Domestic heating by oil: boiler systems – guidance for installers and

Domestic heating by oil: boiler systems – guidance for installers and
CE29
Domestic heating by oil:
boiler systems – guidance
for installers and specifiers
Contents
1. Introduction to best practice
3
8. System selection: practical issues
35
1.1 Boiler efficiency 4
8.1 Which type of boiler is most suitable?
35
1.2 Energy consumption and emissions 4
8.2 What size boiler is required? 35
1.3 Environmental impact of oil heating
5
8.3 Where will the boiler be positioned?
36
37
6
8.4 What will be the flue terminal position
and arrangement?
2.1 Introduction
6
8.5 Where does the condensate drain go?
37
2.2 General requirements
6
2.3 England and Wales
8
8.6 What are the arrangements for the oil
tank and oil supply? 38
8.7 Are there any special ventilation
requirements?
38
8.8 Will it be an open or sealed system?) 38
8.9 What type of hot water system is most
suitable? 39
2. UK Building Regulations
2.4 Scotland 9
2.5 Northern Ireland 3. Boiler types
10
11
3.1 Condensing boilers 11
3.2 Regular boilers 12
3.3 Combination boilers 12
3.4 Range Cooker boilers 13
4. Systems and components
14
9.1 Competent person requirements 4.1 Sealed and open-vented systems 14
9.2 Installing the boiler 41
4.2 Domestic hot water 15
9.3 Installing the condensate drain pipe 42
4.3 Solar hot water systems
17
9.4 Condensate drain termination 44
4.4 Upgrading systems 18
9.5 Controls
47
4.5 Flue types 18
9.6 Oil storage and supply 48
4.6 Heat emitters 20
9.7 Water treatment 49
4.7 Circulator pumps 20
8.10 What type and size of heat emitters are
required?
39
8.11 What controls are needed?
40
9. Installing central heating systems
41
10. Commissioning and handover
5. Controls
41
50
21
10.1 Commissioning 50
5.1 Individual controls
21
10.2 Advising householders 50
5.2 Selecting controls 25
10.3 Servicing 51
5.3 Further control improvements 26
Appendix A – Notes to CHeSS 2008
52
6. Central Heating System
Specifications (CHeSS)
28
Appendix B – Definitions of boiler types55
7. Energy Efficiency
30
Appendix C – Definitions of heating controls 57
7.1 Comparing boiler efficiencies 30
7.2 The Standard Assessment Procedure 31
7.3 Energy consumption and running costs 31
7.4 Carbon dioxide emissions 32
7.5 The Boiler Efficiency Database 33
7.6 Saving energy with better controls 33
Appendix D – Energy efficiency checklist
59
Appendix E – Heating controls: simple
explanations for householders
61
References
64
Front cover image courtesy of Titan Environmental Ltd,
part of Kingspan Environmental
2
Domestic heating by oil: Boiler systems – guidance for installers and specifiers (2008 edition)
1. Introduction to best practice
Home energy use is responsible for over a quarter
of UK carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions which
contribute to climate change. To help mitigate
the effects of climate change, the Energy Saving
Trust has a range of technical solutions to help UK
housing professionals build to higher levels of energy
efficiency.
This guide is designed to help installers, specifiers
and purchasers of domestic central heating systems
to select the most suitable system for their needs.
It gives advice on how to achieve better energy
efficiency, lower running costs and reduced CO2
emissions.
This publication is particularly concerned with the
encouragement of best practice. While the requirements
for satisfying building regulations in various parts of the
UK are described, the main purpose is to explain how
to achieve better performance through careful choice of
systems and practices.
This publication focuses on wet or hydronic central
heating systems in which the water is circulated to
heat emitters from an oil-fired boiler. For domestic
heating the oil is usually kerosene although
sometimes gas-oil is used. Bio-fuels are under
development to offer alternatives with lower CO2
emissions.
This publication specifically addresses issues
concerning the selection of boilers, hot water storage
vessels, controls and indeed complete systems. It
brings together information on most types of boiler
currently available, the systems to which they can
be fitted and key points to consider when choosing
equipment for a particular installation. It concentrates
on the use of condensing boilers since they must
be fitted in both new and replacement installations
in most cases. More detailed information on the
specification, installation, commissioning and use
of oil-fired equipment is available from the Oil
Firing Technical Association (OFTEC) website at
www.oftec.org
How to use this guide
The guide is set out as follows:
Section 2 explains the building regulations for
heating and hot water systems in different parts
of the UK.
Sections 3, 4 and 5 go into some detail about the
range of systems, boilers and controls currently
available.
Section 6 reproduces the Central Heating Systems
Specifications (CHeSS). These set out specifications
for meeting the basic efficiency levels needed
to comply with building regulations as well as
higher performance levels regarded as current
best practice. They can be used as ready-made
purchase specifications.
Section 7 focuses on the benefits to be obtained
from choosing best practice.
Section 8 covers the practical issues affecting the
selection of boilers, systems and controls.
Section 9 is concerned with proper installation,
especially with regard to the flues and drains
needed for condensing boilers, as well as oil
storage and supply issues.
Section 10 offers guidance on commissioning
and other related issues such as servicing and
information to be provided to customers.
The appendices provide additional notes to the
CHeSS specification, together with definitions of
different boiler types and controls.
Note: the superscript numbers in brackets in the
text refer to documents listed at the end of this
guide.
Domestic heating by oil: Boiler systems – guidance for installers and specifiers (2008 edition)
3
Introduction to best practice
1.1
Boiler efficiency
The efficiency of the boiler is the main factor in
the overall efficiency of a domestic central heating
system. This is why minimum standards of efficiency
are required by law for most boiler types. UK building
regulations require a higher performance than the EU
Boiler Efficiency Directive(17) but best practice requires
boilers of even higher efficiency to be selected.
Why are condensing boilers more
efficient?
A condensing boiler has a large heat
exchanger (or, in some designs, a second heat
exchanger) that extracts more heat from the
flue gases. In a non-condensing boiler, the
flue gases are at a temperature of 120-200°C.
In a condensing boiler, more heat is removed
and the temperature falls to below 100°C and
as low as 50°C for the most efficient boilers
operating at reduced boiler return temperature.
The water vapour in the gases condenses
(hence the name) and the resulting liquid has
to be drained away. As the “combustion” side
of the heat exchanger gets wet in the process,
it is more susceptible to corrosion. To avoid
this, it has to be constructed from corrosionresistant materials e.g. stainless steel. For more
information on different boiler types (see
Section 3).
In turn, the efficiency of the overall system has a
major impact on running costs and the associated
CO2 emissions. Boiler efficiency depends upon:
• Fuel
• Boiler type and design
• The load on the boiler due to the weather
• Boiler and radiator sizing relative to the design
heat load
• System controls
• Flow and return temperatures
• Installation and commissioning
• System free from sludge and scale
• Regular servicing and maintenance.
The advances in boiler technology mean that
when older boilers are replaced, substantial
efficiency improvements can be expected from
newer equipment. Manufacturers now design for
maximum efficiency consistent with durability. The
greatest energy efficiency benefits are obtained from
installing condensing boilers. These are always more
efficient than non-condensing models. It is now a
requirement of the building regulations that newly
installed oil-fired boilers should be condensing, with
a SEDBUK (Seasonal Efficiency of a Domestic Boiler in
the UK) efficiency of 86% or more, unless exceptional
circumstances apply (see Section 2.2).
Energy consumption
CO2 emissions
Other
12%
Boiler
88%
1.2
Energy consumption and emissions
Boilers consume far more energy than household
appliances. In the UK the average dwelling with
central heating uses about 23,000 kilowatt-hours
(kWh) of energy each year, of which about 85% is
for heating and hot water. For the same heat output,
emissions are higher from oil-fired boilers than from
gas or LPG ones, even though oil boilers are normally
more efficient. To reduce fuel costs and emissions
it is important to choose the most efficient boilers
and install them in suitably designed and controlled
systems.
Relative costs
Other
30%
Other
20%
Boiler
80%
Boiler
70%
Figure 1: Heating and hot water as a proportion of total energy usage in homes heated by oil
4
Domestic heating by oil: Boiler systems – guidance for installers and specifiers (2008 edition)
Introduction to best practice
1.3
Environmental impact of oil heating
Oil relative to other fuels
The main environmental impact of heating systems
is the emission of CO2. When burning oil, CO2
emissions are approximately 37% greater than those
from burning natural gas to give an equal amount of
heat, and approximately 13% higher than those from
LPG (liquefied petroleum gas). However, it is possible
to obtain slightly higher efficiencies from oil boilers
than from natural gas or LPG boilers, so for the same
amount of useful heat output from a boiler the CO2
emissions are approximately 29% and 10% higher.
De-carbonisation of oil for domestic heating
Work is already in progress to establish bio-fuels as
a partial or complete replacement for kerosene (the
oil used by most domestic oil boilers). Initially, it is
intended that liquid bio-fuel and kerosene will be
blended in a fixed ratio to bring the CO2 emissions
down to a level near that of natural gas. Before the
blend can be used, some conversion work will be
needed to the burners and other equipment within
oil boiler systems. The longer term aim is to enrich
the blend in stages by decreasing the proportion of
kerosene.
Alternatives to oil heating
Alternatives that may have a lower environmental
impact should be considered where practicable. They
include:
• Wood-burning boilers
• Micro-CHP units
• Electric heat pumps.
Micro-CHP, although burning oil or other fuels,
produces electricity as a by-product that offsets the
carbon burden of central generation. Where heat
pumps are considered it should be borne in mind
that the relevant efficiency indicator is the seasonal
performance factor (i.e., the annual average installed
system performance, taking account of annual
variation in the British climate) including hot water
service as well as space heating. This is not the
same as the coefficient of performance measured in
standard laboratory tests.
Where an oil heating system is chosen, fuel
consumption and carbon emissions can be reduced
by combining it with solar water heating (see
Section 4.3).
Domestic heating by oil: Boiler systems – guidance for installers and specifiers (2008 edition)
5
2. UK Building Regulations
2.1
Introduction
This section outlines the minimum standards
for heating efficiency as set out in the building
regulations. The remainder of this guide then
concentrates on best practice – a higher standard.
The building regulations set a legal requirement to
make ‘reasonable provision . . . for the conservation
of fuel and power in dwellings’. However, the
approved guidance makes clear that there may well
be alternative ways of achieving compliance, and
different strategies can be adopted provided it can
be shown they are at least as good as those already
accepted as reasonable provision.
There are different building regulations* in England
and Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland. They
restrict the types of heating system that may be
installed in both new and existing dwellings. The
different regulations in each country are summarised
in later sections, but for details reference should
always be made to the official documents(18,19,20).
For new dwellings the general approach is to
demonstrate compliance by showing that the
carbon emissions are below a given threshold for a
particular dwelling. There are also minimum SEDBUK
efficiencies that apply to oil boilers. The efficiency
of the particular make and model of boiler installed
is used in the calculation of carbon emissions for
individual dwellings.
For existing dwellings there are minimum
requirements for boiler efficiency, hot water storage
vessels, pipe insulation, controls, and commissioning
that apply when heating systems are replaced or
modified.
In England, Wales and Northern Ireland detailed
guidance on the minimum requirements for heating
and hot water systems is given in the Domestic
Heating Compliance Guide(21). This guide was
prepared with support from industry and offers
specific information on how to achieve compliance.
In Scotland the detailed guidance is incorporated in
Technical Standards handbooks(19).
*This guide outlines the relevant building regulations in England,
Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Regulations that apply in
Jersey, Guernsey and the Isle of Man are broadly similar but it is
essential to refer to official guidance.
6
Other parts of the regulations deal with the related
issues of the safety of heating installations and with
fuel storage. They are Part J (England and Wales),
Section 3: Environment (Scotland) and Technical
Booklet L (Northern Ireland). Requirements for sealed
(unvented) systems are in Part G (England and Wales),
Section 4: Safety (Scotland) and Technical Booklet P
(Northern Ireland).
2.2
General requirements
Calculation of carbon emissions
The government’s Standard Assessment Procedure
(SAP), see below, is used to calculate the energy
and environmental performance ratings and carbon
emissions of individual dwellings. To comply with
building regulations, a new dwelling must have carbon
emissions that do not exceed a target value. Compliance
is established by calculating a Dwelling Emission Rate
(DER) and Target Emission Rate (TER) – see box on
page 7. There are some differences in the way that DER
and TER are calculated and applied in each country, and
for more information reference should be made to the
respective regulations or standards(18,19,20).
Whilst this guide is concerned with oil-fired heating
and hot water systems, renewable energy should also
be considered. The use of technologies such as solar
water heating (see Section 4.3) will reduce the DER.
Boiler efficiency
Standard Assessment Procedure (SAP)
SAP is the UK government’s procedure for the
energy rating of homes(22). The properties of a
building, such as the insulation, determine its heat
requirements, while the type of heating system
and heating fuel determine the energy use, cost
and CO2 emissions under standard occupancy
conditions.
In the latest version, SAP 2005, the rating scale is
1 to 100. This is based on the calculated cost of
space and water heating, ventilation and lighting,
less savings from any energy generated in the
building. High numbers represent better energy
performance, and a rating of 100 is reached when
the net energy consumption (over a whole year)
is zero. Ratings above 100 are possible when the
dwelling is a net exporter of energy. To comply with
building regulations all new homes must have a SAP
assessment. SAP also calculates the environmental
impact (CO2) rating, the dwelling emission rate (DER)
and the target emission rate (TER).
Domestic heating by oil: Boiler systems – guidance for installers and specifiers (2008 edition)
UK Building Regulations
Environmental Impact (CO2) rating, and
Environmental Impact (CO2) band
The Environmental Impact (EI) rating is a number
representing the annual CO2 emissions, calculated as
part of the SAP procedure. Higher numbers represent
lower emissions, with 100 representing zero net
emissions. Numbers above 100 are possible if the
dwelling is a net exporter of energy. The number
range is divided into bands labelled A to G that are
intended for use on building energy certificates.
Dwelling emission rate (DER) and target
emission rate (TER)
The DER and TER are calculated as part of the
SAP procedure. The DER gives the CO2 emissions
per unit of floor area, expressed in kg/m2/year. To
comply with building regulations in England and
Wales, the DER of a new dwelling must not exceed
a target value (TER). The TER is calculated for a
notional dwelling of the same size and shape, and
varies with choice of fuel.
Boiler efficiency
SAP 2005 uses SEDBUK (Seasonal Efficiency of
Domestic Boilers in the UK) boiler efficiencies to
calculate the energy required to meet the heating
demand of the building. Only SEDBUK efficiency
figures are acceptable and the best source of this
information is the Government’s Boiler Efficiency
Database. See www.boilers.org.uk
Condensing boiler exceptions
To determine the conditions under which a non-condensing boiler
is accepted as reasonable, an assessment of the property should be
carried out. Details are given in(19,21). There is an assessment form,
with instructions for completion, and a technical guide(23,24). Key
points include the following:
The current minimum efficiencies for oil fired boilers
are shown in table 1.
• The lowest cost installation position must be found, as defined by
the procedure.
Condensing boilers are required in most cases
except where the installation would be impractical or
excessively costly. In these cases it may be reasonable
to install a non-condensing boiler instead (see box
– condensing boiler exceptions). The procedure is
referred to as “Assessing the case for a non-condensing
boiler” in England, Wales and Northern Ireland and
“Condensing Boiler Installation Procedure” in Scotland.
Table 1: Minimum efficiency (SEDBUK)
requirements – UK building regulations
New
dwellings
Existing
dwellings
Regular boilers
86%
86%
Combination boilers
86%
86%
Range cooker/boilers*
75%
75%
* The cooker and boiler must have separate,
independently controlled burners
• The assessment considers fuel type, dwelling type, boiler position,
flue options, flue terminal positions and condensate drain points.
• Standardised costs and benefits are assumed, which will not be
the same as actual costs and benefits in any particular property.
• The installation position is based on the characteristics of the
empty building, ignoring furniture and fittings as well as any
position preferred by the owner.
• A simple points system determines whether the lowest cost
installation option exceeds a fixed threshold.
• The assessment form must be completed and signed by a
competent person and a copy given to the building owner, who
should retain it as evidence an assessment has been carried out.
• If confirmed by the assessment, a non-condensing boiler may
then be installed. The assessment form may be needed as
evidence when the building is sold.
• Even when an exception is allowed, a condensing boiler is
preferable and a grant may be available to the householder to
assist with the extra installation cost.
• The boiler installed, whether condensing or non-condensing, does
not have to be installed in the position evaluated for the purpose
of the assessment.
Domestic heating by oil: Boiler systems – guidance for installers and specifiers (2008 edition)
7
UK Building Regulations
Storage vessels
Hot water storage vessels should be insulated in
accordance with BS 1566:2002(25), and the internal
heat exchanger should be sized accordingly. They
must also have a label showing type, capacity, heat
loss and performance.
There should be pumped circulation through the
primary circuit to the heat exchanger.
System circulation
Both heating and hot water domestic primary
circulation systems should have pumped circulation.
Existing semi-gravity systems should be converted to
fully pumped.
Controls
Zone controls should allow different air temperatures
to be set for living and sleeping areas (other than
in small open-plan flats and other properties where
these areas are not separated). In most dwellings,
both temperature zones can be controlled by a single
time switch or programmer channel. However, in
properties with a floor area of more than 150m2,
multiple timing zones are required (with no zone
larger than 150m2).
Separate timing control should be provided for hot
water, unless this is provided by a combi boiler.
Boiler interlock (see Section 5.1) is needed to ensure
that the boiler and pump is switched off when
neither heat nor hot water is wanted. Thermostatic
radiator valves (TRVs) alone do not provide boiler
interlock. They must be supplemented by a room
thermostat or similar device to turn off the boiler and
prevent unnecessary boiler cycling.
A bypass circuit of specified minimum length should
be provided if the boiler manufacturer’s instructions
require it, in which case it should be fitted with an
automatic bypass valve.
Pipework
Pipes should be insulated wherever they pass
outside the heated living space. In addition, all hot
water pipes connected to the hot water cylinder
(including the vent pipe and the primary flow and
return) should be insulated for at least 1m from the
connection. Pipework in unheated areas must be
insulated to meet requirements to limit heat loss.
8
Electrical works
All electrical works must be carried out to
BS 7671(26).
Existing buildings
New or replacement hot water storage vessels and
controls should meet the same requirements as in
new buildings.
Commissioning
Upon completion of the installation, the system
should be inspected and then brought into service
so that it operates efficiently and meets its specified
performance levels. Suitable documentary evidence
must be provided; examples are OFTEC forms for
Installation CD/10(58) and Commissioning CD/11(59)).
The owner or occupier should also be given
information on the operation and maintenance of
the system. Further information on the requirements
for commissioning and handover can be found in the
Domestic Heating Compliance Guide (England, Wales
and Northern Ireland) and in the Technical Standards
handbook (Scotland).
