INSTALLATION AND OPERATOR`S MANUAL

INSTALLATION AND OPERATOR`S MANUAL
INSTALLATION AND
OPERATOR’S MANUAL
WOOD GUN™ WOOD GASIFICATION BOILER
Models: E100 SF, E140 SF, E180 SF, E250 SF
IMPORTANT: IN ORDER TO ACHIEVE SAFE AND SATISFACTORY
RESULTS FROM YOUR ALTERNATE HEATING SYSTEMS, LLC. BOILER,
READ SAFETY RULES AND INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY BEFORE
INSTALLING AND OPERATING. ALL INSTALLATIONS MUST BE IN
ACCORDANCE WITH STATE AND LOCAL CODES. SAVE THESE
INSTRUCTIONS FOR FUTURE REFERENCE.
Your Alternate Heating Systems Boiler is capable of generating
very hot temperatures. Boiler temperatures and flames in the
ignition box area are capable of causing ignition or explosion of
explosive or flammable products or explosion of the boiler itself
if maximum safe water temperature is exceeded. Maximum safe
water temperature is 200° Fahrenheit. Flammable or explosive
products must never be stored in the same room or in the
vicinity of a boiler, and the boiler water temperature must never
be allowed to exceed 200° Fahrenheit.
ALTERNATE HEATING SYSTEMS,
SYSTEMS, LLC.
1086 WAYNE AVENUE CHAMBERSBURG, PA 17201
TELEPHONE: 717-261-0922
FAX: 717-264-5581
WWW.WOODGUN.COM
EMAIL:[email protected]
Record Model and Serial Number Below
Model:
Serial:
Date of Purchase:
Copyright 2000 – 2013 Alternate Heating Systems, LLC.
No portion of this publication may be reproduced without the
express written consent of Alternate Heating Systems, LLC.
Revision: February 15, 2012
TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................................................... 1
EXPLANATION OF WOOD & BIOMASS COMBUSTION ................................................................................ 1
WOOD MOISTURE CONTENT AND WOOD GASIFICATION .......................................................................... 1
MODE OF OPERATION ............................................................................................................................... 2
BOILER INSTALLATION...................................................................................................................... 5
BOILER LOCATION..................................................................................................................................... 5
Boiler Room Requirements.................................................................................................................. 5
RIGGING AND POSITIONING OF BOILER .................................................................................................... 6
COMBUSTIBLE CLEARANCES REQUIRED FOR SAFETY AND OPERATION ................................................... 6
BOILER ASSEMBLY ................................................................................................................................... 7
Cyclone Ash Collector......................................................................................................................... 7
Air Valve.............................................................................................................................................. 7
Draft-Inducing Fan Assembly ............................................................................................................. 7
INSTALLATION AND MAINTENANCE OF ELECTRICAL CONTROLS AND GAUGES ........................................ 8
GENERAL CHIMNEY REQUIREMENTS ........................................................................................................ 8
Specific Chimney Requirements for the Wood Gun™ ........................................................................ 8
FLUE PIPE ................................................................................................................................................. 9
PROPER CHIMNEY CONNECTION ............................................................................................................ 10
Figure 1: Proper chimney connection ....................................................................... 10
Figure 2: Stove pipe passing through wall ............................................................... 11
IN CASE OF CHIMNEY FIRE ...................................................................................................................... 11
COMBUSTION AIR SUPPLY...................................................................................................................... 11
BOILER PIPING FOR HYDRONIC SYSTEMS ............................................................................................... 12
Piping the Boiler in Parallel with another Boiler............................................................................. 12
PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE....................................................................................................................... 12
Figure 3: Pressure Relieve Valve .............................................................................. 12
Figure 4: Pressure regulating valve and backflow prevention valve configuration . 13
LOW WATER CUT OFF...................................................................................................................... 13
Recommended Boiler Control Settings in Hydronic Systems........................................................... 14
BOILER CONDITIONER / SEALANT .......................................................................................................... 14
BOILER PIPING AND CONTROLS FOR LOW PRESSURE STEAM SYSTEMS ................................................. 14
FORCED HOT AIR SYSTEMS (WATER TO AIR COIL IN DUCT) ................................................................. 15
DOMESTIC HOT WATER COIL PIPING ..................................................................................................... 15
Figure 5: Plumbing – Coil in Series ......................................................................... 15
Figure 6: Plumbing – Coil in Parallel....................................................................... 16
Figure 7: Tempering valve ....................................................................................... 16
Figure 8: Plumbing – Coil with circulator ............................................................... 16
OIL BURNER ASSEMBLY......................................................................................................................... 16
General Information.......................................................................................................................... 16
Models E180, and E250 .................................................................................................................... 17
Figure 9: E180, E250 Oil Burner ............................................................................. 17
Oil/Gas Burner Combustion Chamber: Models E100 and E140..................................................... 17
Figure 10: E100, E140 Combustion Chamber ......................................................... 17
Oil Burner Fuel Line Connection...................................................................................................... 17
Oil Burner Adjustment.......................................................................................................................18
GAS BURNER ASSEMBLY ........................................................................................................................18
Models E100 through E250...............................................................................................................18
Gas Burner Adjustment .....................................................................................................................19
OIL AUTOMATIC SWITCHOVER AND LOCKOUT CONTROL ......................................................................19
SMOKE FLAP ...........................................................................................................................................20
OPERATING INFORMATION ............................................................................................................21
STARTING A FIRE ....................................................................................................................................22
Switch Positions: Cold Boiler Startup...............................................................................................22
FUEL TYPE ..............................................................................................................................................22
The wood gun is designed to burn split or un-split log wood. ..........................................................22
STARTING A FIRE .....................................................................................................................................22
With Particle Fuel Delivery Option ..................................................................................................23
CHARGING THE BOILER WITH WOOD (MANUAL FEED) .........................................................................23
ADJUSTMENT OF THE DRAFT-INDUCING FAN (BELT DRIVE ONLY)........................................................24
OPTIONAL AUTOMATIC FUEL DELIVERY SYSTEMS .............................................................................25
Burning Particle Wood with a Low Moisture Content ......................................................................25
Use of Water Spray Kit......................................................................................................................25
Operation and Sequence of Events for Automatic Feed Systems ......................................................26
Augers................................................................................................................................................26
Photo- Eye Fuel Level System ...........................................................................................................27
WOOD FUEL CHARACTERISTICS AND WOOD STORAGE ..........................................................................27
REMOVAL AND DISPOSAL OF ASHES ......................................................................................................28
CONDITIONING OF BOILER WATER .........................................................................................................28
pH ..................................................................................................................................................28
DISSOLVED OXYGEN ...............................................................................................................28
SOLIDS .........................................................................................................................................29
ALKALINITY...............................................................................................................................29
PHOSPHATES..............................................................................................................................29
HARDNESS ..................................................................................................................................29
OILS ..............................................................................................................................................29
MAINTENANCE ....................................................................................................................................30
Weekly Cleaning Procedure ..............................................................................................................30
AIR VALVE CLEANING AND MAINTENANCE ...........................................................................................31
AIR VALVE MOTOR REPLACEMENT .........................................................................................................32
Air Valve Motor Replacement Procedure .........................................................................................32
DOOR ADJUSTMENT.........................................................................................................................33
Figure 13: Hinge Plate Adjustment ...........................................................................33
Figure 14: Door Latch Shims ....................................................................................33
LOAD DOOR SEAL REPLACEMENT ..........................................................................................................34
FRONT AND REAR INSPECTION DOOR HIGH TEMPERATURE ROPE INSTALLATION ..................................36
FAN ASSEMBLY ......................................................................................................................................37
Figure 26: Direct-drive fan attached to boiler ..........................................................37
Figure 27: Direct-drive fan removed from boiler exposing the heat exchanger. ......37
Figure 28: Belt-drive fan assembly removed from boiler and showing white gasket
................................................................................................................................... 38
DIRECT DRIVE FAN BEARING REPLACEMENT PROCEDURE ...................................................................... 38
REFRACTORY ......................................................................................................................................... 41
CENTER BRICK ....................................................................................................................................... 41
REFRACTORY REPLACEMENT ................................................................................................................. 41
FUEL DIVERTER BLOCKS ........................................................................................................................ 43
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION .................................................................................................................... 43
APPENDIX A: BOILER SPECIFICATION DIAGRAM.................................................................. 44
ADDITIONAL SPECIFICATIONS ................................................................................................................ 46
Pressure Drop ................................................................................................................................... 46
Explanation of GPM Flow ................................................................................................................ 46
Wood Gun E Series Specifications .................................................................................................... 46
APPENDIX B: WIRING DIAGRAMS ................................................................................................ 47
APPENDIX C: EXPLODED PARTS DRAWINGS ............................................................................ 57
PARTS LISTING .................................................................................................................................... 60
APPENDIX D: TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE................................................................................ 62
APPENDIX F: BOILER PIPING EXAMPLES................................................................................... 68
Wood Gun Air Inlet Ducting Installation.......................................................................................... 69
Wood Gun in Primary/Secondary System ......................................................................................... 70
Operating an Alternate Heating Systems Boiler in Tandem with Existing Boiler ............................ 71
LIMITED WARRANTY ........................................................................................................................ 73
INDEX ...................................................................................................................................................... 74
INTRODUCTION
released from the wood goes up the chimney
unburned to become deposited on the chimney
walls as creosote or escape as visible smoke.
In the Wood Gun™ a greater percentage of the
combustible elements released from the wood
are combusted due to the high temperatures
attained, usually within even a few minutes of
re-ignition.
The purpose of this manual is to assist you in
the installation, operation and maintenance of
your new boiler in order to achieve the best
performance possible.
We recommend that the unit be installed by a
qualified installer who has a thorough
knowledge of hydronic heating boiler systems
and will comply with all of the requirements of
the authority having jurisdiction over the
installation. Should your installation be a steam
boiler, it is even more important that
experienced personnel be consulted to ensure
that the necessary safety controls are installed
and properly wired.
Read the entire instruction manual carefully
and understand it thoroughly before installing
or operating this unit. Save these instructions
and review them periodically as an aid to
maintaining your boiler and following safe
operating practices.
The time it takes for smoke to disappear from
boiler exhaust on startup depends largely upon
the temperature of the refractory. A boiler
being fired from a cold start may emit some
smoke for several minutes. When the boiler is
reigniting after an off cycle (hot or warm start)
there may be very little to no visible smoke.
The length of the last firing cycle and the
amount of elapsed time since the boiler last
fired will affect refractory temperatures and the
amount of visible smoke when the boiler refires. A Wood Gun™ operating under normal
load will produce only a small amount of
smoke on startup and burn cleanly shortly
thereafter.
All Alternate Heating Systems, LLC. boilers
can be supplied with the ASME “H” stamp and
National Board number for an additional fee
when requested prior to purchase. Alternate
Heating Systems boilers are built to the most
rigid quality control standard. You can be
assured that you will receive the highest quality
product.
WOOD MOISTURE CONTENT AND
WOOD GASIFICATION
The moisture content of wood is a critical
factor affecting wood gasification, as it
determines how rapidly pyrolysis (gasification)
can occur. Wood moisture content moderates
the rate of gasification by limiting the rate of
heat gain in the wood. Wood with higher
moisture content will gasify more slowly.
Wood with excessive moisture content will not
gasify until a large amount of water has been
driven out of the wood. This consumes energy
that would otherwise be usable heat. The
dilemma that faces the boiler operator using
higher moisture content wood is that the boiler
must be operated so that more heat goes up the
stack (in order to drive water vapor out of the
system) or else the operator will be faced with
significant and troublesome condensation.
EXPLANATION OF WOOD &
BIOMASS COMBUSTION
The burning of wood involves a series of very
complex chemical reactions that are time and
temperature dependent. The pieces of wood (or
particles) may be thought of as containers that
store combustible gases that are released when
heat is applied. The various gases that emanate
from heated wood have ignition temperatures
ranging from 540o F to 1125o F. This helps to
explain why high temperature is so important in
achieving “complete” combustion in burning
wood. In a conventional wood stove a
significant portion of the combustible gases
1
This moisture content of 20-30% is optimum
for burning wood in the gasification process.
Wood with moisture content higher than
30% is more likely to produce condensation
issues and will produce markedly less BTU’s
per pound of fuel.
Because of the downdraft design of the Wood
Gun™, the rate of air admitted to the unit is
fairly constant regardless of the type and
amount of fuel being burned.
Most pyrolysis occurs between 540° F (280° C)
and about 900° F (500° C). The most abundant
gases produced are carbon monoxide, methane,
methanol, formaldehyde, and hydrogen as well
as formic and acetic acids, water vapor and
carbon dioxide. All of these elements must
pass through the refractory combustion
chamber where, in the presence of high
temperatures and oxygen, they are reduced to
carbon dioxide and water. By the time the
temperature of the fuel reaches 900° F (500° C)
pyrolysis is complete and the final solid
product is charcoal, which is almost pure
carbon.
Very dry wood creates a different problem.
With dry wood, pyrolysis temperatures are
achieved more quickly and the rate of
gasification is accelerated. This may result in
the consumption of available oxygen faster
than it can enter the boiler. The fire could then
begin to release smoke due to a phenomena
known as “back puffing”; “Back puffing”
results in smoke being pushed out through the
intake in intermittent, and often audible, puffs.
Low moisture fuel (< 15% moisture) requires
special considerations for a satisfactory burn.
Dry sawdust and shavings are less of a problem
than kiln-dried solid blocks or logs.
MODE OF OPERATION
The Wood Gun™ operates on the well known
principle of gasification which makes it
possible to burn wood and wood waste
products at high efficiency and free of creosote
formation in the chimney. The bottom of the
fuel chamber is lined with pieces of dense
refractory casting, which contain the primary
combustion zone. This combustion zone is
linked to the fuel chamber by a series of
openings. The gases produced from pyrolysis
of the fuel charge are drawn through the
openings into the refractory combustion
chamber where a very intense flame exceeding
1800° F (1000° C) is produced. Heat generated
in the combustion chamber radiates throughout
the refractory mass heating the fuel charge
above. As the fuel charge is subjected to heat,
the moisture is driven from the wood and it
begins to char, releasing a variety of
combustible gases.
An optional secondary air tube installed in the
rear of the boiler will reduce the problems
associated with burning very dry fuels. This
tube permits preheated air to pass from the
firebox directly into the rear of the center
combustion chamber. In rare cases, it may be
necessary to add moisture to the fuel by storing
it outside or by installing a water mist system
on the auger of units using an automatic feed
system
With medium moisture wood, 20-30%, the
combustion process is more constant, with
pyrolysis and the combustion of gases and
charcoal occurring close to a constant rate.
The gases produced during pyrolysis would not
normally follow a downward path, so a draft-
2
inducing fan is employed to create a partial
vacuum that draws the flame through multiple
tunnels in the refractory. These refractory
tunnels make up the primary combustion area
in the Wood Gun. This long flame path
provides sufficient retention time for the gases
to cause near complete combustion to occur
before the hot gases come in contact with the
water-backed heat exchanger surface.
in the summer may be practical. Alternate
Heating Systems cannot promise that summer
time use of a Wood Gun will be practical for
you.
If summertime hot water requirements are low
it may be necessary to add a draft cycle timer to
the electrical control circuit to make the unit
run for 8 to 10 minutes every two to four hours.
