MOBILE VACUUM CLEANER ROBOT (MVCR) MUHAMMAD ZAKI BIN MUSTAPA This Report Is Submitted In Partial FulfillmentOf Requirements For The Bachelor of Electronic Engineering (Industrial Electronic) with Honors. Faculty of Electronic Engineering and Computer Engineering UniversitiTeknikal Malaysia Melaka June2013 ii UNIVERSTI TEKNIKAL MALAYSIA MELAKA FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN ELEKTRONIK DAN KEJURUTERAAN KOMPUTER BORANG PENGESAHAN STATUS LAPORAN PROJEK SARJANA MUDA II TajukProjek : SesiPengajian : Mobile Vacuum Cleaner Robot (MVCR) 1 2 / 1 3 SayaMUHAMMAD ZAKI BIN MUSTAPA mengaku membenarkan Laporan Projek Sarjana Muda ini disimpan di Perpustakaan dengan syarat-syarat kegunaan seperti berikut: 1. Laporan adalah hak milik Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka. 2. Perpustakaan di benarkan membuat salinan untuk tujuan pengajian sahaja. 3. Perpustakaan dibenarkan membuat salinan laporan ini sebagai bahan pertukaran antara institusi pengajian tinggi. 4. Sila tandakan ( √ ) : SULIT* *(Mengandungi maklumat yang berdarjah keselamatan atau kepentingan Malaysia seperti yang termaktubdi dalam AKTA RAHSIA RASMI 1972) TERHAD** **(Mengandungi maklumat terhad yang telah ditentukan oleh organisasi/badan di mana penyelidikan dijalankan) TIDAK TERHAD Disahkan oleh: _____________________________________ (TANDATANGAN PENULIS) Tarikh: 14 JUNE 2013 ___________________________________ (COP DAN TANDATANGAN PENYELIA) Tarikh: 14 JUNE 2013 j………… iii "I admit that this report is my own work except summary and excerpt of each I have already explained the only source. " Signature : ............................................. Author name : MUHAMMAD ZAKI BIN MUSTAPA Date : 14 JUNE 2013 iv "I acknowledge that I have read this work in my work is sufficient in scope and quality for the award of a Bachelor of Electronic Engineering (Industrial Electronics) with Honors." Signature : ....................................................... Name of Supervisor : AHMAD NIZAM BIN MOHD [email protected] JOHARI Date : 14 JUNE 2013 v DEDICATION Dedicated in thankful for appreciation for support, encouragement, understandings to my beloved mother and father. vi ACKNOWLEDGEMENT In the name of Allah, the Most Gracious and the Most Merciful, the utmost thanks to Allah with His Greatest power, I have successfully completed this PSM report Alhamdulillah. A special acknowledgement and appreciation goes to my supervisor, Mr. Ahmad Nizam Bin Mohd Jahari for his supervision, commitment, professionalism, advice and guidance in assuring my project succeed. Secondly, I would like to express warm gratitude to the Faculty of Electronic and Computer Engineering Staffs for full co-operation and commitment given to assist me a lot while performing this project I also want wish the most gratitude to mom, father and family in helps me financially, advice, guidance and in spirit so that I successfully completed this final year project. Without support and inducement from them, I do not can finish my final year project successfully. Thank you I say also to my friends that also directly involved or indirect in giving advice, inducement and skills that they shared with me. Hoped with knowledge that I own from complete my final year project, can I used in nature job later. May Allah repay their good merit that directly involved and indirect in helps me to complete this final year project. Thank you for everything. vii ABSTRACT This project report is to design and implement a Vacuum Robot. Vacuum Robot is designed to make cleaning process become easier rather than by using manual vacuum. The idea is basically by having the sensor to detect any object and send the output to a PIC that will control the Vacuum Robot movement. By using Vacuum Robot, user can just turn on the Vacuum Robot to clean without having to operate the Vacuum. The methodology and scope of study are performed by doing literature reviews and research on various sensors, motor, PIC, and the programming of the PIC. Vacuum Robot will have several criteria that are efficient, organized and user-friendly, which meets human needs. viii ABSTRAK Laporan projek ini adalah untuk mereka bentuk dan melaksanakan Robot Vacuum. Robot Vacuum direka untuk membuat kerja pembersihan menjadi lebih mudah berbanding dengan menggunakan vakum manual. Idea ini adalah pada asasnya mempunyai sensor untuk mengesan apa-apa objek halangan dan menghantar output kepada PIC yang akan mengawal pergerakan robot vakum. Dengan menggunakan robot vakum, pengguna hanya boleh menghidupkan robot vakum untuk membersihkan tanpa perlu mengawal operasi vakum itu. Kaedah dan skop kajian dilakukan dengan melakukan ulasan kesusasteraan dan penyelidikan mengenai pelbagai sensor, motor, PIC dan pengaturcaraan PIC. Robot Vacuum akan mempunyai beberapa kriteria yang cekap, teratur dan mesra pengguna, yang memenuhi