
215
To create the thread surface:
1
Change to the BottleTop layer.
2
You can see the helix and profile curves easier if
you Hide the bottle top at this point.
Use the Sweep1 command to create a surface
that starts a point at one end of the helix, goes
through each profile, and ends at a point at the
other end of the helix.
From the Surface menu, click Sweep 1 Rail.
3
Select the helix.
4
To start the surface at a point, at the Select
cross-section curves ( Point ) prompt, type P
and press Enter.
5
Use the End object snap to pick one end of the
helix.
6
Select the profile curves in order.
7
To end the surface at a point, at type P and
press Enter.
8
Use the End object snap to pick the other end
of the helix.
9
Press Enter.
Notes:
Sweep 1 Rail
10 In the Sweep 1 Rail Options dialog box,
change the Style to Roadlike Top, and
click OK.
11 Show the bottle.
12 Select the helical thread and the bottle top.
13 Use the BooleanUnion command (Solid menu > Union) to join the thread and the bottle top.
Robert McNeel & Associates
216
Notes:
10
Importing and Exporting Models
Rhino supports many different import and export formats, making it possible to model in Rhino and then export
your model to downstream processes. For a complete list of import and export options refer to Rhino Help. Search
the index for ―import and export.‖
Importing and Exporting Rhino File Information
When you export to a format like 3DS, STL or DWG, Rhino has to convert from smooth NURBS surfaces to a
polygon mesh representation made of triangles. To do a good approximation of the curved surfaces, Rhino can
sometimes use many polygons. The density of triangles can be adjusted when exporting. You can create a mesh
object and export it, or Rhino can create the mesh during the export process.
There are two methods to export models to other formats. You can ―Save As‖ and choose a specific export format
to export an entire model. You can select some objects and ―Export Selected‖ then choose a specific export format
to export a portion of the model. In the following exercise you will use the ―Save As‖ method to export three of
the most common file formats.
Robert McNeel & Associates
217
Notes:
Exercise 67— Exporting models
To export a model to a mesh format:
1
Open the model Export.3dm.
2
From the File menu, click Save As.
3
In the Save dialog box, change the
Save as type to Stereo
lithography (*.stl).
4
In the file name box type Export and
click Save.
5
In the STL Mesh Export Options
dialog box, set the Tolerance to
0.01, and click Preview.
6
Set the Tolerance to 0.1, click Preview, and then click OK.
7
In the STL Export Options dialog box, select Binary, check Export
open objects, and click OK.
Detailed mesh controls are discussed in more depth in the Level 2 training
class.
Robert McNeel & Associates
218
To export a model to IGES:
1
From the File menu, click Save As.
2
In the Save dialog box, change the Save as type to IGES (*.igs).
3
In the IGES Export Options dialog box, select Pro E Windows
solids as the IGES type, click Detailed Controls.
4
Notes:
Detailed controls allow the user more input.
Click Cancel to terminate, or OK to create the IGES file.
To export a model to STEP:
1
From the File menu, click Save As.
2
In the Save As dialog box, change the Save as type to STEP (*.stp, *.step).
3
In the STEP Options dialog box, use the default setting.
Robert McNeel & Associates
219
Notes:
Robert McNeel & Associates
220
Notes:
11
Rendering
Rendering is available for showing your model as if it was photographed. While the Rhino renderer may be good
enough for much of your work, use another rendering program such as Rhino’s Flamingo plug-in for higher quality
results. Flamingo is available as a plug-in to Rhino 2.0. Visit www.flamingo3d.com for more information.
Rhino’s renderer uses color, spotlights, displays shadows, and does antialiasing. It also allows the attachment of
textures and bump maps. In this exercise we will focus on the full rendering capability.
Exercise 68— Practice rendering a model
1
Open the model Render.3dm.
2
From the Render menu, click Current Renderer, and then click Rhino
Render.
3
Right click on the Perspective title bar, and then click Rendered
display.
Rendered Viewport
The viewport mimics but does not exactly duplicate what you will get in a
Render.
Robert McNeel & Associates
221
To assign a color to the handle:
1
In the Layers dialog box,
click on the Materials
column for the Handle layer.