This will prevent the fire from going out and
more importantly will maintain sufficient
temperature in the refractory to ensure
complete combustion on start-up. This feature
will provide heat until the timer reaches the end
of the programmed cycle, or until the boiler
temperature high limit is reached. It does not
override the high limit.
The mass of refractory that encompasses the
combustion chamber also serves a second
important function, acting as a heat store to
produce re-ignition after a period of no
demand. When the air valve closes and the
draft inducing fan stops, the fire is extinguished
by lack of oxygen and becomes dormant. The
fire will re-ignite once the air valve opens and
the draft-inducing fan is powered on, provided
the refractory still retains enough heat to cause
combustion to take place. The fuel may remain
dormant for periods of four hours or more
depending upon the size of unit and the
temperature of the refractory at shutdown. By
utilizing this combination of features, fuel is
burned at maximum efficiency, only as heat is
required, and never as a low smoldering fire.
Smoldering fires, and colder than optimum
fires, produce excessive amounts of creosote
and smoke.
Note: Some of the byproducts produced by
incomplete combustion of wood are
formaldehyde, formic acid and acetic acid,
which are mildly corrosive. A Wood Gun™
operating under light demand may never
generate refractory temperatures sufficient
to reduce these organic compounds to water
and carbon dioxide. Any air leak around the
inspection doors or air valve may contribute
to the formation of corrosive products.
Therefore it is important to inspect your
Wood Gun™ regularly to ensure that it is
being operated in a manner that does not
contribute to excessive corrosion of the
steel. We recommend that boilers operating
with lower duty cycles be manufactured with
the stainless steel option.
When a demand for heat exists, the operating
aquastat will open the air valve and activate the
draft induction fan. At this time, abundant air
is provided for combustion. When the boiler
temperature reaches the level set on the
aquastat, the fan stops and the air valve closes.
It is essential that all combustion air be
prevented from entering the Wood Gun at
shutdown. Where a strong chimney draft is
present during the off cycle, a unit with leaking
door seals may allow a small amount of air to
be pulled through the unit, supporting a lowgrade fire. This produces two major
undesirable results.
The fan that creates the negative pressure in the
combustion chamber inversely produces
positive pressure in the cyclone ash separator
located at the discharge point of the heat
exchanger. Most of the ash that remains after
the wood is consumed is collected here.
First, incomplete combustion yields creosote
and other organic compounds, which are mildly
acidic. These condense on the water walls of
the load chamber and heat exchanger. If this
situation is allowed to continue for any length
of time, the heat exchanger will become coated
The Wood Gun™ is very responsive to heat
demand, especially when compared to
conventional wood boilers. Because of this
responsiveness, providing domestic hot water
3
to the extent that airflow and heat transfer are
seriously impaired.
oxidation. Rust and mineral buildup is avoided
in a pressurized system because extra water is
not continuously added to make up for
evaporation losses. The Wood Gun should
always be operated in such a manner that the
difference in return water temperature and the
supply water temperature is no more than 20ºF.
The second undesirable result is moisture
condensation. This occurs because the lowgrade fire produces insufficient heat to carry
the water out the stack as a gas. Water will
likely be evident in the ash pan and, in severe
cases, may even collect in the heat exchanger.
Note: All Wood Gun™ models have the
option of manual or automatic oil, or manual
gas backups.
Note: Condensation in the heat exchanger
can be caused by wood that is too wet for
the application and/or by low return water
temperatures. Recommended return water
temperature is operating temperature minus
20° F
The Wood Gun™ is designed as a pressurized
boiler system. Before leaving the factory, it is
pressure tested for safety. Typical applications
operate at pressures of about 12-15 psi. A
pressurized system causes oxygen to be driven
from the water reducing corrosion and
This unit is not certified nor
designed for use with any type of
automatic underfed stoker device.
4
BOILER INSTALLATION
Boiler Room Requirements
1. The room should be well lighted and
should have a source of emergency light.
BOILER LOCATION
Wood & Coal Burning Boilers are designed to
radiate as much heat as possible, but this heat
can be dangerous if the boiler is improperly
installed. The Wood Gun™ is designed and
certified only for indoor installations and
therefore must be protected from the elements
by being located in a totally enclosed shelter.
The Wood Gun™ must not be installed
anywhere that gasoline, or other flammable
vapors are present. Unless special preparations
are made to partition off an area for the boiler
and to prevent flammable vapors from entering
the boiler area, a garage is not an approved
location for a Wood Gun installation. Check
local building codes for restrictions on
installation.
2. A convenient water supply should be
available for boiler flushing and to clean the
boiler room floor.
3. Unobstructed floor drains.
4. A boiler must not be installed where there
is the possibility of the accumulation of
explosive vapors.
5. Must have adequate air supply, which
must be kept clear at all times. Since the
combustion process requires a supply of air
at all times, it is essential that provisions are
made to supply adequate air to the boiler
room. This air supply is necessary to insure
complete combustion and venting of any
gases or smoke that would be emitted from
this solid fuel-burning boiler in case boiler
malfunctions. If fans are used in the boiler
room or in the fuel storage room it is
important they are installed in such a way
that there is not a negative pressure in the
room where the boiler is located.
A fire could be started if the boiler
is installed too close to walls,
furniture, carpet or draperies.
Note: Ventilation fans in the boiler and fuel
storage rooms must not create negative
pressure, as this would adversely affect
boiler operation.
The boiler must stand on a noncombustible
material such as brick, stone tile or concrete.
NEVER place a boiler directly on a wood floor.
The noncombustible material upon which the
boiler stands should extend at least 12 inches
beyond the base of the boiler in the rear and on
the sides and at least 36 inches in front. The
boiler must be installed in an area dedicated to
the boiler and its related equipment. This area
must be partitioned or separated from any living
area of a residence. The room must have a
constant fresh air supply to assure proper
combustion of the fuel as well as ventilation of
any by-products of combustion.
6. Provide an electrical disconnect at point
of entrance to boiler room.
7.Walls and ceiling must be of fire-rated
construction. Consult local or state codes
for requirements.
8.. It is recommended to have at least one
week worth of fuel inside and kept out of the
weather. Do not store fuel within the
appliance installation clearances or within
the space required for fueling, ash removal,
and other routine maintenance operations.
5
RIGGING AND POSITIONING
OF BOILER
Do not attempt to move or off-load the boiler
without the aid of a crane or dolly. Most
Alternate Heating Systems boilers have a lifting
lug in the center of the top while on some units
two lifting lugs in the front and rear are
provided.
The installation of this unit must
comply with state and local
requirements and must be
inspected by the state or local
building inspector where required.
Once on the floor level where it will be installed
the unit may be rolled on pipe or may be moved
by means of a pallet jack. Use caution
whenever moving a boiler. Be sure to use
proper equipment and have sufficient manpower
available to prevent injury or damage that can
be caused by improper handling heavy
equipment. The boiler must be placed on a
concrete slab or other rigid pad of noncombustible material with sufficient strength to
adequately support the boiler including its
contents of water. The boiler should be
positioned as closely as possible to the chimney.
The smoke pipe must pitch continually upward
toward the chimney and be as straight as
possible. Level the boiler after it has been
positioned.
This unit is not approved or
recommended for use in mobile
homes.
COMBUSTIBLE CLEARANCES
REQUIRED FOR SAFETY AND
OPERATION
The required minimum combustible clearances
for all models are 48 in from the front, 36 in
from the back, 12 in from the left side, 18 in
from the right side, 24 in from the top, and
underneath the boiler. These measurements
should be taken from the furthest protruding
element on each respective side. Most
municipalities require a specified clearance
between the flue pipe and combustibles
(normally 18 in). The customer/installer must
follow all local and state building codes for
clearances. The above dimensions are to be
regarded as minimums. Extra clearance is
recommended to allow for easy movement
around the boiler for cleaning and/or
maintenance. Refer to Appendix A for exterior
dimensions of the various models.
It is necessary to adhere to the clearances and
restrictions that are described in this manual.
Before proceeding with installation, inquire with
local building officials to confirm compliance
with that building, plumbing and electrical
codes. Alternate Heating Systems recommends
that a qualified technician experienced in boiler
installations perform the installation of the
Wood Gun. Wiring on the boiler must be
properly grounded.
6
There has been extensive research and testing to
assure that these units are safe when operated
with the instructions of this manual.
BOILER ASSEMBLY
Cyclone Ash Collector
Once the Wood Gun™ has been positioned, the
cyclone ash collector should be attached to the
flange on the left side of the boiler (see
Appendix C: Exploded Parts Drawings).
Air Valve
If the air valve was not installed at the factory,
begin assembly by placing the stainless steel
tube into the boiler opening (with the latch side
up) and tighten the two setscrews.
Apply a strip of 1/8 in x 1/2 in self-stick
sponge rubber (included with boiler) to the
boiler flange inside of the mounting holes
before attaching the cyclone to the boiler flange
using three 5/16 in x 3/4 in bolts and washers.
To apply, carefully remove the paper backing
from the rubber strip to expose the adhesive.
Overlap the strip approximately 1 in and cut off
the excess material with a knife or scissors. The
adhesive will hold the gasket in place until the
cyclone assembly is positioned.
IMPORTANT: Make sure the tube
protrudes into the fuel chamber a distance of
from ½ in to 1 in when measured at the
bottom of the tube. This will ensure that
condensation produced in the tube will not
run down the wall of the fuel chamber but
will drip onto the refractory center brick.
Cement the joint with high temperature silicone
sealant (included or available at a local
hardware store) to prevent air leakage. A 5 in
diameter, galvanized elbow is provided with a
new Wood Gun. This must be attached to the
air valve inlet tube facing down. In addition, a 5
x 24 in galvanized tube is to be attached to the
elbow such that combustion air is being pulled
from the floor (see Appendix F: Boiler Piping
Examples).
The wires from the damper motor must be
inserted into the electrical box on the rear or
side of the boiler and connected as documented
in the wiring diagram for the model being
installed. Wiring diagrams are found in
Appendix B.
IMPORTANT: Be careful when loading
large pieces of wood that you don’t hit the
air valve tube and knock it out of place.
Draft-Inducing Fan Assembly
The draft-inducing fan assembly may be
shipped in a separate box. See Fan Assembly
under the Maintenance section on page 36 for
7
assembly guidance. The fiberglass rope gasket
must fit neatly in the groove without overlap or
wrinkles. When tightening down the fan
assembly nuts, alternate between studs and
apply equal pressure until the gasket seals
firmly against the end of the swirl chamber.
+/-5° from the reading of the temperature gage
due to slow water circulation in the boiler
vessel. If the temperature difference is more
than +/-5° than the aqua stat should be replaced.
If there is a discrepancy in the temperatures, be
sure that the temperature gauge is accurate. This
can be done by testing the boiler water
temperature with a second thermometer or
temperature gauge.
IMPORTANT: Do not tighten the 5/16 nuts
excessively as this may damage the gasket
or the ceramic board heat shield.
The wires leading from the fan motor must be
inserted into the electrical box on the rear of the
unit and connected as according to the wiring
diagram for the model being installed (see
Appendix B: Wiring Diagrams).
GENERAL CHIMNEY
REQUIREMENTS
If the chimney must go through a combustible
wall, be sure to use a metal thimble specially
designed for this purpose. The proper way to
install a thimble is to cut an oversize hole in the
sheetrock about 6 or 7 inches larger than the
thimble. However, be sure to follow the
manufacturer’s directions that come with the
thimble. A metal ring shield is used to cover the
hole. This way air can circulate and cool the
area around the passageway.
INSTALLATION AND
MAINTENANCE OF
ELECTRICAL CONTROLS AND
GAUGES
Insert the temperature/pressure gauge into the
right side marked tapping (JJ) on model E100
and tapping (Z) on all other models. Refer to
Appendix A for details on tapping sizes and
locations. The high limit aquastat occupies the
left (JJ) tapping on the E100 and the (AA)
tapping on all other Wood Gun™ models. On
all units not equipped with an oil burner, a
L4006A single aquastat is used and occupies the
same position. The boiler operating limit
aquastat (L6006A) is located in tapping (GG) on
the rear of the boiler. On units with an oil or
gas burner a L6006A aquastat for switching
from wood to oil is located in tapping (zz). For
detailed wiring and control diagrams, consult
Appendix B: Wiring Diagrams. When installing
the L.W.C.O. refer to directions on page 12.
Specific Chimney Requirements for the
Wood Gun™
The Wood Gun™ creates its own draft;
therefore having sufficient height in the
chimney is generally not an issue. Excessive
chimney height can allow for more cooling of
exhaust gases and lead to condensation issues.
Other aspects of chimney construction that lead
to condensation include use of a masonry
chimney that lacks an insulated liner. Having
such a chimney on the outside of the house
compounds this problem as well. Because of
the high efficiency of the Wood Gun, and
resultant low stack temperatures, it is important
to try to preserve exhaust heat. Always check
with your local building inspector and insurance
agent to assure compliance.
In some cases it may be necessary to test the
controls and gauges. First turn the power off. To
test an aqua stat. Turn the dial 20° past the
boiler water temperature. Use an ohm meter to
test the terminals for continuity. If the contacts
are closed before you turn the dial it should
open afterward. If it is opened before you turn
the dial it should be closed afterward. It can be
common that the contacts engage or disengage
Stovepipe should be sized as follows:
E100 to E180: not less than 6 in Dia.
E250 to E500: not less than 8 in Dia.
Using larger diameter stovepipe is generally not
a problem.
8
Having adequate combustion air is critical to
boiler performance. This means that there must
be either enough air infiltration to supply the
boiler with combustion air, or other means must
be put in place to provide this makeup air.
There is usually sufficient leakage in older
homes, typically around doors and windows. In
well-insulated homes it may be necessary to
provide additional outside air into the home. It
is possible to duct outside air directly to the
boiler. In such situations, it may be important to
provide for some heating of this air.
Never decrease the crosssectional area of the
stovepipe/chimney because the
velocity of the exhaust will
increase thus increasing the
likelihood of particle discharge in
the exhaust.
FLUE PIPE
Use only 22-24 gauge pipe. We recommend
stainless steel. Heavy gauge black pipe will not
last very long (typically 1 to 2 years).
Galvanized pipe is not recommended. Double or
triple wall insulated pipe must be used for at
least the first 36” above the cyclone. When
using single wall fluepipe in open areas, assure
the pipe passes no closer than 18 inches from
combustible walls or ceiling. If the fluepipe
must be closer than 18 inches from the nearest
wall or ceiling, or if it must go through walls,
closets, or boxed-in areas, then U.L. listed
insulated fluepipe must be used. Fluepipe that
runs along the outside walls of a building must
also be U.L. listed insulated pipe, even if it runs
along a non-combustible outside wall. This
requirement is in place in order to prevent
cooling of the fluepipe, which in turn cools the
rising smoke and causes condensation and
creosote to form quickly.
Never use a prefabricated chimney
connected directly to the ash
recovery cyclone and leading to
the outside without any elbows or
cleanout T-joints.
For installations where the minimum chimney
size cannot be met, Alternate Heating Systems,
Inc. can provide, at additional cost, a larger
cyclone. It is a good practice to run as long a
vertical pipe as you can, coming off of the
cyclone. You will want to avoid having an
elbow or “T” immediately above the cyclone.
