Pilot Information Manual

Pilot Information Manual
PILOT·s OPERATING HANDBOOK
~
· Cessna,
1977
Skyhawk
CESSNA MODEL 172N
PERFORMANCESPECIFICATIONS
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
PERFORMANCE- SPECIFICATIONS
SPEED:
Maximum at Sea Level . . . . . . . . .
Cruise , 75% Power at 8000 Ft . . . . . .
CRUISE: Recommended Lean Mixture with fuel
engine start, taxi, takeoff, climb and
reserve at 45% power.
75% Power at 8000 Ft . . .
40 Gallons Usable Fuel
75% Power at 8000 Ft . . . .
50 Gallons Usable Fuel
Maximum Range at 10, 000 Ft
40 Gallons Usable Fuel
Maximum Range at 10,000 Ft
50 Gallons Usable Fuel
RATE OF CLIMB AT SEA LEVEL
SERVICE CEILING . . . . . . .
TAKEOFF PERFORMANCE:
Ground Roll . . . . . . . .
Total Distance Over 50-Ft Obstacle
LANDING PERFORMANCE:
Ground Roll . . . . . . . . . . .
Total Distance Over 50-Ft Obstacle
STALL SPEED (CAS):
Flaps Up, Power Off . .
Flaps Down, Power Off .
MAXIMUM WEIGHT . . . .
STANDARD EMPTY WEIGHT:
Skyhawk . . . . . . .
Skyhawk II . . . . . .
MAXIMUM USEFUL LOAD:
Skyhawk . . . . . . .
Skyhawk II . . . . . .
BAGGAGE ALLOWANCE . .
WING LOADING: Pounds/Sq Ft
POWER LOADING: Pounds/HP
fUEL CAP A CITY: Total
Standard Tanks
Long Range Tanks .
OIL CAP A CITY . . . .
ENGINE: Avco Lycoming
160 BHP at 2700 RPM
PROPELLER: Fixed Pitch, Diameter
01082-13
. . . . . . 125 KNOTS
. . . . . . 122 KNOTS
allowance for
45 minutes
Range
Time
Range
Time
Range
Time
Range
Time
485 NM
4.1 HRS
630 NM
5. 3 HRS
575 NM
5. 7 HRS
750 NM
7. 4 HRS
770 FPM
14,200 FT
805FT
1440 FT
520FT
1250 FT
5o KNars
44 KNOfS
2300 LBS
1379 LBS
1403 LBS
921 LBS
897 LBS
120 LBS
13.2
14.4
43 GAL.
54 GAL.
6 QTS
0-320-H2AD
75 IN.
PILOT'S OPERATING HANDBOOK
~
Cessna.
SKY HAWK
1977 MODEL 172N
Serial N o . - - - - - - Registration N o . - - - - -
THIS HANDBOOK INCLUDES THE MATERIAL
REQUIRED TO BE FURNISHED TO THE PILOT
BY CAR PART 3
CESSNA AIRCRAFT COMPANY
WICHITA, KANSAS, USA
CONGRATULATIONS
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
CONGRATULATIONS ....
Welcome to the ranks of Cessna owners! Your Cessna has been designed and constructed
to give you the most in performance, economy, and comfort. It is our desire that you will find
flying it, either for business or pleasure, a pleasant and profitable experience.
This Pilot's Operating Handbook has been prepared as a guide to help you get the most
pleasure and utility from your airplane. It contains information about your Cessna's equipment, operating procedures, and performance; and suggestions for its servicing and care. We
urge you to read it from cover to cover, and to refer to it frequently.
Our interest in your flying pleasure has not ceased with your purchase of a Cessna. Worldwide, the Cessna Dealer Organization backed by the Cessna Customer Services Department
stands ready to serve you. The following services are offered by most Cessna Dealers:
•
THE CESSNA WARRANTY, which provides coverage for parts and labor, is available
at Cessna Dealers worldwide. Specific benefits and provisions of warranty, plus other
important benefits for you, are contained in your Customer Care Program book, supplied with your airplane. Warranty service is available to you at authorized Cessna
Dealers throughout the world upon presentation of your Customer Care Card which
establishes your eligibility under the warranty.
•
FACTORY TRAINED PERSONNEL to provide you with courteous expert service.
•
FACTORY APPROVED SERVICE EQUIPMENT to provide you efficient and accurate
workmanship.
•
A STOCK OF GENUINE CESSNA SERVICE PARTS on hand when you need them.
•
THE LATEST AUTHORITATIVE INFORMATION FOR SERVICING CESSNA
AIRPLANES, since Cessna Dealers have all of the Service Manuals and Parts
Catalogs, kept current by Service Letters and Service News Letters, published by
Cessna Aircraft Company.
We urge all Cessna owners to use the Cessna Dealer Organization to the fullest.
A current Cessna Dealer Directory accompanies your new airplane. The Directory is
revised frequently, and a current copy can be obtained from your Cessna Dealer. Make
your Directory one of your cross-country flight planning aids; a warm welcome awaits you
at every Cessna Dealer.
ii
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS
SECTION
GENERAL ..
1
LIMITATIONS
2
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
3
NORMAL PROCEDURES .
4
PERFORMANCE • • . •
5
WEIGHT & BALANCE/
EQUIPMENT LIST • . . • . • . . . . . . . . 6
AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS
DESCRIPTIONS • •
• • • • . . • • • . . . 7
AIRPLANE HANDLING,
SERVICE & MAINTENANCE . • • • • . . . . 8
SUPPLEMENTS
(Optional Systems Description
& Operating Procedures) . . . . . . . . . . 9
This handbook will be kept current by Service Letters published by Cessna Aircraft
Company. These are distributed to Cessna Dealers and to those who subscribe
through the Owner Follow-Up System. If you are not receiving subscription service,
you will want to keep in touch with your Cessna Dealer for information concerning
the change status of the handbook. Subsequent changes will be made in the form
of stickers. These should be examined and attached to the appropriate page in the
handbook immediately after receipt; the handbook should not be used for operational purposes until it has been updated to a current status.
iii/(iv blank)
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
SECTION 1
GENERAL
SECTION 1
GENERAL
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Three View . . .
Introduction . . .
Descriptive Data .
Engine .
Propeller . .
Fuel . . . .
Oil . . . . .
Maximum Certificated Weights
Standard Airplane Weights
Cabin and Entry Dimensions . .
Baggage Space and Entry Dimensions .
Specific Loadings. . . . . . . . . .
Symbols, Abbreviations and Terminology .
General Airspeed Terminology and Symbols .
Meteorological Terminology . . . . . . . .
Engine Power Terminology . . . . . . . .
Airplane Performance and Flight Planning Terminology
Weight and Balance Terminology . . . . . . . . . . .
1-2
1-3
1-3
1-3
1-3
1-3
1-4
1-5
1-5
1-5
1-5
1-5
1-6
1-6
1-6
1-7
1-7
1-7
1-1
SECTION 1
GENERAL
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
NOTES:
1.
2.
Wing span shown w1th strobe lights
tnstalled.
Maxtmum hetght shown wtth nose
gear depressed, all ttres and nose
strut properly mflated, and flashrng
beacon InStalled.
*
Wheel base length
4.
Propeller ground clearance
5.
Wing area ts 17 4 square feet.
6.
Mimmum turntng radius (*ptvot pomt
to outboard wtng ttp) ts 27' 5%"
PIVOT POINT
PIVOT POINT
36'
r
Figure 1-1. Three View
1-2
3.
IS
65"
1s
11 3/4"
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
SECTION 1
GENERAL
INTRODUCTION
This handbook contains 9 sections, ancUncludes the material required
to be furnished to the pilot by CAR Part 3. It also contains supplemental
data supplied by Cessna Aircraft Company.
Section 1 provides basic data and information of general interest. It
also contains definitions or explanations of symbols, abbreviations, and
terminology commonly used.
DESCRIPTIVE DATA
ENGINE
Number of Engines: 1.
Engine Manufacturer: Avco Lycoming.
Engine Model Number: 0-320-H2AD.
Engine Type: Normally-aspirated, direct-drive, air-cooled,
horizontally- opposed, carburetor equipped, four-cylinder engine
with 320 cu. in. displacement.
Horsepower Rating and Engine Speed: 160 rated BHP at 2700 RPM.
PROPELLER
Propeller Manufacturer: McCauley Accessory Division.
Propeller Model Number: 1C160/DTM7557.
Number of Blades: 2.
Propeller Diameter, Maximum: 75 inches.
Minimum: 74 inches.
Propeller Typ.e: Fixed pitch.
FUEL
Approved Fuel Grades (and Colors):
100LL Grade Aviation Fuel (Blue).
100 (Formerly 100/130) Grade Aviation Fuel (Green).
1-3
SECTION 1
GENERAL
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
Fuel Capacity:
Standard Tanks:
Total Capacity: 43 gallons.
Total Capacity Each Tank: 21.5 gallons.
Total Usable: 40 gallons.
Long Range Tanks:
Total Capacity: 54 gallons.
Total Capacity Each Tank: 27 gallons.
Total Usable: 50 gallons.
NOTE
To ensure maximum fuel capacity when refueling, place
the fuel selector valve in either LEFT or RIGHT position to prevent cross-feeding.
OIL
Oil Grade (Specification):
MIL-L- 6082 Aviation Grade Straight Mineral Oil: Use to replenish.
supply during first 25 hours and at the first 25-hour oil change.
Continue to use until a total of 50 hours has accumulated or oil
consumption has stabilized.
NOTE
The airplane was delivered from the factory with a corrosion preventive aircraft engine oil. This oil should be
drained after the first 25 hours of operation.
MIL-L-22851 Ashless Dispersant Oil: This oil must be used after
first 50 hours or oil consumption has stabilized.
Recommended Viscosity For Temperature Range:
MIL-L-60S2 Aviation Grade Straight Mineral Oil:
SAE 50 above 16°C (60°F)
SAE 40 between -1°C (30°F) and 32°C (90°F).
SAE 30 between -1S°C (0°F) and 21°C (70°F).
SAE 20 below -12°C (10°F).
MIL-L-22S51 Ashless Dispersant Oil:
SAE 40 or SAE 50 above 16°C (60°F).
SAE 40 between -1°C (30°F) and 32°C (90°F).
SAE 30 or SAE 40 between -1S°C (0°F) and 21 oc (70°F).
SAE 30 below -12°C (10°F).
Oil Capacity:
Sump: 6 Quarts.
Total: 7 Quarts (if oil filter installed).
1-4
SECTION 1
GENERAL
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
MAXIMUM CERTIFICATED WEIGHTS
Takeoff, Normal Category: 2300 lbs.
utility Category: 2000 lbs.
Landing, Normal Category: 2300 lbs.
Utility Category: 2000 lbs.
Weight in Baggage Compartment, Normal Category:
Baggage Area 1 (or passenger on child's seat)- Station 82 to 108:
120 lbs. See note below.
Baggage Area 2 -Station 108 to 142: 50 lbs. See note below.
NOTE
The maximum combined weight capacity for baggage areas
1 and 2 is 120 lbs.
Weight in Baggage Compartment, Utility Category: In this category, the
baggage compartment and rear seat must not be occupied.
STANDARD AIRPLANE WEIGHTS
Standard Empty Weight, Skyhawk:
Skyhawk II:
Maximum Useful Load:
Normal Category
Skyhawk:
921lbs.
Skyhawk II:
897lbs.
1379 lbs.
1403 lbs.
Utility Category
621lbs.
597 lbs.
CABIN AND ENTRY DIMENSIONS
Detailed dimensions of the cabin interior and entry door openings are
illustrated in Section 6.
BAGGAGE SPACE AND ENTRY DIMENSIONS
Dimensions of the baggage area and baggage door opening are illustrated in detail in Section 6.
SPECIFIC LOADINGS
Wing Loading: 13.2 lbs./ sq. ft.
Power Loading: 14.4 lbs./hp.
1-5
SECTION 1
GENERAL
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
SYMBOLS, ABBREVIATIONS AND TERMINOLOGY
GENERAL AIRSPEED TERMINOLOGY AND SYMBOLS
KCAS
Knots Calibrated Airspeed is indicated airspeed corrected
for position and instrument error and expressed in knots.
Knots calibrated airspeed is equal to KTAS in standard atmosphere at sea level.
KIAS
Knots Indicated Airspeed is the speed shown on the airspeed
indicator and expressed in knots.
KTAS
Knots True Airspeed is the airspeed expressed in knots relative to undisturbed air which is KCAS corrected for altitude
and temperature.
Maneuvering Speed is the maximum speed at which you may
use abrupt control travel.
Maximum Flap Extended Speed is the highest speed permissible with wing flaps in a prescribed extended position.
Maximum Structural Cruising Speed is the speed that should
not be exceeded except in smooth air, then only with caution.
Never Exceed Speed is the speed limit that may not be exceeded at any time.
Stalling Speed or the minimum steady flight speed at which
the airplane is controllable.
Vs0
Stalling Speed or the minimum steady flight speed at which
the airplane is controllable in the landing configuration at
the most forward center of gravity.
Best Angle-of-Climb Speed is the speed which results in the
greatest gain of altitude in a given horizontal distance.
Vy
Best Rate-of-Climb Speed is the speed which results in the
greatest gain in altitude in a given time.
METEOROLOGICAL TERMINOLOGY
OAT
Outside Air Temperature is the free air static temperature.
It is expressed in either degrees Celsius (formerly Centi-
grade) or degrees Fahrenheit.
1-6
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
SECTION 1
GENERAL
Standard
Temperature
Standard Temperature is l5°C at sea level pressure altitude
and decreases by 2 6 C for each 1000 feet of altitude.
Pressure
Altitude
Pressure Altitude is the altitude read from an altimeter
when the altimeter's barometric scale has been set to 29.92
inches of mercury (1013mb).
ENGINE POWER TERMINOLOGY
BHP
Brake Horsepower is the power developed by the engine.
RPM
Revolutions Per Minute is engine speed.
Static
RPM
Static RPM is engine speed attained during a full-throttle engine runup when the airplane is on the ground and stationary.
AIRPLANE PERFORMANCE AND FLIGHT PLANNING TERMINOLOGY
Demonstrated
Crosswind
Velocity
Demonstrated Crosswind Velocity is the velocity of the crosswind component for which adequate control of the airplane
during takeoff and landing was actually demonstrated during
certification tests. The value shown in not considered to be
limiting.
Usable Fuel Usable Fuel is the fuel available for flight planning.
Unusable
Fuel
Unusable Fuel is the quantity of fuel that can not be safely
used in flight.
GPH
Gallons Per Hour is the amount of fuel (in gallons) consumed
per hour.
NMPG
Nautical Miles Per Gallon is the distance (in nautical miles)
which can be expected per gallon of fuel consumed at a specific engine power setting and/or flight configuration.
g
~is
acceleration due to gravity.
WEIGHT AND BALANCE TERMINOLOGY
Reference
Datum
Reference Datum is an imaginary vertical plane from which
all horizontal distances are measured for balance purposes.
Station
Station is a location along the airplane fuselage given in
terms of the distance from the reference datum.
1-7
SECTION 1
GENERAL
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
Arm
Arm is the horizontal distance from the reference datum to
the center of gravity (C. G.) of an item.
Moment
Moment is the product of the weight of an item multiplied by
its arm. (Moment divided by the constant 1000 is used in
this handbook to simplify balance calculations by reducing
·
the number of digits. )
Center of
Gravity
(C. G.)
Center of Gravity is the point at which an airplane, or equipment, would balance if suspended. Its distance from the
reference datum is found by dividing the total moment by the
total weight of the airplane.
e.G.
Center of Gravity Arm is the arm obtained by adding the
airplane's individual moments and dividing the sum by the
total weight.
Arm
C. G.
Limits
Center of Gravity Limits are the extreme center of gravity
locations within which the airplane must be operated at a
given weight.
Standard
Empty
Weight
Standard Empty Weight is the weight of a standard airplane,
including unusable fuel, full operating fluids and full engine
oil.
Basic Empty Basic Empty Weight is the standard empty weight ·plus the
Weight
weight of optional equipment.
Useful
Load
Useful Load is the difference between takeoff weight and the
basic empty weight.
Gross
(Loaded)
Weight
Gross (Loaded) Weight is the loaded weight of the airplane.
Maximum
Takeoff
Weight
Maximum Takeoff Weight is the maximum weight approved
for the start of the takeoff run.
Maximum
Landing
Weight
Maximum Landing Weight is the maximum weight approved
for the landing touchdown.
Tare
Tare is the weight of chocks, blocks, stands, etc. used
when weighing an airplane, and is included in the scale readings. Tare is deducted from the scale reading to obtain the
actual (net) airplane weight.
1-8
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
SECTION 2
LIMITATIONS
SECTION 2
LIMITATIONS
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Introduction . . . . . . . .
Airspeed Limitations . . . .
Airspeed Indicator Markings
Power Plant Limitations . .
Power Plant Instrument Markings
Weight Limits . . . . .
Normal Category . .
Utility Category . .
Center of Gravity Limits
Normal Category •
Utility Category .
Maneuver Limits
Normal Category .
utility Category .
Flight Load Factor Limits
Normal Category
utility Category . . .
Kinds of Operation Limits .
Fuel Limitations
Placards . . . . . . . •
2-3
2-4
2-5
2-5
2-6
2-6
2-6
2-7
2-7
2-7
2-7
2-7
2-7
2-7
2-8
2-8
2-8
2-9
2-9
2-10
2-1/(2-2 blank)
SECTION 2
LIMITATIONS
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
INTRODUCTION
Section 2 includes operating limitations, instrument markings, and
basic placards necessary for the safe operation of the airplane, its engine, standard systems and standard equipment. The limitations included in this section have been approved by the Federal Aviation
Administration. When applicable, limitations associated with optional
systems or equipment are included in Section 9.
NOTE
The airspeeds listed in the Airspeed Limitations chart
(figure 2-1) and the Airspeed Indicator Markings chart
(figure 2-2) are based on Airspeed Calibration data
shown in Section 5 with the normal static source. If the
alternate static source is being used, ample margins
should be observed to allow for the airspeed calibration
variations between the normal and alternate static sources as shown in Section 5.
Your Cessna is certificated under FAA Type Certificate No. 3A12 as
Cessna Model No. 172N.
2-3
SECTION 2
LIMITATIONS
CESSNJ
MODEL 1721'
AIRSPEED LIMITATIONS
Airspeed limitations and their operational significance are shown in
figure 2-l.
SPEED
KCAS
KIAS
REMARKS
VNE
Never Exceed Speed
158
160
Do not exceed this speed in
any operation.
VNQ
Maximum Structural
Cruising Speed
126
128
Do not exceed this speed
except in smooth air, and
then only with caution.
VA
Maneuvering Speed:
2300 Pounds
1950 Pounds
1600 Pounds
96
88
80
97
89
80
Do not make full or abrupt
control movements above
this speed.
Maximum Flap Extended
Speed
86
85
Do not exceed this speed
with flaps down.
Maximum Window Open
Speed
158
160
Do not exceed this speed
with windows open.
VFE
Figure 2-1. Airspeed Limitations
2-4
SECTION 2
LIMITATIONS
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
AIRSPEED INDICATOR MARKINGS
Airspeed indicator markings and their color code significance are
shown in figure 2-2.
MARKING
KIAS VALUE
OR RANGE
White Arc
41-85
Full Flap Operating Range. Lower
limit is maximum weight Vs 0 in
landing configuration. Upper limit
is maximum speed permissible with
flaps extended.
Green Arc
47- 128
Normal Operating Range. Lower limit
is maximum weight v8 at most forward
C.G. with flaps retracted. Upper limit
is maximum structural cruising speed.
Yellow Arc
128- 160
Operations must be ~onducted with
caution and only in smooth air.
160
Maximum speed for all operations.
Red Line
SIGNIFICANCE
Figure 2-2. Airspeed Indicator Markings
POWER PLANT LIMITATIONS
Engine Manufacturer: Avco Lycoming.
Engine Model Number: 0-320-H2AD.
Engine Operating Limits for Takeoff and Continuous Operations:
Maximum Power: 160 BHP.
Maximum Engine Speed: 2700 RPM.
NOTE
The static RPM range at full throttle (carburetor heat off
and full rich mixture) is 2280 to 2400 RPM.
Maximum Oil Temperature: 118°C (245°F)
Oil Pressure, Minimum: 25 psi.
Maximum: 100 psi.
Propeller Manufacturer: .McCauley Accessory Division.
Propeller Model Number: 1C160/DTM7557.
Propeller Diameter, Maximum: 75 inches.
Minimum: 74 inches.
2-5
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
SECTION 2
LIMITATIONS
POWER PLANT INSTRUMENT MARKINGS
Power plant instrument markings and their color code significance are
shown in figure 2-3.
INSTRUMENT
RED LINE
GREEN ARC
YELLOW ARC
RED LINE
MINIMUM
LIMIT
NORMAL
OPERATING
CAUTION
RANGE
MAXIMUM
LIMIT
- - -
2700 RPM
Tachometer
-- -
Oil Temperature
- --
100°-245°F
- - -
245°F
Oil Pressure
25 psi
60-90 psi
---
100 psi
-- -
-- -
-15° to 5°C
-- -
Carburetor Air
Temperature
Figure 2-3.
22002700 RPM
Power Plant Instrument Markings
WEIGHT LIMITS
NORMAL CATEGORY
Maximum Takeoff Weight: 2300 lbs.
Maximum Landing Weight: 2300 lbs.
Maximum Weight in Baggage Compartment:
Baggage Area 1 (or passenger on child's seat)-Station 82 to 108:
120 lbs. See note below.
Baggage Area 2 -Station 108 to 142: 50 lbs. See note below.
NOTE
The maximum combined weight capacity for baggage areas
1 and 2 is 120 lbs.
2-6
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
SECTION 2
LIMITATIONS
UTILITY CATEGORY
~aximum Takeoff Weight: 2000 lbs.
Maximum Landing Weight: 2000 lbs.
Maximum Weight in Baggage Compartment: In the utility category, the
baggage compartment and rear seat must not be occupied.
CENTER OF GRAVITY LIMITS
NORMAL CATEGORY
Center of Gravity Range:
Forward: 35. 0 inches aft of datum at 1950 lbs. or less, with straight
line variation to 38. 5 inches aft of datum at 2300 lbs.
Aft: 47. 3 inches aft of datum at all weights.
Reference Datum: Lower portion of front face of firewall.
UTILITY CATEGORY
Center of Gravity Range:
Forward: 35. 0 inches aft of datum at 1950 lbs. or less, with straight
line variation to 35. 5 inches aft of datum at 2000 lbs.
Aft: 40. 5 inches aft of datum at all weights.
Reference Datum: Lower portion of front face of firewall.
MANEUVER LIMITS
NORMAL CATEGORY
This airplane is certificated in both the normal and utility category. The normal category is applicable to aircraft intended for nonaerobatic operations. These include any maneuvers incidental to normal flying, stalls (except whip stalls), lazy eights, chandelles, and
turns in which the angle of bank is not more than 60°. Aerobatic maneuvers, including spins, are not approved.
UTILITY CATEGORY
This airplane is not designed for purely aerobatic flight. However,
in the acquisition of various certificates such as commercial pilot, instrument pilot and flight instructor, certain maneuvers are required by the
FAA. All of these maneuvers are permitted in this airplane when operated in the utility category.
2-7
SECTION 2
LIMITATIONS
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
In the utility category, the baggage compartment and rear seat must
not be occupied. No aerobatic maneuvers are approved except those listed below:
MANEUVER
RECOMMENDED ENTRY SPEED*
Chandelles .
Lazy Eights
Steep Turns
Spins . . .
Stalls (Except Whip Stalls).
105 knots
105 knots
95 knots
Slow Deceleration
Slow Deceleration
*Abrupt use of the controls is prohibited above 97 knots.
Aerobatics that may impose high loads should not be attempted. The
important thing to bear in mind in flight maneuvers is that the airplane is
clean in aerodynamic design and will build up speed quickly with the nose
down. Proper speed control is an essential requirement for execution of
any maneuver, and care should always be exercised to avoid excessive
speed which in turn can impose excessive loads. In the execution of all
maneuvers, avoid abrupt use of controls. Intentional spins with flaps extended are prohibited.
FLIGHT LOAD FACTOR LIMITS
NORMAL CATEGORY
Flight Load Factors (Gross Weight - 2300 lbs. ):
*Flaps Up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . +3. 8g, -1. 52g
*Flaps Down . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . +3. Og
*The design load factors are 150% of the above, and in all
cases, the structure meets or exceeds design loads.
UTILITY CATEGORY
Flight Load Factors (Gross Weight- 2000 lbs. ):
*Flaps Up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . +4. 4g, -1. 76g
*Flaps Down . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . +3. Og
*The design load factors are 150% of the above, and in all
cases, the structure meets or exceeds design loads.
2-8
CESSNA
l.V.ODEL 172N
SECTION 2
LIMITATIONS
KINDS OF OPERATION LIMITS
The airplane is equipped for day VFR and may be equipped for night
VFR and/or IFR operations. FAR Part 91 establishes the minimum required instrumentation and equipment for these operations. The reference to types of flight operations on the operating limitations placard reflects equipment installed at the time of Airworthiness Certificate issuance
Flight into known icing conditions is prohibited.
FUEL LIMITATIONS
2 Standard Tanks: 21.5 U.S. gallons each.
Total Fuel: 43 U.S. gallons.
Usable Fuel (all flight conditions): 40 U.S. gallons.
Unusable Fuel: 3 U.S. gallons.
2 Long Range Tanks: 27 U.S. gallons each.
Total Fuel: 54 U. S. gallons
Usable Fuel (all flight conditions): 50 U.S. gallons.
Unusable Fuel: 4 U.S. gallons.
NOTE
To ensure maximum fuel capacity when refueling, place
the fuel selector valve in either LEFT or RIGHT position to prevent cross-feeding.
NOTE
Takeoff and land with the fuel selector valve handle in
the BOTH position.
Approved Fuel Grades (and Colors):
100LL Grade Aviation Fuel (Blue).
100 (Formerly 100/130) Grade-Aviation Fuel (Green).
2-9
SECTION 2
LIMITATIONS
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
PLACARDS
The following information is displayed in the form of composite or
individual placards.
(1) In full view of the pilot: (The "DA Y-NIGHT-VFR-IFR" entry,
shown on the example below, will vary as the airplane is equipped. )
This airplane must be operated in compliance with the operating
limitations as stated in the form of placards, markings, and
manuals.
---------------MAXIMUMS--------------MANEUVERING SPEED (lAS)
GROSS WEIGHT . . . . .
FLIGHT LOAD FACTOR
Flaps Up
Flaps Down
Normal Category
97 knots .
2300 lbs.
utility Category
97 knots
2000 lbs.
+3. 8, -1. 52
+3.0
+4. 4, -1. 76
+3. 0
Normal Category- No acrobatic maneuvers including spins
approved.
utility Category - Baggage compartment and rear seat must
not be occupied.
--NO ACROBATIC MANEUVERS APPROVED-EXCEPT THOSE LISTED BELOW
Maneuver
Recm. Entry Speed
Chandelles.
. 105 knots
Lazy Eights
. 105 knots
Steep Turns
. 95 knots
Maneuver
Recm. Entry Speed
Spins . .
. Slow Deceleration
Stalls (except
whip stalls) Slow Deceleration
Altitude loss in stall recovery -- 180 feet.
Abrupt use of the controls prohibited above 97 knots.
Spin Recovery: opposite rudder - forward elevator - neutralize
controls. Intentional spins with flaps extended are prohibited.
Flight into known icing conditions prohibited. This airplane is
certified for the following flight operations as of date of original
airworthiness certificate:
DAY - NIGHT - VFR - IFR
2-10
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
SECTION 2
LIMITATIONS
(2) Forward of fuel selector valve:
BOTH TANKS ON FOR
TAKEOFF & LANDING
(3) On the fuel selector valve (standard tanks):
BOTH - 40 GAL. ALL FLIGHT ATTITUDES
LEFT - 20 GAL. LEVEL FLIGHT ONLY
RIGHT- 20 GAL. LEVEL FLIGHT ONLY
OFF
On the fuel selector valve (long range tanks):
BOTH- 50 GAL. ALL FLIGHT ATTITUDES
LEFT- 25 GAL. LEVEL FLIGHT ONLY
RIGHT- 25 GAL. LEVEL FLIGHT ONLY
OFF
(4) Near fuel tank filler cap (standard tanks):
FUEL
100/130 MIN. GRADE AVIATION GASOLINE
CAP. 21.5 U.S. GAL.
Near fuel tank filler cap (long range tanks):
FUEL
100/130 MIN. GRADE AVIATION GASOLINE
CAP. 27 U.S. GAL.
2-11
SECTION 2
LIMITATIONS
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
(5) Near flap indicator:
[
AVOID SLIPS WITH FLAPS EXTENDED
(6) In baggage compartment:
120 POUNDS MAXIMUM
BAGGAGE AND/OR AUXILIARY PASSENGER
FORWARD OF BAGGAGE DOOR LATCH
50 POUNDS MAXIMUM
BAGGAGE AFT OF BAGGAGE DOOR LATCH
MAXIMUM 120 POUNDS COMBINED
FOR ADDITIONAL LOADING INSTRUCTIONS
SEE WEIGHT AND BALANCE DATA
(7) On the instrument panel near over -voltage light:
HIGH VOLTAGE
2-12
SECTION 3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
SECTION 3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . .
Airspeeds For Emergency Operation .
3-3
3-3
OPERATIONAL CHECKLISTS
Engine Failures . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Engine Failure During Takeoff Run . . . .
Engine Failure Immediately After Takeoff .
Engine Failure During Flight . . . . . .
Forced Landings . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Emergency Landing Without Engine Power
Precautionary Landing With Engine Power
Ditching • . . . . . . .
Fires . . . . . . . . · . ·
During Start On Ground.
Engine Fire In Flight . .
Electrical Fire In Flight
Cabin Fire
Wing Fire . . . . . . .
Icing . . . . . . . . . . .
Inadvertent Icing Encounter
Static Source Blockage (Erroneous Instrument Reading
Suspected) . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Landing With A Flat Main Tire . . . . . .
Electrical Power Supply System Malfunctions
Over-Voltage Light Illuminates . . . .
Ammeter Shows Discharge . . . . . .
3-3
3-3
3-3
3-4
3-4
3-4
3-4
3..;5
3-5
3-5
3-6
3-6
3-6
3-7
3-7
3-7
3-8
3-8
3-8
3-8
3-8
AMPIJFIED PROCEDURES
Engine Failure . .
Forced Landings .
3-9
3-10
3-1
SECTION 3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)
Page
Landing Without Elevator Control . . . . . . . . . . .
Fires
................... · · · ·
Emergency Operation In Clouds (Vacuum System Failure).
Executing A 180° Turn In Clouds . .
Emergency Descent Through Clouds
Recovery From A Spiral Dive
Flight In Icing Conditions . . . . . . .
Static Source Blocked . . . . . .
Spins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rough Engine Operation Or Loss Of Power
Carburetor Icing . .
Spark Plug Fouling . . . . . . . . .
Magneto Malfunction . . . . . . . .
Low Oil Pressure . . . . . . . . .
Electrical Power Supply System Malfunctions
Excessive Rate Of Charge .
Insufficient Rate Of Charge . . . . • .
3-2
3-10
3-10
3-11
3-11
3-11
3-12
3-12
3-12
3-13
3-14
3-14
3-14
3-14
3-14
3-15
3-15
3-15
SECTION 3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
INTRODUCTION
Section 3 provides checklist and amplified procedures for coping with
emergencies that may occur. Emergencies caused by airplane or engine
maliunctions are extremely rare if proper preflight inspections and maintenance are practiced. Enroute weather emergencies can be minimized
or eliminated by careful flight planning and good judgement when unexpected weather is encountered. However, should an emergency arise the basic
guidelines described in this section should be considered and applied as
necessary to correct the problem. Emergency procedures associated
with the ELT and other optional systems can be found in Section 9.
AIRSPEEDS FOR EMERGENCY OPERATION
Engine Failure After Takeoff:
Wing Flaps Up . .
Wing Flaps Down
Maneuvering Speed:
2300 Lbs
1950 Lbs . .
1600 Lbs . .
Maximum Glide:
2300 Lbs . .
Precautionary Landing With Engine Power
Landing Without Engine Power:
Wing Flaps Up . .
Wing Flaps Down . . . . .
65 KIAS
60 KIAS
97 KIAS
89 KIAS
80 KIAS
65 KIAS
60 KIAS
65 KIAS
60 KIAS
OPERATIONAL CHECKLISTS
ENGINE FAILURES
ENGINE FAILURE DURING TAKEOFF RUN
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
Throttle -- IDLE.
Brakes --APPLY.
Wing Flaps -- RETRACT.
Mixture-- IDLE CUT-OFF.
Ignition Switch -- OFF.
Master Switch-- OFF.
ENGINE FAILURE IMMEDIATELY AFTER TAKEOFF
{1) Airspeed -- 65 KIAS (flaps UP).
60 KIA S (flaps DOWN).
3-3
SECTION 3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
Mixture --IDLE CUT-OFF.
Fuel Selector Valve -- OFF.
Ignition Switch-- OFF.
Wing Flaps-- AS REQUIRED.
Master Switch-- OFF.
ENGINE FAILURE DURING FLIGHT
(1) Airspeed -- 65 KIAS.
(2) Carburetor Heat -- ON.
(3) Fuel Selector Valve -- BOTH.
(4) Mixture -- RICH.
(5) Ignition Switch -- BOTH (or START if propeller is stopped).
(6) Primer --IN and LOCKED.
FORCED LANDINGS
EMERGENCY LANDING WITHOUT ENGINE POWER
(1) Airspeed-- 65 KIAS (flaps UP).
60 KIAS (flaps DOWN).
(2) Mixture -- IDLE CUT-OFF.
(3) Fuel Selector Valve-- OFF.
( 4) Ignition Switch -- OFF.
(5) Wing Flaps --AS REQUIRED (40° recommended).
(6) Master Switch-- OFF.
(7) Doors-- UNLATCH PRIOR TO TOUCHDOWN.
(8) Touchdown-- SLIGHTLY TAIL LOW.
(9) Brakes-- APPLY HEAVILY.
PRECAUTIONARY LANDING WITH ENGINE POWER
(1) Wing Flaps -- 20°.
(2) Airspeed -- 60 KJAS.
(3) Selected Field --FLY OVER, noting terrain and obstructions,
then retract flaps upon reaching a safe altitude and airspeed.
(4) Radio and Electrical Switches -- OFF.
(5) Wing Flaps-- 40° (on final approach).
(6) Airspeed-- 60 KJAS.
(7) Master Switch -- OFF.
(8) Doors-- UNLATCH PRIOR TO TOUCHDOWN.
(9) Touchdown-- SLIGHTLY TAIL LOW.
(10) Ignition Switch-- OFF.
(11) Brakes-- APPLY HEAVILY.
3-4
SECTION 3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
DITCHING
(1) Radio -- TRANSMIT MAYDAY on 121.5 MHz, giving location and
intentions.
(2) Heavy Objects (in baggage area) -- SECURE OR JETTISON.
(3) Approach-- High Winds, Heavy Seas-- INTO THE WIND.
Light Winds, Heavy Swells -- PARALLEL TO
SWELLS.
(4) Wing Flaps-- 20° - 40°.
(5) Power-- ESTABLISH 300FT/MIN DESCENT at 55 KIAS.
NOTE
If no power is available, approach at 65 KIAS with flaps
up or at 60 KIAS with 10° flaps.
(6) Cabin Doors-- UNLATCH.
(7) Touchdown-- LEVEL ATTITUDE AT ESTABLISHED RATE OF
DESCENT.
(8) Face -- CUSHION at touchdown with folded coat.
(9) Airplane -- EVACUATE through cabin doors. If necessary,
open window and flood cabin to equalize pressure so doors can be
opened.
(10) Life Vests and Raft-- INFLATE.
FIRES
DURING START ON GROUND
(1) Cranking-- CONTINUE, to get a start which would suck the
flames and accumulated fuel through the carburetor and into the
engine.
If engine starts:
(2) Power-- 1700 RPM for a few minutes.
(3) Engine-- SHUTDOWN and inspect for damage.
If engine fails to start:
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
not
(8)
Throttle --FULL OPEN.
Mixture -- IDLE CUT-OFF.
Cranking -- CONTINUE.
Fire Extinguisher-- OBTAIN (have ground attendants obtain if
installed).
Engine -- SECURE.
a. Master Switch-- OFF.
3-5
SECTION 3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
b. Ignition Switch-- OFF.
c. Fuel Selector Valve -- OFF.
(9) Fire -- EXTINGUISH using fire extinguisher, wool blanket, or
dirt.
(10) Fire Damage-- INSPECT, repair damage or replace damaged
components or wiring before conducting another flight.
ENGINE FIRE IN FLIGHT
(1) Mixture-- IDLE CUT-OFF.
(2) Fuel Selector Valve -- OFF.
(3) Master Switch-- OFF.
(4) Cabin Heat and Air -- OFF (except overhead vents).
(5) Airspeed-- 100 KIAS (If fire is not extinguished, increase glide
speed to find an airspeed which will provide an incombustible mixture).
(6) Forced Landing-- EXECUTE (as described in Emergency Landing Without Engine Power).
ELECTRICAL FIRE IN FLIGHT
(1) Master Switch-- OFF.
(2) AU other Switches (except ignition switch) -- OFF.
(3) Vents/Cabin Air/Heat -- CLOSED.
(4) Fire Extinguisher-- ACTIVATE (if available).
!WARNING a
After discharging an extinguisher within a closed cabin,
ventilate the cabin.