2
In the Material dialog box,
click Basic,
Notes:
To give the handle a
highlight, change the Gloss
finish setting.
A highlight of 0 means that
the object is not shiny at all
and it will not have a specular
highlight. A low value of
highlight makes the shiny
spot to be small, and the
object will look glossier. As
the highlight increases in
value, the shiny spot gets
large—this makes the object
look more like it is made out
of a reflective material.
The shiny spot only appears
when you are looking at an
object at a certain angle
relative to the angle of the
light.
3
Change the Gloss finish setting to 90, and then click the Color swatch.
4
In the Select Color dialog box, select a color, like Red, and click OK.
5
Repeat the steps above to assign a material to the Blade layer.
6
Render
From the Render menu, click Render.
A display window appears with the current viewport rendered in colors, but it
will probably lack detail. You can close the Display Window without disturbing
your model. Placing lights will add depth and detail to the rendered image.
Robert McNeel & Associates
222
To place a light:
Notes:
Start with a standard lighting scheme. You can experiment to develop your own lighting schemes later.
1
Zoom out in the Top and the Front viewport.
2
Change to the Lights layer.
3
From the Render menu, click Create
Spotlight.
4
For the Base of cone, type 0 and press Enter.
5
For the Radius, pick a point so that the circle is
larger than the entire screwdriver in the Top
viewport.
6
For the End of cone, hold down the control
key, and pick a point below and to the right in
the Top viewport.
7
Create Spotlight
This starts elevator mode.
For the End of cone, pick above the object in
the Front viewport.
8
This will be your main light.
Click in the Perspective viewport.
9
From the Render menu, click Render.
The image has some highlights and shadows.
Robert McNeel & Associates
223
To place a second light:
1
Zoom out in the Top and the Front viewport.
2
From the Render menu, click Create
Spotlight.
3
For the Base of cone, type 0 and press Enter.
4
For the Radius, pick a point so that the circle is
larger than the handle of the screwdriver in the
Top viewport.
5
For the End of cone, hold down the control
key, and pick a point below and to the left in
the Top viewport.
6
Notes:
This starts elevator mode.
For the End of cone, pick above the object in
the Front viewport.
7
This will be your secondary (fill) light.
Click in the Perspective viewport.
8
From the Render menu, click Render.
To assign properties to the light:
1
Select the new light.
2
From the Edit menu, click Object Properties.
3
On the Light page, change the Shadow
intensity to 0 and the Spotlight hardness to
60.
4
Experiment with these settings to get the
desired effect.
Click in the Perspective viewport.
5
From the Render menu, click Render.
Robert McNeel & Associates
224
To add a bumpy surface to the handle:
1
In the Layers dialog box,
click on the Materials
column for the Handle layer.
2
In the Material Editor dialog
box, check Bump.
Notes:
You can use any bitmap file
for a bump.
3
The bumps come from the pattern of light and
dark in the bitmap image.
In the Open Bitmap dialog box, select
HandleBump.jpg, and then click Open.
4
In the Material Editor dialog box, for Bump
Tiling, click Modify.
5
In the Offset and Tiling dialog box, change
the U tiling to 4.0 and the V tiling to 6.0, click
OK.
6
Click OK to close the Material Editor dialog
box.
7
From the Render menu, click Render.
The surface of the handle has a bumpy
appearance.
Robert McNeel & Associates
225
To add a texture to the handle:
1
In the Layers dialog box,
click on the Materials
column for the Handle layer.
2
In the Material Editor dialog
box, uncheck Bump.
3
In the Material Editor dialog
box, check Texture.
4
In the Open Bitmap dialog box, select
Wood.jpg, and then click Open.
5
In the Offset and Tiling dialog box, change
the U tiling to 4.0 and the V tiling to 6.0, click
OK.
6
Click OK to close the Material Editor dialog
box.
7
From the Render menu, click Render.
Notes:
The surface of the handle has a wood texture
appearance.
Robert McNeel & Associates
226
To make the handle transparent:
1
In the Layers dialog box,
click on the Materials
column for the Handle layer.
2
In the Material Editor dialog
box, uncheck Texture.