2.3
England and Wales
General
There are two Approved Documents(18) ADL1 (new
dwellings) and ADL2 (existing dwellings) that outline
basic requirements, and they are supported by more
detail given in the Domestic Heating Compliance
Guide(21).
Further information is available from the Communities
and Local Government (CLG) planning portal website
www.planningportal.gov.uk
Hot water
Hot water storage vessels should be insulated
in accordance with BS 1566, BS 3198 or BS EN
12897(25,27,28), and the internal heat exchanger should
be sized accordingly. There should be pumped
circulation through the primary circuit to the heat
exchanger. If a thermal store is used, it should meet
the requirements of the Waterheater Manufacturers’
Association 1999 performance specification(29).
They must also have a label showing type, capacity,
heat loss and performance.
Domestic heating by oil: Boiler systems – guidance for installers and specifiers (2008 edition)
UK Building Regulations
Electrical works
In addition to the requirements of BS 7671, certain
electrical works are regarded as controlled services
and should only be carried out by a competent
person and notified by the competent person
scheme to which they belong.
Commissioning
Upon completion of the installation, the system
should be inspected and then brought into service
so that it operates efficiently and meets its specified
performance levels. The owner or occupier should
also be given information on the operation and
maintenance of the system. The installer (competent
person) should provide details of the installation
to the operator of the competent person scheme
who will send a certificate to the householder and
supply any relevant information to the local authority
building control department. Alternatively, installers or
their customers can use the local authority building
control route for building regulation notification, for
which a charge is made.
Existing buildings
Approved document ADL2 specifies requirements
for existing buildings. There are no TER and DER
calculations required but when the work involves
the provision or upgrade to a heating or hot water
system, it must follow the requirements given in the
Domestic Heating Compliance Guide(21).
In particular, any new boiler (whether or not it
replaces an existing unit) should meet or exceed
the minimum efficiency requirements given above.
Where the installation of a condensing boiler
would be impractical or excessively costly, it may be
reasonable to install a non-condensing boiler instead
(see boiler exceptions panel). Replacements should
be specified as for new systems and no worse
than 2 percentage points lower than the boiler
being replaced. Further requirements apply if the
replacement involves a fuel change.
Most types of heating system are controlled services,
including central heating systems with boilers.
Alterations to controlled services or fittings require a
Building Control Notice, unless they are carried out
by a recognised competent person allowed to selfcertify the work.
2.4
Scotland
General
New dwellings must comply with the Building
(Scotland) Regulations(19) as presented in their
technical handbooks (updated in May 2007).
Requirements for the conservation of fuel and
power are given in the domestic handbook section 6
(Energy). Demonstration of compliance is based
on carbon emissions. SEDBUK efficiencies are used
in the carbon emission calculations and minimum
efficiency values also apply.
Further information is available from the Scottish
Building Services Agency website (SBSA) website
www.sbsa.gov.uk
Commissioning
Upon completion of installation, systems must be
inspected, tested, and brought into service so as
to meet the specified performance and operate
efficiently. Written information on the operation and
maintenance of the system must be provided to the
occupier. A building warrant scheme is used, and it
should always be confirmed whether a warrant is
required for works involving oil-fired boilers, systems
and controls.
Existing buildings
If a central heating boiler is to be replaced in an
existing dwelling it is required to meet the minimum
SEDBUK efficiency as stated for new systems. Where
it is impractical or uneconomic to install a condensing
boiler, the dwelling may be assessed as given in the
Guide to Condensing Boiler Installation Assessment
procedure for dwellings (Scotland)(24). Where this
assessment confirms a non-condensing boiler can be
fitted it should have a minimum SEDBUK efficiency
of 85% (oil regular boiler) or 82% (oil combi boiler).
Alternatively a back-boiler with a SEDBUK of
3 percentage points less than the above figures may
be installed.
Existing systems with semi-gravity circulation should
be converted to fully-pumped. Replacement boilers
should always be fitted with controls as required for
new systems. TRVs should be fitted on all radiators
in a new building extension, even though the heat
may be supplied from an existing boiler. Where only
part of a heating system is replaced it should be
done in such a way that the energy efficiency is not
downgraded.
Domestic heating by oil: Boiler systems – guidance for installers and specifiers (2008 edition)
9
UK Building Regulations
2.5
Northern Ireland
General
The relevant building regulations are the Building
Regulations (Northern Ireland) 2000, and specifically
Building Regulations F3 and F4(30). These were
amended in 2006 and call for ‘reasonable
provisions’ to be made for space heating and hot
water supply.
The installation, alteration or replacement of any
heating system must comply with the relevant
regulations. All new heating systems should be
notified to building control and any alteration to an
existing heating system where a structural alteration
is involved. Where an existing heating system is
extended, the extension to the system must be
insulated to comply with regulation F4.
‘Technical Booklet F1: Conservation of fuel and
power’(20) gives provisions that are deemed-tosatisfy the requirements of regulations F3 and F4.
Although it is not essential to follow Technical
Booklet F1, it is obligatory to comply with building
regulations F3 and F4.
Further information is available from the Department
of Finance and Personnel, Northern Ireland website
www.dfpni.gov.uk
Existing buildings
A new boiler (whether or not it replaces an
existing unit) should meet or exceed the minimum
efficiency requirements given in table 1. Where
the installation of a condensing boiler would be
impractical or excessively costly, it may be reasonable
to install a non-condensing boiler instead (see
10
panel – condensing boiler exceptions on page 7).
Replacements should as specified for new systems
and no worse than 2 percentage points lower than
the boiler being replaced. Further requirements apply
if the replacement involves fuel change.
The technical booklets refer to the Communities
and Local Government (CLG) publication: Domestic
Heating Compliance Guide(21) for requirements on
controlled services, insulation of pipes, ducts and
storage vessels.
Hot Water
Hot water storage vessels should be insulated
in accordance with BS 1566, BS 3198 or BS EN
12897(25,27,28), and the internal heat exchanger should
be sized accordingly. There should be pumped
circulation through the primary circuit to the heat
exchanger. If a thermal store is used, it should meet
the requirements of the Waterheater Manufacturers’
Association 1999 performance specification(29).
They must also show a label detailing type, capacity,
heat loss and performance.
Commissioning
Upon completion of the installation, the system
should be inspected and then brought into service
so that it operates efficiently and meets its specified
performance levels. Local authority building control
must be notified of any oil firing, storage, installation
and commissioning works. A building notice
confirming that all fixed building services have been
commissioned by a suitably qualified person is
required, and a copy given to the district council and
the dwelling owner.
Domestic heating by oil: Boiler systems – guidance for installers and specifiers (2008 edition)
3. Boiler types
While this guide describes all types of oil-fired
boilers, it concentrates mainly on condensing units.
Condensing boilers provide optimum performance
with low running costs and reduced CO2 emissions,
and in most cases are required by building
regulations.
Modern oil boilers are very efficient with reasonably
low running costs. They are particularly suitable in
areas where no mains gas is available. LPG (liquefied
petroleum gas) is another option outside the area
supplied with mains gas: see the gas boiler systems
guide(31) for more information on LPG boilers.
When seeking estimates of installation costs for oilfired boilers, ensure that the provision and installation
of an adequate oil storage tank is taken into account
as well.
In most households, a single boiler provides both
space heating and hot water, either:
• Indirectly, through a regular boiler and separate
hot water tank (which is usually a copper cylinder
with a heating coil inside);
Or
• Directly, using a combination boiler with no
separate tank.
3.1
Condensing boilers
Condensing boilers are the only type that meet
best practice requirements and should always be
considered as first choice in any application. In the
UK all oil-fired boilers installed must be condensing
(except range cooker-boilers), with a SEDBUK
efficiency of 86% or more, unless an exception is
allowed (see Section 2.2). Even if an exception is
allowed, a condensing boiler should always be the
first choice and a grant may be available to the
householder to assist with the extra installation cost.
Domestic oil-fired condensing boilers are usually
only available for use with kerosene. Refer to the
boiler manufacturer when the use of gas-oil is being
considered.
Features of condensing boilers
• SEDBUK efficiencies between 86% and 97%
(with kerosene as the fuel).
• Typically a new condensing oil boiler will have an
efficiency of 93%, compared with 85% for a new
non-condensing boiler and 60-70% for older
types.
• The system does not need to be designed to
make the boiler condense all the time to achieve
improved efficiency.
• Mostly regular types, but combis are now
available.
• Mostly floor standing but wall hung units are also
available.
• Room-sealed and open-flue models are available
for domestic applications.
• Many have extended flue options.
• Suitable for replacing most existing boilers (but
not BBUs in the same position).
Installation considerations for condensing boilers
• They are as easy to install as non-condensing
boilers, but need a connection from the
condensate outlet to a drain.
• Can be installed in modern fully-pumped
systems.
• Oversized radiators will increase efficiency
but good efficiency can still be obtained with
‘normally sized’ radiators.
• Care is needed in siting the flue terminal due to
the plume of water vapour usually present during
boiler operation. The plume will be visible for
much of the time the boiler is in operation.
• Can employ a range of extended flue options,
with the visible plume less likely to be a nuisance
at high levels.
Domestic heating by oil: Boiler systems – guidance for installers and specifiers (2008 edition)
11
Boiler types
3.2
Regular boilers
Units that are not combination boilers (see below)
are commonly referred to as regular or heat only
boilers and can be wall-mounted or floor-standing.
Space heating is provided directly, but for hot water
they need to be connected to a separate hot water
storage system.
Oil-fired back boilers with a fuel effect fire on the
front (usually electric powered) can be installed in a
fireplace, but condensing versions are not available.
Regular boilers for sealed systems (see Section 4.1)
which have components such as pumps and
expansion vessels within their casings are known as
system boilers.
drain
Figure 2: Condensing regular boiler
Heat
store
Domestic
hot
water
3.3
Combination boilers
Combination or combi boilers provide both space
and hot water heating directly. Most oil-fired units
are storage combis and have an internal primary hot
water store i.e. it is the water that passes directly
through the boiler heat exchanger which is the
largest part of the store (not the domestic hot water
that feeds the taps).
These boilers are capable of providing a continuous
flow of hot water, but at a lower rate than typical
hot water storage systems. As such, they may be
less suitable for dwellings where there may be
simultaneous demands for hot water, i.e. multiple
bathrooms.
Combi boilers save space because:
drain
• They are fed directly from the water main, with
no need for a hot water storage cylinder or cold
water feed cistern.
Heating
flow
Figure 3: Condensing instantaneous combi boiler
12
• They are usually intended for use in a sealed
system which does not require a feed-andexpansion cistern (allows a dry roof space).
Before selecting a combi boiler, check the
manufacturers’ instructions to ensure that the
dwelling has both satisfactory water pressure and an
adequately-sized water supply pipe. Otherwise, hot
water service may not be adequate.
Domestic heating by oil: Boiler systems – guidance for installers and specifiers (2008 edition)
Boiler types
Space heating
The power (rate of heat output) of combi boilers is
usually governed by hot water service requirements,
and often exceeds that needed for space heating.
Most oil-fired combis have fixed rate burners and a
hot water store.
Hot water
Factors to consider are:
• The time taken for hot water to reach an
acceptable temperature.
3.4
Range Cooker boilers
Some oil-fired cookers have a hot water boiler (either
integral or separate).
The latest units have two burners: one is for heating
and hot water; the other is for cooking and has
independent control. The casings of these cooker
boilers have relatively high heat loss, which can be
useful in winter but not in summer. Condensing units
are being developed but not yet available.
• Hot water flow rate at the acceptable
temperature.
• How long this rate can be sustained.
• Can hot water be drawn off at more than one
point simultaneously?
These factors will be influenced by the following:
• The size of the internal hot water store. A store
can reduce the delay in delivering hot water.
Oil-fired combis usually have a primary water
store. There are four different types:
–– Instantaneous: no internal hot water store
(rarely oil-fired).
–– Keep-hot small hot water store: keeps water
within the boiler permanently hot to reduce
warm-up time at boiler start-up (sometimes
called ‘warm-start’).
–– Medium store: sufficient to meet small hot
water requirements without delay, but insufficient for a bath.
–– Large store: sufficient for a bath or multiple
simultaneous draw-off without delay.
• Boiler power affects the rate at which hot water
at the required temperature can be drawn off
after any internal store is exhausted.
• Boilers generally limit the hot water flow rate to
ensure the declared temperature rise.
Domestic heating by oil: Boiler systems – guidance for installers and specifiers (2008 edition)
13
4. Systems and components
Systems may either be sealed or open-vented to
prevent ingress or escape of air. In the past, most
installations were open-vented, but many are now
being replaced by sealed systems. Whether a system
is sealed or open vented makes no difference to its
energy efficiency.
Expansion
vessel
Figure 4: Sealed system
Feed and
expansion cistern
4.1
Sealed and open-vented systems
Sealed
This is a popular option for new systems and
increasingly used for boiler replacements. The feedand-expansion cistern is replaced by an expansion
vessel incorporating a diaphragm to accommodate
variations in water volume. As the system is not
open to the atmosphere, the pressure rises with
increasing temperature, and additional safety controls
must be installed (these are often within the boiler).
The system will need a relief valve connected to
an external discharge point, which must be placed
where any discharge of hot water will be harmless.
There is no permanent connection to a water supply,
and the system may have to be topped up with
water occasionally.
As the system is not open to the atmosphere, there
is little possibility of oxygen being absorbed into the
water and, consequently, reduced risk of corrosion.
Because these systems may remove the need to
install pipes and cisterns in the roof space, they
reduce the risk of freezing.
Most combi boilers, and all system boilers, are
designed for use with sealed systems and will usually
incorporate system components, including a pump,
expansion vessel and safety controls within the boiler
case. In such cases, it must be ensured that this
integral expansion vessel has sufficient capacity to
allow for the water expansion of the whole system.
Figure 5: Open system
14
Open-vented
The majority of existing systems with a regular boiler
and an indirect hot water cylinder are open vented.
‘Open vent’ refers to the separate vent pipe which
is open to the atmosphere. The system also needs
a feed-and-expansion cistern to allow for changes
in water volume with temperature. This cistern has
to be at the highest point of the system, usually in
the loft space where it must be protected against
freezing.
Domestic heating by oil: Boiler systems – guidance for installers and specifiers (2008 edition)
Systems and components
4.2
Domestic hot water
The main issues to be considered regarding domestic
hot water are:
• The number of people in the dwelling.
households with a single bathroom, these are
typically of 117-140 litre capacity, but for larger
dwellings with more than one bathroom (and
perhaps with separate shower facilities), a larger
cylinder capacity will be required(32).
• The number of baths/showers/taps.
• The hot water flow rate required.
• Likelihood of simultaneous hot water draw-offs.
• Availability of space for a hot water cylinder, or
storage-combi.
• Importance of a dry loft.
• Feasibility of solar water heating.
Specific issues relating to combis are given in
Section 3.3.
Most existing regular boiler systems employ a
vented, indirect, hot water storage cylinder. In
High performance cylinders contain a rapid heating
coil. This is a heat exchanger with larger surface
than normal, which reduces the time taken to heat
the water and may reduce boiler cycling. It gives a
valuable reduction in recovery time between large
draw-offs (such as baths), and helps to increase
system efficiency (especially with older boilers). High
performance cylinders often have improved factoryapplied insulation as well.
Unvented cylinders are increasingly used in new
systems and these operate at mains pressure. They
employ an internal expansion facility or a dedicated
external expansion vessel, and do not require a feed
cistern in the loft.
Hot water taps
Cold water taps
Cold
water
main
Figure 6: Unvented hot water system
Domestic heating by oil: Boiler systems – guidance for installers and specifiers (2008 edition)
15
Systems and components
Feed and
expansion cistern
Hot water
taps
Cold water
main
Figure 7: Thermal storage system
Most hot water cylinders and thermal stores are supplied
with factory-applied insulation and these should always
be used in preference to cylinders with separate jackets.
Cylinders should satisfy British Standards with regard to
insulation and heat exchanger performance.
Medium-duty cylinders have inferior performance
and do not meet CHeSS basic requirements or those
of the building regulations, and so should not be
used for either new or replacement installations.
Thermal stores can be obtained that hold water
at high temperatures, heated by the boiler directly.
These are available for ‘hot water only’ or ‘hot water
and space heating’.
Mains-fed systems such as combi boilers, unvented
cylinders and thermal stores can supply hot water
at mains pressure. This is extremely beneficial
when high pressure is needed at the outlet, e.g. for
showers. It is therefore important to ensure that the
incoming water supply pressure and flow to the
dwelling are adequate and that all showers have
the hot and cold water supply at the same nominal
pressure. This eliminates the need for a shower
pump.
Table 2: Domestic hot water flow rates
System type
Flow rate
Low
Instantaneous
combi1,3
Storage combi2,3
Thermal store3
Unvented
Vented
storage2,3
storage4
Medium
x
x
x
x
High
x
x
x
x
x
x
Notes
1.Rarely applied to oil-fired boilers and depends on boiler heat output; less satisfactory for two or more
simultaneous draw-offs
2. Depends on boiler heat output and storage capacity
3. Depends on adequate mains water supply
4. Requires high level feed cistern
16
Domestic heating by oil: Boiler systems – guidance for installers and specifiers (2008 edition)
Systems and components
4.3
Solar hot water systems
The use of solar water heating provides the
opportunity to reduce running costs and carbon
emissions when used in conjunction with wet central
heating systems. There is now a large choice of
systems available and the technology is improving
all the time. Depending on system design a thermal
solar system can provide most of the average
dwelling domestic hot water requirement in the
summer and up 50% all the year round.
There are a range of different systems available,
but the general principle is that roof-mounted solar
collectors are heated by the sun, and the heated water
is passed to a special hot water storage cylinder. This
water is then further heated to raise the temperature, if
necessary, by the oil-fired boiler system.
Figure 8 shows a typical open vented system with
a large cylinder containing an additional solar heat
exchanger, (usually referred to as twin-coil). Sealed
solar primary systems (i.e. to collectors) are also
commonly used and unvented twin-coil cylinders
are also available. The capital costs of systems are
relatively high but costs can be recouped through
reduced heating bills. When systems are being
upgraded and the hot water cylinder is being
replaced, consideration should be given to installing
a larger cylinder containing a solar heating coil.
This facility will then save cost and disruption if it is
decided to install solar heating panels at a later date.
Solar hot water systems can also be used in
conjunction with some combi boilers. However, this
should only be considered where the combi boiler
is part of an integrated solar package since systems
based on ad-hoc components may not achieve
good energy savings and boilers may not operate
correctly. When considering this option the boiler
manufacturer’s advice should always be obtained.
Separate guidance and advice on solar systems
should be sought(33,48). Also where appropriate, low
carbon supplementary heat sources such as heat
pumps or wood burning stoves can be considered.
Where these are combined with oil-fired systems,
expert advice should be sought to ensure both safety
and energy efficiency is optimised.
