Cakewalk SONAR User`s Guide

Cakewalk SONAR User`s Guide
Cakewalk SONAR
User’s Guide
©
™
Information in this document is subject to change without notice and does not represent a commitment on the part of Twelve Tone Systems, Inc. The software described in
this document is furnished under a license agreement or nondisclosure agreement.
The software may be used or copied only in accordance of the terms of the agreement.
It is against the law to copy this software on any medium except as specifically allowed
in the agreement. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any
form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording,
for any purpose without the express written permission of Twelve Tone Systems, Inc.
Copyright © 2004 Twelve Tone Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Program Copyright © 2004 Twelve Tone Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
ACID is a trademark of Sonic Foundry, Inc.
Cakewalk is a registered trademark of Twelve Tone Systems, Inc. SONAR and the
Cakewalk logo are trademarks of Twelve Tone Systems, Inc. Other company and product names are trademarks of their respective owners.
Visit Cakewalk on the World Wide Web at www.cakewalk.com.
Table of Contents
Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xix
About This Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xix
Registering SONAR Today . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xix
Conventions Used in this Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xx
Getting Help . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xx
1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
About SONAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Music Composition and Exploration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Remixing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Game Sound Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sound Production and Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Web Authoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Film and Video Scoring and Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Flexibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Computers, Sound, and Music . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MIDI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Digital Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installation and Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installing SONAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Starting SONAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SONAR Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SONAR File Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Opening a File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Working on a Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Windows Taskbar Indicators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Screen Colors and Wallpaper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Starting to Use SONAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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2 Tutorials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Tutorial 1—The Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Opening a Project File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Setting Outputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Playing the Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Restarting the Project Automatically . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Changing the Tempo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Muting and Soloing Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Changing a Track's Instrument . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Playing Music on a Keyboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Tutorial 2—Recording MIDI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Creating a New Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Recording a MIDI Track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Saving Your Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Loop Recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Punch-In Recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Tutorial 3—Recording Digital Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Setting the Sampling Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Setting the Audio Driver Bit Depth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Setting the File Bit Depth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Open a New Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Setting Up an Audio Track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Checking the Input Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Recording Digital Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Listening to the Recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Recording Another Take . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Input Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Loop and Punch-In Recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Recording Multiple Channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Tutorial 4—Editing MIDI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
Transposing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
Copying Clips with Drag and Drop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Editing Notes in the Piano Roll View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Slip Editing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Drawing MIDI Envelopes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Converting MIDI to Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Tutorial 5—Editing Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Opening the Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Importing a Wave File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Moving and Looping the Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Slip Editing a Clip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Automatic Crossfades . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Bouncing Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
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Tutorial 6—Using Groove Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Adding Groove Clips to a Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Looping Groove Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Changing the Pitch of Groove Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Changing the Tempo of Your Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
Creating Your Own Groove Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Tutorial 7—Mixing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
Adding Real-time Audio Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
Automating an Individual Effect’s Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
Grouping Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Automating Your Mix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Exporting an MP3 File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Tutorial 8—Using Soft Synths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
Inserting Cakewalk TTS-1 into a Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
Playing MIDI Tracks through a DXi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
Converting Your DXi Tracks to Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
Tutorial 9—Drum Maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
Create a New Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
Creating a Drum Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
Create a Drum Track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
Map Drum Notes to Different Outputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
Tutorial 10—Cyclone DXi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
Cyclone Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
Adding Files to a Pad Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
Setting a Pad’s Volume and Pan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Playing Cyclone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
Editing Loops in the Loop Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
3 Controlling Playback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
The Now Time and How to Use It . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Now Time Marker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Displaying the Now Time in Large Print . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other Ways to Set the Now Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Time Ruler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Controlling Playback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Handling Stuck Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Looping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Track-by-Track Playback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Playback State Toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Silencing Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Soloing Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Inverting the Phase of a Track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing Tracks’ Mono/Stereo Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Changing Track Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
Setting Up Output Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
Assigning Tracks to Outputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
Choosing the Instrument Sound (Bank and Patch) . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
Adding Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
Adjusting Volume and Pan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
Configurable Panning Laws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
Adjusting Volume Trim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
Assigning a MIDI Channel (Chn) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
Adjusting the Key/Transposing a Track (Key+) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
Adjusting the Note Velocity (Vel+) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
Adjusting the Time Alignment of a MIDI Track (Time+) . . . . . . . . 143
Other MIDI Playback Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
Controlling Live MIDI Playback—MIDI Echo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
Local Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
Playing Files in Batch Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
The Play List View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
Video Playback, Import, and Export . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
Inserting and Playing Back Videos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
Exporting Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
Optimizing Video Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
Using the Video Thumbnails Pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
Locating Missing Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
The Find Missing Audio File Dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
Restoring Missing Audio Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
Managing Shared and External Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
4 Recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
Creating a New Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
Using Per-Project Audio Folders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
Creating a New Project File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
Setting the Meter and Key Signatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
Setting the Metronome and Tempo Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
Setting the Audio Sampling Rate and Bit Depth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
Setting the MIDI Timing Resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
Preparing to Record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
Recording Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
Choosing an Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
Arming Tracks for Recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
Auto Arming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
Recording Music from a MIDI Instrument . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
Recording Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
Tuning an Instrument . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
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Confidence Recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Input Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Audio Engine Button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Loop Recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Punch Recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Step Recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Step Pattern Recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Recording Specific Ports and Channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Input Filtering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Importing Music and Sound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Importing Audio Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Importing Material from Another SONAR Project . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Importing MIDI Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Saving Your Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Labeling Your Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
File Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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5 Arranging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
Arranging Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing the Order of Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring the Display of Tracks in the Track View . . . . . . . . . .
Copying Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Erasing Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Arranging Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Displaying Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Navigator View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Double-clicking Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Moving and Copying Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nudge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nudge Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Working with Partial Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Markers and the Snap Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Showing Gridlines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Defining and Using the Snap Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Snap Offsets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating and Using Markers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Working with Linked Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Splitting and Combining Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Take Management and Comping Takes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
204
205
207
208
208
209
209
213
213
214
214
218
218
220
221
222
222
224
224
228
230
232
vii
Clip Muting and Isolating (Clip Soloing) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
Clip Muting with the Default Style . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
Clip Muting with the Alternate Style . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
Audition (Selection Playback) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
Isolating (Clip Soloing) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
Track Folders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238
Adding Effects in the Track View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
Changing Tempos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
Using the Tempo Toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
Using the Tempo Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
Using the Tempo View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
Undo, Redo, and the Undo History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
6 Using Loops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
The Loop Construction View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252
Loop Construction Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252
The Loop Explorer View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256
Folders Pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257
Contents List Pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
Working with Loops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
Working with Groove Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260
How Groove Clips Work in SONAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260
Using Groove Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261
Creating and Editing Groove Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262
Editing Slices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
Saving Groove Clips as Wave Files/ACIDized Wave Files . . . . . . . 266
Using Pitch Markers in the Track View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266
MIDI Groove Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267
Exporting, and Importing MIDI Groove Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269
Importing Project5 Patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
7 Editing MIDI Events and Controllers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273
Event Inspector Toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274
The Piano Roll View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
Note Map Pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
Drum Grid Pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
Note Pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
Controllers Pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
Track List Pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
Opening the View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
Selecting and Editing Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277
Working with Multiple Tracks in the Piano Roll View . . . . . . . . . . 282
Note Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283
viii
Selecting and Editing Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transposing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Shifting Events in Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Inserting Time or Measures into a Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stretching and Shrinking Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reversing Notes in a Clip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding Crescendos and Decrescendos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Slip Editing MIDI (Non-destructive Editing) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Slip Editing Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Slip Editing for MIDI Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Slip-editing Multiple MIDI Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing the Timing of a Recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Quantizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fit Improvisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Searching for Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Event Filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Controllers, RPNs, NRPNs, and Automation Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Controllers Pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Event List View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Event List Buttons and Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting Events in the Event List View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Event List Display Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Editing Events and Event Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Additional Event Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MIDI Effects (MIDI Plug-ins) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Presets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Quantizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding Echo/Delay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Filtering Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding Arpeggio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Analyzing Chords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing Velocities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transposing MIDI Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
283
284
285
285
288
290
290
291
291
292
293
294
294
304
305
306
311
313
318
319
321
322
322
324
325
326
327
328
329
329
330
331
332
8 Drum Maps and the Drum Grid Pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335
The Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating and Editing a Drum Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Drum Map Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Working in the Drum Map Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Map Properties Dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Saving a Drum Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
336
336
336
338
339
339
ix
Using Drum Maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340
Assigning a MIDI Track to a Drum Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340
Opening a Drum Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340
Displaying Tracks in the Drum Grid Pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340
Velocity Tails . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341
Editing Note Velocities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341
Previewing a Mapped Sound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342
The Note Map Pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342
Changing Mapped-note Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343
The Drum Grid Pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344
Grid Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344
The Pattern Brush Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345
How the Pattern Brush Tool Works . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345
Creating Custom Patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347
9 Editing Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349
Digital Audio Fundamentals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350
Basic Acoustics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350
Example—A Guitar String . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350
Waveforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352
Recording a Sound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354
The Decibel Scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355
Audio Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356
Managing Audio Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356
Basic Audio Editing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357
Editing Clip Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358
Moving, Copying, Pasting and Deleting Audio Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . 359
Audio Scaling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359
Splitting Audio Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363
Bouncing to Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364
Scrubbing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365
Basic Audio Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365
Increasing or Decreasing Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366
Reversing Audio Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368
Equalizing Audio Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368
Advanced Audio Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369
Removing Silence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369
Extracting Timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371
Parametric Equalization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374
Slip-editing Audio (Non-destructive Editing) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375
Slip-editing Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376
Using Slip-editing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376
Slip-editing Multiple Audio Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379
x
Fades and Crossfades . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Fades and Crossfades in Real Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Applying Fades and Crossfades Offline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Audio Effects (Audio Plug-ins) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Applying Audio Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mixing Audio Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding Parametric Equalization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding Chorus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Applying Delay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding Flanging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Applying Reverb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Shifting Pitch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stretching Time and Pitch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
380
380
384
386
387
388
389
390
391
393
394
395
395
10 Working with Software Synthesizer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399
Kinds of Soft Synths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Synth Rack View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DX Instruments (DXi’s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Multi-port DXi’s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Inserting a DXi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Opening a DXi’s Property Page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Playing a DXi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Muting and Soloing DXi Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Converting Your DXi Tracks to Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Automating a DXi’s Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ReWire Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Inserting a ReWire Instrument . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mixing Down ReWire Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Automating ReWire Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ReWire Troubleshooting Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stand-alone Synths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Playing a Stand-alone Synth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Recording a Stand-alone Synth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using VST Synths and Plug-ins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
400
400
401
402
402
404
405
407
407
408
410
412
414
414
414
415
415
416
417
11 Mixing and Effects Patching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 419
Preparing to Mix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring the Console and Track Views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mixing MIDI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mixing a MIDI Track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Converting MIDI to Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
420
424
428
428
429
xi
Routing and Mixing Digital Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430
Audio Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432
Stereo Buses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434
Surround Buses (Producer Edition Only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435
Main Outs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436
Metering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436
What the Meters Measure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437
Hiding and Showing Meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437
Changing the Meters’ Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 438
Changing the Meters’ Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440
Freeze Tracks and Synths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 441
Using Real-Time Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 444
Effects Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445
How to Use Real-Time Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445
Using the Per-track EQ (Producer Edition Only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 446
Applying Audio Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 447
Applying MIDI Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 448
Using Control Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 449
Using Remote Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 454
Using the Learn Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 456
Bouncing Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 456
Preparing to Create an Audio CD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 459
Preparing Audio for Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 459
Dithering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 468
12 Surround Mixing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 471
Surround Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 472
Configuring SONAR for Surround Mixing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 473
Using Surround Format Templates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 473
Choosing a Surround Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475
Surround Buses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 476
Routing in Surround . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 477
Downmixing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 478
Panning in Surround . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 479
Controlling Surround Panning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 480
Automating Surround Panning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 485
Joystick Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 485
Surround Metering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 486
Bass Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 487
xii
Surround Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The SurroundBridge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Effect Property Pages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Effect Presets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How to Patch and Configure Surround Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Importing Surround Mixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exporting Surround Mixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
488
488
488
489
489
491
492
13 Using Automation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 493
Quick Automation Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Automation Toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Automation Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Recording Individual Fader or Knob Movements . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Drawing Audio Envelopes in the Track View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Drawing MIDI Envelopes in the Track View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dotted Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Drawing Envelopes on Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Showing or Hiding Envelopes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deleting Envelopes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Copying and Pasting Envelopes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Resetting Envelopes and Nodes to Current or Neutral Values . . .
Envelope Mode and Offset Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Snapshots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Automating Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Automating Individual Effects Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Recording Groups of Faders and/or Knobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Recording Automation Data from an External Controller . . . . . . .
Reassigning Envelopes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Envelope Editing and Node Editing Menus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Automated Muting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
494
495
495
496
497
499
501
501
502
502
503
504
504
506
507
508
509
510
510
511
512
14 Layouts, Templates and Key Bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 513
Layouts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Floating Views and Dual Monitor Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Templates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Template Example: Three MIDI Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Key Bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Importing Key Bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exporting Key Bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
514
517
517
519
520
523
523
xiii
15 Working with Notation and Lyrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 525
The Staff View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 526
Opening the Staff View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 527
Staff Pane Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 527
The Staff Pane Right-Click Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 528
The Fretboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 529
Fretboard Popup Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 530
Basic Musical Editing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 531
Inserting Notes on the Staff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 531
Inserting Notes with the Fretboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 532
Selecting Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 533
Moving, Copying, and Deleting Notes on the Staff . . . . . . . . . . . . . 533
Moving Notes from within the Fretboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 534
Auditioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 535
Changing Note Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 536
Deglitch Dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 537
Working with Triplets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 538
Beaming of Rests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 538
Changing the Way Notes Are Displayed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 539
Using Enharmonic Spellings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 541
MIDI Channels and the Fretboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 542
Chords and Marks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 543
Adding Chord Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 543
Adding Expression Marks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 547
Adding Hairpin Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 548
Adding Pedal Marks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 549
Tablature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 550
Tablature Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 550
Changing Fretboard Texture and Orientation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 552
Quick TAB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 552
Regenerate TAB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 553
Entering Notes from the TAB Staff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 553
Single Note Editing from the TAB Staff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 554
Editing Chords or Groups of Notes from the TAB Staff . . . . . . . . . 554
Editing Notes and Chords from the Fretboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 555
Working with Percussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 556
Setting Up a Percussion Track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 556
Setting Up a Percussion Staff or Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 557
Ghost Strokes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 559
Printing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 559
The Meter/Key View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 560
What Is Meter? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 560
What Is Key? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 561
xiv
Opening the Meter/Key View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding and Editing Meter/Key Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Music Notation for Non-concert-key Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Working with Lyrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding and Editing Lyrics in the Staff View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Opening the Lyrics View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding and Editing Lyrics in the Lyrics View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
561
562
563
565
565
566
567
16 Using Instrument Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 569
Assigning Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Importing Instrument Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating Instrument Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating and Editing Patch Name and Other Lists . . . . . . . . . . . .
Copying Name Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Assigning the Bank Select Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Assigning Patch Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Assigning Note Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Assigning Controller, RPN, and NRPN Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Instrument Definition Tutorial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Why Use Instrument Definitions? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
What Can They Do and Not Do? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Where Do Instrument Definitions Come From? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Start of Tutorial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
570
572
573
576
577
577
578
580
581
582
583
583
583
583
17 Using System Exclusive Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 587
What Is System Exclusive? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sysx Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the System Exclusive View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sending Sysx Banks at Startup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Importing, Creating, and Dumping Sysx Banks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
More about Dump Request Macros . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Editing Sysx Banks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sysx View Buttons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Send . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Send All . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Receive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Clear Bank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Auto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Edit Bytes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Load Bank and Save Bank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
588
588
588
589
590
592
593
593
593
593
593
594
594
594
594
594
594
xv
Transmitting Banks During Playback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 595
Real-time Recording of System Exclusive Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 596
Sysx Echo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 596
Sysx .INI File Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 597
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 598
18 Synchronizing Your Gear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 601
Synchronization Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 602
Choosing Clock Sources When SONAR is the Master . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 603
MIDI Synchronization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 604
SONAR as the Slave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 605
SONAR as the Master . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 606
Using MIDI Sync with Drum Machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 607
Troubleshooting MIDI Sync . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 608
SMPTE/MIDI Time Code Synchronization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 608
Playing Digital Audio under SMPTE/MTC Sync . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 612
SMPTE/MTC Sync and Full Chase Lock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 613
Troubleshooting SMPTE/MTC Sync . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 614
MIDI Machine Control (MMC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 615
19 Audio File Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 617
The Project Files Dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 618
Project Files and Bundle Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 619
Audio Folders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 620
Global Audio Folders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 620
Per-project Audio Folders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 621
Imported Audio Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 623
Backing Up Projects with Digital Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 624
Deleting Unused Audio Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 625
20 Improving Audio Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 627
System Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 628
The Wave Profiler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 628
Enabling and Disabling Audio Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 630
Configuring SONAR for 18 bit-, 20-bit, and 24-bit Operation . . . . . 630
Converting Sample Rates and Bit Depths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 632
xvi
Improving Performance with Digital Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Getting the Most Out of Your PC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mixing Latency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
WDM vs. MME Drivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ASIO Drivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Queue Buffers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Status Bar/CPU Meter/Disk Meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
634
635
637
638
638
638
639
Appendix A: Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 641
When I Play a File, I Don’t Hear Anything . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
I Can’t Record from My MIDI Instrument . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
When I Play a File Containing Audio, the Audio Portion Doesn’t
Play . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
I Can’t Record Any Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
My Track or Bus Fader is Maximized, But There’s No
Sound or Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Music Is Playing Back with the Wrong Instrument Sounds . . . . .
How Do I Use SONAR to Access All the Sounds on My
MIDI Instrument? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
My Keyboard Doubles Every Note I Play . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
I Don’t See the Clips Pane in the Track View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Why Can’t SONAR Find My Audio Files? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
I Get an a Error Message When I Change a Project to 24-bit Audio . .
Bouncing Tracks Takes a Long Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Why Do I Get Errors from the Wave Profiler? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
I Hear an Echo When I Record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Audio Distorts at Greater than 16 Bits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
No Sound from My DXi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
My Pro Audio 9 Files Sound Louder/Softer When I Open
Them in SONAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
I Can’t Open My Project 651
SONAR Can’t Find the Wavetable Synth or MPU401 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
641
643
644
645
645
646
646
647
647
648
648
648
649
649
650
650
651
652
Appendix B: Hardware Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 653
Connect Your MIDI Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 653
Set Up to Record Digital Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 656
xvii
Appendix C: Cyclone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 661
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 661
Cyclone DXi Toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 662
Pad Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 662
Pad Inspector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 663
Loop Bin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 665
Loop View and Key Map View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 665
Pad Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 666
Slice Inspector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 666
Using Cyclone DXi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 667
Controlling Individual Pads—Volume, Pan, Mute, Solo, Sync,
Looping, and Content . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 670
Mixing Down Cyclone DXi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 671
Loop Editing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 671
Keyboard Shortcuts in Cyclone DXi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 672
Undo and Redo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 672
Appendix D: New Features in SONAR 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 673
Surround Mixing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 673
SurroundBridge (Surround Effects Linker) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 673
Track Folders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 673
Slip-editing Multiple Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 673
Freeze Synths or Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 674
Loop Construction View Enhancements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 674
Audio Metronome . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 674
Clip Muting and Isolating (Clip Soloing) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 674
Video Thumbnails . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 674
Enhanced Key Bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 674
Enhanced Import/Export/Bounce Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 675
Navigator Pane in the Track View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 675
Take Management and Comping Takes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 675
Audition (Selection Playback) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 675
Nudge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 675
Configurable Panning Laws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 675
Joystick Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 676
PoW-r Dither . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 676
Meter Ballistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 676
Surround Plug-ins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 676
Cakewalk TTS-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 676
xviii
Preface
The SONAR User’s Guide is designed to help you learn and use SONAR. This
Guide explains how SONAR works and how to use it to create, edit, produce, and
perform. The SONAR User’s Guide is task-oriented, with lots of cross-references,
so that you can find the information you need. The User’s Guide also includes a
comprehensive index that you can use to find information on any specific topic.
About This Book
The SONAR User’s Guide is organized as follows:
Chapter 1, Introduction, provides an overview of SONAR, installation instructions
and basic equipment setup options.
Chapter 2, Getting Started, contains tutorials that cover many of the features of
SONAR.
The remaining chapters cover all the basic and advanced skills you need to use
SONAR to play, record, edit, arrange, and mix your projects.
The appendices contain additional information you can use for troubleshooting,
setting up SONAR for use with audio hardware, and SONAR’s new features.
Registering SONAR Today
Please be sure to register your product on our Web site (www.cakewalk.com). If
you do not register, we cannot provide you with technical support, or inform you
when free updates and upgrades become available. By registering with Cakewalk,
you also become eligible for discounts on other great software products.
You can also register by phone. Call toll-free at 888-Cakewalk (617-423-9004
outside the U.S.).
Conventions Used in this Book
The following table describes the text conventions in this book:
Convention...
Meaning...
Bold Italics
Text that appears in bold italics is a command in SONAR.
hyphen (File-Open)
A hyphen represents a level in the menu hierarchy. For
example, File-Open means to click on the File menu and
select the Open command.
SMALL CAPS
Small caps are used for file extensions (.MID) and file names
(AUD.INI).
Getting Help
In addition to this User’s Guide, SONAR includes online help that can provide you
with quick reference information whenever you need it. Simply press F1 or click
the Help button in any dialog box to find the information you need. If you are new
to recording and editing music on your PC, see the online help topic “Beginner’s
Guide to Cakewalk Software” for an introduction.
If you need more information than you can find in the User’s Guide or the online
help, here are two great places to look:
•
Check the Support page of our Web site (www.cakewalk.com) for updated
technical information and answers to frequently asked questions.
•
Post messages to the SONAR user community using one of the Cakewalk
newsgroups. For more information about the newsgroups, visit
www.cakewalk.com.
You can also get technical support directly from Cakewalk. In order to obtain
technical support, you must register your product. You can obtain technical
support for this product in the following ways:
•
Visit http://www.cakewalk.com/Support/SONAR/SR4.asp.
•
Call Cakewalk Technical Support at (617) 423-9021 on weekdays, 10:00 AM to
6:00 PM, Eastern time. Be sure to have your serial number ready when you
call.
Technical support hours, policies, and procedures are subject to change at any
time. Check our Web site for the latest support information.
xx
1
Introduction
SONAR is a professional tool for authoring sound and music on your personal
computer. It’s designed for musicians, composers, arrangers, audio and production
engineers, multimedia and game developers, and recording engineers. SONAR
supports Wave, MP3, ACIDized waves, WMA, AIFF and other popular formats,
providing all the tools you need to do professional-quality work rapidly and
efficiently.
SONAR is more than an integrated MIDI and digital audio authoring software
package—it’s an expandable platform that can function as the central nervous
system of your recording studio. With drivers for common high-end audio
hardware, full support for DirectX and VST audio plug-ins, DXi software
synthesizers, MFX MIDI plug-ins, and MIDI Machine Control (MMC) of external
MIDI gear, SONAR can handle your most demanding projects.
In This Chapter
About SONAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Computers, Sound, and Music. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Installation and Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Starting SONAR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
SONAR Basics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Windows Taskbar Indicators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Screen Colors and Wallpaper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Starting to Use SONAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
:
About SONAR
SONAR is the flagship product of the Cakewalk line of integrated MIDI and digital
audio sequencers for the Windows platform. SONAR has a comprehensive feature
set that makes it the single most productive tool for sound and music authoring.
Here are some of the ways you can use SONAR.
Music Composition and Exploration
SONAR is a powerful music-composition application, providing tools to record your
own musical performances; enhance or improve the quality of those performances;
and edit, arrange, and experiment with the music. With a few simple clicks of the
mouse, you can arrange, orchestrate, and audition your composition. Fully
integrated sequencing allows you to combine the convenience and flexibility of
MIDI composition with the high-quality sound and subtlety of digital audio sound
recording and reproduction. Change the feel of a piece by locking it to a musical
groove, or add delicate delays, anticipations, or echoes that add richness to the
music.
SONAR displays and lets you edit your music using standard musical notation and
guitar tablature, so you can adjust individual notes, add performance markings,
and print individual parts or full scores. You can graphically draw tempo and
volume changes, or add lyrics to display on-screen or to include with printed
scores.
Remixing
SONAR’s Groove clips allow you to import, create, export and edit loops, making it
possible to quickly change tempos and keys for an entire project. The Loop
Explorer view lets you preview loops in the project’s tempo and key before
dragging and dropping them onto a track.
Game Sound Development
There’s no better tool than SONAR for composing music for electronic games. Clipbased sequencing lets you create and reuse musical themes freely, so you can
associate musical sections with game characters, locations, objects, and actions.
Your creations can be saved and replayed using the compact MIDI file format,
which adapts its sound automatically to the target hardware for the best possible
sound reproduction.
Sound Production and Engineering
If you want to produce music CDs or master tapes, SONAR has virtually
everything you need from recording to mixing and mastering. Multichannel
recording lets you capture studio or live performances track by track.
Reconfigurable buses provide full control over your mix. Real-time stereo effects
like chorus, flange, reverb, parametric EQ, and delay/echo can be applied as track
22
inserts, in effects loops, or to the master mix. SONAR supports 44.1 KHz sampling
for CD-quality sound and lets you choose from lower or higher sample rates as
well. All audio effects are 32-bit floating point for faster processing and highquality sound reproduction.
Web Authoring
SONAR is the ideal tool for developing and producing music and sound for the
World Wide Web, because it lets you save your work in the formats that are most
commonly used on web sites: MIDI, RealAudio, MP3, and Windows Media
Advanced Streaming Format. Any SONAR project—musical composition, audio
clip, commercial spot, jingle with voice-over—can be stored in a web-compatible
format with a few simple mouse clicks.
Film and Video Scoring and Production
SONAR has many of the tools you need to execute audio post-production projects
quickly and efficiently. SONAR provides chase lock sync to time code for frame-byframe accuracy when synchronizing audio or MIDI to film or video. Or, you can
turn chase lock off to conserve CPU power. SONAR provides high-quality time
stretching and sample-accurate editing with zero-crossing detection so you can
make the fine adjustments you need in record time. In addition, SONAR’s support
for video files gives you convenient synchronized access to digitized video, making
film and video scoring easier than ever.
Flexibility
SONAR works the way you want to work—you can customize screen layouts,
toolbars, and audio and MIDI system configurations to make your work more
efficient. SONAR integrates with other sound editing tools so you can access them
in an instant without leaving SONAR.
Computers, Sound, and Music
This section provides some background on the different ways that computers store
and play sound and music. Computers work with sound and music in two different
forms: MIDI and digital audio.
MIDI
MIDI (short for Musical Instrument Digital Interface) is the way computers
communicate with most sound cards, keyboards, and other electronic instruments.
MIDI refers to both the type of cables and plugs used to connect the computers and
instruments, and to the language those computers and instruments use to talk to
each other. The MIDI standard is accepted and used worldwide. Almost any
electronic instrument you buy today will have MIDI connectors and can be used
with other MIDI instruments and with your computer’s MIDI interface.
23
:
The MIDI language conveys information and instructions, both from the computer
to the instrument and from the instrument to the computer. For example, if your
computer wants your keyboard to play a note, it sends a MIDI “Note On” message
and tells the keyboard which note to play. When your computer wants the
keyboard to stop playing that note, it sends another message that stops the note
from playing.
The MIDI language has many other instructions, such as messages to change the
sound that is used to play the notes (the bank and patch), messages used to work
the sustain pedal and the pitch-bend wheel, and others. By sending the right
messages at the right times, your computer can control your electronic instrument
and make it play music.
MIDI information can be sent on 16 different channels. You can set up your MIDI
equipment to listen for messages on all channels or on only a few.
MIDI files contain all the MIDI messages and timing information that are needed
to play a song. MIDI files can be read and played by many different programs,
including SONAR, and can even be played by programs on other types of
computers. MIDI files have the extension .MID.
There are several important advantages of the MIDI format:
•
Large amounts of music can be stored in a very compact form
•
Different parts of a piece can easily be assigned to any instrument you can
imagine
•
The music contains information on notes, tempos, and key signatures that
makes it possible to display and edit the piece using standard musical
notation
The primary disadvantage of MIDI is that the quality of the music a listener hears
will vary depending on the MIDI equipment the listener is using. For example,
MIDI usually sounds much better on an expensive synthesizer than it does on an
inexpensive sound card.
Digital Audio
Digital audio is a simple way to record and play sounds of any type. It works like a
tape recorder—you record something, then later play it back. Digital audio stores
the sound as a long series of numbers.
Sound Waves
Sound waves are vibrations in the air. Sound waves are generated by anything
that vibrates; a vibrating object causes the air next to it to vibrate, and the
vibration is passed through the air in all directions. When the vibrating air enters
your ear, it makes your eardrum vibrate, and you hear a sound. Likewise, if the
vibrating air hits a microphone, it causes the microphone to vibrate and send
electrical signals to whatever it's connected to.
24
These vibrations are very fast. The slowest vibration frequency you can hear is
about 20 vibrations per second, and the fastest is around 16,000 to 20,000
vibrations per second.
Recording Digital Audio
To record digital audio, your computer monitors the electrical signal generated by
a microphone, an electric guitar, or another source. At equal intervals of time (for
CD-quality sound, this means 44,100 times a second), the computer measures and
saves the strength of the electrical signal from the microphone, on a scale from 0 to
65,535.
That's it. Digital audio data is just a long series of numbers. The computer sends
these numbers, in the form of electrical signals, to a speaker. The speaker then
vibrates and generates the same sound that was recorded.
The primary advantage of digital audio is the quality of the sound. Unlike MIDI, a
digital audio recording is very rich, capturing all the nuances, overtones, and other
characteristics of the sound exactly as performed. The main drawback of digital
audio is that it takes up a lot of disk space. To record a 1-minute segment of stereo,
CD-quality digital audio, you need about 10 megabytes of disk space.
On the PC, digital audio is usually stored in Wave files (extension .wav). There are
many programs available that let you create, play, and edit these files. SONAR
reads, writes, and lets you edit Wave files.
More information about digital audio can be found in Chapter 9, Editing Audio.
Installation and Setup
You can install SONAR on any computer that runs Windows 2000 or XP and has a
sound card or built-in sound module. If you want to hook up other devices, like a
MIDI keyboard, an electric guitar, or a microphone, you need the right cables, and
you need to find the right connectors on your computer.
Before you install SONAR, take a minute to register the software so we can let you
know when updates become available and provide you with technical support. To
register your copy of SONAR, fill in the registration card in your product package
and mail it back to us. Or, register at our Web site: www.cakewalk.com.
To connect a MIDI keyboard to your computer, you need standard MIDI cables or a
MIDI adapter cable, such as the one available in Cakewalk’s PC Music Pack. One
end of the adapter cable should have two 5-pin DIN connectors that connect to
your keyboard or other MIDI device. At the other end, you need a 15-pin connector
to connect to a sound card through its MIDI/joystick port.
If you have a dedicated MIDI interface, lots of electronic music gear, or work with
many different music software packages, see Appendix B: Hardware Setup.
25
:
Before you attach or detach any cables from your computer, you should shut down
your computer and turn off the power to all your equipment. This greatly reduces
the chance of electrical damage to your equipment while plugging and unplugging
cables.
To Connect a MIDI Keyboard to Your Computer
1.
One of the 5-pin connectors on the MIDI cable is labeled Out. Plug this
connector into the MIDI In jack on your electronic keyboard.
2.
The other 5-pin connector on the MIDI cable is labeled In. Plug this connector
into the MIDI Out jack on your electronic keyboard.
3.
If you are using a MIDI adaptor cable, plug the 15-pin connector on the MIDI
cable into the MIDI/joystick port on your sound card. If you have a joystick,
unplug it, plug in the MIDI cable, and plug the joystick into the pass-through
connector on the MIDI cable.
Or
If you are using standard MIDI cables, plug the cable connected to the MIDI
Out on your MIDI instrument into the MIDI In of your sound card or MIDI
interface. Plug the cable connected to the MIDI In on your MIDI instrument
into the MIDI Out of your sound card or MIDI interface.
To Connect an Electric Guitar to Your Computer
1.
Plug your 1/4” mono guitar cable into a 1/8” stereo adapter.
2.
Plug the 1/8” adapter into the microphone input or line input jack on your
computer sound card.
To Connect a Microphone to Your Computer
1.
If your microphone does not have a 1/8” mono or stereo plug, plug the
microphone into a 1/8” adapter.
2.
Plug the 1/8” adapter into the microphone input jack on your computer sound
card.
That's it! Now that your instruments are all set to go, you can restart your
computer and turn on your keyboard, guitar, and microphone.
Installing SONAR
SONAR is easy to install. All you need to do is choose the folder where the program
and sample project files should be stored.Before you start, make sure you have
your serial number handy. Your serial number is located on the back of your CD
case.
Installation note: If you choose to not install the Sample files, you will not have
the necessary content to use the tutorials in Chapter 2.
26
To Install SONAR
1.
Start your computer.
2.
Close any open programs you have running.
3.
Place the SONAR CD-ROM in your CD-ROM drive.
If you have autorun enabled, the SONAR AutoRun menu opens automatically,
showing you a dialog box with several buttons. If autorun is not enabled, you
can open the SONAR AutoRun menu by selecting Start-Run and entering
d:\AutoRun.exe (where d:\ is your CD-ROM drive).
4.
Click the Install SONAR button.
Note:
If you exit Setup without completing the installation, choose Start-Run,
type D:\AutoRun.exe (where D:\ is your CD-ROM drive), and click OK.
This will reopen the AutoRun window, and you can click Install SONAR
to start installation again.
5.
Follow the installation instructions on the screen.
You can also install SONAR by choosing Start-Run and running the application
named SETUP.EXE from the CD.
Uninstalling SONAR 4
When you installed SONAR, the setup program placed an Uninstall icon in the
Start menu. To uninstall SONAR, click the Start button and choose ProgramsCakewalk-SONAR 4 (Studio Edition or Producer Edition)-Uninstall
SONAR 4 (Studio Edition or Producer Edition).
Starting SONAR
There are many different ways to start SONAR. Here are a few:
•
Click on the SONAR icon on your desktop.
•
Click on the Start button, and choose Programs-Cakewalk-SONAR 4
(Studio Edition or Producer Edition)-SONAR 4 (Studio Edition or
Producer Edition).
•
Click the Start button, point to Documents, and choose a SONAR project from
the menu.
•
Double-click the SONAR program or any SONAR document from the Windows
Explorer or the Find menu.
27
:
When you start SONAR, you see the Quick Start dialog box.
The Quick Start dialog box has several options:
Option…
How to use it…
Open a Project
Choose a project from the Open File dialog
box to open it
Open a Recent Project
Select a project from the list, and click this
button to open it
Create a New Project
Click here to create a new project.
Getting Started
Click here to view the Getting Started topic
in the help file. This topic has links to a
glossary of terms, as well as some basic
procedures.
If you don’t want to see the Quick Start dialog box in the future, uncheck the box at
the bottom of the dialog box, and click Close. You can see the Quick Start dialog
box later by choosing Help-Quick Start.
Migrating Preferences
If you have a previous version of Cakewalk installed, SONAR will detect it and
give you the option of migrating certain preferences from a single earlier version.
28
When you choose to migrate preferences, SONAR migrates the following settings
from an earlier Cakewalk version:
Setting…
Description
Global Options
Settings in the Global Options dialog. Open
by selecting Options-Global.
Key Bindings
Your customized key bindings for
controlling SONAR using your MIDI
keyboard or computer keyboard.
Instrument Definitions
Files used to control specific MIDI
instruments. See Chapter 16, Using
Instrument Definitions.
Audio data directory (WaveData
folder) and Picture Cache directory
locations
SONAR uses the Data directory and Picture
Cache directories from the previous
Cakewalk version for storing project wave
files and their waveform image files.
Running Wave Profiler
The first time you start SONAR, it automatically runs the Wave Profiler utility.
Wave Profiler determines the proper MIDI and Audio timings for your sound card
and writes them to a file that SONAR refers to when using the card. Wave Profiler
does not change the sound card’s DMA, IRQ, or port address settings.
Wave Profiler detects the make and model of your sound card, which determine the
card’s audio characteristics. If Wave Profiler finds a card that has a WDM driver, it
only profiles that card. If you want to use more than one sound card at a time, and
they don’t both have WDM drivers, you must force the one with the WDM driver to
use that driver as an older, MME driver. It is not necessary to run the Wave
Profiler for a sound card using an ASIO driver. For more information about Wave
Profiler, WDM, and MME, see “The Wave Profiler” on page 628. When Wave
Profiler determines the kind of card you have, always accept the default settings.
Note:
You can run the Wave Profiler again at a later time (for example, if
you install a new sound card or driver) by choosing the OptionsAudio General tab command and clicking Wave Profiler.
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:
Setting Up the MIDI In and MIDI Out Devices
When you start SONAR for the first time, it checks your computer to find all the
MIDI input and output devices you have installed (such as sound cards and MIDI
interfaces). However, sometimes you need to tell SONAR exactly which devices you
want it to use. If you’re not getting sound from your sound card or MIDI keyboard,
or if you just want to change the MIDI outputs and devices that you are using,
follow the steps in this section.
Choose Options-MIDI Devices to open a dialog box in which you select the MIDI
In and MIDI Out devices that SONAR will use. Each item in the list is a MIDI
Input or MIDI Output from drivers installed using the Windows Control Panel.
1.
Select Options-MIDI Devices. You will see the MIDI Devices dialog box,
which lets you choose instruments on MIDI inputs and outputs.
Device selected for MIDI input
Devices selected for MIDI output
Device not
selected for MIDI
output
Click here to
change order of
MIDI devices
2.
Look at the left window. Notice that it shows devices on MIDI Inputs; make
sure that all devices in this window are highlighted. If a device isn’t
highlighted, click on it once to select it for MIDI Input.
3.
Look at the window on the right. Notice that it shows devices on MIDI
Outputs. SONAR numbers its MIDI Outputs by the order of the devices in this
window. The device on top is on Output 1, the one below it is on Output 2, and
so on.
4.
Highlight one device at a time in the Outputs window and click Move Selected
Devices to Top to change its order. Then highlight all the devices that appear
in the window to select them for output.
Tip!
Be sure to choose MIDI output devices from Options-MIDI Devices.
If you don’t do this, you won’t hear any of your MIDI instruments
when you play songs in SONAR.
30
Using MIDI Devices After Making Driver Changes
If you later add or remove drivers using the Drivers icon of the Windows Control
Panel, SONAR reacts in the following way:
•
If you remove a Control Panel driver, SONAR will not use the device it belongs
to the next time you run the program. Any other devices you had selected
using the Options-MIDI Devices command will remain selected.
•
If you add a driver through the Control Panel, SONAR does not automatically
use it. You must use the Options-MIDI Devices command to enable the new
driver in SONAR’s list.
Note:
After you add or remove a driver with the Drivers icon in the
Windows Control Panel, you must restart Windows for the change
to take effect.
Defining Your MIDI Instrument or Sound Card
Once you have selected your MIDI Input and Output devices, SONAR, by default,
plays back MIDI sequences using a General MIDI instrument definition. If you are
using a synthesizer or sound card that does not adhere to the General MIDI
standard, you may want to define that instrument. For information about
instrument definitions, see Chapter 16, Using Instrument Definitions.
SONAR Basics
SONAR’s menus and toolbars give you quick access to all the features of
SONAR. Some menu choices and tools display dialog boxes that let you choose
among various options, or type in the values you want. If you click in most views,
in time rulers, or on certain other items with the right mouse button, you see a
popup menu that provides quick access to many common operations.
The project is the center of your work in SONAR. If you’re a musician, a project
might contain a song, a jingle, or a movement of a symphony. If you’re a postproduction engineer, a project might contain a 30-second radio commercial or a
lengthy soundtrack for a film or videotape production. By default, every project is
stored in a file (known as a project file). The normal file extension for a SONAR
work file is .CWP.
SONAR organizes the sound and music in your project into tracks, clips, and
events.
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:
Tracks are used to store the sound or music made by each instrument or voice in a
project. For example, a song that is arranged for four instruments and one vocalist
may have 5 tracks—one for each instrument and one for the vocals. Each project
can have an unlimited number of tracks. Some of these tracks may be used in your
finished project, while others can hold alternate takes, backup tracks, and
variations that you might want to keep for future use. Each track can be made up
of one or many clips.
Clips are the pieces of sound and music that make up your tracks. A clip might
contain a horn solo, a drum break, a bass or guitar riff, a voice-over, a sound effect
like the hoot of an owl, or an entire keyboard performance. A track can contain a
single clip or dozens of different clips, and you can easily move clips from one track
to another.
Groove clips are audio clips which have tempo and pitch information embedded
within them, allowing them to follow changes to the project tempo or project pitch.
You can click on either edge of a Groove clip and drag out repetitions in the track.
Events are MIDI data (in MIDI tracks) or automation data.
SONAR File Types
Projects in SONAR can be saved as a project file with the extension .CWP or as a
Bundle file with the extension .CWB.
For a complete description of the differences between project files and bundle files,
see “Project Files and Bundle Files” on page 619.
Other Types of Files
SONAR lets you create and work with several other types of files, in addition to
project (.CWP) and bundle (.CWB) files that store your projects:
32
File type…
Description…
MIDI files (extension .MID)
Standard MIDI files.
Template files (extension .TPL)
Templates for new files you create
StudioWare (extension
.CAKEWALKSTUDIOWARE)
To control external MIDI devices from
SONAR
OMF (extension .OMF)
Open Media Framework format files.
Opening a File
Use the following procedure to open a file.
To Open a File in SONAR
1.
If you haven't already done so, start SONAR.
2.
Choose File-Open.
3.
In the Open dialog box, navigate to the directory where the project you want to
open is located and select it.
4.
Click the Open button.
5.
If you are opening an OMF file, the Unpack OMF dialog appears. Set the
initial tempo and specify the directory where you want to save the file and its
audio. For more information about opening OMF files, see Unpack OMF dialog
in the online help.
SONAR loads the project.
Views
SONAR displays your project in windows on the screen that are known as views.
You can have many views open at once, all showing the same project. When you
edit a project in one view, the other related views are updated automatically.
The Track View
The Track view is the main window that you use to create, display, and work with
a project. When you open a project file, SONAR displays the Track view for the
project. When you close the Track view for a project, SONAR closes the file.
The Track view is divided into several sections: toolbars (at the top), the
Navigator pane, the Video Thumbnails pane (Producer Edition only), the
Track pane, the Track/Bus Inspector, the Clips pane, and the Bus pane. You
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:
can change the size of the panes by dragging the vertical or horizontal splitter bars
that separate them.
The Clips pane
The Track pane
Expanded
track
Clips
Minimized
tracks
Track/Bus Inspector
Show/Hide Bus pane
Splitter bars
The Bus pane
All of the current track’s controls, plus a few that are only available in the Console
view, are contained in the Track/Bus Inspector which is an expanded version of
the current track’s controls located on the far left side of the Track view. You can
hide or show the Track/Bus Inspector by pressing i on your keyboard (see “Track/
Bus Inspector” on page 35, for more information).
The Track pane lets you see and change the initial settings for each track. By
default, the current track is displayed in gold. To change the current track, move
the highlight using the mouse or the keyboard as follows:
34
Key…
What it does…
Left/Right Arrow
Moves the highlight to the next or previous
control.
Up/Down Arrow
Moves to the same control in the adjacent
track, or the next track of the same type if
the control only applies to a specific track
type (for example, the Patch control only
applies to MIDI tracks).
Page Down
Displays the next page of tracks.
Page Up
Displays the previous page of tracks.
Home
Moves the focus to the first track.
End
Moves the focus to the last track.
The current track’s controls are contained in the Track/Bus Inspector.
The Clips pane shows the clips in your project on a horizontal timeline called the
Time Ruler that helps you visualize how your project is organized. Clips contain
markings that indicate their contents. The Clips pane lets you select, move, cut
and copy clips from place to place to change the arrangement of music and sound
in your project.
The Bus pane shows the buses in the project. The Show/Hide Bus pane button
allows you to show or hide the Bus pane at the bottom of the Track view.
The Navigator pane displays a large part of your project so you can see an
overview of your song. The Navigator pane displays all of your project’s tracks.
The Track view makes it easy to select tracks, clips, and ranges of time in a project.
These are the most common selection methods:
To…
Do this…
Select tracks
Click on the track number, or drag over
several track numbers
Select clips
Click on the clip, or drag a rectangle around
several clips
Select time ranges
Drag in the Time Ruler, or click between two
markers
Select partial clips
Hold down the Alt key while dragging over a
clip
As with most other Windows programs, you can also use the Shift-click and Ctrlclick combinations when selecting tracks and clips. Holding the Shift key while
you click adds tracks or clips to the current selection. Holding the Ctrl key while
you click lets you toggle the selection status of tracks or clips.
Track/Bus Inspector
The Track/Bus Inspector makes it easy to adjust the current track’s (or bus’s)
controls, because it’s a greatly expanded version of the current track’s controls that
is located on the left side of the Track pane. You can hide or show any one or all of
the controls in the Track/Bus Inspector by clicking the four buttons at the bottom
of the Track/Bus Inspector.
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:
The following graphic shows most of the Track/Bus Inspector’s controls (there may
not be room to display all of a track’s controls on the Track/Bus Inspector,
depending on the resolution of your monitor):
Track/Bus Inspector for an Audio Track
Track/Bus Inspector for a MIDI Track
Input menu
Input menu
Vel+
Trim
Fx bin: large view
with 4 assignable
sliders
Phase, Mono,
Input Echo
Mute, Solo, Arm
Send controls: MIDI
ch., Bank, Patch
Input Echo
Pan
Mute, Solo, Arm
Volume meter
Pan
Volume fader
Volume fader
Output menu
Output menu
Choose track or
bus menu
Click to select the Track/
Bus Inspector controls you
want to display
36
You can hide or show any of the Track/Bus Inspector’s controls, and use it to
display the controls from any track or bus. The following table shows you how:
To do this…
Do this…
Hide or show the Track/Bus Inspector
Press i on your keyboard.
Display a certain track’s or bus’s controls
in the Track/Bus Inspector
Click the track or bus to make it current, or
choose the track or bus in the track/bus
dropdown menu that’s at the bottom of the Track/
Bus Inspector.
Hide or show any of the Track/Bus
Inspector’s controls
Click any of the four buttons at the bottom of the
Track Inspector (these are 3-position buttons,
except for the Volume button):
•
Send button
—when yellow, displays
send controls for audio tracks and busses;
and channel, bank, and patch controls for
MIDI tracks. When blue, shows as many
sends as possible.
•
Volume button
—hides or shows the
volume fader in MIDI tracks, audio tracks,
and busses.
•
EQ button
—in audio tracks and busses
shows the built-in EQ controls. When yellow,
shows band 1; when blue, shows all 4
bands. In MIDI tracks it has no function.
•
FX button
—when yellow, shows the FX
bin in audio tracks and busses. When blue,
also shows the first 4 parameters of the
selected effect (if it’s an automatable effect).
In MIDI tracks, shows the FX bin when
yellow. When blue, shows sliders for 4
assignable MIDI continuous controllers.
Note: you can not display a MIDI track’s Time +
or Key + controls in the Track/Bus Inspector.
Reassign MIDI controller sliders in a MIDI
Track’s Fx bin
Right-click the slider you want to reassign and
choose Reassign Control from the popup menu,
choose the new parameter, and click OK.
Display the parameters of a different
automatable effect
Click the name of the effect you want to select.
Assign a control to a group, arm it for
automation, take an automation
snapshot, or set up remote control
Right-click the control and choose options from
the popup menu.
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:
Narrow the Track Inspector
Right-click a blank area and choose Narrow
Strip from the popup menu.
Bypass the FX bin
Right-click the FX bin and choose Bypass Bin
from the popup menu.
The Console View
The Console view is where you can mix the sounds on all the different tracks to
create the final mix of your project. While the Track view provides most of the
same controls, you may want to use the more familiar interface of the Console view
for mixing.
You use the Console view to adjust the levels of sound for the different tracks in
your project, to change the stereo panning, and to apply real-time effects to an
individual track, combinations of tracks, or the final mix.
The Console view contains several groups of controls. There is one module for each
track in your project, and one module for each bus. You can use bus sends to direct
certain tracks to special modules that are known as buses.
38
The Console View:
Audio module
MIDI module
Bus
Main Out
Bus Send Enable
Stereo/Mono button
Phase Invert button
Pan control
Volume fader
for each track
Mute, Solo, and Track Arming buttons
As in the Track view, you can change track settings or record new music or sound
in the Console view. You may choose to use one view or the other, or the choice you
make may depend on which project you are working on.
Other Views
SONAR has a number of other views you can use to display and work on your
project. To display these views, select one or more tracks, by Ctrl-clicking their
track numbers and:
•
Click the icon for the view in the Views toolbar
OR
•
Choose the view you want from the View menu
The Piano Roll view
: shows the notes from a MIDI track or tracks as they
would appear on a player-piano roll. You can move the notes around, make them
longer or shorter, and change their pitches by just dragging them with the mouse.
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:
You can also use the Piano Roll view to display and edit MIDI velocity, controllers,
and other types of information. The Piano Roll view also contains the Drum Editor,
which allows you to “paint” drum patterns using the Pattern Brush tool and play
different drum modules from a single track.
The Staff view
: displays the notes from one or more MIDI tracks using
standard music notation, similar to the way the notation would appear on a
printed page. You can add, edit, or delete notes; create percussion parts; add guitar
chords and other notation markings; display guitar tablature; display the
Fretboard pane; and print whole scores or individual parts to share with other
musicians.
40
The Loop Construction view
: allows you to create and edit Groove clips
(SONAR loops that “know” the tempo and key in which they were recorded), and
export these clips as ACIDized files.
The Loop Explorer view
: allows you to preview ACIDized files and other
Wave files; and drag and drop them into your project.
The Event List view
: displays the events in a project individually, so that you
can make changes at a very detailed level.
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:
SONAR has several other views that are used for very specific purposes:
View…
How you use it…
Meter/Key
To change the meter (time signature) or key
signature, or to insert changes in the meter
or key signature at specific times in a
project.
Big Time
To display the Now time in a large, resizable
font that you can read more easily.
Markers
To add, move, rename, or delete labels for
parts of your project that make it easier to
move from one point to another.
Lyrics
To add and display lyrics for a track.
Video
To display a loaded video file.
Sysx
To create, display, store, and edit System
Exclusive MIDI messages used to control
instruments and other gear that are MIDI
capable.
Tempo
To view and edit the project's tempo
changes.
Zoom Controls
Many of the views contain Zoom tools that let you change the horizontal and
vertical scale of the view:
Zoom tool
Zoom out vertically
Vertical Zoom fader
Zoom in vertically
Zoom in horizontally
Zoom out horizontally
Horizontal Zoom fader
The zoom tools are used as described in the following table:
42
Tool…
How you use it…
Zoom out
Click to zoom out incrementally, or press
Shift and click to zoom all the way out
Zoom in
Click to zoom in incrementally, or press
Shift and click to zoom all the way in
Zoom fader
Click and drag to zoom continuously
Zoom tool
Click to arm, then click and drag in the view
to select the zoom area
The Zoom tool is automatically disarmed after use. Double-click the Zoom tool to
make the selection stick. You can also zoom with the keyboard:
Key…
What it does…
Ctrl+up arrow
Zoom out vertically
Ctrl+down arrow
Zoom in vertically
Ctrl+right arrow
Zoom in horizontally
Ctrl+left arrow
Zoom out horizontally
G
Go to (center) the Now time, without
zooming
Z
Arm the Zoom tool
U
Undo the current zoom
F
Fit tracks to window
A
Show all tracks
Shift+F
Fit project to window
Shift+Double Click a clip
Maximize track height
Locking Views
By default SONAR allows only one instance of each view, but you can lock the
contents of most views, preserving the current view by forcing a new instance of
the view to appear if necessary. Locking views is the only way you can have
multiple instances of the same view open. Only the Track and Console views
cannot be locked.
To lock a view, just click the lock button at the top right of the view. An unlocked
view looks like this
, and a locked view looks like this
. A view can be locked
automatically by pressing the Ctrl key when opening the view.
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:
Floating Views
When a view is float enabled, you can move it outside of the confines of SONAR.
This is particularly useful if you take advantage of SONAR’s dual monitor support.
Using dual monitor support, you can keep the Track or Console view on one
monitor and “float” other views to the other monitor by dragging them to the
second screen.
For more information, see “Floating Views and Dual Monitor Support” on page
517.
Layouts
You may spend a lot of time making sure that all the views are laid out on the
screen just the way you want. When you save your work, you can save the screen
layout along with it. You can also save the layout by itself and then use the layout
with other projects. See “Layouts” on page 514
Working on a Project
Much of your time in SONAR is spent recording and listening to your project as it
develops. The Transport toolbar, shown below, contains the most important tools
and other pieces of information you’ll need to record and play back your project.
Every project has a current time, known as the Now time. As you record or play
back a project, the Now time shows your current location in the project. When you
create a project, the Now time is set to the beginning of the project. The current
Now time is saved with your project.
You control recording and playback using tools on the Transport toolbar, which
work a lot like the ones on your tape deck or CD player:
Stop
Go to Beginning
Go to End
Play
Record automation
Record
Reset
As you work with a project, you can use SONAR’s mute and solo features to choose
which tracks are played, or you can create loops to play a particular section over
and over again. You can also create markers, which are named time points you
add to your project to make it easy to jump to a particular location.
44
Windows Taskbar Indicators
When SONAR is running, you’ll normally see two indicators in your Windows
Taskbar, right next to the clock.
The MIDI activity monitor
contains two lights that indicate MIDI input and
output. When you play your MIDI keyboard, the first light flashes when each note
is pressed, and it flashes again when each note is released. When you play back a
project that contains MIDI, the second indicator lights up.
The volume control
is used to control the playback and record volumes on your
sound card. Double-click on this indicator to open a dialog box that lets you control
the levels for audio, MIDI, CD playback, and record.
The volume control is available only if your sound card is using a native Windows
driver. If your sound card does not use a native Windows driver, no volume control
will be displayed in the taskbar. In this case, your sound card probably came with
a separate program to control input and output levels. See your sound card
documentation for more information.
Screen Colors and Wallpaper
SONAR lets you customize the colors that are used for virtually all parts of the
program using the Options-Colors command. This command also lets you change
the background bitmap that is displayed in the SONAR window.
For any SONAR screen element, you can assign a color in two ways:
•
Choose one of the colors that is part of your Windows color scheme.
•
Assign a custom color.
To Assign Custom Colors
1.
Choose Options-Colors to display the Colors dialog box.
2.
Choose the screen element whose color you want to change from the Screen
Element list.
3.
Assign a color to the screen element in one of two ways:
•
To use a color from the Windows color scheme, choose one of the options in
the Follow System Color list
•
To use a custom color, check Use Specific Color, click the Choose Color
button, and select the color you want
4.
To save these changes from session to session, check the Save Changes for
Next Session box.
5.
Click OK when you are done.
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:
SONAR uses the colors you have chosen.
To Restore the Default Colors
1.
Choose Options-Colors to display the Colors dialog box.
2.
Click the Defaults button.
3.
Click OK.
SONAR uses the default colors for all screen elements.
To Change the Wallpaper
1.
Choose Options-Colors to display the Colors dialog box.
2.
Choose the desired wallpaper according to the table:
3.
To do this…
Do this…
Use the default wallpaper
Check Default in the Wallpaper list
Not use any wallpaper
Check None in the Wallpaper list
Use a custom bitmap
Check Custom, choose a bitmap, and click
Open
Click OK when you are done.
Starting to Use SONAR
This chapter has provided you with an overview of SONAR and basic information
on how to install the software and configure your system. To get started with
SONAR, you can try the tutorials in Chapter 2. When you’re finished with the
tutorials, move on to Chapter 3 to learn the details of how you can use SONAR to
create your projects.
46
2
Tutorials
Now that you’ve learned some of the basics, it’s time to put that knowledge to
work. These tutorials will give you some hands-on practice in playing, recording,
and mixing your projects. If you want to learn more about any topic, you’ll find
references to the appropriate part of the User’s Guide.
Note:
If, during installation, you chose in the Select Components dialog not
to install the Tutorials folder (part of the Sample files), you will not
have access to the sample tutorial files needed to follow the tutorials
in Chapter 2, Tutorials. If you didn’t install these files, insert your
product CD and copy the files to your hard drive.
In This Chapter
Tutorial 1—The Basics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Tutorial 2—Recording MIDI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Tutorial 3—Recording Digital Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Tutorial 4—Editing MIDI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
Tutorial 5—Editing Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Tutorial 6—Using Groove Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Tutorial 7—Mixing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
Tutorial 8—Using Soft Synths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
Tutorial 9—Drum Maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
Tutorial 10—Cyclone DXi. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
Tutorial 1—The Basics
The first tutorial teaches you the basics of SONAR. You'll learn how to:
•
Open and play a project file
•
Make the project repeat automatically
•
Use markers
•
Speed or slow the tempo
•
Mute a track and play a track solo
•
Change a track's instrument
•
Play a track on a MIDI instrument
If you have not already done so, please read Chapter 1, Introduction, for basic
background information about projects, tracks, clips, the Track view, and the
Console view.
Opening a Project File
As you learned in Chapter 1, SONAR stores MIDI and digital audio data in
project files. The first thing you need to do is load a project file.
To Open a Project File
1.
If you haven't already done so, start SONAR.
2.
Choose File-Open.
3.
In the Open dialog box, navigate to the directory in which you installed
SONAR, double-click the Tutorials folder to open it and select the file
TUTORIAL1.CWP.
4.
Click the Open button.
SONAR loads the project and opens the Track view. Feel free to move and resize
the Track view to better fit your screen.
Setting Outputs
Before you can play a project, you must set the outputs for both MIDI sounds and
audio sounds. By setting the outputs, you are telling SONAR from which outputs
you want to hear the sounds. You may have a sound card with just one output or
several sound cards, each with several outputs. These sound cards may contain
their own synthesizers, which SONAR sees as MIDI outputs. Also, if you have a
separate MIDI interface connected to your computer, it has one or more MIDI
outputs.
Before we assign a track to an output, let’s make sure the outputs we want to use
are available.
48
To Enable MIDI Outputs
1.
Select Options-MIDI Devices from the menu to open the MIDI Devices
dialog box.
2.
In the MIDI Devices dialog in the Outputs field, arrange the outputs by doing
the following:
3.
To do this…
Do this…
Enable or disable a device
Click on it—an enabled device appears highlighted; a
disabled device does not appear highlighted.
Move a device to the top of
the list
Highlight it, temporarily deselect all other highlighted
devices, and click the Move Selected Devices to Top
button.
Click OK.
Note: If you have a large number of MIDI outputs enabled, you may occasionally
get MIDI transmission errors or an out-of-memory message. You can try either
deselecting some outputs, or lowering the number of Sysx buffers by using the
Options-Global command to open the Global Options dialog box: on the MIDI
tab, lower the value in the Number of Buffers field to 16.
To Enable Audio Outputs
1.
Select Options-Audio from the menu.
The Audio Options dialog box appears.
2.
Click on the Drivers tab in the Audio Options dialog box.
3.
In the Output Drivers field, select the drivers you want enabled. All enabled
drivers appear highlighted.
4.
Click OK.
To Set MIDI Outputs for Your Project’s Tracks
1.
In the Track view, click the Output dropdown menu in a track. You may need
to enlarge the track to show the Output control: In Track 1, click the Restore
Strip Size button
to expand the track. Also, you may have to click the All
tab control that’s at the bottom of the Track pane to display all the controls in
the track.
49
Output menu
All tab control—click this to display all the track controls. Click
the other tabs to display smaller groups of controls.
A popup menu appears, containing a list of enabled MIDI outputs.
2.
Select the output you want to use for that track.
3.
Press the down arrow on your computer keyboard to move to the Output field
for the next track and choose an output.
4.
Repeat step 3 for each track.
Let's play the project!
Playing the Project
Buttons in the Large Transport toolbar, shown in the following picture, can control
most of SONAR’s basic playback functions.
If you don’t see the Large Transport toolbar, then choose View-Toolbars and
check Transport (Large).
Rewind
Go to End
Run/Stop Audio Engine
Meter/Key
Stop
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Play
Record
Record Automation
Auto-punch Reset
To Start Playback
•
To play the project, click the Play button
, or press the Spacebar.
Do you hear music? If you don't hear anything, see the online help topic called
Troubleshooting for some troubleshooting tips.
To Restart the Project
When SONAR gets to the end of the project, it stops. To play the project again, do
the following:
1.
Click the Rewind button
, or press w to go back to the first measure.
2.
Click the Play button, or press the Spacebar.
To Pause Playback
•
To temporarily pause playback, click the Play button
or the Stop button
, or press the Spacebar. Click the Play button
again to resume
playback.
Certain SONAR functions can only be used when the project is paused. If a
function or command does not seem to work, try pausing the project.
The Now Time
The Now time is the current time in the project. In the Clips pane of the Track
view, the Now time is indicated by a vertical line. The Now time is also shown in
the Transport toolbar, both in MBT (measure/beat/tick) format and in time code
format (hour/minute/second/frame). During playback, the Now time increases in
accordance with the progress of the project.
You can set the Now time of the project by clicking in the Time Ruler in the Clips
pane, or (when playback is paused) by dragging the Now time slider in the Large
Transport toolbar.
While you are playing the project, you may want to keep an eye on the Now time.
The Big Time view displays the Now time in a large font so you can more easily see
it from a distance. To open this view, choose View-Big Time. You can change the
time format displayed in the Big Time window by clicking on it. You can change its
font by right-clicking on it.
Starting from a Marker
Markers make it easier to find certain points within the project. You may want to
set markers at the beginning of each section of your project or at times with which
some event must be synchronized. The Markers toolbar lets you move the Now
time to a marker, add a new marker at the Now time, and edit the marker list. If
51
you don’t see the Markers toolbar, then choose View-Toolbars and check
Markers.
Open Markers view
Default Groove clip pitch
Previous Next
Insert
marker marker marker
Markers list
The current project contains several markers. Let’s try starting playback from the
marker labeled C:
1.
If the project is playing, pause playback by clicking the Stop button
.
2.
In the Current Marker dropdown menu in the Markers toolbar (the larger
dropdown menu, on the left), select the marker labeled C. The Now time
moves to the start of measure 17.
3.
Click the Play button
.
You can jump to the next or previous marker by pressing Ctrl+Shift+ Page Down
or Ctrl+Shift+Page Up.
For more information on markers, see “Creating and Using Markers” on page 224.
Restarting the Project Automatically
Wouldn’t it be easier to practice your solo if you didn't have to rewind and restart
the project each time it ended? Rather than manually rewinding and restarting
the project, you can make SONAR automatically jump back to the beginning and
keep playing.
Looping Over the Entire Project
To control looping, use the tools in the Loop/Auto Shuttle toolbar. If you don’t see
this toolbar, choose View-Toolbars and check Loop.
Loop properties
Loop On/Off
Loop end time
Loop start time
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Set loop to selection time
To loop over the entire project, do the following:
1.
In the Loop toolbar, click the Loop Start time. The time display changes to an
edit box with spin controls.
2.
To loop over the entire project, the loop must start at 1:01:000. If the Loop
Start time is not already set to 1:01:000, use the keyboard or spin controls to
enter this value. To set it to 1:01:000, click the Loop Start time, enter 1 and
press Enter.
3.
In the Loop toolbar, click the Loop End time.
4.
Press F5 to open the Markers dialog box.
5.
Select the marker named <End> and click OK. The Loop End time is set to the
end of the project.
6.
Click the Loop On/Off button
7.
Click Play.
to enable looping.
When looping is enabled, the Time Ruler displays special flag markers that
indicate the loop start and end times. You can drag these markers to change the
loop start and end times.
Loop Start
Loop End
To turn looping off, click the Loop button again.
Looping Over a Section of the Project
Maybe you would like to practice one section of the project over and over. Or,
maybe you'd like one section played repeatedly so you can practice an extended
solo. In either case, you need to set the start and end times of the loop section. Let's
have SONAR loop over the section between markers C and D:
1.
In the Loop toolbar, click on the Loop Start time.
2.
Press F5 to open the Markers dialog box.
3.
In the Markers dialog box, select marker C and click OK. The loop start time
is set to the marker time.
4.
In the Loop toolbar, click on the Loop End time.
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5.
Press F5 to open the Markers dialog box.
6.
In the Markers dialog box, select marker D and click OK.
7.
Click the Loop On/Off button
8.
Click Rewind. The project rewinds to the Loop Start time.
9.
Click Play.
to enable looping.
A quicker way of selecting the loop times in the preceding example would be to
simply click in the area between the markers at the top of the Clips pane, then
click
to copy the selection start and end times to the Loop/Auto Shuttle toolbar.
Click here to select the portion of the project between markers C and D
Changing the Tempo
If the project is having trouble keeping up with you (or if you're having trouble
keeping up with the project!), you can easily speed up or slow down the project,
since it contains only MIDI data. There are two ways to do this: you can change the
tempo, or you can change the tempo ratio, which determines the tempo by
multiplying it by a user-defined amount. The controls for either method are found
on the Tempo toolbar. If you don’t see this toolbar, choose View-Toolbars and
check Tempo.
Drag here to move toolbar to new location
Tempo ratio 3
Insert tempo
Tempo
54
Tempo ratio 2
Tempo ratio 1
Setting the Tempo
Let’s pick up the pace a little. Do the following:
1.
With the project playing, click on the tempo value in the Tempo toolbar. The
tempo will be highlighted and spin controls will appear.
2.
Use the spin controls to increase the tempo to 100 beats per minute.
3.
Press Enter. The project will play a little faster.
Changing the Tempo with the Tempo Ratio Buttons
By default, the Tempo Ratio buttons let you play the project at half or double
tempo. Try this:
1.
Click Button 1
. The project slows to half its normal tempo. Note that the
displayed project tempo has not changed.
2.
Click Button 3
. The project speeds to twice its normal tempo.
3.
Click Button 2
. The project returns to its normal tempo.
Note: The Tempo Ratio buttons do not function in projects containing audio clips.
Also, the clock source setting on the Clock tab of the Project Options dialog
(Options-Project command) must be set to Internal.
Setting the Tempo Ratios
Tempo ratios can be changed by Shift-clicking on them in the Tempo toolbar and
entering a new number in the dialog box. By default, tempo ratios are set to 0.50,
1.00, and 2.00, respectively.
Advanced Tempo Control
This project is a special case in that it has only one tempo for the entire project. If
you need to vary the project’s tempo, SONAR lets you insert tempo changes. Tempo
changes can be inserted individually so that different sections can be played at
different tempos, or they can be inserted graphically in the Tempo view. For more
information, see “Changing Tempos” on page 241.
Tempo ratios affect the entire project, even if there are tempo changes. SONAR
always multiplies the current tempo in the project by the tempo ratio to determine
the playback tempo.
55
Muting and Soloing Tracks
Muting a track causes it not to sound when you play your project. Soloing a track
mutes all the tracks except the ones that are soloed.
You can change a track’s mute or solo status while your project is playing.
Muting a Track
Frequently you will want to temporarily turn off one or more instruments in your
ensemble. SONAR makes it easy to mute the parts you don’t want to hear.
For example, suppose that you are practicing the piano part for this project and
want to hear only the other instruments. Let’s mute the piano part. With the
project playing, do the following:
1.
In the Track pane, click the Mute button
in the Piano track (track 1). The
button turns yellow, and the piano part drops out of the project.
2.
To turn the piano back on, click the Mute button again.
Note that the yellow MUTE indicator lights up in the Status bar whenever a track
is muted (the Status bar is located at the bottom of the SONAR window). This can
be very helpful if there are muted tracks that aren’t visible.
Let's try using a different method to mute two tracks simultaneously:
1.
In the Track pane, click the track number (the left-most column) of the Piano
track. The track is selected.
2.
While pressing Ctrl, click the track number in the Sax track. The Piano and
Sax tracks are selected.
3.
Choose Track-Mute. Both tracks are muted.
You can also mute or unmute tracks by using the popup menu:
1.
In the Track pane, click the track number of the Piano track.
2.
While pressing Ctrl, click the track number of the Sax track. The piano and
sax tracks are selected.
3.
Right-click on either track to bring up the popup menu.
4.
Choose Mute (which should have a check mark beside it).
SONAR unmutes the tracks. You can also unmute all tracks by clicking the Mute
indicator on the Status bar.
56
Playing a Track Solo
If you want to hear one track by itself, you could mute all other tracks. But there’s
a quicker way to do it—the Solo button. For example, to play the drum part by
itself, do the following:
1.
Click the Solo button
in the Drum track (track 5). Voila, a percussion solo!
2.
To let the other instruments back into the project, click the Drum track's Solo
button again.
Solo is not exclusive—you can let as many instruments as you like into the solo.
Note that the green SOLO indicator lights up in the Status bar whenever a track
is soloed.
Let’s use a different method to solo all three percussion tracks:
1.
In the Track pane, click the track number in the Drums track. The track is
selected.
2.
While pressing Shift, click the track numbers in the Shaker and Triangle
tracks. All three percussion tracks are selected.
3.
Choose Track-Solo.
When you want to let the entire ensemble back into the project, click the Solo
indicator on the Status bar to unsolo all the tracks, or select all soloed tracks and
choose Track-Solo. As a third option, right-click, bring up the popup menu, and
turn off the solo from there.
Note that Mute takes priority over Solo. If both buttons are selected in a track, the
track does not play.
Mute and Solo in the Console View
The Console view contains Mute and Solo buttons identical to those in the Track
view. The two sets of buttons are synchronized. To see this, do the following:
1.
In the Console view, mute the Bass, Sax, and Drums tracks.
2.
Solo the Piano track.
3.
In the Track view, check that the first track is soloed and that tracks 2, 3, and
5 are muted. Click the selected Solo and Mute buttons to return the tracks to
normal.
57
Changing a Track's Instrument
If your sound card is like most, its internal synthesizer is capable of producing at
least 128 different instrument sounds, plus several dozen percussion sounds. Now
you'll find out how to get some of those other instruments into the act. Let’s try
changing the instrument playing the piano line.
Changing the Patch in the Track View
With the project playing, do the following:
1.
Solo the Piano track so you can hear the piano part more clearly. To do this,
click the Solo button
in the Piano track (track 1).
2.
Loop the project, or a part of the project and click Play.
3.
In the Piano track in the Track pane, find the Patch control (it’s the field just
after the Bank control). Click the down arrow that is at the end of the patch
name (the patch name should be something like Acoustic Grand Piano).
4.
To change the patch, select a new patch from the menu that appears. SONAR
closes the menu and immediately starts playing the piano part with that new
instrument.
5.
Have fun trying all the different patches!
6.
Click the Solo button in track 1 again to unsolo the Piano track.
You can change the patch at other times in the project besides the beginning by
using the Insert-Bank/Patch Change command:
1.
Stop playback.
2.
Select the track in which you want to insert a patch change by clicking on its
track number.
3.
Move the Now time to the place where you want to insert the patch change.
4.
Use the Insert-Bank/Patch Change command.
The Bank/Patch Change dialog box appears.
5.
Choose a patch from the Patch field and click OK.
SONAR inserts the patch change that you selected at the Now time.
6.
Move the Now time to a place before the patch change and play the project so
that the Now time moves through the place where you put the patch change.
You may want to solo the track to hear it clearly.
7.
Listen to the sound change when the Now time reaches the patch change.
You may want to experiment with changing all the instruments used by the
project. One thing you should know: Changing the instrument on a percussion
track (such as the Drum, Shaker, and Triangle tracks in this project) may have no
effect. Percussion instruments are played on MIDI channel 10, which in General
58
MIDI is dedicated to percussion. The note determines the instrument, and the
patch is irrelevant.
Changing the Patch in the Track/Bus Inspector
You can also change a track’s patch in the Track/Bus Inspector, which is a
vertically expanded version of the current track’s controls at the far left side of the
Track view. The current track is the one with the gold title bar. Whichever track’s
controls that you click becomes the current track. For example, to change the
Piano track’s patch, click the Patch button in the Piano track’s Track/Bus
Inspector and choose a new patch from the menu. The Patch button is just below
the Bank button. You can hide or show the Track/Bus Inspector by pressing i on
your computer keyboard.
Playing Music on a Keyboard
If you've connected a MIDI keyboard (or another instrument) to your external
MIDI interface or the MIDI interface of your sound card, you can play one or more
parts of the project on the keyboard instead of the sound card’s internal
synthesizer. For instructions on connecting a keyboard to your computer, see “To
Connect a MIDI Keyboard to Your Computer” on page 26. For this section, we
assume that you want to connect the keyboard to the MIDI In and MIDI Out of
your sound card.
Checking Your MIDI Device Settings
First, let’s make sure that SONAR is set up to send MIDI output to your keyboard.
1.
Choose Options-MIDI Devices to open the MIDI Devices dialog box.
2.
In the Outputs field, two devices should be selected. The first should be your
sound card synthesizer device; the second should be the MIDI output your
MIDI device is connected to (it should say something like “SB Live MIDI
Out”). The uppermost selected device will correspond to Output 1, the second
device to Output 2, and so on. For help with these settings, see “Setting Up
Output Devices” on page 134.
3.
Click OK.
59
Routing MIDI Data to the Keyboard
Let’s play back the Piano track through your MIDI keyboard. First, turn your
keyboard on and make sure it is set up to receive MIDI input on channel one.
Then, do the following:
1.
In the Track view, in the Piano track (track 1), click the Output field to open
the menu of outputs.
2.
Select the output that your keyboard is attached to.
3.
Click the Play button or press the Spacebar to play your project.
SONAR plays the piano part through your keyboard.
Or, if you prefer, the procedure is similar in the Console view:
60
1.
In the Console view (to display, use the View-Console command), click the
Output button in the Piano module to open the menu of outputs. The Output
button is just below the volume fader.
2.
Select the output that your keyboard is attached to.
3.
Play your project. If you don’t hear anything from your keyboard, see
Appendix A: Troubleshooting for some hints on troubleshooting.
Tutorial 2—Recording MIDI
This tutorial teaches you how to record MIDI data with SONAR. You’ll learn how
to:
•
Set up the metronome
•
Record MIDI tracks
•
Use loop recording
•
Use punch recording
Creating a New Project
If you haven’t already done so, the first thing you need to do is create a project file:
1.
Start SONAR.
2.
Choose File-New.
3.
In the New Project File dialog box, select the MIDI tracks template.
4.
Click OK.
SONAR opens a new project, containing only MIDI tracks.
Recording a MIDI Track
Let’s record a new MIDI track in the project.
Setting Up the Metronome
Musicians often use a metronome to keep track of the beat. SONAR’s metronome
is more versatile than most real metronomes. You can configure it to sound on
playback or recording; it can count off any number of lead-in measures or beats; it
can use audio clips or MIDI notes to produce sounds; and it can accent the first
beat of each measure. It also quickly and accurately follows any tempo changes
that happen in the project.
You can set up the metronome with the Metronome toolbar. If you don’t see the
Metronome toolbar, choose View-Toolbars and select Metronome.
Accent first beat
Use Audio Metronome
Metronome settings
Metronome during
record
Measures
Count-in
Beats
Use MIDI metronome
Metronome during playback
61
Let’s set up the metronome to play audio for two count-in measures when
recording. Here's what to do:
1.
In the Metronome toolbar, click in the Count-in box.
2.
Use the + or - buttons to set the count-in value to 2.
3.
Click the Count-in Measures option
4.
Deselect the Metronome During Record option
5.
Select the Use Audio Metronome option
6.
Deselect the Use MIDI Metronome option
to select it.
.
.
.
By disabling the Metronome During Record option, you cause the metronome to
turn off after the count-in measures. If you would prefer to hear the metronome
during the entire project while recording, enable this option instead.
In this example, the metronome counts in for recording, not for playback.
Setting MIDI Inputs
Let's make sure that SONAR is set up to receive MIDI data from your instrument.
1.
Choose Options-MIDI Devices to open the MIDI Devices dialog box.
2.
In the Inputs column, select your sound card's MIDI In device or the MIDI In
for your external MIDI interface. For help with these settings, see “Setting Up
the MIDI In and MIDI Out Devices” on page 30.
3.
Click OK.
Setting Up Playback
During recording, SONAR will play the rest of a project as usual. Depending on
what instrumental part of the project you are going to record, you may want to
mute one or more tracks, or solo certain tracks. For example, if you are going to
record a new piano part, you might want to mute the old piano part so that you're
not competing with it while recording (you can also record over the old piano
part—arm the piano track and make sure Overwrite is the selected mode in the
62
Record Options dialog box, which you open with the Transport-Record Options
command). To mute any track, click the track's Mute button
.
Since this is a new project, there is no need to mute or solo any track.
You can also set other playback options, such as the tempo ratio, to make your
recording session easier.
Recording MIDI
Now you'll record a track in the project. Do the following:
1.
Make sure your instrument is turned on and set up to transmit MIDI data.
2.
If you don’t have an unused MIDI track in the project, create a new MIDI
track by right-clicking in the Track pane and selecting Insert MIDI Track
from the menu that appears.
3.
In a MIDI track, click the Arm button
(arming a track automatically sets
the Input field to MIDI Omni, meaning that this track will record incoming
MIDI data from any channel).
4.
On the Transport toolbar, click Record
, or press r.
The metronome counts off two measures, then SONAR starts recording.
5.
Play your MIDI instrument.
6.
When you finish recording, click the Stop button
, or press the Spacebar.
If you've played any notes, a new clip appears in the Clips pane in the track you
recorded on. If no new clip appears, see “I Can’t Record from My MIDI Instrument”
on page 643 for some troubleshooting hints.
Listening to the Recording
Let’s play back your performance on your sound card. For an added dimension,
we’ll open a few other views in the process. Do the following:
1.
Display the controls of the track you recorded by clicking its Restore Strip Size
button
, or by dragging the Vertical Zoom control that’s located at the lower
right corner of the Clips pane. You may need to click the All tab at the bottom
of the Track pane to display all the controls.
2.
Click the Output dropdown arrow to display the menu of available outputs.
3.
Select your sound card’s MIDI synthesizer (if you don’t see the outputs you
expect to see, use the Options-MIDI Devices command and enable the
correct outputs—see “Setting Outputs” on page 48).
4.
In the Ch field, click the dropdown arrow to select a MIDI channel, and select
an unused channel.
5.
In the Patch field, select any patch.
6.
Choose View-Piano Roll to open the Piano Roll view.
63
7.
Choose View-Staff to open the Staff view.
8.
Choose View-Event List to open the Event List view.
9.
Choose Window-Tile in Rows to tile the views.
10. To return to the start of the project, click the Rewind button, or press w.
11. Click Play
or press the Spacebar.
It’s almost as easy to listen to your performance on your MIDI instrument. For
instructions on how to play a track on a MIDI keyboard, refer to Tutorial 1.
The Piano Roll, Staff, and Event List views all show the same basic information—
the notes that you recorded. The Piano Roll view displays the track as a playerpiano roll. The Staff view shows notes in traditional music notation. The Event
List view lists all MIDI events for the track. When you need to edit a track, you
can work in any of these views. On different occasions you may have reason to use
different views. More information about the Piano Roll, Staff, and Event List views
can be found in later chapters of this User’s Guide.
When you're ready to continue, close the Piano Roll, Staff, and Event List views.
Recording Another Take
Maybe your first attempt at recording resulted in a perfect performance, but
maybe not. If you'd like to remove your first take and try again, do the following:
1.
Choose Edit-Undo Recording or press Ctrl+Z to undo your recording.
2.
Click Rewind
, or press w. The track is still armed for recording, so you
don't need to re-arm it.
3.
Click Record
4.
When you finish recording, click the Stop button in the Transport toolbar or
press the Spacebar.
, or press r.
Alternatively, you could record your next attempt on a new track. That way you
can keep all the takes and select the best one later (or combine the best parts of
each!). If you record on a new track, be sure to arm the new track for recording and
to disarm the previous track. See “Loop Recording” on page 65 for a convenient
way to record multiple takes.
Saving Your Work
When you have something you’d like to keep, you can save the project by doing the
following:
64
1.
Choose File-Save As.
2.
In the File Name box, type a new file name, such as my project.
3.
Click OK.
SONAR saves the project under the new name. From now on, you can click the
Save button
to save this project.
Loop Recording
If you'd like to record several takes successively, you can set up SONAR to loop
over the entire project, or just some section of it. SONAR will record a new take
during each loop, storing that take in a new clip. You can set SONAR to place each
clip in a new track or to pile all clips in one track.
Let's try recording a few takes of the first four measures of a project, placing each
take in a new track.
Setting Up Looping
First, let's set up SONAR to loop over the first four measures:
1.
Click the down arrow in the Snap to Grid combo button
to Grid dialog box.
to open the Snap
2.
In the Snap to Grid dialog box, click the Musical Time button and select
Measure from the list of durations. In the Mode field, select Move To, and click
OK to close the dialog box.
Now you can only select exact one-measure blocks of time in the Time Ruler,
which is located at the top of the Clips pane.
3.
In the Time Ruler, drag through the first four measures to select them.
4.
In the Loop/Auto Shuttle toolbar, click the Set Loop to Selection button
set the Loop Start and Loop End times.
Clicking
to
enables looping automatically.
Setting Up the Tracks
Now let's set up the first of the tracks where the takes will be stored:
1.
Arm a MIDI track by making sure its Arm button
is red.
2.
Click the track’s Output field to set its output to your sound card's MIDI
synthesizer.
3.
Use the track’s Ch field to set its Channel to an unused channel.
4.
Use the track’s Patch field to select any patch.
As usual, you could set the tracks to play back on your MIDI keyboard instead by
specifying the appropriate output and channel.
65
Loop Recording
Finally, let's record our takes:
1.
Choose Transport-Record Options to display the Record Options dialog box.
2.
Choose the Store Takes in Separate Tracks option to store each new take in a
separate track. Each time a new take starts, the settings from the first track
will be copied to the new track.
3.
Click OK.
4.
Click Rewind
5.
Click Record
.
.
SONAR loops over the designated section and records your takes to successive
tracks. If you want to erase the most recent take during loop recording, choose
Transport-Reject Loop Take.
6.
To stop recording, click Stop
, or press the Spacebar.
Now you can listen to each take individually by muting the other ones.
Punch-In Recording
Imagine that one of your takes was close to ideal, except for one or two notes in one
measure. Rather than recording another full take, you'd prefer to keep the take
but replace that measure.
Punch-in recording lets you replace a section of a track. The way it works is this:
First, you set the start and end times of the punch to the section you want to
replace, and turn on punch recording. Then, you arm the track and start recording.
You can play along with the original take to get the rhythm and feeling. However,
nothing will be recorded until the Now time reaches the punch start time. During
the punch, the material already in the track will be replaced with what you record.
When the punch ends, the project will continue to play, but recording will stop.
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Let's try it. Suppose you want to replace several measures in the recording you
made earlier in this tutorial.
1.
Display the Record toolbar by choosing View-Toolbars-Record.
Auto-punch on/off Record mode Step record
Click to open the Record
Options dialog box
Punch In
Time
Click here to set punch times
to the selection start and end
times
Punch Out
Time
2.
In the Record toolbar, click the Punch In Time.
3.
Type the number of the measure at which you want to begin punch recording
and press Enter.
4.
Click the Punch Out Time.
5.
Type the number of the measure at which you want to end punch recording
and press Enter.
6.
Click the Auto-Punch On/Off button to enable punch recording.
7.
Select Overwrite from the Record Mode dropdown menu.
8.
Arm the track in which you want to punch record.
9.
If looping is still on, click the Loop button
10. Click Rewind
11. Click Record
to turn it off.
.
.
Play along until you are past the punch end time, then click Stop
take to hear the difference. If it's still not right, try again!
. Replay your
An alternative method is to select measures by dragging in the Time Ruler. Then
right-click the Time Ruler and choose Set Punch Points. This automatically
enables punch recording.
You can combine loop recording with punch recording; see “Punch Recording” on
page 185 for details.
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When Auto Punch is enabled, the Time Ruler displays special markers that
indicate the punch in and punch out times. You can drag these markers to change
the punch in and punch out times.
Punch In
Punch Out
Tutorial 3—Recording Digital Audio
To record digital audio, you need some sort of device hooked up to your sound
card's line or mic input—an electric guitar, a preamp, or a mixer, for example. If
nothing else, try playing or singing into a microphone!
If you have never connected an instrument to your sound card, see “To Connect an
Electric Guitar to Your Computer” on page 26.
This tutorial covers these procedures:
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•
Setting the sampling rate
•
Setting the audio driver bit depth
•
Setting the file bit depth
•
Opening a new project
•
Setting up an audio track
•
Checking the input levels
•
Recording digital audio
•
Listening to the recording
•
Recording another take
•
Input monitoring
•
Loop and punch-in recording
•
Recording multiple channels
Setting the Sampling Rate
Each SONAR project has a parameter that specifies the sampling resolution for all
digital audio data in the project. You should set this rate before recording any
digital audio.
To set the sampling rate:
1.
Choose Options-Audio to open the Audio Options dialog box.
2.
Click the General tab.
3.
Under Default Settings for New Projects, select a Sampling Rate. For CDquality sound, use 44100 Hz.
4.
Click OK.
Lower sampling rates will save disk space but will result in lower-quality audio.
Before embarking on any major project, try sampling at different rates to
determine which one best suits your needs.
Setting the Audio Driver Bit Depth
The drivers for most sound cards use anywhere from 16 to 24 bits to handle the
data and calculations for audio processing. CD’s use 16 bits. You can possibly get
better sound quality by recording at a higher bit depth and converting to 16 bits
when it’s time to master your project, but keep in mind that 24 bit audio takes 50%
more memory than 16 bit audio, possibly straining your computer’s storage
capability and speed of operation.
Your sound card’s documentation could have some advice on choosing an audio
driver bit depth.
To set the audio driver bit depth:
1.
Use the Options-Audio command to open the Audio Options dialog box.
2.
On the General tab, find the Audio Driver Bit Depth field and select one of the
options.
3.
Click OK.
For more information about audio driver bit depth, see “Configuring SONAR for 18
bit-, 20-bit, and 24-bit Operation” on page 630.
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Setting the File Bit Depth
The file bit depth is the size of the blocks of memory that SONAR allocates to store
your project’s audio data. SONAR allocates memory in 8-bit bytes. If you are using
an audio driver bit depth of 16, choose a file bit depth of 16. If you are using an
audio driver bit depth that’s greater than 16, use a file bit depth of 24.
To set the file bit depth:
1.
Use the Options-Audio command to open the Audio Options dialog box.
2.
On the General tab, find the File Bit Depth field and select either 16 or 24.
3.
Click OK.
Open a New Project
Let’s open a new project for this tutorial.
1.
Select File-New from the menu.
2.
Select the Normal template and click OK.
Setting Up an Audio Track
Let’s set up a track for digital audio:
1.
Insert a new track by doing the following: in the Track pane, right-click below
the last track, or wherever you want to insert a track, and choose Insert
Audio Track from the popup menu.
SONAR inserts a new audio track.
2.
In the track’s Output field, click the dropdown arrow and select an audio
output from the menu.
3.
In the track’s Input field, choose an audio input. Usually you select the left
channel of one of your sound card’s inputs to record a mono track, or the stereo
input to record a stereo track.
The Normal template has several audio tracks in it already, which you could use to
record with. You don’t have to insert a new audio track to record with if your
project already has one or more empty audio tracks.
Checking the Input Levels
Before trying to record, you need to check and adjust the audio input levels. If your
audio input is too low, it will be lost in the background noise. If it is too high, it will
overload the input channel and be distorted/clipped. Before you check input levels,
make sure that the Record Meters are set to be displayed in the Track view. Click
the right arrow next to the Show/Hide Meters button
and in the menu that
appears, select the Record Meters command if it is not already checked.
You may need to drag the splitter bar that separates the Track pane from the Clips
pane to the right to see all the buttons in the Track view toolbar.
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Note: SONAR has a button called the Audio Engine button
in the Transport
toolbar, which you click to stop any feedback you may experience if there is a loop
somewhere in your mixer setup. Whenever you play a project, SONAR
automatically enables the audio engine, which you can tell by watching the Status
bar—whenever the audio engine is running, the Audio Running indicator in the
Status bar lights up. The Status bar is located at the bottom of the SONAR
window.
To check the audio input levels:
1.
Click the Arm button
in your new audio track. The track’s meter becomes
a record meter. You may need to use the Vertical Zoom Control in the lower
right corner of the Clips pane to see the track’s meter.
2.
Perform as you would during recording. Watch the meter respond to the
sounds you produce. If the meter does not respond, you may need to raise the
volume of your plugged-in instrument. Also, make sure that the Audio Engine
button
in the Transport toolbar is depressed.
If you still don't see any movement of the audio meters, you may have an
audio input problem. Refer to “I Can’t Record Any Audio” on page 645 for
troubleshooting hints.
3.
If the meter never comes even close to the maximum, increase the input level
by using the Windows mixer or your sound card’s software mixer (or if you are
recording your instrument through an amplifier or mic preamp, turn up the
amp or preamp).
4.
If the meters even occasionally reach the maximum, decrease the input level.
The idea is to try to get the input level to rise as high as possible, but without ever
reaching the maximum. That way, you get the strongest possible signal without
distortion.
SONAR’s meters are extremely adjustable for the kind and range of data they
display. For more information, see “Metering” on page 436.
Recording Digital Audio
It's time to record!
1.
If you haven’t already set up the metronome, follow the directions in “Setting
Up the Metronome” on page 61 to set the metronome for a two-measure countin.
2.
The track is already armed for recording.
3.
In the Transport toolbar, click Record
keyboard.
, or press r on your computer
You’ll hear two measures counted in by the metronome, then playback and
recording begin.
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4.
Go ahead and perform!
5.
When you finish recording, click the Stop button
, or press the Spacebar.
A new clip appears in the Clips pane. If no new clip appears, see “I Can’t Record
Any Audio” on page 645 for some troubleshooting hints. Also, right-click in the
Clips pane and choose View-Options to open the Track View Options dialog box—
make sure Display Clip Names and Display Clip Contents are checked.
Listening to the Recording
Let's play back your performance. Do the following:
1.
In the track’s Output field, click the dropdown arrow to display the menu of
available outputs, and select a pair of your sound card’s stereo outputs (if your
sound card only has two outputs, just select the name of your sound card).
2.
To return to the start of the project, click the Rewind button.
3.
Disarm your audio track by clicking its Arm button again—this changes the
track’s meter to a playback meter. The track is disarmed when its Arm button
is not red.
4.
Click Play
5.
Watch the track’s meter. If the level is not what you want, record your track
again.
.
Recording Another Take
If you'd like to delete your performance and try again, do the following:
1.
Choose Edit-Undo Recording to undo your recording, or press Ctrl+Z
(Undo).
2.
Click Rewind
3.
Make sure the track is still armed for recording.
4.
Click Record
5.
When you finish recording, click the Stop button
or press w.
.
, or press the Spacebar.
Alternatively, you could record your next attempt on a new track.
Input Monitoring
SONAR has a feature called input monitoring, which allows you to hear any
instrument that is plugged into your sound card whether you are currently
recording the instrument or not. You can hear your instrument, including any
plug-in effects, whenever input monitoring is enabled and the Audio Engine
button
in the Transport toolbar is depressed. You can enable or disable input
monitoring on an individual track by clicking the track’s Input Echo button, and
you can enable or disable input monitoring on all tracks at once by clicking the
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Input Echo button that’s on the Playback State toolbar (to display, use the ViewToolbars-Playback State command).
Caution: If you have any kind of a loop in your mixer setup that causes the output
of your sound card to be fed back into the input, you can get feedback, and input
monitoring can make it very intense because both the direct signal and the
processed signal are coming out of your sound card. Turn your speakers off
whenever you enable input monitoring, and then try turning them up very
gradually to try it out. If you hear feedback, click the Audio Engine button
in the Transport toolbar to turn input monitoring off.
For more information on Input Monitoring, see “Input Monitoring” on page 180.
Loop and Punch-In Recording
Loop and Punch-in work the same for digital audio recording as they did for MIDI
recording. For more information, refer to the relevant sections preceding, or to
“Loop Recording” on page 184 or “Punch Recording” on page 185.
Recording Multiple Channels
If you can gather the entire band around your computer, and if you have the proper
equipment, you can record a full multiple-instrument performance all at once. If
you have several MIDI instruments, you can route their input into your sound card
through a MIDI merger—data that arrives on different MIDI channels can be
routed to different tracks (see “Recording Specific Ports and Channels” on page
192). Likewise, a typical sound card can record audio on both right and left
channels—each can be recorded on a different track by choosing the right channel
as an input for one track, and the left channel as an input for another. Multiple
sound cards and multi-I/O sound cards can expand the number of possible inputs.
For more information, see “System Configuration” on page 628.
That completes the audio recording tutorial. Now you’ve learned the basics of
playing and recording material for your projects. In the following tutorials you'll
learn about basic editing techniques for both MIDI and audio.
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Tutorial 4—Editing MIDI
SONAR has too many powerful MIDI features to look at in one tutorial, so let’s
look at some of the most basic features and also cover some exciting new ones, such
as slip editing and MIDI envelopes.
In this tutorial, start by opening the file TUTORIAL4.CWP in the Tutorials folder
where SONAR is installed. We will be doing the following tasks:
•
Transposing
•
Copying Clips with Drag and Drop
•
Editing Notes in the Piano Roll View
•
Slip Editing
•
Drawing MIDI Envelopes
•
Converting MIDI to Audio
Transposing
Here are two ways to transpose MIDI data in SONAR:
•
You can apply the Transpose command to selected data (see the procedure
below).
•
You can use the Key+ control for a specific track—the Key+ control is located
with the other track parameter controls in the Track pane. This method
causes a track to play higher or lower by the number of half steps you enter in
the Key+ control. This is a non-destructive form of editing that leaves the
pitch of the original data unchanged, but adds an “offset” when the track plays
back.
To Transpose our Tutorial File
1.
Select all the notes in the bass track by clicking the bass track’s track number.
The track number should appear highlighted when it is selected.
2.
Select all the notes in the organ track by Ctrl-clicking (holding down the Ctrl
key while you click) the organ track’s track number. Ctrl-clicking allows you to
make multiple selections.
3.
Use the Process-Transpose command to open the Transpose dialog box.
4.
Enter -2 (negative 2) in the Amount field and click OK.
5.
Ctrl-click both track numbers again to deselect them.
SONAR transposes the selected data down a whole step (2 half steps). Choose
MIDI outputs for your tracks and play the project. You can undo the transposition
by pressing Ctrl+z, and redo the transposition by pressing Ctrl+Shift+z.
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Copying Clips with Drag and Drop
The first clip in the bass track is two measures long; we can easily drag-copy it to
make it eight measures long. When we drag-copy some of the clips, we can make
them into linked clips. When you edit a linked clip, SONAR performs the exact
same edits on all other clips that the clip is linked to.
To Copy Clips Using Drag and Drop
1.
In the Track view toolbar, click the Snap to Grid button’s down arrow to open
the Snap to Grid dialog box.
2.
Make sure that the Musical Time radio button is selected, and in the list to
the right of it, select Measure.
3.
In the Mode field, select Move By and click OK. Now we can only move clips in
the Clips pane by distances of an exact measure or measures.
4.
While holding down the Ctrl key, drag the first clip in the bass track to the
right and release the mouse when the start of the clip is at measure three. The
Drag and Drop Options dialog box appears. Click OK—SONAR places a copy
of the clip in measures three through four. Ctrl-dragging a clip copies and
moves it, while dragging without holding down any extra keys moves a clip
without making a copy of it.
5.
Now let’s make a linked clip copy of the new clip in measure three: Ctrl-drag
the clip from measure three to measure five. When the Drag and Drop Options
dialog box appears, click the Copy Entire Clips as Linked Clips checkbox and
click OK. SONAR places a linked clip copy into measures five and six. The two
linked clips have dotted outlines to show they are linked.
6.
Make another linked copy of one of the linked clips and place it in measures
seven and eight. Because this copy overlaps the clip that’s in measure 9, make
sure that the Blend Old and New option is checked in the Drag and Drop
dialog box. Because none of the notes in the two clips overlap, blending the
two clips does not change any of their data.
Now you have linked clip copies in measures three through eight: when you edit
any of these three clips, SONAR performs the exact same edits on the other two.
Editing Notes in the Piano Roll View
SONAR’s Piano Roll view gives you complete control of individual note properties.
Let’s edit a couple of notes.
To Edit Notes in the Piano Roll View
1.
Open the Piano Roll view of the first bass clip by double-clicking the clip. In
the Piano Roll view, you may have to use the Up Arrow and Down Arrow keys
on your computer keyboard to display the note data (the Right and Left Arrow
keys scroll the display in the horizontal direction).
2.
Drag the Piano Roll’s Horizontal Zoom control that’s at the lower right corner
of the Notes pane to make the note data large enough for easy editing.
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3.
In the Piano Roll toolbar, right-click the Snap to Grid button
to open the
Snap to Grid dialog box (Snap to Grid settings in each view are independent of
each other).
4.
Make sure the Musical Time radio button is selected, and in the window to the
right of it, select Eighth.
5.
In the Mode field, make sure that the Move By radio button is selected and
click OK. Now we can only move data in the Piano Roll view by exact distances
of one or more eighth notes.
6.
In the Piano Roll toolbar, click the Draw tool
7.
Find the note that starts at the beginning of measure three and move the
cursor over the beginning of the note so that the cursor becomes a cross. Drag
the beginning of the note to the left by a half beat, and release the mouse.
to activate it.
Beat 1 of Measure 3
Drag note from here
Drag Horizontal Zoom control
SONAR moves the note to the left by a half beat and lengthens the note by a
half beat, and also performs the same edits on the identical notes that are at
the beginnings of the other two linked clips.
8.
Close the Piano Roll view when you finish editing.
If you want to unlink clips when you’re through editing them, select the clips you
want to unlink (in the Track view), right-click one of them, and choose Unlink
from the Clips pane popup menu. Select Independent, Not Linked At All in the
Unlink Clips dialog box and click OK.
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When you move the Draw tool over a note, it changes into one of 3 different editing
tools, depending on what part of the note you move it over:
•
If you move the Draw tool over the beginning or end of a note, the Draw tool
changes into a cross. When you drag one end of a note with the cross icon, the
other end of the note stays put, thereby changing the duration of the note as
you move the opposite end.
•
If you move the Draw tool just inside the beginning of a note, the Draw tool
changes into a horizontal, double-ended arrow. When you drag the beginning
of a note with this icon, the other end of the note moves with the beginning of
the note, thereby keeping the duration of the note constant.
•
If you move the Draw tool over the middle of a note, the Draw tool changes
into vertical, double-ended arrow. Use this tool to drag the note up or down in
pitch.
Slip Editing
Now let’s take advantage of one of the most convenient new features of SONAR:
slip editing. Slip editing lets you drag the beginning or ending borders of a clip to
hide the notes or other MIDI data that are in the area that you drag through (slip
editing also works on audio clips). SONAR does not delete these notes or data, but
does not play them either. As soon as you drag the clip borders to display the data
again, SONAR plays them again. Slip editing is a very fast and convenient way to
try out different sounds, without destroying any data. You can also leave the clip
borders unchanged and only drag the data that’s within the clip, which is called
scroll-trimming. Scroll-trimming changes the rhythmic placement of data without
changing the clip’s borders.
To Slip Edit TUTORIAL4.CWP
1.
Drag the horizontal zoom controls in the Clips pane so that a space of about 2
measures fills up the Clips pane.
2.
Click the down arrow in the Snap to Grid combo button to open the Snap to
Grid dialog box, change the Musical Time resolution to Eighth, make sure
Move By is selected in the Mode field, and click OK. Now we can only drag the
borders of clips by units of eighth notes.
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3.
In the organ track in the Clips pane, move the cursor over the right end of the
first clip until the cursor changes to a square. Drag the right border to the left
until the MIDI data at the end of the clip is hidden.
Like this
Hide this region
Now you can’t hear those notes.
4.
Drag the end of the second clip to the left until just the “tail” or glissando of
the data is hidden.
Hide this region
5.
Like this
In the third clip, hold down both the Alt and Shift keys and drag only the data
inside the clip to the left by about one eighth note.
You can experiment as much as you want with slip editing, all without destroying
any data! For more information about Slip Editing, see “Slip-editing Audio (Nondestructive Editing)” on page 375.
Drawing MIDI Envelopes
MIDI envelopes are lines and curves you can draw on MIDI data in the Clips pane.
Each envelope produces continuous control over one of the following track
parameters: volume, pan, chorus, reverb, automated mute, or a MIDI controller.
You can show or hide any envelope you create, but the envelope still functions
when it is hidden. For our tutorial, let’s create a MIDI volume envelope.
To Draw and Edit a MIDI Volume Envelope
1.
In the Clips pane in the organ track, right-click and choose Envelopes-Create
Track Envelope-Volume (default Ch. 1) from the Clips pane popup menu.
SONAR creates a blue line through the organ track, with a small square dot (a
node) at the beginning of the line. The line shows the initial volume of the
track, if it has an initial volume. Otherwise, it shows a default value.
2.
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Scroll the Now Time to the next marker by pressing Ctrl+Shift+Page Down;
the marker is called Verse, and is located just before measure nine. Drag the
Horizontal zoom control so that the beat markers are visible in the Time
Ruler.
3.
At the fourth beat of measure eight, add a node to the envelope by moving the
cursor over it until a double-ended, vertical arrow appears under it, rightclicking to open the Envelope Editing menu, and choosing Add Node from the
menu. A shortcut to add a node is to double-click the line.
4.
At the start of measure nine, add another node.
5.
Move the cursor over the newest node until a cross appears under it, and drag
the node downwards until it’s just below the MIDI data that’s at the start of
the clip.
Drag second node to here
6.
At the fourth beat of measure twelve, add another node and drag it up to the
top of the track. Now you have a gradual volume increase in the organ track
for almost four measures.
7.
At the start of measure thirteen, add another node and drag it downward just
below the MIDI data at the start of the measure.
8.
Right-click the line that’s between the last two nodes, and choose Slow Curve
from the Envelope Editing menu. SONAR changes the line to a curve. Now the
drop in volume is a little more gradual.
Now you have some interesting dynamics in your track. You can add a lot more to
your envelope, and add more envelopes if you wish. You can also copy and paste
envelopes. For more information, see “Automation Methods” on page 495.
Converting MIDI to Audio
When you finally get your MIDI project into the shape you want. You can convert
the MIDI tracks to audio for export as Wave, MP3, or other file formats. If you are
using external MIDI modules, just record the outputs of your modules into your
sound card. If you are using DXi soft synths, use the File-Export-Audio
command, or the Edit-Bounce to Track(s) command. If you are using the built-in
synthesizer in your sound card to produce MIDI sounds, you can use your sound
card’s “what you hear” or wave capture function to convert the MIDI tracks, if your
sound card can function this way. See the following procedure:
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To Convert MIDI to Audio
1.
Pick a destination audio track (or create a new one) and set the Input field to
Stereo (name of your sound card).
Note: If you have more than one sound card installed, select the one that has
the built-in synth that your MIDI tracks use.
2.
Arm the destination track. Make sure its Input Echo button is off, so you won’t
hear an echo when you’re recording.
3.
Mute or archive any tracks that you don’t want to record to the destination
track.
4.
If SONAR’s metronome is set to use any software synth to produce a click,
disable the metronome during recording option in the Project Options dialog
box. To do this, select Options-Project to open the Project Options dialog box,
select the Metronome tab and uncheck Recording in the General section.
Alternatively, you could set the metronome to use the audio metronome and
not use a MIDI note.
5.
Open your sound card's mixer device. This is normally done by double-clicking
the speaker icon on your Windows taskbar, or by choosing Start-ProgramsAccessories-Entertainment-Volume Control-Options-Properties.