Warning
Do not connect to a
chimney serving another
appliance.
The airflow through the system and
out the chimney means that oxygen
is leaving the home and will create
an oxygen deficit if this air is not
replaced.
Do not connect more than one heating appliance
to a single chimney. Be sure to check all local
codes and your insurance provider’s
requirements for any additional restrictions
and/or guidelines regarding your fluepipe.
9
allowing air to pass up the chimney from an
auxiliary valve located at floor level and
connected to a “T”: in the flue pipe or chimney.
PROPER CHIMNEY CONNECTION
The boiler must be connected to a class A
chimney.
Use of aluminum Type B gas vent
for solid fuels is unsafe and
prohibited by the National Fire
Protection Association Code.
The recommended method for connecting the
boiler to the chimney is to place a T-joint at the
top of the vertical section leading from the
cyclone. The opening on the T-joint should be
fitted with a removable cap to enable cleaning
and inspection. If the horizontal run to the
chimney is inclined, it will encourage any fly
ash, which drops in the pipe to fall back into the
ash separator. In many cases it is acceptable to
set the stack directly on the cyclone, especially
if it is no more than eight feet. If a taller run is
required it may be too heavy to be supported by
the cyclone alone and will need additional
reinforcement.
Figure 1: Proper chimney connection
Particular attention should be paid to the point
where a flue passes through a wall or ceiling.
The pass-thru should always be made with
insulated pipe and the proper accessories or use
of a thimble, which provides a diameter of not
less than three times the diameter of the stove
pipe. (See illustration below)
If a second change of direction is required
before entering the chimney a cleanout “T”
should be placed at this point also as indicated
in Figure 1. Each joint should be secured with
three sheet metal screws and sealed with high
temperature furnace cement or “Troweleze”
refractory cement or High Temperature
Silicone. Any horizontal pipe should be pitched
upward toward the chimney at least ¼ in for
each foot of horizontal run. Be sure there are at
least 18 in clearance between horizontal piping
and combustible ceiling. Be sure that the
chimney connection pipe extends at least 2 in
into the chimney, but does not extend so far into
the chimney that it blocks airflow.
In installations where the chimney draft is too
strong, the problem may be eliminated by
10
IN CASE OF CHIMNEY FIRE
1. Call the fire department. (In the event
the fire is out before they get there, you
will want them to inspect the structure
and make sure there is no latent damage
or hazard.)
2. Shut the boiler down by turning the main
power off.
3. If you have a chimney fire, use a
chemical flare type fire extinguisher. If
you don’t have an extinguisher, go to
step 4.
4. Using a water hose, wet down the area
of the roof surrounding the chimney. Do
not wet the chimney itself or try to put
water down the flue as it will very likely
damage the flue tiles.
5. Contact a chimney professional to
inspect your chimney for damages.
Figure 2: Stove pipe passing through wall
WARNING
The cyclone ash separator needs disassembled
and cleaned each season.
The top of the cyclone should be removed. That
will allow the body of the cyclone to be cleaned.
COMBUSTION AIR SUPPLY
It is important to make provision for adequate
supply of combustion air, either natural
infiltration through or around a door or window,
or by ducting outside. If the air intake valve is
not ducted to the outside, then the galvanized
stove pipe elbow provided with the boiler must
be attached to the collar on the air valve facing
downward with a 2’ section attached to the
elbow with three sheet metal screws. If
combustion air is ducted from the outside, then
follow the same procedure as described for
passing a smoke pipe through a combustible
wall. Should the air valve malfunction and not
close completely, there is a possibility that this
conduit could act as an exhaust stack and heat
up. Use appendix F for a picture diagram
Picture 3 (Cyclone top)
The connecting tube that attaches to the boiler is
another very important area that will need to be
thoroughly cleaned. To clean the connecting
tube, you will need a 4” chimney brush for
models E100, E140, and E180. The E250 will
need a 5” chimney brush. When the top is
removed from the cyclone you will have access
to clean the connecting tube.
When the intake air is ducted from the outside,
inspect the opening regularly to be sure that it
does not become obstructed by debris. Units
that have outside combustion air ducts must
have this duct routed close to the floor in the
boiler room.
Picture 1(connecting tube)
11
enable it to be started so that it can be warmed
to its operating temperature.
There are many possible configurations that
allow for an existing boiler to function as a
backup to the Wood Gun™. For sample
illustrations of multiple boiler configurations,
see Appendix F.
BOILER PIPING FOR
HYDRONIC SYSTEMS
Due to the design requirements of the various
Wood Gun™ models, the fittings and burner
attachments are not always in the same location
on each boiler model. See Appendix A for the
location of these attachments. This diagram
provides exact locations for all fittings. The
flush-out fittings in the bottom of the unit are a
requirement of the ASME boiler code and must
be closed before filling the unit with water.
PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE
A pressure relief valve should be inserted into
tapping DD on all models through E250 and in
tapping CC on model E500 and larger.
Note: Be sure to close all fittings in the unit
before filling the unit with water.
An elbow and boiler drain should be inserted in
the flush-out tapping U or Y on the bottom of
the boiler near the front. Alternately, a “T” and
short nipple could be attached to the return
tapping for the location of the boiler drain.
Piping the Boiler in Parallel with another
Boiler
The Wood Gun™ may be connected to a
heating system supplied by one or more boilers
that are already in place. To connect the boiler
to the existing boiler run the supply pipe with a
flow check from the Wood gun and Tee into the
supply pipe of the existing boiler. This pipe will
carry hot water to the existing boiler when there
is no heat demand and will in turn keep the
existing boiler from turning on. The return pipe
with a circulator pushing toward the Wood gun
will Tee into the return line of the existing
boiler. It is required that the piping be such that
excessive pressure will not be developed in any
portion of the boiler or system. The circulator
will constantly run when the Wood Gun boiler
is on. Wire the circulator to the Wood Gun
boiler in such a way that when the boiler switch
is on the circulator will also run. The power to
the Wood gun should then be controlled by an
aqua stat located in the supply piping. This aqua
stat should be set 10ºF above operating
temperature of the existing boiler. That will shut
the Wood gun down if it runs out of fuel. The
aqua stat will need to have a bypass switch that
will allow the wood boiler to have power and
Figure 3: Pressure Relieve Valve
Note: A length of copper pipe must be
connected to the pressure relief valve
continuing to a point 6 in from the floor as
shown in Figure 3 above.
The purpose of extending the pipe to the floor is
to direct any blowout of scalding water
downward instead of outward. This reduces the
likelihood of exposing bystanders to a scald
hazard.
If the Wood Gun™ is installed as the primary
boiler, it is necessary to provide for water
supply using a pressure regulating valve and
backflow prevention valve in the feed water
line.
12
WARNING
A LOW WATER CUT OFF
MUST BE INSTALLED
LOW WATER CUT OFF
To install a LWCO low water cut off. It should
be located in a “T” placed in the supply riser
just above the tapping in the boiler.
Figure 4: Pressure regulating valve and
backflow prevention valve
configuration
The low water cut off should be installed in the
supply riser just above the tapping of the boiler.
Place a Tee fitting 6” above the boiler in the
supply line. Install the L.W.C.O. so that it is
accessible and the indicator lights can be seen.
Run three wires from the L.W.C.O. to
the main control box that corresponds with the
wires/terminals in the control box. The wires
needed are: Orange, Orange #2, White. These
wires will terminate in the LWCO as follows.
1. The orange wire will be terminated with
the black wire and one of the Yellow
wires.
2. The orange 2 wire will terminate with
the remaining yellow wire.
3. The White or neutral wire will terminate
with the white wire in the LWCO.
Terminate the wires in the control box with the
corresponding wires (or terminal blocks that
correspond with the wire).
1. The Orange wire will terminate on the
terminal marked orange.
2. The Orange #2 wire will terminate on
the terminal marked orange #2.
3. The White wire will terminate on the
terminal marked white, L2 or neutral.
It is very important to provide
adequate expansion tank capacity
based on the total volume of water
in the system, particularly when the
Wood Gun™ is added to an
existing boiler.
Refer to Appendix A: Additional Specifications
to determine the water capacity of the Wood
Gun™ installed (do not use the BTU rating).
The expansion tank or air cushion tank that was
originally installed may not be adequate for the
additional volume of the Wood Gun™.
Recirculation loop
A recirculation pump or loop is recommended
to keep return water temperatures up.
13
For units equipped with electric backup, follow
the procedure outlined above with the exception
that one of the electric element aquastats should
be set about 5° F higher than the other. This
will prevent all electric elements from being
activated at the same time.
Recommended Boiler Control Settings
in Hydronic Systems
The following control settings are recommended
for parallel installations:
High limit 200° F
Operating control on the rear of the
boiler is 180°.
BOILER CONDITIONER / SEALANT
AHS provides two bottles of Boiler
Conditioner/Sealant with the purchase of your
boiler. When filling your boiler with water for
the first time, mix the contents of each bottle
with 2 gallons of warm water. Pour into boiler
opening. Replace plug. A Material Safety Data
Sheet (MSDS) is available upon request.
Set the operating control differential set to
15° Φ, unless using cast iron radiators, for
which a differential setting of 20° or more is
recommended.
Additional settings may include:
The optional circulator shutdown control
160° F
An existing oil/gas boiler 140° F.
BOILER PIPING AND CONTROLS
FOR LOW PRESSURE STEAM
SYSTEMS
Wood Gun™ models E180 and larger are
available with steam tappings and controls upon
special order. When installing a low-pressure
steam boiler, be sure that the installation
conforms to all state and local codes.
On Wood Gun™ models equipped with oil or
gas backup, the control settings should be as
follows:
High limit = 200° F
All steam boilers will be supplied with a low
water cut-off, which fits the ¾ inch tapping on
the rear of the boiler. This control must never
be hot wired or disconnected since it prevents
the boiler from firing should the water level
drop below the safe operating level.
Operating Limit = 180° – 170° F
Burner Control (L6006A) = 150° F
In this way the oil burner will function as a
backup and only fire when the boiler
temperature drops below about 150° F. The oil
burner may be set even lower if desired to
prevent it from firing except when the wood fire
is almost completely out.
A water level gauge glass is also provided to
give a visual indicator of the level of water in
the boiler. This gauge is located in tapping FF
on the rear of the boiler and a section of piping,
which originates from a tapping in the top of the
boiler near the rear.
Wood Gun™ units supplied with automatic
switchover (fuel oil only) are provided with a
mode switch. When turned to either the
“Wood” or “Oil” mode it will fire on the
indicated fuel and not switch over. In the
“Auto” position it will change from the wood
mode to oil when the water temperature falls to
the setting on the switchover aquastat
(L6006A), and will stay in this mode until
manually reset, at which time the boiler may be
refueled with wood.
An automatic water feeder or combination water
feeder/low water control such as a McDonnellMiller model 47-2 is required to ensure that the
proper water level is maintained. Some states or
municipalities require two low water control
devices in series. The two controls described
above will meet this requirement.
14
The coil creates increased resistance to air flow,
so this factor must be considered when
determining the final airflow. Design water
temperature is usually 180° F and a desirable
output air temperature is 115° - 125° F.
Tip: To increase coil performance increase
boiler water temperature.
It is very important that a steam
boiler be properly leveled so that
the water feeder and low water
cutoff controls function properly.
The coil is connected in the same manner as in
other types of radiation heating equipment.
The thermostat should be wired to both the fan
blower and the circulator pump or a
temperature-sensing switch on the heat
exchange coil.
For steam systems other than gravity return
consult Alternate Heating Systems, LLC. for
proper controls. Do not attempt to connect two
different steam boilers in parallel since the
water level in each boiler will not be the same.
If a hole was cut in existing ducting to install the
coil, the opening should be closed tightly with a
metal cover and sealed with duct tape.
Note that steam models are wired differently
than hydronic models. See Appendix B for
Wood Gun wiring diagrams. Contact Alternate
Heating Systems if you need a diagram not
included in this manual.
DOMESTIC HOT WATER
COIL PIPING
The Wood Gun™ may be fitted with one or
more domestic hot water coils, which thread
into 4 inch tapping’s in the boiler. There are
three methods for plumbing the domestic coil.
One way is to connect the coil in series with an
existing hot water heater.
FORCED HOT AIR SYSTEMS
(WATER TO AIR COIL IN DUCT)
The Wood Gun™ boiler may be easily adapted
to any forced hot air heating system by
installing a heat exchange coil in the supply
duct. The size and type of coil required may be
determined after several factors are determined.
These factors include: the heat output required
(BTUH), the capacity of the existing fan blower
(CFM) and the size of the duct or plenum where
the coil will be installed.
Figure 5: Plumbing – Coil in Series
A second method of plumbing the domestic coil
is to connect the coil in parallel with an existing
water heater so that the conventional water
heater may be used when the Wood Gun™ is
not being fired (for example in the summer).
15
The diagram below indicates how this can be
done.
The third method of plumbing the domestic coil
uses a small pump to circulate water
continuously between the coil and existing hot
water heater. It is also necessary to include a
tempering valve or temperature controller on the
supply side of the storage tank/water heater to
prevent super-heated water from reaching the
domestic hot water tank and, ultimately, the
faucets (see figure below).
Figure 6: Plumbing – Coil in Parallel
In installations where the coil
discharges directly into the hot
water distribution system a
tempering valve must be included
to limit the temperature of the
water at the faucet to a safe level.
Figure 8: Plumbing – Coil with circulator
OIL BURNER ASSEMBLY
General Information
If an oil burner is supplied with the Wood
Gun™, connection of fuel lines and the
adjustment of the burner should be done by a
qualified oil burner technician. The oil burner is
normally shipped detached from the Wood
Gun™ in a separate box. Refer to the Riello
Burners Installation Manual included with your
shipment for instructions on configuring the
burner. Particular attention should be paid to
the Oil Line Connections section of the Riello
Installation Manual. Ensure that the correct size
nozzle is in place on the burner before installing
on the boiler.
Figure 7: Tempering valve
Correct nozzle sizes for Riello Oil Burners are:
16
E100:
E140:
E180:
E250:
0.65 gph 45°, semi-solid
1.00 gph, 45°, semi-solid
1.10 gph, 45°, semi-solid
1.65 gph, 60°, semi-solid
Models E180, and E250
On models E180, and E250 the oil combustion
chamber is built into the pressure vessel, so the
burner is inserted into the firing tube on the rear
of the boiler as shown below.
Figure 10: E100, E140 Combustion Chamber
After securing the combustion chamber to the
boiler, replace the insulated jacket. The burner
mounting flange should be bolted to the end of
the combustion chamber using four 3/8 in x 1 in
bolts. The burner should be positioned so that
the end of the air tube is back approximately ¼
in from the inside of the ceramic lined chamber
(see Figure 10)
Figure 9: E180, E250 Oil Burner
Bolt the mounting flange into place using 4, 3/8
inch nuts, washers and lock washers. Ensure
that the gasket that is furnished with the burner
is placed between the flange of the Wood
Gun™ and the mounting flange of the oil burner
to prevent air leakage.
Oil Burner Electrical Connection
Connect the burner in accordance with wiring
diagrams found in Appendix B: Wiring
Diagrams. The (T) terminals on the protector
relay of the oil burner may need to be crossed
with a jumper wire to activate the burner on
certain models. The Aux (auxiliary) wire may
not need to be terminated.
Oil/Gas Burner Combustion Chamber:
Models E100 and E140
Wood Gun™ models E100 and E140 have an
optional oil burner combustion chamber, which
is exterior to the boiler and located on the right
hand side of the boiler when viewed from the
front. To mount the combustion chamber, apply
the enclosed piece of 1/8 in x 1/2 in self-stick
silicone strip to the combustion chamber flange
just inside of the bolt holes. Attach the
combustion chamber to the flange on the boiler
using three 5/16 in x 1 in bolts and washers.
The metal jacket cover and insulation on the
combustion chamber must be removed to gain
access to the holes in the flange as shown
below.
Oil Burner Fuel Line Connection
The fuel lines should be connected using copper
flare fittings or threaded pipe.
Never use compression fittings to
connect the fuel lines since they
have a tendency to vibrate loose
during operation.
17
source, that the oil burner be cleaned and test
fired several times to verify that the safety
control system is not impaired. If wood is the
primary fuel source, with oil a seldom used
backup, Alternate Heating Systems strongly
recommends the unit be fired on oil periodically
to assure that the oil burner will function when
needed. Do not assume that a unit operated
solely on wood for an extended period of time
will fire on oil without attention.
NOTE: If the oil tank has a two-pipe
system, then it is necessary to insert the
bypass plug into the burner pump as
described in the manual for the oil burner.
When using a Riello Burner, always use a
two-pipe fuel line system.
Oil Burner Adjustment
For proper oil burner adjustment, refer to the
burner installation manual.
Designing a multi-fuel boiler to burn both wood
and oil/gas efficiently presents several problems
not normally associated with a conventional oil
or gas boiler. Wood combustion produces ash,
which has a tendency to accumulate on all
exposed heat exchange surfaces. Another
significant factor is the presence of water, which
must be evaporated from the fuel and carried out
of the boiler in the exhaust gas stream. In
addition, products of incomplete wood
combustion, which result from initial start-up,
re-ignition after a long ”off” cycle, and
inadequate or infrequent cleaning, will be
deposited within the unit.
Note: It is a good idea to test fire the oil
burner when weekly cleaning and
maintenance is performed.
In all Wood Gun™ models, the draft-inducing
fan increases the air velocity past the nozzle.
Because of this increased air velocity, the
Burner Adjustment Tables in the Riello manual
are a good starting point for initial firing of the
burner; however, fine-tuning of the burner
settings may be needed.
For proper burner adjustment a combination test
kit must be used. It is not likely that the CO2
levels suggested in the burner manual can be
achieved, but the net stack temperature will be
very low, yielding a net efficiency well in
excess of 80 %. Refer to the burner manual for
information regarding wiring logic and
individual components of the burner.
Every oil burner contains safety devices that are
designed to prevent unsafe operation. When the
burner is activated, fuel is pumped through the
nozzle in the presence of an ignition arc
produced by two electrodes and a high voltage
transformer. In order to prevent raw fuel from
being discharged into the combustion chamber
should ignition fail to occur, a CAD cell is
employed to “proof” the flame. If the CAD cell
does not “see” a flame within a preset time
period, usually 20-30 seconds, a relay will shut
down the burner and it cannot attempt to re-fire
until the reset button is pressed. When
contamination from the wood combustion
process coats the CAD cell it interferes with the
proper functioning of this safety device.
GAS BURNER ASSEMBLY
Models E100 through E250
Refer to the Riello Burners Installation Manual
included with your shipment for instructions on
configuring the burner. Gas burners must be
installed as a manual switchover (automatic not
available).
If the Wood Gun™ is properly cleaned and
maintained on a regular basis, then the adverse
effects described above are minimized.
However, neglect of the unit may result in
disappointing performance. It is recommended
that in instances where the owner intends to
depend upon the oil burner as the primary fuel
The burner must be installed and
configured by a certified Gas
Burner Technician.
18
NOTE: The Riello gas burner has an air
sensor that senses airflow through the
burner. When a Riello gas burner is
installed, then a variable speed induction fan
control may need to be a necessary option.
Note: Advice offered in this manual is NOT a
substitute for securing the services of a
professional installer.
The burner mounts to the flange on the boiler
combustion chamber using three 3/8 in x 1½ in
bolts provided. Make sure the gasket provided
with the burner is placed between the flange on
the Wood Gun™ and the mounting flange of the
gas burner. Connect the burner according to the
wiring diagram included with your boiler or
found in Appendix B: Wiring Diagrams
Consult the burner manual for the proper
procedure for purging air from the system and
for initial start-up of the burner.
Gas Burner Adjustment
Please see the Riello Burner Installation Manual
section entitled Setting up the Burner for
information on gas burner adjustment.
For larger units consult the special instructions
provided in the supplement to this manual.
OIL AUTOMATIC SWITCHOVER
AND LOCKOUT CONTROL
The Automatic Switchover option automatically
switches the Wood Gun™ into oil mode if it is
unable to maintain temperature while firing with
wood. The most likely scenario causing the
switchover to take place is when the boiler has
used up the wood fuel. The Wood Gun will also
switchover to oil if the fire goes out, as may
occur when the boiler has been inactive for
hours, and the refractory has cooled to below
the kindling temperature for wood. In this case,
the boiler must be manually switched back to
wood mode, and manually relit, in order to
resume wood burning.
All gas piping must comply with
local codes and ordinances or the
National Fuel Gas Code ANSI Z
223.1-1980 and NFPA No. 54.
Before allowing gas that is under pressure into
the piping, all openings from which gas can
escape should be closed. Immediately after
turning on the gas, the system should be
checked for leaks. This can be done by
watching the ½ cubic foot test dial and allowing
five minutes to show any movement or by
soaping each pipe connection and watching for
bubbles. Use a solution of dishwashing
detergent and water for “poor man’s” leak
detection or use electronic detectors. Pay
attention to any gas odor and follow up any
observed odor with a check of all connections
for leaks. Remember that ventilating an area
when correcting a leak is normally a good idea.
Keep in mind that propane is heavier than air
and natural gas is lighter than air.
The Lockout feature prevents needless cooling
from the induction fan running while in oil
mode. Once this feature is engaged, the boiler
switches to oil mode and will function
continuously as an oil-fired boiler until
manually switched back to wood mode.
Automatic switchover is not available for use
with gas backup. See Appendix B for wiring
logic for units equipped with this feature.
19
The smoke flap will help hold back some of the
smoke when the front load door is opened.
SMOKE FLAP
The smoke flap (picture 2) must be installed
before operating the boiler.
Picture 3 (smoke flap installed)
Picture 2 (smoke flap)
20
OPERATING INFORMATION
WARNING
All cover plates, enclosures, and guards must be
maintained in place at all times, except during
maintenance and servicing. Always keep fueling
and ash doors closed when the boiler is not
being tended. Always maintain and keep all
seals in good condition.
Please read this manual before operating the
boiler. It contains important requirements and
instructions must be followed for safe and
satisfactory operation of the boiler.
The green light at the upper left
corner of the boiler indicates when
the draft-inducing fan is running.
The only time the load door can be
safely opened is when the
indicator light is on. If the
indicator light is off, turn the purge
timer clockwise to number 5 and
wait two minutes before opening
the door slowly. The waiting
period will allow sufficient time for
the fire to become re-activated and
burn off any gases that may have
collected in the fuel chamber
during the off cycle.
Be sure the boiler vessel is full of
water and pressurized before
starting a fire. Never attempt to add
water to a hot boiler if found to be
only partially full. Allow the unit to
cool before adding water to the
boiler. Failure to do so could result
in death or severe injury along with
damage to boiler and surrounding
property.
On units that have a backup oil or gas burner,
the green indicator light will only be on when
the fan is running and the oil burner is not
firing. If the indicator light does not come on
when the purge timer is activated, it means the
oil/gas burner is firing and the door must not
be opened.
The bottom of the fuel chamber contains dense
cast refractory blocks. The refractory is baked in
a kiln at the factory to dry out nearly all
moisture before it is placed in the boiler, but it
does not reach maximum strength unless heated
to operating temperature gradually (cured).
Once the Wood Gun has switched
automatically or has been manually switched to
a backup fuel, switching back to wood must be
performed manually. This is accomplished by
shutting the main switch off, turning the fuel
selector switch back to wood, turning the main
switch to on, and rekindling the boiler in the
same manner as when the boiler was initially
fired with wood. Be sure to only open the door
when the green light is on. In order to permit
the unit to continue firing in the wood mode, it
cannot be switched to the “auto” position until
NOTE: It is recommended that several
small charges of wood be used initially to
ensure that maximum durability of the
refractory lining is achieved.
21
boiler temperature has exceeded the setting of
the switchover aquastat.
STARTING A FIRE
Switch Positions: Cold Boiler Startup
Water
Temp Has
Before
After
Risen to
Lighting Lighting 150º-180º
Boiler
Off
On
On
Switch
Start/Run
Start
Start
Run
Switch*
* Units with Low Temp Shutdown
Do not remove the smoke flap in
the loading door while the Wood
Gun™ is being fired. It is there for
your protection and removing it
may expose the operator to
flashback under certain
conditions. If the smoke flap is
removed for cleaning or inspecting
the refractory, be sure to put it
back in place.
FUEL TYPE
The wood gun is designed to burn split
or un-split log wood.
The Wood gun is designed to burn log wood.
The Wood gun is able to burn both hard wood
and soft wood fuel. Keep in mind that hard
wood is typically a better fuel. Hard wood will
usually give you longer burn times than soft
wood. Oak, Maple, and Cherry are a few of the
hardwood types that can be burnt. Cedar fir and
pine are a few of softwood species that can be
burnt.
STARTING A FIRE
Starting a fire in the Wood Gun is similar to
starting a fire in any wood fired boiler with a
few important differences. Because the Wood
Gun incorporates a downward draft, successful
fire starting requires recognizing that fact and
layering kindling accordingly. Place kindling
wood on the refractory in a lengthwise
orientation. Add a layer of crumpled up
newspaper followed by another small layer of
kindling. Light the paper. Turn on the boiler
switch. When the kindling is burning well, add
more (and larger) pieces of wood.
Do not open the doors or operate
this unit during a power failure.
Never use chemicals or flammable
liquids to start the fire. DO NOT
burn garbage, other types of coal
or any other fuel not approved for
this unit.
Note: Always place wood in the Wood
Gun lengthwise (from front to back). Never
place wood in the fuel storage area
crosswise.
22
When firing a cold boiler, it is important to
concentrate heat next to the refractory. The
Wood Gun depends on high refractory
temperatures for driving the gasification
process. Using drier, smaller wood will help to
accomplish this. Add larger pieces only after
the fire is well established. Only fill the fuel
storage area after the refractory has reached
good gasification temperatures. Keep in mind
that a small intense fire is preferable to a large
smoldering one to reduce the amount of
creosote deposition. This will be accomplished
by building the initial fire with wood no higher
than the door frame. When the starting charge is
burning hot, add the rest of the charge to last for
ten hours.
switches are in Auto, and then turn the feed
system on to begin filling the firebox with
particle fuel. After the unit is at operating
temperature, secondary air may be activated as
needed (if the boiler is so equipped).
If the fire must be restarted after a long dormant
period (aside from normal on/off cycling), you
must remove any unspent particle fuel from the
firebox by hand and start the fire again from the
beginning. If you try to add particle fuel before
the refractory combustion chambers are hot,
glowing particles may be discharged out of the
stack. Sometimes, it is possible that the
refractory mass is still above the ignition point
of wood (usually within 4-6 hours of last oncycle). If this is the case, the fuel may re-ignite
automatically as with normal on/off cycling.
When operating the boiler there is an actuated
damper and a manually operated damper located
at the rear of the unit. The boiler operates
normal when both dampers are open
completely. In some case when the wood fuel is
rather dry the manual damper can be closed
proportionally to slow the burn rate of dry wood
and this will allow for a longer burn time.
Note: Self Re-ignition time is dependent
primarily on two variables (1) how hot the
refractory is at shutdown (2) how big your
refractory size (boiler size).
Note: When starting a fire in a Wood Gun™
equipped with an oil or gas burner, it is first
necessary to switch the fuel selector control
to “wood” mode.
CHARGING THE BOILER WITH
WOOD (MANUAL FEED)
With Particle Fuel Delivery Option
Before beginning to burn sawdust, shavings,
wood chips, or other wood waste, it is important
to first create a bed of charcoal in the Wood
Gun™ firebox to prevent these small fuel
particles from being drawn unburned through
the unit by the draft-inducing fan. Begin by
turning on the main switch. Start the fire using
kindling and newspaper in the same manner as
described in the previous section. Once the
kindling is going, add some larger chunk or log
wood. Be careful not to shift the diverter bricks
while loading the wood. Close the load door.
Observe the warning label on the
load door which cautions that it
must not be opened unless the
green indicator light is on.
When it is time to reload the Wood Gun, note
the indicator light above the purge cycle timer.
If the indicator light is off, push the green Purge
button or turn the purge timer clockwise to
Allow this fuel charge to burn down and heat
the refractory. When this occurs, ensure mode
23
number 5 and wait two minutes before opening
the door slowly. This waiting period will allow
sufficient time for the fire to become reactivated and burn off any gases that may have
accumulated in the fuel chamber during the off
cycle. Even if the green light is on, open the
door cautiously since abruptly introducing air
over the glowing fuel particles may cause it to
temporarily flame up.
Long burn cycles will also lead to accumulation
of charcoal in the fuel storage area. Excess
charcoal will tend to block airflow through the
slots in the center brick. Furthermore, soft,
crumbly charcoal can also be pulled through the
refractory, resulting in tiny, live embers being
emitted into the cyclone.
Note: Guard against charcoal accumulation
in your Wood Gun by keeping burn cycles
at less than 12 hours.
When reloading the Wood Gun™, it is a good
idea to use the ash rake to make sure that all of
the center slots are open and free from ash
before adding more wood. Such raking is more
often required when using softwood. When
using hardwood, clear the slots at least daily.
Clear the slots by raking charcoal pieces away
from the slots. After raking the charcoal pieces
away from the slots, rake ash into the slots, thus
aiding the process of allowing the induction fan
to pull the ash through. A vacuum that is rated
for ash removal can also be used for removing
ash that does not contain live embers.
Very dry wood of 15% moisture content or less,
and fuel with a lot of surface area per volume
such as slab wood or kiln-dried scrap from
manufacturing, has the potential to produce
back puffing as well. The optional secondary
draft tube will help to alleviate this problem
when burning wood that is very dry. It is
sometimes helpful to keep the wood stacked
toward the load door with an open area in the
back of the center brick refractory. Closing the
manual damper on the air intake tube may also
alleviate back puffing.
Note: Spent ash should not be allowed to
build up on or in the refractory. Any ash
buildup will insulate the fuel charge from the
heat generated in the refractory, slowing the
rate of gasification, and thereby reducing
heat output.
ADJUSTMENT OF THE DRAFTINDUCING FAN (BELT DRIVE
ONLY)
The rate of burn (BTU output) for a given type
of fuel is essentially determined by the amount
of air drawn through the unit by the draftinducing fan. The fan drive assembly on all
large Wood Gun Models (and smaller Wood
Guns with the belt drive option) has one or two
variable sheave pulleys, which can be adjusted
to change the speed of the fan. When the unit is
assembled and tested at the factory an arbitrary
setting is made to check for vibration. The final
setting can only be made once a sample of the
fuel to be burned is available. In addition to
manipulating fan speed by swapping sheaves,
Alternate Heating Systems also offers a VFD
(Variable Frequency Drive) option for the
induction fan motor.
Best results with fuel loading will be obtained if
the charge of wood is limited to the amount
needed to produce a 10-hour burn under
anticipated heat load conditions. Adding more
wood than can be utilized in 10 hours will likely
lead to charcoal buildup and potential issues
with “back puffing”. The reason for this is that
moisture is being evaporated from the fuel
during the off cycle by heat radiating from the
refractory. During the course of several hours
of intermittent burning the entire fuel charge
will have been dried down so that gasification
can occur at a very rapid rate when the unit is
firing. Under these conditions there may be
insufficient oxygen present to adequately burn
all the gas, which results in limited to extensive
(and repeated) back puffing.
Dry fuel and material having a high glue content
will require less air (CFM) to achieve rated
24
output than will fuel of higher moisture. Highenergy fuel can easily produce output higher
than the BTU rating listed in the product
literature. If the unit is operated continuously at
higher than rated output, the life of the
refractory will be shortened. It does not harm
the Wood Gun to operate continuously at rated
output. Selecting a burning rate that closely
approximates the heating load will improve
refractory life when compared to operating
above rated output. Thermal shock created by
heating and cooling of the refractory is more
detrimental to the refractory than continuous
operation at service temperatures.
soon resuming particle fuel usage, it may be
more convenient to let the diverter brick in the
fuel chamber. If this is the case, special care
must be taken when loading log wood so that
the wedge shaped fuel diversion blocks at the
bottom of the firebox are not displaced from
their proper position. Boiler output will drop
when operating the boiler with log wood while
the diverter bricks are in place. If you desire to
burn primarily log wood, simply remove the
fuel diverter and spacer bricks from the firebox
when the boiler is cool. To burn particle fuel, it
is important to reinsert these diverter bricks to
prevent particles from falling through the holes
in the center brick.
OPTIONAL AUTOMATIC FUEL
DELIVERY SYSTEMS
Burning Particle Wood with a Low
Moisture Content
Having the air to fuel ratio properly adjusted is
particularly important when burning highenergy fuel such as particleboard, flake board,
and MDF board because of the glue content.
These fuels must be reduced to a particle size
that can be delivered automatically through the
fuel delivery system. Except for adding the
incidental odd size piece through the load door,
this type of fuel should not be hand-fired or
batch charged.
Automatic particle fuel feeding systems are
available for all Wood Gun™ models that are
factory equipped with a top fuel feed tube. An
auger delivers the fuel to the top of the fuel
chamber where it drops through a fuel tube to
form a conical shaped pile. A patented fuel
level control system comprised of several
electrical control devices and a photoelectric
eye monitors the level of the pile. As fuel is
burned and the level drops, the auger is
activated to replenish the fuel chamber.
Note: Routine use of manufactured wood
products (laminate, particle board, flake
board, or any product containing glue based
binders) will void the manufacturer’s warranty
for the Wood Gun.
When any type of particle fuel such as sawdust,
planer shavings, wood chips, or biomass pellets
is burned in the Wood Gun™, it is necessary to
insert a refractory fuel diversion structure
developed and patented by Alternate Heating
Systems, LLC. There are several different types
of fuel diverters available, and each one is
designed for optimum performance on a given
range of fuel. In most cases the original center
bricks will need to be replaced to accommodate
the fuel diversion block.
Very dry wood of 15% moisture content or less,
and fuel with a lot of surface area per volume
such as slab wood or kiln-dried scrap from
manufacturing, has the potential to produce
back puffing. The optional secondary draft tube
will help to alleviate this problem when burning
wood that is very dry.
Use of Water Spray Kit
It is possible to burn both particle fuel and log
wood at the same time. The general
recommendation is to swap out the diverter
brick and spacers when planning to use log
wood for an extended period. If burning log
wood for a limited time, with the anticipation of
Note: If your application requires use of the
water spray kit, be sure to enlist the services
of a Wood Gun professional for assistance.
25
A water spray kit is available for all commercial
Wood Gun systems and is normally
recommended if you are burning kiln dried
sawdust or shavings. The water spray system
can be engaged upon heat rise to provide
protection against the fire working its way into
the fuel delivery system. In addition, when
burning very dry fuel (< 18% moisture), a water
spray kit can be used to add moisture to the fuel
to help maintain a clean, controlled burn and to
prevent buildup of dust on the photoelectric eye.
Alternate Heating Systems suggests that a
secondary air system should be the first choice
for correcting issues related to using very dry
fuel.
from the Light Transmitter (LT) and
begin the feeding cycle.
3. Time Delay Relay (TDR) – 2 delays any
further action for about 20 seconds to
prevent constant start/stop situations.
4. When the fuel valve is open, a switch in
the fuel valve will close and activate the
air lock motor. Time Delay Relay
(TDR) –4 is also activated and when it
times out in 10 - 15 seconds, the
terminal to the feed auger control is
energized (115 volts).
5. The feed system is now in full operation
and will continue adding material to the
combustion chamber until the fuel pile
breaks the signal between the LT and LR
photo sensors.
6. The feed auger immediately shuts down
while the air lock continues cleaning
itself until TDR –3 off delay times out.
The fuel valve closes and the air lock
stops until the photo eye sensors begin
another feed cycle.
The automatic feed system will
maintain a constant level of fuel
material in the combustion
chamber and may run even during
the boiler “off” cycle. Always
disconnect all power to all feed
system components before
servicing any equipment related to
this boiler and feed system.
Operation and Sequence of Events for
Automatic Feed Systems
Abbreviations used in this section:
LR
LT
TDR
CR
Never attempt to adjust or
disassemble any part of the fuel
delivery system without first
disconnecting electric power to the
Light
Receiverlocated
unit and to any
disconnects
at the point of operation to prevent
Light Transmitter
the system from unexpectedly
starting up. Time Delay Relay
Control Relay
Augers
The rate of discharge from the bin un-loader
could be regulated by means of an adjustable
gate and a repeat cycle timer. The timer should
have an adjustment for both “run” time and
“off” time and should be set so that the boot is
1. Photo sensors mounted on the two air
valves control the feed system operation.
2. With the chamber empty the Light
Receiver (LR) will pick up the signal
26
nearly empty before the un-loader discharges
more fuel.
The contacts do not close until the relay has
timed out. When testing the system, the relay
should be turned to the lowest setting to reduce
the waiting time for the auger to activate. The
photoelectric eye must have an electrical load in
the circuit (such as the relay coil) in order to
function.
The lower end of the fuel delivery auger should
remain covered with fuel at all times to provide
an effective air seal and to prevent air from
being drawn into the fuel chamber.
It is normal that fuel will continue to flow from
the bin for several seconds after the un-loader
stops, so the shutoff point should account for
this fact. If the fuel level is allowed to build up
in front of the discharge opening, it can cause a
blockage that will become more compacted each
time the un-loader runs.
WOOD FUEL CHARACTERISTICS
AND WOOD STORAGE
Although the boiler will burn green or wet
wood, this practice is discouraged because of
the substantial amount of heat energy required
to evaporate the moisture before combustion can
take place. When first cut, the moisture content
of wood may range from 40% to 60% as
compared with air-dried wood at 25% to 35%.
Each extra 25% of moisture represents
approximately five gallons of additional water
that must be evaporated and passed out the
chimney for each 160-pound charge of wood.
The heat that must be used to evaporate any
extra water is heat that is then not available for
your heating application, lowering significantly
the maximum heat output of the boiler. It is
advantageous to let the sun remove that extra
100 to 250 gallons of water found in a cord of
wood. Generally, wood should be stored
outdoors in a dry place with only a limited
supply kept indoors.
IMPORTANT: On the feed system, an
auger temperature sensor is provided and
must be installed.
Should the auger temperature sensor detect high
temperature (indicating possible fire in the
auger) it will activate a water spray system in
the auger thus preventing fire from reaching the
fuel storage area.
Photo- Eye Fuel Level System
The fuel level control system consists of a
photoelectric beam generator, beam detector
module, and time delay relay. The beam
generator and detector are located on brackets
on the cover of the air valve enclosure box.
NOTE: It is important that the lens of both
beam generator and the beam detector
remain free of dirt, smoke and creosote to
function properly. These should be wiped
off daily if necessary.
Using wood that has a moisture content of
greater than 30% can be detrimental to the
operation of the boiler. Results of using wood
with too high of a moisture content are likely to
include loss of BTU output, reduced efficiency,
and condensation issues. Using high moisture
wood will reduce the service life of carbon steel
boilers. It is recommended to have at least one
week worth of fuel inside and kept out of the
weather. Do not store fuel within the appliance
installation clearances or within the space
required for fueling, ash removal, and other
routine maintenance operations.
The auger is controlled by a signal produced by
the beam contacting the detector module of the
photoelectric eye system. As the fuel level falls
in the fuel chamber, the beam is detected and
the auger delivers fuel until the pile interrupts
the beam. The time delay relay prevents rapid
cycling of the auger by permitting a pre-set
delay period to elapse before restart. The relay
is adjustable so that the length of delay can be
set for different fuel conditions and boiler
models.
27
Note: The guidelines in this section are to be
used in conjunction with the advice of a
water treatment specialist.
Strict monitoring of boiler water is more
important for steam applications (and for open
systems) where there is a continuous influx of
makeup water. For hydronic units, typical
installations utilize the boiler water in a closed
system, which only occasionally requires the
addition of makeup water over the lifetime of
the boiler.
Do not store wood within the
recommended clearances of the boiler
or within the space required for loading
wood and ash removal.
REMOVAL AND DISPOSAL
OF ASHES
Ashes should be placed in a metal container
with a tight fitting lid. The closed container of
ashes should be placed on a non-combustible
floor or on the ground well away from all
combustible materials, pending final disposal.
If the ashes are disposed of by burial in soil or
otherwise locally dispersed, they should be
retained in a closed container until all cinders
have thoroughly cooled to prevent inadvertently
starting a fire.
Note: For hydronic situations where the system
is not closed, the following water treatment
guidelines still apply and become even more
critical!
pH
The pH value of your boiler water is a number
between zero and fourteen. Values below seven
are acidic while values above seven are basic.
The pH factor is the most important factor
influencing scale forming or the corrosive
tendencies of boiler water. It should be adjusted
to between a minimum of 10.5 and a maximum
of 11.0 to prevent acidic corrosion of boiler
tubes and plates and to provide for the
precipitation of scale forming salts.
CONDITIONING OF BOILER WATER
Proper treatment of feed water and boiler water
is necessary to prevent deposits and corrosion
within the boiler. The neglect of adequate
external and internal treatments can lead to
operation faults or total boiler failure. Where a
choice is available, pretreatment external to the
boiler is always preferred and more reliable than
treatment within the boiler.
Below a pH of 5.0 the water is acidic enough to
dissolve the steel boiler plates. Under these
conditions the steel gradually becomes thinner
and thinner until it is destroyed. At a pH
between 5.0 and 9.4 pitting of steel plates will
occur at a rate dependent upon the amount of
dissolved oxygen in the boiler.
Instructions for feed water treatment as prepared
by a competent feed water chemist should be
followed. Do not experiment with homemade
treatment methods or compounds.
DISSOLVED OXYGEN
Aeration of city water supply is frequently used
to remove noxious gases, however, aeration
results in saturation of the water with oxygen.
A majority of corrosion problems are directly
related to the quantity of dissolved oxygen in
Representative samples of feed water and boiler
water need to be analyzed frequently to ensure
that they are within specified ranges.
28
than the conductance test for measuring small
concentrations of dissolved solids.
the boiler water. Elimination of the corrosive
effect of dissolved oxygen can be accomplished
either directly or chemically.
The results of both tests should be averaged for
accuracy.
Direct or mechanical removal of dissolved
oxygen is done through the use of a de-aerator.
Chemical de-aeration is done through the
introduction of specific chemicals in the boiler
to react with the oxygen. The dissolved oxygen
content should be maintained at a minimum but
at no time should it exceed 0.007 mg/l.
ALKALINITY
The alkalinity of boiler water should be
sufficiently high to protect boiler steel against
acidic corrosion, but not so high as to cause
carryover (basic) corrosion. A minimum value
for alkalinity for adequate protection is 200 ppm
CaCO3.
Sodium sulfite is commonly used for the
chemical removal of dissolved oxygen within
the boiler water. To assure the rapid and
complete removal of the oxygen entering the
boiler feed water system the concentration of
sulfite in the boiler should be maintained at a
minimum of 120 ppm.
High boiler alkalinity (in excess of 700 ppm
CaCO3) should be avoided. Values higher than
this can cause the steel to become brittle.
PHOSPHATES
Phosphates are used to counteract hardness in
the boiler water. It is important to maintain a
pH of at least 9.5 to not hinder the reaction of
the phosphates with calcium hardness. Try to
keep the concentration of phosphates in the
water to 30-50 ppm to enable complete reaction.
SOLIDS
High boiler solids will lead to foaming, priming,
surging, carry over or boiler sludge. Occasional
blow downs of the boiler may remedy these
conditions. We recommend you utilize the
services of a local professional plumbing service
for this boiler maintenance task.
HARDNESS
The hardness of water is caused by calcium and
magnesium ions. Water hardness will vary
greatly throughout the country depending on the
source of the water. In boilers, hard water can
cause the formation of scale and sludge or mud.
Total hardness should not exceed 50 ppm.
(See http://www.p2pays.org/ref/34/33027.pdf)
Solids can be categorized as either suspended or
dissolved. Suspended solids are those that can
be removed by filtration while dissolved solids
are in solution with the water.
OILS
Every effort should be made to prevent oils
from getting into the boiler water. Oil causes
foaming or combines with suspended solids to
form a sludge, which can cause the overheating
of boiler plates. If oil does get into the boiler,
the boiler should immediately be taken out of
service and thoroughly cleaned.
The best way to determine the dissolved solid
content of boiler water is a conductance test.
The conductance of boiler water varies
proportionately with the amount of various
ionized solids present.
Another way to determine the dissolved solids
content is to measure the chlorides present in the
boiler water. The chloride test is less sensitive
29
MAINTENANCE
manifold using ash rake. On models
with dual draft, use a putty knife or
scraper inside the firebox.
It is important to establish a routine for the
storage of fuel, starting the fire, and caring for
the unit so as not to overlook important aspects
of safety, and to maintain the unit in optimum
condition.
8. Open the draft valve cover and inspect
the valve gasket disk for evidence of
air leakage. The disk should have
some wobble, so it can move and find
its own seal.
9. Inspect the fuel chamber and remove
any ash residue. Pay special attention
to corners as ash can easily become
trapped here.
The unit must be out or cycle off for
at least four hours and the power
must be disconnected before
attempting to clean or service.
10. Remove ash pan from the cyclone
separator and dispose of its contents.
Weekly Cleaning Procedure
Following is the recommended procedure for
weekly cleaning:
11. Clean excessive ash out of fire box.
When wood is burned slowly, it produces tar
and other organic vapors, which combine with
expelled moisture to form creosote. The
creosote vapors condense in the relatively cool
chimney flue of a slow-burning fire. As a result,
creosote residue accumulates on the flue lining.
