Piper Seneca PA-34 - Langley Flying School

Piper Seneca PA-34 - Langley Flying School

Photo by: Philip Craig

Piper Seneca PA-34

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STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES

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Introduction to Standard Operating Procedures........................................................................................ 5

Background .......................................................................................................................................... 5

The PF, PNF, and PIC ............................................................................................................................. 5

Checklist Format................................................................................................................................... 6

Special Notes About Departures ............................................................................................................... 7

Departure Segments............................................................................................................................. 7

Figure: Standard Departure Profile .................................................................................................... 8

First Segment Climb (V r

to V

2

)—Confined and Non-confined Runways................................................... 8

Decision Speed (V

1

)............................................................................................................................... 9

Second Segment Climb (V

2

)................................................................................................................. 10

Third Segment Climb (V

3

En route Climb) ............................................................................................ 10

Departure Engine Failure .................................................................................................................... 10

Standard Operating Procedures.............................................................................................................. 13

Pre-flight ............................................................................................................................................ 13

Cockpit Checks.................................................................................................................................... 13

Walk-Around ...................................................................................................................................... 14

Figure: Walk-Around Chart.............................................................................................................. 16

Fuel Requirements & Procedures........................................................................................................ 17

Ramp & Gate Procedures.................................................................................................................... 17

Final Aircraft Inspection ...................................................................................................................... 17

Passenger Briefing .............................................................................................................................. 18

Pre-Start............................................................................................................................................. 19

Engine Starts....................................................................................................................................... 21

Cold Engine Start............................................................................................................................. 21

Hot Engine Start.............................................................................................................................. 22

Flooded Engine Start....................................................................................................................... 23

Taxi .................................................................................................................................................... 25

Pre-Takeoff......................................................................................................................................... 25

Runway .............................................................................................................................................. 27

Normal Takeoff................................................................................................................................... 28

Figure: Standard Departure Profile .................................................................................................. 28

Obstacle Takeoff................................................................................................................................. 29

Figure: Obstacle Departure Profile .................................................................................................. 29

Climb.................................................................................................................................................. 30

Cruise ................................................................................................................................................. 31

Descent .............................................................................................................................................. 31

Final Approach & Landing ................................................................................................................... 32

Figure: Standard Visual Approach Profile......................................................................................... 33

Missed Approach................................................................................................................................ 34

Stabilized Approach ............................................................................................................................ 34

Non-Normal Standard Operating Procedures .......................................................................................... 35

General .............................................................................................................................................. 35

Rejected Takeoff................................................................................................................................. 35

Engine Failure..................................................................................................................................... 36

Figure: Engine Failure Flow Chart .................................................................................................... 37

Engine Fire.......................................................................................................................................... 38

Passenger Evacuation ......................................................................................................................... 39

IFR Standard Operating Procedures ........................................................................................................ 40

Hold ................................................................................................................................................... 40

ILS Approach....................................................................................................................................... 40

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Missed Approach................................................................................................................................ 42

Stabilized Approach ............................................................................................................................ 42

Figure: Standard IFR Approach Profile ............................................................................................. 43

Appendices............................................................................................................................................. 44

Appendix: Standard Calls .................................................................................................................... 44

Airspeed and Flap Changes.............................................................................................................. 44

Altitude Clearances and Deviations ................................................................................................. 44

Radio Navigation Settings................................................................................................................ 44

Checklist Interruptions .................................................................................................................... 44

Transfer of Controls ........................................................................................................................ 44

ATC Communications ...................................................................................................................... 44

Autopilot Operations ...................................................................................................................... 44

Appendix: Standard Approach Plate Briefing ....................................................................................... 45

Sample Approach Plate Briefing 1.................................................................................................... 45

Sample Approach Plate Briefing 2.................................................................................................... 45

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(second-in-command); instead the PF and PNF designation normally switches between the PIC and SIC on each leg, and served the purpose of both individuals maintaining and developing their flying skills

.

During multi-engine training, it is not the roll of the instructor to function as either the PF or PNF, yet training can be conducted in a fashion that best prepares especially commercial pilot students for their future multi-crew work place. Accordingly, the SOPs set out below are orientated to single-pilot flight, and are therefore PF-focused—there are no procedural responses or inputs by a PF. The PF is, in effect, the student acting as pilot-in-command. The goal of this SOP program is not so much functional in nature, but to encourage you to think standardized multi-crew operations—hopefully your transition to a multicrew job will be “comfortable” as a result of this training.

Photo by: Matt Roersma

As a rule, pilots should never deviate from SOPs; research has clearly established that when deviation occurs, there is greater probability of an occurrence or accident. The Langley Flying School SOPs for multiengine flight operations conform with aspects of CAR 723.107 (Air Taxi SOPs). They must be memorized and practiced in association with all training flights.

Checklist Format

Two checklist formats will be used during this course, the first is referred to as flow-checks, and the second is self-challenge/response.

1

The flow-checks method requires that the checklist sequence is first completed from memory, and then the checklist is reviewed to ensure that all items contained on the checklist for the specified phase are double-checked—the items are read from the checklist and physically or visually confirmed. In contrast, the self-challenge/response method requires that all items be

1

The format typically used in civil aviation combines the flow-checks and the challenge/response format, with items being accomplished by the memory first, then backed up by the double-check challenge/response (Gregory N. Brown and Mark

J. Holt, The Turbine Pilot’s Flight Manual, 1995, Ames: Iowa State University Press, pp. 102-103). Generally,

challenge/response is typically used for critical phases of flight, while flow-checks are used for more rote tasks. The idea here is simply is to be knowledgeable of variations in formats. Overall, challenge/response is specifically adapted to multicrew operations, and has limited application in single-pilot operations; nevertheless, the challenge/response format can be modified to a “self-challenge/response” and incorporated into single-pilot checklist procedures when the workload is low— e.g., engine start and pre-takeoff check. Instead of working through a checklist as a two-pilot team, the self-

challenge/response process can be said out-loud and monitored by the Flight Instructor. By comparison, the flow-checks format is especially adaptive to single-pilot airborne checks where typically the work-load is high—during an approach, for example. Throughout it all, the key is to verbalise the checklist process.

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Dec 2008 sequentially completed as the checklist is read. While the flow-check method is applied silently, the selfchallenge/response method must be verbalized, with each item being physically touched for confirmation. Throughout this program, the self-challenge/response format shall be applied to all checklist groups prior to runway and takeoff procedures, while the flow-check format shall be applied to the runway and takeoff checklist groups, as well as all airborne groups, including the pre-landing checklist.

Photo by: Matt Roersma

Special Notes About Departures

In light twin engine aircraft, the departure phase of flight is very precarious as rotation is often near or at

V mc

leaving a large gap between V mc

and V sse

or V yse

. This gap leaves a gray zone for pilots about how to handle a situation with an engine failure on departure. For this reason, the SOPs will be clearly defined in the following sections to remove ambiguity and define what a departure should look like.

Departure Segments

The departure following takeoff is composed of three segments. The First Segment begins at rotation and ends when the aircraft is established at V

2

.