If fire appears out and electrical power is necessary for continuance
of flight:
(5) Master Switch -- ON.
(6) Circuit Breakers -- CHECK for faulty circuit, do not reset.
(7) Radio/Electrical Switches -- ON one at a time, with delay after
each until short circuit is localized.
(8) Vents/Cabin Air/Heat -- OPEN when it is ascertained that fire
is completely extinguished.
CABIN FIRE
(1) Master Switch -- OFF.
(2) Vents/Cabin Air/Heat -- CLOSED (to avoid drafts).
(3) Fire Extinguisher-- ACTIVATE (if available).
3-6
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
SECTION 3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
IWARNINGl
After discharging an extinguisher within a closed cabin,
ventilate the cabin.
(4) Land the airplane as soon as possible to inspect for damage.
WING FIRE
(1) Navigation Light Switch -- OFF.
(2) Pitot Heat Switch (if installed) -- OFF.
(3) Strobe Light Switch (if installed) -- OFF.
NOTE
Perform a sideslip to keep the flames away from the
fuel tank and cabin, and land as soon as possible using
flaps only as required for final approach and touchdown.
ICING
INADVERTENT ICING ENCOUNTER
(1) Turn pitot heat switch ON (if installed).
(2) Turn back or change altitude to obtain an outside air temperature
that is less conducive to icing.
(3) Pull cabin heat control full out and open defroster outlet to obtain
maximum windshield defroster airflow. Adjust cabin air control to
get maximum defroster heat and airflow.
(4) Open the throttle to increase engine speed and minimize ice
build-up on propeller blades.
(5) Watch for signs of carburetor air filter ice and apply carburetor
heat as required. An unexplained loss in engine speed could be caused
by carburetor ice or air intake filter ice. Lean the mixture for maximum RPM if carburetor heat is used continuously.
(6) Plan a landing at the nearest airport. With an extremely rapid
ice build-up, select a suitable "off airport" landing site.
(7) With an ice accumulation of 1/4 inch or more on the wing leading
edges, be prepared for significantly higher stall speed.
(8) Leave wing flaps retracted. With a severe ice build-up on the
horizontal tail, the change in wing wake airflow direction caused by
wing flap extension could result in a loss of elevator effectiveness.
3-7
SECTION 3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
(9) Open left window and, if practical, scrape ice from a portion of
the windshield for visibility in the landing approach.
(10) Perform a landing approach using a forward slip, if necessary,
for improved visibility.
(11) Approach at 65 to 75 KIAS, depending upon the amount of the
accumulation.
(12) Perform a landing in level attitude.
STATIC SOURCE BLOCKAGE
(Erroneous Instrument Reading Suspected)
(1) Alternate Static Source Valve -- PULL ON.
(2) Airspeed -- Consult appropriate calibration tables in Section 5.
LANDING WITH A FLAT MAIN TIRE
(1) Approach-- NORMAL.
(2) Touchdown --GOOD TIRE FIRST, hold airplane off flat tire as
long as possible.
ELECTRICAL POWER SUPPLY SYSTEM MALFUNCTIONS
OVER-VOLTAGE LIGHT ILLUMINATES
(1) Master Switch-- OFF (both sides).
(2) Master Switch-- ON.
(3) Over-Voltage Light -- OFF.
If over-voltage light illuminates again:
(4) Flight-- TERMINATE as soon as possible.
AMMETER SHOWS DISCHARGE
(1) Alternator -- OFF.
(2) Nonessential Electrical Equipment -- OFF.
(3) Flight-- TERMINATE as soon as practical.
3-8
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
SECTION 3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
AMPLIFIED PROCEDURES
ENGINE FAILURE
If an engine failure occurs during the takeoff run, the most important
thing to do is stop the airplane on the remaining runway. Those extra
items on the checklist will provide added safety during a failure of this
type.
Prompt lowering of the nose to maintain airspeed and establish a
glide attitude is the first response to an engine failure after takeoff. In
most cases, the landing should be planned straight ahead with only small
changes in direction to avoid obstructions. Altitude and airspeed are seldom sufficient to execute a 180° gliding turn necessary to return to the
runway. The checklist procedures assume that adequate time exists to
secure the fuel and ignition systems prior to touchdown.
After an engine failure in flight, the best glide speed as shown in Figure 3-1 should be established as quickly as possible. While gliding toward a suitable landing area, an effort should be made to identify the cause,
of the failure. If time permits, an engine restart should be attempted as
shown in the checklist. If the engine cannot be restarted, a forced landing
without power must be completed,
12,000
1LL
10,000
z
;;{
a:
a:
8000
UJ
1UJ
>
0
al
<(
1-
6000
4000
:c
*SPEED 65 KIAS
*PROPELLER WINDMILLING
*FLAPSUP *ZEROWIND
(.!)
jjj
:c
2000
0
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
.
GROUND DISTANCE- NAUTICAL MILES
Figure 3-1. Maximum Glide
3-9
SECTION 3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
FORCED LANDINGS
If all attempts to restart the engine fail and a forced landing is
imminent, select a suitable field and prepare for the landing as discussed in the checklist for engine-off emergency landings.
Before attempting an "off airport" landing with engine power available, one should drag the landing area at a safe but low altitude to
inspect the terrain for obstructions and surface conditions, proceeding
as discussed under the Precautionary Landing With Engine Power
checklist.
Prepare for ditching by securing or jettisoning heavy objects located in the baggage area and collect folded coats for protection of occupants' face at touchdown. Transmit Mayday message on 121.5 MHz
giving location and intentions. Avoid a landing flare because of difficulty in judging height over a water surface.
LANDING WITHOUT ELEVATOR CONTROL
Trim for horizontal flight(wi.th an airspeed of approximately 60 KIAS
and flaps set to 20°) by using throttle and elevator trim control. Then do
not change the elevator trim control setting; control the glide angle by
adjusting power exclusively.
At flareout, the nose-down moment resulting from power reduction is
an adverse factor and the airplane may hit on the nose wheel. Consequently,
at flareout, the elevator trim control should be adjusted toward the full
nose-up position and the power adjusted so that the airplane will rotate to
the horizontal attitude for touchdown. Close the throttle at touchdown.
FIRES
Although engine fires are extremely rare in flight, the steps of the
appropriate checklist should be followed if one is encountered. After
completion of this procedure, execute a forced landing. Do not attempt
to restart the engine.
The initial indication of an electrical fire is usually the odor of burning insulation. The checklist for this problem should result in elimination
of the fire.
3-10
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
SECTION 3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
EMERGENCY OPERATION IN CLOUDS
(Vacuum System Failure)
In the event of a vacuum system failure during flight in marginal
weather, the directional indicator and attitude indicator will be disabled,
and the pilot will have to rely on the turn coordinator or the turn and bank
indicator if he inadvertently flies into clouds. The following instructions
assume that only the electrically-powered turn coordinator or the turn
and bank indicator is operative, and that the pilot is not completely proficient in instrument flying.
EXECUTING A 180° TURN IN CLOUDS
Upon inadvertently entering the clouds, an immediate plan should
be made to turn back as follows:
(1) Note the time of the minute hand and observe the position of the
sweep second hand on the clock.
(2) When the sweep second hand indicates the nearest half-minute,
initiate a standard rate left turn, holding the turn coordinator symbolic airplane wing opposite the lower left index mark for 60 seconds. Then roll back to level flight by leveling the miniature airplane.
(3) Check accuracy of the turn by observing the compass heading
which should be the reciprocal of the original heading.
(4) If necessary, adjust heading primarily with skidding motions
rather than rolling motions so that the compass will read more
accurately.
(5) Maintain altitude and airspeed by cautious application of elevator control. Avoid overcontrolling by keeping the hands off the
control wheel as much as possible and steering only with rudder.
EMERGENCY DESCENT THROUGH CLOUDS
If conditions preclude reestablishment of VFR flight by a 180° turn, a
descent through a cloud deck to VFR conditions may be appropriate. If
possible, obtain radio clearance for an emergency descent through clouds.
To guard against a spiral dive, choose an easterly or westerly heading to
minimize compass card swings due to changing bank angles. In addition,
keep hands off the control wheel and steer a straight course with rudder
control by monitoring the turn coordinator. Occasionally check the compass heading and make minor corrections to hold an approximate course.
Before descending into the clouds, set up a stabilized let-down condition
as follows:
(1) Apply full rich mixture.
(2) Use full carburetor heat.
3-11
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
SECTION 3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
(3) Reduce power to set up a 500 to 800 ft/min rate of descent.
( 4) Adjust the elevator trim and rudder trim (if installed) for a
stabilized descent at 70-80 KIAS.
(5) Keep hands off the control wheel.
(6) Monitor turn coordinator and make corrections by rudder alone.
(7) Check trend of compass card movement and make cautious corrections with rudder to stop the turn.
(8) Upon breaking out of clouds, resume normal cruising flight.
RECOVERY FROM A SPIRAL DIVE
If a spiral is encountered, proceed as follows:
(1) Close the throttle.
(2) Stop the turn by using coordinated aileron and rudder control to
align the symbolic airplane in the turn coordinator with the horizon
reference line.
(3) Cautiously apply elevator back pressure to slowly reduce the
airspeed to 80 KIAS.
( 4) Adjust the elevator trim control to maintain an 80 KIAS glide.
(5) Keep hands off the control wheel, using rudder control to hold a
straight heading. Adjust rudder trim (if installed) to relieve unbalanced rudder force.
(6) Apply carburetor heat.
(7) Clear engine occasionally, but avoid using enough power to
disturb the trimmed glide.
(8) Upon breaking out of clouds, resume normal cruising flight.
FLIGHT IN ICING CONDITIONS
Flight into icing conditions is prohibited. An inadvertent encounter
with these conditions can best be handled using the checklist procedures.
The best procedure, of. course, is to turn back or change altitude to escape icing conditions.
STATIC SOURCE BLOCKED
If erroneous readings of the static source instruments (airspeed,
altimeter and rate-of-climb) are suspected, the alternate static source
valve should be pulled on, thereby supplying static pressure to these
instruments from the cabin.
NOTE
In an emergency on airplanes not equipped with an alternate static source, cabin pressure can be supplied to the
3-12
SECTION 3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
static pressure instruments by breaking the glass in the
face of the rate-of-climb indicator.
With the alternate static source on, adjust indicated airspeed slightly
during climb or approach according to the alternate static source airspeed
calibration table in Section 5, appropriate to vent/window(s) configuration,
causing the airplane to be flown at the normal operating speeds.
Maximum airspeed and altimeter variation from normal is 4 knots and
30 feet over the normal operating range with the window(s) closed. With
window(s) open, larger variations occur near stall speed. However, maximum altimeter variation remains within 50 feet of normal.
SPINS
Should an inadvertent spin occur, the following recovery procedure
should be used:
(1) RETARD THROTTLE TO IDLE POSITION.
(2) PLACE AILERONS IN NEUTRAL POSITION.
(3) APPLY AND HOLD FULL RUDDER OPPOSITE TO THE DIRECTION OF ROTATION.
(4) JUST AFTER THE RUDDER REACHES THE STOP, MOVE THE
CONTROL WHEEL BRISKLY FORWARD FAR ENOUGH TO BREAK
THE STALL. Full down elevator may be required at aft center of
gravity loadings to assure optimum recoveries.
(5) HOLD THESE CONTROL INPUTS UNTIL ROTATION STOPS.
Premature relaxation of the control inputs may extend the recovery.
(6) AS ROTATION' STOPS, NEUTRAUZE RUDDER, AND :MAKE A
SMOOTH RECOVERY FROM THE RESULTING DIVE.
NOTE
If disorientation precludes a visual determination of the
direction of rotation, the symbolic airplane in the turn
coordinator or the needle of the turn and bank indicator
may be referred to for this information.
For additional information on spins and spin recovery, see the
discussion under SPINS in Normal Procedures (Section 4).
3-13
SECTION 3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
ROUGH ENGINE OPERATION OR LOSS OF POWER
CARBURETOR ICING
A gradual loss of RPM and eventual engine roughness may result from
the formation of carburetor ice. To clear the ice, apply full throttle and
pull the carburetor heat knob full out until the engine runs smoothly; then
remove carburetor heat and readjust the throttle. If conditions require
the continued use of carburetor heat in cruise flight, use the minimum
.amount of heat necessary to prevent ice from forming and lean the mixture for smoothest engine operation.
SPARK PLUG FOULING
A slight engine roughness in flight may be caused by one or more
spark plugs becoming fouled by carbon or lead deposits. This may be
verified by turning the ignition switch momentarily from BOTH to either
L or R position. An obvious power loss in single ignition operation is
evidence of spark plug or magneto trouble. Assuming that spark plugs
are the more likely cause, lean the mixture to the recommended lean. setting for cruising flight. If the problem does not clear up in several minutes, determine if a richer mixture setting will produce smoother operation. If not, proceed to the nearest airport for repairs using the BOTH
position of the ignition switch unless extreme roughness dictates the use
of a single ignition position.
MAGNETO MALFUNCTION
A sudden engine roughness or misfiring is usually evidence of magneto problems. Switching from BOTH to either Lor R ignition switch
position will identify which magneto is malfunctioning. Select different
power settings and enrichen the mixture to determine if continued operation on BOTH magnetos is practicable. If not, switch to the good magneto
and proceed to the nearest airport for repairs.
LOW OIL PRESSURE
If low oil pressure is accompanied by normal oil temperature, there
is a possibility the oil pressure gage or relief valve is malfunctioning. A
leak in the line to the gage is not necessarily cause for an immediate precautionary landing because an orifice in this line will prevent a sudden
loss of oil from the engine sump. However, a landing at the nearest airport would be advisable to inspect the source of trouble.
If a total loss of oil pressure is accompanied by a rise in oil temperature, there is good reason to suspect an engine failure is imminent. Re-
3-14
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
SECTION 3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
duce engine power immediately and select a suitable forced landing field.
Use only the minimum power required to reach the desired touchdown spot,
ELECTRICAL POWER SUPPLY SYSTEM MALFUNCTIONS
Malfunctions in the electrical power supply system can be detected by
periodic monitoring of the ammeter and over-voltage warning light; however, the cause of these malfunctions is usually difficult to determine. A
broken alternator drive belt or wiring is most likely the cause of alternator failures, although other factors could cause the problem, A damaged
or improperly adjusted voltage regulator can also cause malfunctions.
Problems of this nature constitute an electrical emergency and should be
dealt with immediately, Electrical power malfunctions usually fall into
two categories: excessive rate of charge and insufficient rate of charge.
The following paragraphs describe the recommended remedy for each
situation.
EXCESSIVE RATE OF CHARGE
After engine starting and heavy electrical usage at low engine speeds
(such as extended taxiing) the battery condition will be low enough to accept above normal charging during the initial part of a flight. However,
after thirty minutes of cruising flight, the ammeter should be indicating
less than two needle widths of charging current. If the charging rate were
to remain above this value on a long flight, the battery would overheat and
evaporate the electrolyte at an excessive rate. Electronic components in
the electrical system could be adversely affected by higher than normal
voltage if a faulty voltage regulator setting is causing the overcharging.
To preclude these possibilities, an over-voltage sensor will automatically
shut down the alternator and the over-voltage warning light will illuminate
if the charge voltage reaches approximately 16 volts. Assuming that the
malfunction was only momentary, an attempt should be made to reactivate
the alternator system. To do this, turn both sides of the master switch
off and then on again. If the problem no longer exists, normal alternator
charging will resume and the warning light will go off. If the light comes
on again, a malfunction is confirmed. In this event, the flight should be
terminated and/or the current drain on the battery minimized because the
battery can supply the electrical system for only a limited period of time.
If the emergency occurs at night, power must be conserved for later use
of landing lights and flaps during landing.
INSUFFICIENT RATE OF CHARGE
If the ammeter indicates a continuous discharge rate in flight, the
3-15
SECTION 3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
alternator is not supplying power to the system and should be shut down
since the alternator field circuit may be placing an unnecessary load on
the system. All nonessential equipment should be turned off and the
flight terminated as soon as practical.
3-16
SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.Speeds For Normal Operation . . . . . . . . .
4-3
. 4-3
CHECKLIST PROCEDURES
Preflight Inspection
Cabin . . . . .
Empennage
Right Wing, Trailing Edge
Right Wing . . . . . .
Nose
........ .
Left Wing . . . . . . .
Left Wing, Leading Edge
Left Wing, Trailing Edge
Before Starting Engine
Starting Engine . .
Before Takeoff . . . .
Takeoff . . . . . . .
Normal Takeoff
Short Field Takeoff
Enroute Climb .
Cruise
... .
Descent . . . .
Before Landing
Landing . . . .
Normal Landing
·Short Field Landing
Balked Landing
After Landing . .
Securing Airplane
AMPLIFIED PROCEDURES
Starting Engine
.
4-5
4-5
4-5
4-5
4-5
4-5
4-6
4-6
4-6
4-6
4-6
4-7
4-7
4-7
4-8
4-8
4-8
4-8
4-8
4-9
4-9
4-9
4-9
4-9
4-9
. 4-11
4-1
SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
TABLE OF CONTENT 5 (Continued)
Page
Taxiing . . . . .
Before Takeoff . .
Warm-Up
Magneto Check
Alternator Check
Takeoff . . . . . .
Power Check . .
Wing Flap Settings
Short Field Takeoff
Crosswind Takeoff
Enroute Climb
Cruise
Stalls . . . . . . .
Spins . . . . . . .
Landing . . . . . .
Normal Landing .
Short Field Landing
Crosswind Landing
Balked Landing
Cold Weather Operation
Starting . . . . .
Flight Operations
Hot Weather Operation
Noise Abatement
4-2
. 4-11
. 4-13
. 4-13
. 4-13
. 4-13
. 4-13
. 4-13
. 4-14
. 4-14
. 4-15
. 4-15
. 4-15
. 4-17
. 4-17
. 4-19
. 4-19
. 4-20
. 4-20
. 4-20
. 4-20
. 4-20
. 4-22
. 4-23
. 4-23
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES
INTRODUCTION
Section 4 provides checklist and amplified procedures for the conduct
of normal operation. Normal procedures associated with Optional Systems can be found in Section 9.
SPEEDS FOR NORMAL OPERATION
Unless otherwise noted, the following speeds are based on a maximum weight of 2300 pounds and may be used for any lesser weight.
However, to achieve the performance specified in Section 5 for takeoff
distance, the speed appropriate to the particular weight must be used.
Takeoff, Flaps Up:
Normal Climb Out . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Short Field Takeoff, Flaps Up, Speed at 50 Feet
Enroute Climb, Flaps Up:
Normal, Sea Level . . . . . .
Normal, 10,000 Feet
.... .
Best Rate of Climb, Sea Level
Best Rate of Climb, 10,000 Feet
Best Angle of Climb, Sea Level
Best Angle of Climb, 10,000 Feet
Landing Approach:
Normal Approach, Flaps Up
Normal Approach, Flaps 40°
Short Field Approach, Flaps 40°
Balked Landing:
Maximum Power, Flaps 20° . .
Maximum Recommended Turbulent Air Penetration Speed:
2300 Lbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1950 Lbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1600 Lbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Maximum Demonstrated Crosswind Velocity:
Takeoff or Landing . . . . . . . . . . .
70-80 KIAS
. 59 KIAS
75-85
70-80
73
68
59
61
EIAS
KIAS
KIAS
KIAS
KIAS
KIAS
60-70 KIAS
55-65 KIAS
60 KIAS
55 KIAS
97 KIAS
89 KIAS
80 KIAS
15 KNOTS
4-3
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES
NOTE
Visually check airplane for general condition during
walk-around inspection. In cold weather, remove even
small accumulations of frost, ice or snow from wing,
tail and control surfaces. Also, make sure that control
surfaces contain no internal accumulations of ice or debris. If a night flight is planned, check operation of all
lights, and make sure a flashlight is available.
Figure 4-1. Preflight Inspection
4-4
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES
CHECKLIST PROCEDURES
PREFLIGHT INSPECTION
CD CABIN
(1) Control Wheel Lock -- REMOVE.
(2) Ignition Switch -- OFF.
(3) Master Switch -- ON.
(4) Fuel Quantity Indicators -- CHECK QUANTITY.
(5) Master Switch -- OFF.
(6) Baggage Door-- CHECK, lock with key if child's seat is to be
occupied.
®EMPENNAGE
(1) Rudder Gust Lock-- REMOVE.
(2) Tail Tie-Down -- DISCONNECT.
(3) Control Surfaces -- CHECK freedom of movement and security.
®RIGHT WINGTrailing Edge
(1) Aileron-- CHECK freedom of movement and security.
0
RIGHT WING
(1) Wing Tie-Down -- DISCONNECT.
(2) Main Wheel Tire-- CHECK for proper inflation.
(3) Before first flight of the day and after each refueling, use
sampler cup and drain small quantity of fuel from fuel tank sump
quick-drain valve to check for water, sediment, and proper fuel
grade.
(4) Fuel Quantity --CHECK VISUALLY for desired level.
(5) Fuel Filler Cap -- SECURE.
@NOSE
(1) Engine Oil Level-- CHECK. Do not operate with less than four
quarts. Fill to six quarts for extended flight.
(2) Before first flight of the day and after each refueling, pull out
strainer drain knob for about four seconds to clear fuel strainer of
possible water and sediment. Check strainer drain closed. If water
is observed, the fuel system may contain additional water, and
further draining of the system at the strainer, fuel tank sumps, and
4-5
SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
fuel selector valve drain plug will be necessary.
(3) Propeller and Spinner-- CHECK for nicks and security.
(4) Landing Light(s) --CHECK for condition and cleanliness.
(5) Carburetor Air Filter-- CHECK for restrictions by dust or other
foreign matter.
(6) Nose Wheel Strut and Tire --CHECK for proper inflation.
(7) Nose Tie-Down -- DISCONNECT.
(8) Static Source Opening (left side of fuselage) --CHECK for stoppage.
®
0
LEFT WING
(1) Main Wheel Tire-- CHECK for proper inflation.
(2) Before first flight of the day and after each refueling, use
sampler cup and drain small quantity of fuel from fuel tank sump
quick-drain valve to check for water, sediment and proper fuel
grade.
(3) Fuel Quantity-- CHECK VISUALLY for desired level.
(4) Fuel Filler Cap -- SECURE.
LEFT WING Leading Edge
(1) Pitot Tube Cover -- REMOVE and check opening for stoppage.
(2) Fuel Tank Vent Opening -- CHECK for stoppage.
(3) Stall Warning Opening -- CHECK for stoppage. To check the system, place a clean handkerchief over the vent opening and apply suction; a sound from the warning horn will confirm system operation.
(4) Wing Tie-Down-- DISCONNECT.
®LEFT WING Trailing Edge
(1) Aileron-- CHECK for freedom of movement and security.
BEFORE STARTING ENGINE
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
Preflight Inspection -- COMPLETE.
Seats, Belts, Shoulder Harnesses -- ADJUST and LOCK.
Fuel Selector Valve -- BOTH.
Radios, Autopilot, Electrical Equipment-- OFF.
Brakes --TEST and SET.
Circuit Breakers -- CHECK IN.
STARTING ENGINE
(1) Mixture -- RICH.
4-6
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES
Carburetor Heat-- COLD.
Master Switch -- ON.
Prime --AS REQUIRED (2 to 6 strokes; none if engine is warm).
Throttle -- OPEN 1/8 INCH.
Propeller Area-- CLEAR.
Ignition Switch -- START (release when engine starts).
Oil Pressure -- CHECK.
BEFORE TAKEOFF
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
Parking Brake -- SET.
Cabin Doors and Window(s) --CLOSED and LOCKED.
Flight Controls-- FREE and CORRECT.
Flight Instruments -- SET.
Fuel Selector Valve --BOTH.
Mixture --RICH (below 3000 feet).
Elevator Trim and Rudder Trim (if installed) -- TAKEOFF.
Throttle -- 1700 RPM.
a. Magnetos-- CHECK (RPM drop should not exceed 125 RPM
on either magneto or 50 RPM differential between magnetos).
b. Carburetor Heat-- CHECK (for RPM drop).
c. Engine Instruments and Ammeter -- CHECK.
d. Suction Gage-- CHECK.
(9) Radios -- SET.
(10) Autopilot (if installed) -- OFF.
(11) Flashing Beacon, Navigation Lights and/ or Strobe Lights -- ON
as required.
(12) Throttle Friction Lock-- ADJUST.
(13) Brakes -- RELEASE.
TAKEOFF
NORMAL TAKEOFF
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
Wing Flaps -- UP.
Carburetor Heat -- COLD.
Throttle-- FULL OPEN.
Elevator Control-- LIFT NOSE WHEEL (at 55 KIAS).
Climb Speed -- 70-80 KIAS.
4-7
SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
SHORT FIELD TAKEOFF
(1) Wing Flaps -- UP.
(2) Carburetor Heat -- COLD.
(3) Brakes --APPLY.
(4) Throttle-- FULL OPEN.
(5) Mixture-- RICH (above 3000 feet, LEAN to obtain maximum
RPM).
(6) Brakes -- RELEASE.
(7) Elevator Control-- SLIGHTLY TAIL LOW.
(8) Climb Speed -- 59 KIAS (until all obstacles are cleared).
ENROUTE CLIMB
(1) Airspeed -- 70-85 KIAS.
NarE
If a maximum performance climb is necessary, use
speeds shown in the Rate Of Climb chart in Section 5.
(2) Throttle -- FULL OPEN.
(3) Mixture-- RICH (above 3000 feet, LEAN to obtain maximum
RPM).
CRUISE
(1) Power-- 2200-2700 RPM (no more than 75% is recommended).
(2) Elevator and Rudder Trim (if installed) -- ADJUST.
(3) Mixture -- LEAN.
DESCENT
(1) Mixture -- ADJUST for smooth operation (full rich for idle pow-
er).
(2) Power-- AS DESIRED.
(3) Carburetor Heat-- AS REQUIRED (to prevent carburetor icing).
BEFORE LANDING
(1) Seats, Belts, Harnesses -- SECURE.
(2) Fuel Selector Valve --BOTH.
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES
(3) Mixture --RICH.
(4) Carburetor Heat -- ON (apply full heat before closing throttle).
LANDING
NORMAL LANDING
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
Airspeed -- 60-70 KIAS (flaps UP).
Wing Flaps -- AS DESIRED (below 85 KIAS).
Airspeed-- 55-65 KIAS (flaps DOWN).
Touchdown-- MAIN WHEELS FIRST.
Landing Roll -- LOWER NOSE WHEEL GENTLY.
Braking -- MINIMUM REQUIRED.
SHORT FIELD LAN DING
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
Airspeed -- 60-70 KIAS (flaps UP).
Wing Flaps-- FULL DOWN (40°).
Airspeed -- 60 KIAS (until flare).
Power-- REDUCE to idle after clearing obstacle.
Touchdown-- MAIN WHEELS FIRST.
Brakes-- APPLY HEAVILY.
Wing Flaps -- RETRACT.
BALKED LANDING
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
Throttle -- FULL OPEN.
Carburetor Heat -- COLD.
Wing Flaps -- 20° (immediately).
Climb Speed-- 55 KIAS.
Wing Flaps -- 10° (until obstacles are cleared).
RETRACT (after reaching a safe altitude and 60
KIAS).
AFTER LANDING
(1) Wing Flaps -- UP.
(2) Carburetor Heat -- COLD.
SECURING AIRPLANE
(1) Parking Brake -- SET.
(2) Radios, Electrical Equipment, Autopilot-- OFF.
4-9
SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
4-10
Mixture-- IDLE CUT-OFF (pulled full out).
Ignition Switch -- OFF.
Master Switch-- OFF.
Control Lock-- INSTALL.
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES
AMPLIFIED PROCEDURES
STARTING ENGINE
During engine starting, open the throttle approximately 1/8 inch. In
warm temperatures, one or two strokes of the primer should be sufficient.
In cold weather, up to six strokes of the primer may be necessary. If the
engine is warm, no priming will be required. In extremely cold temperatures, it may be necessary to continue priming while cranking the engine.
Weak intermittent firing followed by puffs of black smoke from the
exhaust stack indicate overpriming or flooding. Excess fuel can be
cleared from the combustion chambers by the following procedure: Set
the mixture control full lean and the throttle full open; then crank the engine through several revolutions with the starter. Repeat the starting
procedure without any additional priming.
If the engine is underprimed (most likely in cold weather with a cold
engine) i-t-will not fire at all, and additional priming will be necessary.
As soon as the cylinders begin to fire, open the throttle slightly to keep it
running.
After starting, if the oil gage does not begin to show pressure within
30 seconds in the summertime and about twice that long in very cold
weather, stop engirie and investigate. Lack of oil pressure can cause
serious engine damage. After starting, avoid the use of carburetor heat
unless icing conditions prevail.
NOTE
Additional details concerning cold weather starting and
operation may be found under COLD WEATHER OPERATION paragraphs in this section.
TAXIING
When taxiing, it is important that speed and use of brakes be held to
a minimum and that all controls be utilized (see Taxiing Diagram, figure
4-2) to maintain directional control and balance.
The carburetor heat control knob should be pushed full in during all
ground operations unless heat is absolutely necessary. When the knob is
4-11
SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
NOTE
CODE
WIND DIRECTION '
Strong quartering tail winds require caution.
Avoid sudden bursts of the throttle and sharp
braking when the airplane is in thi!J attitude.
Use the steerable nose wheel and rudder to
maintain direction.
Figure 4-2. Taxiing Diagram
4-12
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES
pulled out to the heat position, air entering the engine is not filtered.
Taxiing over loose gravel or cinders should be done at low engine
speed to avoid abrasion and stone damage to the propeller tips.
BEFORE TAKEOFF
WARM-UP
If the engine accelerates smoothly, the airplane is ready for takeoff.
Since the engine is closely cowled for efficient in-flight engine cooling,
precautions should be taken to avoid overheating during prolonged engine
operation on the ground. Also, long periods of idling may cause fouled
spark plugs.
MAGNETO CHECK
The magneto check should be made at 1700 RPM as follows. Move
ignition switch first toR position and note RPM. Next move switch back
to BOTH to clear the other set of plugs. Then move switch to the L position, note RPM and return the switch to the BOTH position. RPM drop
should not exceed 125 RPM on either magneto or show greater than 50
RPM differential between magnetos. If there is a doubt concerning operation of the ignition system, RPM checks at higher engine speeds will usually confirm whether a deficiency exists.
An absence of RPM drop may be an indication of faulty grounding of
one side of the ignition system or should be cause for suspicion that the
magneto timing is set in advance of the setting specified.
ALTERNATOR CHECK
Prior to flights where verification of proper alternator and voltage
regulator operation is essential (such as night or instrument flights), a
positive verification can be made by loading the electrical system momentarily (3 to 5 seconds) with the optional landing light (if so
equipped), or by operating the wing flaps during the engine runup
(1700 RPM). The ammeter will remain within a needle width of its initial
reading if the alternator and voltage regulator are operating properly.
TAKEOFF
POWER CHECK
It is important to check full-throttle engine operation early in the
4-13
SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
takeoff run. Any sign of rough engine operation or sluggish engine acceleration is good cause for discontinuing the takeoff. If this occurs, you are
justified in making a thorough full-throttle, static runup before another
takeoff is attempted. The engine should run smoothly and turn approximately 2280 to 2400 RPM with carburetor heat off and mixture full rich.
NOTE
Carburetor heat should not be used during takeoff unless
it is absolutely necessary for obtaining smooth engine
acceleration.
Full-throttle runups over loose gravel are especially harmful to propeller tips. When takeoffs must be made over a gravel surface, it is very
important that the throttle be advanced slowly. This allows the airplane
to start rolling before high RPM is developed, and the gravel will be blown
back of the propeller rather than pulled into it. When unavoidable small
dents appear in the propeller blades, they should be immediately corrected as described in Section 8 under Propeller Care.
Prior to takeoff from fields above 3000 feet elevation, the mixture
should be leaned to give maximum RPM in a full-throttle, static runup.
After full throttle is applied, adjust the throttle friction lock clockwise to prevent the throttle from creeping back from a maximum power
position. Similar friction lock adjustments should be made as required
in other flight conditions to maintain a fixed throttle setting.
WING FLAP SETTINGS
Normal and short field takeoffs are performed with flaps up. Flap
settings greater than 10° are not approved for takeoff.
Use of 10° flaps is reserved for minimum ground runs or for takeoff
from soft or rough fields. Use of 10° flaps allows safe use of slightly
lower takeoff speeds than with flaps up. The lower speeds result in
shortening the ground run and total distance over a 50 foot obstacle by
approximately 10%. However, this advantage will be lost if flaps up
speeds are used, or in high altitude takeoffs in hot weather at maximum weight where climb would be marginal with 10° flaps. Therefore,
use of 10° flaps is not recommended for takeoff over an obstacle at high
altitude in hot weather.
SHORT FIELD TAKEOFF
If an obstruction dictates the use of a steep climb angle, after liftoff
4-14
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES
accelerate to and climb out at an obstacle clearance speed of 59 KIAS
with flaps retracted. This speed provides the best overall climb speed
to clear obstacles when taking into account the turbulence often found
near ground level. The takeoff performance data provided in Section 5
is based on the flaps up configuration.
Minimum ground run takeoffs are accomplished using 10° flaps. If
10° of flaps are used on soft or rough fields with obstacles ahead, it is
normally preferable to leave them extended rather than retract them in
the climb to the obstacle. With 10° flaps, use an obstacle clearance
speed of 55 KIAS. As soon as the obstacle is cleared, the flaps may be
retracted as the airplane accelerates to the normal flaps-up climb-out
speed.
CROSSWIND TAKEOFF
Takeoffs into strong crosswinds normally are performed with the minimum flap setting necessary for the field length to minimize the drift angle immediately after takeoff. The airplane is accelerated to a speed
slightly higher than normal, then pulled off abruptly to prevent possible
settling back to the runway while drifting. When clear of the ground,
make a coordinated turn into the wind to correct for drift.
ENROUTE CLIMB
Normal climbs are performed with flaps up and full throttle and at
speeds 5 to 10 knots higher than best rate-of-climb speeds for the best
combination of performance, visibility and engine cooling. The mixture should be full rich below 3000 feet and may be leaned above 3000
feet for smoother operation or to obtain maximum RPM. For maximum rate of climb, use the best rate-of-climb speeds shown in the Rateof-Climb chart in Section 5. If an obstruction dictates the use of .a steep
climb angle, the best angle-of-climb speed should be used with flaps up
and maximum power. Climbs at speeds lower than the best rate-ofclimb speed should be of short duration to improve engine cooling.
CRUISE
Normal cruising is performed between 55% and 75% power. The engine
RPM and corresponding fuel consumption for various altitudes can be deter-
4-15
SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
mined by using your Cessna Power Computer or the data in Section 5.
NOTE
Cruising should be done at 65% to 75% power until a total
of 50 hours has accumulated or oil consumption has stabilized. This is to ensure proper seating of the rings apd
is applicable to new engines, and engines in service following cylinder replacement or top overhaul of one or
more cylinders.
The Cruise Performance Table, Figure 4-3, illustrates the true airspeed and nautical miles per gallon during cruise "for various altitudes and
percent power. This table should be used as a guide, along with the available winds aloft information, to determine the most favorable altitude and
power setting for a given trip. The selection of cruise altitude on the
basis of the most favorable wind conditions and the use of low power settings are significant factors that should be considered on eve:ry trip to
reduce fuel consumption.
To achieve the recommended lean mixture fuel consumption figures
shown in Section 5, the mixture should be leaned until engine RPM
peaks and drops 25-50 RPM. At lower powers it may be necessary to
enrichen the mixture slightly to obtain smooth operation.
Should it be necessary to cruise at higher than 75% power, the
mixture should not be leaned more than is required to provide peak
RPM.
Carburetor ice, as evidenced by an unexplained drop in RPM, can be
removed by application of full carburetor heat. Upon regaining the original RPM (with heat off), use the minimum amount of heat (by trial and
75% POWER
ALTITUDE
KTAS
NMPG
Sea Level
114
4000 Feet
8000 Feet
55% POWER
65% POWER
NMPG
KTAS
13.5
107
14.8
100
16.1
118
14.0
111
15.3
103
16.6
122
14.5
115
15.8
106
17.1
Standard Conditions
Figure 4-3.
4-16
NMPG
KTAS
Zero Wind
Cruise Performance Table
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES
error) to prevent ice from forming. Since the heated air causes a richer
mixture, readjust the mixture setting when carruretor heat is to be used
continuously in cruise flight.
The use of full carburetor heat is recommended during flight in
heavy rain to avoid the possibility of _engine stoppage due to excessive
water ingestion or carburetor ice. The mixture setting should be readjusted for smoothest operation. Power changes should be made cautiously, followed by prompt adjustment of the mixture for smoothest
operation.
STALLS
The stall characteristics are conventional and aural warning is provided by a stall warning horn which sounds between 5 and 10 !mots above
the stall in all configurations.
Power-off stall speeds at maximum weight for both forward and aft
c. g. positions are presented in Section 5.
SPINS
Intentional spins are approved in this airplane within certain restricted loadings. Spins.with baggage loadings or occupied rear seat(s) are not
approved.
However, before attempting to perform spins several items should be
be carefully considered to assure a safe flight. No spins should be attempted without first having received dual instruction both in spin entries
and spin recoveries from a qualified instructor who is familiar with the
spin characteristics of the Cessna 172N.
The cabin should be clean and all loose equipment (including the microphone and rear seat belts) should be stowed or secured. For a solo
flight in which spins will be conducted, the copilot's seat belt and shoulder
harness should also be secured. The seat belts and shoulder harnesses
should be adjusted to provide proper restraint during all anticipated flight
conditions. However, care should be taken to ensure that the pilot can
easily reach the flight controls and produce maximum control travels.