When ignited this creosote makes an extremely
hot fire. The chimney connector and chimney
should be inspected at least twice monthly
during the heating season to determine if a
creosote buildup has occurred. If creosote has
accumulated it should be removed to reduce the
risk of a chimney fire.
1. Open front inspection door.
2. Place an ash receiver under the
refractory at the front inspection door
opening.
3. Use the ash rake to pull the ash from
the center tube.
4. Inspect the outside refractory tunnels
for ash buildup and remove with ash
rake if necessary.
5. Inspect the refractory center plug that
is inserted in the front of the
combustion chamber (center refractory
tube) and verify that it properly seals
the front access opening.
Yearly Cleaning
Following is the recommended procedure for
yearly cleaning:
Note: The front of the center combustion
chamber must be properly sealed to prevent
gas from being drawn directly into the heat
exchanger thereby bypassing the refractory
tunnels.
1. Cleaning the heat exchanger.
6. Use a putty knife or scraper to clean
ash from the bottom of the door
openings.
•
Remove the draft fan assembly.
•
Use a wire brush or scraper to
cleanout the heat exchanger.
2. Clean the cyclone ash collector.
•
7. Scrape condensation and creosote
build-up from inside the air intake
30
Remove the top connecting
flange from the cyclone.
•
Clean the inside of the main body
and funnel of the cyclone with a
wire brush.
•
Clean the tube that connects the
cyclone to the boiler.
•
Clean the boiler exit port where
the cyclone attaches.
5. To release the actuator, use the hex key
wrench and rotate in the open direction
¼ turn. The lock is spring loaded to
release. Remove the hex key wrench
and allow the valve to close.
The air valve should be inspected and cleaned
weekly to ensure that it is sealing properly. A
leaking air valve or load door can produce a
number of undesirable consequences, including
a low smoldering fire. When the air valve is
open and the unit is operating, moisture released
from the fuel will condense when contact is
made with cooler combustion air. Moisture and
creosote can collect on the gasket disk and on
the end of the air valve tube and in time produce
a deposit that prevents the gasket from sealing
tightly. Clean off any deposit on the gasket disc
with a cloth soaked in warm water and
detergent. Do not scrape with a knife or other
metal scraper as you may damage the silicone
rubber seal. Clean off any deposit on the end of
the tube by using a putty knife. Any
accumulation in the tube should also be
removed by using the ash rake as described in
Step 7 of Weekly Cleaning Procedure.
AIR VALVE CLEANING AND
MAINTENANCE
The air valve may be inspected
during the “run” cycle of the
boiler. Any cleaning or service to
the air valve should be performed
when there is no fire in the
combustion chamber and the
power is turned “OFF”.
TO OPERATE THE AIR VALVE MANUALLY
FOR CLEANING AND SERVICE
If the silicone rubber gasket shows evidence of
deterioration it should be replaced. When
requesting a replacement, be sure to specify the
size (diameter) of gasket you require.
1. Insert supplied hex key wrench in center
as shown in photo.
2. Rotate in the direction indicated on
cover.
To replace the gasket simply remove the center
bolt and nut as indicated in the exploded
assembly in this manual. Do not firmly tighten
the nut on reinstallation as the new gasket needs
some slight wobble to seal properly over the air
inlet tube.
3. When opened to the desired position,
hold the hex key wrench to prevent the
spring return from moving actuator.
4. With the hex key wrench held in place,
use a screwdriver to turn the gear train
lock pin in the indicated direction.
Slowly allow the hex key wrench to
rotate backwards until the detent is
reached. At the detent position, the pin
will lock the motor in place. In the
locked position, cleaning and or
replacement of the air valve disc can be
performed.
31
the clamp align with the contour of the shaft as
shown in Figure 11.
7-Tighten 10 mm bolt
8-Using the Allen wrench, release the lock.
This is accomplished by rotating the wrench in
the direction of the arrow one quarter turn and
then let go. The motor will then rotate to the
closed position
9-Inspect to insure that the air valve is sealed
properly. The disc should have pressure
allowing for a complete seal against the air
intake collar.
10- It is very important that when placing the
red end cap on the motor. The pins must align
properly. If the pins do not align properly you
will experience issues as such.
• Motor may not operate.
• Green Indicator light may not turn on
when damper is in the open position.
AIR VALVE MOTOR REPLACEMENT
Air Valve Motor Replacement Procedure
1-Removing the old damper motor- Using the
supplied Allen wrench, crank the motor to the
full open position.
2- Use a 10 mm wrench to loosen the mounting
bolt
3-remove motor
4-Installing the new damper motor- These
damper motors are reversible. Before starting
this procedure make sure that the spring return
will operate in the correct direction. To change
the direction, just remove the clip that holds the
clamp in place. Pull the clamp out flip the motor
over and reinstall the clamp making sure that the
arrow is pointing at the 0 degree mark. Reinstall
the clip. Use the Allen wrench to crank damper
motor actuator to the 90 degree position. While
holding the actuator at 90 degrees use a screw
driver to twist locking mechanism which will
hold actuator in position
5-Place motor onto air valve
6-Manually move the air valve disc to the open
position, (see Figure 12) ensure that the jaws on
Figure 11
32
Figure 12
Figure 13: Hinge Plate Adjustment
To adjust the latch side of the door, remove the
two bolts that secure the latch keeper in place
and remove one of the spacer shims. Shims are
inserted at assembly. Remove the thin one first
and if more adjustment is required at a later
time, then it can be used to replace the thicker
one to gain the additional adjustment.
DOOR ADJUSTMENT
For proper operation of the Wood Gun™, it is
important to have an effective seal of the
loading door and cleanout door. All have a
simple adjustment mechanism on the hinge plate
and latch keeper that permits the door to be
adjusted as the gasket compresses during
service. To adjust the hinge, open the door,
loosen the bolts that hold the hinge plate, and
bump the door toward the doorframe and tighten
the bolts. Be careful not to tighten so much as
to prevent the latch side from closing properly.
Figure 14: Door Latch Shims
33
A good method to use when trying to determine
if the doors are sealing properly is to coat the
doorframe edge with chalk or similar marker
and close the door against the frame. Any
unmarked portion of the gasket indicates a low
spot, which can be built up using the high
temperature silicone sealant. Periodically
lubricate the door handle wear pad door hinges
and door handle with the grease.
LOAD DOOR SEAL REPLACEMENT
1. Allow door to completely cool before you
touch or start installation, remove door.
2. Cut flat fiberglass tape (white tape) into 4
equal strips. The tape shall stop 1” from each
corner.
3. Insert silicone tube into a Caulking Gun.
4. Run a small bead of silicone into door
groove. Place strips of fiberglass tape in grooves
only on the straight sides. The strips will not
cover the corners. The reason that the tape does
not cover the corners is to allow for expansion
that occurs in the gasket when it is bent at a
90° angle.
Figure 16
5. Run a small bead of silicone on top of the
fiberglass tape in the entire length of the door
groove.
Figure 17
6. Start the gasket in the middle of the hinge
side. Squeeze the gasket into place on top of the
bead of silicone. The rounded side faces
downward towards the silicone. The whole
length of the door groove should be filled with
gasket. The gasket should have an even plane
around the entire top surface. Be sure to squeeze
the gasket into the groove evenly around the
entire door to prevent any raised or uneven areas
(bumps).
Figure 15
34
Figure 18
Figure 21
7. The gasket should meet evenly (if it doesn’t
you may trim excess). Place a small amount of
silicone on one of the edges to create a seal.
8. Once the gasket is in place put a small
amount over top of where the edges meet to
create a seal. Smooth with a flat edge tool.
Figure 22
Figure 19
9. Place a small amount of silicone around the
corner edges and smooth with a flat edge
tool.
Figure 20
Figure 23
35
#3. The rope that was sent from the AHS factory
will be too long and will need to be cut down.
This is important because you need to start and
finish with a straight end. Scissors will be best
way to cut the rope.
#4. You need to start with a clean cut rope end.
Place the rope end in the rope channel mid way
up on the hinge side of the door. Press the rope
in by hand from the center of the door to the
first corner. Stretch the rope as much as you can
while pushing it in. Go from corner to corner
until reaching the end. When putting the two
ends together tuck all loose ends down inside or
between the rope ends. The rope should
protrude about 3/8” above the door frame.
Gently Tap the rope with a hammer to push it in
to position. It is very important that the tool you
use does not cut the rope as you tap it into place.
Figure 24
10. Allow silicone to dry for at least 2 days
before reinstalling.
#6. Look over the door to find any high spots or
bumps in the seal. Use the hammer to tap any
and all of the high bumps down. This will give
an even straight surface the whole way around
the door gasket.
Figure 25
#7. The new gasket is now in place. The last
step will be placing the door on the boiler and
adjusting it as you would in a normal
maintenance. The gasket will settle and will
need adjustment in the next few weeks. It is
recommended that the door adjustment should
be checked every three days for the next few
weeks.
FRONT AND REAR INSPECTION
DOOR HIGH TEMPERATURE
ROPE INSTALLATION
The high temperature rope has fiberglass in it.
You must wear gloves to protect your skin from
irritation.
#1. The first step for installation is to make sure
that the rope channel is clean. Remove any rust
or loose debris from the channel.
#2. Next you need to run a small bead of high
temperature silicone in the center of the rope
channel. A ¼ inch bead will work to hold the
seal in place.
36
FAN ASSEMBLY
The fan-motor assembly may be removed by
loosening the nuts from the studs.
REAR INSPECTION DOOR (ABOVE)
Figure 26: Direct-drive fan attached to boiler
FRONT INSPECTION DOOR (ABOVE)
Figure 27: Direct-drive fan removed from boiler
exposing the heat exchanger.
37
of the pulleys, use a straight edge lying across
both pulleys.
After reattaching the fan motor assembly to the
boiler, turn the fan over by hand to ensure that it
does not bind. If a tight spot is evident, loosen
the locking pillow block collars on the shaft and
move the shaft in until the fan touches the boiler
and mark the shaft. Then pull the shaft out until
the fan touches the abrasion shield and mark the
shaft. Finally, position the shaft midway
between the two marks and re-tighten the
collars. Be certain to replace the belt guard if it
was removed for servicing.
Note: Pillow block fan shaft bearings are
permanently sealed. Do not force grease
into the grease fittings as you will break the
seal and grease will run out when heated.
Grease fittings are intended to be used only
if/when the seals break due to age or heat.
Figure 28: Belt-drive fan assembly removed from
boiler and showing white gasket
DIRECT DRIVE FAN BEARING
REPLACEMENT PROCEDURE
Make sure the power is turned off and/or
disconnected. Disconnect the wire from the
motor. Remove the motor end cap (3 screws).
Remove the motor assembly by removing
four 3/8” locknuts located along the outer edge
of the motor mounting plate (figure 28).
Place the motor on a bench with the fan facing
up. Remove the two set screws from the
fan hub. Screw a one inch nut onto the threaded
hub of the fan (Figure 29). Using a pulley
puller, remove the fan from the motor shaft
(Figure 29). Remove the (4) 5/16” nuts and
washers from the motor plate allowing you to
remove the abrasion shield and the heat
shield from the motor plate. Be careful when
removing the ceramic heat shield. It is very
fragile. It is advisable to use a putty knife to
separate the heat shield from the motor plate.
To remove the motor from the motor mounting
plate use an allen wrench to remove the
four motor mounting bolts that are counter sunk
into the motor plate. To separate the
Be sure to disconnect power to the
unit before servicing or removing
the fan.
If the fan assembly gasket is damaged, all of the
old material must be removed and a new gasket
inserted. Use only 5/8 in diameter high-density
fiberglass rope.
On units that have a shaft drive fan, the motor
bearing will need to be replaced approximately
every two years. On belt drive fans, the pillow
block bearings and belt should be checked every
three months. After the initial burn of two to six
hours shut the boiler down and retighten the
pillow block bearing set screws. To tighten the
fan belt, loosen the four bolts that hold the
motor to the bracket. Slide the motor down and
re-tighten, being careful that the motor is
properly aligned with the fan shaft. Some
models have a hinged motor mount with
adjusting screws. To check for proper alignment
38
motor housing you must remove the four bolts
from the end of the motor opposite of the
shaft. These bolts have a 5/16 bolt head. Once
these bolts are removed, tap the mounting
end of the motor on the side with a rubber
mallet. This will separate the bearing housing
from the motor body (Figure 30). Removing the
two screws located beside the shaft will
allow you to separate the shaft and the bearing
housing (Figure 31). Use a pulley puller to
remove the bearing from the shaft (Figure 32).
Place the new bearing on the shaft and
drive it on with a hammer and a 3/4” pipe until
it is fully seated. (Figure 33&34) Place the
bearing housing over the bearing and replace the
two screws that were removed earlier.
Before setting the shaft and bearing housing
back into the motor body make sure that the
spring washer is still in place. It should be
located in the rear bearing cavity (Figure 35).
After assembling the motor, spin the shaft to
insure that the shaft spins freely.
Figure 29
Figure 30
Figure 28
Figure 31
39
Figure 35
Figure 32
Figure 33
Figure 34
40
chamber. When handling the blanket, you will
want to use rubber gloves.
REFRACTORY
The refractory pieces in the bottom of the Wood
Gun™ fuel chamber have two distinct shapes,
as shown in the in the Appendix C: Exploded
Parts Drawings.
The Center Brick contain the slots through
which burning gases are drawn by the induction
fan. The 16 in center bricks are a common
component in models E100 through the E250.
The E100 also contains a single 11 3/8 in brick.
This brick should be placed to the front of the
boiler. The center brick are subjected to the
most severe flame erosion and highest
temperatures and will most likely be the first
refractory components to show signs of
deterioration. Surface spalling is common
under normal conditions and is not reason for
concern. The center refractory pieces should be
changed every 10-15 cords of wood and must be
ordered from Alternate Heating Systems. They
may be removed by simply lifting them out.
The large refractory (Side Bricks) should be
replaced every 10-15 years in residential boilers.
They are usually held in place only by their own
weight resting against each other and a
refractory cement seal between the front and
back boiler wall and the bricks. To remove, you
will need to break the cement seal. It is also a
common occurrence for a brick to break in the
removal process. If you are having trouble
removing the old side brick follow these
instructions. Remove the most deteriorated brick
on each side. You may have to break it into
smaller pieces to make it easier to remove.
When you have an open gap in the brick you
can then use a pry bar between the next two
brick to break them loose. Once you have them
loose remove them through the load door.
When replacing the refractory bricks, be careful
to lay the pieces gently on the newly installed
blanket since it may be easily torn or damaged.
Alternately place right and left hand pieces so
they will counter-balance one another. Be sure
that the refractory tunnels and the center
channels line up properly.
CENTER BRICK
Place the Center Brick on the ledge created by
the Side Bricks, smooth side up. After all the
refractory pieces are in place, check to see if
there is any space between the refractory and the
boiler wall and the ends. If there is more than
1/16 inch gap, fill it with “Troweleze” refractory
cement. Allow the cement to dry thoroughly for
eight hours before firing the unit.
REFRACTORY REPLACEMENT
Please wear the proper safety equipment while
performing this task. Proper equipment
includes, work gloves, safety glasses, and steel
toe boots.
#1 Installing the dry insulation blanket is the
first step. The blanket is already cut to size
when it is shipped from AHS. The first piece
that is installed will start at the front load door
and extend toward the rear door two feet. Make
sure that the blanket is centered and reaches the
same distance up each side of the firebox wall.
The next strip to be installed can range in depth
from three and a half inches to another full two
foot piece or somewhere in between. It depends
on what size boiler that you’re installing the
bricks in. When this step is installed correctly
there should be about a quarter inch to one inch
gap from the boiler wall to the blanket. This will
be true for the front and rear of the boiler. You
may need to shift it one way or another to make
it even. The last piece to be installed is an eight
inch strip that runs the length of the boiler. It
After the bricks are removed, check the ceramic
blanket lining the bottom of the firing chamber
for damage. If needed, this ceramic blanket can
be ordered from AHS with your new refractory
bricks. To install the new blanket, unwrap it
and carefully mold it to the bottom of the firing
41
needs installed at the bottom center of the
firebox. This will be where the side refractory
brick edges will meet together.
wall of the firebox. If you are installing bricks
into an E100 model Wood Gun. You will have
two side bricks that are smaller than the others.
They will be put in place next. They set against
the two bricks in the back. All other boilers will
have identical brick and they will also set
against the back first two bricks. Repeat this
step working forward until all the bricks are in
place and meet up with the two bricks you
placed against the front wall.
#3 After the bricks are placed in the boiler they
will need aligned. Align the first row closest to
the front inspection door. Basically both bricks
should be even. You will be able to measure the
two outside tubes. Measure from the top of the
tube to the top of the door frame and make both
measurements the same. Be sure that the bricks
are touching at the bottom. Depending on the
model some of the tubes will set just above the
door frame. This is fine; the important issue is
that they are both even. After the first two are
set, match the next set up to the set in front of
them. When this is completed properly the
tunnels will be even and you will be able to
move the ash rake through them.
#2 Installing the side refractory bricks will be
the next step. The refractory that was shipped to
you is numbered. The numbers will either be 1,
2, 3, or 4. They are shipped so that when you
install them you will have all the same number
on one side. For example: If you were shipped
eight side bricks and four of them had the
number 1 on them and the other four had the
number 4 on them. You would then install all
the #4 bricks on the left side and all the #1
bricks on the right side. It does not matter
whether the # 4 bricks are installed on the right
or on the left. It matters that all the numbers on
the right are the same, and all the numbers on
the left are the same. After the bricks are
separated and you know which side they need to
be installed in. Start by placing the first side
bricks against the back wall of the boiler. Be
careful not to slide the bricks across the dry
blanket. When you have one brick on each side
placed in the rear of the boiler. Set the next two
bricks just inside the load door against the front
#4 Applying the Troweleze will be your last
step. The Troweleze will fill in the gap between
the brick and the vessel at the front and rear
inspection door. This is also used to fill in and
smooth out any transition from brick to brick. If
there are areas in the tunnel that catch the ash
rake just apply some Troweleze to smooth it
out.
42
restricting airflow through the unit. Foreign
material in the fuel such as sand, soil, metal or
organic compounds may melt and fuse to the
fuel diverter blocks causing restriction. Where
unusual circumstances exist, special spacer
bricks may be required to reduce the adverse
effects of contaminated fuel. The gap under the
fuel diverter block should be checked regularly
to make sure blockage does not occur.
FUEL DIVERTER BLOCKS
Position the diverter block directly over the
center of the center bricks. Start in the rear of
the boiler and work toward the front of the
boiler. Support each corner of the diverter block
with a spacer support block. You may be able to
use one spacer support block to support two
blocks in the center where the diverter block
butt against each other.
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
IMPORTANT: When cleaning or replacing
the refractory, it is essential that the spacer
bricks are properly positioned and the fuel
diverter blocks are centered over the center
bricks.
For additional information on using your boiler
safely, obtain a copy of the National Fire
Prevention Association publication “Using Coal
and Wood Stoves Safely”, NFPA No. HS-81974. The address of the NFPA is 470 Atlantic
Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02210.
The spacer bricks may deteriorate in time
allowing the fuel diverter to drop down onto the
refractory combustion chamber bricks, thereby
43
APPENDIX A: BOILER SPECIFICATION DIAGRAM
44
45
500K BTU’s at 20 degrees temperature
differential requires 50 gallons per
minute.
250K BTU’s at 20 degrees temperature
differential requires 25 gallons per
minute
1M BTU’s at 20 degrees temperature
differential requires 100 gallons per
minute.
ADDITIONAL SPECIFICATIONS
Pressure Drop
Pressure Drop (Line Loss) within the boiler is
less than the pipe rating of the pipe within the
boiler, so there is no appreciable pressure drop.
Explanation of GPM Flow
The following are given as examples of gallons
per minute water flow required to deliver hot
water in order to provide heating of a given
number of degrees and at a certain BTU level:
Heating Capacity of Water (5gpm flow)
350,000
300,000
BTU/hr
250,000
200,000
150,000
100,000
50,000
0
0
5
10 15
20 25 30 35
40 45 50 55
60 65 70 75 80 85
90
95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130
Temperature Differential °F
Wood Gun E Series Specifications
Nominal Max BTUs
Oil
Heating Surface, ft2
Water Capacity, gal
Fuel Capacity, ft3
Max Log Length, in
Standard Door, square
Height, in
Width, in
Depth, in
Flue connector diameter, in
Nominal Dry Weight, lbs
E100
100K
80K
30
60
6.5
28
14 in
58
26
44
6
1400
E140
140K
130K
39
80
10
32
14 in
64
26
48
6
1650
E180
150K
160K
46
80
14
32
14 in
66
31
48
6
2100
Specifications subject to change without notice
46
E250
230K
230K
70
140
22
48
14 in
74
31
66
8
3000
E500
500K
500K
116
210
28
50
18 in
90
34
72
8
45000
E1000
995K
995K
192
435
61
58
18 in
102
48
78
12
9000
APPENDIX B: WIRING DIAGRAMS
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
APPENDIX C: EXPLODED PARTS DRAWINGS
Appendix C: Exploded Parts Drawings
Note: Specifications subject to change without notice.
Note: Some parts shown are optional and may not be included with your system.
57
58
59
PARTS LISTING
(As Shown in Exploded Parts Diagrams)
1.
Domestic Hot Water Coil
34. Load Door Hinge Plate Mounting Bolt
2.
Rear Insulation Jacket
3.
Rear Hinge Plate Mounting Bolt
35. Door gasket (5/8 in fiberglass rope and RTV
silicone)
4.
Rear Hinge Plate
5.
Rear Inspection door, complete
6.
Rear Insp. Door Insulation Board
7.
Door Gasket (5/8 in fiberglass rope and RTV
silicone)
36. Door Handle Washer
37. Door Handle Retaining Nut
38. Front Inspection Door Hinge Plate
39. Hinge Plate Mounting Bolt
40. Door Handle Retaining Nut
8.
Insulation board Washer
41. Door Handle Washer
9.
Insulation Board Retaining Bolt
10.
Cyclone Body
42. Door Gasket (5/8 in fiberglass rope and RTV
silicone
11.
Refractory Side Bricks
12.
Refractory Center Bricks
13.
Model E100 Short Center Brick
14.
Left Side Insulation Jacket
15.
Ceramic Firebox Liner
16.
Insulation Jacket Mounting Screws
17.
Cyclone Flue Connector Mounting Bolts
18.
Flue Connector Assembly
19.
Unused
20.
Ash Scoop rubber Grip
21.
Ash Scoop
22.
Cyclone Flue Connector Gasket
23.
Cyclone Mounting Bolt
24.
Cyclone Mounting Gasket
43. Insulation Board Washer
44. Insulation board Retaining bolt
45. Door handle Knob
46. Front Inspection Door Handle
47. ½ in Snap Ring
48. Door handle Roller
49. Handle Attachment Bolt
50. Front Insp. Door Insulation Board
51. Front Inspection Door, complete
52. Door Handle Knob
53. Load Door Handle
54. ½ in Snap ring
55. Door Handle Roller
56. Handle Attachment Bolt
57. Cyclone Assembly Complete
26. Center Plug – Replacement Ceramic Board
58. Load Door, complete
27. Ceramic Plug
59. Load Door Hinge Plate
28. Latch Shim (thick)
60. Draft Box Mounting Gasket
29. Latch Shim (thin)
61. Draft Box Lid Gasket
30. Latch (specify door Req’d for)
62. Right Side Insulation Jacket
31. Latch Mounting Bolt
63. Fiberglass Insulation
32. Inspection Door Safety Stud
64. Top Insulation Jacket
33. Refractory Center Plug, Complete
60
65. Exhaust Hood Attachment Bolts
66. Exhaust Hood Blower (wired)
67. Exhaust Hood Connecting Flange Assembly
68. Draft Motor with Mounting Bracket
69. Draft Motor Linkage Nuts
70. Draft motor Linkage
71. Draft Motor Linkage Bolt, Bottom
72. Draft Motor Arm Assembly
73. Fan Set Screw
74. Fan Motor
75. Fan Cover Retaining Nuts
76. Fan Cover Plate
77. Motor Mounting Bolts/Screws
78. Fan
79. Exhaust Hood, complete
80. Draft Valve Assembly, complete
81. Unused
82. Air inlet adjuster
83. Draft Linkage Pin
84. Draft Box Mounting Bolts
85. Draft Valve Cover Box, Complete
86. Smoke Flap
87. Smoke Flap Retaining Pin
88. Gasket Disk Mounting bolt
89. Gasket Disk
90. Gasket Disk Washer
91. Draft Flap assembly
92. Disk Retaining Nut
93. Fan Ceramic heat Shield
94. Abrasion Shield
95. Fan Assembly Mounting Gasket
96. Abrasion Shield Retaining Nut
61
APPENDIX D: TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE
This guide is intended to help you diagnose and repair basic problems with you boiler. If you believe
your problem is serious or the problem persists after following all the procedures specified in this guide,
contact AHS for support.
62
Problem
Possible Cause
Solution
1. Boiler Overheating
A. Control malfunction
A. Replace malfunctioning control
B. Incorrect control setting
B. Adjust control setting
C. Intake air valve not closing
properly
C. Replace gasket or adjust linkage
D. Excessive chimney draft
E. Adjust load door for proper seal,
replace gasket if necessary
E. Load door not sealing properly
2. Back-puffing
A. Wood charge too large for heat
load (back-puffing seen at end of
burn cycle)
A. Fill with less wood
B. Load larger fuel with higher
moisture content
B. Wood too small and/or
excessively dry
C. Follow proper loading procedure
C. Improper loading of fire box
Follow proper starting procedure so
as to attain high refractory
temperatures
D. Improper starting of wood
3. Smoke visible at stack
D. Reduce draft or see e)
A. Refractory not hot enough
B. Refractory not properly sealed
in fuel chamber
A. Allow refractory to come up to
operating temperature; refer to
instructions for building a fire
C. Center cleanout plug not
properly sealed
B. Seal refractory with “Trowleze”
refractory cement.
D. Leaking load door
C. Replace damaged ceramic pad at
center cleanout plug
E. Ash buildup on or in refractory
D. Check doors for airtight seal
E. Clean ash from boiler. See
“weekly maintenance routine”
4. Fire goes out
A. Boiler not cycling frequently
enough (refractory cools to
below kindling temperature)
B. Wood bridging in fuel
chamber
5. Smoke leakage at doors
A. Improper gasket seal
B. Door not tight enough
A. Increase heat load or install draft
cycle timer (contact AHS)
B. Reposition wood (always load
wood length-wise front to back
in chamber)
A. Repair seal with high
temperature RTV sealant added
at low point on door gasket
B. Adjust door
6. Fan Vibration
A. Bearing or motor loose
A. Tighten all bolts
B. Fan out of balance
B. Inspect fan for damage
C. Creosote buildup in area of fan
impeller
C. Raise return water temperatures
or use drier wood
63
Problem
Possible Causes
Solution
7. Excessive water in the cyclone
drawer
A. The stack temperature
may not be high enough.
A. The boiler should be in an
insulated room.
B. The fire box is being
filled too full for the heat
demand.
C. There may be a blockage
in the flue, cyclone, heat
exchanger, or refractory.
D. The wood logs are too
large and/or has high
moisture content.
8. The boiler burns more wood
than usual.
The flue stack needs to be
insulated (If the room is
typically cold.)
B. Fill the fire box only half full
or enough to burn for eight
hours.
C. Remove ash from fire box
and refractory. Clean the heat
exchanger, cyclone, or flue.
E. Load door seal or air
valve seal is leaking
D. Burn smaller wood, split
wood, and/or dryer wood. Build
a hotter fire. Remember that
more wood does not always
equate to more heat.
F. The boiler water
temperature is too low.
E. Adjust load door, fix, or
replace air valve.
G. Water temperature
difference between supply
and return may be more
than 20ºF
F. Raise the boiler operating
temperature to 175-180 F
A. The wood has a higher
moisture content level than
normal.
A. Try burning dryer wood.
B. The wood is dry but has
less weight per piece of
wood (soft wood).
B. Try burning hard wood.
C. The heat exchanger
needs cleaned.
C. Clean the heat exchanger.
64
Problem
Possible Causes
Solution
9. The pressure relief valve is
releasing. (Boiler pressure
keeps rising.)
A. Pressure reducing valve is
malfunctioning.
A. Replace pressure reducing
valve.
B. There is not enough
expansion capacity.
B. Add an expansion tank.
C. The domestic coil is
leaking.
C. Replace or isolate the
domestic coil.
A. The air valve assembly has
been moved of knocked out of
position.
A. Reposition and tighten the
air valve and reseal the sleeve
where enters the boiler.
10. There is smoke or creosote
leaking out of air inlet
connection.
Be careful not to knock the air
valve out of position when
loading fuel into the boiler.
11. There is excessive creosote
buildup on boiler vessel located
behind the lower front
inspection door area.
A. The fire box is being filled
too full for the heat demand.
A. Fill the fire box only half
full or enough to burn for
eight hours.
B. There may be a blockage in
the flue, cyclone, heat
exchanger, or refractory.
B. Remove ash from fire box
and refractory. Clean the heat
exchanger, cyclone, or flue.
C. The wood logs are too
small and/or has very low
moisture content.
C. Burn larger wood, unsplit
wood, and/or green wood.
D. Load door seal or air valve
seal is leaking
D. Adjust load door, fix, or
replace air valve.
E. The boiler water
temperature is too low.
E. Raise the boiler operating
temperature to 180-190 F
F. The stack temperature may
not be high enough.
12. Steel has etching or pitting
A. Heating domestic water in
the summer time with a
carbon steel boiler.
A. Increase operating
temperature in boiler.
B. Only use small amounts of
very dry wood.