Solar
collector
Controller
To
boiler
Figure 8: Solar water heating system for connection to a boiler (safety controls not shown)
Domestic heating by oil: Boiler systems – guidance for installers and specifiers (2008 edition)
17
Systems and components
4.4
Upgrading systems
Many existing wet central heating systems are
poorly controlled and of obsolete design. Poor
design features which fail to meet current building
regulations and best practice requirements include:
• Gravity circulation to the hot water cylinder, which
results in stored water being slow to re-heat.
• Lack of cylinder thermostat, resulting in excessive
stored water temperature (risk of scalding).
• Lack of room thermostat (rooms are too hot).
4.5
Flue types
Most new boilers installed will be of the condensing
type and in most cases they will be replacing noncondensing units. The different flue arrangements
of the existing model may affect the siting of the
new boiler. Figure 9 shows typical flue types found in
existing systems.
The following is a list of important factors to consider
when replacing a non-condensing boiler with a
condensing unit:
• Lack of TRVs, causing excessive room
temperatures and poor system balancing.
• New oil-fired boilers are very efficient and
operate with comparatively low flue-gas
temperatures. A correctly sized, well-constructed,
lined flue is essential for efficient performance.
• Absence of boiler interlock, causing the boiler
to stay hot and to cycle unnecessarily during
programmed periods.
• The flue must be correctly designed and sized
using suitable, corrosion resistant materials and it
must be provided with a suitable terminal(34).
It is important that an existing system is cleaned, and
recommendations regarding the use of corrosion
inhibitor are followed when boilers are replaced and/
or systems upgraded (57).
• When a replacement condensing boiler is fitted,
the existing flue system is unlikely to be suitable.
A new flue system made of condensate resistant
material and suitable for wet operation must be
used.
When upgrading, use the CHeSS specifications (see
Section 6).
Room-sealed balanced flue
Open flue
Air
Flue
Flow
Air
Flow
Air
Return
Return
Figure 9: Existing flue types
18
Domestic heating by oil: Boiler systems – guidance for installers and specifiers (2008 edition)
Systems and components
• Many new condensing boilers are room-sealed
with a balanced flue. Room-sealed boilers do
not require special provision for combustion air in
that room but compartment ventilation may be
required for cooling purposes.
• Boilers with open flues should, when possible,
be located in a separate boiler room where
combustion air is taken directly from the outside.
If it is to be installed in a regularly used room
such as a kitchen, advice should be sought from
the manufacturer.
• The plume will be visible for much of the time
the boiler is in use and can sometimes cause a
nuisance. For this reason, special consideration
should be given to the siting of the new flue
terminal (see Section 9.2).
• A wide range of extended flues are now available
which can be used to minimize the possible
nuisance caused from the plume of flue products.
Low-level
concentric
• Open flues using both rigid and flexible pipes (or
used together) are now available.
• Extended and vertical balanced flues are
available for many condensing boilers using
concentric ducts. In some cases these allow flue
lengths of over 6m, with a number of bends.
(see figure 10).
• Low level balanced flues must not be used with
boilers fired by gas-oil fuel.
• New boilers will all have fan-assisted pressure
jet burners, but the existing unit may use a
vaporising burner.
• Rooms containing existing open-flue boilers will
normally have a purpose-made vent to ensure
sufficient air for combustion. However, this is
unlikely to be required if the replacement is a
room-sealed boiler(34).
Roof level concentric
High-level
concentric
Figure 10: Extended concentric balanced flues
Domestic heating by oil: Boiler systems – guidance for installers and specifiers (2008 edition)
19
Systems and components
4.6
Heat emitters
A wide range of heat emitters are available (see
Table 3). Radiators remain the most popular type
and modern versions are usually slightly smaller for
an equivalent heat output. Many modern radiators
also have lower water content, making for a faster
warm-up.
The heat output of the radiators should be carefully
calculated(32,35). All radiators should be fitted with
a TRV (see Section 6 – CHeSS) excluding those in a
room with a controlling room thermostat.
Underfloor heating is an attractive alternative in
the right circumstances, but it needs to be installed
by specialists. It also requires careful control in
accordance with the manufacturer’s guidance.
Other important points regarding heat emitters
include the following:
• Radiators sited under windows counteract cold
downdraughts and so give a more comfortable
environment in the room.
• Radiators should be installed close to the floor,
preferably 100-150mm above finished floor level.
• Wide, low radiators will be more effective at
heating the room evenly than tall, narrow
designer styles. Enclosures around radiators
reduce the heat output.
4.7
Circulator pumps
A circulator pump must be selected with sufficient
design pressure and flow rate for the total system
resistance when operational. If the pump is
undersized or is set too low, the flow may be
inadequate to meet the manufacturer’s minimum
requirement. This will result in the boiler operating
with a larger temperature rise than intended. On the
other hand, a pump that is larger than required will
result in excessive water velocity noise as well as
unnecessary electricity consumption.
Circulator pumps are built into combi and system
boilers and it must be ensured that the pump has
adequate head and flow rate to meet the system
design.
Pumps that are installed separately (i.e. not supplied
as part of the boiler unit) and that have automatic
speed control should only be used in heating systems
with TRVs if the design of the pump and system
ensures that the minimum flow rate through the
boiler (as specified by the boiler manufacturer) is
certain to be maintained under all conditions.
Multiple pumps (one for each water circuit) may
be used as an alternative to a single pump with
motorised valves, provided that each water circuit
has a non-return valve. Advice on pump sizing can
be obtained from the British Pump Manufacturers’
Association (BPMA) website at www.bpma.org.uk
Table 3: Heat emitters
20
Type
Comment
Panel radiator
The most common type in modern housing. Available in a wide range of
outputs and sizes.
Compact radiator
A radiator or convector fitted with top grille and side covers.
Column and designer radiators
Available in a wide range of colours and shapes.
Low Surface Temperature (LST)
radiator
Safe option where young children or the elderly may be at risk. Limited to a
surface temperature of 43°C in order to prevent injury.
Towel rail
For towel warming and will give some heat to the bathroom.
Fan convector
Wall hung and kickspace units available. These provide a more rapid heating
response. They need an electrical supply and there may be some fan noise.
Underfloor heating coils
Requires specialist installation and controls(38). May be less suitable for
rooms requiring only intermittent heating.
Domestic heating by oil: Boiler systems – guidance for installers and specifiers (2008 edition)
5. Controls
Installing effective controls can have a major impact
on the energy consumption of heating and hot water
systems. This section describes the types of controls
now available and outlines which are most suitable
for different heating systems.
Effective controls will increase operating efficiencies,
especially when older systems are being updated.
They also provide the householder with the
opportunity to minimise energy consumption
by ensuring the right comfort temperatures are
maintained and so reducing overheating. Reducing
room temperatures will also save energy (see panel
opposite). Timed space and water heating periods
will also help to avoid excessive use of energy.
Heating fuel is expensive (oil-fired boilers typically
consume 40-80 pence of fuel an hour when
operating) and reducing the firing time will make a
proportionate difference to running costs.
A good control system is one which ensures the
boiler does not operate unless there is a demand and
that only provides heat where and when it is needed
in order to achieve the required temperatures. The
selection of suitable controls plays a key part in
minimising the overall running costs of a heating or
hot water system.
Control standards must meet best practice in order
to maximise the efficiency of a heating system.
However, in order just to achieve the SEDBUK
efficiency claimed for a boiler, at least the basic set
of controls given in CHeSS must be installed (see
Section 6).
The cost benefit of controls should not be
underestimated. Upgrading the controls on older
heating systems can save up to 18% on energy bills,
for example when a full set of controls is fitted to a
system which previously had none. This is important,
as over 80% of the energy a householder uses in the
home is for space and hot water heating.
VAT on heating controls
Heating controls for domestic wet central heating
systems are recognized by the Government as
an energy efficiency measure. VAT is therefore
charged at a lower rate – currently 5% instead
of the full rate of 17.5%. This lower rate applies
to both equipment and installation costs, but
only when the work is carried out by an installer
registered for VAT.
Energy savings from good controls
• Installing a minimum standard of controls on a system
which previously had none can reduce fuel consumption
and CO2 emissions by 18%.
• Reducing higher than necessary room temperatures will
cut energy use. Turning down the room thermostat by 1°C
will reduce space heating consumption by 6-10%.
• An easy to use programmer that is adjusted to match the
householder’s occupancy pattern helps reduce wasteful
heating when no one is at home.
5.1
Individual controls
This section describes the range of controls
commonly used in oil-fired systems, what they do
and why they are important.
The controls listed here are normally installed
separately from the boiler although some may be
incorporated within it. For clarity of specification,
Appendix C contains a full list of controls
including those often fitted within appliances and
gives industry-agreed definitions. Appendix E
provides simple explanations that can be given to
householders on what controls do and how they
should be used.
Further advice on controls most suitable for the
disabled, particularly with visual and dexterity
impairment, can be found in the Ricability report(37).
In the following listing, best practice controls are
noted.
Time switch
A simple time control that will only switch one circuit.
It should be chosen so that it is easy to understand
and reset, especially when there is a change to the
householder’s domestic routine.
Programmer
This can switch two circuits separately (usually
heating and hot water). There are two basic types:
• A standard programmer uses the same time
settings for space heating and hot water.
• A full programmer allows fully independent time
setting for space and hot water heating.
Domestic heating by oil: Boiler systems – guidance for installers and specifiers (2008 edition)
21
Controls
Room thermostat
A simple room temperature control. Traditional types
use expansion/contraction (e.g. bimetallic strip) to
operate a switch or relay. They usually include an
accelerator or anticipator, which is a small resistance
heater having the effect of smoothing out the
temperature cycle by preventing overshoot.
Electronic room thermostats are also available which
can react more rapidly to temperature change. Some
of the latest units include a function to control the
boiler firing frequency. These units are designed to
minimise the variations in both the boiler and room
temperature.
Wireless units that provide increased flexibility in
positioning and eliminate visible wiring are now
commonly used.
Programmable room thermostat (best practice)
This allows different temperatures to be set for
different periods of the day or week and so can
provide a good match to householder living patterns,
particularly if occupancy varies. This device also has a
‘night setback’ feature where a minimum temperature
can be maintained. Many of these models are
battery-operated and can replace a conventional
thermostat without the need for additional cabling.
Some versions also allow time control of hot water
provision. Electronic and wireless versions with extra
functions are available.
Cylinder thermostat (best practice)
A simple control of stored hot water temperature,
usually strapped to the side of the hot water cylinder.
It is commonly used with a motorised valve to
provide close control of water temperature and boiler
interlock.
Frost thermostat
A simple override control used to prevent frost
damage to the dwelling and/or boiler system. The
frost air thermostat should be fitted in a suitable
place within the dwelling to ensure a minimum
temperature is always maintained.
Pipe thermostat
Where the boiler is installed in an unheated area
such as a garage, a pipe thermostat should be fitted
to the exposed pipework. This is in addition to the
frost air thermostat and is designed to prevent the
boiler from firing unnecessarily in cold weather and
so wasting fuel. If the boiler incorporates its own frost
thermostat, a separate pipe thermostat is normally
not required.
Thermostatic radiator valve (TRV) (best practice)
TRVs are used to limit the temperature in individual
rooms. They also prevent overheating from solar and
other incidental gains. In this way, they cut down
on unnecessary consumption. Programmable units,
which can be timed to switch on and off, are also
available.
Room
temperature
Early morning
Morning
Afternoon
Evening
Night
Figure 11: A programmable room thermostat offers greater flexibility in setting temperatures and times than a
standard room thermostat, producing greater savings
22
Domestic heating by oil: Boiler systems – guidance for installers and specifiers (2008 edition)
Controls
be used to provide zone control e.g. allowing
lower temperatures to be set for sleeping areas
or different heating times. An explanation of the
different types is given in Appendix D. Multiple
pumps are an alternative to motorised valves (see
Section 4.7).
Thermostatic hot water temperature limit valve
These self-acting valves without motors are used to
limit hot water temperature in domestic hot water
cylinders. Some units sense primary water (boiler)
temperature, others have a separate remote sensor
for stored water temperature. Cylinder controls
should not be used with these unless they also
operate an electrical switch to provide boiler interlock,
otherwise the boiler will cycle unnecessarily.
Boiler interlock (best practice)
This is not a device, but rather a wiring arrangement
to prevent the boiler firing when there is no
demand for heat. The boiler is interlocked when it
is switched on and off by thermostats containing
electrical switches.
Motorised valve (best practice)
These control water flow from the boiler to heating
and hot water circuits. Two-port valves can also
End
switch
230 V
Neutral
HW
SH
Cylinder
thermostat
Programmable
room thermostat
with timing for
hot water
HW
motorised
valve
Boiler
End
switch
Pump
SH
motorised
valve
Programmable room
thermostat for each
additional space
heating zone
Repeat for
each additional
heating zone
End
switch
SH
SH motorised valve
for each additional
space heating zone
Figure 12: Boiler interlock in a system with two, 2-port valves (this shows the general logic and should not be
interpreted as an installation instruction, as the actual wiring will depend on the particular products used).
Domestic heating by oil: Boiler systems – guidance for installers and specifiers (2008 edition)
23
Controls
All thermostats in the heating system fitted with
electrical switches should be wired in this way.
This includes room thermostats, programmable
room thermostats, cylinder thermostats and some
types of boiler energy managers. In many cases,
the interlock is also applied to the operation of the
pump, although any requirements for pump overrun
stipulated by the boiler manufacturer must be
observed. Without interlock, a boiler is likely to cycle
on an off regularly, wasting energy by keeping hot
unnecessarily.
Automatic bypass valve (best practice)
This controls water flow according to the differential
pressure of the water across it. It is used to maintain
a minimum flow rate through the boiler and to limit
the circulation pressure when alternative water paths
are closed. A bypass circuit must be installed if the
boiler manufacturer requires one, or specifies that a
minimum flow rate has to be maintained while the
boiler is firing. The installed bypass circuit must then
include an automatic bypass valve, not a manual
(fixed) position valve.
Achieving interlock depends upon the boiler type and
the controls fitted. Typical examples of boiler interlock
are as follows:
The use of an automatic bypass is important where
the system includes a large number of TRVs. When
most of these are open, the automatic bypass
remains closed, allowing the full water flow to
circulate around the heating system. As the TRVs
start to close, the automatic bypass starts to open,
maintaining the appropriate water flow through the
boiler. It is also helps to reduce noise in the system
caused by excess water velocity.
• Regular boiler with one 3-port or at least two
2-port motorised valves. The interlock is usually
arranged so that the room or cylinder thermostat
switches the power supply to the boiler (and
sometimes the pump) through the motorised
valve ‘end’ switches. In other words, electrical
power from the programmable room thermostat
(or separate programmer and room thermostat)
and the cylinder thermostat will drive the valve
motor to the open position. Once the motor
is fully open, the end-switch will close and
electrical power is then passed to the boiler
(and pump). Once the power to the valve is
removed (programmer off-period, or thermostat
is satisfied) the motorised valve will close, the
end-switch will open, and the boiler and pump
will stop.
• Regular boiler with two separate pumps for
heating and hot water. Where separate pumps
are used, advice from the manufacturer is
needed in regard to the correct use of relays,
check valves, etc.
• Combi boiler only requires a time switch and
room thermostat (or programmable room
thermostat) connection to provide interlock as
hot water delivery is controlled directly by the
boiler.
A boiler energy manager may need a different wiring
arrangement, achieving interlock by an alternative
method.
24
An automatic bypass is always preferable to a fixed
bypass. With a fixed bypass, there is a constant
flow of hot water coming out of the boiler, which is
fed directly into the return at all times. This means
that the boiler operates at a higher temperature,
reducing efficiency and restricting the amount of heat
transferred to the system.
It is very important that both automatic and fixed
bypasses are correctly adjusted. Poor adjustment will
give rise to increased boiler return temperatures and
reduced boiler efficiency.
Particular care is required when selecting a pump
with automatic speed control for a system with an
automatic bypass. It is important to ensure that the
boiler manufacturer’s minimum recommended water
flow rate is maintained under all operating conditions.
Boiler energy manager
These are self-contained devices which have a
number of the functions found in other individual
controls described in this section. They usually have
a number of control functions including weather or
load compensation, and sometimes optimum start,
frost protection, night setback, anti-cycling control
and hot water override. Table 4 lists a range of
control functions which may be included.
Domestic heating by oil: Boiler systems – guidance for installers and specifiers (2008 edition)
Controls
Table 4: Control functions commonly built into boilers and control units
Compensator
Reduces boiler water temperature for space heating according to internal/external air
temperature. It should increase the efficiency of condensing boilers by reducing the average
water temperature of the system.
Delayed start
Reduces energy use by delaying the heating start time to after the programmed time when
the weather is mild.
Night
setback
Allows a low temperature to be maintained at night, providing improved comfort and
reduced warm-up time in the dwelling in cold weather. In this way it can reduce the risk of
hypothermia. A programmable room thermostat can fulfil this function.
PI or PID
The letters stand for Proportional/Integral or Proportional/Integral/Derivative. These control
functions can be built into room thermostats to reduce variations in room temperature.
Anti-cycling
control
Delays boiler firing in order to reduce cycling frequency, but is unlikely to produce significant
energy savings. In some circumstances consumption may be reduced, but normally at the
expense of performance or comfort. Standalone units (i.e. those not supplied as part of the
boiler) are not generally recommended as they provide little or no improvement over the basic
level of control detailed in CHeSS.
Wireless controls
Wireless controls should be designed with adequate immunity to blocking by other radio transmissions. If
not, they may become unreliable or cease to work as nearby radio frequency bands become increasingly
used for mobile phones and other communication services. See CHeSS Note 12 in Appendix A for details on
wireless controls.
5.2
Selecting controls
The minimum sets of controls consistent with
building regulation requirements and satisfactory
heating system performance are those listed as basic
in the CHeSS specification (see Section 6). However,
it is recommended that the best practice level is
followed.
Key for figures 13 to 16
Room thermostat
Programmable thermostat
Cylinder thermostat
Boiler interlock
TRVs on most radiators
Motorised valve
Figures 13 and 14 show best practice for combi and
regular boiler systems.
Best practice – regular boilers
• Programmable room thermostat with additional
hot water timing capability.
• Cylinder thermostat.
• TRVs on all radiators except in rooms with a
room thermostat.
• Automatic bypass valve.
• Boiler interlock.
Best practice – combi boilers
• Programmable room thermostat.
• TRVs on all radiators except in rooms with a
room thermostat.
• Automatic bypass valve.
• Boiler interlock.
Figure 13: Best practice schematic for regular boiler systems (the
programmable room thermostat must have an additional hot water
timing capability)
Domestic heating by oil: Boiler systems – guidance for installers and specifiers (2008 edition)
25
Controls
Hot water
Mains water
Figure 14: Best Practice schematic for combi systems
Zoned radiators
5.3
Further control improvements
Zone control
CHeSS best practice and basic options already include
zone temperature control, achieved using TRVs. If
zones are to be independently time controlled as well,
it will usually be necessary to install additional room
thermostats and a two-port motorised valve (this is to
allow the programmer to shut off water circulation). The
wiring in such situations must be arranged so that boiler
interlock works in all zones (see figure 12).