4-17
SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
It is recommended that, where feasible, entries be accomplished at
high enough altitude that recoveries are completed 4000 feet or more above
ground level. At least 1000 feet of altitude loss should be allowed for a
1- turn spin and recovery, while a 6- turn spin and recovery may require
somewhat more than twice that amount. For example, the recommended
entry altitude for a 6- turn spin would be 6000 feet above ground level. In
any case, entries should be planned so that recoveries are completed well
above the minimum 1500 feet above ground level required by FAR 91. 71.
Another reason for using high altitudes for practicing spins is that a
greater field -of view is provided which will assist in maintaining pilot
orientation.
The normal entry is made from a power-off stall. As the stall is approached, the elevator control should be smoothly pulled to the full aft
position. Just prior to reaching the stall ''break", rudder control in the
desired direction of the spin rotation should be applied so that full rudder
deflection is reached almost simultaneously with reaching full aft elevator.
A slightly greater rate of deceleration than for normal stall entries, application of ailerons in the direction of the desired spin, and the use of
power at the entry will assure more consistent and positive entries to the
spin. As the airplane begins to spin, reduce the power to idle and return
the ailerons to neutral. Both elevator and rudder_ controls should be held
full with the spin until the spin recovery is initiated. An inadvertent relaxation of either of these controls could result in the development of a nosedown spiral.
For the purpose of training in spins and spin recoveries, a 1 or 2
turn spin is ~dequate and should be used. Up to 2 turns, the spin will progress to a fairly rapid rate of rotation and a steep attitude. Application of
recovery controls will produce prompt recoveries (within 1/4 turn). During extended spins of two to three turns or more, the spin will tend to
change into a spiral, particularly to the right. This will be accompanied
by an increase in airspeed and gravity loads on the airplane. If this occurs, recovery should be accomplished quickly by leveling the wings and
recovering from the resulting dive.
Regardless of how many turns the spin is held or how it is entered,
the following recovery technique should be used:
(1) VERIFY THAT THROTTLE IS IN IDLE POSITION AND AILERONS
ARE NEUTRAL.
(2) APPLY AND HOLD FULL RUDDER OPPOSITE TO THE DIRECTION OF ROTATION.
{3) JUST AFTER THE RUDDER REACHES THE STOP, MOVE THE
CONTROL WHEEL BRISKLY FORWARD FAR ENOUGH TO BREAK
THE STALL.
4-18
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES
(4) HOLD THESE CONTROL INPUTS UNTIL ROTATION STOPS.
(5) AS ROTATION STOPS, NEUTRALIZE RUDDER, AND MAKE A
SMOOTH RECOVERY FROM THE RESULTING DIVE.
NOTE
If disorientation precludes a visual determination of the
direction of rotation, the symbolic airplane in the turn
coordinator or the needle of the turn and bank indicator
may be referred to for this information.
Variation in basic airplane rigging or in weight and balance due to
installed equipment or right seat occupancy .can cause differences in behavior, particularly in extended spins. These differences are normal and
will result in variations in the spin characteristics and in the spiraling
tendencies for spins of more than 2 turns. However, the recovery technique
should always be used and will result in the roost expeditious recovery from
any spin.
Intentional spins with flaps extended are prohibited, since the high
speeds which may occur during recovery are potentially damaging to the
flap/wing structure.
LANDING
NORMAL LANDING
Normal landing approaches can be made with power-on or power-off
with any flap setting desired. Surface winds and air turbulence are usually the primary factors in determining the most comfortable approach
speeds. Steep slips should be avoided with. flap settings greater than 20°
due to a slight tendency for the elevator to oscillate under certain combinations of airspeed, sideslip angle, and center of gravity loadings.
NOTE
Carburetor heat should be applied prior to any significant
reduction or closing of the throttle.
Actual touchdown should be made with power-off and on the main
wheels first to reduce the landing speed and subsequent need for braking
in the landing roll. The nose wheel is lowered to the runway gently after
the speed has diminished to avoid unnecessary nose gear loads. This
procedure is especially important in rough or soft field landings.
4-19
SECTION 4
NORMAL .PROCEDURES
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
SHORT FIELD LANDING
For a short field landing in smooth air conditions, make an approach at the minimum recommended airspeed with full flaps using
enough power to control the glide path. (Slightly higher approach
speeds should be used under turbulent air conditions.) After all approach obstacles are cleared, progressively reduce power and maintain
the approach speed by lowering the nose of the airplane. Touchdown
should be made with power off and on the main wheels first. Immediately after touchdown, lower the nose wheel and apply heavy braking
as required. For maximum brake effectiveness, retract the flaps, hold
the control wheel full back, and apply maximum brake pressure without sliding the tires.
CROSSWIND LANDING
When landing in a strong crosswind, use the minimum flap setting
required for the field length. If flap settings greater than 20° are used
in sideslips with full rudder deflection, some elevator oscillation may be
felt at normal approach speeds. However, this does not affect control of
the airplane. Although the crab or combination method of drift correction
may be used, the wing-low method gives the best control. After touchdown, hold a straight course with the steerable nose wheel and occasional
braking if necessary.
The maximum allowable crosswind velocity is dependent upon pilot
capability as well as aircraft limitations. With average pilot technique,
direct crosswinds of 15 knots can be handled with safety.
BALKED LANDING
In a balked landing (go-around) climb, reduce the wing flap setting
to 20° immediately after full power is applied. If obstacles must be
cleared during the go-around climb, reduce the wing flap setting to 10°
and maintain a safe airspeed until the obstacles are cleared. Above
3000 feet, lean the mixture to obtain maximum RPM. After clearing
any obstacles, the flaps may be retracted as the airplane accelerates to
the normal flaps-up climb speed.
COLD WEATHER OPERATION
STARTING
Prior to starting on a cold morning, it is advisable to pull the propel4-20
SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
ler through several times by hand to "break loose" or "limber" the oil,
thus conserving battery energy.
NOTE
When pulling the propeller through by hand, treat it as
if the ignition switch is turned on. A loose or broken
ground wire on either magneto could cause the engine to
fire.
In extremely cold (-18°C and lower) weather, the use of an external preheater and an external power source are recommended whenever possible
to obtain positive starting and to reduce wear and abuse to the engine and
electrical system. Pre-heat will thaw the oil trapped in the oil cooler,
which probably will be congealed prior to starting in extremely cold temperatures. When using an external power source, the position of the master switch is important. Refer to Section 7 under Ground Service Plug
Receptacle for operating details.
Cold weather starting procedures are as follows:
With Preheat:
(1) With ignition switch OFF and throttle closed, prime the engine
four to eight strokes as the propeller is being turned over by hand.
NOTE
Use heavy strokes of primer for best atomization of fuel.
After priming, push primer all the way in and turn to
locked position to avoid possibility of engine drawing fuel
through the primer.
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
Propeller Area -- CLEAR.
Master Switch-- ON.
Mixture -- FULL RICH.
Throttle -- OPEN 1/8 INCH.
Ignition Switch -- START.
Release ignition switch to BOTH when engine starts.
Oil Pressure -- CHECK.
Without Preheat:
(1) Prime the engine six to ten strokes while the propeller is being
turned by hand with throttle closed. Leave primer charged and ready
for stroke.
4-21
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES
(2) Propeller Area-- CLEAR.
(3) Master Switch -- ON.
(4) Mixture -- FULL RICH.
(5) Ignition Switch-- START.
(6) Pump throttle rapidly to full open twice. Return to 1/B.inch
open position.
(7) Release ignition switch to BOI'H when engine starts.
(8) Continue to prime engine until it is running smoothly, or alternately pump throttle rapidly over first 1/4 of total travel.
(9) Oil Pressure -- CHECK.
(10) Pull carburetor heat knob full on after engine has started.
Leave on until engine is running smoothly.
(11) Lock primer.
NOI'E
If the engine does not start during the first few attempts,
or if the engine firing diminishes in strength, it is probable that the spark plugs have been frosted over. Preheat must be used before another start is attempted.
Pumping the throttle may cause raw fuel to accumulate
in the intake air duct, creating a fire hazard in the event
of a backfire. If this occurs, maintain a cranking action
to suck flames into the engine. An outside attendant with
a fire extinguisher is advised for cold starts without preheat.
During cold weather operations, no indication will be apparent on the
oil temperature gage prior to takeoff if outside air temperatures are very
cold. After a suitable warm-up period (2 to 5 minutes at 1000 RPM), accelerate the engine several times to higher engine RPM. If the engine accelerates smoothly and the oil pressure remains normal and steady, the
airplane is ready for takeoff.
FLIGHT OPERATIONS
Takeoff is made normally with carburetor heat off. Avoid excessive
leaning in cruise.
Carburetor heat may be used to overcome any occasional engine
roughness due to ice.
When operating in temperatures below -18°C, avoid using partial car4-22
SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
buretor heat. Partial heat may increase the carburetor air temperature
to the 0° to 21 °C range, where icing is critical under certain atmospheric
conditions.
HOT WEATHER OPERATION
Refer to the general warm temperature starting information under
Starting Engine in this section. A void prolonged engine operation on the
ground.
NOISE ABATEMENT
Increased emphasis on improving the quality of our environment
requires renewed effort on the part of all pilots to minimize the effect of
airplane noise on the public.
We, as pilots, can demonstrate our concern for environmental improvement, by application of the following suggested procedures, and
thereby tend to build public support for aviation:
(1) Pilots operating aircraft under VFR over outdoor assemblies of
persons, recreational and park areas, and other noise-'sensitive
areas should make every effort to fly not less than 2, 000 feet above
the surface, weather permitting, even though flight at a lower level
may be consistent with the provisions of government regulations.
(2) During departure from or approach to an airport, climb after
takeoff and descent for landing should be made so as to avoid prolonged flight at low altitude near noise-sensitive areas.
NOTE
The above recommended procedures do not apply where
they would conflict with Air Traffic Control clearances
or instructions, or where, in the pilot's judgement, an
altitude of less than 2, 000 feet is necessary for him to
adequately exercise his duty to see and avoid other aircraft.
The certificated noise level for the Model 172N at 2300 pounds maximum weight is 73.8 dB(A). No determination has been made by the
Federal Aviation Administration that the noise levels of this airplane
are or should be acceptable or unacceptable for operation .at, into, or
out of, any airport.
4-23/{4-24 blank)
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE
SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Introduction . . . • • • .
Use of Performance Charts
Sample Problem .
Takeoff . . .
Cruise
Fuel Required
Landing . . .
•
...
Figure 5-1, Airspeed Calibration- Normal static Source .
Airspeed Calibration - Alternate Static Source
Figure 5-2, Temperature Conversion Chart . . . . .
Figure 5-3, Stall Speeds . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 5-4, Takeoff Distance - 2300 Lbs • • . . • .
Takeoff Distance- 2100 Lbs and 1900 Lbs
Figure 5-5, Rate of Climb • . . . . • . . •
Figure 5-6, Time, Fuel, and Distance to Climb
Figure 5-7, Cruise Performance . . • • . .
Figure 5-8, Range Profile - 40 Gallons Fuel ,
Range Profile - 50 Gallons Fuel ,
Figure 5-9, Endurance Profile- 40 Gallons Fuel
Endurance Profile - 50 Gallons Fuel
Figure 5-10, Landing Distance . • . • • . • •
5-3
5-3
5-3
5-4
5-5
5-5
5-7
5-8
5-9
5-10
5-11
5-12
5-13
5-14
5-15
5-16
5-17
5-18
5-19
5-20
5-21
5-1/(5-2 blank)
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE
INTRODUCTION
Performance data charts on the following pages are presented so
that you may know what to expect from the airplane under various
conditions, and also, to facilitate the planning of flights in detail and
with reasonable accuracy. The data in the charts has been computed
from actual flight tests with the airplane and engine in good condition
and using average piloting techniques.
It should be noted that the performance information presented in
the range and endurance profile charts allows for 45 minutes reserve
fuel based on 45% power. Fuel flow data for cruise is based on the
recommended lean mixture setting. Some indeterminate variables
such as mixture leaning technique, fuel metering characteristics, engine and propeller condition, and air turbulence may account for variations of 10% or more in range and endurance. Therefore, it is important to utilize all available information to estimate the fuel required for
the particular flight.
USE OF PERFORMANCE CHARTS
Performance data is presented in tabular or graphical form to illustrate the effect of different variables. Sufficiently detailed information
is provided in the tables so that conservative values can be selected
and used to determine the particular performance figure with reasonable accuracy.
SAMPLE PROBLEM
The following sample flight problem utilizes information from the
various charts to determine the predicted performance data for a typical flight. The following information is known:
AIRPLANE CONFIGURATION
Takeoff weight
Usable fuel
2250 Pounds
40 Gallons
TAKEOFF CONDITIONS
Field pressure altitude
Temperature
Wind component along runway
Field length
1500 Feet
28°C (16°C above standard)
12 Knot Headwind
3500 Feet
5-3
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE
CRUISE CONDITIONS
Total distance
Pressure altitude
Temperature
Expected wind enroute
460 Nautical Miles
5500 Feet
20°C (16°C above standard)
10 Knot Headwind
LANDING CONDITIONS
Field pressure altitude
Temperature
Field length
2000 Feet
25°C
3000 Feet
TAKEOFF
The takeoff distance chart, figure 5-4, should be consulted, keeping
in mind that the distances shown are based on the short field technique. Conservative distances can be established by reading the chart
at the next higher value of weight, altitude and temperature. For example, in this particular sample problem, the takeoff distance information presented for a weight of 2300 pounds, pressure altitude of 2000 feet
and a temperature of 30°C should be used and results in the following:
Ground roll
Total distance to clear a 50-foot obstacle
1075 Feet
1915 Feet
These distances are well within the available takeoff field length.
However, a correction for the effect of wind may be made based on Note
3 of the takeoff chart. The correction for a 12 knot headwind is:
12 Knots
9 Knots
x
10% =13% Decrease
This results in the following distances, corrected for wind:
Ground roll, zero wind
Decrease in ground roll
(1075 feet x 13%)
Corrected ground roll
Total distance to clear a
50-foot obstacle, zero wind
Decrease in total distance
(1915 feet x 13%)
Corrected total distance
to clear a 50-foot obstacle
5-4
1075
140
935 Feet
1915
1666 Feet
SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
CRUISE
The cruising altitude should be selected based on a consideration of
trip length, winds aloft, and the airplane's performance. A typical
cruising altitude and the expected wind enroute have been given for
this sample problem. !fowever, the power setting selection for cruise
must be determined based on several considerations. These include the
cruise performance characteristics presented in figure 5-7, the range
profile chart presented in figure 5-8, and the endurance profile chart
presented in figure 5-9.
The relationship between power and range is illustrated by the
range profile chart. Considerable fuel savings and longer range result
when lower power ·settings are used.
The range profile chart indicates that use of 65% power at 5500 feet
yields a predicted range of 523 nautical miles with no wind. The endurance profile chart, figure 5-9, shows a corresponding 4.7 hours.
The range figure of 523 nautical miles is corrected to account for
the expected 10 knot headwind at 5500 feet.
Range, zero wind
Decrease in range due to wind
(4.7 hours x 10 knot headwind)
Corrected range
523
47
476 Nautical Miles
This indicates that the trip can be made without a fuel stop using approximately 65% power.
The cruise performance chart, figure 5-7, is entered at 6000 feet
altitude and 20°C above standard temperature. These values most
nearly correspond to the planned altitude and expected temperature
conditions. The engine speed chosen is 2500 RPM, which results in the
following:
Power
True airspeed
Cruise fuel flow
64%
114 Knots
7.1 GPH
The power computer may be used to determine power and fuel consumption more accurately during the flight.
FUEL REQUIRED
The total fuel requirement for the flight may be estimated using the
5-5
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE
performance information in figure 5-6 and 5-7. For ths sample problem, figure 5-6 shows that a climb from 2000 feet to 6000 feet requires
. 1.3 gallons of fuel. The corresponding distance during the climb is 9
nautical miles. These values are for a standard temperature and are
sufficiently accurate for most flight planning purposes. However, a
further correction for the effect of temperature may be made as noted
on the climb chart. The approximate effect of a non-standard temperature is to increase the time, fuel, and distance by 10% for each 10° C
above standard temperature, due to the lower rate of climb. In this
case, assuming a temperature 16°0 above standard, the correction would
be:
16°C
1000
x
10% = 16% Increase
With this factor included, the fuel estimate would be calculated as follows:
Fuel to climb, standard temperature
Increase due to non-standard temperature
(1.3 X 16%)
Corrected fuel to climb
1.3
0.2
1.5 Gallons
Using a similar procedure for the distance to climb results in 10 nautical miles.
The resultant cruise distance is:
Total distance
Climb distance
Cruise distance
460
-10
450 Nautical Miles
With an expected 10 knot headwind, the ground speed for cruise is
predicted to be:
114
-10
104 Knots
Therefore, the time required for the cruise portion of the trip is:
450 Nautical Miles _ 4 H
104 Knots
- ·3 ours
The fuel required for cruise is:
4.3 hours
5-6
x
7.1 gallons/hour= 30.5 Gallons
SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
The total estimated fuel required is as follows:
Engine start, taxi, and takeoff
Climb
Cruise
Total fuel required
1.1
1.5
30.5
33.1 Gallons
This will leave a fuel reserve of:
40.0
-33.1
6.9 Gallons
Once the flight is underway, ground speed checks will provide a
more accurate basis for estimating the time enroute and the corresponding fuel required to complete the trip with ample reserve.
LANDING
A procedure similar to takeoff should be used for estimating the
landing distance at the destination airport. Figure 5-10 presents landing distance information for the short field technique. The distances
corresponding to 2000 feet and 30° C are as follows:
Ground roll
Total distance to clear a 50-foot obstacle
590 Feet
1370 Feet
A correction for the effect of wind may be made based on Note 2 of the
landing chart using the same procedure as outlined for takeoff.
5-7
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE
AIRSPEED CALIBRATION
NORMAL STATIC SOURCE
FLAPS UP
KIAS
KCAS
40
49
50
55
60
62
70
70
80
80
90
89
100
99
110
108
120
118
130
128
140
138
40
49
50
55
60
62
70
71
80
80
85
85
-----
-----
--- ----- ---
-----
40
47
50
60
62
70
71
80
81
85
86
---
-----
---
- ----
---
FLAPS 10°
KIAS
KCAS
FLAPS 40°
KIAS
KCAS
54
---
---
Figure 5-l. Airspeed Calibration (Sheet 1 of 2)
5-8
---
SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
AIRSPEED CALIBRATION
ALTERNATE STATIC SOURCE
HEATER/VENTS AND WINDOWS CLOSED
FLAPS UP
NORMAL KIAS
ALTERNATE KIAS
40
39
50
51
60
61
70
71
80
82
90
91
100
101
110
111
40
40
50
51
60
61
70
71
80
81
85
85
-----
--- --- --- ----- --- --- ---
40
38
50
50
60
60
70
70
80
79
85
83
---
--- --- --- ----- --- --- ---
120
121
130
131
140
141
FLAPS 10°
NORMAL KIAS
ALTERNATE K.IAS
FLAPS 40°
NORMAL KIAS
ALTERNATE KIAS
---
HEATER/VENTS OPEN AND WINDOWS CLOSED
FLAPS UP
NORMAL KIAS
ALTERNATE KIAS
40
36
50
48
60
59
70
70
80
80
90
89
100
99
110
108
40
38
50
49
60
59
70
69
80
79
85
84
---
---
--- --- --- ----- --- --- ---
40
34
50
47
60
57
70
67
80
85
81
120
118
130
128
140
139
FLAPS 10°
NORMAL KIAS
ALTERNATE KIAS
FLAPS 40°
NORMAL KIAS
ALTERNATE KIAS
77
----- ---
-----
-----
-----
120
123
130
133
140
143
---
WINDOWS OPEN
FLAPS UP
NORMAL KIAS
ALTERNATE KIAS
40
26
50
43
60
57
70
70
80
82
90
93
100
103
110
113
40
25
50
43
60
57
70
69
80
80
85
85
---
--- --- --- ----- --- ---
---- -
40
50
41
60
54
70
67
80
78
85
84
--- --- --- ----- --- --- ---
-----
FLAPS 10°
NORMAL KIAS
ALTERNATE KIAS
FLAPS 40°
NORMAL KIAS
ALTERNATE KIAS
25
Figure 5-l. Airspeed Calibration (Sheet 2 of 2)
5-9
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE
TEMPERATURE CONVERSION CHART
100
80
t:
w
60
I
z
w
0::
I
<(
u..
40
(/)
w
w
0::
(!)
w
0
20
0
-20
-40
-40
-20
0
20
40
DEGREES- CELSIUS
Figure 5-2. Temperature Conversion Chart
5-10
60
SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
STALL SPEEDS
CONDITIONS:
Power Off
NOTES:
1. Maximum altitude loss during a stall recovery may be as much as 180 feet.
2.
KIAS values are approximate.
MOST REARWARD CENTER OF GRAVITY
ANGLE OF BANK
WEIGHT
LBS
2300
FLAP
DEFLECTION
oo
30°
45°
60°
KIAS
KCAS
KIAS
KCAS
KIAS
KCAS
KIAS
KCAS
UP
42
50
45
54
50
59
59
71
100
38
47
40
51
45
56
54
66
40°
36
44
38
47
43
52
51
62
MOST FORWARD CENTER OF GRAVITY
ANGLE OF BANK
WEIGHT
LBS
2300
FLAP
DEFLECTION
oo
45°
30°
60°
KIAS
KCAS
KIAS
KCAS
KIAS
KCAS
KIAS
KCAS
UP
47
53
51
57
56
63
66
75
100
44
51
47
55
52
61
62
72
40°
41
47
44
51
49
56
58
66
Figure 5-3. Stall Speeds
5-11
TAKEOFF DISTANCE
01
I
1-'"
"'
'"dOO
t'=.lt'=.l
~0
MAXIMUM WEIGHT 2300 LBS
I
CONDITIONS:
Flaps Up
Full Throttle Prior to Brake Release
Paved, Level, Dry Runway
Zero Wind
SHORT FIELD
"'.ll-3
I
OH
~0
~z
>01
z0
t'=.1
NOTES:
1. Short field technique as specified in Section 4.
2.
Prior to takeoff from fields above 3000 feet elevation, the mixture should be leaned to give maximum RPM in a full throttle,
static runup.
3.
Decrease distances 10% for each 9 knots headwind. For operation with tailwinds up to 10 knots, increase distances by 10%
for each 2 knots.
4.
For operation on a dry, grass runway, increase distances by 15% of the "ground roll" figure.
WEIGHT
LBS
2300
TAKEOFF
o0 c
10°c
20°C
30°C
40°C
SPEED
PRESS
KIAS
ALT
TOTAL
TOTAL
TOTAL
TOTAL
TOTAL
FT
GRND TO CLEAR GRND TO CLEAR GRND TO CLEAR GRND TO CLEAR GRND TO CLEAR
LIFT AT
ROLL 50FT OBS ROLL 50FT OBS ROLL 50FT OBS ROLL 50FT OBS ROLL 50FT OBS
OFF 50FT
52
59
SL.
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
720
790
865
950
1045
1150
1265
1400
1550
1300
1420
1555
1710
1880
2075
2305
2565
2870
775
850
930
1025
1125
1240
1365
1510
1675
1390
1525
1670
1835
2025
2240
2485
2770
3110
835
915
1000
1100
1210
1335
1475
1630
1805
1490
1630
1790
1970
2175
2410
2680
3000
3375
895
980
1075
1185
1300
1435
1585
1755
1945
1590
1745
1915
2115
2335
2595
2895
3245
3670
960
1050
1155
1270
1400
1540
1705
1890
2095
1700
1865
2055
2265
2510
2795
3125
3515
3990
~
0
t:Jo
t;jt;j
t"oo
..... 00
;;gz
Figure 5-4. Takeoff Distance (Sheet 1 of 2)
Z>
~0
TAKEOFF DISTANCE
ot~;~
t:JCI.l
2100 LBS AND 1900 LBS
ti;(Cl.l
t"'z
I SHORT FIELD I
... >
~
REFER TO SHEET 1 FOR APPROPRIATE CONDITIONS AND NOTES.
TAKEOFF
20°C
30°C
40°C
10°C
0°C
SPEED
PRESS
WEIGHT
KIAS
ALT
TOTAL
TOTAL
TOTAL
TOTAL
TOTAL
LBS
LIFT AT FT GRND TO CLEAR GRND TO CLEAR GRND TO CLEAR GRND TO CLEAR GRND TO CLEAR
ROLL 50 FTOBS ROLL 50 FTOBS ROLL 50FT OBS ROLL 50FT OBS ROLL 50FT OBS
OFF 50FT
2100
50
56
S.L. 585
1000 640
2000 700
3000 770
4000 845
5000 930
6000 1025
7000 1130
8000 1245
1070
1165
1270
1390
1525
1680
1850
2050
2275
630
690
755
830
910
1000
1100
1215
1345
1140
1245
1360
1490
1640
1805
1990
2210
2460
680
740
810
890
980
1075
1185
1310
1450
1220
1330
1455
1595
1755
1935
2140
2380
2655
725
795
870
955
1050
1155
1275
1410
1560
1300
1420
1555
1710
1880
2075
2300
2560
2865
780
850
935
1025
1130
1240
1370
1515
1680
1390
1520
1665
1830
2015
2230
2475
2755
3090
1900
47
54
S.L
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
865
940
1025
1115
1220
1340
1470
1620
1790
505
550
605
660
725
795
875
965
1065
920
1005
1095
1195
1305
1435
1575
1740
1925
540
590
645
710
780
855
940
1035
1145
985
1070
1170
1275
1400
1535
1690
1865
2065
580
635
695
760
835
920
1010
1115
1230
1045
1140
1245
1365
1495
1640
1810
2000
2220
620
680
745
815
895
985
1085
1195
1320
1115
1215
1330
1455
1595
1755
1940
2145
2385
470
515
560
615
670
740
810
895
985
-
c:n
I
.......
c:<>
Figure 5-4. Takeoff Distance {Sheet 2 of 2)
;;g
~
QCI.l
~tl;(
~0
>j
zo
oZ
ti;(Ol
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE
RATE OF CLIMB
MAXIMUM
CONDITIONS:
Flaps Up
Full Throttle
NOTE:
Mixture leaned above 3000 feet for maximum RPM.
WEIGHT
LBS
2300
PRESS
ALT
RATE OF CLIMB- FPM
FT
CLIMB
SPEED
KIAS
-20°C
0°C
20°C
40°C
S.L.
2000
4000
6000
8000
10,000
12,000
73
72
71
70
69
68
67
875
765
655
545
440
335
230
815
705
600
495
390
285
180
755
650
545
440
335
230
695
590
485
385
280
Figure 5-5. Rate of Climb
5-14
---
-----
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE
TIME, FUEL, AND DISTANCE TO CLIMB
I
MAXIMUM RATE OF CLIMB
CONDITIONS:
Flaps Up
Full Throttle
Standard Temperature
NOTES:
1. Add 1.1 gallons of fuel for engine start, taxi and takeoff allowance.
2.
Mixture leaned above 3000 feet for maximum RPM.
3.
Increase time, fuel and distance by 10% for each 10°C above standard temperature.
4.
Distances shown are based on zero wind.
WEIGHT
LBS
2300
RATE OF
CLIMB
FPM
FROM SEA LEVEL
TEMP
oc
CLIMB
SPEED
KIAS
S.L.
15
73
770
0
0.0
0
1000
13
73
725
1
0.3
2
2000
11
72
675
3
0.6
3
3000
9
72
630
4
0.9
5
4000
7
71
580
6
1.2
8
5000
5
71
535
8
1.6
10
6000
3
70
485
10
1.9
12
7000
1
69
440
12
2.3
15
8000
-1
69
390
15
2.7
19
9000
-3
68
345
17
3.2
22
10,000
-5
68
295
21
3.7
27
11,000
-7
67
250
24
4.2
32
12,000
-9
67
200
29
4.9
38
PRESSURE
ALTITUDE
FT
TIME
MIN
FUEL USED
GALLONS
DISTANCE
NM
Figure 5-6. Time, Fuel, and Distance to Climb
5-15
SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
CRUISE PERFORMANCE
CONDITIONS:
2300 Pounds
Recommended Lean Mixture
PRESSURE
ALTITUDE RPM
FT
2000 2500
2400
2300
2200
2100
4000
6000
8000
10,000
12,000
20°C BELOW
STANDARD TEMP
%
BHP
---
KTAS
GPH
--111
106
101
95
---
72
2550
2500
2400
2300
2200
2100
---
2600
2500
2400
2300
2200
2100
--72
116
110
105
99
93
2650
2600
2500
2400
2300
2200
---
2650
2600
2500
2400
2300
2200
76
2600
2500
2400
2300
2200
STANDARD
TEMPERATURE
%
KTAS
GPH
8.0
7.1
6.3
5.8
BHP
75
67
60
53
47
116
111
105
100
94
--116
111
105
100
94
--8.5
7.6
6.8
6.1
5.6
75
71
64
57
51
46
---
--8.1
7.2
6.5
5.9
5.5
--120
115
110
104
98
---
%
KTAS
GPH
8.4
7.5
6.7
6.1
5.6
BHP
71
63
56
50
45
115
110
105
99
93
7.9
7.1
6.3
5.8
5.4
118
115
110
105
99
93
8.4
8.0
71
6.4
5.9
5.5
71
67
60
54
48
44
118
115
109
104
98
92
7.9
7.5
6.7
6.1
5.7
5.3
75
67
60
54
49
44
120
115
109
104
98
92
8.4
7.6
6.8
6.2
5.7
5.4
71
64
57
52
47
42
120
114
109
103
97
91
7.9
71
6.4
5.9
5.5
5.2
8.6
7.7
6.9
6.2
5.7
75
71
64
58
52
47
122
120
114
109
103
97
8.4
8.0
7.2
6.5
6.0
5.5
71
67
60
55
50
45
122
119
113
108
102
96
7.9
7.5
6.8
6.2
5.8
5.4
65
58
52
47
122
120
114
109
103
97
8.5
8.1
7.3
6.5
6.0
5.6
71
68
61
55
50
45
122
119
114
108
102
96
8.0
7.6
6.8
6.2
5.8
5.4
67
64
58
52
48
44
121
118
112
107
101
95
7.5
71
6.5
6.0
5.6
5.3
68
62
56
50
46
119
114
108
102
96
7.7
6.9
6.3
5.8
5.5
64
58
53
48
44
118
113
107
101
95
7.2
6.5
6.0
5.6
5.4
61
55
51
46
43
117
111
106
100
94
6.8
6.2
5.8
5.5
5.3
64
56
50
76
68
60
54
48
64
57
51
46
76
68
61
55
49
72
Figure 5-7. Cruise Performance
5-16
20°C ABOVE
STANDARD TEMP
SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
RANGE PROFILE
45 MINUTES RESERVE
40 GALLONS USABLE FUEL
CONDITIONS:
2300 Pounds
Recommended Lean Mixture for Cruise
Standard Temperature
Zero Wind
NOTES.
1. This chart allows for the fuel used for engine start, taxi, takeoff and climb, and the
distance durrng climb as shown m figure 5-6.
2. Reserve fuel is based on 45 minutes at 45% BHP and IS 4.1 gallons.
12,000 T"""T-.,-...,.-,.._,.-,.-...,.-.,.....,.-,.-.,.-.,.,.....,-...--.-.,.-,-...-....,--,
c-f-+-118 ~T~~!oo 109'L ~·96 KTAS__ _
1
1
~
I "-"'
KTAS~~+4-+4-~~
~~+4-~I.Sf~l-+~~*4~4-~~~
1 0,000 1--1--1-+-+-'~,,
/...}'~~-+~++~~+-~~~
1-----+-+--+-
1-
w
w
u.
9!11-1-H---f+.-f--+-H+-+1-,
-f---- ~
94 KTAS - 1
8000 f - - -l.i.ll--+-+
-1--ld-H-1--IOidlf."..;-:.~,:..+++-1
1-f--1-+1-1' 1 22 _
~11 5 ---l-1H--11-"'1 06 KTAS __
1-f--t-t++ KTAS
KTAS,--++-11-+4-+4-~~
I
w
60001-----+-+~+41-----+-HH-~-+~+-~-+-f--+-~
Cl
:::::>
1-
~
<(
.-11 ~-::1- ;111
4000
--a:
KTASa:
--.~ -r----
-
0
2000- a..
3::w '--H- $w - w$1-1---+-----1-~-+-l
o-oH++H-+-1
- 1 - - 0 -~-1--0..
a..
-f-
l!)
450
'if<.
0
-*
_a..l-l--1----1-~-+-l
* - *1-+-1----1-~-+-l
- /:e 114 co 1or lO - 1'<~' :;i1 00 KTAS -Hf;KTAs-t-1.-KTAS x ./190 KTAs--
s.L.
KTASa:
- ~1 03 KTAS
o: ~·92 KTAS __
l!)
500
550
l!)
600
650
RANGE- NAUTICAL Ml LES
Figure 5-8. Range Profile (Sheet 1 of 2)
5-17
SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE
CESSNMODEL 172N
RANGE PROFILE
45 MINUTES RESERVE
50 GALLONS USABLE FUEL
CONDITIONS.
2300 Pounds
Recommended Lean Mixture for Cru1se
Standard Temperature
Zero Wind
NOTES,
1. Th1s chart allows for the fuel used for engme start, taxi, takeoff and climb, and the
distance dunng climb as shown m figure 5-6.
2. Reserve fuel IS based on 45 mmutes at 45% BHP and 1s 4.1 gallons.
1 2,000 r-r-...,.-,-,-..,.-,7r.....-;:=c:;;or-r-,--r-r-,--,
1-!--HI-++-l-_t--cl~ &k~~t r~96 KTAS
7
1-+-+-1-+--1----J
;§;..
1'18 KT ASt---~---t---+-+-+-1
A...;c«:':~-HH-+-HH--t-+-t-1-+-1
10,000
rT,_G.~~~~,_+ft-+,_~~4r~r+~
«'Y
1-
1/1 I
8000
w
r+,_rJ\122 KTAS
y,94 KTAS
115 KTAS ::: 106 KTAS
w
~
I
~ 6000~-H/H-+-t-+,_~-+,_+-t++~+-t-+~
:::>
1-
~
<(
4000
=m
/118 KTAS
*'
I~
-~I
a..
2000 ~
I~
:::.
~
t--c+-+-H-t--c~
111 KTAS
l:=
103 KTAS
ffi -ffi ~92 KTAS
$
-$1--t--l-+-+-1
a: -a?l--l-+,_+--1
d'< -d'<H-+--1-+-t
~
r~~-+-+-+-t
l-lf-+--1-+-t-----hH-+-t-+-+"~'lH-J..-i-t='<l''tl: 190
I KJA,S
1-114 KTAS :;-,107 KTAS 1/ 1 J.---90 KTAS
600
650
700
750
800
RANGE- NAUTICAL Ml LES
S.L
Figure 5-8. Range Profile (Sheet 2 of 2)
5-18
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE
ENDURANCE PROFILE
45 MINUTES RESERVE
40 GALLONS USABLE FUEL
CONDITIONS:
2300 Pounds
Recommended Lean Mixture for Cruise
Standard Temperature
NOTES:
1
This chart allows for the fuel used for engine start, taxi, takeoff and climb, and the
time during climb as shown m figure 5-6.
2. Reserve fuel is based on 45 mmutes at 45% BHP and is 4.1 gallons.
12,000
,....-,--,--,.-,.....,.-,........1~-,-r-rTT"--,.-,....,r-T""--,.-,....,---,
~~~-H+-r+~+-~-r4
~~~-+~lt!·~'~-H~~4r~~+4
1
~~+-~- o~'~~-H~r+-»+-~-r4
10,000
!Jtr-t-t-t-+tt-t-t--t+t-t-+-t-1
H--t--1-t- " '
1-+-+-+-+ ~·~+-11-t-++-HH-t--li-H-+-l
~
w
8000H-t-+-~~+-~-++-~-+~~-+~
w
u..
I
~ 6000H-t-+-~~+-~-++-~-+,_~-+~
:::>
~
i=
_.
<(
~-~-~~ I:I:
~ I:I:
t-t-~t-1-~ ~ w
4000
0 1-1-~
~-t-+-t-0.. r- 0..
~-1--t-t-# r- -#
~-t-+-1-~ r- -~
~- 0:
- - I:I:H--+-t-1
-- #
--'-;,'?.1+--+-+-1
~- UJ - - IJJH--t-t-l
1-- ~ - - $:H-+-+-l
- - 0.. - - ~1+-+-+-l
-
--:g
~-1-~ll-cl-l--1
2000~-t-+-r+~+-~~-t-rH-r+-r+-++-1
S.L. 3
4
5
6
7
ENDURANCE- HOURS
Figure 5-9. Endurance Profile (Sheet 1 of 2}
5-19
SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
ENDURANCE PROFILE
45 MINUTES RESERVE
50 GALLONS USABLE FUEL
CONDITIONS.
2300 Pounds
Recommended Lean Mixture for Cru1se
Standard Temperature
NOTES:
1
Th1s chart allows for the fuel used for eng me start, taxi, takeoff and climb, and the
t1me dunng climb as shown in figure 5-6.
2.
Reserve fuel IS based on 45 minutes at 45% BHP and IS 4.1 gallons.
12,000
~'I
f- f- ~~
f- -c-_c'l
10,000 I- ,-J..:.~~
r-r-';'/
1::
r$'
r-~
1-
8000
UJ
UJ
LL.