65
FIGURE 1: PROPER CHIMNEY CONNECTION .............................................................................. 9
FIGURE 2: STOVE PIPE PASSING THROUGH WALL ................................................................ 10
FIGURE 3: PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE PIPING .......................................................................... 10
FIGURE 4: PRESSURE REGULATING VALVE AND BACKFLOW PREVENTION VALVE
CONFIGURATION ................................................................................................................................ 11
FIGURE 5: PLUMBING – COIL IN SERIES .................................................................................... 13
FIGURE 6: PLUMBING – COIL IN PARALLEL............................................................................. 13
FIGURE 7: TEMPERING VALVE...................................................................................................... 14
FIGURE 8: PLUMBING – COIL WITH CIRCULATOR ............................................................... 14
FIGURE 9: E180, E200, E250 OIL BURNER ..................................................................................... 15
FIGURE 10: E100, E140, E500 &
E1000 COMBUSTION CHAMBER..................................................................................................... 15
FIGURE 11: AIR VALVE AIR INTAKE ASSEMBLY..................................................................... 29
FIGURE 12: AIR VALVE AIR INTAKE ASSEMBLY..................................................................... 29
FIGURE 13: HINGE PLATE ADJUSTMENT .................................................................................... 30
FIGURE 14: DOOR LATCH SHIMS ................................................................................................... 30
FIGURE 15: LOAD DOOR GASKET SEAL REPLACEMENT ..................................................... 31
FIGURE 16: LOAD DOOR GASKET SEAL REPLACEMENT ..................................................... 31
FIGURE 17: LOAD DOOR GASKET SEAL REPLACEMENT ..................................................... 31
FIGURE 18: LOAD DOOR GASKET SEAL REPLACEMENT ..................................................... 31
FIGURE 19: LOAD DOOR GASKET SEAL REPLACEMENT ..................................................... 32
FIGURE 20: LOAD DOOR GASKET SEAL REPLACEMENT ..................................................... 32
FIGURE 21: LOAD DOOR GASKET SEAL REPLACEMENT ..................................................... 32
FIGURE 22: LOAD DOOR GASKET SEAL REPLACEMENT ..................................................... 32
FIGURE 23: LOAD DOOR GASKET SEAL REPLACEMENT ..................................................... 32
FIGURE 24: LOAD DOOR GASKET SEAL REPLACEMENT ..................................................... 32
FIGURE 25: LOAD DOOR GASKET SEAL REPLACEMENT ..................................................... 33
FIGURE 26: DIRECT-DRIVE FAN ATTACHED TO BOILER ..................................................... 34
FIGURE 27: DIRECT-DRIVE FAN REMOVED FROM BOILER................................................. 34
FIGURE 28: DIRECT-DRIVE HIGH TEMPERATURE BEARING REPLACEMENT.............. 35
FIGURE 29: DIRECT-DRIVE HIGH TEMPERATURE BEARING REPLACEMENT.............. 35
FIGURE 30: DIRECT-DRIVE HIGH TEMPERATURE BEARING REPLACEMENT.............. 35
FIGURE 31: DIRECT-DRIVE HIGH TEMPERATURE BEARING REPLACEMENT.............. 35
66
FIGURE 32: DIRECT-DRIVE HIGH TEMPERATURE BEARING REPLACEMENT ............. 35
FIGURE 33: DIRECT-DRIVE HIGH TEMPERATURE BEARING REPLACEMENT ............. 35
FIGURE 34: DIRECT-DRIVE HIGH TEMPERATURE BEARING REPLACEMENT ............. 36
FIGURE 35: DIRECT-DRIVE HIGH TEMPERATURE BEARING REPLACEMENT ............. 36
FIGURE 36: BELT-DRIVE FAN ASSEMBLY REMOVED FROM BOILER AND SHOWING
WHITE GASKET ................................................................................................................................... 36
67
APPENDIX F: BOILER PIPING EXAMPLES
72
Wood Gun Air Inlet Ducting Installation
69
Wood Gun in Primary/Secondary System
Note:
1. A call for heat from any zone activates Boiler Circulators, System Circulator and Zone Circulator.
2. Each Boiler Circulator is also controlled by a low limit to prevent operation when the Boiler is cold.
3. Dump zone operation will activate one or more zones, System Circulator and Boiler Circulator.
4. Do not bypass temperature supply control system on radiant heat system. In radiant heat applications,
permit activation of a call for heat but allow system controls to regulate water temperature.
Not all system components, valves and devices are shown in this drawing. Actual conditions and
application requirements will vary. Please consult a heating expert or your Alternate Heating Systems for
additional information.
70
Operating an Alternate Heating Systems Boiler in Tandem with Existing Boiler
Note: The above illustrates one possible method of connecting the Wood Gun with an existing boiler.
This connection is as follows: using a small circulator (and with the backup boiler piped into the return
tapping) run another pipe from the supply tapping T, of the Wood Gun™ to the supply line, of the existing
boiler on the lower side of the flow control valve. A minimum of 1 in diameter pipe should be used for this
connection on the model E100 – E140. The pipe size must be determined by taking into account the
distance involved and flow required. The new circulator should be wired to the power for the Wood Gun.
When power to the Wood Gun is on, the circulator should be running. An alternate option is to attach a
strap on aquastat on the Wood Gun supply line that closes on temperature rise. This will automatically
activate the pump at a given temperature. Overheat control (as pictured above) on the Wood Gun is
optional
71
72
LIMITED WARRANTY
WOOD GASIFICATION BOILERS:
E100 SF
E140 SF
E180 SF
E250 SF
The manufacturer, ALTERNATE HEATING SYSTEMS, warrants to the original owner, for the periods specified below, that the boiler to which this
warranty applies is free from defects in materials and workmanship when installed, operated, and maintained in accordance with the printed instructions
supplied with the unit.
A.
WHAT IS COVERED AND FOR HOW LONG (all from date of original installation)
1)
VESSEL:
STAINLESS STEEL BOILER VESSEL, TWENTY (20) years pro-rated (pro-rated as follows: 1st to 10th year – full: 11th year – 40%: 12th
year - 30%: 13th year – 20%: 14th year – 10%: 15th – 20th year – 10%). This does not cover any corrosion or deterioration in boiler vessel due
to improper pH levels in water or oxidized water (heating systems that have plastic piping).
2)
Doors (excluding gaskets, knobs, and ceramic insulation board), draft regulation mechanisms, insulation jacket, draft fan assembly (excluding
ceramic heat shield), stack/cyclone assembly, firebox refractory side brick and center brick – ONE (1) year.
3)
All electrical and plumbing components and controls such as temperature/pressure gauge, safety relief valve, aqua stat controllers, electric
motor, domestic hot water coil, oil burner, fan shaft bearings, timer, draft motor, etc. purchased by Alternate Heating Systems from other
manufacturers are Limited to warranties offered by those manufacturers, typically One (1) year.
4)
V-belt, pulleys, ceramic board door and fan heat shields, ceramic blanket firebox lining, fasteners, sight glass, smoke flap, door gasket and
silicone rubber seal, door handle knobs, paint, wiring, and wiring devices -Thirty (30) days.
B.
WHAT WE WILL DO AND NOT DO
1)
Alternate Heating Systems will repair and replace, at our option, units or component parts found defective after inspection by Alternate Heating
Systems or our authorized representative during the periods outlined above.
2)
Alternate Heating Systems SHALL NOT BE LIABLE UNDER THIS WARRANTY IF:
a)
the unit or any of its component parts have been subject to misuse, alteration, unauthorized repair, neglect, accident, or damage
from handling.
b)
the unit is not installed, operated and maintained in accordance with the printed instructions supplied with the unit and in
accordance with local plumbing and/or building codes.
c)
the unit is operated above its rated output which is shown on the nameplate attached to the unit and listed in Alternate Heating
System’s printed literature.
d)
the unit is fired with fuels other than those recommended by Alternate Heating Systems. This includes fuels recommended by
dealers and distributors selling Alternate Heating Systems products if these are not fuels recommended by Alternate Heating Systems.
C.
WHAT THE CUSTOMER MUST DO
1)
Contact the dealer who sold you the unit.
2)
If said dealer cannot be located, contact any other Alternate Heating Systems dealers in your area.
3)
If you are unable to locate a dealer, submit your warranty claim directly to Alternate Heating Systems at the address listed below.
4)
When you make an inquiry or warranty request, be sure to include the following information:
a)
Unit model number
b)
Serial number
c)
Date of installation
d)
Dealer’s name
e)
Type of fuel burned
5)
The OWNER and not Alternate Heating Systems or its dealers will be liable for the following costs involved in repair or replacement of the
defective unit or component part
a)
All necessary costs in returning the defective unit or component part to the factory or other location designated by Alternate
Heating Systems.
b)
All freight and delivery costs of shipping a new or required unit or replacement component part to the owner.
c)
All labor and other costs incurred in the removal of the defective unit or part and installation of a new or required unit or part.
d)
Any material required to complete installation of new or required unit or replacement part.
D.
LIMITATIONS AND STATE LAW RIGHTS
1)
Alternate Heating Systems neither assumes nor authorizes any representative or other person to assume for it any other obligation or liability in
connection with its products other than expressly written here.
2)
Implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose are limited to the duration of this LIMITED WARRANTY.
3)
Alternate Heating Systems shall not be liable for any incidental or consequential damages such as water, smoke or heat damage to property
arising directly or indirectly from any defect in its products or their use.
4)
Some states do not allow limitation on how long an implied warranty lasts and the exclusion or limitation of incidental or consequential
damages, so the above limitations and exclusions may not apply to you.
5)
This warranty gives you specific legal rights. You may also have other rights, which vary from state to state.
6)
The remedies set forth herein shall be the exclusive remedies available to the owner.
ALTERNATE HEATING SYSTEMS, LLC
1086 Wayne avenue
Chambersburg, PA 17201
(717) 261-0922
IMPORTANT: READ AND KEEP IN YOUR POSSESSION!
73
INDEX
Adjustment
oil burner ...............................................................................................................................................18
Aeration
water ......................................................................................................................................................28
air sensor
Riello burner..........................................................................................................................................19
air supply .................................................................5
Air Supply
combustion ............................................................................................................................................11
air temperature
in forced-air systems..............................................................................................................................15
Air Valve Cleaning and Maintenance ...................31
alkalinity ................................................................29
Ash removal...........................................................28
ash separator ............................................................3
ASME ................................................................1, 12
assembly
gas burner ..............................................................................................................................................18
assembly of the boiler..............................................7
auger ......................................................................26
fuel .........................................................................................................................................................25
auger temperature sensor .......................................27
Automatic Feed System.........................................26
automatic switchover
to oil or gas ............................................................................................................................................19
Backpuffing ...........................................................63
backup
oil or gas ..................................................................................................................................................4
Biomass Combustion...............................................1
biomass pellets.......................................................25
boiler control settings ............................................14
boiler drain.............................................................12
boiler location ..........................................................5
boiler piping...........................................................12
Boiler Room Requirements .....................................5
Burning wood ..........................................................1
CAD cell ................................................................18
Chimney
Connection.............................................................................................................................................10
cleanout
chimney .................................................................................................................................................10
Cleanout door
adjustment..............................................................................................................................................33
clearances
74
installation ............................................................................................................................................... 6
code compliance
in installation ........................................................................................................................................... 6
coil
air........................................................................................................................................................... 15
Coil
domestic hot water .................................................................................................................................. 3
Combustion ............................................................. 1
combustion chamber
gas.......................................................................................................................................................... 17
oil........................................................................................................................................................... 17
commercial systems .............................................. 26
condensation............................................................ 4
Conditioner
Boiler ..................................................................................................................................................... 14
corrosion................................................................ 28
creosote................................................................ 2, 9
de-aeration ............................................................. 29
disconnect
electrical .................................................................................................................................................. 5
dissolved oxygen ............................................. 28, 29
Door Seal
replacement ........................................................................................................................................... 34
downdraft design ..................................................... 2
draft cycle timer ...................................................... 3
draft-inducing fan adjustment ............................... 24
electric backup....................................................... 14
electrical connection
oil burner ............................................................................................................................................... 17
electrical controls
installation of........................................................................................................................................... 8
fan
draft-inducing .......................................................................................................................................... 3
Fan
maintenance........................................................................................................................................... 38
fan assembly............................................................ 7
Fan Assembly.................................................. 37, 38
Fan Vibration......................................................... 63
feed water .............................................................. 28
firing tube .............................................................. 17
flake board............................................................. 25
floor
installation area ....................................................................................................................................... 5
floor drains .............................................................. 5
forced hot air systems............................................ 15
fuel delivery........................................................... 27
fuel diversion structure.......................................... 25
75
fuel level control
automatic ...............................................................................................................................................25
fuel line connection
oil burner ...............................................................................................................................................17
gas burner adjustment............................................19
Gasification
gases given off .........................................................................................................................................2
gauges
installation of ...........................................................................................................................................8
glue content .....................................................24, 25
GPM Flow .............................................................45
Green wood
burning...................................................................................................................................................27
H stamp....................................................................1
hardness
boiler water ............................................................................................................................................29
heat exchange coil .................................................15
heat exchanger .........................................................3
hot water
domestic.................................................................................................................................................15
hot water heater .....................................................16
indicator light.........................................................23
Installation ...........................................................1, 5
insulated jacket ......................................................17
leaks
checking for in gas assembly.................................................................................................................19
Line Loss ...............................................................45
Loading door
adjustment..............................................................................................................................................33
lockout control.......................................................19
low moisture fuel ...................................2, 24, 25, 26
low water control ...................................................14
low water cut-off ...................................................14
make up water........................................................28
MDF board ............................................................25
Moisture Content
Optimum, for Wood ................................................................................................................................2
moving the boiler.....................................................6
multiple boilers
connecting to chimney.............................................................................................................................9
National Board.........................................................1
nozzle
oil burner ...............................................................................................................................................16
off cycle .................................................................24
oil line connections................................................16
oils
in boiler water........................................................................................................................................29
76
Overheating ........................................................... 63
particleboard.......................................................... 25
pH .......................................................................... 28
Phosphates ............................................................. 29
Photo- Eye ............................................................. 27
Photo sensor .......................................................... 26
photoelectric .......................................................... 27
photoelectric eye ................................................... 25
Pillow block........................................................... 38
plumbing
for domestic hot water........................................................................................................................... 15
positioning boiler..................................................... 6
Pressure Drop ........................................................ 45
pressure gauge ......................................................... 8
pressure relief valve .............................................. 12
pressurized system................................................... 4
purge timer ............................................................ 23
purging air
from gas assembly................................................................................................................................. 19
pyrolysis .............................................................. 1, 2
refractory casting..................................................... 2
refractory life......................................................... 25
Refractory Replacement .................................. 40, 41
Riello ..................................................................... 16
sawdust .................................................................. 25
Sealant
Boiler ..................................................................................................................................................... 14
shavings ................................................................. 25
Smoke
from wood combustion............................................................................................................................ 1
Smoke leakage....................................................... 63
Smoke visible ........................................................ 63
Sodium sulfite ....................................................... 29
steam systems .................................................... 1, 14
swirl chamber .......................................................... 8
temperature differential ......................................... 45
tempering valve ..................................................... 16
thimble
in chimney installation ............................................................................................................................ 8
time delay relay ..................................................... 27
unloading the boiler................................................. 6
valve
backflow prevention .............................................................................................................................. 12
pressure regulating ................................................................................................................................ 12
Warranty................................................................ 72
Water Conditioning ............................................... 28
water feeder
77
automatic ...............................................................................................................................................14
water level gauge ...................................................14
water spray kit ...................................................2, 26
water temperature
coming from boiler ................................................................................................................................15
wood chips.............................................................25
Wood Gases.............................................................1
78
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