Figure 15: Zone controls
External
temperature (C)
20
Warmer
Zone control is particularly beneficial in larger,
poorly insulated buildings. Building regulations in
the UK require that no zone is larger than 150m2
in floor area and each zone should be capable of
independent time and temperature control.
16
Compensation
slope
12
Cooler
8
Systems that provide multiple zone control are now
available which allow time and temperature control of
individual rooms or multiple zones, thereby providing
more effective and efficient heat distribution in the
dwelling. Individual time and temperature control of
separate rooms can be achieved using TRVs fitted
with special heads which include on-off control linked
to a programmer (either wired or wireless).
4
0
-4
0
20
40
60
80
Boiler flow temperature (C)
Figure 16: Weather compensation
26
New systems must always be fully pumped and
existing semi-gravity systems (i.e. with gravity
circulation to the hot water cylinder) should be
converted. Published boiler efficiencies cannot be
achieved unless the whole system is fully pumped
and effectively controlled.
100
Weather compensation
As external temperatures rise, so a weather
compensating function reduces average water
circulation temperature (see figure 16). Greatest
benefit is achieved with condensing boilers.
Domestic heating by oil: Boiler systems – guidance for installers and specifiers (2008 edition)
Controls
Delayed start
The user sets the timer to bring on the heating
taking account of the time it normally takes to heat
the dwelling to an acceptable temperature under
cold ambient conditions. A delayed start unit will,
at the time of switch-on of the programmer/room
thermostat, compare the current room temperature
to that required and will then hold off the heating
if appropriate. Therefore during mild weather, as
heat-up times are reduced, energy can be saved (see
figure 17). Room thermostats with a delayed start
function are now available.
Optimum start
The user sets the occupancy time and the required
room temperature and the control then calculates
the required pre-heat time. The approach is always
to reach the required room temperature in the
optimum time independently of outside temperature.
With optimum start controls the priority is ensuring
comfort whereas with delayed start controls the
priority is energy saving.
Home automation
Whole house control systems are now available,
integrating the operation and control of a wide range
of systems and appliances. Of particular relevance for
energy efficiency is:
Internal
temperature (C)
Potential
energy savings
20
Earliest
normal
start
16
12
Delayed start
8
5
6
7
8
Time (hours)
9
10
Typical settings
• Maximum heat up period, e.g. 6am to 8am
• Normal occupancy period, e.g. 8am to 10am
• Time and temperature control of individual
rooms.
Figure 17: Delayed start function
• Features to permit remote setting and operation
of time switches, i.e. programmers and
thermostats.
• Feedback for the householder on energy use,
which can encourage energy efficiency.
Domestic heating by oil: Boiler systems – guidance for installers and specifiers (2008 edition)
27
6. Central Heating System Specifications (CHeSS)
CHeSS provides a series of ready-made specifications
for purchasing the components that critically
affect the energy efficiency of wet central heating
systems. Following them will improve energy
efficiency and reduce carbon emissions. Purchasers
should use these specifications to ensure their
heating installations will meet best practice or basic
requirements. Installers can use them to quote for
systems of defined quality, comparable with those of
their competitors.
The main elements are reproduced in the following
tables and the explanatory notes can be found at the
end of this document. The complete specification is
available in a separate Energy Efficiency Best Practice
in Housing document(38). That publication also
contains quantified energy, carbon and cost savings
for the different specifications.
The basic specifications HR7 and HC7 are sufficient
to comply with the building regulations. The two
best practice specifications HR8 and HC8 are to be
preferred (see table below).
Central heating system specifications (Year 2008)
Basic (2008) (For notes see Appendix A)
Reference
CHeSS – HR7 (2008)
Description
Domestic wet central heating system with regular boiler
(natural gas, LPG, or oil) and separate hot water store.
Boiler
(see notes 5 and 6)
• A regular boiler (not a combi) which has a SEDBUK efficiency of at least
86% (bands A and B).
Hot water store
EITHER
• Hot water cylinder, whose heat exchanger and insulation properties both
meet or exceed (see note 7) those of the relevant British Standards
(see Refs [7],[8]).
OR
• Thermal (primary) storage system, whose insulation properties meet or
exceed those specified in Ref [9].
Controls
(see notes 10, 11 and 12)
•
•
•
•
•
•
Installation
See notes 1, 2, 3 and 4.
Full programmer
Room thermostat
Cylinder thermostat
Boiler interlock (see note 13)
TRVs on all radiators, except in rooms with a room thermostat
Automatic bypass valve (see note 14)
Basic (2008) (For notes see Appendix A)
28
Reference
CHeSS – HC7 (2008)
Description
Domestic wet central heating system with combi or CPSU boiler
(natural gas, LPG, or oil).
Boiler
(see notes 5 and 6)
• A combi or CPSU boiler which has a SEDBUK efficiency of at least 86%
(bands A and B).
Hot water store
None, unless included within boiler.
Controls
(see notes 10, 11 and 12)
•
•
•
•
•
Installation
See notes 1, 2, 3 and 4.
Time switch
Room thermostat
Boiler interlock (see note 13)
TRVs on all radiators, except in rooms with a room thermostat
Automatic bypass valve (see note 14)
Domestic heating by oil: Boiler systems – guidance for installers and specifiers (2008 edition)
Central Heating System Specifications (CHeSS)
Central Heating System Specifications (Year 2008)
Recommended best practice (2008) (For notes see Appendix A)
Reference
CHeSS – HR8 (2008)
Description
Domestic wet central heating system with regular boiler
(natural gas, LPG, or oil) and separate hot water store.
Boiler
(see notes 5 and 6)
• A regular boiler (not a combi) which has a SEDBUK efficiency of at least
90% (band A).
Hot water store
EITHER
• High-performance hot water cylinder (see note 8).
OR
• High-performance thermal (primary) storage system (see note 9).
In suitable buildings, consideration should be given to fitting a cylinder with an
additional heat exchanger to allow for solar water heating.
Controls
(see notes 10, 11 and 12)
• Programmable room thermostat, with additional timing capability for hot
water
• Cylinder thermostat
• Boiler interlock (see note 13)
• TRVs on all radiators, except in rooms with a room thermostat
• Automatic bypass valve (see note 14)
More advanced controls, such as weather compensation, may be considered,
but at present cannot be confirmed as cost effective.
Installation
See notes 1, 2, 3 and 4.
Recommended best practice (2008) (For notes see Appendix A)
Reference
CHeSS – HC8 (2008)
Description
Domestic wet central heating system with combi or CPSU boiler
(natural gas, LPG, or oil).
Boiler
(see notes 5 and 6)
• A combi or CPSU boiler which has a SEDBUK efficiency of at least 90%
(band A).
Hot water store
None, unless included within boiler.
Controls
(see notes 10, 11 and 12)
• Programmable room thermostat
• Boiler interlock (see note 13)
• TRVs on all radiators, except in rooms with a room thermostat
• Automatic bypass valve (see note 14)
More advanced controls, such as weather compensation, may be considered,
but at present cannot be confirmed as cost effective.
Installation
See notes 1, 2, 3 and 4.
Domestic heating by oil: Boiler systems – guidance for installers and specifiers (2008 edition)
29
7. Energy Efficiency
The information in this guide is designed to improve
the energy efficiency of dwellings. Selecting the most
energy efficient boilers suitable for the particular
application is vital. Several factors need to be
considered when choosing a boiler:
• Seasonal (i.e. annual in-use) efficiency.
• Typical heating and hot water running costs for
the dwelling(s).
• Typical CO2 emissions for space and water
heating.
7.1
Comparing boiler efficiencies
The term ‘boiler efficiency’ needs some explanation
since there are many values that may be quoted,
and these are calculated in different ways. In any
comparison of the efficiency of alternative products, it
is essential to ensure that the same method is being
used.
The efficiency value now used in the Government’s
Standard Assessment Procedure and in the building
regulations is known by the acronym SEDBUK,
(Seasonal Efficiency of a Domestic Boiler in the UK).
SEDBUK represents the best estimate presently
available of overall seasonal in-use boiler efficiency
for space heating and hot water in UK dwellings. It is
used throughout this guide as well as in CHeSS, the
Energy Saving Trust’s Energy Efficiency Recommended
scheme, and other programmes designed to promote
efficient boilers.
A boiler’s SEDBUK efficiency is an indicator of the
average annual boiler efficiency determined by the
amount of heat delivered to the primary (boiler
water) heating circuit. It is assumed that the boiler is
installed in a fully-pumped system which has been
correctly designed and which has adequate controls.
The claimed SEDBUK efficiency level will not be
achieved otherwise.
The SEDBUK calculation process (which can be
found in Appendix D of the SAP[22]) uses actual
boiler test data, the measurements being taken by
methods defined in European standards to meet
the requirements of the European Boiler Efficiency
Directive(39). This provides manufacturers with an
incentive to make their products as efficient as
possible.
30
Minimising demand
Whilst this guide aims to improve heating and hot
water systems through careful selection of boilers
and controls, it is important to remember that
other factors affect the overall energy efficiency
of the dwelling. In particular, it is essential to
minimise:
• Fabric heat loss through walls, floors, roofs and
windows.
• Ventilation heat loss from windows, unused
chimneys and cracks or gaps in the structure
of the dwelling.
As SEDBUK has been designed specifically for SAP
energy rating purposes, it takes account of heat
losses associated with space and water heating,
however it does not include surface heat losses from
any hot water store within or external to the boiler.
These are treated separately as they may provide
a small amount of useful heat to the dwelling
during the heating season. This is important when
comparing products, as stores with high heat losses
will increase annual energy consumption but do not
affect SEDBUK values.
The best source of SEDBUK figures is the Boiler
Efficiency Database (see Section 7.5). Where this is
not available, purchasers should look for this standard
form of words in manufacturers’ literature:
“Seasonal efficiency (SEDBUK) = [x]% The value is
used in the UK Government’s Standard Assessment
Procedure (SAP) for energy rating of dwellings. The
test data from which it has been calculated have
been certified by [name and/or certification of
Notified Body]. ”
Energy efficiency figures calculated by other methods
may not be consistent with SEDBUK, and should be
disregarded.
Figure 18 shows typical SEDBUK efficiencies for both
new and older boilers. In practice there are limits both
to the minimum efficiency due to the requirements
of the Boiler Efficiency Directive, and to the maximum
permitted value based on theoretical considerations.
Domestic heating by oil: Boiler systems – guidance for installers and specifiers (2008 edition)
Energy Efficiency
SEDBUK ranges for oil boilers
Regular (pre-1985)
Regular (pre-1998)
Combi (pre-1998)
Regular non-condensing
Combi non-condensing
Condensing (new)
50% 54% 58% 62% 66% 70% 74% 78% 82% 86% 90% 94% 98%
Efficiency (%)
Figure 18: Typical SEDBUK values for different boiler types
7.2 The Standard Assessment Procedure (SAP)
Home energy ratings are designed to give an
indication of the energy efficiency of a dwelling and
so allow householders to compare different homes.
The SAP is the Government’s chosen rating system
and indicates the running costs of space and water
heating. The building regulations procedures require
all new dwellings to be assessed in this way.
The current version of SAP is SAP 2005. The ratings
are expressed on a scale of 1-100, with higher figures
representing greater efficiency and lower running
costs. Ratings above 100 are possible when the
dwelling is a net exporter of energy. The actual figure
depends on certain characteristics of the building and
its heating systems, in particular:
• Building design.
• Insulation levels.
• Solar heat gains.
• Ventilation.
• Heating and hot water efficiency (SEDBUK) and
controls.
• Energy export.
7.3
Energy consumption and running costs
Table 5 gives typical annual fuel costs for some of
the more common types of dwelling found in the
UK – both existing properties and new buildings.
Existing housing is typical of the existing housing
stock(40). New housing has the same floor areas for
comparison, but is built with insulation levels that
would satisfy the latest building regulations. The flat
is on the top floor (a top floor flat has an energy
consumption intermediate between a ground and
mid-floor flat). Hot water costs are related to a typical
number of occupants for the size of property.
Figures shown assume average UK weather
conditions (the Midlands). Consumption would be
around 3-6% lower in the south and 3-6% higher in
the north.
Typical energy consumption has been calculated
using the Building Research Establishment (BRE)
Domestic Energy Model, BREDEM-12(41). This
estimates annual domestic energy usage associated
with house design, insulation levels, local climate
and type of heating system (including efficiency
and heating usage). The model is widely used for
calculating domestic fuel running costs.
Domestic heating by oil: Boiler systems – guidance for installers and specifiers (2008 edition)
31
Energy Efficiency
7.4
Carbon dioxide emissions
Table 6 gives typical values of annual CO2 emissions
for the same types of dwelling. Carbon intensity
values are taken from SAP (2005) Table 12.
Fuel costs of 2.17 pence per kWh are taken from
the 2005 edition of the SAP (Table 12). These costs
do not include standing charges, maintenance or
circulating pump running costs.
Table 5: Annual fuel (oil) costs for heating and hot water in different property types
Boiler type
SEDBUK
New housing
Existing housing
F
B
T
SD
D
£406
£431
£489
£647
F
–
B
–
T
–
SD
–
D
–
Regular (pre-1985)
65%
£323
Regular (pre-1998)
75%
£280
£352
£374
£424
£561
–
–
–
–
–
Combi (pre-1998)
75%
£280
£352
£374
£424
£561
–
–
–
–
–
Non-condensing regular (new)
85%
£247
£311
£330
£374
£495
£80 £100
£100
£125
£148
Non-condensing combi (new)
82%
£256
£322
£342
£388
£513
£82 £104
£104
£129
£154
Condensing (new)
93%
£226 £284
£301
£342
£452
£73
£92
£114
£136
£92
F Flat
B Bungalow
T Terraced
SD Semi-detached
D Detached
Table 6: CO2 emission (tonne/yr) for oil heating and hot water in different property types
Boiler type
SEDBUK
Existing housing
F
B
T
SD
New housing
D
F
B
T
SD
D
Regular (pre-1985)
65%
3.95
4.96
5.26
5.98
7.91
–
–
–
–
–
Regular (pre-1998)
75%
3.42
4.30
4.56
5.18
6.85
–
–
–
–
–
Combi (pre-1998)
75%
3.42
4.30
4.56
5.18
6.85
–
–
–
–
–
Non-condensing regular (new)
85%
3.02
3.79
4.03
4.57
6.04
1.34
1.69
1.69
2.11
2.50
Non-condensing combi (new)
82%
3.13
3.93
4.17
4.74
6.26
1.39
1.75
1.75
2.18
2.59
Condensing (new)
93%
2.75
3.47
3.68
4.18
5.52
1.23
1.55
1.55
1.92
2.29
F Flat
B Bungalow
T Terraced
SD Semi-detached
D Detached
32
Domestic heating by oil: Boiler systems – guidance for installers and specifiers (2008 edition)
Energy Efficiency
7.5
The Boiler Efficiency Database
The Boiler Efficiency Database(42) is an independently
authenticated record of the efficiency of most
gas and oil-fired domestic boilers in the UK. Most
of the data in it can be viewed at the website
www.boilers.org.uk. Both current and obsolete boilers
are included and the database is updated regularly,
with a new edition issued each month.
For boilers currently on sale, the database
gives SEDBUK efficiency figures derived from
independently certified tests and the corresponding
efficiency band (see panel). Manufacturers send
details of their products to the database manager,
who checks that the efficiency test results have
been independently certified by an approved testing
organisation and then calculates SEDBUK figures
for the database entry. For obsolete boilers, where
certified test results may not be available, a generic
efficiency for the type of boiler concerned is quoted
instead of SEDBUK.
In addition to the database, the website also has two
interactive programs. The first is an annual fuel cost
estimator for boilers of known efficiency in different
types of housing. The second is a whole-house
boiler sizing calculator to help estimate a suitable
replacement boiler size for individual properties
where dimensions and other relevant data are
known. (see also Section 8.2).
As a simple guide to efficiency, SEDBUK values are
divided into seven bands, from A (most efficient)
to G (see panel below). The entries for each boiler
on the database give the banding which may be
used on product literature and labels, although
there is no requirement to do so.
SEDBUK range
Band
90% and above
A
86%-90%
B
82%-86%
C
78%-82%
D
74%-78%
E
70%-74%
F
Below 70%
G
7.6
Saving energy with better controls
It is better to replace both boiler and controls when
upgrading a heating system. However, in some
circumstances, it may be appropriate to leave an
existing boiler in place and upgrade the controls.
Table 7 shows what savings could be obtained by
fitting new controls (to CHeSS standards) to older
types of boiler.
Domestic heating by oil: Boiler systems – guidance for installers and specifiers (2008 edition)
33
Energy Efficiency
Table 7: Typical energy savings achievable by upgrading the controls on existing systems
Existing system has
the following controls:
Add the following1 for
best practice controls
Approximate
average
savings2
(% of the existing
fuel consumption)
Older boiler with gravity DHW
18
13
3
12
4
10
Older boiler – fully pumped4
17
10
4
9
Older combi boiler4
15
7
4
Key:
Room thermostat
Programmable thermostat
Cylinder thermostat
Boiler interlock
TRVs on most radiators
Motorised valve
1. All improved systems must include a programmable room thermostat (replaces existing room thermostat).
2.These are average savings assuming normal controls, systems and user behaviour. Actual savings may be
significantly different. The savings only apply where an older-type boiler is fitted. It is assumed that the
SEDBUK (see 7.1) is 60% for the Gravity DHW system and 68% for the fully-pumped and combi systems.
3. This option provides only a partial interlock (hot water only).
4.All improved systems should include an automatic bypass valve if a bypass circuit is necessary (see
Appendix A note 14).
34
Domestic heating by oil: Boiler systems – guidance for installers and specifiers (2008 edition)
8. System selection: practical issues
When choosing which best practice system to install
the following questions should be addressed.
1. Which boiler type is most suitable?
2. What size boiler is required?
3. Where will the boiler be positioned?
4. What will be the flue terminal position and
arrangement?
5. Where does the condensate drain go?
6. What are the arrangements for the oil tank and
oil supply?
8.1
7. Are there any special ventilation requirements?
8. Will it be an open or sealed system?
9. What type of hot water system is most suitable?
10. What type and size of heat emitters are required?
11. What controls are needed?
CHeSS (see Section 6) specifies the main components
needed to achieve best practice in wet central
heating systems, but there are many additional
aspects of the installation to consider. The following
tables outline the key points.
Which type of boiler is most suitable?(43,44)
Regular or combi?
Best practice regular boilers (see CHeSS HR8) provide most flexibility in system
design. A combi (see CHeSS HC8) incorporates some system equipment which
reduces installation time. A range of oil-fired condensing combis are now available.