Note: Some sound cards have their own proprietary mixer. If yours has one,
please use it instead.
6.
If you’re using the Windows mixer, use its Options-Properties command to
open the Properties dialog box, click Recording (in the Adjust Volume For
field), and make sure all boxes in the Show the Following Volume Controls
field are checked.
7.
Click OK, and locate the slider marked MIDI, Synth, Mixed Input, or What
You Hear. Check the Select box at the bottom, then close the window.
8.
In SONAR, rewind to the beginning of your project, click the Record button,
and click the Stop button when you’re done recording.
SONAR records all the MIDI tracks that are assigned to your sound card synth as
a stereo audio track.
After you finish recording, mute the MIDI tracks that you just recorded so you
don’t hear them and the new audio track at the same time.
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Tutorial 5—Editing Audio
In this tutorial we will be editing a bundle file with drums, bass, guitar and organ.
We will add some additional percussion, and edit some of the existing tracks. This
tutorial covers the following:
•
Importing wave files
•
Dragging and looping clips
•
Slip editing
•
Using automatic crossfades
•
Bouncing tracks
Opening the Project
1.
In SONAR select File-Open from the menu.
2.
In the Open dialog, select TUTORIAL5.CWB and click OK.
The audio data is loaded into SONAR and TUTORIAL5.CWB opens.
Importing a Wave File
Now that you have the file open, click the Play button to hear the project. The
project contains drums, bass, and two guitar tracks. Let’s import an organ track:
To Import a Wave File
1.
Click the down arrow in the Snap to Grid combo button located in the Track
view toolbar.
The Snap to Grid dialog appears.
2.
In the Snap to Grid dialog, click the Musical Time radio button, select
Measure from the list of durations and click OK.
3.
Make sure the Snap to Grid button is depressed (on).
4.
In the Track pane, right-click below the bottom track and select Insert Audio
Track from the menu that appears.
5.
Click the track number of the new track to select it.
6.
We want to insert the new part at measure 18, so click in the Time Ruler at
measure 18. The Time Ruler is at the top of the Clips pane above the drum
track.
7.
Select File-Import-Audio from the File menu.
The Open dialog appears.
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8.
Open the Tutorials folder located in the directory where SONAR is installed.
9.
Select ORGAN.WAV and click Open.
A new clip appears in the selected track at the specified Now Time—measure
18.
10. Double-click the track name, and type in a new name: “Organ,” and press
Enter.
11. Move the Now time to the beginning, insert another audio track, import the
file MARACAS.WAV, and name the track.
After you import MARACAS.WAV, notice that the clip has beveled or rounded
corners instead of sharp ones. That means it’s a Groove clip, and contains
tempo and pitch information. We’ll learn more about Groove clips in the next
tutorial.
12. Insert another audio track, import the file CONGAS.WAV (which is also a Groove
clip) and name the track.
Moving and Looping the Clips
When you drag and drop clips in the Clips pane, the Snap to Grid setting
determines the resolution to which the clips “snap to.” If your Snap to Grid setting
is Measures and you drop a clip between two measures, the clip appears aligned to
the closest measure.
We have just dropped two percussion clips into our project, and we could have
dropped them where we wanted, but then we wouldn’t get a lesson on how to move
clips in SONAR.
Let’s move both clips to the 18th measure of the project.
1.
Click and drag the maracas clip to measure 18 (the Snap Grid is still set to
Measure).
2.
The Drag and Drop Options dialog appears. The Drag and Drop Options dialog
box has options for how the clip you are dragging affects existing clips. Since
the clip we are dragging is not being moved onto an existing clip, we can just
accept the default setting. Click OK to accept the default settings.
The clip now appears at the 18th measure.
3.
Now move the congas clip to the 18th measure by using the same method.
Now let’s loop the two percussion clips to make copies of them by using their
Groove clip characteristics:
1.
Move the cursor over the end of the maracas clip until the cursor looks like
this
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.
2.
When the cursor changes, click the end of the clip and drag it to the right until
you have created repetitions of the clip through the end of measure 28.
3.
Copy the congas clip the same way until it reaches the end of measure 28.
Slip Editing a Clip
Solo the two guitar tracks and listen to the project. We are going to combine these
two tracks and create an automatic crossfade between them. Before we do, we have
to hide the beginning of the second guitar part so it doesn’t affect the crossfade.
We’ll do this using slip editing.
1.
Click the Snap to Grid button to turn off Snap to Grid. The Snap to Grid
settings control slip editing as well as drag and drop.
2.
Move the cursor over the beginning of the second guitar clip.
3.
When the cursor turns into a rectangle, click and drag the beginning of the
clip until you have reached the beginning of the waveform.
Drag to here
The beginning of the clip is now hidden. The data is not lost, as you will see if
you drag the beginning to where it was originally. Slip-edited data is still in
the project, but it is not seen or heard.
Automatic Crossfades
Let’s combine these two tracks and create a crossfade.
1.
Enable automatic crossfades by clicking (depressing) the
Enable/Disable Automatic Crossfades combo button
Snap to Grid button on the Track view toolbar.
located next to the
2.
Click the down arrow on the Enable/Disable Automatic Crossfades combo
button, select Default Crossfade Curves and select a crossfade curve.
3.
Make sure no clips are currently selected by clicking in the Clips pane outside
of any clips.
4.
Hold down the Shift key and drag the second guitar clip on top of the first
guitar track and drop it there; make sure that Blend Old and New is selected
in the Drag and Drop dialog box before you click OK. Shift-dragging ensures
that a clip can only move vertically and not horizontally, so you don’t need to
enable the Snap to Grid button to keep the same exact rhythmic placement of
a dragged clip.
The two clips appear on the same track with a crossfade marker on the
overlapping data. The first guitar track fades out as the second guitar fades in. For
more information about crossfades, see “Using Fades and Crossfades in Real Time”
on page 380.
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Bouncing Tracks
When you finish editing a certain number of audio tracks, you can conserve
memory and simplify your mix by bouncing (combining) some tracks down to one
or two tracks. You can choose to include any effects and automation in the new
track that are on the tracks that you want to combine, greatly reducing the load on
your CPU.
Let’s bounce, or combine our two percussion tracks together:
1.
Make sure no time range is selected by clicking in the Clips pane outside of
any clips.
2.
Select the tracks that you want to combine: in this case, Maracas and Congas.
To select multiple tracks, hold down the Ctrl key while you click each track’s
track number. You can also solo tracks instead of selecting them.
3.
Click the Snap to Grid button to turn it on (the Snap to Grid setting is still set
to Measure).
4.
In the Time Ruler, select measures 18 through 28.
5.
Use the Edit-Bounce to Track(s) command to open the Bounce to Track(s)
dialog box.
6.
In the Destination field, choose <8> New Track.
7.
In the Source Category field, choose Entire Mix.
8.
In the Channel Format field, since our two original percussion tracks are in
stereo, choose Stereo. This way we preserve their stereo quality.
9.
In the Source Bus(es) field, make sure the name of the sound card that the
relevant tracks use to play back on is highlighted.
10. In the Mix Enables field, make sure everything is checked. By checking the
Track Mute/Solo option, you make sure that SONAR only mixes down the
unmuted tracks. If any tracks are soloed, this option causes SONAR to mix
down only the soloed tracks.
11. Click OK.
SONAR creates a new, stereo track that combines both percussion tracks. Now you
can archive the old percussion tracks so that they don’t consume memory. Do this
by right-clicking each track number and choosing Archive from the popup menu.
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Tutorial 6—Using Groove Clips
Groove clips are audio clips that “know” their tempo and root note pitch. SONAR
uses this information to stretch the clips to match changes in tempo and to
transpose the root note pitch to match the project’s pitch and pitch changes.
SONAR also has MIDI Groove clips (see “MIDI Groove Clips” on page 267 for more
information) that work much the same as audio Groove clips.
You can create repetitions, or loops of Groove clips simply by dragging their ends in
the Track view, creating as many repetitions as you want.
You can change the pitch of your Groove clips by inserting pitch markers in the
Time Ruler. The default project pitch for Groove clips in a new project is C. The
root note of your Groove clips is transposed to the default for any part of the
Groove clips that come before the first pitch marker, or if you do not have pitch
markers in your project. You can change the default pitch of the current project in
the Markers toolbar.
You can create and edit Groove clips in the Loop Construction view.
This tutorial covers the following:
•
Adding Groove clips to a project
•
Looping Groove clips
•
Changing the pitch of Groove clips
•
Making Groove clips follow the project tempo
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Adding Groove Clips to a Project
There are two ways to add a Groove clip to your project. Let’s use both.
To Import a Groove Clip
1.
Select File-New to create a new project.
2.
Set the default pitch to E by clicking the dropdown arrow in the Markers
toolbar and choosing E (if you don’t see the Markers toolbar, use the ViewToolbars command and check Markers).
Click here
3.
Click the Rewind button in the Transport toolbar to move the Now Time to the
beginning of the project.
4.
Select track 1 by clicking its track number.
5.
Select File-Import-Audio from the menu.
The Open dialog appears.
6.
Navigate to the Tutorials folder in the directory where you installed SONAR.
7.
Select 100FX.WAV and click Open.
The clip appears on the track at the beginning of your project—the clip’s corners
are beveled instead of sharp, indicating that it is a Groove clip.
Before we import another loop, let’s give this track a name. In the track titlebar,
double-click on the track name and enter the name Sound Effect and press Enter.
Let’s add some more Groove clips:
To Drag and Drop a Groove Clip into a Project
1.
Click the down arrow in the Snap to Grid combo button located in the Track
view toolbar.
The Snap to Grid dialog appears.
2.
In the Snap to Grid dialog, select the Musical Time radio button and the
duration Measure.
3.
In the mode section, select the Move To radio button.
4.
Click OK to close the Snap to Grid dialog.
5.
Make sure Snap to Grid is on. When Snap to Grid is on, the buttons depressed.
6.
Open the Loop Explorer view by clicking the Loop Explorer icon in the Views
toolbar
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.
7.
Navigate to the Tutorials folder in the directory where you installed SONAR.
8.
Select 100ONETWO.WAV and drag it into the Clips pane below the Sound Effect
track at measure 3.
Repeat step 8 by dragging 100BEAT2.WAV below Track 2 at measure 7 and
100ORGAN.WAV below Track 3 at measure 1, and close the Loop Explorer view.
SONAR automatically creates any necessary audio tracks when you import audio
data.
You now have a four track project. If you haven’t done so yet, click the play button
to take a listen to your project before we begin to arrange the clips.
Your project should look something like this:
Looping Groove Clips
Here’s where Groove clips get real fun. You need only drag the beginning or end of
a Groove clip to create repetitions or loops.
First, though, lets copy the Groove clip in Track 2.
To Copy a Groove Clip
1.
Press the Ctrl key and click and drag the clip until the beginning is at
measure 8 and release.
The Drag and Drop Options dialog appears.
2.
Make sure the Copy Entire Clips as Linked Clips option is not checked and
click OK.
A copy of the Groove clip now appears on the same track at measure 8.
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To Loop a Groove Clip
1.
Move the cursor over the end of the first Groove clip in Track 2 until the
cursor looks like this
2.
.
When the cursor changes, click the end of the clip and drag it to the right until
you have created one repetition of the clip (through the end of measure 6).
You can also create a partial loop of a Groove clip if the Snap to Grid setting is set
to less than one measure. You can create a partial loop as small as the Snap to
Grid setting allows. For example, if your Snap to Grid setting is set to quarter
notes, you can create partial repetitions as small as a quarter of a measure.
Now lets edit the clip we copied on Track 2.
To Crop a Groove Clip
1.
Click the dropdown arrow on the Snap to Grid button to open its dialog box,
set the Musical Time duration to Quarter, and click OK to close the dialog box.
2.
Move your cursor over the beginning of the second clip in Track 2 until it looks
like this
3.
.
“Crop” the beginning of the clip one and a quarter measure (you may want to
expand the Clips pane a little by dragging the Horizontal Zoom slider that’s in
the lower right corner).
Like this:
4.
Crop the end of the clip by one quarter measure.
Like this:
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5.
Click on the clip and drag it one measure to the left.
Like this:
The Drag and Drop Options dialog appears.
6.
In the Drag and Drop Options dialog, click Blend Old and New and click OK.
You have added Groove clips and edited them. Your project should look like this:
Let’s take a listen to what we have. Click the Play button in the Transport toolbar.
Changing the Pitch of Groove Clips
Now that you have heard what your project sounds like, let’s change some pitch
settings.
To Set a Groove Clip to Not Follow the Project Pitch
1.
Double-click on the Groove clip in Track 4.
The Loop Construction view appears.
2.
Deselect the Follow Project Pitch button
.
3.
Close the Loop Construction view and listen to your project again.
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It sounds different because the Groove clip on Track 4 is no longer following
the default project pitch of E, instead it follows its own root note of C.
Next, let’s add some pitch markers.
To Add Pitch Markers
1.
Click the Solo button
in Track 4 to solo the track.
2.
Right-click in the Time Ruler at the beginning of measure 1 and select Insert
Marker from the menu.
The Marker dialog appears.
3.
In the Groove Clip Pitch dropdown, select C and click OK.
4.
Create another pitch marker at the beginning of measure 2, this time
selecting F from the Groove Clip Pitch Change dropdown.
5.
Double-click on the clip in track 4 to open the Loop Construction view.
6.
In the Loop Construction view, click the Follow Project Pitch button to enable
it.
Listen to the project. Because the default pitch of the project is now C at
measure 1, the clip in track 4 sounds at its original pitch, because its original
root note is C. When the Now time reaches measure 2, the project pitch
changes to F, which forces the clip to transpose all of its data up a perfect 4th,
from a root note of C to a root note of F.
Now let’s change the tempo of the project.
Changing the Tempo of Your Project
Groove clips follow the project’s tempo, so we can change the tempo, either for the
entire project or just one part, and still have all our clips playing in time with each
other.
To Change the Project Tempo
1.
Select Insert-Tempo Change from the menu.
2.
In the Tempo field, enter 110 and click OK.
The project’s tempo is now 110.
Play your project. Do you hear the difference? Try other tempos.
Now that we have created a project that uses existing Groove clips, let’s take the
next step and learn how to create our own Groove clips.
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Creating Your Own Groove Clips
Any audio clip (of a reasonable size) can be a Groove clip.
We are going to take a clip, slip-edit it so that it contains just the parts we want,
and open it in the Loop Construction view to add tempo and pitch information to it.
To Create a Groove Clip (example 1)
In this example we will import a short clip of a bass guitar, slip-edit it and convert
it to a Groove clip.
1.
Select File-New to create a new project.
2.
Right-click the Snap to Grid button to open its dialog box, set the Musical
Time duration to Measure, and click OK to close the dialog box.
3.
Click
4.
In the Explorer view, navigate to the Tutorials folder in the directory where
you installed SONAR.
5.
Drag and drop the BASS.WAV file into the new project at measure 1.
6.
Double-click the clip.
in the Views toolbar to open the Loop Explorer view.
The Loop Construction view appears. You see that there is silence at both the
beginning and end of the clip. We are going to slip-edit the clip so that the clip
begins with the attack of the first note and ends as the last note tails off.
7.
Move you cursor to the beginning of the clip.
8.
When the cursor changes to look like this , drag the beginning of the clip
until you reach the edge of the first rise in the waveform.
9.
Slip-edit the end of the clip until you reach the end of the last notes decay.
Note: You can not slip edit a clip that has its Groove clip characteristics
enabled. You can turn a clip’s Groove clip characteristics on or off either in the
Loop Construction view, or in the Clips pane. In the Clips pane, right-click the
clip and choose Groove-Clip Looping from the popup menu.
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Your clip should look something like this:
10. Click the Enable Looping button
on the Loop Construction view toolbar to
enable the clip’s Groove clip characteristics.
SONAR automatically slices the clip and assigns in a number of beats. Notice
that SONAR has sliced this clip at eighth note intervals. This is a clip with a
waveform that does not have dramatic transients (sharp rises in volume). For
clips like this, markers at beat intervals work best.
The clip is now a Groove clip, and it looks like this:
The bass track is now a Groove clip, so you can move it where you want and create
repetitions by dragging it out.
Let’s create another Groove clip.
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To Create a Groove Clip (example 2)
For this example we are going to use a clip that does not need to be slip-edited.
1.
In the Explorer view, navigate to the Tutorials folder in the directory where
you installed SONAR.
2.
Drag and drop the DRUMS.WAV file into the new project below your bass track
at measure 1.
3.
Double-click the clip.
4.
Click the Enable Looping button
.
SONAR automatically slices the clip and assigns in a number of beats. Notice
that SONAR has sliced this clip at eighth notes and at the beginning of some
transients. This has dramatic transients. For clips like this, transient markers
work best.
The clip is now a Groove clip, and it looks like the following picture. You can
click the zoom buttons in the lower right corner to get a better view.
The markers in the Loop Construction view are used to tell SONAR where to
preserve timing. The idea is to preserve the clip while being able to change the
tempo. When a clip has a lot of transients, as this one does, it is a good idea to
make sure that the slicing markers fall at the beginning of the transients, thus
preserving their timing. This clip has several markers which can be fine tuned to
give better results. Let’s move some markers to better preserve the timing of this
clip.
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To Fine Tune the Slicing Markers in a Groove Clip
1.
Identify the markers which are close to the beginning of a transient.
An example of transients that should be moved:
Slicing marker
Slicing marker which
should be moved
Transients
2.
Click the Select tool
.
3.
Click and drag the slicing markers that need to be fine tuned so that they are
at the very beginning of the transient.
Like this:
Slicing markers which
have been edited. Edited
slicing markers appear in
blue.
Slicing markers now appear right next
to the beginning of the transients
Use the two projects you have created to experiment with Groove clips further. Try
new loops, change tempos, add pitch markers, record clips and use them to create
your own loops. For more information about Groove clips, see Chapter 6, Using
Loops.
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Tutorial 7—Mixing
SONAR has an almost unlimited number of tools to help you mix down. You can
automate almost any knob, fader, or button by using any of several methods. You
can even automate the internal settings of some effects—not just the bus controls
but the controls on some individual effects. When your project sounds the way you
want, you can save it and export it in Wave, MP3, Real Audio, or Windows Media
Advanced Streaming format.
Let’s do some more work on TUTORIAL5.CWB, and explore the following tasks:
•
Adding real-time audio effects
•
Automating an individual effect’s settings
•
Grouping controls
•
Automating your mix
•
Exporting an MP3 file
Adding Real-time Audio Effects
Let's add some flanging to the first guitar track in TUTORIAL5.CWB:
1.
Add the flange effect to a guitar track by right-clicking its Fx field, and
choosing Audio Effects-Cakewalk-FxFlange from the popup menu.
The effect’s dialog box appears.
2.
Choose a preset flange setting from the Presets field.
3.
Play the project to hear what it sounds like. You can continue to adjust the
effect while the project plays; there is a slight delay before your adjustments
are audible.
Close the dialog box. You can add effects to buses with the same method (rightclick the Fx field in a bus, and choose an effect from the popup menu).
You can delete an effect from an FX field by right-clicking the effect’s name and
choosing Delete from the popup menu. Instead of moving the controls manually,
let’s automate them by drawing an envelope in the Clips pane.
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Automating an Individual Effect’s Settings
Let’s draw an envelope to automate one of the flanger’s controls:
1.
In the Clips pane, right-click in the first guitar track (the track you added the
FxFlange effect to) and choose Envelopes-Create Track EnvelopeFxFlange 1 from the popup menu.
The FxFlange1 dialog box appears.
2.
Let’s create only one envelope, even though we could create many: in the
Envelope Exists field, check the Voice 1 Feedback option to create an envelope
that controls the level of feedback on voice 1 of the FxFlange effect.
3.
Click OK (you could choose a color for the envelope before you click OK by
clicking the Choose Color button).
A dotted line with a node (rectangular dot) at the beginning appears on top of
the guitar clip. A dotted line means there is no automation data in that area of
a track—only nodes and solid lines represent actual values.
4.
Let’s add a node at measure 17 of the guitar track: move the cursor over the
dotted line at measure 17 until a vertical, double-ended arrow appears under
it, and right-click the dotted line.
The Envelope Editing menu appears.
5.
Choose Add Node from the menu.
A new node appears on the envelope at measure 17.
6.
Move the cursor over the node until a cross appears under it, and drag the
node up to the top of the track. Now you have a gradual increase in the level of
Voice 1 Feedback. Notice that the line between the two nodes is solid,
indicating that there is automation data everywhere between the two nodes.
7.
Change the straight line between the two nodes, which is called a Linear
shape, into a Slow Curve shape, by moving the cursor over the straight line
until the vertical, double-ended arrow appears, then right-clicking the dotted
line, and choosing Slow Curve from the Envelope Editing menu.
Node
Node
Slow curve
Now you have a gradual, but not linear increase in the Voice 1 Feedback level of
your flange effect. You can drag linear and curve shapes vertically, but not
horizontally. To change their horizontal positions, drag the node at either end of a
shape. You can drag a node in any direction.
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Grouping Controls
To assist in manipulating the controls, you can tie faders to one another. For
example, if you want to increase the volume level on several tracks at the same
time, you can assign them to a group. Then, when you move one volume fader, you
move them all. You can even have the controls move in opposite directions. For
example, you can fade one track in and another out.
To group faders:
1.
In the Track view (you can use the Console view if you want), right-click the
volume fader for track 2 (bass).
2.
In the popup menu, choose Group and select A from the dropdown list. This
assigns the fader to group A. A red marker appears next to the volume fader,
indicating that it belongs to group A, whose color is red.
3.
Repeat steps 1 and 2 for tracks 3 and 4.
Now you’ve grouped the volume faders of three tracks. When you move one fader,
all of the others follow. If you want to move a single fader independently of the
others, hold the Ctrl key while moving the fader. To ungroup a fader, right-click it
and choose Ungroup from the popup menu. For more information, see “Using
Control Groups” on page 449.
Automating Your Mix
You can record the fader movements of the mix, which is called automating them.
To do so:
1.
Rewind to the beginning of the project.
2.
Move the faders, pans, and any other controls to the initial settings you desire.
You should set up a good balance between the tracks.
3.
Arm the volume fader for track 4 by right-clicking it and choosing Arm for
Automation from the popup menu. A highlighted rectangle appears around
the armed fader.
4.
Display the Automation toolbar by using the View-Toolbars-Automation
command.
5.
Make sure that the Enable Automation Playback button
Automation toolbar is in the depressed position.
6.
To start recording the automation, click the Record Automation button
in
the Transport toolbar, and move the armed fader as needed so that the
balance between the guitar and other instruments is optimized throughout
the project.
7.
Stop recording by clicking the Stop button or by pressing the Spacebar.
in the
You’ve now automated the volume fader of track 4 of your project—SONAR draws
a graph (an envelope) of the automation in the Clips pane of track 4. You can hide
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or show envelopes by using the dropdown arrow that’s on the side of the Envelope
tool button
in the Track view toolbar, or by using the Clips pane popup menu,
or the Envelope Editing menu. Now let’s listen to the project again and watch the
fader move automatically:
1.
Rewind to the beginning.
2.
Press the Spacebar to start playing the project.
You’ll see the fader move just the way it moved when you recorded its movements.
You can compare this mix to a mix with no automation by clicking the Enable
Automation Playback button
and playing your project again. Clicking the
Enable Automation Playback button toggles the automation off and on.
When you’re done tweaking the mix, to make sure you don’t accidentally erase any
automation data, you can disarm any armed controls by clicking the Disarm all
automation controls button
that’s in the Automation toolbar, or the red Aut
indicator that’s in the Status bar.
For more information, see Chapter 13, Using Automation.
Exporting an MP3 File
When your project finally sounds the way you want, you can export it in any or all
of several file formats, including:
•
Wave (CD format)
•
MP3
•
Real Audio
•
Windows Media Advanced Streaming Format
When you export a file from SONAR, you can choose to include any or all of the
effects, automation, and mute and solo settings that your project contains.
Let’s export our project as an MP3:
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1.
Make sure all the tracks you want to export are unmuted and unarchived. If
you only want to export one or two tracks, it’s easier to solo these tracks
instead of muting all the others.
2.
Make a time selection, if necessary. If any tracks use real-time effects such as
reverb or delay, select your whole project plus an extra measure or two at the
end so you won’t cut off the reverb “tail.”
3.
Choose File-Export-Audio to display the Export Audio dialog box.
4.
Select a destination folder using the Look In field.
5.
Enter a file name.
6.
Choose MP3 from the Files of type dropdown list.
7.
In the Format field, select one of the following options:
•
Export to Stereo File(s)—All exported tracks are mixed down to a single
stereo file.
•
Export to Separate Left and Right Files—All exported tracks are mixed
down to two mono files, left and right.
•
Export to Mono File(s)—All exported tracks are mixed down to a single
mono file.
8.
In the Bit Depth field, select the bit depth that you want your exported file to
use. For MP3s use 16.
9.
In the Source Bus(es) field, select a sound card or sound cards from the list. If
you select more than one, you can select the Each Source to Separate Submix
checkbox to create separate files for each device selected in the Source Bus(es)
field.
10. If the Outputs of the tracks you are combining are the same (if they have the
same thing listed in their Output fields—they should in this tutorial example),
you can ignore this step. Otherwise, in the Separation field, choose from these
options:
•
Each Bus to Separate Submix—if the tracks you are combining use
different buses in their Output fields, choose this option if you want to
create separate files for each different output that the tracks use.
•
Each Main Out to Separate Submix—if the Outputs of the tracks you are
combining go to different Main Outs, choose this option to create separate
files for each different Main Out that the tracks use.
•
All Main Outs to Single Mix—if the Outputs of the tracks you are
combining go to different Main Outs, choose this option to create a single
new file that combines the output data from all the Main Outs.
11. In the Mix Enables field, select the effects you want to include in your new
file—usually, you select all the listed options.
Note: Selecting the Track Mute/Solo option causes muted tracks to be left out
of the exported mix, and soloed tracks to be the only tracks exported.
12. Click Export.
The Cakewalk MP3 Encoder (Trial Version) dialog box appears.
To use the Cakewalk MP3 Encoder:
1.
You don’t need an unlock code until the trial period is up, so for now click
Continue.
A new dialog box appears.
2.
Choose the options you want for your new MP3 file—for help choosing options
click the Help button in the dialog box.
3.
When you finish choosing options, click the Encode button.
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SONAR compresses and mixes your project to a file with the extension .MP3 that is
located in the folder you chose in the Look In field of the Export Audio dialog box.
That’s the end of the mixing tutorial. For more information, see “Mixing and
Effects Patching” on page 419 and “Using Automation” on page 493.
Tutorial 8—Using Soft Synths
A software synthesizer is a software program that produces various sounds
through your audio interface when the soft synth program receives MIDI data
from a MIDI controller or sequencer program. SONAR supports all major varieties
of software synthesizers, including DX instruments, or DXi’s for short, and VST
Instruments (you can use VST instruments by running SONAR’s included VST
Adapter to configure the VST instruments). SONAR has a Synth Rack view to
make inserting a DXi, VSTi, or ReWire instrument a one-step process.
Cakewalk TTS-1 is a great example of a DXi, so let’s use it for our tutorial.
Because this DXi supports the DXi 2.0 format, it has multiple outputs (4), and you
can record the movement of some of its controls as automation. You probably
installed Cakewalk TTS-1 when you installed SONAR. To make sure, open a
project that has at least one audio track, right-click the FX field of an audio track
to open the plug-in popup menu, and look under DXi Synth (if you’ve installed
and adapted any VST instruments, you’ll see a VST option on the DXi Synth
menu). You should see Cakewalk TTS-1 listed. If you don’t, insert your SONAR CD
into your CD drive, copy the software synthesizers including Cakewalk TTS-1 to
your hard drive, and restart SONAR.
This tutorial covers the following:
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•
Inserting Cakewalk TTS-1 into a project
•
Playing MIDI tracks through a DXi
•
Adding effects to a DXi
•
Playing a DXi in real time
•
Converting DXi tracks to audio
Inserting Cakewalk TTS-1 into a Project
Inserting a DXi into a project means that the name of the DXi appears in the
dropdown menus of MIDI track Output fields and audio track Input fields.
To Insert Cakewalk TTS-1 into a Project
1.
Open a MIDI project—for this tutorial use TUTORIAL8.CWP.
2.
Use the Insert-DXi Synth command and click Cakewalk TTS-1 on the popup
menu.
The Insert DXi Synth Options dialog appears.
3.
In the Create These Tracks fields, deselect MIDI Source Track, because we
want to patch some pre-existing tracks into Cakewalk TTS-1.
4.
Select All Synth Outputs (Audio) because we’re going to use a different audio
track for each of Cakewalk TTS-1’s 4 outputs. The new audio tracks have
Cakewalk TTS-1 already patched to them as audio inputs.
5.
In the Open These Windows fields, select both Synth Property Page and Synth
Rack view. These two options open Cakewalk TTS-1’s property page
(interface), and the Synth Rack view, respectively.
6.
Click OK.
SONAR inserts 4 audio tracks that each have one of Cakewalk TTS-1’s outputs as
an input (notice that these tracks have the DXi label next to their track numbers),
opens the Synth Rack view with Cakewalk TTS-1 displayed in the first row, and
opens Cakewalk TTS-1’s property page.
Notice that the Output field of the MIDI track is labeled Cakewalk TTS-1 1. The
“1” means that this is the first instance of Cakewalk TTS-1 that you have inserted
into this project. If you use the Insert-DXi Synth command to insert another
instance or copy of Cakewalk TTS-1 into this project, its label will be Cakewalk
TTS-1 2, and it will function as a totally separate synth. MIDI data in tracks that
use Cakewalk TTS-1 1 as an output will have no effect on MIDI tracks that have
Cakewalk TTS-1 2 as an output.
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Playing MIDI Tracks through a DXi
Now that you have verified that Cakewalk TTS-1 is installed, let’s try some of its
sounds on some pre-recorded MIDI data.
To Play MIDI Tracks through Cakewalk TTS-1
1.
Drag Cakewalk TTS-1 property page out of the way for now, and in the first
MIDI track (Guitar 1), click the dropdown arrow in the track’s Output field,
and choose Cakewalk TTS-1 as an output.
Notice that when you choose Cakewalk TTS-1 as a track’s output, the patch
for that track’s MIDI channel in Cakewalk TTS-1 interface changes to the
same one that the track displays.
2.
Set the Output fields in all the other MIDI tracks to Cakewalk TTS-1. Note:
When the cursor is in the Output field of one track, pressing the Up or Down
arrow key moves the cursor to the same field in the next track.
3.
Let’s insert a patch change in track 1: click the track number of the Guitar 1
track to select it, and move the Now time to the Verse 1 marker by clicking the
Next Marker button
once (the Next Marker button is in the Markers
toolbar; if you don’t see it, use the View-Toolbars command and check
Markers).
4.
Use the Insert-Patch/Bank Change command to open the Bank/Patch
Change dialog box.
5.
In the Bank field, select 15488-Preset Normal 0, and in the Patch field, select
Overdrive Gt, and click OK.
Now you’ve routed your MIDI tracks through Cakewalk TTS-1, and inserted a
patch change. Rewind the project and play it to hear the project through Cakewalk
TTS-1.
Converting Your DXi Tracks to Audio
Once your project sounds the way you want it, it’s extremely easy to convert your
DXi MIDI tracks to either new audio tracks, or Wave, MP3, or other exportable
files.
To Convert Your DXi Tracks to New Audio Tracks
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1.
Mute all tracks that you don’t want to convert; make sure you don’t mute the
audio track(s) that the DXi is patched into, or the MIDI track(s) that you are
using as a source.
2.
Let’s set our MIDI tracks to use different outputs on the TTS-1: in the TTS-1
interface, click the System button to open the System Settings panel, and click
the Option button in System Settings to open the Options dialog.
3.
On the Output Assign tab look in the Tone Name column, and click one of the
four Output buttons next to each name in the Tone Name column. This
assigns your individual MIDI instruments to different audio outputs from the
TTS-1. Click the Close button.
4.
Use the Edit-Bounce to Track(s) command.
The Bounce to Track(s) dialog box appears.
5.
In the Source Category field, choose Tracks.
6.
In the Channel Format field, choose mono if you want mono tracks, and stereo
if you want stereo tracks.
7.
In the Source/Buses field, make sure all 4 outputs are selected. This will
create a separate audio track for each selected output. If you wanted to
combine your MIDI tracks into just one audio tracks, send all the MIDI tracks
through just one output (Step 3), and select only that output in the Source/
Buses field.
8.
In the Mix Enables field, make sure all choices are selected.
9.
Click OK.
SONAR creates new audio tracks from the outputs you selected. When you’re
through converting, don’t forget to mute your MIDI tracks so you won’t hear them
and the new audio track(s) at the same time.
To Export Your DXi Tracks as Wave, MP3, or Other Type Files
1.
Mute all tracks that you don’t want to export; make sure you don’t mute the
audio track(s) that the DXi is patched into, or the MIDI track(s) that you are
using as a source.
2.
Use the File-Export-Audio command.
The Export Audio dialog box appears.
3.
In the Look in field, choose the location where you want the exported file to be.
4.
Type a file name in the File name field.
5.
In the Files of Type field, choose the kind or file you want to create.
6.
In the Source Category field, choose Tracks if you want to create separate files
for each MIDI track, or choose Entire Mix if you want to create one file.
7.
Choose a channel format, sample rate, and bit depth that are appropriate for
the new file(s) you are creating. Don’t choose Split Mono in the Channel
Format field if you want to export a single file.
8.
In the Source/Buses field, select all outputs if you chose Tracks in Step 6, or
accept the default if you chose Entire Mix.
9.
In the Mix Enables field, make sure all choices are selected.
10. Click OK.
SONAR creates a new audio file or files of the type you specified. Find the file(s) in
the folder you specified, and double-click each file to listen to it.
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Tutorial 9—Drum Maps
In SONAR drum maps allow you to assign a single MIDI track to multiple outputs.
MIDI drum tracks appear in the Piano Roll view’s Drum Grid pane. In the Note
Map pane you can map pitches to notes in any number of software or hardware
outputs.
In this tutorial we are going to create a drum map, create a MIDI drum track
using the Pattern Brush, and use the drum map to map drum notes to several
different outputs.
Create a New Project
First, we need to create a new project.
1.
Select File-New from the menu.
The New Project dialog appears.
2.
Select the Normal template and click OK.
Creating a Drum Map
Drum maps allow you to map note pitches from the same track to different output
devices, either hardware or software.
Note: Before you begin, make sure you have some MIDI devices selected. To check,
select Options-MIDI Devices. For more information about selecting MIDI
devices, see “To Choose MIDI Devices” on page 136.
To Create a New Drum Map
1.
In a MIDI track, click the Output dropdown menu and choose Drum Map
Manager from the menu that appears.
The Drum Map Manager dialog appears.
2.
Click the Create New Drum Map button
.
A new drum map appears in the Drum Maps Used in Current Project field.
3.
Click the Presets dropdown arrow and select GM Drums (Complete Kit).
4.
In the Out Port column, click one of the down arrows, hold down the Ctrl and
Shift keys, and click the name of the port or instrument that you want to hear
drums on.
All the Out Port entries change to the port or instrument you selected. Later,
we’ll start sending individual notes to different outputs.
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5.
In the Chn column, make sure all entries are set to 10, or whatever MIDI
channel your drum sounds are on.
6.
Close the Drum Map Manager.
Create a Drum Track
You can use any blank MIDI track for your drums. If you don’t have a MIDI track,
create using the Insert-MIDI Track command.
To Assign a MIDI Track to a Drum Map
1.
Display the Track view if it is minimized.
2.
In the track you want to assign to a drum map, click the Output dropdown and
select DM1GM Drums (Complete Kit) from the options in the menu that
appears.
To Create a Drum Track Using the Pattern Brush
1.
Select the track you have assigned to a drum map and select View-Piano
Roll.
The blank drum track appears in the Drum Grid pane of the Piano Roll view.
2.
In the Piano Roll view, click on the down arrow to the right of the Pattern
Brush tool
and select Kick+Snare Patterns (R-T)-Stacy 7.
3.
Click the down arrow again and select Use Pattern Polyphony. This option
tells SONAR to use the original pitch values when “painting” notes in the
Drum Grid pane.
4.
Click on the Pattern Brush to select it.
5.
Starting at the beginning of your track, click and drag the Pattern Brush tool
for a few measures in the Drum Grid pane.
A series of notes, at different pitch values appears in the Drum Grid pane. If
you don’t see any notes, scroll down in the Drum Grid to see the notes.
6.
Click the Pattern Brush down arrow again and select Cymbal Patterns (CF)-Fill 4.
7.
Repeat step 5.
8.
Listen to your drum track. Make a mental note of the drum sounds your hear,
because they are about to change.
Now it is time to mix things up a bit. Lets send some of your drum sounds to a
different output.
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Map Drum Notes to Different Outputs
First, we need to create an output to use, so lets open Cakewalk TTS-1 and use
that soft synth for this part of the tutorial.
To Open Cakewalk TSS-1
1.
Select View-Synth Rack from the menu.
2.
Click the Insert Synth button
in the Synth Rack toolbar and select DXi
Synth-Cakewalk TTS-1 from the menu that appears.
The Insert DXi Synth Options dialog appears.
3.
Make sure that the MIDI Source Track option in the Create These Tracks
section is unchecked.
4.
In the Create These Tracks section, check the First Synth Output (Audio)
option. This option creates a single audio output track.
5.
In the Open These Windows section, check the Synth Property Page option.
This option opens Cakewalk TTS-1 when we close the Insert DXi Synth
Options dialog.
6.
Click OK.
7.
An audio output track for the Cakewalk TTS-1 appears in the Track view and
the Cakewalk TTS-1 appears. If you don’t see the track, scroll down in the
Track pane to find it.
Now, we can map notes to different outputs.
To Map a Note to a New Output
1.
Select your drum track and open the Piano Roll view by selecting View-Piano
Roll from the menu.
2.
Right-click in the Note Map pane (the list of drum names on the far left of the
Piano Roll view) and select Drum Map Manager from the right-click menu.
The Drum Map Manager appears.
3.
In the Drum Map Manager, change the Out Port for the In Note 46 (Bb3) to
Cakewalk TTS-1.
The new Port/Channel pair Cakewalk TTS-1 1 / 10 appears in the Port and
Channels field at the bottom of the Drum Map Manager.
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4.
In the Bank column for the Port/Channel pair Cakewalk TTS-1 1 / 1 select
15360-Preset Rhythm.
5.
In the Patch column for the Port/Channel pair Cakewalk TTS-1 1 / 1 select
Standard Set.
6.
In the Drum Map Manager, change the Out Port setting for In Note 38 (D3) to
Cakewalk TTS-1.
7.
Close the Drum Map Manager and play your project to listen to the different
drum sounds.
To Change Other Drum Map Settings
You can open the Drum Map Manager from either a MIDI track’s Output menu, or
with the Options-Drum Map Manager command.
Change map settings in the Drum Map Manager as described in the following
table:
To do this…
Do this…
Add a row (a mapped pitch)
Click the Add New Drum Map Entry button
.
Change In Note value
Double-click in the appropriate cell and enter
a new value, or click on the right side of the
cell, and when the cursor changes to an up
and down arrow, drag it up to increase the
value or down to lower the value.
Change the Name setting
Double click on the appropriate cell and enter
a new name.
Change the Channel setting
Click the appropriate channel cell’s down
arrow and select a channel from the menu that
appears.
Change the Out Port setting
Click the appropriate Out Port cell’s down
arrow and select an output port from the menu
that appears.
Change the Vel+ setting
Double-click in the appropriate cell and enter
a new value, or click on the right side of the
cell, and when the cursor changes to an up
and down arrow, drag it up to increase the
value or down to lower the value.
Change the V Scale setting
Double-click in the appropriate cell and enter
a new value, or click on the right side of the
cell, and when the cursor changes to an up
and down arrow, drag it up to increase the
value or down to lower the value.
When you are happy with the drum sounds you have mapped, you can mixdown to
an audio file. For more information, see “Converting MIDI to Audio” on page 429.
For more information about drum maps and editing drum tracks in the Piano Roll
view, see Chapter 8, Drum Maps and the Drum Grid Pane.
That’s the end of Tutorial 9. For more information, see “Working with Software
Synthesizer” on page 399.
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Tutorial 10—Cyclone DXi
This tutorial explains how to use Cyclone DXi. You will learn how to open, play
and edit loops as you create a short song.
Cyclone Overview
Cyclone DXi allows you to trigger individual parts or “slices” of Riff Wave files and
ACIDized files. There are 16 pads, and you can assign a file to each pad. You can
trigger pads with a MIDI file, your mouse or a MIDI keyboard. You can edit the
content and length of each file all while syncing to SONAR’s tempo changes and
pitch markers.
Let’s start by opening Cyclone.
To Open Cyclone DXi
1.
Open a new project by selecting File-New and selecting the Normal template.
2.
Select View-Synth Rack.
The Synth Rack appears.
3.
In the Synth Rack click the Insert DXi Instrument button
Cyclone from the menu that appears.
and select
The Insert DXi Synth Options dialog appears.
4.
For the purposes of this tutorial, select First Synth Output (Audio) in the
Create These Tracks section, and Synth Property Page in the Open These
Windows section.
5.
Click OK.
Cyclone DXi and the Cyclone DXi’s audio output track appear.
Now let’s add some files.
Adding Files to a Pad Group
There are several ways to assign a file to a Pad Group.
To Import Files to a Pad Group
1.
Click the Load Files button in pad group 1.
The Open dialog appears.
2.
Open the Tutorials folder located in the directory where you installed SONAR.
3.
In the Tutorials folder select 100BEAT2.WAV and click Open.
The loop 100BEAT2.WAV appears in the Loop bin and Loop view.
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To Import Files to the Loop Bin
1.
Click the Load Files button in the Loop Bin.
The Open dialog appears.
2.
Open the Tutorials folder located in the directory where you installed SONAR.
3.
In the Tutorials folder select 100FX.WAV and click Open.
The loop 100FX.WAV appears in the Loop bin and the Loop view.
To Drag Files from the Loop Bin to a Pad Group
•
Click on 100FX in the Loop bin and drag it onto pad 2.
To Drag Files from Loop Explorer to the Loop Bin
1.
Select View-Loop Explorer.
2.
In the Loop Explorer, navigate to the Tutorials folder located in the directory
where you installed SONAR.
3.
Click and drag the loop 100ONETWO.WAV onto pad 3.
4.
Click and drag the loop 100ORGAN.WAV onto pad 4.
Click the Preview button to listen to the song so far.
Now let’s make some changes.
Setting a Pad’s Volume and Pan
Now let’s tweak some of the pad groups’ controls.
To Change the Volume and Pan in a Pad Group
1.
In pad group two, click on the Volume knob and drag your mouse down to
lower the volume until the volume level indicator is vertical.
2.
Repeat step 1 for the Volume knob in pad group 3.
3.
In pad group two click the Pan knob and drag the mouse up until it is panned
hard left.
4.
In pad group four, click the Pan knob and drag the mouse down until it is
panned hard right.
Click Play to hear all the pad groups together.
Now let’s explore the different ways you can use Cyclone.
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Playing Cyclone
Now that we have added loops and adjusted some of the pad group controls, let’s
use Cyclone as a real-time instrument and as a synth device.
To Play an Existing MIDI Track Through Cyclone
First, we’ll create a MIDI track which will trigger the pads in Cyclone.
1.
In the Track view, select an empty MIDI track. If you don’t have a blank MIDI
track, select Insert-MIDI Track.
2.
In the MIDI track’s Output field, select Cyclone 1.
3.
Select the MIDI track and open the Piano Roll view.
4.
In the Piano Roll view, right-click on the Snap to Grid button to open the Snap
to Grid dialog.
5.
In the Snap to Grid dialog, click the Musical Time radio button and select
Measure.
6.
In the Mode section of the Snap to Grid dialog, select the Move To radio button
and click OK.
7.
Click the Draw tool button.
8.
Use your mouse to move the Draw tool over the Notes pane in the Piano Roll
view.
9.
Enter a C5 note at the beginning.
10. Enter a D5 note at the fifth measure.
11. Enter a E5 note at the beginning.
12. Enter a F5 note at the beginning and fifth measure.
13. Drag the ends of the notes on C5 and E5 until their duration is eight
measures. (If you have Auto Erase enabled, you have to disable it to drag out
the duration of the note. Disable Auto Erase by clicking on the black arrow to
the right of the Draw tool and clicking the Auto Erase command. The
command appears unchecked when disabled.)
14. Drag the end of the D5 note until its duration is four measures (through
measure eight).
15. Drag the ends of the F5 notes until their duration is two measures (through
measures two and six, respectively).
16. Rewind the project and play it back.
17. Experiment by changing the note start times and durations.
You can “play” Cyclone either using your mouse to trigger pads and clicking them
once again to shut them off, or by using an external controller. Let’s try both.
110
To Play Cyclone with Your Mouse
As soon as you click on a pad in Cyclone the first loop begins to play. Simply click
pads to turn them on and click on them again to turn them off.
To Play Cyclone with a MIDI Keyboard or Controller
For the purposes of this part of the tutorial we assume you have an external MIDI
controller like a keyboard. If you don’t, just move on to the next part of the tutorial,
“Editing Loops in the Loop Editor” on page 111. There’s plenty more to know about
Cyclone!
1.
Make sure your MIDI device is hooked up properly.
2.
Select the MIDI track that is assigned to Cyclone DXi.
3.
On your MIDI keyboard press and hold C5, D5, E5 or F5 (the C, D, E or F keys
in the center of your keyboard.
The appropriate loop plays through Cyclone DXi.
Now let’s create new loops by substituting slices.
Editing Loops in the Loop Editor
Each beat of a loop, as it appears in the Loop view or the Pad Editor can be
replaced with a beat from another loop.
To Replace Slices
1.
Click the Load Files button in pad 5 and select MARACAS.WAV from the
Tutorials folder.
2.
In the Cyclone DXi toolbar, click the Auto Preview button.
3.
Select the maracas loop in the Loop Bin.
The maracas loop appears in the Loop view.
4.
Click the first slice of the maracas loop in the Loop view. We are going to use
this slice as a substitute for some of the slices in pad 1.
5.
Click and drag the first slice of the maracas loop into the Pad Editor over the
slices in the pad 1.
6.
Drop the loop on the third slice, a cymbal hit that’s located half-way through
beat 1 of the 100BEAT2.WAV loop.
7.
Listen to the other slices in pad 1, and substitute the slice of the maracas loop
for parts of the 100BEAT2.WAV loop.
8.
Click Play in Cyclone DXi to hear the changes.
There is much more to the Cyclone DXi. For more information, see “Appendix C:
Cyclone” on page 661.
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112
3
Controlling Playback
When you play your SONAR project, you have full control over the tempo or speed
of playback, which tracks are played, which sound cards or other devices are used
to produce the sound, and what the tracks sound like.
SONAR’s multi-MIDI enhancements give you the ability to play multiple synths or
tracks from a single keyboard or controller, or let multiple performers play the
same or different tracks. You have total control over MIDI echo (MIDI echo refers
to where MIDI input signals are sent once SONAR receives them).
Note: SONAR has a button called the Audio Engine button
in the Transport
toolbar which you click to stop any feedback you may experience if there is a loop
somewhere in your mixer setup. Whenever you play a project, SONAR
automatically enables the audio engine, which you can tell by watching the Status
bar—whenever the audio engine is running, the Audio Running indicator in the
Status bar lights up.
In This Chapter
The Now Time and How to Use It . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
Controlling Playback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
Track-by-Track Playback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
Changing Track Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
Controlling Live MIDI Playback—MIDI Echo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
Local Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
Video Playback, Import, and Export. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
Locating Missing Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
The Now Time and How to Use It
Every project has a current time, known as the Now time, which keeps track of
where you are in a project. The Now time appears as a vertical line in the Track
view and is displayed in both the Large Transport toolbar and the Position toolbar,
in two formats:
The current measure, beat, and tick
The current time in hours, minutes,
seconds, and frames
Meter, Key Signature
display
The measure, beat, and tick number (MBT) identifies the Now time in musical
time units. Ticks are subdivisions of quarter notes and indicate the timebase of the
project. For more information about the timebase, see “Setting the MIDI Timing
Resolution” on page 169. The other time format is the SMPTE format, expressed in
hours, minutes, seconds, and frames.
Here are some examples of times expressed in measure, beat, and tick (MBT)
format:
Time...
What it means...
1:01:000
First beat of the first measure
9:04:000
Fourth beat of the ninth measure
4:02:060
The 60th tick of the second beat of the
fourth measure
The hours-minutes-seconds-frames format is commonly referred to as the SMPTE
time. SMPTE is the acronym for the Society of Motion Picture and Television
Engineers. In this format, time is measured in hours, minutes, seconds, and
frames. It’s not necessary for a project to begin at time zero in this format—any
time can be used to represent the start of a project. If you are synchronizing
SONAR with an external device whose start time is not 0, you must offset SONAR
to match the external device’s start time. For more information, see Chapter 18,
Synchronizing Your Gear.
114
Here are some examples of times expressed in this format (assuming that zero is
the start time):
Time...
What it means...
00:00:00:00
The beginning of the project
00:05:10:00
Five minutes and ten seconds from the
beginning of the project
01:30:00:00
One hour and thirty minutes into the project
00:00:00:05
Five frames into the project
SONAR provides many ways to set the Now time. Here are just a few:
To Change the Now Time
•
Click the desired time on the Time Ruler in the Track view, Piano Roll view, or
Staff view
•
In the Navigator pane, click anywhere in the view while holding down the Ctrl
key to change the Now Time to that location
•
Click on the Now time in the Large Transport toolbar, enter the desired time,
and press Enter
•
Choose Go-Time or press F5, enter the desired time, and click OK
•
Click on an event in the Event List view
You can also set the Now time by right-clicking in the Clips pane if you enable the
Right Click Sets Now option in the Track View Properties dialog. Right-click a clip
and select View Options from the menu that appears to open the Track View
Properties dialog.
When entering a time in MBT format, the beat and tick values are optional. You
can use a colon, space, decimal point, or vertical bar to separate the parts of the
Now time:
You enter…
The Now time is set to…
2
2:01:000
420
4:02:000
9
9:01:000
5|1:30
5:01:030
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When entering a time in SMPTE format, you can enter a single number (hour),
two numbers (hour and minutes), three numbers (hour, minutes, and seconds), or
all four numbers.
If you click in the Time Ruler while the snap grid is enabled, the Now time will be
snapped to the nearest point in the grid. By setting the grid size to a whole note or
quarter note, you can easily set the Now time to a measure or beat boundary.
You can also use the buttons and the scroll bar in either the Transport toolbar or
Large Transport toolbar (shown below) to adjust the time.
Click to jump to the end
Click to jump to the beginning
Click to back up one measure
Meter/Key
Signature display
Click to move ahead one measure
Drag to any desired position
The Large Transport toolbar differs from the Transport toolbar because it displays
the Now time (which you can set by entering numbers into the display fields in
either MBT or SMPTE time) and the Meter/Key Signature display. The Meter/Key
Signature display shows the current meter, key signature, and tempo. You can edit
the meter and key signature by clicking the display to open the Meter/Key
Signature dialog box. You can display the Large Transport toolbar by selecting the
View-Toolbars command to open the Toolbars dialog box, and checking Transport
(Large).
When playback or recording is stopped, the Now Time either remains at the point
where the project stopped or snaps back to the Now Time Marker. This behavior is
controlled in the General tab of the Global Options dialog.
The Now Time Marker
In the Track view, the Now time appears as a black vertical line. When you set the
Now time in the Track view a white triangle called the Now time marker appears
in the Time Ruler. This marker represents the point at which the Now time will
snap back to after you stop playback or recording. You can change the Now time
marker behavior so that the marker moves to the current Now time when playback
or recording is topped.
116
To Change the Now Time Marker Behavior
1.
Select Options-Global from the SONAR menu.
The Global Options dialog appears.
2.
Click the General tab.
3.
Uncheck the On Stop, Rewind to Now Marker option to have the Now time
marker move to follow the current Now time when you stop playback.
Or
Check the On Stop, Rewind to Now Marker option to have the Now time snap
back to the Now time marker when you stop playback.
4.
Click OK.
Displaying the Now Time in Large Print
SONAR can display the Now time in large print so that it’s easier to see when you
are far from your monitor (for example, when you’re at your keyboard or another
instrument) or when several people need to read the Now time from a distance.
Here’s how:
To Display the Big Time View
1.
Choose View-Big Time to display the Big Time view.
2.
Change the settings according to the table:
To do this…
Do this…
Switch time format
Click on the view to toggle between MBT
and SMPTE time
Change font or color
Right-click on the view, choose the font
and color you want, and click OK
Change the size of the view
Drag any corner of the view to change its
size
Note that SONAR ignores font styles and effects such as strikeout and underline.
117
Other Ways to Set the Now Time
There are a variety of commands and keyboard shortcuts you can use to set the
Now time:
Command...
Shortcut...
What it does...
Go-Time
F5
Lets you enter the Now time in the
Position toolbar or in a dialog box
Go-From
F7
Sets the Now time to the From time
(the start time of the current time
selection)
Go-Thru
F8
Sets the Now time to the Thru time
(the end time of the current time
selection)
Go-Beginning
Ctrl+Home
Sets the Now time to the beginning
of the project
Go-End
Ctrl+End
Sets the Now time to the end of the
project
Go-Previous Measure
Ctrl+PgUp
Sets the Now time to the start of the
current measure if the Now time is
not on a barline, or to the start of the
previous measure if the Now time is
on a barline.
Go-Next Measure
Ctrl+PgDn
Sets the Now time to the start of the
next measure
If your project has markers, you can use the Marker toolbar to set the Now time:
To do this…
Do this…
Skip to the next marker
Click
on the Markers toolbar (or press
Ctrl+Shift+PgDn).
Skip to the previous marker
Click
on the Markers toolbar (or press
Ctrl+Shift+PgUp).
Jump to any marker
Click
on the Markers toolbar to open
the Markers view. Click on the marker you
want to jump to in the Markers view.
For more information about markers, see “Creating and Using Markers” on page
224.
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The Time Ruler
The Time Ruler appears in the Track view, Tempo view, Staff view and Piano Roll
view. It has several functions, including:
•
Making a Time Selection
The Time Ruler follows the Snap to Grid settings, if enabled. For more
information about using the Snap to Grid, see “Defining and Using the Snap
Grid” on page 222.
•
Changing the Now time
For more information about the Now time, see “The Now Time and How to Use
It” on page 114.
•
Adding loop, punch, and pitch markers
You can right-click in the Time Ruler to add markers. For more information,
see “Creating and Using Markers” on page 224 and “Using Pitch Markers in
the Track View” on page 266.
In the Track view, the Time Ruler has the following time display options or
formats:
•
Measures, Beats and Ticks (M:B:T)
•
Hours, Minutes, Seconds and Frames (H:M:S:F—also called SMPTE)
•
Samples
The M:B:T setting follows your settings in the Meter/Key view. If you project is set
to 4/4 time, you have four beats in the Time Ruler for each measure. If your project
is set to 6/8 time, you have six beats in the Time Ruler for each measure.
To Set the Time Ruler Format to M:B:T
1.
Right-click in the Track view Time Ruler.
2.
In the menu that appears, select Time Ruler Format-M:B:T.
To Set the Time Ruler Format to H:M:S:F (SMPTE)
1.
Right-click in the Track view Time Ruler.
2.
In the menu that appears, select Time Ruler Format-H:M:S:F.
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To Set the Time Ruler Format to Samples
1.
Right-click in the Track view Time Ruler.
2.
In the menu that appears, select Time Ruler Format-Samples.
Note:
The Display All Times as SMPTE checkbox in the General tab of the
Global Options dialog forces all times in the project to be displayed in
SMPTE time, regardless of your setting in the Time Ruler.
Controlling Playback
To control playback, you have your choice of tools, menu commands, and shortcut
keys for most common operations.
When you start playback, the Now time updates continuously to show the current
time. When you stop playback, the Now time stops at the time you stopped. When
you start playback again, it continues from the same point.
If the Now time is advancing but you don’t hear any sound, see Appendix A:
Troubleshooting. If you are using MIDI sync or syncing to MIDI time code, SONAR
waits to receive external timing data before it begins playing. If the various views
are not updating during playback, make sure the Scroll Lock key on your computer
keyboard is not enabled. For more information, see Chapter 18, Synchronizing
Your Gear.
Note: If your Windows setup uses any system sounds that are associated with any
typical activity, such as minimizing a window, etc., you should disable these
sounds. They can sound extremely loud through your monitors, and also interrupt
playback and recording, if you open any dialog boxes or do anything that has a
system sound attached to it while a project plays. The quickest way to disable all
system sounds is to open the Control Panel (Start-Settings-Control Panel),
double-click the Sounds icon to open the Sounds Properties dialog box, and in the
Schemes field select No Sounds. Click Apply, and then click OK.
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To Start and Stop Playback
To do this…
Do this…
Start playback
Press the Spacebar, click
choose Transport-Play
Stop playback
Press the Spacebar, click
Transport-Stop
Rewind to the start of the project
Click
, press the w key, or choose
Transport-Rewind
Skip to the end of the project
Click
, or
, or choose
Note:
The default behavior for the Now time when you click the Stop button is for it to
return to the Now time marker where playback began. If you want the Now time to
remain where it is when you stop playback, you can use the keyboard shortcut
Ctrl+Spacebar. If you want to change the default behavior, select Options-Global
and click the General tab. In the General tab, uncheck the On Stop, Rewind to
Now Marker option.
Handling Stuck Notes
Under MIDI, the events that turn notes on are separate from the events that stop
notes from playing. Normally, when you stop playback, SONAR attempts to turn
off all notes that are still playing. Depending on how your equipment is configured,
it’s possible for notes to get stuck in the “on” position. The Transport-Reset
command is used to stop all notes from playing. The Transport-Reset command
also stops feedback from input monitoring.
Note:
You can control the MIDI messages that are sent by the TransportReset command by changing the Panic Strength variable in the
CAKEWALK.INI file.
To Clear Stuck Notes
•
Choose Transport-Reset, or click
on the Large Transport toolbar.
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Looping
Sometimes you want to listen to one portion of a project over and over, either so
you can play along and rehearse or because you want to edit that section of the
project while it is playing and hear the results as you make changes. SONAR has a
playback looping feature that makes this simple.
Looping is defined in the Loop/Auto Shuttle toolbar, as shown here:
Click to turn looping on or off
Loop Start time
Click to copy the selection
(From and Thru) times
Loop End time
Click to open the Loop/Auto
Shuttle dialog box
To set up a loop, you do three things:
•
Set the start time of the loop
•
Set the end time of the loop
•
Enable looping
From then on, SONAR will automatically jump back to the start of the loop when
it reaches the end.
When looping is enabled, the loop times are indicated by special markers in the
Time Ruler.
Loop From
Loop Thru
The Loop/Auto Shuttle dialog box, which appears when you use the TransportLoop and Auto Shuttle command or click the Loop and Auto Shuttle button
in the Loop toolbar, contains two additional settings that affect the details of how
looping operates:
Option...
How it works...
Stop at the end time
Playback does not proceed beyond the end
of the loop
Loop continuously
When playback reaches the end of the loop
and rewinds to the start, playback continues
automatically (this option is on by default)
With the default option settings, SONAR will play the loop over and over again,
continuously.
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If you start playback before the loop start time, SONAR will play until the loop end
time is reached, then jump back to the loop start time.
Note: If you stop playback while looping is enabled, the Now time jumps to the
Now time marker. If you disable the On Stop Rewind to Now Marker option in the
General tab of the Global Options dialog, the Now time stays wherever you
stopped playback.
The Rewind command operates slightly differently when looping is in effect. The
first time you rewind, the Now time is set to the start of the loop. If the Now time
is already at the start of the loop, Rewind takes you to the beginning of the project.
From then on, Rewind switches back and forth between the loop start time and the
start of measure 1.
To Set Up a Playback Loop
1.
Set the loop start and end times in one of the following ways:
•
Drag the mouse between two points in the Time Ruler of the Track view,
Staff, or Piano Roll view to select a range of times, then click
in the
Loop/Auto Shuttle toolbar to copy the selection time to the loop time.
•
Click between two markers in the Track, Staff, or Piano Roll view to select
a range of times, then click
in the Loop/Auto Shuttle toolbar to copy
the selection time to the loop time.
•
Type the loop start and end times directly into the toolbar.
•
Select a range of times, then right-click in the Time Ruler and choose Set
Loop Points (this method makes the second option unnecessary).
Looping is automatically turned on when you use the Set Loop to Selection
command.
To Change the Loop Settings
1.
Click
, or choose Transport-Loop and Auto Shuttle to display the Loop/
Auto Shuttle dialog box.
2.
Check the options you want to use.
3.
Click OK.
To Cancel a Playback Loop
•
Click
on the toolbar to disable looping.
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Track-by-Track Playback
SONAR lets you play back any combination of tracks at one time by changing each
track’s status. You can control the status of each track with the individual controls
that are on every track, or with the global controls on the Playback State toolbar or
the Status bar that’s at the bottom of the SONAR window. For more information on
the Status bar, see “Status Bar/CPU Meter/Disk Meter” on page 639. For more
information on the Playback State toolbar, see “The Playback State Toolbar” on
page 125.
There are several different status settings for each track:
Status...
What it means...
Normal
The track plays unless one or more of your
other tracks is soloed.
Muted
The track is not played, but you can turn it
on while playback is in progress.
Archived
The track is not played, and you must stop
playback to re-enable it. Archived tracks do
not tax your CPU during playback so they
can be used to store alternate takes.
Soloed
Only those tracks that are designated as
solo tracks are played; all others are muted.
Armed
The track is armed for recording.
Mono/Stereo
The track plays back in either mono or
stereo, depending on what the individual
track setting is, and whether the Play in
Mono button in the Playback State toolbar is
depressed.
Phase normal or inverted
If a track was accidentally recorded out of
phase with another track, the Phase button
lets you reverse the phase of a track.
While playback is in progress, you can mute and unmute tracks in any
combination, which means you can hear only the tracks that you want. You can
change the status of a track in the Track view, the Console view, the Track menu,
the Playback State toolbar, or the Status bar.
If a track is both muted and soloed, it does not play. Mute has precedence.
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The track status is saved with the SONAR project file. If you save a SONAR
project as a Standard MIDI File, however, all tracks are saved without mute, solo,
or archive indicators.
The Playback State Toolbar
To display the Playback State toolbar, use the View-Toolbars command to open
the Toolbars dialog box, and make sure Playback State is checked. The Playback
State toolbar is a global control that allows you to mute or unmute, solo or unsolo,
arm or disarm, and toggle the input echo status of all tracks.
Drag to reposition
Input monitor or MIDI echo
Mute
Solo
Arm
Silencing Tracks
When a track is muted, SONAR processes the track while playback is in progress
so that you can unmute the track without stopping playback. If you have lots of
muted tracks, this can place a heavy load on your computer. Archived tracks, on
the other hand, don’t place any load on your computer. Therefore, if there are
tracks you want to keep but don’t need to play, you should archive them instead.
Archived tracks are indicated by the letter A in the Mute button that is displayed
in the Track and Console views.
When you mute or unmute a track while playback is in progress, there may be a
slight delay before you hear the effect of the change. This is to be expected and
does not indicate a hardware or software problem.
To Mute or Unmute Individual Tracks
•
To mute or unmute a track, click its M button in the Track or Console view.
•
To mute or unmute several tracks at once, select the tracks and choose TrackMute, or select the tracks, right-click, and choose Mute from the popup menu.
To Unmute All Tracks
•
Click the M button in the Playback State toolbar or the Mute label in the
Status bar.
To Mute All Tracks
•
If no tracks are currently muted, click the M button in the Playback State
toolbar.
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To Archive or Unarchive Tracks
1.
Select one or more tracks in the Track view.
2.
Choose Track-Archive, or right-click and choose Archive from the menu to
toggle the archive status of the selected tracks.
Soloing Tracks
Sometimes you want to hear a single track, or a few tracks at once, without having
to mute all the other tracks. You can do this by soloing the tracks you want to hear.
As soon as any track is marked as a solo track, SONAR ignores all mute settings
(unless a soloed track is also muted—mute takes precedence over solo) and plays
only the track or tracks that are set to solo. Any number of tracks at one time can
be marked as solo. All these tracks will play together. As soon as the solo status of
the final solo track is turned off, SONAR once again plays back tracks based on
their mute settings.
To Solo or Unsolo Individual Tracks
•
To solo or unsolo a track, click the Solo button in the Track or Console view
•
To solo or unsolo several tracks at once, select the tracks and choose TrackSolo, or right-click, and choose Solo from the popup menu.
To Unsolo All Tracks
•
Click the S button in the Playback State toolbar or the Solo label in the Status
bar.
To Solo All Tracks
•
If no tracks are currently soloed, click the S button in the Playback State
toolbar.
Inverting the Phase of a Track
A waveform’s exact opposite is called an inversion. It is a shift of 180 degrees. A
waveform and its inversion cancel each other out completely, so it is usually not
desirable to have two track recordings of the same source if one is phase inverted.
It can lead to reduced volume, lowered or distorted response in certain frequencies,
or even silence in the case of two tracks which are exactly identical (i.e. cloned
tracks).
Occasionally, for example when recording a source using two microphones, one of
the microphones may be recording an inversion of the other, the resulting tracks
may, to some degree, be cancelling each other out. SONAR allows you to invert the
phase of a track to match another.
To Invert the Phase of a Track
126
1.
Open the Track view or Console view.
2.
In the track you want to invert the phase, click the phase inversion button
.
Changing Tracks’ Mono/Stereo Status
SONAR has a mono/stereo button in each track module in the Track and Console
views. The buttons in the track modules force each track to play in either stereo or
mono, but preserve the tracks’ pan positions in the stereo mix.
The Mono/Stereo button in each track forces the track’s audio signal to enter any
patched plug-ins as either mono or stereo, whether or not the tracks are mono or
stereo. This allows you to use either mono effects on a stereo track or stereo effects
on a mono track.
Note: You may lose important stereo data by using mono effects with stereo tracks
because your stereo tracks are summed to mono in order to pass through the effect.
If you never want your stereo data to be summed to mono, select stereo.
To Use a Track’s Stereo/Mono Button
1.
Display the Track view or Console view.
2.
In the track you want to force to either mono or stereo for processing effects,
click the Stereo/Mono button
to the desired position:
•
Speaker icon pointing left—This choice means that you manually selected
mono for this track.
•
Speaker icon pointing left and right (as pictured above)—This choice
means that you manually selected stereo for this track.
Changing Track Settings
Each track in a project contains MIDI or audio information and has a variety of
settings that determine how the track sounds. By changing these settings, you can
change the sound of your project. For audio tracks, you control the volume, the
stereo panning, and the output device that is used to produce the sound. For MIDI
tracks, you control many additional settings, including the type of instrument
sound that is used to play the notes stored in the track.
Audio Track
Parameters
Track name (or if new, the track #)
Mute, Solo and Arm buttons Input Echo button
Track number
Minimize track
Phase invert
button
Maximize track
Track Effects bin
Output
Bus send enable
Meter
Pre/Post fader
buttons
Stereo/Mono/Auto button
Bus send level, pan
Input (from audio device)
127
Mute, Solo and Arm buttons
MIDI Track
Parameters
Track name (or if new, the track #)
Track number
Input Echo button
Minimize track
Pan
Maximize track
Volume
Input
Output
Effects bin
Channel
Bank
Patch
Time+
Key+
Chorus
Reverb
Velocity Trim
Here is a summary table of the different track parameters and how they are used.
Audio Track Parameters
The following parameters apply to audio tracks:
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Setting...
What it means...
Number
A sequential track number used only for reference
Name
A name that you assign the track for easy reference. Note
that if you do not assign a name to a track, the default
name is the track number. This track number will
change if you change the order of your tracks.
Input
The input source for the track, used in recording
Output
The output bus through which the track is played
Vol (volume)
The starting volume level for the track, ranging from -INF
(silent) to +6 dB (maximum volume).
Pan
The stereo distribution of the output, ranging from 100% left
(hard left) to 100% right (hard right); a value of “C” indicates
sound that is centered left-to-right. On stereo tracks, pan
acts as balance.
Trim (volume
trim)
Volume Trim is a pre-fader control which allows the fine
tuning of a single track’s volume.
For example, let’s say you have four tracks, three tracks
have their volume fader set to 0 dB while the fourth track’s
fader is set to +10 dB. You want to group the faders and do
a slow fade out, but the slightly higher level of the fourth
track causes its volume to be higher in relation to the other
tracks towards the end of the fade out. To balance the fader
levels, reduce the fader level for the fourth track to 0 dB and
raise the Volume Trim value for that track to +10 dB. The
resulting volume levels for the project are the same, but now
you can group the faders and perform a fade out with no
track standing out disproportionately at the end of the fade
out.
Bus Enable
Allows the track to be sent to the bus.
Bus Send Level
Each track has a Bus Send Level for each Bus in the
project. The default number of Buses for a new project is 2.
Bus Send Pan
Each track has a Bus Send Pan for each Bus in the project.
The Bus Send Pan adjusts the send pan setting.
Bus Pre/Post
Each track has a Bus Send Pre/Post for each Bus in the
project. Pre (pre-fader) means that the signal goes to the
bus prior to the track’s volume fader.
Mono/Stereo
A switch that determines whether a track’s signal enters an
effect or chain of effects as mono or stereo, regardless of
the nature of the track.
Phase In/Out
A switch that inverts the phase of the track.
Effects bin
The patch point for a track’s DirectX plug-ins or DXi soft
synths.
Meters
The recording and playback levels are displayed in the
Playback and Record meters.
129
MIDI Track Parameters
The following parameters apply to MIDI tracks:
Setting...
What it means...
Number
A sequential track number used only for reference
Name
A name that you assign the track for easy reference. Note
that if you do not assign a name to a track, the default
name is the track number. This track number will change
if you change the order of your tracks.
Input
The input source for the track, used in recording
Output
The output device through which the track is played
Vol (volume)
The starting volume level for the track, ranging from 0 (silent)
to 127 (maximum volume).
Pan
The stereo distribution of the output, ranging from 100% left
(hard left) to 100% right (hard right); a value of “C” indicates
sound that is centered left-to-right.
Ch (channel)
The MIDI channel through which the notes will be played
Bnk (bank)
The set of patch names available for the track
Pch (patch)
The instrument sound that will be used for playback.
Vel+
The change in velocity (volume) that will be applied to notes
in this track on playback; ranges from –127 to +127
Key+
The number of steps by which the notes in the track are
transposed on playback (e.g., 12 to transpose up one octave)
Time+
An offset applied to the start time of the events in the track
To Change a Track Name
1.
Double-click on the current track name.
2.
Enter the new track name.
3.
Click Enter.
The default track names (Track 1, Track 2, etc.) are not actually names, but
placeholders until you name a track. If you reorder the tracks these placeholders
change.
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You can rearrange and resize the panes in the Track view as shown in the
following table:
To do this...
Do this...
Change the size of the Track pane
Drag to the left or right the divider that
separates the Track and Clips panes
Change the Size of the Mains/Buses
pane
Drag up or down the divider that separates
the Track and Clip panes from the Bus pane
You can customize which tracks are displayed or not displayed, and enlarge or
maximize individual tracks while other tracks remain minimized. You can also
manually set the exact size of a track’s display. The following table shows how to
customize the appearance of tracks in the Track pane:
To do this...
Do this...
Maximize a track
Click the Maximize button in the track
Restore a track to its default size
Click the Restore button in the track
Minimize a track
Click the Minimize button in the track
Change the default size of a track
using splitter bars
Move the cursor over the gap below a track
until the cursor looks like this
. Click and
drag until the track is the size you want.
You can display subsets of the Track pane’s controls by selecting one of the tabs
located at the bottom of the Track view. The following table lists the controls
displayed when each tab is selected:
Tab
Controls displayed when selected
All
•
All controls are displayed
Mix
•
Volume
•
Pan
•
Volume Trim
•
Phase (audio tracks only)
•
Key+ (MIDI tracks only)
•
Time+ (MIDI tracks only)
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FX
I/O
•
FX
•
Bus enable/disable (audio tracks only)
•
Bus Output Level (audio tracks only)
•
Bus Output Pan (audio tracks only)
•
Bus Pre/Post Fader (audio tracks only)
•
Mono/Stereo (audio tracks only)
•
Chorus (MIDI tracks only)
•
Reverb (MIDI tracks only)
•
In
•
Output
•
Channel (MIDI tracks only)
•
Bank (MIDI tracks only)
•
Patch (MIDI tracks only)
Changing Audio Track Settings in the Track Pane
You can change the values in the Track pane in a number of ways:
132
Control
How to change the setting
Volume, Pan, Volume Trim, Bus
Output Level, and Bus Output Pan
Click on the control and move your cursor
left or right to adjust values, or press Enter
and type a value.
Input and Output
Click on the black arrow on the right of the
control and select a driver from the menu
that appears, or double-click on the control
and select a driver from the menu.
Changing MIDI Track Settings in the Track Pane
Control
How to change the value
Channel
Click on the black arrow on the right of the control
and select a channel from the menu that appears, or
double-click on the control and enter a value.
Bank
Click on the black arrow on the right of the control
and select a bank from the menu that appears, or
double-click on the control and enter a value.
Patch
Click on the black arrow on the right of the control
and select a patch from the menu that appears, or
double-click on the control and enter a value.
Volume, Pan, Volume Trim,
Chorus and Reverb
Click on control and move your cursor left or right to
adjust values, or double-click on the control and
enter a value.
Key+ and Time+
Double-click the control or click on the black arrow on
the right of the control and enter a new value, or
double-click on the control and enter a value.
Input
Click on the black arrow on the right of the control
and select a MIDI channel from the menu that
appears, or double-click on the control and select a
driver from the menu.
Output
Click on the black arrow on the right of the control
and select a driver from the menu that appears, or
double-click on the control and select a driver from
the menu.
You can change numeric values in MIDI tracks as shown in the following table:
To do this...
Do this...
Change the value by 1
Press the - or + key on your numeric
keypad, or click on the spinner control
Change the value by 10 (for Key+, by
12)
Press the [ or ] key, or right-click on the
spinner control
Enter a new value
Press Enter and type the new value using
the keyboard, and press Enter
For numeric fields, you can press and hold both mouse buttons to change the value
by increments of 10 (12, a full octave, for Key+).
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You can also edit Track properties in the Track Properties dialog box. To open this
dialog box, right-click on the Track bar and select Track Properties.
You can change the value of a track parameter for several tracks at once using
commands on the Track-Property menu. For example, to assign a group of tracks
to the same output, select the tracks you want to assign, then choose TrackProperty-Output. These menu commands can also be used to change the settings
for individual tracks.
All track parameters are saved with a SONAR project. However, if you export a
project to a Standard MIDI File, several of the parameters (Key+, Vel+, Time+,
and Chan) are applied to the MIDI data as the file is being exported. Other
parameters, including Input, Output, Mute, Solo, and Archive, are lost when you
export the project to a MIDI file.
The following sections contain more information about many of the parameters in
the Track view. For more information on the track inputs and the track Arm
button, see “Preparing to Record” on page 170.
Setting Up Output Devices
The output setting for a track determines which piece of hardware will be used to
produce the sound stored in your project. In a very simple equipment setup, you
might have only a computer equipped with a basic sound card. In this case, you
want to play all MIDI and audio output through the sound card on your computer.
If your equipment setup also includes a MIDI keyboard attached to the MIDI port
on your sound card, you can choose to route MIDI data directly to the sound card
or through the sound card MIDI port to the keyboard. If you choose the former, the
music will play from your computer speakers. If you choose the latter, the sound
will play from the speaker attached to your keyboard. You can even choose to send
some MIDI information to each of these devices so that they both play at once.
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You can purchase MIDI interfaces that plug into your parallel, serial, or USB port
to add MIDI ports to your computer. For more information on complex system
configurations, see Appendix B: Hardware Setup.
If your computer has several MIDI outs, choose the ones you want to use and put
them in a particular order using the Options-MIDI Devices command. The order
in which your MIDI devices appear in the Output menus in the Track and Console
views is based solely on the order in which the selected outs appear in the MIDI
Devices dialog box. As a result, the order in which your devices appear in a track’s
output control may not match the port numbers that appear on your external
multiport MIDI device.
These
devices are
not selected
When you first run SONAR it asks you to select MIDI devices. You may want to
change these selections in the future. You can do so by selecting different devices
in the MIDI Devices dialog box.
Your computer is usually equipped with at least one audio device—your computer
sound card. Your setup may have several different audio output devices, or you
may have a multichannel sound card that presents itself to your computer as
though it were several different devices, one for each stereo pair. In SONAR, audio
tracks are assigned to main outs or buses. Each main out represents a hardware
device. You use the Output control to assign a track in a project to the main or bus
you want to use.
While you need to choose the MIDI output devices you want to use before you
assign them to tracks, all of your audio devices can be assigned to tracks freely.
You do not need to configure them the way you do MIDI devices. If you have a voice
modem or speakerphone in your computer, however, you might want to set up
SONAR so that it won’t use those devices. Also, note that some dedicated audio
equipment has specific setup requirements. For more information, see Chapter 20,
Improving Audio Performance.
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To Choose MIDI Devices
1.
Choose Options-MIDI Devices to display the MIDI Devices dialog box.
2.
Click on any MIDI device in the Outputs list.
3.
To move any device to the top of the list, deselect all other devices and click
Move to Top to move the selected device to the top of the list.
4.
When all devices are selected in the order you want, click OK.
Assigning Tracks to Outputs
You assign each track to a MIDI or an audio output using the Output dropdown in
the Track view. From then on, material on that track will be sent to the
appropriate output device.
Note:
If you rearrange your MIDI output devices after making output
assignments, you may find MIDI information being sent to different
instruments than you expect. Also, SONAR allows you to define
instruments that are associated with certain outputs and channels. If
you use this feature, the name of the output will change to reflect the
instrument you have chosen. For more information about instrument
definitions, see Chapter 16, Using Instrument Definitions.
To Assign a Track to an Output
1.
Click the Output dropdown of the track you want to assign.
2.
Select the output you want to use.
To change the output setting for more than one track at a time, select the tracks
you want to change and choose Track-Property-Output.
Choosing the Instrument Sound (Bank and Patch)
Electronic keyboards and synthesizers often contain hundreds or thousands of
different sounds. Each sound is known as a patch. The name comes from the early
days of synthesizers, for which you physically rewired (using patch cords) the
oscillators and modulators to produce different sounds. Patches are normally
organized into groups of 128, called banks. Most instruments have between 1 and
8 banks, but MIDI supports up to 16,384 banks of 128 patches each (that’s over 2
million patches).
The bank and patch settings in the Track view control the initial bank and patch of
a track during playback. Every time SONAR starts playback at the beginning of a
project, the bank and patch settings for the track are set to these initial values.
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Many instruments have descriptive names for their banks and patches. SONAR
stores these names in an instrument definition. For more information about
instrument definitions, see Chapter 16, Using Instrument Definitions. If you are
using an instrument that supports General MIDI, your patch list will contain the
128 sounds that are defined by the General MIDI specification.
Note to Experts:
Different MIDI instruments use different types of commands to
change banks. SONAR supports four common methods for changing
banks. For information about the bank selection method you should
use with your MIDI gear, see your MIDI equipment’s documentation.
Tip:
If your bank name is too long to fit in the bank field, hold your cursor
over the bank name. A tooltip appears with the complete bank name.
Note that a single MIDI channel can only play one patch at a time on each
instrument assigned to that channel. Therefore, if two or more MIDI tracks are set
to the same output and channel but have different bank and patch settings, the
patch of the highest-numbered track will be used for all the tracks.
In some projects you want the sound played by a track to change while playback is
in progress. You can accomplish this using the Insert-Bank/Patch Change
command. When you start playback in the middle of a project, SONAR searches
back through the track to find the correct patch to use—either the initial bank and
patch or the most recent bank/patch change. Note that the Track view only shows
the initial bank and patch, even while a different bank and patch are being played
back. The only way to see and edit a bank/patch change is in the Event List view.
For more information, see “The Event List View” on page 318.
To Assign an Initial Bank and Patch to a Track
1.
Right-click on the Track titlebar (the top of the track which contains the track
name) and select Track Properties.
The Track Properties dialog box appears.
2.
In the Track Properties dialog box, choose the desired bank and patch from
the dropdown lists.
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3.
To search for a patch containing specific text, click the Patch Browser button
to the right of the dropdown lists. You can also open the Patch Browser by
right-clicking a bank or patch control in the Track or Console views.
4.
Click OK.
Another Way to Assign a Patch to a Track
1.
Select the patch you want from the Patch dropdown.
To change the bank and patch settings for more than one track at a time, select the
tracks you want to change and choose Track-Property-Bank or Track-PropertyPatch.
To Insert a Bank/Patch Change
1.
Highlight the track whose bank and patch you want to change by clicking on
the track number.
2.
Set the Now time to the time at which you want the change to occur.
3.
Choose Insert-Bank/Patch Change to display the Bank/Patch Change
dialog box.
4.
Choose a bank and patch from the lists.
5.
Click OK.
SONAR inserts a change in bank and patch. When you play back the project, the
initial bank and patch shown in the Track view will be used to the point at which
the bank/patch change takes place. You can remove a bank/patch change in the
Event List view.
To Choose Patches with the Patch Browser
1.
In the Track view or Console view, right-click the patch name in the track
module you want to change patches in.
The Patch browser dialog box appears, displaying a list of all the Instrument
patch names that have been installed.
2.
Search for a patch name, if desired, by filling in text in the search field at the
top of the dialog box.
3.
When you find the right patch, click its name and click OK.
SONAR changes the patch of the track you selected.
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Adding Effects
You can add both MIDI and audio effects directly from the Track view. SONAR
adds these effects in real-time, preserving your track’s original data.
To Add an Audio Effect in the Track Pane
1.
In an audio track, right-click in the FX field, choose Audio EffectsCakewalk, and select an effect from the menu that appears.
Adjusting Volume and Pan
The Volume and Pan settings control the initial volume and pan of a track during
playback. Every time SONAR starts playback, the Volume and Pan settings for the
track are set to these initial levels. SONAR allows you to choose different panning
laws if you want (see“Configurable Panning Laws” on page 140).
In some projects you want the volume or panning of a track to change while
playback is in progress. You can accomplish this by drawing a volume or pan
envelope in the Track view, or by recording automation. For more information, see
Chapter 13, Using Automation, Chapter 11, Mixing and Effects Patching, and
Chapter 7, Editing MIDI Events and Controllers.
Note to Experts:
SONAR processes the volume and pan settings by transmitting MIDI
volume and pan events (controllers 7 and 10, respectively) when
playback starts. If two or more MIDI tracks are set to the same
output and channel but have different volume or pan settings, the
settings for the highest-numbered track will prevail.
Note also that not all keyboards and synthesizers respond to these
events. Check your instrument’s manual for more information.
To Set the Initial Volume Setting
1.
Move your cursor to the Volume control of the track you want to change.
2.
Click and drag to the left to lower the volume or the right to raise the volume.
You can also change the volume settings in a variety of other ways, as described on
page 132. To change the volume settings for more than one track at a time, select
the tracks you want to change and choose Track-Property-Volume.
To Set the Initial Pan Setting
1.
Move your cursor to the Pan control of the track you want to change.
2.
Click and drag to the left to adjust the pan to the left or to the right to adjust
the pan to the right.
Hard left is 100% left. Hard right is 100% right. Pan is centered at C.
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You can also change the pan and volume settings in a variety of other ways, as
described on page 132. To change the pan settings for more than one track at a
time, select the tracks you want to change and choose Track-Property-Pan.
Configurable Panning Laws
You can choose from six different panning laws, if you want. A panning law is the
mathematical formula that a sequencer or mixer uses to control panning.
To Change Panning Laws
1.
Use the Options-Audio command to open the Audio Options dialog.
2.
On the General tab, in the Stereo Panning Law field, choose one of these
options:
3.
•
(Default) 0 dB center, sin/cos taper, constant power—this choice causes a 3
dB boost in a signal that’s panned hard left or right, and no dip in output
level in either channel when the signal is center panned.
•
-3dB center, sin/cos taper, constant power——this choice causes no boost
in a signal that’s panned hard left or right, and 3dB dip in output level in
either channel when the signal is center panned.
•
0dB center, square-root taper, constant power—this choice causes a 3 dB
boost in a signal that’s panned hard left or right, and no dip in output
level in either channel when the signal is center panned.
•
-3dB center, square root taper, constant power——this choice causes no
boost in a signal that’s panned hard left or right, and 3dB dip in output
level in either channel when the signal is center panned.
•
-6dB center, linear taper——this choice causes no boost in a signal that’s
panned hard left or right, and 6dB dip in output level in either channel
when the signal is center panned.
•
0 dB center, balance control——this choice causes no boost in a signal
that’s panned hard left or right, and no dip in output level in either
channel when the signal is center panned.
Click OK.
Adjusting Volume Trim
Volume Trim acts like the trim control on a mixer, raising or lower the level prior
to the volume fader. Volume Trim is useful for calibrating your faders to match a
dB reference level or for aligning your faders for grouping. The Volume Trim
control has a range of -18dB to +18dB. Raising or lowering the Volume Trim raises
or lowers the apparent volume of the track by that amount without affecting the
actual fader level.
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To Set the Volume Trim Level
1.
Move your cursor to the Volume Trim control of the track you want to change.
2.
Click and drag to the left to lower Volume Trim level or to the right to raise
Volume Trim level.
Assigning a MIDI Channel (Chn)
MIDI transmits information on 16 channels, numbered 1 through 16. Every MIDI
event is assigned to a particular channel. Some MIDI equipment can accept MIDI
information on only a single channel. This channel may be preassigned, or you
may be able to change it. Other MIDI equipment, including many electronic
keyboards and synthesizers, can accept information on several different MIDI
channels at once. Usually, these devices use a different instrument sound for each
channel.
On playback, the channel number is used to direct the MIDI information to a
particular piece of equipment.
The Chn parameter in the Track view redirects all events in the track to the
specified channel, ignoring the channel number stored with each event. If this
parameter is left blank, all events in the track are sent to their original channels.
This parameter does not affect the channel information that is stored with each
MIDI event. When the track is displayed in other views, like the Piano Roll or
Event List view, you will see the original channel that is stored in the file. You can
edit the channel values in those views or use the Process-Interpolate command.
To Set the Channel for a Track
1.
In the track you want to change, click on the black arrow to the right of the
Chn field and select the channel you want to use.
You can also change the channel setting in a variety of other ways, as described on
page 132. To change the channel assignment for more than one track at a time,
select the tracks you want to change and choose Track-Property-Channel.
Adjusting the Key/Transposing a Track (Key+)
Each MIDI note event has a key number, or pitch. On playback, the key offset
(Key+) parameter transposes all notes in the track by the designated number of
half-steps. The value can range from -127 to +127. A value of 12 indicates that
notes will be played back one octave higher than they are written.
This parameter does not affect the note number that is stored for each note event.
When the clip is displayed in other views, like the Piano Roll, Staff, or Event List
view, you will see the original notes as they are stored in the file. To permanently
change the pitches, you can edit them individually or use the Process-Transpose
command.
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If the key offset value transposes the key number (MIDI note) outside the
allowable MIDI range (0–127), the key number will be transposed to the lowest or
highest octave within that range.
You can use the Key+ parameter to assist in preparing scores for instruments
whose music is written in something other than “concert” key (such as Bb
trumpet). For more information, see “Music Notation for Non-concert-key
Instruments” on page 563.
When you edit the Key+ parameter, pressing [ or ] changes the value by 12 instead
of by 10. This makes it easy to transpose by octaves.
To Set the Key Offset for a Track
1.
In the track you want to change, click on the Key+ control.
2.
Enter a value (1 = a semitone), or press the + or – key to change the key by a
single semitone. Use the [ or ] key to change the key by 12 semitones (one
octave).
You can also change the key offset in a variety of other ways, as described on page
132. To change the key offset for more than one track at a time, select the tracks
you want to change and choose Track-Property-Key+.
Adjusting the Note Velocity (Vel+)
Each MIDI note event has a velocity, which represents how fast the key was struck
when the track was recorded. On playback, the velocity offset parameter adjusts
the velocity data for all notes in the track by the designated amount. The value can
range from -127 to +127. The effect of changing velocities depends on the
synthesizer. Some synthesizers do not respond to velocity information. For others,
the effect varies depending on the sound or patch you have chosen. Normally,
higher velocities result in louder and/or brighter-sounding notes.
This parameter does not affect the velocity that is stored for each note event. When
the clip is displayed in other views, like the Piano Roll view, Staff view, or Event
List view, you will see the original velocities as they are stored in the file. You can
edit the velocity values in those views, or use the Process-Scale Velocity or
Process-Interpolate command.
Velocity is different from volume in that it is an attribute of each event, rather
than a controller that affects an entire MIDI channel. Here’s an example of where
this distinction might be important. Suppose you have several tracks containing
different drum parts. All of these parts would probably be assigned to MIDI
channel 10 (that’s the default channel for percussion in General MIDI). If you
change the volume setting for any track that uses channel 10, all the different
drum parts—regardless of what track they’re in—would be affected. If you change
the note velocity for one drum track, it will be the only one whose volume is
affected.
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To Set the Velocity Offset for a Track
•
In the track you want to change, click and drag the Vel+ control to the desired
setting.
You can also change the velocity offset in a variety of other ways, as described on
page 132. To change the velocity offset for more than one track at a time, select the
tracks you want to change and choose Track-Property-Vel+.
Adjusting the Time Alignment of a MIDI Track
(Time+)
Each event takes place at a known point in the project. On playback, the time
offset (Time+) parameter adjusts the times for MIDI events in the track by the
designated amount. The value can be as small as a single clock tick or as large as
you want.
This parameter can be used to make a part play behind the beat or in front of it or
to compensate for tracks that sound rushed or late. The time shift can be used to
create a chorus or slap-back echo effect by making a copy of a track and then
applying a small offset to the copy. You can use larger time offsets to shift a track
earlier or later by several beats or measures.
Note that you cannot shift any event earlier than 1:01:000. For example, if the first
event in the track starts at 2:01:000, you cannot shift its start time earlier by more
than one measure.
This parameter does not affect the time that is stored for each note event. When
the clip is displayed in other views, like the Piano Roll, Staff, or Event List view,
you will see the original times as they are stored in the file.
To Set the Time Offset for a Track
1.
In the track you want to change, click on the Time+ control.
2.
Enter a value, or press the + or – key until you reach the value you want.
You can also change the time offset in a variety of other ways, as described on page
132. To change the time offset for more than one track at a time, select the tracks
you want to change and choose Track-Property-Time+.
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Other MIDI Playback Settings
Two other MIDI settings can affect what happens when you play back your project,
as described in the following table:
Option…
How it works…
Zero Controllers When Play
Stops
If this option is enabled, SONAR zeroes (resets) the pitch wheel,
the pedal Controller, and the modulation wheel Controller on all
16 MIDI channels whenever playback is stopped. It also sends a
“Zero All Continuous Controllers” MIDI message, which turns off
other continuous Controllers on newer synthesizers. If you
experience frequent stuck notes when playback stops, try
checking this option.
Patch/Controller Searchback
Before Play Starts
If this option is enabled, SONAR searches for and sends the
most recent patch change, wheel, and pedal events on each
output and MIDI channel before starting playback. This ensures
that all these settings are correct, even if you start playback at
an arbitrary point in your project.
To set these options, choose Options-Project and click the MIDI Out tab. If you
have set up a playback loop, enabling either of these options can cause an audible
delay when the loop is restarted.
Controlling Live MIDI Playback—MIDI
Echo
When you play your MIDI keyboard or controller, the sound that SONAR produces
is determined by what hardware or software synth SONAR sends the incoming
MIDI data to after SONAR receives the data. This is called MIDI echo. By default,
SONAR sends the data to the MIDI output or software synth listed in the Output
field of the current track. The current track is the one whose titlebar has the
golden color—press the up and down arrows on your computer keyboard and
watch each track turn golden in succession as you change different tracks into the
current track (you can also click any of a track’s controls to make it current).
However, you can echo MIDI data to much more than just the current track, or
turn echoing off on the current track if you want. With a single keyboard or
controller, you can echo MIDI data to as many MIDI tracks as you want, meaning
that you can simultaneously play as many hardware and software synths as you
can hook up to your MIDI interface or run on your computer. You can also have
multiple performers on different controllers sending MIDI data to either the same
synth or multiple synths. Each SONAR track allows you to select what MIDI input
ports and channels the track will respond to. The Output field of the track
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determines what instrument will sound when the track receives the data. Each
track’s Input Echo button determines whether the track echoes MIDI data.
The Input Echo Button
Each MIDI track has an Input Echo button, which controls whether the track will
echo MIDI data or not. The button has three states: on
, dimmed
, and off
. When the button is on, the track echoes MIDI data. When the button is
dimmed, the track echoes MIDI data because the track is the current track. When
the button is off, the track does not echo any data, even if it is the current track.
The off position on a current MIDI track is only available if you disable the Always
Echo Current MIDI Track option in the General tab of the Global Options dialog
(Options-Global command). The dimmed position becomes unavailable with this
setting.
There are several ways to turn Input Echoing on:
•
Click a track’s Input Echo button so that it is on.
•
Click a track to make the track the current track (if the Always Echo Current
MIDI Track option on the General tab of the Global Options dialog is enabled).
In this situation (which is the default), if the track’s Input Echo button is not
on, it appears dimmed, to show that this track echoes data because it is the
current track.
•
If the Always Echo Current MIDI Track option on the General tab of the
Global Options dialog is disabled, make a track the current track, and use the
Track-Input Monitor/Echo command (or click the track’s Input Echo
button).
Storing Favorite Configurations
If you want a track to respond to more than one port or channel, you must create a
preset input configuration. If you create some favorite configurations of MIDI
input options, not only will they be stored with the project you created them in, but
you can save each one as a preset to load in any MIDI track in any project you
want. Clicking the dropdown arrow in a track’s Input field displays the Inputs
dropdown menu, which has the Manage Presets choice that allows you to create
and store your favorite combinations of MIDI input choices.
To Play One Synth at a Time from One or More MIDI Keyboards
•
Since this is SONAR’s default behavior, simply use the Up or Down arrow
keys on your computer keyboard to choose the current track (the current track
has a gold titlebar), and choose the synth you want to play by using the track’s
Output, Bank, Patch, and Channel fields. With the default behavior, all MIDI
input from all ports and channels is merged and sent through the current
track. Notice that the track’s Input field says Omni.
•
If you’ve disabled the default behavior (see next procedure), you must make
sure that the current track’s Input Echo button is lit up (on) before you can
play the synth that the track is patched to.
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To Disable the Default MIDI Echo Setting
•
If you want to turn off the automatic MIDI echoing of the current track,
disable the Always Echo Current MIDI Track option in the General tab of the
Global Options dialog (Options-Global command). If you then turn off the
current track’s Input Echo button and play your keyboard, SONAR will not
produce sound.
To Play Multiple Synths from a MIDI Keyboard
1.
Choose a synth for each track that you want to play by using each track’s
Output, Channel, Bank, and Patch fields.
2.
In the Input field of each track that you want to play, click the dropdown
arrow and choose the MIDI input port and channel that you want the track to
respond to from the following options:
3.
•
None—this option actually sets the Input field to Omni: with this setting
the track will respond to any MIDI input coming in on any port (MIDI
interface input driver) on any channel.
•
(name of MIDI input driver)-MIDI Omni—choosing this option causes
the track to respond to any MIDI channel coming from the named MIDI
interface input driver.
•
(name of MIDI input driver)-MIDI ch 1-16—choosing this option
causes the track to respond ONLY to whatever MIDI channel you choose
coming from the named MIDI interface input driver.
•
Preset—if you’ve created any preset collections of input ports and
channels, you can select one here.
•
Manage Presets—if you want to create or edit any preset collections of
input ports and channels, you can select this option (see following
procedure).
Make sure that the Input Echo button on each track that you want to play is
turned on.
To Create or Edit a Preset Input Configuration
1.
In the Input field of a track that you want to select inputs for, click the
dropdown arrow and choose Manage Presets from the dropdown menu.
The MIDI Input Presets dialog appears.
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2.
In the Input Port column, find the input port that you want to use for this
track (if you only use a single-port MIDI interface, you’ll only see one choice).
3.
To the right of the input port, select the MIDI channels that you want this
track to respond to on this MIDI port.
4.
Select channels for any other MIDI port that’s listed, if you want to use
channels on that port also.
5.
If you want to save this configuration, type a name for it in the window at the
top of the dialog, and click the disk icon to save it.
Now, when you choose inputs for other tracks, you can choose the preset you saved
by clicking the Presets option in the track’s Input dropdown menu. If you want to
edit a preset, select it in the top window of the MIDI Input Presets dialog, edit it,
and click the disk icon. If you want to delete a preset, select it in the same dialog
and click the X button to delete it.
To Use Multiple Performers on Multiple Tracks
1.
For performer number 1, click the Input dropdown menu(s) of the track(s) you
want that performer to play, and choose the port and MIDI channel that
performer 1’s keyboard is sending data to SONAR on.
2.
Repeat step 1 for all other performers.
3.
If there is any track that you want more than one performer to play, create a
preset of the input ports and channels that you want that track to respond to
(see previous procedure).
4.
Make sure the Input Echo button is on for each track you want to play.
To Turn MIDI Echo (and Input Monitoring) On or Off for All
Tracks
•
In the Playback State toolbar (to display, use the View-Toolbars-Playback
State command), click the Input Monitor button (last one on the right).
Local Control
You should normally disable the Local Control setting on your master keyboard to
prevent notes from being doubled when you play your keyboard. If you disable
Local Control, your keyboard sends notes that you play to SONAR, which echoes
them to the synthesizer, which plays them only once.
When SONAR starts, you can have it send a special MIDI message that attempts
to disable Local Control automatically. Most modern synthesizers respond to this
message. If yours does not, you will need to disable Local Control every time you
turn it on for use with SONAR.
If your synthesizer does not let you disable Local Control (this is rare), you can use
the Local On Port setting in the Input tab of the Project Options dialog box to
indicate the number of the output port connected to your synthesizer. SONAR will
then refrain from sending MIDI echo data to that port. In this configuration, you
may need to turn your synthesizer’s volume control up and down from time to time
to avoid hearing it play along with your other modules. If this situation doesn’t
apply to you, the Local On Port should be set to 0.
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To Automatically Disable All Local Control Whenever You
Launch SONAR
1.
In the directory where SONAR is installed, double-click on the TTSEQ.INI file
to open it.
2.
In the Options section, add the line:
SendLocalOff=1
3.
Save the file and close it.
4.
When you launch SONAR, it automatically sends a Local Off message to your
keyboard.
Note: Not all keyboards respond to this message.
Playing Files in Batch Mode
SONAR allows you to play several files in sequence automatically using the Play
List view. You can use this feature in live performance applications or just for fun.
SONAR’s Play List view lets you create and work with a series of project, MIDI,
and bundle files. As each file plays, SONAR loads it and displays it in the Track
view and other views like any other project file.
The Play List View
The Play List view lets you create, edit, and save a play list (or set) of up to 999
SONAR projects. Once you’ve created the list, you can play back the entire
sequence automatically. You can even program the list to pause between songs for
a fixed amount of time or to wait for a keystroke before proceeding.
The Play List view looks like this:
Switch to the next song
Repeat the list
Add a song
Set a delay
Drop a song
Enable the play list
Display full
path
List of songs
Play lists can be saved for future use. Play list files have the extension .SET.
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To Create and Edit a Play List
•
To create and edit a play list in the Play List view, follow the instructions in
the table:
To do this…
Do this…
Open an existing play list
Choose File-Open, choose Play List
from the Files of Type list, choose the
file you want and click Open
Create a new play list
Choose File-New, choose Play List Set
from the list, and click OK
Add songs to the play list
Click
or press Insert, choose a file
from the Add Song to Play List dialog
box, and click Open
Set the delay after a song
Click on the song in the play list, click
, enter the delay you want, and click
OK
Change the order of songs
Drag the file to a new location in the
play list
Copy a song to another location
in the play list
Ctrl-drag the file to a new location in the
play list
Remove a song from the play
list
Select the song and click
the Delete key
Save the play list
Choose File-Save; or choose FileSave As, enter a file name, and click
Save
or press
To Play Files from the Play List View
•
To play back files from the Play List view, follow the instructions in the table.
To do this…
Do this…
Activate the play list
Click
in the Play List view toolbar so that
the button is pressed. If this button is not
pressed, only a single file will play when you
start playback.
Choose the starting song
Double-click the file you want to start with. The
project is opened and displayed as usual.
Start playback
Click
, choose Transport-Play, or press
the Spacebar.
Stop playback
Choose Transport-Stop, or press the
Spacebar.
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Skip to the next file
Click
in the Play List view toolbar.
Loop continuously over the
play list
Click the
toolbar.
Show or hide file name
extensions and folder names
(path)
Click the
button to enable or disable the
display of folders.
button in the Play List view
Video Playback, Import, and Export
Video files play in the Video view in real time as your project plays.
The File-Import-Video command lets you include the following video file types in
your project:
•
AVI (also called Video for Windows)
•
MPEG
•
Windows Media Video
•
QuickTime (.MOV files only)
Note: some .MOV and .AVI files contain no video. You can’t import these files with
the File-Import-Video command. You must use the File-Import-Audio command
instead, and set the Files of Type field to All Files.
The File-Export-Video command lets you export your audio tracks and your
imported video as the following file types:
•
AVI (also called Video for Windows)
•
Windows Media Video
•
QuickTime
SONAR Producer also has a Video Thumbnails pane at the top of the Track view,
which shows individual frames of your video at different places in your project (See
below for more information).
You open the Video view by using the View-Video command. The Video view
displays the Now time (as in the Big Time view) and the video itself. The display in
the Video view is synchronized with the Now time, giving you convenient random
access to the video stream. This makes it easy to align music and digitized sound
to the video.
Commands in the Video view’s right-click popup menu let you set the time display
format, the size and stretch options for the video display, the video start and trim
times, and other options.
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Inserting and Playing Back Videos
Here are step-by-step procedures for inserting and playing back videos:
To Load a Video File Into a Project
1.
Choose File-Import-Video, or choose Insert from the Video view’s popup
menu.
The Import Video dialog appears.
2.
In the Files of Type field, select the kind of video file you’re looking for.
3.
Select a file.
4.
Check the Show File Info option to display information about the file in the
File Info section of the dialog.
5.
Check the Import Audio Stream option if you want to load the file’s audio data.
6.
Check the Import As Mono Tracks option if you want to import the file’s audio
data as one or more mono tracks.
7.
Click Open.
SONAR loads the video file and displays it in the Video view. If you choose to
import audio data, SONAR inserts a new track above the currently selected track,
and puts the audio data in a clip or clips on the new track.
Note: when you save a project that contains video, SONAR saves the project’s
video file by reference only; the actual video data remains in the original file. Video
data is not saved in bundle files, so it must be backed up on its own.
To Play a Video File
1.
Open the Video view by choosing View-Video.
2.
Press the Spacebar to play or stop video playback.
3.
To change the display size of the video, right-click in the Video view and
choose Stretch Options-[desired size] from the popup menu.
Note: When you play a video file that has high temporal compression, such as
movies optimized for web delivery, playback may not be smooth unless you disable
video thumbnails (found in SONAR Producer only), (see “Using the Video
Thumbnails Pane” on page 154 for more information).
To Delete the Video From the Project
1.
Open the Video view by choosing View-Video.
2.
Right-click in the Video view and choose Delete.
SONAR removes the video from the project. Note that imported audio data is not
deleted.
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To Enable or Disable Video Playback
1.