3
In the Material Editor dialog box, change
the Transparency setting to 50.
4
Click OK to close the Material Editor
dialog box.
5
From the Render menu, click Render.
Notes:
The handle will look transparent.
Robert McNeel & Associates
227
To add a surface for a ground plane:
1
Use the Plane command (Surface
menu > Plane > Corner to Corner) to
draw a flat surface in the Top
viewport.
2
Select the surface.
3
Use the Properties command (Edit
menu > Object Properties...) on the
Material page, click Basic.
4
In the Texture section assign the
Wood.jpg to the plane.
5
From the Render menu, click
Render.
Notes:
Rendering with Flamingo
In this part of the exercise you will use Flamingo to assign materials from the material library and set up an
environment. You will use the same lights and model.
To assign a material:
1
Select the flat surface.
2
Use the Hide command (Edit menu > Visibility > Hide) to hide it.
3
From the Render menu, click Current Renderer, and then click Flamingo Raytrace.
4
In the Layers dialog box, click on the Materials column for the Handle layer.
5
In the Material Editor dialog box, click Plug-in, and then click Browse.
6
In the Material Library dialog box, in the Plastics library, in the
Transparent folder, select a material, press OK.
7
In the Material Editor dialog box, press OK.
8
Repeat this process for the Blade layer.
9
Choose a shiny metal material, like Metal\Steel\Polished\Plain.
10 Render the model.
Robert McNeel & Associates
228
To set up an environment:
1
Use the Options command (Tools menu > Options...) to setup the Flamingo environment options
2
In the Rhino Options dialog box, on the Flamingo page, click the Environment button.
3
On the Environment dialog box, change to a 3 Color Gradient.
Notes:
Use the default setting.
4
Check the Ground Plane check box.
5
On the Ground Plane page, click the Material button, and select a
material for the ground plane, like Metal\Aluminum\Satin\Checker
Plate.
6
On the Environment dialog box, press OK.
7
On the Rhino Options dialog box, press OK.
8
Render the model.
Notice that you also get reflections.
A more complete discussion of Flamingo rendering is included in Level 2 training.
For extra practice use the canoe, the hammer, or the bottle you made in the earlier exercises.
Robert McNeel & Associates
229
Notes:
Robert McNeel & Associates
230
Notes:
12
Dimensions
Dimensions
You can create simple dimensions on all viewports.
Dimension Types
Button
Command
Description
Dim
Linear Dimension creates a horizontal or a vertical dimension.
DimAligned
Creates an aligned dimension.
DimRotated
Creates a rotated dimension.
DimAngle
Creates an angular dimension.
DimRadius
Creates a radius dimension.
Robert McNeel & Associates
231
Notes:
Button
Command
Description
DimDiameter
Creates a diameter dimension.
Text
Creates 2-D annotation text.
Leader
Draw an arrow leader.
Properties
Edit dimensions and text.
DimRecenterText
Returns text that has been moved away from its default position to its original
location.
Make2-D
Creates curves from the selected objects as silhouettes relative to the active
construction plane. The silhouette curves are projected flat and then placed on
the world x,y-plane.
Exercise 69— Practice dimensioning
1
Open the model Dimension.3dm.
2
From the Tools menu, click Options.
3
In the Rhino Options dialog box, on the
Dimensions page, make the following
changes.
Robert McNeel & Associates
Options
232
Notes:
4
From the Dimension menu click Linear Dimension.
5
Snap to the lower left end of the part in Top viewport.
6
Snap to the lower right end of the part in the Top viewport.
7
Pick a point below the part in the Top viewport.
Linear dimension
Use object snaps to locate the
extension line origins.
8
From the Dimension menu, click
Radial Dimension.
9
Select the lower right quadrant of the
arc in the Top viewport.
10 Click to place the dimension text.
To move extension line or text
locations for dimensions, turn on
control points for the dimension and
move the control points.
Radial dimension
11 From the Dimension menu, click
Diameter Dimension.
12 Select the upper right quadrant of
the hole in the Top viewport.
Diameter dimension
13 Click to place the dimension text.
14 Dimension the rest of the drawing
using leaders, text blocks, horizontal,
vertical, radius, and diameter
dimensions.