2 The Second Segment begins with V

2

, and lasts until the aircraft achieves 400’ AAE. The final Third Segment, in turn, begins through the 400’ AAE transition and lasts until the aircraft reaches the initial cruising altitude. The departure segments and the related speeds for the Seneca are as follows:

2

V

2

is simply the initial climb speed achieved in the departure—it is the speed typically used to get the aircraft initially to safe altitude in the quickest time possible. In normal departures V

2

will be equivalent to the best-rate climb speed, but if obstacles are present along the departure path, V

2

will be the best-angle climb speed. In is customary for the V

2

speed to be flown to a minimum of 400’ above the airport elevation (AAE) as this is in conformity with the standard departure requirements for IFR aircraft—where, in accordance with CAR 602 an aircraft, unless specified otherwise, must cross the departure end of a runway with a minimum of 35’, must climb on a runway heading to 400’ AAE before turning, and must maintain a minimum climb gradient of 200’ per NM until established at the minimum en route altitude.

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Figure: Standard Departure Profile

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As can be seen, the speed 105 MPH is established as V

2

. This speed is both the two-engine best-rate climb speed (V y

), and the best-rate single-engine climb speed (V yse

). In the event of an obstacle clearance departure, V

2

will be modified by the pilot to reflect the performance needs of the departure—V

2

could then be 90 MPH (the best two-engine best-angle climb speed—V x

), or 80 MPH (the maximum performance climb speed—see Short Field Take-off (25 ° Flaps) on p. 7-7 of the POH). Any variation from the standard V

2

speed—105-MPH—must be clearly established by the PF in the takeoff briefing. Note also that 120 MPH is assigned as V

3

, even though flaps are not used at this point in a normal Seneca departure.

3

During the transition from V

2

to V

3

, the airspeed is accelerated from 105 to 120 MPH, and the power is reduced from maximum power to 25”MP 4 and 2500 RPM. To achieve this performance, the transition is marked by a decrease in the aircraft pitch-angle from 10° to 5° pitch, approximately.

5

First Segment Climb (V r

to V

2

)—Confined and Non-confined Runways

The First Segment Climb is considered the most critical phase of a multi-engine departure, especially on short, confined runways—such as the paved runway at Langley Airport. Should an engine failure occur shortly after rotation of Langley Airport, survival will be anchored in pin-point decision-making and quick physical reaction on the part of the PF. The rotation occurs at 80 MPH, yet it is not until 105 MPH (blueline speed) that the aircraft is established on a safe, predictable climb rate that guards against a sudden engine failure. We have, then, a 25 MPH “gap”—during a normal departures, it lasts only one or two seconds. By comparison, no such gap appears during a departure off a long, non-confined runway—at

Abbotsford Airport, for example. When departing from such long runways, we can safely transition to the

V

2

and always have the option of landing back on the remaining runway available to us—the takeoff can

3

The use of “flap-retraction speed—V

3

” is simply to conform with standard phraseology used in the industry.

4

“Manifold Pressure” in “Inches of Mercury” (“Hg.”) units.

5

Pitch control during this speed and power change is crucial for effective pilot performance, with reference to both the

Attitude Indicator and the natural horizon. The 10°- and 5°-marks are simply initial references that can be flown—since the angle of attack will vary with weight and loading, the appropriate pitch settings will have to be adjusted with reference to speed indications. It is certain, though, that a decrease in pitch will have to quickly follow the power reduction that is called for during the V

2

—V

3

transition if effective speed control is to be maintained.

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Dec 2008 simply be rejected, the throttles reduced to idle, and the aircraft returned to the remaining runway surface.

Langley Airport—or any short runway—is a different matter. When departing from Langley Airport, V

2

is typically not achieved until after the aircraft has left the airport perimeter and is crossing—or has just crossed—the roadways that lie of the end of each departure. Obviously, the confined runway departure presents the greater risks, and in an effort to manage the increased risks, the term decision speed is used.

Decision Speed (V

1

)

The formal definition of decision speed (V

1

) is “the speed below which a pilot of a multi-engine aircraft will reject a takeoff in the event of an engine failure, and above which the pilot will continue with the takeoff using the remaining engine(s).” Theoretically, V

1

is the specified speed during a departure groundrun acceleration, above which, the aircraft has achieved sufficient velocity for the control surfaces to become effective in countering the adverse effects of an engine failure. If an engine failure occurs above

V

1

, the crew continues the takeoff and deals with the failed engine in the air. Should an engine failure occur below V

1

, the control surfaces are ineffective in countering adverse effects of an engine failure, and crew must reject the takeoff and bring the aircraft to a stop on the remaining runway. For takeoffs in commuter and airline transport category aircraft, it is required that the distance required to accelerate to

V

1

, and subsequently reject the takeoff and bring the aircraft to a stop

6

—referred to as Accelerate-stop

Distance (ASD)—must always be less than the available distance on a runway—Accelerate-stop Distance

Available (ASDA).

7

For transport category aircraft, V

1

calculations tables are published by the aircraft manufacturer, which take into consideration takeoff data such as pressure altitude, temperature, weight and wind conditions—V

1

changes in accordance with variations in these conditions (as do V r

and V

2

). For light twin-engined aircraft like the Seneca, however, the publication of a decision speed is not required for certification. Nevertheless, Piper publishes an Accelerate-stop Distance data based on the speed of 80

MPH—that is, they provide data for the distance required to accelerate the aircraft to 80 MPH, and then reject the takeoff and stop under various conditions of pressure altitude, temperature, weight, and wind

(see p. 9-6 of the POH). While V

1

does not exist for the Seneca, the concept of a decision speed can be applied, not only for training purposes, but also an effective tool in dealing with takeoff engine failures during confined runway departures.

Let us now examine how decision speed will be incorporated into the Standard Operating Procedures.

When departing from a confined runway such as is found at Langley Airport, the PF will brief 90 MPH as V

1 decision speed. If the engine failure is below 90 MPH, an automatic rejection of the takeoff must immediately occur. Below 90 MPH we are too close to V mc

to risk continuing in the air; the gear will still be down, and onset of drag from the failed engine—assuming the failure is 100%—will suddenly debilitate an effort to gain altitude and increase speed. It is better to take the fence right-side-up at the far end of the runway, rather risk the onset of V mc

autorotation only feet above ground obstacles. Conversely, at 90

MPH we are only 3 MPH from the single-engine best-angle climb (V xse

), if airspeed is immediately preserved with effective pitch control, and the failed engine managed rapidly and efficiently, the aircraft will accelerate to the blue line and a safe single-engine climb established.

6

Specifically, instead of stopping the aircraft, certification actually requires only that the aircraft be slowed to less than 35 knots.

7

Accelerate-stop Distance Available (ASDA) is defined as the length of the takeoff run available plus the length of any

“stopway” where these exist at runway. The “stopway” is a rectangular area on the ground at the end of the runway, in the direction of takeoff, which is prepared as a suitable area in which an aircraft can be stopped in the case of an abandoned takeoff, and is marked over the entire length with yellow chevrons (for discussions regarding stopways, see

AIP, AGA 3.6; for an example of published or “declared” distances, see the Aerodrome Chart for Nanaimo Airport in the

IFR publication Canada Air Pilot, CAP 3—British Columbia).

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If the engine failure occurs above 90 MPH but below V

2

(blue line 105 MPH), speed must be conserved by immediately pitching forward—essentially to redirect the thrust from the climb to maximum acceleration—and the actions required to identify and feather the offending engine must be accurate and spontaneous. For all of this to work, the right hand of the PF shall always be on the throttles and at the ready during the First Segment Climb; additionally, the gear must be retracted without delay. Perhaps more importantly, the health of the engines with respect to their ability to develop power must be carefully examined prior to beginning the First Segment Climb, and, therefore, proper and effective monitoring of aircraft and engine performance during the pre-rotation phase of the takeoff is critical. Let us now examine in greater detail how an engine failure during a confined-runway departure will be managed.

Second Segment Climb (V

2

)

Second Segment climb performance—which is composed of maximum power and blue line airspeed— continues through to an altitude at which obstacle and terrain clearance is no longer a factor—in all cases, not below 400’ AAE. During the Second Segment climb, no power changes should be made. Once the aircraft is safely clear of obstacles and terrain—again, not less than 400’ AAE—the Second Segment Climb is completed.

Third Segment Climb (V

3

En route Climb)

To transition to a Third Segment climb, the throttles are retarded to 25”MP and RPM set to 2500. Pitch is decreased—normally from about 10° to 5°—and speed is accelerated to 120 MPH.

Departure Engine Failure

In a departure engine failure, time is of the essence. The PF must be quick and efficient here, and must be absolutely accurate in his or her response. The departure engine failure is the point of greatest risk, and throughout the response to this emergency, the PF must be prepared to pull the power back and treat the twin as if it were a single-engine aircraft with a failed engine. When does the PF retard the throttles to idle and settle the aircraft in a field? The answer is simple: whenever the airspeed deteriorates and approaches the V mc

red line. When this happens, the game is over and the throttles closed. Of course, the main strategy of the PF is not to get in this position in the first place.

Here, then, is the vital-actions response of the pilot to an engine failure on departure:

In the event of an engine failure below V

1

:

Throttle.....................................................Idle

Aircraft................Land or Stop Straight Ahead

Control Column .................................Full Back

Brakes .............................................Maximum

In the event of an engine failure above V

1

:

Control....................................Direction & V mc

Power..............................................Maximum

Drag ................................ Retract gear & flaps

Identify ......................Dead foot, dead engine

Verify .............................. Confirm with power

Feather........................................ Dead engine

Fire Check.......................... Check dead engine

Emergency Destination ......................... Select

ATC ...................................Declare Emergency

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Control is crucial in an engine failure during departure! Remember, right after rotation is the danger zone, and it does not end until the blue is maintained and the engine is feathered. So the “control” element which immediately follows an engine failure on departure is pivotal. First, you must be prepared to immediately but smoothly pitch forward—if this is not done, the airspeed will bleed within seconds after the engine quits. How far? Well, until we have the engine feathered, we should target pitching forward until the climb stops and the aircraft is simply maintaining its altitude. Obviously, terrain and obstacles are determining factors, and if terrain is confining, a safe-speed pitch-up attitude may be targeted—but only provided there is no deterioration in the airspeed condition. Avoid too rapidly pitching forward to the point that the aircraft starts to descend, as obviously we must work with the scenario that there is precious little airspace between the aircraft and the ground.

Equally important, you must carefully monitor your airspeed—if there is ever a time to monitor your airspeed with extreme accuracy, this is it! The parameters are quite simple here—if the airspeed eventually bleeds and migrates to the red-line V mc

, you have no choice but to power back and treat the twin like a single engine aircraft—make gentle turns to avoid fixed objects as you let the aircraft settle on to the ground.

8

As long as the power is off the maximum setting, the V mc

“flip” must occur somewhere below red line speed—the problem is that you cannot predict exactly where this is, given the variables of altitude and aircraft weight.

A third reaction of the pilot which must be considered is keeping the aircraft tracking straight—by keeping straight you will make it far more likely to correctly identify the bad engine in the minimum number of seconds—and remember the seconds count is crucial here. The governing factor is simply this: if you make an effort to keep the track straight during the failure, your feet will be in the best position to help you identify the “dead foot.” If, for example you relinquish all rudder pressure and attempt to control with simple aileron input, things will make far less sense.

There is the chance that the engine failure might be associated with a fire. To guard against the wing melting off, ensure you visually check the nacelle of the bad engine for pealing or discoloured paint, smoke or flames after the engine has been feathered. In the case of an engine fire, the solution is simple: cut-off the source as per the POH.

Ideally advise ATC as soon as practical once you have control of your aircraft and the failed engine has been feathered. ATC can clear all conflicting traffic, and assist in tracking, and even altitude monitoring.

You will have to decide if you will return to Langley Airport, if this is you departure point, or head for a vicinity airport with a longer runway and possibly emergency-response services.

8

Obviously, the fuel and electrical systems must be safely shut down—the “engine fire” drill, applied to both engines will effectively do this, and then the master switch and magnetos should be selected off.

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PREFLIGHT

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Standard Operating Procedures

The PF shall arrive at the airport to allow for sufficient time to complete the pre-flight, cockpit checks, workaround, a crew pre-flight briefing and any other duties that must be preformed. Typically, this will be between 30 minutes and one hour before a booking time.

Pre-flight

Action

Flight Planning .........................................Compete

Maintenance Status..................................... Check

In addition to flight preparation activity required by the Canadian Aviation Regulations, the PF shall calculate the following:

Weight and Balance ...........................Within limits

Takeoff Distance ................................... Calculated

Landing Distance................................... Calculated

ASD................................................Less than ASDA

Cockpit Checks

Action

Fire Extinguisher .............................. Check/Secure

First-aid Kit .................................................. Check

Life Jackets (if required)............................... Check

Flight Supplement........................................ Check

Journey Log.................... Review for Airworthiness

Pilot Operating Handbook ........................... Check

Oxygen Masks (if required).......................... Check

All Electric Switches ..........................................Off

Control Locks ..........................................Removed

Seat Belts not in Use ................................. Secured

Circuit Breakers.....................................Checked In

Avionics Master ................................................Off

Landing Gear Control ................................... Down

Master .............................................................. On

Landing Gear Indictors .............................. 3 Green

Fuel Gauges ................................................. Check

Throttles ..................................................... Closed

Mixtures .............................................. Idle Cut-off

Fuel Pumps (Individually).. On, pressure check, Off

Pitot Heat ......................................................... On

Landing, Navigation, Anti-Collision Lights ........ On

Stall Indicator....................... Check Horn and Light

SOP Call

SOP Call

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PREFLIGHT

Action

Pitot Mast............................................ Check Heat

Pitot Heat .........................................................Off

Landing, Navigation, Anti-Collision Lights ........Off

Master ..............................................................Off

SOP Call

Walk-Around

Action

Perform exterior inspection as per the POH 7-2:

1.

Fuel Drains (8): two fuel tank drains on each wing, a gascolator drain near the bottom of each nacelle, and two crossfeed drains on the bottom of the fuselage (use Tupperware contain found in nose baggage compartment to catch the fuel. Sump is drain by levers found behind the front passenger seat.)

2.

Right wing, aileron and flap—no damage, no ice. Check hinges.

3.

Right main gear—no leaks, tires inflated and not excessively worn, 3 ½ inches piston exposed under static load.

4.

Right wing tip—no damage.

5.

Right leading edge—no damage or ice.

6.

Fuel cap—open to check quantity and color of fuel. Check cap vent, and then secure.

7.

Right engine nacelle—open doors to inspect engine. Check oil quantity—six to eight quarts; add oil when oil reaches six quarts or below. Secure both inspection doors.

8.

Right propeller—no nicks or leaks, spinner secure and not cracked.

9.

Nose section—undamaged.

10.

Cowl flaps—open and secure.

11.

Nose section—undamaged

SOP Call

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PREFLIGHT

Action

12.

Nose gear—no leaks, tire inflated and not excessively worn, 2 ½ inches piston exposed under static load, tow bar removed, condition of landing light checked.

13.

Forward baggage door—secure and locked.

14.

Windshield—clean and secure.

15.

Left wing, engine nacelle and landing gear— inspect as completed on the right side.

16.

17.

Pitot tube—hole unobstructed, heat checked by feel if need is anticipated.

18.

Stall warning vanes—no damage, free movement.

19.

Rear door—latched.

20.

Left static vent—unobstructed.

21.

Dorsal fin air scoop—free of obstruction

22.

Empennage—no damage, free of ice, hinges secure.

23.

Right static vent—unobstructed.

24.

Antennas—secure and undamaged.

SOP Call

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PREFLIGHT

Figure: Walk-Around Chart

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PREFLIGHT

Fuel Requirements & Procedures

Action

The minimum fuel requirement for VFR flight is to arrive at the destination with a reserve of 1 hour of fuel at normal cruise power settings.

The minimum fuel requirement for IFR flight is to be able fuel to fly to the destination, fly an approach & missed approach, the procedure to a suitable alternate and conduct an approach, then enough fuel to be able to fly for a further 45 minutes at normal cruise power settings, plus any contingency fuel required.

Refueling the aircraft with passengers on board is prohibited.

Ramp & Gate Procedures

Action

The PF is responsible for the safety and security of passengers during movement from the passenger lounge to the aircraft.

Final Aircraft Inspection

Action

Rear Baggage Door ..................................... Secure

Rear Passenger Door................................... Secure

Left Engine Cowling..................................... Secure

Wheel Chocks .........................................Removed

Front Baggage Door .................................... Secure

Right Engine Cowling .................................. Secure

SOP Call

SOP Call

SOP Call

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PREFLIGHT

Passenger Briefing

Action

The PF must ensure that all passengers are provided with a safety briefing that includes the following information:

1.

Where, when, and how carry-on baggage is required to be stowed;

2.

the fastening, unfastening, and adjustment of safety belts and their requirement for use during flight;

3.

when the seat backs must be secured upright and tables stowed;

4.

the location of emergency exits (including instructions to persons sitting next to an exit on how the exit operations);

5.

location, purpose, and advisability of reading safety feature cards;

6.

the regulatory requirement to obey crew instructions regarding seat belts and no smoking (or the location of fasten seat belts and no smoking signs);

7.

the location of emergency equipment such as ELT, fire extinguisher, survival equipment, first aid kit and life raft;

8.

the use of passenger-operated portable electronics, the location of fixed passenger-oxygen systems, including the location and presentation of masks, activation of the flow of oxygen, and instruction on how to correctly don and secure the mask (this must include a demonstration) and the priority for persons assisting others;

9.

the location and use of life preservers

(demonstration required) and instruction on how and when to inflate life preservers.

SOP Call

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PRE-START

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Pre-Start

Action SOP Call

Master .............................................................. On

Avionics Master ................................................ On

Transponder .............................................Standby

Transponder Code.............................................Set

HSI Slaving ...................................................... Test

ATIS ............................................................Record

Altimeters ........................................................Set

Clearance Delivery (if applicable)...............Contact

Marker Beacon Lights .................................. Check

GPS ................................................... Check & Test

GPS Flight Plan (FPL) .........................................Set

Nav/Com #1...........................................Test & Set

ADF ....................................... Test, Set, and Slaved

Nav/Com #2...........................................Test & Set

Avionics Master ................................................Off

Master ..............................................................Off

Takeoff and Departure Procedures ............... Brief

9

Runway ........................................................ “___”

Crosswind ..................................................... “___”

Takeoff Procedure: V r

, V

2

, V

3

......................... “___”

Departure Procedures ................................ “___”

10

Communications Failure ................Brief VMC/IMC

Engine Failure Procedures.............................. Brief In the event of an engine failure below V

1

:

Throttle..................................................... Idle

Aircraft ...............Land or Stop Straight Ahead

Control Column................................. Full Back

Brakes............................................. Maximum

In the event of an engine failure above V

1

:

Control....................................Direction & V mc

Power .............................................Maximum

Drag .................................Retract gear & flaps

Identify ...................... Dead foot, dead engine

Verify .............................. Confirm with power

Feather ....................................... Dead engine

Fire Check ......................... Check dead engine

Emergency Destination......................... Select

ATC ...................................Declare Emergency

9

The PF shall conduct a Takeoff Briefing (TOB) prior to every departure. At the discretion of the PF, the TOB may be conducted just prior to boarding, prior to engine start-up, or during taxi, but it must be conducted prior to the request for takeoff clearance.

10

Reference to a “standard” departure implies the Standard Departure Profile outline in the Appendix.

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PRE-START

Action

Forward Baggage Door ............................... Secure

Oxygen.................................................... On or Off

Passengers ..................................................... Brief

Brake Handle .................................................... On

Cowl Flaps..................................................... Open

Fuel Selectors....................LEFT X-feed—RIGHT On

SOP Call

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PA-34-200T

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES

ENGINE STARTS

PAGE 21

Dec 2008

Engine Starts

Cold Engine Start

Action SOP Call

Hobbs & Time.............................................. Record

Call for COLD ENGINE START CHECKLIST

Brake Handle .................................................... On

Both engines:

Mixtures .............................................. Idle Cut-off

Master .............................................................. On

Throttles ..................................................... Closed

Propellers .................................................Forward

Magnetos.......................................................... On

Alternators ....................................................... On

Left Engine ONLY

Fuel Pump ........................................................ On

Mixture..................................................... Set Rich

Throttle.............................................Advance 75%

Fuel Flow ..........................Stabilized for 3 Seconds

Throttle....................................................... Closed

Mixture....................................................... Closed

Propeller........................................................Clear Call CLEAR FOR ENGINE STARTS out pilot storm window

State: STARTING LEFT ENGINE

Starter .................................................Engage Left

As engine starts:

Mixture.............................Advance at engine start

After engine starts:

Oil Pressure.....................................Above red line

Throttle....................................................800 RPM

Fuel Pump.........................................................Off

Fuel Pressure ............................................... Check

Call for AFTER ENGINE START CHECKLIST

Review & confirm actions of AFTER ENGINE START

CHECKLIST are complete

Right Engine ONLY

Fuel Pump ........................................................ On

Mixture..................................................... Set Rich

Throttle.............................................Advance 75%

Fuel Flow ..........................Stabilized for 3 Seconds

Throttle....................................................... Closed

Mixture....................................................... Closed

Propeller........................................................Clear

Call AFTER ENGINE START CHECKLIST COMPLETE

PA-34-200T

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES

ENGINE STARTS

PAGE 22

Dec 2008

Action

Starter .............................................. Engage Right

As engine starts:

Mixture.............................Advance at engine start

After engine starts:

Oil Pressure.....................................Above red line

Throttle....................................................800 RPM

Fuel Pump.........................................................Off

Fuel Pressure ............................................... Check

SOP Call

State: STARTING RIGHT ENGINE

Call for AFTER ENGINE START CHECKLIST

Review & confirm actions of AFTER ENGINE START

CHECKLIST are complete

Call AFTER ENGINE START CHECKLIST COMPLETE

Call COLD ENGINE START CHECKLIST COMPLETE

Hot Engine Start

Action

Brake Handle .................................................... On

Both Engines

Mixtures ............................................. Idle Cut-off

Master .............................................................. On

Throttles .................................................. ¼“ Open

Propellers .................................................Forward

Magnetos.......................................................... On

Alternators ....................................................... On

SOP Call

Call for HOT ENGINE START CHECKLIST

Call CLEAR FOR ENGINE STARTS out pilot storm window

State: STARTING LEFT ENGINE

Starter .................................................Engage Left

As engine starts:

Mixture.............................Advance at engine start

After engine starts:

Oil Pressure.....................................Above red line

Throttle....................................................800 RPM

Fuel Pump.........................................................Off

Fuel Pressure ............................................... Check

Call for AFTER ENGINE START CHECKLIST

PA-34-200T

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES

ENGINE STARTS

PAGE 23

Dec 2008

Action

Review & confirm actions of AFTER ENGINE START

CHECKLIST are complete

SOP Call

Call AFTER ENGINE START CHECKLIST COMPLETE

Starter .............................................. Engage Right

As engine starts:

Mixture.............................Advance at engine start

After engine starts:

Oil Pressure.....................................Above red line

Throttle....................................................800 RPM

Fuel Pump.........................................................Off

Fuel Pressure ............................................... Check

State: STARTING RIGHT ENGINE

Call for AFTER ENGINE START CHECKLIST

Review & confirm actions of AFTER ENGINE START

CHECKLIST are complete

Call AFTER ENGINE START CHECKLIST COMPLETE

Call HOT ENGINE START CHECKLIST COMPLETE

Flooded Engine Start

Action SOP Call

Call for FLOODED ENGINE START CHECKLIST

Brake Handle .................................................... On

Both Engines

Fuel Pumps .......................................................Off

Mixtures .............................................. Idle Cut-off

Propellers .................................................Forward

Master .............................................................. On

Magnetos.......................................................... On

Alternators ....................................................... On

Left Engine ONLY

Throttle...................................................Full Open

Propeller........................................................Clear

Starter .................................................Engage Left

As engine starts:

Throttle...........................................Retard Rapidly

Mixture......................................... Advance Slowly

Call CLEAR FOR ENGINE STARTS out pilot storm window

State: STARTING LEFT ENGINE

PA-34-200T

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES

ENGINE STARTS

PAGE 24

Dec 2008

Action

After engine starts:

Oil Pressure.................................................. Check

Throttle....................................................800 RPM

Fuel Pressure ............................................... Check

SOP Call

Call for AFTER ENGINE START CHECKLIST

Call AFTER ENGINE START CHECKLIST COMPLETE Review & confirm actions of AFTER ENGINE START

CHECKLIST are complete

State: STARTING RIGHT ENGINE

Right Engine ONLY

Throttle...................................................Full Open

Propeller........................................................Clear

Starter .............................................. Engage Right

As engine starts:

Throttle...........................................Retard Rapidly

Mixture......................................... Advance Slowly

After engine starts:

Oil Pressure.................................................. Check

Throttle....................................................800 RPM

Fuel Pressure ............................................... Check

Call for AFTER ENGINE START CHECKLIST

Review & confirm actions of AFTER ENGINE START

CHECKLIST are complete

Call AFTER ENGINE START CHECKLIST COMPLETE

Call HOT ENGINE START CHECKLIST COMPLETE

PA-34-200T

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES

TAXI & PRE-TAKEOFF

PAGE 25

Dec 2008

Taxi

Action

Avionics Master ................................................ On

Fuel Selectors....................RIGHT X-feed—LEFT On

Taxi Clearance............................Obtain if required

SOP Call

Wing Clearance............................................ Check Call LEFT WING CLEAR, RIGHT WING CLEAR

Brakes..........................................Release & Check

Instruments ................................................. Check As turn coordinator responds in a turn call

RIGHT/LEFT WING DOWN, BALL LEFT/RIGHT. If the attitude indicator stay steady in a turn call

STEADY. Confirm that the compass is free by stating COMPASS FREE AND FLOATING.

Pre-Takeoff

Action

Throttles ................................................1000 RPM

Propeller Blast Area ............................ Check Clear

Propeller Blades...............Clear of Water or Debris

Brakes...............................................................Set

GPS ........................................................ Set NAV 4

GPS ................................... Set Moving Map Range

GPS .......................... Set/confirm Active Waypoint

GPS .......................................Set OBS or LEG mode

GPS ..................... Altimeter and Altitude (ALT) Set

GPS ..........................Load Approach (if applicable)

GPS ...............................................RAIM Approach

GPS ........................................................ Set NAV 4

SOP Call

Call for RUNUP CHECKLIST

PA-34-200T

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES

TAXI & PRE-TAKEOFF

Action SOP Call

Trim .................................................................Set

Electric Trim.................................................... Test

Vacuum......................................... Check 5”Hg ±1”

Landing and Navigation Lights .......................... On

Alternators .................................................. Check

Landing and Navigation Lights ..........................Off

Pitot Heat ....................................Check load draw

Fuel Sectors ................................ RIGHT & LEFT On

Mixtures ...................................................Full Rich

Throttles ................................................2000 RPM

Magnetos...................................................Check

11

Oil Temperatures and Pressures .................. Check

Propellers (Individually)......... 3 Cycles of 300 RPM

Propellers ............................. Reduce to 1900 RPM

Throttles ......................................... Increase 1”Hg

RPMs ...................................................Check 1900

Throttles ........................................Decrease 1”Hg;

Propellers .......................................Set 2000 RPM.

Mixtures .............................................. Check Flow

Throttles ...........................................Set 1500RPM

Propellers (Individually)................ Feather Check

12

Throttles ....................................................... Close

Oil Pressure.................................................. Check

Throttles ................................................1000 RPM

Call RUNUP CHECKLIST COMPLETE

PAGE 26

Dec 2008

11

Maximum Drop 175 RPM; maximum difference 50 RPM.

12

RPM must drop to 1000 RPM in 1 to 3 seconds—slower feathering indicates inadequate dome pressure.