~ 6000
:::>
1-
~
<(
0::
UJ
4000
2000
s0
--
0::
-,--- UJ
~
r-fll. r-r- ll.
r# r-r- 'if!.
r-~ r-r- r-~
c.o
S.L. 5
6
0::
0::
~ll.
~ll.
UJ
UJ
'if!.
';$?.
0
l!)
<:1'
·lD
7
LCl
8
9
ENDURANCE-HOURS
Figure 5-9. Endurance Profile {Sheet 2 of 2)
5-20
~0
LANDING DISTANCE
I
SHORT FIELD
ot;;l
I
t:JCll
!.;;len
~~
~
CONDITIONS:
Flaps 40°
Power Off
Maximum Braking
Paved, Level, Dry Runway
Zero Wind
z
NOTES:
1.
Short field technique as specified in Section 4.
2.
Decrease distances 10% for each 9 knots headwind. For operation with tailwinds up to 10 knots, increase distances by 10%
for each 2 knots
3.
For operation on a dry, grass runway, increase distances by 45% of the "ground roll" figure.
WEIGHT
LBS
2300
CJ1
I
().:>
,_.
~
CJ1
I
().:>
().:>
o'
I
40°C
30°C
20°C
10°C
0°C
SPEED
PRESS
AT
ALT
TOTAL
TOTAL
TOTAL
TOTAL
TOTAL
50FT
FT
GRND TO CLEAR GRND TO CLEAR GRND TO CLEAR GRND TO CLEAR GRND TO CLEAR
KIAS
ROLL 50FT OBS ROLL 50FT OBS ROLL 50 FTOBS ROLL 50 FTOBS ROLL 50FT OBS
60
S.L.
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
495
510
530
550
570
590
615
640
665
1205
1235
1265
1300
1335
1370
1415
1455
1500
510
530
550
570
590
615
640
660
690
1235
1265
1300
1335
1370
1415
1455
1495
1540
530
550
570
590
615
635
660
685
710
1265
1300
1335
1370
1410
1450
1490
1535
1580
Figure 5-10. Landing Distance
545
565
590
610
635
655
685
710
735
1295
1330
1370
1405
1445
1485
1535
1575
1620
565
585
610
630
655
680
705
730
760
1330
1365
1405
1440
1480
1525
1570
1615
1665
;_;]
~
oro
~t;;j
~0
;J>:j
zo
oZ
!.;;len
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
SECTION 6
WEIGHT & BALANCE/
EQUIPMENT LIST
SECTION 6
WEIGHT & BALANCE/
EQUIPMENT LIST
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction . • . . . . . . .
Airplane Weighing Procedures .
Weight and Balance .
Equipment List . . . . . . . .
Page
6-3
6-3
6-6
6-13
6-1/(6-2 blank)
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
SECTION 6
WEIGHT & BALANCE/
EQUIPMENT LIST
INTRODUCTION
This section describes the procedure for establishing the basic empty
weight and moment of the airplane. Sample forms are provided for reference. Procedures for calculating the weight and moment for various operations are also provided. A comprehensive list of all Cessna equipment
available for this airplane is included at the back of this section.
It should be noted that specific information regarding the weight, arm,
moment and installed equipment list for this airplane can only be found in
the appropriate weight and balance records carried in the airplane.
AIRPLANE WEIGHING PROCEDURES
(1) Preparation:
a. Inflate tires to recommended operating pressures.
b. Remove the fuel tank sump quick-drain fittings and fuel
selector valve drain plug to drain all fuel.
c. Ren;1ove oil sump drain plug to drain all oil.
d. Move sliding seats to the most forward position.
e. Raise flaps to the fully retracted position.
Place all control surfaces in neutral position.
f.
(2} Leveling:
a. Place scales under each wheel (minimum scale capacity,
500 pounds nose, 1000 pounds each main).
b. Deflate the nose tire and/ or lower or raise the nose strut to
properly center the bubble in the level (see Figure 6-1).
(3} Weighing:
a. With the airplane level and brakes released, record the
weight shown on each scale. Deduct the tare, if any, from each
reading.
(4) Measuring:
a. Obtain measurement A by measuring horizontally (along the
airplane center line) from a line stretched between the main
wheel centers to a plumb bob dropped from the firewall.
b. Obtain measurement B by measuring horizontally and parallel to the airplane center line, from center of nose wheel axle,
left side, to a plumb bob dropped from the line between the main
wheel centers. Repeat on right side and average the measurements.
6-3
SECTION 6
WEIGHT & BALANCE/
EQUIPMENT LIST
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
Datum
Sta. 0.0
(Firewall,
Front Face,
Lowo1P:~.rt~i~on~)~~~>-~~~==~~~j
Level at upper door sill or
leveling screws on left side
of tailcone.
N
Scale Position
L& R
Scale Reading
Left Wheel
Tare
Symbol
Net We1ght
L
Right Wheel
-
R
Nose Wheel
N
Sum of Net Weights (As Weighed)
w
X= ARM= (A)- (N) x (B), X= (
) - .:..(_ _...:.l.:..:.x...:.(_ __:_) = (
) IN.
w
Weight (Lbs.) X C.G. Arm (ln.)=
Item
Airplane Weight (From Item 5, page 6-.6)
Add Oil:
No Oil Filter (6 Ots at 7.5 Lbs/Gal)
With Oil Filter (7 Ots at 7.5 Lbs/Gal)
-14.0
-14.0
Add Unusable Fuel:
Std. Tanks (3 Gal at 6 Lbs/Gal)
46.0
L.R. Tanks (4 Gal at 6 Lbs/Gal)
46.0
Equipment Changes
Airplane Basic Empty Weight
Figure 6-1.
6-4
Sample Airplane Weighing
Moment/1000
(Lbs.-ln.)
~0
SAMPLE WEIGHT AND BALANCE RECORD
ot:tJ
tjCI.l
t:tJCI.l
{Continuous History of Changes in Structure or Equipment Affecting Weight and Balance)
I
AIRPLANE MODEL
I
SERIAL NUMBER
t"'z
WEIGHT CHANGE
ITEM NO.
ADDED{+)
DESCRIPTION
DATE
OF ARTICLE OR MODIFICATION
In
Out
Wt.
{lb.)
I
Arm
{ln.)
REMOVED{-)
I
Moment
/1000
Wt.
{lb.)
I
Arm
{ln.)
I
1-L~
PAGE NUMBER
Moment
/1000
RUNNING BASIC
EMPTY WEIGHT
Wt.
{lb.)
~
I
Moment
/1000
~
t:t.1
......
t:tJO
.oP::
qt-3
~go
~tdoo
t:t.l~t:t.l
Zt"'O
t-3~>-3
0)
I
t11
Figure 6-2.
Sample Weight and Balance Record
t"'zo
.....
a ...
I:Jlt;tjLt
t-3 ........ m
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
SECTION 6
WEIGHT & BALANCE/
EQUIPMENT LIST
(5) Using weights from (3) and measurements from (4) the airplane
weight and C. G. can be determined.
(6)
Basic Empty Weight may be determined by completing Figure 6-1.
WEIGHT AND BALANCE
The following information will enable you to operate your Cessna
within the prescribed weight and center of gravity limitations. To figure
weight and balance, use the Sample Problem, Loading Graph, and Center
of Gravity Moment Envelope as follows:
Take the basic empty weight and moment from appropriate weight and
balance records carried in your airplane, and enter them in the column
titled YOUR AIRPLANE on the Sample Loading Problem.
NOTE
In addition to the basic empty weight and moment noted
on these records, the c. g. arm (fuselage station) is also
shown, but need not be used on the Sample Loading Problem. The moment which is shown must be divided by
1000 and this value used as the moment/1000 on the
loading problem.
Use the Loading Graph to determine the moment/1000 for each additional item to be carried; then list these on the loading problem.
NOI'E
Loading Graph information for the pilot, passengers,
and baggage is based on seats positioned for average
occupants and baggage loaded in the center of the baggage areas as shown on the Loading Arrangements diagram. For loadings which may differ from these, the
Sample Loading Problem lists fuselage stations for these
items to indicate their forward and aft c. g. range limitations (seat travel and baggage area limitation.). Additional moment calculations, based on the actual weight
and c. g. arm (fuselage station) of the item being loaded,
must be made if the position of the load is different from
that shown on the Loading Graph.
6-6
SECTION 6
WEIGHT & BALANCE/
EQUIPMENT LIST
CESSNA
.MODEL 172N
Total the weights and moments/1000 and plot these values on the Center of Gravity Moment Envelope to determine whether the point falls within the envelope, and if the loading is acceptable.
STATION
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - . (C.G. ARM)',----...,
LOADING
ARRANGEMENTS
* PUot or passenger center of gravity
on adjustable seats positioned for
average occupant. Nwnbers m parentheses mdicate forward and aft limits
of occupant center of gravity range.
**· areas
Arm measured to the center of the
shown.
NOTE: The rear cabin wall (approXJ.mate station 108)
or aft baggage wall (approXImate station 142)
can be used as convement mtenor reference
potnts for determtnmg the location of baggage
area fuselage stations.
STATION
(C.G. ARMlt,----..,
*37
*37
REAR PASS.
73\\~d
**95
108**123
BAGGAGE
AREA 1
BAGGAGE
AREA 2
142 _ _ ,__ __,
STANDARD
SEATING
OPTIONAL
SEATING
Figure 6-3. Loading Arrangements
6-7
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
SECTION 6
WEIGHT & BALANCE/
EQUIPMENT LIST
CABIN HEIGHT MEASUREMENTS
•
~
I
48'14"
~ 65V.."------l
65.3
DOOR OPENING DIMENSIONS
II
WIDTH
(TOP}
CABIN DOOR
BAGGAGE DOOR
32"
15V.,"
I
WIDTH
(BOTTOM}
I
37"
15'tt"
I
HEIGHT
(FRONT}
I
40"
22"
I
I
=WIDTH=
eLWR WINDOW
LINE
*CABIN FLOOR
HEIGHT
(REAR}
41"
21"
CABIN WIDTH MEASUREMENTS
•
INSTRUMENT PANEL
CABIN
STATIONS 0
(C.G. ARMS)
I
10
20
~--~-~--~-~1
30
4().
50
60
70
I
80
I
90
100
110
65.3
Figure 6-4. Internal Cabin Dimensions
6-8
120
SAMPLE AIRPLANE
SAMPLE
LOADING PROBLEM
1.
2.
Basic Empty Weight (Use the data pertaining to your
airplane as it is presently equipped. Includes unusable
fuel and full oil) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Usable Fuel (At 6 Lbs./Gal.)
Standard Tanks (40Gal. Maximum)
........
Long Range Tanks (50 Gal. Maximum)
.......
3.
Pilot and Front Passenger (Station 34 to 46)
. ......
4.
Rear Passengers
Moment
(lb. -ins.
/1000)
1454
57.6
240
11.5
340
12.6
170
12.4
96
9.1
2300
103.2
Weight
(lbs.)
1::100
tr.Joo
Moment
(lb.- ins.
/1000)
t"'z
... >
~
I
-
..................
5. *Baggage Area 1 or Passenger on Child's Seat
(Station 82 to 108) 120 Lbs. Max . . . . . . . . . . . .
Weight
(lbs.)
~0
ol:;!:j
YOUR AIRPLANE
i
!
6. *Baggage Area 2 (Station 108 to 142) 50 Lbs. Max . . . . . .
7.
TOTAL WEIGHT AND MOMENT
8.
Locate this point (2300 at 103.2) on the Center of Gravity Moment Envelope,
and since this point falls within the envelope, the loading is acceptable.
~......
tr.JO
.o:r!
q8
~~
~tdoo
NOTE
l:;!:j>tr.J
*The maximum allowable combined weight capacity for baggage areas 1 and 2 is 120 lbs.
Zt"'O
8>8
Figure 6-5.
OOtr.JL<
8-. 0)
.t"'zs
. . a .....
0)
I
co
Sample Loading Problem
en
I
t?=.J ::!::;cn
.Ot?=.Jt?=.l
I I II I I I I I f-
1-'
0
q ...... o
I-IQ>-3
LOADING
GRAPH
400
-§.~9:>
'tj~l-l
~>-30
t?=.J&o'Z
Z
en
350
J-3tJj
t"~
l-It'
rn~
300
...::lz
0
250
t?=.J
.._
E-<
6
......
200
::r-..,-§,!?>-
~
150
~~o·~
,~!»! ,...c.."l>~G -
00
§
;:::J
0
&
r:r:l
~
...:l
\.
0~
'
~~\.\>"9 'P
'0~1?>-'t
r,~ j?>.l-~ ...:\ c~~
oul?>-u
~~~
I
20
100
JL
':I
-
d::~~n~
~~....,.
MAXIMUM USABLE FUEL
~~~~ ~
*STANDARD TANKS
**LONG RANGE TANKS
-
10
15
20
25
30
LOAD MOMENT/1000 (POUND- INCHES)
NOTE: Line representing adjustable seats shows the pilot or passenger center of gravity
on adjustable seats positioned for an average occupant. Refer to the Loading
Arrangements diagram for forward and aft limits of occupant c. g. range.
0
5
~
0
1:::10
t?=.Jt?=.J
t"rn
1-'rJ.l
Figure 6-6.
Loading Graph
~z
z~
;s:o
otrJ
00
~:::>
2200
&
21oo•
t:Jrn
tr.lrn
CENTER OF GRAVITYH
MOMENT ENVELOPE
LANDPLANE
2300
I
I
I
t"'z
NORMAL
' CATEGORY I I I lA I I I I I I I I I I I
1
"'""~
...:z
~
z
0
1
E-1
lil
8
~
2000
E-1
1900
~
~0
1!:
1800
ril
1700
<
Cl
~A, ~A,'
-~c:P
'.<::><".;~-($
c~r~r-TTT<
Cl
<
s
1600
1500
45
~.....
trJQ
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
95
100
LOADED AIRCRAFT MOMENT/1000 (POUND-INCHES)
105
110
.o:r:
q>-3
t:d&o
iS: torn
trJ~trJ
Zt"'O
>-3~>-3
t"'zo
.....
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0)
.....I
.....
Figure 6-7. Center of Gravity Moment Envelope
rJ)tr_j"'-<
>-3---~
t.:t.l~CD
Cl)
I
1-'
Dt.:t.lt.:t.l
qHO
t-.:>
HQ>-,3
't1:r1H
2300
~>-,30
z
t_:1:j
z&oel)
CENTER OF GRAVITY
LIMITS
00 2200
§
8 2100
>-,3t:Jj
t:-<P>
Ht:"'
CDp:..
1-c3z
LANDPLANE
P;
0
t_:1:j
..._
~ 2000
d
s:~ 1900
-
E-t
IJ:.t
~ 1800
0
~
N ORMAL 'CATEGORY:
UTILITY
~ 1700
c ATEGORY
1600
1500
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
AIRCRAFT C. G. LOCATION- INCHES AFT OF DATUM
46
47
~
0
t::Jo
t_:tjt_:tj
L'w
1-'CJ)
""~z
Figure 6-8.
Center of Gravity Limits
zP>
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
SECTION 6
WEIGHT & BALANCE/
EQUIPMENT LIST
EQUIPMENT LIST
The following equipment list is a comprehensive list of all Cessna equipment available
for this airplane. A separate equipment list of items installed in your specific airplane
is provided in your aircraft file. The following list and the specific list for your airplane
have a similar order of listing.
This equipment list provides the following information:
An item number gives the identification number for the item. Each number is
prefixed with a letter which identifies the descriptive grouping (example:
A. Powerplant & Accessories) under which it is listed. Suffix letters identify
the equipment as a required item, a standard item or an optional item. Suffix
letters are as follows:
-H =required items of equipment for FAA certification
-S = standard equipment items
-0 = optional equipment items replacing required or standard items
-A= optional equipment items which are in addition to required or
standard items
A reference drawing column provides the drawing number for the item.
NOTE
If additional equipment is to be installed, it must be done in accordance with the reference drawing, accessory kit instructions, or a
separate FAA approval.
Columns showing weight (in pounds) and arm (in inches) provide the wei'ght
and center of gravity location for the equipment.
NOTE
Unless otherwise indicated, true values (not net change values) for the
weight and arm are shown. Positive arms are distances aft of the
airplane datum; negative arms are distances forward of the datum.
NOTE
Asterisks (*) after the item weight and arm indicate complete assem~
bly installations. Some major components of the assembly are listed
on the lines immediately following. The summation of these major
components does not necessarily equal the complete assembly instal·
lation.
6-13
0':1
I
.....
ITEM NO
""'
EQUIPMENT LIST DESCRIPTION
REF DRAWING
WT lBS
ARM INS
t;<.l:EJOO
()t;:Jt;:.l
c::
..... o
,.....0'"'3
'"dp::,.....
~'"'30
z
t;:.l
A.
AOl-R
A0.5-R
A09-R
A17-R
A21-A
A33-R
A33-0
i
A41-R
A61-S
A70-A
A73-A
ENG~~~CT~tt 0 ~f~~T~R~ 2 eA~6~~ ~O~~L~~5;
SPARK PLUGS & CARBURETOR
FILTER, CARBURETOR AIR
ALTERNATOR 14 VOLT, 60 AMP tBELT ORIVEJ
OIL COOLER INSTALLATION
OIL COOLER
OIL FILTER INSTALLATION !SPIN-ON ELEMENT)
NET CHANGE
PROPELLER ASSY. {fiXED PITCH-LANDPLANEI
!MCCAULEY)
PROPELLER
3.5 INCH PROP SPACER ADAPTOR (MCCAULEY)
PROPEllER ASSY. !FIXED PITCH-FLOATPLANE)
PROPELLER tMCCAULEYI
3.5 INCH PROP SPACER ADAPTOR IMCCAU[~YJ
SPINNER INSTALLATION, PROPELLER
SPINNER DOME
FWD SPINNER BULKHEAD
AFT SPINNER BULKHEAD
VACUUM SYSTEM INSTALLATION
DRY VACUUM PUMP CAV WT Of 4 TYPES)
FIlTER
VACUUM GAUGE
REliEF VALVE-REGULATOR
PRIMER SYSTEH. ENGINE THREE CYLINDER
(NET CHANGEJ
OIL QUICK DRAIN VALVE
B.
BOl-R
POWERPLANT & ACCESSORIES
269.5*
-19. 1*
C294510-0301
C6ll501-0102
0550333
10599A
0501060
c 161001-0310
1C160/0TM7557
C4516
Cl61001-03ll
1Al75/ETM8044
C4516
0550320
0.550236-8
0550321-4
0550321-10
0501054
C431003C294502-020 1
c668509-0101
C482001-0401
0501056-l
1701015
0.5
10.8
2.5*
2.1
2.5
35.9*
30.1
3.6
37.5*
31.8
3.6
2.0*
1.2·
0.3
0.4
4.3*
2.8
0.1
0.5
0.5
-26.0
-29. ~ ..
-2.5
-2.5
-6 • .5
-38 • .5~
-39.1
-35.4
-38.6'*
-39.1
-35.4
-41.4,.
-43.1
-40.8
-37.3
-3. ()~
-6.3
4.7
16.2
4.5
-12.0
C163015-0201
C163003-0101
c 163032-0105
c 163032-0106
C262003-0101
41.7*
6.4
1.9
1.9
8.5
57. 8~
58.2
54.5
54.5
58.2
0550333
o.z
o.o
z&oO':I
'"'3t.d
t"'ti>
,.....t"'
OOtJ>
'"'3z
0
t;:.l
..._
--
LANDING GEAR & ACCESSORIES
WHEEL, BRAKE & TIRE ASSY, 6.00X6 MAIN 12)
WHEEL ASSY, MCCAULEY
BRAKE ASSY., MCCAULEY
(LEFT)
BRAKE ASSY., MCCAULEY
(RIGHT)
TIRE, 4-PL Y BLACKWA:LL
(EACH)
~
0
t:Jo
t;:.lt;:.l
t"'oo
..... 00
~z
Ztl>
ITEM NO
I
EQUIPMENT LIST DESCRIPTION
I
REF DRAWING
I
WT LBS
otr:l
IARM INS I :s:o
tloo
tr:loo
t"'z
,_..::r>
-.J
l\:)
B04-R
BIO-S
( EACHJ
TUBE
!WHEEL ~TIRE ASSY., 5.00X5 NOSE
WHEEL ASSY•• MCCAULEY
TIREr 4-PLY BLACKWALL
TUBE
(SET OF 3)
!FAIRING INSTALLATION, WHEEL
NOSE WHEEL FAIRING
(EACH}
MAIN WHEEL FAIRING
c.
COl-R
C04-R
C07-A
''Cl6-0
C22-A
C25-A
C28-S
C31-A
C40-A
C43-A
C46-A
C49-S
C49-0
ELECTRICAL
C262023-0102
c 163018-0101
C163005-0201
C262003-0102
C262023-0l01
0541225-1
1.8
8.7*
2.4
4.7
1.2
17.8*
4.0
5.7
0511319
C611001-0201
0501053
0422355
0513094
23.0
0.5
2.7
0.6
0.5
3.5
-2.6
24.4
16.5
0.2
0.3
21.5
32.0
o.s
61.0
o.z
243.0
205.8
208.1
43.3
47.0
43.5
-27.1
-29.0
-23.
-29.0
58.2J
-6.8
-6.8
-6.8
-6.8
z
47.1~
-4.9
60.3
SYSTEM
BATTERY, 12 VOLT, 25 AMP HOUR
REGULATOR, 14 VOLT, 60 AMP ALTERNATOR
GROUND SERVICE PLUG RECEPTACLE
HEATING SYSTEM, PITOT INET CHANGE)
LIGHTS, INSTRUMENT POST (REQUIRES INSTALLATION OF E34-0 DELUXE GLARESHIELDl
LIGHT, MAP (CONTROL WHEEL MOUNTED)
LIGHT, MAP ~ INSTRUMENT PANEL FLOOD
fDOORPOST MOUNTED)
LIGHTS, COURTESY ENTRANCE
(SET OF 2)
DETECTORS, NAVIGATION LIGHT (SET OF 2)
LIGHT INSTALLATION, OMNIFLASH BEACON
BEACON LIGHT ON FIN TIP
FLASHER POWER SUPPLY
RESISTOR (MEMCORJ
fLIGHT INSTALLATION, WING TIP STROBE
FLASHER POWER SUPPLY ISET OF 2 IN WINGJ
STROBE LIGHT, WING TIP (SET OF 2)
ILIGHT INSTALLATION, COWL MOUNTED LANDING
LAMP, 250 WATT IG.E.J
LIGHTS, DUAL COWL MOUNTED LANDING
LAMP, 250 WATT IG.E.) lEACH)
0570087
0700149
0521101
0701013-1, -2
0506003
C621001-0106
C594502-0l02
OR95-1. 5
0501027
C622007-0l01
C622006
0570102
4522
0552141
4509
o.o
- -
NEGL
2.1*
0.4
0.8
0.3
3.4*
2.3
184.2~
1.9*
0.8
3.2*
0.5
~
......
tr:lO
,oP::
q>-3
~go
:S:I::Coo
t>:J;;t>tr:l
Zt"'O
.t"'za
. . oz
OOt;tj
1-3;:t>l-3
a>
I
J-L
C1l
I
I
I
I
I
I
>-3--a..
CD
,_,.I
ITEM NO
CD
EQUIPMENT LIST DESCRIPTION
t':l~rl.l
REF DRAWING
WT LBS
ARM INS
()t'jt':l
o
c::: .....
0~
.....
'"tj::OH
s;:~o
t'j""z
D.
001-R
001-0
004-A
D07-R
007-0-1
D07-0-2
010-A
016-A-1
016-A-2
aD16-A-3
D19-R
022-A
025-S
D28-R
038-R
041-R
064-S
,064-0-1
064-0-2
067-A
082-S
085-R
1
Z
INSTRUMENTS
INDICATOR, AIRSPEED
INDICATOR, TRUE AIRSPEED
STATIC AIR ALTERNATE SOURCE
ALTIMETER (SENSITIVE
ALTIMETER, SENSITIVE (50 FT. MARKINGS)
(FEET AND MILLIBARS)
ALTIMETER (SENSITIVE) 20FT. MARKINGS
~(FEET AND MILLIBARS)
ALTIMETER, 2ND UNIT INSTALLATION
{DUAll
ENCODING ALTIMETER
(REQUIRES RELOCATION Of REGULAR
Al T IMETERJ
ENCODING ALTIMETER, FEET & MILLIBARS (REQUIRES RELOCATION Of REGULAR ALTIMETER}
ENCODING ALTIMETER, USED WITH TRANSPONDER,
(INSTRUMENT PANEL MOUNTING NOT REQUIRED
BECAUSE OF NO VISUAL READ OUT)
ENCODER
AMMETER
GAGE, 'CARBURETOR AIR TEMPERATURE
CLOCK, ELECTRIC
COMPASS. MAGNETIC-INSTALLATION
INSTRUMENT CLUSTER, LH & RH FUEL QUANTITY
INSTRUMENT CLUSTER, OIL PRESS, OIL TEMP.
GYROS, ATTITUDE & DIRECTIONAL INDICATORS
(NON-NAV-0-MATIC)
DIRECTIONAL INDICATOR (AV. OF 41
ATTITUDE INDICATOR
(AV. OF 3}
GYRO INSTALLATION (SIMILAR TO D64-S E~CEPT
DIRECTIONAL INDICATOR HAS A MOVEABLE
HEADING POINTERI{INOICATOR NET CHANGE)
IGYRO INSTALLATION FOR 300A NAV-D-MATIC
DIRECTIONAL INDICATOR tARCJ
RECORDER INSTALLATION, FLIGHT HOUR
GAGE, OUTSIDE AIR TEMPERATURE
ACHOMETER INSTALLATION. ENGINE
.,~CD
>-3tl:1
c 661064-010 2
0513279
0501017
C661071-0101
C661071-0102
0.6
0.7
0.2
1.0
1.0
16.2
16.3
15.5
14.0
14.0
C661025-0102
1.0
14.0
2001015
0501049
1.0
3.0
14.5
14.0
0501049
3.0
14.0
0501059
1.5*
14.4*1,
C744001-0101
1.3
0.3
1.0
0.4
0.5
0.5
0.5
14.6
16.5
14.0
S-1320-5
0513339
C664508-010 1
0513262-1
C669511-0102
C669512-0l02
0.501054-1
C661075
5.8*
2.1
13.2
13.4
6.3*
0.5
13.9*
13.2
0501054-2
40760
0501052
IC668507-010 1
0506004
6.9*
3.3
13.4*1
13.3
0.1
28.6
12.1*
o.s
--
14.0
16.5
16.5
14.0*
2.2
1.0*
rl.l~
>-3z
0
t'j
16.3
IC661076
1201126-1
~~
12.3
~
0
tlo
t'jt'j
t"oo
..... rl.l
..;zz
~~
··-,,
ITEM NO
088-S
088-0-1
D88-0-2
091-S
I
EQUIPMENT LIST DESCRIPTION
RECORDING TACH INDICATOR
FLEXIBLE TACH SHAFT
INDICATOR, TURN COORDINATOR
INDICATOR, TURN COORDINATOR (FOR USE WITH
NAV-0-MATIC 200A AND 300AJ
INDICATOR, TURN & BANK (NOT COMPATIBLE
WITH NAV-0-MATICI
INDICATOR, RATE OF CLIMB
E.
E02-S
E05-R
E0 5-0
E07-S
E07-0
E09-S
iiE09-0
Ell-A
El5-R
El5-S
E19-0
E23-S
E27-S
E27-0
E34-0
E35-A
E37-A
E39-A
E43-A
E49-A
E50-A
E51-A
E53-A
0)
I
1-'
..;J
REF DRAWING
WT LBS I ARM INS
C668020-,-0118
S-1605-10
C661003-0504
42320-0014
0.7
0.3
1.3
1.9
16.0
3.0
15.8
14.6
S-1413N2
2.0
14.5
c 661080-0101
1.0
14.9
1.5
12.6
23.0
12.6
23.0
22.0
23.0
8.4*
72.5
44.0
41.5
44.0
41.5
79.5
79.5
~0
ot;J
t::lrn
t;Jrn
t"'z
..... ~
....:!
!):)
z
CABIN ACCOMMODATIONS
ARM RESTS - 2ND ROW (SET OF 2)
SEAT, ADJUSTABLE FORE & AFT PILOT
SEAT, INFINITE ADJUSTABLE - PILOT
SEAT, ADJUSTABLE FORE & AFT- CO-PILOT
SEAT, INFINITE ADJUSTABLE -CD-PILOT
SEAT, REAR lONE PIECE BACK CUSHION)
SEAT, REAR (TWO PIECE BACK CUSHION)
SEAT INSTALLATION, CHILDS FOLD AWAY
LAP BELT ASSY
SEAT ASSY
PILOT LAP BELT ASSY
SHOULDER HARNESS ASSYt PILOT
SHOULDER HARNESS INERTIA REEL INSTALLATION
PILOT & CO-PILOT - REPLACES STD BELTS
AND HARNESS (NET CHANGE)
BELT & SHOULDER ASSY - CO-PILOT
BELT ASSY, 2ND ROW (SET OF 2)
SEAT BELT & SHOULDER HARNESS ASSY
FOR 2ND ROW SEATING
DELUXE GLARESHIELD (NET CHANGE)
LEATHER SEAT COVERING (NET CHANGE)
WINDOW, HINGED, RH DOOR
(NET CHANGE)
WINDOWS, OVERHEAD CABIN TOP (NET CHANGE)
VENTILATION SYSTEM, REAR SEAT
BEVERAGE CUP HOLDER
HEADREST, 1ST ROW IWT EACH)
HEADREST. 2ND ROW (WT EACH}
MIRROR, REAR VIEW
0715039
0501009
S-1746-5
0714005-1
S-2275-103
S-2275-201
0501046-1
S-2275-3
51746-13
S-2275-8
0515034
CES-1151
0511803
0511800
0700322
0501023
1215073-11
1215073-11
0500312
o.a
6.7
1.0
0.6
2.0
1.6
z.o
3.2
1.0
2.0
2.3
0.9
1.5
0.1
0.7
0.7
0.3
101.1~
100.8
100.8
37.0
37.0
82.0
37.0
70.0
70.0
21.0
62.0
47.0
47.9
60.0
15.0
47.0
86.0
15.9
~
t;j
....
t;JQ
DP::
q~
~go
~b:lrn
t;j~t;j
Zt"'O
~~~
t"'zo
.... oz
OOI::tj
~-0)
m
t::.l:1!J·ro
I
ITEM NO
1-'
(X)
EQUIPMENT LIST DESCRIPTION
REF DRAWING
WT LBS
ARM INS
Dt::.Jt::.l
q ..... o
..... Qo-,3
1-t::lp:::~-<
~o-,30
z
t::.l
E55-S
E57-A
E65-S
E11-A
E75-A
E85-A
E87-A
E93-R
SUN VISORS
(SET OF 2)
WINDOWS, TINTED FRONT. SIDE & REAR
tNET CHANGE)
BAGGAGE NET
RINGS, CARGO TIE-DOWN (STOWED)(USE ARM AS
'INSTALLED WITH CARGOJ
STRETCHER INSTALLATION - BOXED (USE ACTUAL
WEIGHT AND ARM CHANGE)
CONTROLS INSTALLATION, DUAL
RUDDER TRIM SYSTEM
HEATING SYSTEM, CABIN & CARBURETOR AIR
(INCLUDES EXHAUST SYSTEMI
F.
il
F01-R
FOl-D-1
F01-0-2
FOl-0-3
FOl-D-4
F01-0-5
F04-R
Fl3-S
G04-A
G07-A
Gl3-A
32.8
o.o
2015009
0500042
0.5
1.0
95.0
4.9
1.9
12.4
9.4
-21.0
>-c3t:II
t"'>
'""'t"'
Ul:»
>-c3z
0
0700164-4
0513335
0513290-l
0550333
0506004
z&oC'l
17.5
t::.l
-...
PLACARDS & wARNING
PLACARD, OPERATIONAL LIMITATIONS-DAY VFR
PLACARD, OPERATIONAL LIMITATIONS-DAY NIGHT
VFR
PLACARD. OPERATIONAL LIMITATIONS-DAY NIGHT
VFR IFR
PLACARD, OPERATIONAL LIMITATIONS-DAY VFR
FLOATPLANE
PLACARD, OPERATIONAL LIMITATIONS-DAY NIGHT
VFR FLOATPLANE
PLACARD, OPERAYIONAL LIMITATIONS-DAY NIGHT
VFR IFR FLOATPLANE
NOTE
THE ABOVE PLACARDS ARE INSTALLED
ACCORDING TO AIRCRAFT EQUIPMENT
INDICATOR, AUDIBLE PNEUMATIC STALL WARNING
OVERVOLT WARNING liGHT, ALTERNATOR
G.
0.9
0500040
0500267
AUXILIARY
0505053-1
0505053-2
0505053-3
0505053-16
0505053-17
0505053-18
0523112
NEGL
NEGL
NEGL
NEGL
NEGL
NEGL
0.2
NEGL
28.5
~
0
EQUIP~ENT
TOW HOOK
(INSTALLED)
{STOWED)
RINGS, AIRPLANE HOISTING CCABIN TOPJ
CORROSION PROOFING, INTERNAL
t1o
0500228
0541115
0500036
0.5
0.5
1.1
10.0
229.0
95.0
49.1
77.0
t::.lt::.l
t"'ro
...... Ul
-.lz
z>
ITEM NO
I
EQUIPMENT LIST DESCRIPTION
Gl6-A
Gl9-A
G22-S
G25-S
!STATIC DISCHARGERS
STABILIZER ABRASION BOOTS
TOW BAR
(STOWED)
PAINT, OVERALL EXTERIOR COVER
OVERALL WHITE BASE
COLOR STRIPE
G25-0
!PAINT SCHEME - SKYHAWK II
CABLES, CORROSION RESISTANT CONTROL
G31-A
(NET CHANGE)
FIRE EXTINGUISHER INSTALLATION
G55-A
FIRE EXTINGUISHER
FIRE EXTINGUISHER MOUNTING BRACKET
'STEPS ~ HANDLES, REFUELING ASSISTING
G58-A
GSS-A-1 WINTERIZATION KIT INSTALLATION, ENGINE
BREATHER TUBE INSULATION
TWO COWL INLET AIR COVERS (INSTALLED)
·
(STOWED)
G88-A-2 !WINTERIZATION KIT INSTL., FLOATPLANE ONLY
BREATHER TUBE INSULATION
(INSTALLED I
COWL OUTLET COVER (1)
lSTOWEDJ
IFUEL SYSTEM, LONG RANGE WING TANKS
G92-0
(NET CHANGE)
H.
HOI-A
H04-A
H07-A
jj>
:1
j...o.
co
I
REF DRAWING
0501048
0500041
0501019
0504032
0504032
0500036
0501011
C421001-0101
C421001-0102
0513415
0501008
0552011
0552132-1-t -2
0552132-1. -2
0552011
0520013
I
WT LBS
IARM INS I
~0
ot;l
t:IUJ
t;!Ul
0.4
2.7
1.6
11.1*
10.8
0.3
11.1
143.2J
206.0
95.0
91.6
90.5
136.3
91.6
3.0.
2.6
0.3
1.7
0.8*
0.4
0.3
0.3
1.0*
0.4
0.6
0.6
9.5
43. 8~
44.0
42.2
17.8
-22. 7•
-13.8
-32.0
95.0
-7.2'
-12.0
-4.0
95.0
48.0
7.0*
2.3
0.9
0.2
1.4
2.2
7.5*
4.9
0.6
0.2
4.3*
2.1
12.1
14.0
108.6
39.3
13.7
18.5~
11.3
11.3
86.1
82. 6~
117.3
o.o
t"'z
t-o>
..;z
~
z
--
AVIONICS & AUTOPILOTS
!CESSNA 300 ADF INSTALLATION
CONSISTS OF
RECEIVER WITH BFO (R-546EJ
INDICATOR fiN-346AJ
SENSE ANTENNA INSTAllATION
LOOP ANTENNA INSTALLATION
RECEIVER.MOUNT. WIRES AND MISC ITEMS
lOME INSTALLATION. NARCO
RECEIVER (DME-190)
MOUNTING BOX
ANTENNA,
!CESSNA 400 GliDESLOPE
RECEIVER (R-4438)
I
I
3910159-2
4124()-,0101
4098Q-1001
0570400-632
3960104-1
3910166-1
UDA-3
3910157-2
4210D-OOOO
21.0~
~
......
t;l
t;~O
":r:
ql-3
~&"
~tooo
t;~:;p.t;~
Zt"'O
1-3>1-3
.t"'zo
. . oz
Ult;j
1-3--o:.
l:IJ:i!1.W
0)
I
N
0
ITEM NO
EQUIPMENT LIST DESCRIPTION
REF DRAWING
WT LBS
ARM INS
()t;jtt.l
C::>-<0
1-10""3
'"0~>-<
HlO-A
H11-A-1
H11-A-2
Hll-A-3
Hll-A-4
H13-A-1
Hl3-A-2
H16-A-1
ANTENNA {LOCATED-UPPER WINOSHIELDJ
PANTRONICS PT-10A HF TRANSCEIVER 1ST UNIT
TRANSCEIVER (PANEL MOUNTED)
ANTENNA LOAD BOX
HF POWER SUPPLY
NOTE--1ST UNIT INSTL. COMPONENTS CONSIST
ARE AS ll STED
ANTENNA INSTALLATION, 351 INCHES LONG
CABLE ASSEMBLIES
HEADSET INSTALLATION
MICROPHONE INSTALLATION
AUDIO SWITCHING CONTROl
NOISE FILTER
CABIN SPEAKER ASSEMBLY
RADIO COOLING
PANTRONICS PT-10A HF TRANSCEIVER 2ND UNIT
TRANSCEIVER (PANEL MOUNTED)
ANTENNA LOAD BOX
HF POWER SUPPLY (REMOTE)
NOISE FILTER• HIGH FREQ.
POWER & SIGNAL CABLES
ANTENNA INSTALLATION, 351 IN. LONG
SUNAIR ASB-125 HF TRANSCEIVER, 2ND UNIT
ANTENNA lOAD BOX
POWER SUPPLY (REMOTE)
TRANSCEIVER (PANEL MOUNTEDI
ANTENNA INSTALLATION, 351 IN. LONG
MISC SWITCHES, WIRES AND ETC.
PANTRONICS PT-10A HF TRANSCEIVER 3RD UNIT
. SAME AS 2ND UN IT ( IT EM H-11- A-U
SUNAIR ASB-125 HF TRANSCEIVER, 3RD UNIT
SAME AS 2ND UNIT (ITEM H-11-A-21
CESSNA 400 HARKER BEACON
RECEIVER (R-402Al
ANTENNA. L SHAPED ROD
BENDIX MARKER BEACON (USED IN EXPORT A/C)
RECEIVER. GM-247A
ANTENNA, L SHAPED ROD
ICESSNA 300 TRANSPONDER
TRANSCEIVER lRT-359A)
ANTENNA (A-10~A)
1200098-2
3910156-8
C582103-0102
C589502-010 1
c 582103-0201
0.2
24.8*
4.2
4.2
8.5
30.0
70. 7*
10.4
112.5
114.4
0570400-616
3950122-15
3970125-4
3970124-1
3970121-1
3940148-1
c 596504-0201
393 0152-l
3910156-9
C582103-0l02
c 589502-0101
C582103-0201
0570400-715
0.3
2.5
144.4
41.0
14.2
17.2
12.5
-26.1
37.9
10.2
88.8*
10.4
112.5
114.4
-0.5
41.0
144.4
. 82. 8*
112.0
114.0
10.4
144.4
0 570400-616
3910158-1
99816
99682
99680
0570400-616
3910156-ll
o.z
0.3
1.9
o.1
1.1
1.1
20.2*
4.2
4.2
8.5
0.1
2.5
0.3
22.0*
4.9
8.5
4.6
0.3
3.7
22.0*
:s:""lo
tt.l,.,Z
Z: .,.. en
""lt:Jj
t"'~
>-<t"'
(/)~
""lz:
--~
~~=~·
3910158-5
3910164-1
4241Q-5114
0770681-1
3910174-2
3940185-l
0770681-1
391012]-17
41420-1114
141530-0001
2.3*
0.7
0.7
3.1*
1.5
0.7
4.0*
2.7
0.3
34.5*'
11.8
136.0
100. 8*
115.9
136.0
25. 8*
11.1
126.0
6tlo
t;jt;j
t"'w
...... (/)
...:Zz:
z~
ITEM NO
EQUIPMENT LIST DESCRIPTION
REF DRAWING
WT LBS
~0
ot:r:J
ARM INS
ooo
t:r:JUl
I
Hl6-A-2
Hl9-A
H20-A
i
H22-A-1
H22-A-2
.,......
0>
I
H22-A-3
CESSNA 400 TRANSPONDER (USED FOR EXPORT)
TRANSCEIVER tRT-459A}
ANTENNA U-109A)
CESSNA 300 VHF TRANSCEIVER, 1ST UNIT
TRANSCEIVER (RT-524AJ
1ST UNIT INSTALLATION ITEMS (AS LISTED
BELOW)-RADIO COOLING
ANTENNA, L.H. VHF COM.
AUDIO CONTROL PANEL, SWITCHES S WIRING
CAB IN SPEAKER
MICROPHONE INSTALLATION
HEAD SET INSTALLATION
CESSNA 300 VHF COM TRANSCEIVER- 2ND UNIT
TRANSCEIVER (RT-524A)
RH COM ANTENNA CABLE
ANTENNA, R.H. VHF COM.
MISC ITEMS S WIRING
CESSNA 300 NAV/COMo 160 CH, FIRST UNIT
WITH VOR/LOC
RECEIVER-TRANSMITTER tRT-308CJ
VOR/LOC INDICATOR (IN-51481
NOTE--1ST UNIT INSTALlATION COMPONENTS
ARE AS LISTED
AUDIO CONTROL SYSTEM
HEADPHONE INSTALLATION
MICROPHONE INSTALLATION (HAND-HELD)
NOISE FILTER (AUOIOltON AlTERNATOR)
RADIO COOLING
SPEAKER INSTALLATION
COMMUNICATION ANTENNA CABLE (CD-AX)
OMNI ANTENNA CABLE
OMNI ANTENNA INSTALLATION
COMMUNICATIONS SPIKE ANTENNA INSTL.
CESSNA 300 NAVJCOMt 720 CH, FIRST UNIT
WITH VOR/LOC
.
RECEIVER-TRA~5MITTER lRT-328Tl
VOR/LOC INDICATOR (IN-5148)
INSTL. COMPONENTS SIMILAR TO H22-A-1
CESSNA 300 NAV/COH, 720 CH, FIRST UNIT
WITH VOR/ILS
.
3930152-1
3960113-1
3970121-1
3970123-5
3970124-1
3970125-4
3910155-8
31390-1114
3950122-2
3960113-2
3910151-7
lt2450-1114
45010-1000
4.2•
2..9
0.3
11.9*
5 .. 1
6.2
1.1
0.4
1.9
1 .. 1
0.3
o.z
7.6*
5.7
0.4
0.4
1.1
14.0*
6.4
0.6
25. 1*1
11.1 •
126.0 •
16.3*
11.0 I
21.2
11.4
6.2.4
12.5
37.9
17.8
14.2
14.9*
u.o
27.8
62.4
11.9 .
32.0*•
3970121
3970125-4
3970124-1
3940148-1
3930152-1
3970123-2
3950122-3
3950122-4
3960102-10
3960113-1
3910150-20
43340-1124
4501Q-1000
3910152-20
1.9
0.2
0.3
0.1
1 .. 1
1.2
0.4
0.6
o.8
0.4
14.5*
6.9
0.6
14.6*
12.5
14.2
17,.2
-26.1
10.2
37.9
27.8 :
ll6.o
220. B
62.4
31.3*
11.5
16.3
31.2,.
391012.8-21
41470-1114
41530-0001
391055-7
31390-1114
t"'z
... >
~
u.s
16.3
1
~
.......
t:r:JQ
g)::r:1
c:::>-3
l=d&<>
~tl:ioo
t:r:J>t:r:J
Zt"'O
>-3>>-3
.t"'za
. . o._.
Ult:r:jL<
o-,3-.....m
l_:l;j~UJ
en
I
)).:)
)).:)
ITEM NO
EQUIPMENT LIST DESCRIPTION
REF DRAWING
WT lBS
ARM INS
()t_:gt:<J
c:::~-~o
HQt-3
"tt~
.....
~t-30
2: .,- en
t_:g,Z
H25-A-1
H25-A-2
H28-A-1
H28-A-2
H31-A-l
H31-A-2
1-!43-A
~55-A
RECEIVER-TRANSMITTER IRT-328T)
VOR/ILS INDICATOR (IN-5258)
INSTL. COMPONENTS SIMILAR TO Hl2-A-1
CESSNA 300 NAV/COM, 160 CH, SECOND UNIT
WITH VOR/LOC
RECEIVER-TRANSMITTER (RT-308C)
VOR/LOC INDICATOR IIN-514B)
NOTE--2ND UNIT INSTALLATION COMPONENTS
ARE AS LISTED
COMMUNICATION ANTENNA CABlE- RH SIDE
OMNI ANTENNA COUPLER lSIGNAL SPLITTER)
COMMUNICATION ANTENNA, RIGHT SIDE
MISC, NAV/COH INSTL ITEMS-INCL MOUNT.
CESSNA 300 NAV/COM, 720 CH, SECOND UNIT
WITH VOR/LOC
RECEIVER-TRANSMITTER CRT-328T)
VOR/LOC INDICATOR IIN-5148)
. INSTL. COMPONENTS SIMILAR TO H25-A-l
EMERGENCY LOCATOR TRANSMITTER
TRANSMITTER (LEIGH SHARC-7)
ANTENNA
EMERGENCY lOCATOR TRANSMITTER (USED IN
CANAOAJ
TRANSMITTER
ANTENNA
~AV-0-MATIC 200A
D88-0-1 TURN COOROI~ATOR (NET CHANGE)
TURN COORDINATOR (N T CHNGJ IG-300A)
WING INSTALLATION
SERVO UNIT
tPA-295B)
~AV-0-MATIC 300A (AF395t
CONTROllER-AMPLIFIER & MOUNT
064-A-2 GYRO INSTALLATION CNET CHANGE)
D88-0-1 TURN COORDINATOR (NET CHANGEJ
WING INSTALLATIOt
SERVO UNIT
tPA-2958)
RELAY INSTALLATI N
~VIONICS OPTION D NA~O-HATIC WING PROV.
IKE-HEADSET COMBO. INSTl (HEADSET STOWED)
(STOWED ARM SHOWN)(INCLUDES ALL PURPOSE
CONTROL WHEEL)
43340-1124
45010-2000
3910151-8
42450-1114
4501Q-1000
3950122-2
3960111-1
3960113-2
3910150-21
43340-1124
4501Q-1000
0401008-2
C589510-0209
0401008-5
~589510-0203
~,589510-0212
~589510-0107
910162-1
~?30144-6
232Q-0014
0522632-1
~?330
5910163-1
A-395A
)513398
~~320-0014
522632-1
lt2330
gf40151-1
522632-2
970112-1
6.9
0.7
9.5*
6.4
0.6
n. 5
16.3
14.4*
11.5
16;.3
0.4
0.2
0.4
1.5
10.0*
6.9
0.6
27.8
7.0
62.4
10.7
1'4. 3*
11.5
16.3
z.o•
116.6*
116.4
122.0
116. 6*
116.4
1Z2.0
51.9*
13.1
12.0
A·a
.1
1.8*
1.6
0.1
11.7*
1.6
0.6
8.0*
5.8
13.4*
1.8
1.1
0.6
a.o•
5.8
0.4
.3
A·1
t-3td
t">
Ht"
UJ>
t-3z
0
t_:g
--
68.3*
68.9
46. 5*
13.1
10.2
12.0
68.3*
68.9
4.0
68.2
13.0
~
0
tlo
t;jt_:g
t"rn
..... UJ
"'~z
z>
ITEM NO
EQUIPMENT LIST DESCRIPTION
REF DRAWING
WT LBS
ARM INS
iS:O
ol::':l
t:Jrll
l::':lrn
J.
J01-A
J04-A
JlO-A
J13-A
J15-A
J27-A
0>
I
!>:)
C.:)
~~
SPECIAL OPTION PACKAGES
SKYHAWK II EQUIPMENT CONSISTS OF ITEMS
DOl-O
TRUE AIRSPEED INO.{NET CHANGE)
HEATED PITOT SYSTEM
Cl6-0
DUAL CONTROLS
E85-A
NAV LIGHT DETECTORS
C40-A
COURTESY LIGHTS
C31-A
FLASHING BEACON LIGHT
C43-A
STATIC ALTERNATE AIR SOURCE
004-A
EMERGENCY LOCATOR XMTR CELT)
H28-A
G25-0 SKVHAWK II PAINT CNET CHANGEJ
H22-A-1 NAV/COM 308C VOR/LOC
NAV-PAC INSTALLATION (SKVHAWK II ONLY)
H22-A-2 328T NAV/COM VOR/LOC 1ST UNIT
H22-A-l 308C NAV/COM 1ST UNIT DELETED
H25-A-1 308C NAV/COM VOR/LOC ADDED
H01-A
300 AOF (546EJ
H16-A-1 300 TRANSPONDER (RT-359)
FLOATPlANE FUSElAGE. STRUCTURAL MODIFICATIONS & FITTINGS (OPTION C )
FlOATPLANE COWLDECK v BRACE (INSTAllED)
(STOWED)
FLOATPLANE AILERON-RUDDER INTERCONNECT
(INSTALLED)
FLOATPlANE ONLY
(STOWED)
ITEMS JlO-A & Jl3-A ARE ALSO APPROVED FOR
LANDPLANE OPERATIONS.
MODEL 89A2000 FLOATS & 502 ATTACHMENTS
NET CHANGE BETWEEN STANDARD LANDING
GEAR (ITEM NOS. 801-Rw 804-Rw BIO-S
AND BRAKE & NOSE WHEEL STEERING
SYSTEMS) AND FlOATPLANE KIT {ITEM NO.
J30-A-l) IS APPROXIMATELY 155 lBS. AT
58.3 IN. THE CORRECT VALUES OF WT & ARM
CHANGE FOR WT & BALANCE CALCULATIONS
SHOULD BE DETERMINED FROM THE ACTUAL
INSTALLATION.
0500510
0513279
0422355
0513335
0701013
0521101
0506003
0501017
0401008
0504032
3910151-7
3910161
0500083
0513003
0560012
ED0-36335
24.4*
0.1
0.6
4.9
NEGL
0.5
2.1
0.2
2.0
o.o
48.~*
16.7
24.4
12.4
--
61.0
184.2
15.5
116.6
--
0.4
32·~18.7
31.3
32.0
14.4
21.0.
26.1.
45.5
26.2
95.0
69.6
95.0
--
--
14.0
21.0*
14.5
-14.0
9.5
7.0
4.0
6.1
1.1
1.1
0.4
~
~
H
t;:~O
g:,::rl
c:::~
::ago
iS:tljrn
t;:~;J>t:;l
Zt"'O
~;J>~
.t"'zo
. . oz
Ult:;j
~--~
0)
I
t-:1
~
ITEM NO
EQUIPMENT LIST DESCRIPTION
REF DRAWING
WT LBS
ARM INS
l:t.J~Cll
&)l:tjl:t.J
c::: .....
o
..... Q>-3
"tt::I: .....
~>-30
zl:t.J,.,z
..-
0)
J30-A-1
J30-A-2
J30-A-3
FLOATPLANE EQUIPMENT KIT, COMPLETE, OPTION
A CONSISTS OF ITEMS
PROPELLER, FLOATPLANE, EXCHANGE
A33-0
F01-0- PLACARD, FLOATPLANE OPERATION
CABLES, CORROSION RESIST, EXCH.
G31-A
CORRO~ION PROOFING, INTERNAL
Gl3-A
RINGS; AIRPLANE HOISTING
G07-A
STEP ~ HANDLEF REFUELING
G58-A
FUSELAGE MODI ICATION COPT CJ
J10-A
COWL 'DECK V-BRACE UNSTALLED J
J13-A
INTERCONNECT SYSTEM, INSTALL ED
J15-A
COWL ASSY, FLOATPLANE lNET CHGJ
FLOATPLANE EQUIPMENT KIT, PARTIAL OPTION B
CONSISTS OF ITEMS
FOl-0- PLACARD, FLOATPLANE OPERATION
CABLES! CORROSION RESIST, EXCH
G31-A
CORROS ON PROOFING, INTERNAL
G13-A
RINGS, AIRPLANE HOISTING
G07-A
STEP & HANDLE,REFUELING
G58-A
FUSELAGE MODIFICATION
J10-A
COWL DECK V-BRACE lSTOWEOJ
J13-A
INTERCONNECT SYSTEM (STOWED)
J15-A
COWL ASSYt FLOATPLANE INET CHGJ
FLOATPLANE KIT B WITH NO INTERNAL CORROSION PROOFING)
RINGS, AIRPLANE HOISTING
G07-A
STEP & HANDLE, REFUELING
G58-A
FUSELAGE MODIF.ICATIONS
J10-A
COWL DECK V-BR~CE (INSTALLED)
Jl3-A
INTERCONNECT SYSTEM lSTOWEDJ
Jl5-A
COWL ASSY, FLOATPLANE (NET CHGJ
0500083
0550320
0505053
0500036
0500036
0541115
0516415
050 083
0513003
0560012
0552162
0500083
0505053
0500036
0500036
0541115
0513415
0500083
0513003
0560012
0552162
0500083-17
0541115
0513415
0500083
0513003
0560012
0552162
21.7*
1.3
52.3't
-41.4
10.0
1.1
1.7
6.1
1.1
0.4
NEGL
20.4*
49.1
17.8
45.5
26.2
69.6
62.5.
o.o
o.o
o.o
o.o
10.0
1.1
1.7
6.1
1.1
0.4
NEGL
10.4*
1 .. 1
1.7
6.1
1.1
0.4
NEGL
-- -77.0
>-3tD
t">
.....
t"
Cll>
>-3z
0
l:tJ
--
---
77.0
49.1
17.8
45.5
95.0
95.0
4l.l*
49.1
17.8
45.5
26.2
95.0
--
~
0
t::lo
l:t.Jl:t.J
t"oo
1-"CJ:l
~~
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
SECTION 7
AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS
SECTION 7
AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS
DESCRIPTIONS
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Introduction . .
Airframe . . .
Flight Controls
Trim System.
Instrument Panel .
Ground Control . .
Wing Flap System
Landing Gear System
Baggage Compartment
Seats . . . . . . . .
Seat Belts and Shoulder Harnesses
Seat Belts . . . . . . . . .
Shoulder Harnesses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Integrated Seat Belt/Shoulder Harnesses With Inertia Reels .
Entrance Doors and Cabin Windows .
Control Locks . . . . .
Engine . . . . . . . .
Engine Controls . .
Engine Instruments .
New Engine Break-in and Operation
Engine Oil System . .
Ignition-Starter System . . . .
Air Induction System . . . . .
Exhaust System . . . . . . .
Carburetor and Priming System
Cooling System
Propeller . . . .
Fuel System . . .
Brake System . .
Electrical System
Master Switch
Ammeter . •
7-3
7-3
7-8
7-8
7 ~
7:
77-10
7-110
7-11
7-~2
7-12
7-12
7 -14
7 -14
7-15
7 -16
7 -16
7-16
7-17
7-18
7-18
7-19
7-19
7-19
7-20
7-20
7-20
7-23
7-23
7-25
7 -25
7-1
SECTION 7
AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)
Page
Over-Voltage Sensor and Warning Light .
Circuit Breakers and Fuses . .
Ground Service Plug Receptacle
Lighting Systems . . . . . . . . .
Exterior Lighting . . . . . . .
Interior Lighting . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cabin Heating, Ventilating and Defrosting System
Pitot-Static System and Instruments
Airspeed Indicator . . . .
Rate-of-Climb Indicator .
Altimeter . . . . . . . .
Vacuum System and Instruments
Attitude Indicator . .
Directional Indicator
Suction Gage . . . .
Stall Warning System . .
Avionics Support Equipment
Audio Control Panel. . . .
Transmitter Selector Switch .
Automatic Audio Selector Switch
Audio Selector Switches .
Microphone - Headset .
Static Dischargers . . .
7-2
7-25
7-26
7-26
7-27
7-27
7-27
7-28
7-30
7-31
7-31
7-31
7-31
7-33
7-33
7-33
7-33
7-34
7-34
7-34
7-34
7-36
7-36
7-37
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
SECTION 7
AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS
INTRODUCTION
This section provides description and operation of the airplane and
its systems. Some equipment described herein is optional and may not
be installed in the airplane. Refer to Section 9, Supplements, for details
of other optional systems and equipment.
'
AIRFRAME
The construction of the fuselage is a conventional !armed sheet metal
bulkhead, stringer, and skin design referred to as semi-monocoque.
Major items of structure are the front and rear carry-through spars to
which the wings are attached, a bulkhead and forgings for main landing
gear attachment at the base of the rear doorposts, and a bulkhead with
attaching plates at the base of the forward doorposts for the lower attachment of the wing struts. Four engine mount stringers are also attached
to the forward doorposts and extend forward to the firewall.
The externally braced wings, containing the fuel tanks, are constructed of a front and rear spar with formed sheet metal ribs, doublers,
and stringers. The entire structure is covered with aluminum skin.
The front spars are equipped with wing-to-fuselage and wing-to-strut
attach fittings. The aft spars are equipped with wing-to-fuselage attach fittings, and are partial-span spars. Conventional hinged ailerons
and single-slot type flaps are attached to the trailing edge of the
wings. The ailerons are constructed of a forward spar containing a
balance weight, formed sheet metal ribs and "V" type corrugated aluminum skin joined together at the trailing edge. The flaps are constructed basically the same as the ailerons, with the exception of the balance
weight and the addition of a formed sheet metal leading edge section.
The empennage (tail assembly) consists of a conventional vertical
stabilizer, rudder, horizontal stabilizer, and elevator. The vertical
stabilizer consists of a spar, formed sheet metal ribs and reinforcements,
a wrap-around skin panel, formed leading edge skin, and a dorsal. The
rudder is constructed of a formed leading edge skin containing hinge halves,
a center wrap-around skin panel, ribs, an aft wrap-around skin panel
which is joined at the trailing edge of the rudder by a filler strip, and a
ground adjustable trim tab at the base of the trailing edge. The top of
the rudder incorporates a leading edge extension which contains a balance
weight. The horizontal stabilizer is constructed of a forward and aft spar,
ribs and stiffeners, center, left, and right wrap-around skin panels, and
formed leading edge skins. The horizontal stabilizer also contains the
elevator trim tab actuator. Construction of the elevator consists of formed leading edge skins, a forward spar, aft channel, ribs, torque tube and
7-3
SECTION 7
AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
AILERON CONTROL SYSTEM
RUDDER AND RUDDER TRIM CONTROL SYSTEMS
Figure 7-1. Flight Control and Trim Systems (Sheet 1 of 2)
7-4
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
SECTION 7
AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS
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Figure 7-1. Flight Control and Trim Systems (Sheet 2 of 2)
7-5
SECTION 7
AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS
Figure 7-2. Instrument Panel (Sheet 1 of 2)
7-6
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
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1. Ammeter
2. Suction Gage
3. Oil Temperature, Oil Pressure, and
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
Left and Right Fuel Quantity Indicators
Clock
Tachometer
Flight Instrument Group
Airplane Registration Number
Secondary Altimeter
Encoding Altimeter
ADF Bearing Indicator
Omni Course Indicators
Transponder
Magnetic Compass
Marker Beacon Indicator
Lights and Switches
Rear View Mirror
Audio Control Panel
Radios
Autopilot Control Unit
Additional Instrument Space
ADF Radio
Flight Hour Recorder
Additional Radio Space
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29 .
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
Map Compartment
Cabin Heat and Air Control Knobs
Cigar Lighter
Wing Flap Switch and Position
Indicator
Mixture Control Knob
Throttle (With Friction Lock)
Static Pressure Alternate
Source Valve
Instrument and Radio Dial
Light Rheostats
Microphone
Fuel Selector Valve Handle
Rudder Trim Control Lever
Elevator Trim Control Wheel
Carburetor Heat Control Knob
Electrical Switches
Circuit Breakers
Parking Brake Handle
Ignition Switch
Master Switch
Auxiliary Mike Jack
Primer
Phone Jack
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SECTION 7
AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
bellcrank, left upper and lower "V" type corrugated skins, and right upper
and lower "V" type corrugated skins incorporating a trailing edge cut-out
for the trim tab. The elevator trim tab consists of a spar, rib, and upper
and lower "V" type corrugated skins. The leading edge of both left and
right elevator tips incorporate extensions which contain balance weights.
FLIGHT CONTROLS
The airplane's flight control system consists of conventional aileron,
rudder, and elevator control surfaces (see figure 7-1). The control surfaces are manually operated through mechanical linkage using a control
wheel for the ailerons and elevator, and rudder /brake pedals for the rudder.
TRIM SYSTEM
A manually-operated elevator trim system is provided; a rudder
trim system may also be installed (see figure 7-1). Elevator trimming
is accomplished through the elevator trim tab by utilizing the vertically mounted trim control wheel. Forward rotation of the trim wheel will
trim nose-down; conversely, aft rotation will trim nose-up. Rudder
trimming is accomplished through a bungee connected to the rudder
control system and a trim lever, mounted on the control pedestal.
Rudder trimming is accomplished by lifting the trim lever up to clear a
detent, then moving it either left or right to the desired trim position.
Moving the trim lever to the right will trim the airplane nose-right;
conversely, moving the lever to the left will trim the airplane nose-left.
INSTRUMENT PANEL
The instrument panel (see figure 7-2) is designed around the basic
"T"configuration. The gyros are located immediately in front of the
pilot, and arranged vertically over the control column. The airspeed
indicator and altimeter are located to the left and right of the gyros,
respectively. The remainder of the flight instruments are located
around the basic "T". Engine instruments and fuel quantity indicators
are near the left edge of the panel. Avionics equipment is stacked
approximately on the centerline of the panel, with the right side of the
panel containing space for additional instruments and avionics equipment. A subpanel under the primary instrument panel contains the
primer, master and ignition switches, circuit breakers, and electrical
switches on the left side, with the engine controls, light intensity controls, and alternate static air control in the center, over the control
7-8
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
SECTION 7
AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS
pedestal. The right side of the subpanel contains the wing flap switch
lever and position indicator, cabin heat and vent controls, cigar lighter,
and map compartment. A pedestal, installed below the subpanel, contains the elevator trim control wheel and position indicator, and provides a bracket for the microphone. A rudder trim control lever may
be installed below the trim wheel and microphone bracket, and the fuel
selector valve handle is located at the base of the pedestal. A parking
brake handle is mounted below the subpanel in front of the pilot.
For details concerning the instruments, switches, circuit breakers,
and controls on this panel, refer in this section to the description of the
systems to which these items are related.
GROUND CONTROL
Effective ground control while taxiing is accomplished through nose
wheel steering by using the rudder pedals; left rudder pedal to steer left
and right rudder pedal to steer right. When a rudder pedal is depressed,
a spring-loaded steering bungee (which is connected to the nose gear and
to the rudder bars) will turn the nose wheel through an arc of approximately 10° each side of center. By applying either left or right brake,
the degree of turn may be increased up to 30° each side of center.
Moving the airplane by hand is most easily accomplished by attaching
a tow bar to the nose gear strut. If a tow bar is not available, or pushing
is required, use the wing struts as push points. Do not use the vertical
or horizontal surfaces to move the airplane. If the airplane is to be towed
by vehicle, never turn the nose wheel more than 30° either side of center
or structural damage to the nose gear could result.
The minimum turning radius of the airplane, using differential braking and nose wheel steering during taxi, is approximately 27 feet 5 1/2
inches. To obtain a minimum radius turn during ground handling, the
airplane may be rotated around either main landing gear by pressing down
on a tailcone bulkhead just forward of the.horizontal stabilizer to raise the
nose wheel off the ground.
WING FLAP SYSTEM
The wing flaps are of the single-slot type (see figure 7-3), and are
extended or retracted by positioning the wing flap switch lever on the
instrument panel to the desired flap deflection position. The switch
lever is moved up or down in a slotted panel that provides mechanical
stops at the 10° and 20° positions. For flap settings greater than 10°,
7-9
SECTION 7
AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
Figure 7-3. Wing Flap System
move the switch lever to the right to clear the stop and position it as
desired. A scale and pointer on the left side of the switch lever indicates flap travel in degrees. The wing flap system circuit is protected
by a 15 ampere circuit breaker, labeled FLAP, on the left side of the
instrument panel.
LANDING GEAR SYSTEM
The landing gear is of the tricycle type with a steerable nose wheel,
two main wheels, and wheel fairings. Shock absorption is provided by
the tubular spring-steel main landing gear struts and the air/oil nose gear
shock strut. Each main gear wheel is equipped with a hydraulically actuated disc-type brake on the inboard side of each wheel, and an aerodynamic fairing over each brake.
BAGGAGE COMPARTMENT
The baggage compartment consists of two areas, one extending from
the back of the rear passenger seats to the aft cabin bulkhead, and an
additional area aft of the bulkhead. Access to both baggage areas is gained through a lockable baggage door on the left side of the airplane, or from
within the airplane cabin. A baggage net with eight tie-down straps is pro-
7-10
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
SECTION 7
AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS
vided for securing baggage and is attached by tying the straps to tie-down
rings provided in the airplane. When loading the airplane, children should
not be placed or permitted in the baggage compartment, unless a child's
seat is installed, and any material that might be hazardous to the airplane
or occupants should not be placed anywhere in the airplane. For baggage
area and door dimensions, refer to Section 6.
SEATS
The seating arrangement consists of two separate adjustable seats for
the pilot and front passenger, a split-backed fixed seat in the rear, and a
child's seat (if installed) aft of the rear seats. The pilot's and front passenger's seats are available in two different designs: four-way and sixway adjustable.
Four-way seats may be moved forward or aft, and the seat back angle
changed. To position either seat, lift the tubular handle under the center
of the seat, slide the seat into position, release the handle, and check that
the seat is locked in place. The seat back is spring-loaded to the vertical
position. To adjust its position, lift the lever under the right front corner
of the seat, reposition the back, release the lever, and check that the back
is locked in place. The seat backs will also fold full forward.
The six-way seats may be moved forward or aft, adjusted for height,
and the seat back angle is infinitely adjustable. Position the seat by lifting the tubular handle, under the center of the seat bottom, and slide the
seat into position; then release the lever and check that the seat is locked
in place. Raise or lower the seat by rotating a large crank under the right
corner of the left seat and the left corner of the right seat. Seat back
angle is adjustable by rotating a small crank under the left corner of the
left seat and the right corner of the right seat. The seat bottom angle will
change as the seat back angle changes, providing proper support. The
seat backs will also fold full forward.
The rear passenger's seats consist of a fixed one-piece seat bottom
with individually adjustable seat backs. Two adjustment levers, under
the left and right corners of the seat bottom, are used to adjust the angle
of the respective seat backs. To adjust either seat back, lift the adjustment lever and reposition the back, The seat backs are spring-loaded to
the vertical position.
A child's seat may be installed aft of the rear passenger seats, and
is held in place by two brackets mounted onthe floorboard. The seat is
designed to swing upward into a stowed position against the aft cabin bulkhead when not in use. To stow the seat, rotate the seat bottom up and aft
7-11
SECTION 7
AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
as far as it will go. When not in use, the seat should be stowed.
Headrests are available for any of the seat configurations except the
child's seat. To adjust the headrest, apply enough pressure to it to raise
or lower it to the desired level. The headrest may be removed at any
time by raising it until it disengages from the top of the seat back.
SEAT BELTS AND SHOULDER HARNESSES
All seat positions are equipped with seat belts (see figure 7 -4). The
pilot's and front passenger's seats are also equipped with separate shoulder harnesses; shoulder harnesses are available for the rear seat positions. Integrated seat belt/shoulder harnesses with inertia reels can be
furnished for the pilot's and front passenger's seat positions, if desired.
SEAT BELTS
All of the seat belts are attached to fittings on the floorboard. The
buckle half is inboard of each seat and the link half is outboard of each
seat.
To use the seat belts for the front seats, position the seat as desired,
and then lengthen the link half of the belt as needed by grasping the
sides of the link and pulling against the belt. Insert and lock the belt
link into the buckle. Tighten the belt to a snug fit. Seat belts for the
rear seats and the child's seat (if installed) are used in the same
manner as the belts for the front seats. To release the seat belts, grasp
the top of the buckle opposite the link and pull outward.
SHOULDER HARNESSES
Each front seat shoulder harness (see figure 7-4) is attached to a
rear door post above the window line and is stowed behind a stowage
sheath above the cabin door. To stow the harness, fold it and place it
behind the sheath. The rear seat shoulder harnesses are attached adjacent to the lower corners of the rear window. Each rear seat harness is
stowed behind a stowage sheath above an aft side window. No harness
is available for the child's seat.
To use a front or rear seat shoulder harness fasten and adjust the
seat belt first. Lengthen the harness as required by pulling on the
connecting link on the end of the harness and the narrow release
strap. Snap the connecting link firmly onto the retaining stud on the
seat belt link half. Then adjust to length. A properly adjusted harness
will permit the occupant to lean forward enough to sit completely erect,
7-12
SECTION 7
AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
STANDARD SHOULDER
HARNESS
NARROW RELEASE STRAP
(Pull up when lengthening
harness)
FREE END OF HARNESS
(Pull down to tighten)
(PILOT'S SEAT SHOWN)
SHOULDER HARNESS------,_
CONNECTING LINK
(Snap onto retaining stud on
seat belt link to attach harness)
SEAT BELT /SHOULDER
HARNESS WITH INERTIA
REEL
FREE END OF SEAT BELT
(Pull to tighten)
SEAT BELT /SHOULDER HARNESS
ADJUSTABLE LINK
(Position link just below shoulder
level; pull link and harness downward to connect to seat belt buckle)
Figure 7-4. Seat Belts and Shoulder Harnesses
7-13
SECTION 7
AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
but prevent excessive forward movement and contact with objects during sudden deceleration. Also, the pilot will want the freedom to reach
all controls easily.
Removing the shoulder harness is accomplished by pulling upward
on the narrow release strap, and removing the harness connecting link
from the stud on the seat belt link. In an emergency, the shoulder
harness may be removed by releasing the seat belt first, and allowing
the harness, still attached to the link half of the seat belt, to drop to the
side of the seat.
INTEGRATED SEAT BELT /SHOULDER HARNESSES WITH INERTIA REELS
Integrated seat belt/ shoulder harnesses with inertia reels are available for the pilot and front seat passenger. The seat belt/shoulder harnesses extend from inertia reels located in the cabin ceiling to attach
points inboard of the two front seats. A separate seat belt half and buckle
is located outboard of the seats. Inertia reels allow complete freedom of
body movement. However, in the event of a sudden deceleration, they
will lock automatically to protect the occupants.
NOTE
The inertia reels are located for maximum shoulder ·harness comfort and safe retention of the seat occupants.
This location requires that the shoulder harnesses cross
near the top so that the right hand inertia reel serves the
pilot and the left hand reel serves the front passenger.
When fastening the harness, check to ensure the proper
harness is being used.
To use the seat belt/shoulder harness, position the adjustable metal
link on the harness just below shoulder level, pull the link and harness
downward, and insert the link into the seat belt buckle. Adjust belt tension across the lap by pulling upward on the shoulder harness. Removal
is accomplished by releasing the seat belt buckle, which will allow the
inertia reel to pull the harness inboard of the seat.
ENTRANCE DOORS AND CABIN WINDOWS
Entry to, and exit from the airplane is accomplished through either of
two entry doors, one on each side of the cabin at the front seat positions
(refer to Section 6 for cabin and cabin door dimensions). The doors incorporate a recessed exterior door handle, a conventional interior door handle, a key-operated door lock (left door only), a door stop mechanism,
7-14
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
SECTION 7
AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS
and an openable window in the left door. An openable right door window is
also available.
To open the doors from outside the airplane, utilize the recessed
door handle near the aft edge of either door by grasping the forward
edge of the handle and pulling outboard. To close or open the doors
from inside the airplane, use the combination door handle and arm
rest. The inside door handle has three positions and a placard at its
base which reads OPEN, CLOSE, and LOCK. The handle is springloaded to the CLOSE (up) position. When the door has been pulled shut
and latched, lock it by rotating the door handle forward to the LOCK
position (flush with the arm rest). When the 'handle is rotated to the
LOCK position, an over-center action will hold it in that position. Both
cabin doors should be locked prior to flight, and should not be opened
intentionally during flight.
NOTE
Accidental opening of a cabin door in flight due to improper closing does not constitute a need to land the airplane. The best procedure is to set up the airplane in a
trimmed condition at approximately 75 knots, momentarily shove the door outward slightly, and forcefully close
and lock the door.
Exit from the airplane is accomplished by rotating the door handle
from the LOCK position, past the CLOSE position, aft to the OPEN position and pushing the door open. To lock the airplane, lock the right cabin
door with the inside handle, close the left cabin door, and using the ignition key, lock the door.
The left cabin door is equipped with an openable window which is held
in the closed position by a lock button equipped over-center latch on the
lower edge of the window frame. To open the window, depress the lock
button and rotate the latch upward. The window is equipped with a springloaded retaining arm which will help rotate the window outward and hold it
there. An openable window is also available for the right door, and functions in the same manner as the left window. If required, either window
may be opened at any speed up to 160 knots. The cabin top windows (if
installed), rear side windows, and rear windows are of the fixed type and
cannot be opened.
CONTROL LOCKS
A control lock is provided to lock the ailerons and elevator control
7-15
SECTION 7
AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
surfaces in a neutral position and prevent damage to these systems by
wind buffeting while the airplane is parked. The lock consists of a shaped
steel rod with a red metal flag attached to it. The flag is labeled CONTROL LOCK, REMOVE BEFORE STARTING ENGINE. To install the control lock, align the hole in the top of the pilot's control wheel shaft with
the hole in the top of the shaft collar on the instrument panel and insert
the rod into the aligned holes. Proper installation of the lock will place
the red flag over the ignition switch. In areas where high or gusty winds
occur, a control surface lock should be installed over the vertical stabilizer and rudder. The control lock and any other type of locking device
should be removed prior to starting the engine.
ENGINE
The airplane is powered by a horizontally-opposed, four-cylinder,
overhead-valve, air-cooled, carbureted engine with a wet sump oil system. The engine is a Lycoming Model 0-320-H2AD and is rated at 160
horsepower at 2700 RPM. Major accessories include a starter and beltdriven alternator mounted on the front of the engine, and dual magnetos and a vacuum pump which are mounted on an accessory drive pad
on the rear of the engine. Provisions are also made for a full flow oil
filter.
ENGINE CONTROLS
Engine power is controlled by a throttle located on the lower center
portion of the instrument panel. The throttle operates in a conventional
manner; in the full forward position, the throttle is open, and in the full
aft position, it is closed. A friction lock, which is a round knurled disk,
is located at the base of the throttle and is operated by rotating the lock
clockwise to increase friction or counterclockwise to decrease it.
The mixture control, mounted above the right corner of the control
pedestal, is a red knob with raised points around the circumference and
is equipped with a lock button in the end of the knob. The rich position
is full forward, and full aft is the idle cut-off position. For small adjustments, the control may be moved forward by rotating the knob
clockwise, and aft by rotating the knob counterclockwise. For rapid or
large adjustment, the knob may be moved forward or aft by depressing
the lock button in the end of the control, and then positioning the control as desired.
ENGINE INSTRUMENTS
Engine operation is monitored by the following instruments:
7-16
oil
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
SECTION 7
AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS
pressure gage, oil temperature gage, and a tachometer. A carburetor
air temperature gage is also available.
The oil pressure gage, located on the left side of the instrument panel,
is operated by oil pressure. A direct pressure oil line from the engine
delivers oil at engine operating pressure to the oil pressure gage. Gage
markings indicate that minimum idling pressure is 25 PSI (red line), the
normal operating range is 60 to 90 PSI (green arc), and maximum pressure is 100 PSI (red line).
Oil temperature is indicated by a gage adjacent to the oil pressure
gage. The gage is operated by an electrical-resistance type temperature
sensor which receives power from the airplane electrical system. Oil
temperature limitations are the normal operating range (green arc) which
is 38°C (l00°F) to l18°C (245°F), and the maximum (red line) which is
l18°C (245°F).
The engine-driven mechanical tachometer is located near the lower
portion of the instrument panel to the left of the pilot's control wheel.
The instrument is calibrated in increments of 100 RPM and indicates
both engine and propeller speed. An hour meter below the center of the
tachometer dial records elapsed engine time in hours and tenths. Instrument markings include a normal operating range (green arc) of
2200 to 2700 RPM, and a maximum (red line) of 2700 RPM.
A carburetor air temperature gage may be installed on the right side
of the instrument panel to help detect carburetor icing conditions. The
gage is marked in 5° increments from -30°C to +30°C, and has a yellow
arc between -15°C and+5°C which indicates the temperature range most
conducive to icing in the carburetor. A placard on the lower half of the
gage face reads KEEP NEEDLE OUT OF YELLOW ARC DURING POSSIBLE CARBURETOR ICING CONDITIONS.
NEW ENGINE BREAK-IN AND OPERATION
The engine underwent a run-in at the factory and is ready for the full
range of use. It is, however, suggested that cruising be accomplished
at 65% to 75% power until a total of 50 hours has accumulated or oil consumption has stabilized. This will ensure proper seating of the rings.
The airplane is delivered from the factory with corrosion preventive
oil in the engine. If, during the first 25 hours, oil must be added, use
only aviation grade straight mineral oil conforming to Specification No.
MIL- L-6082.
7-17
SECTION 7
AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
ENGINE OIL SYSTEM
Oil for engine lubrication is supplied from a sump on the bottom of
the engine. The capacity of the engine sump is six quarts (one additional quart is required if a full flow oil filter is installed). Oil is
drawn from the sump through an oil suction strainer screen into the
engine-driven oil pump. From the pump, oil is routed to a bypass
valve. If the oil is cold, the bypass valve allows the oil to bypass the
oil cooler and go directly from the pump to the oil pressure screen (full
flow oil filter if installed). If the oil is hot, the bypass valve routes the
oil out of the accessory housing and into a flexible hose leading to the
oil cooler on the lower right side of the firewall. Pressure oil from the
cooler returns to the accessory housing where it passes throl!-gh the
pressure strainer screen (full flow oil filter, if installed). The filtered
oil then enters a pressure relief valve which regulates engine oil pressure by allowing excessive oil to return to the sump, while the balance
of the pressure oil is circulated to various engine parts for lubrication.
Residual oil is returned to the sump by gravity flow.
An oil filler cap/ oil dipstick is located at the rear of the engine
near the center. The filler cap/dipstick is accessible through an access
door in the engine cowling. The engine should not be operated on less
than four quarts of oil. To minimize loss of oil through the breather,
fill to five quarts for normal flights of less than three hours. For
extended flight, fill to six quarts (dipstick indication only). For engine
oil grade and specifications, refer to Section 8 of this handbook.
An oil quick-drain valve is available to replace the drain plug on
the bottom of the oil sump, and provides quicker, cleaner draining of
the engine oil. To drain the oil with this valve, slip a hose over the end
of the valve and push upward on the end of the valve until it snaps into
the open position. Spring clips will hold the valve open. After draining, use a suitable tool to snap the valve into the extended (closed)
position and remove the drain hose.
IGNITION-STARTER SYSTEM
Engine ignition is provided by an engine-driven dual magneto, and
two spark pl;ugs in each cylinder. The right magneto fires the lower
right and upper left spark plugs, and the left magneto fires the lower
left and upper right spark plugs. Normal operation is conducted with
both magnetos due to the more complete burning of the fuel-air mixture
with dual ignition.
Ignition and starter operation is controlled by a rotary type switch
located on the left switch and control panel. The switch is labeled clock7-18
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
SECTION 7
AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS
wise, OFF, R, L, BOTH, and START. The engine should be operated on
both magnetos (BOTH position) except for magneto checks. The Rand L
positions are for checking purposes and emergency use only. When the
switch is rotated to the spring-loaded START position, (with the master
switch in the ON position), the starter contactor is energized and the starter will crank the engine. When the switch is released, it will automatically return to the BOTH position.
AIR INDUCTION SYSTEM
The engine air induction system receives ram air through an intake
in the lower front portion of the engine cowling. The intake is covered
by an air filter which removes dust and other foreign matter from the
induction air. Airflow passing through the filter enters an air box.
After passing through the airbox, induction air enters the inlet in the
carburetor which is under the engine, and is then ducted to the engine
cylinders through intake manifold tubes. In the event carburetor ice is
encountered or the intake filter becomes blocked, alternate heated air
can be obtained from a shroud around an exhaust riser through a duct
to a valve, in the airbox, operated by the carburetor heat control on the
instrument panel. Heated air from the shroud is obtained from an
unfiltered outside source. Use of full carburetor heat at full throttle
will result in a loss of approximately 100 to 225 RPM.
EXHAUST SYSTEM
Exhaust gas from each cylinder passes through riser assemblies to a
muffler and tailpipe. The muffler is constructed with a shroud around the
outside which forms a heating chamber for cabin heater air.
CARBURETOR AND PRIMING SYSTEM
The engine is equipped with an up-draft, float-type, fixed jet carburetor mounted on the bottom of the engine. The carburetor is equipped
with an enclosed accelerator pump, simplified fuel passages to prevent
vapor locking, an idle cut-off mechanism, and a manual mixture control.
Fuel is delivered to the carburetor by gravity flow from the fuel system.
In the carburetor, fuel is atomized, proportionally mixed with intake air,
and delivered to the cylinders through intake manifold tubes. The proportion of atomized fuel to air is controlled, within limits, by the mixture
control on the instrument panel.
For easy starting in cold weather, the engine is equipped with a manual primer. The primer is actually a small pump which draws fuel from
the fuel strainer when the plunger is pulled out, and injects it into the cylinder intake ports when the plunger is pushed back in. The plunger knob, on
7-19
SECTION 7
AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
the instrument panel, is equipped with a lock and, after being pushed full
in, must be rotated either left or right until the knob cannot be pulled out.
COOLING SYSTEM
Ram air for engine cooling enters through two intake openings in the
front of the engine cowling. The cooling air is directed around the cylinders and other areas of the engine by baffling, and is then exhausted
through an opening at the bottom aft edge of the cowling. No manual cooling system control is provided.
A winterization kit is available and consists of two baffles which
attach to the air intakes in the cowling nose cap, a restrictive cover
plate for the oil cooler air inlet in the right rear vertical engine baffle,
insulation for the crankcase breather line, and a placard to be installed
on the instrument panel. This equipment should be installed for operations in temperatures consistently below -7°C (20°F). Once installed,
the crankcase breather insulation is approved for permanent use in
both hot and cold weather.
PROPELLER
The airplane is equipped with a two-oladed, fixed-pitch, one-piece
forged aluminum alloy propeller which is anodized to retard corrosion.
The propeller is 75 inches in diameter.
FUEL SYSTEM
The airplane may be equipped with either a standard fuel system or a
FUEL QUANTITY DATA (U.S. GALLONS)
TOTAL
USABLE FUEL
ALL FLIGHT
CONDITIONS
TOTAL
UNUSABLE
FUEL
TOTAL
FUEL
VOLUME
STANDARD
(21.5 Gal. Each)
40
3
43
LONG RANGE
(2TGal. Each)
50
4
54
TANKS
Figure 7- 5. Fuel Quantity Data
7-20
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
SECTION 7
AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS
FILLER CAP
SELECTOR
VALVE
FUEL
STRAINER
TO
•
ENGINE
THROTTLE
CARBURETOR
...
....---CODE---,
l:itt~~m
FUEL SUPPLY
D
VENT
MECHANICAL
LINKAGE
TO
ENGINE
~
~~
~. ~
~
MIXTURE
CONTROL
KNOB
TO ENSURE MAXIMUM FUEL CAPACITY
WHEN REFUELING, PLACE THE FUEL
SELECTOR VALVE IN EITHER LEFT
OR RIGHT POSITION TO PREVENT
CROSS-FEEDING,
Figure 7-6. Fuel System (Standard and Long Range)
7-21
SECTION 7
AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
long range system (see figure 7-6). Both systems consist of two vented
fuel tanks (one in each wing), a four-position selector valve, fuel strainer,
manual primer, and carburetor. Refer to figure 7-5 for fuel quantity data
for both systems.
Fuel flows by gravity from the two wing tanks to a four-position selector valve, labeled BOTH, RIGHT, LEFT, and OFF. With the selector
valve in either the BOTH, LEFT, or RIGHT position, fuel flows through a
strainer to the carburetor. From the carburetor, mixed fuel and air flows
to the cylinders through intake manifold tubes. The manual primer draws
its fuel from the fuel strainer and injects it into the cylinder intake ports.
Fuel system venting is essential to system operation. Blockage of the
system will result in decreasing fuel flow and eventual engine stoppage.
Venting is accomplished by an interconnecting line from the right fuel tank
to the left tank. The left fuel tank is vented overboard through a vent line,
equipped with a check valve, which protrudes from the bottom surface of
the left wing near the wing strut. The right fuel tank filler cap is also
vented.
Fuel quantity is measured by two float-type fuel quantity transmitters (one in each tank) and indicated by two electrically-operated fuel
quantity indicators on the left side of the instrument panel. An empty
tank is indicated by a red line and the letter E. When an indicator
shows an empty tank, approximately 1.5 gallons remain in a standard
tank, and 2 gallons remain in a long range tank as unusable fuel. The
indicators cannot be relied upon for accurate readings during skids,
slips, or unusual attitudes.
The fuel selector valve should be in the BOTH position for takeoff,
climb, landing, and maneuvers that involve prolonged slips or skids. Operation from either LEFT or RIGHT tank is reserved for cruising flight.
NOTE
When the fuel selector valve handle is in the BOTH position in cruising flight, unequal fuel flow from each
tank may occur if the wings are not maintained exactly
level. Resulting wing heaviness can be alleviated
gradually by turning the selector valve handle to the
tank in the "heavy" wing.
NOTE
It is not practical to measure the time required to con-
sume all of the fuel in one tank, and, after switching
to the opposite tank, expect an equal duration from the
remaining fuel. The airspace in both fuel tanks is inter7-22
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
SECTION 7
AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS
connected by a vent line and, therefore, some sloshing
of fuel between tanks can be expected when the tanks are
nearly full and the wings are not level.
The fuel system is equipped with drain valves to provide a means for
the examination of fuel in the system for contamination and grade. The
system should be examined before the first flight of every day and after
each refueling, by using the sampler cup provided to drain fuel from the
wing tank sumps, and by utilizing the fuel strainer drain under an access
panel on the right side of the engine cowling. The fuel tanks should be
filled after each flight to prevent condensation.
BRAKE SYSTEM
The airplane has a single-disc, hydraulically-actuated brake on each
main landing gear wheel. Each brake is connected, by a hydraulic line,
to a master cylinder attached to each of the pilot's rudder pedals. The
brakes are operated by applying pressure to the top of either the left (pilot's) or right (copilot's) set of rudder pedals, which are interconnected.
When the airplane is parked, both main wheel brakes may be set by utilizing the parking brake which is operated by a handle under the left side of
the instrument panel. To apply the parking brake, set the brakes with the
rudder pedals, pull the handle aft, and rotate it 90° down.
For maximum brake life, keep the brake system properly maintained, and minimize brake usage during taxi operations and landings.
Some of the symptoms of impending brake failure are: gradual
decrease in braking action after brake application, noisy or dragging
brakes, soft or spongy pedals, and excessive travel and weak braking
action. If any of these symptoms appear, the brake system is in need
of immediate attention. If, during taxi or landing roll, braking action
decreases, let up on the pedals and then re-apply the brakes with heavy
pressure. If the brakes become spongy or pedal travel increases,
pumping the pedals should build braking pressure. If one brake becomes weak or fails, use the other brake sparingly while using opposite rudder, as required, to offset the good brake.
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
Electrical energy (see figure 7-7) is supplied by a 14-volt, directcurrent system powered by an engine-driven, 60-amp alternator. The
12-volt, 25-amp hour battery is located on the left side of the firewall.
Power is supplied to all electrical circuits through a split bus bar, one
side containing electronic system circuits and the other side having general electrical system circuits. Both sides of the bus are on at all times
7-23
SECTION 7
AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
TO OVER-VOLTAGE SENSOR
AND MASTER SWITCH
TO RADIO OR TRANSPONDER
AND ENCODING ALTIMETER
FUEL QUANTITY INDICATORS
OIL TEMPERATURE GAGE
SPLIT BUS
CONTACTOR
(NORMALLY
CLOSED)
DOME AND COURTESY LIGHTS
IGNITION SWITCH
*
CODE
0)
CIRCUIT BREAKER (PUSH-TO-RESET)
•
FUSE
-j ~
CAPACITOR (NOISE FILTER)
DIODE
/1/W RESISTOR
PITOT HEAT SYSTEM
MAGNETOS
Figure 7-7. Electrical System
7-24
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
AIRPLANE
&
SECTION 7
SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS.
except when either an external power source is connected or the starter
switch is turned on; then a power contactor is automatically activated to
open the circuit to the electronic bus. Isolating the electronic circuits in
this manner prevents harmful transient voltages from damaging the transistors in the electronic equipment.
MASTER SWITCH
The master switch is a split-rocker type switch labeled MASTER, and
is ON in the up position and OFF in the down position. The right half of
the switch, labeled BAT, controls all electrical power to the airplane.
The left half, labeled ALT, controls the alternator.
Normally, both sides of the master switch should be used simultaneously; however, the BAT side of the switch could be turned ON separately to check equipment while on the ground. The ALT side of the switch,
when placed in the OFF position, removes the alternator from the electrical system. With this switch in the OFF position, the entire electrical
load is placed on the battery. Continued operation with the alternator
switch in the OFF position will reduce battery power low enough to open
the battery contact or, remove power from the alternator field, and prevent alternator restart.
AMMETER
The ammeter indicates the flow of current, in amperes, from the alternator to the battery or from the battery to the airplane electrical system. When the engine is operating and the master switch is turned on,
the ammeter indicates the charging rate applied to the battery. In the
event the alternator is not functioning or the electrical load exceeds the
output of the alternator, the ammeter indicates the battery discharge rate.
OVER-VOLTAGE SENSOR AND WARNING LIGHT
The airplane is equipped with an automatic over-voltage protection
system consisting of an over-voltage sensor behind the instrument panel
and a red warning light, labeled HIGH VOLTAGE, adjacent to the ammeter.
In the event an over-voltage condition occurs, the over-voltage sensor automatically removes alternator field current and shuts down the alternator. The red warning light will then turn on, indicating to the pilot
that the alternator is not operating and the battery is supplying all electrical power.
The over-voltage sensor may be reset by turning the master switch
off and back on again. If the warning light does not illuminate, normal
7-25
SECTION 7
AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
alternator charging has resumed; however, if the light does illuminate
again, a malfunction has occurred, and the flight should be terminated as
soon as practical.
The warning light may be tested by momentarily turning off the ALT
portion of the master switch and leaving the BAT portion turned on.
CIRCUIT BREAKERS AND FUSES
Most of the electrical circuits in the airplane are protected by "pushto-reset" circuit breakers mounted on the left side of the instrument panel.
Exceptions to this are the battery contactor closing (external power) circuit, clock, and flight hour recorder circuits which have fuses mounted
near the battery. The control wheel map light is protected by the NAV LT
circuit breaker on the instrument panel, and a fuse behind the panel. The
cigar lighter is protected by a manually reset circuit breaker on the back
of the lighter, and by the LAND LT circuit breaker.
GROUND SERVICE PLUG RECEPTACLE
A ground service plug receptacle may be installed to permit the use
of an external power source for cold weather starting and during lengthy
maintenance work on the airplane electrical system (with the exception of
electronic equipment). The receptacle is located behind a door on the left
side of the fuselage near the aft edge of the cowling.
NOTE
Electrical power for the airplane electrical circuits is provided through a split bus bar having all electronic circuits
on one side of the bus and other electrical circuits on the
other side of the bus. When an external power source is
connected, a contactor automatically opens the circuit to
the electronic portion of the split bus bar as a protection
against damage to the transistors in the electronic equipment by transient voltages from the power source. Therefore, the external power source can not be used as a source
of power when checking electronic components.
Just before connecting an external power source (generator type or
battery cart), the master switch should be turned on.
The ground service plug receptacle circuit incorporates a polarity reversal protection. Power from the external power source will flow only
if the ground service plug is correctly connected to the airplane. If the
plug is accidentally connected backwards, no power will flow to the electrical system, thereby preventing any damage to electrical equipment.
7-26
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
SECTION 7
AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS
The battery and external power circuits have been designed to com•
pletely eliminate the need to "jumper" across the battery corttactor to
close it for charging a completely "dead" battery. A special fused circuit
in the external power system supplies the needed "jumper" across the contacts so that with a "dead" battery and an external power source applied,
turning on the master switch will close the battery contactor.
LIGHTING SYSTEMS
EXTERIOR LIGHTING
Conventional navigation lights are located on the wing tips and top of
the rudder. A single landing light or dual landing/taxi lights are installed
in the cowl nose cap, and a flashing beacon is mounted on top of the vertical fin. Additional lighting is available and includes a strobe light on each
wing tip and two courtesy lights, one under each wing, just outboard of the
cabin door. The courtesy lights are operated by the dome light switch on
the overhead console. All exterior lights, except the courtesy lights, are
controlled by rocker type switches on the left switch and control panel. The
switches are ON in the up position and OFF in the down position.
The flashing beacon should not be used when flying through clouds or
overcast; the flashing light reflected from water droplets or particles in
the atmosphere, particularly at night, can produce vertigo and loss of
orientation.
The two high intensity strobe lights will enhance anti-collision protection. However, the lights should be turned off when taxiing in the vicinity
of other aircraft, or during night flight through clouds, fog or haze.
INTERIOR LIGHTING
Instrument and control panel lighting is provided by flood lighting, integral lighting, and post lighting (if installed). Two concentric rheostat
control knobs below the engine controls, labeled PANEL LT and RADIO LT,
control intensity of the instrument and control panel lighting. A slide-type
switch (if installed) on the overhead console, labeled PANEL LTS, is used
to select flood lighting in the FLOOD position, post lighting in the POST
position, or a combination of post and flood lighting in the BOTH position.
Instrument and control panel flood lighting consists of a single red
flood light in the forward part of the overhead console. To use the flood
lighting, rotate the PANEL LT rheostat control knob clockwise to the desired intensity.
The instrument panel may be equipped with post lights which are
7-27
SECTION 7
AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
mounted at the edge of each instrument or control and provide direct
lighting. The lights are operated by placing the PANEL LTS selector
switch in the POST position and adjusting light intensity with the PANEL
LT rheostat control knob. By placing the PANEL LTS selector switch
in the BOTH position, the post lights can be used in combination with the
standard flood lighting.
'The engine instruments, fuel quantity indicators, radio equipment,
and magnetic compass have integral lighting and operate independently
of post or flood lighting. Light intensity of the engine instruments, fuel
quantity indicators, and radio lighting is controlled by the RADIO LT
rheostat control knob. The integral compass light intensity is controlled
by the PANEL LT rheostat control knob.
A cabin dome light, in the aft part of the overhead COlJ.Sole, is operated
by a switch near the light. To turn the light on, move the switch to the right.
A control wheel map light is available and is mounted on the bottom of
. the pilot's control wheel. The light illuminates the lower portion of the
cabin just forward of the pilot and is helpful when checking maps and other
flight data during night operations. To operate the light, first turn on the
NAV LT switch; then adjust the map light's intensity with the knurled disk
type rheostat control located at the bottom of the control wheel.
A doorpost map light is available, and is located on the left forward
doorpost. It contains both red and white bulbs and may be positioned
to illuminate any area desired by the pilot. The light is controlled by a
switch, below the light, which is labeled RED, OFF, and WHITE. Placing the switch in the top position will provide a red light. In the bottom position, standard white lighting is provided. In the center position, the map light is turned off.
The most probable cause of a light failure is a burned out bulb; however, in the event any of the lighting systems fail to illuminate when turned on, check the appropriate circuit breaker. If the circuit breaker has
opened (white button popped out), and there is no obvious indication of a
short circuit (smoke or odor), turn off the light switch of the affected
lights, reset the breaker, and turn the switch on again. If the breaker
opens again, do not reset it.
CABIN HEATING, VENTILATING AND
DEFROSTING SYSTEM
The temperature and volume of airflow into the cabin can be regulated
to any degree desired by manipulation of the push-pull CABIN HT and
7-28
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
SECTION 7
AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS
EXHAUST--~
MUFFLER
SHROUD
FRONT CABIN
AIR OUTLET
__.--HEATER
VALVE
ADJUSTABLE
DEFROSTER
OUTLET
CABIN HEAT - - - u _
CONTROL
CODE
¢
RAM AIR FLOW
<i:= VENTILATING AIR
~
HEATEDAIR
~ BLENDEDAm
--- MECHANICAL
CONNECTION
Figure 7-8. Cabin Heating, Ventilating, and Defrosting System
7-29
SECTION 7
AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
CABIN AIR control knobs (see figure 7-8).
For cabin ventilation, pull the CABIN AIR knob out. To raise the air
temperature, pull the CABIN HT knob out approximately 1/4 to 1/2 inch
for a small amount of cabin heat. Additional heat is available by pulling
the knob out farther; maximum heat is available with the CABIN HT knob
pulled out and the CABIN AIR knob pushed full in. When no heat is desired in the cabin, the CABIN HT knob is pushed full in.
Front cabin heat and ventilating air is supplied by outlet holes spaced
across a cabin manifold just forward of the pilot's and copilot's feet.
Rear cabin heat and air is supplied by two ducts from the manifold, one
extending down each side of the cabin to an outlet at the front door post at
floor level. Windshield defrost air is also supplied by a duct leading from
the cabin manifold. Two knobs control sliding valves in the defroster outlet and permit regulation of defroster airflow.
Separate adjustable ventilators supply additional air; one near each
upper corner of the windshield supplies air for the pilot and copilot, and
two ventilators are available for the rear cabin area to supply air to the
rear seat passengers.
PilOT-STATIC SYSTEM AND INSTRUMENTS
The pitot-static system supplies ram air .pressure to the airspeed
indicator and static pressure to the airspeed indicator, rate-of-climb
indicator and altimeter. The system is composed of either an unheated
or heated pitot tube mounted on the lower surface of the left wing, an
external static port, on the lower left side of the forward fuselage, and
the associated plumbing necessary to connect the instruments to the
sources.
The heated pitot system consists of a heating element in the pitot tube,
a rocker-type switch labeled PITOT HT on the lower left side of the instrument panel, a 10-amp circuit breaker on the switch and control panel, and
associated wiring. When the pitot heat switch iS turned on, the element in
the pitot tube is heated electrically to maintain proper operation in possible icing conditions. Pitot heat should be used only as required.
A static pressure alternate source valve may be installed adjacent to
the throttle for use when the external static source is malfunctioning.
This valve supplies static pressure from inside the cabin instead of the
external static port.
If erroneous instrument readings are suspected due to water or ice
in the pressure line going to the standard external static pressure source~
7-30
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
SECTION 7
AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS
the alternate static .source valve should be pulled on.
Pressures within the cabin will vary with open cabin ventilators and
windows. Refer to Sections 3 and 5 for the effect of varying cabin pressures on airspeed and altimeter readings.
AIRSPEED INDICATOR
The airspeed indicator is calibrated in knots and miles per hour.
Limitation and range markings include the white arc (41 to 85 knots),
green arc (47 to 128 knots), yellow arc (128 to 160 knots), and a red
line (160 knots).
If a true airspeed indicator is installed, it is equipped with a rotatable
ring which works in conjunction with the airspeed indicator dial in a manner similar to the operation of a flight computer. To operate the indicator,
first rotate the ring until pressure altitude is aligned with outside air temperature in degrees Fahrenheit. Pressure altitude should not be confused
with indicated altitude. To obtain pressure altitude, momentarily set the
barometric scale on the altimeter to 29.92 and read pressure altitude on
the altimeter. Be sure to return the altimeter barometric scale to the original barometric setting after pressure altitude has been obtained. Having
set the ring to correct for altitude and temperature, then read the airspeed
shown on the rotatable ring by the indicator pointer. For best accuracy,
this indication should be corrected to calibrated airspeed by referring to
the Airspeed Calibration chart in Section 5. Knowing the calibrated airspeed, read true airspeed on the ring opposite the calibrated airspeed.
RATE-OF-CLIMB INDICATOR
The rate-of-climb indicator depicts airplane rate of climb or descent
in feet per minute. The pointer is actuated by atmospheric pressure
changes resulting from changes of altitude as supplied by the static
source.
ALTIMETER
Airplane altitude is depicted by a barometric type altimeter. A knob
near the lower left portion of the indicator provides adjustment of the instrument's barometric scale to the current altimeter setting.
VACUUM SYSTEM AND INSTRUMENTS
An engine-driven vacuum system (see figure 7-9) provides the suction
necessary to operate the attitude indicator and directional indicator. The
1-31
SECTION 7
AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
CODE
c:::::J
OVERBOARD
VENT LINE
IN LET AIR
f:i:::i:::::::::~ VACUUM
~ DISCHARGE AIR
ll\
VACUUM
PUMP
VACUUM RELIEF VALVE
SUCTION
GAGE
VACUUM SYSTEM
AIR FILTER
Figure 7-9. Vacuum System
7-32
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
SECTION 7
AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS
system consists of a vacuum pump mounted on the engine, a vacuum relief valve and vacuum f;lystem air filter on the aft side of the firewall below the instrument panel, and instruments (including a suction gage) on
the left side of the instrument panel.
ATTITUDE INDICATOR
The attitude indicator gives a visual indication of flight attitude.
Bank attitude is presented by a pointer at the top of the indicator relative to the bank scale which has index marks at 10°, 20°, 30°, 60°, and
90° either side of the center mark. Pitch and roll attitudes are presented by a miniature airplane in relation to the horizon bar. A knob at the
bottom of the instrument is provided for in-flight adjustment of the
miniature airplane to the horizon bar for a more accurate flight attitude
indication.
DIRECTIONAL INDICATOR
A directional indicator displays airplane heading on a compass card in
relation to a fixed simulated airplane image and index. The indicator will
precess slightly over a period of time. Therefore, the compass card should
be set in accordance with the magnetic compass just prior to takeoff, and occasionally re-adjusted on extended flights. A knob on the lower left edge of
the instrument is used to adjust the compass card to correct for precession.
SUCTION GAGE
The suction gage is located on the left side of the instrument panel
and indicates, in inches of mercury, the amount of suction available for
operation of the attitude indicator and directional indicator. The desired
suction range is 4. 6 to 5. 4 inches of mercury. A suction reading below
this range may indicate a system malfunction or improper adjustment,
and in this case, the indicators should not be considered reliable.
STALL WARNING SYSTEM
The airplane is equipped with a pneumatic-type stall warning system consisting of an inlet in the leading edge of the left wing, an airoperated horn near the upper left corner of the windshield, and associated plumbing. As the airplane approaches a stall, the low pressure
on the upper surface of the wings moves forward around the leading
edge of the wings. This low pressure creates a differential pressure in
the stall warning system which draws air through the warning horn,
resulting in an audible warning at 5 to 10 knots above stall in all flight
conditions.
7-33
SECTION 7
AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
The stall warning system should be checked during the preflight inspection by placing a clean handkerchief over the vent opening and applying suction. A sound from the warning horn will confirm that the system
is operative.
AVIONICS SUPPORT EQUIPMENT
The airplane may, at the owner's discretion, be equipped with various types of avionics support equipment such as an audio control panel,
microphone-headset, and static dischargers. The following paragraphs
discuss these items.
AUDIO CONTROL PANEL
Operation of radio equipment is covered in Section 9 of this handbook.
When one or more radios are installed, a transmitter/audio switching system is provided (see figure 7-10). The operation of this switching system
is described in the following paragraphs.
TRANSMITTER SELECTOR SWITCH
A rotary type transmitter selector switch, labeled XMTR SEL, is
provided to connect the microphone to the transmitter the pilot desires
to use. To select a transmitter, rotate the switch to the number corresponding to that transmitter. The numbers 1, 2 and 3 above the switch correspond to the top, second and third transceivers in the avionics stack.
An audio amplifier is required for speaker operation, and is automatically selected, along with the transmitter, by the transmitter selector
switch, As an example, if the number 1 transmitter is selected, the audio
.amplifier in the associated NAV /COM receiver is also selected, and functions as the amplifier for ALL speaker audio. J!n the event the audio amplifier in use fails, as evidenced by loss of all speaker audio, select
another transmitter. This should re-establish speaker audio. Headset
audio is not affected by audio amplifier operation.
AUTOMATIC AUDIO SELECTOR SWITCH
A toggle switch, labeled AUTO, can be used to automatically match
the appropriate NAV /COM receiver audio to the transmitter being selected. To utilize this automatic feature, leave all NAV /COM receiver
switches in the OFF (center) position, and place the AUTO selector switch
in either the SPEAKER or PHONE position, as desired. Once the AUTO
selector switch is positioned, the pilot may then select any transmitter
7-34
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
SECTION 7
AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS
AUTOMATIC AUDIO SELECTION
I
SPEAKER
NAV/COM
ADF
1
2
3
1
2
0
0
(!)
I
0
F
F
0
PHONE
AUTOMATIC AUDIO
SELECTOR SWITCH
AUDIO SELECTOR
SWITCH (TYPICAL)
As illustrated, the number 1 transmitter is selected, the AUTO selector switch is in
the SPEAKER position, and the NAV /COM 1, 2 and 3 and ADF 1 and 2 audio
selector switches are in the OFF position. With the switches set as shown, the pilot
will transmit on the number 1 transmitter and hear the number 1 NAV /COM receiver through the airplane speaker.
INDIVIDUAL AUDIO SELECTION
SPEAKER
NAV/COM
1
2
AUTO
3
0
0
ADF
1
Q
2
0
I
0
F
F
PHONE
AUTOMATIC AUDIO
SELECTOR SWITCH
AUDIO SELECTOR
SWITCH (TYPICAL)
As illustrated, the number 1 transmitter is selected, the AUTO selector switch is
in the OFF position, the number 1 NAV/COM receiver is in the PHONE position,
and the number 1 ADF is in the SPEAKER position. With the switches set as
shown, the pilot will transmit on the number 1 transmitter and hear the number
1 NAV /COM receiver on a headset, while the passengers are listening to the ADF
audio through the airplane speaker. If another audio selector switch is placed in
either the PHONE or SPEAKER position, it will be heard simultaneously with
either the number 1 NAV /COM or number 1 ADF respectively.
Figure 7-10. Audio Control Panel
7-35
SECTION 7
AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
and its associated NAV /COM receiver audio simultaneously with the transmitter selector switch. If automatic audio selection is not desired, the
.AUTO selector switch should be placed in the OFF (center) position.
AUDIO SELECTOR SWITCHES
The audio selector switches, labeled NAV /COM 1, 2 and 3 and ADF
1 and 2, allow the pilot to initially pre-tune all NAV /COM and ADF receivers, and then individually select and listen to any receiver or combination of receivers. To listen to a specific receiver, first check that
the AUTO selector switch is in the OFF (center) position, then place the
audio selector switch corresponding to that receiver in either the SPEAKER
(up) or PHONE (down) position. To turn off the audio of the selected receiver, place that switch in the OFF (center) position. If desired, the
audio selector switches can be positioned to permit the pilot to listen to
one receiver on a headset while the passengers listen to another receiver
on the airplane speaker.
T-he ADF 1 and 2 switches may be -used anytime ADF audio is desired.
If the pilot wants only AD"F- audio, for station identification or other rea-
sons, the AUTO selector switch (if in use) and all other audio selector
switches should be in the OFF position. If simultaneous ADF and NAV /
COM audio is acceptable to the pilot, no change in the existing switch
positions is required. Place the ADF 1 or 2 switch in either the SPEAKER
or PHONE position and adjust radio volume as desired.
NOTE
If the NAV /COM audio selector switch corresponding to
the selected transmitter is in the PHONE position with
the AUTO selector switch in the SPEAKER position, all
audio selector switches placed in the PHONE position
will automatically be connected to both the airplane
speaker and any headsets in use.
MICROPHONE-HEADSET
The microphone-headset combination consists of the microphone and
headset combined in a single unit and a microphone keying switch located
on the left side of the pilot's control wheel. The microphone-headset permits the pilot to conduct radio communications without interrupting other
control operations to handle a hand-held microphone. Also, passengers
need not listen to all communications. The microphone and headset jacks
are located near the lower left corner of the instrument panel.
7-36
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
SECTION 7
AIRPLANE & SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONS
STATIC DISCHARGERS
If frequent IFR flights are planned, installation of wick-type static
dischargers is recommended to improve radio communications during
flight through dust or various forms of precipitation (rain, snow or ice
crystals). Under these conditions, the build-up and discharge of static
electricity from the trailing edges of the wings, rudder, elevator, propeller tips and radio antennas can result in loss of usable radio signals
on all communications and navigation radio equipment. Usually the
ADF is first to be affected and VHF communication equipment is the
last to be affected.
Installation of static dischargers reduces interference from precipitation static, but it is possible to encounter severe precipitation static
conditions which might cause the loss of ra_di_o signals, even with static
dischargers installed. Whenever possible, avoid known severe precipitation areas to prevent loss of dependable radio-Signal~. If avoidance is
impractical, minimize airspeed and anticipate temporary loss of radio
signals while in these areas.
7-37/(7-38 blank)
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
SECTION 8
HANDLING, SERVICE
& MAINTENANCE
SECTION 8
AIRPLANE HANDLING,
SERVICE & MAINTENANCE
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Introduction
Identification Plate . . .
Owner Follow- Up System
Publications . . . .
Airplane File . . . . .
Airplane Inspection Periods
FAA Required Inspections .
Cessna Progressive Care .
Cessna Customer Care Program .
Pilot Conducted Preventive Maintenance
Alterations or Repairs
Ground Handling
Towing .
Parking .
Tie-Down
Jacking .
Leveling.
Flyable Storage
Servicing . . . .
Engine Oil . .
Fuel . . . .
Landing Gear
Cleaning and Care
Windshield-Windows
Painted Surfaces
Propeller Care
Engine Care .
Interior Care .
8-3
8-3
8-3
8-3
8-4
8-5
8-5
8-6
8-6
8-7
8-7
8-7
8-7
8-7
8-8
8-8
8-9
8-9
8-10
8-10
8-11
8-12
8-12
8-12
8-12
8-13
8-13
8-14
8-1/ (8-2 blank)
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
SECTION 8
HANDLING, SERVICE
& MAINTENANCE
INTRODUCTION
This section contains factory-recommended procedures for proper
ground handling and routine care and servicing of your Cessna. It also
identifies certain inspection and maintenance requirements which must
be followed if your airplane is to retain that new-plane performance and
dependability. It is wise to follow a planned schedule of lubrication and
preventive maintenance based on climatic and flying conditions encountered in your locality.
Keep in touch with your Cessna Dealer and take advantage of his
knowledge and experience. He knows your airplane and how to maintain it.
He will remind you when lubrications and oil changes are necessary, and
about other seasonal and periodic services.
IDENTIFICATION PLATE
All correspondence regarding your airplane should include the
SERIAL NUMBER. The Serial Number, Model Number, Production Certificate Number (PC) and Type Certificate Number (TC) can be found on
the Identification Plate, located on the lower part of the left forward doorpost. Located adjacent to the Identification Plate is a Finish and Trim.
Plate which contains a code describing the interior color scheme and exterior paint combination of the airplane. The code may be used in conjunction with an applicable Parts Catalog if finish and trim information is
needed.
OWNER FOLLOW-UP SYSTEM
Your Cessna Dealer has an Owner Follow-Up System to notify you
when he receives information that applies to your Cessna. In addition, if
you wish, you may choose to receive similar notification, in the form of
Service Letters, directly from the Cessna Customer Services Department.
A subscription form is supplied in your Customer Care Program book for
your use, should you choose to request this service. Your Cessna Dealer
will be glad to supply you with details concerning these follow-up programs,
and stands ready, through his Service Department, to supply you with fast,
efficient, low-cost service.
PUBLICATIONS
Various publications and flight operation aids are furnished in the
8-3
SECTION 8
HANDLING, SERVICE
& MAINTENANCE
airplane when delivered from the factory.
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
These items are listed below.
•
CUSTOMER CARE PROGRAM BOOK
•
PILOT'S OPERATING HANDBOOK/SUPPLEMENTS FOR YOUR
AIRPLANE
AVIONICS AND AUTOPILOT
•
PILOT'S CHECKLISTS
•
POWER COMPUTER
e
SALES AND SERVICE DEALER DIRECTORY
The following additional publications, plus many other supplies that
are applicable to your airplane, are available from your Cessna Dealer.
•
SERVICE MANUALS AND PARTS CATALOGS FOR YOUR
AIRPLANE
ENGINE AND ACCESSORIES
AVIONICS AND AUTOPILOT
Your Cessna Dealer has a Customer Care Supplies Catalog covering
all available items, many of which he keeps on hand, He will be happy to
place an order for any item which is not in stock.
AIRPLANE FILE
There are miscellaneous data, information and licenses·that are a
part of the airplane file, The following is a checklist for that file. In
addition, a periodic check should be made of the latest Federal Aviation
Regulations to ensure that all data requirements are met.
A.
To be displayed in the airplane at all times:
(1) Aircraft Airworthiness Certificate (FAA Form 8100-2).
(2) Aircraft Registration Certificate (FAA Form 8050-3).
(3) Aircraft Radio Station License, if transmitter installed (FCC
Form 556),
B.
To be carried in the airplane at all times:
(1) Weight and Balance, and associated papers (latest copy of the
Repair and Alteration Form, FAA Form 337, if applicable).
(2) Equipment List.
8-4
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
c.
SECTION 8
HANDLING, SERVICE
& MAINTENANCE
To be made available upon request:
(1) Airplane Log Book.
(2) Engine Log Book.
Most of the items listed are required by the United States Federal
Aviation Regulations. Since the Regulations of other nations may require
other documents and data, owners of airplanes not registered in the
United States should check with their own aviation officials to determine
their individual requirements.
Cessna recommends that these items, plus the Pilot's Operating
Handbook, Pilot's Checklists, Power Computer, Customer Care Program book and Customer Care Card, be carried in the airplane at all
times.
AIRPLANE INSPECTION PERIODS
FAA REQUIRED INSPECTIONS
As required by Federal Aviation Regulations, all civil aircraft of
U.S. registry must undergo a complete inspection (annual) each twelve
calendar months. In addition to the required ANNUAL inspection, aircraft operated commercially (for hire) must have a complete inspection
every 100 hours of operation.
The FAA may require other inspections by the issuance of airworthiness directives applicable to the airplane, engine, propeller and components. It is the responsibility of the owner/operator to ensure compliance
with all applicable airworthiness directives and, when the inspections are
repetitive, to take appropriate steps to prevent inadvertent noncompliance.
In lieu of the 100 HOUR and ANNUAL inspection requirements, an
airplane may be inspected in accordance with a progressive inspection
schedule, which allows the work load to be divided into smaller operations
that can be accomplished in shorter time periods.
The CESSNA PROGRESSIVE CARE PROGRAM has been developed to
provide a modern progressive inspection schedule that satisfies the complete airplane inspection requirements of both the 100 HOUR and ANNUAL
inspections as applicable to Cessna airplanes. The program assists the
owner in his responsibility to comply with all FAA inspection requirements,
while ensuring timely replacement of life-limited parts and adherence to
factory-recommended inspection intervals and maintenance procedures.
8-5
SECTION 8
HANDLING, SERVICE
& MAINTENANCE
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
CESSNA PROGRESSIVE CARE
The Cessna Progressive Care Program has been designed to help you
realize maximum utilization of your airplane at a minimum cost and downtime. Under this program, your airplane is inspected and maintained in
four operations at 50-hour intervals during a 200-hour period. The operations are recycled each 200 hours and are recorded in a specially provided Aircraft Inspection Log as each operation is conducted.
The Cessna Aircraft Company recommends Progressive Care for airplanes that are being flown 200 hours or more per year, and the 100-hour
inspection for all other airplanes. The procedures for the Progressive
Care Program and the 100-hour inspection have been carefully worked out
by the factory and are followed by the Cessna Dealer Organization. The
complete familiarity of Cessna Dealers with Cessna equipment and factoryapproved procedures provides the highest level of service possible at
lower cost to Cessna owners.
Regardless of the inspection method selected by the owner, he should
keep in mind that FAR Part 43 and FAR Part 91 establishes the requirement that properly certified agencies or personnel accomplish all required
FAA inspections and most of the manufacturer recommended inspections.
CESSNA CUSTOMER CARE PROGRAM
Specific benefits and provisions of the CESSNA WARRANTY plus other
important benefits for you are contained in your CUSTOMER CARE PROGRAM book supplied with your airplane. You will want to thoroughly review your Customer Care Program book and keep it in your airplane at
all times.
Coupons attached to the Program book entitle you to an initial inspection and either a Progressive Care Operation No. 1 or the first 100-hour
inspection within the first 6 months of ownership at no charge to you. If
you take delivery from your Dealer, the initial inspection will have been
performed before delivery of the airplane to you. If you pick up your airplane at the factory, plan to take it to your Dealer reasonably soon after
you take delivery, so the initial inspection may be performed allowing the
Dealer to make any minor adjustments which may be necessary.
You will also want to return to your Dealer either at 50 hours for your
first Progressive Care Operation, or at 100 hours for your first 100-hour
inspection depending on which program you choose to establish for your
airplane. While these important inspections will be performed for you by
any Cessna Dealer, in most cases you will prefer to have the Dealer from
whom you purchased the airplane accomplish this work.
8-6
SECTION 8
HANDLING, SERVICE
& MAINTENANCE
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
PILOT CONDUCTED PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE
A certified pilot who owns or operates an airplane not used as an air
carrier is authorized by FAR Part 43 to perform limited maintenance on
his airplane. Refer to FAR Part 43 for a list of the specific maintenance
operations which are allowed.
NOTE
Pilots operating airplanes of other than U.S. registry
should refer to the regulations of the country of certification for information on preventive maintenance that
may be performed by pilots.
A Service Manual should be obtained prior to performing any preventive maintenance to ensure that proper procedures are followed, Your
Cessna Dealer should be contacted for further information or for required
maintenance which must be accomplished by appropriately licensed personnel.
ALTERATIONS OR REPAIRS
It is essential that the FAA be contacted prior to any alterations on
the airplane to ensure that airworthiness of the airplane is not violated.
Alterations or repairs to the airplane must be accomplished by licensed
personnel.
GROUND HANDLING
TOWING
The airplane is most easily and safely maneuvered by hand with the
tow-bar attached to the nose wheel. When towing with a vehicle, do not
exceed the nose gear turning angle of 30 o either side of center, or damage
to the gear will result. If the airplane is towed or pushed over a rough
surface during hangaring, watch that the normal cushioning action of the
nose strut does not cause excessive vertical movement of the tail and the
resulting contact with low hangar doors or structure. A flat nose tire or
deflated strut will also increase tail height.
PARKING
When parking the airplane, head into the Wind and set the parking
brakes. Do not set the parking brakes during cold weather when accumulated moisture may freeze the brakes, or when the brakes are overheated.
8-7
SECTION 8
HANDLING, SERVICE
& MAINTENANCE
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
Install the control wheel lock and chock the wheels. In severe weather
and high wind conditions, tie the airplane down as outlined in the following
paragraph.
TIE-DOWN
Proper tie-down procedure is the best precaution against damage to
the parked airplane by gusty or strong winds. To tie-down the airplane
securely, proceed as follows:
(1) Set the parking brake and install the control wheel lock.
(2) Install a surface control lock over the fin and rudder.
(3) Tie sufficiently strong ropes or chains (700 pounds tensile
strength) to the wing, tail, and nose tie-down fittings and
secure each rope to a ramp tie-down.
(4) Install a pitot tube cover.
JACKING
When a requirement exists to jack the entire airplane off the ground,
or when wing jack points are used in the jacking operation, refer to the
Service Manual for specific procedures and equipment required.
Individual main gear may be jacked by using the jack pad which is
incorporated in the main landing gear strut step bracket. When using
the individual gear strut jack pad, flexibility of the gear strut will cause
the main wheel to slide inboard as the wheel is raised, tilting the jack.
The jack must then be lowered for a second jacking operation. Do not
jack both main wheels simultaneously using the individual main gear jack
pads.
If nose gear maintenance is required, the nose wheel may be raised
off the ground by pressing down on a tailcone bulkhead, just forward of the
horizontal stabilizer, and allowing the tail to rest on the tail tie-down ring.
NOTE
Do not apply pressure on the elevator or outboard stabilizer surfaces. When pushing on the tailcone, always
apply pressure at a bulkhead to avoid buckling the skin.
To assist in raising and holding the nose wheel off the ground, weight
down the tail by placing sand-bags, or suitable weights, on each side of
the horizontal stabilizer, next to the fuselage. If ground anchors are
8-8
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
SECTION 8
HANDLING, SERVICE
& MAINTENANCE
available, the tail should be securely tied down.
NDrE
Ensure that the nose will be held off the ground under all
conditions by means of suitable stands or supports under
weight supporting bulkheads near the nose of the airplane.
LEVELING
Longitudinal leveling of the airplane is accomplished by placing a
level on leveling screws located on the left side of the tailcone. Deflate
the nose tire and/or lower or raise the nose strut to properly center the
bubble in the level. Corresponding points on both upper door sills may be
used to level the airplane laterally.
FLYABLE STORAGE
Airplanes placed in non-operational storage for a maximum of 30 days
or those which receive only intermittent operational use for the first 25
hours are considered in flyable storage status. Every seventh day during
these periods, the propeller should be rotated by hand through five revolutions. This action "limbers" the oil and prevents any accumulation of corrosion on engine cylinder walls.
IWARNINGl
For maximum safety, check that the ignition switch is
OFF, the throttle is closed, the mixture control is in
the idle cut-off position, and the airplane is secured
before rotating the propeller by hand. Do not stand
within the arc of the propeller blades while turning the
propeller.
After 30 days, the airplane should be flown for 30 minutes or a ground
runup should be made just long enough to produce an oil temperature within the lower green arc range. Excessive ground runup should be avoided.
Engine runup also helps to eliminate excessive accumulations of water
in the ful\ll system and other air spaces in the engine. Keep fuel tanks full
to minim\ize condensation in the tanks. Keep the battery fully charged to
prevent the electrolyte from freezing in cold weather. If the airplane is
to be stored temporarily, or indefinitely, refer to the Service Manual for
proper storage procedures.
8-9
SECTION 8
HANDLING, SERVICE
& MAINTENANCE
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
SERVICING
In addition to the PREFLIGHT INSPECTION covered in Section 4,
COMPLETE servicing, inspection, and test requirements for your airplane are detailed in the Service Manual. The Service Manual outlines
all items which require attention at 50, 100, and 200 hour intervals plus
those items which require servicing, inspection, and/or testing at special
intervals.
Since Cessna Dealers conduct all service, inspection, and test procedures in accordance with applicable Service Manuals, it is recommended
that you contact your Cessna Dealer concerning these requirements and
begin scheduling your airplane for service at the recommended intervals.
Cessna Progressive Care ensures that these requirements are accomplished at the required intervals to comply with the 100-hour or ANNUAL
inspection as previously covered.
Depending on various flight operations, your local Government Aviation Agency may require additional service, inspections, or tests. For
these regulatory requirements, owners should check with local aviation
officials where the airplane is being operated.
For quick and ready reference, quantities, materials, and specifications for frequently used service items are as follows.
ENGINE OIL
GRADE AND VISCOSITY FOR TEMPERATURE RANGE -The airplane was delivered from the factory with a corrosion preventive aircraft engine oil. This oil should be drained after the first
25 hours of operation, and the following oils used as specified for
the average ambient air temperature in the operating area.
MIL-L-6082 Aviation Grade Straight Mineral Oil: Use to replenish
supply during the first 25 hours and at the first 25-hour oil change.
Continue to use until a total of 50 hours has accumulated or oil
consumption has stabilized.
SAE 50 above 16°C (60°F)
SAE 40 between -1 oc (30°F) and 32°0 (90°F).
SAE 30 between -18°0 (0°F) and 21 °C (70°F).
SAE 20 below -12°C (10°F).
8-10
SECTION 8
HANDLING, SERVICE
& MAINTENANCE
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
MIL-L-22851 Ashless Dispersant Oil: This oil must be used after the
first 50 hours or oil consumption has stabilized.
SAE 40 or SAE 50 above 16°C (60°F).
SAE 40 between -1 oc (30°F) and 32°C (90°F).
SAE 30 or SAE 40 between -18°C (0°F) and 21 oc (70°F).
SAE 30 below -12°C (10°F).
CAPACITY OF ENGINE SUMP-- 6 Quarts.
Do not operate on less than 4 quarts. To minimize loss of oil
through breather, fill to 5 quart level for normal flights of less than
3 hours. For extended flight, fill to 6 quarts. These quantities refer
to oil dipstick level readings. During oil and oil filter changes, one
additional quart is required when the filter element is changed.
OIL AND OIL FILTER CHANGE -After the first 25 hours of operation, drain engine oil sump and oil
cooler and clean the oil pressure screen. If an oil filter is installed,
change filter at this time. Refill sump with straight mineral oil
and use until a total of 50 hours has accumulated or oil consumption has stabilized; then change to dispersant oil. On airplanes not
equipped with an oil filter, drain the engine oil sump and oil cooler
and. clean the oil pressure screen each 50 hours thereafter. On
airplanes which have an oil filter, the oil change interval may be
extended to 100-hour intervals, providing the oil filter is changed at
50-hour intervals. Change engine oil at least every 6 months even
though less than the recommended hours have accumulated. Reduce intervals for prolonged operation in dusty areas, cold climates, or when short flights and long idle periods result in sludging conditions.
FUEL
APPROVED FUEL GRADES (AND COLORS) -100LL Grade Aviation Fuel (Blue).
100 (Formerly 100/130) Grade Aviation Fuel (Green).
CAPACITY EACH STANDARD TANK-- 21.5 Gallons.
CAPACITY EACH LONG RANGE TANK -- 27 Gallons.
NOTE
To ensure maximum fuel capacity when refueling, place
the fuel selector valve in either LEFT or RIGHT position to prevent cross-feeding.
8-11
SECTION 8
HANDLING, SERVICE
& MAINTENANCE
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
LANDING GEAR
NOSE WHEEL TIRE PRESSURE-- 31 PSI on 5. 00-5, 4-Ply Rated Tire.
26 PSI on 6. 00-6, 4-Ply Rated Tire.
l.VIAIN WHEEL TIRE PRESSURE -- 29 PSI on 6. 00-6, 4-Ply Rated Tires.
NOSE GEAR SHOCK STRUT -Keep filled with MIL-H-5606 hydraulic fluid and inflated with air to
45 PSI.
CLEANING AND CARE
WINDSHIELD-WINDOWS
The plastic windshield and windows should be cleaned with an aircraft
windshield cleaner. Apply the cleaner sparingly with soft cloths, and rub
with moderate pressure until all dirt, oil scum and bug stains are removed. Allow the cleaner to dry, then wipe it off with soft flannel cloths.
If a windshield cleaner is not available, the plastic can be cleaned
with soft cloths moistened with Stoddard solvent to remove oil and grease.
NOTE
Never use gasoline, benzine, alcohol, acetone, carbon
tetrachloride, fire extinguisher or anti-ice fluid, lacquer
thinner or glass cleaner to clean the plastic. These materials will attack the plastic and may cause it to craze.
Follow by carefully washing with a mild detergent and plenty of water.
Rinse thoroughly, then dry with a clean moist chamois. Do not rub the
plastic with a dry cloth since this builds up an electrostatic charge which
attracts dust. Waxing with a good commercial wax will finish the cleaning job. A thin, even coat of wax polished out by hand with clean soft
flannel cloths, will fill in minor scratches and help prevent further
scratching.
Do not use a canvas cover on the windshield unless freezing rain or
sleet is anticipated since the cover may scratch the plastic surface.
PAINTED SURFACES
The painted exterior surfaces of your new Cessna have a durable,
long lasting finish and, under normal conditions, require no polishing or
buffing. Approximately 15 days are required for the paint to cure completely; in most- cases-, --the-curing period will have been completed prior
to delivery of the airplane. In the event that polishing or buffing is re8-12
SECTION 8
HANDLING, SERVICE
& MAINTENANCE
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
quired within the curing period, it is recommended that the work be done
by someone experienced in handling uncured paint. Any Cessna Dealer
can accomplish this work.
Generally, the painted surfaces can be kept bright by washing with
water and mild soap, followed by a rinse with water and drying with cloths
or a chamois. Harsh or abrasive soaps or detergents which cause corrosion or scratches should never be used. Remove stubborn oil and grease
with a cloth moistened with Stoddard solvent.
Waxing is unnecessary to keep the painted surfaces bright, However,
A
heavier coating of wax on the leading edges of the wings and tail and on
the engine nose cap and propeller spinner will help reduce the abrasion
encountered in these areas.
if desired, the airplane may be waxed with a good automotive wax.
When the airplane is parked outside in cold climates and it is necessary to remove ice before flight, care should be taken to protect the painted surfaces during ice removal with chemical liquids. A 50-50 solution of
isopropyl alcohol and water will satisfactorily remove ice accumulations
without damaging the paint. A solution with more than 50% alcohol is
harmful and should be avoided. While applying the de-icing solution, keep
it away from the windshield and cabin windows since the alcohol will attack
the plastic and may cause it to craze.
PROPELLER CARE
Preflight inspection of propeller blades for nicks, and wiping them
occasionally with an oily cloth to clean off grass and bug stains will assure long, trouble-free service. Small nicks on the propeller, particularly near the tips and on the leading edges, should be dressed out as
soon as possible since these nicks produce stress concentrations, and if
ignored, may result in cracks. Never use an alkaline cleaner on the
blades; remove grease and dirt with carbon tetrachloride or Stoddard
solvent •
.ENGINE CARE
The engine may be cleaned with Stoddard solvent, or equivalent, then
dried thoroughly.
/CAUTION!
Particular care should be given to electrical equipment
before cleaning. Cleaning fluids should not be allowed
to enter magnetos, starter, alternator and the like.
Protect these components before saturating the engine
8-13
SECTION 8
SERVICE
& MAINTENANCE
H~NDLING,
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
with solvents. All other openings should also be covered
before cleaning the engine assembly. Caustic cleaning
solutions should be used cautiously and should always be
properly neutralized after their use.
INTERIOR CARE
To remove dust and loose dirt from the upholstery and carpet, clean
the interior regularly with a vacuum cleaner.
Blot up any spilled liquid promptly with cleansing tissue or rags.
Don't pat the spot; press the blotting material firmly and hold it for several seconds. Continue blotting until no more liquid is taken up. Scrape
off sticky materials with a dull knife, then spot-clean the area.
Oil spots may be cleaned with household spot removers, used sparingly. Before using any solvent, read the instructions on the container
and test it on an obscure place on the fabric to be cleaned. Never saturate the fabric with a volatile solvent; it may damage the padding and
backing materials.
Soiled upholstery and carpet may be cleaned with foam-type detergent,
used according to the manufacturer's instructions. To minimize wetting
the fabric, keep the foam as dry as possible and remove it with a vacuum
cleaner.
If your airplane is equipped with leather seating, cleaning of the seats
is accomplished using a soft cloth or sponge dipped in mild soap suds.
The soap suds, used sparingly, will remove traces of dirt and grease.
The soap should be removed with a clean damp cloth.
The plastic trim, headliner, instrument panel and control knobs need
only be wiped off with a damp cloth. Oil and grease on the control wheel
and control knobs can be removed with a cloth moistened with Stoddard
solvent. Volatile solvents, such as mentioned in paragraphs on care of
the windshield, must never be used since they soften and craze the plastic.
8-14
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
SECTION 9
SUPPLEMENTS
SECTION 9
SUPPLEMENTS
(Optional Systems Description
& Operating Procedures)
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction
Supplements:
Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT)
Cessna 300 Nav/Com (Type RT-308C)
Cessna 300 Nav/Com (Type RT-328T) .
Cessna 300 ADF (Type R-546E) . . . .
Cessna 300 Transponder (Type RT-359A) and
Encoding Altimeter (Type EA-401A) . .
Cessna 300 Transponder (Type RT-359A) and
Altitude Encoder (Blind)
. . . . . . .
Cessna 400 Transponder (Type RT-459A) and
Encoding Altimeter (Type EA-401A) . .
Cessna 400 Transponder (Type RT-459A) and
Altitude Encoder (Blind)
. . . . . .
Cessna 400 Marker Beacon (Type R-402A)
Cessna 400 Glide Slope (Type R-443B)
DME (Type 190) . . . . . . . . . . .
HF Transceiver (Type PT-10A) . . . .
SSB HF Transceiver (Type ASB-125)
Cessna 200A Autopilot (Type AF-295B)
Cessna 300A Autopilot (Type AF-395A)
(4
(4
(6
(6
Optional
. . . . .
Optional
. . . . .
Optional
. . . . .
Optional
pages)
pages)
pages)
pages)
(6 pages)
(6 pages)
(6 pages)
(6
(4
(4
(4
(4
(4
(6
(6
pages)
pages)
pages)
pages)
pages)
pages)
pages)
pages)
9-1
SECTION 9
SUPPLEMENTS
CESSNA
MODEL 172N
INTRODUCTION
This section consists of a series of supplements, each covering a
single optional system which may be installed in the airplane. Each supplement contains a brief description, and when applicable, operating limitations, emergency and normal procedures, and performance. Other
routinely installed items of optional equipment, whose function and operational procedures do not require detailed instructions, are discussed in
Section 7.
9-2
PILOT'S OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT
EMERGENCY LOCATOR
TRANSMITTER (ELT)
SUPPLEMENT
EMERGENCY LOCATOR TRANSMITTER
{ELT)
SECTION 1
GENERAL
The ELT consists of a self-contained dual-frequency radio transmitter and battery power supply, and is activated by an impact of 5g or more
as may be experienced in a crash landing. The ELT emits an omni-directional signal on the international distress frequencies of 121. 5 and 243.0
MHz. (Some ELT units in export aircraft transmit only on 121.5 MHz.)
General aviation and commercial aircraft, the FAA, and CAP monitor
121.5 MHz, and 243.0 MHz is monitored by the military. Following a
crash landing, the ELT will provide line-of-sight transmission up to 100
miles at 10, 000 feet. The duration of ELT transmissions is affected by
ambient temperature. At temperatures of +21 o to +54°C (+70° to +130°F),
continuous transmission for 115 hours can be expected; a temperature of
-40°C (-40°F) will shorten the duration to 70 hours.
The ELT is readily identified as a bright orange unit mounted behind
the baggage compartment wall in the tailcone. To gain access to the unit,
remove the baggage compartment wall. The ELT is operated by a control
panel at the forward facing end of the unit (see figure 1).
SECTION 2
LIMITATIONS
There is no change to the airplane limitations· when this equipment is
installed.
1 of 4
EMERGENCY LOCATOR
TRANSMITTER {ELT)
PILOT'S OPERATING HANDBOOR
SUPPLEMENT
3
1.
COVER- Removable for access to battery.
2.
FUNCTION SELECTOR SWITCH (3-position toggle switch):
ON - Activates transmitter instantly. Used for test purposes
and if "g" switch is inoperative.
OFF - Deactivates transmitter. Used during shipping, storage
and following rescue.
ARM- Activates transmitter only when "g" switch receives 5g
or more impact.
3.
ANTENNA RECEPTACLE- Connection to antenna mounted on
top of the tailcone.
Figure 1. ELT Control Panel
SECTION 3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
Immediately after a forced landing where emergency assistance is required, the ELT should be utilized as follows.
(1) ENSURE ELT ACTIVATION: Turn a radio transceiver ON and
select 121. 5 MHz. If the ELT can be heard transmitting, it was activated by the "g" switch and is functioning properly. If no emergency tone is audible, gain access to the ELT and place the function se2
PILOT'S OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT
EMERGENCY LOCATOR
TRANSMITTER (ELT)
lector switch in the ON position.
(2) PRIOR TO SIGHTING RESCUE AIRCRAFT: Conserve airplane
battery. Do not activate radio transceiver.
(3) AFTER SIGHTING RESCUE AIRCRAFT: Place ELT function
selector switch in the OFF position, preventing radio interference.
Attempt contact with rescue aircraft with the radio transceiver set to
a frequency of 121. 5 MHz. If no contact is established, return the
function selector switch to ON immediately.
(4) FOLLOWING RESCUE: Place ELT function selector switch in
the OFF position, terminating emergency transmissions.
SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES
As long as the function selector switch remains in the ARM position,
the ELT automatically activates following an impact of 5g or more over a
short period of time.
Following a lightning strike, or an exceptionally hard landing, the
ELT may activate although no emergency exists. To check your ELT for
inadvertent activation, select 121. 5 MHz on your radio transceiver and
listen for an emergency tone transmission. If the ELT can be heard transmitting, place the function selector switch in the OFF position and the tone
should cease. Immediately place the function selector switch in the ARM
position to re-set the ELT for normal operation.
SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE
There is no change to the airplane performance data when this equipment is installed.
3/(4 blank)
CESSNA 300 NA V/COM
(TYPE RT-308C)
PILOT'S OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT
SUPPLEMENT
CESSNA 300 NA V /COM
(COM/VOR, No LOC - Type RT -308C}
SECTION 1
GENERAL
The Cessna 300 Nav/Com (Type RT-308C), shown in Figure 1, consists of a panel-mounted receiver-transmitter (RT-308C) and a single
needle course deviation indicator (IN-514R or IN-514B). The RT-308C
Receiver-Transmitter includes a 360-channel VHF communication receivertransmitter and a 160-channel VHF navigation receiver, both of which may
be operated simultaneously.
The communication receiver-transmitter receives and transmits signals between 118. 00 and 135. 95 MHz in 50 kHz steps. The navigation receiver receives and interprets VHF omnidirectional range (VOR) signals
between 108. 00 and 117. 95 MHz. Although localizer signals (all oddtenth frequencies between 108. 1 and 111. 9 MHz) can also be received, the
navigation receiver does not include the necessary circuits to interpret
the signals for localizer indications. However, the audio portion of the
localizer is audible so that flight information, such as that broadcast in
certain areas on selected localizer frequencies by the Automatic Terminal
Information Service (ATIS), may be heard.
All controls for the Cessna 300 Nav/Com (Type RT-308C), except the
omni bearing selector (OBS), are mounted on the front panel of the receivertransmitter. The course selector and the navigation indicators are included in the course deviation indicator. The communication receivertransmitter and the navigation receiver are synthesizer-controlled and
are tuned automatically when the frequency is selected. In addition, when
two or more radios are installed, a transmitter selector switch and a
speaker-phone selector switch are provided. Each control function is
described in Figure 1.
SECTION
2
LIMITATIONS
There is no change to the airplane limitations when this avionic equipment is installed.
1 of 4
CESSNA 300 NA V/COM
(TYPE RT-308C}
1.
RECEIVER-TRANSMITTER FREQUENCY INDICATOR.
2.
NAVIGATION RECEIVER FREQUENCY INDICATOR.
3.
SQUELCH CONTROL - Used to adjust signal threshold
necessary to activate communication receiver audio.
Clockwise rotation increases background noise (decreases
squelch action); counterclockwise rotation decreases
background noise.
4.
COMMUNICATION RECEIVER-TRANSMITTER MEGAHERTZ SELECTOR - Selects communication
receiver-transmitter frequency in 1-MHz steps between
118 and 135 MHz.
Figure 1.
2
PILOT'S OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT
Cessna 300 Nav/Com (Type RT-308C) - VOR only (Sheet 1 of 2)
PILGr'S OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT
CESSNA 300 NA V /COM
(TYPE RT-308C)
5.
OFF /ON VOLUME CONTROL - Turns complete set on
and controls volume of audio from communication receiver. Clockwise rotation increases audio level.
6.
COMMUNICATION RECEIVER-TRANSMITTER FRACTIONAL MEGAHERTZ SELECTOR- Selects communication receiver-transmitter fractional frequency in
0. 05 MHz steps between 0. 00 and 0. 95 MHz.
7.
NAVIGATION RECEIVER MEGAHERTZ SELECTORSelects navigation receiver frequency in 1-MHz steps
between 108 and 117 MHz.
8.
NAVIGATION RECEIVER VOLUME CONTROL- Controls volume of audio from navigation receiver only.
Clockwise rotation increases audio level.
9.
NAVIGATION RECEIVER FRACTIONAL MEGAHERTZ
SELECTOR- Selects navigation receiver frequency
in 0. 05 MHz steps between 0. 00 and 0. 95 MHz.
10.
COURSE DEVIATION POINTER- Indicates deviation
from selected omni bearing.
11.
OFF/TO-FROM (OMNI) INDICATOR- Operates only
with VOR signal. "OFF" position (flag) indicates
unreliable signal or no signal (shows OFF when localizer
frequency is selected). When "OFF" position disappears,
indicator shows whether selected course is "TO" or
"FROM" VOR station.
12.
RECIPROCAL COURSE INDEX - Indicates reciprocal
of selected VOR course.
13.
OMNI BEARING SELECTOR (OBS) - Selects desired
course to or from a VOR station.
14.
BACK COURSE (BC) INDICATOR LIGHT (On IN-514B
Only) - Not used with this radio.
15.
BEARING DIAL- Rotated by OBS to select course at index.
16.
COURSE INDEX- Indicates selected VOR course.
Figure 1.
Cessna 300 Nav/Com (Type RT-308C)- VOR only (Sheet 2 of 2)
3
PILOT'S OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT
CESSNA 300 NA V/COM
(TYPE RT-308C)
SECTION
3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
There is no change to the airplane emergency procedures when this
avionic equipment is installed.
SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES
COMMUNICATIONS TRANSCEIVER OPERATION:
(1) OFF/VOL Control-- TURN ON and adjust to desired listening
level.
(2) XMTR SEL Switch -- SET to desired transceiver.
(3) SPEAKER/PHONE (or AUTO) Switch -- SET to desired mode.
(4) COM Frequency Selector Knobs -- SELECT desired operating
frequency.
(5) SQ Control -- ROTATE counterclockwise to decrease background
noise as required.
(6) Mike Button:
a. To Transmit -- DEPRESS and SPEAK into microphone.
b. To Receive -- RELEASE.
NAVIGATION RECEIVER OPERATION:
(1) COM OFF /VOL Control -- TURN ON.
(2) SPEAKER/PHONE (or AUTO) Switch-- SET to desired mode.
(3) NAV Frequency Selector Knobs-- SELECT desired operating
frequency.
(4) NAV VOL Control -- ADJUST to desired listening level.
(5) OBS Knob -- SELECT desired course.
SECTION
5
PERFORMANCE
There is no change to the airplane performance when this avionic
equipment is installed. However, the installation of an externally mounted antenna or several related external antennas, will result in a minor
reduction in cruise performance.
4
PILOT'S OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT
CESSNA 300 NAV/COM
(TYPE RT-328T)
SUPPLEMENT
CESSNA 300 NAV /COM
(720-Channel - Type RT-328T)
SECTION 1
GENERAL
The Cessna 300 Nav/Com (Type RT-328T), shown in Figure 1, consists of a panel-mounted receiver-transmitter and a single- or dualpointer remote course deviation indicator (CDI). The set includes a 720channel VHF communication receiver-transmitter and a 200-channel VHF
navigation receiver, both of which may be operated simultaneously.
The communication receiver-transmitter receives and transmits signals between 118.000 and 135.975 MHz in 25-kHz steps. The navigation
receiver receives and interprets VHF omnidirectional and localizer signals between 108.00 and 117.95 MHz in 50-kHz steps. The communication
receiver-transmitter and the navigation receiver are synthesizer-controlled and are tuned 1;1.utomatically when the frequency is selected.
A DME receiver-transmitter or a glide slope receiver, or both, may
be interconnected with the Cessna 300 Nav/Com set for automatic selection of the associated DME or GS frequency. When a VOR frequency is
selected on the Nav/Com, the associated VORTAC or VOR-DME station
frequency will also be selected automatically; likewise, if a localizer frequency is selected, the associated glide slope frequency will be selected
automatically.
All controls of the Cessna 300 Nav/Com, except the omni bearing
selector knob (OBS), which is located on the course indicator, are mounted on the front panel of the receiver-transmitter. The course indicator
includes either a single pointer and related OFF flag for VOR/LOC indication only, or dual pointers and related OFF flags for both VOR/LOC
and glide slope indications. The course indicator also incorporates a
back-course lamp (BC) which lights when optional back-course operation
is selected. In addition, when two or more radios are installed, a transmitter selector switch and a speaker-phone selector switch are provided.
Each control function is described in Figure 1.
1 of 6
CESSNA 300 NAV/COM
(TYPE RT-328T)
PILOI''S OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLE:MENT
1.
RECEIVER-TRANSMITTER FREQUENCY INDICATOR,
2.
NAVIGATION RECEIVER FREQUENCY INDICATOR.
3.
SQUELCH CONTROL - Used to adjust signal threshold necessary to activate
communication receiver audio. Clockwise rotation increases background nmse
(decreases squelch action); counterclockwise rotation decreases background nmse.
4.
COMMUNICATION RECEIVER-TRANSMITTER MEGAHERTZ SELECTOR Selects communication receiver-transmitter frequency in 1-MHz steps between 118 and 135 MHz.
5.
OFF /ON VOLUME CONTROL - Turns set on and controls volume of audio
from communications receiver.
6.
COMMUNICATION RECEIVER-TRANSMITTER FRACTIONAL MEGAHERTZ SELECTOR - Selects communication receiver-transmitter fractional frequency in. 05-MHz steps between . 000 and. 950 MHz or between . 025 and . 975 MHz depending on position of 50-25 MHz selector
switch (7).
Figure 1. Cessna 300 Nav/Com (Type RT-328T) (Sheet 1 of 2)
2
PILOT'S OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT
7.
CESSNA 300 NA V /COM
(TYPE RT-328T)
50-25 FRACTIONAL MHz SELECTOR SWITCH -In "50" position, enables
communication whole MHz frequency readout to display and communication
fractional MHz control to select fractional part of frequency in . 05-MHz
steps between . 000 and . 950 MHz. In "25" position, frequency display and
coverage is in . 05-MHz steps between . 025 and • 975.
NOTE
The third-dectmal-place digit is not shown on the receivertransmitter frequency readout.
8.
NAVIGATION RECEIVER MEGAHERTZ SELECTOR- Selects navigation receiver
frequency in 1-MHz steps between 108 and 117 MHz; simultaneously selects
patred glide slope frequency or DME channel.
9.
NAVIGATION RECEIVER VOLUME CONTROL- Controls volume of audio from
navtgation receiver only. Clockwise rotation increases audio level.
10.
NAVIGATION RECEIVER FRACTIONAL MEGAHERTZ SELECTOR- Selects
navigation receiver frequency in. 05-MHz steps.between. 00 and. 95 MHz;
simultaneously paired glide slope frequency or DME channel.
11.
COMBINED IDENTIFIER SIGNAL SELECTOR AND VOR SELF-TEST SELECTOR
SWITCH (ID-T SWITCH) -With VOR or LOC station selected, in ID position, station tdentifier is audible; in center (unmarked) position, identifier is off; in T
(momentary on) position, tests VOR navigation circuits.
12.
COURSE DEVIATION POINTER - Indicates deviation from selected omni
bearing or localizer centerline.
13.
OFF/TO-FROM (OMNI) INDICATOR- Operates only with VOR or localizer
signal. "OFF" position (flag) indicates unreliable signal. When "OFF"
position disappears, indicator shows whether selected VOR course is "TO"
or "FROM" the station (if LOC frequency is selected, indicator will only
show "TO").
14.
RECIPROCAL COURSE INDEX- Indicates reciprocal of selected VOR course.
15.
OMNI BEARING SELECTOR (OBS)- Selects desired course to or from a
VOR station.
16.
BC - During LOC operation, when optional Back-Course operation is selected,
amber lamp illuminates to alert the pilot that CDI indication is reversed.
17.
BEARING DIAL- Rotated by OBS to select course at index.
18.
COURSE INDEX- Indicates selected VOR course.
19.
GLIDE SLOPE "OFF" FLAG- When visible, indicates unreliable glide slope
signal or no glide slope signal. The flag disappears when a reliable glide
slope signal is being received.
20.
GLIDE SLOPE DEVIATION POINTER- Indicates deviation from normal
glide slope.
Figure 1. Cessna 300 Nav/Com (Type RT-328T) (Sheet 2 of 2)
3
CESSNA 300 NAV /COM
(TYPE
RT-328T)
I
PILOT'S OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT
SECTION 2
LIMITATIONS
There is no change to the airplane limitations when this avionic
equipment is installed. However, the pilot should be aware that on many
Cessna airplanes equipped with the windshield mounted glide slope antenna,
pilots should avoid use of 2700 ±100 RPM (or 1800 ±100 RPM with a three
bladed propeller) during ILS approaches to avoid oscillations of the glide
slope deviation pointer caused by propeller interference.
SECTION
3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
There is no change to the airplane emergency procedures when this
avionic equipment is installed.
SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES
COMMUNICATIONS TRANSCEIVER OPERATION:
(1) OFF/VOL Control-- TURN ON and adjust to desired listening
level.
(2) XMTR SEL Switch-- SET to desired transceiver.