15 Save your model.
Robert McNeel & Associates
233
Notes:
Making a 2-D Drawing from a 3-D Model
Rhino has the ability to generate a two-dimensional drawing from a three-dimensional model, by projecting the
geometry to the world coordinate plane, and aligning the views. Options for first angle projection or third angle
projection are available. In addition to the three orthographic views, a two-dimensional perspective drawing is
also generated. Hidden lines are removed and placed on a separate layer.
Options for creating four views > three parallel viewports and a perspective viewport, or single views of individual
viewports are supported.
The Make2-D command makes a two-dimensional drawing for all four views.
Exercise 70— Practice making a 2-D drawing for export
1
Open the model Make2D.3dm.
2
From the Dimension menu, click Make
2-D Drawing.
3
In the 2-D Drawing Options dialog box,
click 4-view (USA) and check Show
hidden lines, and then click OK.
4
Make 2-D Drawing
The 2-D drawings are created on the Top
CPlane near the origin on the world xy
plane. View them in the Top viewport.
Dimension the 2-D drawing.
Robert McNeel & Associates
234
Notes:
13
Layout and Printing
Layouts and Details
Layout viewports can include various views of the model and annotations like title blocks and notes. When these
viewports are tabbed with the model viewports, they can be easily accessed from the tabs.
Geometry in a layout viewport does not appear in the model viewports. Layout viewports include a background
with one or more detail views of the model. The detail edge appearance is controlled with the Properties command
and has exactly the same object properties as any curve, including Layer, Display Color, Print Color, and Print
Width.
The Print Width—No Print property is set by default. Detail properties include Locked status and Scale.
Exercise 71— Practice making layouts
1
Open the model
SimpleLayout_Print.3dm.
2
Click in the Top viewport.
3
From the View menu, click Page
Layout, click New Page Layout.
4
In the New Page Layout dialog, click
Landscape. Set the Initial Detail
Count to 4. Adjust any other options
appropriate for your printer or plotter,
click OK.
A layout page opens and tabs appear at the lower edge of the Rhino
window labeling the modeling windows and the layout page.
Robert McNeel & Associates
235
Notes:
The new layout has four detail
views, showing the object from the
same direction as the four default
Rhino viewports.
Rhino turns on the tabbed viewports
to make it easier to navigate among
multiple layouts and modeling
viewports.
Details are windows into the 3-D
model. They can be activated as
modeling viewports by doubleclicking in the viewport.
5
Double-click in the Right
viewport.
Robert McNeel & Associates
236
Set scale and lock details:
1
Notes:
If the Properties window is not
open, open it now (Edit>Object
Properties) and dock it to one
side.
With nothing selected, the
properties window shows the
viewport properties.
With no detail active, the
properties shown are for the
layout as a whole.
2
Click the Edit button to edit the
title, and size and printer
properties.
3
On the command line, for the
Distance on page (mm), set it
to 1, press Enter.
4
On the command line, for the
Distance in model (m), set it
to 1, press Enter.
5
Change the title to Right
Profile, and Lock the detail.
6
Repeat this in the Top and
Front details to set all of these
details to the same scale.
7
Activate the Perspective detail.
8
From the View menu, click
Shaded.
Robert McNeel & Associates
237
To draw borders and title blocks in the layout space:
1
Double-click in the Perspective detail to deactivate it and make the
layout space active.
2
Draw a Rectangle (Curve>Rectangle>Corner to corner) around the
viewports on the Layout.
3
From the File menu, click Insert.
4
On the Insert dialog, check Prompt for Insertion point, uncheck
Prompt for Scale and Rotation.
5
On the Insert dialog, click File…, select TitleBlock.3dm, click Open,
click OK.
6
For the Insertion Point, snap to the lower right corner of the rectangle.
7
A title block is inserted on the layout.
You can add information to the title block with the text command.
Notes:
To edit the text on the title block, explode it first.
To add dimensions to the layout space:
1
On the layout use Linear dimensions to measure some features.
2
The dimensions are located on the layout. The will not display in the
model views.
Add more dimensions as needed to the other layout viewports.