Open the Video view by choosing View-Video.
2.
Right-click in the Video view and choose Animate.
If your computer is not fast enough to play back video efficiently, you can get better
performance by temporarily disabling video animation during playback.
To Set the Time Display Format
•
Click the time display to cycle between MBT, SMPTE, Frames and None
Or
•
Right-click in the Video view and choose an option from the Time Display
Format menu:
To do this…
Do this…
Select a time format
Choose MBT, SMPTE, Frames or None
Change font or font color
Choose Font and select new font
characteristics
Turn off the time display
Choose None
To Set the Video Display Format
Right-click in the Video view and choose an option from the Stretch Options
menu:
To do this…
Do this…
Display the video in its original size
Choose Original Size
Stretch the video to fill the Video
view
Choose Stretch to Window
Stretch the video as much as
possible while preserving the
original aspect ratio
Choose Preserve Aspect Ratio
Make the video display as large as
possible, but only enlarge by
integral multiples
Choose Integral Stretch
Display the video in full screen
mode
Choose Full Screen
SONAR adjusts the video display according to the selected option. The stretch
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option is used to recalculate the video display size whenever you resize the Video
view.
To Set the Background Color
•
Right-click in the Video view and choose a color option from the Background
Color menu.
To Set the Start and Trim Times
1.
Right-click in the Video view and choose Video Properties.
2.
Set options as described in the table:
Option…
What it means…
Start Time
The time in your SONAR project at which you want the
video file to start playing
Trim-in Time
The time in the video file at which you want video playback
to start
Trim-out Time
The time in the video file at which you want video playback
to stop
SONAR synchronizes the video to the project according to the specified Start
and Trim times.
Exporting Video
After you’ve mixed your audio tracks the way you want them, you can export the
inserted video file together with your audio tracks to create a new video file.
When you export a video, any changes you’ve made to the Start, Trim-In, or TrimOut times determine how long your new exported video is compared to the original
video that you inserted into your SONAR project.
To Export a Video
1.
Make sure your audio tracks are completely mixed, and your video Start time,
Trim-In time, and Trim-Out time are set the way you want them.
2.
Use the File-Export Video command.
The Export Video dialog appears.
3.
In the File Name field, type a name for your new video.
4.
In the Files of Type field, choose the kind of video file you want the exported
file to be.
5.
Click the Encoding Options button to open a dialog of encoding options for the
kind of file you’re creating. Click the Help button in the dialog for help
choosing options.
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6.
Click the Audio Mixdown Options button to open a dialog of audio mixdown
options. Click the Help button in the dialog for help choosing options.
7.
Click Save to export your video.
Optimizing Video Performance
Here are a few tips to optimize video performance:
•
If you intend to do a lot of seeking around or looping and editing while a video
file is loaded, make sure that your video file has sufficient keyframes. Since
each frame has to be computed from the last keyframe encountered, if you
have very few keyframes in the video, performance may be slow. To change the
number of keyframes, you may recompress the file using the File-Export
Video command and specify more frequent keyframes. Choose a suitable
video compressor such as Cinepak and change the KeyFrame Rate parameter
to a number between 1-5. A value of 1 makes every frame a keyframe, and
higher numbers insert a keyframe after that many frames.
•
Changing the video properties of an AVI file, such as Trim and Start time, can
make realtime performance slightly slower. You can make these changes
permanent (and thereby reduce the load on your CPU) by using the FileExport Video command.
•
Playing videos at a resolution (video size) of 320x240 is usually a high enough
resolution to monitor the video while you’re composing a soundtrack. You can
still choose to stretch the video to full screen at this resolution. You set the
video size on the Render Quality tab of the Video Properties dialog. Using a
higher resolution can bog down your computer if you’re processing audio
tracks at the same time.
Using the Video Thumbnails Pane
At the top of the Track view in SONAR Producer is the Video Thumbnails pane,
which displays individual frames of your video at certain time intervals of your
project. The time interval between displayed frames is determined by the zoom
level you choose. If you zoom in far enough, you can view each individual frame of
your video.
Note 1: if you’re playing back a highly compressed movie (not many keyframes in
the file), it can take about a minute to redraw video thumbnails when you’re
playing the movie or resizing a window.
Note 2: some Windows Media videos do not report their frame rate to SONAR.
SONAR can play these files, but cannot create thumbnails from them, so no
thumbnails appear in the thumbnail pane.
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Video Thumbnails pane
Show/hide video
pane button
Show/hide frame numbers button Show/hide thumbnails button
Splitter bar
Video track strip
Frame number
Here are the various commands and functions of the Video Thumbnails pane:
•
You can show or hide the pane.
•
You can show or hide the video thumbnails.
•
You can display absolute frame numbers.
•
You can resize the thumbnails while preserving the aspect ratio by dragging
the splitter bar.
•
The video track strip at the top of the Track pane has display fields for Video
File Name, Start Time, Trim-In Time, Trim-Out Time, Duration, and Current
Frame, as well as a toggle buttons to show/hide the thumbnails (without
hiding the Video Thumbnails pane), and to show/hide frame numbers on
individual frames. You can edit the Start Time, Trim-in Time, and Trim-Out
time fields.
•
SONAR saves the size and state of the Video Thumbnails pane on a per/
project basis.
•
The Video Thumbnails pane zooms horizontally when you use the standard
Track view commands for horizontal zooming. You control the height of the
Video Thumbnails pane by dragging the splitter bar up or down that’s at the
bottom of the Video Thumbnails pane.
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For step-by-step instructions, see the following procedures:
To Hide or Show the Video Thumbnails Pane
•
Drag the splitter bar that separates the Video Thumbnails pane from the
Clips pane.
Or
•
Use the View-Video Thumbnails menu command.
Or
•
Click the Show/Hide Video Pane button
in the Track view toolbar.
To Turn Video Thumbnails On or Off
1.
Right-click the Video Thumbnails pane or the Video Thumbnails track strip.
2.
Choose Show/Hide Thumbnails from the popup menu that appears.
Or
•
Click the Show/Hide Thumbnails button
in the Track view toolbar.
To Hide or Show Frame Numbers on Frames
•
In the video track strip, click the Show/Hide Frame Numbers button
.
To Open the Video Properties Dialog
•
Double-click the video track strip.
To Open the Video View
•
Double-click the Video Thumbnails pane.
To Move the Now Time to a Thumbnail
•
Click the thumbnail.
To Change the Start Time
•
In the video track strip, click the Start field, type a new number in Measure/
Beat/Tick format, and press Enter. The start time is the time in your SONAR
project at which your video starts to play.
To Change the Trim-In Time
•
In the video track strip, click the Trim-In field, type a new number in SMPTE
format, and press Enter (you can press the Spacebar instead of typing colons,
if you want, and you can type single zeros instead of double zeros). The trim-in
time is the time in your video file at which you want to start video playback.
To Change the Trim-Out Time
•
156
In the video track strip, click the Trim-Out field, type a new number in
SMPTE format, and press Enter (you can press the Spacebar instead of typing
colons, if you want, and you can type single zeros instead of double zeros). The
trim-out time is the time in your video file at which you want to stop video
playback.
To Use the Video Thumbnails Context Menu
1.
Right-click the Video Thumbnails pane or the Video Thumbnails track strip.
2.
Choose any of these options from the popup menu that appears:
•
Show/Hide Thumbnails
•
Display Absolute Frames
•
Open Video View
•
Insert Video
•
Delete Video
•
Export Video
•
Video Properties
Locating Missing Audio
If you try to open a project and SONAR is unable to locate all the audio files that
the project references, the Find Missing Audio dialog appears. The Find Missing
Audio dialog helps you find any missing audio in your project.
The Find Missing Audio File Dialog
Use the Locate Missing Audio File dialog to find missing audio in your project. The
following is a brief description of the options you have in this dialog:
•
Open—Click this button once you have searched for and found the missing
audio file.
•
Skip—Click this button to move to the next missing file. When you skip and
audio file your project opens without that piece of missing audio.
•
Skip All—Click this button to skip all missing audio files. When you skip all
missing audio files, you project opens without those pieces of missing audio
•
Search—Click this button to begin a search of all available hard drives for
your missing audio file.
•
After locating the file Options—You can choose to either move an audio file
to the project’s audio data folder, copy an audio file to the project’s audio data
folder, or leave an audio file in its current folder.
Restoring Missing Audio Files
When you open a project file that references audio files which SONAR can not find,
the Locate Missing Audio dialog appears. Use the following procedure to restore
the missing audio files to your project.
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To Restore Missing Audio Files
1.
In the Locate Missing Audio dialog, click the Search button.
The Search for Missing Audio dialog appears and SONAR begins searching all
available hard drives for the missing file or files.
2.
When SONAR is finished searching, the files that it has found appear in the
dialog.
3.
Select the file or files that SONAR has found and click OK.
The Locate Missing Audio dialog appears.
4.
5.
Select one of the following options:
•
Move file to Project Audio Folder—Use this option if you are sure that
no other projects are referencing this file in its present location.
•
Copy file to Project Audio Folder—Use this option if the missing file
is shared with another project and you want to keep all of your project’s
audio files together.
•
Reference file from present location—Use this option if you want to
leave the missing file in its current location now that SONAR knows
where it is.
Click Open.
SONAR moves, copies or references the missing file or files as you instructed.
Managing Shared and External Files
You may want to share files between projects. The files you want to share may be
frequently used sound effects or drum loops. SONAR allows you to choose whether
to copy imported audio files to your project’s audio data directory or to link to them
in their current (external) location.
Note: External files are defined as any file not in the project’s audio data folder (or
a subfolder within the project’s audio data folder).
To Configure SONAR to Always Copy Files to the Project Audio
Data Folder
Use this procedure if you want to keep all of your project’s audio in one folder (your
project’s audio data directory).
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1.
Select Options-Global and click on the Audio Data tab.
2.
In the All Projects section, click the Always Copy Imported Audio Files option.
To Configure SONAR to Share External Files
SONAR allows you to share external files (files not in the project’s audio data
directory). There are some exceptions, however. Files that have a different
sampling rate or bit depth are always copied to the project’s audio data directory.
Also, if the Always Copy Imported Audio Files option in the Audio Data tab of the
Global Options dialog is checked, imported audio is always copied to your project’s
audio data directory.
Do the following to ensure that you are sharing files:
1.
Uncheck the Always Copy Imported Audio Files option in the Global Options
dialog.
2.
In the Open dialog, when importing audio, make sure the Copy Audio to
Project Folder option is unchecked.
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160
4
Recording
You can add sound or music to a SONAR™ project in many different ways. You can
record your own material using a MIDI-equipped instrument, use a microphone or
another audio input to record digital audio information, or import sound or music
data from an existing digital data file. With the input monitoring feature, you
can hear your audio instruments exactly the way SONAR records them, including
any plug-in effects. When you record audio or MIDI tracks, SONAR displays a
wave preview of your recorded data as you record it.
You can also input new material using your computer keyboard or mouse using the
Piano Roll view, the Staff view, or the Event List view. For more information on
entering music using these views, see Chapter 15, Working with Notation and
Lyrics, “The Piano Roll View” on page 275, and “The Event List View” on page 318.
In This Chapter
Creating a New Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
Preparing to Record. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
Recording Music from a MIDI Instrument . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
Recording Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
Confidence Recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
Input Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
The Audio Engine Button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
Loop Recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
Punch Recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
Step Recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
Recording Specific Ports and Channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
Importing Music and Sound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
Saving Your Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
Creating a New Project
You can add music and sound to an existing project or to a new project. Just as in
any Windows program, you open an existing project file using the File-Open
command, and create a new project file using the File-New command.
When you create a new SONAR project, there are some additional parameters you
can set to make it easier to work on your project. These include:
•
Meter and key signature
•
Metronome and tempo settings
•
Audio sampling rate
•
MIDI timing resolution
Using Per-Project Audio Folders
For ease of backing up your audio files in a project, SONAR allows you to use a
separate audio folder for each project. This feature is off by default.
To Enable Per-Project Audio
1.
Select Options-Global.
The Global Options dialog appears.
2.
Click the Audio Data tab.
3.
In the Audio Data tab, click the Use Per-Project Audio Folders option.
4.
Click OK.
Note: If you use the default project that is created when you open SONAR, you are
not using per-project audio. You must use the Copy All Audio with Project option in
the Save As dialog to create a per-project audio folder. For more information, see
“To Save an Existing Project Using Per-project Audio” on page 622.
Creating a New Project File
When you create a new project you are asked to choose a template to use for your
new file. If you have per-project audio folders enabled (for more information, see
the online help topic Using Per-Project Audio Folders), you are also asked to
specify a file name, the folder where you want to store the file, and the folder
where you want to store the file’s audio. You can override per-project audio by
unchecking the Store Project Audio in its Own Folder option.
SONAR includes a set of templates you can use to create a new project. These
templates include common types of ensembles, such as rock quartets, jazz trios,
and classical full orchestras. When you create a new project using one of these
templates, SONAR creates a project that has MIDI settings predefined so that one
track is set up for each of the instruments in the ensemble. SONAR also includes a
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template with two MIDI and two audio tracks (called the Normal template). If you
are creating a new project that will contain only audio material, use the Audio
Only template. If you are creating a new project that will contain only MIDI
material, use the MIDI Only template.
You can create your own template files and use them as the basis for other new
projects. For more information, see “Templates” on page 517.
To Create a New Project File
1.
Choose File-New to display the New Project File dialog box.
2.
If you have the per-project audio folders option enabled, enter a file name, set
the folder where you want to store the new file, and set the folder where you
want to store the new file’s audio.
3.
Choose a template from the list.
4.
Click OK.
SONAR creates the new project file and displays it with the Track view open.
Setting the Meter and Key Signatures
By default, a new SONAR project is in 4/4 time and the key of C major. You can
change these settings to any desired meter or key. These settings apply to all the
tracks in a project. You cannot set different meter or key signatures for different
tracks.
The meter or key signature of a project can change at any measure boundary. To
insert changes in the meter or key signature, use the View-Meter/Key command to
display the Meter/Key view, or use the Insert-Meter/Key Change command.
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If you are creating a new project that will contain only audio material (no MIDI
material), you do not need to set the meter and key signature.
Note:
Groove clips do not follow your project’s key. Groove clips follow the
project pitch in the Markers toolbar and pitch markers in the Time
Ruler. For more information, see “Working with Groove Clips” on page
260.
The key signature controls how SONAR displays notes in the Staff view, the Event
List view, and elsewhere. The meter tells SONAR the number of beats per measure
and the note value of each beat. Common meters include:
•
2/4 (two beats per measure, each quarter note gets a beat)
•
4/4 (four beats per measure, each quarter note gets a beat)
•
3/4 (three beats per measure, each quarter note gets a beat)
•
6/8 (six beats per measure, each eighth note gets a beat)
The top number of a meter, the number of beats per measure, can be from 1
through 99. The bottom number of a meter is the value of each beat. You can pick
from a list of values ranging from a whole note to a thirty-second note.
The meter determines the following:
•
Where the metronome accents are placed
•
How the Now time is displayed
•
How the Staff view is drawn
•
How grid lines are displayed in the Piano Roll view
To Set the Meter and Key Signature
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1.
Display the Views toolbar by choosing View-Toolbars-Views.
2.
Select Insert-Meter/Key Change.
3.
Click
4.
Select the first (and only) meter/key change in the list.
5.
Click
on the View toolbar to open the Meter/Key view.
to open the Meter/Key Signature dialog box.
The Meter/Key Signature dialog appears.
6.
Enter the top and bottom meter values in the Beats per Measure and Beat
Value fields.
7.
Choose the key signature from the Key Signature list.
8.
Click OK.
You can also set the meter and key signature in the Large Transport toolbar
display.
Setting the Metronome and Tempo Settings
The metronome counts off each beat in a measure, so you can hear the tempo of
your project. You can choose to have the metronome sound during recording,
during playback, or both. When you start recording, SONAR can play any number
of beats or measures of metronome clicks before recording begins. This can help
you “get in the groove” before you start performing. These beats or measures are
called the count-in.
When you create a new project, you should set the metronome to play during the
count-in and while recording. If you are adding material to an existing project, you
might only need the metronome for the count-in.
You can customize the metronome sound to use audio or any note on a MIDI
instrument. By default, SONAR uses a hi-hat cymbal sound from a General MIDI
drum kit for the MIDI metronome, but you can change this setting to anything you
like by changing the MIDI output, MIDI channel, and duration. You can also
choose the note and velocity (volume) to use for the first beat of each measure and
for all other beats. The metronome settings are stored separately with each
project, so you can use different settings for each one.
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Most metronome options can be set in the Metronome toolbar:
Accent first beat
Use Audio Metronome
Metronome settings
Measures
Metronome during
record
Count-in
Beats
Use MIDI note
Metronome during
playback
If you don’t see the Metronome toolbar, use the View-Toolbars command to open
the Toolbars dialog box, and check the Metronome checkbox. The metronome MIDI
note parameters must be set in the Metronome Settings dialog box.
Note:
If you are synchronized to an external clock source, you cannot use
the count-in feature. For more information, see “Synchronizing Your
Gear” on page 601.
To Set the Tempo and Metronome for a New Project
1.
In the Metronome toolbar, select the Metronome during Recording
Metronome during Playback
2.
options.
If you want to hear a count-in before recording begins, set the count-in to 1 or
more. Select Count-in Measures
166
and
or Count-in Beats
.
3.
Select Use Audio Metronome
and/or Use MIDI Metronome
4.
Arm at least one track.
5.
Press r or click
to start recording. The count-in will play, and the Now time
will start to advance.
6.
If necessary, stop playback and adjust the tempo using the tempo controls in
the toolbar and restart playback. Repeat until the metronome plays the tempo
you want.
7.
Press the Spacebar or click
8.
Press w, or click
to stop recording.
to rewind to the beginning of the piece.
.
Your tempo and metronome settings are now ready. When you save the project file,
the metronome and tempo settings will be saved as well.
To Change Your Metronome Settings
1.
2.
3.
Open the Metronome Settings dialog box in one of the following ways:
•
Click Metronome Settings
in the Metronome toolbar.
•
Choose Options-Project and click the Metronome tab.
Change the metronome settings as indicated in the following table:
To do this…
Do this…
Enable the metronome during
playback
Check Playback
Enable the metronome during
recording
Check Recording
Enable the count-in
Enter the number of clicks for the countin in the Count-in box, and select
Measures or Beats
Accent the first beat of each
measure
Check Accent First Beat
Use the audio
Check Use Audio Metronome
Use a MIDI note as the sound
Check Use MIDI Note and choose the
output, channel, and other settings
Click OK.
Your metronome settings will be saved with the project file.
To Set the MIDI Metronome Sounds from your MIDI Instrument
1.
Select a track in the Track view that is assigned to the MIDI device you want
to use for the metronome sound.
2.
Click Metronome Settings
Options dialog box.
3.
Make sure that the settings in the Output and Channel fields match those for
the track in the Track view.
4.
Click on the Key box in the First Beat or the Other Beats section.
5.
Play a note on your MIDI instrument. The note number is entered
automatically. The velocity is not updated.
6.
Click OK.
in the Metronome toolbar to open the Project
Your metronome settings will be saved with the project file.
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Setting the Audio Sampling Rate and Bit Depth
Each SONAR project has an audio sampling rate and an audio driver bit depth
that indicate the level of accuracy with which audio data are sampled and
processed. The same parameters are used for all the digital audio in a project.
When you create a new project, if you do not want to use the default setting, you
must choose a sampling rate before you start recording audio.
SONAR lets you choose from several different sampling rates: 11025 Hz, 22050
Hz, 44100 Hz, 48000 Hz, 88200 Hz, 96000 Hz, 176400Hz, and 192000 Hz. The
default used by SONAR is 44100 Hz, the same rate as audio CDs. However, you
may choose a higher rate and later mixdown to 44100. You can also enter any
hardware-supported value in the Sampling Rate field. Consult your hardware
documentation for supported sampling rates.
Note: For most sound cards, all digital audio in the same song must be at the same
sampling rate. Some dedicated audio systems let you mix different sampling rates
in the same song; SONAR only lets you do this if the audio system supports it. This
feature is meant primarily for sound cards that use different Windows drivers for
input and output; SONAR treats such cards as two different programs.
A higher sampling rate produces better quality sound. However, a higher sampling
rate also means that each audio clip takes up more memory and disk space and
requires more intensive processing by your computer. If you have an older
computer, or a slow hard drive, you might be better off with a lower sampling rate.
For more information, see “Improving Performance with Digital Audio” on page
634.
By default, the audio driver bit depth of audio data is 16 bits. If your sound card
supports 18, 20, 22, or 24 bit audio, you can choose to take advantage of these
higher resolutions.
If you are creating a new project that will contain only MIDI material (no audio),
you do not need to set the audio sampling rate or bit depth. If you import audio
from a Wave file or another digital audio file, the sampling rate and audio driver
bit depth of the wave file are converted to your default setting, if necessary.
Note:
If you are planning to move your project to a Digital Audio Tape
(DAT) or to some other media via a digital transfer, set your sampling
rate and bit depth to match the target unit. For example, use
44100Hz/16 bit for a project that will be mastered to a CD, so that no
sample rate conversion is required.
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To Set the Sampling Rate and Audio Driver Bit Depth for New
Projects
1.
Choose Options-Audio to display the Audio Options dialog box.
2.
On the General tab of the dialog, select a value in the Sampling Rate
dropdown menu, and a value from the Audio Driver Bit Depth dropdown
menu.
3.
If you choose an audio driver bit depth of 16, also choose 16 in the File Bit
Depth field. If you choose an audio driver bit depth higher than 16, choose a
File Bit Depth of 24.
4.
Click OK.
The sampling rate and audio driver bit depth are saved with the project file.
Setting the MIDI Timing Resolution
Each SONAR project has a setting for the timing resolution, or timebase, that
indicates the resolution of MIDI data. This resolution is measured in ticks or
pulses per quarter note and is often abbreviated as PPQ. The default resolution is
960PPQ, which is accurate enough for most applications. In this timebase, each
quarter note is represented by 960 ticks, each eighth note by 480 ticks, each
eighth-note triplet by 320 ticks, and so on.
In some projects you may need a different timebase. For example, if you wanted to
use eighth-note septuplets (7 eighth notes per quarter note) and represent them
accurately, you would need to have a timebase that is divisible by 7, such as
168PPQ. SONAR uses the timebase you choose for a project to determine the
range of tick values in the Now time.
To Set the Timebase for a Project
1.
Choose Options-Project and click the Clock tab.
2.
Choose the timebase you want from the Ticks per Quarter Note list.
3.
Click OK.
The timebase will be saved with the project file.
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Preparing to Record
To prepare for recording, you need to do the following:
•
Set the recording mode.
•
Choose your input(s).
•
Arm one or more tracks for recording.
•
Check your recording levels (audio only).
•
Tune your instrument if necessary (audio only).
•
Set the Now time to the point where recording should start.
•
Start recording.
After you record, you can use the Edit-Undo command to erase the most recently
recorded material. You can use the Edit-Redo command to restore the recording
and toggle between Undo and Redo as many times as you like.
If you are using MIDI Sync or time code sync for the clock source, SONAR waits to
receive external timing data before it begins recording. For more information see
Chapter 18, Synchronizing Your Gear.
Recording Modes
Any material you record is stored in a new clip. If you record into several tracks at
once, one clip is created in each track. If you record into a track that already
contains clips, you can choose one of three recording modes to determine what
happens to those clips. When you save your project, you also save whatever
recording mode you choose together with that project:
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Recording mode…
How it works…
Sound on Sound
The new material is merged with any existing material. This
means that any existing clips on the track are left unchanged
and all newly recorded material is stored in new clips. While
recording, you will be able to hear material from existing clips.
Overwrite
The new material replaces (overwrites) any existing material.
This means that portions of existing clips may be “wiped clean”
to make room for newly recorded material. While recording, you
will not be able to hear material from existing clips.
Auto Punch
Recording only takes place between the punch-in and punchout times. You can use Auto Punch in either Sound on Sound or
Overwrite mode.
To Choose a Recording Mode
•
Select a mode from the dropdown list in the Record toolbar.
Or
•
Choose Transport-Record Options or click
dialog box, then select the desired mode.
to display the Record Options
SONAR saves your recording options with each project, so you can save a different
recording mode with each of your projects.
Choosing an Input
To record into a track, you must choose an input for the music or sound to be
recorded. Usually, you choose All Inputs - Omni to record material from a MIDI
instrument, or the left or right channel of a digital audio device (such as a sound
card) to record audio material, or stereo if you want to record stereo audio in a
single track. The input for each track is displayed in the track’s Input field and at
the top of each module in the Console view.
When you choose All Inputs - Omni as the input for a track, SONAR merges
material from all MIDI inputs and instruments. This means you don’t have to
worry about input, channel, or other MIDI settings. Sometimes, you may want to
record different MIDI channels into different tracks. To learn how to do this, see
“Recording Specific Ports and Channels” on page 192.
While each track can have a different input, it is also possible for several tracks to
have the same input.
To Choose a MIDI Input in the Track View
1.
Click the dropdown arrow of an Input field of a MIDI track (an Input field has
this icon to the left of it:
).
A dropdown menu of MIDI inputs appears.
2.
Choose an input from the following:
•
None—this option actually sets the Input field to Omni: with this setting
the track will record any MIDI input coming in on any enabled port (MIDI
interface input driver) on any channel.
•
All Inputs-(MIDI Omni or MIDI ch 1-16)—with this setting the track
will record any MIDI input coming in on any enabled port (MIDI interface
input driver) on any channel, unless you choose a particular MIDI
channel instead of MIDI Omni. Then the track will only record input
that’s on the MIDI channel you chose.
•
(name of MIDI input driver)-(MIDI Omni or MIDI ch 1-16)—
choosing this option causes the track to record any MIDI channel coming
from the named MIDI interface input driver, unless you choose a
particular MIDI channel instead of MIDI Omni. Then the track will only
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record input that’s on the MIDI channel you chose, from the named input
driver.
•
Preset—if you want to record multiple data from multiple ports and/or
channels, you need to select a preset collection of those ports and
channels. You can select one here (to create presets, see next line).
•
Manage Presets—if you want to create or edit any preset collections of
input ports and channels, you can select this option (see “To Create or
Edit a Preset Input Configuration” on page 194).
To Choose an Audio Input in the Track View
1.
Click the dropdown arrow of the Input field of an audio track (an Input field
has this icon to the left of it:
).
A dropdown menu of audio drivers appears.
2.
Select the audio driver for the sound card you want to record with from these
options:
•
None—This choice ensures that you do not record to the track in question.
•
Left (name of your sound card)—Choose this if you want to record a mono
signal on the left channel of your sound card.
•
Right (name of your sound card)—Choose this if you want to record a
mono signal on the right channel of your sound card.
•
Stereo (name of your sound card)—Choose this if you want to record a
stereo signal.
If your sound card has more than one pair of inputs, a pair of numbers appears
after the name of each audio driver to indicate which pair of inputs the driver is
attached to.
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To Choose an Audio Input in the Console View
1.
At the top of an audio track module, click the Input button.
A popup menu of audio drivers appears.
2.
Select the audio driver for the sound card you want to record with from these
options:
•
None—This choice ensures that you do not record to the track in question.
It also turns off input monitoring for this track.
•
Left (name of your sound card)—Choose this if you want to record a mono
signal on the left channel of your sound card.
•
Right (name of your sound card)—Choose this if you want to record a
mono signal on the right channel of your sound card.
•
Stereo (name of your sound card)—Choose this if you want to record a
stereo signal.
If your sound card has more than one pair of inputs, a pair of numbers appears
after the name of each audio driver to indicate which pair of inputs the driver is
attached to.
To Choose a MIDI Input in the Console View
1.
At the top of a MIDI track module, click the Input button.
A popup menu of MIDI channels appears.
2.
Choose an input from the following:
•
None—this option actually sets the Input field to Omni: with this setting
the track will record any MIDI input coming in on any enabled port (MIDI
interface input driver) on any channel.
•
All Inputs-(MIDI Omni or MIDI ch 1-16)—with this setting the track
will record any MIDI input coming in on any enabled port (MIDI interface
input driver) on any channel, unless you choose a particular MIDI
channel instead of MIDI Omni. Then the track will only record input
that’s on the MIDI channel you chose.
•
(name of MIDI input driver)-(MIDI Omni or MIDI ch 1-16)—
choosing this option causes the track to record any MIDI channel coming
from the named MIDI interface input driver, unless you choose a
particular MIDI channel instead of MIDI Omni. Then the track will only
record input that’s on the MIDI channel you chose, from the named input
driver.
•
Preset—if you want to record multiple data from multiple ports and/or
channels, you need to select a preset collection of those ports and
channels. You can select one here (to create presets, see next line).
•
Manage Presets—if you want to create or edit any preset collections of
input ports and channels, you can select this option (see “To Create or
Edit a Preset Input Configuration” on page 194).
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Arming Tracks for Recording
SONAR lets you record any number of tracks at one time. You indicate the tracks
you want to record by arming the tracks. You can arm a single track or several
tracks at one time. Each track records material received though its selected input.
Whenever a track is armed, not only does the track’s R button turn red, but the
Clips pane that’s to the right of that track’s controls turns a reddish hue.
To Arm One or More Tracks for Recording
•
To arm a track in the Track view, click
.
Or
•
To arm a track in the Console view, click
(to see the Arm button in the
Console view, the MSR button on the left side of the Console view must be
depressed).
Or
•
To arm several tracks at the same time, select one or more tracks in the Track
view, then right-click and choose Arm from the popup menu.
A track’s Arm button turns red to indicate that the track is armed for recording.
To Disarm All Tracks at Once
•
Click the red Arm label that’s located in the Status bar at the bottom of the
SONAR window.
Or
•
Click the red Arm button in the Playback State toolbar, which you can display
by using the View-Toolbars command and checking Playback State in the
Toolbars dialog box.
Auto Arming
You must arm tracks in order to record. To safeguard your data, there is no
automatic arming of any tracks.
If you want to record MIDI tracks without arming a track, choose OptionsGlobal, and select the General tab. Click the Allow MIDI Recording without an
Armed Track checkbox.
This feature lets you start recording a new track simply by making it the current
track and pressing R or clicking the Record button in the toolbar. Auto-arming
makes it possible to inadvertently record over existing material in the current
track, however.
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Recording Music from a MIDI Instrument
Once you have set your tempo and metronome, and armed one or more tracks, you
are ready to start recording.
To Record MIDI
1.
Set the Now time to the point in the project where you want to start recording.
2.
Click
, press r, or choose Transport-Record. If your metronome count-in is
turned on, it will play the count-in.
3.
Play or perform the material you want to record. As you record, SONAR
displays a clip containing the new material in the Clips pane (unless you’ve
turned off this option on the General tab of the Global Options dialog—
Options-Global command).
4.
Click
, press the Spacebar, or choose Transport-Stop to stop recording.
To listen to the new material, set the Now time to the start of the clip and press
the Spacebar or click
. If you’re not happy with the recording, use Edit-Undo
or press Ctrl+Z to erase the new material.
When you stop recording, if you do not see a new clip in the Clips pane, you may
have a problem with MIDI input. See Appendix A: Troubleshooting for more
information.
Recording Audio
Before you record audio, you should check your input levels. If the levels are too
low, you may end up with too much hiss and background noise in your recording. If
the levels are too high, your recording will be inaccurate or distorted. To check
your audio levels, use the audio meters in the either the Track view or Console
view. To adjust the input levels, you must use your sound card’s software mixer
program (or the Windows 2000 or XP mixer) or an external hardware mixer for
certain sound cards.
The audio meters indicate the volume at which the audio will be recorded, in units
called decibels (dB). The meter values range from -INF (silent) to 0dB (maximum
volume). You can change many options in the way SONAR’s meters display data:
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see “Metering” on page 436. To maximize the dynamic range of your recording, you
want to set the levels as high as possible without clipping.
Volume Fader
Clipping indicator
Meter
When the audio level exceeds 0dB, some of the audio information is lost. This is
known as overload. Many sound cards use clipping to deal with an overloaded
signal, but clipping can distort the audio signal. As a result, you should avoid
letting the meter level exceed 0dB.
Note to Experts:
Because SONAR is a digital recorder, a level of 0dB indicates digital
zero. Digital distortion will occur at 0dB. You will not get analog
compression or warmth from pushing the input levels. If you are
transferring data from a DAT or another device, you may want to
calibrate the input levels of your sound card with the output levels of
other devices in your studio. This will ensure that 0dB on one unit
will appear as 0dB in SONAR.
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To Check the Input Levels
1.
In the Track view, choose the inputs for the tracks you want to record, and
arm the tracks for recording. Make sure that the Show/Hide All Meters button
at the top of the Track view is enabled.
2.
The default meter range is from 0 dB to -60 dB. To change the range, rightclick on the meter and choose a new range from the menu.
3.
Perform at the loudest level at which you plan to record.
Watch the meters respond. Increase the input volume as high as possible
without ever letting the meters move all the way to 0dB, even for an instant,
or letting the Clipping indicator turn red. If either of these things happen,
reduce the input volume just enough to avoid them during the entire
performance. Note that some kinds of audio, such as percussive or plucked
musical instruments, can produce very short, high-level “transients” when
struck or plucked aggressively, which can lead to clipping if the input volume
is set too high. Consider the possibility of these transients when examining
the meters and setting your record level.
Note: If the Clipping indicator is illuminated, click on it to reset.
Once you have set your sampling rate and input levels, you are ready to start
recording. If the meters do not move, check your sound card software’s mixer
program and make sure that you have the proper input enabled for recording.
When you record audio, SONAR stores each audio clip in a separate file. These
files have the same format as a Wave (.WAV) file, but they have special names and
are stored in a separate directory on your hard disk. SONAR automatically
manages these audio files for you, making it easier for you to manage your
projects. If you want to work with these files directly, or to learn more about how
SONAR stores audio data, see “System Configuration” on page 628.
Tuning an Instrument
SONAR Chromatic Tuner analyzes any input signal from the sound card and
displays the intonation (in cents) on the meter. The tuner automatically
determines which string/pitch you are trying to tune, so that you can keep both
hands on the instrument while tuning. The VU Meter shows how loud your input
signal is–a strong signal is essential for accurate tuning.
The Tuner works just like an effect and each track can have its own instance.
With a microphone, you can also tune acoustic instruments.
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To Tune an Instrument
1.
In the track you want to record your instrument on, right-click in the Effects
bin.
2.
From the menu that appears, select Audio Effects-Cakewalk-Tuner.
3.
Click the track’s Input Monitor button. If you don’t click the Input
Monitor button on the track the Tuner is patched into, you will not be able to
use the tuner.
4.
With your instrument plugged into your sound card and turned up, play a
note.
The Tuner displays the intonation reading on the cents meter and the name of
the note you played between the three arrows. One of the three arrows lights
up, indicating one of the following:
5.
•
Up arrow indicates the note is in tune.
•
Right arrow indicates the note is sharp.
•
Left arrow indicates the note is flat.
Adjust the pitch if necessary and repeat for the rest of the pitches you need to
tune.
To Record Audio
1.
Choose the audio inputs for the track(s) you want to record.
2.
Arm the tracks for recording. The Clips pane next to each armed track turns a
reddish hue when the track is armed.
3.
Set the Now time to the point in the project where you want to start recording.
4.
Click
, press r, or choose Transport-Record. If your metronome count-in is
turned on, it will play the count-in measures or beats.
5.
Play or perform the material you want to record.
As you record, SONAR displays a waveform preview of the new material in the
Clips pane, unless you’ve turned off the Display Waveform Preview option on
the General tab of the Global Options dialog (Options-Global command). If
you’ve turned off the option, SONAR displays a red swath along the area of
the Clips pane where you’re recording.
6.
Click
, press the Spacebar, or choose Transport-Stop to stop recording.
SONAR displays a clip containing the new material in the Track window. To listen
to the new material, set the Now time to the start of the clip and press the
Spacebar or click
. If you’re not happy with the recording, use Edit-Undo to
erase the new material.
If you do not see a new clip in the Clips pane, you may have a problem with audio
input. See Appendix A: Troubleshooting for more information.
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Important: Make sure you have enough space on your hard disk when recording
digital audio. Running out of hard disk space when recording can lead to
unpredictable results.
Confidence Recording
When you’re recording audio or MIDI data, SONAR gives you many visual cues
that tracks are armed and that SONAR is recording data.
When one or more tracks are armed:
•
The R button in each armed track turns red.
•
The Clips pane next to each armed track gets a reddish hue.
•
The R button in the Playback State toolbar is depressed (to display the toolbar,
use the View-Toolbars-Playback State command).
•
The Status bar displays the red Arm message.
While you’re recording, SONAR displays these cues:
•
Audio tracks display a waveform preview in the area in the Clips pane where
you’re recording. This is actually a visual record of the record meter’s progress.
When you stop recording, SONAR displays the actual waveform, which is
slightly different from the preview. The preview is a snapshot taken at certain
time intervals, while the actual waveform represents all the data that is
recorded.
•
MIDI tracks display the actual data that they record, both in the Clips pane
and the Piano Roll view (not the Staff view).
•
Automation data appears as a red block. When you finish recording, the actual
envelopes are shown.
If you want to turn off the real-time display of audio clips, see the following
procedure.
To Turn Off Waveform Preview for Audio Recording
1.
Use the Options-Global command to open the Global Options dialog.
2.
On the General tab, uncheck the Display Waveform Preview While Recording
option, and click OK.
Now when you record audio tracks, a red swath appears in the Clips pane in the
area you’re recording.
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Input Monitoring
Being able to hear plug-in audio effects applied to a live signal is an exciting
feature of SONAR. However, there are two issues that users commonly stumble
upon when using the input monitoring feature. The first is that the monitored
signal seems to have an echo associated with it. The second is that live input
monitoring can lead to nasty feedback problems, particularly if you have an
outboard audio mixer, or you record from a different sound card from the one you
are playing back with.
SONAR has several buttons to control input monitoring:
•
Per-track Input Echo button
—each audio track has an Input Echo button
that turn’s that track’s input monitoring on or off.
•
Global Input Monitor button—the Playback State toolbar (to display, use the
View-Toolbars-Playback State command) has the Input Monitor button on
the right end, which turns input monitoring on or off on all audio tracks with
one click.
•
Audio Engine button
—clicking this button so that it’s in its up position
turns all audio activity in SONAR off, which includes input monitoring.
Note: When you use input monitoring, make sure that the track you’re playing
through uses the same audio interface (sound card) for both input and output.
Using different audio interfaces for a track’s input and output can produce
distortion during input monitoring.
To understand the echo and feedback problems, let’s look at how audio signals
travel through your sound card, the drivers, and SONAR. The following diagram
depicts a simplified version of this signal flow.
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The bottom block of the picture represents the sound card. The shaded area above
it represents the audio drivers. The unshaded area at the top represents the main
environment of the operating system.
As the diagram shows, analog audio flows into the card's line input (on the left),
and is immediately split in two. One branch goes up through the analog-to-digital
converter (ADC), where the audio is digitized, buffered and fed to the driver
(labeled Wave In in the diagram).
The digital audio data buffers are read by SONAR from the Wave In driver,
processed, and then sent out to the Wave Out driver. The driver passes the digital
audio buffers through a digital-to-analog converter (DAC), where the audio data is
converted back to an analog signal.
Finally, this analog output signal is mixed with the original branch of the input
analog signal, and the summed result is presented to the sound card's line output.
With this information in hand, let's follow a simple audio signal through the
system to understand how echoes get introduced into the input monitor path.
say “1”
Suppose you are counting "1, 2, 3" into your sound card very quickly. When you say
the first "1," this sound immediately appears in all the places indicated in the
illustration above. In other words, the analog audio signal is pure electrical signal
181
traveling at the speed of light, so it is immediately present across all analog audio
paths inside the sound card.
say “2”
Next, you say "2." In the time it takes you do that, the ADC has converted the "1"
to digital form and the Wave In driver has fed it to SONAR for processing. SONAR
processes the buffer right away and passes the processed data right back to the
Wave Out driver.
say “3”
Finally, you say "3." By this time the original "1" has been converted back to analog
audio by the DAC, and that analog signal is mixed in with the "3" you have just
said. The ultimate result is that you hear a "1" and "3" mixed together at the line
output of card—seemingly sounding like an echo, but actually just an artifact of
the signal flow through the system.
You can eliminate the echo by muting the line-in from playing back (see “To
Eliminate the Echo from Input Monitoring” on page 183); you’ll send only the
processed signal to the sound card outputs. This technique introduces a little extra
latency to what you hear coming out of your sound card, but if you use WDM or
ASIO drivers with your sound cards, the latency is negligible.
The feedback problem results whenever you have a loop in your mixer path: the
output of your mixer is patched into the input of your sound card. Feedback can
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happen with or without input monitoring, but since input monitoring can add
several levels of gain to the signal flow, it’s of greater concern when you have input
monitoring enabled. Input monitoring is disabled by default when you install
SONAR, and you enable it with the following procedure.
To Enable Input Monitoring
•
Turn your speakers down, and on an audio track that you want to monitor,
click the Input Echo button so that it’s lit up (on)
. To disable monitoring
for this track, click the button off.
Or
•
Turn your speakers down, and on the Playback State toolbar (to display, use
the View-Toolbars-Playback State command), click the Input Monitor
button so that it’s lit up—this enables input monitoring on all tracks. To
disable monitoring for all tracks, click the button off.
Now you can hear your instrument in real time with any plug-in effects that you
want to patch into the current track. You might also hear an echo, because the dry
signal is coming out of your sound card slightly ahead of the processed signal. To
eliminate the dry signal, see the next procedure.
To Eliminate the Echo from Input Monitoring
1.
Open the software mixer that controls your sound card. If your sound card
uses the Windows mixer, open the mixer by using the Start-ProgramsAccessories-Entertainment-Volume Control command, or double-clicking
the speaker icon on the Windows taskbar.
2.
In the Play Control window of the mixer, check the Mute checkbox in the LineIn column, or in the column of whatever jack your instrument is plugged into,
and close the mixer window.
Now you can hear only the processed sound when you use input monitoring. Using
WDM or ASIO drivers for your sound card keeps latency to a negligible amount.
Note: This procedure does not eliminate feedback from you system, only the echo.
If you experience feedback, you have a feedback loop somewhere in your mixer
setup.
The Audio Engine Button
SONAR has a button in the Transport toolbar called the Audio Engine button
.
This button lets you turn SONAR’s audio engine off if you’re getting distortion or
feedback and want to cut the sound off. When playback or recording are in
progress, SONAR enables the button automatically—however, the button appears
greyed-out during playback or recording because you can’t control the button at
that time. Whenever the button is enabled, the Audio Running message lights up
on the Status bar that’s at the bottom of the SONAR window.
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If you experience feedback during input monitoring, you can click the Audio
Engine button to turn off the audio engine. However, if playback or recording are
in progress, the button is unavailable, and you should click the Reset button
that’s just to the right of it instead, or else stop recording or playback first and
then click the Audio Engine button.
You may experience slightly better playback and recording performance by turning
the Audio Engine button off before you press the Play or Record buttons. This
happens if your computer’s resources are already stretched to the limit. When you
start recording or playback with the audio engine already functioning, there is still
some processing that SONAR has to do that’s left over when you start the
transport. This places an extra load on your system that can cause dropouts if your
system is already stretched thin. A more effective solution than disabling the
audio engine before starting the transport is to reduce the load on your system by
hiding some meters, increasing latency slightly, reducing the number of plug-ins
and/or tracks, etc.
Loop Recording
When recording a vocal or an instrumental section, you might want to record
several different takes so that you can choose the one you like best. You might even
want to record several takes to double a part or merge the best parts of each.
Normally, to record each take you would have to arm a track, start recording,
perform the take, and then stop recording. You can record multiple takes more
easily using a feature called loop recording. Loop recording lets you start
recording and record as many takes as you like, all in a single step.
SONAR loops between the loop start and loop end time, allowing you to record one
take on each pass. SONAR creates a clip for each take. You have three choices for
where these clips are stored:
•
All clips can be recorded in Sound on Sound mode and stored in a single track,
where they are stacked on top of one another.
•
All clips can be recorded in Overwrite mode in a single track, where each take
overwrites the previous one.
•
Each clip can be recorded to a different track. SONAR automatically places
each take into a new, empty track. No existing tracks are changed in any way.
When you stack takes, using the Sound on Sound record mode, you hear all the
previous takes as you record each new take. When you store takes in different
tracks, each take is automatically muted as you record the next one. You choose
the option you want from the Record Options dialog.
When you finish recording, you can use the Edit-Undo command to erase all your
takes in a single step.
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To Use Loop Recording
1.
Choose the input for the track(s) you want to record, and arm the track(s) for
recording.
2.
Set the loop start and end times in either the Loop/Auto Shuttle dialog box or
in the Loop toolbar.
3.
Choose Transport-Record Options, or click
display the Record Options dialog box.
4.
Choose to stack all takes in a single track or to store them in separate tracks.
5.
If you choose to stack all takes in a single track, choose either Sound on Sound
or Overwrite mode.
6.
Click OK to close the Record Options dialog, and set the Now time to the point
in the project where you want to start recording.
7.
Click
, or press r, or choose Transport-Record. If your metronome count-in
is turned on, it will play the count-in measure.
8.
Play or perform the material you want to record. At the end of the loop,
SONAR will return to the start of the loop and you can record the next take.
9.
If you want to erase the most recent take while loop recording is underway,
choose Transport-Reject Loop Take or press Ctrl+Spacebar.
on the Record toolbar, to
10. Click
, or press the Spacebar, or choose Transport-Stop when you want to
stop recording.
The takes are stored in the manner you requested.
Punch Recording
Suppose you are happy with most of a track but want to replace one small
section—perhaps as small as a couple of notes. This is where punch recording
comes in handy, because it lets you record new material only within a specified
range of times.
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For example, suppose you recorded a 32-bar keyboard solo but made some
mistakes in the 24th and 25th bars. With punch recording, you can play the entire
solo again, so you make sure you can get the feel you want. However, only the bars
you want to correct are actually recorded. That way, you don’t have to worry about
introducing new mistakes elsewhere in the recording.
To use punch recording, follow these steps:
•
Enable punch recording.
•
Set the start and end times of the punch.
•
Start recording by pressing r or clicking the
toolbar.
button on the Transport
The Record toolbar shows the punch settings, as shown here:
Record mode
Step record
Enable punch recording
Click to open the Record
Options dialog box
Punch In
Time
Punch
Out Time
Click here to set punch times
to the selection start and end
times
When punch recording is enabled, the punch times are indicated by special
markers in the Time Ruler, which is at the top of the Clips pane:
Punch In
Punch Out
After you punch record, choosing Edit-Undo both discards any new material you
recorded and restores the original material that had been deleted.
You can also combine loop and punch recording to record several takes of a punch.
Say you are working on that perfect take of a guitar solo and you need to hear a
couple of bars of the project as “pre-roll” before you punch in. By combining looping
with punch, you can have each take begin before you start to play and still have
the solo cut in at the appropriate instant.
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In the example mentioned previously, you could loop from bar 17 to bar 26 but
record only bars 24 and 25. Here’s what this looks like:
The loop starts and ends here
The punch starts and ends here
To Punch Record
1.
Choose the input(s) for the track(s) you want to record, and arm the track(s)
for recording.
2.
Enable the Auto Punch button in the Record toolbar (the button is red when
enabled).
3.
Set the start and end times in one of the following ways:
•
Enter the times directly on the toolbar
•
Select a range of time and click
•
Select a range of time, then right-click in the Time Ruler and choose Set
Punch Points
on the Record toolbar
4.
Choose either Sound on Sound or Overwrite from the Record toolbar.
5.
Set the Now time to a point where you want to start playback.
6.
Click
, or press r, or choose Transport-Record. If your metronome count-in
is turned on, it will play the count-in measures or beats.
7.
Play or perform the material you want to record.
8.
Click
, or press the Spacebar, or choose Transport-Stop to stop recording.
The material you play during the punch time is recorded in the chosen track,
either replacing any existing material (Overwrite mode) or blending with it (Sound
on Sound mode).
To Use Punch While Looping
1.
Choose the input for the track(s) you want to record, and arm the track(s) for
recording.
2.
Set the loop start and end times.
3.
Set the punch start and end times, as described previously.
4.
Choose Transport-Record Options, or click
display the Record Options dialog box.
5.
Choose to stack all takes in a single track or to store them in separate tracks.
on the Record toolbar, to
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6.
Set the Now time to the beginning of the loop.
7.
Click
, or press r, or choose Transport-Record. If your metronome count-in
is turned on, it will play the count-in measures.
8.
Play or perform the material you want to record. At the end of the loop,
SONAR will return to the start of the loop and you can record the next take.
9.
If you want to erase the most recent take while loop recording is underway,
choose Transport-Reject Loop Take or press Ctrl+Spacebar.
10. Click
, or press the Spacebar, or choose Transport-Stop when you want to
stop recording.
The takes are stored in the manner you requested.
Step Recording
Sometimes you may want to record MIDI material that is too difficult to play. One
way to make this easier is to slow the tempo of the project while you are recording
until it is slow enough to play. Step recording is another method that lets you
record from a MIDI instrument without having to worry at all about your timing.
To use step recording, you set a step size, such as a quarter note. Then, you simply
record one step at a time, taking as much time as you need to play each step. You
can also set a note duration that is independent of the step size. If the duration is
shorter than the step size, rests will be inserted between each note and the next
step. If the duration is longer than the step size, the notes will overlap with the
notes recorded at the next step.
MIDI data is recorded using Step Record even if the track is not armed, loop
markers are ignored, and Step Record always uses the Sound on Sound
(blend) record mode, regardless of the current record mode.
You use the Step Record dialog box to perform step recording:
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The step size and the duration can each be set to one of three things:
Setting…
How to use it…
A particular note value
Simply choose the note value from the list
A dotted note value
Choose the note value and check the
Dotted option
A number of MIDI ticks
Click Other, enter the number of MIDI ticks,
and click OK
The Auto Advance option automatically advances recording to the next step when
all MIDI input stops. For example, if you press the three keys that make up a C
major chord, as soon as you release all three keys, SONAR automatically advances
to the next step. This makes it very easy to record a series of chords that are
spaced at regular intervals.
With Auto Advance disabled, you must click Advance each time you want to
advance to the next step. While this requires more effort, it also provides you with
more flexibility. For example, with Auto Advance disabled, you do not even need to
play the notes at a single step at the same time! You can play any number of notes
one at a time, and they will all be recorded at the same step until you click the
Advance button. You can even record notes of different durations at the same step
– simply record the notes of one duration, change the duration, and play more
notes, without clicking Advance.
You can click Delete to erase the notes you recorded in a single step. If Auto
Advance is enabled, the Delete button deletes the notes played at the prior step,
and it also backs up a step so you can rerecord the notes at that step. With Auto
Advance disabled, the Delete button erases any notes you have recorded at the
current step.
To Use Step Recording
1.
Choose the input for the track you want to record.
2.
Click in the Track pane in the track you want to record. You can only step
record in the current track—the track that has the focus.
3.
Set the Now time to the point in the project where you want to start recording.
4.
Choose Transport-Step Record, or click
the Step Record dialog box.
in the Record toolbar to display
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5.
6.
Follow the instructions in the following table:
To do this…
Do this…
Record the next step
Play the note(s) you want on your MIDI
instrument
Erase the most recent step
Click Delete
Skip a step (add rests)
Click Advance without playing any notes
Move forward or backward one
step
Click the scroll arrows in the scroll bar
Move forward or backward one
measure
Drag the indicator in the scroll bar
Jump to a particular Now time
Enter the measure, beat, and tick number
next to the scroll bar
Change the step size
Pick the step size you want from the Step
Size list
Change the note duration
Pick the duration you want from the
Duration list
Stop recording and save your
work
Click Keep or press Enter
Stop recording and discard your
work
Click Close or press Esc
Advance to the next step
With Auto Advance disabled, click the
Advance button
Click OK.
As always, you can use the Edit-Undo and Edit-Redo commands after you have
finished recording. Note that these commands erase or restore all the material you
recorded while in step record mode. Remember that Step Record always uses
the Sound on Sound (blend) record mode, regardless of the current record
mode.
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Step Pattern Recording
The Pattern option lets you define a repeating rhythmic pattern of notes and rests
so that you can use step recording more efficiently. For example, suppose your
project is in 4/4 time, and one track has a pattern that is two measures long:
quarter notes in the first measure and on the first two beats of the second
measure, followed by a half-note rest on the last two beats. This pattern has six
quarter notes followed by two quarter-note rests.
When you use step recording with Auto Advance, you can play the six quarter
notes and SONAR will automatically advance to the next step. However, to skip
over the rests, you need to click the Advance button two times.
With pattern recording, you define a pattern that indicates where the rests appear
in the pattern. SONAR will then skip over the rests automatically, so you don’t
need to click the Advance button at all.
SONAR displays patterns as a combination of digits (which represent beats that
contain notes) and dots (which represent beats that contain rests). The pattern
described previously looks like this:
123456..
Here is another example:
12.4
This pattern automatically skips over every third beat; SONAR interprets this
pattern as “one, two, rest, four.”
Here is one final example based on 4/4 time, with a step size of eighth-note triplets
(twelve steps per measure):
1234.67.90.2
No matter how you enter a pattern, SONAR displays the digits in sequence, with
periods replacing digits at each step where a rest would occur. You can create
patterns with up to 64 steps.
To Use Pattern-Based Step Recording
1.
Choose the input for the track(s) you want to record.
2.
Set the Now time to the point in the project where you want to start recording.
3.
Choose Transport-Step Record to display the Step Record dialog box.
4.
Click in the Pattern box.
5.
Press any number key to indicate a beat at which notes will be played.
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6.
Press the Spacebar, period, or the letter r to indicate a beat on which there is a
rest.
7.
When the pattern is complete, click elsewhere in the dialog box.
8.
Step record as before.
From now on, after you record each step, SONAR automatically advances past all
rests to the next step on which notes will be played. To stop pattern-based step
recording, simply delete the pattern from the Pattern box.
Recording Specific Ports and Channels
Most MIDI instruments are capable of sending information on several different
channels at once. By default, SONAR merges all incoming MIDI data and records
it on whatever MIDI tracks are armed. However, SONAR also allows you to control
which MIDI input ports and channels each track will record. Here are some
examples of when this feature might be useful:
•
There are several performers, each playing a different MIDI instrument. By
setting each instrument to transmit MIDI on a different channel and/or port,
you can record each player’s performance into a separate track, even though
they are all playing at the same time.
•
You are using a MIDI guitar controller and want to record the notes played on
each string on a separate track.
•
Your electronic keyboard has a built-in auto accompaniment feature that
plays a drum part and an accompaniment while you play lead. You want to
record each of these three parts into a different track in a SONAR project.
•
You have a MIDI sequence stored on your synthesizer’s built-in sequencer, and
you want to record each channel onto a different track. Note: You can use
external MIDI synchronization to automate the process of loading
multichannel sequences from other MIDI devices. For more information, see
Synchronizing Your Gear.
You can choose MIDI inputs for a track by using either the Inputs field on each
individual track, or by using the Track-Property-Inputs command to display the
Track Inputs dialog box.
SONAR allows you to filter MIDI input so that you can record only certain kinds of
MIDI data (see “Input Filtering” on page 194), and also allows you to
automatically turn off the Local On setting of your master keyboard.
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To Assign Input Ports and Channels to MIDI Tracks
1.
Click the dropdown arrow on an individual track’s Input field to display the
Input dropdown menu (jump to step 4, below).
Or
1.
Use the Track-Property-Inputs command to display the Track Inputs dialog
box.
2.
In the Track column, select a MIDI track or tracks that you want to choose
inputs for.
3.
Click the MIDI Inputs button that’s at the bottom of the dialog to open the
MIDI inputs dropdown menu.
4.
Choose track inputs from these choices:
5.
•
None—this option actually sets the Input field to Omni: with this setting
the track will record any MIDI input coming in on any enabled port (MIDI
interface input driver) on any channel.
•
All Inputs-(MIDI Omni or MIDI ch 1-16)—with this setting the track
will record any MIDI input coming in on any enabled port (MIDI interface
input driver) on any channel, unless you choose a particular MIDI
channel instead of MIDI Omni. Then the track will only record input
that’s on the MIDI channel you chose.
•
(name of MIDI input driver)-(MIDI Omni or MIDI ch 1-16)—
choosing this option causes the track to record any MIDI channel coming
from the named MIDI interface input driver, unless you choose a
particular MIDI channel instead of MIDI Omni. Then the track will only
record input that’s on the MIDI channel you chose, from the named input
driver.
•
Preset—if you’ve created any preset collections of input ports and
channels, you can select one here.
•
Manage Presets—if you want to create or edit any preset collections of
input ports and channels, you can select this option (see following
procedure).
Click OK.
SONAR shows new track inputs in the Input fields in the Track pane.
Note:
You can use external MIDI synchronization to automate the process
of loading multichannel sequences from other MIDI devices. For more
information, see “Synchronizing Your Gear” on page 601.
193
To Create or Edit a Preset Input Configuration
1.
In the Input field of a track that you want to select inputs for, click the
dropdown arrow and choose Manage Presets from the dropdown menu (this
menu is also available from the MIDI Inputs button in the Track Inputs
dialog).
The MIDI Input Presets dialog appears.
2.
In the Input Port column, find the input port that you want to use for this
track (if you only use a single-port MIDI interface, you’ll only see one choice).
3.
To the right of the input port, select the MIDI channels that you want this
track to respond to on this MIDI port. Clicking the OMNI button in this row of
MIDI channels clears or fills all the checkboxes in this row.
4.
Select channels for any other MIDI port that’s listed, if you want to use
channels on that port also.
5.
If you want to save this configuration, type a name for it in the window at the
top of the dialog, and click the disk icon to save it.
Now, when you choose inputs for other tracks, you can choose the preset you saved
by clicking the Presets option in the track’s Input dropdown menu. If you want to
edit a preset, select it in the top window of the MIDI Input Presets dialog, edit it,
and click the disk icon. If you want to delete a preset, select it in the same dialog
and click the X button to delete it.
Input Filtering
SONAR lets you filter out specific types of MIDI messages or filter the MIDI input
stream channel by channel. Any MIDI information that is filtered out is neither
recorded nor echoed to any other MIDI devices.
You can use the message type filter to screen out resource-intensive MIDI
messages like key and channel aftertouch. By default, SONAR records all types of
events except these two.
You can use message-type filtering to record short System Exclusive (Sysx)
messages in real-time. These will end up in the track as Sysx data events, which
can hold System Exclusive messages up to 255 bytes. Leave the Buffers setting at
128 unless you experience data not being recorded. For more information about
Sysx, see Chapter 17, Using System Exclusive Data.
To Filter Event Types
1.
Choose Options-Global and click the MIDI tab.
2.
Check the message types you want recorded.
3.
Click OK.
From now on, SONAR records only the types of events you have chosen.
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Importing Music and Sound
While recording is perhaps the most common way of adding material to a SONAR
project, there are several other methods you can also use. SONAR lets you import
music into a project from several different types of digital data files, including
MIDI files; audio files in Wave, MP3, AIFF, and other formats; and other SONAR
project files.
Importing Audio Files
SONAR lets you insert digital audio information into any track of a project. If the
audio file you are importing is in stereo, then it can be imported into a single
stereo track, a pair of mono tracks or a single mono track.
The File-Import-Audio command supports the following digital audio file types:
•
Wave (extension .wav)
•
MPEG (extensions .MPEG, .MPG, .MP2, and .MP3)
•
Apple AIFF (extensions .AIF and .AIFF)
•
Active Streaming (extension .ASF)
•
Next/Sun (extensions .AU and .SND)
The sampling rate and bit depth for a project is set based on your default settings
in the Audio Options dialog. If the sampling rate from the Wave file does not match
the sampling rate in your project, then it will be converted to the current project’s
sampling rate and bit depth.
To Import an Audio File
1.
Set the Now time and current track to indicate where the audio should be
placed.
2.
Choose File-Import-Audio to display the Open dialog box.
3.
Choose the audio file you want to import. SONAR displays information about
the file at the bottom of the dialog box.
4.
Click Play to listen to the audio file before importing.
5.
If the new file is stereo, check the Stereo Split option if you want to insert the
file into two separate tracks.
6.
Click Open.
SONAR loads the audio data from the audio file and places it in the selected track
at the Now time.
195
Broadcast Wave Files
Broadcast Wave files are wave files with some additional information stored in
them. Broadcast Wave files have the following information:
•
Description—A brief description of the contents of the Broadcast wave.
Limited to 256 characters.
•
Originator—The author of the Broadcast wave. This information is taken from
the Author field in the File Info dialog.
•
Originator Reference—A unique reference identifier created by SONAR.
•
Origination Date—The date the file was created.
•
Origination Time—The time the file was created.
•
Time Reference—The SMPTE time stamp for the beginning of broadcast
wave.
To import a Broadcast Wave file:
1.
If you want SONAR to import Broadcast Wave files always at their
timestamped location, select Options-Global, click the Audio Data tab and
check the Always Import Broadcast Waves At Their Timestamp option.
Otherwise, set the Now Time and current track to indicate where the audio
should be placed.
2.
Choose File-Import-Audio to display the Open dialog box.
3.
Choose the audio file you want to import. SONAR displays information about
the file at the bottom of the dialog box.
4.
Click Play to listen to the audio file before importing.
5.
If the new file is stereo, check the Stereo Split option if you want to insert the
file into two separate tracks.
6.
Click Open.
If the Always Import Broadcast Waves At Their Timestamp option is selected in
the Global Options dialog, the imported Broadcast Wave file appears at its
timestamp on the selected track. Otherwise, the file appears at the Now Time on
the selected track.
Importing Material from Another SONAR Project
You use the Edit-Copy and Edit-Paste commands to import material from one
project to another using the Windows clipboard. The project that contains the
material you want to import is the source project. The project into which the
material is imported is the target project.
Normally, if you copy material from several different tracks to the Windows
clipboard, the information will be pasted back into separate tracks. You can choose
196
to paste all the material from the clipboard into a single destination track in the
target project.
You can also copy material from one project to another by displaying the Track
view for both projects side by side, then using drag-and-drop editing.
To Import Material from Another Project
1.
Open the source project, or click in the Track view for that project.
2.
In the Track view, select the material you want to import.
3.
Choose Edit-Copy to display the Copy dialog box.
4.
Make sure that Events in Tracks is checked. If you don’t want to import tempo
changes, meter/key changes, or markers, uncheck those options. Click OK.
5.
Open the target project, or click in the Track view for that project.
6.
Set the Now time and current track to indicate where the material should be
placed.
7.
Choose Edit-Paste to display the Paste dialog box.
8.
Check Paste to One Track if you want all material imported into the current
track (not recommended if you’re importing both MIDI and audio data).
9.
Click OK.
SONAR imports the material and displays it in the Track view.
Importing MIDI Files
You can create a new SONAR project from a MIDI file simply by opening the file.
SONAR takes material from the file and places it into one or more tracks in the
Track view.
To Import Data from a MIDI File into a Project
1.
Open the MIDI file as a new, separate project.
2.
Choose Edit-Select-All.
3.
Choose Edit-Copy to display the Copy dialog box.
4.
Make sure that Events in Tracks is checked. If you don’t want to import tempo
changes, meter/key changes, or markers, uncheck those options. Click OK.
5.
Open the target project, or click in the Track view for that project.
6.
Set the Now time and current track to indicate where the material should be
placed.
7.
Choose Edit-Paste to display the Paste dialog box.
8.
Check Paste to One Track if you want all material imported into the current
track.
9.
Click OK.
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SONAR imports the material and displays it in the Track view.
Saving Your Work
Like most Windows programs, SONAR has a File-Save command and a File-Save
As command to save your work. Normally, you save your projects in the standard
project file format, with a file extension of .CWP. This file contains all your MIDI
data and all your project settings. Any digital audio that is part of your project is
stored in a separate file, as described in “System Configuration” on page 628.
SONAR also lets you save files in several other formats, as described in the table:
File type...
Format...
Explanation...
Standard MIDI
.MID
Used to transfer MIDI-only projects to other
software products that support Standard MIDI
files.
Bundle
.CWB
A single file that includes all the material in
your project: MIDI data, project settings, and
audio data. This format is used for projects
that contain digital audio, when you want to
back up your work or transfer a project to a
different computer. See “Backing Up Projects
with Digital Audio” on page 624 for more
information. Note: Bundle files do not save
video data.
Template
.CWT
A file that is used as a pattern to create
another. Templates make it easy to create and
configure new projects. See Chapter 14,
Layouts, Templates and Key Bindings for more
information.
If you have made changes to a project and then attempt to close the project, either
by closing the Track view or by choosing File-Close, SONAR asks if you want to
save the changes you have made. This prevents you from accidentally losing your
work. You can tell whether changes have been made to a project by looking for an
asterisk (*) after the project name in the SONAR title bar.
SONAR has an Auto Save feature that periodically saves your work into a special
backup file. You can request automatic backups at fixed time intervals or every
time a certain number of changes have been made to the file. When the limit is
reached, the file is saved automatically. If your original project is called
MYPROJECT.CWP, the Auto Save version is called AUTO SAVE VERSION OF
MYPROJECT.CWP.
198
If there is a power failure or if you make a significant mistake, you can recover the
last-saved version of your project by opening this file. You should then save your
project under a different name by using the File-Save As command.
To Save a Project
1.
Choose File-Save As to display the Save As dialog box.
2.
Choose the type of file you want to save from the Save as Type list.
3.
Enter a file name and click Save.
SONAR saves the file.
To Change the Auto Save Settings
1.
Choose Options-Global and click the General tab.
2.
To enable Auto Save, set either the number of minutes or the number of
changes between saves.
3.
To disable Auto Save, set both values to zero.
4.
Click OK.
From now on, your projects are saved automatically according to the settings you
entered.
Labeling Your Projects
SONAR lets you attach subtitles, composer credits, copyright, and other
information to your projects, as shown in the following table:
Title
The title for your project; prints automatically at the top
of a Staff view printout.
Subtitle
For a subtitle or dedication; prints directly below the title
in a Staff view printout.
Instructions
Use for performance instructions; prints flush left in a
Staff view printout.
Author
Put your name here if you are the composer. Prints
flush right in a Staff view printout.
Copyright
Copyright information prints flush right, under the author
name, in a Staff view printout.
Keywords
Put keywords describing the project here for future
reference.
Comments
Free text comments. Type as much as you like. You can
enter approximately the same amount of text as you
can in Windows Notepad.
199
This information is shown in the File Info dialog box, which is displayed using the
File-Info command. If the File Info window is open when you save a file, then this
window is displayed automatically the next time the file is opened. This is useful if
you:
•
Share files with others and want them to see special instructions when they
open the file
•
Want your copyright information to be displayed automatically
If the File Info window is closed when you save the file, it will not be automatically
displayed the next time the file is opened.
Although you cannot use Edit menu commands while working in the File Info
window, standard Windows hot keys like Ctrl+X, Ctrl+C, and Ctrl+V can be used
to cut, copy, and paste text.
To Display and Edit Project Information
200
1.
Choose File-Info to display the File Info window.
2.
Edit the information as desired.
3.
If you want the File Info window to display automatically, save the file.
4.
Click Stats to see statistics about the contents of the file.
5.
Choose File-Print Preview if you want to print the project information
6.
Close the File Info window.
File Statistics
To open the File Statistics dialog, select File-Info and click the Stats button in the
File Info dialog. The File Statistics dialog box displays the following information
about the contents of the project file:
Statistic...
What it means...
Created
The date the project was first saved.
Editing time
The total time you’ve had the project open,
from the time it was created to the last time
it was saved. This does not include time
spent editing the project since you last
saved it. If you want to update this value,
save the project.
Revision
Each time you save a file that has been
changed, this number is incremented. If you
open a project, make no changes, then
save it, the revision number is not changed.
Events
The total number of events in the project.
Sample rate
The sample rate for digital audio.
Bit depth
The audio driver bit depth of digital audio.
File version
The SONAR version number.
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202
5
Arranging
The Track view makes it easy to arrange and mix your projects from a single view.
From one location, you can select, copy, move, mix, and rearrange the parts of your
project, using menu commands or drag-and-drop tools. You can add real-time audio
and MIDI effects from the Effects bin and buses. Markers provide easy-to-use
reference points and labels for the different parts of your project, and the Snap
Grid makes it easy to align your clips to the desired time points. Slip Editing
allows you to non-destructively change the start and/or end time of a clip, just by
dragging its borders. With Slip Editing, you can easily create repetitions of your
clips using your mouse. Both the Track view and Console view have a full set of
record and playback meters, which you can configure in several ways. SONAR™
also has a variety of tools and commands for changing the tempo of your project.
Composite tracks allow you to keep all your takes in one track if you want, and
selectively mute and solo the various clips in the track. Track folders let you edit
multiple tracks at once and conserve screen space.
In This Chapter
Arranging Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
Arranging Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
Nudge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
Working with Partial Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
Markers and the Snap Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
Working with Linked Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
Splitting and Combining Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
Take Management and Comping Takes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
Clip Muting and Isolating (Clip Soloing) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
Track Folders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238
Adding Effects in the Track View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
Changing Tempos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
Undo, Redo, and the Undo History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
Arranging Tracks
SONAR provides a variety of commands that let you work with the tracks in your
project. Here are some of the things you can do:
You can…
Here’s why…
Rearrange the tracks in the Track
view so that they appear in a
different order
This makes it easier to see and work with a subset of
tracks, like the rhythm section, or the vocals and vocal
backing tracks, or all muted tracks.
Hide individual tracks
This makes it easier to work in a large project. You can
display only the tracks you want to see at a given time.
Move tracks into a track folder
Lets you group tracks by function, edit several tracks
at once, hide groups of tracks easily, and mute, solo,
archive, arm, or input monitor a group or tracks with
one click. See “Track Folders” on page 238 for more
information.
Make copies of a track
Copying a track and then adding a time offset or
changing the patch is an easy way to double a part.
You can also copy and then transpose a track to add
harmony.
Erase or delete a track
Tracks and clips that you are no longer using in your
project are distracting and take up space in your
project file.
All the commands you use to arrange tracks work on selected tracks. The current
track (the one with the gold titlebar) is always selected. You can select additional
tracks as shown in the table:
204
To do this…
Do this…
Select a track
Click the track number in the Track view. The track
is selected, and all other tracks—except the current
track—are deselected.
Select several adjacent tracks
Click the track number for the first track in the
group, drag the mouse to the last track in the group,
and release the mouse button.
Select/deselect all tracks
Double-click a track number.
Add or remove a single track from the
selection
Hold the Shift key and click the track number to add
it to the selection; hold the Ctrl key and click the
track number to toggle its selection status.
Changing the Order of Tracks
There are several ways you can change the order of tracks in the Track view:
•
Drag a track to a new position in the Track view.
•
Use the Track-Sort command to rearrange the tracks in order based on the
track name, status, or other setting.
•
Insert new, blank tracks between existing tracks.
To Drag a Track to a New Position
1.
Position the mouse just to the right of the track number, over the track icon of
the track you want to move.
The cursor changes to an up/down arrow.
2.
Drag the track to its new location, and release the mouse button.
SONAR rearranges and renumbers the tracks.
You can sort the tracks in a project based on several parameters, in either
ascending or descending order:
Sort by…
What happens…
Name
Ascending puts track in alphabetic order,
descending puts them in reverse order
Size, output, or channel
Ascending puts them in increasing numeric
order, descending puts them in decreasing
numeric order
Muted, archived, selected
Ascending puts qualifying tracks at the end,
descending puts them at the beginning
No matter how you sort, blank tracks always go to the end of the list.
Note that track numbers are used for reference only. When you re-arrange the
order of tracks, they are automatically assigned sequential numbers based on the
order in which they are displayed in the Track view.
205
To Sort the Tracks
1.
Choose Track-Sort to display the Sort Tracks dialog box.
2.
Choose the attribute by which to sort from the Sort By list:
Attribute…
How it works…
Name
If you choose this attribute, SONAR puts the tracks into
alphabetical order, either ascending or descending,
depending on what you choose in the Order list.
Muted
If you choose this attribute, SONAR puts all the muted
tracks at either the top or bottom of the Tracks window,
depending on whether you choose descending (top) or
ascending (bottom) in the Order list.
Archived
If you choose this attribute, SONAR puts all the
archived tracks at either the top or bottom of the Tracks
window, depending on whether you choose descending
(top) or ascending (bottom) in the Order list.
Selected
If you choose this attribute, SONAR puts all the
selected tracks at either the top or bottom of the Tracks
window, depending on whether you choose descending
(top) or ascending (bottom) in the Order list.
Size
If you choose this attribute, SONAR puts the tracks in
order by size, either in descending or ascending order.
Output
If you choose this attribute, SONAR sorts the tracks by
output number, either in descending or ascending order.
SONAR considers non-numbered outputs to have lower
numbers than numbered outputs.
Channel
If you choose this attribute, SONAR sorts the tracks by
channel number, either in descending or ascending
order:
•
If you choose ascending order, SONAR puts all
MIDI tracks at the bottom of the Tracks window,
with the lower channel numbers first.
•
If you choose descending order, SONAR puts all
MIDI tracks at the top of the Tracks window, with
the higher channel numbers first.
3.
Choose the order in which to sort from the Order list.
4.
Click OK.
SONAR sorts the tracks according to the settings you chose.
206
To Insert a Blank Track
1.
Right-click in the Track pane at the place where you want to insert a track,
and select Insert Audio Track to add an audio track or Insert MIDI Track
to add a MIDI track.
OR
1.
Press Insert to add a track of the same type (audio or MIDI) as the current
track.
SONAR shifts the current track and all tracks below it down by one, and inserts a
blank, new track at the location of the highlight.
Configuring the Display of Tracks in the Track View
There are several commands in SONAR that allow you to configure the
appearance of your tracks in the track view. You can use these commands to zoom
in or out, show or hide any combination of tracks, and revert back to previous
display settings. The following table lists each of these commands and provides an
explanation of each:
Command…
Description…
Shortcut…
Show and Fit
Selection
This command hides all tracks which are not
selected. The remaining tracks are adjusted in size
vertically and horizontally to fit in the Track view,
without scrolling if possible. All track selections are
lost after this command is executed.
Shift+S
Fit Tracks to Window
All currently displayed tracks are adjusted in size
vertically to fit in the Track view, without scrolling if
possible.
F
Fit Project to Window
This command resizes all tracks both vertically and
horizontally to fit in the Tracks view.
Shift+F
Show Only Selected
Tracks
This command hides all tracks which are not
selected. The remaining tracks are adjusted in size
vertically.
H
Hide Selected Tracks
Hides all selected tracks.
Shift+H
Show All Tracks
Shows all tracks in your project, including these
hidden using the Track Manager.
A
Track Manager
Opens the Track manager dialog. For more
information about the Track Manager dialog, see
Track Manager dialog.
M
Undo View Change
This command restores the view to its previous
state. There are up to 16 levels of undo.
U
Redo View Change
This command restores the view to the state prior
to the Undo View Change command.
Shift+U
207
Copying Tracks
When you copy a track using the Track-Clone command, you can choose any of
the following options:
•
Events
•
Properties
•
Effects
•
Link to Original Clip(s)
By default, SONAR copies the entire track to the next blank track, which is
usually below the last track in the Track view. For more information on linked
clips, see “Working with Linked Clips” on page 228.
To Copy a Track
1.
Select a track. You can only clone one track at a time.
2.
Choose Track-Clone to display the Clone dialog box.
3.
Check the Events, Properties, and/or Effects boxes to indicate which items you
want to copy.
4.
Click OK.
SONAR copies the entire track to the next blank track, which is usually below the
last track in the Track view.
Erasing Tracks
You can easily delete an entire track, including all of the track properties and all of
its clips and events. Sometimes, you only want to erase, or wipe, the contents of a
track, leaving the track properties as they are. If you delete or wipe a track by
mistake, you can use Edit-Undo to restore the deleted material.
When you delete or wipe a track, the track information is not placed on the
SONAR clipboard. To remove material from a track and place it on the clipboard,
use the Edit-Cut command instead.
To Delete Tracks
1.
Select the tracks you want to delete.
2.
Choose Track-Delete.
SONAR deletes the selected tracks. You can also right-click individual tracks and
choose Delete Track from the popup menu.
To Wipe Tracks
1.
Select the tracks you want to wipe.
2.
Choose Track-Wipe.
SONAR deletes all clips and events from the selected tracks, but leaves the track
properties intact.
208
Arranging Clips
The Track view provides many ways for you to rearrange, copy, and paste clips to
arrange your music the way you want. The easiest is to select the clips or portions
of clips you want to arrange and then drag and drop them wherever you want. You
can drag and drop clips in the Track view even while playback is in progress. You
can also arrange clips via the clipboard using the Edit-Cut, Edit-Copy, and EditPaste commands, which work like those in almost all Windows programs.
The Snap Grid enables you to move clips to or by an exact amount of time, such as
a quarter note or whole measure. See “To Change the Snap Options” on page 223.
Displaying Clips
Clips are displayed as rectangles in the Clips pane. Their position and length show
you at a glance their starting times and lengths. You can control four aspects of
their appearance:
•
Color—By default, each track’s clips are drawn in a different color. The clip
colors restart at the tenth track. You can customize the default colors of clips
in the Colors dialog or change the color of any individual clip in the Clip
Properties dialog.
Note: In audio clips, the waveform changes color, unless no clip contents are
displayed. In MIDI clips, the clip background changes color.
•
Name—You can also assign each clip a descriptive name, which is displayed in
the upper-left corner of the clip.
•
Contents—At your option, clips can be displayed with a graphical
representation of the events in the clip. The effect is slightly different for
MIDI and audio information as shown below:
A MIDI clip shows each
event; by looking at the clips,
you can “see” the notes that
are being played
An audio clip shows
the actual waveform
Controller or automation
data are also displayed
209
To inspect the clip contents more closely, use the zoom tools to increase the size in
which clips are displayed. Note that displaying the contents of each clip makes
your computer work a little harder. As a result, if your computer has an older,
slower CPU you may want to turn off the display of clip contents.
Zoom tool
Zoom Out
Slider
Zoom In
Zoom Out
Slider
Vertical Zoom controls
Zoom In
Horizontal Zoom controls
To Zoom Horizontally
•
Click the horizontal zoom buttons to zoom in or out by a fixed percentage each
time you click.
Or
•
Drag the horizontal zoom slider to zoom in or out by the amount you drag.
Or
•
Hold down the Ctrl key and press the right arrow key (to zoom in) or the left
arrow key (to zoom out).
To Zoom Vertically
•
Click the vertical zoom buttons to zoom in or out by a fixed percentage each
time you click.
Or
•
Drag the vertical zoom slider to zoom in or out by the amount you drag.
Or
•
Hold down the Ctrl key and press the up arrow key (to zoom out) or the down
arrow key (to zoom in).
To Zoom into a Selected Area
•
210
Use the Zoom tool to drag-select an area of a clip or clips that you want to
zoom to. When you release the mouse, the area you selected expands to fill the
Clips pane window.
Zoom command keyboard shortcuts:
To do this…
Use this shortcut…
Zoom in vertically
Ctrl+down arrow
Zoom in horizontally
Ctrl+right arrow
Zoom out vertically
Ctrl+up arrow
Zoom out horizontally
Ctrl+left arrow
Undo Zoom
U
Redo Zoom
Shift+U
Turn On Zoom tool (use the Zoom
tool to select the area to zoom to)
Z
Turn Off Zoom tool
Z
Display Now Time in Center of
Clips Pane
G
To Display Clip Names and Contents
1.
Right-click in the Clips pane, and choose View Options from the menu.
2.
Check the Display Clip Names option to show clip names, or leave it
unchecked to hide them.
3.
Check the Display Clip Contents option to show clip contents, or leave it
unchecked to hide them.
4.
Click OK.
SONAR modifies the clips pane to show the information you want.
211
To Change Clip Names
1.
Select the clips you want to rename.
2.
Right-click on one of the selected clips and choose Clip Properties. SONAR
opens the Clip Properties dialog box.
3.
Enter a name for the selected clips, and click OK.
SONAR renames the selected clips.
To Change Clip Colors
1.
Select the clips whose color you want to change.
2.
Right-click on one of the selected clips and choose Clip Properties. SONAR
opens the Clip Properties dialog box.
3.
Choose a color as follows:
4.
To do this…
Do this…
Use the default color
Check the Default Color box
Use a custom color
Click the Choose Color button and pick
a color from the Color dialog box
Click OK.
SONAR changes the color of the selected clips.
212
Using the Navigator View
The Navigator view displays a large part of your project so you can see an overview
of your song. The Navigator view is a floating version of the Navigator pane found
at the top of the Track view.
Track Rectangle
The Track Rectangle appears as a green rectangle within the Navigator view. The
Track Rectangle indicates the section of your project which appears in the Clips
pane of the Track view. You can move the Track Rectangle or change its size.
To Move the Track Rectangle
1.
Position your cursor inside the Track Rectangle until the icon changes to look
like this:
2.
.
Click and drag the rectangle where you want and release.
To Change the Size of the Track Rectangle
1.
Click one of the nodes on the rectangle border.
2.
Drag to change the rectangle size.
To Change the Now Time in the Navigator view
1.
Hold down the Ctrl key.
2.
Click where you want the Now Time to be.
Double-clicking Clips
By default, double-clicking a MIDI clip in the Clips pane opens a Piano Roll view
for that track, and double-clicking an Audio clip opens the Loop Construction view
for that track. You can set the type of view opened when a clip is double-clicked.
For example, you may want to open MIDI tracks in a Staff view rather than in a
Piano Roll view.
To Set the View Opened by Double-clicking
1.
Right-click in the Clips pane and choose View Options.
2.
Select the types of view opened by double-clicking MIDI and audio clips.
3.
Click OK.
213
Selecting Clips
Before you move, copy, edit, or delete clips you need to select them. There are
several ways to select whole clips, as shown in the table:
To do this…
Do this…
Select a single clip
Click on the clip in the Clips pane.
Select several clips at once
Drag a rectangle around the clips.
Select all the clips in a track
Click on the track number in the Track view.
Select a portion of one or more clips
Press and hold the Alt key and drag across the
clips. The Snap to Grid setting determines the
size portion you can select.
Add clips to the selection
Hold the Shift key and either click on the clips or
drag a rectangle around the clips.
Add or remove clips from the selection
Hold the Ctrl key and either click on the clips or
drag a rectangle around the clips.
Add or remove all clips in a track from
the selection
Hold the Ctrl key and click on the track number.
Moving and Copying Clips
You can copy or move clips using drag-and-drop editing or the Cut, Copy, and
Paste commands. If you copy or move clips into tracks that contain existing
material, you need to let SONAR know how to combine the two.
You have these options:
214
Option…
How it works…
Blend Old and New
Events in the copied or moved clip are placed into a new
clip that overlaps with the existing clip. This is the same
effect as sound-on-sound recording.
Replace Old with New
Events in the copied or moved clip are placed into a new
clip, and any overlapping events in the existing clip are
erased. This is the same effect as overwrite recording.
Slide Over to Make Room
The existing clips are shifted in time to make room for the
new clips, so they will not overlap. If you check the Align
to Measures option, shifted clips are always aligned to
measure boundaries; otherwise, the clips are placed end
to end.
When you use the Edit-Paste command to add information to a track that
contains existing material, there is one final option you can choose.
Option…
What it means…
Paste as New Clips
New clips are created containing the events
on the clipboard, exactly as described in the
preceding table.
Paste into Existing Clips (MIDI clips
only)
The events on the clipboard are merged
into any existing clips that occupy the same
region of time. This means you will never
end up with clips that overlap.
Note that if you copy or move clips to new, empty tracks, you don’t have to worry
about these settings. In this case, the track properties that go with the clips are
automatically applied to the new track.
When you use drag-and-drop editing:
•
You can set the above options every time you perform an edit, or you can set
them once and have the same settings carry over automatically. Check or
uncheck the Ask This Every Time box in the Drag and Drop Options dialog to
indicate your preference. Open the Drag and Drop Options dialog by rightclicking in the Clips pane and choosing Drag and Drop Options from the
popup menu.
•
If you drag to the edge of the Clips pane, it will scroll automatically in the
direction you drag.
•
If you change your mind while dragging clips, press the Escape key to cancel
the operation.
SONAR also lets you move and copy clips between projects.
To Move Clips Using Drag and Drop
1.
Select the clips you want to move.
2.
If you want to move the clips by an exact amount of time, enable the Snap
Grid (see “To Change the Snap Options” on page 223).
3.
Position the mouse over one of the selected clips.
4.
Press and hold down the left mouse button. A rectangle is displayed around
the selected clips.
5.
Drag the clips to their new location, and release the mouse button.
6.
If necessary, choose the options you want from the Drag and Drop Options
dialog box (use Options-Global and open the Editing tab, or right-click in the
215
Clips Pane and select Drag & Drop Options from the menu that
appears), and click OK.
SONAR moves the clips to their new location.
Note:
Moving an audio clip (other than a Groove clip) to a part of your
project that has a different tempo changes the size of the clip.
To Move Clips Using Cut and Paste
216
1.
Select the clips you want to move.
2.
Choose Edit-Cut to display the Cut dialog box.
3.
Choose the options you want and click OK. SONAR cuts the clips
from the project and places them on the Windows clipboard.
4.
Click in the Track pane to set the current track to be the one where
clips should be pasted.
5.
Set the Now time to be the time at which the clips should be pasted.
6.
Choose Edit-Paste to display the Paste dialog box.
7.
Choose the options you want and click OK.
SONAR places the clips in their new location.
To Move a Clip to a Specific Start Time
1.
Select the clip you want to move.
2.
Right-click on the selected clip and choose Clip Properties. SONAR opens the
Clip Properties dialog box.
3.
Enter a new start time, or use the spinners or keyboard to change the start
time.
4.
Click OK when you are done.
SONAR moves the clip to the start time you chose.
To Copy Clips Using Drag and Drop
1.
Select the clips you want to copy.
2.
Enable the Snap Grid, if desired.
3.
Position the mouse over one of the selected clips.
4.
Press and hold down the left mouse button. A rectangle is displayed around
the selected clips.
5.
Drag the clips to the new location, and release the mouse button.
6.
If necessary, choose the options you want from the Drag and Drop Options
dialog box, and click OK.
SONAR copies the clips to their new location.
217
To Copy Clips Using Copy and Paste
1.
Select the clips you want to copy.
2.
Choose Edit-Copy to display the Copy dialog box.
3.
Choose the options you want and click OK. SONAR copies the clips to the
Windows clipboard.
4.
Click in the Track pane to set the current track to be the one where clips
should be pasted.
5.
Set the Now time to be the time the clips should be pasted.
6.
Choose Edit-Paste to display the Paste dialog box.
7.
Choose the options you want and click OK.
SONAR copies the clips to their new location.
To Delete Clips
1.
Select the clips you want to delete.
2.
Do one of the following:
•
Choose Edit-Delete, which brings up a dialog box—choose options and
click OK.
•
Press the Delete key.
SONAR deletes the selected clips.
Nudge
Nudging is moving a clip or a MIDI note by a small amount to the left or right or
up and down. There are three customizable settings for the Nudge feature. You can
also nudge clips (in the Track view) or notes (in the Piano Roll view) up or down,
and you can use keyboard shortcuts (see “To Nudge a Clip Using Keyboard
Shortcuts” on page 220).
Nudge Settings
The Nudge tab in the Global Options dialog allows you to set the three Nudge
settings.
To Nudge a Clip Left or Right
Use the following procedure to nudge a clip.
1.
Select the clip you want to nudge.
2.
Select Process-Nudge Left(1-3) from the menu to move the clip left or
Process-Nudge Right(1-3) to move the clip right.
The amount the clip or note moves is determined by the settings in the Nudge tab
of the Global Options dialog.
218
To Nudge a Clip Up and Down
Use the following procedure to nudge a clip (in the Track view) or MIDI note (in
the Piano Roll view) up or down.
1.
Select the clip or note you want to nudge.
2.
Select Process-Nudge-Up to move the clip or note up or Process-NudgeDown to move a clip or note down.
Clips move up or down one track at a time. Notes move up or down one pitch at a
time.
To Change Nudge Settings
1.
Select Process-Nudge-Settings to open the Nudge tab in the Global Options
dialog box.
2.
In one of the three Nudge groups, select one of the following:
•
•
Musical Time—Select a note length setting.
Absolute Time—Select one of the following absolute time options and a
number in the first field
•
Absolute time setting…
Description…
Seconds
Whole seconds.
Milliseconds
Thousands of a second.
Frames
Number of frames. The default frame count is
30 frames per second. The number of frames
varies depending on the setting in the Project
Options dialog’s clock tab.
Samples
A very small amount of time. For CD-quality
audio there are 44,100 samples per second, so
a value of 1 here would not move a clip by a
perceptible amount.
Ticks
The number of ticks per quarter note varies
depending on the setting in the Project Options
dialog’s clock tab. The default setting is 960.
Follow Snap Settings—Moves the clip or note by the current snap setting.
219
To Nudge a Clip Using Keyboard Shortcuts
1.
Select the clip you want to nudge.
2.
If necessary, turn on Num Lock (press the Num Lock key on your keyboard).
3.
Press the appropriate Num Key.
•
Left 1—NumPad 1
•
Right 1—NumPad 3
•
Left 2—NumPad 4
•
Right 2—NumPad 6
•
Left 3—NumPad 7
•
Right 3—NumPad 9
•
Up—NumPad 8
•
Down—NumPad 2
Working with Partial Clips
SONAR lets you select, copy, move, and delete portions of a project even if they do
not match clip boundaries. There are two ways to do this:
•
Directly select portions of one or more clips.
•
Select a range of times and one or more tracks. SONAR automatically selects
the portions of clips that are in both the selected time range and the selected
tracks.
You can then copy, move, or delete the material the same way you do with whole
clips.
When you select portions of a clip, SONAR may round off the start and end times
of your selection based on the Snap Grid. For more information, see “Defining and
Using the Snap Grid” on page 222.
To Select a Portion of a Clip
1.
Press and hold the Alt key.
2.
Drag the mouse across part of a clip.
SONAR highlights the selected portion of the clip. You can edit this portion of the
clip using all the normal editing commands.
220
To Select a Portion of Several Clips
1.
Press and hold the Alt key.
2.
Drag the mouse across part of several clips in adjacent tracks.
SONAR highlights the selected portions of all the clips. You can edit these portions
of clips using all the normal editing commands.
To Select Partial Clips Using Time Ranges and Tracks
1.
Select a range of time in one of the following ways:
•
Drag the mouse in the Time Ruler.
•
Click between two markers to select the time between the markers.
•
Use the F9 and F10 keys to set the beginning and end selection times.
•
Select a clip (SONAR selects the range of time covered by the clip).
•
Choose Edit-Select-By Time, enter the start and end time, and click OK.
2.
Select one or more tracks by clicking, Shift-clicking, or Ctrl-clicking on the
track numbers in the Track view.
3.
To adjust the start and end time of the selection, hold the Shift key while
clicking on the Time Ruler.
The relevant portions of clips in the selected tracks are highlighted. You can edit
these portions of clips using all the normal editing commands.
To Clear the Partial Clip Selection
You can clear the time-restricted selection in any of the following ways:
•
Click in an empty area of the Clips pane to completely clear the selection.
•
Choose Edit-Select-None or press Ctrl+Shift+A to completely clear the
selection.
•
Click on a single clip in the Clips pane to clear the time selection and select
the clip.
Markers and the Snap Grid
SONAR has a collection of features you can use to simplify and speed the work you
do arranging your projects. Here are a few of the most important things you can
do:
•
Show gridlines on measure boundaries in the Track view.
•
Define and use the Snap Grid to make drag-and-drop editing more accurate.
•
Create markers to identify and work with key time points in your project.
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Showing Gridlines
Displaying gridlines, or vertical rules, in the Clips pane of the Track view makes it
easy to see at a glance how clips align with each other, how they align with
measure boundaries, and when they start and end.
To Show or Hide Gridlines
1.
Right-click in the Clips pane and choose View-Options from the popup menu.
2.
To show gridlines, check the Display Vertical Rules box. To hide gridlines,
make sure the Display Vertical Rules box is not checked.
3.
Click OK.
SONAR displays the Track view as you requested.
Defining and Using the Snap Grid
SONAR lets you define a snap grid that makes it easier to arrange clips and select
time ranges. To use the Snap Grid, enable the snap feature and set an interval,
such as a whole note, half note, or quarter note; a marker; an event; the start or
end of a clip; or a user-defined number of frames, seconds or samples. From then
on, when you move or copy clips or markers, items will be snapped to the nearest
point on the Snap Grid. The Musical Time and Absolute Time options also apply
when you perform a selection using the Time Ruler,
You can also use the Snap Grid to move clips by a certain interval, rather than
snap them to the interval. Moving by an interval can be useful during drag-anddrop operations, if your events are not exactly aligned with measure or note
boundaries.
The Snap Grid in each view is independent. For example, you can enable the Snap
Grid in the Track view without enabling it in the Piano Roll or Staff views. You can
also enable the Snap Grid in several different views, with different grid intervals
in each one.
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To Enable or Disable the Snap Grid
1.
Press N to toggle the Snap to Grid button
on or off.
OR
1.
To enable the Snap to Grid, click the Snap to Grid combo button
Track view toolbar.
in the
2.
To disable the Snap to Grid, click the Snap to Grid combo button once again.
To Change the Snap Options
1.
Click the down arrow in the Snap to Grid combo button
or right-click on
the Time Ruler and select Snap Properties from the popup menu to display
the Snap to Grid dialog box.
2.
Select one of the following options:
•
Musical Time—note intervals (whole, half, etc.)
•
Events—any data in a clip
•
Markers—any marker in a project
•
Clip Boundaries—the start or end of any clip
•
Absolute Time—a number of samples, frames, or seconds set by you
3.
If you selected Musical Time or Absolute Time, select Move To to align
selections and clips to the grid, or Move By to move clips by the grid interval.
4.
Click OK.
All time selections and drag-and-drop editing operations use the new Snap Grid
interval.
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Snap Offsets
Snap offsets allow you to set a point other than the beginning of a clip as the
“snap” point used by the Snap to Grid. A snap offset is the number of samples from
the beginning of the clip. Snap offsets affect all edits that obey the Snap to Grid
setting. Once the snap offset is added, you can set the Timer Ruler to SMPTE or
MBT time.
Note: You cannot set a snap offset for a Groove clip.
Creating a Snap Offset
Use the following to add a snap offset to a clip:
1.
Locate the place in the clip where you want to put the snap offset, and set the
Now Time to that location. Use the Scrub tool if necessary.
2.
Right-click on the clip and select Set Snap Offset to Now Time from the
menu that appears.
Edits to that clip, when the Snap to Grid button is depressed, now snap to the snap
offset rather than the beginning of the clip.
Deleting a Snap Offset
1.
Right-click on the clip and select Clip Properties from the menu that appears.
2.
In the Snap Offset field enter 0 (zero) and click OK.
Creating and Using Markers
Markers are a way of associating a name with a time point in your project. You use
markers to name sections of a project, to mark hit points in a film score, or simply
to provide a shortcut for working with any time point in a project. Markers make it
easy to:
•
Jump to a specific time point in a project
•
Select a portion of a project
•
Enter a time in any dialog box, by pressing F5 and choosing the marker you
want
You can see and work with markers in four ways:
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•
They are displayed in the Time Ruler at the top of the Track, Staff, and Piano
Roll view.
•
The Markers toolbar lets you add markers and jump to specific marker
locations.
•
The Markers view displays all markers and lets you add, edit, and delete
markers.
•
You can press F11 while playback is in progress to add a marker on the fly.
The time associated with a marker can be expressed in musical time or as a locked
SMPTE time. If a marker has a musical time (measures, beats, and ticks), the
marker stays at that musical time regardless of changes in tempo. If a marker has
a locked SMPTE time (hours, minutes, seconds, and frames), the marker stays at
the same time even when the tempo is changed. Locked markers are useful for
projects that require you to sync the music or sound with film scores or multimedia
presentations. See “To Add a Marker” on page 225.
SONAR takes the current Snap Grid settings into account when you move or copy
markers. For example, if the Snap Grid is set to even measure boundaries, any
time you move or copy a marker, the marker will be snapped to the beginning of
the nearest measure. You are allowed to have any number of markers at a single
time point.
To display the Markers view, choose View-Markers or click
on the Views
toolbar. From the Markers view, you can use the File-Print and File-Print
Preview commands to print a listing of markers.
You can add markers while playback is stopped or while playback is in progress
(on the fly). When you add a marker while playback is stopped, you can enter a
name for the marker and either use the Now time or enter a different time. When
you add a marker on the fly, the marker is named automatically and assigned the
Now time. Using the Markers view, you can edit the names and times whenever
you want.
To Add a Marker
1.
Open the Markers dialog in one of the following ways:
•
Click
in the Markers toolbar.
•
Press F11.
•
Choose Insert-Marker.
•
Click
•
Ctrl-click in the marker section of the Time Ruler.
•
Right-click in the Time Ruler and select Insert Marker.
in the Markers view.
225
SONAR displays the Marker dialog box.
2.
Enter a name for the marker in the Name box.
3.
The time is set to the Now time. If you want, use the spinners to change the
time or type in a new marker time.
4.
Check the Locked to SMPTE box if you want to lock the marker to the SMPTE
time.
5.
Click OK.
SONAR adds the marker and displays it in the Time Ruler, the Markers view, and
the Markers toolbar.
To Add a Marker on the Fly
•
Click
in the Markers toolbar, or Press F11.
SONAR adds a marker at the Now time and displays it in the Time Ruler, the
Markers view, and the Markers toolbar.
To Edit a Marker
1.
Either right-click on the marker in the Time Ruler, or choose a marker in the
Markers view and click
. SONAR displays the Marker dialog box.
2.
Change the marker name, time, or other settings as desired.
3.
Click OK.
SONAR updates the marker in the Time Ruler and the Markers view.
To Copy a Marker
1.
Press and hold the Ctrl key.
2.
Drag a marker in the Time Ruler of the Track view, Staff view, Tempo view, or
Piano Roll view. SONAR displays the Marker dialog box.
3.
Enter the desired marker settings and click OK.
SONAR copies the marker and displays it in the Time Ruler and the Markers view.
You can also cut and paste markers directly from the Markers view.
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To Lock or Unlock Several Markers
1.
In the Markers view, select one or more markers. Use the Ctrl and Shift keys if
necessary to modify the selection.
2.
Select or deselect
.
SONAR updates the markers.
To Move a Marker
•
Drag the marker in the Time Ruler.
SONAR updates the marker time and shows it at the new location.
To Delete a Marker
1.
Press and hold the left mouse button while pointing to a marker in the Time
Ruler.
2.
Press Delete, and release the mouse button.
SONAR deletes the marker. You can use Edit-Undo if you make a mistake.
To Delete Markers from the Markers View
1.
In the Markers view, select one or more markers. Use the Ctrl and Shift keys if
necessary to modify the selection.
2.
Click
or press Delete.
SONAR deletes the selected markers. You can use Undo if you make a mistake.
To Jump to a Marker
There are many different ways to jump to a specific marker:
•
Choose a marker from the dropdown list in the Markers toolbar to jump to
that marker.
•
Click the Now time in the Position toolbar, press F5 to display a list of
markers, choose the marker you want, and click OK.
•
Press F5 twice to display a list of markers, choose the marker you want, and
click OK.
•
Click on a marker in the Markers view to set the Now time to that marker.
•
Click
•
Choose Go-Next Marker or Go-Previous Marker to jump to the next or
previous marker.
or
in the Markers toolbar to jump to the next or previous marker.
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To Select a Time Range Using Markers
You can select a range of times by clicking in the marker section of the Time Ruler:
•
Click to the left of the first marker to select the time between the start of the
project and the first marker.
•
Click to the right of the last marker to select the time between the marker and
the end of the project.
•
Click between two markers to select the time between the markers.
•
If looping is enabled, click to the right of the Loop Start marker to select the
loop region
•
If punch recording is enabled, click to the right of the Punch In marker to
select the punch region
Working with Linked Clips
SONAR makes it easy to repeat a pattern over and over using a feature called
linked clips. Linked clips always have the same contents, name, and display
color. Any change you make to the internal contents of one of the clips, such as
adding or editing notes or effects, automatically applies to all of them. Any number
of clips may be linked with each other.
To create linked clips, copy the clips and when pasting, check the linked clips
option in the Paste dialog box or the Drag and Drop Options dialog box. Linked
clips are displayed with a dotted border, so they are easy to spot. You can also
identify linked clips using the Clip Properties dialog box or the Select All
Siblings (available in the Clips pane popup menu) command.You can easily
unlink linked clips, and then edit them individually. You have two options when
unlinking linked clips:
Option…
How it works…
New linked group
The clips you selected will still be linked to
each other, but won’t be linked to any clips
that are not selected
Independent
Every selected clip will be completely
independent
Once you have unlinked linked clips, you cannot re-link them except by using
Edit-Undo.
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If you attempt to copy only a portion of a linked clip, the copy will not be linked to
the original. Copies of a clip can be linked to the original only when you select and
copy the entire clip.
To Make Linked Copies of a Clip Using Drag and Drop
1.
Right-click in the Clips pane and choose Drag & Drop Options to display the
Drag and Drop Options dialog box.
2.
Check the option labeled Copy Entire Clips as Linked Clips.
3.
Click OK.
4.
Select the clips you want to copy.
5.
Position the mouse over one of the selected clips.
6.
Press and hold down the Ctrl key.
7.
Press and hold down the left mouse button. A rectangle is displayed around
the selected clips.
8.
Drag the clips to their new location, and release the mouse button.
9.
If necessary, confirm the options in the Drag and Drop Options dialog box, and
click OK.
SONAR creates copies of the selected clips that are linked to the originals. Any
change you make to one of the clips is applied to all linked clips, including the
original clip.
To Make Linked Copies of a Clip Using Copy and Paste
1.
Select the clips you want to copy.
2.
Choose Edit-Copy to display the Copy dialog box.
3.
Choose options as desired and click OK. SONAR copies the clips to the
Windows clipboard.
4.
Click in the Track pane to set the current track to be the one where clips
should be pasted.
5.
Set the Now time to be the time at which the clips should be pasted.
6.
Choose Edit-Paste to display the Paste dialog box.
7.
In the Paste dialog, choose one of two options:
8.
•
Linked Repetitions—If you choose this option, only the new copies of the
original clip are linked together. Edits you make to the new copies do not
affect the original, and vice versa.
•
Link to Original Clip(s)—If you choose this option, the new copies and the
original clip are linked together. Edits you make to any of the linked clips,
including the original, affect all other linked clips in the group.
Choose the other options you want and click OK.
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SONAR creates copies of the selected clips that are linked in the way you
chose.
To Unlink Linked Clips
1.
In the Clips pane, select the clips you want to unlink.
2.
Right-click on any selected clip and choose Unlink from the popup
menu. SONAR displays the Unlink Clips dialog box.
3.
Choose the unlink option you want, and click OK.
SONAR unlinks the clips and updates the Clips pane accordingly. From
now on, any changes you make to one of the clips are applied only to
remaining linked clips, if any.
To Select the Clips That Are Linked to Another Clip
1.
Select one or more clips in the Track view.
2.
Right-click on any selected clip and choose Select All Siblings from
the popup menu.
SONAR selects any clip that is linked to one of the currently selected
clips.
Splitting and Combining Clips
SONAR provides several commands that are used to split and combine
clips. Specifically, you can:
•
Split a clip into several smaller clips
•
Create a new clip from a selected portion of an existing clip
•
Combine adjacent or overlapping clips into a single, longer clip
The following table summarizes the commands you can use:
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To do this…
Use this
command…
Notes…
Split clips into parts
Edit-Split
Works on all selected clips.