PA-34-200T

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES

TAXI & PRE-TAKEOFF

PAGE 27

Dec 2008

Action SOP Call

Call for PRE-TAKEOFF CHECKLIST

Magnetos....................................................... Both

Auto Pilot.....................................................All Off

Fuel Supply .............................................Sufficient

Engine Gauges ............................................. Check

Flight Instrument .........................Set and Checked

Fuel Selectors.................................................... On

Turbochargers...................................................Off

Mixtures ...................................................Full Rich

Propellers .......................................... Full Forward

Harness/Hatches/Seat ............... Check and Secure

Control Column............................Free and Correct

Time............................................................Record

Call PRE-TAKEOFF CHECKLIST COMPLETE

Runway

Action

Obtain takeoff clearance with a short delay 13 .

Anti-collision Lights...........................................ON

Pitot Heat (IFR) .................................................ON

Fuel Pumps .......................................................ON

Transponder .............................................. Set ALT

Call RUNWAY CHECKLIST COMPLETE

In position, check HSI Heading Bug aligned with

Runway Heading.

When “Cleared for Takeoff,” turn the landing and taxi lights ON.

SOP Call

Prior to entering or crossing a runway, in addition to obtain required clearances visually clear and call CLEAR LEFT, CLEAR RIGHT

Call for RUNWAY CHECKLIST

13

The delay is required owing to the short length of the runway and the limited opportunity to properly check engine performance prior to takeoff.

PA-34-200T

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES

TAKEOFF & DEPARTURE

PAGE 28

Dec 2008

Normal Takeoff

Action SOP Call

Call for TAKEOFF CHECKLIST

Landing Lights ...................................................ON

Power .............................................. Set 2000 RPM

Engine Gauges ................................Confirm Green Call LEFT ENGINE GREEN, RIGHT ENGINE GREEN

Call MAXIMUM POWER

Brakes........................................................Release

Throttles ...............................Set Maximum Power

Power Gauges.....................................Check Equal Call NO SPLIT NEEDLES

ASI ............................ Confirm Increasing Airspeed Call AIRSPEED ALIVE

ASI ............................................................ 80 MPH At V r

call ROTATION

VSI .......................................Confirm Positive Rate

Gear.................................................................. UP

Call POSITIVE RATE, GEAR UP

ASI .......................................................... 105 MPH Call V

2

At 400’ AAE:

ASI ................................................Accelerate to V

3

Manifold Pressure...................................... Set 25”

RPM.................................................Set 2500 RPM

Flaps .......................................................... Retract

Call 105 FOR 120, CLIMB POWER SET

Figure: Standard Departure Profile

PA-34-200T

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES

TAKEOFF & DEPARTURE

PAGE 29

Dec 2008

Obstacle Takeoff

Action SOP Call

Call for TAKEOFF CHECKLIST

Landing Lights ...................................................ON

Power .............................................. Set 2000 RPM

Engine Gauges ................................Confirm Green Call LEFT ENGINE GREEN, RIGHT ENGINE GREEN

Call MAXIMUM POWER

Throttles ...............................Set Maximum Power

Power Gauges.....................................Check Equal

Brakes........................................................Release

Call NO SPLIT NEEDLES

ASI ............................ Confirm Increasing Airspeed Call AIRSPEED ALIVE

ASI ............................................................ 70 MPH At V r

call ROTATION

VSI .......................................Confirm Positive Rate

Gear.................................................................. UP

Call POSITIVE RATE, GEAR UP

ASI ............................................................ 80 MPH Call V

2

Clear of obstacles:

Flaps .............................................................Set 0°

ASI .....................................Accelerate to 105 MPH

Call FLAPS 0

Call V

3

At 400’ AAE:

ASI ........................................ Accelerate to V

3

+ 15

Manifold Pressure...................................... Set 25”

RPM.................................................Set 2500 RPM

Flaps .........................................Confirm Retracted

Call 105 FOR 120, CLIMB POWER SET

Figure: Obstacle Departure Profile

PA-34-200T

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES

TAKEOFF & DEPARTURE

PAGE 30

Dec 2008

Climb

Action

Perform AFTER TAKEOFF CHECKLIST passing through 1000’ AAE:

Landing Lights ..................................................OFF

Fuel Pumps ...................................OFF Individually

Engine Gauges ................................Confirm Green

SOP Call

Call AFTER TAKEOFF CHECKLIST COMPLETE

Call 500’ TO GO when approaching cruising altitude

PA-34-200T

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES

DESCENT

PAGE 31

Dec 2008

Cruise

Action

Perform LEVEL/CRUISE CHECKLIST once level:

Throttles ...........................................................Set

Propellers .........................................................Set

Mixture ............................................................Set

Cowl Flaps..................................................... Close

EGT .............................................................. Check

Mixtures ................................... Adjust as required

SOP Call

Call LEVEL/CRUISE CHECKLIST COMPLETE

Descent

Action SOP Call

Obtain ATIS

Conduct clearing turns

Start descent

Maintain the following proximity speeds:

Within 3nm of aerodrome ...................120 MPH

Downwind Leg.................. 115 MPH & 10° Flaps

Base Leg ........................... 110 MPH & 25° Flaps

Final Approach.................... 90 MPH & 40° Flaps

Prior to descent below 1000’ AAE, call for PRE-

LANDING CHECKLIST

Seat backs......................................................Erect

Seat belts.................................................... Secure

Fuel Selectors.................................................... On

Landing Light..................................................... On

Fuel Pumps ....................................................... On

Auto Pilot..........................................................Off

Brakes...................................................... Checked

Approach .................................................Briefed

14

Wind Conditions ......................... Anticipated/ATIS

V ref

............................................................ 90 MPH

Flap Configuration .................................... Flaps 40

Call PRE-LANDING CHECKLIST COMPLETE

14

The approach briefing will give specific reference to anticipated wind conditions, V ref

, and flap configuration.

PA-34-200T

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES

APPROACH & LANDING

Final Approach & Landing

Action SOP Call

Below 1000’ AAE during an approach or departure the cockpit will be STERILE. Conversations and actions among crew will only pertain to the landing actions and sequences.

Prior to descent below 500’ AAE complete GUMP

CHECKS:

Gas........................... Fuel pumps and Selectors On

Undercarriage..............3 Green, One in the Mirror

Mixtures ............................................ Full Forward

Propellers .......................................... Full Forward Call GUMP CHECKS COMPLETE

Prior to descending below 400’ AAE during a final landing approach, the following conditions for a stabilized approach must be established and maintained:

1.

the airspeed is constant at V ref

in the final landing flap configuration;

2.

the glideslope is normal and steady;

3.

the runway centerline is accurately tracked.

If the above conditions are not established, the PF shall conduct a missed approach.

After touchdown:

Flaps ..................................Immediately Retracted

Brakes.......................................Maximum Braking

PAGE 32

Dec 2008

PA-34-200T

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES

APPROACH & LANDING

Figure: Standard Visual Approach Profile

PAGE 33

Dec 2008

PA-34-200T

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES

MISSED APPROACH

PAGE 34

Dec 2008

Missed Approach

Action SOP Call

Call MISSED APPROACH

Power ..............................................Set Maximum Call MAX POWER SET

VSI .......................................Confirm Positive Rate

Gear.................................................................. UP

Call POSITIVE RATE, GEAR UP

ASI ..................................................................... V

2

Call V

2

At 400’ AAE:

ASI ................................................Accelerate to V

3

Manifold Pressure...................................... Set 25”

RPM.................................................Set 2500 RPM

Flaps .......................................................... Retract

Call 105 for 120, CLIMB POWER SET

Stabilized Approach

Action

During the Final Approach and Landing phase, a stabilized approach is to be flown. The aircraft must be stabilized by 500’ AAE in VMC and 1000’

AAE in IMC. Criteria for a stabilized approach is as follows:

1.

The aircraft is in the landing configuration

2.

The aircraft is established on the approach profile

3.

Indicated airspeed is within +10 KTS to –5

KTS of target airspeed

4.

Power is managed to maintain the target airspeed

In the event that this is not achieved, the PIC shall conduct a missed approach.

SOP Call

Call DESTABILIZED APPROACH, GOING-AROUND

PA-34-200T

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES

NON-NORMAL

PAGE 35

Dec 2008

Non-Normal Standard Operating Procedures

General

There are a host of emergencies that can potentially surface during the course of a flight. The key to any emergency is the age old saying: aviate, navigate, communicate. It is imperative that control of the aircraft is established and maintained prior to any efforts to identify the problem. Obliviously, there are situations where control and problem identification are essentially simultaneous.

Rejected Takeoff

Action SOP Call

When an unsafe or non-normal situation requiring a rejected takeoff is identified by a member of the crew, the PIC shall call REJECT, REJECT

Throttles ..................................................... Closed

Flaps .......................................................... Retract

Brakes........................Apply for Maximum Braking

Communication ................................... Advice ATC Do not identify problem to ATC at this time

Maintain constant brake pressure, avoiding skidding, until aircraft stops. An illusion can occur under heavy braking such that the aircraft appears to be stopping quicker than it actually is, causing the brakes to be released prematurely.

ONCE AIRCRAFT IS STOPPED

Evaluate situation using all resources available— i.e., ATC, cockpit indications, AFF, visual inspection—prior to initiating passenger evacuation. Remain on active runway to allow AFF full access to aircraft.

Determine if taxiing off the runway or a shut-down is required.

Notify ATC of problem and intentions.

PA-34-200T

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES

NON-NORMAL

PAGE 36

Dec 2008

Engine Failure

This condition is recognized by a loss of all thrust from an engine, as indicated by the engine gauges, asymmetric thrust, and/or airframe vibrations with abnormal or normal engine gauges. When conditions permit, conduct an evaluation of causes prior to feathering. It is recommended that the causes not be investigated, and the propeller immediately feathered when the aircraft is less that 1000’

AGL or climb performance is required. See the ENGINE FAILURE FLOW CHART for more detail.

Action

Control............................ Rudder, Ailerons & Pitch

SOP Call

Call MAX POWER

Mixtures ...................................................Full Rich

Propellers .......................................... Full Forward

Throttles ..............................................Max Power

Flaps .......................................................... Retract

Gear........................................................... Retract

Identify Dead Engine.......................... “Dead Foot”

Verify Dead Engine ..........................Close Throttle

Fire Check .......................................... Dead Engine

If a fire exists, proceed immediately to ENGINE

FIRE drill and SOPs.

If a fire does not exist, continue with this SOP.

If time permits: Fuel, Spark Air.

Fuel Pump.................................................... On

Fuel Selector ..................................... Crossfeed

Magnetos................................................ Check

Alternate Air ........................................... Select

Alternate Heat ........................................ Select

If still not rectified:

Dead Engine Propeller...........................Feather

Speed.................Maintain Blue Line (105 MPH)

Operating Engine

Throttle ............................... Set as required

Propeller.............................. Set as required

Mixture................................ Set as required

Oil Temperature ................................ Check

Cowl Flaps ........................... Set as required

Feathered Engine

Magnetos ...............................................Off

Fuel Pump ..............................................Off

Alternator ..............................................Off

Fuel Selector...........................................Off

Alternator Load............................................ Check

Electrical Load.........................Reduce as Required

Call FLAPS UP

Call GEAR UP

Call FUEL

Call SPARK

Call AIR

Call FEATHERING LEFT/RIGHT ENGINE

PA-34-200T

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES

NON-NORMAL

Figure: Engine Failure Flow Chart

PAGE 37

Dec 2008

PA-34-200T

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES

NON-NORMAL

Engine Fire

Action SOP Call

Fuel selector .....................................................Off

Throttle......................................................... Close

Propeller....................................................Feather

Mixture.................................................Idle cut-off

Firewall.....................................................Closed

15

Call FIRE LEFT/RIGHT ENGINE

Call FEATHERING LEFT/RIGHT ENGINE

Control............................ Rudder, Ailerons & Pitch

On operating engine:

Mixtures ...........................................Full Rich

Propellers .................................. Full Forward

Throttles......................................Max Power

Flaps .......................................................... Retract

Gear........................................................... Retract

Speed......................Maintain Blue Line (105 MPH)

Operating Engine

Throttle ............................... Set as required

Propeller.............................. Set as required

Mixture................................ Set as required

Oil Temperature ................................ Check

Cowl Flaps ........................... Set as required

Feathered Engine

Magnetos ...............................................Off

Fuel Pump ..............................................Off

Alternator ..............................................Off

Fuel Selector...........................................Off

Alternator Load............................................ Check

Electrical Load.........................Reduce as Required

Call MAX POWER

Call FLAPS UP

Call GEAR UP

PAGE 38

Dec 2008

15

Heater/defroster off.

PA-34-200T

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES

NON-NORMAL

Passenger Evacuation

Action SOP Call

Parking Brake.................................................... On

Throttles ....................................................... Close

Mixtures .............................................. Idle Cut-off

Magnetos..........................................................Off

Master ..............................................................Off

Call PASSENGER EVACUATION

Call ENGINE SHUTDOWN

Call EVACUATE, EVACUATE

Fire Extinguisher ......................................... Obtain

Passengers ..............................Assist in Evacuation

PAGE 39

Dec 2008

PA-34-200T

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES

IFR

IFR Standard Operating Procedures

PAGE 40

Dec 2008

Hold

Action

Nav Aid .............................Tune, Identify, Test, Set

Upon reaching the Nav Aid:

Time............................................................... Start

Turn .............................. Entry Heading as per POD

Throttle.............................................................Set

Talk..........................Advice ATC Entering the Hold

SOP Call

ILS Approach

The following SOP revolves around an ILS approach. However, the flow, format and standard calls can be applied to other precision and non-precision approaches. It is also important to note that when below 1000’ AAE during an approach or departure, conversation and actions among crew will only pertain to the landing actions and sequences.

Action SOP Call

Speed

Flaps ......................................................Set 10°

Throttles ........................................ Set 16” MP

Nav Aids............................Tune, Identify, Test, Set

HSI ....................................Confirm GPS or NAV

ATIS........................................................ Obtain

Approach ........................................................ Brief Approach and runway number ..................... “___”

Airport name ................................................ “___”

Chart page number....................................... “___”

Chart date/effective date ............................. “___”

Final approach course, Freq & Ident ............. “___”

Procedure turn altitude ................................ “___”

Final approach altitude to FAF ...................... “___”

Glideslope altitude at FAF............................. “___”

Decision height altitude................................ “___”

Missed approach altitude and track.............. “___”

PA-34-200T

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES

IFR

PAGE 41

Dec 2008

Action SOP Call

Call for PRE-LANDING CHECKLIST

Seat backs...................................................... Erect

Seat belts.....................................................Secure

Fuel Selectors.....................................................On

Landing Light......................................................On

Fuel Pumps ........................................................On

Auto Pilot...........................................................Off

Altimeter .......................................................... Set

Brakes....................................................... Checked

Approach ................................................Briefed

16

Call ALTIMETER SET “XX.xx”

Call PRE-LANDING CHECKLIST COMPLETE

Localizer................................ Movement Detected

Localizer.................................................... Capture

Glideslope............................. Movement Detected

Glideslope................................................. Capture

Call GEAR DOWN, FLAPS 25°

Gear.............................................................. Down

Flaps ................................................................. 25°

Throttles ............................................. As Required

Crossing FAF................................. Glidepath Check Call FINAL APPROACH FIX, “___” (Charted altitude of FAF)

Timer ............................................................. Start

Gear................................................ Confirm Down

Power ...................................... Adjust as Required

Tower .............................. Report Beacon Inbound

Call LOCALIZER ALIVE

Call LOCALIZER CAPTURE

Call GLIDESLOPE ALIVE

Call GLIDESLOPE CAPTURE

Gas........................... Fuel pumps and Selectors On

Undercarriage..............3 Green, One in the Mirror

Mixtures ............................................ Full Forward

Propellers .......................................... Full Forward

Altitude.............................. 100’ Above Minimums

Altitude.................................................Minimums

Call 100’ ABOVE

Call:

MINIMUMS, NO CONTACT; or

MINIMUMS, LIGHTS ONLY; or

MINIMUMS, RUNWAY IN SIGHT

Then call:

LANDING or GO-AROUND

Flaps .............................................. Full if Required

16

Procedures, Runway, Winds, V ref.

PA-34-200T

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES

IFR

PAGE 42

Dec 2008

Missed Approach

Action SOP Call

Call MISSED APPROACH

Power ..............................................Set Maximum Call MAX POWER SET

VSI .......................................Confirm Positive Rate

Gear.................................................................. UP

Call POSITIVE RATE, GEAR UP

ASI ..................................................................... V

2

Call V

2

Follow published IFR missed approach procedure or other ATC clearance as applicable.

At 400’ AAE:

ASI ................................................Accelerate to V

3

Manifold Pressure...................................... Set 25”

RPM.................................................Set 2500 RPM

Flaps .......................................................... Retract

Call 105 for 120, CLIMB POWER SET

Stabilized Approach

Action

During the Final Approach and Landing phase, a stabilized approach is to be flown. The aircraft must be stabilized by 500’ AAE in VMC and 1000’

AAE in IMC. Criteria for a stabilized approach is as follows:

5.

The aircraft is in the landing configuration

6.

The aircraft is established on the approach profile

7.

Indicated airspeed is within +10 KTS to –5

KTS of target airspeed

8.

Power is managed to maintain the target airspeed

In the event that this is not achieved, the PIC shall conduct a missed approach.

SOP Call

Call DESTABILIZED APPROACH, GOING-AROUND

PA-34-200T

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES

IFR

Figure: Standard IFR Approach Profile

PAGE 43

Dec 2008

PA-34-200T

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES

APPENDIX: STANDARD CALLS

PAGE 44

20 Dec 2007

Appendices

Appendix: Standard Calls

Airspeed and Flap Changes

The PF will verbalize the appropriate extension speed and any change in flap or gear settings (i.e. 160

MPH—FLAPS 10, 140 MPH—FLAPS 25 or FLAPS CLEAN, 150 MPH—GEAR DOWN etc.) and changes in the airspeed being targeted (i.e. 110 FOR 90).

Altitude Clearances and Deviations

The PF shall call the altitude leaving and the target altitude—i.e. LEAVING 2000’ FOR 3000’. The PF will also call 200’ TO GO, when 200’ away from the targeted altitude.

Radio Navigation Settings

ADF:

NUMBER 1 ADF IDENTIFIED ON ________ (NDB identifier)

VOR:

ILS:

NUMBER 2 VOR IDENTIFIED ON ________ (VOR identifier), TRACK SET _____ (degrees)

NUMBER 1 VOR IDENTIFIED ON ILS ________ (runway number), TRACK SET _____ (final approach course)

Checklist Interruptions

If a checklist is interrupted, the following calls shall be made:

HOLD CHECKLIST AT “ITEM”.

RESUME CHECKLIST AT “ITEM”.

Transfer of Controls

A transfer of controls between the student and instruct will take the following format:

Instructor: I HAVE CONTROL Instructor: YOU HAVE CONTROL or

Student: YOU HAVE CONTROL Student: I HAVE CONTROL

ATC Communications

All ATC clearances or instructions shall be read back in full.

Autopilot Operations

Engagement: AUTOPILOT ON

Disengagement: AUTOPILOT OFF

PA-34-200T

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES

APPENDIX: STANDARD CALLS

PAGE 45

20 Dec 2007

Appendix: Standard Approach Plate Briefing

Components of an Approach Plate Briefing

1.

Approach and runway number

2.

Airport name

3.

Chart page number

4.

Chart date/effective date

5.

100nm Safe Altitude (if required)

6.

Minimum Sector Altitude (if required)

7.

Transition procedures (if applicable)

8.

Final approach course, frequency and identifier

9.

Procedure turn altitude

10.

Final approach altitude to FAF

11.

Glideslope altitude at FAF

12.

Decision height altitude

13.

Touchdown and airport elevations

14.

Missed approach altitude and track

Sample Approach Plate Briefing 1

“Today we are doing the ILS Runway 07

Abbotsford. Page 15; effective May 10, 2007.

Minimum Sector Altitude of 3700’. Final approach course 067° on 109.7 IXX.

Procedure Turn 2500’; crossing the FAF XX frequency 344 at 1600’; down to ILS minimums 470’. I will call

“100’ TO GO”. The touchdown zone is at 174’ and the airport elevation is 195’. In the event of a missed approach, I will climb to 600’ on a track of 067°, then a right climbing turn to a heading of 202° to 3000’, then a right turn to “XX” NDB. Any questions?”

Sample Approach Plate Briefing 2

“This is the ILS 07 at Abbotsford Airport. The tower frequency is 119.4. Navigation required: ILS frequency 109.7—tuned, identified, and set. Abbotsford NDB frequency 344—tuned, identified, test, and set. We are being vectored south of the airport and our final approach course is 067. Our 100nm safe altitude is 12800’ and our sector altitude is 10000’. There are no cautionary notes for this airport. The glideslope altitude crossing the NDB will be 1600’, the decision height will be 470’, and I will call 100 above minimums. The airport elevation is 195’ with our touchdown zone at 174’. Our back-up time for the decision height is 2 minutes 36 seconds at 100 KNOTS. In the event of a missed approach, we shall climb to 600’ on a track of 067°, then a right climbing turn to a heading of 202° up to 3000’. At 3000’ we’ll make a right turn to the Abbotsford NDB for the published hold. Approach Plate Briefing complete. Any questions?”

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