Robert McNeel & Associates
238
To set linetypes and line weights for curves:
Notes:
These are used in printing and can be displayed in the Rhino views using the PrintDisplay and LinetypeDisplay
commands.
1
From the Edit menu, click Layers, then click Edit Layers.
2
On the Layers dialog, in the Print Width column, change the width of
some of the layers.
3
Select the Border rectangle and the Title Block.
4
On the Object Properties dialog, change the Print Width to a thicker
weight.
5
Type PrintDisplay on the command line, click State=Off on the
command line, change it to On.
Note the difference in thickness of the curves.
Linetypes can be adjusted the same way.
Printing
Exercise 72— Practice printing
To print the layout:
1
From the File menu, click Print.
2
On the Print dialog, set the print Destination to the desired printer.
In addition to your Windows printers, the list of printers includes pdf print
drivers, if available, as well as Image File which allows printing to an image
file like *.png, *.jpg., *.bmp, *.tif, or *.tga.
Print
The detailed settings below the list of destinations will change, depending
on the selected printer or driver. Generally, the settings control print
quality, orientation (landscape or portrait), paper size, number of copies to
print, and a button to access the printer properties.
3
For Printer output, set it to raster.
To print layouts or viewports that contain a shaded display, the raster
settiing is required.
To print layouts or viewports as curves or lines only, use the vector setting.
Robert McNeel & Associates
239
Notes:
4
For the Output color, set it to Print Color.
Output color can be set on any one of the following:
Print Color uses object color for the print color. This can be set to any
color per object or per layer. An object that is displayed with a blue
wireframe in the viewport can print to any other color.
Display Color is the default setting in the print dialog. Objects print the
color of the wireframe in the viewport.
Black and White forces black and white printing only, ignoring the display
or print colors of objects.
In the SimpleLayout file, the wireframes of the various objects are of
varying color. Some of them correspond to the layer color of the layer they
are on, like the hull, which displays green. Others have their display color
set by object to override the layer color.
5
6
Set the View and Output Scale. Set the View to Extents, and the Scale
to 1:1.
The reason we can set this to 1:1 is because we set up our layout to the
paper size and we scaled the viewports to the correct scale.
Cancel the Print, unless you have a printer available.
Robert McNeel & Associates
240
Part Four:
Customizing Workspaces and Toolbars
242
Notes:
14
Rhino Settings
Options
The Rhino Options dialog box displays most of the settings that affect your modeling environment. Use it to
toggle the settings or redefine them.
The Document Properties settings are saved with the Rhino model. The Rhino Options settings are saved in
the Windows registry and affect every Rhino model.
Exercise 73— Practice with options
To change modeling aids:
1
From the Tools menu, click Options.
2
In the Rhino Options dialog box, click the Modeling Aids page.
3
Options
The Modeling Aids page controls Grid Snap, Ortho, Planar mode,
and Object Snap options.
These options can be toggled on and off from the dialog box or
from the status bar. To change the options for Ortho or object
snap, type new values in the boxes. In an earlier exercise you
changed the Ortho setting so that it snapped every 30 degrees.
Modeling Aids also contains pages for SmartTrack options,
Nudge controls, and Cursor ToolTips.
Robert McNeel & Associates
243
To change Rhino’s screen appearance:
1
Click the Appearance page.
2
The Appearance page controls the appearance of the Rhino window.
Click the white rectangle next to Background color and change it
to a different color.
3
Check the Crosshairs box.
Notes:
To change or create shortcuts:
1
Open the Keyboard page.
2
The Keyboard page sets up shortcut keys for Rhino commands.
Type DisableOsnap _Toggle in the box next to the F4 key.
This gives you a key that toggles your persistent object snaps
between on and disabled.
Robert McNeel & Associates
244
To change or create command aliases:
1
Click the Aliases page.
2
The command Aliases page allows the user to create custom aliases
for Rhino commands.
Click New.
3
A cursor moves into the white area of the dialog box.
Type L, press the tab key.
4
Type ! Lines.
Notes:
The exclamation point acts as a cancel.
Now you will be able to type L and press Enter at the command
line, to begin the Lines command.