You can also press the s key
to split all selected clips at the
Now Time.
Combine several clips
into one
Edit-Bounce to Clip(s)
If the selected clips are in
separate tracks, one clip is
created for each track. All clip
automation is applied
destructively to the new clip.
Note:
Combining a stereo and mono clip always produces a stereo clip.
The Split command lets you split clips four different ways:
Option…
How it works…
Split at Time
Splits selected clips at a specific point in
time. By default, the split occurs at the Now
time, but you can choose any time you
want.
Split Repeatedly
Splits selected clips at regular intervals,
beginning at a specified time, with a
specified duration. For example, you could
split a long clip into 4-bar clips starting at
measure 5.
Split at Markers
Splits selected clips at any marker location.
This option is available only if your project
has markers.
Split when Silent
Removes “silent” stretches of one measure
or more from selected clips. The presence
in a measure of any event—including those
that make no sound, such as a patch
change or lyric event—will cause that
measure to be retained.
While the Split command works for both MIDI and audio clips, for audio clips, the
Split command provides sample accurate editing and snap-to-zero capability.
Note that the Edit-Undo and Edit-Redo commands work with all three of these
editing commands.
231
To Split Clips into Smaller Clips
1.
Select the clips you want to split.
2.
Right-click on any selected clip, and choose Split from the popup menu.
SONAR shows the Split dialog box or press the S key to split the clip(s) at the
Now Time.
3.
Choose the Split option you want to use, and enter the settings you want to
use.
4.
Click OK.
Or
1.
Select the clips you want to split.
2.
Set the Now Time to the time you want to split the clips.
3.
Press the s key.
SONAR splits the selected clips according to your instructions.
To Combine Clips
1.
Select the clips you want to combine (the clips must be on the same track).
2.
Right-click on of the clips and select Bounce to Clip(s) from the popup menu.
SONAR combines the selected clips into a single, new clip.
Take Management and Comping Takes
By default, SONAR stacks any overlapping clips on top of each other, but you can
choose to display them in separate lanes in the same track. When you store clips in
separate lanes, it’s easy to mute and solo them individually and eventually come
up with a composite take, with only the best clips playing back.
When you use loop recording, you can store all your takes in the same track, and
then use the Mute tool or Audition (Selection Playback) to hear only the ones you
want.
If you enable a track’s Track-Show Layers menu option, SONAR stores the
track’s clips in separate lanes whenever any of the following happens:
232
•
You use loop recording in Sound on Sound mode, and choose to store takes in a
single track.
•
You drag a clip onto another clip while the Blend Old and New option in the
Drag and Drop Options dialog is enabled.
•
You record over some pre-existing data while in Sound on Sound mode.
•
You enable the Track-Show Layers menu option for a track that contains at
least one overlapping clip.
Note 1: you can create as many lanes as you want.
Note 2: a multi-lane track has only one set of automation envelopes.
To enhance multi-lane editing, SONAR has a cropping tool (see procedure below),
which automatically crops two overlapping clips that are in adjacent lanes so that
they don’t overlap.
For step-by-step instructions, see the following procedures:
To Enable or Disable the Multi-lane Option
1.
Select the track or tracks you want to configure by Ctrl-clicking the track
number of each track you want to configure.
2.
Click the Track-Show Layers menu option. When the option is enabled,
SONAR displays a checkmark next to the menu command.
When the option is enabled, SONAR displays overlapping clips in separate lanes
in a track.
To Loop Record Multiple Takes into Separate Track Lanes
1.
Use the Transport-Record Options command to open the Record Options
dialog.
2.
Under the Recording Mode options, choose Sound on Sound (Blend).
3.
Under Loop Recording, choose Store Takes in a Single Track, and click OK.
4.
Set your loop boundaries and start recording multiple passes through the
looped area.
5.
Stop recording.
When you finish recording, SONAR displays all your takes in separate lanes in the
recording track.
To Move Clips to Different Lanes
•
Set the Snap to Grid menu to the desired setting, and drag one or more clips to
different lanes. If you drag a clip onto another clip, and you have Blend Old
and New enabled in the Drag and Drop Options dialog (Options-Global
command), SONAR displays the two clips in separate lanes.
Note 1: if you want to move a clip to the exact same time placement in an adjacent
lane, hold the Shift key down while you drag.
Note 2: if the Automatic Crossfades button is enabled, SONAR adds a crossfade
between any newly overlapped clips.
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To Crop Overlapping Clips to Eliminate Overlap
1.
In a multi-lane track, move either the Select tool or the Mute tool between two
overlapping clips until the cursor turns into the overlap cropping tool.
Overlap
cropping
tool
2.
In the space between the clips, hold down the left mouse button and drag to
the spot where you want the first clip to end and the second one to begin, and
release the mouse. SONAR crops both clips so that they no longer overlap.
Clip Muting and Isolating (Clip Soloing)
Together with multi-lane tracks, clip muting and isolating (clip soloing) make it
easy to build a composite take from multiple takes.
With the new Mute tool
styles of clip muting:
, that’s in the Track view toolbar, SONAR offers two
•
Default style—after you activate the Mute tool, you can drag through time
ranges to mute all or part of a clip: dragging through the bottom half of a clip
mutes the time range you drag through; dragging through the top half of a clip
unmutes the range you drag through. The default setting in the Mute tool
dropdown menu produces this behavior (you’ll see a checkmark next to Mute
Time Ranges under Click+Drag Behavior). If you want to temporarily
switch to the Alternate style (see below), hold down the Alt key while you
click.
•
Alternate style—use the Mute tool to mute or unmute entire clips by clicking
clips instead of dragging through time regions. A clip that is completely muted
displays the Mute icon
in its upper left corner. You can choose this
behavior by choosing Mute Entire Clips under Click+Drag Behavior in the
Mute tool dropdown menu. If you decide you want to temporarily switch to the
Default style, hold down the Alt key while you drag.
In addition, you can also play back only selected data if you want by pressing the
Shift key and the Spacebar at the same time.
234
Clip Muting with the Default Style
When you choose Mute Time Ranges under Click+Drag Behavior in the Mute
tool dropdown menu, you can use the following procedures to mute all or parts of
clips. This is the default behavior.
To Enable or Disable the Mute Tool
•
Click the tool or press K on your keyboard. The Mute tool turns blue when it is
enabled.
To Mute a Time Range Using Default Style
1.
Make sure that Mute Time Ranges under Click+Drag Behavior in the
Mute tool dropdown menu has a check mark.
2.
If you want to mute a precise amount of time, enable the Snap to Grid button
and set its menu to an appropriate value.
3.
Using the Mute tool, drag inside the lower half of a clip.
SONAR mutes the area you dragged through and displays the muted waveform or
MIDI data as a dotted line.
Muted area of clip
To Unmute a Time Range Using Default Style
1.
Make sure that Mute Time Ranges under Click+Drag Behavior in the
Mute tool dropdown menu has a check mark.
2.
Using the Mute tool, click inside the upper half of a clip in the muted area.
To Mute or Unumute an Entire Clip Using Default Style
1.
Make sure that Mute Time Ranges under Click+Drag Behavior in the
Mute tool dropdown menu has a check mark.
2.
Using the Mute tool, Alt-click anywhere in the clip (hold down the Alt key
while you click).
When a clip is currently muted, SONAR displays the Mute icon in the upper left
corner of the clip.
Mute icon
235
Note: if the clip you’re muting or unmuting with this method already has one or
more muted time ranges, these time ranges remain muted while you Alt-click the
clip, so you don’t lose any precise mute edits you’ve performed. To completely
unmute the clip in the picture below, first Alt-click the clip to remove the Mute
icon, and then drag through the upper half of the clip in the muted area(s).
Clip Muting with the Alternate Style
When you choose Mute Entire Clips under Click+Drag Behavior in the Mute
tool dropdown menu, you can use the following procedures to mute all or parts of
clips. This is the alternate style.
To Enable or Disable the Mute Tool
•
Click the Mute tool or press K on your keyboard. The Mute tool turns blue
when it is enabled.
To Mute or Unumute an Entire Clip Using Alternate Style
1.
Make sure that Mute Entire Clips under Click+Drag Behavior in the Mute
tool dropdown menu has a check mark.
2.
Using the Mute tool, click anywhere in the clip.
SONAR displays the Mute icon in the upper left corner of a muted clip.
Note: if the clip you’re muting or unmuting with this method already has one or
more muted time ranges, these time ranges remain muted while you Alt-click the
clip, so you don’t lose any precise mute edits you’ve performed.
To Mute a Time Range Using Alternate Style
1.
Make sure that Mute Entire Clips under Click+Drag Behavior in the Mute
tool dropdown menu has a check mark.
2.
If you want to mute a precise amount of time, enable the Snap to Grid button
and set its menu to an appropriate value.
3.
Using the Mute tool, Alt-drag inside the lower half of a clip.
SONAR mutes the area you dragged through and displays the muted waveform or
MIDI data as a dotted line.
236
To Unmute a Time Range Using Alternate Style
1.
Make sure that Mute Entire Clips under Click+Drag Behavior in the Mute
tool dropdown menu has a check mark.
2.
Using the Mute tool, Alt-click inside the upper half of a clip in the muted area.
You can mute or unmute a clip without using the Mute tool if you want. Pressing Q
on your keyboard toggles the mute status of all selected clips. Any muted time
ranges remain muted.
Audition (Selection Playback)
The Transport-Audition command plays back only selected clips and/or time
ranges.
To use the command, hold down the Shift key and then press the Spacebar. Only
the selected data plays back.
Isolating (Clip Soloing)
Isolating clips mutes all the overlapping areas in a track except for the areas that
you Ctrl-drag the Mute tool through (this is the Default style of isolating). With
the Alternate style of isolating, you can Ctrl-click with the Mute tool to solo whole
clips instead of regions. If you have a lot of clips to work with, you might find it
quicker to isolate a few clips or regions rather than mute large numbers of clips or
regions.
To Isolate a Region with the Default Style
1.
Make sure that Mute Time Ranges under Click+Drag Behavior in the
Mute tool dropdown menu has a check mark.
2.
Using the Mute tool, hold down the Ctrl key and drag through the region of a
clip or clips that you want isolated (soloed).
Any overlapping regions become muted. To de-isolate the isolated region, release
the Ctrl key, and drag through the upper half of any muted regions.
If you want to temporarily switch to the Alternate style of isolating (see procedure
below), hold down the Alt key along with the Ctrl key, and click whole clips instead
of dragging through regions.
To Isolate Clips with the Alternate Style
1.
Choose Mute Entire Clips under Click+Drag Behavior in the Mute tool
dropdown menu.
2.
Using the Mute tool, hold down the Ctrl key and click the clips that you want
isolated.
Any overlapping clips become muted. To de-isolate the isolated clips, release the
Ctrl key, and click any muted clips.
If you want to temporarily switch to the Default style of isolating, hold down the
Alt key along with the Ctrl key, and drag through the regions you want isolated.
237
Track Folders
A track folder contains tracks in the Track pane of the Track view. The main
characteristics of a track folder are:
•
You can edit all the tracks in the folder as if you were editing a single track—
the track folder displays a composite clip in the Clips pane. Selecting a time
range in the composite clip selects data in all the enclosed tracks in the same
time range; now you can edit the selected area of the composite clip.
•
You can hide tracks in a folder, freeing up space on your screen.
•
A folder can contain any type of track—you can put MIDI, audio, and synth
tracks in the same folder.
•
You can archive, mute, solo, arm, or input monitor all the tracks in a folder
with one click—just click the A, M, S, R, or Input Echo button on the track
folder.
Track folder—click here to select
all data in track folder
A, M, S, R, and Input Echo buttons
Selected area of
composite clip
Track folder info
Description box
Composite
clip
The tracks in a
track folder are
indented
To Create a Track Folder
•
Right-click in the Track pane of the Track view, and choose Insert Track
Folder from the popup menu.
Or
•
Use the Insert-Track Folder menu command.
Or
•
Right-click a track that’s not in a track folder and select Move to Folder-New
Track Folder from the popup menu.
A new track folder appears in the Track pane.
238
To Add a Track to a Track Folder
•
In the Track view, move the mouse cursor just to the right of the track number
of a pre-existing track until the cursor turns into a black, double-ended arrow,
and then click and drag the track’s titlebar onto the track folder. Release the
mouse.
Or
•
Insert a track when a track within a track folder has focus.
Or
•
Right-click a track that’s not in a track folder and select Move to FolderTrack Folder “n” from the popup menu.
Or
•
Select the tracks you want to add to the folder, right-click on the folder and
select Add Track(s) to Folder from the menu that appears.
The added track appears in the track folder, and is indented a little to show that
it’s inside the track folder.
To Remove a Track from a Track Folder
•
In the Track view, move the cursor just to the right of the track number of a
track until the cursor turns into a black, double-ended arrow, and then click
and drag the track’s titlebar out of the Track Folder. Release the mouse.
Or
•
Right-click the track and select Remove From Folder from the popup menu.
To Add Multiple Tracks to a Track Folder
1.
Select the tracks you want to add.
2.
Right-click a selected track and choose Move to Folder-Track Folder “n”
from the popup menu.
To Remove Multiple Tracks from a Track Folder
1.
Select the tracks you want to remove.
2.
Right-click a selected track and choose Remove From Folder from the popup
menu.
To Delete a Track Folder
1.
In the Track view, right-click and select Delete Track Folder from the menu
that appears.
2.
SONAR asks you if you want to delete all the tracks in the folder along with
the track folder—click Yes or No.
SONAR deletes the track folder. If you didn’t choose to delete the tracks in the
track folders, SONAR moves these tracks to the top level.
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To Hide or Show the Tracks in a Track Folder
•
Click the folder icon that’s just left of the track folder’s name.
To Select or Deselect all the Tracks in a Track Folder
•
Click just to the left of the folder icon.
To Rename a Track Folder
•
Double-click the track folder’s name, type a new name, and press Enter.
Or
•
Right-click the track folder, choose Folder Properties from the popup menu,
type a name in the Name field of the Folder Properties dialog, and click OK.
To Add a Description to a Track Folder
•
Double-click the Description box, type a description, and press Enter.
Or
•
Right-click the track folder, choose Folder Properties from the popup menu,
type a description in the Description field of the Folder Properties dialog, and
click OK.
To Select all Clips in a Time Range
•
Hold down the Alt key while dragging a selection on the composite clip.
Now you can edit, move, cut and paste all the selected clips by editing the selected
part of the composite clip.
Adding Effects in the Track View
You can add both MIDI and audio effects directly from the Track view. SONAR
adds these effects in real-time, preserving your track’s original data.
To Add Effects in the Track View
1.
Right-click in the FX bin of the track you want to add effects to. You may have
to click the FX tab or the All tab that’s at the bottom of the Track pane to
display the FX bin, and also expand the track pane a little.
Right-click here to add an effect.
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An effects popup menu appears. SONAR displays MIDI effects if you are
editing a MIDI track, and audio effects for an audio track.
2.
Select an effect from the menu.
The name of the effect appears in the Effects bin and the effect’s property page
appears. To delete the effect, right-click the effect name and choose Delete
from the popup menu.
3.
Set the effects parameters or choose a preset.
Play your track and listen to the effect(s).
Note:
If you use the same effects for more than one track, it’s more efficient
to add the effects to a bus. See “To Patch a Track Through a Bus” on
page 435
Changing Tempos
Your project can incorporate all kinds of tempo changes, including step changes
from one tempo to another, gradual increases (accelerandos) or decreases
(ritardandos), and almost any other type of change you can imagine. The tempo
changes you add to your project become part of the project and are saved with the
project file.
You can add tempo changes to your project in the following ways:
•
Using the Tempo toolbar
•
Using the Insert-Tempo Change and Insert-Series of Tempos commands
•
By drawing tempo changes graphically in the Tempo view
•
Inserting tempo changes in the Tempo view’s Tempo List pane
The Process-Fit to Time and Process-Fit Improvisation commands can also be
used to introduce tempo changes into your work file. For more information, see
“Stretching and Shrinking Events” on page 288 and “Fit Improvisation” on page
304.
When you change the tempo of a project that contains audio, SONAR allows you to
stretch or shrink audio clips when you have converted them to Groove clips and
have enabled the Follow Project Pitch option in the Loop Construction view.
Otherwise, the MIDI tracks will speed up or slow down while the audio tracks will
play at the same speed. For more information about Groove clips, see “Working
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with Groove Clips” on page 260. Audio clips that are not Groove clips change in
size when moved to a part of your project that has a different tempo.
Sometimes you don’t want to adjust the speed of your audio. Here are some
examples:
•
If your project contains background music and a voice-over, you might want to
change the tempo of the background music without altering the voice-over.
•
If you’re trying to modify the speed of some MIDI tracks to match a sampled
drum groove, you want to leave the audio unchanged.
When you change the tempo of your project, clips having stretching enabled
change tempo along with the project, while those that do not have stretching
enabled do not. For more information on stretch-enabling clips, see “Enable
Stretching” on page 252.
Tempos set when the clock source is set to MIDI Sync do not have any effect,
because SONAR follows the external tempo. For more information, see Chapter 18,
Synchronizing Your Gear.
Using the Tempo Toolbar
The Tempo toolbar displays the current tempo and lets you change the tempo as
shown below:
Click to insert a tempo change
Click to enter a new
tempo
Tempo ratio
When you enter a new tempo directly in the toolbar, you change the most recent
tempo setting in the project.
The tempo ratio buttons temporarily change the speed of playback, without
affecting the actual tempo that is stored with your project (see Note, below).
During playback, the tempo is multiplied by the current tempo ratio. By default,
the three tempo ratios are 0.50 (half speed), 1.00 (normal speed), and 2.00 (double
speed). You can change the tempo ratios that are associated with each button.
Note: Tempo ratios can only be used in projects that contain no audio tracks and
cannot be used when using any form of synchronization. For more information, see
Chapter 18, Synchronizing Your Gear.
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To Change the Current Tempo in the Tempo Toolbar
1.
Enable Groove clip Looping on any audio clips that you want to follow the
tempo changes. Do this by selecting one or more clips, right-clicking a selected
clip, and choosing Groove-Clip Looping from the popup menu. Each clip that
has Groove clip Looping enabled has beveled edges instead of sharp corners.
The same command disables Groove clip Looping on any selected clip that has
Groove clip Looping enabled.
2.
Click the current tempo in the Tempo toolbar.
3.
Type a new value and press Enter, or use the spinners to change the tempo
value.
SONAR changes the current tempo to the desired value.
To Set the Tempo Ratio
You can set the tempo ratio in several ways (remember, this function is not
available if you have audio clips in your project):
•
Click one of the tempo ratio buttons.
•
Choose Transport-Tempo Ratio 1, 2, or 3.
•
Press Ctrl+1, Ctrl+2, or Ctrl+3.
SONAR changes the speed of playback.
To Change the Tempo Ratio
1.
Shift-click one of the tempo ratio buttons to display the Tempo Ratio dialog
box.
2.
Enter a new value for the tempo ratio.
3.
Click OK.
From now on, that tempo ratio button uses the ratio you entered.
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Using the Tempo Commands
The Insert-Tempo Change and Insert-Series of Tempos commands can be used
to change the existing tempo of a project or to introduce one or more tempo
changes at various points in a project. You can enter tempo values directly,
introduce smooth increase or decreases in tempo, or even use your mouse to tap
out the tempo you want for some portion of a project.
To Insert a Tempo Change
1.
Enable Groove clip Looping on any audio clips that you want to follow the
tempo changes. Do this by selecting one or more clips, right-clicking a selected
clip, and choosing Groove-Clip Looping from the popup menu. Each clip that
has Groove clip Looping enabled has beveled edges instead of sharp corners.
The same command disables Groove clip Looping on any selected clip that has
Groove clip Looping enabled.
2.
Click
in the toolbar or choose Insert-Tempo Change to display the Tempo
dialog box.
3.
Check the Insert a New Tempo box.
4.
Enter a new tempo in one of the following ways:
•
Type a value in the Tempo field.
•
Click the arrows to change the value.
•
Tap a new tempo in the space indicated in the dialog box.
5.
Enter a starting time for the new tempo.
6.
Click OK.
SONAR inserts a tempo change at the designated time.
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To Insert a Series of Tempos
1.
Enable Groove Clip Looping on any audio clips that you want to follow the
tempo changes. Do this by selecting one or more clips, right-clicking a selected
clip, and choosing Groove-Clip Looping from the popup menu. Each clip that
has Groove clip looping enabled has beveled edges instead of sharp corners.
The same command disables Groove Clip Looping on any selected clip that has
Groove Clip Looping enabled.
2.
Choose Insert-Series of Tempos to display the Insert Series of Tempos dialog
box.
3.
Enter a starting tempo, ending tempo, and step size.
4.
Enter a starting and ending time for the series of tempo changes.
5.
Click OK.
SONAR erases any existing tempo changes between the starting and ending time,
and inserts a series of tempo changes that change smoothly between the starting
and ending time. This command never inserts more than one tempo change on the
same clock tick. Audio clips which you want to follow tempo changes can also be
converted to Groove clips in the Loop Construction view.
To Modify the Most Recent Tempo Change
1.
Enable Groove Clip Looping on any audio clips that you want to follow the
tempo changes. Do this by selecting one or more clips, right-clicking a selected
clip, and choosing Groove-Clip Looping from the popup menu. Each clip that
has Groove Clip Looping enabled has beveled edges instead of sharp corners.
The same command disables Groove Clip Looping on any selected clip that has
Groove Clip Looping enabled.
2.
Choose Insert-Tempo Change to display the Tempo dialog box.
3.
Check the Change the Most Recent Tempo box.
4.
Enter a new tempo in one of the following ways:
5.
•
Type a value in the Tempo field.
•
Click the arrows to change the value.
•
Tap a new tempo in the space indicated in the dialog box.
Click OK.
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SONAR changes the most recent tempo to the new value.
Using the Tempo View
The Tempo view provides a graphic display of the tempo. In the Tempo view you
can use your mouse to draw tempo changes directly onto the graph. Choose ViewTempo or click
on the toolbar to display the Tempo view
The Tempo view provides both a graphic display of the tempo and a list of all
tempo changes in your project. In the graphical display you can use your mouse to
draw tempo changes directly onto the graph. In the tempo list, you can insert, edit,
and delete individual tempo changes. Choose View-Tempo or click
on the
toolbar to display the Tempo view. Click the Tempo List button
to display or
hide the tempo list.
If an entire project has a single tempo, the graph shows a straight horizontal line,
and a single tempo in the list.
The graph has several tools you can use to add or modify tempo changes:
Tool…
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Name…
What it’s for…
Select
Drat the Select tool in either the Tempo list or graphic
display to select tempos to edit
Draw
Draw a custom curve indicating changes in tempo
Line
Draw a straight line indicating a steady increase or
decrease in tempo
Erase
Eliminate tempo changes already in place for some
portion of a project
Snap Grid
Controls how often you can insert tempo changes—for
example, every measure, every eighth note, every 3
samples, etc.
If you make a mistake using any of these tools, you can use Edit-Undo to correct
the error. When you use the Draw tool, the speed with which you drag the mouse
determines the density of tempo events. To insert a larger number of relatively
small tempo changes, move the mouse slowly. To insert a smaller number of
relatively large tempo changes, drag the mouse quickly.
The Tempo List Pane has its own tools for editing tempo changes:
Tool…
Name…
What it’s for…
Insert Tempo
Insert a new tempo change
Delete Tempo
Delete a tempo change
Tempo
Properties
Edit a tempo change
To Insert a Tempo Change in the Tempo View
1.
Enable Groove Clip Looping on any audio clips that you want to follow the
tempo changes. Do this by selecting one or more clips, right-clicking a selected
clip, and choosing Groove-Clip Looping from the popup menu. Each clip that
has Groove Clip Looping enabled has beveled edges instead of sharp corners.
The same command disables Groove Clip Looping on any selected clip that has
Groove Clip Looping enabled.
2.
Select the
3.
Click in the Tempo view at any desired time point and tempo level.
or the
tool.
SONAR introduces a tempo change at the indicated point.
To Steadily Increase or Decrease the Tempo in the Tempo
View
1.
Enable Groove Clip Looping on any audio clips that you want to follow the
tempo changes. Do this by selecting one or more clips, right-clicking a selected
clip, and choosing Groove-Clip Looping from the popup menu. Each clip that
has Groove Clip Looping enabled has beveled edges instead of sharp corners.
The same command disables Groove Clip Looping on any selected clip that has
Groove Clip Looping enabled.
2.
Select the
3.
Drag a line in the graph from the starting time and tempo to the ending time
and tempo.
tool.
SONAR introduces a linear series of tempo changes.
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To Draw a Series of Tempo Changes in the Tempo View
1.
Enable Groove Clip Looping on any audio clips that you want to follow the
tempo changes. Do this by selecting one or more clips, right-clicking a selected
clip, and choosing Groove-Clip Looping from the popup menu. Each clip that
has Groove Clip Looping enabled has beveled edges instead of sharp corners.
The same command disables Groove Clip Looping on any selected clip that has
Groove Clip Looping enabled.
2.
Select the
3.
Drag the cursor across the graph, adjusting the tempo level as you move left to
right.
tool.
SONAR introduces a series of tempo changes.
To Erase Tempo Changes in the Tempo View
1.
Enable Groove Clip Looping on any audio clips that you want to follow the
tempo changes. Do this by selecting one or more clips, right-clicking a selected
clip, and choosing Groove-Clip Looping from the popup menu. Each clip that
has Groove Clip Looping enabled has beveled edges instead of sharp corners.
The same command disables Groove Clip Looping on any selected clip that has
Groove Clip Looping enabled.
2.
Select the
3.
Drag the mouse over the graph to highlight the region you want to erase.
4.
Release the mouse button.
tool.
SONAR deletes all tempo changes in the area you marked. The last tempo setting
prior to the erased region is now in effect in that region.
To Insert a Tempo Change in the Tempo List in the Tempo
View
1.
Enable Groove Clip Looping on any audio clips that you want to follow the
tempo changes. Do this by selecting one or more clips, right-clicking a selected
clip, and choosing Groove-Clip Looping from the popup menu. Each clip that
has Groove Clip Looping enabled has beveled edges instead of sharp corners.
The same command disables Groove Clip Looping on any selected clip that has
Groove Clip Looping enabled.
2.
Click the Tempo List button
3.
Select any tempo change in the list.
4.
Click Insert Tempo
5.
Set the tempo, time, and other properties.
6.
Click OK.
to display or hide the tempo list.
to open the Tempo dialog box.
SONAR inserts the new tempo into the list.
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To Edit a Tempo Change in the Tempo View
1.
Enable Groove Clip Looping on any audio clips that you want to follow the
tempo changes. Do this by selecting one or more clips, right-clicking a selected
clip, and choosing Groove-Clip Looping from the popup menu. Each clip that
has Groove Clip Looping enabled has beveled edges instead of sharp corners.
The same command disables Groove Clip Looping on any selected clip that has
Groove Clip Looping enabled.
2.
Click the Tempo List button
3.
In the tempo list, select the tempo change to be edited.
4.
Click Tempo Properties
Tempo dialog box.
5.
Edit the tempo properties as desired.
6.
Click OK.
to display or hide the tempo list.
or double-click the tempo change to open the
To Delete a Tempo Change from the Tempo List in the Tempo
View
1.
Enable Groove Clip Looping on any audio clips that you want to follow the
tempo changes. Do this by selecting one or more clips, right-clicking a selected
clip, and choosing Groove-Clip Looping from the popup menu. Each clip that
has Groove Clip Looping enabled has beveled edges instead of sharp corners.
The same command disables Groove Clip Looping on any selected clip that has
Groove Clip Looping enabled.
2.
Click the Tempo List button
3.
In the tempo list, select the tempo change to be deleted.
4.
Click Delete Tempo
to display or hide the tempo list.
, or press Delete.
SONAR deletes the selected tempo change. You cannot delete the first tempo in the
list.
Undo, Redo, and the Undo History
SONAR provides very powerful Undo and Redo commands that let you move
forward or backward through any portion of an editing session. Every project has
its own independent undo history. This means you can return to any open project
and use the Undo and Redo commands, even if you’ve spent the last hour working
on a different project. The undo history of a project is lost when you close the
project.
Remembering everything that is necessary to undo the changes you have made
can use a lot of memory. If a change you are about to make requires too much
memory and cannot be undone, you will be advised that the operation is too big to
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undo later and asked if you want to go ahead anyway. If you do choose to perform
the operation, you will not be able to undo it. Therefore, you may want to save your
project first.
The Edit-History command displays a complete history of the commands and
actions you can undo for the current project. The Undo History dialog box looks
like this:
Most recent change
Earliest change
Click to clear the undo history
Adjust the number of
steps you can undo
The History command is grayed out until you make a change to the current
project that can be undone.
The History list is updated every time you make a change to a project. For
example, if you insert a new note into a project using the Piano Roll view, that
action is added to the History list. This entry remains on the list—even if you undo
the change—so that you can redo the change later on. If you use the Erase tool to
delete the note, this change is added to the History list.
You can click the Clear button in the Undo History dialog box to erase the undo
history for the current project and free up some memory. If SONAR is low on
memory, it may offer to erase the History list.
To revert to an earlier version of a project, highlight the entry in the History list
that represents the point to which you’d like to return, and click OK. SONAR
performs the necessary undo or redo actions to take you to that point. Once you
edit the project (for example, by inserting a note), the History list is truncated at
that point. Then, as you do further work, the History list grows again. Any events
occurring before the event you highlighted remain on the list.
By default, SONAR keeps a history of up to 128 editing actions for each open
project. Once that limit is reached, each new action pushes out the oldest item
from the History list. You can raise or lower that number in the Undo History
dialog box.
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6
Using Loops
Loops are short digital audio clips which are often designed to be repeated over
and over or “looped,” although some loops, called one-shots, are intended to play
just once. Groove clips, often used as loops, are digital audio clips that “know” their
tempo and pitch information. Groove clips automatically respond to changes in a
project’s tempo and can have their root note pitch adjusted using pitch markers. In
SONAR, you can import ACID™ loops, or digital audio clips and convert them to
Groove clips. You can also record your own audio and create Groove clips. To
download more Groove clips and loops, visit www.cakewalk.com.
Note:
Groove clips and ACIDized loops are loaded into RAM, and can take
up a lot of memory. Once they’re loaded though, copying them does
not increase the amount of memory they take up.
In This Chapter
The Loop Construction View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252
The Loop Explorer View. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256
Working with Loops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
Working with Groove Clips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260
MIDI Groove Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267
Importing Project5 Patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
The Loop Construction View
The Loop Construction view is where you create and edit Groove clips.
The Loop Construction view toolbar has tools for editing slicing markers and
controls for previewing loops.
Loop Construction Controls
The following is a list of the tools and controls in the Loop Construction view,
followed by a description:
Save Loop as WAV
This button opens the Save As dialog. The clip in the Loop Construction view is
saved as a Groove Clip/Wave file that has tempo and pitch information stored in it,
and can be opened in SONAR or ACID™. For more information, see “Saving
Groove Clips as Wave Files/ACIDized Wave Files” on page 266.
Enable Looping
The Enable Looping button allows a clip to be looped by dragging in the Track
view. Loop-enabled clips follow changes in the project tempo. Click the Enable
Looping button to loop clips in the Track view by dragging the left or right side of a
clip with your mouse. When you loop-enable a clip it automatically snaps to the
nearest beat boundary (at 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 etc. beats). SONAR calculates the
appropriate beat number. Change the number in the Beats in Clip field if you want
to change the total number of beats in the clip.
Enable Stretching
The Enable Stretching button allows a clip to follow a project’s tempo as it
changes. It instructs SONAR to stretch or shrink the clip to fit the project’s tempo.
SONAR uses the Original BPM parameters to make the change.
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Beats in Clip
The number of beats in the clip.
Original BPM
The tempo at which the clip was recorded.
Follow Project Pitch
The Follow Project Pitch option transposes the loop, if necessary, to the project
pitch which you can set in the Markers toolbar. A loop recorded in the key of C,
used in a project with a default project pitch of A, would be transposed down three
semitones if the Follow Project Pitch checkbox was checked. You can also insert
markers in the Time Ruler which change the project pitch. These markers, called
pitch markers affect only Groove clips with Follow Project Pitch enabled.
Root Note
The Root Note represents the key in which the loop was originally recorded. The
Follow Project Pitch feature uses this information, when checked, to transpose the
loop to match the project’s default project pitch and pitch markers.
Pitch (coarse)
You can set the transposition of a clip, independent from the project pitch, using
the Pitch (Coarse) field. A positive number transposes the clip up by that number
of semitones. A negative number transposes the clip down by that number of
semitones. Remember that, if the Follow Project Pitch option is checked, the clip
follows the project’s pitch. Any transposition changes to the pitch with this option
checked are changes to the project pitch, not the clip pitch.
An example: The project key is C. The clip key is D. If the Follow Project Pitch is
enabled, the clip is transposed down by two semitones. A value entered into the
Pitch (coarse) field adjusts the pitch from C. If you enter “-1” the pitch would be
transposed down by one additional semi tone to B.
Another example: The clip pitch is E. The desired clip pitch is D. If the Follow
Project Pitch option is not enabled, and a value of “-2” is entered in the Pitch
(coarse) field, the clip is transposed down two semitones to D from the original
pitch of E.
Pitch (fine)
The Pitch (fine) field allows you to make tuning adjustments or to transpose the
pitch of a clip up to 50 cents. There are 100 cents in one semi tone. A Pitch (fine)
setting of “1” adjusts the pitch up one hundredth of a semi tone. The Pitch (fine)
option can “fine tune” a slightly out of tune clip so that it is in pitch with the
remaining clips in a project.
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Slices Menu
The Slices menu sets the resolution for the creation of markers, or the “slicing” of
the looped clip. This menu uses note lengths, so the settings are:
•
Whole notes
•
Half notes
•
Quarter notes
•
Eighth notes
•
Sixteenth notes
•
Thirty-second notes
The automatic markers appear at the note resolutions according to the slider
setting. At the eighth note setting, there are eight markers per measure.
This control works well for slicing audio that has more subtle changes in volume
with few dramatic transients.
The markers in a loop clip preserve the timing of the audio at that moment. Too
few or too many markers can cause unwanted “artifacts” when a loop clip is
stretched.
Trans Detect (%)
The Trans Detect control senses transients in your audio clip and assigns a
marker at the beginning and end of each one it finds. As the you increase the
sensitivity (by using larger numbers) smaller transients are detected and the
number of markers increases.
Stop Preview
Stops loop preview playback.
Preview Loops
Plays the current loop repeatedly. Use the Stop Preview control to stop playback.
Enable Slice Auto-Preview
Plays a slice when you click on it.
Click Auto-Preview Loop
Repeatedly plays a selected slice.
Preview Bus
Select the main out through which you want to listen to the clip.
Properties
The Properties button opens the Clip Properties dialog.
Select
Use the Select tool to move markers in the Markers bar.
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Erase
Use the Erase tool to delete markers in the Markers bar.
Default All Markers
The Default All Markers tool restores all automatically generated markers to the
original position and enables all those that were disabled. Manually created
markers remain as is.
Previous Slice
Moves slice selection to the previous slice. Click on a slice to select it.
Next Slice
Moves slice selection to the next slice. Click on a slice to select it.
Show/Hide Gain Envelope
Clicking this button shows or hides the clip’s gain envelope. Each slice of the clip
has its own segment of the envelope, which you can adjust by dragging the
segment up or down.
Show/Hide Pan Envelope
Clicking this button shows or hides the clip’s pan envelope. Each slice of the clip
has its own segment of the envelope, which you can adjust by dragging the
segment up or down.
Show/Hide Pitch Envelope
Clicking this button shows or hides the clip’s pitch envelope. Each slice of the clip
has its own segment of the envelope, which you can adjust by dragging the
segment up or down.
Slice Gain
Changes the selected slice’s gain.
Slice Pan
Adjusts the selected slice’s pan. Negative is left and positive is right.
Slice Pitch
Adjusts the selected slice’s pitch. The first field is in half steps, the second field is
in cents.
Slicing Markers
There are two types of slicing markers in the Loop Construction view: automatic
and manual. Automatic markers appear in red and are automatically generated by
SONAR when you loop enable a clip. The one exception to this is if you import an
ACIDized wave file into SONAR. ACIDized files always appear with manual
slicing markers. Manual markers appear in purple. If you add a marker or move
an automatic marker, it turns purple to show you that it has been edited. For
information on editing slicing markers, see “To Edit the Slicing Markers in a
Groove Clip” on page 264.
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Audio Scaling
Audio scaling is the increase or decrease in the size (scale) of the waveform in clip.
Audio scaling allows you to make detailed edits by zooming in on the parts of the
waveform closest to the zero crossing (silence) while preserving the track size. By
showing just the quietest parts of a clip, you can make very precise edits.
The Audio Scale Ruler is located on the far left of the Loop Construction view.
Audio Scale Ruler
Clip
There are three display options in the Audio Scale Ruler:
•
Percentage—shows audio scaling by percentage. For example, if the highest
percentage in the Audio Scale Ruler reads 2.0%, then only the parts of the
waveform which are within 2% of the zero crossing appear in the clip.
•
dB—shows audio scaling by dB. For example, if the highest dB in the Audio
Scaling Ruler reads -36, then only the parts of the waveform which are 36 dB
below 0 dB appear in the clip.
•
Zoom Factor—shows audio scaling by a factor. For example, if the Zoom Factor
reads 10, then the waveform is zoomed in by a factor of 10.
The Loop Explorer View
SONAR’s Loop Explorer view allows you to preview your Wave files before you
drag and drop them into the Track view. If you preview a Groove clip, it plays back
at tempo and in the key of your current project.
You can open the Loop Explorer view in any of the following methods:
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•
Select View-Loop Explorer from the menu.
•
Click the Loop Explorer icon
•
Press Alt+1
on the Views toolbar.
The Loop Explorer view toolbar has the following controls:
Tool...
Name...
What It Does...
Move Up
Opens the folder one level above the active
folder.
Refresh
Refreshes the active folder.
Windows Explorer
Opens Windows Explorer at the same
directory being viewed in the Loop Explorer
view.
Play
Plays the selected media file.
Stop
Stops the playback of the selected file.
Auto Preview
Automatically preview files when you click on
them in the Loop Explorer view. If the
selected file is a Groove clip, it plays back in
the project tempo and key.
Views
Allows you to change the way the files are
viewed in the list view:
Preview Bus
•
Large icons
•
Small icons
•
List
•
Details—displays the file size, date and
when the file was created and last
modified
Select the main out through which you want
to listen to the loop.
Folders Pane
The Folders pane shows all of the available files and folders in the selected drive.
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Contents List Pane
The Contents List pane displays the folders and files contained in the active folder.
To Preview a Groove Clip
1.
Click the Auto-preview button in the Loop Explorer toolbar.
2.
Click on a Wave file in the Content List pane.
Each successive Wave file you select is previewed. You can also select multiple
files and play them simultaneously.
Or
1.
Select a Wave file in the Content List pane.
2.
Click the Play button in the Loop Explorer toolbar.
3.
Click the Stop button to stop playing the selected Wave file.
When you preview a Groove clip in the Loop Explorer view, the clip plays in the
project key and at the project tempo.
To Drag a Loop into a Project
1.
Click and drag the Wave file from the Loop Explorer view to the Track view.
2.
Drop the Wave file in the track and at the time in which you want it in your
project. If you drop the file after the last track in your project, a new track is
created for the file.
To Drag Multiple Loops into a Project
1.
Select a Wave file and select additional by holding down the Ctrl key and
selecting them.
2.
Drag the Wave files from the Loop Explorer view to the Track view.
3.
Drop the Wave files into the Track view at the time in which you want them in
your project.
The Wave files appear on consecutive tracks in the Track view at the time selected.
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Working with Loops
You can make any audio clip into a loop by checking the Enable Looping checkbox
in the Clip Properties dialog. Once looping is enabled, you can drag out loops to
create multiple repetitions. There are several other ways to enable looping:
To Enable or Disable a Clip for Looping
1.
Double-click on the clip you want to loop.
The Loop Construction view appears.
2.
In the Loop Construction view, click the Enable Looping button
.
Or
In the Track view, select a clip and press Ctrl+L or select Edit-Groove Clip
Looping.
To Create Repetitions of a Loop
1.
Set the Snap value if you want the loop to repeat at precise time boundaries.
2.
Move the cursor over the end of the loop-enabled clip until the cursor looks
like this
.
3.
When the cursor changes, click the end or beginning of the clip and drag it to
the right (if you are dragging out from the end) or left (if you are dragging
from the beginning).
The clip repeats itself until you stop dragging.
To Create Partial Repetitions of a Loop
1.
Move the cursor over the end of the loop-enabled clip until the cursor looks
like this
2.
.
When the cursor changes, click the end or beginning of the clip and drag it to
the right (if you are dragging out from the end) or left (if you are dragging
from the beginning).
If the Snap to Grid button is on, you can create a partial loop as small as the Snap
to Grid setting allows. For example, if your Snap to Grid setting is set to quarter
notes, you can create partial repetitions as small as a quarter of a measure.
259
Working with Groove Clips
Groove clips are .WAV files that behave similarly to Sonic Foundry’s ACIDized
loops (SONAR also has MIDI Groove clips—see “MIDI Groove Clips” on page 267).
Groove clips contain information about the audio content, including the original
tempo, original reference pitch, number of beats in the loop, and audio transient
information.
How Groove Clips Work in SONAR
Groove clips have information saved within them which allow them to adjust to
changes in tempo and pitch. Groove clips can read a project’s tempo and tempo
changes, and can adjust their root note pitch when they read pitch markers. You
can add pitch markers in the Track view’s Time Ruler to transpose the Groove clip.
As your project passes over a pitch marker, SONAR transposes your Groove clips
based on the clip’s root note reference pitch. If you insert no pitch markers in your
project, there are no pitch changes in your Groove clips. The default project pitch is
C.
Note:
When working with Groove clips, it is important to know the
difference between key and pitch. Your project’s key signature has no
effect on Groove clips. The pitch of your Follow Project Pitch-enabled
Groove clips is dictated by pitch markers in the Time Ruler. If there
are no pitch markers in your project, these Groove clips play at the
pitch set in the Markers toolbar (the default is C).
Note:
Groove clips must be at least one beat in length. If you try to loopenable a clip of a shorter duration you may experience distortion or
artifacts.
260
Using Groove Clips
Groove clips are easy to use because they automatically adjust to your project’s
pitch markers and tempo. You can import existing loops or create your own, using
the Loop Construction view.
To Import a Groove Clip into Your Project
1.
Select a Track in the Track view.
2.
Set the Now Time to the place you want the clip to begin.
3.
Select File-Import-Audio from the menu.
The Open dialog appears.
4.
Navigate to a directory that contains Groove clips and select one.
5.
Click Open.
Or
1.
Open the Loop Explorer view.
2.
Navigate to a directory that contains Groove clips.
3.
Drag and drop a clip into the Track view, or double-click it to insert it at the
Now Time.
4.
The clip appears on the track and at the time in your project where you drop
it, so if you want the clip on a new track, drop it after the last track in your
project.
By default, Groove clips are loop-enabled and transposed to match the project’s
pitch.
Setting the Default Project Pitch
1.
If necessary display the Markers toolbar by selecting View-Toolbars to open
the Toolbars dialog. In the toolbar dialog click Markers and OK.
2.
In the Markers toolbar, click the Default Groove Clip Pitch dropdown menu
and select a pitch.
Your project now uses the root note of your clips to transpose to the project pitch.
Use Pitch markers at different points in your project to change the pitch. For more
information on Pitch markers, see “Using Pitch Markers in the Track View” on
page 266.
261
Creating and Editing Groove Clips
Any audio clip can be converted to a Groove clip. Groove clips contain tempo, beat,
and pitch information which SONAR uses to stretch and transpose the clips to
match the project. Most Groove clips are loop-enabled, meaning that you can use
the mouse to drag clip repetitions in the Track view. Groove clips can be either
loop-enabled or not, although they usually are. When a Groove clip is loop-enabled,
its edges appear beveled. It is sometimes desirable to create clips that follow the
project’s tempo and key, but are not intended to loop. The following is a list of the
attributes contained in a Groove clip:
•
Beats in clip—The number of quarter notes in a clip. A four measure clip in 4/
4 time should have 16 beats. When you enable looping for a clip, SONAR
calculates the number of beats in the clip using an algorithm. This calculation
is very often accurate, but in some cases, for instance when the clip has a very
slow or very fast tempo or if the clip has an unusual number of beats, then the
number of beats in a clip may have to be edited manually in the Beats in clip
field.
•
Original tempo—The original tempo of the recording. SONAR uses the
original tempo to adjust to your project’s tempo. The original tempo must be
specified for stretching clips.
Note: When you loop-enable a clip, SONAR calculates the original tempo of
the clip, and unless the clip’s length is in exact beat or measure increments,
the original tempo that SONAR calculates may vary from the recorded tempo.
These fluctuations are usually quite small and do not affect the quality of the
Groove clip you create.
•
Reference note—The original key of the recorded clip. SONAR uses the
Reference note when it transposes Groove clips to match your project’s pitch.
These attributes can be edited in the Loop Construction view.
To Set the Number of Beats in a Groove Clip
When you open a clip in the Loop Construction view, SONAR determines the
number of beats in the clip. In some cases the beat value may not be correct. The
beats in clip value can only be changed if the clip is loop enabled.
Do the following to change value in the Beats in Clip field.
•
Click the plus or minus button to the right of the Beats in clip field until the
correct value is displayed.
To Change the Loop Construction View Time Ruler Display
You can display the Loop Construction view Time Ruler in measures or in samples.
To toggle between the two modes, double click the Time Ruler.
262
To Set the Tempo of a Groove Clip
When creating a new Groove clip, SONAR sets the clip’s tempo to the current
project tempo. To ensure proper stretching behavior you must set the value in the
Original BPM field to the tempo at which you recorded the clip. The tempo value of
a clip can only be changed if the clip is stretch-enabled.
Do the following to change the value in the Original BPM field.
•
Click the plus or minus button to the right of the Original BPM field until the
correct value is displayed. For more precise tempos you can double-click in the
Original BPM field and enter a tempo.
To Slice a Clip
1.
Double-click on a clip in the Clips pane.
The clip appears in the Loop Construction view.
2.
3.
Slice the clip using one or all of the following methods:
To do this…
Do this…
Slice the clip on note divisions
Move the Basic Slicing slider to the note
resolution you want. The Basic Slicing
slider’s settings range from whole notes to
64th notes. Selecting quarter notes, for
example, would create four markers per
measure.
Slice the clip at transient peaks
Move the Transient Detection slider to the
right until the larger transients in the clip
are flanked by markers.
Slice the clip manually
Move your mouse to the space above the
Time Ruler and double-click to add a
marker. Click and drag the marker, if
necessary, so it aligns with the beginning
or end of a transient.
Play your project and adjust the slicing of your clip as necessary.
Note: You can use any or all of these methods to slice a clip. If you adjust both the
Slices and Trans Detect menus, two markers may be placed right next to each
other. If these markers are too close, the markers will automatically merge.
Manual markers will not automatically merge.
263
To Transpose a Groove Clip to Match Your Project’s Pitch
Follow this procedure to force the Groove clip to follow the project’s default pitch.
1.
Double-click the clip you want to transpose to the project’s pitch.
The clip appears in the Loop Construction view.
2.
Click the Follow Project Pitch button.
To Transpose a Groove Clip by Semitones
Follow this procedure to transpose a Groove clip by any number of semitones.
1.
Double-click the clip you want to transpose to the project’s pitch.
The clip appears in the Loop Construction view.
2.
If the Follow Project Pitch button is enabled, click it to disable it.
3.
In the Pitch (semitones) field, enter the number of semitones you want to
transpose the clip by. A negative number in the Pitch (semitones) field
transposes a clip down. A positive number in the Pitch (semitones) field
transposes the clip up.
To “Fine Tune” a Groove Clip
Follow this procedure to make slight pitch changes to a clip.
1.
Double-click the clip you want to transpose to the project’s pitch.
The clip appears in the Loop Construction view.
2.
In the Fine Pitch (cents) field, enter the number of cents you want to adjust
the pitch. You can enter a number from -50 (transpose the pitch down by a
quarter tone) to 50 (transpose the pitch up by a quarter tone).
To Edit the Slicing Markers in a Groove Clip
The table below describes how to create and edit the slicing markers in the Loop
Construction view.
To do this…
Do this…
Add a slicing marker
Move the mouse cursor to the Markers bar,
at the beginning of a transient and doubleclick.
Delete a slicing marker
Select the Eraser tool
marker.
Move a slicing marker
Click and drag a marker
Reset slicing markers to original
positions
Click the Default All Markers button
and click on a
.
For more information on slicing markers, see “Slicing Markers” on page 255.
264
Editing Slices
Each slice (space between the slicing markers) can be adjusted in the Loop
Construction view. You can adjust the following slice attributes:
•
Gain
•
Pan
•
Pitch
To Preview a Groove Clip Slice
1.
Double-click on a clip to open the Loop Construction view.
2.
Click the Enable Slice Auto-preview button.
3.
Click a slice to hear it.
To Adjust a Groove Clip Slice Gain
1.
In the Loop Construction view, select the slice on which you want to adjust the
gain.
2.
In the Slice Gain field, click the plus or minus buttons to change the gain
value.
Or
Click between the plus and minus keys until the cursor becomes a double
arrow and drag up to increase the value or down to decrease the value.
To Adjust a Groove Clip Slice Pan
1.
In the Loop Construction view, select the slice on which you want to adjust the
pan.
2.
In the Slice Pan field, click the plus or minus buttons to change the pan value.
Negative is Left pan and positive is right pan.
To Adjust a Groove Clip Slice Pitch (Half Steps)
1.
In the Loop Construction view, select the slice on which you want to adjust the
pitch.
2.
In the first Slice Pitch field, click the plus or minus buttons to change the pitch
value.
To Adjust a Groove Clip Slice Pitch (Cents)
1.
In the Loop Construction view, select the slice on which you want to adjust the
pitch.
2.
In the second Slice Pitch field, click the plus or minus buttons to change the
pitch value.
To Adjust Slice Gain, Pan and Pitch Using Slice Envelopes
You can change an envelope’s gain, pan and/or pitch settings by dragging the
envelope up or down in that slice.
265
Saving Groove Clips as Wave Files/ACIDized Wave
Files
Once you have created a Groove clip in SONAR, you can save the clip as a Groove
Clip/Wave file, compatible with ACIDized wave files.
To Save a Groove Clip as a Riff Wave File/ACIDized Wave File
1.
If you have not already done so, create a Groove clip. In the Loop Construction
view, click the Save icon.
The Save As dialog appears.
2.
Use the toolbar in the Save As dialog to navigate to the location where you
want to save the file.
3.
In the File name field, enter a name for the file.
4.
Click the Save button.
To Drag and Drop a Groove Clip Into Another Application
You can drag and drop clips from SONAR to another application or to a directory
in Windows. When you drag a file from SONAR, the source file is copied and the
copy is placed in the new directory or application.
Using Pitch Markers in the Track View
Pitch markers change the pitch at which Groove clips sound. All Groove clips in
SONAR that have the Follow Project Pitch option enabled adjust their pitch as
they encounter pitch markers in SONAR. If there are no pitch markers, all Groove
clips play at the default project pitch, unless the Follow Project Pitch parameter is
disabled.
Pitch marker: Groove
clips with Follow
Project Pitch enabled
play with the Root
Note transposed to C
Time Ruler
Pitch marker: Groove
clips with Follow
Project Pitch enabled
play with the Root
Note transposed to D
To Enable a Clip’s Follow Project Pitch Option
1.
Right-click the clip and choose Clip Properties from the popup menu.
The Clip Properties dialog appears.
266
2.
On the Groove Clips tab, check the Follow Project Pitch checkbox.
3.
Make sure that the Reference Note field is correct. When your project reaches
a pitch marker, SONAR transposes each groove clip that has the Follow
Project Pitch option enabled by the difference between the clip’s Reference
Note and the current Project Pitch.
4.
Click OK to close the dialog.
To Change Your Project’s Default Pitch
1.
Display the Markers toolbar, if it’s not already displayed, by using the ViewToolbars-Markers command.
2.
In the Default Groove-Clip Pitch dropdown menu at the right end of the
toolbar, choose your project’s default pitch.
SONAR transposes each groove clip that has the Follow Project Pitch option
enabled by the difference between the clip’s Reference Note and the current
Project Pitch. Your project’s pitch changes wherever you insert a pitch marker. If
you don’t insert any pitch markers, your project stays at its default pitch.
To Create a Pitch Marker
1.
In the Track view, right-click in the Time Ruler.
2.
Select Create a Marker from the menu that appears.
3.
The Marker dialog appears.
4.
In the Groove Clip Pitch dropdown, select a pitch.
5.
Click OK.
To Move a Pitch Marker
•
Click and drag a pitch marker to a new location on the Time Ruler.
MIDI Groove Clips
MIDI Groove clips are MIDI clips that you can roll out like audio Groove clips, and
you can also choose to have SONAR transpose MIDI Groove clips when your
project reaches a pitch marker.
You can change any MIDI clip into a MIDI Groove clip (or back into a regular MIDI
clip) by selecting the clip and using the Edit-Groove Clip Looping command. A
MIDI clip that has its Groove clip feature activated appears with beveled edges in
the Clips pane.
Here are some other features of MIDI Groove clips:
•
You can roll out copies in either direction (just like audio Groove clips). The
Snap-to-Grid setting determines what beat boundaries (if any) you can roll to.
•
You can edit individual repetitions without altering any other copies (unlike
audio Groove clips). Note: If you then roll the edge of your MIDI Groove clip
back over the area you edited, you will lose your edits.
•
All new repetitions are based on the first clip (just like audio Groove clips).
However, if you split a repetition from its original source clip, the repetition
becomes independent: if you copy this clip, SONAR treats it as an original clip.
267
•
You can import MIDI Groove clips from the Import MIDI dialog, the Loop
Explorer view, and by dragging and dropping from the Windows Explorer.
•
You can preview MIDI Groove clips in the Import MIDI dialog.
•
You can edit MIDI Groove clips wherever you can edit regular MIDI clips.
For step-by-step information, see the following procedures, and also “Exporting,
and Importing MIDI Groove Clips” on page 269.
To Enable or Disable a MIDI Clip’s Groove Clip Function
•
Select the clip and press Ctrl+L.
Or
•
Select the clip and use the Edit-Groove Clip Looping command.
Or
•
Right-click the clip and choose Groove Clip Looping from the popup menu.
A MIDI clip that has its Groove clip feature activated appears with beveled edges
in the Clips pane.
To Create Repetitions of a MIDI Groove Clip
1.
Set the Snap value if you want the clip to repeat at precise time boundaries.
2.
Move the cursor over the end or beginning of the clip until the cursor looks
like this
.When the cursor changes, click the end or beginning of the clip
and drag it to the right (if you are dragging out from the end) or left (if you are
dragging from the beginning).
The clip repeats itself until you stop dragging.
To Transpose a MIDI Groove Clip
1.
Select the MIDI Groove clip.
2.
Hold down the Alt key, and press the + or - key on your computer keyboard to
raise or lower the clip’s pitches a half-step at a time. You don’t have to stop
playback.
Or
1.
Right-click the clip and choose Clip Properties from the popup menu.
The Clip Properties dialog appears.
2.
On the Groove Clips tab, in the Pitch (semitones) field, choose the number of
half-steps you want to transpose the clip by: choose negative numbers to
transpose down, or positive numbers to transpose up.
Either method transposes the original clip and all repetitions. The original clip
displays a positive or negative number in parentheses showing any transposition
value you’ve added to the clip.
268
If you use pitch markers to transpose a clip, any transposition value you add to the
clip by the above two methods changes the final pitch by whatever transposition
value you’ve added.
To Transpose a MIDI Groove Clip with Pitch Markers
Use the same method you use for audio Groove clips: see “Using Pitch Markers in
the Track View” on page 266.
Exporting, and Importing MIDI Groove Clips
You can not export MIDI Groove clips by saving your project as a Standard MIDI
File—Standard MIDI Files do not contain MIDI Groove clip data, such as
transposition value, etc. When you import MIDI Groove clips, you can preview
them in the Import MIDI dialog.
There are two methods for exporting MIDI Groove clips:
•
Using the File-Export-MIDI Groove Clip command
•
Dragging a MIDI Groove clip from SONAR to the Windows Explorer
There are three methods for importing MIDI Groove clips:
•
Using the File-Import-MIDI command
•
Using the Loop Explorer view
•
Dragging a MIDI Groove clip from the Windows Explorer to a MIDI track in
SONAR
For step-by-step information, see the following procedures:
To Export MIDI Groove Clips with the File Command
1.
Highlight the MIDI Groove clip that you want to export.
2.
Use the File-Export-MIDI Groove Clip command.
The Export MIDI dialog appears.
3.
Navigate to a folder where you store MIDI Groove clips.
4.
Type a name for the clip in the File Name field.
5.
Click the Save button.
SONAR exports the MIDI Groove clip, which contains the information displayed in
the Clip Properties dialog, on the Groove-Clips tab, except for the Pitch
(semitones) field, which does not get exported.
To Export a MIDI Groove Clip with Drag and Drop
•
Drag the MIDI Groove clip that you want to export to the folder in the
Windows Explorer where you want to keep it.
269
To Import MIDI Groove Clips with the File Command
1.
Move the Now Time to the place where you want to import the clip.
2.
Highlight the track you want to import the clip into.
3.
Use the File-Import-MIDI command.
The Import MIDI dialog appears,
4.
Navigate to a folder where you store MIDI Groove clips. Make sure that the
Files of Type field is set to MIDI File.
5.
Highlight the file you want to import—the File Info field displays the file’s
MIDI Groove clip data, if any.
6.
If you want to preview (listen to) the highlighted file, click the Play button in
the Import MIDI dialog. When you decide to import the highlighted file, click
the Open button.
To Import MIDI Groove Clips from the Loop Explorer View
1.
Make sure that the Snap-to-Grid setting is appropriate for what you want to
do.
2.
If the Loop Explorer view is not open, use the View-Loop Explorer command
to display it.
3.
Navigate to a folder where you store MIDI Groove clips.
4.
Do either of the following:
•
Drag the file you want to the track and time where you want it.
•
Move the Now Time to the place where you want to import the file,
highlight the track you want to import the file into, and double-click the
file.
To Import a MIDI Groove Clip with Drag and Drop
270
1.
Make sure that the Snap-to-Grid setting is appropriate for what you want to
do.
2.
In the Windows Explorer, navigate to a folder where you store MIDI Groove
clips.
3.
Drag the MIDI Groove clip to the track and time where you want it to go.
Importing Project5 Patterns
Project5 is Cakewalk’s pattern-based soft synth work station that has its own
library (pattern bin) full of MIDI and audio patterns, stored on disk. If you have
Project5 MIDI patterns on your hard disk, you can import them directly into
SONAR.
To Import a Project5 Pattern
1.
Move the Now Time to the place where you want to import the pattern.
2.
Highlight the track you want to import the pattern into.
3.
Use the File-Import-MIDI command.
The Import MIDI dialog appears,
4.
Change the Files of Type field to P5 Pattern.
5.
Navigate to a folder where you store Project5 MIDI patterns.
6.
Highlight the file you want to import.
7.
To import the highlighted file, click the Open button.
SONAR imports the pattern to the selected track at the Now Time.
271
272
7
Editing MIDI Events
and Controllers
SONAR lets you edit the events in your projects in dozens of different ways. The
Piano Roll view lets you add and edit notes, controllers, and automation data
interactively, using a graphic display. SONAR’s many editing commands can
improve the quality of recorded performances, filter out certain types of events,
and modify the tempos and dynamics of your projects. The Event List view lets you
see and modify every detail of your project. Finally, you can apply a variety of
effects and filters to enhance your MIDI data.
SONAR has many additional commands and features for working with audio. For
more information, see “Editing Audio” on page 349.
In This Chapter
Event Inspector Toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274
The Piano Roll View. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
Selecting and Editing Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283
Slip Editing MIDI (Non-destructive Editing) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291
Changing the Timing of a Recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294
Searching for Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305
Controllers, RPNs, NRPNs, and Automation Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311
The Event List View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318
MIDI Effects (MIDI Plug-ins) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325
Event Inspector Toolbar
The Event Inspector toolbar is available from the View menu by selecting ViewToolbars and checking Event Inspector in the Toolbars dialog. The Event
Inspector has the following:
•
Time
•
Pitch
•
Velocity
•
Duration
•
Channel
To Display a Note’s Properties in the Event Inspector Toolbar
•
Select a note.
If you select multiple notes, the Event Inspector toolbar displays the note
value if all selected note values are the same. If the note values are different,
the Event Inspector does not display anything.
To Change a Note’s Properties Using the Event Inspector
Toolbar
274
1.
Select a note.
2.
In the appropriate Event Inspector toolbar field, change the value. See the
table below for a description of valid value entries for each field in the Event
Inspector toolbar.
Event
Inspector
Field…
Valid Values…
Time
Any valid M:B:T time value. Separate values with a colon or a
space. For example, measure 2, Beat 3, Tick 720 would be
written as 2:3:720.
Pitch
Note names (C0 through G10) and note numbers (0 through 127)
are valid in this field. Also, you can use a modifier to raise or
lower the value by a number of half-steps. To raise the pitch by 2
half-steps, type +2 and press enter. To lower the pitch by 2 halfsteps, type -2 and press enter.
Velocity
A velocity value or modifier value are valid in this field. Valid
velocity values are 0 through 127. Valid modifier values are +/- 0
through 127.
Duration
A PPQ value.
Channel
1 through 16.
The Piano Roll View
The Piano Roll view displays all notes and other events from one or more MIDI
tracks in a grid format that looks much like a player piano roll. Notes are
displayed as horizontal bars, and drum notes as diamonds. Pitch runs from bottom
to top, with the left vertical margin indicating the pitches as piano keys or note
names. Time is displayed running left to right with vertical measure and beat
boundaries. The Piano Roll view makes it easy to add, edit, and delete notes from a
track.
The Piano Roll view consists of the Note Map pane, the Drum Grid pane, the Note
pane, the Controllers pane, and the Track List pane.
Show/Hide Grid button
Show Velocity Tails button
Show Durations
Inspector toolbar:
selected note’s
properties
Selected Note
Note Map pane
Drum Grid pane
Note pane
Controllers
pane
Track List pane
Selected track
Note Map Pane
In this pane displays your drum map settings, mute or solo an individual pitch,
and preview individual pitch sounds. For more information about the Note Map
Pane, see “The Note Map Pane” on page 342.
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Drum Grid Pane
In the Drum Grid pane you can add, delete and edit notes and note properties in
any MIDI track(s) assigned to a drum map. For more information, see “The Drum
Grid Pane” on page 344.
Note Pane
In this pane you can add, edit, and delete notes in any MIDI track(s) not assigned
to a drum map.
Controllers Pane
In this pane you can edit controllers, RPNs, NRPNs, velocity, pitch wheel, and
aftertouch data, during playback or recording, in real time. Select the controller
you want to edit from the Controller dropdown list at the top of the Piano Roll
view. For more information, see “Controllers, RPNs, NRPNs, and Automation
Data” on page 311.
Track List Pane
The Track List pane is home to a list of all tracks currently displayed in the Piano
Roll view. In this pane you can enable and disable editing of a track’s data; mute,
solo and arm a track; and show or hide the track’s data in the Note pane or Drum
Grid pane. Track numbers, names and output ports appear in the Track List pane.
You can show or hide the Track List pane by clicking the Show/hide track pane
button
in the Piano Roll view toolbar.
Opening the View
There are several ways to open the Piano Roll view:
•
In the Track view, select the track you want to see, then choose View-Piano
Roll or press Alt+5
•
In the Track view, right-click on a track and choose View-Piano Roll from the
popup menu
•
Double-click on a MIDI clip in the Clips pane
Each selected track is displayed. You can always switch to a different track or
tracks—simply click the
button (or press T) and choose the track you want.
The Piano Roll view lets you edit notes and controllers during playback or
recording, in real time. This means you can loop over a portion of your project and
hear any change you make on the next loop. The Piano Roll view also shows notes
on-screen as you record them.
Like the Track view, the Piano Roll view includes zoom tools that let you change
the vertical and horizontal scale of the view. The Piano Roll view also has a Snap to
Grid
button. For more information on this feature, see “Defining and Using the
Snap Grid” on page 222.
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Selecting and Editing Notes
The Piano Roll view is a very convenient place to select, edit, and copy notes within
a track or tracks. You must make the track you want to edit the current track. The
current track appears with a dotted line around it in the Track List pane. To
display the Track List pane in the Piano Roll view, click the Show/Hide Track List
pane button
. The following shows three tracks in the Track List pane:
Track disabled for track editing
Track’s data shown in
Note pane
Current track
Track’s data hidden in Note pane
Mute
Output
Arm
Solo
Track enabled for track editing
To make the a track the current track in the Track List pane, click on the track.
When a thin dotted line surrounds the track, it is the current track.
There are several ways to select notes in the Piano Roll view:
•
Click and drag in the Time Ruler to select notes (and other MIDI events) that
start playing within the time range
•
Use the Select tool
•
Click or drag the piano keys to the left of the Note pane or the drum map rows
in Note Map pane to select all notes of the given pitch(es)
to select notes
You can use Shift-click to add notes to the selection and Ctrl-click to toggle
between adding to or removing from the selection.
You can add notes to a clip simply by clicking in the Note pane or Drum Grid pane
with the pencil tool. You can use the Resolution buttons to set the duration for new
notes you enter. You can edit notes freely, using the mouse to change the start
time, pitch, or duration. You can also right-click any note to edit the start time,
pitch, duration, velocity, and channel of that note. You can move and copy notes
beyond the boundary of the clip in which they are located. When you move the
notes, the clip will be extended as needed, unless the notes are moved to a section
that includes a slip-edited clip, in which case a new clip may be created.
The Piano Roll view also lets you scrub the tracks that are currently displayed.
The Scrub command lets you drag a vertical bar over the view so that you can hear
the notes in the track(s). You can scrub forward or backward at any speed.
Scrubbing can be handy when you want to locate a bad note or listen to the effects
of changes you have made without playing back at normal speed.
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To Select Notes with the Selection Tool
1.
Click
to select the Select tool.
2.
Select notes as shown in the table:
To do this…
Do this…
Select a single note
Click on the note
Select several notes at once
Drag a rectangle around the notes you
want to select
Add to the selection
Hold the Shift key while selecting notes
Toggle the selection
Hold the Ctrl key while selecting notes
Selected notes are highlighted (50% gray mask) in the Piano Roll view, and the
time selection is set to the range of note start times.
To Select All Notes of Certain Pitches
•
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Click the piano keys on the left side of the Note pane or the drum map rows in
the Note Map pane as shown in the table:
To do this…
Do this…
Select all notes of a single pitch
Click on the piano key or map row
Select all notes of several pitches
Drag across the keys or map rows
Add to the selection
Hold the Shift key while clicking on a piano
key or map row
Toggle the selection
Hold the Ctrl key while clicking on a piano
key or map row
To Edit a Note
1.
Click
to select the Draw Line tool (or the Draw tool
have Auto Erase enabled).
2.
Edit notes as described in the table:
, if you have do not
To do this…
Do this…
Change the start time, but not the
duration
Drag the left edge of the note in either direction.
The start time of the note is moved to the new
location.
Change the pitch
Drag the middle of the note up or down.
Change the duration
Drag the right edge of the note in either direction.
If the snap grid is enabled and set to Snap To, the start time of each note is
restricted to points on the snap grid, and the length of each note is restricted to an
even multiple of the snap increment. For example, if the snap resolution is set to a
quarter note, you can move notes only to quarter-note boundaries, and you can
increase or decrease the duration only by quarter notes. If the snap grid is set to
Move By, notes can only be moved by multiples of the snap resolution.
To Change Note Velocity or Channel
1.
Right-click a single note to display the Note Properties dialog box.
2.
Edit the desired start time, pitch, duration, velocity, or channel.
3.
Click OK when you are done.
SONAR updates the note event accordingly. Note that you can also edit note
velocity in the Controllers pane and the Note Properties toolbar. For information
on changing note velocities in the Drum Grid Editor, see “Editing Note Velocities”
on page 341. For more information, see “Velocity, Pitch Wheel, and Aftertouch” on
page 313.
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To Move Notes
1.
Click
or press S to select the Select tool.
2.
Select one or more notes.
3.
Drag the selected notes to a new location.
The Drag and Drop Options dialog appears. If you have unchecked the Ask
This Every Time checkbox in the Drag and Drop Options dialog, SONAR uses
that last option you set in that dialog. To change the option, right-click in the
Clips pane of the Track view and select Drag and Drop Options from the
popup menu.
4.
Select an option and click OK.
SONAR moves the selected notes.
To Copy Notes
1.
Click
or press S to select the Select tool.
2.
Select one or more notes.
3.
Press Ctrl+C.
The Copy dialog appears.
4.
Click OK in the Copy dialog.
5.
Change the Now time to the place you want to paste the note(s).
6.
Press Ctrl+V.
The Drag and Drop Options dialog appears.
7.
Select an option in the Drag and Drop Options dialog and click OK.
SONAR copies the selected notes.
To Add a Note
1.
Click the Draw tool button
or press D to select the Draw tool.
2.
Select a note duration by clicking one of the note icons in the Piano Roll view
toolbar.
3.
Press and hold the left mouse button in the Piano Roll view. SONAR adds a
new note.
4.
Drag the note to the desired pitch and time.
5.
Release the left mouse button.
To Erase a Note
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1.
Click the Erase button
or press E to select the Erase tool.
2.
Click on any note to delete it.
To Erase Several Notes
1.
Click the Erase button
or press E to select the Erase tool.
2.
Drag the cursor across notes to delete them.
3.
Release the mouse button when you are done.
To Select and Erase Notes
1.
Click the Select button
or press S to select the Select tool.
2.
Select one or more notes.
3.
Press Delete to delete the notes.
To Erase Notes Using Auto Erase
The Auto-Erase feature makes the Draw tool into an eraser as well as a drawing
tool. When the Auto-Erase feature is on, the Draw tool creates a note if used where
there are no existing notes, but deletes notes that you click on.
1.
Click the arrow on the right side of the Draw tool
it is not already checked.
2.
Click on the note you want to erase.
and select Auto Erase if
When the Auto Erase option is enabled, clicking in the Note pane or the Drum
Grid pane creates a note if there is no note present and deletes any note you
click on.
To Temporarily Turn off Auto-Erase
If you want to edit a note’s start time or duration, you must turn off Auto-Erase.
You can do so by unchecking the menu item in the Draw tool menu. You can also
temporarily turn off Auto-Erase.
1.
Hold down the Alt key.
2.
Make edits in the Drum Grid Editor or the Note pane.
3.
Release the Alt key.
To Scrub the Project
1.
Click
or press B to select the Scrub tool.
2.
Press and hold the left mouse button in the Piano Roll view. SONAR displays
a vertical line and plays any notes that are underneath the line.
3.
Drag the line to the left or right, at any desired speed.
Note that the Mute, Solo and Arm buttons do not affect Scrub. If the track is
hidden, however, you do not hear notes in that track.
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Working with Multiple Tracks in the Piano Roll View
You can simultaneously edit as many tracks as you want in the Piano Roll view.
When you display several tracks at the same time in the Piano Roll view, you
control which track(s) you can see and/or edit by using the buttons in the Track
List pane. You can show or hide the Track List pane by clicking the Show/hide
track pane button
in the Piano Roll view toolbar.
The following is a list of ways to optimize the multiple track functionality in the
Piano Roll view.
Selecting Tracks
Use the Pick Tracks combo button
to assign tracks to the Track List pane.
Click on the left side of the Pick Tracks combo button to open the Pick Tracks
dialog box. Click on a track name to select it. Hold down the Ctrl key and click
more track names to select additional tracks. Click on the right side of the Pick
Tracks combo button to show the Down/Up popup menu. Selecting Down moves
the track or range of tracks down by one. Selecting Up moves the track or range of
tracks up by one. For example, if you have tracks 2, 3 and 7 displayed in the Track
List pane and you select Down, the Track List pane displays tracks 1, 2, and 6.
Display
If the notes of two tracks overlap, the notes of the topmost track in the Track List
pane appear over the notes of the other track. You can move a track up or down by
in the Track List pane by clicking and holding on the track and moving the track to
the desired position.
All tracks ending in the same digit (2, 12, 22, etc.) share the same color. The
default colors can be changed using Options-Colors.
The Enable/Disable Track Editing Button
The Enable/Disable Track Editing button
sets whether or not you can edit
the notes of a track in the Piano Roll view. When the button appears white, editing
is enabled and the track appears in color. When the button appears gray, editing is
disabled and the track appears in gray.
Note: The Enable/Disable Track Editing button only disables the Piano Roll view
tools; other editing commands are still operational.
The Show/Hide Track Button
The Show/Hide Track button
controls whether or not a track appears in the
Note pane. The button appears in color when toggled on, white when off.
The Invert Tracks Button
If you use the Show/Hide Track button to hide any tracks in the Track List pane,
you can show all these tracks and hide the ones that are currently displayed by
clicking the Invert Tracks button.
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Note Names
You can change the instrument definition for the active track in the Piano Roll
view. Right-click the piano keys in the Note pane to open the Note Names dialog
where you can use note names that are defined as part of any instrument
definition. For more information about instrument definitions, see Chapter 16,
Using Instrument Definitions.
To Change the Active Track’s Instrument Definition
1.
Right-click the left side of the Note pane (where the piano keys or note names
are displayed) to display the Note Names dialog box.
2.
To use the note names from the assigned instrument (the default), click Use
the Assigned Instrument Settings. Click Configure to change the instrument
definitions.
3.
To override the default setting, click Use These Settings Instead, and choose
the note names and mode you want to work with.
4.
Click OK when you are done
The Piano Roll view is updated with the settings you request.
Selecting and Editing Events
SONAR has many other editing commands that you can use to modify the events
that make up your project. Here are some of the things you can do:
•
Transpose events, clips, tracks, or an entire project to a different key
•
Shift events to an earlier or later time
•
Stretch or shrink material to a different length
•
Reverse the notes in a clip to create new arrangements
•
Modify the note velocities
The following sections describe these editing commands and how to use them.
SONAR also has some special commands you can use to modify or clean up a
performance or to search for or select events that meet certain criteria. For more
information, see the following sections of this chapter.
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Transposing
The Process-Transpose command transposes the pitches of selected note events
up or down by a fixed number of steps. It does so by changing the MIDI key
numbers of note events. Simply enter the number of half-steps—a negative
number to transpose down, a positive number to transpose up.
SONAR can also perform diatonic transposition, which shifts all the notes up and
down the major scale of the current signature by the designated number of steps.
For instance, if you specify an amount of +1 and the key signature is C-major, a C
becomes a D (up a whole step), an E becomes an F (up a half step), and so on.
Diatonic transposition assures you that the transposed notes fit with the original
key signature.
As an option, you can choose to transpose selected audio clips along with any
selected MIDI clips. SONAR uses pitch-shifting (a plug in for changing audio
pitch) to perform the transposition. You can transpose audio only a single octave in
either direction (-12 to +12), and you cannot transpose audio when you are using
diatonic transposition.
To Transpose Selected Events
1.
Select the tracks, clips, or events you want to transpose.
2.
Choose Process-Transpose to display the Transpose dialog box.
3.
Use the spinners or enter the number of semi-tones to transpose.
Or
Use the + and - keys on your keypad to go up or down by one or [ and ] to go up
or down by octaves.
4.
Check Diatonic Math if you want to transpose along the major scale of the
current key.
5.
Choose Transpose Audio if you want to pitch-shift selected audio clips.
6.
Click OK when you are done.
SONAR transposes the selected events.
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Shifting Events in Time
The Track view lets you move entire clips forward or backward in time by using
drag and drop editing or by changing the start time of selected clips. The ProcessSlide command is slightly more flexible—you can use it to shift individual events
and markers (or selected events and markers) either forward or backward in time.
This has an effect that is similar to the Time+ parameter in the Track view.
However, the Process-Slide command modifies the time stored with each event,
while the Time+ parameter simply applies a temporary change during playback.
You can also use the Process-Slide command to move markers located within the
selection. If you have selected any locked markers, SONAR will ask whether they
should slide, too.
To Shift Events in Time
1.
Select the events and/or markers you want to shift.
2.
Choose Process-Slide to display the Slide dialog box.
3.
Check the types of event you want to slide (events and/or
markers).
4.
Enter the number of measures, ticks, seconds, frames or samples to slide.
Enter a negative number to shift material earlier. Note that you cannot slide
any event earlier than 1:01:000. For example, if the current selection starts at
2:01:000, you cannot slide events earlier by more than one measure.
5.
Click OK when you are done.
SONAR shifts the selected events and/or markers.
Inserting Time or Measures into a Project
The Insert-Time/Measures command lets you insert any number of blank
measures, ticks, seconds, or frames into a project. You can insert the blank
measures (or other period of time) into all tracks or into one or more selected
tracks. If you insert the blank time into the entire project, all events in each
track—markers, meter and key settings, and tempo changes—are shifted
automatically by default. If you insert the blank time into one or more selected
tracks, only the events in those tracks are shifted by default. You can always
choose which types of events should be shifted.
To Insert a Single Blank Measure into a Project
1.
Press Ctrl+Shift+A or select Edit-Select-None to make sure that no track or
time range is selected.
2.
Set the Now time to the place where you want to insert the measure.
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3.
Choose Insert-Time/Measures to display the Insert Time/Measures dialog
box.
4.
Verify that the settings are correct and click OK.
SONAR inserts a blank measure at the Now time.
To Insert Blank Time or Measures into a Project
1.
Press the 5 key on the numeric keypad (Num Lock must be off) or select EditSelect-None to make sure that no track or time range is selected.
2.
Select the range of time you want to insert by dragging in the Time Ruler.
3.
Choose Insert-Time/Measures to display the Insert Time/Measures dialog
box.
4.
If necessary, adjust the time at which blank space will be inserted.
5.
If necessary, change the length of time to insert by entering a number and
choosing the units you want from the list.
6.
Choose the types of events that should be shifted automatically from the Slide
list.
7.
Click OK when you are done.
SONAR inserts the desired amount of blank time into the project.
To Insert Blank Time or Measures into Selected Tracks
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1.
Select the range of time you want to insert by dragging in the Time Ruler.
2.
Select one or more tracks by Ctrl-clicking on the track numbers.
3.
Choose Insert-Time/Measures to display the Insert Time/Measures dialog
box.
4.
If necessary, adjust the time at which blank space will be inserted.
5.
If necessary, change the length of time to insert by entering a number and
choosing the units you want from the list.
6.
Choose the types of events that should be shifted automatically from the Slide
list.
7.
Click OK when you are done.
SONAR inserts the desired amount of blank time into the project.
Deleting Measures or Time from One or More Tracks
There are two methods for deleting time or measures:
•
If there is any audio or MIDI data in the area you want to delete, you can use
the Edit-Delete command to delete the area that you select. Portions of MIDI
clips may have no data in them: they have boundaries but no dark lines
inside—if that’s the case, use the following method.
•
If there is no data in the area you want to delete, you can simply drag any clips
that come after the empty area to their proper destinations. You can also use
this method if there is data in the area you want to delete—you just have to
choose whether you want to replace the data in the deleted area, blend it with
the data you’re moving, or slide it over to make room.
To delete time when there is audio or MIDI data in the area you want to delete:
1.
In the Track view, select the track(s) you want to delete measures or time from
by doing one of the following:
•
Select a single track by clicking the track number.
•
Select multiple tracks by Ctrl-clicking the track numbers.
2.
Set the Snap to Grid value to the unit of time you want to delete. For example,
if you want to delete whole measures, set the Snap to Grid value to a whole
measure.
3.
In the Clips pane, select the measures or time you want to delete by dragging
in the Time Ruler located just above the first track.
4.
Select Edit-Delete.
The Delete dialog box appears.
5.
Click the following checkboxes:
•
Events in Tracks
•
Delete Hole—if you want the data that comes after the hole to retain its
same placement in a measure, check the Shift by Whole Measures
option.
6.
Click any of the other options you want to delete.
7.
Click OK.
SONAR deletes the time or measures you selected.
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To delete time when there is no audio or MIDI data in the area you want to delete
(or if there is data, but you like to drag and drop):
1.
Set the Snap to Grid value to the unit of time you want to delete. For example,
if you want to delete whole measures, set the Snap to Grid value to a whole
measure.
2.
In the Track view, select the clips you want to move.
3.
Drag one of the selected clips to its proper destination—the Drag and Drop
Options dialog box appears.
4.
Choose options and click OK.
All the selected clips move by the amount that you dragged the mouse.
Stretching and Shrinking Events
The Process-Length and Process-Fit to Time commands can be used to stretch
or shrink a portion of a project. Process-Length lets you stretch or shrink the
selection by a fixed percentage and makes the adjustment by altering the
individual events. A value of 200 percent, for example, stretches the selection to
twice its original length, while a value of 50 percent shrinks the selection to half
its original length.
Process-Fit to Time stretches or shrinks the selection so that it ends at a specific
time, expressed in either measure:beat:tick (MBT) or
hours:minutes:seconds:frames (SMPTE) format. This command gives you a choice
of modifying the events or modifying the underlying tempo. This is useful when
you want a portion of a project to have an exact length. The start time of the
selection does not change, but the end time is altered as necessary to fit the
required time interval.
Both of these commands offer the option to stretch audio clips along with the MIDI
information. Sometimes you don’t want to adjust the speed of your audio.
Here are some examples:
•
If your project contains background music and a voice-over, you might want to
change the tempo of the background music without altering the voice-over
•
If you’re trying to modify the speed of some MIDI tracks to match a sampled
drum groove, you want to leave the audio unchanged
•
If your audio consists solely of sound effects, you most likely do not want to
adjust them
Audio can be stretched or condensed up to a factor of 4 (e.g., it can be shrunk to as
little as 25 percent of its original length, or expanded to as much as 400 percent of
its original length).
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You can also use the Process-Length command to alter only the start times or the
durations of notes. For example, changing the durations of notes to 50 percent of
their original length can create a staccato effect.
To Stretch or Shrink Using Percentages
1.
Select the events you want to change.
2.
Choose Process-Length to display the Length dialog box.
3.
Choose to change the Start Times and/or Durations of selected notes by
checking the boxes.
4.
If you want to stretch selected audio clips, check the Stretch Audio box.
5.
Use the spinners or type in the desired percent change in length.
6.
Click OK when you are done.
SONAR modifies the length of selected events.
To Stretch or Shrink to a Specific Length
1.
Select the events you want to change.
2.
Choose Process-Fit to Time to display the Fit to Time dialog box.
3.
Enter the desired end time in the New Thru box. Click Format to switch
between MBT and SMPTE format.
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4.
Choose one of the following:
•
Tempo Map–Choose this option if you want the tempo to change but not
the duration of notes and events. For example, if your clip contains
quarter notes, and you want those notes to stay quarter notes even though
the elapsed time of the clip changes, choose Tempo Map. SONAR alters
the tempo but not the events in the track.
•
Event Times–Choose this option if you want the tempo(s) to remain
unchanged while note durations and event start times change.
Important note: This option is unavailable if your selected data includes
any Groove clips.
5.
If you want to stretch selected audio clips, check the Stretch Audio box.
6.
Click OK when you are done.
SONAR modifies the length of selected events or changes the tempo map, as you
requested.
Reversing Notes in a Clip
The Process-Retrograde command reverses the order of events in a selection. If
one or more clips are selected, then the events within each clip are reversed. If
several clips are selected from the same track, then the order of the clips is also
reversed. You could use this command, for example, to take a scale or other long
run of notes and reverse the order in which they are played. The ProcessRetrograde command does not reverse the contents of audio clips. It only changes
their start times. You can use the Process-Audio-Reverse command to reverse
audio clips.
To Reverse the Sequence of Notes or Other Events
1.
Select the notes you want to reverse.
2.
Choose Process-Retrograde.
SONAR reverses the order of the selected events.
Adding Crescendos and Decrescendos
The Process-Scale Velocity command lets you create crescendos and
decrescendos on those instruments that respond to MIDI velocity. Most such
instruments map changes in velocity to changes in note loudness. Many
synthesizer patches alter the timbre of the sound as well, so that higher velocities
produce brighter, as well as louder, sounds. Changes in velocity also affect the
playback of audio clips.
This command lets you set a starting and ending velocity for the entire time range
of the selection. SONAR scales the velocity of each event to create a smooth linear
change in velocity. As an option, you can enter a starting and ending percentage;
existing velocity values are modified by the designated percentage.
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You can also edit note velocities in the Controllers pane of the Piano Roll view,
which lets you draw shapes other than straight line changes. For more
information, see “Using the Controllers Pane” on page 313.
To Scale Velocities
1.
Select the events whose velocity data you want to change.
2.
Choose Process-Scale Velocity to display the Scale Velocity dialog box.
3.
Enter the starting and ending velocity values.
4.
Check the Percentages box if the values are percentages.
5.
Click OK when you are done.
SONAR alters the velocity of selected events.
Slip Editing MIDI (Non-destructive
Editing)
Slip editing allows you to non-destructively hide or reveal the beginning of a clip,
the end of a clip, or both. The hidden material in a clip is not heard during
playback. All hidden material remains intact and can be restored. All Slip Editing
movements correspond to the current snap to resolution. For more information
about the snap to grid, see “Defining and Using the Snap Grid” on page 222.
Slip Editing Modes
Slip editing has three modes:
Trimming
As a default, when slip editing a clip, the clip’s contents always remains fixed in
time. If the first measure of a clip is hidden using slip editing, the remaining
material does not shift forward in time by a measure. The first measure of the clip
is simply muted during playback. Playback of the clip resumes at the second
measure.
Slide-trimming
If you want the clip’s contents to shift in time, you can move the material in a slip
edited clip by using modifier keys, clicking on the middle of the clip and moving it
either right or left.
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Scroll-trimming
You can also shift the clip’s contents in time, in relation to either the beginning or
end of the clip itself, by scroll-trimming.
Using Slip Editing for MIDI Clips
When Slip Editing the beginning of a MIDI clip, if you drag the start of the clip
past the beginning of a note (Note On), the entire note is lost even if it extends into
the part of the clip which remains visible. Only notes completely contained in the
slip edited clip remain.
When Slip Editing the end of a MIDI clip, if you drag the end of the clip so it covers
part of a note, the note’s duration is trimmed accordingly.
If you insert a new MIDI event which does not fall within the boundary of a slipedited clip, a new MIDI clip, which contains the new MIDI events, is created.
Important:
Adding controller data beyond the slip-edited boundaries of a slipedited clip in the Piano Roll view results in the slip-edited data being
displayed in the Piano Roll view. To avoid this, you can use the Apply
Trimming command to destructively edit the clip before adding the
controller data.
To Slip-edit a MIDI Clip
1.
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Make edits according to the following table:
To do this...
Do this...
Trim the beginning of a clip
Move the cursor over the beginning of
a clip. When the cursor changes in
appearance to look like this
, click
and drag the clip to the right until you
have removed the unwanted
information.
Trim the end of a clip
Move the cursor over the beginning of
a clip. When the cursor changes in
appearance to look like this
, click
and drag the clip to the left until you
have removed the unwanted
information.
Scroll-trimming a clip (Moving the clip
contents in time while maintaining the
clips start and end time)
Press the Alt+Shift keys while moving
the cursor over the middle of the clip.
When the cursor changes to look like
this
, click and drag the clip to the
left or right as desired. The contents
(MIDI data) in the clip follow the Snap
to Grid resolution, i.e. if your resolution
is set to half note, the contents of your
clip moves in half-note intervals.
Slide-trimming the beginning of a clip
(Moving the start time of the clip and
the clip’s contents while preserving
the end time)
Press the Alt+Shift keys and move the
cursor over the beginning of the clip.
When the cursor changes to look like
this
, click and drag the beginning
to the desired start time.
Slide-trimming the end of a clip
(Moving the end time of the clip and
the clip’s contents while preserving
the clip’s start time)
Press the Alt+Shift keys and move the
cursor over the end of the clip. When
the cursor changes to look like this
,
click and drag the end to the desired
location.
The hidden information in the slip-edited clips remains intact but is not heard
during playback
To Permanently Delete Slip-edited MIDI Data
1.
Select the clips that contain the slip-edited data you want to delete.
2.
Select the Edit-Apply Trimming command.
SONAR permanently deletes the slip-edited data from the clips you selected.
Slip-editing Multiple MIDI Clips
You can slip-edit multiple clips at the same time.
To Slip-edit Multiple MIDI Clips at Once
1.
Select the clips you want to slip-edit.
2.
Move your cursor over the beginning or end range of the selected clips until
your cursor changes too look like this:
3.
.
Drag the boundary to the desired location and release.
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Changing the Timing of a Recording
When you record a performance, there may be problems you’d like to correct. For
example, the note timing may not have been as accurate as you would like. Or, you
may have recorded without using a metronome and strayed from the tempo in one
direction or another.
SONAR has two types of commands that you can use to modify the timing of a clip.
The Quantize commands alter the timing of the notes in your recording so that
they fit a time grid.
The grid can have fixed time intervals or intervals that are based on some existing
note pattern. The Fit to Improvisation command, on the other hand, sets up a
series of tempos that fit the material you have recorded. Here’s a summary of
when to use each type of command:
Use this
command...
To do this...
Quantize
Change the timing of the notes you’ve recorded to fit with the tempo of
a project
Fit to Improvisation
Change the tempos of a project to fit with the performance you’ve
recorded
These two types of commands are discussed in the following sections.
Quantizing
Quantizing is one of the most important editing functions in SONAR. You use this
feature to correct timing errors you make when recording from a MIDI instrument
or to adjust the timing of audio clips.
Very few musicians are capable of performing in perfect time. As you play, you are
likely to strike some notes slightly before or after the beat or to hold some notes
slightly longer than you intended. The Quantize commands can help to correct
these types of timing mistakes.
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SONAR has two different quantize commands:
Command...
How it works...
Process-Quantize
Adjusts the start time and duration of selected notes so
that they line up with a fixed size grid
Process-Groove
Quantize
Lays a grid over an existing piece of music (the groove
pattern), and then adjusts the start time, duration, and
velocity of selected notes so that they line up with the
grid
These commands have quite a few settings, making them very flexible and
powerful. In addition, both of these commands lets you create, save, and re-use
presets. This means that once you find the settings you like, you can save them
and then apply them to other projects in a consistent way.
Resolution
The resolution indicates the spacing of the grid. You can use any value from a
whole note down to a thirty-second note triplet. You can also specify resolution in
clock ticks. A rule of thumb is to select a resolution that matches the smallest note
in the region you are quantizing. If you are quantizing a run of sixteenth notes, use
a sixteenth note as the resolution. If you are quantizing a mix of sixteenth and
eighth notes, you should still use a sixteenth note. At the default timebase of 480
PPQ, 480 clock ticks is equal to quarter-note resolution.
When you use Groove Quantize, SONAR creates a grid at the desired resolution
on top of the notes in the groove. For example, if the groove contains only quarter
notes but you choose sixteenth-note resolution, SONAR builds the grid by dividing
the space between each quarter note into four equal sections. In places where the
groove file contains no notes, SONAR builds a fixed grid of the desired resolution.
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Offset
Normally, the resolution grid is aligned evenly with the start of measures and
beats. As an option, you can shift the grid earlier or later by any desired number of
clock ticks. If the resolution is a quarter note and you’ve set the offset to +3 ticks,
then a note that is originally near 1:01:000 would be moved to 1:01:003—three
ticks beyond the beat boundary.
Duration
As an option, SONAR can adjust the duration of note events so that each note ends
one clock tick before the start of the nearest resolution-sized note. This ensures
that the notes do not overlap, which can cause problems on some synthesizers. The
adjustment may lengthen the duration of some notes and shorten the duration of
others.
When you use Groove Quantize, the duration adjustment compares the note
length to the duration of the sample note in the groove. If no duration information
is available, SONAR uses the distance to the start of the groove event closest to the
end of the note.
Velocity
The velocity adjustment, which is only available with the Groove Quantize
command, adjusts the note velocity to the velocity of the corresponding notes in the
groove.
Strength
The human ear is tuned to the slight “imperfections” we hear from most
musicians. If you quantize a project so that all notes are perfectly in position, it
may end up sounding mechanical or rigid. To avoid this, SONAR lets you adjust
the strength of the adjustment. A strength of 100 percent indicates that all notes
are moved so that they are in perfect time, while a strength of 50 percent means
that all notes are moved half-way towards the desired position. This lets you
“tighten up” the timing as much as you want, without going too far.
The Groove Quantize command also lets you control the strength of duration and
velocity adjustments. As you work with this command, you will notice that the
note start time has a greater effect than the duration on the rhythmic feel of the
track. For this reason, changing the starting times (time strength close to 100
percent) has a more noticeable effect than changing durations (duration strength
close to 100 percent). However, there are situations in which you might want to
change both to avoid ending up with notes that overlap or with unwanted rests.
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Swing
Many projects do not have notes positioned on a perfectly even time grid. For
example, projects with a swing feel, though they may be written entirely in eighth
notes, are often played more like eighth-note triplets, with the first note extended
and the second one shortened. The swing option lets you distort the timing grid so
each pair of notes is spaced unevenly, giving the quantized material a swing feel.
A swing value of 50 percent (the default) means that the grid points are spaced
evenly. A value of 66 percent means that the time between the first and second
grid points is twice as long as the time between the second and third points. The
figure below illustrates the effect of the swing setting on the timing grid:
Swing = 50%
Swing = 66%
Swing = 33%
Window
When you quantize some portion of a project, you might not want to adjust notes
that are very far from the grid. The window, or sensitivity, setting lets you
choose how close to the resolution grid a note must be located for quantize to move
it.
A window of 100 percent includes all notes and guarantees that all notes will be
shifted to lie exactly on the grid. The window extends half the resolution distance
before and after the quantization point. A window of 50 percent extends only a
quarter of the way toward the adjacent quantization points.
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When you use Groove Quantize, you can also perform adjustments on out-ofwindow events. There are four options:
Option...
How it works...
Do Not Change
Notes outside the window are not changed.
Quantize to Resolution
Notes outside the window are snapped to a regular grid
of the specified resolution.
Move to Nearest
The window or sensitivity setting is ignored—all notes
are moved toward the nearest reference event,
regardless of how far off the grid they are located.
Scale Time
SONAR finds the two closest events before and after the
event in question that are within the window sensitivity
and adjusts any bracketed out-of-window events so that
their relative timing is the same. This option can
uniformly speed up, slow down, or shift out-of-window
events.
Other Settings
If you want, you can restrict the types of events that are affected by the Quantize
commands to only notes, lyrics, and audio clips. If you choose this option, SONAR
will not modify other events, like controllers.
To Use the Quantize Command
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1.
Select the material you want to quantize using any of the selection tools and
commands.
2.
Choose Process-Quantize to display the Quantize dialog box.
3.
Choose one of your own presets from the list, or enter the settings you want
according to the table:
Setting…
What to do…
Resolution
Choose a note size or enter the number
of clock ticks
Change
Check the event types and
characteristics you want to change
Options
Enter values for Strength, Swing,
Window, and Offset
4.
Click Audition if you want to hear how the quantization will sound; press Stop
to stop auditioning the change.
5.
Make adjustments as necessary.
6.
Click OK when you are done.
SONAR quantizes the selected MIDI information and audio clips. You can use
Undo to restore the material to its original state.
To Use the Groove Quantize Command
1.
Select the track or clip you want to quantize, using any of the selection tools
and commands.
2.
Choose Process-Groove Quantize to display the Groove Quantize dialog box.
3.
Choose a groove file from the Groove File field.
4.
Choose a groove pattern from the Groove Pattern field.
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5.
Use the following fields to configure your pattern:
Setting…
What to do…
Resolution
Choose a note size or enter the number
of clock ticks
Window Sensitivity
Enter the window sensitivity value
(percentage)
If Outside Window
Choose what should happen to events
outside the window
Only Notes, Lyrics and Audio
Check to prevent MIDI controller,
aftertouch, and xRPN data from being
adjusted
Stretch Audio
Check to stretch audio clips to adjust
their duration
Strength
Use the sliders or enter values for Note
strength, Duration strength, and
Velocity strength
6.
Click Audition if you want to hear how the quantization will sound; press Stop
to stop auditioning the change.
7.
Make adjustments as necessary.
8.
Optionally, type a name in the preset field (located at the top of the dialog box)
and click the Save button to save your settings.
9.
Click OK when you are done.
SONAR quantizes the selected MIDI information and audio clips. You can use
Undo to restore the material to its original state. If you saved your settings, you
can apply them to any pattern you want by selecting the pattern and choosing a
preset from the preset field. To delete a group of settings, select the group from the
preset field and click the Delete button.
Defining a Groove
To use the groove quantize feature, you must create or choose a small snippet of
music—the groove pattern—for SONAR to use as the timing and accent reference.
You can use either of the following:
•
A track, clip, or portion of a clip stored on the Windows clipboard
•
A groove stored in a SONAR groove file
Any MIDI data that you place onto the Windows clipboard can be used as a groove
pattern. With a carefully defined groove pattern, you can give an old project an
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entirely new feel. If you like the groove pattern you have created, you can save it to
a groove file.
Groove files can store one or more groove patterns. SONAR supports two types of
groove files:
•
DNA™ grooves, which contain only timing information but are compatible
with some other MIDI sequencer software products
•
SONAR’s native groove format, which stores timing, duration, and velocity
information and can handle longer patterns and longer gaps between
quantization points
You can add groove patterns to these files from the Windows clipboard, edit
existing patterns, or delete patterns you do not want to keep. There is no limit to
the number of groove patterns that can be stored in a single file. You can organize
your grooves into several files or keep them all together in a single file. Groove
files have an extension of .GRV.
A groove pattern can be as short or long as you like. If the groove pattern is shorter
than the material to be quantized, the pattern will be repeated as many times as
necessary.
To Define a New Groove
1.
Select the music that defines the groove using any of the selection tools and
commands.
2.
Choose Edit-Copy to place the music onto the Windows clipboard.
You can now use the Groove Quantize command with the clipboard as the
“Groove File.”
To Save a Groove Pattern
1.
Select the music that defines the groove using any of the selection tools and
commands.
2.
Choose Edit-Copy to place the music onto the Windows clipboard.
3.
Choose Process-Groove Quantize to display the Groove Quantize dialog box.
4.
Choose the Clipboard as the groove “Groove File.”
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5.
Click the Define button to display the Define Groove dialog box.
6.
Select an existing groove file, or enter the name for a new groove file.
7.
Enter a pattern name, or choose an existing pattern to replace.
8.
Click OK.
9.
If you are replacing a groove, verify that you want to delete the existing
version.
10. Click Close when you are done to return to the Groove Quantize dialog box.
SONAR stores the groove in the file and chooses the new groove as the current
groove source.
To Copy an Existing Groove
1.
Choose Process-Groove Quantize to display the Groove Quantize dialog box.
2.
Choose the groove file and groove pattern you want to copy.
3.
Click the Define button to display the Define Groove dialog box.
4.
Select an existing groove file, or enter the name for a new groove file.
5.
Enter a pattern name, or choose an existing pattern to replace.
6.
Click OK.
7.
If you are replacing a groove, verify that you want to delete the existing
version.
8.
Click Close when you are done to return to the Groove Quantize dialog box.
SONAR stores the groove on the Windows clipboard and chooses the new groove as
the current groove source.
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To Delete a Groove
1.
Choose Process-Groove Quantize to display the Groove Quantize dialog box.
2.
Click the Define button to display the Define Groove dialog box.
3.
Select the file containing the groove to delete.
4.
Select the pattern name of the groove.
5.
Click the Delete button, and confirm that you want to delete the groove
pattern.
6.
Repeat steps 3 to 5 for each groove you wish to delete.
7.
Click Close when you are done to return to the Groove Quantize dialog box.
Groove Quantize Tips
Here are some tips to help you with groove quantizing:
Aligning sloppy tracks with a good one. Select the portion of the “good” track
that you want to apply to the “sloppy” tracks and copy it to the Clipboard. Select
the portion of the sloppy tracks you want to modify. Choose Process-Groove
Quantize, choose the Clipboard as the groove source, and click OK.
Accenting beats in each measure. Create a sample measure containing note
events at the desired accent points. Give the notes on the accented beats a greater
velocity and the others a lesser velocity. Select the measure, copy it to the
Clipboard, and then choose Process-Groove Quantize. Set the velocity strength
as high as necessary so that the notes get accented the way you want.
Stealing that feeling. Suppose you have a dry piece that was composed and
entered into SONAR with a rigid sense of timing (for example, using step
recording). You’ve recorded a bass line that has exactly the off-beat rhythmic
dynamic you want for the dry piece. You’d like to force your other tracks to share
that feel. Copy the bass track to the Clipboard; from the Groove Quantize dialog
box, select the Clipboard as the groove source; choose a resolution value roughly on
the order of the duration of the bass notes and a window of 100 percent. SONAR
aligns the melody note events with the nearest bass notes.
Synchronizing rhythm and solo tracks. If you want to preserve the unique
rhythm of each track but want to synchronize them together in time, try a larger
resolution value and a smaller window. For example, suppose you have one track
with a highly stylized drum beat and another track containing a jazz solo with
some very nice runs in it. The drum beats fall primarily on quarter notes, but the
solo consists of runs of fast notes that aren’t quite sixteenth triplets. Copy the
drum track to the Clipboard, and groove quantize using a quarter-note resolution
and a window of perhaps 10 percent. SONAR aligns the solo notes near the
quarter-note drum beats but maintains the feel of the solo during the fast runs of
notes in between.
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Correcting off-tempo tracks. Suppose you have both rhythm and melody tracks
recorded, but the melody was played erratically. First, copy the rhythm track to
the Windows clipboard. Then use groove quantize with a whole-note resolution, a
window of 25 percent or less, and with the Scale Time option selected. The Groove
Quantize command will synchronize the melody track with the groove source at
roughly measure boundaries, while maintaining the relative timing of the notes in
each measure.
Fixing a bad verse. Copy a good verse to the Clipboard. Then change the selected
range to cover only the bad verse. Perform a groove quantize using the Clipboard
contents as the groove source. The rhythms of the two verses then match.
Fit Improvisation
SONAR lets you record music from a MIDI controller without requiring that you
use a fixed tempo. In fact, if you record without using a metronome, you are very
likely to end up with a recording that does not fit onto a fixed tempo grid.
The Process-Fit Improvisation command lets you take a recording and create a
tempo map (with measure and beat boundaries) that fits what you played. Your
performance is not changed in any way, even though the note start times and
durations are adjusted to fit the new tempo map. This is important if you later
want to use any of SONAR’s editing features that depend on a proper tempo map
for best results.
To use this command, you must record a reference track containing a single clip
that matches your original track or tracks but has only a single note on each beat
boundary. You should make sure that the reference track has one event for every
single beat, with no extra beats or missing beats. The first beat of the reference
track should be at 1:01:000. You can use any editing command to adjust the
reference track.
If you want, you can use other types of events as markers on the reference track,
such as a sustain pedal. Remember, however, that MIDI sustain pedals generate
one event when the pedal is pressed and another when it is released. So if you
want to use the sustain pedal for the reference track, keep this in mind. Click
down, up, down, up, for one, two, three, four.
Remember that the better the quality of your reference track, the better job the Fit
Improvisation command can do. You want each of your reference track events to
be as close as possible to the beat of the music. Note that some keyboards transmit
aftertouch events when you record your reference track. These extra events will
prevent Process-Fit Improvisation from working properly. Therefore, you should
delete these events before using this command, or filter them out when recording
the reference track (using Options-Global-MIDI).