keperluan manusia. ix TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER CONTENT PROJECT TITILE AUTHORIZATION FORM DECLARATION DEDICATION ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ABSTRACT ABSTRAK TABLE OF CONTENT LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES 1 2 PAGE i ii iii v vi vii viii ix xii xiii INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1 2 2 3 4 Project Overview Project Objective Problem Statement Scope Of Project Thesis Outline LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 1ST review from internet: Cleaning Robot 2NDreview : Autonomous Vacuum Robot 3RDreview : review of selection part and component 2.3.1 Sensor 2.3.2 Basic Body 2.3.3 Controller device 2.3.4 Power Supply 2.3.5 Motor Literature Review Conclusion 6 6 9 11 11 13 14 15 16 17 x 3 METHODOLOGY 18 3.1 19 20 20 20 20 21 22 23 23 23 24 24 25 26 27 27 28 28 28 29 29 30 30 31 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 4 ANALYSIS AND RESULT 32 4.1 32 35 35 40 41 44 46 48 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 5 Flow Chart 3.1.1 Collect the Information 3.1.2 Study and design basic structure 3.1.3 Construct basic body with specification 3.1.4 Construct the PIC controller circuit 3.1.5 Construct the movement coding 3.1.6 Apply sonar sensor to PIC and test 3.1.7 Test movement 3.1.8 Finalize the work Project Implementation 3.2.1 Mobile Robot Algorithm Design Controller 3.3.1 Advantages PIC Microcontroller 3.3.2 Comparison Key Feature of PIC PIC Programming Fundamental 3.4.1 Advantage of C language 3.4.2 Basic C Structure for PIC 3.4.3 Pre-processor Directive 3.4.4 Main Program 3.4.5 Functions Ultrasonic Sensor 3.5.1 The MaxSonar High Performance Sonar 3.5.2 MaxSonar-EZ1 Feature 3.5.3 MaxSonar-EZ1 Benefits Chassis development 4.1.1 Raw Material of Mechanical. Circuit development 4.2.1 List of electronic component and device Product Overview Programming development 4.4.1 Programming code Ultrasonic and PIC analysis CONCLUSION AND RECOMENDATION 5.1 Conclusion 5.2 Future Work and Recommendation 50 50 51 xi REFERENCES 53 APPENDIX i. Appendix A ii. Appendix B iii. Appendix C 55 56 59 xii LIST OF TABLES NO. TABLE TITLE PAGE 2.1 Comparison of sensor 12 2.2 Comparison of material basic body 13 2.3 Comparison of microcontroller 14 2.4 Comparison of batteries 15 2.5 Comparison of motor 16 2.6 Summary 17 3.1 PIC Device Feature 26 3.2 Basic C programming 29 4.1 Raw material for mechanical part 35 4.2 List of electronic and electric part. 40 4.3 Table of analogue output voltage ultrasonic analysis 48 xiii LIST OF FIGURES NO TITLE PAGE 2.1 Rectangular algorithm 7 2.2 State chart of the project design 8 2.3 The koala robot in its commercial version 9 2.4 Mobile robot shape 10 2.5 Wall following 10 2.6 Koala robot modified and equiped with 2DOF arm 10 2.7 Autonomous vacuum cleaner algorithm 11 2.8 Infrared sensor 12 2.9 Ultrasounic sensor 12 2.10 Acrylic plate 13 2.11 Aluminium 13 2.12 68HC11 14 2.13 PIC 16F877 14 2.14 12v lead acid 15 2.15 LiPo 11.1V 15 2.16 Servo motor 16 2.17 Small DC 16 3.1 Flow chart of the methodology 19 3.2 Main window to design the program code 22 3.3 Zigzag algorithm 24 3.4 PIC16F877A Circuit Board 25 3.5 Pin diagram PIC 25 3.6 Block Diagram of MaxSonar-EZ1 30 4.1 Basic frame design 33 xiv 4.2 Servo motor bracket 33 4.3 Top view of basic frame 34 4.4 Bottom view of basic frame 34 4.5 Microcontroller circuit 36 4.6 Microcontroller circuit layout 37 4.7 Motor and vacuum driver circuit 38 4.8 Motor and vacuum driver circuit layout 39 4.9 Sonar base plate 39 4.10 Mobile Vacuum Cleaner Robot overview 41 4.11 Final view of product 43 4.12 Flow chart of programming code 44 4.13 Graph ultrasonic range finder analysis. 49 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCION Before starting the project, the basic knowledge of the water tank level monitoring system should understand. This chapter is discussing briefly the overall requirement that needed to implementing this project. 1.1 Project Overview Mobile robots are getting special attention now-a-days in everyday use. Especially cleaning robot applications are at hand today and tend to become a mass market. Cleaner robots are very popular in high class country such as Japan, America, and Europe. Smart Vacuum Cleaner mobile Smart vacuum cleaner is a mobile robot with cleaning function. It designed to make cleaning process become easier for human task. This project is about hardware and software. The hardware of smart vacuum cleaner mobile robot consists of the microcontroller, the motor, the vacuum, the sensor, the power distribution and also the chassis for the robot. Software MicroC and Proteus is used to write the programming and simulate the circuit design. To complete this mobile robot its require to design an efficient algorithm to enable smart vacuum clean the whole area. 2 1.2 Project Objective The