To change view options:

Click the View page.
The View page has pan, zoom, rotate, and redraw controls.
To change general options:

Click the General page.
The General page controls the number of undo’s retained in memory, startup commands, recent command list
limit, AutoSave control, and do not repeat commands, default isocurve density for new surfaces.
To set file options:
1
Click the Files page.
The Files page sets the location of template files and the autosave files.
2
Click OK to close the Options dialog box.
3
Try the Lines alias and the DisableOsnap toggle.
Note how your cursor has changed.
Robert McNeel & Associates
245
Notes:
Document Properties
Document properties are all of the settings that are saved with the Rhino model.
Exercise 74— Practice with document properties
Document Properties
To change the grid:
1
From the File menu, click Properties.
2
Click the Grid page.
The Grid page configures grid, grid axes, and axis icons. You changed the snap spacing in an earlier exercise.
To change render options:
1
Click the Rhino Render or Flamingo page.
The Render page controls most of the render options.
2
Click the Mesh page.
This page controls the mesh properties. It will also affect performance.
To set units:

Click the Units page.
The Units page controls the unit system and the tolerance settings.
Robert McNeel & Associates
246
Notes:
15
Custom Toolbar Layouts
The toolbar layout is the arrangement of toolbars containing command buttons on the screen. The toolbar layout
is stored in a toolbar collection file that you can open and save. Rhino comes with a default toolbar layout, and
automatically saves the active toolbar layout before closing. You can create your own custom layouts and save
them for later use.
You must use an external file manager to delete a toolbar collection file.
Exercise 75— Customizing a toolbar layout
1
Begin a new model.
2
From the Tools menu, click Toolbar Layout.
3
In the Toolbars dialog box, from the File menu, click Save As.
4
In the Save Toolbars Collection dialog box, in the File name box type Level 1,
and click Save.
A new toolbar collection file has been created. Toolbar collection files are saved with
a .tb extension. You will use this new toolbar collection to do some customization.
To show another toolbar:
1
From the Tools menu, click Toolbar Layout.
2
In the Toolbars dialog box, check Curve Tools to show the toolbar.
3
In the Toolbars dialog box, clear Curve Tools to hide the toolbar.
4
Show the Curve Tools toolbar again, and then click Close.
Robert McNeel & Associates 
247
Notes:
5
To dock the Curve Tools
toolbar at the bottom, drag
down until it changes to a
horizontal shape, then
releasing your mouse
button.
To save your toolbar layout:

In the Toolbars dialog box, from the File menu, click Save.
To create a new toolbar:
1
From the Tools menu, click Toolbar Layout.
2
In the Toolbars dialog box, from the Toolbar menu, click New.
3
In the Toolbar Properties dialog box, in the Name box, type Test,
and click OK.
4
A new toolbar is created with one blank button in it.
Close the Toolbars dialog box.
Robert McNeel & Associates
248
To edit the new button:
1
Hold down the Shift key and right-click the blank button.
2
To enter the tooltips for the left and right mouse buttons, in
the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box, under Tooltips, in
the Left edit box, type Change Last Object to Layer.
Notes:
In the Right edit box, type Change All Curves to Layer.
3
In the Left mouse button command box, type ! SelLast
ChangeLayer.
4
In the Right mouse button command box, type ! SelCrv
ChangeLayer.
5
Click Edit Bitmap.
6
In the Edit Bitmap dialog box, make a picture for the
button face image, and click OK.
7
In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box, click OK.
Robert McNeel & Associates
249
To copy a button from one toolbar to another:
1
From the Standard toolbar, flyout the Layer toolbar, and tear it off.
2
While holding down the Ctrl key, drag the button you just created to the layer
toolbar and drop it.
Notes:
To add a button to a toolbar:
1
From the Tools menu, click Toolbar Layout.
2
In the Toolbar dialog box, check the Test toolbar in the list to show the
toolbar.
3
Right click on the Test toolbar in the list, and select Add Button.
4
A blank button is added to the Test toolbar.
Close the dialog box.
Many toolbar functions are available by right-clicking a toolbar’s title bar.
Robert McNeel & Associates
250
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement