MOBILE VACUUM CLEANER ROBOT - Universiti Teknikal Malaysia

MOBILE VACUUM CLEANER ROBOT - Universiti Teknikal Malaysia
MOBILE VACUUM CLEANER ROBOT (MVCR)
MUHAMMAD ZAKI BIN MUSTAPA
This Report Is Submitted In Partial FulfillmentOf Requirements For The Bachelor of
Electronic Engineering (Industrial Electronic) with Honors.
Faculty of Electronic Engineering and Computer Engineering
UniversitiTeknikal Malaysia Melaka
June2013
ii
UNIVERSTI TEKNIKAL MALAYSIA MELAKA
FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN ELEKTRONIK DAN KEJURUTERAAN KOMPUTER
BORANG PENGESAHAN STATUS LAPORAN
PROJEK SARJANA MUDA II
TajukProjek
:
SesiPengajian
:
Mobile Vacuum Cleaner Robot (MVCR)
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2
/
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SayaMUHAMMAD ZAKI BIN MUSTAPA mengaku membenarkan Laporan Projek Sarjana Muda
ini disimpan di Perpustakaan dengan syarat-syarat kegunaan seperti berikut:
1.
Laporan adalah hak milik Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka.
2.
Perpustakaan di benarkan membuat salinan untuk tujuan pengajian sahaja.
3.
Perpustakaan dibenarkan membuat salinan laporan ini sebagai bahan pertukaran antara institusi
pengajian tinggi.
4.
Sila tandakan ( √ ) :

SULIT*
*(Mengandungi maklumat yang berdarjah keselamatan atau
kepentingan Malaysia seperti yang termaktubdi dalam AKTA
RAHSIA RASMI 1972)
TERHAD**
**(Mengandungi maklumat terhad yang telah ditentukan oleh
organisasi/badan di mana penyelidikan dijalankan)
TIDAK TERHAD
Disahkan oleh:
_____________________________________
(TANDATANGAN PENULIS)
Tarikh: 14 JUNE 2013
___________________________________
(COP DAN TANDATANGAN PENYELIA)
Tarikh: 14 JUNE 2013
j…………
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"I admit that this report is my own work except summary and excerpt of each
I have already explained the only source. "
Signature
: .............................................
Author name
: MUHAMMAD ZAKI BIN MUSTAPA
Date
: 14 JUNE 2013
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"I acknowledge that I have read this work in my work is sufficient in scope and
quality for the award of a Bachelor of Electronic Engineering (Industrial Electronics)
with Honors."
Signature
: .......................................................
Name of Supervisor : AHMAD NIZAM BIN MOHD [email protected] JOHARI
Date
: 14 JUNE 2013
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DEDICATION
Dedicated in thankful for appreciation for support, encouragement, understandings to
my beloved mother and father.
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
In the name of Allah, the Most Gracious and the Most Merciful, the utmost
thanks to Allah with His Greatest power, I have successfully completed this PSM
report Alhamdulillah. A special acknowledgement and appreciation goes to my
supervisor, Mr. Ahmad Nizam Bin Mohd Jahari for his supervision, commitment,
professionalism, advice and guidance in assuring my project succeed. Secondly, I
would like to express warm gratitude to the Faculty of Electronic and Computer
Engineering Staffs for full co-operation and commitment given to assist me a lot
while performing this project
I also want wish the most gratitude to mom, father and family in helps me
financially, advice, guidance and in spirit so that I successfully completed this final
year project. Without support and inducement from them, I do not can finish my final
year project successfully. Thank you I say also to my friends that also directly
involved or indirect in giving advice, inducement and skills that they shared with me.
Hoped with knowledge that I own from complete my final year project, can I
used in nature job later. May Allah repay their good merit that directly involved and
indirect in helps me to complete this final year project. Thank you for everything.
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ABSTRACT
This project report is to design and implement a Vacuum Robot. Vacuum
Robot is designed to make cleaning process become easier rather than by using
manual vacuum. The idea is basically by having the sensor to detect any object and
send the output to a PIC that will control the Vacuum Robot movement. By using
Vacuum Robot, user can just turn on the Vacuum Robot to clean without having to
operate the Vacuum. The methodology and scope of study are performed by doing
literature reviews and research on various sensors, motor, PIC, and the programming
of the PIC. Vacuum Robot will have several criteria that are efficient, organized and
user-friendly, which meets human needs.
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ABSTRAK
Laporan projek ini adalah untuk mereka bentuk dan melaksanakan Robot
Vacuum. Robot Vacuum direka untuk membuat kerja pembersihan menjadi lebih
mudah berbanding dengan menggunakan vakum manual. Idea ini adalah pada
asasnya mempunyai sensor untuk mengesan apa-apa objek halangan dan menghantar
output kepada PIC yang akan mengawal pergerakan robot vakum. Dengan
menggunakan robot vakum, pengguna hanya boleh menghidupkan robot vakum
untuk membersihkan tanpa perlu mengawal operasi vakum itu. Kaedah dan skop
kajian dilakukan dengan melakukan ulasan kesusasteraan dan penyelidikan mengenai
pelbagai sensor, motor, PIC dan pengaturcaraan PIC. Robot Vacuum akan
mempunyai beberapa kriteria yang cekap, teratur dan mesra pengguna, yang
memenuhi keperluan manusia.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
CONTENT
PROJECT TITILE
AUTHORIZATION FORM
DECLARATION
DEDICATION
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
ABSTRACT
ABSTRAK
TABLE OF CONTENT
LIST OF TABLES
LIST OF FIGURES
1
2
PAGE
i
ii
iii
v
vi
vii
viii
ix
xii
xiii
INTRODUCTION
1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1
2
2
3
4
Project Overview
Project Objective
Problem Statement
Scope Of Project
Thesis Outline
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
1ST review from internet: Cleaning Robot
2NDreview : Autonomous Vacuum Robot
3RDreview : review of selection part and component
2.3.1 Sensor
2.3.2 Basic Body
2.3.3 Controller device
2.3.4 Power Supply
2.3.5 Motor
Literature Review Conclusion
6
6
9
11
11
13
14
15
16
17
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3
METHODOLOGY
18
3.1
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20
20
20
20
21
22
23
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23
24
24
25
26
27
27
28
28
28
29
29
30
30
31
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
4
ANALYSIS AND RESULT
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4.1
32
35
35
40
41
44
46
48
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
5
Flow Chart
3.1.1 Collect the Information
3.1.2 Study and design basic structure
3.1.3 Construct basic body with specification
3.1.4 Construct the PIC controller circuit
3.1.5 Construct the movement coding
3.1.6 Apply sonar sensor to PIC and test
3.1.7 Test movement
3.1.8 Finalize the work
Project Implementation
3.2.1 Mobile Robot Algorithm Design
Controller
3.3.1 Advantages PIC Microcontroller
3.3.2 Comparison Key Feature of PIC
PIC Programming Fundamental
3.4.1 Advantage of C language
3.4.2 Basic C Structure for PIC
3.4.3 Pre-processor Directive
3.4.4 Main Program
3.4.5 Functions
Ultrasonic Sensor
3.5.1 The MaxSonar High Performance Sonar
3.5.2 MaxSonar-EZ1 Feature
3.5.3 MaxSonar-EZ1 Benefits
Chassis development
4.1.1 Raw Material of Mechanical.
Circuit development
4.2.1 List of electronic component and device
Product Overview
Programming development
4.4.1 Programming code
Ultrasonic and PIC analysis
CONCLUSION AND RECOMENDATION
5.1
Conclusion
5.2
Future Work and Recommendation
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REFERENCES
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APPENDIX
i.
Appendix A
ii.
Appendix B
iii.
Appendix C
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56
59
xii
LIST OF TABLES
NO. TABLE
TITLE
PAGE
2.1
Comparison of sensor
12
2.2
Comparison of material basic body
13
2.3
Comparison of microcontroller
14
2.4
Comparison of batteries
15
2.5
Comparison of motor
16
2.6
Summary
17
3.1
PIC Device Feature
26
3.2
Basic C programming
29
4.1
Raw material for mechanical part
35
4.2
List of electronic and electric part.
40
4.3
Table of analogue output voltage ultrasonic analysis
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LIST OF FIGURES
NO
TITLE
PAGE
2.1
Rectangular algorithm
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2.2
State chart of the project design
8
2.3
The koala robot in its commercial version
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2.4
Mobile robot shape
10
2.5
Wall following
10
2.6
Koala robot modified and equiped with 2DOF arm
10
2.7
Autonomous vacuum cleaner algorithm
11
2.8
Infrared sensor
12
2.9
Ultrasounic sensor
12
2.10
Acrylic plate
13
2.11
Aluminium
13
2.12
68HC11
14
2.13
PIC 16F877
14
2.14
12v lead acid
15
2.15
LiPo 11.1V
15
2.16
Servo motor
16
2.17
Small DC
16
3.1
Flow chart of the methodology
19
3.2
Main window to design the program code
22
3.3
Zigzag algorithm
24
3.4
PIC16F877A Circuit Board
25
3.5
Pin diagram PIC
25
3.6
Block Diagram of MaxSonar-EZ1
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4.1
Basic frame design
33
xiv
4.2
Servo motor bracket
33
4.3
Top view of basic frame
34
4.4
Bottom view of basic frame
34
4.5
Microcontroller circuit
36
4.6
Microcontroller circuit layout
37
4.7
Motor and vacuum driver circuit
38
4.8
Motor and vacuum driver circuit layout
39
4.9
Sonar base plate
39
4.10
Mobile Vacuum Cleaner Robot overview
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4.11
Final view of product
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4.12
Flow chart of programming code
44
4.13
Graph ultrasonic range finder analysis.
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CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCION
Before starting the project, the basic knowledge of the water tank level
monitoring system should understand. This chapter is discussing briefly the overall
requirement that needed to implementing this project.
1.1
Project Overview
Mobile robots are getting special attention now-a-days in everyday use. Especially
cleaning robot applications are at hand today and tend to become a mass market.
Cleaner robots are very popular in high class country such as Japan, America, and
Europe.
Smart Vacuum Cleaner mobile Smart vacuum cleaner is a mobile robot with
cleaning function. It designed to make cleaning process become easier for human
task. This project is about hardware and software. The hardware of smart vacuum
cleaner mobile robot consists of the microcontroller, the motor, the vacuum, the
sensor, the power distribution and also the chassis for the robot. Software MicroC
and Proteus is used to write the programming and simulate the circuit design. To
complete this mobile robot its require to design an efficient algorithm to enable smart
vacuum clean the whole area.
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1.2
Project Objective
The main objective of this project is to design and implement a vacuum robot
prototype. To achieve the goal of this project, research about sensor, control circuit,
motor, microcontroller and its software need to be done to choose which part more
suitable for this project. The project is aimed to meet the following objectives:
(a) To design a mobile vacuum cleaner robot.
The idea to design mobile vacuum with efficient basic body suitable is to clean dust
in a large area and difficult terrain. (In prototype it’s not for large area).
(b) To create a systematic control system with the real situation.
In automated robot control system requires an appropriate algorithm to function. For
vacuum robot, the algorithm design that fits obstacle conditions required.
(c) To identify the appropriate sensor and device.
In creating mobile robot vacuum requires components that are appropriate to each
function. a study is made for choosing the right components for this project.
1.3
Problem Statement
In fact, most of us usually using sweep for cleaning. From time to time technology
come up and need to upgrade for easier human task. In addition, most of the people
are working and they did not have enough time to clean, it cause to Demand of
market to cleaner robot.
Furthermore, most of the designations of vacuum robot in the market are expensive
and large in size. So it is difficult to clean anywhere, under beds, as well as kitchen
baseboard. Therefore, this project is built to be one of the advantages for human to
clean the floor within small period and more effective. Dust and debris such as lizard
poop not good to home environment especially to children.
Hygiene is very important for all of the indoor floor area, especially the area of
worship and rest areas. However, to ensure hygiene is maintained with consistent and
efficient, cleaner machine required carrying out the cleaning process runs easily and
effectively.
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In the market, cleaning robot designed with high technology, but the algorithms used
are random, so there is a restricted area cannot be cleaned. Furthermore the prices
were too expensive to reach a thousand dollars Malaysia.
1.4
Scope Of Project
Job scope to complete this project is comprised of hardware and software works.
Research needs to be done to examine every specification design, and all devices in
accordance with the project. Scope of work to be carried out for completing the
project is divided into four.
(a) Smart vacuum design.
Mobile vacuum cleaner robot design is important to make the objective to achieve.
(b) Design algorithm of motion.
Algorithm about the desire movement planning to make the autonomous robot is
working properly.
(c) Operating system vacuum.
Operating system is about the controller and driver of the mobile vacuum cleaner
robot, to receive and process input signal from sensor then produce output signal to
let actuator working.
(d) Power supply.
Power supply must be support to all of the load.
The scope of this project is divided in several phase which are mainly the planning,
research, material selection, constructing prototype and lastly testing the all the
integrated hardware that have been developed. The hardware involves designing the
mechanical parts and electrical parts of Vacuum Robot prototypes. The mechanical
part involves the chassis, the drive system, the sensor layout and the electrical part
involves in microcontroller, drive circuit and sensor interface. To design algorithm
for this project must consider the obstacle detection and obstacle avoidance.
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1.5
Thesis Outline
To design a vacuum mobile robot which is automated function, 3 importance element
are must to concern, which is:(a) Controller
A main circuit consist microcontroller IC to receive specific signal from other device
(sensor) and manipulate the signal base on programming code and produce other
discrete signal (digital) to perform the output for actuator. To let the mobile vacuum
cleaner robot function with automated, an algorithm are design and express the
design into programming code.
The aim an algorithm designed, to plan the movement and decision making of the
robot. There have 2 major conditions have to design in algorithm, one is wall
detection, and another is obstacle detection.
(b) Sensors
Sensors are importance part for automatic system device. A lot of types of sensor are
available to use and most of them are produce analogue signal to represent the value
of parameter in current. A circuit called signal conditioning circuit need to interface
the signal to other system, that is because the signal from sensor usually in very low
voltage or current, other signal amplifier require to amplify the signal become a
signal that possible to read by controller.
The mobile vacuum cleaner robot requires 3 sensors to detect obstacle. The
requirement of sensor is able to detect object at least
in 10cm in distance. Each
sensor has their own function signal and difference priority.
(c) Actuator
Actuators are part to generate the output. The mobile vacuum cleaner robot using 2
motor to move and 1 vacuum cleaner mobile. Each the actuator will be supply the
power from the driver circuit. Driver circuit function to receive the low current signal
from microcontroller and by using simple switching, driver circuit with difference
power supply will be drive the voltage to actuator.
CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW
This chapter is a collection of information related to the project to assist and smart
mobile robot vacuum. This study is important in order to avoid errors during the
project and understanding the PIC configurations and to make sure the best possible
decisions are made to implement this project.
2.1
Cleaning Robot (ROOMBAi)[1]
Cleaning robot project (RoomBai) is from the Indian Institute of Technology,
Bombay Mumbai. The objective of the project is to build a robot, capable of cleaning
a floor of the rectangular shape of the given area. The approach is That Used instead
of mapping and cleaning That was Used in previous year project (Using white line
sensors), the robot moves forward starting from one corner of the cleaning area
(simultaneously cleaning also rates) until an Angus is encountered and Then move
inward by avoiding Angus in rectangular spiral fashion with tackling special cases of
missing.
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In the Roombai, they have several objectives to achieve and the idea of design also
clears by their target achievement as follow:(a) Project goals
To implement a robot that cleans a room with no or less unclean place traversed with
minimum repetition.
(b) Deliverables
Efficient cleaning with optimum amount of time with less same area repetition.
(c) Distinct Features:
No white line sensors are used. No mapping of obstacles is done, so dynamic
addition of obstacle is possible. Less repetition of previously traversed area.
(d) Assumptions:
The object dimension is assumed to be not more than robot’s dimension. The shape
of the room is rectangular. The distance between any two obstacles is greater than
robot size.
(e) Limitations the application
There may be cases where same previously cleaned area will be repeated. Orientation
of robot sometimes may disturb as no white line sensors are used.
Figure 2.1: Rectangular algorithm
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Figure 2.1 shows the algorithm was design for Roombai project. The algorithm shape
is the rectangular algorithm. Base on the Figure 2.1 roombai robot begin with around
the side of wall and then robot will done the circle change their direction to come
inside. The problem that the algorithm face is the roombai robot cannot to identify
either the robot done the cycle or not. And another problem is the robot cannot
differentiate between the wall and obstacle.
Figure 2.2: State chart of the project design
Figure 2.2 shows the state chart of the project design of the roombai project. The
chart explains how to construct the programming and decision making of roombai
algorithm.
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2.2
Autonomous Vacuum Robot [2]
This Autonomous Vacuum Robot developed for for Laboratory of Microcomputing
(LAMI) Swiss Federal Institude of Technology lausanne, Switszerland. two type of
motion structures using wheeled mobile robots(synchro-drive) and the simple and
classical structure based on two lateral wheels and tracks. By using this two
structures can be able with complex situation using simple control strategies. For
autonomous vacuum robot they choose to use second once which is more simpler to
build. They apply a complete set mobile robot (called koala) as a basic element for
the project.
Figure 2.3: The koala robot in its commercial version.
To find the best shape for this application they compared many different possibilities
shown in figure below, where the cleaning area is colour black. In general, the
possible solutions can be classified into three categories: simple shapes, round robots
and robots with an arm.
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a. Simple shape
b. Round shape
c.
Robot with arm
Figure 2.4 : Mobile robot shape
Vacuum mobile robot with 2DOF
Figure 2.5: Wall following
Figure 2.6: Koala robot modified and equiped with an 2DOF arm
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Figure 2.7: Autonomous vacuum cleaner algorithm
2.3
Selection Part and Component
To make a selection for each device that will be used in this project, the research
should be conducted to look at the suitability of the device according to the
specifications required. Comparisons were conducted to assess the suitability of the
device. Parts and components that need to be studied are the sensors, basic body of
material, device controller, power supply, and a motor.
2.3.1 Sensor
Sensor is very importance in this project, which is function to detect obstacle in front
and to detect end of floor.
To choose type of sensor, several specifications need to consider.
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