main objective of this project is to design and implement a vacuum robot prototype. To achieve the goal of this project, research about sensor, control circuit, motor, microcontroller and its software need to be done to choose which part more suitable for this project. The project is aimed to meet the following objectives: (a) To design a mobile vacuum cleaner robot. The idea to design mobile vacuum with efficient basic body suitable is to clean dust in a large area and difficult terrain. (In prototype it’s not for large area). (b) To create a systematic control system with the real situation. In automated robot control system requires an appropriate algorithm to function. For vacuum robot, the algorithm design that fits obstacle conditions required. (c) To identify the appropriate sensor and device. In creating mobile robot vacuum requires components that are appropriate to each function. a study is made for choosing the right components for this project. 1.3 Problem Statement In fact, most of us usually using sweep for cleaning. From time to time technology come up and need to upgrade for easier human task. In addition, most of the people are working and they did not have enough time to clean, it cause to Demand of market to cleaner robot. Furthermore, most of the designations of vacuum robot in the market are expensive and large in size. So it is difficult to clean anywhere, under beds, as well as kitchen baseboard. Therefore, this project is built to be one of the advantages for human to clean the floor within small period and more effective. Dust and debris such as lizard poop not good to home environment especially to children. Hygiene is very important for all of the indoor floor area, especially the area of worship and rest areas. However, to ensure hygiene is maintained with consistent and efficient, cleaner machine required carrying out the cleaning process runs easily and effectively. 3 In the market, cleaning robot designed with high technology, but the algorithms used are random, so there is a restricted area cannot be cleaned. Furthermore the prices were too expensive to reach a thousand dollars Malaysia. 1.4 Scope Of Project Job scope to complete this project is comprised of hardware and software works. Research needs to be done to examine every specification design, and all devices in accordance with the project. Scope of work to be carried out for completing the project is divided into four. (a) Smart vacuum design. Mobile vacuum cleaner robot design is important to make the objective to achieve. (b) Design algorithm of motion. Algorithm about the desire movement planning to make the autonomous robot is working properly. (c) Operating system vacuum. Operating system is about the controller and driver of the mobile vacuum cleaner robot, to receive and process input signal from sensor then produce output signal to let actuator working. (d) Power supply. Power supply must be support to all of the load. The scope of this project is divided in several phase which are mainly the planning, research, material selection, constructing prototype and lastly testing the all the integrated hardware that have been developed. The hardware involves designing the mechanical parts and electrical parts of Vacuum Robot prototypes. The mechanical part involves the chassis, the drive system, the sensor layout and the electrical part involves in microcontroller, drive circuit and sensor interface. To design algorithm for this project must consider the obstacle detection and obstacle avoidance. 4 1.5 Thesis Outline To design a vacuum mobile robot which is automated function, 3 importance element are must to concern, which is:(a) Controller A main circuit consist microcontroller IC to receive specific signal from other device (sensor) and manipulate the signal base on programming code and produce other discrete signal (digital) to perform the output for actuator. To let the mobile vacuum cleaner robot function with automated, an algorithm are design and express the design into programming code. The aim an algorithm designed, to plan the movement and decision making of the robot. There have 2 major conditions have to design in algorithm, one is wall detection, and another is obstacle detection. (b) Sensors Sensors are importance part for automatic system device. A lot of types of sensor are available to use and most of them are produce analogue signal to represent the value of parameter in current. A circuit called signal conditioning circuit need to interface the signal to other system, that is because the signal from sensor usually in very low voltage or current, other signal amplifier require to amplify the signal become a signal that possible to read by controller. The mobile vacuum cleaner robot requires 3 sensors to detect obstacle. The requirement of sensor is able to detect object at least in 10cm in distance. Each sensor has their own function signal and difference priority. (c) Actuator Actuators are part to generate the output. The mobile vacuum cleaner robot using 2 motor to move and 1 vacuum cleaner mobile. Each the actuator will be supply the power from the driver circuit. Driver circuit function to receive the low current signal from microcontroller and by using simple switching, driver circuit with difference power supply will be drive the voltage to actuator. CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW This chapter is a collection of information related to the project to assist and smart mobile robot vacuum. This study is important in order to avoid errors during the project and understanding the PIC configurations and to make sure the best possible decisions are made to implement this project. 2.1 Cleaning Robot (ROOMBAi) Cleaning robot project (RoomBai) is from the Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay Mumbai. The objective of the project is to build a robot, capable of cleaning a floor of the rectangular shape of the given area. The approach is That Used instead of mapping and cleaning That was Used in previous year project (Using white line sensors), the robot moves forward starting from one corner of the cleaning area (simultaneously cleaning also rates) until an Angus is encountered and Then move inward by avoiding Angus in rectangular spiral fashion with tackling special cases of missing. 6 In the Roombai, they have several objectives to achieve and the idea of design also clears by their target achievement as follow:(a) Project goals To implement a robot that cleans a room with no or less unclean place traversed with minimum repetition. (b) Deliverables Efficient cleaning with optimum amount of time with less same area repetition. (c) Distinct Features: No white line sensors are used. No mapping of obstacles is done, so dynamic addition of obstacle is possible. Less repetition of previously traversed area. (d) Assumptions: The object dimension is assumed to be not more than robot’s dimension. The shape of the room is rectangular. The distance between any two obstacles is greater than robot size. (e) Limitations the application There may be cases where same previously cleaned area will be repeated. Orientation of robot sometimes may disturb as no white line sensors are used. Figure 2.1: Rectangular algorithm 7 Figure 2.1 shows the algorithm was design for Roombai project. The algorithm shape is the rectangular algorithm. Base on the Figure 2.1 roombai robot begin with around the side of wall and then robot will done the circle change their direction to come inside. The problem that the algorithm face is the roombai robot cannot to identify either the robot done the cycle or not. And another problem is the robot cannot differentiate between the wall and obstacle. Figure 2.2: State chart of the project design Figure 2.2 shows the state chart of the project design of the roombai project. The chart explains how to construct the programming and decision making of roombai algorithm. 8 2.2 Autonomous Vacuum Robot  This Autonomous Vacuum Robot developed for for Laboratory of Microcomputing (LAMI) Swiss Federal Institude of Technology lausanne, Switszerland. two type of motion structures using wheeled mobile robots(synchro-drive) and the simple and classical structure based on two lateral wheels and tracks. By using this two structures can be able with complex situation using simple control strategies. For autonomous vacuum robot they choose to use second once which is more simpler to build. They apply a complete set mobile robot (called koala) as a basic element for the project. Figure 2.3: The koala robot in its commercial version. To find the best shape for this application they compared many different possibilities shown in figure below, where the cleaning area is colour black. In general, the possible solutions can be classified into three categories: simple shapes, round robots and robots with an arm. 9 a. Simple shape b. Round shape c. Robot with arm Figure 2.4 : Mobile robot shape Vacuum mobile robot with 2DOF Figure 2.5: Wall following Figure 2.6: Koala robot modified and equiped with an 2DOF arm 10 Figure 2.7: Autonomous vacuum cleaner algorithm 2.3 Selection Part and Component To make a selection for each device that will be used in this project, the research should be conducted to look at the suitability of the device according to the specifications required. Comparisons were conducted to assess the suitability of the device. Parts and components that need to be studied are the sensors, basic body of material, device controller, power supply, and a motor. 2.3.1 Sensor Sensor is very importance in this project, which is function to detect obstacle in front and to detect end of floor. To choose type of sensor, several specifications need to consider.