Condensing or noncondensing?
Condensing boilers must be installed unless an exception is allowed (see panel in
Section 2.2). Use condensing types as specified in CHeSS HR8 or HC8 only. These
provide significantly higher efficiency than non-condensing types, although they do
require connection to a drain as well as particular care in sitting the flue terminal.
Combi hot water
performance
The maximum flow rate at the hot water tap will depend on the boiler’s heat
output, the design of the draw-off pipe and the capacity of the internal hot water
store. Combis usually take more time to fill a bath than a conventional storage
system.
Range Cooker boilers
Condensing units are being developed but not yet available.
Back boilers
Not recommended as condensing versions are not available.
Large boilers
For boilers with output greater than 50kW, refer to suitable publications at
www.thecarbontrust.co.uk
8.2
What size boiler is required? (32,35,44)
Maximum load
The boiler needs to be sized to meet the maximum load expected on the
system: this includes the heat used by the emitters, the hot water system and the
pipework.
New systems
A full design heat loss method should be employed to identify the most
suitable boiler. A full design method is given in the CIBSE Domestic
Heating Design Guide(32) and a computer based program can be found at
www.centralheating.co.uk
Boiler replacements
Size-for-size replacement is not recommended. Insulation levels may have been
improved or the original sizing may have been incorrect. Heating and hot water
requirements should be re-checked before a new boiler is chosen. Oversizing will
result in lower efficiency and unnecessary capital costs. An interactive procedure for
correctly sizing boilers up to 25kW can be found at www.boilers.org.uk
Combis
Power rating is normally determined by hot water requirements and there is
generally more than enough heat output for space heating. This should always be
checked in large and/or poorly insulated dwellings.
Domestic heating by oil: Boiler systems – guidance for installers and specifiers (2008 edition)
35
System selection: practical issues
8.3
Where will the boiler be positioned?(32,43,44,45)
General issues
Exception: is it difficult
to install a condensing
boiler?
If an exception is being considered, follow the exceptions procedure (see panel in
Section 2.2) before a boiler position is considered.
Space
It has to be adequate for the boiler type (including flue pipe space).
Access
It needs to be sufficient for installation, maintenance and servicing.
Flue position
Can a flue be fitted easily? Is an extended horizontal or vertical flue required, and
will angled flue bends be necessary? (See Section 8.4).
Condensate drain
Is there a suitable adjacent drain point? (See Section 8.5).
Location?
36
Heated area
Preferred, saves energy.
Unheated area
Requires frost protection. Consider externally mounted boiler. Ensure pipework is
effectively insulated and weather protected.
Understairs
There are special requirements in this case regarding the height of the building
(maximum 2 stories); fire resistance; whether it is intended to use it as a storage
area as well; instruction notices; and the provision of a self-closing door.
Bathroom, shower
room, sleeping room
There are regulations regarding electrical work in bath and shower rooms. Openflue boilers must not be installed where they can draw combustion air from a
bathroom or bedroom. Room-sealed boilers should not be installed in sleeping
areas if avoidable.
Roofspace, loft, attic
This option should only be considered in exceptional circumstances. The local fire
authority and house insurers will need to be notified. The weight of the boiler, the
provision of ventilation and safe access must all be taken into account.
Fireplace
Condensing back boilers (BBU) are not currently available. Where boilers are
located inside a living space, particular consideration must be given to the position
of the flue, the air supply routes and the provision of suitable condensate drainage.
Garage
Frost protection will be required.
Basements and cellars
Ensure a practical connection to a drain point is available – consider using a
condensate pump.
Domestic heating by oil: Boiler systems – guidance for installers and specifiers (2008 edition)
System selection: practical issues
8.4
What will be the flue terminal position and arrangement?(34,46)
Condensing boilers
Plume
A plume is present most of the time that the boiler operates. Avoid terminal
positions where a plume would be directed:
• Towards or across a door or window.
• Towards a frequently used area (e.g. patio, access route or car parking space).
• Across a neighbouring dwelling or boundary.
• In close proximity to an opposite wall or surface.
Freezing
Avoid situations where:
• Condensate from a terminal may drip onto a path, then freeze and cause a
hazard.
• The plume may condense then freeze, damaging a wall or surface.
Terminal guards
Usually required where terminal is less than 2m from ground level. These need to
withstand corrosive effect of condensate.
Extended flues
If the plume may cause a nuisance, consider an extended vertical/horizontal flue.
8.5
Where does the condensate drain go?(46,47)
Boiler position
Ensure the chosen drain point can be reached from the proposed boiler position.
Drain points
Condensate can be drained to:
• An internal stack pipe.
• A waste pipe.
• An external drain, gully or rainwater hopper.
• A purpose-made small soakaway. An integrally bunded oil tank should be
used where an adjacent soakaway is used for condensate disposal.
Boiler condensate
siphons
Check whether the chosen boiler has a fitted condensate siphon. If not, externally
situated condensate pipework is more likely to freeze in cold weather.
Condensate traps
Check whether the chosen boiler has an internal condensate trap with a water seal
greater than 75mm. If not, an air-break and additional trap with a seal greater than
75mm may be required.
Pipework
All pipework must have a fall of 2.5 degrees and be securely clipped. External runs
must not exceed 3m and be insulated. Pipe materials must be corrosion resistant
to condensate (not copper or steel).
Pipe sizes
Where there is no manufacturer’s guidance:
• Pipes in a heated area should have a nominal diameter of at least 22mm.
• Externally run pipes should have a nominal diameter of at least 32mm.
Condensate pumps
If gravity will not take the condensate to the drain point (for example if the boiler is
situated in a basement) a condensate pump will need to be considered.
Domestic heating by oil: Boiler systems – guidance for installers and specifiers (2008 edition)
37
System selection: practical issues
8.6
What are the arrangements for the oil tank and oil supply?
Building regulations
There are mandatory requirements for the installation of oil storage tanks and
supply systems. It is essential to refer to the building regulations and to OFTEC
guidance. Note that requirements differ around the UK.
Oil tanks (refer to
OFTEC website
www.oftec.org)
Type – tanks are generally made from steel or plastic. Integrally bunded (see
below) and underground units are also available.
Sizes – this choice will depend on the rated output of the boiler and the likely
frequency of fuel deliveries.
Position – there are mandatory fire protection requirements covering the minimum
distance of tanks from buildings and boundaries. At the same time, there needs to
be good access for deliveries, inspection and maintenance.
Base – this must be fireproof and larger than the tank’s ‘footprint’.
Bunding – best practice requires a bunded oil tank.
Oil supply pipework
(refer to OFTEC website
www.oftec.org)
8.7
Are there any special ventilation requirements?(34,46)
Room sealed
Room sealed balanced-flue appliances do not require special provision for room
ventilation. Open-flue boilers need a purpose made, correctly-sized, non-closable
air vent to ensure that there is sufficient air for combustion. Special provision may
be required where an extract fan is fitted.
Compartment
Some boilers may require purpose made ventilation when a boiler is fitted in a
compartment.
8.8
38
This can be installed above or below ground. It should be sleeved and protected
against damage. The choice of gravity or suction supply will depend on the relative
heights of tank and burner. The position of the tank fuel outlet (top or bottom) will
affect the arrangement of the pipes. A remote sensing fire valve must be fitted in
the pipeline outside the dwelling. The sensor must be located higher than the level
of the burner. An oil filter should be fitted in the oil supply line.
Will it be an open or sealed system?(32,43,44)
Sealed
Commonly used in new systems, especially with combis and all system boilers.
They incorporate an expansion vessel. The system pressure rises with temperature.
The necessary additional safety controls are normally incorporated as part of the
boiler. It is important to check that this expansion vessel has enough capacity for
the whole installed system.
Open
Typical of existing installations, these systems require an expansion cistern which
must be at the highest point in the system.
Domestic heating by oil: Boiler systems – guidance for installers and specifiers (2008 edition)
System selection: practical issues
8.9
What type of hot water system is most suitable?
Mains fed (combis,
unvented cylinders,
thermal stores, CPSUs)
Ensure that water supply to the dwelling (both pressure and flow rate) is adequate
(with both hot and cold water running) and the mains inlet pipe is of adequate
size. The flow rate obtainable from an instantaneous combi will also depend on its
maximum heat output.
Storage systems
Cylinders meeting current best practice standards use high recovery coils and are
well insulated. It is no longer permitted to install medium-duty cylinders, which have
inferior performance. Ensure existing hot water cylinders are well insulated. Cylinders
of 117-140 litre capacity are usually adequate for smaller households with a single
bathroom(32).
Unvented storage
These are mains fed and usually give a high hot water flow rate at high pressure.
Thermal storage
These are also mains fed and will provide a high hot water flow rate at high
pressure.
Vented storage
This type needs a cold water cistern and will usually provide a high hot water flow
rate at low pressure.
Solar systems
In suitable properties (especially those with an unobstructed south-facing roof), solar
water heating systems can make a significant contribution to the hot water energy
requirements, and save boiler fuel. A hot water cylinder with an additional coil for
connection to the solar collector system is necessary. If solar water heating is likely
to be installed in the near future, it is advisable to choose a suitable cylinder at the
time the main heating system is installed, as it will save cost and disruption later.
Separate guidance and advice on solar water heating should be sought(33,48).
8.10
What type and size of heat emitters are required?(32,35)
Heat emitter type
Panel radiators offer the lowest cost option. Use Low Surface Temperature (LST)
radiators where young children or elderly are likely to be present and may be at
risk. Where underfloor systems are being considered refer to specialist advice(36).
Size
Avoid undersizing as it will result in unsatisfactory heating performance and may
give rise to reduced boiler efficiency from excessive boiler cycling. If radiators
are oversized ensure boiler controls are set to operate at suitable temperatures.
Use a full design heat loss calculation method(32). An example can be found at
www.centralheating.co.uk
When used with
condensing boilers
Increasing radiator sizes can reduce average boiler operating temperatures and
therefore increase efficiency. However, care should be exercised when oversized
radiators are installed in a room with a controlling room thermostat. If radiators in
other rooms are not similarly oversized, the controllability of the whole system may
be affected.
System upgrades
The heat emitters and system should be cleaned to remove deposits and sludge
which reduce heating performance.
Domestic heating by oil: Boiler systems – guidance for installers and specifiers (2008 edition)
39
System selection: practical issues
8.11
40
What controls are needed?(32,38,44)
Best practice
Use best practice controls wherever possible.
• Regular boilers – use a programmable room thermostat with separate timing
capability for hot water. All systems should be fully pumped, have both room
and cylinder thermostats, use motorised valves or multiple pumps, and have
separate zones for heating and hot water. They should also have TRVs, an
automatic bypass valve and a boiler interlock.
• Combi boilers – use a programmable room thermostat, TRVs and boiler
interlock. Install an automatic bypass valve if the manufacturer advises that a
bypass should be fitted.
Basic
The basic CHeSS specification is the minimum acceptable standard. The system
should include a full programmer (a time switch for combis). All other controls as
for best practice.
Thermostatic Radiator
Valves (TRVs)
TRVs must be installed on all radiators except in rooms with a room thermostat. An
automatic bypass valve must be installed if the manufacturer’s instructions require
one or if a minimum flow rate has to be maintained while the boiler is firing.
Pumps
Advice on pump selection is available from www.bpma.org.uk (see Section 4.7 for
pumps with automatic speed control).
Systems with gravity
hot water
These must be converted to fully-pumped to comply with best practice and
building regulation requirements.
Very large dwellings
These should be divided into separate zones not exceeding 150m2 in floor area.
Each zone should be capable of independent time and temperature control.
Frost protection
This should always be considered for both the dwelling and the central heating
system.
Other controls
Additional controls can also be beneficial (see Section 5.3).
Domestic heating by oil: Boiler systems – guidance for installers and specifiers (2008 edition)
9. Installing central heating systems
9.1
Competent person requirements
In England and Wales, installation details of oil-fired
heating systems, oil-fired combustion appliances,
oil storage tanks and the pipes connecting them,
must be notified to local authority building control.
Competent persons are allowed to self-certify their
work and their scheme operator will send a copy of
the certificates to the householder and to the local
authority building control department. Alternatively
installers or their customers can use the local
authority building control route for notification, for
which a charge is made.
Also in England and Wales all installations of
unvented hot water systems must be carried out
by a competent person who is approved by an
appropriate body.
9.2
Installing the boiler
While condensing boilers can normally be installed in
a similar location to non-condensing units, additional
factors need to be considered:
• The plume from the flue terminal should not
cause a nuisance.
• There must be a convenient drain point for the
condensate.
Where a boiler, particularly a replacement unit,
is being installed inside a dwelling it may not be
appropriate to site it in the same location. Even
where it is, extended flue options may have to be
considered as well as the practicalities of finding (and
connecting to) a suitable drain point. Where there
are particular difficulties with installing a condensing
boiler, a boiler exception can be considered (see
panel in Section 2.2). Even if an exception is allowed,
a condensing boiler should always be considered due
to increased efficiency and lower running costs.
Flue terminal position
Condensing boilers will produce a visible plume of
water vapour for a significant proportion of their
operating time. To avoid this causing a nuisance, a
vertical flue can remove the plume to a high level.
At low level, the plume may be a nuisance. Some
boilers eject flue gases horizontally in a powerful jet
which may not disperse for a considerable distance.
Some of the key minimum statutory distances
from terminals to obstacles, such as opposite walls,
are shown in figure 19. These distances are set to
maintain safe operation of the appliance but in
many cases will be insufficient to avoid nuisance and
therefore figure 19 also gives suggested minimum
distances help alleviate plume nuisance. Refer to
building regulations(49,50,51) which show all minimum
statutory distances from flue terminals.
Distances for flue terminal siting
Opening
window
B
A
Pathway
Opposite
boundary
Minimum
statutory
distances
To help
avoid plume
nuisance
A
From a facing wall,
fence or property
boundary
0.6m
2.5m
B
Below an openable
window
0.6m
1.0m
C
From the side of a
door
0.6m
1.0m
C
Figure 19: Wall – Flue terminal siting
Domestic heating by oil: Boiler systems – guidance for installers and specifiers (2008 edition)
41
Installing central heating systems
Refer to the condensing boiler exceptions
procedure before the boiler/flue terminal position
is decided. In any event particular care is required
where it is intended to fit a flue terminal which will
be positioned less than 2.5m from a facing wall,
boundary fence or neighbouring property. Where
the plume from a terminal may cause a nuisance,
consider an extended vertical or horizontal flue or
moving the boiler to an alternative position which
may provide a more acceptable terminal position.
The plume should not cross:
• A frequently used access route.
• Any frequently used area (such as a patio or car
parking space).
• A rainwater hopper that is part of a combined system
(i.e. sewer carries both rainwater and foul water).
• A purpose-made soakaway.
Internal drain points are to be preferred as they are
less likely to become blocked by leaves, or by frozen
condensate(46,47).
9.3
Installing the condensate drain pipe
Condensate traps:
Building regulations require a trap to be installed in
the condensate pipe from the boiler:
• If this goes straight to a gully or rainwater hopper,
a water seal of at least 38mm is required.
• A neighbouring dwelling.
Nor should it be directed towards a window or
door, or be sited close to a facing wall or other
surface.
There are also other aspects to consider when
planning the flue terminal position.
• A free passage of air is needed at all times to
aid plume dispersal – which may be difficult in
sheltered locations.
• In cold weather, the condensate could cause a
safety hazard if it freezes on pathways, or if it
results in frost damage to surfaces.
• The plume could trigger infra-red security lighting
if sited in the wrong place.
• Ensure terminals do not obscure security camera
field of vision.
• The terminal guards must be able to resist
corrosive properties of the condensate.
Condensate drain point
The amount of condensate produced by a
condensing boiler depends upon a number of
factors but four litres a day is not unusual. The liquid
is slightly acidic (a pH value of between three and
six) and must be disposed of correctly. Suitable drain
points include:
• An internal stack pipe.
• A waste pipe.
• An external drain or gully.
42
• If connected to another waste pipe, the water
seal must be at least 75mm to prevent foul
smells entering the dwelling.
Internal traps already fitted within the boiler may
not always satisfy the building regulations. Unless
otherwise stated by the manufacturer’s instructions,
an additional trap of either 38mm or 75mm
(depending on the proposed connection) will be
required. An air break between the traps is also
necessary (see figure 20).
Pipe runs
These should be as short as possible. If a condensate
drainpipe runs outside the dwelling, this external
run should be restricted to a maximum of 3m in
order to reduce the risk of freezing. If the boiler is
installed in an unheated space such as a garage, all
the condensate drainpipes should be regarded as
‘external’.
Pipe slope
A minimum of 2.5 degrees away from the boiler.
Bends
These should be kept to a minimum. Similarly, the
number of fittings or joints outside the dwelling
needs to be minimised in order to reduce the risk of
condensate being trapped.
Fixings
These must be sufficient to prevent sagging. A
maximum spacing of 0.5m for horizontal and 1.0m
for vertical sections is recommended.
Domestic heating by oil: Boiler systems – guidance for installers and specifiers (2008 edition)
Installing central heating systems
Option B – Boiler connected
to another waste pipe
Option A – Boiler connected directly
to an external gulley or hopper
Boiler
Boiler
Boiler condensate water trap should
have a water seal H 38mm.
If boiler trap has a water seal of
<38mm use option C
Boiler condensate water
trap should have a water
seal H 75mm.
If not use option C
Direct to external gulley or hopper
To another waste pipe
Option C – Boiler condensate Boiler
trap water is insufficient
Water seal within boiler is insufficient
Air break
Water seal must be > 75mm
Figure 20: Condensate trap options
Pipe sizes
Follow the boiler manufacturer’s instructions. In the
absence of such guidance:
• The minimum nominal diameter for internal pipe
runs is 22mm.
• A larger diameter (at least 32mm nominal
diameter) is required for externally run pipes to
reduce the risk of freezing.
Pipe materials
These should be resistant to the acid condensate.
The plastics used for standard wastewater plumbing
systems and cistern overflow pipes are suitable.
Copper or mild steel pipes and fittings must not be
used.
Condensate siphons
Many boilers have a siphon fitted as part of the
condensate trap arrangement. This intermittently
discharges the condensate, reducing the risk
of freezing where part of the pipework runs
externally. If the boiler does not include a siphon,
avoid external pipework as far as possible. Where
necessary it should have a minimum nominal
diameter of 32mm.
Condensate pumps
These may be considered where the boiler is in the
basement or a drain point cannot be reached by
gravity. Pump manufacturers’ instructions must always
be followed.
Domestic heating by oil: Boiler systems – guidance for installers and specifiers (2008 edition)
43
Installing central heating systems
Branch pipe
Internal trap >75mm
>110mm (for 100mm stack)
Pipe slope >2.5º deg
>450mm (for up to 3 floors)
Figure 21: Condensate connection to internal stack
9.4
Condensate drain termination
Connecting to an internal stack
This is the preferred method of connection. The stack
must be made of a material resistant to the corrosive
effect of the condensate, such as the plastics
recommended for condensate pipes.
A trap with a minimum condensate seal of 75mm
is required. The boiler may incorporate a trap of
this size, if not one will have to be fitted to the
condensate drainpipe. A visible air break is required
between this and any other trap.
For single dwellings up to three stories high, the
condensate drainpipe should discharge into the
stack at least 450mm above the invert of the tail of
the bend at the foot of the stack. If this point is not
visible, then the height should be measured from the
bottom of the lowest straight section of stack to be
seen. This height should be increased for buildings of
more storeys.
The stack connection should not cause cross flow
into any other branch pipe, nor should it allow flow
from that branch into the condensate pipe. This can
be ensured by maintaining an offset between branch
pipes of at least 110mm on a 100mm diameter stack,
or 250mm on a 150mm stack.
Connecting to an external stack
In addition to the requirements detailed above,
care must be paid to reducing any risk of the drain
blocking due to the condensate freezing. The length
of pipe external to the dwelling should be kept as
short as possible and certainly less than 3m. Traps
in the drainpipe must be inside the building. In
exposed locations, the pipe should be protected with
waterproof insulation.
44
Connecting to an internal waste pipe
The most convenient (and most frequently used)
method of connection is via an internal discharge
branch to a kitchen sink, washing machine or
dishwasher drain. It can be connected up or downstream of the relevant waste trap and if practical
should be mounted onto the top of the pipe. If
connected upstream of the waste trap an air break
is necessary between this trap and the boiler’s own
trap. This is usually provided by the sink waste pipe
itself, as long as the sink has an integral overflow (see
figure 22).
If, on the other hand, the condensate drain is
connected downstream of the sink (or other
appliance) waste trap, and the boiler does not have
an integral trap with a seal of at least 75mm, an
additional trap with that seal must be fitted. An air
break must be included between the traps (see
figure 23). In either case the trap and airbreak should
be above the level of the sink to prevent flows into
the boiler or airbreak.
It is preferable to connect to a washing machine drain
rather than a kitchen sink. This reduces the likelihood
of solid waste and fats blocking or restricting the
condensate drain entry point.
Connecting to an external drain point
If the condensate cannot be drained via an internal route,
then direct connection to an external gully or rainwater
hopper can be considered. A rainwater hopper must be
connected to a combined system (i.e. sewer carries both
rainwater and foul water). The open end of the pipe
should be below the grid level but above the water level
in the gully or hopper. Condensate must not be disposed
of in grey water systems.
Domestic heating by oil: Boiler systems – guidance for installers and specifiers (2008 edition)
Installing central heating systems
Height above sink >100mm
SINK
Figure 22: Connection to an internal sink waste (upstream of sink trap)
Internal trap >75mm
Height above sink >100mm
SINK
Pipe slope >2.5º deg
Figure 23: Connection to an internal sink waste (downstream of sink trap)
Domestic heating by oil: Boiler systems – guidance for installers and specifiers (2008 edition)
45
Installing central heating systems
Connecting to a small soakaway
If none of the previous solutions are possible then
a purpose made soakaway can be used. It should
be located as close as possible to the boiler but
clear of the building foundations and not in the
vicinity of other services such as gas, electricity
or water connections. The position and presence
of a soakaway must be taken into account when
carrying out a risk assessment for installation of
an oil storage tank. The external pipework must
be kept to a minimum and not more than 3m in
length. The pipe may be taken below or above the
ground level.
Figure 24 shows a suitable small soakaway design. It
should be sited around 1m away from the building
(at least 0.5m) and clear of building foundations and
other services. The size of the soakaway will depend
to a large extent on the soil conditions. Unlike the
case of a rainwater soakaway, the soil does not
have to accommodate large water volumes over
short periods. A soakaway container approximately
200mm diameter and 400mm deep will normally
be sufficient. The soakaway should be backfilled
with limestone chippings. Note that where the soil
is poorly drained, e.g. clay, this option may not be
practical.
0.5 to 1.0 m
Ground level
Section of plastic
drain pipe
Holes in side away
from dwelling
Bottom of pipe sealed
Limestone
chipping fill
Note: Condensate pipe can be run above or below ground level
Figure 24: Possible configuration for a condensate soakaway drain
46
Domestic heating by oil: Boiler systems – guidance for installers and specifiers (2008 edition)
Installing central heating systems
9.5
Controls
There are a number of points to be considered when
installing commonly-used central heating controls.
Programmable Room Thermostat
CHeSS best practice specification
If fitted with a regular boiler, this must have a hot
water timing capability. In larger dwellings, where
separate time/temperature zones are required, only
one programmable room thermostat needs this
hot water timing capability. A programmable room
thermostat should be located in a regularly heated
area. While free movement of air is important,
it should be mounted away from draughts,
internal heat sources and direct sunlight. It should
not be fitted in a room where supplementary
room heating (e.g. electric heaters or open fires)
can affect it. So do not site one in a kitchen or
combined kitchen and living room. Only install
one in a main living room if it is certain that no
supplementary heating is used there. Suitable
positions would be in the hall or a living room
without supplementary heating.
The unit should be readily accessible to the
householder, not hidden away in a cupboard or
behind furniture. It should be located at a height of
about 1.5m above floor level unless the occupants
include wheelchair users. In this instance a suitable
height in excess of 1m should be agreed with the
homeowner.
Time switch/programmer
CHeSS basic systems only
Time switches can only switch one circuit (such as
combi heating), while programmers can control two
(e.g. heating and hot water). Ensure that the unit is
suitable.
These controls should be installed where they can
be easily reached, read and altered. Do not fit them
in places inconvenient for the householder (e.g. in an
airing cupboard).
Cylinder thermostat
CHeSS best practice specification
This control is usually strapped onto the cylinder about
one third of the way up from the base. The strap
needs to be tight to ensure good thermal contact and
be adjusted to about 60°C. If set too high, it may result
in scalding, but if too low it can increase the risk of
legionella bacteria which could result in serious health
problems.
Motorised valve
CHeSS best practice specification
The most common types of motorised valves are two
and three-port. How each will be used depends on
pipework layout and preference, as displayed in the
following examples.
• Three-port valves can provide separate heating
and hot water circuits. Most three-port units
feature a mid-position which allows shared flow.
• Where there is more than one heating zone, as
well as a hot water zone, use a separate twoport valve for each zone.
• Valves of 22mm can be used on boilers up to
around 20kW. Beyond that, 28mm or larger
should be used.
Note: motorised valves must not be positioned in the
line of the open safety vent pipe or the feed-andexpansion pipe.
Thermostatic Radiator Valve (TRV)
CHeSS basic and best practice specifications
TRVs must be used in systems meeting either
specification. They should be installed in all rooms
except those in which a controlling room thermostat
provides a boiler interlock. Many TRVs can be fitted
on the flow or return to the radiator and many are
bi-directional. If not, the direction of the water flow
must be taken into account when installing them.
Room thermostat
CHeSS basic systems only
Installation considerations are the same as for the
programmable room thermostat.
Domestic heating by oil: Boiler systems – guidance for installers and specifiers (2008 edition)
47
Installing central heating systems
9.13
Automatic bypass valve
CHeSS basic and best practice specifications
These should be used for systems meeting either
specification unless the boiler manufacturer does not
require a bypass circuit be fitted to ensure a minimum
flow rate. The valve should be installed between the
boiler primary flow and return, taking account of the
direction of flow. Ensure that the valve has adequate
flow capacity. It should be set so as to ensure
adequate flow through the boiler when all motorised
valves and/or TRVs are closed.
The outline setting procedure is as follows:
• Once the system is commissioned and
balanced, make a note of the selected pump
speed.
• Determine the minimum flow requirement of
the boiler (from manufacturer’s instructions).
• From the pump manufacturers pump curve at
the selected pump speed, determine available
pump head at the required minimum flow.
• Using the manufacturer’s automatic bypass
setting chart, adjust the valve setting to
correspond to the pump head at the minimum
flow.
Should persistent water velocity noise occur in the
system, gradually reduce the valve setting until the
noise is eliminated.
Frost protection
(air and pipe thermostat)
Where both air and pipe thermostats are used, the
contacts should be wired in series from a live supply*
that is not switched by a timeswitch/programmer or
thermostats. This ensures that protection is available
24 hours a day. Some boilers already include their
own frost protection, but the level of protection for
the whole dwelling needs to be considered.
Weather compensator or unit with external
sensor
The external sensor should be positioned on a
north-facing wall, away from direct sunlight and other
heat sources.
Oil storage and supply
www.oftec.org
The installation of oil storage tanks and supply
pipework is subject to building regulations
and requirements differ in the parts of the UK.
Environmental legislation that affects this is in force in
England and Wales(52), in Scotland(53), and Northern
Ireland(54). Detailed guidance is set out in BS 5410
Part 1 1997(34) and more information is available from
OFTEC.
The key considerations are as follows.
• Size of tank – the amount of oil to store will
depend both on boiler size and the expected
frequency of fuel deliveries.
• Tank position – there are requirements for siting
near to buildings and boundaries as well as
additional requirements for fire protection(46).
• Accessibility – the tank must be located so that
there is good access for deliveries, inspection
and maintenance. Where possible, it should be
visible from the delivery tanker and be less than
30m from the tanker stand.
• Bunding – a bund is a secondary containment
system. Good practice requires that a bunded oil
tank is used.
• Supply pipework – this can be installed above
or below ground. It should be sleeved and
protected against damage(55). The position of
the tank fuel outlet (top or the bottom) will
affect the arrangement of the pipes.
• Fire valve – this should be remote sensing and
fitted outside the dwelling in the oil supply
pipework. Note that the remote sensor must be
fitted above the level of the appliance’s burner.
• Oil filter – this should be installed in the oil
supply line.
• Tank gauge – this should be fitted on the
tank (manual gauges) or remotely positioned
(electronic) in a convenient to read location.
*for units that require thermostats with voltage-free contacts, refer
to the manufacturer’s instructions. 48
Domestic heating by oil: Boiler systems – guidance for installers and specifiers (2008 edition)
Installing central heating systems
9.14 Water treatment
Effective water treatment of a central heating system
is essential to ensure continued efficient and trouble
free operation.
Key points are:
• Both new and existing systems should be
thoroughly cleaned and flushed out before a new
boiler is fitted.
• A suitable corrosion inhibitor should be used
in the boiler primary water circuit to minimise
corrosion and the formation of scale and sludge.
• The water supply may require softening to
prevent scaling of heat exchangers. This is
particularly important in the case of water
heaters which are installed in hard water areas
(where the water hardness exceeds 200 parts
per million. See BS 7593:2006(57)).
• Always refer to boiler manufacturer’s
instructions to ensure appropriate cleaning ,
softening and inhibitor products are used and
any special requirements for particular models
are applied.
• A system with excessive hardness scale and
sludge will not operate at optimal efficiency.
More advice is available on water treatment, the
need for it, methods and dealing with problems(56,57).
Domestic heating by oil: Boiler systems – guidance for installers and specifiers (2008 edition)
49
10. Commissioning and handover
10.1 Commissioning
For safe and energy-efficient operation, all parts of a
new central heating and hot water system need to
be checked to ensure they are working properly. In
particular:
• The boiler and system should be cleaned
using a recognised flushing procedure (see
BS 7593:2006).
• A suitable corrosion inhibitor should be used
in the boiler primary water circuit to minimise
corrosion and the formation of scale and sludge
(subject to recommendation by the boiler
manufacturer).
• The burner should be adjusted for optimum
combustion and thereby maximum efficiency.
• The key system components such as gauges,
valves, fire valves, burner and system controls
must be checked for correct and safe operation.
• Controls should be set to their optimum settings.
• The customer should be instructed on how to
operate the controls, and the importance of
regularly servicing the system needs to be made
clear.
In England and Wales, competent persons who
carry out this work must send details to their
scheme operator who will send certificates to the
householder and the local authority building control.
Alternatively installers or their customers can use the
local authority Building Control route for notification.
Suitable documentary evidence must be provided;
examples are OFTEC forms for Installation CD/10(58)
and Commissioning CD/11(59).
The householder should retain evidence of correct
installation, commissioning and servicing of the boiler
and systems.
10.2 Advising householders
Installers must instruct the householder how to
set and use the controls properly and effectively.
In particular, the operation of programmers can be
difficult to understand and homeowners will gain
little or no benefit from an incorrectly set device. In
fact, they will probably end up wasting energy.
50
As a bare minimum, the manufacturer’s instructions
should be left with the householder. However, it will
usually be necessary to demonstrate:
• How to set the programmer clock and adjust for
GMT and BST.
• The use of the time control override function.
• How to set summer hot water only.
• How to separate space heating and domestic hot
water time settings (regular boilers only).
• How to set room and cylinder thermostats.
• How to set TRVs.
The installer will also need to explain:
• The function of room thermostats and TRVs, and
the need to set them carefully to avoid wasteful
heating. They should only be altered when the
needs of the household change, and should
not be treated as on/off switches. (e.g, that they
should be left alone once set, rather than used as
on/off switches).
• That the cylinder thermostat needs to be left at
approximately 60°C, since setting it higher may
result in scalding while setting it lower can allow
the growth of legionella bacteria.
• That the radiator lockshield and automatic bypass
valve should not be adjusted once set by the
installer.
• Why it is best to switch space and water heating
off when not required.
• Why it is best to turn the room thermostat down
to frost protection levels (approximately 12°C)
unless a separate frost protection system has
been fitted.
• That sealed boiler systems must have adequate
system pressure and what to do if re-pressurising
is needed.
• Operational and safety aspects of the oil storage
and supply system, including how to use the tank
contents gauge, and the necessary arrangements
for re-filling.
Domestic heating by oil: Boiler systems – guidance for installers and specifiers (2008 edition)
Commissioning and handover
10.3 Servicing
Users should be made aware of the importance of
regular servicing, both of the boiler and the system
as a whole (including the oil supply system). This will
help maintain its safety and efficiency. In particular,
users should consider taking out a regular service
contract where a competent service engineer (e.g.
registered with OFTEC) will clean and maintain the
boiler as well as checking the operation of the system
and controls.
Note that homeowners in England and Wales can
now ask for an energy rating for their boiler with
advice on how to cut fuel bills, whenever an engineer
makes a regular service visit. An example of the form
used in shown in Appendix D.
Domestic heating by oil: Boiler systems – guidance for installers and specifiers (2008 edition)
51
Appendix A – Notes to CHeSS 2008
CHeSS is published in full as reference(38) and part of
it is reproduced here in Section 6. The Notes below
apply to CHeSS HR7, HC7, HR8, HC8 (Year 2008).
1. Other components
The specifications list only the principal components
of a heating system affecting energy efficiency.
Other components will be required, such as
radiators, circulator pumps (see note 4), cisterns
(feed and expansion tanks), and motorised valves. All
components must be selected and sized correctly.
2. Design, installation and commissioning
Heating systems should be designed to match the
heating needs of the buildings in which they are
installed, using methods such as those described in
Ref [5]. They should be installed in accordance with
relevant safety regulations, manufacturers’ instructions,
the Benchmark scheme (see Ref [10]), building
regulations (see Refs [1], [2], [11]), the Domestic Heating
Compliance Guide (see Ref [16]), and British Standards
(see Refs [12], [13], [17], [18]). For oil boilers the OFTEC
forms CD/10 and CD/11 (or similar) for installation and
commissioning should be completed. More detailed
advice on domestic wet central heating systems is given
in the Energy Saving Trust guides (see Refs [3] and [4]),
and the CIBSE guide (see Ref [5]). Commissioning and
handover of information on operation and maintenance
is a requirement of building regulations and a suitable
commissioning certificate should be issued.
3. Water treatment
Water treatment is important as it prolongs effective
and trouble-free operation. Three types of water
treatment should be considered:
• Cleaning and flushing of the system before use
• Corrosion inhibition
• Softening of the water supply to combi boilers for
hot water service in hard water areas.
In each case the recommendation of the boiler
manufacturer must be followed as damage may be
caused by unsuitable treatment. For both new and
replacement systems, thorough cleaning is essential.
When a boiler is replaced it is essential to drain and
flush all old water from the system in case it contains
a corrosion inhibitor unsuitable for the new boiler.
Advice on the need for treatment and on causes of
problems is given in BS 7593 (see Ref [14]).
52
4. Circulator pump
Advice on pump dimensioning is available from the
BPMA (British Pump Manufacturers’ Association)
website at www.bpma.org.uk
Pumps installed separately from the boiler (not supplied
as part of the boiler unit) which have automatic speed
control should not be used in heating systems with TRVs
unless the design of the pump and system ensures that
the minimum flow rate through the boiler (as specified
by the boiler manufacturer) is certain to be maintained
under all conditions.
5. Boiler size and type
The whole house boiler sizing method for houses
and flats gives guidance on boiler size and is
available on the Energy Saving Trust website at www.
energysavingtrust.org.uk/housingbuildings/calculators/
boilersizing
A regular boiler does not have the capability to
provide domestic hot water directly, though it may do
so indirectly via a separate hot water store.
A combination (combi) boiler does have the
capability to provide domestic hot water directly, and
some models contain an internal hot water store.
A combined primary storage unit (CPSU) is a boiler
with a burner that heats a thermal store directly.
Each of these may be either a condensing or noncondensing boiler, and condensing boilers are always
more efficient. Condensing boilers are fitted with a drain
to dispose of the liquid condensate. Building regulations
require all new gas and oil boilers to be condensing,
whether installed in new or existing housing, unless
there are exceptional circumstances that would make
the installation impractical or excessively costly. All boilers
in the CHeSS specifications HR7, HC7, HR8 and HC8 are
condensing boilers.
For further definitions of boiler types see Appendix D
of Ref [6].
6. Boiler efficiency
SEDBUK (Seasonal Efficiency of Domestic Boilers
in the UK) is the preferred measure of the
seasonal efficiency of a boiler installed in typical
domestic conditions in the UK, and is used in
SAP assessments and the building regulations.
The SEDBUK efficiency of most current and
obsolete boilers can be found on the website
Domestic heating by oil: Boiler systems – guidance for installers and specifiers (2008 edition)
Notes to CHeSS 2008
www.boilers.org.uk. Although SEDBUK is expressed
as a percentage, an A to G scale of percentage
bands has also been defined below.
SEDBUK
Efficiency range
Band
90% and above
A
86% – 90%
B
82% – 86%
C
78% – 82%
D
74% – 78%
E
70% – 74%
F
Below 70%
G
7. Hot water cylinder (basic)
Vented cylinders shall comply with the performance
requirements of BS 1566:2002 Type P cylinders (see
Ref [7]). The performance of unvented cylinders shall
comply with BS EN 12897:2006 (see Ref [8]) or be
approved by the BBA or other equivalent body. All
cylinders must be factory insulated such that the
standing heat loss will not exceed:
1.6 x (0.2 + 0.051 V2/3) kWh per 24 hours, where V
is the capacity in litres. All cylinders shall be labelled
with the standing heat loss in kWh/24hours.
Indirect cylinders shall also be labelled with the
heat exchanger performance in kW as measured
by BS 1566: 2002 (vented) or BS EN 12897
(unvented). Where cylinder capacity (V) in litres
is less than 200, the ratio of V to heat exchanger
performance (in kW) shall not exceed 10; e.g.
a 150 litre cylinder shall have a minimum heat
exchanger performance of 15kW. Where V is 200
or above the cylinder shall have a minimum heat
exchanger performance of 20kW.
8. Hot water cylinder (high performance)
A high performance cylinder may be either vented
or unvented. The manufacturer must confirm
that the heat exchanger and insulation properties
exceed the requirements of the relevant British
Standards (see Refs [7], [8]). The standing heat loss
must not exceed: 1.28 x (0.2 + 0.051 V2/3) kWh
per 24 hours, where V is the capacity in litres. All
cylinders shall be labelled with the standing heat
loss in kWh/24hours.
High performance cylinders shall comply with
the heat exchanger performance and labelling
requirements of basic cylinders, as set out in Note 7.
Solar-compatible cylinders contain an additional heat
exchanger or other provision for connection to a solar
water heating system. They offer the opportunity to
install a solar water heating system at greatly reduced
cost and with less disruption in the future. In the case
of solar-compatible cylinders the heat exchanger
performance of the upper coil (connected to the
boiler) shall relate to the volume of water heated
by that coil; i.e. the dedicated solar volume shall be
subtracted from the total cylinder capacity for the
purposes of heat exchanger assessment.
9. Thermal store (high performance)
A high-performance thermal (primary) storage
system must have insulation properties exceeding by
at least 15% those given in the WMA Performance
Specification for Thermal Stores (see Ref [9]), and
comply with the specification in other respects. Note
that the WMA Performance Specification for Thermal
Stores is shortly to be superseded by a revised 2008
specification from the HWA (Hot Water Association).
10. Circuits and zones
Systems with regular boilers must have separately
controlled circuits to the hot water cylinder and
radiators, and both circuits must have pumped
circulation. Large properties must be divided into
zones not exceeding 150m2 floor area, so that
the operation of the heating in each zone can be
timed and temperature controlled independently.
11. Heating controls
Definitions of heating controls are given in Ref [4].
The most common are repeated below.
A time switch is an electrical switch operated by a
clock to control either space heating or hot water, or
both together but not independently.
A full programmer allows the time settings
for space heating and hot water to be fully
independent.
A room thermostat measures the air temperature
within the building and switches the space heating
on and off. A single target temperature may be set
by the user.
Domestic heating by oil: Boiler systems – guidance for installers and specifiers (2008 edition)
53
Notes to CHeSS 2008
A programmable room thermostat is a
combined time switch and room thermostat that
allows the user to set different periods with different
target temperatures for space heating, usually in a
weekly cycle. Some models also allow time control of
hot water, therefore replacing a full programmer.
A cylinder thermostat measures the temperature
of the hot water cylinder and switches the water
heating on and off.
A thermostatic radiator valve (TRV) has an air
temperature sensor which is used to control the heat
output from the radiator by adjusting water flow.
12. Wireless controls
Wireless controls are susceptible to radio
transmissions and should therefore be designed
to a satisfactory level of immunity, otherwise they
may become unreliable as nearby frequency bands
become increasingly utilised by communication
services.
Compliance with the essential requirements of
the European Radio and Telecommunications
Terminal Equipment (RTTE) Directive 1999/5/EC
is insufficient, as the directive is designed only to
ensure that wireless products do not cause harmful
interference to other transmissions. It does not give
any assurance that the product has a satisfactory
level of immunity to interference from other radio
transmissions.
Consequently it is not sufficient for the manufacturer
to confirm compliance with the RTTE Directive. The
manufacturer should also confirm that the switching
range, and preferably alignment range, do not
include any frequencies below 430MHz, and that in
regard to ETSI EN 300 220-1 v1.3.1 (see Ref [15]) the
54
receiver classification (clause 4.1.1) is either Class 1 or
Class 2, and the device is marked in accordance with
clause 4.3.4.
13. Boiler interlock
Boiler interlock is not a physical device but an
arrangement of the system controls (room
thermostats, programmable room thermostats,
cylinder thermostats, programmers and time switches)
so as to ensure that the boiler does not fire when
there is no demand for heat.
In a system with a combi boiler this can be achieved
by fitting a room thermostat. In a system with a
regular boiler this can be achieved by correct wiring
interconnection of the room thermostat, cylinder
thermostat, and motorised valve(s). It may also be
achieved by more advanced controls, such as a boiler
energy manager. TRVs alone are not sufficient for
boiler interlock.
14. An automatic bypass valve
An automatic bypass valve controls water flow in
accordance with the water pressure across it, and is
used to maintain a minimum flow rate through the
boiler and to limit circulation pressure when alternative
water paths are closed.
A bypass circuit must be installed if the boiler
manufacturer requires one, or specifies that a
minimum flow rate has to be maintained while the
boiler is firing. The installed bypass circuit must then
include an automatic bypass valve (not a fixedposition valve).
Care must be taken to set up the automatic bypass
valve correctly, in order to achieve the minimum flow
rate required (but not more) when alternative water
paths are closed.
Domestic heating by oil: Boiler systems – guidance for installers and specifiers (2008 edition)
Appendix B – Definitions of boiler types
B1.1 Boiler
A gas or liquid fuelled appliance designed to provide
hot water for space heating. It may (but need not) be
designed to provide domestic hot water as well.
B1.2 Condensing boiler
A boiler designed to make use of the latent heat
released by the condensation of water vapour in the
combustion flue products. The boiler must allow the
condensate to leave the heat exchanger in liquid
form by way of a condensate drain. Condensing
may only be applied to the definitions B1.3 to B1.14
inclusive. Boilers not so designed, or without the
means to remove the condensate in liquid form, are
called ‘non-condensing’.
B1.3 Regular boiler
A boiler which does not have the capability to
provide domestic hot water directly (i.e. not a
combination boiler). It may nevertheless provide
domestic hot water indirectly via a separate hot water
storage cylinder.
B1.4 On/off regular boiler
A regular boiler without the capability to vary the fuel
burning rate whilst maintaining continuous burner
firing. This includes those with alternative burning
rates set once only at time of installation, referred to
as range rating.
B1.5 Modulating regular boiler
A regular boiler with the capability to vary the fuel
burning rate whilst maintaining continuous burner
firing.
B1.6 Combination boiler
A boiler with the capability to provide domestic hot
water directly, in some cases containing an internal
hot water store.
B1.7 Instantaneous combination boiler
A combination boiler without an internal hot water
store, or with an internal hot water store of capacity
less than 15 litres.
B1.8 On/off instantaneous combination
boiler
An instantaneous combination boiler that only has
a single fuel burning rate for space heating. This
includes appliances with alternative burning rates set
once only at time of installation, referred to as range
rating.
B1.9 Modulating instantaneous combination
boiler
An instantaneous combination boiler with the capability
to vary the fuel burning rate whilst maintaining
continuous burner firing.
B1.10 Storage combination boiler
A combination boiler with an internal hot water store
of capacity at least 15 litres but less than 70 litres, or a
combination boiler with an internal hot water store of
capacity at least 70 litres, in which the feed to the space
heating circuit is not taken directly from the store. If
the store is at least 70 litres and the feed to the space
heating circuit is taken directly from the store, treat as a
CPSU (B1.13 or B1.14).
B1.11 On/off storage combination boiler
A storage combination boiler that only has a single fuel
burning rate for space heating. This includes appliances
with alternative burning rates set once only at time of
installation, referred to as range rating.
B1.12 Modulating storage combination boiler
A storage combination boiler with the capability to vary
the fuel burning rate whilst maintaining continuous
burner firing.
B1.13 On/off combined primary storage unit
(CPSU)
A single appliance designed to provide both space
heating and the production of domestic hot water, in
which there is a burner that heats a thermal store which
contains mainly primary water which is in common with
the space heating circuit. The store must have a capacity
of at least 70 litres and the feed to the space heating
circuit must be taken directly from the store. The appliance
does not have the capability to vary the fuel burning rate
whilst maintaining continuous burner firing. This includes
those with alternative burning rates set once only at time
of installation, referred to as range rating.
B1.14 Modulating combined primary storage
unit (CPSU)
A single appliance designed to provide both space
heating and the production of domestic hot water, in
which there is a burner that heats a thermal store which
contains mainly primary water which is in common
with the space heating circuit. The store must have a
capacity of at least 70 litres and the feed to the space
heating circuit must be taken directly from the store. The
appliance has the capability to vary the fuel burning rate
whilst maintaining continuous burner firing.
Domestic heating by oil: Boiler systems – guidance for installers and specifiers (2008 edition)
55
Definitions of boiler types
B1.15 Low temperature boiler
A non-condensing boiler designed as a low
temperature boiler and tested as a low temperature
boiler as prescribed by the Boiler Efficiency Directive
(i.e. the part load test was carried out at average
boiler temperature of 40°C).
56
B1.16 Keep-hot facility
A facility within an instantaneous combination boiler
whereby water within the boiler may be kept hot
while there is no demand. The water is kept hot
either (i) solely by burning fuel, or (ii) by electricity, or
(iii) both by burning fuel and by electricity, though not
necessarily simultaneously.
Domestic heating by oil: Boiler systems – guidance for installers and specifiers (2008 edition)
Appendix C – Definitions of heating controls
As given in SAP Appendix D(22) the list of definitions
has been discussed and agreed with industry
representatives, and, for completeness, includes some
controls for heating systems other than gas central
heating.
Automatic bypass valve
A valve to control water flow, operated by the water
pressure across it. It is commonly used to maintain
a minimum flow rate through a boiler and to limit
circulation pressure when alternative water paths are
closed (particularly in systems with TRVs).
Boiler anti-cycling device
A device to introduce a time delay between boiler
firing. Any energy saving is due to a reduction in
performance of the heating system. The device does
not provide boiler interlock.
Boiler auto ignition
An electrically controlled device to ignite the boiler at the
start of each firing, avoiding use of a permanent pilot
flame.
Boiler energy manager
No agreed definition, but typically a device intended
to improve boiler control using a selection of features
such as weather compensation, load compensation,
optimum start control, night setback, frost protection,
anticycling control and hot water override.
Boiler modulator (water temperature)
A device, or feature within a device, to vary the fuel
burning rate of a boiler according to measured water
temperature. It is often fitted within the boiler casing.
The boiler under control must have modulating
capability.
Boiler thermostat
A thermostat within the boiler casing to limit the
temperature of water passing through the boiler by
switching off the boiler. The target temperature may
either be fixed or set by the user.
CELECT-type electric heating control
Integrated central control system for electric storage
and panel heaters that provides programmed space
temperatures at different times of the day for a
number of separate heating zones in the dwelling. It
minimises the charge period of the storage heaters
according to the external temperature.
Cylinder thermostat
A sensing device to measure the temperature of the hot
water cylinder and switch on and off the water heating.
A single target temperature may be set by the user.
Delayed start
A device, or feature within a device, to delay the
chosen starting time for space heating according to the
temperature measured inside or outside the building.
Boiler interlock
This is not a physical device but an arrangement of the
system controls so as to ensure that the boiler does
not fire when there is no demand for heat. In a system
with a combi boiler it can be achieved by fitting a room
thermostat. In a system with a regular boiler it can be
achieved by correct wiring interconnections between the
room thermostat, cylinder thermostat, and motorised
valve(s). It may also be achieved by a suitable boiler
energy manager.
Frost thermostat
A device to detect low air temperature and switch on
heating to avoid frost damage, arranged to override
other controls.
Boiler modulator (air temperature)
A device, or feature within a device, to vary the fuel
burning rate of a boiler according to measured room
temperature. The boiler under control must have
modulating capability and a suitable interface for
connection.
Motorised valve
A valve to control water flow, operated electrically. A
two-port motorised valve controls water flow to a single
destination. A three-port motorised valve controls water
flow to two destinations (usually for space heating and
hot water), and may be either a diverter valve (only one
outlet open at a time) or a mid-position valve (either one,
or both, outlets open at a time). The valve movement
may also open or close switches, which are used to
control the boiler and pump.
Load compensator
A device, or feature within a device, which adjusts
the temperature of the water circulating through
the heating system according to the temperature
measured inside the building.
Domestic heating by oil: Boiler systems – guidance for installers and specifiers (2008 edition)
57
Definitions of heating controls
Night setback
A feature of a room thermostat that allows a lower
temperature to be maintained outside the period
during which the normal room temperature is
required.
On/off-peak hot water controller
A control to switch the electrical supply to the main
immersion heater from the off-peak electricity supply.
It may also include a boost function so that some of
the stored water can also be heated using on-peak
electricity.
Optimum start
A device, or feature within a device, to adjust
the starting time for space heating according to
the temperature measured inside or outside the
building, aiming to heat the building to the required
temperature by a chosen time.
Optimum stop
A device, or feature within a device, to adjust the stop
time for space heating according to the temperature
measured inside (and possibly outside) the building,
aiming to prevent the required temperature of the
building being maintained beyond a chosen time.
Pipe thermostat
A switch governed by a sensor measuring pipe
temperature, normally used in conjunction with other
controls such as a frost thermostat.
Programmable cylinder thermostat
A combined time switch and cylinder thermostat that
allows the user to set different periods with different
target temperatures for stored hot water, usually in a
daily or weekly cycle.
Programmable room thermostat
A combined time switch and room thermostat that
allows the user to set different periods with different
target temperatures for space heating, usually in a
daily or weekly cycle.
Programmer
Two switches operated by a clock to control both
space heating and hot water. The user chooses one
or more ‘on’ periods, usually in a daily or weekly cycle.
A mini-programmer allows space heating and hot
water to be on together, or hot water alone, but not
heating alone. A standard programmer uses the same
58
time settings for space heating and hot water. A full
programmer allows the time settings for space heating
and hot water to be fully independent.
Pump modulator
A device to reduce pump power when not needed,
determined by hydraulic or temperature conditions or
firing status of the boiler.
Pump over-run
A timing device to run the heating system pump for
a short period after the boiler stops firing to discharge
very hot water from the boiler heat exchanger.
Room thermostat
A sensing device to measure the air temperature within
the building and switch on and off the space heating. A
single target temperature may be set by the user.
Self-adaptive (or self-learning) control
A characteristic of a device (of various types) that
learns from experience by monitoring, and modifies its
subsequent behaviour accordingly.
Temperature and time zone control (or full
zone control)
A control scheme in which it is possible to select
different temperatures at different times in two (or
more) different zones.
Time switch
An electrical switch operated by a clock to control
either space heating or hot water, or both together but
not independently. The user chooses one or more ‘on’
periods, usually in a daily or weekly cycle.
Thermostatic radiator valve
A radiator valve with an air temperature sensor, used to
control the heat output from the radiator by adjusting
water flow.
Weather compensator
A device, or feature within a device, that adjusts the
temperature of the water circulating through the
heating system according to the temperature measured
outside the building.
Zone control
A control scheme in which it is possible to select
different times and/or temperatures in two (or more)
different zones.
Domestic heating by oil: Boiler systems – guidance for installers and specifiers (2008 edition)
Appendix D – Energy efficiency checklist
Gas fired Home Heating Installations – energy efficiency checklist
This energy assessment is not a service or safety check. You should ensure your heating system is
regularly maintained and inspected by a competent heating engineer to ensure its safety and efficiency.
This is part of an initiative to help homeowners cut their fuel bills and reduce their carbon emissions.
Section 1 – Installation information
Customer Name
Installation Address
Customer Address (if different)
Date of assessment
Section 2 – Stored Hot Water Systems (if applicable)
Are the water pipes connected to the cylinder insulated?
Yes
No
Does the hot water cylinder have spray foam insulation or a jacket with a
thickness greater than 75mm?
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Section 3 – Heating Controls
Does the system incorporate time control?
Does the system have thermostatic radiator valves (TRV)?
Does the system have room thermostat(s) and boiler interlock ?
1
Does the hot water cylinder have a thermostat and boiler interlock ?
1
1
Boiler interlock ensures the boiler and pump shuts down when heating and/or hot water are at the required temperature
Section 4 – Boiler
Manufacturer
Approximate Age
Model name/number
The Energy Efficiency of your boiler
High efficiency (A-C rating)
D rated
E rated
F rated
High G rated
Low G rated
Section 5 – Energy Efficiency Assessment
A brief inspection of your heating system has been carried out in accordance with recommended industry good
practice. Depending upon the outcome of this inspection there may be an opportunity for you to improve the
energy efficiency of the system, thereby reducing emissions to the environment and at the same time reducing
your fuel bills.
In any of the following cases you are strongly advised to obtain a more thorough examination of your boiler
and complete heating system by a competent heating engineer.
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t *GUIFCPJMFSJTNPSFUIBOZFBSTPMEPSJGBDPNQMFUFFYBNJOBUJPOPGUIFEFTJHOBOEDPOEJUJPOPGZPVS
heating system has not been carried out in the last 15 years.
Name of service engineer
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Domestic heating by oil: Boiler systems – guidance for installers and specifiers (2008 edition)
59
Energy efficiency checklist
Potential savings – all information is provided by the Energy Saving Trust
Improving your heating system and controls
Typical Annual
saving up to
(£/yr)
CO2 savings
Insulating hot water pipes connected to the hot water cylinder
£10
70 kg/yr
Insulating your hot water cylinder with a jacket thicker than 75mm
b
160 kg/yr
Installing heating controls
£65
LHZS
Changing from a D rated boiler to an A rated boiler could save you:
£54
,HZS
Changing from an E rated boiler to an A rated boiler could save you:
£77
,HZS
Changing from an F rated boiler to an A rated boiler could save you:
£104
,HZS
Changing from a High G rated boiler to an A rated boiler could save you:
£157
UPOOFTZS
Changing from a Low G rated boiler to an A rated boiler could save you:
b
UPOOFTZS
Other possible home improvements
Typical Annual
saving up to
(£/yr)
CO2 savings
Cavity Wall insulation
£90
750 kg/yr
4PMJE8BMMJOTVMBUJPOJOUFSOBM
b
UPOOFTZS
4PMJE8BMMJOTVMBUJPOFYUFSOBM
b
UPOOFTZS
Double glazing
£90
740 kg/yr
-PGUJOTVMBUJPOOFXJOTUBMMBUJPOUPBUIJDLOFTTPGNN
£110
LHZS
Floor insulation
£45
LHZS
Draught proofing
b
155 kg/yr
Filling gaps between floor and skirting board
£15
LHZS
The savings shown are approximate and are provided as an illustration only. They are based on a natural gas heated semi-detached
IPVTFXJUICFESPPNTVTJOHBHBTQSJDFPGQL8I4PNFPGUIFTBWJOHTNBEFNBZCFUBLFOJOJODSFBTFEDPNGPSU5IFBDUVBMBOOVBM
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UIFJNQSPWFNFOUTUIFUPUBMTBWJOHTNBZCFMFTTUIBOUIFTVNPGUIFJOEJWJEVBMTBWJOHT
An Energy Performance Certificate will give you an energy rating for your home and specific recommendations and savings for your
property. Energy Performance Certificates (EPCs) are a legal requirement within a Home Information Pack for the marketed sales of
IPNFT&1$TXJMMCFSFRVJSFEGPSIPNFTXIFOSFOUFEGSPN0DUPCFS
'PSBEWJDFPOIPXUPUBLFBDUJPOBOEUPmOEPVUBCPVUPGGFSTBWBJMBCMFUPIFMQNBLFZPVSIPNFNPSFFOFSHZFGmDJFOUDBMM0800 512 012
or visit www.energysavingtrust.org.uk/myhome
5PEFUFSNJOFXIBUTJ[FCPJMFSZPVOFFEGPSZPVSIPNFWJTJUXXXTFECVLDPNBOEDMJDLPOA3FDPNNFOEFE#PJMFS4J[F#ZQSPWJEJOH
TPNFCBTJDEFUBJMTBCPVUUIFTJ[FPGZPVSIPNFZPVDBOTFFXIBUTJ[FPGCPJMFSZPVOFFE
For a more thorough inspection of your heating system you should contact a competent heating engineer with an energy efficiency
qualification.
Contact CORGI if you have any concerns about the safety of your gas appliance or to check your installer is CORGI registered on
0800 915 0485 or visit www.trustcorgi.com.
Address Details
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60
Domestic heating by oil: Boiler systems – guidance for installers and specifiers (2008 edition)
Appendix E – Heating controls: simple explanations for
householders
Simple explanations of the purpose and principles
of domestic heating controls are necessary to help
householders understand them, and encourage
more effective usage. The following pages have been
written in conjunction with control manufacturers
to accompany the installation and commissioning
instructions for individual products, and are included
with heating controls that carry the Energy Saving
Recommended logo.
1.
What is a room thermostat?
A room thermostat simply switches the heating
system on and off as necessary. It works by sensing
the air temperature, switching on the heating when
the air temperature falls below the thermostat
setting, and switching it off once this set temperature
has been reached.
Turning a room thermostat to a higher setting will not
make the room heat up any faster. How quickly the
room heats up depends on the design of the heating
system, for example, the size of boiler and radiators.
Neither does the setting affect how quickly the room
cools down. Turning a room thermostat to a lower
setting will result in the room being controlled at a
lower temperature, and saves energy.
The heating system will not work if a time switch or
programmer has switched it off.
The way to set and use your room thermostat is
to find the lowest temperature setting that you are
comfortable with, and then leave it alone to do its job.
The best way to do this is to set the room thermostat
to a low temperature – say 18°C – and then turn it
up by one degree each day until you are comfortable
with the temperature. You won’t have to adjust the
thermostat further. Any adjustment above this setting
will waste energy and cost you more money.
If your heating system is a boiler with radiators,
there will usually be only one room thermostat to
control the whole house. But you can have different
temperatures in individual rooms by installing
thermostatic radiator valves (TRVs) on individual
radiators. If you don’t have TRVs, you should choose
a temperature that is reasonable for the whole house.
If you do have TRVs, you can choose a slightly higher
setting to make sure that even the coldest room is
comfortable, then prevent any overheating in other
rooms by adjusting the TRVs.
Room thermostats need a free flow of air to sense
the temperature, so they must not be covered by
curtains or blocked by furniture. Nearby electric fires,
televisions, wall or table lamps may prevent the
thermostat from working properly.
2.
What is a cylinder thermostat?
A cylinder thermostat switches on and off the heat
supply from the boiler to the hot-water cylinder. It
works by sensing the temperature of the water inside
the cylinder, switching on the water heating when
the temperature falls below the thermostat setting,
and switching it off once this set temperature has
been reached.
Turning a cylinder thermostat to a higher setting will
not make the water heat up any faster. How quickly
the water heats up depends on the design of the
heating system, for example, the size of boiler and
the heat exchanger inside the cylinder.
The water heating will not work if a time switch or
programmer has switched it off. And the cylinder
thermostat will not always switch the boiler off,
because the boiler sometimes needs to heat the
radiators.
Cylinder thermostats are usually fitted between one
quarter and one third of the way up the cylinder. The
cylinder thermostat will have a temperature scale
marked on it, and it should be set at between 60°C
and 65°C, then left to do its job. This temperature is
high enough to kill off harmful bacteria in the water,
but raising the temperature of the stored hot water
any higher will result in wasted energy and increase
the risk of scalding.
If you have a boiler control thermostat, it should
always be set to a higher temperature than that of
the cylinder thermostat. In most boilers, a single boiler
thermostat controls the temperature of water sent
to both the cylinder and radiators, although in some
there are two separate boiler thermostats.
3.
What is a programmer?
Programmers allow you to set ‘On’ and ‘Off’ time
periods. Some models switch the central heating
and domestic hot water on and off at the same
time, while others allow the domestic hot water
and heating to come on and go off at different
times.
Domestic heating by oil: Boiler systems – guidance for installers and specifiers (2008 edition)
61
Heating controls: simple explanations for householders
Set the ‘On’ and ‘Off’ time periods to suit your own
lifestyle. On some programmers you must also set
whether you want the heating and hot water to run
continuously, run under the chosen ‘On’ and ‘Off’
heating periods, or be permanently off.
The time on the programmer must be correct. Some
types have to be adjusted in spring and autumn at
the changes between Greenwich Mean Time (GMT)
and British Summer Time (BST).
You may be able to temporarily adjust the heating
programme, for example, ‘Override’, ‘Advance’ or
‘Boost’. These are explained in the manufacturer’s
instructions.
The heating will not work if the room thermostat has
switched the heating off. And, if you have a hotwater cylinder, the water heating will not work if the
cylinder thermostat detects that the hot water has
reached the correct temperature.
4.
What is a programmable room
thermostat?
A programmable room thermostat is both a
programmer and a room thermostat. A programmer
allows you to set ‘On’ and ‘Off’ time periods to suit
your own lifestyle. A room thermostat works by
sensing the air temperature, switching on the heating
when the air temperature falls below the thermostat
setting, and switching it off once this set temperature
has been reached.
So, a programmable room thermostat lets you
choose what times you want the heating to be on,
and what temperature it should reach while it is on. It
will allow you to select different temperatures in your
home at different times of the day (and days of the
week) to meet your particular needs.
Turning a programmable room thermostat to a
higher setting will not make the room heat up any
faster. How quickly the room heats up depends on
the design of the heating system, for example, the
size of boiler and radiators. Neither does the setting
affect how quickly the room cools down. Turning a
programmable room thermostat to a lower setting
will result in the room being controlled at a lower
temperature, and saves energy.
62
The way to set and use your programmable room
thermostat is to find the lowest temperature settings
that you are comfortable with at the different
times you have chosen, and then leave it alone to
do its job. The best way to do this is to set low
temperatures first, say 18°C, and then turn them up
by one degree each day until you are comfortable
with the temperatures. You won’t have to adjust the
thermostat further. Any adjustments above these
settings will waste energy and cost you more money.
If your heating system is a boiler with radiators,
there will usually be only one programmable
room thermostat to control the whole house. But
you can have different temperatures in individual
rooms by installing thermostatic radiator valves
(TRVs) on individual radiators. If you don’t have
TRVs, you should choose a temperature that is
reasonable for the whole house. If you do have
TRVs, you can choose a slightly higher setting
to make sure that even the coldest room is
comfortable, then prevent any overheating in other
rooms by adjusting the TRVs.
The time on the programmer must be correct. Some
types have to be adjusted in spring and autumn at
the changes between GMT and BST.
You may be able to temporarily adjust the heating
programme, for example, ‘Override’, ‘Advance’ or
‘Boost’. These are explained in the manufacturer’s
instructions.
Programmable room thermostats need a free flow
of air to sense the temperature, so they must not be
covered by curtains or blocked by furniture. Nearby
electric fires, televisions, wall or table lamps may
prevent the thermostat from working properly.
5.
What is a timeswitch?
A timeswitch is an electrical switch operated by a
clock. It allows you to set ‘On’ and ‘Off’ time periods
for either central heating or hot water. It can be
arranged to control both central heating and hot
water together, but will turn them both on and off at
the same times. If you want to control both central
heating and hot water and turn them on and off
at different times, you should have a programmer
instead of a timeswitch.
Domestic heating by oil: Boiler systems – guidance for installers and specifiers (2008 edition)
Heating controls: simple explanations for householders
Set the ‘On’ and ‘Off’ time periods to suit your own
lifestyle. On some timeswitches you can choose
whether you want the system to run continuously,
run under the chosen ‘On’ and ‘Off’ periods, or be
permanently off. You may also be able to adjust the on
and off timing temporarily, e.g. ‘Override’ or ‘Advance’.
These are explained in the manufacturer’s instructions.
The clock in the timeswitch must be set to the correct
time. Some types have to be adjusted in spring and
autumn at the changes between GMT and BST.
The heating system may have other controls that
switch it on or off, e.g. the room thermostat will
switch off the heating when the room has warmed
up. And, if you have a hot water cylinder, the
cylinder thermostat will switch off the water heating
when it detects that the hot water has reached the
correct temperature.
6.
What is a thermostatic radiator
valve (TRV)?
TRVs sense the air temperature around them and
regulate the flow of water through the radiator which
they are fitted to. They do not control the boiler.
They should be set at a level that gives you the
room temperature you want. These settings may
have to be different in each room, and you should
set the TRVs to suit each room and then leave
them to do their job.
Turning a TRV to a higher setting will not make
the room heat up any faster. How quickly the room
heats up depends on the boiler size and setting,
and the radiator size. Turning a TRV to a lower
setting will result in the room being controlled at a
lower temperature, and saves energy.
TRVs need a free flow of air to sense the
temperature, so they must not be covered by
curtains or blocked by furniture.
TRVs cannot turn off the boiler when the
whole house is warm. To do that, you will
need a room thermostat as well. The radiator
in the room with the room thermostat should
not normally have a TRV, but, if it does, keep
the TRV on the maximum setting and adjust
the room thermostat as explained with the
instructions.
Domestic heating by oil: Boiler systems – guidance for installers and specifiers (2008 edition)
63
References
References used in CHeSS (year 2008)
[1] The Building Regulations 2000. Approved
Documents L1A (New Dwellings) and L1B
(Existing Dwellings), Conservation of fuel and
power in dwellings, 2006 Edition.
[2] Section 6: Energy, Domestic Technical Handbook,
Guidance on achieving the standards set in the
Building (Scotland) Regulations 2004, Scottish
Building Standards Agency, 2007.
See website www.sbsa.gov.uk
[3] Domestic heating by gas: boiler
systems:guidance for installers and specifiers:
Energy Efficiency Best Practice in Housing (CE30).
[4] Domestic heating by oil: boiler systems:guidance
for installers and specifiers: Energy Efficiency Best
Practice in Housing (CE29).
[5] Domestic Heating Design Guide, CIBSE, 2007
[6] The Government’s Standard Assessment
Procedure for Energy Rating of Dwellings, 2005
Edition.
[7] BS 1566:2002, Copper indirect cylinders for
domestic purposes.
[8] BS EN 12897:2006, Specification for indirectly
heated unvented hot water storage water
heaters.
[9] Waterheater Manufacturers’ Association
Performance Specification for Thermal Stores,
1999. [Shortly to be superseded by a revised
2008 specification from the HWA (Hot Water
Association)].
[10] Benchmark Code of Practice for the Installation,
Commissioning and Servicing of Central
Heating Systems (available from Heating
& Hot water Information Council, website
www.centralheating.co.uk or telephone
0845 600 2200).
[11] The Building (Amendment No. 2) Regulations
(Northern Ireland) 2006, Technical booklet F1,
Conservation of fuel and power (2006).
See website www.dfpni.gov.uk
[12] BS EN 12828:2003 Heating Systems in Buildings.
Design for water based systems.
[13] BS 7671:2001, Requirements for electrical
installations, IEE Wiring Regulations, Sixteenth
edition.
[14] BS 7593:2006, Code of Practice for Treatment
of water in domestic hot water central heating
systems.
64
[15] European Standard (Telecommunications
series) ETSI EN 300 220-1 v1.3.1 (200009):Electromagnetic compatibility and Radio
spectrum Matters (ERM); Short Range Devices
(SRD); Radio equipment to be used in the
25MHz to 1000MHz frequency range with
power levels ranging up to 500 mW; Part
1:Technical characteristics and test methods.
[16] Domestic Heating Compliance Guide,
(Compliance with Approved Documents L1A:
New Dwellings and L1B: Existing Dwellings), First
Edition, Communities and Local Government.
References used elsewhere in this guide
[17] The Boiler (Efficiency) Regulations 1993, SI (1993)
No 3083, as amended by the Boiler (Efficiency)
(Amendment) Regulations 1994, SI (1994) No
3083.
[18] The Building Regulations 2000. Approved
Documents L1A (New Dwellings) and L1B
(Existing Dwellings), Conservation of fuel and
power in dwellings, 2006 Edition.
[19] Section 6: Energy, Domestic Technical Handbook,
Guidance on achieving the standards set in the
Building (Scotland) Regulations 2004, Scottish
Building Standards Agency, 2007.
See website www.sbsa.gov.uk
[20]The Building (Amendment No. 2) Regulations
(Northern Ireland) 2006, Technical booklet F1,
Conservation of fuel and power (2006).
See website www.dfpni.gov.uk
[21] Domestic Heating Compliance Guide,
(Compliance with Approved Documents L1A:
New Dwellings and L1B: Existing Dwellings), First
Edition, Communities and Local Government.
[22]The Government’s Standard Assessment
Procedure for Energy Rating of Dwellings,
SAP2005.
[23]Guide to the Condensing Boiler Installation
Assessment Procedure for dwellings, CLG,
DEFRA April 2005.
[24]Guide to the Condensing Boiler Installation
Assessment Procedure for dwellings, SBSA.
[25]BS 1566:2002, Copper indirect cylinders for
domestic purposes.
[26]BS 7671: 2008, Requirements for electrical
installations, IEE Wiring Regulations, Seventeenth
edition (from 1st July 2008).
[27]BS 3198:1981, Specification for copper hot
water storage combination units for domestic
purposes.
Domestic heating by oil: Boiler systems – guidance for installers and specifiers (2008 edition)
References
[28]BS EN 12897:2006, Specification for indirectly
heated unvented hot water storage water
heaters.
[29]Waterheater Manufacturers’ Association
Performance Specification for Thermal Stores,
1999. [Shortly to be superseded by a revised
2008 specification from the HWA (Hot Water
Association)].
[30]The Building (Amendment No 2) Regulations
(Northern Ireland) 2000. Technical booklet F1,
Conservation of fuel and power (2006). See
website www.dfpni.gov.uk/
[31] Domestic heating by gas: boiler systems:
guidance for installers and specifiers: Energy
Efficiency Best Practice in Housing (CE30).
[32]Domestic Heating Design Guide, CIBSE, May
2007.
[33]Solar hot water installation guide: Energy
Efficiency Best Practice Programme in Housing
CE131 [2005].
[34]BS 5410-1:21997, Code of Practice for oil
firing – Part 1. Installations up to 45kW output
capacity for space heating and hot water supply
purposes.
[35]BS EN 12831:2003 Heating Systems in Buildings.
Method for calculation of design heat load.
[36] Under floor Heating, Design and Installation
Guide), CIBSE, 2004.
[37]Taking Control, A Guide to buying or upgrading
central heating controls, Ricability.
See www.ricability.org.uk
[38]Central Heating System Specifications (CHeSS) –
Year 2008 (CE51).
[39]Council Directive 92/42/EEC on efficiency
requirements for new hot water boilers fired
with liquid or gaseous fuels. Official Journal of
the European Communities No L/167/17. 21 May
1992, p. 92.
[40]Domestic Energy Fact File 2006, J.I Utley and
L D Shorrock, BRE.
[41] BREDEM-12, Building Research Establishment
Report BR315. BRE, Garston, 1996.
[42]Boiler Efficiency Database.
See website www.boilers.org.uk
[43]BS EN 12828:2003 Heating Systems in Buildings.
Design for water based systems.
[44]Technical Information Book 4, OFTEC.
[45]DCLG website www.planningportal.gov.uk; see
‘Building Regulations’ then ‘Technical guidance’
then ‘Approved documents’.
[46]Technical Information Book 3, OFTEC.
[47]BS6798:2000 Specification for installation of
gas-fired boilers rated not exceeding 70kW net.
[48] Solar Heating, Design and Installation Guide),
CIBSE, 2007.
[49]The Building Regulations 2000. Approved
Document J, Combustion Appliances & Fuel
Storage Systems.
[50]Section 3: Environment, Domestic Technical
Handbook, Guidance on achieving the standards
set in the Building (Scotland) Regulations 2004,
Scottish Building Standards Agency, 2007.
See website www.sbsa.gov.uk
[51] SR2006 No.335 The Building (Amendment)
Regulations (Northern Ireland) 2006.
[52]Statutory Instrument 2001 No. 2954. The control
of Pollution (Oil Storage) (England) Regulations
2001.
[53]Scottish Statutory Instrument 2006 No. 133
The Water Environment Oil Storage (Scotland)
Regulations 2006.
[54] SR2003 No.319 The Control of Pollution (Sileage,
Slurry and Agricultural Fuel Oil Regulations
(Northern Ireland).
[55]Installing Oil Supply Pipes Underground, OFTEC
Ref TI/134.
[56]BS EN 14336:2004 Heating Systems in buildings.
Installation and commissioning of water based
systems.
[57]BS 7593:2006, Code of Practice for Treatment
of water in domestic hot water central heating
systems.
[58]Form CD/10 Installation Completion report.
OFTEC.
[59]Form CD/11 Servicing and Commissioning
Report. OFTEC.
Domestic heating by oil: Boiler systems – guidance for installers and specifiers (2008 edition)
65
CE29
Energy Saving Trust 21 Dartmouth Street London SW1H 9BP
Tel 0845 120 7799 Fax 0845 120 7789
[email protected] www.energysavingtrust.org.uk/housing
CE29 © Energy Saving Trust February 2005. Revised June 2008. E&OE
This publication (including any drawings forming part of it) is intended for general guidance only and not as a substitute for the
application of professional expertise. Anyone using this publication (including any drawings forming part of it) must make their own
assessment of the suitability of its content (whether for their own purposes or those of any client or customer), and the Energy Saving
Trust cannot accept responsibility for any loss, damage or other liability resulting from such use.
All technical information was produced by BRE on behalf of the Energy Saving Trust.
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