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To Fit Tempos to an Improvisation
1.
Record the reference track.
2.
Select the reference track.
3.
If necessary, combine all clips in the reference track into a single clip using the
Edit-Bounce to Clip(s) command.
4.
Choose Process-Fit Improvisation.
SONAR adds tempo changes as necessary to fit the tempo grid to the reference
track. When you’re done, you should mute the reference track, since the reference
track events are not rescaled.
Note:
If the resulting tempo grid exceeds 250 beats per minute, you will see
an error message. If this happens, you can shorten the start times of
each event using the Edit-Length command, decrease the tempo to
compensate for the change, and then try again.
Searching for Events
The events in a project have many different parameters. For example, all MIDI
notes have a channel, starting time, pitch, velocity, and duration. Controllers have
a controller number and value. SONAR makes it simple to find, select, and modify
events that have certain values for specific attributes.
Here are some of the things you can do and the commands that you would use to do
them:
Action...
Command...
Search through a project to find the first event that has
specific attributes, and then search again to find the next
such event
Go-Search, Go-Search Next
Select all the events in a project that have the specified
attributes
Edit-Select-By Filter
Modify an existing selection to keep only those events that
have the specified attributes
Edit-Select-By Filter
Replace all events that meet specified attributes with
modified versions of the events
Edit-Interpolate
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These capabilities can help you find problem spots or errors in a project or make
systematic changes to events that have particular attributes. All of these
capabilities rely on the use of an event filter, which lets you choose the types of
events you want to work with and the range of values in which you are interested.
Event Filters
When you select individual clips, or select portions of clips by dragging the Time
Ruler, you automatically select all the events that fall within the designated time
range. Sometimes you need finer control over which events are selected. For
example, you might want to:
•
Select the notes that are played in a certain octave, so you can copy them to
another track
•
Select and boost the velocity of notes that have a velocity below a certain
threshold
•
Find the first patch change event on a particular track
•
Select and change the duration of all notes that occur on the third beat of any
measure
The Event Filter dialog box looks like this:
Check to include this type of event
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Enter the range of values for the events you want
Different types of events have different parameters, as shown in the table:
This event type...
Has these parameters...
Note
Pitch, velocity, and duration
Key Aftertouch
Pitch and pressure value
Controller
Controller number and value
RPN/NRPN
RPN/NRPN number and value
Patch Change
Bank and patch numbers
Channel Aftertouch
Pressure value
Pitch Wheel
Value
The event filter only accepts events that meet all the specified ranges. This means
that a note event must fall within the pitch range, the velocity range, and the
duration range in order to be included. The event filter can also be used to accept
events that occur in a range of channel numbers, beats, and clock ticks.
You can choose either to include or exclude the events that meet the specified
criteria. To exclude events within the designated range and select the ones outside
the designated range, check the exc checkbox for that value range.
The event filter can also be used to identify several special event types: audio,
System Exclusive events, Lyrics, MCI commands, envelope shades, and a few
others. You do not enter a range of values for these special events; SONAR finds all
events of the types you choose.
The All and None buttons help you set up the event filter the way you want:
Click this button...
To do this...
All
Set the event filter to include all events. You can then
modify the value ranges to narrow down your search or
uncheck the types of events you want to exclude.
None
Set the event filter to not include any events. Starting
from a blank slate, you can check off the types of events
you want to find or select and enter the desired ranges
of values.
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In any place in the event filter where you would normally enter a pitch string, you
can also enter the pitch by pressing a key on your MIDI keyboard. Also, you can
use the question mark in place of the octave number as a wild card. This lets the
event filter accept a single note, regardless of the octave. For example, the pitch
string C? will match a C in any octave.
Searching for an Event
The Go-Search command is used to find the next event (searching forward from
the Now time) that meets the criteria you lay out in an event filter. Once you have
found the first such event, you can find the next event that meets the criteria
using the Go-Search Again command (or by pressing F3).
To Search for an Event
1.
Choose Go-Search to display the Event Filter dialog box.
2.
Set up the event filter to find the events you want.
3.
Click OK.
SONAR finds the next event that meets the criteria and sets the Now time to the
start time of that event. To find the next occurrence, press F3 or choose Go-Search
Again.
Selecting Events
The Edit-Select-By Filter command is used to refine a selection by applying an
event filter to an initial selection. You can use this command any number of times
to refine the selection even further. Before using this command, use any of the
selection commands and tools to create an initial set of selected event. You can use
the Edit-Select-All command to select all events in the current view.
The Track view cannot display individual selected events. As a result, the EditSelect-By Filter command will not necessarily change the appearance of the
Track view. SONAR applies the event filter rule, but the change is not visible.
However, once you change the selection in any way (for example, by clicking on a
track number or by clicking in the Time Ruler), the effects of the event filter are
erased. If you want to use the filter, you must choose Edit-Select-By Filter again
and click OK to use the same filter values.
Note:
The shading of a clip in the Track view indicates how many of the
events in the clip are selected. If the clip is shown in solid black, all
events in the clip are selected. If a portion of a clip is shown in
medium gray, all the events in that time range are selected. If the clip
is shown in light gray, only some of the events in the shaded time
range are selected.
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To Select Events Using the Event Filter
1.
First, select an initial set of tracks, clips, or events.
2.
Choose Edit-Select-By Filter to display the Event Filter dialog box.
3.
Set up the event filter to find the events you want.
4.
Click OK.
SONAR searches the currently selected events and weeds out those that do not
meet the requirements of the event filter.
Example: Splitting Left-Hand and Right-Hand Parts
Suppose you recorded a keyboard riff on Track 1 but want to split the left and right
hands apart into separate tracks so you can edit them separately. Suppose that all
the right-hand notes are above C4. Here’s how to proceed:
1.
Select all of Track 1 by clicking on the track number in the Track view.
2.
Choose Edit-Select-By Filter to display the Event Filter dialog box.
3.
Click the None button to clear the dialog box.
4.
Check the Note checkbox, and enter a minimum value of C4. The maximum
should already be set to C9.
5.
Click OK. SONAR selects all the notes from C4 up.
6.
Choose Edit-Cut to move the selected notes to the clipboard.
7.
Choose Edit-Paste and paste the events to a different track.
Process-Interpolate
The Process-Interpolate command is an extremely flexible way of manipulating
the data parameters of events. It works something like the search-and-replace
function in a word processor but with scaling rather than simple replacement.
This command uses two event filters. The first event filter lets you set up your
search criteria. The second event filter is used to define the replacement value
ranges. When an event satisfies the search criteria, its parameters are scaled
between the search ranges and the replacement ranges. This permits
transposition, inversion, key signature changes, and other operations to be
accomplished with this one simple command.
In the second Event Filter dialog box, the checkboxes and value ranges for beats
and ticks are ignored. Only the replacement value ranges for the selected event
types are used.
The Process-Interpolate command understands a wild card octave number in the
second event filter to mean, “replace the original note with a different note in the
original octave.” Using octave wild cards for both the search and replacement
event filters lets you, for instance, change all E-flats to E-naturals, preserving the
octave of each note.
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A few examples will illustrate some of the many uses of the Process-Interpolate
command. These examples apply to the note event type, though the command can
be used on any type of event.
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Parameter...
Search
range...
Replacement
range...
Effect...
Pitch (key)
From C2 to C4
From C4 to C6
Transposes all notes in the
search range up two octaves
Pitch
From E2 to E2
From Eb2 to Eb2
Converts all Es in octave 2 to Eb
in the same octave
Pitch
From E? to E?
From Eb? to Eb?
Converts all Es in all octaves to
Eb in the same octave
Pitch
From E? to E?
From E? to Eb5
Converts all Es to Eb in octave 5
Pitch
From C1 to C8
From C8 to C1
Inverts all the notes in the
specified range
Velocity
From 0 to 127
From 80 to 127
Compresses the velocity values
into a narrower range
Velocity
From 0 to 127
From 127 to 0
Inverts the velocity values
(makes loud notes soft, and soft
notes loud)
Duration
From 0:01:00 to
0:02:000
From 0:01:000 to
0:01:000
Converts all notes that are
between a quarter note and half
note in length, and makes them
all quarter notes
Channel
From 1 to 1
From 2 to 2
Changes all events on MIDI
channel 1 to MIDI channel 2
Channel
From 1 to 16
From 4 to 4
Reassigns all events to MIDI
channel 4
Controllers, RPNs, NRPNs, and
Automation Data
SONAR projects contain a lot more information than the notes and digital audio
files that are at the heart of your work. Controllers, RPNs, and NRPNs (xRPNs, for
short) are special types of events used by MIDI software and hardware to control
the details of how MIDI music is played. Automation data are used to adjust
volume, pan, and other parameters of MIDI and audio tracks on the fly while
playback is in progress.
SONAR lets you enter or edit controller, xRPN, and automation data in several
ways:
•
Using envelopes in the Track view (see Chapter 13, Using Automation)
•
Using the Controllers pane in the Piano Roll view
•
Using the Insert-Series of Controllers command
•
Using the automation features of the Track view and Console view
•
Event by event in the Event List view
Editing data in the Track view’s Clips pane or the Piano Roll view’s Controllers
pane gives you great flexibility. You can examine the controllers in graphical form
and edit them even while recording or playback is in progress. This means you can
loop over a portion of your project and hear any change you make on the next loop.
Note: MIDI envelopes you create in the Piano Roll Controllers pane and MIDI
envelopes you create in the Track view Clips pane are actually separate envelopes,
even if they control the same parameter. Both kinds of envelopes are visible in the
Clips pane, and should generally not be used to control the same parameter. You
can convert Piano Roll view envelopes to Track view envelopes by selecting the
time range and tracks that the Piano Roll envelopes occupy, and using the EditConvert MIDI To Shapes command.
For more information on automation, see Chapter 13, Using Automation, and
Chapter 11, Mixing and Effects Patching. For more information about the Event
List view, see “The Event List View” on page 318.
Controllers
Controllers are the MIDI events such as volume, sustain pedal, and pan that you
use to change the sound while you're playing. You can enter controller data from
within SONAR, or record them from external devices such as MIDI keyboards.
Controllers let you control the detail and character of your music. Say you’re
playing a guitar sound on your synthesizer, but it sounds lifeless and dull. That’s
partly because a guitar player doesn’t just play notes one after another—he often
bends or slides on the strings to put emotion into his playing. You can use
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controllers in the same way, creating bends, volume swells, and other effects that
make sounds more realistic and more fun to listen to.
Your computer can work the controllers on your electronic instrument by sending
MIDI Controller messages. The MIDI specification allows for 128 different types of
controllers, many of which are used for standard purposes. For example, controller
7 is normally used for volume events, and controller 10 is normally used for pan.
Every controller can take on a value ranging from 0 to 127.
The Piano Roll toolbar contains several dropdown lists that let you choose the
controller you want to see and edit. The contents of these lists depend on the
output and channel settings and on the instrument assigned to that output and
channel. Different instruments use controllers in different ways. See Chapter 16,
Using Instrument Definitions.
Note:
SONAR has automatic searchback for all continuous controller data
to ensure that the correct controller values are in effect regardless of
where you start playback. Suppose you start playback halfway
through a project. SONAR searches back from that point to find any
earlier controller values that should still apply.
RPNs and NRPNs
RPNs (Registered Parameter Numbers) and NRPNs (Non-Registered Parameter
Numbers) are similar to controllers, except that both the parameter number and
data value can be any number between 0 and 16,383.
When RPNs and NRPNs are transmitted via MIDI or stored in a standard MIDI
file, they are converted into four separate controller messages. SONAR detects
incoming xRPN messages from MIDI inputs or files and reassembles them into a
single RPN or NRPN event. This provides the convenience of single RPN or NRPN
events in SONAR plus compatibility with existing files, equipment, and software.
The following table shows the controller numbers SONAR uses for RPN and
NRPN events:
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Message...
Parameter
number
MSB Controller...
Parameter number
LSB Controller...
Data value
MSB Controller...
Data value
LSB
Controller...
RPN
101
100
6
38
NRPN
99
98
6
38
Automation Data
The Track and Console views allow you to record automation data that define
changes in volume, pan and many other parameters throughout a project. The
automation data can include step changes recorded using the snapshot button or
continuous changes recorded while using the knobs, faders, and buttons.
The Track view allows you to create envelopes to adjust several parameters. For
more about automation, see Chapter 13, Using Automation.
Velocity, Pitch Wheel, and Aftertouch
SONAR lets you display and edit several other types of data the same way you do
controller data. These data include:
•
MIDI note velocities
•
MIDI pitch wheel or pitch-bend messages
•
MIDI channel aftertouch (ChanAft) values
•
MIDI key aftertouch (KeyAft) values
Remember that note velocity is an attribute of each note and not a completely
separate event. You cannot add or remove velocity events in the Controllers pane,
but you can use the line and draw tools to adjust the velocity values for existing
notes. You can also edit velocities with the Edit-Scale Velocities command. For
more information, see “Adding Crescendos and Decrescendos” on page 290. You
can edit individual note velocities in the Note Properties dialog box, described in
“Changing Note Properties” on page 536.
Using the Controllers Pane
The Controllers pane is the lower half of the Piano Roll view.
Tools for editing controllers
Choose
the type
of data
to edit
Pick the controller
or xRPN to change
Splitter bar
Controllers
pane
Choose the MIDI channel, if any
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The Controllers pane looks like a graph; the horizontal axis represents time, and
the vertical axis represents the event values. Each event appears as a single
vertical line, and the height of this line shows the value of the event. The
Controllers pane shows events for all the clips in a track or multiple tracks. You
can only see one type of controller at a time, and you must select All Channels
from the Channel dropdown list to view more than a single MIDI channel. The
exception is velocity data, which are not channel specific. You can zoom in and out
on the Controllers pane using the zoom and unzoom buttons on the toolbar. To
zoom all the way in or out in a single step, hold the Shift key while you click on the
tool.
Selection methods in the Controllers pane are similar to those in other views. Here
is a summary:
•
Click on a controller to select it
•
Shift-click to add other controllers to the selection
•
Ctrl-click to toggle the selection state of a controller
•
Drag a rectangle around several controllers to select them
•
Click and drag in the Time Ruler to select all controllers in a time range
•
Click between two markers to select the controllers that lie between the
markers
The Controllers pane has several tools you can use to add or modify events. The
following tools apply only to the track that is selected in the Track List pane:
Tool...
Name...
What it’s for...
Select
Select controller events, so you can delete them
Draw Line
Draw a straight line indicating a steady increase
or decrease in controller value
Draw
Draw a custom curve indicating changes in
controller value. Draw a straight line by holding
down the Shift key while using the Draw tool.
Erase
Erase controller changes already in place
Note that you can also add controllers using the Insert-Series of Controllers
command. If you make a mistake using any of these tools or commands, you can
use Undo to correct the error.
When you use the Draw tool, the speed with which you drag the mouse determines
the density of controller events. To insert a larger number of controller events with
relatively small changes in value, move the mouse slowly. To insert a smaller
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number of controller events with relatively large changes in value, drag the mouse
quickly.
Creating a change that sounds smooth does not always require making the value
change by one on each tick. Bigger jumps may sound very gradual if the tempo is
fast. Also, many devices round off the controller values. For example, many
instruments respond to volume controller values of 100 and 101 with exactly the
same loudness. Using too high a density of controller events can backfire by
making the computer work so hard during playback that it is unable to keep up.
This will usually cause hiccups or poor timing during playback.
To Display Controller, RPN, NRPN, Velocity, Pitch-Bend, or
Aftertouch Data
1.
Select the track whose controller or xRPN data you want to see by clicking on
the track number in the Track view.
2.
Choose View-Piano Roll to display the Piano Roll view.
3.
Click the Show/Hide Controller Pane button
4.
Choose the data you want to see according to the table:
.
To see this…
Do this…
Controller data
Choose Control from the first dropdown list in the
toolbar, and then choose the controller and channel
from the second and third dropdown lists
RPN or NRPN data
Choose RPN or NRPN from the first dropdown list in
the toolbar, choose which RPN or NRPN you want
from the second dropdown list, and choose the
channel from the third dropdown list
Velocity data
Choose Velocity from the first dropdown list
Pitch-bend data
Choose Wheel from the first dropdown list, and the
MIDI channel from the third dropdown list
Aftertouch data
Choose ChanAft from the first dropdown list, and the
MIDI channel from the third dropdown list
SONAR displays the data in the controllers pane.
To Insert a Controller Value
1.
In the Controllers pane, choose the data type, controller or xRPN number, and
channel (if applicable) from the lists in the toolbar.
2.
Select the Draw tool
3.
Click in the Controllers pane view at any desired time point and value.
or the Draw Line tool
.
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SONAR adds a controller at the indicated point.
To Draw a Linear Series of Controllers
1.
Choose the data type, controller or xRPN number, and channel (if applicable)
from the lists in the toolbar.
2.
Select the
3.
Drag a line in the Controllers pane from the starting time and value to the
ending time and value.
tool.
SONAR adds a series of controllers and erases any existing controller values in the
same time interval.
To Draw a Series of Controller Value Changes
1.
Choose the data type, controller or xRPN number, and channel (if applicable)
from the lists in the toolbar.
2.
Select the Draw tool
3.
Drag the cursor across the Controllers pane, adjusting the value as you move
left to right.
.
SONAR adds a series of controllers and erases any existing controller values in the
same time interval.
Tip:
When using the Draw tool
to draw a straight line.
, you can press and hold the Shift key
To Insert a Series of Controllers
1.
Choose Insert-Series of Controllers to display the Insert Series of
Controllers dialog box.
2.
Choose the controller type from the Insert list.
3.
Choose the controller number or type from the Number list.
4.
Use the spinners or enter the desired MIDI channel.
5.
Enter a starting and ending value in the Begin and End boxes.
6.
Enter a starting and ending time in the From and Thru boxes.
7.
Click OK when you are done.
SONAR inserts a series of controller events with values that change smoothly over
time from the starting to the ending value indicated in the dialog box. This
command never inserts more than one event on the same clock tick. If any
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controllers of the type you have selected already exist in the time region, SONAR
deletes these before inserting the new ones.
To Remove or Erase Controllers
1.
Choose the data type, controller or xRPN number, and channel (if applicable)
from the lists in the toolbar.
2.
Select the Eraser tool
3.
Drag the mouse over the desired region to highlight the region you want to
erase.
4.
Release the mouse button when you have highlighted the desired region.
.
SONAR deletes all controllers of the selected type. (Note that you cannot delete
velocity events in the Controllers pane. You must delete the notes that have those
velocities.)
To Convert MIDI Controller Envelopes to Shapes
1.
In the Clips pane, select the time range and track(s) that contain the
controller data you want to convert.
2.
Use the Edit-Convert MIDI To Shapes command.
The Convert MIDI To Shapes dialog box appears.
3.
In the Type field, select the type of controller you want to convert.
4.
In the Value field, select the controller number of the controller you want to
convert. For example, if you’re converting a volume envelope to a shape, select
7.
5.
In the Channel field, select the channel of the controller you want to convert,
and click OK.
SONAR converts the Piano Roll view controller envelope you selected to a Track
view shape that controls the same parameter.
Note: If two clips overlap, the Edit-Convert MIDI To Shapes command converts
the controller envelopes in both clips, in whatever parts of the clips lie in the
selected time range.
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The Event List View
The Event List view shows events in a list format. You can insert, delete, or modify
any kind of event, including notes, pitch-wheel data, velocity, MIDI controllers,
patch changes, Wave files, lyrics, text strings, MCI commands, System Exclusive
meta-events, and more.
There are three ways to open the Event List view:
•
Select one or more tracks and choose View-Event List
•
Select one or more tracks and click
•
Right-click a clip in the Clips pane and choose View-Event List from the
popup menu
in the Views toolbar
Toolbar
Track
This event
is selected
Event time
Event List view
Event type
Event channel
Hide different kinds of events buttons
Show events outside slip edit boundary
Event Manager
Event List toolbar
Insert
Delete
Pick Tracks
The events in the selected tracks are listed one per line, from top to bottom. As you
move the highlight through the event list, SONAR updates the Now marker (time
display). During playback, the event list scrolls to display the events at the current
time. The current event is centered in the Event List during playback, and the
highlight is on the correct event when playback stops. Any time you change the
Now time, the event list is updated and the highlight is moved to the event that
will be played next.
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When the Event List view includes more than one track, events are mixed together
in chronological order. For example, if you select tracks 1 and 3 when you open the
Event List view, you see a single list of intermingled events from tracks 1 and 3.
You can have any number of Event List views, each containing any number of
tracks, open at the same time. You can change the tracks shown in the Event List
view by clicking the
button and choosing the tracks you want.
Event List Buttons and Overview
Each line of the Event List view shows a single event along with all of its
parameters. There are many different types of events. All share the following
parameters:
•
The time of the event, displayed in SMPTE (hours:minutes:seconds:frames)
format
•
The time of the event, displayed in MBT (measures:beats:ticks) format
•
The event type, or kind of event
The remaining parameters vary by event type. You can hide or show each kind of
event by clicking its button in the Event List toolbar or by checking its checkbox in
the Event Manager dialog box. Here is a summary listing of the parameters that
apply to each type of event.
Short name
and display
button...
Type of event...
Parameters...
Note
MIDI note
Pitch (MIDI key number), velocity (0-127),
duration (beats:ticks or simply ticks), MIDI
channel (1-16)
KeyAft
MIDI key aftertouch
Pitch (MIDI key number), pressure amount
(0-127), MIDI channel (1-16)
Control
MIDI controller change
Controller number (0-127), controller value
(0-127), MIDI channel (1-16)
Patch
MIDI patch change
Bank select method, bank number, number
or name of the patch, MIDI channel (1-16)
ChanAft
MIDI channel aftertouch
Pressure amount (0-127), MIDI channel (116)
Wheel
MIDI pitch wheel position
Wheel position (-8192 to 8191, where the
center is 0)
RPN
Registered Parameter
Number
Parameter number (0-16383), parameter
value (0-16383), MIDI channel (1-16)
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320
NRPN
Non-registered Parameter
Number
Parameter number (0-16383), parameter
value (0-16383), MIDI channel (1-16)
Sysx Bank
System Exclusive data
bank
Sysx bank number (0-8191)
Sysx Data
System Exclusive data
message
Sysx message up to 255 bytes long
Text
Text
Text
Lyric
Lyric
Text (a single word or syllable)
MCIcmd
Windows Media Control
Interface (MCI) command
MCI command text
Wave Audio
Digital audio wave
Name, velocity (0-127), and number of
samples
Shape Events
Automation graph
segments made up of a
solid line between two
nodes
Change in values, kind of shape, and
length in MBT format.
Expression
Staff view expression
marking
Text of expression mark
Hairpin
Staff view dynamics
marking
Direction (crescendo or diminuendo) and
duration
Chord
Staff view chord symbol
The name of the chord
Event List Manager
Opens Event Manager
dialog box
Shows or hides various kinds of events
Events Out of Slip
Edit Boundaries
Events that are outside of
slip-edited boundaries
Note, audio, or controller data
Insert Event
Inserts a copy of
highlighted event—
double-click the event’s
Kind parameter to change
it to the kind of event you
want
Whatever the highlighted event’s
parameters are
Delete Event
Deletes the highlighted
event
Whatever the highlighted event’s
parameters are
Note: Shape events cannot be edited, only
deleted.
Pick Tracks and
Show Next/Previous
Track
Left side of button opens
Pick Tracks dialog; right
side of button opens Next
Track/Previous Track
dropdown menu
Allows you to pick what tracks the Event
List shows events for
Here are some notes about events and their parameters:
•
The Channel parameter in the Track view can force an event to play on a
different MIDI channel from the one shown in the event list.
•
Pedal marks entered in the Staff view are displayed in the Event List view as
controller events (64).
•
Many keyboards do not support key aftertouch and channel aftertouch.
Consult the User’s Guide for your keyboard for more information.
•
When you double-click the value of a patch event, SONAR displays the Bank/
Patch Change dialog box. For more information about bank and patch
changes, “To Insert a Bank/Patch Change” on page 138.
•
See Chapter 17, Using System Exclusive Data, for more information about
System Exclusive banks.
•
See Chapter 9, Editing Audio, for more information about audio clips.
Selecting Events in the Event List View
The following table describes how to select events in the Event List view:
To do this...
Do this...
Select a single event
Click on the event.
Select multiple, contiguous events
Select the first event, hold the Shift key
down and click the last event.
Select multiple, contiguous events
using the arrow keys
Hold down the Ctrl and Shift keys while
pressing the up or down arrows.
Select multiple, non-contiguous
events
Select an event, hold the Ctrl key while
selecting additional events
Additional information about note events and MCIcmd events appears later in this
chapter.
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Event List Display Filter
You can configure the Event List view to display different event types, as described
in the following table:
To do this...
Do this...
Hide events of a certain type
Select the event type in the toolbar, in the
Event List view popup menu, or in the Event
Manager. To display a type of event,
deselect it.
Open the Event Manager
Choose Event Manager from the popup
menu, or click
.
Show or hide slip-edited events
As a default, if you slip edit the boundaries
of a clip, all events outside those
boundaries are hidden in the Event List
view. If you want to see these events, click
this button
.
Note: You can not edit slip-edited material
in the Event List view.
Editing Events and Event Parameters
The Event List view lets you add, delete, or change events one by one. You can also
print the list of events or audition the events one at a time to see how they sound.
You can change the parameters of any event by moving the rectangular highlight
to the cell you want to change and doing one of the following:
•
Type a new value and then press Enter
•
Press the - and + keys on the numeric keypad to decrease or increase values by
a small amount
•
Press the [ and ] keys to decrease or increase values by a larger amount
•
Click and hold the mouse button, and then drag the mouse up or down to
change the value by a small amount
•
Click and hold both mouse buttons, and then drag the mouse up or down to
change the value by a larger amount
•
Double-click a cell, and then enter or choose a new value
If you change the time of an event, it may also change its position in the event list.
The Event List view follows that event to its new location.
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If you try to change the event type (kind of event), SONAR lets you choose the kind
of event you want from a dialog box. When you change one kind of MIDI event into
another kind of MIDI event, SONAR preserves the parameters as fully as possible.
Note: Shape events cannot be edited, only deleted.
To Insert a New Event
1.
Move the highlight (use the mouse or arrow keys) to the point at which you
want to insert an event.
2.
Press Insert, or click
3.
Change the event to the kind of event you need by double-clicking the name of
the event that’s listed in the Kind column. The Kind of Event dialog box
appears.
4.
Choose what kind of event you want and click OK. SONAR changes the
highlighted event to the kind you chose.
5.
Edit the event time and other parameter values as required.
. SONAR makes a copy of the highlighted event.
If the Event List is initially empty, pressing the Insert key creates a default note
event.
To Delete an Event
1.
Move the highlight (use the mouse or arrow keys) to the event you want to
delete.
2.
Press Delete, or click
.
SONAR deletes the event.
To Delete Several Events
1.
Select the events you want to delete by clicking, dragging, or Ctrl or Shiftclicking in the first column of the Event List view.
2.
Choose Edit-Cut.
SONAR deletes the selected events.
To Print the Event List
1.
Choose File-Print Preview to display a preview of the printed event listing.
2.
Click the Zoom button (or just click the page) to zoom in and out, and use the
Page Up and Page Down keys to review the pages.
3.
Click Print to print the event list, or click Close to close the Preview window
without printing.
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To Play Events Step by Step
1.
Using the keyboard, hold the Shift key and press the Spacebar to play the
currently highlighted event. If the event is a note event, it plays until you
release the Spacebar.
2.
When you release the Spacebar, the highlight moves to the next event.
3.
Continue pressing the Spacebar to play events one by one.
4.
To edit the last event you heard, release the Shift key.
The highlight moves back to the last event you heard, so you can make changes.
You can also audition a single event using the mouse. Ctrl-click on an event to play
the event. If the event is a note or Wave event, it plays until you release the mouse
button.
Additional Event Information
Note Events—There are three values parameters for note events:
•
A pitch, which represents the MIDI key number as a note and an octave.
•
A velocity (0–127), which is how fast the key is struck. Some keyboards don’t
transmit or receive velocity messages.
•
A duration, which is how long the note lasts. This amount is shown in
beats:ticks format. (If the note lasts less then one beat, then only the number
of ticks is shown.)
Note names may also represent percussion instruments, and lists of such note
names are sometimes associated with a particular percussion patch. The note C3,
for example, may really be “kick drum.” If a patch is associated with a percussion
note name list, the name of the percussion instrument appears in Event List view
rather than a note and an octave from the piano keyboard.
SONAR uses the following notation to display flats and sharps in this and other
views:
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Character...
Meaning...
b
flat
#
sharp
"
double flat
x
double sharp
MCIcmd Events
Media Control Interface (MCI) commands are special events that let you control
other multimedia hardware and software (e.g., CD-ROM drives, laserdiscs, sound
cards, animations, video) during playback. MCI commands are part of the
multimedia extensions in Windows. MCIcmd events have one parameter—the
command line text of the MCI command. Here are some examples:
This command...
Does this...
PLAY C:\TRAIN.WAV
Plays the Wave file TRAIN.WAV
PLAY
C:\VIDEOS\VACATION.AVI
Plays the video file VACATION.AVI from the
VIDEOS folder
SET CDAUDIO TIME FORMAT
TMSF PLAY CDAUDIO 3
Plays a specific track from the CD drive
STOP CDAUDIO
Stops the CD from playing
While MCI commands can be used to play Wave files, these files are played at their
normal speed and are not necessarily synchronized with MIDI or other audio data.
By contrast, Wave audio clips are played in lock-step synchronization with MIDI
and other audio data.
For complete documentation of Windows MCI commands, search for MCI on the
Microsoft World Wide Web site (www.microsoft.com).
MIDI Effects (MIDI Plug-ins)
SONAR provides the ability to use plug-in MIDI effects. Using plug-in effects is
similar to using the MIDI processing commands off-line. The overall procedure is
as follows:
•
Select the MIDI data to be affected.
•
Choose the effect you want from the Process-MIDI Effects menu or from the
popup menu’s MIDI Effects menu.
•
Set effect parameters (or select a preset if you’ve made one for this purpose).
•
Click Audition to preview the music with the effect applied.
•
Click OK to apply the effect to the selected MIDI data.
If you're not happy with the result, choose Edit-Undo before doing any additional
work.
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MIDI effects can be applied to whole or partial clips. For example, you can apply an
echo to just one note.
MIDI effects can also be applied to MIDI tracks in real time (during playback) in
the Track and Console views. Unlike any of the processing described so far, using
effects in real time is non-destructive. This means that the MIDI data itself is not
modified. See “Mixing and Effects Patching” on page 419 for more information on
real-time effects.
Note:
Offline effects may cause your MIDI events to grow in size. For
example, when you apply echo, the clip may need to grow to
accommodate the tail end of the echo.
Presets
The MIDI effects dialog boxes support the use of presets. Presets are a way to store
dialog box settings so that you can apply the exact same processing or effect again
in the future. The following table tells you how to use presets:
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To do this...
Do this...
Save the current settings as a preset
Enter a preset name and click the Save
button
Use a preset
Select the preset from the dropdown list
Delete a preset
Select the preset, then click the Delete
button
Quantizing
The Quantize command moves events to (or towards) an evenly-spaced timing
grid. The Quantize effect is similar to the Process-MIDI Effects-Cakewalk FXQuantize command. For more information, see “Other Settings” on page 298.
The quantize effect parameters are as follows:
Parameter/
Option...
Meaning...
Start Times
Quantize event start times.
Durations
Quantize event durations.
Resolution
The spacing of the grid used for quantization.
Tuplet
Specify the resolution as a tuplet note, for example 5
notes in the time of 4.
Strength (%)
The strength of the adjustments. 100% indicates perfect
quantization; otherwise, the command moves the notes
only part way towards the desired position.
Swing (%)
The distortion of timing used to produce a swing feel. A
value of 50% indicates a straight rendition; negative and
positive values produce distortion of the timing grid. For
more information about swing, see “Swing” on page 297.
Window (%)
The sensitivity of quantization. A value of 100% causes
all notes to be quantized. Lower values cause the effect
not to quantize notes that are far from the timing grid.
Offset (Ticks)
The offset of the quantization grid from the start of
measure boundaries. A value of 0 indicates perfect
alignment. Values less than 0 shift the grid points earlier;
values greater than 0 shift the grid later.
Randomize
Causes a random time offset to be added to or subtracted
from each new event time. You must also specify the
maximum offset, as a percentage of the quantization
resolution.
To Quantize MIDI Data
1.
Select the data to be affected.
2.
Choose MIDI Effects-Quantize from the Process menu or from the popup
menu to open the Quantize dialog box.
3.
Set the quantization parameters, as described in the table above.
4.
Click OK.
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SONAR applies the specified quantization to the selected data.
Adding Echo/Delay
The Echo Delay command creates a series of repeating echoes of each note. The
echo notes can decrease or increase in velocity, and can be transposed from the
original by regular intervals.
The parameters used to specify the echo/delay effect are as follows:
Parameter/
Option...
Meaning...
Decay (%)
The reduction in velocity with each echo. A value greater than 100%
indicates an increase in velocity.
No. Echoes
The number of echo notes for each original note. If the velocity
reaches 0 before the specified number of echoes, the effect generates
no more echo notes.
Delay
The delay between successive echo notes.
Delay Units
The units used to specify the delay. You may specify delay in ticks, in
milliseconds, or as a note duration.
Tap
The delay you specify by tapping the control with the mouse.
Swing (%)
The distortion of timing used to produce a swing feel to the echo. A
value of 0% indicates a straight rendition; negative and positive values
produce distortion of the timing grid. For more information about
swing, see “Swing” on page 297.
Transpose (Steps)
The number of steps to transpose each echo note from the previous.
You can specify a Diatonic or Chromatic scale.
To Apply Echo/Delay to MIDI Data
1.
Select the data to be affected.
2.
Choose MIDI Effects-Cakewalk FX-Echo Delay from the Process menu or
from the popup menu to open the Echo Delay dialog box.
3.
Set the echo/delay parameters, as described in the table above.
4.
Click OK.
SONAR applies the specified echo effect to the selected data.
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Filtering Events
The Event Filter command lets you remove events from the MIDI data, keeping
or passing through only those events that you specify. The Event Filter effect
works almost identically to the event filter used by the Edit-Select-By Filter
command. For more information, see “Event Filters” on page 306.
To Apply an Event Filter to MIDI Data
1.
Select the data to be affected.
2.
Choose MIDI Effects-Cakewalk FX-Event Filter from the Process menu or
from the popup menu to open the Event Filter dialog box.
3.
Set the event filter parameters.
4.
Click OK.
SONAR applies the specified event filter to the selected data, removing all those
events that do not meet the filter criteria.
Adding Arpeggio
The Arpeggiator command applies an arpeggio to its input and plays it back in
real time. You can make it arpeggiate with a swing feel, or straight and staccato or
legato, vary its speed and direction, and specify its range.
The parameters used to specify the arpeggiator effect are as follows:
Parameter/Option...
Meaning...
Swing (%)
The distortion of timing used to produce a swing feel. A value
of 0% indicates a straight rendition; negative and positive
values produce distortion of the timing grid. For more
information on swing, see “Swing” on page 297.
Rate
The delay between successive notes.
Units
The units used to specify the delay. You may specify delay in
ticks, in milliseconds, or as a note duration.
Legato (%)
The smoothness of the notes of the arpeggio. 1 percent plays
each notes and releases it instantly. 99 percent plays each
note up to the start of the next note.
Path
The direction of the arpeggio. Options are Up, Up (arpeggios
go up), Up, Down (arpeggios go up, then down), Down, Down
(arpeggios go down), Down, Up (arpeggios go down, then
up).
Play thru
The disposition of the notes you play to specify the arpeggio.
Checked plays the original notes. Unchecked filters out the
original notes.
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Specify output range
The range over which the arpeggio plays. Checked specifies
that the arpeggiator repeats notes at each octave over the
entire specified range. Unchecked specifies that the
arpeggiator includes only the notes you actually play.
Lowest note
The MIDI number of the lowest note of the arpeggio.
Numbers run from 0 to 127.
Span (Notes)
The number of half-steps in the range. Numbers run from 12
to 127.
Use chord control
The chord you specify. Checked specifies that the
arpeggiator infers the chord from the notes played in the
range. It identifies the chord in the Chord recognized box and
uses it to play arpeggios for notes outside the range.
Lowest note
The MIDI number of the lowest note the arpeggiator uses for
chord recognition (0 to 126).
Span (Notes)
The number of half-steps in the range. Numbers run from 1 to
127.
Chord recognized
The chord the Arpeggiator recognizes and plays.
To Apply the Arpeggiator to MIDI Data
1.
Select the data to be affected.
2.
Choose MIDI Effects-Cakewalk FX-Arpeggiator from the Process menu or
from the popup menu to open the Arpeggiator dialog box.
3.
Set the arpeggiator parameters, as described in the table above.
4.
Click OK.
SONAR applies the specified arpeggio effect to the selected data.
Analyzing Chords
The Chord Analyzer command analyzes chords. You select the notes to be
analyzed in one of SONAR’s windows, then open the Chord analyzer and press the
Audition button. The chord appears on the MIDI display and the staff, and its
name with possible alternatives appears in the Chords recognized box.
You can play the notes on your MIDI input device and have the Chord Analyzer
identify the chords in real time. You do not have to set to playback.
You can open the Chord Analyzer in the Track and Console views, press Playback
and have the Chord Analyzer identify the chords in real time
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The Chord Analyzer has a single parameter:
Parameter/
Option...
Meaning...
Examine every x (MIDI
ticks)
The frequency with which the Chord Analyzer samples
the chord. Lower numbers (smaller intervals) are more
accurate, but require more computation.
To Analyze a Chord
1.
Select the notes to be analyzed.
2.
Choose MIDI Effects-Cakewalk FX-Chord Analyzer from the Process
menu or from the popup menu to open the Transpose dialog box.
3.
Click the Audition key.
SONAR displays the chord and its name.
To clear the display, press the Clear button.
Note: When analyzing chords you may see chords being displayed before you hear
them. You can reduce the amount of time these chords appear ahead of playback.
To do so, open the MIDI tab in the Global Options dialog (Options-Global) and
enter a lower value in the Prepare Using “N” Milliseconds Buffer option.
Excessively low values may cause glitches during playback, so it is best to
gradually reduce the value in this option until the desired result is achieved.
Changing Velocities
The Velocity command lets you adjust velocities of MIDI notes. You can set
velocity values, set scale values, add specific or random offsets, create smooth
transitions, and limit the velocity range.
The velocity effect options are as follows:
Parameter/
Option...
Meaning...
Set all velocities to X
Sets all velocities to the specified value.
Change velocities by X
Adds a specified increment to all velocities.
Scale velocities to X% of
their current value
Multiplies all velocities by a constant factor.
Change gradually from X
to Y
Creates a smooth velocity change across the selection.
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Change gradually from
X% to Y%
Scales velocities by a gradually changing factor.
Limit range from X to Y
Brings all velocities into the specified range.
Randomize by +/- X
Adds or subtracts a random offset from each velocity.
You must also specify the maximum offset. You can
select this option in addition to one of the previous
options.
Tendency
The tendency of the random offset to be lower or higher,
on a scale from -10 to 10.
To Change Note Velocities
1.
Select the data to be affected.
2.
Choose MIDI Effects-Cakewalk FX-Velocity from the Process menu or
from the popup menu to open the Velocity dialog box.
3.
Select options as described in the table above.
4.
Click OK.
SONAR changes note velocities according to the specified options.
Transposing MIDI Notes
The Process-MIDI Effects-Cakewalk FX-Transpose command is a flexible
transposition feature. You can perform simple chromatic or diatonic
transpositions, transpose from one key to another, or define your own custom
transposition.
The transpose options are as follows:
332
Parameter/
Option...
Meaning...
Interval
Specifies chromatic transposition. Transposes notes by
the specified number of steps.
Diatonic
Specifies diatonic transposition. Transposes notes by the
specified number of scale steps within the specified
scale.
Key/Scale
Specifies transposition from one scale and key to
another.
Custom Map
Specifies custom transposition as defined by the map.
Offset
For Interval transposition, the number of steps for the
transposition.
For Diatonic Transposition, the number of scale degrees
for the transposition.
For Key/Scale transposition, a number of octaves added
to each note after transposition.
Key
For Diatonic transposition, the key in which the
transposition is made.
From, To
For Key/Scale transposition, the starting and ending key
and scale.
Transposition Map
A table of pitch mappings for the specified transposition.
You can select to show the pitches as note names or as
note numbers. For Diatonic and Key/Scale
transpositions, pitches not in the starting (from) key are
indented.
To Change a pitch mapping, click on a From pitch and
select a To pitch with the popup slider. If you change a
pitch mapping, the transposition type is automatically set
to Custom Map.
Constrain to Scale
For Diatonic and Key/Scale transpositions, forces all
non-scale notes to be transposed to the nearest
appropriate scale tone.
To Transpose MIDI Data
1.
Select the data to be affected.
2.
Choose MIDI Effects-Cakewalk FX-Transpose from the Process menu or
from the popup menu to open the Transpose dialog box.
3.
Set the transposition options as described in the table above.
4.
Click OK.
SONAR transposes the selected data according to the options you specified.
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334
8
Drum Maps and the
Drum Grid Pane
There are several panes in the Piano Roll view designed for use with MIDI drum
tracks: the Note Map pane which lists the original pitch values and the mapped
values for each note, and the Drum Grid pane which displays your drum tracks
(any track assigned to a drum map) and where you can edit your drum tracks.
In This Chapter
The Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336
Creating and Editing a Drum Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336
Using Drum Maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340
The Note Map Pane. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342
The Drum Grid Pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344
The Pattern Brush Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345
The Basics
Drum maps are virtual MIDI ports that you create and edit. Drum maps give you
total control over all the MIDI drum sounds you have access to either in the form
of software (DXi synths) or hardware (external MIDI sound modules).
Drum maps in SONAR allow you to do the following:
•
Re-map note events, for example, map a General MIDI drum kit to a nonGeneral MIDI drum kit.
•
Create a custom drum kit from several MIDI devices (DXi synths, hardware
synths) and play it from a single MIDI track if desired.
•
Use the Drum Grid Editor to show only the drum sounds you want to see.
•
Sort drum sounds to suit your needs.
•
Mute and solo individual drum sounds
Creating and Editing a Drum Map
You can create a drum map by either modifying an existing drum map or by
creating a new drum map.
The Drum Map Manager
In the Drum Map Manager dialog you can create and save drum maps for use with
hardware or software synths and samplers. You can customize drum maps to select
specific sounds on any of your available sound sources.
To Open the Drum Map Manager Dialog
You can open the Drum Map manager in one of the following ways:
•
Select Options-Drum Map Manager from the menu
Or
•
336
Click on the Output field of your MIDI drum track and select Drum Map
Manager
New Drum
Map button
Delete Drum
Map button
Current Drum Map
Preset list
Click to
create a
new row
Rows
Port/Channel
pairs
Drum Maps Used in Current Project
This field displays all the currently available drum maps. click the New button
to create a new drum map and Delete
to delete a drum map. Select a
drum map to display the drum mappings in the Drum Map Manager. All drum
maps in this field are saved with the current project.
Presets
Presets can be used to populate the fields in the Drum Map Manager. This field is
also used to save new drum maps by entering a name in the field and clicking the
save button.
337
Settings
The Settings section is where you map the following for each In Note (source):
•
In Note—The source MIDI note value.
•
Out Note—The MIDI note value that plays on the destination sound source.
•
Name—The user-defined name for the row.
•
Chn—The channel on which the note is transmitted.
•
Out Port—The hardware output port or software virtual output port to which
you are sending the note.
•
Vel+—Apply a velocity offset setting to an individual mapped pitch.
•
V Scale—The V Scale value sets a level of compression or expansion. A value
below 100% is compression. A value above 100% is expansion. The Vel+
setting allows for gain make-up.
Ports and Channels
This section lists each unique Port and Channel pairing. This allows you to make
quick global changes that Port and Channel pairing’s bank and patch settings.
Working in the Drum Map Manager
The following table lists several ways of editing settings in the Drum Map
Manager.
338
To do this…
Do this…
Audition a row
Select the row and press Shift+Spacebar
Sort rows
Drag and drop a row to a new location
Select multiple rows
Click a row, hold down the Ctrl key while
selecting additional rows
Change the Output Port for all rows
with the same Channel/Port
Press Ctrl+Shift while changing the port.
Undo an edit
Press the Undo button
The Map Properties Dialog
The Map Properties dialog lets you change all the settings for an individual
mapped note in your drum map. The settings in the Map Properties dialog are the
same as a single row in the Drum Map Manager. If you want to edit more than one
drum note pitch mapping, click the Map Mgr button to open the Drum Map
Manager dialog.
To Open the Map Properties Dialog
•
Double-click on a row in the Note Map pane.
Or
•
Right-click on a row in the Note Map pane and select Map Properties from
the menu that appears.
Saving a Drum Map
Use the following procedure to save a new or modified drum map.
1.
In the Drum Map Manager, enter a name for the new drum map in the Preset
field.
2.
Click the Save button
.
Drum map presets are saved and available for all projects. Drum maps are saved
on a per-project basis.
339
Using Drum Maps
The following topics cover using drum-mapped tracks, including how to display
drum tracks in the Drum Grid pane and how to edit note velocities.
Assigning a MIDI Track to a Drum Map
Use the following procedure to assign a MIDI track to a drum map:
To Assign a MIDI Track to a Drum Map
1.
Display the Track view if it is minimized.
2.
In the track you want to assign to a drum map, click the Output dropdown and
select a drum map from the options in the menu that appears.
Opening a Drum Map
Use the following procedure to open a drum map in the Drum pane:
To Open a Drum Map
1.
In the Track view, assign the drum map you want to open to a MIDI track. See
“Assigning a MIDI Track to a Drum Map” on page 340.
2.
Select the MIDI track you just assigned the drum map to and select ViewPiano Roll.
To Open All Tracks Assigned to a Drum Map
1.
Select a single track assigned to the drum map.
2.
Hold down Ctrl+Shift while selecting View-Piano Roll.
Displaying Tracks in the Drum Grid Pane
Use the following procedure to display a drum track or tracks in the Drum Grid
pane.
To Display Tracks in the Drum Grid
1.
Create a drum map if you have not already done so. See Creating and Editing
a Drum Map“Creating and Editing a Drum Map” on page 336.
2.
Change the focus to the Track view.
3.
In the track(s) you want to view in the Drum Grid Editor, select a drum map
from the Output dropdown menu.
4.
Select the tracks you want to view in the Drum Grid Editor and select ViewPiano Roll.
The Piano Roll view appears with the selected track’s data appearing in the Drum
Grid Editor.
340
Velocity Tails
In the Drum Grid pane, you have the option of showing the velocity of each note as
a series of bars. The higher the bars, the higher the velocity value.
Notes with velocity showing
Notes without velocity showing
To Display Velocity Tails in the Drum Grid Pane
•
Click the Show/Hide Velocity Tails button
in the Piano Roll view toolbar.
Or
•
Press the Y key.
Editing Note Velocities
In the Drum Map Editor you can display note velocities as a series of horizontal
bars behind the note. Click the Show/Hide Velocity Tails button
to display note
velocities.
To Edit a Note Velocity in the Drum Grid Pane
1.
Click the Draw tool button
.
2.
Move your cursor over the velocity tail you want to edit until the cursor
changes to look like this:
3.
Click and drag the velocity tail. Drag it up to increase the velocity. Drag it
down to decrease the velocity.
341
To Edit Multiple Note Velocities in the Drum Grid Editor
When you edit multiple notes that have different initial velocities, the velocities
are adjusted on a relative basis, so if you reduce a velocity by 50%, all other
selected notes have their velocities reduced by the same percentage. For example:
you select three notes. The first has a velocity of 100, the second a velocity of 50,
and the third a velocity of 30. You click and drag the velocity of the first note down
to 50. The second note’s velocity changes from 50 to 25 and the third note’s velocity
changes from 30 to 15.
1.
Select the notes you want to change the velocity of.
2.
Click the Draw tool button
3.
Move your cursor over the velocity tail you want to edit until the cursor
.
changes to look like this:
4.
Click and drag the velocity tail. Drag it up to increase the velocity. Drag it
down to decrease the velocity.
Previewing a Mapped Sound
Use the following procedure to hear the drum sound you have mapped a note to.
To Preview a Mapped Sound
•
In the Note Map pane, click on the name of the sound you want to hear.
The Note Map Pane
The Note Map pane displays the current drum map. In the Note Map pane each
row represents a pitch. The Note In pitch is the recorded pitch. You map the
recorded pitch to whatever pitch you want using the Note Out pitch setting. You
can also change the name of the mapped note and mute or solo the mapped note.
342
Changing Mapped-note Settings
You can change the following settings in the Note Map pane:
•
Mapped-note name
•
Note Out
•
Mute
•
Solo
To Change the Name Setting
The name of a mapped note in the Note Map pane is a user-assigned variable.
Make it descriptive for easy reference. To change the Name setting, use the
following procedure:
1.
In the Note Map pane, double-click on the appropriate row.
The Map Properties dialog appears.
2.
In the Map Properties dialog, enter a new name in the Name field and press
the Enter key.
To Change the Note Out Setting
The Note Out setting is the actual note you hear when the Note In value is played.
To change the Note Out setting, use the following procedure:
1.
In the Note Map pane, double-click on the appropriate row.
The Map Properties dialog appears.
2.
In the Map Properties dialog, enter a new value in the Note Out field and
press the Enter key, or use the +/- buttons to change the value and press the
Enter key.
To Change Multiple Note Out Settings
1.
Open the Drum Map Manager.
2.
In the Drum Map Manager, select a contiguous range of rows by selecting the
first in the range, and holding down the Shift key while selecting the last in
the range.
Or
Select a non-contiguous range by selecting one row and holding down the Ctrl
key while selecting additional rows.
3.
Hold down both the Ctrl and Shift keys while selecting a new Output in the
Output column.
343
To Mute or Solo a Mapped Note
The Mute and Solo controls in the Note Map pane allow you to mute or solo an
individual mapped note. To mute or solo a mapped note, use the following
procedure:
•
In the Note Map pane, click the Mute
row.
or Solo
button in the appropriate
Or
•
Right-click on the row you want to mute or solo and select Mute or Solo from
the menu that appears.
To Display the Note In and Note Out Values By Their Pitch
Name
You have the option of showing the Note In and Note Out values by their pitch
names. To do so, use the following procedure:
•
Right-click on any row in the Note Map pane and select the Display Pitch
Names command from the menu that appears.
To Change the Order of Mapped Notes in the Drum Map Pane
Use the following procedure to change the order of mapped notes in the Note Map
pane.
1.
Move your cursor over the row you want to move in the Note Map pane.
2.
When your cursor changes to look like this , click and drag the row to the
place you want it to be and release the mouse button.
The Drum Grid Pane
The Drum Grid pane is where you edit your drum tracks. The Drum Grid pane is
the top pane in the Piano Roll view and opens automatically when you open a
MIDI drum track.
Grid Lines
The Drum Grid pane is divided into a time grid. You can set the resolution of the
grid lines from 1/4 note to 1/64 note, or to follow the current snap grid setting.
The Show/Hide Grid Lines combo button
toggles on and off the grid lines in
the Drum Grid pane and sets the grid line resolution.
344
To Turn on Grid Lines in the Drum Map Pane
•
Click the Show/Hide Grid Lines combo button
toolbar.
in the Piano Roll view
Or
•
Press the I key.
To Set the Drum Map Pane Grid Line Resolution
•
Click the down arrow on the Show/Hide Grid Lines combo button
select an option from the menu that appears.
and
The Pattern Brush Tool
The Pattern Brush tool
, on the Piano Roll View toolbar, allows you to insert
multiple notes using your mouse, either following a pattern used in an existing
MIDI file or at the current note duration setting.
How the Pattern Brush Tool Works
When you select the Pattern Brush tool you can click and drag in the Drum Grid
pane (also works in the Note pane) to produce a series of notes. Which notes
appear in the Drum Grid depends on the settings you make in the Pattern Brush
tool’s dropdown menu. To open the Pattern Brush tool’s dropdown menu, click the
right side of the Pattern Brush tool.
The following table covers the options found in the Pattern Brush tool’s dropdown
menu:
Option…
Description…
Velocity
Select this option to open the Pattern Velocity dialog. The
value you enter in this dialog sets the default velocity for
all notes entered using the Pattern Brush tool unless you
select Use Pattern Velocities.
Use Pattern Velocities
Select this option to use the note velocities used in the
custom pattern file you are using. If you are using the
Note Duration option, this option is not available.
Use Pattern Polyphony
Select this option to use the pitch values from the custom
pattern file you are using. If you are using the Note
Duration option, this option is not available. When using
this option, the vertical position of your mouse does not
affect the note pitches draw; that information is read from
the pattern.
Note Duration
This option uses the current note duration setting in the
Piano Roll View toolbar as the interval between notes.
345
To Paint Notes Using the Pattern Brush Tool
1.
Open a track in the Drum Grid pane or the Note pane.
2.
In the Pattern Brush tool’s dropdown menu, select Note Duration.
3.
In the Piano Roll View toolbar, select a note duration. This value is the
interval between notes when using the Pattern Brush tool.
4.
Click the Pattern Brush tool
to select it.
Your cursor should appear like this
when in the Drum Grid pane.
5.
Click where you want to begin placing notes and drag until you have inserted
all the notes you want.
6.
Release the mouse button.
SONAR creates a series of notes, at equal intervals.
To Paint a Custom Pattern of Notes Using the Pattern Brush
Tool
1.
Open a track in the Drum Grid pane.
2.
In the Pattern Brush tool’s dropdown menu, select the custom pattern you
want to use. If you need to create a custom pattern, see “Creating Custom
Patterns” on page 347.
3.
Click the Pattern Brush tool
to select it.
Your cursor should appear like this when in the Drum Grid pane.
4.
Click where you want to begin placing notes and drag until you have inserted
all the notes you want.
5.
Release the mouse button.
To Use a Custom Pattern’s Note Velocities
1.
Open a track in the Drum Grid pane.
2.
In the Pattern Brush tool’s dropdown menu, select the custom pattern you
want to use. In the Pattern Brush tool’s dropdown menu, select Use Pattern
Velocities.
3.
Click the Pattern Brush tool
to select it.
Your cursor should appear like this when in the Drum Grid pane.
346
4.
Click where you want to begin placing notes and drag until you have inserted
all the notes you want.
5.
Release the mouse button.
To Use a Custom Pattern’s Pitch Values
1.
Open a track in the Drum Grid pane.
2.
In the Pattern Brush tool’s dropdown menu, select the custom pattern you
want to use. In the Pattern Brush tool’s dropdown menu, select Use Pattern
Polyphony.
3.
Click the Pattern Brush tool
to select it.
Your cursor should appear like this when in the Drum Grid pane.
4.
Click where you want to begin placing notes and drag until you have inserted
all the notes you want.
5.
Release the mouse button.
Creating Custom Patterns
You can create custom patterns and use the Pattern Brush tool to quickly paint
them into the Drum Grid pane. Use the following procedure to create a custom
pattern.
To Create a Custom Pattern
1.
Create a new file, or open an existing MIDI file or pattern file that you want to
edit.
2.
Right-click in the Time Ruler where you want the pattern to start and select
Insert Marker from the menu that appears.
The Marker dialog appears.
3.
Enter the name you want to use for the first pattern and click OK.
4.
In a MIDI track, enter a pattern of notes.
5.
If you want to create a second pattern, repeat steps 2 through 4.
6.
Create as many patterns as you want, ending the last pattern with a marker
called “end”.
7.
Save the file as a MIDI file (.MID) in the Pattern Brush Patterns folder in the
directory where you installed SONAR.
Note: You can change the default directory where SONAR looks for patterns
in the Folders tab of the Global Options dialog.
You may need to re-start SONAR to see the new patterns in the dropdown menu
next to the Pattern Brush. The name you gave the file appears with an arrow next
to it. Move your mouse over it to see a subdirectory which contains each of the
patterns you created.
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348
9
Editing Audio
The Track view lets you edit and arrange audio clips. You can perform basic tasks
such as cut, copy, paste, and move; apply simple audio processing such as gain
change, fades, and equalization; and use sophisticated audio effects such as stereo
chorus and reverb. The Track view lets you see your audio clips on a timeline,
arranged by track, to help you visualize the organization of your project’s audio
data.
Most audio processing commands and audio effects can be used from the Event
List view as well, by selecting one or more audio clips, then choosing the desired
command from the Process-Audio or Process-Audio Effects menu. Plug-in
effects can also be applied to audio data non-destructively, in real time, in both the
Console and Track views. For more information, see Chapter 11, Mixing and
Effects Patching.
In This Chapter
Digital Audio Fundamentals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350
Basic Audio Editing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357
Basic Audio Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365
Advanced Audio Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369
Slip-editing Audio (Non-destructive Editing) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375
Fades and Crossfades. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380
Audio Effects (Audio Plug-ins) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386
Digital Audio Fundamentals
Digital audio is a numeric representation of sound; it is sound stored as numbers.
In order to understand what the numbers mean, you need to start with the basic
principles of acoustics, the science of sound.
Basic Acoustics
Sound is produced when molecules in the air are disturbed by some type of motion
produced by a vibrating object. This object, which might be a guitar string, human
vocal cord, or a garbage can, is set into motion because energy is applied to it. The
guitar string is struck by a pick or finger, while the garbage can is hit perhaps by a
hammer, but the basic result is the same: they both begin to vibrate. The rate and
amount of vibration is critical to our perception of the sound. If it is not fast
enough or strong enough, we won't hear it. But if the vibration occurs at least
twenty times a second and the molecules in the air are moved enough, then we will
hear sound.
Example—A Guitar String
To understand the process better, let's take a closer look at a guitar string.
When a finger picks a guitar string, the entire string starts to move back and forth
at a certain rate. This rate is called the frequency of the vibration. Because a
single back and forth motion is called a cycle, we use a measure of frequency
called cycles per second, or cps. This measure is also known as Hertz,
abbreviated Hz. Often the frequency of vibration of an object is very fast, so we can
also express the frequency in thousands of cycles per second, or kilohertz
(abbreviated kHz).
The actual distance the string moves is called its displacement. This is
proportional to how hard the string is plucked. A greater displacement results in a
louder sound.
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The displacement of the string changes as the string vibrates, as shown here:
The segment marked “A” represents the string as it is pulled back by the pick; “B”
shows it moving back towards its resting point, “C” represents the string moving
through the resting point and onward to its outer limit; then “D” has it moving
back towards the point of rest. This pattern repeats continuously until the friction
of the molecules in the air gradually slows the string to a stop. As the string
vibrates, it causes the molecules of air around it to vibrate as well. The vibrations
are passed along through the air as sound waves. When the vibrations enter your
ear, they make your eardrum vibrate, and you hear a sound. Likewise, if the
vibrating air hits a microphone, it causes the microphone to vibrate and send out
electrical signals.
In order for us humans to hear the sound, the frequency of the vibration must be
at least 20 Hz. The highest frequency sound we can hear is theoretically 20 kHz,
but, in reality, it's probably closer to 15 or 17 kHz. Other animals, and
microphones, have different hearing ranges.
If the simple back-and-forth motion of the string was the only phenomenon
involved in creating a sound, then all stringed instruments would probably sound
much the same. We know this is not true, of course; the laws of physics are not
quite so simple. In fact, the string vibrates not only at its entire length, but at onehalf its length, one-third, one-fourth, one-fifth, and so on. These additional
vibrations (overtones) occur at a rate faster than the rate of the original vibration
(the fundamental frequency), but are usually weaker in strength. Our ear
doesn't hear each frequency of vibration individually, however. If it if did, we would
hear a multinote chord every time a single string were played. Rather, all these
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vibrations are added together to form a complex or composite sound that our ear
perceives as a single tone.
Fundamental
frequency (1f)
100% amplitude
2x fundamental (2f)
50% amplitude
3x fundamental (3f)
33% amplitude
4x fundamental (4f)
25% amplitude
5x fundamental (5f)
20% amplitude
This composite waveform still doesn't account for the uniqueness of the sound of
different instruments. For example, stringed instruments usually have a
resonator. In the case of the guitar, the resonator is the big block of hollow wood to
which the string is attached (the guitar body). This has a major impact on the
sound we perceive when a guitar is played because it enhances or amplifies some
of the vibrations produced by the string and diminishes or attenuates others. The
ultimate effect of all the vibrations occurring simultaneously, being altered by the
resonator, adds up to the sound we know as guitar.
Waveforms
A sound wave can be represented in many different ways: as a mathematical
formula, as a series of numbers, or graphically as a waveform. A waveform
displays the size, or amplitude, of the vibration as a function of time. For
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example, the waveform of the sound of the plucked guitar string might look like
this:
The waveform of a trumpet blast might look like this:
And the waveform of a spoken word might look like this:
The three waveforms shown above are quite different from one another, both in
appearance and sound. Each has its own characteristic shape, or envelope, and
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each has its own complex combination of frequency components, which can change
across the duration of the sound.
The center line of a waveform is the zero line; it corresponds to the rest position
(displacement of 0) of the original vibrating object. (A waveform for perfect silence
would be a horizontal line at zero.) Back and forth motions of the vibrating object
translate to upward (positive) and downward (negative) excursions of waveform
amplitude. For example, a close-up of a portion of the guitar waveform might look
like this:
The waveform crosses the zero line twice during each complete vibration. These
zero-crossings are important in digital audio processing; they are good places to
cut waveforms apart and splice them together. If waveforms are cut or spliced at
other locations, clicks and pops can occur. The maximum amplitude of the
waveform in each vibration is also important: it determines the strength of the
vibration, and thus the loudness of the sound.
Recording a Sound
To record digital audio, your computer monitors the electrical signal generated by
a microphone (or some other electroacoustical device). Because the signal is caused
by a sound, the signal strength varies in direct proportion to the sound’s waveform.
The computer measures and saves the strength of the electrical signal from the
microphone, thus recording the waveform.
There are two important aspects of this measuring process. First is the sampling
rate, the rate at which the computer saves measurements of the signal strength. It
is a known fact of physics that you must measure, or sample, the signal at a rate
at least twice that of the highest frequency you wish to capture. For example,
suppose you want to record a moderately high note on a violin—say the A whose
fundamental frequency is 440 Hz and all overtones up to five times the
fundamental. The highest frequency you want to capture is 2,200 Hz, so you need
to measure the electrical signal from the microphone at least 4,400 times per
second.
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Since humans can hear frequencies well above 10 kHz, most sound cards and
digital recording systems are capable of sampling at much higher rates than that.
Typical sampling rates used by modern musicians and audio engineers are 22 kHz,
44.1 kHz, and 48 kHz. The 44.1 kHz rate is called CD-quality, since it is the rate
used by audio compact discs.
The other important aspect of the measuring process is the sampling resolution.
The sampling resolution determines how accurately the amplitude of each sample
is measured. At present, the music industry has settled on a system that provides
65,536 different values to assign to the amplitude of a waveform at any given
instant. Thus, each sample saved by your computer requires 2 bytes (16 bits) to
store, since it takes 2 bytes to store a number from –32,768 to 32,767. The scaling
of the electrical input signal level to amplitude value is determined by your audio
hardware and by the position of your input level control.
What if the amplitude of the sampled signal gets too high, such that a 16-bit
number is not large enough to represent it? What typically happens is that the
signal is clipped, cut off at the maximum value.
Here is what a clipped waveform might look like:
Clipping is not usually desirable and may have unpleasant audible effects. Sudden
irregularities in the waveform of any type can cause clicks, pops, and distortion of
the original sound.
The Decibel Scale
In acoustics, the decibel (dB) scale is a scale for measuring the relative loudness of
two sounds. For example, environmental noise is often measured as follows:
L = 20 log (p/p0)
where L is the sound pressure level (in dB), p is the sound pressure amplitude, and
p0 is a reference amplitude of 20 micropascals (less than one billionth of
atmospheric pressure). On this scale, a barely audible sound (p = p0) has a sound
pressure level of 0 dB, normal conversation (p = 1,000*p0) is at a level of around 60
dB, and a jet engine at close range (p = 1,000,000*p0) is at a level of around 120
dB.
Similar decibel scales are used in other branches of science and engineering to
measure electrical power levels and other signal levels, always with respect to
some reference level.
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In SONAR, decibels are used in several places:
•
To scale the amplitude of the waveform (3dB Louder and 3dB Quieter
commands)
•
To indicate volume levels of audio tracks in the Track view and Console view
•
To indicate the effects of filters and equalizers
The reference level (0 dB) usually corresponds to the current loudness of the
sound. A positive change in decibels makes the sound louder; a negative change
makes the sound quieter.
Audio Clips
If you have read from the beginning of the chapter, you should have a good idea of
what is contained in a SONAR audio clip. An audio clip contains a long series of
numbers, or samples, representing the fluctuating amplitude of a waveform. Audio
clips are typically quite large, hundreds of kilobytes to many megabytes in size. By
comparison, a MIDI event takes only a few bytes to store.
The Track view lets you see your audio waveforms in great detail; you can zoom in
until you see the individual samples.
You should also now be aware of some things to watch out for when editing your
audio data. First, if you cut audio clips apart or splice them together, you should do
so at zero-crossings in the waveform (places where the amplitude is zero), in order
to avoid sudden changes in amplitude that may cause clicks and pops. Second, you
should beware of clipping. Clipping of the audio waveform can occur if you record a
signal at too high a record level, or if you apply audio processing or effects that
increase the waveform amplitude too much. If you accidentally cause the
waveform to clip, you should undo the command and try again with different
parameters.
Clipping can also occur in other situations, for example, if you try to play or mix
several loud audio tracks together, the aggregate signal strength may at times
exceed the clipping limit, and the output signal will be distorted. To correct the
problem, you can create a volume envelope to reduce the level in loud audio clips or
reduce the track volume in the Console or Track views.
Managing Audio Data
Because of the great size of audio data, SONAR uses an intelligent scheme for
storing audio clips on disk to conserve disk space and minimize the time it takes to
load and save data. Audio data is not stored directly in your project file, but rather
in separate files in a special directory. For more information, see “System
Configuration” on page 628.
You can export your project as RealAudio, MP3, WMA, or a Wave file. You can also
convert your project’s MIDI data to audio and export it to any of the above formats.
For more information, see “Preparing Audio for Distribution” on page 459.
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Basic Audio Editing
The Track view lets you perform basic editing tasks such as cut, copy, paste, delete,
drag-and-drop, split, and bounce. You can drag fade-ins and fade-outs onto a clip
using your mouse or you can set complex envelopes on both clips and tracks. You
can use envelopes to change settings for gain (volume), pan, mute, bus send level
and bus send pan. The Scrub tool lets you audition portions of audio by dragging
the mouse.
Use the Select tool to make selections.
Here is a summary of the ways in which you can select audio clips:
To do this...
Do this...
Select a single clip
Click the clip
Select several clips at once
Drag a rectangle around them
Select part of an clip
Press Alt and drag over a portion of the clips
Add clips to the selection
Press Shift and either click the clips or drag a
rectangle around the clips
Add or remove clips from the selection
Press Ctrl and either click the clips or drag a
rectangle around the clips
Add or remove clips in a track from the
selection
Click the track number
Select clips in a time range
Drag in the Time Ruler
Select clips between two markers
Click between the markers
Remove all selections
Click in an empty area outside of any clip
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Editing Clip Properties
Audio clips have several properties that you can change:
Property...
Description...
Name
The name of a clip is used in the Track view and Event
List view. You can assign any name to help you
remember the contents of the clip.
Start
The start determines when the sample is played.
Length
The length indicates the size of the clip.
Snap Offset
A value that represents the number of samples into
the clip at which the clip snaps to.
Display Color
The clips color in the Track view.
To Change an Audio Clip’s Name
1.
Right-click the audio clip and choose Clip Properties.
2.
Type a new name in the Name box.
3.
Click OK.
The new clip name appears in the upper left corner of the clip.
To Change a Clip’s Start
1.
Right-click an audio clip and choose Clip Properties.
2.
Enter a new starting time in the Start field.
3.
Click OK.
The Track view displays the clip at the new starting time.
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Moving, Copying, Pasting and Deleting Audio Clips
Clips can be cut, copied, pasted, and deleted with Edit menu commands, or moved
and copied with drag-and-drop techniques. For more information, see “Arranging”
on page 203 for details.
Audio Scaling
Audio scaling is the increase or decrease in the size (scale) of the waveform in a
track. Audio scaling allows you to make detailed edits by zooming in on the parts
of the waveform closest to the zero crossing (silence) while preserving the track
size. By showing just the quietest parts of a clip, you can make very precise edits.
You can change the audio scale using keyboard shortcuts or the Audio Scale Ruler.
The Audio Scale Ruler is located in the vertical splitter bar between the Clips pane
and the Track pane.
Track pane
Clips pane
Audio Scale Ruler
There are three display options in the Audio Scale Ruler:
•
Percentage—shows audio scaling by percentage. For example, if the highest
percentage in the Audio Scale Ruler reads 2.0%, then only the parts of the
waveform which are within 2% of the zero crossing appear in the clip.
•
dB—shows audio scaling by dB. For example, if the highest dB in the Audio
Scaling Ruler reads -36, then only the parts of the waveform which are 36 dB
below 0 dB appear in the clip.
•
Zoom Factor—shows audio scaling by a factor. For example, if the Zoom Factor
reads 10, then the waveform is zoomed in by a factor of 10.
Note: The Audio Scale Ruler display reflects the type of audio clip directly beneath
it. If it is a stereo clip, the Audio Scale Ruler appears in stereo (one for each
channel). If it is a mono clip it appears in mono. Also, the Audio Scale Ruler only
displays numbers when it is of above a certain height. If you cannot see the Audio
Scale Ruler, increase the size of your track or tracks.
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To Change the Audio Scale Display Option
1.
Right-click on the Audio Scale Ruler in any track.
A menu appears. The current display option is checked.
2.
Select an option from the menu.
To Scale All Audio Tracks Together
To scale all audio tracks together, follow the instructions in the table below:
To do this...
Do this...
Increase the scale for all tracks
Press Alt+Up Arrow.
Or
Hold down the Ctrl key and click the Vertical Zoom
In button. When you hold down the Ctrl key and
position your cursor over the Vertical Zoom In
button, your cursor looks like this:
Decrease the scale for all
tracks
Press Alt+Down Arrow.
Or
Hold down the Ctrl key and click the Vertical Zoom
Out button. When you hold down the Ctrl key and
position your cursor over the Vertical Zoom Out
button, your cursor looks like this:
Increase/Decrease the scale
for all tracks using your mouse
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Hold down the Ctrl key, click the Vertical Zoom
Fader and drag the fader up or down. When you
hold down the Ctrl key and position your cursor
over the Vertical Zoom fader, your cursor looks like
this:
To do this...
Do this...
Increase to maximum scale
Hold down the Ctrl and Shift keys and click the
Vertical Zoom In button. When you hold down the
Shift and Ctrl keys and position your cursor over
the Vertical Zoom In button, your cursor looks like
this:
Decrease to minimum scale
Hold down the Ctrl and Shift keys and click the
Vertical Zoom Out button. When you hold down
the Shift and Ctrl keys and position your cursor
over the Vertical Zoom Out button, your cursor
looks like this:
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To Scale a Single Track
To scale a single audio track, follow the instructions in the table below:
To do this...
Do this...
Increase/decrease the scale of
individual stereo or mono tracks
There are several ways to increase or decrease the size
of an individual audio track’s or clip’s waveform:
•
Press Ctrl+Alt+Up/Down arrows
•
Click and drag vertically in the track’s Audio Scale
Ruler.
When you click and drag in the Audio Scale ruler of
a track, your cursor looks like this:
•
Select the Zoom tool, hold the Shift key and drag
around the clip you want to zoom in on.
When you have the Zoom tool selected in the Track
view toolbar and you drag over a section of audio,
your cursor looks like this:
•
Select the Select tool, hold down the Shift key and
z keys, and drag around the clip you want to zoom
in on.
When you have the Select tool selected and the
Shift and z keys held down, your cursor looks like
this:
Restore a track to minimum
scale
Double-click in the track’s Audio Scale Ruler.
To Undo Audio Scaling
•
Press the U key.
To Scale a Single Track Using the Audio Scale Ruler
•
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In the track in which you want to change the audio scale, click in the Audio
Scale Ruler and drag. Drag up to increase the audio scaling. Drag down to
decrease the audio scaling.
To Hide the Audio Scale Ruler
1.
Right-click in the Clips pane.
2.
Select View Options from the menu that appears.
The Track View Options dialog appears.
3.
In the Track View Options dialog, uncheck the Show Audio Scale checkbox
and click OK.
Splitting Audio Clips
You can split long audio clips into shorter ones. This lets you extract and rearrange
individual sounds, adjust timing and alignment, and apply effects selectively.
Audio clips can be split using the Scissors tool in the Track view or with the Split
command.
To Split Clips with the Scissors Tool
1.
If necessary, zoom-in in the Track view and use the Scrub tool to determine
where you want to make a split.
2.
If you want the split to be made on a note or measure boundary, a marker, or
by an event, open the Snap to Grid dialog, make the appropriate settings and
click the Snap to Grid button to turn on the Snap to Grid.
3.
Click the Scissors tool button on the Track view toolbar.
4.
Click once to make a single split, or to make two splits, click where you want
the first split, drag within a clip and release to make a second split.
To Split Clips with the Split Command
1.
Select the clip you want to split.
2.
Right-click the selected clip and select Split from the menu.
The Split Clips dialog appears.
3.
In the Split Clips dialog, select from the following options.
Option...
Description...
Split At Time
Specify the time at which you want to split the clip
and the time format.
Split Repeatedly
Specify the first measure at which you want to split
the clip in the Starting At Measure field and the
intervals at which you want to split the clip in the
And Again Every field.
Split At Each Marker
Creates a split in the clip at every marker.
Split When Silent For At Least
Creates a split after each period of silence which
exceeds the number of measures specified.
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SONAR splits the audio clip according to your specifications. Each new clip has the
same name as the original clip.
Note: A shortcut to split a selected clip is to move the Now time to where you want
to split it, and press s on your computer keyboard.
Bouncing to Clips
Individual audio clips in the same track can be combined into a single clip with the
Bounce to Clip(s) command.
Note:
Like any clips, slip-edited clips can be combined with other clips using
the Bounce to Clip(s) command. When a slip-edited clip is combined
with another clip, any slip-edited data (audio clips or MIDI events
that are cropped from view) is overwritten.
To Bounce to Clips
1.
Select the clips to be combined in the Track view.
2.
Choose Edit-Bounce to Clip(s).
The clips are combined into a single clip. Empty space between clips is filled with
silence in the new clip. All clip automation from the source clips is applied to the
new clip.
To Bounce Multiple Audio Clips to a New Track
1.
Select the clips to be combined in the Track view.
2.
Choose Edit-Bounce to Track(s).
The Bounce to Track(s) dialog appears.
3.
Select the track you want to bounce to in the Destination field.
4.
Select other options in the Mixdown Audio/Bounce to Track(s) dialog and click
OK.
The clips are combined into a single clip on the destination track. Empty space
between clips is filled with silence in the new clip.
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Scrubbing
You can use the Scrub tool to locate or audition a particular sound or passage as
you drag the mouse. You can scrub a single audio track by dragging over that track
or all tracks by dragging in the Time Ruler.
Note: The Scrub tool is not affected by current Mute and Solo settings of a track.
To Audition Audio with the Scrub Tool
1.
Click the Scrub tool
.
2.
Click and drag the pointer over an audio track.
Tip:
To hear the clips in all audio tracks, drag with the Scrub tool in the
horizontal ruler.
Basic Audio Processing
Audio processing commands let you modify audio data according to some rule or
algorithm. The rule can be as simple as reversing the audio data or multiplying it
by a certain factor, or as complex as performing a Fourier analysis and selectively
amplifying or attenuating sounds at certain frequencies. Among the basic audio
processing commands are ones to increase and decrease volume, to reverse the
data, and to perform equalization.
Audio processing commands can work on whole, partial and non-contiguous clips.
For example, suppose you want to make certain words in a vocal passage softer.
You can create a volume envelope and use it to lower the volume, non-destructively
in just the section of the track containing those words. You could also use the 3dB
Quieter command to lower the volume destructively.
You should listen to the results of your work after each audio processing command.
If you don’t like what you hear, you can use Edit-Undo to restore your audio data
to its previous state.
Many of the dialog boxes associated with SONAR’s audio processing and effects
commands have two important features: Audition and Presets.
The Audition button is used to audition the processed audio data. When you click
Audition, SONAR processes the first few seconds of your data, then plays it
repeatedly until you click Stop. This helps you to get an idea of whether the
settings in the dialog box are producing the desired effect.
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The audition duration is three seconds by default. You can change this value by
choosing Options-Global, selecting the General tab and changing Audition
Commands for ( ) Seconds.
Presets are a way to store dialog box settings so that you can apply the exact same
processing or effect again in the future. The following table tells you how to use
presets in the effects dialog boxes.
To do this...
Do this...
Save the current settings as a preset
Enter a preset name and click the Save
button
Use a preset
Select the preset from the dropdown list
Delete a preset
Select the preset, then click the Delete
button
Many audio processing and effects presets are supplied with SONAR.
Increasing or Decreasing Volume
SONAR provides three commands to boost or cut the volume of audio data. The
3dB Louder and 3dB Quieter commands are used to increase or decrease the
volume by three decibels, respectively. For more information on the decibel scale,
see “The Decibel Scale” on page 355. You can apply these commands several times
in succession to get a larger boost or decrease. The Normalize command
“normalizes” the audio data: it boosts the volume until the maximum amplitude is
reached somewhere in the data. By normalizing the data, you achieve the
maximum possible volume without distortion or clipping.
Like all the audio processing commands, these commands work by modifying the
waveform data. You can achieve volume changes non-destructively using
automation. For more information, see Chapter 13, Using Automation.
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When increasing or decreasing the volume of audio clips, you should consider the
following points:
•
Normalize and 3dB Louder raise the noise floor; that is, while they increase
the volume of the signal, they also amplify the noise it contains. (This is true
when you raise the volume by other means, too.)
•
3dB Louder, if applied to a signal that is already fairly loud, may cause the
waveform to exceed the maximum amplitude and clip.
•
Normalize, by raising the waveform amplitude to the maximum, puts the
signal in danger of being clipped if you subsequently apply a command or
effect that boosts the signal slightly. If this occurs, you may have to back up
and apply 3dB Quieter to the normalized signal before the other processing.
•
Each application of 3dB Quieter erodes the signal structure slightly; you
cannot repeatedly apply 3dB Quieter, then use 3dB Louder to return to the
original waveform.
•
Due to the nature and limitations of digital audio, the sum of all audio signals
played together cannot exceed the waveform amplitude limit. Even though no
individual clip is clipped, the combination may cause distortion.
If the selection contains any loud signals, Normalize may not seem to have any
effect. This is because the volume increase is determined by the loudest audio in
the selection. If an audio clip contains segments that are too quiet and others that
are loud, you should probably split off the quiet segments into separate clips and
then normalize those.
To Boost Audio Volume by Three Decibels
1.
Select the audio data to be affected.
2.
Choose Process-Audio-3dB Louder from the menu.
SONAR increases the volume of the selected audio by 3dB.
To Decrease Audio Volume by Three Decibels
1.
Select the audio data to be affected.
2.
Choose Process-Audio-3dB Quieter from the menu.
SONAR decreases the volume of the selected audio by 3dB.
To Normalize Audio Data
1.
Select the audio data to be affected.
2.
Choose Process-Audio-Normalize from the menu.
SONAR increases the volume of the selected audio to the maximum it can reach
without clipping.
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Reversing Audio Data
By reversing audio data, you can make it play backwards. You may wish to do this
to obtain unusual sounds for special effects.
The Reverse command does not reverse the musical position of audio data. Use
the Process-Retrograde command to invert the order of clips in time.
To Reverse Audio Data
1.
Select the audio data to be affected.
2.
Choose Process-Audio-Reverse from the menu.
SONAR reverses the selected audio data.
Equalizing Audio Data
Equalization lets you boost or decrease the volume of sounds at different
frequencies. For example, you can boost the bass, cut high-frequency hiss, or
brighten mid-range vocals.
SONAR provides a graphic equalizer that lets you boost or decrease the volume of
audio clips in ten frequency bands. The width of each band doubles as you go from
low to high frequencies; thus, the centers of the bands are each an octave apart.
Boosting the audio signal too much may result in clipping or distortion. If this
occurs, you may need to undo the command, then decrease the volume one or more
times with the 3dB Quieter command, or insert a volume envelope, before
equalization.
To Equalize Audio Data
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1.
Select the audio data to be modified.
2.
Choose Process-Audio-Graphic EQ from the menu, to open the Graphic EQ
dialog box.
3.
Choose a preset, or adjust the sliders to the desired equalization.
4.
Click Audition to hear a preview of the first three seconds of the selected audio
with the equalization applied.
5.
Click OK when the settings are the way you want.
SONAR applies the specified equalization to the selected audio.
Advanced Audio Processing
SONAR provides a number of advanced audio processing commands for power
users. Among these are commands to remove silent sections of audio from the data
and to apply parametric equalization, fades, and crossfades.
Removing Silence
The Remove Silence command detects sections of audio that fall below a given
loudness threshold, and replaces those sections with absolute silence. Remove
Silence gives you the option of actually deleting the silent sections from the
selected audio clips, splitting long audio clips into a greater number of shorter
audio clips.
SONAR treats passages of absolute silence intelligently. It doesn’t store stretches
of silence on disk, and thereby conserves disk space. During a passage of absolute
silence, SONAR sends no signal to the digital output port; this results in cleaner
audio playback. Remove Silence is great for cleaning up your final audio mix,
because it can mute all audio tracks in which the live performers were “laying out.”
Using Remove Silence to split long audio clips into smaller ones opens a variety
of creative possibilities.
The parameters in the Remove Silence dialog box are used to specify exactly what
you mean by silence. More precisely, Remove Silence employs what is called a
digital noise gate. The gate is a type of filter, it passes data through, or stops it
from passing through, according to certain criteria. Parameters in the dialog box
specify the conditions under which the gate is opened and under which it closes
again.
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The digital noise gate parameters are described in the following table.
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Parameter...
Meaning...
Open Level (dB)
The loudness threshold for opening the noise gate.
The gate officially opens when loudness rises above
this level, although it can open earlier because of the
Attack Time.
Close Level (dB)
The loudness threshold for closing the noise gate. The
gate officially closes when loudness falls below this
level, although it can stay open later because of the
Release Time.
Attack Time (ms)
The value in this field is the interval of time after the
volume reaches the Open Level for the gate to fully
open. Opening the gate gradually produces a fade-in
effect instead of an instant on-off sound.
Hold Time (ms)
The minimum time for the gate to stay open. Hold
Time is useful when you’ve set high open and close
levels, for example, when your source signal is very
loud. Noise gates set this way tend to react to
repeated percussive passages (such as drum rolls) by
repeatedly opening and closing; this can sound
unpleasant. By setting a hold time, you can ensure
that the gate stays open long enough during
percussive passages.
Release Time (ms)
The amount of time after the Close Level is reached
that the gate actually closes. This lets the tail end of
sounds pass through without being clipped.
Look Ahead (ms)
The value in this field causes the gate to open slightly
before the sound reaches the Open Level so you don’t
lose the sound’s attack.
To Remove Silence
1.
Select the audio data to be affected.
2.
Choose Process-Audio-Remove Silence to open the Remove Silence dialog
box.
3.
Set the digital noise gate parameters as described in the table above.
4.
Check the Split Clips box to delete the silent sections of audio.
5.
Click OK to remove silence from the selected data.
SONAR processes the audio as directed.
Extracting Timing
The Extract Timing command creates MIDI notes and (optionally) tempo changes
based on rhythmic peaks in audio.
The Extract Timing command first analyzes the audio for pulses-sudden
percussive changes in volume. Then, from each pulse's position and intensity,
Extract Timing synthesizes new timing information, in the form of note events or
tempo changes.
This command offers exciting ways to get your MIDI data to "groove" along with
audio rhythm tracks. For example, using Extract Timing you can:
•
Generate MIDI notes that play along with a rhythm, retaining all the accents
in the rhythm track
•
Create templates for the Process-Groove Quantize command, so that your
MIDI tracks play with the same feel as your audio rhythm track
•
Adjust the tempo and feel of an existing sequence to match that of a new
rhythm track
•
Record a new MIDI sequence on top of an audio rhythm track, letting the
audio track determine the tempo map for the song
Extract Timing works in two steps: Pulse Analysis and Timing Synthesis. In the
first step, the selected audio is scanned for sudden percussive attacks. You must
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adjust the Pulse Analysis parameters, then click Audition to see the results and
decide if the pulses are satisfactory. The Pulse Analysis parameters are as follows:
Parameter/Option
Meaning
Preset field
Use this field to choose and enter presets. Click
the Save button to save any group of new
settings after you enter a name in the Preset
field. Click the Delete button to delete any
selected group from the Preset field.
Trigger Level (db)
The loudness of audio needed to trigger a new
pulse.
Minimum Length (ms)
The minimum allowable amount of time
between pulses. If you are working with
dynamic source material, and Extract Timing
seems to generate clusters of pulses that seem
incorrect, you should experiment with
increasing the value of this parameter.
Find a Steady Rhythm
Tells SONAR to look for a steady rhythm among
all the pulses it finds. For example, if you're
analyzing a drum track that consists of a steady
beat on the snare and kick-drum, but which also
has some syncopated accents, you can use this
option to ignore the syncopation and retain only
the backbeat.
In the second step, you set the Timing Synthesis parameters to determine how the
pulses are converted to musically meaningful data. The Timing Synthesis
parameters are as follows:
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Parameter/Option
Meaning
Insert Tempo Changes
Tells SONAR to insert tempo changes in the appropriate
places in your song to ensure that the sequence plays in time
with the rhythm track. Remember to also set the Expected
Pulse Duration, because it defines the metronome markings
for all tempo changes.
Expected Pulse Duration
The musical time value for each pulse that was found. For
example, if you're analyzing a drum beat that has steady
eighth notes on the high-hat, you should set this value to
Eighth for the correct tempo changes to be inserted.
Convert Pulses to MIDI
Note
Tells SONAR to create a MIDI note event for each pulse that
was found. The Note Velocities parameter lets you select
which velocity will be used
Note Velocities
The velocity of generated MIDI notes. You can either select
Vary With Pulse Level to adjust velocity to the dynamic
structure of the original source material, or select Set All To
Same Value to assign each inserted MIDI note a specified
velocity.
When using Extract Timing, keep in mind the following:
•
It knows nothing about the musical context of the audio.
•
It does not know, and cannot figure out, the approximate tempo of the audio,
the feel, or the time signature.
It only knows how to listen for sudden changes in volume. You must guide it with
your own knowledge about the music.
To Extract Timing from Audio Data
1.
Select the audio data to be analyzed.
2.
Choose Process-Audio-Extract Timing to open the Extract Timing dialog
box.
3.
Set the Pulse Analysis parameters as described in the table above, or choose a
preset from the preset field.
4.
Click Audition to get visual feedback in the Clips pane, so you can be sure the
pulses are aligned to your liking. If not, readjust the parameters and try
again.
5.
Set the Timing Synthesis parameters as described in the table above.
6.
Click OK.
The generated events are automatically placed on the Clipboard. You can paste
them to a new track, or use them directly in another command (such as Groove
Quantize).
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Parametric Equalization
The Parametric EQ command lets you apply a high-pass, low-pass, band-pass, or
band-stop filter to your audio data. You must specify the filter type and
parameters as follows:
Parameter...
Meaning...
High pass
Removes frequencies that are below the cutoff F1.
Low pass
Removes frequencies that are above the cutoff F1.
Band pass (Peak)
Removes frequencies that lie outside the range F1-F2.
Band stop (Notch)
Removes frequencies that lie within the range F1-F2.
F1 (Hz)
First frequency cutoff.
F2 (Hz)
Second frequency cutoff.
Quality
The sharpness the frequency cutoff, that is, how far
outside the cutoff range a frequency must be for its gain to
be fully reduced. Higher Quality values are sharper.
Cut (dB)
The maximum amount of gain reduction to apply to
stopped frequencies.
Gain (dB)
The overall level for the filtered audio. Setting the gain too
high may result in clipping or distortion.
Note:
For band filters, setting F1 and F2 close together may cause
distortion or ringing.
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To Apply the Parametric Equalizer to Audio Data
1.
Select the audio data to be affected.
2.
Choose Process-Audio-Parametric EQ, or right-click and choose
Parametric EQ from the menu, to open the Parametric EQ dialog box.
3.
Set the filter type and parameters as described in the table above.
4.
Click OK.
SONAR applies the specified filter to the selected data.
Slip-editing Audio (Non-destructive
Editing)
Slip editing allows you to non-destructively hide or reveal the beginning of a clip,
the end of a clip, or both. The hidden material in a clip is not heard during
playback. All hidden material remains intact and can be restored. All slip editing
movements correspond to the current snap to resolution. For more information
about the snap to grid, see “Defining and Using the Snap Grid” on page 222.
Important:
Like any clips, slip-edited clips can be combined with other clips using
the Bounce to Clip(s) command and slip-edited clips in a track can
be mixed down to another track. When a slip-edited clip is combined
with another clip or an effect is applied to a clip using the Edit-Apply
Audio Effects command, any slip-edited data (audio clips or MIDI
events that are cropped from view) is overwritten.
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Slip-editing Modes
Slip-editing has three modes:
Trimming
As a default, when Slip-editing a clip, the clip’s contents always remains fixed in
time. If the first measure of a clip is hidden using slip editing, the remaining
material does not shift forward in time by a measure. The first measure of the clip
is simply muted during playback. Playback of the clip resumes at the second
measure.
Slide-trimming
If you want the clip’s contents to shift in time, you can move the material in a slip
edited clip by using modifier keys, clicking on the middle of the clip and moving it
either right or left.
Scroll-trimming
You can also shift the clip’s contents in time, in relation to either the beginning or
end of the clip itself, by scroll-trimming.
Using Slip-editing
Use the following procedures to slip-edit clips.
To Slip-edit an Audio Clip
1.
Right-click on the clip you want to slip-edit.
2.
Select Clip-Properties from the menu.
The Clip Properties dialog appears.
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3.
Select the Action tab.
4.
Make sure the Enable Looping checkbox is unchecked.
5.
Click OK.
6.
Make edits according to the following table:
To do this...
Do this...
Trim the beginning of a clip
Move the cursor over the beginning of
a clip. When the cursor changes in
appearance to look like this
, click
and drag the clip to the right until you
have removed the unwanted
information.
Clip before slip-editing
Trim the end of a clip
Clip before slip editing
The same clip with the
first two beats of the
measure slip-edited
Move the cursor over the beginning of
a clip. When the cursor changes in
appearance to look like this
, click
and drag the clip to the left until you
have removed the unwanted
information.
The same clip with the
last quarter measure
slip-edited
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Scroll-trimming a clip (Moving the clip
contents in time while maintaining the
clips start and end time)
Clip before scroll-trimming
Slide-trimming the beginning of a clip
(Moving the start time of the clip and
the clip’s contents while preserving
the end time)
Clip before slide-trimming
Slide-trimming the end of a clip
(Moving the end time of the clip and
the clip’s contents while preserving
the clip’s start time)
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Press the Alt+Shift keys while moving
the cursor over the middle of the clip.
When the cursor changes to look like
this
, click and drag the clip to the
left or right as desired. The contents
(audio data) in the clip follow the Snap
to Grid resolution, i.e. if your
resolution is set to half note, the
contents of your clip moves in halfnote intervals.
The same clip with the
clip shifted by 3 beats
Press the Alt+Shift keys and move the
cursor over the beginning of the clip.
When the cursor changes to look like
this
, click and drag the beginning
to the desired start time.
The same clip with the clip
slide-trimmed by 2 beats
Press the Alt+Shift keys and move the
cursor over the end of the clip. When
the cursor changes to look like this
, click and drag the end to the
desired location.
Clip before slide-trimming
The same clip with the clip shiftcropped by 2 beats
The hidden information in the slip edited clips remains intact but is not heard
during playback
To Permanently Delete Slip-edited Data
1.
Select the clips that contain the slip-edited data you want to delete.
2.
Select the Edit-Apply Trimming command.
SONAR permanently deletes the slip-edited data from the clips you selected.
Slip-editing Multiple Audio Clips
You can slip-edit multiple clips at the same time.
To Slip-edit Multiple Clips at Once
1.
Make sure all clips are not loop-enabled.
2.
Select the clips you want to slip-edit.
3.
Move your cursor over the beginning or end range of the selected clips until
your cursor changes to look like this:
4.
.
Drag the boundary to the desired location and release.
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Fades and Crossfades
Fades are a gradual increase or decrease in volume at the beginning (fade-in) or
end (fade-out) of a clip. A crossfade is when one clip fades out while another fades
in. There are two ways to create fades and crossfades in SONAR: offline
(destructive) and real-time (non-destructive).
Using Fades and Crossfades in Real Time
You can create real-time fades and crossfades in the Track view’s Clips pane. Realtime fades and crossfades do not change the data in the clip. SONAR reads the
fade-in, fade-out or crossfade in the clip and adjusts the gain accordingly. You can
edit he crossfade’s start time and end times.
You can set the type of fade-in or fade-out you want to use as a default:
•
Linear—A straight line, raising or lowering the volume at a steady rate.
•
Slow Curve—A curved fade which starts to change the volume slowly at first
and then rapidly increasing (fade-in) or decreasing (fade-out) the volume.
•
Fast Curve—A curved fade which starts to change the volume quickly at first
and then rapidly decreasing (fade-out) or increasing (fade-in) the volume.
The following crossfade combinations are possible:
Crossfade combination...
Linear out/Linear in
Linear out/Slow Curve in
Linear out/Fast Curve in
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Looks like this...
Slow Curve out/Linear in
Slow Curve out/Slow Curve in
Slow Curve out/Fast Curve in
Fast Curve out/Linear in
Fast Curve out/Slow Curve in
Fast Curve out/Fast Curve in
To Create a Real-time Fade-in in an Audio Clip
Use the following procedure to create a fade-in in an audio clip:
1.
In the Track view’s Clips pane, move your mouse over the top part of the
beginning of a clip until the cursor looks like this:
2.
.
When your cursor changes, click and drag to the right until you reach your
desired fade-in length.
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As you drag your mouse a fade-in appears on your clip.
To Create a Real-time Fade-out in an Audio Clip
Use the following procedure to create a fade-out in an audio clip:
1.
In the Track view’s Clips pane, move your mouse over the top part of the end
of a clip until the cursor looks like this:
2.
.
When your cursor changes, click and drag to the left until you reach your
desired fade-out length.
As you drag your mouse a fade-out appears on your clip.
To Create an Automatic Crossfade (Real-time)
Use the following procedure to create a crossfade between two audio clips:
1.
In the Track view, click the Enable/Disable Automatic Crossfades combo
button located next to the Snap to Grid button or press the x key.
2.
Click the down arrow on the Enable/Disable Automatic Crossfades combo
button, select Default Crossfade Curves and select a crossfade curve.
3.
Select and drag an audio clip so that it overlaps another audio clip. You should
overlap the clips by the length you want the crossfade.
4.
When you have the clip positioned where you want it, release the mouse
button to drop the clip.
The Drag and Drop Options dialog appears.
5.
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In the Drag and Drop Options dialog, check the Blend Old With New checkbox
and click OK.
6.
The two clips now overlap with a crossfade, looking something like this:
Fade-out
First clip
Fade-in
Second clip
Crossfade
You can edit fade-ins and fade-outs. You can change the start, end and position of a
fade. The following procedures all demonstrate edits to a fade-in, but fade-outs
work exactly the same.
To Edit the Start Time of a Fade While Maintaining the End
Time of the Fade
Changing the start time of a fade-in is essentially slip editing the beginning of the
clip. The beginning of the fade-in can not be separated from the beginning of the
clip. Use this procedure to change the start time of the fade-in while maintaining
the current end time of the fade:
1.
In the Clips pane, move your cursor over the bottom part of the beginning of a
clip which has a fade-in.
2.
When your cursor looks like this
, click and drag the beginning of the
fade-in (and the clip) to the desired location and release.
Fade in end time unchanged
Fade-in before being edited
Fade-in after being edited
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To Edit the Start Time of a Fade While Maintaining the Length
of the Fade
Use this procedure to change the start time of the fade-in while maintaining the
current end time of the fade:
1.
In the Clips pane, move your cursor over the middle part of the beginning of a
clip which has a fade-in.
2.
When your cursor looks like this
, click and drag the beginning of the fadein (and the clip) to the desired location and release.
Fade in end time changed
Fade in before being edited
Fade in after being edited
To Change an Existing Fade
Use the following procedure to change an existing fade on a clip:
1.
Move your cursor over the beginning of a fade-out or the end of a fade-in, until
your cursor looks like this:
2.
.
Right-click to and select the desired fade type from the menu that appears.
To Change an Existing Crossfade
Use the following procedure to change an existing crossfade:
1.
Move your cursor over the region where the crossfade is.
2.
Right-click and select the desired crossfade from the menu that appears.
Applying Fades and Crossfades Offline
SONAR provides several commands for applying gradual volume changes to audio
data. The first command, Fade/Envelope, lets you fade in or fade-out, and lets you
choose an envelope, a curve that governs the rate of the fade. The starting
envelope can be linear (straight line), exponential, or inverse exponential. You can
change the shape of the envelope before applying the fade.
The envelope in the Fade/Envelope dialog box is made of one or more connected
line segments (the linear curves are a single segment, the exponential curves
consist of nine segments each). Although the endpoints of the curve are fixed, you
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can move the intermediate points, and create new intermediate points, to change
the shape of the curve.
To do this...
Do this...
Move a point
Click and drag it to a new location
Insert a new point
Click on the line between existing points
Remove a point
Drag it onto the next point
Restart from the original curve
Click Reset
The second command, Crossfade, lets you create a smooth transition from one
audio clip to another, by fading two overlapping audio clips simultaneously (one
fades out, the other fades in). As with Fade/Envelope, you can choose from three
different starting curves and change the shape of the curve.
To Apply a Fade to Audio Data
1.
Select the audio data to be affected.
2.
Choose Process-Audio-Fade/Envelope to open the Fade/Envelope dialog box.
3.
Select an envelope from the dropdown list.
4.
If desired, manipulate the curve as described in the table above.
5.
Click OK.
SONAR applies the fade to the selected audio data.
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To Crossfade Two Overlapping Clips
1.
Select two overlapping audio clips. They need not be on the same track, but
they must overlap in time for the command to have any effect.
2.
Choose Process-Audio-Crossfade to open the Crossfade dialog box.
3.
Select an envelope from the dropdown list.
4.
If desired, manipulate the curve as described in the table above. You can
manipulate only the curve pertaining to the first of the two overlapping clips;
the second curve is automatically adjusted so that the two curves constantly
add up to 100%.
5.
Click OK.
SONAR applies the two fades to the selected data.
Audio Effects (Audio Plug-ins)
SONAR provides the ability to use plug-in audio effects using Microsoft’s DirectX
technology. Some audio plug-in effects are supplied with SONAR. Others can be
purchased from third-party software manufacturers, and appear automatically in
SONAR’s menus once they are installed on your system. If you need help when
using a plug-in, press the F1 key on your computer keyboard to open the plug-in’s
help file. Please note that third-party plug-ins may not have a help file.
This section describes the effects that are included with SONAR.
Using plug-in effects is similar to using the audio processing commands off-line.
The overall procedure is as follows:
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•
In the Track view, right-click the Fx field and select an effect from the popup
menu.
•
Set effect parameters (or select a preset).
•
Listen to the track and adjust parameters based on what you hear.
You can add audio effects, like MIDI effects, to audio tracks in real time (during
playback) in the Console and Track views. Unlike any of the audio processing
discussed so far, using effects in real time is non-destructive. This means that the
audio clip data itself is not modified, and no new audio files are created. See
“Mixing and Effects Patching” on page 419, for more information on real-time
effects.
Note:
Offline effects may cause your audio clips to grow in size. For
example, when you apply reverb, your clip may need to grow to
accommodate the tail end of an echo.
Applying Audio Effects
From the Console and Track views you can destructively apply audio effects for
one or more tracks. When you are pleased with the audio effects you have patched
into a track, you can apply the effects to the track. Destructively applying effects to
a track saves resources, allowing you to include additional tracks and/or effects.
To Apply Audio Effects
Add one or more audio effects to one or more tracks in either the Track view or the
Console view, and then:
1.
In the Track view, select the tracks you want to be affected.
2.
Select Process-Apply Audio Effects from the menu.
3.
If desired, select the option to delete the effects after applying them.
4.
Click OK.
If you do not delete the effects from each track after applying them, they remain
active.
Note:
Applying effects can be undone, but the effects are not then re-patched
in the Effects bin.
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Mixing Audio Effects
The dialog box for each plug-in effect has a Mixing tab that provides three options
for processing the data.
Option...
Meaning...
Process In-Place, Mono to
Mono
Audio is processed clip-by-clip, in mono format. The
processed output of the plug-in replaces the original
clip's data, in-place. (If the plug-in produces only
stereo output, SONAR automatically converts the
audio to mono.)
This option is best for effects like Time/Pitch
Stretching and Parametric Equalization.
Process In-Place, Creating
Stereo Output Tracks
Audio is fed into the plug-in, clip-by-clip, in mono
format. A new stereo track is inserted beneath the
selected track, and the stereo output of the plug-in is
placed into this stereo track. (If the plug-in produces
only mono output, SONAR automatically converts it
to stereo.)
If you check Keep Original Data, SONAR won't
delete the original audio data. This lets you create
stereo wet-only tracks for finer mixing control. If you
leave Keep Original Data unchecked, the processed
data will replace the original audio clips.
Create a Send Submix
All selected audio tracks are mixed down into a
stereo submix. This stereo submix is fed into the
plug-in, in stereo. The stereo output of the plug-in is
placed into a new stereo track at the destination you
choose.
If you check Keep Original Data, SONAR won't
delete the original audio data. If you leave it
unchecked, the processed data will replace the
original audio clips.
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Adding Parametric Equalization
The Cakewalk-FxEQ command lets you apply a complex filter to your audio data.
The complex filter is a combination of up to eight simple filters or bands, each
defined individually.
Parameters for each filter are described in the following table:
Parameter/Option...
Meaning...
Voice
The voice field lists the band which the other
parameters are affecting.
Center Frequency—coarse
The center frequency of the current band (the band
listed in the Voice field). The range is from 20 Hz to
20,000 Hz.
Center Frequency—fine
A fine tuning of the center frequency.
Bandwidth (Q)—coarse
The bandwidth of the selected voice.
Bandwidth (Q)—fine
A fine tuning of the bandwidth of the selected voice.
Active Channel L + R
When selected the EQ affects both the left and right
channels.
Active Channel L
When selected the EQ affects the left channel only.
Active Channel R
When selected the EQ affects the right channel only.
Bypass
The plug-in is bypassed in the chain.
Band (1-8)
Each band can be set to a different frequency and
bandwidth or bypassed by clicking its bypass button
immediately above the band’s selection button.
Lo Shelf
A low frequency gain or cut. Lo Shelf can be set from
between 20 and 200 Hz
Hi Shelf
A high frequency gain or cut. Hi Shelf can be set as low
as 4000 Hz
Trim
The trim setting for the plug-in.
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The horizontal axis shows increasing frequency; the vertical axis shows the gain or
attenuation at each frequency. If the curve is above the horizontal center line,
parts of the signal at that frequency will be boosted; if the curve is below the center
line, the signal will be attenuated.
Parametric equalization is useful in many different circumstances. For example,
you can use it to boost low frequencies or high frequencies, to attenuate 60-cycle
hum or high-frequency noise, or to boost a particular instrument sound for use in
other SONAR commands.
To Apply the Parametric Equalizer to Audio Data
1.
Select the audio data to be affected.
2.
Choose Audio Effects-Cakewalk-FxEq from the Process menu or from the
popup menu to open the Cakewalk FxEq dialog box.
3.
Click band number 1 to set options for the Band 1, as described in the table
above.
4.
Click band number 2 to set it as current and set parameters for the second
band. Repeat for as many bands as you need.
5.
Click OK.
SONAR applies the composite filter to the selected data.
Adding Chorus
The Cakewalk-FxChorus command fattens the audio to make one instrument
sound like many. When many people sing together, for example, each of their
voices is slightly out of tune and off the beat. Therefore, detuning and delaying the
signal makes many instruments sound richer, including guitars, vocals, and
strings.
The Chorus effect has the ability to act on a stereo track or a stereo pair, a pair of
consecutive tracks, one of which is panned hard left (0), the other of which is
panned hard right (127). The feedback signal can be crossed between the tracks to
create a richer stereo effect.
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The parameters used to specify the chorus effect are as follows:
Parameter/Option...
Meaning...
Voice Settings—delay(ms)
The amount of delay in milliseconds for the selected
voice.
Voice Settings—mod depth
The modulation depth setting determines the amount
of range the Chorus sweeps.
Voice Settings—pan
Left/Right pan. 0 is center. -1 is hard left. 1 is hard
right.
Voice Settings—mod freq.
The modulation frequency sets the speed of the
Chorus’s sweep.
Voice 1-4
Four separate choruses. Bypass a voice by clicking
the on button above the voice’s selection button.
Global
Controls all four voices.
Mix Level
The Wet/Dry mix of the output. If set all the way to the
left, the chorus has no effect on output. If set all the
way to the right eliminates all dry signal.
Output Level
Output volume level.
Bypass
The plug-in’s bypass button.
To Apply Chorusing to Audio Data
1.
Select the audio data to be affected. Select a stereo pair for stereo chorusing.
2.
Choose Audio Effects-Cakewalk-FxChorus from the Process menu or from
the popup menu to open the Cakewalk FxChorus dialog box.
3.
Set the chorus parameters, as described in the table above.
4.
Click OK.
SONAR applies the specified chorus effect to the selected data.
Applying Delay
The Cakewalk-FxDelay command creates a series of repeating signals from the
original signal. You can create a single echo on the original signal, or a series of
echoes up to five seconds apart.
Parameters for the Delay effect are identical to those for the Chorus effect. The
difference is that with Chorus the delay parameters can range from 0 to 80 ms,
whereas with Delay the delay parameters can range from 0 to 5000 ms. As with
Chorus, Delay can act on a stereo pair of tracks
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The parameters used to specify the chorus effect are as follows:
Parameter/Option...
Meaning...
Delay(ms)—coarse
The delay time in milliseconds.
Delay(ms)—fine
A fine tuning of the delay time.
Feedback
The regeneration of the delay.
Pan
Left/Right pan. 0 is center. -1 is hard left. 1 is hard
right.
Voice 1-4
Four separate delays. Bypass a voice by clicking the
on button above the voice’s selection button.
Global
Controls all voices.
Mix Level
The Wet/Dry mix of the output. If set all the way to the
left, the chorus has no effect on output. If set all the
way to the right eliminates all dry signal.
Output Level
The output volume level.
Bypass
The plug-ins bypass button.
To Apply Delay to Audio Data
1.
Select the audio data to be affected. Select a stereo pair for stereo delay.
2.
Choose Audio Effects-Cakewalk-FxDelay from the Process menu or from
the popup menu to open the Cakewalk FxDelay dialog box.
3.
Set the parameters in the dialog, as described in the table above.
4.
Click OK.
SONAR applies the specified delay effect to the selected data.
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Adding Flanging
The Cakewalk-FxFlange command mixes the original signal with a slightly
delayed version of the signal, so that the two are out of phase. This creates a
spacey, ethereal sound.
The parameters used to specify the chorus effect are as follows:
Parameter/Option...
Meaning...
Delay(ms)—factor
The delay time for
Feedback—factor
The amount of output signal that is fed back through
the flanger.
Pan—factor
Left/Right pan. 0 is center. -1 is hard left. 1 is hard
right.
Mod. Freq.—factor
The speed at which the pitch modulates
Voice 1-2
Two separate flangers. Bypass a voice by clicking the
on button above the voice’s selection button.
Global
Controls both voices.
Mix Level
The Wet/Dry mix of the output. If set all the way to the
left, the chorus has no effect on output. If set all the
way to the right eliminates all dry signal.
Output Level
Plug-ins output volume.
Bypass
The plug-ins bypass button.
To Apply Flanging to Audio Data
1.
Select the audio data to be affected. Select a stereo pair for stereo flanging.
2.
Choose Audio Effects-Cakewalk-FxFlange from the Process menu or from
the popup menu to open the Cakewalk FxFlange dialog box.
3.
Set the parameters in the dialog, as described in the table above.
4.
Click OK.
SONAR applies the specified flanging effect to the selected data.
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Applying Reverb
The Cakewalk-FxReverb command adds many small echoes to a signal to create
the illusion of spaciousness. By changing the parameters, you can simulate a
stage, a hall, an arena, or a variety of other room types. The reverb parameters are
as follows:
Parameter/
Option...
Meaning...
Room Size
Set the size of the room.
Note: Automation changes in this parameter should be
made only during periods of silence in a track to prevent
artifacts from being introduced to the signal.
Decay Time
The time after which the reverberation of a signal stops.
High Frequency Rolloff
Removes high frequencies from the output.
High Frequency Decay
How much faster the high frequencies rolloff
Density
The number of reflections in the reverb.
Pre Delay
Time before the reverb starts.
Motion Rate
The motion rate is measured in Hz and is designed to
simulate movement in a room.
Motion Depth
This setting sets the amount of motion for the Motion
Rate parameter.
Level
The plug-in’s output volume.
Mix
The Wet/Dry mix of the output. If set all the way down,
the chorus has no effect on output. If set all the way up
eliminates all dry signal.
To Apply Reverb to Audio Data
1.
Select the audio data to be affected. Select a stereo pair for stereo reverb.
2.
Choose Audio Effects-Cakewalk-FxReverb from the Process menu or from
the popup menu to open the Cakewalk FxReverb dialog box.
3.
Set the reverb parameters, as described in the table above.
4.
Click OK.
SONAR applies the reverb effect to the selected data.
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Shifting Pitch
The Cakewalk-Pitch Shifter raises or lowers the pitch of an audio signal, while
leaving the duration of the audio clip unchanged. The pitch shift parameters are as
follows:
Parameter/
Option...
Meaning...
Pitch
The amount by which the pitch is changed, in semitones
Dry Mix (%)
The volume of the original, unprocessed signal passed to
the output
Wet Mix (%)
The volume of the processed signal passed to the output
Feedback Mix (%)
The amount of pitch-shifted signal that is fed into a delay
line
Delay Time (ms)
The length of the delay in milliseconds
Mod. Depth (ms)
The amount the delay time will vary
To Apply Pitch Shift to Audio Data
1.
Select the audio data to be affected.
2.
Choose Process-Audio Effects-Cakewalk-Pitch Shifter to open the
Cakewalk FX Pitch Shifter dialog box.
3.
Set the pitch shift parameters, as described in the table above.
4.
Click OK.
SONAR applies the pitch shift to the selected data.
This is a fast pitch shifter that uses minimal computation time. The Cakewalk
Time/Pitch Stretch command, described below, can produce higher quality
output, but requires a lot more computational time.
Stretching Time and Pitch
The Cakewalk-Time/Pitch Stretch command lengthens or shortens audio data,
and raises or lowers pitch. Time and pitch can be stretched independently. You can
use this effect to stretch or compress audio while preserving pitch, or to change
pitch while preserving duration, or both. Time/Pitch Stretch is not available in
real-time. For real-time time and pitch stretching, use Groove clips. For more
information, see Chapter 6, Using Loops.
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The time/pitch stretch parameters are as follows:
Parameter/
Option...
Meaning...
Time (%)
The new length of the audio clip, as a percentage of
the length of the original clip.
Pitch
The amount by which the pitch is changed, in
semitones.
Source Material
The type of audio data. Selecting an option sets
recommended values for the Block Rate, Overlap
Ratio, Crossfade Ratio, Accuracy, and Algorithm
parameters.
Block Rate (Hz)
Used to calculate the size of the data “blocks”
processed by Time/Pitch Stretch. Lower values lead to
larger block sizes. If the material to be processed is
generally less percussive or lower in pitch, using a
lower block rate will make the algorithm operate more
efficiently.
Overlap Ratio
The amount of overlap between consecutive blocks.
Crossfade Ratio
The crossfade amount for the blocks.
Accuracy
The accuracy of the calculations. Normal is good for
most sounds. High accuracy gives slightly better
quality, but takes longer to process.
Algorithm
The algorithm used for pitch stretching. The MPEX
algorithm is the default. Select Normal if you want to
use the same algorithm used by previous versions of
SONAR.
The Time and Pitch parameters can be set by typing numbers in the appropriate
boxes, or by dragging the sliders or the crosshair in the graph. Holding Shift while
dragging the crosshair snaps the crosshair to the nearest axis: X (time), Y (pitch),
or the diagonal (equal time and pitch). Diagonal values on the graph can be
processed very quickly and with very high quality, but have the trade-off that
changing pitch does not preserve duration, and vice versa.
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For the most natural-sounding results, choose low settings; transpose by no more
than a third or a fourth. Higher values, though, can be used for special effects.
Note:
This is a fast pitch shifter that uses minimal computation time.
To Apply Time/Pitch Stretch to Audio Data
1.
Select the audio data to be affected.
2.
Choose Audio Effects-Cakewalk-Time/Pitch Stretch from the Process
menu or from the popup menu to open the Cakewalk FX Time/Pitch Stretch
dialog box.
3.
Set the time/pitch stretch parameters, as described in the table above.
4.
Click OK.
SONAR applies the time/pitch stretch to the selected data.
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10
Working with Software
Synthesizer
You can use a variety of software synthesizer formats with SONAR™, including
DXi’s, VSTi’s, ReWire instruments, SoundFonts, and stand-alone soft synths.
SONAR includes the Cyclone DXi, which allows you to stack up to 16 ACIDized
loop tracks side-by-side for editing with automatic tempo synchronization (see the
Cyclone topics in the online help). A software synthesizer is a software program
that produces various sounds through your sound card when the soft synth
program receives MIDI data from a MIDI controller or sequencer program. DX
Instruments, or DXi's, are a plug-in form of software synthesizer designed for
responsive, low-latency performance on the Windows platform. Some DXi's can be
programmed to generate rhythmic patterns and do not require MIDI input from
SONAR. You can control and play DXi's in real time using their internal interface
or external MIDI devices like keyboards, guitar synths, or wind controllers. You
can automate the controls of some DXi’s. Some DXi's are used as MIDI-controlled
audio processors, such as vocoders, intelligent pitch shifters, or tempo-based
delays. You can patch plug-in effects to DXi tracks.
You can now use VST Instruments and effects with SONAR, using the included
VST Adapter, which runs when you install SONAR. You can run it manually when
you get new VST plug-ins (see “Using VST Synths and Plug-ins” on page 417).
SONAR has a Synth Rack view to make inserting a DXi or ReWire instrument
into a one-step process, and to make viewing and configuring these instruments
simple. SONAR also supports multi-port DXi’s, which allow you to use different
audio tracks and effects for each patch or group of patches in a multi-timbral,
multi-port DXi.
In This Chapter
Kinds of Soft Synths. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400
Synth Rack View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400
DX Instruments (DXi’s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401
ReWire Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 410
Stand-alone Synths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 415
Using VST Synths and Plug-ins. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 417
Kinds of Soft Synths
There are several basic kinds of soft synths:
•
DXi (plug-in synths built with DirectX technology)—These programs appear
as plug-ins for audio tracks or buses, just like plug-in effects. They can also be
inserted in SONAR’s Synth Rack view.
•
ReWire instruments—These instruments can function as stand-alone devices
that you play with a MIDI controller or through the ReWire instrument’s
internal sequencer, or with recorded MIDI data from SONAR.
•
Stand-alone synths—These programs work like external MIDI modules. You
select the stand-alone synth’s MIDI driver as an output for a MIDI track in
your sequencer program (SONAR), and the track plays the stand-alone synth
as if it were an external MIDI module.
•
SoundFonts—The SoundFont format is a product of Creative, which makes
the SoundBlaster sound cards. You need either a SoundBlaster sound card or
the LiveSynth Pro DXi software to use SoundFonts.
Note: If you play DXi’s in real time from a MIDI controller, you’ll get noticeably
better performance if you use WDM or ASIO sound card drivers instead of the
older MME type. The lower latency of WDM and ASIO drivers provides quicker
real-time response to note on/off and other commands. Playback of recorded MIDI
data is not affected by your audio driver.
Synth Rack View
Open the Synth Rack view with the View-Synth Rack command. The Synth Rack
view lets you view, insert, delete, and configure your DXi, VSTi, and ReWire soft
synths. You can also mute and solo any or all of them from this view. Each time you
insert a soft synth into your project, a new row appears in the Synth Rack view
with the name of the soft synth and its current preset. You can select different
presets from the view. You can insert as many copies of the same DXi soft synth as
you like; each new copy appears in a new row and has the same name, but has a
higher number after the name (ReWire soft synths can only have one copy open).
The new higher-numbered name also appears on the menus of audio track inputs
and MIDI track outputs.
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Insert button
Currently inserted
synths
There is much more information about the Synth Rack view in the online help.
Press F1 when the Synth Rack view is open and on top to display the appropriate
help topic.
DX Instruments (DXi’s)
In order to play a DXi from a MIDI controller or with recorded MIDI data, you
need to have at least one audio track that lists the DXi in its Input field, and at
least one MIDI track that lists the DXi in its Output field. The data from the MIDI
track feeds the audio track and plays the DXi. If you’re playing the DXi with a
MIDI controller, the MIDI track that’s feeding the audio track must have the focus
(gold or tan color). You can also patch the DXi into an audio track’s Fx field instead
of an audio track’s Input field.
To add a DXi to the audio tracks’ In menus (drop-downs) and the MIDI tracks’ Out
menus, you have to insert each DXi that you want to use into each project. There
are two basic ways to insert DXi’s in SONAR:
•
You can insert DXi’s from the Synth Rack view or with the Insert-DX
Instruments command. If you use this method, you can choose to have
SONAR create the necessary audio and MIDI tracks, and patch them together
correctly. If you want to use multiple audio tracks to take advantage of
SONAR’s support for the multi-output DXi 2 format, you need to create and
patch additional MIDI tracks manually to feed the additional audio tracks.
•
You can insert DXi’s into Fx bins of individual audio tracks. If you use this
method, you need to set a MIDI track’s Output field to the name of the DXi
you inserted. Then you can record MIDI data in the MIDI track to play the
DXi with.
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Multi-port DXi’s
A multi-port DXi allows you the option of using a different audio track for every
output that the DXi has. This allows you to use different plug-in effects for each
sound (or in some cases, group of sounds) that a DXi produces. For example, if a
DXi can produce 16 sounds at the same time, and has 4 outputs, you can send any
of the 16 sounds out through any of 4 different outputs, giving you a choice of 4
different plug-in configurations for that DXi. You would use 4 different audio
tracks: one for each output. If a DXi can produce 8 sounds at the same time, and
has 8 outputs, you could use 8 audio tracks and 8 plug-in configurations. If you
need more plug-in configurations or just more sounds, you can insert more copies
of the same DXi, using new audio tracks for all of the new copy’s outputs. You can
also send all the MIDI tracks out the same output and audio track if you don’t need
separate plug-ins for each sound, or just want to use the DXi’s internal effects.
The Insert DXi Synth Options dialog gives you the option of automatically creating
a separate audio track for each output that the DXi has, or creating just one audio
track for Output 1 of that particular DXi. Each new copy (also called an instance)
of a DXi is considered to be a separate instrument, and appears in a separate row
in the Synth Rack view, with a number after its name representing which copy it
is.
Inserting a DXi
The procedure for inserting multi-output and single-output DXi’s is basically the
same. There are just more tracks possibly involved when you insert a multi-output
DXi.
There are several places where you can insert a DXi into your project:
•
Preferred method 1—You can insert the DXi into the project from the Synth
Rack view. This method lets you use all of a multi-port DXi’s outputs, if you
want to. This method gives you the options of automatically creating a
matched combination of an audio and MIDI track, creating just an audio track
with the DXi patched as a track input, creating no new tracks, and creating
separate audio tracks for each of the DXi’s outputs.
•
Preferred method 2—You can insert the DXi by using the Insert-DX
Instruments command, which gives you the same insertion and output
options as the Synth Rack view.
•
Alternate method—You can insert the DXi into the Fx field of an audio track
or bus. You must then change the Output field of a MIDI track to the name of
the DXi you inserted in order to play the audio track or bus with data from the
MIDI track. If you insert a multi-output DXi with this method, you can only
use the first output of the DXi.
You can insert more than one copy (also called an instance) of the same DXi. Each
new copy has the same name as the previous copy except for having a higher
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number after the name. Every copy appears in a separate row in the Synth Rack
view, and in the drop-down menus of audio track inputs and MIDI track outputs.
To Insert a DXi from the Synth Rack View or Menu
1.
If you want to use the Synth Rack view, open the Synth Rack view with the
View-Synth Rack command, and click the Insert button
popup menu of installed DXi’s.
to display the
2.
If you want to use the menu command, use the Insert-DXi Synth command to
display the popup menu of installed DXi’s.
3.
In the popup menu, click the name of the DXi you want to insert.
The Insert DXi Synth Preferences dialog appears, unless you’ve previously
unchecked the Ask This Every Time checkbox that’s in the dialog. If you have,
SONAR inserts the DXi according to the preferences you set the last time you
used the Insert DXi Synth Preferences dialog. If you need to open the Insert
DXi Synth Preferences dialog when it’s hidden, click the Insert DXi Synth
Options button
4.
in the Synth Rack view toolbar.
Choose options from the Insert DXi Synth Preferences dialog according to the
following:
•
If you want to create a MIDI track that uses the DXi as an output, check
the Create These Tracks: MIDI Source Track checkbox.
•
If you want to create a single audio track that acts as an output for
Output 1 of the DXi, check the Create These Tracks: First Synth Output
(Audio) checkbox.
•
If you want to create separate audio tracks for each of the DXi’s outputs,
check the Create These Tracks: All Synth Outputs (Audio) checkbox.
•
If you want to use existing MIDI and audio tracks to play the DXi,
uncheck all of the Create These Tracks options. SONAR adds the DXi to
the audio track input and MIDI track output menus. You need to set an
existing audio track’s Input field to the DXi, and set an existing MIDI
track’s Output field to the DXi.
•
If you want to open the DXi’s interface from this dialog, check the Open
These Windows: Synth Property Page checkbox.
•
If you opened this dialog from the Insert menu and want to open the
Synth Rack view, check the Open These Windows: Synth Rack View
checkbox.
•
If you want to open this dialog every time you use the Insert-DXi Synth
command, or click the Insert button in the Synth Rack view and choose a
synth from the popup menu, check the Ask This Every Time option. If you
always insert DXi’s in the same way, you can uncheck this option so you
don’t have to deal with the dialog each time. To open the dialog when the
option is unchecked, click the Insert DXi Synth Options button
Synth Rack view toolbar.
in the
403
5.
Click OK, if you haven’t already.
SONAR adds the DXi to the audio track input and MIDI track output menus, and
creates any new tracks that you requested. The new tracks already have the
correct inputs and outputs patched. Now you can record MIDI data in the DXi
MIDI tracks, and/or play the DXi from a MIDI keyboard or controller.
To Insert a DXi in an Fx field
1.
In either the Track or Console view, right-click the Fx field of an unused audio
track or bus.
Note: If you patch a DXi into a bus that has no audio track assigned to it, the
DXi does not sound. Always use a bus that has at least one audio track
sending data to it.
The plug-in menu appears.
2.
Under DXi Synth, choose the name of a DXi.
Two things happen: the DXi’s interface appears, and the DXi’s name appears
in the track’s or bus’s Fx field, with a bypass button next to the name.
3.
Set the DXi’s parameters (choose sounds, effects, etc.), and drag its interface
out of the way.
4.
Click the Output field of a MIDI track to display the output menu.
5.
Select the name of the DXi that you patched into the audio track or bus.
6.
If the DXi is multi-timbral, choose a MIDI channel for the MIDI track.
7.
Also in the MIDI track, select a bank and patch.
Now you can record some MIDI data into the MIDI track to play the DXi with. See
“To Play a DXi with Recorded MIDI Data” on page 405.
You can also play the DXi in real-time from a MIDI controller. See “To Play a DXi
from a MIDI Controller” on page 406.
Opening a DXi’s Property Page
There are several different methods to open a DXi’s property page (interface):
404
•
When you insert the DXi from the Insert menu or Synth Rack view, check the
Open These Windows: Synth Property Page checkbox in the Insert DXi Synth
Options dialog.
•
Double-click the name of the DXi in either a MIDI track’s Output field or an
audio track’s Input field.
•
Double-click the row in the Synth Rack view that displays the DXi.
•
Double-click the name of the DXi in an Fx bin.
•
Click one of the rows in the Synth Rack view to select it, and then click the
Properties button in the Synth Rack toolbar (or press c).
Playing a DXi
There are several ways to play a DXi:
•
You can record MIDI data and use the DXi as a playback device.
Note: WDM or ASIO drivers do not improve performance when you play back
recorded MIDI data—the improvement comes only when you play a DXi in
real time from an external MIDI controller or keyboard.
•
You can play the DXi in real time from a MIDI controller or keyboard. To avoid
excessive latency, your sound card must be using a WDM or ASIO driver. Also,
you must set mixing latency to the lowest achievable level (probably less than
10 msec.), which you do by using the Options-Audio command to open the
Audio Options dialog box, and dragging the Buffer Size slider on the General
tab.
•
Some DXi’s that use the DXi 2 format can send MIDI data, sometimes
including MIDI notes, from their interfaces to SONAR. For example, some
DXi’s have MIDI keyboards built into their interfaces that you can click to
send note on/off messages.
Note: By default, SONAR does not echo any MIDI input or automation data
that a DXi sends to any track, but can record this data in any armed MIDI
track whose Output field is set to that particular DXi. If you do want to echo
DXi input to any MIDI track that has the focus, open the Global Options
dialog (Options-Global command), and on the MIDI tab, check the Echo DXi
Input to All MIDI Tracks option. This option also makes it possible to move
the controls in one DXi’s interface and change the settings in some other DXi’s
interface, if the focus is on the MIDI track that’s patched to the second DXi. It
also makes it possible to record notes or automation data from the DXi to any
armed MIDI track.
To Play a DXi with Recorded MIDI Data
1.
Insert a DXi into the project (see “Inserting a DXi” on page 402, if necessary).
2.
In the MIDI track that sends its output to the DXi, choose a MIDI channel.
3.
Open the DXi’s interface (if it’s not open already) by clicking the Properties
button in the Synth Rack view, or by double-clicking the name of the DXi if it’s
patched into the Fx field of an audio track.
4.
Set the DXi’s parameters (choose sounds, effects, etc.), and drag its interface
out of the way (the DXi’s interface does not have to be open for the DXi to
sound).
5.
If you want to save your DXi settings, type a name in the Presets field, and
click the Disk icon that’s next to the Presets field.
6.
Record some MIDI data into the MIDI track.
When you play back the recorded MIDI data, you should hear the DXi through
your sound card’s outputs. If you don’t, make sure your data is in the right range; a
405
bank, patch, and Channel are selected; your monitor speakers or headphones are
turned up; and that none of the relevant tracks are muted.
You can add effects to each of the DXi audio tracks. You can also add MIDI effects
to your DXi MIDI tracks.
To Play a DXi from a MIDI Controller
1.
Make sure your controller is set to local off.
2.
Make sure that the Audio Engine button
depressed.
3.
Insert a DXi into your project (see “Inserting a DXi” on page 402, if necessary).
in the Transport toolbar is
Note: If you patch a DXi into a bus that has no audio track assigned to it, the
DXi does not sound. Always use a bus that has at least one audio track
sending data to it.
4.
In the MIDI track that sends its output to the DXi, choose a MIDI channel.
5.
Open the DXi’s interface (if it’s not open already) by clicking the Properties
button in the Synth Rack view, or by double-clicking the name of the DXi if it’s
patched into the Fx field of an audio track.
Note: You can also open a DXi’s interface by double-clicking its name where it
appears in a MIDI track’s Out menu or an audio track’s In menu.
6.
Set the DXi’s parameters (choose sounds, effects, etc.), and drag its interface
out of the way.
7.
If you want to save your DXi settings, type a name in the Presets field, and
click the Disk icon that’s next to the Presets field.
8.
Make sure that the MIDI track has the focus (its titlebar is gold), and play
your MIDI controller.
When you play your MIDI controller you should hear the DXi through your sound
card’s outputs. If you don’t, make sure you’re playing in the right range; a bank,
patch, and Channel are selected; your monitor speakers or headphones are turned
up; your controller is attached to your MIDI interface; and that none of the
relevant tracks are muted.
To Remove A DXi from a Track or Bus
•
If your DXi is patched into the Fx field of an audio track or bus, right-click the
name of the DXi, and choose Delete from the popup menu.
Or
•
406
In the audio track that uses the DXi as an input, choose another input for the
track.
To Remove a DXi from a Project
•
If your DXi is patched into the Fx field of an audio track or bus, right-click the
name of the DXi, and choose Delete from the popup menu.
•
If your DXi is patched into the Input field of an audio track, go to the Synth
Rack view, click the name of the DXi to select it, and then click the Delete
button. SONAR deletes the DXi strip from the Synth Rack view and sets the
audio inputs and MIDI outputs of all affected tracks to the next lowernumbered option. SONAR does not delete the affected tracks.
Note: If you’re using a ReWire instrument and not a DXi, always close the
ReWire instrument’s interface before you delete the instrument from SONAR,
or close SONAR.
Muting and Soloing DXi Tracks
SONAR automatically places any audio and MIDI tracks that use DXi’s into a
group that makes muting and soloing the tracks easy:
•
To mute or solo a MIDI track that is patched to a DXi audio track, simply
mute or solo the MIDI track—SONAR automatically mutes or solos the
correct audio track. If another MIDI track uses the audio track as an output,
SONAR leaves the audio track unmuted.
•
To mute or solo all the MIDI tracks that are patched to a specific DXi, simply
mute or solo the audio track that the MIDI tracks are patched into.—SONAR
automatically mutes or solos all the correct MIDI tracks.
Or
•
Click the M or S buttons (mute and solo, respectively) next to the DXi’s name
in the Synth Rack view. This mutes or solos all the tracks associated with this
instance of the DXi.
You can use the mute and solo buttons in the Track view, Synth Rack view, or
Console view.
Converting Your DXi Tracks to Audio
Once your project sounds the way you want it to, it’s extremely easy to convert
your DXi MIDI tracks to either new audio tracks, or Wave, MP3, or other exported
files.
To Convert Your DXi Tracks to New Audio Tracks
1.
Mute all tracks that you don’t want to convert.
2.
Use the Edit-Bounce to Track(s) command.
The Bounce to Track(s) dialog box appears.
3.
In the Source Category field, choose Tracks.
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4.
In the Channel Format field, choose mono if you want mono tracks, and stereo
if you want stereo tracks.
5.
In the Source/Buses field, make sure all 4 outputs are selected. This will
create a separate audio track for each selected output.
6.
In the Mix Enables field, make sure all choices are selected.
7.
Click OK.
SONAR creates new audio tracks from the outputs you selected. When you’re
through converting, don’t forget to mute your MIDI tracks so you won’t hear them
and the new audio track(s) at the same time.
To Export Your DXi Tracks as Wave, MP3, or Other Type Files
1.
Mute all tracks that you don’t want to export; make sure you don’t mute the
audio track that the DXi is patched into, or the MIDI track(s) that you are
using as a source.
2.
Use the File-Export-Audio command.
The Export Audio dialog box appears.
3.
In the Look in field, choose the location where you want the new, exported file
to be.
4.
Type a file name in the File name field.
5.
Choose the type of file, the format, and the bit depth of the new file you’re
creating—for MP3 use 16 bits.
6.
In the Mix Enables field, make sure all choices are selected.
7.
Click OK.
SONAR creates a new audio file of the type you specified. Find the file in the folder
you specified, and double-click it to listen to it.
Automating a DXi’s Controls
Some DXi’s have controls that you can automate by drawing envelopes in either
the Track view or Piano Roll view. Some DXi’s allow you to record the movements
of their faders and other control knobs. Your DXi’s manufacturer determines which
controls (if any) you can automate.
Note: By default, you can only record MIDI or automation data sent by a DXi into
a MIDI track whose Output field is set to that particular DXi. If you do want to
record DXi input to any MIDI track that is armed, check the Echo DXi Input to All
MIDI Tracks option on the MIDI tab of the Global Options dialog (OptionsGlobal command).
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To Record MIDI Input from a DXi’s Interface
1.
If you want to be able to record on any armed MIDI track, make sure that the
Echo DXi Input to All MIDI Tracks option on the MIDI tab of the Global
Options dialog (Options-Global command) is enabled. Otherwise, you can
only record on a MIDI track whose Output field is set to the DXi you’re
recording from.
2.
Arm one or more MIDI tracks.
3.
Set the record mode (Transport-Record Options command). If you want to
record different knobs on different takes, use Sound on Sound mode.
4.
Open the DXi’s interface and, if necessary, use its setup menu to enable
recording the DXi’s fader movements.
5.
Move the Now time to the place where you want to record.
6.
Click the Record button to start recording.
7.
Move the DXi’s controls in the way you want them to move. Some or all of the
controls may not be capable of sending MIDI data to be recorded (only some
DXi’s of the DXi 2 format can do this).
8.
Click the Stop button.
SONAR records the fader or knob movements. Check the Output fields of the MIDI
tracks you recorded into and play back the track.
To Automate a DXi’s Controls in the Track View
1.
In a MIDI track that uses the DXi as an output, right-click in the Clips pane
and choose Envelopes-Create-MIDI from the popup menu.
The MIDI Envelope dialog box appears.
2.
In the Type field, select Control, RPN, or NRPN.
3.
In the Value field, click the drop-down arrow to see the menu of automatable
controls, RPN’s, or NRPN’s that this DXi has, and select the one you want to
automate.
4.
In the Channel field, select the channel of the patch in your DXi that you want
to control.
5.
Click OK.
SONAR draws an envelope for the parameter that you chose. You can edit the
envelope to make the parameter behave as you want it to. See “Drawing MIDI
Envelopes in the Track View” on page 499.
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To Automate a DXi’s Controls in the Piano Roll View
1.
Select a MIDI track that uses the DXi as an output and open the Piano Roll
view.
2.
In the Controller pane in the Piano Roll, select Control, RPN, or NRPN.
3.
In the Value menu below the Controller menu, click the drop-down arrow to
see the menu of automatable controls, RPN’s, or NRPN’s that this DXi has,
and select the one you want to automate.
4.
In the Controller pane at the bottom of the Piano Roll view, use the Draw tool
to draw a graph of the desired controller values.
Note: MIDI envelopes in the Piano Roll Controllers pane and the Track view Clips
pane are actually separate envelopes, even if they control the same parameter.
Both kinds of envelopes are visible in the Clips pane, and should generally not be
used to control the same parameter. You can convert Piano Roll view envelopes to
Track view envelopes by selecting the time range and tracks that the Piano Roll
envelopes occupy, and using the Edit-Convert MIDI To Shapes command.
ReWire Instruments
ReWire is a technology for transferring audio data between software applications
in real time—the software equivalent of a multi-channel audio cable. ReWire is
built on the following cornerstones:
•
Real-time audio streaming between applications
•
Sample accurate synchronization
•
Common transport functionality
SONAR supports the ReWire 2.0 format, but with some differences. SONAR
interacts with ReWire applications in the following ways:
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•
You can insert one instance of a ReWire application into each SONAR project.
You can insert as many different ReWire applications into a project as your
computer can handle.
•
You can use a maximum of 16 devices or instruments for each ReWire
application.
•
To use a MIDI controller with both SONAR and your ReWire application, you
need to enable separate MIDI In ports in both applications. If your MIDI
interface only has one input, decide which application you want to use your
controller in, enable the MIDI In port in that application, and disable it in the
other application.
•
You can insert ReWire devices into SONAR projects from the Synth Rack view
or Insert menu, and you can tell SONAR to create the necessary audio tracks
and one MIDI track at that time. You can also tell SONAR to open the ReWire
application’s property page, because, unlike DXi’s, ReWire applications must
have their property pages (interfaces) open in order to function.
•
SONAR’s tempo, transport, and loop points are linked to the ReWire
application. Activating or changing any of these settings in the ReWire
application(s) changes the same setting in SONAR. and vice versa. If you have
several applications open and you make a change in one of them, it may be
necessary to put the focus on the other application(s) to update their
interfaces.
•
You cannot send patch or bank changes from SONAR to the ReWire
application. All other track property controls in SONAR control the ReWire
device, except the pan controls on MIDI tracks. The pan controls on SONAR’s
audio tracks control the ReWire device’s panning.
•
You can mix down or bounce ReWire tracks in SONAR the same way you mix
down or bounce DXi tracks (see “Converting Your DXi Tracks to Audio” on
page 407).
•
You can use SONAR’s automation functions on both audio and MIDI tracks
that the ReWire application uses.
•
Muting or soloing an audio track that a ReWire device uses automatically
mutes or solos the MIDI track that feeds that audio track. Muting or soloing a
MIDI track that a ReWire device uses will mute or solo the corresponding
audio track only if there is only one MIDI track feeding that audio track.
•
You must always close your ReWire application(s) before you close SONAR.
Some ReWire applications prevent SONAR from closing properly if the
ReWire applications are still open.
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Inserting a ReWire Instrument
After you install your ReWire applications and reboot your computer, the names of
the ReWire applications appear in SONAR’s Insert menu under ReWire Devices,
and also in the Synth Rack view’s Insert button popup menu.
To Insert a ReWire Instrument
1.
Open a SONAR project. Do not launch your ReWire application.
2.
In the SONAR’s Synth Rack view, click the Insert button, and click ReWire
Devices to display the submenu of installed ReWire devices.
OR
Use the Insert-ReWire Devices command to display the submenu of installed
ReWire devices.
3.
Click the name of the ReWire device you want to insert.
The Insert DXi Synth Preferences dialog appears.
4.
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Choose options from the Insert DXi Synth Preferences dialog according to the
following:
•
If you want to create a MIDI track that uses the ReWire Instrument as an
output, check the Create These Tracks: MIDI Source Track checkbox.
•
If you want to create a single audio track that acts as an output for
Output 1 of the ReWire Instrument, check the Create These Tracks: First
Synth Output (Audio) checkbox.
•
If you want to create separate audio tracks for each of the ReWire
Instrument’s outputs, check the Create These Tracks: All Synth Outputs
(Audio) checkbox.
•
If you want to use existing MIDI and audio tracks to play the ReWire
Instrument, uncheck all of the Create These Tracks options. SONAR adds
the ReWire Instrument to the audio track input and MIDI track output
menus. You need to set an existing audio track’s Input field to the ReWire
Instrument, and set an existing MIDI track’s Output field to the ReWire
Instrument.
•
If you want to open the ReWire Instrument’s interface from this dialog,
check the Open These Windows: Synth Property Page checkbox (always
check this option: ReWire Instruments do not sound unless their
property pages are open).
•
If you opened this dialog from the Insert menu and want to open the
Synth Rack view, check the Open These Windows: Synth Rack View
checkbox.
•
If you want to open this dialog every time you use the Insert-ReWire
Instrument command, or click the Insert button in the Synth Rack view
and choose a synth from the popup menu, check the Ask This Every Time
option. If you always insert ReWire Instruments in the same way, you can
uncheck this option so you don’t have to deal with the dialog each time. To
open the dialog when the option is unchecked, click the Insert DXi Synth
Options button
5.
in the Synth Rack view toolbar.
Click OK to close the dialog.
SONAR adds your ReWire devices to the audio track In menus and the MIDI
track Out and Ch menus, creates any tracks you requested, adds the ReWire
instrument to the Synth Rack view, and opens the ReWire application’s
interface.
6.
If you get an error message about a MIDI Input problem from your ReWire
application, click OK and then use SONAR’s Options-MIDI Devices
command to open the MIDI Devices dialog and select the MIDI In port to want
to use to record into SONAR. Use your ReWire application’s menus to choose a
different MIDI In port for your ReWire application. If your MIDI interface
only has one input, you have to decide whether you want to use your MIDI
controller in SONAR or in your ReWire application. If you want to use your
controller in your ReWire application, deselect your MIDI In port in SONAR’s
MIDI Devices dialog, and select that input in your ReWire application.
7.
In the MIDI track whose output is the ReWire audio track, click the dropdown arrow in the Ch field to display the names of the available ReWire
devices in your ReWire instrument.
8.
Click the name of the device you want to use.
9.
Make sure that the audio track you want to hear the ReWire instrument
through has the appropriate ReWire channel listed in its Input field.
Now you can record MIDI data in the MIDI track and hear it through the audio
track. If you want to use different audio tracks for each ReWire device, see the
following procedure.
Note: Always close your ReWire applications before closing a SONAR project.
To Use Separate Audio Tracks for Each ReWire Device
1.
Open SONAR, insert a ReWire instrument, and choose All Synth Outputs
(Audio) in the Create These Tracks field of the Insert DXi Synth Preferences
dialog. Make sure you choose to open the Synth window, and click OK.
SONAR inserts the ReWire instrument and creates multiple audio tracks.
2.
In your ReWire application, assign the devices you want to use to the outputs
or channels you want to use. For example, in Propellerheads Reason, you use
the back panel of the mixer to drag cables from a device to the output channel
you want to use for that instrument.
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3.
In SONAR, set the Output field of a MIDI track to the name of your ReWire
application, and set the Ch. field to the name of the ReWire device you want to
play with this track.
4.
Record some MIDI data in the track and play it. Find the audio track whose
Input field lists the output channel you patched your device into—the
playback meter lights up as you play the MIDI track that plays your device.
Now you can use separate effects for each of your ReWire devices.
Note: Always close your ReWire applications before closing SONAR or a SONAR
project.
Mixing Down ReWire Instruments
To either mix down or bounce ReWire instruments to new audio tracks, use the
same procedures as for DXi’s.
For more information, see “Converting Your DXi Tracks to Audio” on page 407
Automating ReWire Instruments
You can automate audio and MIDI tracks that are patched to ReWire instruments
the same ways you can automate any of SONAR’s audio and MIDI tracks.
For more information, see Chapter 13, Using Automation.
ReWire Troubleshooting Guide
The following lists some common issues when you use ReWire with SONAR:
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•
SONAR Won’t Close Properly—Always close your ReWire applications
before closing SONAR or a SONAR project.
•
Rebirth Won’t Play After I Open Its Property Page—Make sure that the
Loop switch in Rebirth is enabled.
•
My ReWire Project Plays at a Different Tempo when Opened from
SONAR—When you open a ReWire project from SONAR, the ReWire project
assumes SONAR’s default tempo, which is 100. Change SONAR’s tempo to
match your ReWire project.
•
My MIDI Controller Works in SONAR or my ReWire Application, but
not Both—Choose different MIDI In ports for both SONAR and your ReWire
application. Do this in SONAR by using the Options-MIDI Devices
command, and highlighting the MIDI In port you want to use in SONAR. If
you only have one MIDI In port on your MIDI interface or sound card, enable
that input in either SONAR or your ReWire application, and disable that
input in the other application.
•
I Get a MIDI Input Error Message When I Open a ReWire
Application—If you only have one MIDI Input port on your MIDI interface,
you probably have that one reserved for SONAR, leaving none for your ReWire
application. If you would rather use your MIDI controller in the ReWire
application instead of SONAR, you can deselect your MIDI input port in
SONAR’s MIDI Devices dialog (Options-MIDI Devices command), and then
select that MIDI Input from whatever menu your ReWire application has for
that purpose. If you have multiple inputs on your MIDI interface, simply
select different ones for SONAR and your ReWire application.
Stand-alone Synths
After you install this kind of synth and restart your computer, the name of the
synth’s MIDI driver appears in SONAR’s MIDI Devices dialog box under Outputs.
Playing a Stand-alone Synth
SONAR plays this kind of synth by seeing it as additional MIDI outputs in both
the MIDI Devices dialog box and in MIDI tracks’ output fields.
To Play a Stand-alone Synth
1.
Use the Options-MIDI Devices command to open the MIDI Devices dialog
box.
2.
In the Outputs field, make sure the name of your stand-alone synth’s MIDI
driver is highlighted, and click OK.
3.
Click the Output field of an unused MIDI track to display the output menu.
4.
Select the name of the stand-alone synth’s MIDI driver.
5.
If your stand-alone synth is multi-timbral, change the track’s MIDI channel to
the same one that the synth uses for the sound you want to hear.
6.
Select a bank and patch on your stand-alone synth, if you haven’t already.
7.
Record some MIDI data in the MIDI track, or play any MIDI controller that’s
an input for the MIDI track.
When you play your MIDI controller or play back the recorded MIDI data, you
should hear the stand-alone synth through your sound card’s outputs. If you don’t,
415
make sure you’re playing in the right range and that your monitor speakers or
headphones are turned up, and that none of the relevant tracks are muted.
Recording a Stand-alone Synth
There are several ways to record a stand-alone synth:
•
You can use the synth’s wave capture function, if it has one. See your synth’s
documentation for a procedure. Make a note of where the resulting captured
Wave file is stored, and then you can import the file into SONAR by using the
File-Import-Audio command.
•
You can connect your sound card’s outputs to your sound card’s inputs, either
internally or externally, depending on your sound card’s design. After you do
this, you need to arm an audio track in SONAR and select one of your sound
card’s wave drivers as an input. Start recording, and make sure the MIDI
track that is routed to the synth is playing back.
•
You can use your sound card’s wave capture or “what-you-hear” option, if it
has one. See the following procedure.
To Record A Stand-alone Synth with your Sound Card’s Wave
Capture Function
1.
Pick a destination audio track and set the Input field to Stereo.
Note: If you have more than one sound card installed, select the one that your
stand-alone synth uses as an output.
2.
Arm the destination track.
3.
Mute or archive any tracks that you don’t want to record to the destination
track.
4.
If SONAR’s metronome is set to use any software synth to produce a click,
disable the metronome during recording option in the Project Options dialog
box. To do this, select Options-Project to open the Project Options dialog box,
select the Metronome tab and uncheck Recording in the General section.
5.
Open your sound card's mixer device. This is normally done by double-clicking
the speaker icon on the Windows taskbar, or by choosing Start-ProgramsAccessories- Multimedia-Volume Control-Options-Properties.
Note: Some sound cards, such as the SoundBlaster Live, have their own
proprietary mixer. If yours has one, please use it instead.
416
6.
Click Adjust Volume For Recording, and make sure all boxes below are
checked.
7.
Click OK, and locate the slider marked MIDI, Synth, Mixed Input, or What
You Hear. Check the Select box at the bottom, then close the window.
8.
In SONAR, click the Record button.
SONAR records all the MIDI tracks that are assigned to the stand-alone synth
as a stereo audio track.
After you finish recording, mute the MIDI tracks that you just recorded so you
don’t hear them and the new audio track at the same time.
Using VST Synths and Plug-ins
You can use VST synths and plug-in effects the same way you use DXi synths and
plug-in effects. The Cakewalk VST Adapter program runs automatically when you
install SONAR, and adapts your VST plug-ins to use as DX plug-ins. Each time
you install new VST synths and/or plug-in effects, you can run the program
manually to adapt your new plug-ins.
To Register VST Plug-ins and Instruments to Use as DXi Plugins
1.
Use the Windows Start menu: Programs-Cakewalk-Cakewalk VST
Adapter 4-Cakewalk VST Adapter 4. This opens the VST Configuration
Wizard.
2.
Follow the instructions in the Wizard, and when the VST Plug-in Search
Paths dialog appears, click the Add button to browse for the folders where you
installed your new VST plug-in(s).
3.
After your folders are displayed in the VST Plug-in Search Path dialog, choose
from these options to decide how configuration will proceed:
4.
•
Re-scan failed plug-ins—choose this option if there was an error when you
originally scanned a plug-in.
•
Re-scan existing plug-ins—choose this option if you’re having trouble with
an existing plug-in, or if you want to change how plug-ins are displayed in
your plug-ins menu.
•
Subdivide menu—choose this option if you want to add breaks between
plug-ins in your plug-in menu, to make it easier to read.
•
Don’t add VST prefix—choose this option if you don’t want the plug-ins
you’re about to scan to be labeled VST (name of plug-in) in your plug-ins
menu.
Click Next to have the adapter scan all the displayed folders for VST plug-ins.
The adapter finds your plug-ins and lists them in the VST Plug-in
Configuration dialog.
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5.
6.
Select a plug-in you want to configure, and click Properties. The VST Plug-In
dialog appears, with the selected plug-in listed, and some Plug-in Options:
•
Details—clicking this button opens a Properties dialog that lists the
pathname and a few other details about the plug-in.
•
Enable as DXi plug-in—enable this option if you want to use the plug-in
as an audio effect.
•
Configure as DXi synth—enable this option if you want to use the plug-in
as a soft synth.
•
Do not intercept NRPNs—the adapter uses NRPNs to run automation of
your VST plug-ins. However, some instruments have their own
implementation of this process, so checking this box passes the NRPNs
directly to the instrument, allowing it to manage its own automation.
•
Force stereo operation—some host applications assign a single, mono
track to carry a VST plug-in’s output. Checking this option forces the host
to use two mono tracks or a single stereo track.
•
Editor size—the X field lets you choose the width of the plug-in’s property
page (in pixels), and the Y field lets you choose the height of the page.
Choose the options you want for this plug-in, and click OK.
The adapter configures the plug-in and returns to the VST Plug-In
Configuration dialog.
7.
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If you want to finish, select no more plug-ins and click Next; otherwise, repeat
steps 5 and 6 for additional plug-ins.
11
Mixing and Effects
Patching
This chapter describes SONAR™ as a live digital mixer that gives you full trackby-track control over recording and playback of your project. You can mix in either
the Track view or the Console view.
The Console view now has a 4-band EQ patched to every audio track (Producer
Edition only). The Console view and the Track view support automation, which
lets you record and play back volume and pan changes, and other track
parameters. For more information on automation, see Chapter 13, Using
Automation.
In This Chapter
Preparing to Mix. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420
Mixing MIDI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428
Routing and Mixing Digital Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430
Metering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436
Freeze Tracks and Synths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 441
Using Real-Time Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 444
Using Control Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 449
Using Remote Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 454
Bouncing Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 456
Preparing Audio for Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 459
SONAR lets you mix together the digital audio portions of a project, including all
real-time effects and control movements, to a stereo track or stereo pair of audio
tracks. You can use the mixed-down tracks to create a CD master or to put your
work on the World Wide Web.
Preparing to Mix
The Console and Track views contain all the controls you need to mix your project.
To open the Console view click the Console view button
or choose ViewConsole. The Track view is always open.
The Console View
MIDI module
Audio module
Mute/Solo/Arm
buttons
Audio and MIDI modules
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Bus modules
Main Out module
Sound controls in the Console view are grouped in modules. There are four types
of modules:
Module type...
What you can do...
MIDI track
Set the track’s output, channel, bank, and patch; set the input;
mute, solo, and arm the track; set channel volume, panning,
chorus, and reverb levels; add real-time effects
Audio track
Set the track’s output (bus or Main out destination); choose an
input; monitor input levels; mute, solo, and arm the track; set
track volume and panning; add real-time effects; send audio
data to buses or main outs.
Bus
Receive input from one or more audio tracks, add real-time
effects, and send the results to a main out or another bus
Main outs
Monitor output levels using meters and control the stereo
volume of audio to an output on your audio interface. To adjust
both the left and right volume levels at the same time, use the
for that module.
Link button
One module’s name is always outlined with a white line. This corresponds to the
track with the focus. You can change the focus by clicking to the right of the
module’s volume fader.
421
The Console view contains several different types of controls. Here’s how they are
used:
Click a button to enable/disable it
Drag the
volume fader
up or down
You can adjust Console view controls in the following ways:
•
Click on the center of the knob and drag the mouse up or down to adjust the
knob
•
Click and drag a fader up or down
•
Double-click the center of the knob to return it to its snap-to position
Volume and pan faders also have snap-to positions; double-click a fader’s knob to
return the fader to its snap-to value.
422
The controls and effects patch points all have tool tips associated with them. To see
a description of a particular control or effect, simply rest the cursor over the item
for a few seconds.
The Track View
Audio Track
MIDI Track
Track pane
Track/Bus Inspector
Bus
Clips pane
There are three types of modules in the Track view:
Track type...
What you can do...
MIDI track
Set the track’s output, channel, bank, and patch; set the input;
mute, solo, and arm the track; set channel volume, panning,
chorus, and reverb levels; add real-time effects.
Audio track
Set the track’s output; set the input and monitor input levels; mute,
solo, and arm the track; set track volume and panning; add realtime effects; send audio data to buses or main outs.
Bus
Receive input from one or more audio tracks, add real-time effects,
and send the results to a main out or another bus.
423
The Track view contains several different types of controls. Here’s how they are
used:
Click and drag left or right to change values
Right-click and
select from a
menu of effects
Click to
enable or
disable
Click to toggle
from Pre to Post
Click the small white arrow to open a menu of options
For information on using the controls in the Track view, see Chapter 3, Changing
Track Settings.
Volume, pan, bus send level and bus send pan also have snap-to positions; doubleclick the control to return it to its snap-to value.
The controls and effects patch points all have tool tips associated with them. To see
a description of a particular control or effect, simply rest the cursor over the item
for a few seconds.
Configuring the Console and Track Views
The Console and Track view can be reconfigured in a variety of ways. You can:
424
•
Choose the tracks that you want to see
•
Adjust the display of audio meters and clip indicators
•
Change the number of buses
•
Set control snap-to positions
•
Insert new tracks
•
Name tracks and buses
Meters are helpful in determining the relative volumes of your audio tracks and in
detecting and preventing overload. By default, the Console view displays output
level meters in main out modules at all times, and displays record level meters in
individual tracks whenever they are armed and have an audio input. The display
of meters, however, can place a considerable load on your computer. Showing only
the peak indicators, or hiding the meters entirely, can reduce the load on your
computer. This may increase the number of audio tracks and real-time effects you
can play back at one time.
In the Track view there are several ways to configure which tracks are displayed.
To Display All the Tracks in a Project
•
Click the View tool’s
View tool menu.
down arrow and select Show all tracks from the
To Hide Selected Tracks
1.
Select the tracks you want to hide.
2.
Click the View tool’s down arrow and select Hide tracks from the View tool
menu.
To Display Only Selected Tracks
1.
Select the tracks you want to display.
2.
Click the View tool’s down arrow and select Show selected tracks from the
View tool menu.
To Choose the Tracks that are Displayed Using the Track
Manager
1.
Click the down arrow next to the View tool and select Track Manager to open
the Track Manager dialog box.
2.
In the list, check those tracks you would like displayed in the view in which
you are working, and uncheck the rest. You can use Shift-click, Control-click,
or the quick select buttons to select multiple modules; press the Spacebar to
check or uncheck all the selected modules at once. Please note that the track
display selections you make in the Track view do not affect those in the
Console view and vice versa.
3.
Click OK.
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To Hide a Bus or Track
•
Right-click on the module and choose Hide Track or Hide Bus.
To Narrow a Module (Console view only)
1.
Right-click in the space next to the module’s volume fader.
2.
Select Narrow Strip from the menu that appears.
To Narrow or Widen all Modules in the Console View
•
Click the Narrow/Widen Modules button
.
To Display Meters in the Console View
•
Click the Show Meters button
.
To Customize the Meter Display in the Console View
You can choose which meters you want to display in the Console view. Hiding
meters helps to conserve CPU cycles, potentially giving you more power for realtime plug-ins or simultaneous tracks.
1.
Click the down arrow next to the Show Meters button
.
2.
Select Track Record Meters, Track Playback Meters, Bus Meters or
Mains Meters from the menu that appears.
To Show or Hide Meters in the Track View
•
Click the Show/Hide Meters button
to display all meters or click on the
arrow to the right of the Show/Hide Meters button to display only the meters
you want to see or to customize the appearance of your meters.
Option…
What it does…
Record meters
Displays record meters for any armed track.
Playback meters
Displays playback meters.
Output bus meters
Displays meters in buses
For more information about metering options, see “Changing the Meters’ Display”
on page 438.
To Change a Meter’s Range
•
Right-click on the meter and choose a new range.
To Add a Bus
1.
Right-click in the Bus pane (to add a bus at the end of the current buses) or
over an existing bus (to add a bus before it).
2.
Select Insert Bus from the menu that appears.
A bus appears in the Bus pane.
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To Delete a Bus
1.
Right-click in the Bus pane over an existing bus.
2.
Select Delete Bus from the menu that appears.
The bus is deleted from the Bus pane.
Note: If you have any track or bus routed through the bus you delete, the signal
will be rerouted to the bus’s output.
To Create a Bus Send in a Track
1.
Right-click in an empty part of the Track pane (Track view) or a track module
(Console view).
2.
Select Insert Send for a list of buses available.
3.
Select a bus from the list.
To Set the Snap-to Position of a Knob or Fader
1.
Set the control to the desired position.
2.
Right-click on the control and choose Set Snap-To=Current.
From now on, the control returns to this position when double-clicked.
To Insert a New Track
1.
Right-click on an empty area in the Console view or on the title bar of a track
in the Track view.
2.
Choose Insert Audio Track or Insert MIDI Track.
SONAR adds a new track to the project.
To Rename a Track or Bus
1.
In the Console view, click on the module name. In the Track view double-click
on the Track name.
2.
Type a new name.
3.
Press Enter.
If you rename a track, the new name is copied to the Track view. If no name has
been assigned to a track, the Console view and Track view display the track’s
number.
To Link Left/Right Faders in a Console View Module
1.
In the module whose faders you want to link, adjust the volume of each fader
to the appropriate level.
2.
Click the Link button
.
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Mixing MIDI
SONAR gives you many tools to control your MIDI mix. When your MIDI tracks
sound the way you want them to, there are several ways to convert them to audio
(see “Converting MIDI to Audio” on page 429).
Mixing a MIDI Track
You can control the mixing and playback of a MIDI track as follows:
To do this...
Do this...
Add a real-time MIDI effect to
the track
Right-click in the Effects patch point and select an
effect from the list (for more information, “Using
Real-Time Effects” later in the chapter)
Remove an effect
Select the effect and press Delete or right-click and
select Delete.
Select the output
Click the Output control and choose one from the list
Select the channel
Click the Channel button and choose one from the
list
Select the bank
Click the Bank button and choose one from the list
Select the patch
Click the Patch button and choose one from the list
Set the Chorus level
Adjust the Chorus slider
Set the Reverb level
Adjust the Reverb slider
Mute the track
Click the Mute button
Solo the track
Click the Solo button
Arm the track for recording
Click the Arm button
Set the Pan level
Adjust the Pan fader
Set the Volume level
Adjust the Volume fader
Select the input
Click the input button and choose one from the list
When moving the Volume fader, the Value box in the toolbar displays the level
from a scale of 0 (minimum) to 127 (maximum). When you move the Pan slider, the
Value box displays the pan value on a scale that ranges from 100% Left to 100%
Right with center represented by a C.
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Converting MIDI to Audio
The following options cover three basic MIDI setups:
•
If your MIDI tracks play back through a DXi soft synth, use either the FileExport-Audio or Edit-Bounce to Track(s) commands (see the procedures in
“To Export Your DXi Tracks as Wave, MP3, or Other Type Files” on page 408,
and “To Convert Your DXi Tracks to New Audio Tracks” on page 407).
•
If your MIDI tracks play back through your sound card’s synthesizer, see the
procedure below.
•
If your MIDI tracks play back through external MIDI modules, simply connect
their analog outputs to the inputs on your sound card, and record to new audio
tracks.
To Convert a Sound Card’s Synth Tracks to a Stereo Audio
Track
1.
Pick a destination audio track and set the Input field to Stereo-(name of your
sound card).
Note: If you have more than one sound card installed, select the one that your
synth uses as an output.
2.
Arm the destination track.
3.
Mute or archive any tracks that you don’t want to record to the destination
track.
4.
If SONAR’s metronome is set to use any software synth to produce a click,
disable the metronome during recording option in the Project Options dialog
box. To do this, select Options-Project to open the Project Options dialog box,
select the Metronome tab and uncheck Recording in the General section.
5.
Open your sound card's mixer device. This is normally done by double-clicking
the speaker icon on the Windows taskbar, or by choosing Start-ProgramsAccessories- Multimedia-Volume Control-Options-Properties.
6.
Open the sound card’s recording control window (the command is probably
Options-Properties-Adjust Volume For Recording) and make sure all
boxes below Adjust Volume For Recording are checked.
7.
Click OK, and locate the slider marked MIDI, Synth, Mixed Input, or What
You Hear. Check the Select box at the bottom, then close the window.
8.
In SONAR, click the Record button.
SONAR records all the MIDI tracks that are assigned to the sound card synth as a
stereo audio track.
After you finish recording, mute the MIDI tracks that you just recorded so you
don’t hear them and the new audio track at the same time.
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Routing and Mixing Digital Audio
This section covers mixing your project’s digital audio.
Audio clips in each track are processed by any real-time audio effects you have
patched in place, passed through the track pan control and volume fader, and then
sent to the designated bus or main out, in stereo.
This is shown in the picture below:
Bus Send level
Bus send on/off button
Pre/Post fader button
Phase button
Pan control
Volume fader
Output
Any audio track can be tapped, before or after the track volume control, and sent
to one or more buses. A bus can tap any number of audio tracks. Each track’s data
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passes through the track’s send level knob on its way to the bus. This is shown in
the diagram below:
This track is routed to
Bus 1 and 2
Pre-fader: output level to Bus 2 is not
affected by the track’s volume fader
Post-fader: track’s volume fader
controls output level to Bus 1
The audio in each bus passes through the send level and pan controls, is processed
by any real-time effects you have patched, sent through the output level and pan
controls, and then sent to the designated main out, in stereo.
At each main out, all audio data from audio tracks and buses that were routed to
that main are mixed together. Finally, the data passes through each main’s master
volume fader
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Audio Tracks
The following graphic shows an audio track’s signal flow:
Audio clip
Hardware input
DXi Synth input
Clip mute
Clip fades
Input meters (record)
Clip envelopes
Volume Trim
Phase/Interleave
Playback Meter (pre fader/pre FX)
Send level
Pre fader
FX bin
Send pan
Post fader
Playback Meter
(post fader)
Surround or
Stereo Bus
Stereo bus
Surround bus
Pan
Playback meter (post fader)
Hardware Outputs
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Hardware out
You control the mixing and playback of an audio track as follows:
To do this...
Do this...
Add a real-time audio effect
to the track
Right-click in the Effects patch point and select an
effect from the list (for more information, see “Using
Real-Time Effects” later in the chapter)
Remove an effect
Select the effect and press Delete or right-click and
select Delete.
Send audio data from the
track to a bus
Select the corresponding Bus Send Enable and set
the Bus Send Level (for more information, see “Stereo
Buses” on page 434”)
Mute the track
Click the Mute button
Solo the track
Click the Solo button
Arm the track for recording
Click the Arm button
Set the Pan level
Adjust the Pan control
Set the Volume level
Adjust the Volume fader
Select the output
Click the dropdown arrow in the Output field and
choose one from the list
Select the input
Click the dropdown arrow in the Input field and choose
one from the list
SONAR displays volume in dB (decibels). When adjusting the volume or bus send
level controls, a value of 0 dB indicates full signal strength; positive values, up to 6
dB, indicate a signal gain; negative values indicate an attenuated signal. When
you move the Pan control, the Value box displays the pan value on a scale that
ranges from 100%L (hard left) 100%R (hard right).
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Stereo Buses
Buses are useful for mixing together different audio tracks (in stereo) and applying
effects to the mix. You can mix the tracks at different volume levels by adjusting
each track’s bus send level. Buses output to either other buses or to a main out.
You control the bus as follows:
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To do this...
Do this...
Send audio data from an audio track
to the bus
In an audio track, press the Bus Send Enable button
corresponding to the bus, or choose the bus as an
output for the track
Set the level of the audio data sent to
the bus
In an audio track, set the Bus Send Level
corresponding to the bus, or volume fader if the
output is to the bus
Set the pan of the audio data sent to
the bus
Adjust the Bus Send Pan knob
Set the input level to the bus
Adjust the Input gain on the bus itself
Set the input panning to the bus
Adjust the Input pan on the bus itself
Add a real-time audio effect to the bus
Right-click in the FX patch point and select an effect
from the list (for more information, see “Using RealTime Effects” on page 444)
Remove an effect
Select the effect and press Delete, or right-click and
choose Delete
Set the output level
Adjust the Output volume
Set the output panning
Adjust the Pan setting
Select the output
Click the Output button and choose one from the list
Surround Buses (Producer Edition Only)
Surround buses are useful for mixing and adding effects to create a surround mix.
As with Audio strips, the Value box in the toolbar displays the send and return
levels in decibels and the send and return balance values on a scale of 100%L to
100%R.
To Patch a Track Through a Bus
1.
Open the Console view (View-Console) or the Track view (View-Track).
2.
If you want to add effects to the bus, right-click in the FX bin of a bus (if it is
not in use already) and choose an effect from the effects popup menu. (If you
are working in the Track view, you may first need to display the Bus pane by
clicking the Show/Hide Mains and Buses button
located at the bottom of
the Track view.)
The name of the effect you have chosen appears in the bus FX bin.
3.
Set the effect’s parameters and close it.
4.
Repeat steps 2 and 3 for any additional effects you want to use.
5.
In a track module that you want to patch through the bus, do the following:
•
Drag the Bus Send Level control for the bus to the approximate level you
want.
•
Drag the Bus Send pan to the approximate setting you want.
•
Click the Bus Enable button for the appropriate bus.
6.
Repeat step 5 for all the tracks you want to patch through the bus.
7.
In the bus, adjust the Input Gain and Output volume controls to the
approximate level you want.
8.
In the bus, drag the Input pan and Output pan controls to the approximate
positions you want.
9.
Play your tracks and adjust the Send Level controls, the pan controls, etc.
To Mute or Solo a Bus
Each bus has a Mute button and a Solo button. These controls act like the Mute
and Solo buttons in a track, but they affect all the signal routed through the bus.
1.
Open the Track view or the Console view.
2.
Click the Mute or Solo button in the bus you want to mute or solo.
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Main Outs
Each enabled hardware channel has a main out channel strip in the Console view.
Main outs are the final destination for all of your audio in SONAR. Main outs
accept input from both tracks and buses.
Main outs contains a left channel and a right channel, but only one volume fader.
You control the left/right balance of each main out with the balance slider.
Here’s what you can do in a main out module:
To do this...
Do this...
Set the output volume
Adjust the Volume control
Adjust the left/right balance
Adjust the pan slider that’s on that output module
Metering
The Console and Track views both have meters to measure playback level, record
level, bus output level, and main output level. The Track view also has bus return
meters. You can configure the meters differently in each view, if you want.
The responsiveness of your record meters (which also measure input monitoring)
is dependent upon the latency setting in the Audio Options dialog and the settings
in the Audio Meter Ballistics dialog. With higher latency settings the meters may
appear sluggish.
There are three basic things you should know about meters:
•
What the meters measure
•
How to show or hide different kinds of meters
•
How to choose display options for each kind of meter
Note: Metering uses significant amounts of your computer’s processing power,
especially RMS metering. If you need to free up resources, turning off metering
where you don’t absolutely need it helps. Using peak metering on tracks and peak
plus RMS metering on the main out is a good option. To disable all metering,
turn off metering in both the Track view and Console view.
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What the Meters Measure
The following table summarizes what each kind of meter measures:
Kind of meter...
What it measures...
Record
The level of the instrument listed as an input for the
track you are monitoring—the track must be armed to
enable the meter
Playback
A playback meter measures the playback level of any
pre-existing data in the track you are monitoring,
either before or after the track faders, depending on
what display options you choose
Main outs
The level of the signal output by each main out.
Buses
The level of the output signal the bus is sending back
from the effects.
Hiding and Showing Meters
The display and configuration of the meters in the Track view is independent of
the meters in the Console view, and vice versa. Buttons in the Track view and
Console view toolbars hide or show all the meters of each kind in each view. To
show or hide meters on individual tracks or buses, use the right-click popup menu
that’s available from the title bar of each track or bus.
Note: If you want to conserve the maximum amount of your CPU’s resources, turn
off all metering in both the Track and Console views.
Show/Hide All Meters
Meter Options menu
Track view toolbar
Console view Show Meters button and menu
To Show or Hide all Record Meters
•
In the Console view, click the Show Meters button. This button hides or shows
all the meters in the Console view.
•
In the Track view, click the arrow to the right of the Show/Hide Meters button
and select Record Meters from the menu that appears.
437
To Show or Hide Individual Record Meters in the Track View
•
Right-click the title bar of a track to display the track popup menu and click
the Show Record Meter option to show or hide the record meter for that
track.
To Show or Hide All Playback Meters
•
In the Console view, click the dropdown menu to the right of the Show Meters
button and select Track Playback Meters from the menu that appears.
•
In the Track view, click the arrow to the right of the Show/Hide Meters button
and select Playback Meters from the menu that appears.
To Show or Hide Individual Playback Meters in the Track View
•
Right-click the title bar of a track to display the track popup menu and click
the Show Playback Meter option to show or hide the playback meter for that
track.
To Show or Hide All Main and Bus Meters in the Track View
•
In the Track view, click the arrow to the right of the Show/Hide Meters button
and select Output Bus Meters from the menu that appears.
To Show or Hide All Bus Meters in the Console View
•
In the Console view, click the dropdown menu to the right of the Show Meters
button and select Bus Meters from the menu that appears.
To Show or Hide All Main Meters in the Console View
•
In the Console view, click the dropdown menu to the right of the Show Meters
button and select Main Meters from the menu that appears.
To Show or Hide Individual Bus Meters in the Track View
•
In the Track view, right-click the title bar of a main or bus to display the
popup menu and click the Show Meter option to show or hide the meter for
that bus.
Changing the Meters’ Display
You control the range and kind of units that the various meters display in the
Track and Console views. The display of meters in each of the two views is
independent of the display in the other view. In the Track view, you can access all
meter options from the Show/Hide Meters button. In the Console view, you can
access all meter options from the Show Meters button.
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The dropdown menus give you the following display options:
Menu option...
What it does...
Peak
Choosing this option causes the meter to display the highest
amplitude in the signal that occurs in a complete cycle of a
frequency.
RMS
Choosing this option causes the meter to display more of an
average of the amplitudes that occur in a complete cycle of a
frequency. RMS, or Root-Mean-Square, is a little over seventy per
cent of peak level.
Peak + RMS
Choosing this option causes the meter to display both the RMS
and peak levels. The RMS level is displayed by the solid bar on
the left side of the meter, and the peak level is displayed as a
small line that follows the RMS level just to the right of it.
Pre Fader/Post Fader (This
option is for playback and
bus meters only)
Choose Pre Fader or Post Fader to measure the playback level
either before or after the track’s or bus’ volume fader.
Pre Fader/Post FX (This
option is for the buses only)
Choose Pre Fader/Post FX to measure the bus volume before the
fader, but after any real-time effects.
-12 dB....-90 dB
Choosing one of these numbers sets the scale of the meter to a
certain range of dB. For example, choosing -90 dB sets the range
of measurement of that meter to 90 dB.
Note: You can also change the scale of a meter by right-clicking
the meter to display a popup menu and choosing a new dB range.
Show Labels
Clicking this option hides or shows the dB markings on the meter.
Hiding the markings shrinks the meter significantly, saving space.
Hold Peaks
Choosing this option causes the meter to display a small vertical
line (the peak marker) that shows the peak level and then decays
until a new peak is reached.
Lock Peaks
Choosing this option causes the meter to lock the peak marker at
the highest level, until a higher level occurs.
439
Changing the Meters’ Performance
There are two major factors that determine the performance of meters in SONAR.
One is audio latency which you can adjust, within the limits of your audio
hardware drivers, in the General tab of the Audio Options dialog. The second is the
settings in the Audio Meter Ballistics dialog.
SONAR 4 now has configurable meter ballistics that allow you to adjust the rise
and fall times of both the RMS and Peak Meters. Out of the box, SONAR 4 ships
with industry-standard settings that mimic meter ballistics for common hardware
consoles.
The following table covers how to adjust your meter settings to meet your needs.
To do this...
Do this...
Increase or decrease meter refresh
rates
In the Audio Meter Ballistics dialog (select OptionsAudio Meter Settings to open), adjust the Refresh rate
field. Valid values are from 25 to 250 milliseconds.
Change the decay rate (the amount of
time the meter display stays at its
peak)
In the Audio Meter Ballistics dialog, adjust the Decay
Rate value. Valid values are from 1 to 150 milliseconds.
Increase or decrease the amount of
time the meter displays a peak value
In the Audio Meter Ballistics dialog, adjust the Hold
Time value. Valid values are from 0 to 5000
milliseconds.
Adjust rise and fall times
In the Audio Meter Ballistics dialog, adjust the Rise or
Fall settings for RMS or Peak. Valid Rise values are
from 0 to 1000 milliseconds. Valid Fall values are from
0 to 2500 milliseconds.
Here are the default values for the various settings:
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•
Refresh Rate = 40 msec
•
Peak Hold – Decay Rate = 50 msec
•
Peak Hold – Hold Time = 750 msec
•
RMS Rise = 300 msec
•
RMS Fall = 300 msec
•
Peak Rise = 0 msec
•
Peak Fall = 1000 msec
Freeze Tracks and Synths
The Freeze feature allows you to temporarily bounce your track, including soft
synths and effects, to reduce the amount of CPU power needed. The Freeze feature
also works for synths patched in the Synth Rack.
Note: if you delete or replace any part of the bounced track, and then unfreeze the
track or synth, you’ll create a gap in the spot where the deleted or replaced data
was.
The following are the available commands for track freezing:
•
Freeze Track—bounces the audio in the track to a new audio clip or clips,
applies any effects, and disables the FX bin.
•
Unfreeze Track—discards the bounced audio, restores the original audio, and
enables the FX bin. Audio will be re-bounced if you choose Freeze again.
•
Quick Unfreeze Track—hides and mutes the bounced audio, restores the
original audio, and enables the FX bin. Bounced audio is retained, however,
and toggling between Quick Freeze and Quick Unfreeze should be
instantaneous.
•
Quick Freeze Track—only available after a Quick Unfreeze, the Quick Freeze
function redisplays and unmutes the bounced audio instantaneously.
The following are the available commands for synth freezing:
•
Freeze Synth—audio from a DXi is bounced and placed on the DXi’s audio
track. Output from the DXi is disabled, as is the FX bin on the audio track.
•
Unfreeze Synth—discards bounced audio, enables the DXi and track FX bin.
Bounced audio is discarded, and will be re-bounced if you choose Freeze again.
•
Quick Unfreeze Synth—hides and mutes the bounced audio, enables the DXi
and track FX bin. Bounced audio is retained, and toggling between Quick
Freeze and Quick Unfreeze should be instantaneous.
•
Quick Freeze Synth—only available after a Quick Unfreeze, the Quick Freeze
function redisplays and unmutes the bounced audio instantaneously, disables
the DXi, and any effects on the DXi audio track.
There is also a Freeze option in Options-Global-General:
•
Unload Synth After Freeze—When enabled, DXi’s are unloaded from memory
when frozen, saving resources. This can free up a lot of memory if your synth
uses samples, but it can take a long time to reload the synth if you decide to do
so.
Note: Similar to the “Unload Synth After Freeze” behavior, when a DXi is
manually disabled in the Synth Rack, it is also unloaded from memory. Keep in
441
mind that Windows does not necessarily release freed memory until it is needed,
so you may not see an immediate drop in usage when a synth is frozen or disabled.
To Freeze a Track
1.
Right-click on a track.
2.
Select Freeze Track from the menu that appears.
SONAR bounces the audio in the track to a new audio clip or clips, applies any
effects, and disables the FX bin.
To Unfreeze a Track
1.
Right-click on a track.
2.
Select Unfreeze Track from the menu that appears.
SONAR discards the bounced audio, restores the original audio, and enables the
FX bin. Audio will be re-bounced if Freeze is chosen again.
To Do a Quick Unfreeze of a Track
1.
Right-click on a frozen track.
2.
Select Quick Unfreeze Track from the menu that appears.
SONAR hides and mutes the bounced audio, restores the original audio, and
enables the FX bin. Bounced audio is retained, however, and toggling between
Quick Freeze and Quick Unfreeze should be instantaneous.
To Quick Freeze a Track
1.
Right-click on a track that you did a Quick Unfreeze on.
2.
Select Quick Freeze Track from the menu that appears.
Only available after a Quick Unfreeze, the Quick Freeze function redisplays and
unmutes the bounced audio instantaneously
To Freeze a Synth (DXi)
•
Right-click a DXi MIDI or audio track, and choose Freeze Synth from the
menu that appears.
Or
•
In the Synth Rack view, click the Freeze/Unfreeze button
.
SONAR bounces the DXi’s audio data to the DXi’s audio track. SONAR disables
the DXi’s output, and disables the FX bin on the DXi’s audio track.
To Unfreeze a Synth (DXi)
•
Right-click a DXi MIDI or audio track, and choose Unfreeze Synth from the
menu that appears.
Or
•
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In the Synth Rack view, click the Freeze/Unfreeze button
Unfreeze Synth from the menu that appears.
, and choose
SONAR discards bounced audio, enables the DXi and the DXi audio track’s FX bin.
SONAR will be re-bounce the audio if you choose Freeze again.
To Do a Quick Unfreeze of a Synth (DXi)
•
Right-click a frozen DXi MIDI or audio track, and choose Quick Unfreeze
Synth from the menu that appears.
Or
•
In the Synth Rack view, click the Freeze/Unfreeze button
Quick Unfreeze Synth from the menu that appears.
, and choose
SONAR hides and mutes the bounced audio, enables the DXi and track FX bin.
Bounced audio is retained, and toggling between Quick Freeze and Quick Unfreeze
should be instantaneous.
To Quick Freeze a Synth (DXi)
•
Right-click a quick frozen DXi MIDI or audio track, and choose Quick Freeze
Synth from the menu that appears.
Or
•
In the Synth Rack view, click the Freeze/Unfreeze button
Quick Freeze Synth from the menu that appears.
, and choose
Only available after a Quick Unfreeze, the Quick Freeze command redisplays and
unmutes the bounced audio instantaneously, disables the DXi, and any effects on
the DXi audio track.
To Set Freeze Options
1.
Right-click an audio or DXi track, and choose Freeze Options from the menu
that appears.
Or
1.
In the Synth Rack view, click the Freeze/Unfreeze button
Freeze Options from the menu that appears.
, and choose
2.
Choose options in the Freeze Options dialog. For help choosing options, click
the Help button in the dialog.
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Using Real-Time Effects
In the Console view and Track view, you can use plug-in effects non-destructively,
in real time. You can also hear your plug-in effects in real time on any live
instruments you are recording—just make sure Input Monitoring is enabled (see
“Input Monitoring” on page 180).
For example, suppose you want to add a reverb effect to an audio track containing
a recorded violin solo. You could do it in two different ways:
•
Destructive—The digital audio data itself is modified. Although this may be
exactly what you want, it does limit your options. If you want to modify the
effect parameters slightly or to remove the effect and try a different effect, you
must use the Undo command, or revert to a saved copy of the original data.
•
Non-destructive (real-time)—The digital audio data in your track is not
changed but simply altered on the fly during playback. This means you can
experiment with effects parameters, bypass effects, or remove them entirely at
any time. Since most effects require complex numeric calculations, real-time
effects processing puts a heavy load on your computer’s CPU. If you use too
many effects, the CPU will not be able to keep up and playback will sound
choppy and disconnected.
You can also apply real-time audio effects to a submix in a bus. For example, rather
than patching separate reverb effects in each of several guitar tracks, you can mix
the guitar tracks together in a bus and apply a single reverb effect to the submix.
This makes much more efficient use of CPU time. Patching effects on a bus also
opens up new creative possibilities.
There are several reasons why you might want to apply effects offline
(destructively):
•
If you want to apply more effects than your CPU can handle, applying some of
the effects offline will reduce CPU usage during playback.
•
If you want to apply effects to an individual audio clip, rather than the whole
track, it is simpler to do so using offline effects.
The File-Export-Audio command, allows you to apply real-time effects when you
export, so you do not need to apply your effects destructively or use the EditBounce to Track(s) command to prepare the tracks beforehand. For information
about exporting audio, see “Preparing Audio for Distribution” on page 459.
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Effects Parameters
Each effect in an effects patch point has its own independent set of parameter
values. For example, you can apply a short reverb in one track and a long reverb in
another track. The dialog boxes for real-time effects contain the same parameters
as the offline effects, though there are a few differences:
•
You can adjust the parameters while playback is in progress, so there is no
need for an Audition button.
•
For Audio effects, because mixing is handled through the Track view or
Console view, there is no Mixing tab.
•
You do not need to click OK for the effect to be applied.
Refer to the sections “MIDI Effects (MIDI Plug-ins)” on page 325 and “Audio
Effects (Audio Plug-ins)” on page 386 for descriptions of the effects and their
parameters.
How to Use Real-Time Effects
It is very easy to use the real-time effects in the Track view and Console view.
Here’s what to do:
To do this…
Do this…
Add a real-time effect to a
MIDI track, audio track or bus
Right-click in the effects bin of the track or bus you want to add
the effect to, and select an effect from the popup menu.
Change the order in which
effects are used
In the Track view, drag an effect left or right in the effects bin. In
the Console view, drag an effect up or down in the effects bin.
Edit an effect’s parameters
Double-click on the effect to open the effect’s dialog box.
Move an effect to a different
bin
Drag the effect to another effects bin.
Copy an effect to a different
bin
Hold down the Ctrl key and drag the effect to another effects
bin.
When you place an effect in the patch point, an abbreviated name is used to
describe the effect. Sometimes the limited space makes it impossible to identify the
effect. If this occurs, simply rest the cursor over the effect for a second or two, and
a tooltip will pop up to display the full name of the effect.
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Using the Per-track EQ (Producer Edition Only)
Each audio track in the Console view in the Producer version of SONAR has a 4band EQ patched into it by default. You can hide the EQ, hide its graph (plot),
display only one band, or display all four bands
Here’s a graphic of the EQ and its controls:
Plot
Frequency, Gain, and Q
controls for band “n”
Enable band
Enable EQ
Choose type of filter
Show/hide Plot button
Show/hide Bands button
Here’s how to use it:
To Hide the EQ in all Audio Tracks
•
In the Console view, click the EQ button so that it’s not lit:
.
To Show One Band’s Controls
•
In the Console view, click the EQ button so that it’s yellow:
.
To Show All Four Bands’ Controls
•
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In the Console view, click the EQ button so that it’s blue:
.
To Choose What Band You’re Controlling When Only One Band
is Showing
•
Click the Band menu that’s at the bottom of the EQ display, and choose the
band number you want to control.
To Enable or Disable the EQ
•
Click the Enable/Disable button that’s next to the Band menu:
.
To Choose the Filter Type for Each Band
•
Click the filter type menu that’s just above the Band menu, and choose a filter
type.
To Enable or Disable a Band
•
Click the Enable/Disable button that’s on the left side of the band type menu.
To Set Frequency, Gain, and Q for Each Band
•
In the band that you want to configure, drag the frequency slider (f icon), gain
slider (triangle icon), or Q slider (Q icon), respectively, to the left or right. The
value is displayed just to the right of each icon, and the plot (graph) changes
as you drag.
To Hide or Show the Plot (Graph)
•
Click the Plot button.
To Open the EQ Interface
•
Double-click the Plot.
Applying Audio Effects
You can destructively apply audio effects for one or more tracks. When you are
pleased with the audio effects you have patched into a track, you can apply the
effects to the track. Applying effects to a track saves resources, allowing you to
include additional tracks and/or effects.
Note:
When applied effects are undone, they are not re-patched in the
Effects bin(s).
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To Apply Multiple Audio Effects Offline
1.
Add one or more audio effects to one or more tracks in either the Track view or
the Console view.
2.
In the Track view, select the tracks or clips you want to be affected.
3.
Select Process-Apply Audio Effects.
The Apply Audio Effects dialog appears.
4.
If desired, select the option to delete the effects after applying them.
5.
Click OK.
If you do not delete the effects after applying them, they remain active.
Applying MIDI Effects
You can destructively apply the MIDI effects in a track’s patch point. This makes it
easy for you to experiment with MIDI effects before you commit to them on a more
permanent basis.
To Apply MIDI Effects Destructively
1.
In the Track view, select the tracks or clips to be affected.
2.
Select Process-Apply MIDI Effects.
3.
If desired, select the option to delete the effects after applying them.
4.
Click OK.
If you don’t delete effects after applying them, they continue to be active during
playback, even though they have already been applied.
CPU Usage of Audio Effects
The number of real-time audio effects that your computer can handle depends on
the number of audio tracks in your project, the number and type of effects you
want to use, and the type and speed of your CPU. Certain effects are more CPUintensive than others, and enabling certain settings (such as using equalization
within the Stereo Reverb) increases CPU usage for those effects.
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Using Control Groups
SONAR lets you link faders, knobs, or buttons in the Track and Console views into
groups. Groups are collections of controls whose movements are linked together.
For example:
•
Two volume faders or controls can be grouped so that when you increase or
decrease the volume of one track, the volume of the other track changes in
exactly the same way.
•
Four mute buttons can be grouped so that when you click on the mute button
to mute track 1, tracks 1 and 2 are muted and tracks 3 and 4 are un-muted.
The Console view and Track view identify controls, knobs and faders that are
grouped using a colored group indicator that is displayed on the controls in each
group. The controls in group A are displayed with a red indicator, the controls in
group B with a green indicator, and so on. Controls, faders and knobs can be
grouped together.
When you group buttons together, the way they work is based on their position
when you create the group:
•
Buttons that are in the same position when grouped will turn on and off
together at all times.
•
Buttons that are in opposite positions when grouped will always remain in
opposite positions.
When you group buttons with knobs or faders, the button turns on/off when the
knob or fader reaches its halfway point.
You have several additional options. There are there general types of groups:
absolute, relative, and custom. Here’s how they work.
Absolute
The range of motion in all controls in the group is identical. When you move one
control in the group, all other controls in the group move the same amount in the
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same direction. The controls do not necessarily need to start at the same level.
Here are two examples:
Example 1
The controls are grouped in this position
The first control’s raised to maximum
The first control is lowered to minimum
The first control is raised to maximum
The fourth control is lowered to minimum
Example 2
The controls are grouped in this position
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Relative
The range of motion for controls in the group is not the same. All controls in the
group have the same value at one point—the lowest level for send, return, and
volume levels, and zero for pan controls. Here are two examples:
Example 1
The volume controls are grouped
in this position
The first control is raised to
maximum volume
The first control is lowered to
zero volume
Example 2
The pan controls are grouped in
this position
The first control is panned to
center
The first control is panned to the
right
Custom
Sometimes you want to define a more complex relationship between the controls in
a group. For example:
•
You want two controls two operate in reverse—when one fader drops, the
other increases (cross fade).
•
You want two volume faders grouped so that they are locked together at
maximum level, but drop at different rates.
•
You want two faders to be locked together with the same range of motion, but
a third fader grouped with them to have a different range of motion.
Custom groups let you set the range of motion for each control in the group by
entering a starting and ending value. As any one control in the group is moved
from is starting position to its ending position, the other controls in the group
exercise their full range of motion.
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When you have defined a custom group, you can adjust the starting and ending
position of each control using the Group Settings dialog box or using popup menus
on the controls in the group.
To Add a Control to a Group
1.
Right-click on the control.
2.
Choose a group from the Group submenu.
SONAR adds the control to the group. Controls, knobs and faders are highlighted
with the group’s color indicator.
To Remove a Control from Its Group
1.
Right-click on the control.
2.
Choose Ungroup from the menu.
SONAR removes the control from the group and displays the control with the
neutral color indicator.
To Override a Control’s Grouping
•
Hold down the Ctrl key while moving the control.
The control remains part of the group and functions as such once the Ctrl key is
lifted.
To Set the Group Type to Relative or Absolute
1.
Right-click on any control in the group and choose Group Properties to
display the Group Properties dialog box.
2.
Choose Absolute or Relative as the group type and click OK.
SONAR uses the type to determine the range of motion for the group’s controls.
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To Create a Custom Group
1.
Right-click on any control in the group and choose Group Properties to
display the Group Properties dialog box.
2.
Choose Custom as the group type. The starting and ending values for each
control are displayed.
3.
To change the starting or ending value for a control, click on the control in the
list and enter new values in the Start and End box.
4.
To swap the starting and ending value, click the Swap button.
5.
Click Close when you are done.
SONAR uses the type to determine the range of motion for the group’s controls.
To Adjust the Start Value of a Control
1.
Set the control to the desired starting value.
2.
Right-click on the control.
3.
Choose Set Start = Current.
SONAR sets the start value of the control.
The Set Start = Current and Set End = Current commands set the range of
motion that a grouped control moves through as the other members of the group
move through their starting and ending values. You don’t have to designate a
group as a custom group to create a custom group—just group some controls and
set their starting and ending values.
To Adjust the End Value of a Control
1.
Set the control to the desired ending value.
2.
Right click on the control.
3.
Choose Set End = Current.
SONAR sets the end value of the control.
The Set Start = Current and Set End = Current commands set the range of
motion that a grouped control moves through as the other members of the group
move through their starting and ending values. You don’t have to designate a
group as a custom group to create a custom group—just group some controls and
set their starting and ending values.
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Using Remote Control
This section explains how to assign knobs or sliders on a MIDI controller to control
specific parameters on specific tracks. If you have a control surface with groups of
faders such as a Tascam US-428 or CM Labs MotorMix, see the online help topic
“Working with External Devices.”
SONAR‘s Remote Control function lets you use a MIDI device to remotely control
knobs, buttons, and sliders in the Track and Console views. For example, you can:
•
Use a key on your keyboard to temporarily mute a track
•
Work the send level in a bus with your pitch bend wheel
•
Set the main volume levels with NRPN messages
•
Prevent SONAR from sending any controller messages to your MIDI device.
•
Record automation from an external controller
If you set up remote control for a grouped control, the remote control works all
controls in the group.
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The type of MIDI message used to work a control is selected in the Remote Control
dialog box. The options are as follows:
Message
option...
Message effect on
buttons...
Message effect on sliders
and knobs...
None
No remote control
No remote control
Note On
The button state is toggled
The slider/knob is alternately maximized
and minimized
Note On/Off
The button state is toggled
when Note On is received,
and toggled again when
Note Off is received
The slider/knob is maximized when Note
On is received, and minimized when
Note Off is received
Controller
Not applicable
The slider/knob value is set to the
controller value
Wheel
Not applicable
The slider/knob value is set to the wheel
value, with the values mapped from their
original range of –8,192 to 8,191 to a
range of 0 to 127
RPN
Not applicable
The slider/knob value is set to the RPN
value, with the values mapped from their
original range of 0 to 16,383 to a range
of 0 to 127
NRPN
Not applicable
The slider/knob value is set to the NRPN
value, with the values mapped from their
original range of 0 to 16,383 to a range
of 0 to 127
To Set Up Remote Control for a Knob, Button, or Fader
1.
Right-click on the control and choose Remote Control from the popup menu.
2.
Choose the remote control type, as described in the table above.
3.
Set the note or controller number if applicable.
4.
Set the MIDI Channel field to the channel that your controller sends out.
5.
Click OK.
You can now work the control from your MIDI device. If you arm the control for
automation and click the Record Automation button in the SONAR Transport, you
can record your external controller’s knob or fader movements.
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To Disable Remote Control
•
Right-click on the control and choose Disable Remote Control from the
popup menu.
To Prevent SONAR from Sending Controller Data to Your MIDI
Device
•
Right-click each knob or fader in SONAR that is sending unwanted controller
data to your MIDI device and choose Disable Control from the popup menu.
Using the Learn Option
The Learn option in the Remote Control dialog allows you to bind a parameter in
SONAR to a knob or fader on your controller.
To Bind a Control Using the Learn Option
1.
Right-click on the parameter you want to arm in either the Track view or
Console view and select Remote Control from the popup menu.
2.
Move a knob or fader on your controller.
3.
Click the Learn button in the Remote Control dialog and click OK.
The control in SONAR is now bound to the knob or fader on your controller.
Bouncing Tracks
The Edit-Bounce to Track(s) command lets you combine one or more audio
tracks into a submix. A submix can be a mono track, a stereo track or several mono
tracks that contain the mixture of the original tracks, preserving the volume, pan,
and effects for each track. If you’re bouncing tracks that are routed to a surround
bus (SONAR Producer only), you can bounce them to as many mono tracks as you
have surround channels, by choosing the Split Mono option in the Channel Format
field of the Bounce to Tracks dialog, and also choosing a surround bus in the
Source Category field. After their creation, the submix tracks are just like any
other tracks—you can edit them, add effects, copy them to another project, etc. The
original, unmixed audio tracks are not deleted, so you can archive them and
recover them later, or continue using them as before.
The Edit-Bounce to Track(s) command operates completely offline, meaning you
can mix down tracks that may be too complex for your machine to actually play in
real time.
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Here are some reasons to use Edit-Bounce to Track(s):
•
Your mix is so complex that real-time playback is impossible. Edit-Bounce to
Track(s) produces the correct mix, and store the result in a new track or
tracks.
•
You require more CPU time for your real-time effects. With Edit-Bounce to
Track(s), you can premix some of your tracks with real-time effects applied,
saving CPU time during playback.
If you mix down to tracks that already have data, the new events are placed in the
track, but do not overwrite existing material.
To Mix Down (Bounce) Audio Tracks
1.
Set all volume, pan, effects, and automation settings just as you want them.
2.
Select the tracks or clips you want to mix down.
3.
If you are using effects on the tracks and want to mix the effects down at this
time, select the whole length of the longest track or clip plus an extra measure
for the reverb or effects “tail.”
4.
Choose Edit-Bounce to Track(s) to open the Bounce to Track(s) dialog.
5.
Select the first destination track for the mixdown.
6.
If you’ve saved a preset configuration for the Bounce to Tracks dialog, select it
now in the Preset window.
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7.
In the Source Category field, select the source you want to use for your
bounced track(s) from the following options:
•
Tracks—choosing this option creates new separate tracks for each track
you highlight in the Source Buses/Tracks field. Each track you highlight
will produce a new mono track, stereo track, or two new mono tracks (the
Split Mono option), depending on what you choose in the Channel Format
field.
•
Buses—choosing this option creates new separate tracks for each bus you
highlight in the Source Buses/Tracks field. Each bus you highlight will
produce a new mono track, stereo track, or two to eight new mono tracks
(the Split Mono option), depending on whether the bus is a stereo or
surround bus, and depending on what you choose in the Channel Format
field.
•
Main Outputs—choosing this option creates new separate tracks for each
main output you highlight in the Source Buses/Tracks field. Each main
output you highlight will produce a new mono track, stereo track, or two
to eight new mono tracks (the Split Mono option), depending on whether
the output is a stereo output or the Surround Main, and depending on
what you choose in the Channel Format field.
•
Entire Mix—choosing this option bounces your entire mix down to a new
mono track, stereo track, or two to eight new mono tracks (the Split Mono
option), depending on whether the output is a stereo output or the
Surround Main, and depending on what you choose in the Channel
Format field.
8.
Select a channel format: the kind of track(s) you want to create with your
bounce.
9.
Select source buses or tracks.
10. In the Mix Enables field, choose the elements you want to include in the
mixdown. If you want to exclude muted tracks and/or include only soloed
tracks, make sure Track Mute/Solo is checked. Make sure Fast Bounce is
checked, otherwise the bounce process will take as long as it takes to play your
selected track data in real time.
Note: If you have patched a DXi (plug-in synth) into a track or bus, make sure
you check Track FX to include DXi’s that are patched into tracks, and check
Bus FX to include DXi’s that are patched into buses.
Note: If you don’t check Track Automation, any initial volume and pan
settings in an exported track are ignored and the track’s audio data will be
exported at the level that exists in the track, with pan set to center. If you
don’t check Clip Automation, any trim settings are ignored during export.
11. If you want to save your settings as a preset, type a name for them in the
Preset window, and then click the floppy disk icon that’s next to the Preset
window.
12. Click OK.
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SONAR mixes the audio data and a new track or tracks appear in your project.
Preparing to Create an Audio CD
You can create an audio CD from any wave file or files (extension .WAV) of up to
either 74 or 80 minutes (depending on the recordable CD media you have). If your
projects are audio only, you can simply mix down to a stereo wave file. If your
projects contain MIDI, you must first convert the MIDI tracks to audio tracks.
Once you have all the stereo wave files you want to include on your CD, you are
ready to burn a CD. Most CD burners come with CD burning software, if yours did
not, you will need to buy CD burning software, like Cakewalk’s Pyro. To download
a free demo of Pyro, visit the Cakewalk website.
Preparing Audio for Distribution
The File-Export Audio command exports your project as a new file or files that
you can burn to a CD, or distribute via the Web or e-mail. In addition, SONAR
Producer allows you to export surround-encoded files (see “Exporting Surround
Mixes” on page 492). The following export formats are supported:
Format...
Definition...
Wave (surround files in Wave
format are supported by
SONAR Producer only)
The standard digital audio format used under Windows for
burning CDs, with a file extension of .WAV
RealAudio
Digital audio encoded and compacted for streaming over the
Internet, with a file extension of .RA
Windows Media Advanced
Streaming Format (includes
Windows Media Pro; surround
files are supported by SONAR
Producer only)
Compressed digital audio for streaming over the Internet, with
the file extension .WMA.
MP3
Highly compressed digital audio designed for quick
downloads via the Internet, with the file extension .MP3. The
MP3 encoder that comes with SONAR is a trial version which
will time-out. The full version is available for download at
www.cakewalk.com.
OMF
The Open Media Format, created by AVID Technology, is
designed to port a project to other applications or platforms.
OMF files preserve tracks, clip positions, slip edits and some
other project attributes depending on which application is
writing or reading the OMF file.
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If your audio hardware is configured for stereo playback, Wave files are created in
stereo; if your audio hardware is configured for monophonic playback, the Wave
file is created in mono.
To Export Audio to RealAudio Format
1.
Set all volume, pan, effects, and automation settings just as you want them.
2.
If you only want to mix down parts of tracks, select those clips now.
3.
If you are using effects in your project and want to mix the effects down at this
time, select the whole length of the longest track or clip plus an extra measure
for the reverb or effects “tail.”
4.
Choose File-Export-Audio to open the Export Audio dialog box.
5.
Select a destination folder using the Look In field.
6.
Enter a file name.
7.
Choose Real Audio from the Files of Type dropdown list.
8.
In the Source Category field, select one of the following options:
9.
•
Tracks—choosing this option creates a separate file for each track that
you select in the Source Buses/Tracks field.
•
Buses—choosing this option creates a separate file for each bus that you
select in the Source Buses/Tracks field.
•
Main Outputs—choosing this option creates a separate file for each main
output that you select in the Source Buses/Tracks field.
•
Entire Mix—choosing this option creates one file for your entire mix.
In the Source Buses/Tracks field, choose the buses or tracks you want to use as
a source to create your mix. If you chose Tracks in the Source Category field,
only tracks will show up as choices in this field.
10. In the Channel Format field, select one of the following options:
•
Stereo—All exported tracks and clips are mixed down to a stereo file or
files.
•
Mono—All exported tracks and clips are mixed down to a mono file or
files.
•
Split Mono—All exported tracks and clips are mixed down to separate
mono files.
11. Choose the sample rate that you want your exported file to be.
12. Select the bit depth that you want the exported file to use. If your source file is
16 and you export to 24, you get more precision for any audio effects in the mix
(and a larger file). If your source file is 24 and you export to 16, you lose some
sound definition, but you get some of it back if the Dithering option is on in the
Audio Options dialog box (see “Dithering” on page 468 for more information).
460
13. In the Mix Enables field, choose the elements you want to include in the
mixdown. If you want to exclude muted tracks and/or include only soloed
tracks, make sure Track Mute/Solo is checked.
Note: If you have patched a DXi (plug-in synth) into a track or bus, make sure
you check Track FX to include DXi’s that are patched into tracks, and check
Bus Returns to include DXi’s that are patched into buses.
Note: If you don’t check Track Automation. any initial volume and pan
settings in an exported track are ignored and the track’s audio data will be
exported at the level that exists in the track, with pan set to center. If you
don’t check Clip Automation, any trim settings are ignored during export. If
you don’t check Master Automation, any volume and balance settings at the
main outs are ignored.
14. If you want to save the settings you created in the Export Audio dialog, type a
name for them in the Preset window and then click the floppy disk icon that’s
next to the window.
15. Click Export.
The RealAudio settings dialog box appears.
16. Select options as described in the table below and click OK.
The audio is compacted and exported to the RealAudio file or files.
The RealAudio Settings dialog box lets you define the settings for the RealAudio
data in an exported file, as follows:
Option…
Meaning…
Title
Title of the file
Author
Author of the file
Copyright
Copyright statement
Enable Perfect Play
Lets people with low-bandwidth connections download a higher
resolution version of the audio, at the expense of download time
Enable Mobile Play
Lets people download file to a local drive for playback later
Target Connection
Rate
Choose as many different connection rates as your listeners may need.
Then your listeners can choose the rate that’s best for them when they
play your project.
Include RA 5.0
Compatible Stream
Ensures compatibility with older versions of RealAudio
Content Type
Optimizes the data for specific content
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You may choose several formats if you wish. The RealAudio 2.0 formats are good
for backwards compatibility with older players and for 14.4 Kb capability. The
remaining formats let you choose Mono or Stereo playback. Stereo formats trade
bandwidth for stereo, so use these only when the stereo aspect is important.
To Export Audio to Wave File Format
1.
Set all volume, pan, effects, and automation settings just as you want them.
2.
If you only want to mix down parts of tracks, select those clips now. If you don’t
select anything, everything’s selected.
3.
If you are using effects on the tracks and want to mix the effects down at this
time, select the whole length of the longest track or clip plus extra time for the
reverb or effects “tail.”
4.
Choose File-Export-Audio to open the Export Audio dialog box.
5.
Select a destination folder using the Look In field.
6.
Enter a file name.
7.
Choose one of the following from the Files of type dropdown list:
8.
9.
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•
Riff Wave—choose this if you want to export a standard wave file, or if
you’re exporting a surround project in wave format.
•
Broadcast Wave—choose this if you want to create a Broadcast Wave file
(see description below).
In the Source Category field, select one of the following options:
•
Tracks—Choosing this option creates a separate file for each track that
you select in the Source Buses/Tracks field.
•
Buses—Choosing this option creates a separate file for each bus that you
select in the Source Buses/Tracks field.
•
Main Outputs—Choosing this option creates a separate file for each main
output that you select in the Source Buses/Tracks field.
•
Entire Mix—Choosing this option creates one file for your entire mix,
unless you’re exporting a surround mix with Split Mono selected in the
Channel Format field.
In the Source Buses/Tracks field, choose the buses or tracks you want to use as
a source to create your mix. If you chose Tracks in the Source Category field,
only tracks will show up as choices in this field.
10. In the Channel Format field, select one of the following options:
•
Stereo—All exported tracks and clips are mixed down to a stereo file or
files.
•
Mono—All exported tracks and clips are mixed down to a mono file or
files.
•
Split Mono—All exported tracks and clips are mixed down to separate
mono files.
•
Multichannel—All exported tracks are mixed down to a multichannel
wave file or files.
11. Choose the sample rate that you want your exported file to be.
12. Select the bit depth that you want the exported file to use. If your source file is
16 and you export to 24, you get more precision for any audio effects in the mix
(and a larger file). If your source file is 24 and you export to 16, you lose some
sound definition, but you get some of it back if the Dithering option is on in the
Audio Options dialog box (see “Dithering” on page 468 for more information).
13. In the Mix Enables field, choose the elements you want to include in the
mixdown. If you want to exclude muted tracks and/or include only soloed
tracks, make sure Track Mute/Solo is checked.
Note: If you have patched a DXi (plug-in synth) into a track or bus, make sure
you check Track FX to include DXi’s that are patched into tracks, and check
Bus Returns to include DXi’s that are patched into buses.
Note: If you don’t check Track Automation. any initial volume and pan
settings in an exported track are ignored and the track’s audio data will be
exported at the level that exists in the track, with pan set to center. If you
don’t check Clip Automation, any trim settings are ignored during export. If
you don’t check Master Automation, any volume and balance settings at the
main outs are ignored.
14. If you want to save the settings you created in the Export Audio dialog, type a
name for them in the Preset window and then click the floppy disk icon that’s
next to the window.
15. Click Export.
The audio is exported to the Wave file or files.
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If you chose Broadcast Wave as the export format, the following information is
stored in the file(s):
•
Description—A brief description of the contents of the Broadcast wave.
Limited to 256 characters.
•
Originator—The author of the Broadcast wave. This information is taken from
the Author field in the File Info dialog.
•
Originator Reference—A unique reference identifier created by SONAR.
•
Origination Date—The date the file was created.
•
Origination Time—The time the file was created.
•
Time Reference—The SMPTE time stamp for the beginning of broadcast
wave.
To Export a Project in Windows Media Format
1.
Set all volume, pan, effects, and automation settings just as you want them.
2.
If you only want to mix down parts of tracks, select those clips now.
3.
If you are using effects on the tracks and want to mix the effects down at this
time, select the whole length of the longest track or clip plus extra time for the
reverb or effects “tail.”
4.
Choose File-Export-Audio to open the Export Audio dialog box.
5.
Select a destination folder using the Look In field.
6.
Enter a file name.
7.
Choose Windows Media Advanced Streaming Format from the Files of type
dropdown list.
8.
In the Source Category field, select one of the following options:
9.
464
•
Tracks—choosing this option creates a separate file for each track that
you select in the Source Buses/Tracks field.
•
Buses—choosing this option creates a separate file for each bus that you
select in the Source Buses/Tracks field.
•
Main Outputs—choosing this option creates a separate file for each main
output that you select in the Source Buses/Tracks field.
•
Entire Mix—choosing this option creates one file for your entire mix,
unless you’re exporting a surround mix with Split Mono selected in the
Channel Format field.
In the Source Buses/Tracks field, choose the buses or tracks you want to use as
a source to create your mix. If you chose Tracks in the Source Category field,
only tracks will show up as choices in this field.
10. In the Channel Format field, select one of the following options:
•
Stereo—All exported tracks and clips are mixed down to a stereo file or
files.
•
Mono—All exported tracks and clips are mixed down to a mono file or
files.
•
Split Mono—All exported tracks and clips are mixed down to separate
mono files.
•
Multichannel—All exported tracks are mixed down to a multichannel
WMA file or files.
11. Choose the sample rate that you want your exported file to be.
12. Select the bit depth that you want the exported file to use. If your source file is
16 and you export to 24, you get more precision for any audio effects in the mix
(and a larger file). If your source file is 24 and you export to 16, you lose some
sound definition, but you get some of it back if the Dithering option is on in the
Audio Options dialog box (see “Dithering” on page 468 for more information).
13. In the Mix Enables field, choose the elements you want to include in the
mixdown. If you want to exclude muted tracks and/or include only soloed
tracks, make sure Track Mute/Solo is checked.
Note: If you have patched a DXi (plug-in synth) into a track or bus, make sure
you check Track FX to include DXi’s that are patched into tracks, and check
Bus Returns to include DXi’s that are patched into buses.
Note: If you don’t check Track Automation. any initial volume and pan
settings in an exported track are ignored and the track’s audio data will be
exported at the level that exists in the track, with pan set to center. If you
don’t check Clip Automation, any trim settings are ignored during export. If
you don’t check Master Automation, any volume and balance settings at the
main outs are ignored.
14. If you want to save the settings you created in the Export Audio dialog, type a
name for them in the Preset window and then click the floppy disk icon that’s
next to the window.
15. Click Export.
The Windows Media Format Encode Options dialog appears.
16. Select options and click OK.
The audio is compacted and exported to a file or files with the extension .wma.
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To Export a Project in MP3 Format
1.
Set all volume, pan, effects, and automation settings just as you want them.
2.
If you only want to mix down parts of tracks, select those clips now.
3.
If you are using effects on the tracks and want to mix the effects down at this
time, select the whole length of the longest track or clip plus an extra measure
for the reverb or effects “tail.”
4.
Choose File-Export-Audio to open the Export Audio dialog box.
5.
Select a destination folder using the Look In field.
6.
Enter a file name.
7.
Choose MP3 from the Files of type dropdown list.
8.
In the Source Category field, select one of the following options:
9.
•
Tracks—choosing this option creates a separate file for each track that
you select in the Source Buses/Tracks field.
•
Buses—choosing this option creates a separate file for each bus that you
select in the Source Buses/Tracks field.
•
Main Outputs—choosing this option creates a separate file for each main
output that you select in the Source Buses/Tracks field.
•
Entire Mix—choosing this option creates one file for your entire mix.
In the Source Buses/Tracks field, choose the buses or tracks you want to use as
a source to create your mix. If you chose Tracks in the Source Category field,
only tracks will show up as choices in this field.
10. In the Channel Format field, select one of the following options:
•
Stereo—All exported tracks and clips are mixed down to a stereo file or
files.
•
Mono—All exported tracks and clips are mixed down to a mono file or
files.
•
Split Mono—All exported tracks and clips are mixed down to separate
mono files.
11. Choose the sample rate that you want your exported file to be.
12. In the Bit Depth field, select 16. If your source file is 24 and you export to 16,
you lose some sound definition, but you get some of it back if the Dithering
option is on in the Audio Options dialog box (see “Dithering” on page 468 for
more information).
466
13. In the Mix Enables field, choose the elements you want to include in the
mixdown. If you want to exclude muted tracks and/or include only soloed
tracks, make sure Track Mute/Solo is checked.
Note: If you have patched a DXi (plug-in synth) into a track or bus, make sure
you check Track FX to include DXi’s that are patched into tracks, and check
Bus Returns to include DXi’s that are patched into buses.
Note: If you don’t check Track Automation. any initial volume and pan
settings in an exported track are ignored and the track’s audio data will be
exported at the level that exists in the track, with pan set to center. If you
don’t check Clip Automation, any trim settings are ignored during export. If
you don’t check Master Automation, any volume and balance settings at the
main outs are ignored.
14. If you want to save the settings you created in the Export Audio dialog, type a
name for them in the Preset window and then click the floppy disk icon that’s
next to the window.
15. Click Export.
The Cakewalk MP3 Encoder dialog appears.
16. Choose options and click OK.
The audio is compacted and exported to a file or files with the extension .MP3.
To Export a Project as an OMF File
OMF (Open Media Format) files are designed for cross-platform compatibility.
1.
Select File-Export-OMF.
The Export OMF dialog appears.
2.
In the File Name field, enter a name for the file.
3.
In the Save as Type field, select the OMF version you want to save the project
as. Version 1 is compatible with older applications. See your target
applications documentation for information on which version it supports.
4.
In the Audio Packaging section, select Embed Audio Within OMF if you want
to save the audio in the OMF file, or Reference Audio Externally if you want to
store the audio in a subdirectory.
5.
In the Audio Format section, select what file format you want your audio
saved in.
6.
Check the Split Stereo Tracks into Dual Mono option if you want to save
stereo interleaved tracks as a pair of mono tracks.
7.
Check the Include Archived Tracks option if you want to export the tracks in
your project that are currently archived.
467
8.
Check Mix Each Groove Clip as a Separate Clip option if you want to save
Groove clips (ACIDized files) as separate clips. This may increase significantly
the amount of time it takes to export your project, if there are many Groove
clips in your project.
9.
Click Save.
Note: OMF files save the following:
•
Tracks
•
Clip positions
•
Slip edits
•
Fades and crossfades (as destructive edits)
The following information is discarded:
•
Volume
•
Pan
•
Automation
•
Effects
Dithering
Dithering is a process you can use when you convert a 24-bit file to 16 bits. SONAR
offers the new Pow-r dithering process, short for Psycho-acoustically Optimized
Wordlength Reduction, which can produce 16-bit files that sound indistinguishable
from their 24-bit source files. Dithering adds a small amount of noise to the 16-bit
file to approximate the sounds that were lost when the other 8 bits were removed.
When this option is turned on, SONAR uses dithering when you import a 24-bit
file into a 16-bit project. Also, because many SONAR features such as effects use
32-bit processing, SONAR applies dithering when you bounce or freeze tracks with
dither turned on. Doing lots of bouncing and/or freezing with dither turned on can
build up noise in your project, however turning it off produces a small amount of
distortion during bounces and freezes instead. Dithering is not applied or needed if
you work in 24-bit mode, until you decide to export a 16-bit file, at which time you
can turn it on if you want.
468
SONAR offers four kinds of dithering:
•
Rectangular—basically white noise, and the least CPU-intensive, this
type of dither is more audible than the Pow-r dither types, but works well
with loud projects, or ones that use distortion.
•
Pow-r 1—adds a fairly consistent amount of noise below 10k, then quickly
increases. Good for compressed music with few quiet sections.
•
Pow-r 2—adds a little less noise than Pow-r 1 until around 9k, then
increases fairly rapidly. More CPU-intensive than Pow-r 1.
•
Pow-r 3—adds the least amount of noise in the most audible range, then
jumps up at about 8k and again above 10k. Good for classical music or any
music that has a wide range of volume. Most CPU-intensive and
transparent of all choices.
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470
12
Surround Mixing
SONAR Producer fully supports surround mixing (SONAR Studio can open
surround projects created in Producer, converting them to stereo). SONAR
(Producer) can create finished surround mixes in all popular surround formats,
including Windows Media 9 Pro. You can use a joystick to control surround
panning if you want.
Note: it’s always advisable to know the required sampling rate and audio driver
bit depth for the target medium that your surround project will be used in. That
way you can work in the correct format from the start, without having to convert
later. You can set these parameters in the Audio Options dialog (Options-Audio
command).
To get a complete understanding of SONAR’s surround functions, start with the
“Surround Basics” on page 472.
In This Chapter
Surround Basics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 472
Configuring SONAR for Surround Mixing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 473
Panning in Surround . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 479
Joystick Support. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 485
Surround Metering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 486
Bass Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 487
Surround Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 488
Importing Surround Mixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 491
Exporting Surround Mixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 492
Surround Basics
Surround sound is a common name for various techniques for positioning audio in
reference to the listener. Whereas regular stereo is limited to left/right positioning,
within a relatively narrow field, surround sound opens possibilities of positioning
an audio source anywhere around the listener. Surround sound comes in many
formats. The differences between the formats are in three areas:
•
The number of speakers—this varies from 3/2 all the way to 10.2 and beyond.
•
The angles of the speakers.
•
The intended final coding format—this depends on the media the audio will be
"stored" on: film, broadcast video or DVD, for example.
The most common format is 5.1, which consists of five full-range channels and a
low-frequency effects (LFE) channel (the “.1” in 5.1 is the LFE or sub channel). The
five full-range channels are reproduced by left, right, and center speakers
positioned in front of the listener (L, R, and C for short), and left and right
surround speakers positioned behind the listener (Ls and Rs for short). The LFE
channel can be routed to the main speakers or to a subwoofer that can be
positioned almost anywhere.
The center channel is typically used to lock dialog or sounds to a video screen. The
LFE channel is generally routed to a subwoofer to enhance low audio frequencies
for effects such as explosions or crashes. Audio in this channel is limited to a range
of approximately 25 Hz to 120 Hz.
472
Configuring SONAR for Surround Mixing
This section covers setting up SONAR for surround sound.
Using Surround Format Templates
A Surround Format template specifies the number of speakers and the order in
which the speakers are arranged.
There are several different surround formats, including LCRS, 5.1, 6.1, and 7.1,
with 5.1 being most common. The number after the decimal point refers to the
number of Low Frequency Effect (LFE) speakers. However, there are even
different flavors of 5.1. The different flavors specify in which order the speakers
are arranged, and the speaker angles. For example:
Surround Format
Speaker Order
5.1 SMPTE/ITU
L, R, C, LFE, Ls, Rs
5.1 Music Alternative
L, R, Ls, Rs, C, LFE
5.1 Film Alternative
L, C, R, Ls, Rs, LFE
The speaker positions, moving clockwise from center, are identified as:
Label
Speaker
C
Center (directly in front of listener)
Rc
Right of Center
R
Right (standard Stereo placement)
Sr
Side right—directly to the right of the listener
Rs
Right Surround
Cs
Surround (rear center)
Ls
Left Surround
Sl
Side Left—directly to the left of the listener
L
Left (standard Stereo placement)
Lc
Left of center
LFE
Low Frequency Effect speaker(s)—placed according
to room acoustics
473
To mix in surround sound in SONAR, you must insert at least one surround bus.
A project can include multiple surround buses, but all surround buses in a project
use the same surround format (5.1, 7.1, etc.).
The project’s surround format is based on one of the following Surround Format
templates:
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•
2.0
•
2.1
•
LCR
•
LRC+LFE
•
LRS
•
LFS+LFE
•
Matrix UHJ
•
QUAD
•
4.1 (SMPTE/ITU)
•
Quad+LFE
•
PanAmbio 4.1
•
LCRS
•
Surround (SMPTE/ITU)
•
Surround Media
•
LCRS+LFE
•
5.1 (Standard 3/2)
•
5.1 (Film/Alternative)
•
5.1 (Music/Alternative)
•
5.1 (SMPTE/ITU)
•
6.0 (Hexagon)
•
6.0 (Film/Alternative)
•
6.0 (Music/Alternative)
•
6.1 (Film/Alternative)
•
6.1 (Music/Alternative)
•
6.1 (SMPTE/ITU)
•
7.0 (Heptagon)
•
7.0 (Film/Alternative)
•
7.0 (Music/Alternative)
•
7.1 (Film/Alternative)
•
7.1 (Music/Alternative)
•
7.1 (SMPTE/ITU)
•
8.0 (Octagon)
•
8.0 (Film/Alternative)
•
8.0 (Music/Alternative)
•
8.1 (Film/Alternative)
•
8.1 (Music/Alternative)
•
8.1 (SMPTE/ITU)
5.1 (SMPTE/ITU) is the default template.
The Surround Format templates are hard-coded, and cannot be deleted. However,
you can freely assign any enabled audio output port to any surround channel, and
save the configuration as a preset.
Surround settings are per project. Surround speaker assignments default to
unique audio output channels when you choose a new template.
You configure your surround settings in the Project Options dialog on the
Surround tab (use the Options-Project command and click the Surround tab).
Choosing a Surround Format
Using the Options-Project command and clicking the Surround tab displays
several fields of surround options. Choosing a surround format sets the number of
speakers your project is using, and lets you choose a specific sound card output for
each speaker. Here you can also choose parameters for bass management, and for
downmixing, which means converting a surround mix into a stereo mix.
The group of sound card outputs that you choose on the Surround tab of the
Project Options dialog make up the “Surround Main.” The Surround Main becomes
a choice on the Outputs menus of tracks and buses as soon as you insert a
surround bus into your project. You won’t see a “Surround Main” output module in
the output modules section of the Console view, because it’s just a term for the
group of sound card outputs you choose for surround mixing. The pan control on
any track or bus that outputs to the “Surround Main” controls which hardware
outputs receive the signal that the track or bus sends to the “Surround Main.”
SONAR saves the surround settings you choose on the Surround tab of the ProjectOptions dialog with your project, including your downmixing parameters. If you
have some particular settings you might use again, you can save a group of
475
settings as a preset (except for downmixing parameters—you can change these,
but they aren’t saved in presets). To save a group of settings as a preset, type a
name in the Presets field and then click the Disk icon that’s to the right of the
field. When you want to use this preset in a project, just choose it from the Presets
dropdown menu.
To Choose a Surround Format and Set Sound Card Outputs
1.
Use the Options-Project command.
The Project Options dialog appears.
2.
Click the Surround tab.
3.
Select a format from the Surround Format dropdown.
The diagram to the right of the Surround Format menu changes to illustrate
the speaker placement of the format that you chose.
4.
In the Output column, assign each channel to a sound card output.
Note: Consumer-grade sound cards, such as Audigy or SoundBlaster, typically
reserve output 4 for the LFE channel. Check your sound card manual for
details.
5.
Click OK.
Note: Take a moment to make sure your speakers are correctly hooked up to the
corresponding outputs before you attempt any playback. See the diagram in the
Project Options dialog for the speaker setup. If you are not sure what the
abbreviations for the speaker names are, see “Surround Basics” on page 472.
Surround Buses
You have to have at least one surround bus in your project to use surround sound.
A surround bus differs from a stereo bus in that it simply has more channels. For
example, if a project is set to 7.1, then the bus has 8 channels: 7 directional
channels and one LFE channel.
To Insert a Surround Bus
1.
In the Bus Pane of the Track view or the Console view, right-click to display a
popup menu of bus options.
2.
Select Insert Surround Bus from the popup menu.
Or
•
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Use the Insert-Surround Bus menu command.
Routing in Surround
Tracks can send output to a surround bus, the Surround Main, or a hardware
output. If a track is routed to a surround bus or the Surround Main, it has
surround meters and a surround panner. You can route any track or bus to another
bus, the Surround Main or a hardware out. However, you are prevented from
creating a signal loop by routing the signal back into a bus that is already in the
signal flow. The following table lists how each of these routing options affects the
signal:
Signal Flow
Result
Track to stereo bus
No change
Mono track to surround bus
Mono signal is routed to both Left and Right
channels of surround format. You can
change the routing to other surround
channels by using the surround panner on
the track.
Stereo track to surround bus
Stereo left channel is routed to Left channel
of surround format; stereo right channel is
routed to Right channel of surround format.
You can change the routing to other
surround channels by using the surround
panner on the track.
Track to hardware output
No change
Stereo bus to stereo bus
No change
Stereo bus to surround bus or the
Surround Main
Stereo left channel is routed to Left channel
of surround format; stereo right channel is
routed to Right channel of surround format.
You can change the routing to other
surround channels by using the surround
panner on the stereo bus.
Stereo bus to hardware output
No change
Surround bus to stereo bus
Surround channels are downmixed to
stereo
Surround bus to surround bus or the
Surround Main
No change
To Assign a Track to a Surround Bus or Surround Main
•
Click in the track’s output field and select a surround bus, the Surround Main,
or New Surround Bus as an output.
477
Downmixing
Downmixing is a way of previewing your surround project in stereo only. There are
various cases where surround is not available and it may be that someone plays
your project in stereo only. A radio broadcast is a good example. Downmixing is a
valuable tool for determining if your project will sound good in stereo. However,
you can export your project in stereo, and SONAR uses your downmix settings to
create your exported file.
The following table lists the downmixing settings in the Surround tab of the
Project Options dialog and gives a brief description of what the setting does. You
can also manually enter other values besides these preset ones:
Downmixing Setting
Options
Center Downmix Level (dB)
These options determine how much of the center is mixed to
the left and right.
Surround Downmix Level (dB)
LFE Level (dB)
478
•
-3 dB—Maintains the same level of center channel sound
when you listen in a typically reverberant room
•
-4.5 dB—a compromise level between -3dB and -6 dB
•
-6 dB—Maintains the same level of center channel sound
when you listen to direct sound without typical room
reverberations
•
-INF—Eliminates all of the Center channel signal
The amount of Left Surround and Right Surround mixed into the
Left and Right channels respectively.
•
-3 dB—Maintains the same level of surround
•
-6 dB—Reduces the level of surround so that it doesn’t
compete with center channel sound such as dialog
•
-INF—Eliminates all of the Surround channel signal
The amount of the LFE channel mixed into the Left and Right
channels respectively.
•
-12 (or type in a value)—lets you choose the level of LFE
in the stereo mix
•
-INF—Eliminates all LFE
To Downmix a Project
1.
If you do not have a stereo bus in your project, create one by right-clicking in
the Bus pane in the Track view or Console view and selecting Insert Stereo
Bus from the menu that appears.
2.
Open the Project Options dialog (Options-Project command), select a center
downmix level and a surround downmix level in the Surround tab, and click
OK.
3.
In each of the surround buses, assign the output to a stereo bus.
4.
Listen to your project through the stereo bus, and make any final adjustments
to the stereo mix by changing the values in the Surround tab of the Project
Options dialog.
5.
If you want to export your stereo mix, use the File-Export Audio command.
This command obeys your downmix settings.
Panning in Surround
Unlike stereo panning which sends sound to left and right speakers, surround
panning means sending sound to multiple speakers at points along a circle.
When a track/bus/send is assigned to a surround bus, the Pan control turns into a
multi-dimensional surround panner. The surround panner comes in four sizes:
•
Micro—this is found in the Track view.
•
Small—this is found on sends.
•
Medium—this is the surround panner which is displayed in the Track
Inspector and Console view.
•
Large—this is a large surround panner (see “Controlling Surround Panning”
on page 480) which has additional controls, and appears when you right-click
a surround panner and choose Open Surround Panner from the popup
menu, or double-click outside the surround panner circle, or press Enter when
the panner has focus.
MIcro surround panner in Track view
Six channel output
meter
479
Medium surround panner in Console view
The small and large panners are always synchronized; the large panner simply
provides increased resolution when you adjust the surround pan position. The
large surround panner can be resized like any other floating window.
Note 1: Surround panning is not available for tracks/sends that are routed to nonsurround buses.
Note 2: If the track/bus/send is reassigned to a stereo bus, any surround
automation will be orphaned, but will automatically reconnect if the track/bus/
send is later assigned back to a surround bus.
Controlling Surround Panning
Here are pictures of the large surround panner and medium surround panner:
Large Surround Panner
Angle and focus
marker
Right speaker icon
Width markers
480
Medium Surround Panner
The large surround panner has some sliders at the bottom that the medium
surround panner doesn’t have, except for the LFE Send slider, which the medium
panner has. Except for the sliders, the large and medium surround panners have
the following controls:
•
Angle and Focus marker—a small sphere that you can drag in any direction to
both control and display the following two parameters:
•
Angle—this is the perceived angle of the sound source as it differs from
the position directly in front of the listener. The scale is 0 to 180 degrees
on the listener’s right, and 0 to -180 degrees on the listener’s left. 0 means
the sound is coming from directly in front of the listener, and plus or
minus 180 degrees means that the sound is coming from directly behind
the listener.
•
Focus—this is the perceived distance of the sound source from the center
of the circle on a scale of 0 to 100, 0 meaning the center of the circle, and
100 meaning the perimeter.
•
Width markers—these are two smaller spheres equidistant from the Angle
and Focus marker. Their distance from each other and from the front of the
circle shows the Width value (see definition below). You can also drag the
Width markers to control Angle and Focus.
•
Speaker icons/squares—each surround channel is represented by a speaker
icon in the large panner, and a white square in the small panner. The large
panner also has a corresponding volume level in dB directly in front of each
icon. The position of each speaker icon shows you each speaker’s position in
the surround mix. Clicking a speaker icon or square mutes the corresponding
channel, causing the icon or square to become grey. Double-clicking the icon
solos its channel, turning the icon green.
•
Angle slider (large panner only)—this slider both displays and controls the
angle value.
•
Focus slider (large panner only)—this slider both displays and controls the
focus value.
481
•
Width slider (large panner only)—this slider both displays and controls the
width value. Width is a measure of how wide an area the sound seems to be
coming from on a scale of 0 to 360 degrees. At 0 and 360 degrees, the sound
seems to all come from a single speaker. At 180 degrees the sound seems to
come from directly opposite sides. The default angle matches the project’s left
and right channel angle. For example, in 5.1 SMPTE/ITU surround, the
default width is 60 degrees.
•
Front/Rear Balance slider (large panner only)—abbreviated as FrntRrBl, this
slider adjusts the front and rear balance. Drag it to the left to reduce the level
from the front speakers, or drag it to the right to reduce rear level.
•
LFE slider—this slider both displays and controls the level of sound sent to
the LFE channel.
•
LFE Only button (large panner only)—this button mutes all channels except
the LFE channel.
To Open the Large Surround Panner
•
Right-click the small surround panner or the pan control in a track, and
choose Open Surround Panner from the popup menu.
Or
•
Select a track, and either use the View-Surround Panner command, or click
the Surround Panner button in the Views toolbar.
Or
•
Double-click outside the Surround Panner circle.
Or
•
Press Enter when the panner has focus.
To Change the Angle
•
In either the large or small surround panner, drag the Angle and Focus
marker to the left or right.
Or
•
In the large surround panner, drag the Angle slider.
To Change the Focus
•
In either the large or small surround panner, drag the Angle and Focus
marker toward or away from the center.
Or
•
482
In the large surround panner, drag the Focus slider.
To Mute a Surround Speaker
•
In the large surround panner, click a speaker icon to mute its output. The
speaker icon turns grey when the speaker is muted.
Or
•
In the small surround panner, click a white square to mute a speaker’s output.
The square turns grey when the speaker is muted.
To Solo a Surround Speaker
•
In the large surround panner, double-click a speaker icon to solo its output.
The speaker icon turns green when the speaker is soloed.
Or
•
In the small surround panner, double-click a white square to solo a speaker’s
output. The square turns green when the speaker is soloed.
To Change the Width
•
In the large surround panner, drag the Width slider.
To Change the Front/Rear Balance
•
In the large surround panner, drag the FrntRrBl slider left to reduce front
level, or right to reduce rear level.
To Change the LFE Send Level
•
In either the large or small surround panner, drag the LFE slider.
Note: double-clicking any surround panner control will reset the control to its
default value, which for the LFE control is -INF.
To Solo or Unsolo the LFE Channel
•
In the large surround panner, click the LFE Solo button.
To Isolate a Signal in One Speaker
•
In the large surround panner, drag the Width slider to 0, the Focus slider to
100, and then drag the Angle slider until the sphere icon is directly in front of
the correct speaker.
Or
•
Press the desired Numeric Keypad key that represents the speaker position
(7=L, 8=C, 9=R, see “Keyboard Shortcuts” on page 484).
To Group Panner Controls
•
In the large surround panner, right-click each slider that you want to add to
the group, and choose Group-”n” from the popup menu.
Now you can move a single slider, and all sliders in that same group move
synchronously.
483
Note: if you group sliders that are in the same surround panner, you can no longer
move the markers that represent those sliders’ values. You can only move a
grouped marker by moving its associated slider.
Keyboard Shortcuts
The following shortcuts allow you to control a surround panner from the keyboard:
Shortcut...
Function...
Alt+drag
Constrains to angle
Alt+Shift+drag
Constrains to angle at 100% focus
Ctrl+Shift+drag
Constrains to focus only
Shift+click
Sets panner point to the point that you click
(large and medium panners only)
Shift+drag controls (Angle, Width,
etc.)
Fine resolution
Up/Down cursor keys
Move to next/previous widget in surround
panner
Left/Right cursor keys
Move to next/previous panner in same track
Ctrl+up/down
Move to surround panner in another track
Ctrl+NumPad 0-9
Speaker mutes
NumPad 0-9
Jump to speaker angle at 100% focus
NumPad assignments:
484
•
0 = n/a
•
1 = Ls
•
2 = Cs
•
3 = Rs
•
4 = Sl
•
5 = n/a
•
6 = Sr
•
7=L
•
8=C
•
9=R
•
/ = Lc,
•
* = Rc
Automating Surround Panning
You can arm or disarm for automation all the controls in a surround panner by
clicking any control in the surround panner (except LFE Solo), and choosing Arm
for Automation from the popup menu.
Joystick Support
SONAR Producer allows you to use a joystick to control surround panning. A forcefeedback joystick such as the Microsoft® SideWinder® Force Feedback 2 joystick
can add a tactile element to mixing sessions, and add button control to some
SONAR transport and/or menu commands with the extra buttons on the joystick
module.
The joystick will grab the current pan position/sphere anytime you pull the trigger
button (the "firing" button under your index finger). When recording automation,
you write new automation every time you pull the trigger button.
Various joystick buttons can be used to:
•
Control SONAR’s transport
•
Switch focus to adjacent tracks/sends
•
Solo/unsolo current channel
•
Open/close the large surround panner window
To Connect the Joystick to SONAR Producer
1.
Use the Options-Control Surfaces command.
2.
In the Control Surfaces dialog, click the Add button
, and choose Joystick
Panner in the Control Surfaces field of the Control Surface Settings dialog;
click OK.
3.
Close the Control Surfaces dialog, and display the Control Surfaces toolbar
(View-Toolbars-Control Surfaces command).
4.
On the left side of the toolbar, choose Joystick Panner in the dropdown menu,
and then click the Properties button
5.
that’s on the right side of the toolbar.
In the Joystick Panner dialog, select button 1 in the Buttons field, and then
select Engage Pan Mode in the Button Actions field.
485
6.
Now select Button 2, and select Engage Pan Nav Mode in the Button Actions
field.
7.
Select any other buttons your joystick has (one at a time), and connect them to
any transport or menu commands you want in the Button Actions field; close
the Joystick Panner dialog.
Now when you hold down button 1 (the “trigger button”), the joystick controls the
surround panner on the current track or send. When the pan/sphere is in the
desired position, let button 1 up to hold the position. When you hold down button
2, move the joystick vertically to change the current track, and horizontally to
change to a different send control. The window on the right side of the Control
Surfaces toolbar displays the names of the current track and send. Use any other
buttons you configured to control other SONAR Producer functions.
You can save your button assignments as a preset by typing a name for the current
group of settings in the Presets window in the Joystick Panner dialog, and then
clicking the floppy disk icon that’s next to the Presets window. Whenever you want
to load a preset, just select it in the Presets window.
Surround Metering
Meters in tracks routed to surround buses or the Surround Main, and meters in
surround buses work the same as stereo meters (see “Metering” on page 436),
however, surround meters display more channels. For example, a project in 5.1
would have a six-channel meter.
Six-channel meter
486
Bass Management
A bass management system takes all the frequencies below a certain frequency
(normally 80Hz) from the main channels, and the signal from the LFE channel,
and mixes them together into the speaker that is best equipped to handle them.
This is usually a subwoofer, but sometimes the left and right front speakers are
used if a subwoofer isn’t available. The reason why this is done is to make use of
the subwoofer for more than the occasional low frequency effect, since the
subwoofer is there anyway, and to lower the effective response of the system to
about 25 Hz.
When you encode to Dolby Digital, the LFE channel gets a +10dB gain on playback
from Dolby's decoder. This gives you the option of delivering some really powerful
deep bass during playback, such as in that earthquake sound effect in your
recording. Consider also that this +10 dB of low bass can also be added to any low
bass that came out of the other 5 channels from redirection, so you realistically can
deliver a sound from the subwoofer that is more than +20dB above the sound from
any other speaker.
What this means during mixing is that you would have to turn the analog gain to
your subwoofer up 10 dB relative to the other 5 speakers, so that you hear the
sound as it will be played back in home theater systems that use bass
management, and you will get your levels set right in the mix.
SONAR’s bass management system allows you to monitor how a surround project
will sound with bass management, so you don’t have to change the gain to your
subwoofer during mixing. SONAR’s bass management system only applies to
monitoring, and is ignored when you export your file.
To Monitor With Bass Management
1.
If necessary open the project you want to use bass management in.
2.
Select Options-Project from the SONAR menu.
The Project Options dialog appears.
3.
Click the Surround tab.
4.
Check the Monitor with Bass Management option.
5.
Select an option in the Low Pass Cutoff (Hz) dropdown, and click OK.
487
Surround Effects
SONAR lets you use your existing stereo or mono effects as surround effects.
SONAR does this through the SurroundBridge, which automatically sets up your
existing mono & stereo plug-ins so you can patch them into surround buses (buses,
not tracks).
The SurroundBridge
The SurroundBridge automatically loads enough instances of a plug-in to handle
all your surround channels. For example, if you patch a stereo effect into a
surround bus that uses 5.1 SMPTE/ITU panning, the SurroundBridge
automatically assigns the Left and Right channels of the bus to instance 1 of the
plug-in, assigns the Left Surround and Right Surround channels to instance 2, the
Center channel to instance 3, and the LFE channel to instance 4. If you patch a
mono effect into a surround bus, the SurroundBridge assigns each channel to a
single instance of the mono effect, which would create six instances of the effect on
a 5.1 surround bus. You can view and edit these assignments on the
SurroundBridge tab that’s in the property page of every effect that’s patched into a
surround bus. For example, if you want a certain effect on the Left Surround
channel of a surround bus, but not on the Right Surround channel, you can assign
these two channels to different instances of the effect you’re patching by choosing
options on the SurroundBridge tab of the effect’s property page.
The SurroundBridge also links the automatable parameters of each instance so
that when you change a parameter in one instance, you automatically change the
same parameter in all the other instances. You can unlink parameters
individually, or per-instance (see “How to Patch and Configure Surround Effects”
on page 489).
Effect Property Pages
A single property page controls all instances of an effect that is patched into a
surround bus. The effect’s property page displays a different tab for each instance
of the effect. By default, when you change an automatable parameter on one tab of
the property page, that change is duplicated on all the tabs of the property page.
However, you can “unlink” individual parameters from the other tabs by clicking
the Unlink Controls button in the effect property page, and while the button is
enabled (red), move the parameter you want to unlink, and then click the Unlink
Controls button again to disable it. Now you can change that parameter on one tab
without changing the same parameter on the other tabs. You can also link or
unlink all of an instance’s parameters by using the controls on the SurroundBridge
tab.
488
Effect Presets
You can use existing (non-surround) effects presets when you patch an effect to a
surround bus—selecting a non-surround preset sets all of a plug-in’s instances to
the settings of the preset; selecting a surround preset sets each instance’s
parameters individually, according to the information stored in the preset.
How to Patch and Configure Surround Effects
For step-by-step instructions, see the following procedures.
To Patch an Effect Into a Surround Bus
•
Right-click the FX bin of a surround bus and choose a mono or stereo effect
from the popup menu.
The SurroundBridge patches multiple instances of the effect you chose into the
bus’s FX bin (however, only one effect appears in the bin), with default
assignments of surround channels to plug-in instances.
To Change Channel Assignments for a Patched Effect
1.
If the effect’s property page is not open, display it by double-clicking the name
of the effect in the surround bus’s FX bin.
2.
On the SurroundBridge tab of the effect’s property page, use the dropdown
menus in the Left Input and Right Input columns to assign individual
surround channels to instances of the effect.
Your assignments take effect immediately, and the names of the tabs in the
property page change to reflect the new assignments.
To Unlink Individual Effect Parameters from Other Effect
Instances
1.
In the property page of an effect that’s patched into a surround bus, click the
Unlink Controls button so that it turns red.
2.
Make some adjustments to the automatable parameters you want to unlink
(non-automatable parameters are not linked together). You can select
parameters on any tab.
3.
When you’re finished adjusting parameters, click the Unlink Controls button
again so that it’s not red.
Now you can adjust the parameters you adjusted, without automatically adjusting
the same parameters that are on other tabs of the effect’s property page.
A list of the parameters that you unlinked appears in the Unlinked Controls field
on the SurroundBridge tab, with the instance number listed in the Plug-in #
column of the Unlinked Controls field.
If you unlinked some but not all of an instance’s parameters, the instance’s
checkbox in the Controls Linked to Group column appears grey, with a check.
489
To view a list of the automatable parameters in a particular effect, uncheck one of
the Controls Linked to Group checkboxes on the SurroundBridge tab, and read the
list in the Unlinked Controls field.
To Relink Individual Effect Parameters to Other Effect
Instances
1.
In the Unlinked Controls field on the SurroundBridge tab, select the
parameters you want to relink—if the parameters you want to select are
adjacent, you can Shift-click the first and last ones in the group. If they’re not
adjacent, you can Ctrl-click them individually.
2.
Click the Relink Controls button.
The parameters you relinked are removed from the list.
To Unlink All of an Instance’s Parameters from Other
Instances
1.
In the property page of an effect that’s patched into a surround bus, click the
SurroundBridge tab.
2.
Find the instance you want to unlink in the Plug-in # column, and uncheck its
Controls Linked to Group checkbox.
The parameters you unlinked appear in the Unlinked Controls field, with the
instance number listed in the Plug-in # column of the Unlinked Controls field.
Note: to relink all of an instance’s parameters, recheck its Controls Linked to
Group checkbox.
To Disable an Instance
•
On the SurroundBridge tab of the effect’s property page, uncheck the Enable
checkbox of the plug-in you want to disable. The instance’s tab becomes
greyed-out when you do this. You can re-enable the instance by rechecking the
checkbox.
The Enable checkbox is a separate bypass system from the Bypass button that is
on the instance’s individual property tab. Disabling an instance by using the
Enable checkbox lightens the CPU load by taking the instance out of the
processing path. The Bypass button on the instance’s property tab does not change
color when you click the Enable checkbox, because it is a separate system. The
Bypass button is automatable in some plug-ins.
To Save a Preset
1.
Set the effect’s parameters the way you want them.
2.
In the Presets field of the effect’s property page, type a name for the preset,
and click the floppy disk icon that’s just right of the Presets field.
Saving a preset of an effect that’s patched into a surround bus creates a surround
preset, which includes channel assignments and parameter linkage settings.
490
Importing Surround Mixes
SONAR imports multi-channel (surround) files as a group of mono files. If the files
contain information that labels the speaker location of each channel in the file,
SONAR copies these labels to the clips in your audio tracks, but does not pan the
tracks according to these labels. This is because you may not have your SONAR
project set to the same multi-channel format as the imported project.
You can import the following types of multi-channel files:
•
Multi-channel PCM wave files (.WAV)
•
Dolby AC3 encoded files. (.AC3)—these are encoded for Dolby surround. You
will need to install an AC3 decoder filter such as this one: http://
ac3filter.sourceforge.net in order to be able to decode these files in SONAR.
Important: After installing the above AC3 codec, go to Control Panel and
launch the "AC3 Filter" control panel applet. From there you can set up the
default speaker output for this filter to 5.1 channels. Until you do this it will
only stream in stereo. Also check the sample rate of the imported file. It’s
recommended that you set your project sample rate to whatever the file uses
before importing. Otherwise the import process will go through a time
consuming resampling pass for each channel.
•
Windows Media Pro
To Import a Surround Multi-channel File
1.
Use the File-Import-Audio command to open the Import Audio dialog.
2.
Select a file of a supported file type.
3.
Check Import As Mono Tracks.
4.
Click Open.
SONAR imports each channel to a separate mono track.
Tip: You can also rip the soundtrack from a video file by opening the video file
directly from the Import Audio dialog.
491
Exporting Surround Mixes
You can export your surround mixes as multi-channel PCM wave files, or as
Windows Media Pro files.
To Export a Surround Multi-channel File
1.
Use the File-Export-Audio command to open the Export Audio dialog.
2.
Type a name for your file.
3.
In the Files of Type field, choose one of the following:
•
If you want to create a multi-channel wave file, choose RIFF Wave.
•
If you want to create a multi-channel Windows Media file, choose
Windows Media Advanced Streaming Format.
4.
In the Source Category field, choose Buses, Main Outputs, or Entire Mix.
5.
Choose the bus or buses in the Source Buses/Tracks field that you want to
export your mix from.
6.
Choose Multichannel in the Channel Format field.
7.
Choose any other options you want such as Sample Rate and Bit Depth.
8.
If you want to save the settings you created in the Export Audio dialog, type a
name for them in the Preset window and then click the floppy disk icon that’s
next to the window.
9.
Click Export.
SONAR exports your project in the file format you selected.
492
13
Using Automation
Automation means to record the movement of a fader, knob, or other control so
that the next time you play your project, that control moves automatically. SONAR
allows you to graphically automate much more than just volume and pan
controls—you can automate individual controls, faders, and knobs that control the
main outs, individual tracks, buses, individual effects’ parameters (including some
plug-in synths), and even individual clips. You can also group several controls
together and automate them all by recording only a single control’s movements. All
automatable controls are in the Console view and the Track view (including the
Clips pane), however, you can also graphically automate MIDI controllers from the
Piano Roll view in addition to the Console and Track views. You can enable or
disable all automation by clicking the Enable Automation Playback button
in the Automation toolbar. Display the Automation toolbar by using the ViewToolbars command and making sure that the Automation checkbox is checked in
the Toolbars dialog box.
In This Chapter
Quick Automation Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 494
The Automation Toolbar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 495
Automation Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 495
Automating Effects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 507
Reassigning Envelopes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 510
The Envelope Editing and Node Editing Menus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 511
Quick Automation Guide
The following table summarizes Console and Track view automation:
What you can
automate...
Parameters you
can automate...
How you can
automate them...
Individual tracks
Gain, pan, mute, bus send
gain, bus send balance,
MIDI controllers, MIDI
chorus and reverb, pitch
wheel, channel aftertouch,
RPN and NRPN
Draw envelopes in the Clips
pane, record the fader
movements, or take a
snapshot
Buses
Input gain and pan, output
gain and pan
Draw envelopes in the Clips
pane, record the fader
movements, or take a
snapshot
Individual effects
(DirectX 8 plug-ins)
Varies with the effect
Draw envelopes in the Clips
pane, record the fader
movements, or take a
snapshot
Soft Synth controls
Varies with the synth
See “Automating a DXi’s
Controls” on page 408
Groups of faders or
other controls
Whatever the faders or
other controls in the group
control
Record fader movements
Individual clips
Gain and pan for audio
clips, velocity for MIDI clips
Draw envelopes in the Clips
pane
In addition, SONAR allows you to copy and paste envelopes between tracks. The
only controls that you can’t automate are the Arm, Solo, Pre/Post, Interleave
(Mono/Stereo selector), Bus Enable, and Phase buttons; and the Trim fader.
494
The Automation Toolbar
Display the Automation toolbar by using the View-Toolbars command to open the
Toolbars dialog box, and making sure that the Automation checkbox is checked. If
you slide the cursor over each button or field in the toolbar, tool tips pop up to tell
you each function. The Automation toolbar gives you quick access to some powerful
automation controls:
•
Snapshot button—Click this button to take a snapshot of all controls at a
particular Now time. When you play back your project, when your project
reaches the Now time where you took the snapshot, all controls snap to the
positions they held when you took the snapshot.
•
Disarm All Automation Controls button—Click this button to disarm
every control that is armed for automation recording.
•
Enable Automation Playback button—Click this button to either enable
or disable any automation data the project contains.
•
Envelope/Offset mode button—Click this button to toggle between
Envelope mode and Offset mode.
Automation Methods
There are several ways to automate controls in the Track and Console views:
•
Recording the movements of individual faders, knobs, or controls—this
method includes any knob, slider, or control except the Solo, Arm, Phase,
Interleave, Vol Trim, Bus Enable, Pre/Post buttons, bank, patch, channel,
key+, time+, input and output.
•
Drawing envelopes in the Clips pane for audio and/or MIDI data
•
Recording automation data from an external controller
•
Snapshots
495
Recording Individual Fader or Knob Movements
This method works in both the Track view and Console view. Arming a parameter
for automation and clicking the Record Automation button
starts automation
recording and plays your project while you record automation. You can only record
or erase automation data when you click the Record Automation button. SONAR
does not record any automation data until you depress the mouse over the control
that you armed. SONAR stops recording when you release the mouse.
To Record Individual Fader or Knob Movements
1.
Right-click the fader or control you want to automate.
The Automation popup menu appears (if the control is automatable).
2.
Choose Arm for Automation from the popup menu.
SONAR highlights the control with a red outline and turns on the red Auto
label in the Status bar at the bottom of the SONAR window.
3.
Click the Record Automation button
that’s in the Transport toolbar to
start recording, and move the armed control the way you want it to move.
4.
Stop recording by clicking the Stop button, or by pressing the Spacebar.
5.
Make sure that the Enable Automation Playback button
in the
Automation toolbar is depressed; rewind the project, play it, and listen to the
results.
6.
Do one of the following:
•
Rewind the project and re-record the automation data.
OR
•
If you are happy with the result, right-click the armed control and
deselect Arm for Automation from the menu.
After you record the automation data, SONAR draws a graph of it (an envelope) in
the Clips pane, which you can edit with the mouse (see the rest of this chapter).
You can also group controls, so that automating one control automates all the
controls in the group.
496
Drawing Audio Envelopes in the Track View
This method is only available in the Clips pane and Bus pane, and works for both
tracks and buses. Drawing an automation envelope for audio data overwrites any
preexisting envelope for the same parameter that occurs at the same time in the
same track or bus.
To Draw Audio Envelopes in the Track View
1.
Right-click in the Clips pane in the track (or bus) you want to automate.
The Clips pane popup menu appears.
2.
From the menu, choose Envelopes-Create Track Envelope-(name of the
control you want to automate). Notice the envelope’s color at the right side
of the menu.
The envelope appears in the Clips pane as a straight, dotted line in the
envelope’s individual color, with a node (very small rectangle) at the
beginning. When you move the cursor over the envelope, a vertical, doubleended arrow appears under it with the name and current value of the
envelope in a box next to the cursor. The envelope’s vertical position reflects
the current value of the parameter you are editing.
Node
Envelope name and current value
Envelope value range
Note: An automated mute envelope changes the track’s mute status whenever
the envelope crosses the middle of its value range.
3.
Using either the Select
or Envelope
tools, move the cursor over the
envelope until a vertical, double-ended arrow appears under it (notice that the
name and current value of the envelope appear in a box next to the cursor),
and right-click the envelope. If you use the Envelope tool, you can’t
accidentally edit any other data besides the envelope.
The Envelope Editing menu appears.
4.
Choose Add Node from the menu.
A node appears on the envelope.
Note: A shortcut to add a node is to double-click the envelope.
5.
Move the cursor over the node until a cross appears under it, and drag the
node in any direction you want.
6.
Double-click the envelope to add another node.
7.
Drag the new node in any direction you want and release the mouse.
497
8.
Move the cursor over the segment of the envelope that lies between the two
nodes until the double-ended arrow appears, and right-click the envelope to
open the Envelope Editing menu.
9.
Choose one of the following shapes from the Envelope Editing menu:
•
Jump—This choice causes the envelope to make a ninety degree jump
where the envelope reaches the second node. SONAR displays jumps with
a dotted line, meaning that there is automation data at the nodes where
the dotted line begins and ends, but not where the line itself is.
•
Linear—This choice draws a straight line between the two nodes.
•
Fast Curve—This choice draws a curve between the two nodes that
changes value rapidly at first, but more slowly toward the end of the
curve.
•
Slow Curve—This choice draws a curve between the two nodes that
changes value slowly at first, but more rapidly toward the end of the
curve.
SONAR adds a shape between the nodes. You can drag any shape except a
jump up or down and it maintains its curve or angle. To edit a jump, drag the
node that’s at either end of the jump.
Play the project and listen to the results. You can undo any step by using the EditUndo command (Ctrl+Z) directly after that step. You can drag the nodes in any
direction you want. You can play back your project with or without the automation
data by clicking the Enable Automation Playback button
in the Automation
toolbar.
Note: When you add a “gain” envelope to a track in SONAR, you increase the
track’s level post-effects, or after the effects processors. Some hardware mixers call
this level “volume,” because it is post-effects, but other mixers refer to this as
“gain.” Either way, SONAR’s gain envelopes increase a track’s level after the
effects processors in the signal chain.
When you add multiple envelopes to a track or bus, you can choose which
envelopes you want to display. See “Showing or Hiding Envelopes” on page 502.
You can also draw envelopes on MIDI tracks. See “Drawing MIDI Envelopes in the
Track View” on page 499.
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Drawing MIDI Envelopes in the Track View
This method is only available in the Clips pane. You can also draw MIDI controller
data in the Piano Roll view, but the technique is different (see “Using the
Controllers Pane” on page 313).
Note: MIDI envelopes you create in the Piano Roll Controllers pane and MIDI
envelopes you create in the Track view Clips pane are actually separate envelopes,
even if they control the same parameter. Both kinds of envelopes are visible in the
Clips pane, and should generally not be used to control the same parameter. You
can convert Piano Roll view envelopes to Track view envelopes by selecting the
time range and tracks that the Piano Roll envelopes occupy, and using the EditConvert MIDI To Shapes command.
To Draw MIDI Envelopes in the Track View
1.
Right-click in the Clips pane in the track you want to automate.
The Clips pane popup menu appears.
2.
If you want to create an envelope to control volume, pan, chorus, reverb, or
automated mute, choose Envelopes-Create Track Envelope and choose one
of those items from the menu.
The envelope appears in the Clips pane as a straight, dotted line in the
envelope’s individual color, with a node (very small rectangle) at the
beginning. When you move the cursor over the envelope, a vertical, doubleended arrow appears under it with the name and current value of the
envelope in a box next to the cursor. The envelope’s vertical position reflects
the current value of the parameter you are editing.
Node
Envelope name and current value
Envelope value range
Note: An automated mute envelope changes the track’s mute status whenever
the envelope crosses the middle of its value range.
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3.
If you want to create an envelope to control any other MIDI controller, choose
Envelopes-Create Track Envelope-MIDI....
The MIDI Envelope dialog box appears:
•
In the Type field, choose what kind of MIDI event you want to control
with your envelope.
•
In the Value field, choose the name of the controller you want to edit.
•
In the Channel field, choose the MIDI channel that you want the envelope
to send data on, and click OK.
SONAR creates the envelope you chose.
4.
Move the cursor over the envelope until a vertical, double-ended arrow
appears under it, and right-click the envelope.
The Envelope Editing menu appears.
5.
Choose Add Node from the menu.
A node (very small rectangle) appears on the envelope.
Note: A shortcut to create a node is to double-click the envelope.
6.
Move the cursor over the node until a cross appears under it, and drag the
node in any direction you want.
When you release the mouse, the envelope changes to follow the node’s new
position.
7.
Double-click the envelope to add another node.
8.
Drag the new node in any direction you want and release the mouse.
9.
Move the cursor over the segment of the envelope that lies between the two
nodes until the double-ended arrow appears, and right-click the envelope to
open the Envelope Editing menu.
10. Choose one of the following shapes from the envelope editing menu:
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•
Jump—This choice causes the envelope to make a ninety degree jump
when the envelope reaches the second node. SONAR displays jumps with
a dotted line, meaning that there is automation data at the nodes where
the dotted line begins and ends, but not where the line itself is.
•
Linear—This choice draws a straight line between the two nodes.
•
Fast Curve—This choice draws a curve between the two nodes that
changes value rapidly at first, but more slowly toward the end of the
curve.
•
Slow Curve—This choice draws a curve between the two nodes that
changes value slowly at first, but more rapidly toward the end of the
curve.
SONAR adds a shape between the nodes. You can drag any shape except a
jump up or down and it maintains its curve or angle. To edit a jump, drag the
node that’s at either end of the jump.
Play your track and listen to the results. You can undo any step by using the EditUndo command (Ctrl+Z) directly after that step. You can play back your project
with or without the automation data by clicking the Enable Automation Playback
button
in the Automation toolbar.
When you add multiple envelopes to a track, you can choose which envelopes you
want to display. See “Showing or Hiding Envelopes” on page 502.
You can also draw envelopes on audio tracks. See “Drawing Audio Envelopes in the
Track View” on page 497.
Dotted Lines
The dotted line in an envelope shows two things:
•
There is no automation data at the time in a track where the dotted line is.
•
The value of the last piece of automation data that exists before the dotted line
is represented by the vertical level of the dotted line.
You can move an automated control while your project plays, and if you move it
during a time where that control has a dotted line in its envelope, the control will
stay where you move it. As soon as the Now time reaches a node or solid line, the
control snaps to the value of the node or solid line.
Drawing Envelopes on Clips
You can also draw envelopes on audio clips, but only for gain and pan. On MIDI
clips, you can draw velocity envelopes. If there is already a track-level envelope on
the clip, the clip envelope data merges with the track envelope data.
Note: The Trim value of a track is actually a clip parameter, not a track
parameter. SONAR applies clip volume settings, including Trim, to a clip before
the clip’s audio data reaches any plug-in effects. Effects can sound very different
when their incoming data changes volume, even if the final volume is unchanged.
To Draw Envelopes on Clips
1.
Right-click the clip that you want to draw the envelope on.
The Clips pane popup menu appears.
2.
Choose Envelopes-Clip-(Gain or Pan or Velocity) from the menu.
An envelope appears on the clip with a node at each end.
Edit the envelope just as you would a track envelope.
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Showing or Hiding Envelopes
You can choose to show or hide any or all envelopes in a track or bus.
To Show or Hide All Envelopes
1.
In the Track view toolbar, click the drop-down arrow
Envelope tool to display the Envelope Options menu.
that’s next to the
2.
Choose either Show All Envelopes or Hide All Envelopes.
To Show All of One Kind of Envelope
1.
In the Track view toolbar, click the drop-down arrow
Envelope tool to display the Envelope Options menu.
2.
Choose the kind of envelope that you want to show.
that’s next to the
To Show or Hide Individual Envelopes
1.
Right-click the Clips pane in the track that contains the envelope(s) that you
want to show or hide.
The Clips pane popup menu appears.
2.
Choose Envelopes-Show Track Envelopes.
A menu of all the envelopes in the track appears. A checkmark appears to the
left of each envelope that is currently showing.
3.
Click the name of one envelope that you want to show (if it’s currently hidden),
or hide (if it’s currently showing).
SONAR hides or displays the envelope.
4.
Repeat steps 1 to 3 for each envelope that you want to show or hide.
You can also hide, but not show, individual envelopes by right-clicking an envelope
and choosing Hide Envelope from the Envelope Editing menu.
Deleting Envelopes
To Delete a Single Envelope
1.
Move the cursor over the envelope until a vertical, double-ended arrow
appears under it, and right-click the envelope.
The Envelope Editing menu appears.
2.
Choose Delete Envelope from the menu.
SONAR deletes the envelope.
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To Delete Several or All Envelopes
1.
Select the data that contains the envelopes you want to delete—you can select
parts of tracks, one or more whole tracks, or all tracks.
2.
Use the Edit-Cut command to open the Cut dialog box.
3.
Select Track/Bus Automation if it’s listed.
4.
Select Clip Automation if it’s listed.
5.
Click OK.
SONAR deletes any track and clip envelopes that are in the data you selected.
Copying and Pasting Envelopes
You can copy and paste envelopes or parts of envelopes between tracks and clips.
You can not, however, copy and paste a clip envelope without also copying and
pasting the audio or MIDI data that is in that clip. If you paste a clip envelope into
a track without the clip that it came from, the clip envelope becomes a track
envelope.
To Copy an Envelope
1.
In the Track view or the Clips pane, select the track or clip that has the
envelope you want to copy. If you want to copy all the automation data in the
track, select the whole track. If you want to select only a clip, but want to
select any track envelopes in that track, click the dropdown arrow next to the
Select tool
, and make sure that the Select Track Envelopes With
Selected Clips option has a checkmark next to it.
2.
Press Ctrl+C or use the Edit-Copy command.
The Copy dialog box appears.
3.
Choose Clip Automation and/or Track/Bus Automation.
Note: If the Track/Bus Automation field is greyed-out, you must re-select a
part of the clip that contains either a node or a solid line (shape). A dotted line
by itself is not an envelope and can not be copied.
4.
Choose any other kinds of data you want to copy—if you only want to copy the
automation data, choose only Track/Bus Automation and/or Clip Automation.
5.
Click OK.
SONAR copies the data you selected to the clipboard.
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To Paste an Envelope
1.
Select the track(s) and location (Now Time) you want to paste the data to.
2.
Press Ctrl+V or use the Edit-Paste command.
The Paste dialog box appears.
3.
Choose a track and location to paste to, if you haven’t already.
4.
Click OK.
SONAR pastes the automation data and any other types of data you chose in the
Copy dialog box into the track and location you selected.
Resetting Envelopes and Nodes to Current or
Neutral Values
You can reset an envelope so that it becomes a horizontal line at the current value
of the parameter it controls, which eliminates any curves or jumps from the
envelope. You can reset a node so that it jumps to the neutral value of the
parameter it controls. For example, the neutral value of the pan parameter is C, or
0%.
To Reset an Envelope to the Current Value
1.
Move the Now time to where the envelope’s value is to your liking.
2.
Right-click the envelope to display the Envelope Editing menu.
3.
Choose Clear All from the menu.
SONAR resets the envelope to the current value.
To Reset a Node to a Neutral Value
Do either of the following:
•
Double-click the node.
•
Move the cursor over the node until it a cross appears under it, right-click the
node, and choose Reset Node from the popup menu.
The node jumps to the neutral value for the parameter it controls.
Envelope Mode and Offset Mode
There are two modes which control how your volume faders, pan faders, bus send
faders, and bus send pan faders behave during playback. The two modes are
Envelope mode and Offset mode.
Envelope mode—In envelope mode, volume and pan faders follow the project’s
automation and do not respond to changes you make in real-time.
Offset mode—In Offset mode, you “offset” the current automation in a track
using a parameter’s controls. For example, if a pan envelope is set to hard left
(100% left) and you adjust the pan in offset mode to 100% right, then the pan
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parameter is now set to hard right. Setting the pan in offset mode to 50% right
would set the pan to the center.
Note: Any position that you set a fader to in Offset mode remains in effect when
you switch back to Envelope mode. For example, if you set a volume fader to -INF
while in Offset mode, switch to Envelope mode and drag the fader to its maximum
level, you will not hear anything.
To Turn On Offset Mode
There are several ways to turn on Offset mode in SONAR:
•
In the Track view toolbar or Console view toolbar, click the Offset
•
In the Automation toolbar, click the Offset
•
Press the o key.
button.
button.
In Offset mode, all controls that can be offset appear with a plus sign. For example
Vol+.
The following audio controls support both Envelope and Offset modes:
Control
Envelope Mode Range
Offset Mode Range
Volume
-Infinity to +6dB, default is 0dB
-Infinity to +6dB, default is 0dB
Pan
100% L to 100% R, default is C
100% L to 100% R, default is C
Bus Send Level
-Infinity to +6dB, default is 0 dB
-Infinity to +6dB, default is 0dB
Bus Send Pan
100% L to 100% R, default is C
100% L to 100% R, default is C
Bus Return
Level
-Infinity to +6dB, default is 0dB
-Infinity to +6dB, default is 0dB
Bus Return
Balance
100% L to 100% R, default is C
100% L to 100% R, default is C
Main Out
Volume
-Infinity to +6dB, default is 0dB
-Infinity to +6dB, default is 0dB
Main Out
Balance
100% L to 100% R, default is C
100% L to 100% R, default is C
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The following MIDI controls support both Envelope and Offset modes:
Control
Envelope Mode Range
Offset Mode Range
Volume
0 to 127, default is 101
0 to 127, default is 101
Pan
100% L to 100% R, default is C
100% L to 100% R, default is C
Chorus
0 to 127, default is 0
-127 to 127, default is 100
Reverb
0 to 127, default is 0
-127 to 127, default is 100
To Open Non-SONAR Envelope Display on a Percentage Scale
You can globally configure the placement of 0 dB for your envelopes in the Clips
pane. The default placement in the Clips pane of 0 dB is roughly 1/3 from the top of
the clip. You can change the position of 0 dB in all envelopes to the middle of the
clip.
There are several advantages when using the Envelope Display on a Percentage
Scale option:
•
It makes it easier to tell if there have been any changes.
•
There is a finer resolution around 0 dB.
Note: In Envelope mode, newly created volume clips appear at the same dB value
as the current Vol setting. For example, if the Vol setting is +3 dB, a newly created
volume envelope appears above the middle of the clip.
To Display Envelopes on a Percentage Scale
1.
Select Options-Global to open the Global Options dialog.
2.
In the General tab, click the Display Envelopes on Percentage Scale checkbox.
3.
Click OK.
Snapshots
A snapshot is a group of settings that SONAR’s controls snap to when your project
reaches a certain Now Time. You set all the controls to the values you want, and
then create a snapshot of these settings at a particular Now Time. This approach
is useful, for example, when your project contains a variety of distinct sections and
you want to make a sudden change in one or more settings between the sections.
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To Create a Snapshot
1.
Move the Now Time to the location where you want to create the snapshot.
2.
Make sure that the Automation toolbar is visible—use the View-Toolbars
command and make sure that the Automation checkbox is checked.
3.
Set all controls the way you want them to be at this particular location in the
project.
4.
Arm the controls whose positions you want to record by right-clicking each one
and making sure the Arm for Automation command has a checkmark next
to it in the automation popup menu.
5.
Click the Snapshot button
in the Automation toolbar.
SONAR records the positions of all armed controls.
6.
Play your project and listen to the results. You can undo the snapshot by using
the Undo command, or by taking another snapshot at the same Now Time.
7.
Disarm all controls by clicking the Disarm All Automation Controls button
in the Automation toolbar, or by clicking the red Aut indicator in the
Status bar.
You can play back your project with or without the automation data by clicking the
Enable Automation Playback button
in the Automation toolbar.
Automating Effects
SONAR allows you to automate compatible DirectX plug-ins, giving you real-time
control over dozens of effects parameters.
Note: When using automatable effects, the CPU meter may fluctuate rapidly
within a few percentage points. This is normal behavior.
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Automating Individual Effects Parameters
You can automate the parameters of some of SONAR’s effects by drawing
envelopes, or recording fader movements, or creating snapshots.
To Record Fader or Knob Movements for an Individual Effect’s
Parameters
1.
Patch an automatable effect into the track or bus where you want to use it,
and close the effect’s dialog box when it appears.
2.
In the track or bus where you patched the effect, right-click the name of the
effect and select Arm Parameter from the popup menu (if the effect is not
automatable, that choice is greyed-out on the menu).
The effect’s envelope dialog box appears, listing all the parameters you can
arm in the Param Armed list.
3.
Check all the parameters you want to automate at this time (caution: it’s
difficult to move more than one control when you are recording) and click OK.
4.
Double-click the effect’s name to open its dialog box; make sure that the dialog
box does not block SONAR’s transport controls.
5.
Start recording by clicking the Record Automation button
that’s in the
Transport toolbar, and move the knobs or faders that control the relevant
parameters.
6.
When you finish moving the knobs and faders, click the Stop button in the
Transport toolbar.
Play back the track and listen to the result. Then you can either re-record the
automation or disarm the parameters. You can disarm all armed parameters at
once by clicking the red Aut indicator that’s in the Status bar at the bottom of the
SONAR window, or by clicking the Disarm All Automation Controls button
that’s in the Automation toolbar.
To Draw Envelopes for an Individual Effect’s Parameters
1.
Patch an automatable effect into the track or bus where you want to use it,
and close the effect’s dialog box when it appears.
2.
Right-click in the Clips pane in the track (or bus) where you patched the effect.
The Clips pane or Bus pane popup menu appears.
3.
If you opened the Clips pane popup menu, choose Envelopes-Create Track
Envelope-(name of the effect you patched). If you opened the Bus pane
popup menu, choose Create Bus Envelope-(name of the effect you
patched).
The effect’s envelope dialog box appears, listing all the parameters you can
automate in the Envelope Exists list.
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4.
Check all the parameters you want to create envelopes for; as you check each
envelope choice, you can choose a color for the envelope by clicking the Choose
Color button that’s in the lower right corner of the dialog box.
Note: You can change a plug-in envelope’s color whenever you want by
highlighting its name in the effect’s envelope dialog box and clicking the
Choose Color button.
5.
Click OK.
All the envelopes that you checked appear in the track or bus you were working in.
You can edit them just like any other envelopes.
Recording Groups of Faders and/or Knobs
You can group various faders, knobs, and other controls together so that when you
record the movements of one fader or knob, all the controls in the group move.
To Record Groups of Faders and/or Knobs
1.
Group the controls (faders, knobs, etc.) that you want to record by rightclicking each control and choosing Group-(letter name of the group) from
the popup menu—make sure you add them to the same group.
2.
Arm each control in the group by right-clicking each one and choosing Arm
for Automation from the popup menu.
3.
Click the Record Automation button and move one of the controls in the group.
4.
When you’re through recording your automation data, click the Stop button in
the Transport toolbar.
Listen to your project and either re-record the automation, or disarm each armed
control by right-clicking each one and choosing Arm for Automation from the
popup menu, or by clicking the Disarm All Automation Controls button in the
Automation toolbar.
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Recording Automation Data from an External
Controller
You can record automation data from an external controller or a MIDI keyboard.
To Record Automation Data from an External Controller
1.
In either the Track view or Console view, right-click the control or knob that
you want to control externally, and choose Remote Control from the popup
menu.
The Remote Control dialog box appears.
2.
If your controller sends standard MIDI messages, RPN’s, or NRPN’s, choose a
controller (such as Wheel) with which to control your knob or control. Also
choose the MIDI channel your controller will be sending the automation data
on (it doesn’t have to be the same channel that the knob or control’s track
plays back on), and click OK.
3.
If your controller works by sending SysX information instead, choose options
in the SysX fields, and click OK.
4.
In either the Track or Console view, arm the knob or control for automation
that you just configured for remote control.
5.
Click the Record Automation button and move the slider or wheel that you
selected on your external controller.
6.
When you finish recording the automation, click the Stop button in the
Transport toolbar.
Listen to your project and either re-record the automation, or disarm each armed
control by clicking the Disarm All Automation Controls button in the Automation
toolbar. You can disable remote control by right-clicking the relevant knob or fader
and choosing Disable Remote Control from the popup menu.
Reassigning Envelopes
You can reassign an envelope to control a different parameter from the one it
originally controlled. For example, you can reassign a volume envelope to control
pan.
To Reassign an Envelope
1.
Move the cursor over the envelope until the cursor changes to a double-ended
arrow, and right-click the envelope.
The Envelope Editing menu appears.
2.
Choose Assign Envelope-(name of the parameter you want the envelope
to control).
The envelope changes color to reflect its new parameter assignment.
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The Envelope Editing and Node Editing
Menus
The Envelope Editing menu appears when you move the cursor over an envelope
until a double-ended arrow
appears under it, and right-click the envelope.
The Node Editing menu is almost identical, and appears when you move the
cursor over a node until a cross
appears under it and right-click. The menus
contain the following options:
Menu Option...
What it Does...
Jump (Envelope
Editing menu only)
This choice causes the envelope to make a ninety degree
jump between two nodes. SONAR displays jumps with a
dotted line, meaning that there is automation data at the
nodes where the dotted line begins and ends, but not
where the dotted line itself is.
Linear (Envelope
Editing menu only)
This choice draws a straight line between two nodes.
Fast Curve (Envelope
Editing menu only)
This choice draws a curve between the two nodes that
changes value rapidly at first, but more slowly toward the
end of the curve.
Slow Curve (Envelope
Editing menu only)
This choice draws a curve between two nodes that
changes value slowly at first, but more rapidly toward the
end of the curve
Add Node (Envelope
Editing menu only)
This choice adds a node, which is a point on the line that
you can drag, to the place on the envelope where you
right-clicked.
Hide Envelope
This choice hides the envelope that you right-clicked. You
can re-display the envelope by right-clicking in the same
track and choosing Envelopes-Show Track Envelopes(name of the envelope you want to show) from the Clips
pane popup menu.
Assign Envelope(name of the
parameter you want to
control)
This choice reassigns the envelope to control the
parameter that you choose.
Delete Envelope
This choice deletes the envelope.
Clear All
This choice deletes everything from the envelope except
the first node.
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Reset Node (Node
Editing menu only)
This choice resets the node to the parameter’s neutral
value.
Delete Node (Node
Editing menu only)
This choice deletes the node.
Properties (Node
Editing menu only)
This choice opens the Edit Node dialog box, which allows
you to edit the node’s value and location.
Automated Muting
The Mute buttons in the Track view and Console view work in two ways:
•
You can record or draw automation for each Mute button, and the automation
data controls the buttons.
•
You can click a Mute button while playback is in progress and manually
override any automation data for that button.
A track’s Mute button can display the muted or unmuted status of either the
automation envelope or of manual muting. The Track-Show Automated Mute
command causes the Mute button on a selected track to show whether the track’s
mute envelope (if any) is in the muted or unmuted position (the automated mute
status). When the command is disabled, the track’s Mute button shows whether
you have depressed the Mute button manually or not (the manual mute status).
When the command is enabled, the Mute button displays an envelope icon through
the M:
. Besides the Track-Show Automated Mute command, you can also
right-click a Mute button and choose Switch to Automated Mute from the popup
menu.
To Draw a Mute Envelope
1.
In the Clips pane, right-click in the track you want to mute, and choose
Envelopes-Create Track Envelope-Automated Mute from the Clips pane
popup menu.
An envelope appears at the bottom of the track.
2.
Add nodes to the envelope and edit it so that the envelope is more than 50% of
its maximum height wherever you want the track muted.
To Record a Mute Button’s Movement
1.
Right-click the Mute button you want to automate and choose Arm for
Automation from the popup menu.
2.
Click the Automation Record button, click the Mute button on and off where
appropriate, and stop recording.
SONAR draws an automated mute envelope in the track you recorded on.
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14
Layouts, Templates
and Key Bindings
A layout is the current arrangement of all the views that pertain to a particular
project. The layout of each project is stored automatically as part of every project
file. In addition, you can save the current layout or load any saved layout and
apply it to the current project. You might want to create a layout so you can easily
arrange the views in a convenient size and position on the screen.
A template is a special file that is used as a pattern to create other, similar files.
You might create a template file that defines a particular musical ensemble (say, a
string quartet) or a particular studio configuration (MIDI instruments, audio
outputs, and so on). Templates make it fast and easy to create and configure new
projects.
Note that toolbars are not part of a file layout or template. The toolbar
arrangement you choose is stored automatically from session to session.
A key binding lets you associate SONAR commands with keys on your MIDI or
computer keyboard. This makes it easy for you to access specific features more
quickly and efficiently. You can even assign saved layouts to key bindings for quick
access.
In This Chapter
Layouts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 514
Templates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 517
Key Bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 520
Layouts
The layout of the views that are displayed for a project is stored automatically in
the project file when you save the project. By default, the layout of all the views is
restored when the file is opened. You can automatically arrange all open views so
that they are all visible by using the Window-Tile in Rows command.
In addition, you can save the current layout in a separate list—the global layout
list. Once you have saved the layout in this list, you can apply it to any open
project. The global layout list can contain as many layouts as you want. Layouts in
the list can be updated, renamed, and deleted.
Layouts are stored in a folder on your hard disk. To change the default folder for
layouts, choose Options-Global, click the Folders tab, and type the name of a
different folder in the Window Layouts field (or click the browse button that’s at
the right end of the Window Layouts field, and select a new folder).
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There are two options in Windows Layouts dialog (select View-Layouts to open)
that control how layouts are used, as described in the following table:
Option…
Meaning…
Close Old Windows Before Loading
New Ones
If checked, SONAR™ will close all the
views of the current project before applying
the layout. If you leave this option
unchecked, existing views remain open and
additional views are created according to
the settings in the layout.
When Opening a File, Load Its Layout
If checked, the views of a project are
automatically arranged according to the
stored layout when the project file is
opened. If this option is not checked, only
the Track view (and File Info view, if
applicable) are displayed when the project
file is opened.
To Create or Save a Layout
1.
Arrange the views for the current project the way you want.
2.
Choose View-Layouts to display the Window Layouts dialog box.
3.
Click Add to display the New Global Layout dialog box.
4.
Enter a name for the layout, and click OK. The layout is added to the list.
5.
Click Close to exit the Window Layouts dialog box.
To Update a Layout
1.
Arrange the views for the current project the way you want.
2.
Choose View-Layouts to display the Window Layouts dialog box.
3.
Choose the layout you want to update from the list.
4.
Click Add to display the New Global Layout dialog box.
5.
Leave the layout name unchanged, and click OK.
6.
Click OK to confirm that you want to update the layout.
7.
Click Close to exit the Window Layouts dialog box.
To Load a Layout
1.
Choose View-Layouts to display the Window Layouts dialog box.
2.
Choose the layout you want from the list.
3.
Click Load.
Views of the current project are arranged according to the layout settings.
515
To Delete a Layout
1.
Choose View-Layouts to display the Window Layouts dialog box.
2.
Choose the layout you want to delete from the list.
3.
Click Delete.
4.
Click OK to confirm that you want to delete the layout. The layout is removed
from the list.
5.
Click Close to exit the Window Layouts dialog box.
To Rename a Layout
1.
Choose View-Layouts to display the Window Layouts dialog box.
2.
Choose the layout you want to rename from the list.
3.
Click Rename to display the Rename Existing Layout dialog box.
4.
Enter a new name for the layout, and click OK. The layout is renamed in the
list.
5.
Click Close to exit the Window Layouts dialog box.
To Set Layout Options
1.
Choose View-Layouts to display the Window Layouts dialog box.
2.
Check the options you want.
3.
Click Close.
To Load a Layout with a Keyboard Command
1.
Use the Options-Key Bindings command to open the Key Bindings dialog
box.
2.
In the Type of Keys field, click either Computer or MIDI. If you click MIDI,
also make sure the Enabled checkbox is checked.
3.
If you selected MIDI in the Type of Keys field, under MIDI Shift Options select
either Key or Controller, and select a value for whichever one you pick.
4.
Under Bindings, scroll through the Key field and select the key that you want
to trigger the layout command with.
5.
In the Function field, scroll down towards the end of the list, and under Global
Layouts, click the name of the layout you want to assign to the key you
selected.
6.
When both the Key and the Function are highlighted in their respective fields.
click the Bind button to bind them together.
7.
Click OK.
Now you can load the layout you selected by pressing the MIDI keys or computer
keys that you bound to that particular layout. You can bind as many layouts as you
have available key combinations.
516
Floating Views and Dual Monitor Support
SONAR supports dual monitors and allows you to float most of your views to a
second monitor giving you more options when working and increasing the number
of views that you can have open at one time.
Important: Dual monitor support requires that you have a video card that
supports dual monitors. Follow your hardware manufacturers instructions for
using dual monitors.
You can float views in SONAR without having a second monitor. Floating a view
allows you to move it out of SONAR, over the SONAR toolbars and menus for
example, giving you added flexibility when using SONAR with other applications.
All views except the Track view can be floated.
To Float a View
1.
Open the view you want to float.
2.
Click the view’s icon located in the upper left corner of the view.
Piano Roll view icon
3.
In the menu that appears, click Enable Floating.
4.
Move the view wherever you want.
Templates
Template files make it easy to create new projects with certain predefined settings.
To create a template file, create a new project file and arrange the project settings
the way you want, then save the project as a template file. Template files have a
file extension of .CWT. When you create a new project, you can use the template as
the basis for the new project. SONAR looks for template files in a particular folder
on your hard disk. By default, this folder is the program folder. To change the
template directory, choose Options-Global and click the Folders tab.
Every time you start SONAR, a new, empty project is displayed. If you want, you
can determine the settings for this default project by creating and saving a special
template file, called NORMAL.CWT. If you create or update the NORMAL.CWT file,
SONAR will display this template automatically when the program is started.
517
As a rule, any parameter that is saved in a project file is also saved in a template
file. Following are some useful parameters that are saved in template files:
•
Track configuration and track parameters
•
Timebase
•
Sysx banks
•
File information and comments
•
Tempo settings
•
Meter and key settings
•
Clock and synchronization information
•
MIDI data
•
MIDI In/Out/Thru settings
•
MIDI metronome settings
•
Selection start and end times
•
Record mode and punch-in times
•
Drum maps
•
Audio data
•
Automation
The following parameters are saved globally and are not stored in template or
project files:
518
•
Initialization file parameters
•
Big Time font settings
•
MIDI device settings
•
Instrument definitions
•
Autosave options
•
Key bindings
•
Color settings
To Create a Template
1.
Create a new file using the File-New command.
2.
Add tracks.
3.
Set one or more parameters to be the way you want.
4.
Choose File-Save As to display the Save As dialog box.
5.
Choose Template from the Save as Type list.
6.
Enter a template file name and click Save.
SONAR saves the template file.
To Create a New Project from a Template
1.
Choose File-New to display the New Project File dialog box. The list contains
the names of all existing templates.
2.
Choose a template from the list.
3.
Click OK.
SONAR creates the new project and displays it in the Track view.
Template Example: Three MIDI Instruments
Suppose that your system has only a single MIDI output but you own three
different synthesizers:
•
One synthesizer set to receive on channels 1 through 8
•
A general MIDI synthesizer module set to receive data on all 16 channels
•
A drum machine set to receive on MIDI channel 10
Here’s how you can use a template to make it easy to create new projects that are
already configured for the instruments you own.
To Create the Example Template File
1.
Choose File-New to create a new project file.
2.
Insert 16 MIDI tracks.
3.
In the Ch dropdown menu of track 10, enter 10. The drum machine responds
to channel 10. For consistency, the drums can be placed on track 10.
4.
The second synthesizer responds to channels 1 through 8. These can be placed
on tracks 1 through 8. For each track, enter the corresponding channel
number using the Ch dropdown menu for each track. You should now have
tracks 1 through 8 set to channels 1 through 8.
5.
The third synthesizer can respond to 16 MIDI channels, but the only channels
left are 9 and 11 through 16. Enter these numbers in the corresponding
tracks. You will need to mute the unused channels on the third synthesizer (1
through 8 and 10) so they won’t play. These are assigned to the drum machine
and the second synthesizer.
519
6.
Name each track and set any track parameters, such as starting patch,
volumes, panning, reverb, chorus, and transposition.
7.
If you like, configure other parameters needed in your projects, such as autosend Sysx banks, tempo settings, window positions, and comments.
8.
Choose File-Save, and save the file as a template named MY3SYNTHS.
Now, each time you want to start working on a new project, you can simply load
your template and start recording.
Key Bindings
Key bindings let you associate SONAR commands with keys on both your MIDI
keyboard and your computer keyboard. This makes it easy for you to access
specific features more quickly and efficiently.
In addition, SONAR supports:
•
Importing key bindings from other popular sequencer programs (see
“Importing Key Bindings” on page 523)
•
Exporting key bindings from SONAR (see “Exporting Key Bindings” on page
523)
•
Use of any single key as a key binding (number keys on the number pad are
separate keys from the other number keys)
•
Changing the key bindings for commands that were previously hardwired,
including hotkey commands in the various views
Any one or two of the Ctrl, Alt, and Shift keys can be used in combination with
other keys. Preset key combinations appear in bold, with the command that
they’re currently assigned to listed at the bottom of the Key Bindings dialog.
Rather than tie up all the notes on your MIDI keyboard with key bindings,
SONAR lets you define a key binding shift key on your MIDI keyboard that
indicates when you want to use a key binding. For example, you could designate
the lowest note on your MIDI keyboard as the key binding shift key, and then
assign different notes to specific commands (for example, C4 to ProcessQuantize, C5 to Process-Groove Quantize, and so on). If you press the C4 key
by itself, the note plays normally. If you press the C4 key in combination with the
lowest key on your keyboard (the key binding shift key), then it’s just as if you had
chosen the Process-Quantize command from the menu.
520
You can choose one of two options to define the key binding shift key:
•
MIDI key (typically, the very lowest or highest key on your MIDI keyboard)
•
Controller event (typically, one of the pedals)
If you use a MIDI key as the key binding shift key, then you lose the ability to play
that note by itself. When you play the note, SONAR assumes you are about to
choose one of the key bindings you have created and ignores the note. If this is ever
a problem, you can disable MIDI key bindings without canceling the key
assignments and then re-enable the MIDI key bindings later on.
You can use a key binding to execute a command only when that command is
possible. For example, the File-Save command is disabled when no projects are
open. If you have assigned the Ctrl+F2 key combination to the File-Save
command, it won’t do anything when no projects are open.
You can use MIDI key bindings and computer keyboard key bindings at the same
time.
You use the Options-Key Bindings command to set up and manage your key
bindings. Here’s how:
To Create a Key Binding Using the Computer Keyboard
1.
Choose Options-Key Bindings to display the Key Bindings dialog.
2.
Check Computer in the Type of Keys list.
3.
To quickly scroll to the key or key combination you want, click the Locate Key
button, and then press the key or keys you want to use.
4.
Highlight the key combination you want to use in the Key list. Keys on the
number pad appear as Num “n.” If a key or combination is already bound to a
command by default, the name of the key appears in bold text, and the
command it is bound to appears at the bottom of the dialog under Current Key
Assignment. Binding a key or combination to a command and clicking OK
overwrites any default binding for that key or combination.
5.
In the Bind Context menu, select the context in which you want to use the key
binding.
6.
Highlight the command you want to assign from the Function list.
7.
Click Bind to bind the key combination to the command.
SONAR places an asterisk next to the key(s) that you chose, and draws a line
from the highlighted key(s) to the command that the key(s) will trigger. Any
keys that are assigned to commands have asterisks next to them. Any
commands that have keys assigned to them list the keys in the Computer
column and/or the MIDI column.
8.
Repeat steps 3 through 7 for all the keys you want to bind.
521
9.
If you want to save these key bindings for other sessions, make sure that the
Save Changes for Next Session checkbox is checked.
10. Click OK when you are done.
SONAR assigns the key(s) you chose.
To Create a Key Binding Using a MIDI Keyboard
1.
Choose Options-Key Bindings to display the Key Bindings dialog.
2.
Check MIDI in the Type of Keys list.
3.
Check the Enable box to make sure MIDI key bindings are enabled.
4.
If you haven’t already done so, create a key binding shift key by doing one of
the following:
•
Check Key under MIDI Shift Options, and enter the name of the key you
want to use.
•
Check Controller under MIDI Shift Options, and choose the controller you
want from the list.
5.
Highlight the key you want to bind from the Key list (if you click inside the
Key window to put the focus on it, you can then play a note on your MIDI
keyboard, and the note automatically becomes highlighted in the Key
window).
6.
Select the command you want to bind from the Function list.
7.
Click the Bind button.
SONAR places an asterisk next to the Key that you chose, and draws a line
from the highlighted key to the command that it’s bound to. Any keys that are
assigned to commands have asterisks next to them. Any commands that have
keys assigned to them list the keys in the Computer column and/or the MIDI
column.
8.
Repeat steps 5 through 7 for all the keys you want to bind.
9.
If you want to save these key bindings for other sessions, make sure that the
Save Changes for Next Session checkbox is checked.
10. Click OK when you are done.
SONAR assigns the key(s) you chose.
To disable MIDI key bindings, uncheck the Enable box in the Key Bindings
dialog.
522
Importing Key Bindings
SONAR can use key bindings from other sequencer applications. Clicking the
Import button in the Key Bindings dialog allows you to choose a new set of key
bindings. After you import new key bindings, you can edit and save them the way
you do with the default key bindings.
To Import Key Bindings
1.
Choose Options-Key Bindings to display the Key Bindings dialog.
2.
Click the Import button to open the Import Key Bindings dialog.
3.
Navigate to the SONAR program folder (you don’t have to store them there).
4.
Choose a key bindings file from the choices in the program folder. Key
bindings files use the file extension .KBN.
5.
Click Open.
SONAR loads the key bindings you chose.
Exporting Key Bindings
Clicking the Export button in the Key Bindings dialog allows you to export the
current set of key bindings, so that they are available when you want to switch key
bindings.
To Export Key Bindings
1.
Choose Options-Key Bindings to display the Key Bindings dialog.
2.
Click the Export button to open the Export Key Bindings dialog.
3.
Navigate to the folder where you want to save the key bindings.
4.
Type a name for the key bindings.
5.
Click Save.
SONAR saves the key bindings, and adds the file extension .KBN to the filename.
523
524
15
Working with Notation
and Lyrics
This chapter describes three SONAR™ views that are used to edit the music
notation and lyrics of your project.
•
SONAR’s Staff view lets you work with your composition in a standard
musical staff, guitar tablature and a virtual guitar fretboard. You can add,
move, and delete notes with your mouse or with your computer keyboard. You
can add chord names, guitar chord grids, expression marks, hairpin symbols,
pedal marks, and lyrics. And you can print professional-quality notation of a
complete arrangement or individual parts, with up to 24 staves per page.
•
The Meter/Key view lets you view, insert, and edit meter and key changes at
any measure boundary in the project.
•
The Lyrics view lets you edit a track’s lyrics, and can be used to cue you with
the lyrics during playback or recording.
In This Chapter
The Staff View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 526
Basic Musical Editing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 531
Chords and Marks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 543
Tablature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 550
Printing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 559
The Meter/Key View. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 560
Working with Lyrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 565
The Staff View
The Staff view is composed of a Staff pane and a Fretboard.
When you first open the Staff view, you may see only the Staff and not the
Fretboard. Resize the Staff view by dragging its edges until you can see everything
easily. When you save your file, whatever size the Staff view is will be the way it
appears the next time you open the file.
The Staff pane displays MIDI note events as musical notation. For some
musicians, this may be the most familiar and comfortable view in which to work.
The Staff pane provides many features that make it easy for you to compose, edit,
and print music.
For guitar players who are new to musical notation, the Fretboard represents the
notes in the Staff pane as they would appear on a six-string guitar neck in
standard tuning. The number of strings and the tuning are configurable. All notes
that appear in the Staff pane at the Now time are shown in the Fretboard. If you
enter notes in the Staff at the Now time, they appear on the Fretboard. Likewise,
you can enter notes into the Staff at the Now time by clicking the guitar strings on
the fretboard. Notes and chords shown in the Fretboard can be easily edited by
dragging them up and down the guitar strings.
Editing tools
Zoom
Snap Grid
Time and pitch locator
Fretboard
display button
Notehead tools
Dynamics and markings
Fretboard pane
526
Opening the Staff View
There are three ways to open the Staff view:
•
In the Track view, select the MIDI tracks you want to see, then click the Staff
View button
.
•
In the Track view, select the MIDI tracks you want to see, then choose ViewStaff.
•
Right-click on a track in the Clips pane and choose Views-Staff from the
menu.
You can always change the tracks that are displayed: click the Pick Tracks button
and select the tracks you want. You can display one or more tracks.
The Staff view lets you edit, delete, copy, and move notes during playback or
recording, in real time. This means you can loop over a portion of your project and
hear any change you make on the next loop. You can freeze the Staff view from
automatic scrolling during playback by pressing the Scroll Lock key.
Like many other views, the Staff view includes zoom tools that let you change the
vertical and horizontal scale of the view. The Staff view also has a Snap to Grid
button. For more information on this feature, see “Defining and Using the
Snap Grid” on page 222.
Staff Pane Layout
The Staff pane can display up to 24 staves of standard and percussion notation.
When you open the Staff pane, SONAR automatically picks a clef for each track—
bass or treble—by looking at the range of pitches in the track. If a track has notes
that fall into both clefs, or no notes at all, SONAR automatically splits the track
into two staves, treble and bass. You can change the assignment of clefs with the
Staff View Layout dialog box.
When you split a track into treble and bass staves, you must select a split point.
Notes at or above the split are placed into a treble staff, notes below the split are
placed into a bass staff.
A wide variety of editing options for notes, layout, and MIDI effects are available
from the Staff Pane Right-Click menu.
Percussion settings are discussed in the section “Setting Up a Percussion Track”
on page 556
527
The Staff Pane Right-Click Menu
The Staff pane Right-Click menu offers the following editing options:
528
Menu command
Result
MIDI Effects
Opens the MIDI Effects submenu. See “MIDI Effects
(MIDI Plug-ins)” on page 325 for more information.
Layout
Opens the Staff View Layout dialog box.
Regenerate Tablature
Opens the Regenerate Tablature dialog box.
“Regenerate TAB” on page 553 for more information.
Export to ASCII TAB
Saves the track in TAB format with the extension
.TXT.
Quantize
Opens the Quantize dialog box. See “Quantizing” on
page 327 for more information.
Groove Quantize
Opens the Groove Quantize dialog box. See
“Quantizing” on page 327 for more information.
Transpose
Opens the Transpose dialog box. See “Transposing”
on page 284 for more information.
Slide
Opens the Slide dialog box.
Interpolate
Opens the Event Filter Search dialog box. See
“Process-Interpolate” on page 309 for more
information.
Length
Opens the Length dialog box. See “Stretching and
Shrinking Events” on page 288 for more information.
Scale Velocity
Opens the Scale Velocity dialog box. See “Adding
Crescendos and Decrescendos” on page 290 for
more information.
Retrograde
Reverses the order of selected events and clips.
Deglitch
Opens the Deglitch dialog box. See “Deglitch Dialog”
on page 537 for more information.
Fit to Time
Opens the Fit to time dialog box. See “Stretching and
Shrinking Events” on page 288 for more information.
Fit Improvisation
See “Fit Improvisation” on page 304.
To Change the Staff Pane Layout
1.
Click the Staff View Layout button
box.
to open the Staff View Layout dialog
2.
Select a track from the list (if the track you want to edit is not in the list, click
the Pick Tracks button in the Staff view toolbar and select it). The Clef option
shows the track’s clef.
3.
Select a new clef from the list.
4.
If you select Treble/Bass, select a Split point.
5.
If you select one of the Percussion options, click Percussion Settings to set up
the appearance of percussion notes.
6.
Repeat steps 2-5 for other tracks.
7.
Click Close when you are done.
SONAR displays tracks using the new staff settings.
Tip:
If a piano part’s left-hand and right-hand parts overlap, a split point will not
correctly separate the two parts into treble and bass staves. You may prefer
to put the two parts into two separate tracks.
The Fretboard
The Fretboard shows you the notes located at the Now time in the Staff pane, laid
out on a virtual guitar fretboard. For example, if the Staff pane shows you this:
The Fretboard pane shows you this:
The Fretboard stays in sync with the Now Time during playback and recording,
and stays in sync with the scrub time during scrubbing. The color of each note on
529
the Fretboard is the same as the color of the corresponding clip in the Track view.
(See “Arranging Clips” on page 209 for information about setting clip properties.)
To turn the display of the Fretboard on or off, click
.
Fretboard Popup Menu
When you right-click the Fretboard in the Staff view, the Fretboard popup menu
appears, giving you choices for note editing, Staff view layout, and Fretboard
appearance.
530
Menu command
Result
Select
Changes your cursor to the Select tool.
Draw
Changes your cursor to the Draw tool.
Erase
Changes your cursor to the Erase tool.
Scrub
Changes your cursor to the Scrub tool.
Layout
Opens the Staff View Layout dialog box.
Select Fretboard Track
Controls which of the displayed tracks receive the notes
you enter on the Fretboard.
Export to ASCII TAB
Saves the track in ASCII TAB format with the extension
.TXT.
Mirror Fretboard
Inverts Fretboard so highest-sounding string appears at
the bottom.
Rosewood Hi
Fretboard appears in rosewood with high screen
resolution.
Rosewood Lo
Fretboard appears in rosewood with low screen
resolution.
Ebony Hi
Fretboard appears in ebony with high screen resolution.
Ebony Lo
Fretboard appears in ebony with low screen resolution.
Maple Hi
Fretboard appears in maple with high screen resolution.
Maple Lo
Fretboard appears in maple with low screen resolution.
Basic Musical Editing
The Staff view's tools let you edit a project by manipulating the elements of
standard music notation. Using these tools, you can create and edit notes, pedal
marks, expression marks, hairpins, and lyrics.
Inserting Notes on the Staff
You can add notes to your composition with simple point-and-click techniques. To
help with your composing, SONAR gives you audio feedback as you place each
note.
You can insert notes anywhere in the Staff pane, but inserting them at the Now
time gives you control over the exact time you want to insert to. The Shift-Right/
Left Arrow command moves the Now Time forward or backward by the amount of
the note duration you choose. Six buttons let you select a note duration ranging
from a whole note to a 32nd note. Buttons to the right of the notehead buttons let
you select dotted note or triplet modifiers. The Ctrl+Right Arrow/Ctrl+Left Arrow
commands pages you through the track, sounding each note as the cursor passes
over it. You can also page through the track by clicking the Play-Next button
or
the Play-Previous button
that are in the Staff view toolbar.
Note: You cannot insert notes whose durations are less than the value in the
Display Resolution field, which is located in the top level of the Staff view toolbar.
You may want to pick a different snap-to grid value for a particular note. For
example, if you want to insert a half note in the last quarter note position in a
measure (in order to get two tied quarter notes), you must set the snap resolution
to a quarter note. SONAR will automatically convert the half note to two tied
quarter notes. The same method can be used to insert a syncopated note, such as a
quarter note at an eighth note position.
You may also wish to disable the Fill Durations
and Trim Durations
options before you enter notes on the staff. This will allow you to see the true
durations of all the notes you enter. These options are discussed in “Changing the
Way Notes Are Displayed” on page 539.
531
To Insert a Note on the Staff
1.
Disable the Fill Durations and Trim Durations buttons in the Staff view
toolbar, if desired (this is usually the best way when you’re entering notes).
2.
Click the Display Resolution button in the Staff view toolbar and choose a
resolution that’s as small or slightly smaller than the smallest note you plan
to enter.
3.
Click the Draw tool
4.
In the second row of the Staff view toolbar, select a note duration, and a
modifier (dot or triplet) if desired. You cannot insert a note that’s shorter in
length than the note in the Display Resolution field.
5.
Move the Now time to the location where you want the new note by pressing
Shift-Right arrow or Shift-Left arrow. Notice the vertical line that marks the
Now time in the Staff pane. The line moves by the duration of the note you
selected to enter.
6.
Click the cursor on the vertical line at the pitch that you want.
7.
To add a sharp or flat, right-click the note to open the Note Properties dialog
box—in the Pitch field, use the + or - buttons to raise or lower the pitch, and
click OK. You can type enharmonic spellings into the Pitch field, such as C#5,
E”4. and Fx6. The double quotation mark produces a double flat, and the x
produces a double sharp.
.
SONAR places the new note in the staff. If desired, drag the note horizontally or
vertically to a new time or pitch.
Inserting Notes with the Fretboard
You can also enter notes onto the staff from the fretboard using the mouse. You
always enter notes into the staff at the Now time.
To Insert Notes on the Fretboard with the Mouse
532
1.
Click in the Time Ruler to set the Now time.
2.
Click
3.
Select a note duration, and a modifier (dot or triplet) if desired.
4.
Click on the guitar strings in the fretboard to enter notes. You can enter up to
six simultaneous notes (one per string).
5.
Advance the Now Time by the current note duration using the right arrow key
while holding down the shift key. This allows you to quickly enter a series of
notes.
to select the Draw tool.
Selecting Notes
Use the Selection tool
to make selections. Selection methods in the Staff view
are similar to those in other views. Here is a summary:
To do this...
Do this...
Select a note or other symbol
Click it
Select several symbols at once
Click and drag a rectangle around them
Add symbols to the selection
Press Shift and either click on the symbols or drag
a rectangle around the events
Add or remove symbols from
the selection
Press Ctrl and either click on the symbols or drag
a rectangle around the events
Select symbols in a time range
Click and drag in the Time Ruler
Select symbols between two
markers
Click between the markers
Remove all selections
Click in an empty area
Note:
Tied notes must be selected together, since the series is really just a
single MIDI note. To select tied notes, you must click or drag a
rectangle around the first note of the series.
Moving, Copying, and Deleting Notes on the Staff
Selections can be cut, copied, pasted, and deleted with Edit menu commands. The
techniques are similar to those used in other views. Selections can also be dragged
and dropped to copy or move them. To keep track of your current position while
dragging, you can keep an eye on the time and pitch locator in the upper-right
corner of the Staff view.
Notes can be dragged horizontally, to a new time, or vertically, to a new pitch or
staff. When you drag a note up or down to a new pitch, the note normally snaps to
the notes in the current key signature (diatonic scale). This makes it easy to drag
notes quickly among pitches that are in the current key.
If you need to transpose more than a few notes, use the Process-Transpose
command. For more information, see “Transposing” on page 284.
533
To Move a Single Note in the Staff View
1.
Click the Select tool
or the Draw tool
2.
Click the note to be moved.
3.
Drag the note to a new time, pitch, or staff.
.
SONAR moves the note to the new location.
To Move Several Notes in the Staff View
1.
Click the Select tool
.
2.
Select the notes to be moved.
3.
Click one of the selected notes.
4.
Drag the notes to a new time, pitch, or staff.
SONAR moves the notes to the new location.
To Copy One or More Notes in the Staff View
1.
Click the Select tool
.
2.
Select the notes to be copied.
3.
Press and hold the Ctrl key.
4.
Drag the notes to a new time, pitch, or staff.
SONAR inserts copies of the notes at the new location.
To Erase Notes with the Eraser
1.
Click the Erase tool
.
2.
Click any notehead to erase the note.
3.
To erase several notes, click and drag the eraser.
Any notes whose notehead is touched by the eraser will be deleted.
Moving Notes from within the Fretboard
You can drag notes displayed in the fretboard horizontally along each string to
change their pitch. They always change in the chromatic scale. You can not drag
notes from one string to another.
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To Change the Pitch of a Single Note in the Fretboard
1.
Click in the Time Ruler to set the Now time to the time of the note you want to
change.
2.
Click the Select tool
3.
Drag the note along the string to a new fret.
or the Draw tool
.
SONAR moves the note to the new pitch.
To Change the Pitch of a Chord in the Fretboard
1.
Click in the Time Ruler to set the Now time to the time of the chord you want
to change.
2.
Click the Select tool
3.
While pressing Shift, click each of the notes you would like to change.
4.
While continuing to press Shift, drag the notes along the strings.
.
SONAR moves the notes you selected to the new pitches.
Tip:
You can also move the Now time pointer to the exact note by using the
Step Play buttons.
Auditioning
Sometimes it is useful to listen to your music slowly, note-by-note, rather than at
full speed. For example, you may need to locate a bad note, or you may be trying to
learn the correct fingering for a difficult passage.
The Staff view has two features that let you audition your composition at reduced
speed: Scrub and Step Play. The Scrub tool lets you drag a vertical bar over the
staff, playing the notes as it goes. You can scrub backward or forward at any speed.
Step Play lets you step through the project note by note, in either direction.
To Audition with the Scrub Tool
1.
Click the Scrub tool
.
2.
Drag the mouse horizontally through the Staff pane to play the notes.
SONAR plays any notes the scrub line passes over.
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To Play Notes with Step Play
1.
Set the Now time by clicking in the Time Ruler.
2.
Step through the music as follows:
To do this…
Do this…
Step forward
Click
, or press Ctrl+right arrow
Step backward
Click
, or press Ctrl+left arrow
Changing Note Properties
The Staff view lets you edit all the MIDI parameters for a note, including those not
normally portrayed by standard musical notation. Note properties are as follows:
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Property...
Meaning...
Time
The starting time of the note
Pitch
The note’s pitch
Velocity
The note’s velocity (0 to 127)
Duration
The note’s duration, in ticks or in beats and ticks
Channel
The MIDI channel on which the note is played
Fret
The fret at which the note is played on the neck
String
The string on which the note is played
To Edit a Note’s Properties
1.
Right-click the note to open the Note Properties dialog box.
2.
Edit the note’s properties, as described in the table.
3.
Click OK.
SONAR changes the note’s parameters and redraws the note if necessary.
Deglitch Dialog
When recording MIDI guitar, even the best players occasionally play unintended
notes. The Deglitch feature allows you to filter out the softest, shortest, and
highest notes in the file.
There are three filters in the Deglitch dialog:
Pitch
With the Pitch filter you can set the maximum pitch allowed in the track. If a
MIDI event has a higher pitch than the maximum you set, it is removed.
Velocity
With the Velocity filter you can set a minimum velocity allowed in the track. If a
MIDI event has a lower velocity than the one you set, it is removed.
Duration
With the Duration filter you can set a minimum note duration for the track in
either ticks or milliseconds. If a MIDI event has a shorter duration than the one
you set, it is removed.
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To Use the Deglitch Filter
1.
Select a track or a section of track.
2.
Select Process-Deglitch from the menu.
The Deglitch dialog box appears.
3.
Check each of the filters you want to use.
4.
Enter the parameters (maximum or minimum values) you want for each of the
filters you are using.
5.
Click OK.
If you are not happy with the result, select Edit/Undo from the menu to restore the
original MIDI track.
Working with Triplets
The Staff view places certain limitations on the use of triplets. The limitations are:
•
Triplets must occur in full sets of three.
•
All three steps in a triplet must be notes (no rests) of the same basic duration.
•
There can be no ties in or out of, or within the triplet.
In most cases, the Staff view can recognize triplets in MIDI data. However, the
slight timing inaccuracies inherent in live performances can complicate the
detection of triplets. If working from performance data, you may find it useful to
quantize the notes closer to exact triplet positions using the Process-Quantize
command. See “Quantizing” on page 327 for details.
To Enter a Triplet
1.
Turn on the Snap to Time option.
2.
Click the Draw tool
3.
Click the appropriate notehead button.
4.
Select the Triplet option
5.
Enter the first note at the desired location in the staff.
.
.
SONAR inserts all three triplet notes at the same pitch. You can then drag the
second and third notes to their correct pitch locations.
Beaming of Rests
The Staff view supports beaming of rests, a practice that is popular with
rhythmically complex music. Beam lengths are extended to include rests that are
integral parts of the beamed group of notes. Short stems, called stemlets, extend
from the beam toward the rest. This makes the rhythms easier to read, because
the beat boundaries are made clear.
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To Enable Beaming of Rests
1.
Click Layout button
to open the Staff View Layout dialog box.
2.
Select the Beam Rests option.
3.
Click OK.
Thereafter, the Staff view beams rests as though they were notes.
Changing the Way Notes Are Displayed
Unlike musical notation programs, SONAR uses the MIDI events themselves as
the permanent representation of the music; thus, the Staff view is only an
interpretation of a MIDI performance.
MIDI notes do not always correspond exactly to notes on a staff. Whereas a staff
defines precise grid-like starting times and durations for notes, a MIDI note can
start at any arbitrary time during the project, and last for any length of time. If
you record a performance from a MIDI keyboard, for example, you’ll find that some
notes may start slightly before the beat, and some a little after, and that the notes
end a little late or a little early. Although these slight imperfections are what gives
a performance its “human” quality, you don’t necessarily want to see all these
imperfections notated with excruciating precision.
The Staff view has two options you can select to affect the way MIDI notes are
displayed on the staff:
Option...
Purpose...
Fill Durations
Visually rounds up note durations to the next beat or the
next note, whichever comes first.
Trim Durations
Visually rounds down note durations if they extend a little
way past the start of the next note.
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Here’s what the Staff view looks like with and without these options:
Fill and Trim off
Fill and Trim on
On the other hand, if you are entering notes into the Staff view with the mouse,
Fill and Trim Durations may produce confusing results. For example, with Fill
Durations, an inserted eighth note in 4/4 time would look like a quarter note until
you insert another eighth note immediately following it. It is recommended that
you turn off the Fill Durations and Trim Durations options when entering notes;
these options are more appropriate for looking at notes you recorded via a
performance.
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Using Enharmonic Spellings
Any musical note can be referred to by several different names. For example, C#3
and Db3 identify the same pitch, as do G#4 and Ab4. The most appropriate name
depends upon the current key signature, but can also depend on musical context.
SONAR uses a set of rules to automatically add accidentals (sharps, flats and
naturals) to notes based on the current key signature. These rules cover the most
common musical situations and usually lead to pleasing results. However, there is
no guaranteed right way to resolve accidentals. Doing so ultimately requires
knowledge regarding what key or scale is being evoked—knowledge that only the
composer possesses. For example, if a modulation is being prepared, then the new
key signature has not yet been completely established, and the harmony has
already begun to shift. In fact, there may not even be a scale in a diatonic sense:
chromatic scales, for instance, are supposed to sharp on the way up and flat on the
way down. Because no set of rules will suffice for all situations, the composer needs
the ability to override any default choice.
Notes in SONAR normally do not have a forced enharmonic spelling. This means
that they will automatically change to match the default for a new key signature.
If you specify spelling that matches the default choice, SONAR will drop any forced
spelling and switch back to default behavior. Otherwise, the forced spelling is
remembered for that note, and will not change to follow the key signature. If you
change the pitch of a note by some other means (for instance, by dragging it up or
down), it will lose any forced spelling, because it very likely no longer applies to the
new pitch. Enharmonic spelling overrides for each note are saved in the project
file.
When you type a note’s enharmonic spelling, use the following table as a guide:
Accidental...
Character...
Example...
Flat
b
Cb5
Sharp
#
C#5
Displays as...
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Double flat
“
C”5
Double sharp
x
Cx5
To Change a Note’s Enharmonic Spelling
1.
Right-click the note to open the Note Properties dialog box.
2.
In the Pitch textbox, type a new spelling for the note.
3.
Click OK.
SONAR displays the note with the new enharmonic spelling.
You can change enharmonic spellings in other views, such as the Event List view,
by similarly typing a new spelling wherever the note pitch is displayed as a text
string.
You can also use the Process-Interpolate command to change enharmonic
spellings—for example, to change multiple occurrences of Eb5 to D#5, or even all
Ebs to D#s. See “Process-Interpolate” on page 309 for more information.
MIDI Channels and the Fretboard
You can display notes on the fretboard based on the note event’s MIDI channel. (Do
not confuse this with the Track MIDI channel.) A single track can hold events on
many different MIDI channels. See “Assigning a MIDI Channel (Chn)” on page 141
for more information. Displaying notes using this method is 100% accurate
because each string is represented by an individual MIDI channel. For example,
String 1 = MIDI channel 11, String 2 = MIDI channel 12, etc.
To Display Notes on the Fretboard Using their MIDI Channels
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1.
Set your MIDI Guitar to transmit on 6 consecutive channels. This is often
referred to as “MONO” mode. Refer to your MIDI Guitar device
documentation for more information.
2.
Select and Arm a track.
3.
If you want the data from all 6 strings to be recorded to a single track, set the
Input to OMNI. If you want each string on a separate track, you need to set up
each individual track to record on the corresponding MIDI channel. The GR30 Guitar Synthesizer template is designed to do this, so you may want to
open that from the Quick Start Menu or from the File menu. To use the File
menu method, choose File-Open and choose Cakewalk Template from the
Files of type field. Then choose the Roland GR-30 template.
4.
Open the Staff view.
5.
Click the Staff View Layout button
6.
Click Define.
7.
In the Method field, click MIDI Channel.
8.
In the 1st Channel field, set SONAR to transmit on the same series of MIDI
channels that you chose in step 1. Select 1 for 1-6, 2 for 2-7, etc.
.
MIDI guitar devices can transmit in MONO using a different series of MIDI
channels, but SONAR needs to be listening to the same channels in order to
properly display the MIDI guitar input.
9.
Click Close.
10. Click OK.
SONAR displays notes on the Fretboard based on their MIDI channels.
If you are planning to record or input notes from a MIDI guitar synth or MIDI
converter, you need to set this up on the instrument. In the case of the Roland GR30, for example, you set it to send on MIDI Channel 11, MONO. This sends out
each corresponding string on channels 11-16.
Chords and Marks
The Staff view lets you add and edit chord symbols, dynamic markings, hairpin
symbols, and pedal events. Like notes, these symbols are placed in the score with
the Draw tool. They can be selected, cut, copied, pasted, deleted, and dragged and
dropped. With the exception of pedal marks, though, these symbols have no
audible effect; they serve only to enhance and clarify the printed score.
Adding Chord Symbols
The Staff view lets you enter chord symbols above the staff. You can enter both
ordinary chord names and guitar chord symbols, which display both the chord
name and fingering. SONAR has a large number of predefined chords from which
you can choose. You can also define and save your own chords.
If a track is split into treble/bass staves, chords are allowed only above the upper
(treble) staff.
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SONAR stores its library of chords in the file chords.liw. The chords in the library
are sorted into groups. You can add and remove chords from the library, create new
groups (i.e., for alternative guitar tunings), and add chords from a different library
file.
You edit chords in the Chord Properties dialog box. Chord properties are shown in
the following table:
Property...
Meaning...
Time
The time of the chord, in measure, beat, and tick (MBT)
format
Name
The name of the chord
Group
The chord group
The Chord Properties dialog box also lets you draw guitar chord grids and manage
the chord library.
You can suppress the display of all guitar chord diagrams by deselecting the Show
Chord Grids option in the Staff view's Layout dialog box. With this option disabled,
only chord text appears.
To Add a Chord Symbol
1.
Click the Draw tool
.
2.
Select the Chord tool
3.
Position the pointer above the staff (the pointer changes to a pencil when you
are in a legal position).
4.
Click to place a chord symbol.
.
SONAR inserts a copy of the most recently added chord (by default, C). You can
then edit the symbol to display the chord you want.
To Move a Chord Symbol
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1.
Click the Draw tool
.
2.
Drag the chord symbol to a new location.
To Edit a Chord Symbol
1.
Right-click the symbol to open the Chord Properties dialog box.
2.
Edit information about the chord according to the table:
To do this…
Do this…
Move a chord in time
Change the Time property.
Give the chord a new name
Select a chord from the dropdown list,
or type a new name. Use # for sharp
and b for flat.
Add descriptive text to the
chord name
Type the text in square brackets after
the chord name. The text does not
appear in the Staff view.
See a different set of chords
Select a group from the list. This option
only applies if you have created a
custom chord library.
3.
If desired, select a group from the list and/or create a guitar chord grid.
4.
Click OK.
The Staff view displays the chord with the new properties, moving it to a new time
if necessary.
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To Add a Guitar Chord Grid
1.
Right-click the chord symbol to open the Chord Properties dialog box.
2.
Follow the instructions in the table:
3.
To do this…
Do this…
Display a blank chord grid
Click New Grid
Place a dot on the grid
Select the finger number (1-4, or T for
Thumb), then click the grid at the
appropriate string and fret location
Assign an open string
Select O, then click on the string
Assign a muted string
Select X, then click on the string
Change the finger assigned to
a dot
Click the dot repeatedly to cycle
through the fingers
Insert a fret designation
Click to the right of the grid and enter
the number of the index finger fret in the
Chord Fret Number dialog box
Play the chord (Audition)
Click Play
Remove the chord grid
Click Remove Grid
Click OK.
The Staff view displays the chord with the new guitar chord grid.
To Manage the Chord Library
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1.
Right-click the chord symbol to open the Chord Properties dialog box.
2.
Follow the instructions in the table:
To do this…
Do this…
Add a chord to the library
Select a group, enter a name in the Name
box, enter a guitar grid (if desired), and click
Save.
Delete a chord from the current group
Select the chord from the list and click
Delete.
Add a new group
Type a name for the group in the Group
textbox and click Save.
Delete a group
Select a group from the list and click Delete.
Merge chords from an external chord
library
Click the Import button and select a file.
Chord libraries have the extension .liw.
3.
Click OK.
SONAR saves the chord library with the changes you made.
Adding Expression Marks
Expression marks tell a performer how to interpret the notes and durations on the
page. They provide a necessary supplement to simple notation, in which notes
have only pitch and duration, but no hint of how loudly, softly, or smoothly, they
are to be played. Dynamic marks—from ppp (pianississimo) for “very, very softly”
through fff (fortississimo) for “very, very forcefully”—allow notation to convey
volume instructions. Expression marks are also needed to specify other aspects of
performance, such as whether a passage is to be played legato or staccato. Finally,
expression marks can be used to convey to the performer the composer's
suggestions or requirements as to how a passage should be interpreted. In such
cases the language used can leave much to the imagination, as in with majesty or
abrasively.
Expression marks do not change the underlying MIDI data. They only provide
information to the reader on how a piece should be performed.
If the track is split into treble/bass staves, expression marks are allowed only
below the treble staff.
When entering an expression mark, you can leave a dangling hyphen at the end of
an expression mark to insert automatic spaced hyphens until the next expression
mark. For example:
cresc.
-
-
-
ff
It is often desirable to terminate such a series of hyphens with a blank expression
mark. For example:
accel.
-
-
-
Expression text is italicized in the Staff view. Standard dynamic markings also
appear bold.
To Add an Expression Mark
1.
Click the Draw tool
.
2.
Select the Expression tool
3.
Position the pointer below the lowest note in the staff. (The pointer changes to
a pencil when you are in a legal position.)
4.
Click to open an insertion box.
5.
Type the expression mark text. Press Esc to abort the operation.
6.
Press Enter, or press Tab or Shift-Tab to move to the next or previous mark,
respectively.
.
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SONAR inserts the new expression mark below the staff.
To Edit an Expression Mark
1.
Right-click the expression mark to open the Expression Text Properties dialog
box.
2.
Edit the time and text of the expression mark as desired.
3.
Click OK.
The Staff view displays the expression mark with the new text, including moving
it to a new time if necessary. You can also use the Draw tool and click on an
expression mark directly to change its text.
Adding Hairpin Symbols
Some musical phrases vary dynamically, increasing or decreasing in loudness for
dramatic effect. SONAR lets you insert traditional crescendo and diminuendo
hairpin symbols that convey this information to a performer, as shown here:
If the track is split into treble/bass staves, hairpin symbols are allowed only below
the treble staff.
548
To Add a Hairpin Symbol
1.
Click the Draw tool
.
2.
Select the Hairpin tool
3.
Position the pointer below the staff (the pointer changes to a pencil when you
are in a legal position).
4.
Click to place a hairpin symbol.
.
SONAR inserts a copy of the most recently added hairpin symbol, which you can
edit as desired.
To Edit a Hairpin Symbol
1.
Right-click on the hairpin symbol you want to edit.
The Hairpin Properties dialog appears.
2.
Change any of the following parameters:
•
Time—The beginning time of the hairpin symbol
•
Crescendo or Diminuendo
•
Duration—Enter the number of beats followed by a colon (for example 4:
for one measure in 4/4 time) or a PPQ number value.
Adding Pedal Marks
Pedal marks traditionally indicate where the sustain pedal of a piano is to be
pressed and for how long. With SONAR, you can achieve the same effect by
inserting a pair of symbols indicating when the sustain pedal controller is to be
turned on (down) and when it is to be turned off (up). Unlike chord symbols,
expression marks, and hairpin symbols, each pedal symbol corresponds to a MIDI
event. The other symbols are purely ornamental, intended to provide a composer
with a way to communicate suggestions or requirements to performers.
Pedal event parameters are as follows:
Parameters...
Meaning...
Time
The time of the event, in measures, beats, and ticks (MBT).
Channel
The MIDI channel on which the event will be sent.
Value
The event value. A value of 127 depresses the pedal, a value
of 0 raises it. (Some advanced synthesizers support values
between 0 and 127 for “partial pedaling.”)
If the track is split into treble/bass staves, pedal marks are allowed only below the
bass staff.
549
You can suppress the display of all pedal marks by deselecting the Show Pedal
Events option in the Staff view's Layout dialog box.
To Add a Pedal Mark
1.
Click the Draw tool
.
2.
Select the Pedal tool
3.
Position the pointer below the staff (the pointer changes to a pencil when you
are in a legal position).
4.
Click to place a pedal mark.
.
SONAR inserts a pair of pedal symbols (a pedal down and a pedal up). You can
click and drag either symbol to a new time.
To Edit a Pedal Event
1.
Right-click the pedal symbol (pedal down or pedal up) to open the Pedal Event
Parameters dialog box.
2.
Edit the pedal event parameters, as described in the table above.
3.
Click OK.
SONAR changes the pedal event parameters, including moving the symbol to a
new time if necessary.
Tablature
The Staff view can display guitar or bass MIDI tracks as tablature. You can
generate and edit tablature or enter notes on either the fretboard or on the
tablature staff to create a new track. You can export tablature to an ASCII file for
printing or distribution on the Web.
Tablature Settings
Both the Staff View Layout dialog box and the Tablature Settings dialog box create
tablature settings for a whole track at a time. To modify tablature for selected
parts of a track, select part of a track and use the Regenerate command.
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In the Staff View Layout dialog box you can choose a preset style of tablature by
choosing from the Preset popup menu, or you can define your own style by clicking
the Define button in the Staff View Layout dialog box to open the Tablature
Settings dialog box.
To Define a Tablature Style
1.
In the Staff View Layout dialog box, click the name of the track you want to
define tablature for.
2.
Click the Define button (lower right corner).
The Tablature Settings dialog box appears.
3.
Click the Tablature tab and choose a tablature method from the Method
dropdown list. There are three methods to determine how the TAB is
displayed:
•
Floating - which allows the notes to spread over the entire fretboard
•
Fixed - This specifies where on the neck these notes should be played.
When Fixed is selected the Finger span and Lowest fret fields are used
together to define the "box" where the notes are displayed. The Finger
span parameter determines how many consecutive frets will be used to
display the note. For example, if Finger span is set to 4, then SONAR will
attempt to place all the notes within those 4 frets. The Lowest Fret then
determines where on the fretboard the notes will be displayed within the
Finger span. The red box in the fretboard display changes to reflect the
settings in these two parameters.
•
MIDI Channel - This uses the event's MIDI channel to determine which
string the note should be displayed on. When MIDI Channel is selected,
the user chooses which series of MIDI Channels should be considered.
This is useful for MIDI Guitarists that record parts in MONO mode,
where each string transmits on a different MIDI channel. (Values: 1 - 11).
Selecting "1" in the 1st Channel field will cause it to use MIDI channels 1
- 6, selecting 2, 2 - 7, and so on.)
Note: Select the Skip Channel 10 option if you are using a Yamaha G50 or
other device which reserves channel 10.
4.
Type a number into the Number of Frets field. This determines how many
frets the guitar has that the tab is based on.
5.
In the String Tuning fields, choose the instrument from the dropdown list and
number of strings from the Number of Strings field.
The open string pitches for the instrument you choose automatically appear in
the string number fields below the dropdown list.
6.
Customize any of the open string pitches by using the "+" or "-" buttons on the
string number fields.
551
7.
Save your settings by typing a name into the Preset field at the top of the
dialog box and clicking the disk icon next to it. You can remove presets from
the list by clicking the X button next to the disk icon.
The next time you want to use these settings for a track, choose your Preset in the
Staff View Layout dialog box from the Presets dropdown list.
Changing Fretboard Texture and Orientation
You can change fretboard texture and orientation (high string on top or bottom of
neck) in the Staff View Layout dialog box, or by right-clicking the Fretboard.
To Change the Fretboard Texture and Orientation
1.
Open the Staff View Layout dialog box.
2.
Click the Define button (lower right corner).
The Tablature Settings dialog box appears.
3.
Click the Fretboard tab.
4.
In the Texture field, choose a texture from the dropdown list.
5.
If you want to reverse the standard string orientation, in the Orientation field
click Low String on Top (Mirror).
6.
Click OK.
The Fretboard changes to reflect your choices.
Quick TAB
SONAR quickly creates a tablature based on standard fingering patterns. After
you try the quick version, you can customize the tablature to your liking.
To Create a Quick TAB
1.
Open a file that contains a MIDI guitar track.
2.
In the Track view, select the track number of the track you want to display
tablature for.
3.
Select View-Staff.
The Staff view appears, displaying a fretboard and the notation of your MIDI
track. To see everything, you may need to resize the Staff view by dragging the
top border upward a few inches.
4.
From the Staff view toolbar, click the dropdown arrow on the Staff View
Layout button to display the tablature dropdown list.
5.
Choose Quick TAB from the dropdown list.
A tablature grid appears, displaying the fret numbers for all the notes in the
track.
6.
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From the File menu, choose Save. Saving your file saves TAB settings for each
track you generated TABs for.
Press the Spacebar to play your file. Notice that the Fretboard displays the name
of each note above the string and fret you would play it on as the note plays.
Regenerate TAB
The Regenerate TAB command works on selected regions in a track to modify the
fingering according to the method you choose. The TAB display by default uses the
'floating' algorithm which allows the notes to spread over the entire fretboard. By
choosing the "fixed" algorithm instead, you can designate a specific finger span
and lowest fret which causes the TAB of a selected region to be displayed within
this range. This usually creates a more compact fingering system.
The Regenerate TAB command gives you a third choice for displaying tablature
MIDI channel. This uses the event's MIDI channel to determine which string the
note should be displayed on. When MIDI Channel is selected, the user chooses
which series of MIDI Channels should be considered. This is useful for MIDI
Guitarists that record parts in MONO mode, where each string transmits on a
different MIDI channel.
To Regenerate TAB
1.
In the Staff view, use the Select tool to drag a rectangle around the notes or
TAB numbers you want to change.
2.
In the Staff view toolbar, click the dropdown arrow on the Staff View Layout
button to display the tablature dropdown list.
3.
Choose Regenerate TAB to open the Regenerate Tablature dialog box.
4.
Select Fixed from the Method field and fill in values for Finger Span (usually
4), Lowest Fret, and Number of Frets (usually 21).
5.
Click OK.
SONAR regenerates a TAB based on your specifications. If notes are out of the
range you specified, SONAR displays them as close to that range as possible.
Entering Notes from the TAB Staff
You can enter notes or chords directly from the TAB staff.
To Enter Notes from the TAB Staff
1.
Open the Staff View, and choose Quick TAB from the tablature dropdown
menu.
2.
Press Ctrl+Home to move the Now Time to the start of the project. You may
want to display the Now Time by choosing View-Big Time.
3.
Choose the desired note duration (keyboard shortcut: press 1 for whole note, 2
for half, 3 for a 32nd note, 4 for quarter, 6 for a 16th note, 8 for an 8th note).
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4.
Click the Draw tool.
5.
Enter a note by clicking a line in the TAB staff.
6.
Without letting go of the mouse, click and drag the cursor up to set the fret
number.
Tip:
You can move ahead in the track by pressing Shift-Right Arrow, and move
back in the track using the Shift-Left Arrow. The Now Time moves by the
amount of the note duration you choose in the Staff toolbar.
Single Note Editing from the TAB Staff
SONAR enables you to edit single notes from the TAB staff in several ways:
•
With the Draw tool selected, drag fret numbers up or down. When you reach
the desired fret number, release the mouse.
•
With the Draw tool selected, move a note to a different string by holding down
the Alt key while you drag the fret number to a different line. If the note you
are moving won't play on the string you are dragging it to, you won't be able to
move it.
•
Right-click the fret you want to edit. A list of fret numbers appears. Select the
one you want, and the fret you right-clicked changes to the fret number you
selected.
Editing Chords or Groups of Notes from the TAB
Staff
To edit chords or groups of notes in the TAB staff, first select which notes you want
to edit, and then drag them to new pitches or strings.
To Edit Chords or Groups of Notes from the TAB Staff
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1.
Click the Select tool in the Staff view toolbar.
2.
In the TAB staff, drag a rectangle around the chord or group of notes you want
to edit, and release the mouse.
3.
Drag the fret numbers you selected up or down by the amount you want.
4.
You can drag the notes to different strings by holding down the Alt button
while you drag. If the notes you are moving won't play on the strings you are
dragging it to, you won't be able to move it.
To Export to an ASCII TAB File
1.
Select the track you want to export.
2.
Open the Staff view.
3.
In the Staff view, click the Export to ASCII TAB button.
The Save As dialog appears.
4.
Enter a file name in the File name field.
5.
Click OK.
SONAR saves the track with the file extension .TXT.
Editing Notes and Chords from the Fretboard
You can transpose single notes or chords from the Fretboard.
To Transpose Single Notes
1.
Move the Now Time to the note you want to edit by pressing Shift-Right/Left
Arrow. You may need to change the note duration by clicking one of the note
icons in the Staff view toolbar.
2.
Use the Select tool to drag the note left or right on the fretboard.
To Transpose Chords
1.
Move the Now Time to display the chord you want to transpose.
2.
Shift-select all the notes in the chord.
3.
Shift-drag the chord to a new position and release the mouse.
Entering Notes from the Fretboard
If you prefer to work with the Fretboard instead of a musical staff, Cakewalk
makes it easy to enter notes from the Fretboard. You can enter single notes or
chords by clicking the string and fret of the note you want to enter at the Now
Time position.
1.
Display the track you want to add notes to in the Staff view.
2.
In the Staff view toolbar, click the Draw tool.
Now the cursor appears as a pencil when you move it over the Staff or
Fretboard.
3.
Move the Now Time to where you want to start entering notes by pressing
Shift-Right Arrow or Shift-Left Arrow. Each press of the arrow moves the Now
Time by the amount of the note duration, which you select by clicking the note
icons in the Staff view toolbar. You may want to display the Now Time by
choosing View-Big Time.
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4.
Enter a note by clicking the string and fret where you would play the note.
The note appears on the Fretboard, in the Staff, and in the TAB if you have
generated one (you can generate a Quick TAB by choosing Quick TAB from
the tablature dropdown menu that you open by clicking the dropdown arrow
on the Staff View Layout button).
5.
If you are entering a chord, continue clicking notes at the same Now Time. To
move ahead, press Shift-Right Arrow and click a new note duration, if desired.
You can delete a note right after you enter it by pressing Ctrl+Z, or at any time by
clicking the Eraser tool and clicking the note in the notation or TAB staffs.
Cakewalk gives you several options to play and hear the notes in your track:
•
Scrubbing enables you to click each note in the Fretboard and hear it play.
Select the Scrub tool and click the note.
•
Scrub strumming enables you to “strum” chords by dragging the Scrub tool
through a chord. With the Scrub tool selected, drag through a chord on the
Fretboard from below it or above it and back and forth.
•
Ctrl+Right Arrow/Ctrl+Left Arrow moves the cursor through the track,
playing each note as it reaches it.
Working with Percussion
The Staff view can display percussion tracks on a five-line percussion staff or on a
single percussion line. The staff usually displays notes for a drum set or multiple
percussion instruments; the line is used to display notes for a single instrument
(although it need not be so).
SONAR lets you control the appearance of percussion staffs in considerable detail.
You can display percussion notes using several different types of noteheads and
articulation symbols, and you can map any percussion sound to any position on the
percussion staff (in a percussion track, each MIDI note value designates a
different percussion instrument; mapping lets you display any instrument in any
position on the staff, regardless of the underlying MIDI note value). You can save
your settings as a preset, and use them again on other tracks and in other projects.
SONAR supplies a standard preset based on the General MIDI percussion
standard and popularly accepted percussion staff positions and noteheads.
Setting Up a Percussion Track
Before you use the percussion capabilities of the Staff view, your percussion track
should be set up correctly. This will allow you to hear the proper sounds when
placing notes and during playback, and will allow you to see the correct percussion
instrument names rather than generic note names in the Piano Roll view, Event
List view, and Percussion Notation dialog box.
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To Set Up a Percussion Track
1.
Right-click on the track in the Track pane and choose Track Properties to
open the Track Properties dialog box.
2.
Assign the output and channel for your percussion instrument. For example, if
the output is assigned to a sound card that supports General MIDI, use
channel 10.
3.
Click Instruments to open the Assign Instruments dialog box.
4.
Make sure that the output/channel combination used by your track is assigned
to a percussion instrument definition. For example, channel 10 of a General
MIDI output should be assigned to the General MIDI Drums instrument
definition.
5.
Click OK in both dialog boxes.
SONAR shows the new track output and channel in the Track view, and will use
the proper percussion instrument names in the Piano Roll view, Event List view,
and Percussion Notation dialog box.
For more information about instrument definitions, see Chapter 16, Using
Instrument Definitions.
Setting Up a Percussion Staff or Line
The first time you display a percussion track in the Staff view, SONAR picks a
default percussion clef for the track. Tracks with only one note value are assigned
the Percussion Line clef. Tracks with multiple note values are assigned the
Percussion Staff clef.
If you want to change a Percussion Staff to a Percussion Line or vice versa, or if
you want to change another type of staff to a percussion staff, you can do so in the
Staff View Layout dialog box. If you change a track’s clef to a non-percussion clef,
the percussion notation settings will be lost.
The lowest and highest lines on the Percussion clef are E5 and F6, respectively.
The Percussion Line represents E5.
By default, percussion staffs are given SONAR’s default note bindings and
notehead assignments. If you want to use your own notation, or if you want to set
up the appearance of a percussion line, you need to use the Percussion Notation
Key dialog box. In this dialog box, the percussion sounds and staff positions that
are bound have an asterisk near their names. When you select a bound percussion
sound, a line joins the sound to its staff position. Each percussion sound can be
bound only to a single position, but each position may be bound to several sounds.
You can use different notehead types and articulation symbols to visually
distinguish the sounds.
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To Assign a Percussion Staff or Line to a Track
1.
Click the Staff View Layout button
box.
to open the Staff View Layout dialog
2.
Select your percussion track from the list.
3.
Select Percussion Staff or Percussion Line from the Clef dropdown list.
4.
Click Percussion Settings to set up the appearance of percussion notes (see
below).
5.
Click Close.
SONAR changes the track’s clef to the selected percussion clef.
To Set Up a Track’s Percussion Notation Key
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1.
Click the Staff View Layout button
box.
to open the Staff View Layout dialog
2.
Select your percussion track from the list.
3.
Click Percussion Settings to open the Percussion Notation Key dialog box.
4.
Set up the percussion notation key according to the following table:
To do this…
Do this…
Map (bind) a percussion sound to
a line or space on the staff
Select the sound (or corresponding MIDI note) in the
MIDI Note list, select the intended position in the
percussion staff in the Display As list, then click Bind.
Set the notehead and articulation
mark for a percussion sound
Select the sound in the MIDI Note list, then select a
Notehead Type and Articulation Symbol. (Only bound
sounds can be assigned a notehead type and
articulation symbol other than the default.)
Control how unbound percussion
sounds display
In the Display As list, click the pitch that you want all
unbound notes to display as. Then select a Notehead
Type and Articulation Symbol, then click the Default
note button to apply your changes.
Remove a binding
Select the percussion sound in the MIDI Note list,
then click Unbind. Unbound notes are displayed in the
default position.
Load a preset
Select the preset from the Preset list.
Save your settings as a preset
Click the Save button
Clear all bindings
Click Zap All.
Select notes in the note lists with a
MIDI keyboard
Click in the MIDI Note or Display As list, then strike a
key on your keyboard.
and enter a preset name.
5.
Click OK to close the Percussion Notation Key dialog box.
6.
Click Close to close the Staff View Layout dialog box.
The Staff view shows the percussion clef with the note bindings and noteheads you
assigned.
Ghost Strokes
In percussion notation, parentheses around a note mean that it is a ghost stroke,
played very lightly and barely heard. SONAR supports ghost strokes by displaying
parentheses around any percussion note event with velocity less than 32 (a fixed,
arbitrary threshold). If necessary, you can adjust the Vel+ parameter of the track
and the velocities of the individual notes to effectively move this threshold without
changing the way the note sounds.
Printing
The Staff view provides printing support of standard musical notation in nine staff
sizes. The Staff view prints general project information from the File Info dialog
box (see “Labeling Your Projects” on page 199) at the beginning of the score,
including the song's title (or file name), subtitle (dedication), playing instructions,
author/composer, and copyright. In addition, SONAR identifies the tracks by
number and name, and numbers each measure and each page.
To Print a Score
1.
Make sure the Staff view is the current window.
2.
Choose File-Print Preview.
3.
If you want, click Zoom, or click in the music, to zoom the view in and out.
4.
Click the Configure button to select a rastral size.
5.
When zoomed out, you can press Page Up and Page Down to navigate between
pages.
6.
Click Print.
SONAR displays the Windows Print dialog box, from which you can set up your
printer and print the score.
Alternatively, you can choose File-Print and skip the print preview window.
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The Meter/Key View
The Meter/Key view lets you enter meter and key changes at measure boundaries.
Meter and key changes affect all tracks.
What Is Meter?
The meter—also known as the time signature—describes how to divide time into
rhythmic pulses. When you set the meter, you are specifying the number of beats
per measure and the note value of each beat. Common meters include:
•
2/4 (two beats per measure, quarter note gets a beat)
•
4/4 (four beats per measure, quarter note gets a beat)
•
3/4 (three beats per measure, quarter note gets a beat)
•
6/8 (six beats per measure, eighth note gets a beat)
The top number of a meter is the number of beats per measure, and can be from 1
through 99. The bottom number of a meter is the value of each beat; you can pick
from a list of values ranging from a whole note to a thirty-second note.
The meter affects several things in SONAR:
•
Metronome accents
•
How measure, beat, and tick (MBT) times are calculated and displayed
•
How the Staff view is drawn
While SONAR in general allows meters to have up to 99 beats per measure, the
Staff view cannot display such measures. You will receive an error message if you
try to use the Staff view with meters exceeding its limit.
Internally, SONAR stores times as “raw” ticks or clock pulses. The timebase—the
number of pulses per quarter note (PPQ)—is adjustable, from 48 to 960 PPQ. If
you are using a timebase of 120 PPQ and the project file is in 4/4 time, then a
whole measure equals 480 ticks. See “Setting the MIDI Timing Resolution” on
page 169 for more information about the timebase.
Usually the easiest approach to working with meter changes is to set all of them
up before doing any recording. Use the Meter/Key view or the Insert-Meter/Key
Change command to add meter changes at the desired measures.
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What Is Key?
In musical terms, a key is a system of related notes based on the tonic (the base
pitch) of a major or minor scale. A key signature is a group of sharps or flats placed
immediately to the right of the clef sign. The key signature tells a performer that
certain notes are to be systematically raised or lowered.
There are fifteen different key signatures—seven with sharps, seven with flats,
and one without either. The fifteen key signatures correspond to fifteen different
major scales, and to fifteen different minor scales (for example, the key signature
for C major is the same as for A minor).
The key signature affects several things in SONAR:
•
The key signature controls how SONAR displays notes. In the Event List view
and some dialog boxes, SONAR converts the MIDI pitch number to labels like
Db (D-flat in the key of C).
•
The Staff view uses the key signature to display notation correctly.
•
How the notes are transposed when the Diatonic option is enabled.
The key signature affects only how SONAR displays pitches for you. Changing the
key signature does not affect the MIDI key number (pitch) stored with each note.
To actually transpose pitches, use the Transpose command or edit notes
individually by using the Piano Roll, Event List, or Staff views.
Note: Groove clips are not affected by changes to your project’s key. Groove clips
follow the default project pitch value, located on the Markers toolbar, and Pitch
markers in the Time Ruler. For more information, see “Using Pitch Markers in the
Track View” on page 266.
Frequently you use only one key signature for an entire project, but SONAR
supports multiple key signatures and multiple meter changes in a project. The
default key is C. You can change these defaults by creating your own default
template file. For more information, see “Templates” on page 517.
Opening the Meter/Key View
To open the Meter/Key view, click
or choose View-Meter/Key.
The Meter/Key view displays a list of meter/key changes in the project. There is
always an entry for measure 1, because there must always be a meter and key
signature for the project. The default meter is 4/4 and the default key is C. You can
change these defaults by creating your own default template file. For more
information, see “Templates” on page 517.
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Each meter/key change has the following properties:
Property...
Meaning...
At Measure
The measure where the meter/key change takes place.
Beats per Measure
The number of beats per measure, the upper number in
the time signature.
Beat Value
The note length of a beat, the lower number in the time
signature. 2 corresponds to a half note, 4 to a quarter
note, 8 to an eighth note, etc.
Key Signature
The key signature.
Adding and Editing Meter/Key Changes
The Meter/Key view displays a list of all the meter/key changes in the project. You
can add, delete, or edit meter/key changes by clicking the buttons at the top of the
view. You can also insert meter/key changes into the project with the InsertMeter/Key Change command.
To Add a Meter/Key Change
1.
Open the Meter/Key view.
2.
Click Add
, or choose Insert-Meter/Key Change, to open the Meter/Key
Signature dialog box.
3.
Enter information about the new meter/key change.
4.
Click OK.
SONAR inserts the meter/key change into the project. The meter/key change will
appear in the Staff view at the appropriate measure.
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To Delete a Meter/Key Change
1.
Select the meter/key change to be deleted from the list.
2.
Select additional meter/key changes by using Shift-click and Ctrl-click.
3.
Click Delete
.
SONAR removes the meter/key change from the project. You cannot delete the first
meter/key change from measure 1 of a project.
To Move a Meter/Key Change
1.
Select the meter/key change to be moved.
2.
Click Add
3.
Edit the Measure parameter to the meter/key change’s new measure.
4.
Click OK.
5.
Select the original meter/key change again.
6.
Click Delete
.
.
SONAR removes the original meter/key change and inserts a copy of it at the new
measure.
To Edit a Meter/Key Change
1.
Select the meter/key change to be edited.
2.
Click Change
3.
Edit the meter/key change properties.
4.
Click OK.
to open the Meter/Key Signature dialog box.
SONAR changes the properties of the meter/key change.
Music Notation for Non-concert-key
Instruments
For historical reasons, certain musical instruments are traditionally notated in a
transposed key rather than the actual key. For example, a normal (Bb) trumpet
part is written in the key one whole step higher than the actual concert key, and an
Eb alto sax part is written a major sixth higher. Musicians have traditionally
learned to read and refer to the notes they play using the proper transposition
interval for their instrument.
SONAR supports these non-concert instrumental keys through use of the Key+
control in the Track view. Simply enter or record the notes into the instrument's
track transposed as the musician would expect them, and then set the proper
transposition interval in the Key+ control to make it play in the correct key. For
example, a Bb trumpet track should have all its notes a whole note higher than
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concert pitch, and should have Key+ set to -2 to transpose it two chromatic steps
back down. Remember, not all trumpets are Bb instruments!
To Notate a Bb Trumpet Part
1.
Record or enter the notes using the pitches that the musician who will be
reading the part needs to see. For example, if the non-transposing instruments
are playing in the key of C, a Bb trumpet player needs to see the notes a whole
step higher—the key of D. The instrument itself sounds a whole step lower
than concert pitch, so when a Bb trumpet plays in the key of D, it sounds in
the key of C.
Now that the pitches appear the way that the trumpet player needs to see
them, the problem is that when you play your project, the MIDI notes in the
trumpet track sound a whole step too high.
2.
In the Track view, force SONAR to play the trumpet track a whole step lower
by entering -2 (negative 2) in the Key+ field and pressing Enter.
Now the trumpet part in the Staff view appears in the key of D—SONAR
automatically adds two sharps to the trumpet track’s key signature—but the track
sounds in the key of C because you entered -2 in the Key+ field (you may need to
close the Staff view and reopen it to see the new key signature). The Staff view
automatically transposes the key signature for each track according to the track's
Key+ value. Multiple tracks appear and can be printed as an orchestral score, with
the proper different key signatures for each track.
Note that this Key+ information is saved in SONAR .CWP files, but not in standard
MIDI files. If you save a file as a MIDI file, the Key+ transposition will be applied
to each note event, so that the file will sound the same, but the Key+ information
will be lost. If you're reading in a MIDI file, you can easily set up the non-concert
instrument tracks and then save the file as a normal project file. First set the Key+
offset to reflect the non-concert instrument's key signature. Then, use Transpose
to compensate for the Key+ offset.
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Working with Lyrics
SONAR lets you create, edit, and display lyrics, the words and syllables associated
with notes in a track. Lyrics can be the words to a song, the text of a vocal passage,
a narration to be read along with the music, cues of some type, or text totally
unrelated to the music. Each word or syllable in the lyrics must be associated with
a note in a MIDI track. Each MIDI track can have its own lyrics.
Although lyrics can logically be associated with digital audio data, you cannot
actually place lyrics in an audio track. If you want to create lyrics for an audio
track, you must create an auxiliary MIDI track to hold the lyrics.
You can enter and edit lyrics in two ways:
•
Using the Lyrics tool in the Staff view
•
Using the Lyrics view
•
Inserting lyric events in the Event List view.
The Staff view is usually the preferred location for entering lyrics, since you can
see the notes with which the lyrics are associated. The Lyrics view can also be used
for entering or editing lyrics, but its main strength is that it can display lyrics in a
larger, more readable format. You might use the Lyrics view to display song lyrics
during recording and playback, so performers can see the words and sing along.
You can make the font size in the Lyrics view as large as desired, so that the lyrics
can be read at a distance from the monitor. During playback, the current line in
the lyrics is enclosed in a box and the current word is highlighted.
Lyric events are similar to text events. Like any other event, they occur at a
particular time. They contain text, just like general-purpose text events, but
generally they contain only a single word (or syllable of a word). As events, Lyrics
can be edited in the Event List view (see “The Event List View” on page 318).
Adding and Editing Lyrics in the Staff View
The Staff view displays lyrics below their associated track. If the track is split into
treble/bass staves, lyrics are aligned with notes in both staves, but are displayed
below the treble staff.
When a lyric word or syllable spans multiple notes, a trailing underline or series of
regularly spaced hyphens is automatically drawn, following conventional lyric
notation practice.
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To Add Lyrics to a Track
1.
Click the Draw tool
2.
Select the Lyrics tool
3.
Position the pointer below the staff, under the first note to be assigned lyrics.
(The pointer changes to a pencil when you are in a legal position.)
4.
Click to open an insertion box.
5.
Follow the instructions in the table:
6.
.
.
To do this…
Do this…
Enter a word or syllable
Type it in the insertion box
End the word or syllable and
move to the next note
Type a space, tab, or hyphen
Skip over a note
Type a space or hyphen
Move back to the previous note
Press Shift-Tab
Press Enter when you are done.
SONAR displays the new lyrics below the staff.
To Edit Lyrics
1.
Click the Draw tool
.
2.
Click the word you want to change.
3.
Edit the word as desired.
4.
Press Enter.
SONAR replaces the old word with the new one.
Opening the Lyrics View
There are three ways to open the Lyrics view:
•
In the Track view, select the track whose lyrics you want to see, then click
•
In the Track view, select the track whose lyrics you want to see, then choose
View-Lyrics
•
Right-click a clip in the Clips pane and choose Lyrics from the menu
The Pick Track button
opens a dialog box where you can select the track
whose lyrics you want to see. Select the desired track, then click OK.
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To select a font for the display, use one of the following:
Option/Button...
Purpose...
Selects the first font. By default, this is a small font useful
for editing.
Selects the second font. By default, this is a larger font
useful for reading lyrics at a distance.
Opens a dialog where you can select a font. The
selected font is then assigned as Font A or B (depending
on which is currently selected).
Adding and Editing Lyrics in the Lyrics View
Lyrics appear in the Lyrics view as a stream of syllables, each one associated with
a note in the track. In this context, a syllable is any continuous string of
characters, without a hyphen. For example, “love,” “desire,” and “infatuation” are
all syllables; each one would be associated with a single note. If you want to break
a word into multiple syllables, you must hyphenate the word. For example, “desire” would map onto two notes, since it is now two syllables long.
When you enter the lyrics, you can mark the syllables the way you want, or you
can simply type the text in normally and use automatic hyphenation to break the
text into syllables. This means that you can add lyrics to a project by copying and
pasting them from another application (such as a word processor), and then
hyphenate them automatically.
To extend a single syllable over more than one note, you can use extra hyphens,
separated by spaces. For example, in “Oh-say can you see…”, the “Oh” is extended
over two notes. If a track contains no lyrics yet, the display will show only a series
of hyphens (one for each note in the track).
If you enter more syllables than there are notes in the track, SONAR assigns the
extra lyrics times at quarter note intervals.
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To Enter Lyrics in the Lyrics View
1.
Click in the upper left corner of the view to position the cursor at the start of
the text.
2.
Follow the instructions in the table:
To do this…
Do this…
Enter a word or syllable
Type it
End a word or syllable and
move to the next note
Type a space or hyphen
Break a line for easier
viewing
Press Enter
To Edit Lyrics in the Lyrics View
Editing in the Lyrics view follows standard Windows conventions for cursor
movement, selection, cut (Ctrl+X), copy (Ctrl+C), paste (Ctrl+V), and delete
(Delete). When you pause, SONAR will update all lyric events in the track.
To Hyphenate the Lyrics
1.
If you want, select a portion of the lyric text. If you do not select any text, all
the lyrics will be hyphenated.
2.
Click the Hyphenate button.
SONAR hyphenates the lyrics.
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16
Using Instrument
Definitions
Instrument definitions are a powerful feature of SONAR™ that makes it easier for
you to find the banks, patches, and controllers of your MIDI instruments. An
instrument definition is a file that contains the names of the banks, patches, note
names, bank select method, and controllers of an instrument. Instrument
definitions for many popular MIDI instruments are included with SONAR or are
available on the Cakewalk web site (www.cakewalk.com). If an instrument
definition is not available for your instrument, and you are familiar with MIDI and
how it works, you can use SONAR to create your own instrument definition.
Most MIDI instruments available today are General MIDI (GM) compatible, which
means that they come with the standard set of sounds or patches defined by the
GM standard. SONAR initially assumes that your MIDI instruments are GM
compatible. The names of patches and controllers that you initially see displayed
throughout SONAR are drawn from the GM specification.
At the same time, many MIDI instruments provide additional sounds and
controllers beyond those required by the GM standard. In addition, some older
MIDI instruments are not GM compatible. If you are using one of these
instruments with SONAR, you can use instrument definitions to make sure that
the names of banks, patches, and controllers that you see in SONAR are the same
ones you see on the display screens of your MIDI keyboards and modules.
In This Chapter
Assigning Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 570
Importing Instrument Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 572
Creating Instrument Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 573
Instrument Definition Tutorial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 582
Assigning Instruments
SONAR lets you assign a MIDI instrument definition to each available MIDI
output and channel. The assignments you make determine the MIDI bank names,
patch names, note names, and controller names that you see during your SONAR
session.
Suppose that you have a Roland GS-compatible synthesizer attached to MIDI
output 1. By assigning all 16 channels of MIDI output 1 to the Roland GS
instrument definition, you ensure that the bank, patch, note, and controller name
lists you see displayed in SONAR are the same ones that you see on the display
screen of your synthesizer.
Often, you want to assign a different instrument to channel 10, which is usually
used for percussion. For example, you might assign the Roland GS instrument
definition to channels 1 through 9 and 11 through 16, but you would most likely
want to assign the Roland GS Drumsets instrument definition to channel 10. That
way, any SONAR tracks you assign to channel 10 on that output use the names of
drum sets for patch names, and drum notation in the Piano Roll view. If you have
several MIDI outputs, with a different MIDI module attached to each one, you
would normally assign a different instrument definition to each MIDI output.
For convenience, you can assign a block of channels to one instrument and then
change the assignment of one or more of those channels without changing the
others. For example, you can highlight all 16 channels of the first MIDI output and
assign them to the Roland GS instrument definition. Then, you can highlight
channel 10 of that same MIDI output and assign it to the Roland GS Drumset
instrument definition. Channels 1 through 9 and 11 through 16 on the first MIDI
output will stay assigned to Roland GS.
If you only have one MIDI output, but have several MIDI modules attached to it,
you can assign a few channels to each module. For example, you might have a
Roland synth receiving on MIDI channels 1 through 9, a Roland drum machine
receiving on channel 10, and a basic GM-compatible synth receiving on channels
11 through 16. In this case, you’d use three different instrument definitions for
your one and only MIDI output.
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To Assign Instrument Definitions to MIDI Outputs and
Channels
1.
Choose Options-Instruments to display the Assign Instruments dialog box.
2.
Select one or more MIDI outputs and channels from the Output/Channel list
(use Shift-click and Ctrl-click to select multiple outputs and channels). You
can also drag through a bunch of channels to select them. For example, if you
want to assign the first 16 MIDI channels on output 1 to a certain MIDI
module, drag through the first 16 items in the Output/Channel list to select
them.
3.
Choose the instrument definition to which the selected outputs and channels
should be assigned from the Uses Instrument list. A black line connects the
two lists. If your MIDI module’s name doesn’t appear in the list and you don’t
want to use General MIDI bank and patch names for it, see “Importing
Instrument Definitions” on page 572.
4.
To save these changes permanently, check the Save Changes for Next Session
box.
5.
Click OK to apply your changes.
From now on, the bank, patch, controller, and note names from the assigned
instrument definition are used throughout SONAR on any track that uses one of
the output/channel combinations you selected in the Output/Channel list.
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To Clear Instrument Assignments
1.
Choose Options-Instruments to display the Assign Instruments dialog box.
2.
Select the MIDI outputs and channels whose assignments you want to remove
from the Output/Channel list.
3.
Choose <default> from the Uses Instrument list. A black line connects the two
lists.
4.
Click OK when you are done.
You don’t really clear instrument assignments—you reassign them to use the
default (General MIDI) instrument definition. After you reassign the output/
channel combinations, the default (GM) bank, patch, controller, and note names
are used throughout SONAR. on any track that uses one of the output/channel
combinations you reassigned in the Output/Channel list.
Importing Instrument Definitions
When you install SONAR, a few common instrument definitions are already set up
for you and ready to use. SONAR also includes several hundred additional
instrument definitions that you can import.
These instrument definitions are stored in text files in your SONAR folder,
organized largely by manufacturer. For example, all the instrument definitions for
Roland gear are stored in the ROLAND.INS file; all the instrument definitions for
Yamaha gear are stored in the YAMAHA.INS file. The Misc.ins file contains
miscellaneous instrument definitions.
If SONAR does not include an instrument definition for your MIDI instrument,
you can find additional and updated instrument definitions on the Downloads
section of the Cakewalk World Wide Web site (www.cakewalk.com). Simply
download the files to your SONAR folder, unzip if necessary, and import the
instrument definitions as described below.
When you import an instrument definition, it is added to the master instrument
definition file MASTER.INS. The contents of this file determines the list of
instruments that appear in the Assign Instruments dialog box.
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To Import Instrument Definitions
1.
Choose Options-Instruments to display the Assign Instruments dialog box.
2.
Click Define to display the Define Instruments and Names dialog box.
3.
Click Import to display the Import Instrument Definitions dialog box.
4.
Choose the file that contains instrument definitions for your manufacturer,
and click Open. SONAR displays a list of all the instrument definitions in the
file.
5.
Choose one or more instruments from the list, and click OK.
6.
Click Close to close the Define Instruments and Names dialog box.
The instrument definitions you imported should now appear in the Uses
Instrument list in the Assign Instruments dialog box.
Creating Instrument Definitions
SONAR lets you create and edit instrument definitions. To create an instrument
definition, you must answer these types of questions:
•
What are the names of the patches in each bank?
•
Which note names should be used for each patch?
•
What are the names of the MIDI Controllers for this instrument?
•
Which RPN and NRPNs are available on the instrument?
•
Which Bank Select method does the instrument use?
To collect this information, you need the MIDI documentation for your instrument.
Here’s a general outline of the steps you must follow to create an instrument
definition:
•
Create a new instrument in the Instrument tree.
•
Create any new name lists in the Names tree that are required for the
instrument.
•
Drag name lists and possibly a bank select method to the new instrument
from the Names tree.
•
Close the Define Instruments and Names dialog box.
For detailed instructions, see “To Create a New Instrument” on page 575.
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You define instruments in the Define Instruments and Names dialog box, shown
below:
The Instruments tree
The Names tree
The Define Instruments and Names dialog box contains two trees:
•
The Instruments tree in the left half of the dialog box lists all defined
instruments and their characteristics
•
The Names tree in the right half of the dialog box shows all the resources you
use to define an instrument
You expand or collapse the folders and lists in each tree by clicking on the + or –
key shown to the left of each item. You can also right-click on an item and choose
Expand or Collapse from the menu, or double-click on an item to expand or
collapse it.
To define an instrument, you drag resources from the Names tree to the name of
an instrument on the Instruments tree. Each resource is color-coded—you can only
drag a Names list to an Instrument tree branch of the same color. For example, you
can only drag a list from the Patch Names folder in the Names tree to a Patch
Names for Banks folder in the Instruments tree.
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There are six components to an instrument definition:
•
Method for bank selection
•
Patch names, such as Piano and Bass
•
Note names, which are most frequently used to name drum notes, such as kick
or snare
•
Controller names, like volume and pan
•
Names for Registered Parameter Numbers (RPNs)
•
Names for Non-Registered Parameter Numbers (NRPNs)
The instrument definitions organize all names (patches, notes, controllers, RPNs,
and NRPNs) into lists. You may be able to define a new instrument using existing
name lists. For example, two models of synthesizers made by a particular
manufacturer may have identical patch name lists but use different NRPNs. In
this case, you can use the same patch name lists for both instruments, but you
would need to use a different NRPN list (or perhaps create a new NRPN list) for
the second synth.
If you want your changes to be remembered the next time you run SONAR, make
sure the Save Changes For Next Session option in the Assign Instruments dialog
box is checked before clicking OK. Otherwise, to make only temporary changes, be
sure to remove the check from that option.
To Create a New Instrument
1.
In the Define Instruments and Names dialog box, right-click the word
Instruments at the top of the Instrument tree, and choose Add Instrument
from the popup menu.
2.
Type a name for the new instrument and press Enter.
The new instrument is provided with default settings for all of its characteristics.
To Rename an Instrument
1.
In the Define Instruments and Names dialog box, right-click an Instrument
name in the Instrument tree and choose Edit from the popup menu.
2.
Type the new name and press Enter.
To Delete an Instrument
1.
In the Define Instruments and Names dialog box, right-click an Instrument
name in the Instrument tree and choose Delete from the menu.
2.
Confirm that you want to delete the instrument.
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To Save an Instrument Definition
1.
Click Close to close the Define Instruments and Names dialog box.
2.
Click OK.
SONAR saves the instrument definition in the MASTER.INS file.
To Export an Instrument Definition
1.
In the Define Instruments and Names dialog box, right-click an Instrument
name in the Instrument tree and choose Export from the menu to display the
Export Instrument Definition dialog box.
2.
If you don’t want to save the file in the folder that’s listed in the Save In field,
navigate to the folder in which you do want to save the file.
3.
Enter a file name and click Save.
SONAR saves the file, with the filename extension .INS.
Note: Exporting instrument definitions allows you to share them with other
SONAR users.
Creating and Editing Patch Name and Other Lists
You can create and edit the various lists in the Names tree that make up each
instrument definition. Patch name, note name, and controller name lists can
contain up to 128 entries, numbered 0 through 127. RPN and NRPN name lists
can contain up to 16,384 entries, numbered 0 through 16,383.
To Create and Edit Name Lists
•
To create, edit, or work with name lists, go to the Names tree of the Define
Instruments and Names dialog box, and follow the directions in the following
table:
To do this…
Do this…
Create a new name list
Duplicate an existing Patch Names or other list by doing one
of the following: expand the folder that contains the name list,
highlight the name list and press the Ins (Insert) key; highlight
the folder and press Shift-Insert; or right-click any folder or
name list and choose Add Names List from the menu.
Then type a name for the list and press Enter.
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Delete a name list
Highlight the names list and press the Del (Delete) key; or
right-click on the name list and choose Delete from the menu.
You will see a warning if the list is used by any instrument
definition. If you delete the list anyway, the instrument
definition will change automatically.
Add the next item in a
name list
Highlight a name and press the Ins key, or right-click on a
name and choose Add Name from the menu. Then enter the
name.
Add a name anywhere in
a list
Highlight the name of a list and press Shift-Insert, or right-click
on the name of a list and choose Add Name from the menu.
Then enter the name.
Delete names from a list
Highlight the Names List or Name, and press Del. You can
also right-click, then choose Delete.
Edit a name in a list
Highlight the name or name list and press F2, or right-click
and choose Edit from the menu. Then enter the new name.
Copying Name Lists
You can easily create new lists that are similar to other lists. For example, suppose
you want to create a new patch name list called NewList that is almost identical to
the General MIDI patch list, but with one or two small changes. Here’s how you
proceed:
•
Create a new patch name list in the Patch Names folder of the Names tree
called, for example, NewList.
•
Drag the new list onto the General MIDI list in the Names tree. You will be
asked if you want to base NewList on the General MIDI list.
•
Click OK. NewList will now be listed under the General MIDI branch. Any
patch names that exist in the General MIDI list apply to NewList, too.
•
Add new patch names to NewList. These names will override those in the list
on which NewList is based.
If you change your mind about NewList and want to make it a stand-alone,
separate list, simply drag it to the Patch Names root folder.
Assigning the Bank Select Method
Your synthesizer uses one of four bank select methods to switch back and forth
between banks of sounds. To find the method used for your instrument, check the
instrument’s User’s Guide or the manufacturer’s web site. The four methods are as
follows:
Method…
Used for…
Normal
Instruments that respond to Controller 0 or Controller 32 bank select
messages
Controller 0 only
Instruments that only respond to Controller 0 bank select messages
Controller 32 only
Instruments that only respond to Controller 32 bank select messages
Patch 100..127
Instruments that let you change banks by sending patch changes
between 100 and 127
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The bank select method you choose affects the bank numbers that you assign to
each patch list, as described in the following section. Here’s how you compute the
bank numbers:
Bank select
method…
To compute the bank number…
Normal
Take the value of Controller 0, multiply it by 128, and add the value
of Controller 32 to derive the bank number.
Note: A synthesizer manufacturer may refer to Controller 0 as the
MSB (Most Significant Byte) and to Controller 32 as the LSB
(Least Significant Byte).
Controller 0 only
The value of Controller 0 is the bank number.
Controller 32 only
The value of Controller 32 is the bank number.
Patch 100..127
Take the patch number and subtract 100 to derive the bank
number.
Here is an example of the Normal bank select method. According to the
documentation for the Roland JV-1080 synthesizer, the PR-A Bank has a
Controller 0 value of 81 and a Controller 32 value of 0. You compute the bank
number that you enter in the instrument definition as follows: (81 x 128) + 0 =
10,368.
To Change the Bank Select Method
1.
Highlight and expand the instrument in the Instrument tree.
2.
Expand the Bank Select Method branch in the Names tree.
3.
Drag the desired bank select method from the Names tree to the Instrument
tree.
Assigning Patch Names
A MIDI instrument can have up to 16,384 banks of 128 patches each. Patches can
have names, like “Piano” for patch number 0, “Bass” for patch number 1, and so on.
Normally, each bank contains a different set of patches, so each bank needs a
separate patch name list. Most synthesizers start with a patch number of 0.
You can assign a patch name list to each bank. You can also assign a default patch
name list to the instrument, which is used for all banks for which you haven’t
assigned a specific list. The previous section describes how to compute the bank
numbers to which each patch name list is assigned.
Each bank can also be assigned a special Drum flag, which indicates that all
patches in that bank contain drum sounds. If you set this flag, the Piano Roll view
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will display drum notes as diamonds, and the Staff view will use percussion
notation.
To See the Assignment of Patch Name Lists to Banks
1.
Expand the instrument definition by clicking the + sign next to the
instrument name.
2.
Expand the Patch Names for Banks folder by clicking the + sign. The list
expands to show the bank numbers and the patch name list that is assigned to
each bank.
Instrument name
The * indicates that this patch list is
the default
There are three defined
banks
This is the name of a patch
name list
To Add a Bank or Change the Patch Names for a Bank
1.
Drag a patch name list from the Names tree to the Patch Names for Banks
folder of the instrument you’re editing in the Instrument tree.
2.
Enter a bank number, or enter –1 to indicate that this list of patch names
should be used as the default.
SONAR displays the updated banks and patch name lists. If necessary, SONAR
adds a new bank to the instrument definition.
To Remove a Bank or Patch Name List
1.
In the Instrument tree in the Patch Names for Banks folder of the instrument
you’re editing, highlight the bank and patch names list.
2.
Press the Del key, or right-click on the bank name and choose Delete from the
popup menu.
To Set or Clear the Drum Flag
•
Right-click on the bank in the Instrument tree, and choose Drums from the
popup menu.
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Assigning Note Names
Each patch may have a list of up to 128 names for notes. Usually, note names are
labels for percussion instruments. For example, the pitch C3 may really be “Kick
Drum,” and D3 may be “Snare.” Because a drum machine may provide different
drum kits for each patch, SONAR lets you specify a different list of note names for
each patch. The Piano Roll and Event List views show you these note names.
You can assign a note name list to each patch. You can also assign a default note
name list to the instrument, which is used for all patches for which you haven’t
assigned a specific note name list.
Each patch can also be assigned a special Drum flag, which indicates that this
patch contains drum sounds. If you set this flag, the Piano Roll view will display
drum notes as diamonds, and the Staff view will use percussion notation.
There are several standard note name lists provided with SONAR:
Note name list…
Contents…
0..127
The numbers 0 through 127
Diatonic
The default MIDI note names (like C4, E5, and so on)
General MIDI Drums
The default instrument names for the General MIDI
drum patch
To See the Assignment of Note Name Lists to Patches
1.
Expand the instrument definition by clicking the + sign next to the
instrument name.
2.
Expand the Patch Names for Banks folder by clicking the + sign.
3.
Continue expanding the tree by clicking the + sign, until the tree is fully
expanded.
Instrument name
Bank
The * indicates that this
note name list is the default
This is the name of a
note name list
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Note name lists are
defined for three different
patches
To Change the Note Names for a Patch
1.
Drag a note name list from the Names tree onto the Note Names for Patches
folder of the instrument and bank you’re editing in the Instruments tree.
2.
Enter the patch number that should use these note names, or enter –1 to
indicate that this list of note names should be used as the default.
SONAR displays the updated patch and note name lists. If necessary, SONAR
adds a new patch to the instrument definition.
To Remove a Note Name List
1.
In the Instrument tree in the Note Names for Patches folder of the instrument
you’re editing, highlight the name of the note names list (for example,
“diatonic”).
2.
Press the Del key, or right-click on the note name list and choose Delete from
the popup menu.
To Set or Clear the Drum Flag
•
Right-click on the patch in the Instrument tree, and choose Drums from the
menu.
Assigning Controller, RPN, and NRPN Names
SONAR lets each instrument have its own lists of controller names, RPN names,
and NRPN names. There is always exactly one list of each type per instrument.
To See the Controller, RPN, and NRPN Name Lists
1.
Expand the instrument definition by clicking the + sign next to the
instrument name.
Instrument name
Controller name list
RPN name list
NRPN name list
To Change the Controller, RPN, or NRPN Name List
1.
In the Names tree, expand the branch containing the Controller name lists,
RPN name lists, or NRPN name lists.
2.
Drag the desired name list from the Names tree onto the corresponding
branch of the Instrument tree.
SONAR displays the updated Controller, RPN, or NRPN name lists.
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UsesNotesAsControllers=n
Some MIDI devices, certain mixers for example, use MIDI Note events instead of
Continuous Controller events for automation. It is often desirable to treat the Note
events as Controller events in order for them to obey the “Zero Controllers When
Play Stops” and “Patch/Controller Searchback Before Play Starts” settings.
You can enter this variable in any instrument definition by using a text editor,
such as Windows Notepad. The variable should be entered directly below an
instrument definition. For example:
[Mackie OTTO-1604]
UsesNotesAsControllers=1
Control=Mackie OTTO-1604
Patch[*]=Mackie OTTO-1604
Key[*,*]=Mackie OTTO-1604
NoControllerReset=n
Any port/channel using an instrument definition that has a NoControllerReset
flag set to 1 does not receive a "zero controller" message upon stop. You can enter
this variable in any instrument definition by using a text editor, such as Windows
Notepad. The variable should be entered directly below an instrument definition.
For example:
[Yamaha Promix 01 Control Chan]
NoControllerReset=1
Control=Yamaha Promix 01 Control Chan
Patch[*]=Yamaha Pro Mix 01
This parameter should be used when it is undesirable to zero/reset controllers
when playback stop, such as when using an external effects processor that uses
MIDI controllers for real-time parameter control, or when using a digital mixer as
a MIDI control surface (and not using the generic control surface plug-in).
Instrument Definition Tutorial
The following tutorial takes you through the process of setting up an instrument
definition for a Roland keyboard so that the bank and patch names, including any
self-created sounds, read the same in Sonar as they do on the display screen of
your keyboard instrument.
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Why Use Instrument Definitions?
The main reason to import or create an instrument definition is so you can use
patch names that are specific to the MIDI module you’re using, instead of using
generic General MIDI patch names. It’s much easier to find a particular sound on a
MIDI module when the actual names of the patches in the current bank of sounds
pop up on a list, instead of just the numbers 0 to 127, or General MIDI names like
Trumpet. Of course, if you’re only using General MIDI modules, General MIDI
patch names might be all you need. You can also rename each MIDI output with
the name of the MIDI module it’s connected to. For example, it might be more
meaningful to name a MIDI output Roland Sound Canvas instead of MOTU MIDI
Express 5. That way, you won’t have to remember that you connected the Sound
Canvas to the MOTU MIDI Express output number 5—the name Sound Canvas
shows up as an option in the Output field of each MIDI track in SONAR’s track
view. Also if you have an effects processor or module that’s hard to get to in your
studio, you may find it convenient to control it from SONAR.
What Can They Do and Not Do?
Instrument definitions don’t increase the number of sounds or the capabilities of
your modules, they just make it easier to find and remember the sounds and/or
MIDI controllers you want to use, if they’re not all generic General MIDI items.
After you define an instrument, SONAR displays the names that you choose for
the sounds in each of that instrument’s banks, rather than displaying the same
128 General MIDI names over and over for each bank of sounds.
Where Do Instrument Definitions Come From?
The patch names and other characteristics of each particular MIDI module are
supplied by the manufacturer, and are contained in an instrument definition file,
which is a text file written in a format SONAR can read. Many of these files come
with SONAR, and many more are available at Cakewalk’s web site, and also at
lilchips.com. Instrument definition files have the extension .INS and can contain a
definition for only one instrument, or definitions for several instruments. For
example, the file ROLAND.INS contains definitions for many Roland modules. The
file MISC.INS contains miscellaneous definitions that might include your
instrument if you don’t see a specific file for it. You can find these files in your
SONAR folder. The file MASTER.INS contains all the instrument definitions
currently loaded into SONAR, and determines the list of instruments that appears
in the Assign Instruments dialog box.
Start of Tutorial
Let’s say you have a Roland XP-10 and you want SONAR to display all of its patch
names from all of its banks, including any self-created sounds you add to it.
Let’s start by importing the names of the built-in banks and patches that the XP10 has.
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To Import a Roland Instrument Definition
1.
Choose Options-Instruments to display the Assign Instruments dialog box.
2.
Click Define to display the Define Instruments and Names dialog box.
3.
Click Import to display the Import Instrument Definitions dialog box.
4.
Choose the file that contains instrument definitions for your manufacturer,
which in this case is the ROLAND.INS file, and click Open. SONAR displays a
list of all the instrument definitions in the file.
5.
Scroll down the list, select the Roland XP-10, and click OK.
6.
Click Close to close the Define Instruments and Names dialog box.
The instrument definition you imported should now appear in the Uses
Instrument list in the Assign Instruments dialog box.
When you import an instrument definition, it is added to the master instrument
definition file MASTER.INS. The contents of this file determines the list of
instruments that appear in the Assign Instruments dialog box.
Now let’s assign the XP-10 definition to some channels on a MIDI output:
To Assign the Roland XP-10 Bank and Patch Names to a MIDI
Output
1.
Choose Options-Instruments to display the Assign Instruments dialog box.
2.
Let’s assign all 16 MIDI channels on output 1 to use the XP-10 bank and patch
names:
•
Drag through the first 16 items in the Port/Channel list to select them.
•
From the Uses Instrument list, click Roland XP-10. A black line connects
the two lists.
3.
To save these changes permanently, enable the Save Changes for Next Session
option.
4.
Click OK to apply your changes.
From now on, any track that uses any of channels 1 to 16 on output 1 displays
bank and patch names from the XP-10.
To check this, assign a MIDI track in a project to Ch 1, assign the Output field to 1Roland XP-10, and then examine the dropdown lists in the Bnk and Pch fields of
the track. You should see bank and patch names that are specific to the Roland XP10.
Let’s check some of our bank and patch lists to see if they match up with what we
see on the screen of the XP-10. On the XP-10, let’s look at the Vari 1 bank: if we
look at tone (tone means the same as patch) #005 in the Vari 1 bank on the XP-10,
we see that it is called Detuned EP1. If we change the bank on a MIDI track to
128-Roland XP-10 Var #01, and look at the menu of patches in the Pch field, we see
that there is no name listed for patch #004 (Roland numbers its patches from 1 to
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128; SONAR numbers patches from 0 to 127, so patch #004 in SONAR is the same
patch number as patch #005 on the Roland). Let’s look at some of the other Roland
XP-10 patch name lists in the right window of the Define Instruments and Names
dialog box to see if another one has the right patch names in it, and rename it Var
#01.
To Substitute and Rename a Patch List
1.
Use the Options-Instruments command to open the Assign Instruments
dialog box, and click the Define button to open the Define Instruments and
Names dialog box.
2.
In the Names Tree window on the right, click the + sign on the Patches folder
to expand the tree of patch name lists.
3.
Scroll down to the Roland XP-10 Var #08 list and click its + sign to expand it.
4.
Compare the names on the Var #08 list with the patch names of the Vari 1
instruments on the Roland’s display screen. You’ll see they are the same.
5.
Let’s substitute the Var #08 list for the Var #01 list that SONAR currently
lists as the XP-10’s second bank, which has a bank change number of 128:
6.
•
In the Instruments tree in the left window, click the Roland XP-10 entry
to expand it, and then expand the Patch Names for Banks list that’s
directly under it.
•
Expand the Patch Names tree in the right window and find the Roland
XP-10 Var #01 list (if there is one) and right-click it to display the popup
menu.
•
Choose Edit from the popup menu, and change the name from Roland
XP-10 Var #01 to Roland XP-10 Var #011.
•
In the same tree find the Roland XP-10 Var #08 list and change the name
from Roland XP-10 Var #08 to Roland XP-10 Var #01.
•
Drag the newly renamed list from the Patch Names tree in the right
window to the Patch Names for Banks tree in the left window.
•
In the Bank Number dialog box, enter 128, and click OK.
Click the Close button to close the Define Instruments and Names dialog box
and click OK to close the Assign Instruments and Names dialog box.
Examine the new bank and patch data in a track that uses 1-Roland XP-10 as an
output. In the Bnk field, select 128 Roland XP-10 Var #01, then look at the
dropdown list of patches in the Pch field. The list should now have the same names
that the Roland keyboard uses for its Vari 1 bank.
The Roland XP-10, like most MIDI keyboards, allows you to create your own
sounds and store them in one or more User banks. You can create patch name lists
in SONAR that are the same as the names you gave to each of your own sounds.
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Checking Bank Numbers
You can calculate bank numbers by using the methods described in “Assigning the
Bank Select Method” on page 577, but you might find it easier to use the following
method:
To Check the Bank Numbers
1.
Set up a MIDI track to record from your MIDI keyboard or module.
2.
Click the Record button to start recording, and change banks on your
keyboard.
3.
Stop recording, and open the Event List view.
4.
The bank change you recorded is displayed in the Event List view in this way:
in the Data column you’ll see what kind of bank change method your keyboard
uses (probably Normal), and in the column to the right of that data is the
number of the bank you changed to.
When we changed the Roland XP-10 to the User 1 bank, we recorded a bank
number of 8192.
To Create a Patch Name List for Your Own Sounds
1.
You could create a new list by copying and renaming an existing list (rightclick a list and choose New Patch Name List from the popup menu), but
since the instrument definition we imported for the XP-10 includes a list
called Roland XP-10 User Tone 1, let’s just edit that one: in the Names Tree
window on the right, right-click the Roland XP-10 User Tone 1 list and choose
Add Patch Name from the popup menu.
A new patch field appears, with the text “0 = 0” inside.
2.
Replace the first number in the patch field with the number of a patch you
stored in User Bank 1 on the Roland.
3.
Replace the second number in the patch field with the name you made up for
the patch you just gave a number to, and press Enter.
4.
Assign names to as many patch numbers as you want—the numbers between
0 and 127 that you don’t assign any names to show up in the Track view Pch
column just as patch numbers with no other names.
5.
When you finish assigning names, drag your edited patch list to the Roland
XP-10 Patch Names for Banks tree in the left window.
6.
Enter 8192 as the bank number, which we know is the correct bank number
from the previous procedure.
7.
Click the Close button to close the Define Instruments and Names dialog box
and click OK to close the Assign Instruments and Names dialog box.
Now you can select the 8192-Roland XP-10 User Tone 1 bank in the Bnk field of a
MIDI track, and then examine the patch list in the Pch field: you should see the
patch list that you just created.
586
17
Using System
Exclusive Data
SONAR™’s System Exclusive (Sysx) librarian provides you with 8192 banks in
which to hold MIDI System Exclusive messages. A bank is a storage area plus
some associated parameters such as a destination output and an optional
description. Each bank can hold any number of messages; the amount of data it
can hold is limited only by available memory. The banks are saved in the SONAR
project file. Each bank can also be saved as a .SYX file.
In This Chapter
What Is System Exclusive? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 588
Using the System Exclusive View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 588
Sending Sysx Banks at Startup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 589
Importing, Creating, and Dumping Sysx Banks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 590
Editing Sysx Banks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 593
Sysx View Buttons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 593
Transmitting Banks During Playback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 595
Real-time Recording of System Exclusive Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 596
Sysx Echo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 596
Sysx .INI File Settings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 597
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 598
What Is System Exclusive?
System Exclusive data is MIDI’s way of letting each synthesizer manufacturer
transmit private data about its products. A System Exclusive message has a
manufacturer ID; the rest of the message is completely proprietary and varies for
each manufacturer, even for each of its products. SONAR does not understand
what this data means; it simply can hold onto it for you. You can take snapshots of
your equipment’s configuration and store them in SONAR’s System Exclusive
banks for transmitting back to the equipment. You may want to do this simply to
back up your equipment’s patches and/or settings, much like backing up your
computer’s hard drive in case something goes wrong. Or you may configure your
equipment differently for each project’s requirements, which is why storing
System Exclusive banks with each SONAR project file can be useful. Of course, for
merely backing up your equipment, you can have a project containing only System
Exclusive data and no notes.
Sysx Events
SONAR provides two distinct kinds of Sysx events: Sysx Bank and Sysx Data.
•
Sysx Bank: You can use Sysx Bank events to transmit one of the project’s
8192 banks of System Exclusive data. These banks can be recorded, viewed,
and edited in the Sysx view, and each bank can contain one or more very large
System Exclusive messages. Sysx Banks may also be marked Auto, so that
they are sent when the file is loaded rather than during the start of playback.
•
Sysx Data: You can also use Sysx Data events, which can each contain a
single System Exclusive message up to 255 bytes long. You can view the
message bytes in the Event List view.
Sysx Data events can be recorded in real time. See “Real-time Recording of System
Exclusive Messages” on page 596 for more information.
Using the System Exclusive View
The System Exclusive view has a list box for a maximum of 256 Sysx banks, plus a
toolbar of buttons. Most of the buttons affect whatever bank you have selected in
the list. Certain buttons will be disabled if the selected bank is empty. To open the
System Exclusive view, choose the Sysx command from the View menu, or click
the Sysx view icon
in the Views toolbar.
SONAR stores Sysx messages as either Sysx banks or Sysx data. The main
difference is in the number of bytes in the message, and also that Sysx data is only
visible in the Event List view as SysxData events. A Sysx data message can have
up to 255 bytes in it. You can send Sysx data to an instrument without
interrupting playback (depending on the speed of your computer and the number
588
of bytes in the message), however, sending a Sysx bank stops playback until all of
the Sysx bank is transmitted. Sysx banks are usually sent to your instrument
when you load your work file. SONAR asks you each time you load a project file if
you want to send any existing Sysx banks the file contains that are marked for
auto-sending. Clicking the Auto Send Bank button
in the Sysx view toolbar
marks or unmarks a selected bank for auto-sending.
Sending Sysx Banks at Startup
You can tell SONAR to send certain Sysx banks to your instrument(s) each time
you open the project file that the banks are in.
To Send Sysx Banks at Startup
1.
In the Sysx view, select a bank that you want to send to an instrument when
you open the current project.
SONAR highlights the bank you select.
2.
Click the Auto Send Bank button
.
A checkmark appears next to the bank name in the Auto column to show that
the bank is marked for auto-sending.
3.
While the bank is still highlighted, click the Output button to open the Sysx
Bank Output dialog.
4.
Enter the number of the output you want to send this bank out through, and
click OK.
The output number you entered appears next to the selected bank in the
Output column.
5.
Repeat steps 1-4 for each bank you want to send, and save your project.
The next time you open a project, SONAR asks you if you want to send any Sysx
banks in the project that are marked for auto-sending. If you click OK, SONAR
sends the bank(s).
If you want SONAR to send auto-send banks every time you open a project without
asking you, uncheck the checkbox in the Auto-Send Sysx dialog that says Ask this
question every time. If you decide later that you want to be asked, use the
Options-Global command to open the Global Options dialog, click the General
tab, and check the checkbox that says Ask Before Sending System Exclusive
(When Opening Projects).
589
Importing, Creating, and Dumping Sysx
Banks
There are several ways to get a sysx bank into SONAR:
•
You can import (load) an external .SYX file.
•
You can edit an empty bank to create a new bank from scratch.
•
You can dump a bank into SONAR from the synthesizer itself.
To Import a Sysx Bank into a Project
1.
In the Sysx view, select an empty bank to import the new bank into (unless
you want to add to or overwrite an existing bank).
2.
Click the Load Bank from File button
.
The Open dialog appears.
3.
If necessary, navigate to the folder that contains your .SYX files, select the one
you want to import, and click Open.
The file appears as a new bank in the row you selected in the Sysx view. If you
want SONAR to send this bank every time you open this project, make sure the
bank is selected (highlighted), and click the Auto Send Bank button
.A
checkmark appears in the Auto column next to all auto-send-enabled banks.
To Create a Sysx Bank
1.
In the Sysx view, select an empty bank, and click the Edit Data button
double-click the empty bank).
(or
The Edit System Exclusive Bytes window appears.
2.
Type your message(s). Each message you add to the window must begin with
F0 and end with F7 (that’s F zero and F seven). See your instrument’s manual
for the messages you can create.
3.
When you finish typing the message(s), click OK to close the window.
After you close the editing window, your new bank appears in the Sysx view. Use
the buttons in the toolbar to name it, give it an output number, and mark it for
auto-sending, if you want. Save your project when you’re finished.
590
To Dump a Sysx Bank into SONAR
1.
Choose Options-Global and click the MIDI tab, and make sure that the
System Exclusive item is checked. If it isn’t, SONAR won’t receive System
Exclusive messages.
2.
In the Sysx view, select an empty bank to dump the new bank into (unless you
want to add to or overwrite an existing bank).
3.
Click the Receive Bank button
(or press c on your computer keyboard).
The Receive System Exclusive dialog appears, which contains a list of Dump
Request Macros (DRMs). Each DRM has a name that describes the
synthesizer the DRM controls and the type of data that the DRM asks the
synthesizer to send.
4.
5.
Do one of the following:
•
If the name of your instrument and the kind of data you want to store in
SONAR appears in the list, select your choice and click OK.
•
If your instrument and the type of data you want to record are not in the
list, select You start dump on instrument, click OK, and press whatever
button on your synthesizer that starts a Sysx bank dump. The You start
dump on instrument option is not really a Dump Request Macro. It tells
SONAR that you will initiate a dump (or multiple dumps) from the front
panel of the synthesizer.
The DRM may prompt you for additional information, which you should
supply.
•
Patch number: DRMs that are written to request an individual patch or
configuration give you this prompt, so you can specify the one you want to
have dumped.
•
Channel/unit number: Most synthesizers have a Sysx channel or unit
number. This covers the situation in which you own two of the exact same
synthesizer, and want to do Sysx with each independently. Your
synthesizer manual should describe the factory-set number.
591
When your instrument starts sending the bank, the Sysx Receive window
counts the bytes as SONAR receives them. If the count stays at zero for more
than a couple of seconds, something is wrong. The synthesizer may not be
hooked up to the MIDI interface in both directions, or you may have answered
a DRM prompt incorrectly. Click Cancel. If any data were received, you will
see the number of bytes in the bank list.
6.
Once the bytes received count stops increasing, you can click Done to tell
SONAR to stop receiving. However, if your synthesizer also displays a
message when the instrument is finished sending a bank, wait until that
message says the transmission is finished before you click Done.
The currently selected bank now holds the received Sysx data. At this point, you
may want to give the bank a descriptive name by selecting it and clicking
.
Note:
The SONAR librarian may not support synthesizers that require
handshaking dump protocols. Some of these synthesizers have a
backup protocol where they will do a normal dump if they don’t get a
handshake. Others do not.
More about Dump Request Macros
DRMs are defined in your DRM.INI file in the [Dump Request Macros] section. You
may add your own DRMs or modify the ones that we have provided. Use the
Windows Notepad to edit the file. Comments in the DRM.INI file itself describe how
to write DRMs. The specific Sysx messages can be found in the instrument
manual, or they can be obtained by contacting the manufacturer. Remember that a
DRM must start with F0 and end with F7.
Sometimes you will find that the byte size is different when you use a DRM, as
opposed to initiating the dump from the instrument. It is possible the instrument
is dumping some additional information when you initiate the dump from the
instrument, but you should be able to use either method without any problems.
When you press the Receive button in the Sysx window, you may pick from a list of
Dump Request Macros. These are short System Exclusive messages sent to a
synthesizer to make it dump (send back) System Exclusive data. DRMs are
defined in your CAKEWALK.INI file in the [Dump Request Macros] section. You
may add your own DRMs or modify the ones that we have provided. Use the
Windows Notepad to edit the file.
Please note that many of the DRMs included with SONAR have been donated by
customers who are using the particular equipment. In some cases, we have not
been able to test those DRMs because we do not have access to that equipment. We
592
redistribute such DRMs on an as-is basis. Additional user-supplied DRMs may be
available on the Cakewalk web site (www.cakewalk.com).
Editing Sysx Banks
Editing a Sysx bank is very similar to creating one.
To Edit a Sysx Bank
1.
In the Sysx view, select the bank you want to edit, and click the Edit Data
button
(or double-click the selected bank).
The Edit System Exclusive Bytes window appears.
2.
Edit your message(s). Each message in the window must begin with F0 and
end with F7 (that’s F zero and F seven). See your instrument’s manual for the
messages you can create.
3.
When you finish editing the message(s), click OK to close the window.
Save your project when you’re finished.
Sysx View Buttons
Here is a description of the buttons in the Sysx view.
Send
Send transmits the current bank’s System Exclusive message. If nothing seems to
happen, make sure you have correctly set the output (see later in this chapter).
This button is disabled if the current bank is empty. The shortcut key is s.
Send All
Send All transmits all non-empty banks. The shortcut key is l.
Receive
Receive dumps data from a synthesizer into the bank. If the bank contains data,
SONAR asks you whether you want the new data to overwrite the existing data or
be appended to it. The shortcut key is c.
When receiving dumps, remember to connect both the MIDI In and Out ports of
the synthesizer to the MIDI interface. Also, make sure that your instruments are
set up to receive and/or transmit Sysx. Synthesizers that you normally use only to
play sounds—for example, sound modules that don’t have keyboards—don’t need
to be hooked up in both directions except for receiving dumps, so it is easy to forget
this. (If you will only be sending Sysx messages to the device, the normal onedirection hookup is sufficient.)
593
Clear Bank
This deletes the selected bank. The shortcut key is d.
Name
You may enter a description for a bank by clicking this button. Names are saved
only in .CWP and .CWB files. The shortcut key is n.
Auto
The Auto option tells SONAR to transmit that bank every time it loads the project
file. You might use this option for banks that contain System Exclusive messages
that load a set of sounds for a synthesizer at or before the start of a project.
Before transmitting, SONAR asks your permission. This is a safety feature for
loading a file you have received from someone else; if it happens to contain data for
your synthesizer(s), you might lose your patches and configuration information.
However, if you don’t want to be asked, choose Options-Global, click the General
tab, and uncheck the box labeled Ask Before Sending Sysx. The shortcut key is a.
Output
Each bank is transmitted to a particular MIDI output, just as a track is. Click this
button to change the output. The shortcut key is p.
Edit Bytes
Although SONAR’s Sysx features are designed mainly to store System Exclusive
data for you, you can edit the bytes of shorter messages in hex format (many of the
more popular synthesizers have special patch-editing programs available that let
you edit data using sliders and other tools rather than raw hex data).
When you select a bank and click the Edit Bytes button, SONAR converts the
binary data into a text representation and pops up the Edit System Exclusive
Bytes dialog box, in which you can edit the text. If you make changes and click OK
to keep them, SONAR tries to convert the text back into binary format. You’ll get
an error message if the text does not begin with an F0 and end with an F7, which
are the System Exclusive begin and end bytes.
SONAR may not be able to convert the data to text format. The text representation
requires three to four times more memory than the data itself, and the Edit
System Exclusive Bytes dialog box can contain roughly as much text as Notepad.
The shortcut key is e.
Load Bank
and Save Bank
You can import banks from and save banks to files with the file extension .SYX. If
you try to import to a bank that isn’t empty, SONAR asks if you want to append or
replace. The Load and Save buttons work only with .SYX, not SONAR project files
or MIDI files.
594
You may also use this feature to copy a Sysx bank between two SONAR project
files. Save the bank into a file, load the other SONAR project file, then load the
bank again. This is also a good way to copy one bank to another in the same project
file. The shortcut keys are o and v respectively.
To Export a Sysx Bank to Another Project
1.
In the Sysx view, select the bank you want to export.
2.
Click the Save Bank button
.
The Save As dialog appears.
3.
Navigate to the folder in which you want to store the file.
4.
Enter a file name and click OK.
SONAR saves the file in the location you specified, with the extension .SYX.
5.
Open the project to which you want to import the bank and select an empty
bank in the Sysx view (unless you want to add the file to an existing bank).
6.
Click the Load Bank from File button to open the Open dialog.
7.
Navigate to the desired folder, select the .SYX file you want to import, and click
Open.
SONAR loads the selected bank into the current project.
Transmitting Banks During Playback
SONAR has a special meta-event, Sysx Bank, that lets you play a System
Exclusive bank at a specified time in your project. You can use a Sysx meta-event
to send any of the 8192 available Sysx banks at any time in a sequence. To do this,
you have to insert a new event in the Event List using the Insert key on the PC
keyboard. Next you have to double-click Event Kind and change it to System
Exclusive. In the Values column, select the bank (0-8191) that you want to send.
MIDI is a serial data transmission, meaning it can do only one thing at a time. If
you try to upload a huge sampler dump during a fast drum solo, playback will
noticeably lurch. MIDI must complete the System Exclusive message before it can
resume playback. The Sysx meta-event is appropriate only for very short System
Exclusive messages. The exact length depends on various factors, such as the
speed of your computer but as a rule of thumb, 100 bytes is a likely maximum, and
even that may often be too large.
You don’t need to use Sysx meta-events for sending System Exclusive information
at the beginning of your project. Instead, use the Auto option for System Exclusive
banks. Banks that are marked Auto are transmitted automatically by SONAR
when it loads the project file they are stored in. Use the Sysx meta-event only
when you need to send a Sysx Bank during the middle of the project.
595
Real-time Recording of System Exclusive
Messages
You can record short System Exclusive messages in real time. These will end up in
the track as the new Sysx Data types of events, which can hold System Exclusive
messages up to 255 bytes long. Before you record any Sysx messages, choose
Options-Global, click the MIDI tab, and make sure that System Exclusive is
checked.
To Record Sysx Messages in Real Time
1.
Arm a MIDI track for recording—use a track that’s uses the output you want
to send the Sysx data out through.
2.
Press the Record button or press r to start recording.
3.
Move the button or fader on your MIDI instrument that sends Sysx data.
4.
Stop recording.
SONAR records your instrument’s Sysx data as a Sysx Data event. Open up the
Event List view for the track you recorded on to view the data. When you play back
the MIDI track that the Sysx Data event is on, make sure that the Output field of
the track is set to the output that the MIDI instrument you want to send Sysx data
to is on.
Sysx Echo
You can configure SONAR to echo received System Exclusive messages to output
devices.
To Echo Sysx Messages
1.
Choose Options-Global.
2.
Select the MIDI tab.
3.
Check the Echo System Exclusive option.
4.
Click OK.
SONAR echoes received Sysx data according to the echo settings on the MIDI
Input tab of the Project Options dialog box.
596
Sysx .INI File Settings
The TTSSEQ.INI initialization file contains settings that govern the sending and
receiving of System Exclusive information. If you are experiencing difficulties
using Sysx, you will probably be able to correct the problem by adjusting these
settings.
The options described below occur in the [Options] section of the TTSSEQ.INI file.
You can edit this file using the Windows Notepad. Every time you add or change
one or more lines in TTSSEQ.INI, you must restart SONAR in order for the change
to take effect.
SysxSendDelayMsecs=n
This setting causes SONAR to delay n milliseconds if it encounters an F7 in a
System Exclusive bank, but only if the line SysxDelayAfterF7=n is not zero. The
line SysxDelayAfterF7=n enables a delay between Sysx messages, while the line
SysxSendDelayMsecs=n sets the size of the delay.
n = 60 Default value (in milliseconds)
SysxDelayAfterF7=n
This setting causes SONAR to delay Sysx transmission for a certain amount of
time if it encounters an F7 in a System Exclusive bank. This gives some
instruments the required amount of “breathing” time necessary to process the
Sysx transmission. The default delay is 1/18 of a second, but can be changed by
also adding the SysxSendDelayMsecs=n line, where n is the number of
milliseconds that the delay lasts.
The possible values of n in the line SysxDelayAfterF7=n are 0 and 1. Their
significance is as follows:
n = 0 No delay
n = 1 Delay between each Sysx message
SysxSendPacketSize=n
System Exclusive bytes are transmitted in packets, with a 1/18-second default
delay between each packet. Setting this value to a smaller number will help slower
synthesizers avoid overflowing their internal buffers. This line sets the number of
bytes between each Sysx transmit delay.
n = 1024 Default value (in bytes)
597
Troubleshooting
SONAR Is Not Receiving Sysx Messages
•
Make sure all your devices are connected correctly.
•
Make sure you have the right MIDI Input selected by using the OptionsMIDI Devices command.
•
Make sure that your instrument is set up to transmit System Exclusive data.
Sysx Bank Names Don't Show When I Open a File
Sysx bank names are only saved in .CWP and .CWB files (not in .MID files).
SONAR Doesn't Include a DRM for My Instrument
If there is no Dump Request Macro (DRM) for your instrument, you should select
You start dump on instrument, then initiate the Sysx dump from the instrument.
Once the bytes received count stops increasing, click Done to tell SONAR to stop
receiving. The currently selected bank now holds the received Sysx data. You can
rename the bank if you want by selecting the bank and clicking the Name button.
You can also add a DRM for any unlisted instrument. For more information on how
to do this, read the section “More about Dump Request Macros” on page 592 earlier
in this chapter.
Synthesizers Reporting MIDI Data Errors
Some synthesizers will report data errors when you try to send Sysx information
to them. This usually happens when SONAR sends data at a rate too fast for the
synthesizer to keep up. You can use the SysxSendPacketSize=number setting in
TTSSEQ.INI to make SONAR transmit Sysx data more slowly, as described in Sysx
.INI File Settings.
Try setting the number to 64. If that does not solve the problem, try successively
smaller values. If 64 works, you may try larger values until it stops working; go
back to the largest value that worked and you will have the fastest transmission
rate that the problematic synthesizer can keep up with.
My Equipment Is Not receiving Sysx from SONAR
Make sure the instrument is set up to receive System Exclusive messages. In the
Sysx View, make sure the right output is selected. Verify that the Sysx message
originally transmitted from the same kind of instrument. An instrument will not
recognize Sysx messages from a different make or model of instrument.
Finally, try adjusting the parameters in the TTSSEQ.INI file, as described earlier in
this chapter.
598
Timing Requirements When Receiving Sysx
Some MIDI devices have special timing requirements when receiving System
Exclusive transmissions. If your equipment has problems receiving System
Exclusive data from SONAR, you might need to introduce some small delays to
allow the equipment to digest the information it is receiving.
The line in TTSSEQ.INI that reads SysxDelayAfterF7=n enables SONAR to
introduce a delay between each Sysx message so that the instrument has some
time to respond to the message. Setting n to be 1 enables the delay. The line
SysxSendDelayMsecs=n lets you control how many milliseconds the delay is,
where n is the number of milliseconds that the delay lasts.
Roland Equipment
Some Roland equipment—notably, the GR-1 and GR-50 Guitar Synthesizers—
have problems receiving Sysx packets in fast succession. You must use the setting
SysxDelayAfterF7 = 1 with these devices.
Ensoniq Instruments
Successfully sending Sysx messages to most Ensoniq instruments requires that
you add the following three lines to the [Options] section of TTSSEQ.INI:
SysxDelayAfterF7=1
Enables delay
SysxSendDelayMsecs=200
Sets delay time to 200 milliseconds
SysxSendPacketSize=65535
Increases packet size to 64k
599
600
18
Synchronizing Your
Gear
Your computer is often used with other equipment: sound cards, MIDI equipment,
and digital tape decks or other digital recording tools. All these devices can have
their own built-in clocks or timing mechanisms.
When several pieces of equipment are used together, it’s important that they
operate in synchronization. For this to happen, all the equipment must rely on the
same source of clock or timing information. SONAR™ lets you use many different
types of synchronization so that you can get your work done quickly and efficiently.
In This Chapter
Synchronization Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 602
Choosing Clock Sources When SONAR is the Master . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 603
MIDI Synchronization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 604
SMPTE/MIDI Time Code Synchronization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 608
MIDI Machine Control (MMC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 615
Synchronization Overview
SONAR supports several different types of synchronization, which rely on a
variety of different clock sources:
Clock source…
Timing is determined by…
Internal
The clock on the computer motherboard
Audio
The clock on the computer’s sound card
MIDI Sync
The clock on an external MIDI device
SMPTE/MIDI Time Code (MTC)
A time code signal (in SMPTE or some
other format) recorded on some external
medium or generated and sent by
SONAR
When you use either the internal or audio clock, SONAR can control other MIDI
devices using MIDI Sync. In this case, SONAR is the “master” device and the other
MIDI devices are the “slaves.”
When MIDI Sync is the clock source, SONAR operates either in response to
incoming MIDI messages or as the sender. In this case, SONAR can be either the
master or the slave. Note that audio playback is not supported when using MIDI
Sync with SONAR as the slave.
When SMPTE/MIDI Time Code (SMPTE/MTC) is the source of timing
information, SONAR operates in response to incoming MTC messages. These
messages could be generated by:
•
An external MIDI device that is capable of generating MIDI Time Code (like
the Roland VS880)
•
A MIDI interface that is converting other time code signals (like SMPTE,
EBU, or film time code) into MIDI Time Code
When you use some of these synchronization options, some SONAR commands
work differently. This chapter describes each of the synchronization options, how
and why each is useful, and the effect each option has on other features and
commands.
602
The Sync toolbar lets you change back and forth quickly between the different
clock settings:
You can also choose the sync mode as follows:
1.
Choose Options-Project, and click the Clock tab.
2.
Choose the desired clock source from the Clock list.
3.
Click OK.
The clock source and the type of synchronization that is used are options that are
stored as part of your project files. For example, one of your projects might be set
up to use the internal clock; a second might use the Audio clock and MIDI Sync
with SONAR as the master timing source; and another might use SMPTE/MTC
Sync as the clock source.
Many technical support requests concern synchronization problems, which are
among the hardest to diagnose and duplicate over the phone. If you experience
problems, before you call, perform as much experimentation and gather as much
information as possible about what does and doesn’t work. The more prepared you
are, the more we can help.
Choosing Clock Sources When SONAR is
the Master
When SONAR is used alone, or with an external device that does not have its own
clock or timing signal, you use one of two clock sources: Internal or Audio.
When the clock source is set to Internal, SONAR uses the clock built into the
computer or the computer’s MIDI interface as its timing source. If your projects
contain only MIDI (no audio), this is the most efficient method of playback.
If your projects contain MIDI and audio, or only audio, you should set the clock
source to Audio. This lets the sound card clock determine the correct speed for
audio playback and automatically synchronizes MIDI playback to match the audio.
For more information, see “System Configuration” on page 628. You cannot use the
tempo ratio controls when using the audio clock, because the audio playback speed
is determined by the audio clock.
When either of these clock sources is used, you can also configure SONAR to drive
other MIDI devices using MIDI Synchronization. For more information, see “MIDI
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Synchronization” on page 604. If you need to send MIDI Time Code (MTC),
SONAR will send this data regardless of the clock setting.
To Use the Internal Clock Source
1.
Click
on the Sync toolbar.
OR
1.
Choose Options-Project, and click the Clock tab.
2.
Check the Internal box.
3.
Click OK.
To Use the Audio Clock Source
1.
Click
on the Sync toolbar.
OR
Choose Options-Project, and click the Clock tab.
2.
Check the Audio box.
3.
Click OK.
MIDI Synchronization
MIDI Synchronization, or MIDI Sync, is usually used to synchronize SONAR with
drum machines, stand-alone MIDI hardware sequencers, and sequencers built into
MIDI keyboards. SONAR can slave to MIDI Sync, and can send MIDI Sync on
multiple output ports.
When MIDI devices are synched, the master device sends messages to all other
devices to start and stop playback and to keep all the devices in sync. To change
the tempo of a project, you adjust the tempo on the master device. The playback
tempo on all slave devices is then set automatically.
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The following MIDI messages are sent by the master device to support MIDI Sync:
Message…
How it is used…
Start
This message tells slave devices to start playing from the
beginning of the currently loaded sequence.
Stop
This message tells slave devices to stop playback.
Continue
This message tells slave devices to continue playing from the
current location in the currently loaded sequence.
Song Position Pointer
(SPP)
This message tells slave devices to change the current location to
the designated point in the project. SONAR normally issues an
SPP message immediately prior to any Start or Continue
message.
Clock
The master sends clock messages to each slave device at the
rate of 24 per quarter note. The slave devices use these
messages to establish the tempo and stay in sync.
When you start playback on the master MIDI device, for example, it sends a Start
message to all slave devices, announcing that playback has started. If the slave
devices are set up correctly, they receive the message and start playing back with
the master device. When SONAR is set up as the master device, you can enable or
disable these messages.
SONAR as the Slave
When SONAR is slaved to an external MIDI device, the following changes occur:
•
When you click the Play or Record button, a message (Waiting for MIDI Sync)
is displayed in the status bar. When you start your external device, SONAR
will follow.
•
If you change the tempo using an external device, the SMPTE time code
display in SONAR will be incorrect.
•
SONAR will not transmit MIDI Start, Continue, Stop, and Clock messages.
•
Digital audio will play back, but not necessarily in sync.
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To Use MIDI Sync with SONAR as the Slave
1.
Configure the external MIDI device you want to use as the master device to
transmit MIDI Sync.
2.
Configure external slave devices to receive MIDI Sync.
3.
Choose Options-MIDI Devices to display the MIDI Devices dialog box.
4.
Make sure that your MIDI interface is highlighted in the Inputs list, and click
OK.
5.
Click
on the Sync toolbar to use the MIDI Sync clock source.
From now on, SONAR starts playback and recording only after the appropriate
message is received from the master device.
Tip:
Make sure the Status bar is displayed when using MIDI Sync.
Otherwise, you will not be able to see the MIDI Sync status messages.
To display the Status bar, choose Options-Global and click the
General tab. Then check the Show Status Bar box.
SONAR as the Master
There are several options, found on the Sync tab of the Project Options dialog box,
which you can use when SONAR is the MIDI Sync master device:
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Option…
What it’s for…
Transmit MIDI Start/
Continue/Stop/Clock
Choosing this option causes SONAR to tell the slave when to
start, when to continue, when to stop, and what timing data to go
by (SONAR’s).
Use Start, Never Continue
(greyed out unless above
option is checked)
If you are using an external drum machine to repeat a drum
pattern or loop, you might always want playback on the drum
machine to start at the beginning of the loop. When this option is
chosen, SONAR sends a Start message to all slave devices
when playback is started, even if you are in the middle of a
project. (Normally, SONAR would send a Continue message if
playback starts from the middle of a project.)
Transmit MIDI Song Position
Pointer (SPP)
When this options is checked, SONAR sends an SPP message
before starting or continuing playback. If you are using a drum
machine as described previously, you might want to disable this
option.
Option…
What it’s for…
Locate Delay for SPP
Recipient
Some older MIDI devices take a small amount of time to
respond to SPP messages. This option causes SONAR to delay
briefly after sending an SPP message, to give the slave device
time to respond. The delay is in 1/18ths of a second. Enter 1 for
a 1/18th second delay, 2 for 2/18ths of a second, or 18 for a full
second delay.
MIDI Sync Output Ports
Choose the outputs that your slave devices are connected to
To Use MIDI Sync with SONAR as the Master
1.
Configure your external MIDI devices to receive MIDI Sync.
2.
Click
3.
Choose Options-Project, and click the Sync tab.
4.
Check the Transmit MIDI Start/Continue/Stop/Clock box.
5.
For most applications, check the Transmit MIDI Song Position Pointer box.
6.
If you are using a drum machine to play patterns or loops, check the Use Start,
Never Continue option and disable the Transmit MIDI Song Position Pointer
option.
7.
In the MIDI Sync Output Ports field, check off the output ports that you want
to send the sync signal out of.
8.
Click OK.
or
on the Sync toolbar to use the Internal or Audio clock source.
From now on, the transport controls in SONAR control playback on the external
MIDI devices.
Using MIDI Sync with Drum Machines
The most flexible way to use a MIDI drum machine is to record the notes it
generates into SONAR, then use that machine as a MIDI playback device. This
lets you edit, cut, paste, and copy your drum parts like any other clip. You can use
MIDI Sync to record the notes from the drum machine into SONAR as follows:
1.
Use the drum machine’s pattern-composing facilities to compose your drum
part.
2.
Configure the drum machine to be a slave device that receives MIDI Sync
messages.
3.
Configure SONAR to send MIDI Stop/Start/Continue/SPP messages.
4.
Record the drum part from SONAR. The drum machine starts automatically
when recording begins and stops automatically when you press Stop.
5.
Switch the drum machine out of MIDI Sync mode so that it acts simply as a
sound-producing module.
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Troubleshooting MIDI Sync
If you experience problems with MIDI Sync when SONAR is the master device,
verify that your external devices are configured correctly to respond to MIDI Sync.
Most devices have a Clock option that should be set to External or MIDI.
If SONAR does not respond to MIDI Sync as a slave device, verify that your
external devices are configured correctly to transmit MIDI Sync. Remember that
only one external device can be used as the master clock source.
SMPTE/MIDI Time Code Synchronization
SMPTE/MIDI Time Code Sync (SMPTE/MTC) is another method of
synchronization that lets SONAR act as a master or slave to external devices.
SONAR can send or receive SMPTE/MTC messages to or from external devices
that can generate or receive MTC. SONAR can send MTC on multiple output ports
simultaneously.
SMPTE/MTC is a position and timing reference that indicates the current location
in the project and how quickly the project should be playing. Time code labels the
position in a project in hours, minutes, seconds, and frames. The speed of playback
is indicated by a frame rate.
Time code is recorded onto tape using a device called a time code generator. The
process of recording a time code signal onto a track is called striping. Normally,
the start of a tape stripe has a particular time, expressed in hours, minutes,
seconds, and frames. For example, the tape stripe might start at 00:00:00:00,
01:00:00:00, or any other time. The material recorded on the tape usually starts
anywhere from 10 seconds to several minutes after the start of the time code.
Sometimes, the tape stripe starts at a time like 00:59:50:00, and the material
starts 10 seconds later, at 01:00:00:00.
When you create a new SONAR project, by default the project is configured so that
the beginning of bar 1 is synchronized with a time code of 00:00:00:00. If the
starting point of the material on your tape or external project is not 0, you need to
enter an offset to tell SONAR the time code that corresponds to the start of the
project.
To Enter an Offset
1.
Select Options-Project.
The Project Options dialog appears.
608
2.
Click on the Clock tab.
3.
In the Clock tab, enter an offset in the SMPTE/MTC Offset field. To enter an
offset of 15 seconds, type 0,0,15 and hit enter. The SMPTE/MTC Offset value
should now be 00:00:15:00 or 15 seconds.
Frame Rates
Seven time code frame rates are supported in SONAR, which are normally used
for the following types of applications:
External
Timecodes…
Cakewalk
Setting
Description…
24 frames per second
24 FPS
Used for theatrical film worldwide. Any film in North
America or Japan uses this setting.
25 frames per second
(EBU timecode)
25 FPS
Used for PAL/SECAM video, video and some film in
countries that use 50 Hz wall electricity. This is the
setting to use when synchronizing to any European
video format.
29.97 frames per second
non drop-frame
29.97 FPS NDF
NTSC non-broadcast and short length video in North
America and Japan. Some music projects. This
setting synchronizes the video perfectly with
SONAR, but the sequencer position displayed in the
Now Time and Big Time displays will gradually drift
and become incorrect over long periods of time. The
audio and MIDI synchronization to the external
device will not be affected by this discrepancy.
29.97 frames per second
drop-frame
29.97 FPS DF
NTSC broadcast and long format video in North
America and Japan. This setting synchronizes the
video perfectly with SONAR, but the sequencer
position displayed in the Now Time and Big Time
displays will gradually drift and become incorrect
over long periods of time. The audio and MIDI
synchronization to the external device will not be
affected by this discrepancy.
30 frames per second non
drop-frame
30 FPS NDF
Most music projects and some film in North America.
This is the best choice for any music project and
should be used unless the situation dictates
otherwise.
30 frames per second
drop-frame
30 FPS DF
Not a standard type of timecode, used rarely for
speed correction and transfer problems in tape
based systems.
For more information on frame rate time formats, see the documentation for your
time code hardware.
Refer to the documentation for your MIDI interface or external MIDI device for
additional information about SMPTE/MTC.
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To Use SONAR as the Master MTC Generator
1.
Configure the clocks on each external device that you want to
synchronize to receive SMPTE/MTC. Make sure they’re connected to
MIDI outputs from your computer or MIDI interface.
2.
Click
or
on SONAR’s Sync toolbar to use the Internal or
Audio clock source (to display the Sync toolbar, use the ViewToolbars-Sync command).
3.
Use the Options-Project command to open the Project Options
dialog.
4.
On the Sync tab, check the Transmit MTC checkbox (you can also
click the Transmit MTC button on the Sync toolbar).
5.
In the Frame Rate field (it’s just below the Transmit MTC
checkbox), choose the frame rate that your project uses (see “Frame
Rates” on page 609, if necessary).
6.
In the MTC Output Ports field, check off the outputs that you want
to send MTC on (the outputs your external devices are connected to).
7.
Click OK.
SONAR saves your sync and MTC output port settings with your project.
However, output ports are saved by their number only, not their name.
Their number is determined by the order in which they appear in the
MIDI Devices dialog under Outputs (Options-MIDI Devices command).
If you change the order of devices in this dialog, the MTC output ports in
your project will retain the same numbers, but those numbers will now
refer to different outputs. Also, if you reduce the number of highlighted
outputs in the MIDI Devices dialog, and the MTC ports you chose have
higher numbers than what are currently highlighted in the MIDI
Devices dialog, SONAR does not substitute new port numbers. Also,
SONAR does not send MTC if SONAR’s Tempo Ratio buttons are set to
any value other than 1.
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To Configure SONAR to Sync to SMPTE/MTC
1.
Click the SMPTE/MTC mode button
in the Sync toolbar.
2.
Select Options-Global and click on the Timecode tab.
3.
Select one of the following options:
•
Ask first, then switch to clock source and start—this option prompts
SONAR to alert you when it detects a SMPTE/MTC signal, asks if you
want to sync to the incoming signal, and if you respond that you do,
switches the clock source and starts to receive the signal.
•
Always switch the clock source and start—SONAR automatically
switches to the clock source of the incoming signal and begins to receive
the signal.
•
Do not switch clock source, but start if in SMPTE/MTC mode—this option
automatically syncs to the incoming signal if SONAR is in SMPTE/MTC
mode.
Note: The final option, Never switch clock source, never start, should
never be used if you are attempting to sync to an external clock source.
4.
Click OK.
5.
Choose Options-Project, and click the Clock tab.
6.
Choose the frame rate and time offset that are appropriate for your source
material.
7.
Click OK to close the dialog box.
8.
Choose Options-MIDI Devices to display the MIDI Devices dialog box.
9.
Make sure that your MIDI interface is highlighted in the Inputs list. If your
interface also has a Sync driver, highlight that as well, then click OK.
When SONAR is the slave, here’s how things work:
•
SONAR monitors for a SMPTE/MTC signal. You are able to perform other
action in SONAR while waiting for the signal.
•
Start playback on the external device. It takes about two seconds for SONAR
to lock from the time it receives time code input.
•
If the time code is earlier than the start of the project (based on the time code
offset), another message (Chasing…) is displayed in the status bar. When the
time code reaches the start of the project, SONAR starts to play in sync.
•
If the time code is at or after the start of the project, SONAR starts playback
as soon as it locks to the time code.
•
When the external device stops (or when the time code ends), SONAR will
stop.
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Note: If you want SONAR to switch its clock source to SMPTE/MTC automatically
when SONAR receives a SMPTE/MTC signal, you can choose this option on the
Timecode tab of the Global Options dialog.
Playing Digital Audio under SMPTE/MTC Sync
SONAR gives you two choices for controlling audio playback when using time
SMPTE/MTC Sync:
Option…
How it works…
Trigger and freewheel
Audio event playback is started (or triggered) at the exact time
code, but then the audio plays at its own internal rate (or
freewheels). When audio freewheels, it can gradually drift from
the time code due to variations in the time code signal.
Full chase lock
The speed of audio event playback is continually adjusted to
stay in sync with the time code. If the external clock drifts or
changes rate, SONAR adjusts the audio playback speed to stay
in sync. This adjustment may introduce slight pitch changes, but
those changes will be negligible if the external clock is
reasonably steady.
Some digital sound cards (such as the Frontier Design Wavecenter or the Antex
Studio Card) have external clock inputs. If you are using one of these cards, and an
external clock source like a digital tape deck is the master timing source for the
project, choose the Trigger and Freewheel option. The clock input on the audio
card guarantees that there is no drift between the time code and audio playback.
To Set the Audio Playback Option
1.
Choose Options-Audio, and click the Advanced tab.
2.
Check the desired option from the Synchronization list.
3.
Click OK.
Audio playback under time code sync is handled according to the setting you chose.
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SMPTE/MTC Sync and Full Chase Lock
When using SMPTE/MTC Sync with full chase lock, the first time you play any
audio the pitch may fluctuate wildly for up to 30 seconds. Also, you may
occasionally note the pitch of the audio sounding consistently high or low pitch.
A simple analogy makes this behavior easy to understand: Synchronizing audio to
SMPTE/MTC is a lot like trying to get even and stay neck-and-neck with another
car on the freeway. If the car is ahead of you, you need to drive faster to catch up to
it. If it's behind you, you have to slow until the car catches up to you. Once the two
cars are neck-and-neck, you can simply keep going at the same speed, unless the
other car changes its speed. If the other car speeds or slows, you must speed or
slow too.
The first time you play audio under SMPTE/MTC Sync, the audio clock has to get
even with the external clock. This could mean racing ahead, which raises the pitch
of the audio, or stepping on the brakes, which lowers the pitch of the audio. These
fluctuations continue until SONAR matches its playback speed to the external
clock, which usually takes no more than 30 seconds. The stable playback speed, by
the way, may be slightly faster or slower than the normal audio playback speed,
resulting in a slight change in the pitch of the audio. Here’s the best way to
address this problem:
•
Start each new SONAR session by playing some audio under SMPTE/MTC
Sync.
•
Let the audio play for 30 seconds or until all audio