(3) SPEAKER PHONE (or AUTO) Switch -- SET to desired mode.
(4) 50-25 Fractional MHz Selector Switch-- SELECT desired
frequency (does not affect navigation frequencies).
(5) COM Frequency Selector Knobs -- SELECT desired operating
frequency.
(6) SQ Control-- ROTATE counterclockwise to decrease background
noise as required.
(7) Mike Button:
a. To Transmit-- DEPRESS and SPEAK into microphone.
b. To Receive -- RELEASE.
NAVIGATION RECEIVER OPERATION:
(1) COM OFF/VOL Control-- TURN ON.
(2) SPEAKER/PHONE (or AUTO) Switch -- SET to desired mode.
(3) NAV Frequency Selector Knobs-- SELECT desired operating
frequency.
4
CESSNA 300 NAV/COM
(TYPE RT-328T)
PILOT'S OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT
(4) NAV VOL Control-- ADJUST to desired audio level.
(5) ID-T Switch:
a. To Identify Station -- SET to ID to hear navigation
station identifier (Morse Code) signal.
b. To Filter Out Station Identifier Signal -- SET to CENTER
(unmarked) position to include filter in audio circuit.
(6) OBS Knob-- SELECT desired course.
TO SELF TEST VOR NAVIGATION CIRCUITS:
(1) COM OFF/VOL Control-- TURN ON.
(2) NAV Frequency Selector Switches -- SELECT usable VOR
station signal.
(3) OBS Knob -- SET for 0° course at index; CDI pointer centers
or deflects left or right, depending on bearing of signal; OFF/TOFROM indicator shows TO or FROM.
(4) ID-T Switch-- PRESS toT and HOLD at T; CDI pointer should
center and OFF/TO-FROM indicator should show FROM.
(5) OBS Knob-- TURN to displace course approximately 10° to
either side of 0° (while holding ID-T switch at T); CDI pointer
should deflect full scale in direction corresponding to course displacement. OFF/TO-FROM indicator should still show FROM.
NOTE
This test does not fulfill the requirements of FAR 91. 25.
SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE
There is no change to the airplane performance when this avionic
equipment is installed. However, the installation of an externally mounted antenna or several related external antennas, will result in a minor
reduction in cruise performance.
5/(6 blank)
PILOT'S OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT
CESSNA 300 ADF
(TYPE R-546E)
SUPPLEMENT
CESSNA 300 ADF
(Type R-546E)
SECTION 1
GENERAL
The Cessna 300 ADF is a panel-mounted, digitally tuned automatic
direction finder. It is designed to provide continuous 1 kHz digital tuning
in the frequency range of 200kHz to 1, 699kHz and eliminates the need for
mechanical band switching. The system is comprised of a receiver, loop
antenna, bearing indicator and a sense antenna. In addition, when two or
more radios are installed, speaker-phone selector switches are provided.
Each control function is described in Figure 1.
The Cessna 300 ADF can be used for position plotting and homing
procedures, and for aural reception of amplitude-modulated (AM) signals.
With the function selector knob at ADF, the Cessna 300 ADF provides
a visual indication, on the bearing indicator, of the bearing to the transmitting station relative to the nose of the airplane. This is done by combining signals from the sense antenna with signals from the loop antenna.
With the function selector knob at REC, the Cessna 300 ADF uses only
the sense antenna and operates as a conventional low-frequency receiver.
The Cessna 300 ADF is designed to receive transmission from the
following radio facilities: commercial broadcast stations, low-frequency
range stations, FAA radio beacons, and ILS compass locatorso
1 of 6
CESSNA 300 ADF
(TYPE R-546E)
PILOT'S OPERATING HANDBOOK·
SUPPLEMENT
1.
OFF/VOL CONTROL -Controls primary power and audio output
level. Clockwise rotation from OFF position applies primary
power to receiver; further clockwise rotation increases audio level.
2.
FREQUENCY SELECTORS- Knob (A) selects 100-kHz increments of receiver frequency, knob (B) selects 10-kHz increments, and knob (C) selects 1-kHz increments.
Figure 1. Cessna 300 ADF Operating Controls and Indicators (Sheet 1 of 2)
2
PILOT'S OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT
3.
CESSNA 300 ADF
(TYPE R-546E)
FUNCTION SWITCH:
BFO: Selects operation as communication receiver using
only sense antenna and activates 1000-Hz tone beat
frequency oscillator to permit coded identifier of
stations transmitting keyed CW signals (Morse
Code) to be heard.
REC: Selects operation as standard communication receiver using only sense antenna.
ADF: Set operates as automatic direction finder using loop
and sense antennas.
TEST: Momentary-on position used during ADF operation
to test bearing reliability. When held in TEST
position, slews indicator pointer clockwise; when
released, if bearing is reliable, pointer returns
to original bearing position.
4.
INDEX (ROTATABLE CARD)- Indicates relative, magnetic, or
true heading of aircraft, as selected by HDG control.
5.
POINTER - Indicates station bearing in degrees of azimuth,
relative to the nose of the aircraft. When heading control is
adjusted, indicates relative, magnetic, or true bearing of
radio signal.
6.
HEADING CONTROL (HDG) -Rotates card to set in relative,
magnetic, or true bearing information.
Figure 1. Cessna 300 ADF Operating Controls and Indicators (Sheet 2 of 2)
3
CESSNA 300 ADF
(TYPE R-546E)
PILOT'S OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT
SECTION 2
LIMITATIONS
There is no change to the airplane limitations when this avionic
equipment is installed.
SECTION
3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
There is no change to the airplane emergency procedures when this
avionic equipment is installed.
SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES
TO OPERATE AS A COMMUNICATIONS RECEIVER ONLY:
(1) OFF/VOL Control -- ON.
(2) Function Selector Knob -- REC.
(3) Frequency Selector Knobs -- SELECT operating frequency.
(4) ADF SPEAKER/PHONE Switch-- SELECT speaker or phone
position as desired.
(5) VOL Control-- ADJUST to desired listening level.
TO OPERATE AS AN AUTOMATIC DffiECTION FINDER:
(1) OFF/VOL Control-- ON.
(2) Frequency Selector Knobs -- SELECT operating frequency.
(3) ADF SPEAKER/PHONE Switch-- SELECT speaker or phone
position.
(4) Function Selector Knob-- ADF position and note relative bearing
on indicator.
(5) VOL Control-- ADJUST to desired listening level.
TO TEST RELIABILITY OF AUTOMATIC DIRECTION FINDER:
(1) Function Selector Knob-- ADF position and note relative bearing
on indicator.
(2) Function Selector Knob-- TEST position and observe that pointer
moves away from relative bearing at least 10 to 20 degrees.
(3) Function Selector Knob-- ADF position and observe that pointer
returns to same relative bearing as in step (1).
4
PILOT'S OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT
CESSNA 300 ADF
(TYPE R-546E)
TO OPERATE BFO:
(1) OFF /VOL Control -- ON.
(2) Function Selector Knob -- BFO.
(3) Frequency Selector Knobs-- SELECT operating frequency.
(4) ADF SPEAKER/PHONE Switch-- SELECT speaker or phone
position.
(5) VOL Control --ADJUST to desired listening level.
NOTE
A 1000-Hz tone is heard in the audio output when a CW
signal (Morse Code) is tuned in properly.
SECTION
5
PERFORMANCE
There is no change to the airplane performance when this avionic
equipment is installed. However, the installation of an externally mounted antenna or several related external antennas, will result in a minor
reduction in cruise performance.
5/(6 blank)
PILOT'S OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT
CESSNA 300 TRANSPONDER
AND ENCODING ALTIMETER
SUPPLEMENT
CESSNA 300 TRANSPONDER
(Type RT-359A)
AND
OPTIONAL ENCODING ALTIMETER
(Type EA-401A)
SECTION 1
GENERAL
The Cessna 300 Transponder (Type RT-359A), shown in Figure 1, is
the airborne component of an Air Traffic Control Radar Beacon System
(A TCRBS). The transponder enables the ATC ground controller to "see"
and identify the aircraft, while in flight, on the control center's radarscope more readily.
The Cessna 300 Transponder consists of a panel-mounted unit and an
externally-mounted antenna. The transponder receives interrogating pulse
signals on 1030 MHz and transmits coded pulse-train reply signals on 1090
MHz. It is capable of replying to Mode A (aircraft identification) and
Mode C (altitude reporting) interrogations on a selective reply basis on any
of 4,096 information code selections. When an optional panel-mounted
EA-401A Encoding Altimeter (not part of a standard 300 Transponder system) is included in the avionic configuration, the transponder can provide
altitude reporting in 100-foot increments between -1000 and +35, 000 feet.
All Cessna 300 Transponder operating controls, with the exception of
the optional altitude encoder's altimeter setting knob, are located on the
front panel of the unit. The altimeter setting knob is located on the encoding
altimeter. Functions of the operating controls are described in Figure 1.
1 of 6
CESSNA 300 TRANSPONDER
AND ENCODING ALTIMETER
PILOT'S OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT
1.
FUNCTION SWITCH - Controls application of power and
selects transponder operating mode, as follo\"lS:
OFF - Turns set off.
SBY - Turns set on for equipment warm-up.
ON - Turns set on and enables transponder to transmit
Mode A (aircraft identification) reply pulses.
ALT - Turns set on and enables transponder to transmit
either Mode A (aircraft identification) reply
pulses or Mode C (altitude reporting) pulses selected automatically by the interrogating signal.
2.
REPLY LAMP- Lamp flashes to indicate transmission of reply
pulses; glows steadily to indicate transmission of IDENT pulse
or satisfactory self-test operation. (Reply Lamp will also glow
steadily during initial warm-up period.)
Figure 1. Cessna 300 Transponder and Encoding Altimeter (Sheet 1 of 2)
2
PILar'S OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT
CESSNA 300 TRANSPONDER
AND ENCODING ALTIMETER
3.
IDENT (ID) SWITCH- When depressed, selects special pulse
identifier to be transmitted with transponder reply to
effect immediate identification of aircraft on ground controller's display. (Reply Lamp will glow steadily during
duration of IDENT pulse transmission. )
4.
DIMMER (DIM) CONTROL - Allows pilot to control brilliance of
reply lamp.
5.
SELF-TEST (TST) SWITCH -- When depressed, causes transponder to generate a self-interrogating signal to provide a check
of transponder operation. (Reply Lamp will glow steadily to
verify self test operation.)
6.
REPLY-CODE SELECTOR KNOBS (4) -Select assigned
Mode A reply code.
7.
REPLY-CODE INDICATORS (4) -Display selected Mode A
reply code.
8.
1000-FOOT DRUM TYPE INDICATOR- Provides digital altitude readout in 1000-foot increments between -1000 feet and
+35, 000 feet. When altitude is below 10, 000 feet, a diagonally
striped flag appears in the 10,000 foot window.
9.
OFF INDICATOR WARNING FLAG- Flag appears across altitude readout when power is removed from the altimeter to indicate that readout is not reliable.
10.
100-FOOT DRUM TYPE INDICATOR- Provides digital altitude readout in 100-foot increments between 0 feet and 1000 feet.
11.
20-FOOT INDICATOR NEEDLE - Indicates altitude in 20-foot
increments between 0 feet and 1000 feet.
12.
ALTIMETER SETTING SCALE- DRUM TYPE- Indicates selected altimeter setting in the range of 27.9 to 31. 0 inches of
mercury on the standard altimeter or 950 to 1050 millibars
on the optional altimeter.
13.
ALTIMETER SETTING KNOB- Dials in desired altimeter
setting in the range of 27. 9 to 31. 0 inches of mercury on the
standard altimeter or 950 to 1050 millibars on the optional
altimeter.
Figure 1. Cessna 300 Transponder and Encoding Altimeter {Sheet 2 of 2)
3
CESSNA 300 TRANSPONDER
AND ENCODING ALTIMETER
PILar'S OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT
SECTION 2
LIMITATIONS
There is no change to the airplane limitations when this avionic equipment is installed.
SECTION
3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
TO TRANSMIT AN EMERGENCY SIGNAL:
(1) Function Switch -- ON.
(2) Reply-Code Selector Knobs -- SELECT 7700 operating code.
(3) ID Switch -- DEPRESS then RELEASE to effect immediate identification of aircraft on ground controller's display.
TO TRANSMIT A SIGNAL REPRESENTING LOSS OF ALL
COMMUNICATIONS (WHEN IN A CONTROLLED ENVIRONMENT:
(1) Function Switch -- ON.
(2) Reply-Code Selector Knobs -- SELECT 7700 operating code
for 1 minute; then SELECT 7600 operating code for 15 minutes and
then REPEAT this procedure at same intervals for remainder of
flight.
(3) ID Switch -- DEPRESS then RELEASE at intervals to effect
immediate identification of aircraft on ground controller's display.
SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES
BEFORE TAKEOFF:
(1)
Function Switch -- SBY.
TO TRANSMIT MODE A (AIRCRAFT IDENTIFICATION) CODES IN
FIJGHT:
(1) Off Indicator Warning Flag -- VERIFY that flag is out of view on
encoding altimeter.
4
PILOT'S OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT
CESSNA 300 TRANSPONDER
AND ENCODING ALTIMETER
(2) Reply-Code Selector Knobs -- SELECT assigned code.
(3) Function Switch -- ON.
(4) DIM Control -- ADJUST light brilliance of reply lamp.
NOTE
During normal operation with function switch in ON position, reply lamp flashes indicating transponder replies
to interrogations.
(5) ID Button -- DEPRESS momentarily when instructed by ground
controller to "squawk !DENT" (reply lamp will glow steadily, indicating IDENT operation).
TO TRANSMIT MODE C (ALTITUDE REPORTING) CODES IN FLIGHT:
(1) Off Indicator Warning Flag -- VERIFY that flag is out of view on
encoding altimeter.
(2) Altitude Encoder Altimeter Setting Knob -- SET IN assigned
local altimeter setting.
(3) Reply-Code Selector Knobs -- SELECT assigned code.
(4) Function Switch-- ALT.
NOTE
When directed by ground controller to "stop altitude
squawk", turn Function Switch to ON for Mode A
operation only.
NOTE
Pressure altitude is transmitted by the transponder
for altitude squawk and conversion to indicated altitude is done in ATC computers. Altitude squawked
will only agree with indicated altitude when the local
altimeter setting in use by the ground controller is
set in the encoding altimeter.
(5) DIM Control -- ADJUST light brilliance of reply lamp.
TO SELF-TEST TRANSPONDER OPERATION:
(1) Function Switch -- SBY and wait 30 seconds for equipment to
warm-up.
(2) Function Switch-- ON or ALT.
5
CESSNA 300 TRANSPONDER
AND ENCODING ALTIMETER
PILOT'S OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT
(3) TST Button -- DEPRESS and HOLD {reply lamp should light with
full brilliance regardless of DIM control setting).
(4) TST Button -- Release for normal operation.
SECTION
5
PERFORMANCE
There is no change to the airplane performance when this avionic
equipment is installed. However, the installation of an externally mounted antenna or several related external antennas, will result in a minor
reduction in cruise performance.
6
PILOT'S OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT
CESSNA 300 TRANSPONDER
AND ALTITUDE ENCODER (BLIND)
SUPPLEMENT
(
CESSNA 300 TRANSPONDER
(Type RT -359A)
AND
OPTIONAL ALTITUDE ENCODER (BLIND)
SECTION 1
GENERAL
The Cessna 300 Transponder (Type RT-359A), shown in Figure 1, is
the airborne component of an Air Traffic Control Radar Beacon System
(ATCRBS). The transponder enables the A TC ground controller to "see"
and identify the aircraft, while in flight, on the control center's radarscope
more readily.
The Cessna 300 Transponder system consists of a panel-mounted unit
and an externally-mounted antenna. The transponder receives interrogation pulse signals on 1030 MHz and transmits pulse-train reply signals on
1090 MHz. The transponder is capable of replying to Mode A (aircraft
identification) and also Mode C (altitude reporting) when coupled to an optional altitude encoder system. The transponder is capable of replying on
both modes of interrogation on a selective reply basis on any of 4, 096 information code selections. The optional altitude encoder system (not part
of a standard 300 Transponder system) required for Mode C (altitude reporting) operation consists of a completely independent remote-mounted
digitizer that is connected to the static system and supplies encoded altitude information to the transponder. When the altitude encoder system
is coupled to the 300 Transponder system, altitude reporting capabilities
are available in 100-foot increments between -1000 and +20, 000 feet.
All Cessna 300 Transponder operating controls are located on the front
panel of the unit. Functions of the operating controls are described in
Figure l.
1 of 6
CESSNA 300 TRANSPONDER
AND ALTITUDE ENCODER (BLIND)
1.
PILOT'S OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT
FUNCTION SWITCH - Controls application of power and selects
transponder operating mode as follows:
OFF - Turns set off.
SBY - Turns set on for equipment warm-up or standby power.
ON - Turns set on and enables transponder to transmit
Mode A (aircraft identification) reply pulses.
ALT - Turns set on and enables transponder to transmit
either Mode A (aircraft identllication) reply pulses
or Mode C (altitude reporting) pulses selected automatically by the interrogating signal.
2.
REPLY LAMP - Lamp flashes to indicate transmission of reply
pulses; glows steadily to indicate transmission of IDENT pulse
or satisfactory self-test operation. (Reply lamp will also glow
steadily during initial warm-up period.)
Figure 1. Cessna 300 Transponder and Altitude Encoder (Blind)
(Sheet 1 of 2)
2
PILOT'S OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT
CESSNA 300 TRANSPONDER
AND ALTITUDE ENCODER (BLIND)
3.
IDENT (ID) SWITCH -When depressed, selects special pulse
identifier to be transmitted with transponder reply to effect
immediate identification of aircraft on ground controller's display. (Reply lamp will glow steadily during duration of IDENT
pulse transmission. )
4.
DIMMER (DIM) CONTROL- Allows pilot to control brilliance of
reply lamp.
5.
SELF-TEST (TST} SWITCH- When depressed, causes transponder to generate a self-interrogating signal to provide a check
of transponder operation. (Reply lamp will glow steadily to
verify self-test operation.)
6.
REPLY-CODE SELECTOR KNOBS (4)- Select assigned Mode A
reply code.
7.
REPLY -CODE INDICA TORS (4) - Display selected Mode A
reply code.
8.
REMOTE-MOUNTED DIGITIZER- Provides an altitude reporting
code range of -1000 feet up to the airplane's maximum service
ceiling.
Figure 1. Cessn<j. 300 Transponder and Altitude Encoder (Blind)
(Sheet 2 of 2)
3
CESSNA 300 TRANSPONDER
AND ALTITUDE ENCODER (BLIND)
PILOT'S OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT
SECTION
2
LIMITATIONS
There is no change to the airplane limitations when this avionic equipment is installed. However, a placard labeled "ALTITUDE ENCODER
EQUIPPED" must be installed near the altimeter.
SECTION
3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
TO TRANSMIT AN EMERGENCY SIGNAL:
(1) Function Switch-- ON.
(2) Reply-Code Selector Knobs --SELECT 7700 operating code.
(3) ID Switch-- DEPRESS then RELEASE to effect immediate identification of aircraft on ground controller's display.
TO TRANSMIT A SIGNAL REPRESENTING LOSS OF ALL
COMMUNICATIONS (WHEN IN A CONTROLLED ENVIRONMENT):
(1) Function Switch-- ON.
(2) Reply-Code Selector Knobs -- SELECT 7700 operating code for
1 minute; then SELECT 7600 operating code for 15 minutes and then
REPEAT this procedure at same intervals for remainder of flight.
(3) ID Switch-- DEPRESS then RELEASE at intervals to effect
immediate identification of aircraft on ground cbntroller's display.
SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES
BEFORE TAKEOFF:
(1) Function Switch -- SBY.
TO TRANSMIT MODE A (AIRCRAFT IDENTIFICATION) CODES IN FLIGHT
(1)
4
Reply-Code Selector Knobs -- SELECT assigned code.
PILOT'S OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT
CESSNA 300 TRANSPONDER
AND ALTITUDE ENCODER (BLIND)
(2) Function Switch -- ON.
(3) DIM Control-- ADJUST light brilliance of reply lamp.
NOTE
During normal operation with function switch in ON position, reply lamp flashes indicating transponder replies
to interrogations.
(4) ID Button-- DEPRESS momentarily when instructed by ground
controller to "squawk !DENT" (reply lamp will glow steadily, indicating !DENT operation).
TO TRANSMIT MODE C (ALTITUDE REPORTING) CODES IN FLIGHT:
(1) Reply-Code Selector Knobs -- SELECT assigned code.
{2) Function Switch-- ALT.
NOTE
When directed by grc:und controller to "stop altitude
squawk", turn Function Switch to ON for Mode A
operation only.
NOTE
Pressure altitude is transmitted by the transponder
for altitude squawk and conversion to indicated altitude is done in ATC computers. Altitude squawked
will only agree with indicated altitude when the local
altimeter setting in use by the ground controller is
set in the aircraft altimeter.
(3) DIM Control --ADJUST light brilliance of reply lamp.
TO SELF-TEST TRANSPONDER OPERATION:
(1) Function Switch -- SBY and wait 30 seconds for equipment to
warm-up.
(2) Function Switch -- ON or ALT.
(3) TST Button -- DEPRESS (reply lamp should light brightly
regardless of DIM control setting).
(4) TST Button-- Release for normal operation.
5
CESSNA 300 TRANSPONDER
AND ALTITUDE ENCODER (BLIND)
PILOT'S OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT
SECTION
5
PERFORMANCE
There is no change to the airplane performance when this avionic
equipment is installed. However, the installation of an externally mounted
antenna or several related external antennas, will result in a minor reduction in cruise performance.
6
PILOT'S OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT
CESSNA 400 TRANSPONDER
AND ENCODING ALTIMETER
SUPPLEMENT
CESSNA 400 TRANSPONDER
(Type RT-459A)
AND
OPTIONAL ENCODING ALTIMETER
(Type EA-401A)
SECTION 1
GENERAL
The Cessna 400 Transponder (Type 459A), shown in Figure 1, is the
airborne component of an Air Traffic Control Radar Beacon System
(ATCRBS). The transponder enables the ATC ground controller to "see"
and identify the aircraft, while in flight, on the control center's radar
scope more readily.
The 400 Transponder consists of a panel-mounted unit and an externally-mounted antenna. The transponder receives interrogating pulse
signals on 1030 MHz and transmits coded pulse-train reply signals on
1090 MHz. It is capable of replying to Mode A (aircraft identification)
and Mode C (altitude reporting) interrogations on a selective reply basis
on any of 4, 096 information code selections. When an optional panel
mounted EA-401A Encoding Altimeter (not part of 400 Transponder System)
is included in the avionic configuration, the transponder can provide altitude reporting in 100-foot increments between -1000 and +35, 000 feet.
All Cessna 400 Transponder operating controls, with the exception of
the optional altitude encoder's altimeter setting knob, are located on the
front panel of the unit. The altimeter setting knob is located on the encoding altimeter. Functions of the operating controls are described in
Figure 1.
1 of 6
CESSNA 400 TRANSPONDER
AND ENCODING ALTIMETER
PILOT'S OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT
Figure 1. Cessna 400 Transponder and Encoding Altimeter
Operating Controls (Sheet 1 of 2)
2
PILOT'S OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT
CESSNA 400 TRANSPONDER
AND ENCODING ALTIMETER
1.
FUNCTION SMTCH - Controls application of power and selects transponder
operating mode as follows:
OFF - Turns set off.
SBY - Turns set on for eqmpment warm-up or standby power.
ON - Turns set on and enables transponder to transmit Mode A (a1rcraft
1den tification) reply pulses.
ALT - Turns set on and enables transponder to transmit either Mode A
(a1rcraft Identification) reply pulses or Mode C (altitude reporting)
pulses selected automatically by the mterrogating signal.
2.
REPLY LAMP- Lamp flashes to mdicate transmissiOn of reply pulses; glows
steadily to mdicate transmiSSIOn of IDENT pulse or satisfactory self-test
operation. (Reply Lamp will also glow steadily during mitial warm-up periOd.)
3.
IDENT (ID) SMTCH - When depressed, selects special pulse Identifier to be
transmitted with transponder reply to effect 1mmediate identification of aircraft on ground controller's display, (Reply Lamp will glow steadily during
duration of !DENT pulse transm1ssion.)
4.
DIMMER (DIM) CONTROL - Allows pilot to control brilliance of Reply Lamp.
5.
SELF-TEST (TST) SWITCH - When depressed, causes transponder to generate a self-mterrogating Signal to proVIde a check of transponder operation.
(Reply Lamp will glow steadily to verify self test operation.)
6.
REPLY-CODE SELECTOR SWITCHES (4) -Select assigned Mode A Reply
Code.
7.
REPLY-CODE INDICATORS (4)- Display selected Mode A Reply Code.
B.
1000-FOOT DRUM TYPE INDICATOR- Provides digital altitude readout
m 1000-foot mcrements between -1000 feet and +35, 000 feet. When altitude 1s below 10, 000 feet, a diagonally striped flag appears m the
10, 000-foot wmdow,
9.
OFF INDICATOR WARNING FLAG - Flag appears across altitude readout
when power IS removed from altimeter to mdicate that readout IS not reliable.
10.
100-FOOT DRUM TYPE INDICATOR - Prov1des digital altitude readout m
100-foot mcrements between 0 feet and 1000 feet.
11.
20-FOOT INDICATOR NEEDLE -Indicates altitude m 20-foot mcrements
between 0 feet and 1000 feet.
12.
ALTIMETER SETTING SCALE -DRUM TYPE - Indicates selected altimeter setting m the range of 28. 1 to 30. 99 mches of mercury on the standard altimeter or 946 to 1049 millibars on the optional altimeter.
13.
ALTIMETER SETTING KNOB - Dials m des1red altimeter setting m the
range of 28, 1 to 30, 99 inches of mercury on standard altimeter or 946 to
1049 millibars on the optional altimeter,
Figure 1. Cessna 400 Transponder and Encoding Altimeter
Operating Controls (Sheet 2 of 2)
3
PILOT'S OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT
CESSNA 400 TRANSPONDER
AND ENCODING ALTIMETER
SECTION
2
LIMITATIONS
There is no change to the airplane limitations when this avionic
equipment is installed.
SECTION
3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
TO TRANSMIT AN EMERGENCY SIGNAL:
(1) Function Switch -- ON.
(2) Reply-Code Selector Switches -- SELECT 7700 operating code.
(3) ID Switch -- DEPRESS then RELEASE to effect immediate identification of aircraft on ground controller's display.
TO TRANSMIT A SIGNAL REPRESENTING LOSS OF ALL
COMMUNICATIONS (WHEN IN A CONTROLLED ENVffiONMENT):
(1) Function Switch -- ON.
(2) Reply-Code Selector Switches -- SELECT 7700 operating code
for 1 minute; then SELECT 7600 operating code for 15 minutes and
then REPEAT this procedure at same intervals for remainder of
flight.
(3) ID Switch -- DEPRESS then RELEASE at intervals to effect
immediate identification of aircraft on ground controller's display.
SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES
BEFORE TAKEOFF:
(1)
Function Switch -- SBY.
TO TRANSMIT MODE A (AIRCRAFT IDENTIFICATION) CODES IN
FLIGHT:
(1) Off Indicator Warning Flag -- VERIFY that flag is out of view on
encoding altimeter.
4
PILOT'S OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT
CESSNA 400 TRANSPONDER
AND ENCODING ALTIMETER
(2) Reply-Code Selector Switches -- SELECT assigned code.
(3) Function Switch -- ON.
(4) DIM Control -- ADJUST light brilliance of reply lamp.
NOTE
During normal operation with function switch in ON position, REPLY lamp flashes indicating transponder replies
to interrogations.
(5) ID Button -- DEPRESS momentarily when instructed by ground
controller to "squawk IDENT" (REPLY lamp will glow steadily, indicating IDENT operation).
TO TRANSMIT MODE C (ALTITUDE REPORTING) CODES IN FLIGHT:
(1) Off Indicator Warning Flag -- VERIFY that flag is out of view on
encoding altimeter.
(2) Altitude Encoder Altimeter Setting Knob - SET IN assigned
local altimeter setting.
(3) Reply-Code Selector Switches -- SELECT assigned code.
(4) Function Switch-- ALT.
NOTE
When directed by ground controller to "stop altitude
squawk", turn Function Switch to ON for Mode A
operation only.
NOTE
Pressure altitude is transmitted by the transponder
for altitude squawk and conversion to indicated altitude is done in ATC computers. Altitude squawked
will only agree with indicated altitude when the local
altimeter setting in use by the ground controller is
set in the encoding altimeter.
(5) DIM Control -- ADJUST light brilliance of reply lamp.
TO SELF-TEST TRANSPONDER OPERATION:
(1) Function Switch -- SBY and wait 30 seconds for equipment to
warm-up.
5
CESSNA 400 TRANSPONDER
AND ENCODING ALTIMETER
PILOT'S OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT
(2) Function Switch -- ON or ALT.
(3) TST Button-- DEPRESS and HOLD (Reply lamp should light
with full brilliance regardless of DIM control setting).
(4) TST Button-- Release for normal operation.
SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE
There is no change to the airplane performance when this avionic
equipment is installed. However, the installation of an externally mounted antenna or several related external antennas, will result in a minor
reduction in cruise performance.
6
PILOT'S OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT
CESSNA 400 TRANSPONDER
AND ALTITUDE ENCODER (BLIND)
SUPPLEMENT
CESSNA 400 TRANSPONDER
(Type RT -459A)
AND
OPTIONAL ALTITUDE ENCODER (BLIND)
SECTION 1
GENERAL
The Cessna 400 Transponder (Type RT-459A), shown in Figure 1, is
the airborne component of an Air Traffic Control Radar Beacon System
(ATCRBS}. The transponder enables the ATC ground controller to "see"
and identify the aircraft, while in flight, on the control center's radarscope more readily.
The Cessna 400 Transponder system consists of a panel-mounted unit
and an externally-mounted antenna. The transponder receives interrogating pulse signals on 1030 MHz and transmits pulse-train reply signals
on 1090 MHz. The transponder is capable of replying to Mode A (aircraft identification) and also to Mode C (altitude reporting) when coupled
to an optional altitude encoder system. The transponder is capable of replying on both modes of interrogation on a selective reply basis on any of
4, 096 information code selections. The optional altitude encoder system
(not part of a standard 400 Transponder system) required for Mode C
(altitude reporting) operation, consists of a completely independent remotemounted digitizer that is connected to the static system and supplies encoded
altitude information to the transponder. When the altitude encoder system
is coupled to the 400 Transponder system, altitude reporting capabilities
are available in 100-foot increments between -1000 feet and the airplane's
maximum service ceiling.
All Cessna 400 Transponder operating controls are located on the
front panel of the unit. Functions of the operating controls are described
in Figure 1.
1 of 6
CESSNA 400 TRANSPONDER
AND ALTITUDE ENCODER (BLIND)
1.
PILOT'S OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT
FUNCTION SWITCH- Controls application of power and selects
transponder operating mode as follows:
OFF- Turns set off.
SBY - Turns set on for equipment warm-up or standby power.
ON - Turns set on and enables transponder to transmit
Mode A (aircraft identification) reply pulses.
ALT - Turns set on and enables transponder to transmit
either Mode A (aircraft identification) reply pulses
or Mode C (altitude reporting) pulses selected automatically by the interrogating signal.
2.
REPLY LAMP - Lamp flashes to indicate transmission of reply
pulses; glows steadily to indicate transmission of !DENT pulse
or satisfactory self-test operation. (Reply lamp will also glow
steadily during initial warm-up period.)
Figure 1. Cessna 400 Transponder and Altitude Encoder (Blind)
(Sheet 1 of 2)
2
PILOT'S OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT
CESSNA 400 TRANSPONDER
AND ALTITUDE ENCODER (BLIND)
3.
IDENT (ID) SWITCH- When depressed, selects special pulse identifier to be transmitted with transponder reply to effect immediate
identification of aircraft on ground controller's display. (Reply
lamp will glow steadily during duration of !DENT pulse transmission.)
4.
DIMMER (DIM) CONTROL- Allows pilot to control brilliance of
reply lamp.
5.
SELF-TEST (TST) SWITCH -When depressed, causes transponder
to generate a self-interrogating signal to provide a check of transponder operation. (Reply lamp will glow steadily to verify selftest operation. )
6.
REPLY-CODE SELECTOR SWITCHES (4)- Select assigned
Mode A reply code.
7.
REPLY-CODE INDICATORS (4)- Display selected Mode A
reply code.
8.
REMOTE-MOUNTED DIGITIZER- Provides an altitude reporting
code range of -1000 feet up to the airplane's maximum service
ceiling.
Figure 1.
Cessna 400 Transponder and Altitude Encoder (Blind)
(Sheet 2 of 2)
3
CESSNA 400 TRANSPONDER
AND ALTITUDE ENCODER (BLIND)
PILOT'S OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT
SECTION 2
LIMITATiONS
There is no change to the airplane limitations when this avionic equipment is installed. However, a placard labeled "ALTITUDE ENCODER
EQUIPPED" must be installed near the altimeter.
SECTION
3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
TO TRANSMIT AN EMERGENCY SIGNAL:
(1) Function Switch -- ON.
(2) Reply-Code Selector Switches-- SELECT 7700 operating code.
(3) ID Switch-- DEPRESS then RELEASE to effect immediate identification of aircraft on ground controller's display.
TO TRANSMIT A SIGNAL REPRESENTING LOSS OF ALL
COMMUNICATIONS (WHEN IN A CONTROLLED ENVIRONMENT):
Fu.nction Switch-- ON.
(2) Reply-Code Selector Switches -- SELECT 7700 operating code
for 1 minute; then SELECT 7600 operating code for 15 minutes and
then REPEAT this procedure at same intervals for remainder of
flight.
(3) ID Switch-- DEPRESS then RELEASE at intervals to effect
immediate identification of aircraft on ground controller's display.
(1)
SECTION
4
NORMAL PROCEDURES
BEFORE TAKEOFF:
(1)
Function Switch -- SBY.
TO TRANSMIT MODE A (AIRCRAFT IDENTIFICATION) CODES IN FLIGHT:
(1)
4
Reply-Code Selector Switches -- SELECT assigned code.
PILOT'S OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT
CESSNA 400 TRANSPONDER
AND ALTITUDE ENCODER (BLIND)
(2) Function Switch -- ON.
(3) DIM Control-- ADJUST light brilliance of reply lamp.
NOTE
During normal operation with function switch in ON position, reply lamp flashes indicating transponder replies
to interrogations.
(4) ID Button-- DEPRESS momentarily when instructed by ground
controller to "squawk IDE NT" (reply lamp will glow steadily, indicating !DENT operation).
TO TRANSMIT MODE C (ALTITUDE REPORTING) CODES IN FLIGHT:
(1) Reply-Code Selector Switches -- SELECT assigned code.
(2) Function Switch --ALT.
NOTE
When directed by ground controller to "stop altitude
squawk", turn Function Switch to ON for Mode A
operation only.
NOTE
Pressure altitude is transmitted by the transponder
for altitude squawk and conversion to indicated altitude is done in ATC computers. Altitude squawked
will only agree with indicated altitude when the local
altimeter setting in use by the ground controller is
set in the aircraft altimeter.
(3) DIM Control --ADJUST light brilliance of reply lamp.
TO SELF-TEST TRANSPONDER OPERATION:
(1) Function Switch -- SBY and wait 30 seconds for equipment to
warm-up.
(2) Function Switch -- ON.
(3) TST Button -- DEPRESS (reply lamp should light brightly
regardless of DIM control setting).
(4) TST Button -- RELEASE for normal operation,
5
CESSNA 400 TRANSPONDER
AND ALTITUDE ENCODER (BLIND)
PILOT'S OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT
SECTION
5
PERFORMANCE
There is no change to the airplane performance when this avionic
equipment is installed. However, the installation of an externally mounted antenna or several related external antennas, will result in a minor
reduction in cruise performance.
6
PILOT'S OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT
CESSNA 400 MARKER BEACON
(TYPE R-402A)
SUPPLEMENT
CESSNA 400 MARKER BEACON
(Type R-402A)
SECTION 1
GENERAL
The system consists of a 75 MHz marker beacon receiver, three indicator lights, one speaker/phone switch, a light dimming control, an
ON/OFF/VOLUME control, and a 75 MHz marker beacon antenna. In
addition, on 150, 182, 206, 207, 210 and 337 series models, a HI-LO
sensitivity selector switch and a press-to-test button are provided. On all
172, 177, 177RG, 180 and 185 series models, a single, three position
switch is provided for HI-LO sensitivity selection or test selection.
This system provides visual and aural indications of 75 MHz ILS
marker beacon signals as the marker is passed. The following table lists
the three most currently used marker facilities and their characteristics.
MARKER FACILITIES
MARKER
IDENTIFYING TONE
LIGHT*
Inner
Continuous 6 dots/ sec (3000 Hz)
White
Middle
Alternate dots and dashes (1300 Hz)
Amber
Outer
2 dashes/sec (400 Hz)
Blue
* When the identifying tone is keyed, the respective indicating
light will blink accordingly.
Operating controls and indicator lights are shown and described
in Figure 1.
1 of 4
CESSNA 400 MARKER BEACON
(TYPE R-402A)
PILOI''S OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT
TYPICAL INSTALLATION
ON ALL 150 MODEL SERIES
TYPICAL INSTALLATION
ON ALL 172, 177, 177RG,
180 & 185 MODEL SERIES
TYPICAL INSTALLATION
ON ALL 182, 206, 207
& 210 MODEL SERIES
TYPICAL INSTALLATION
ON ALL 337 MODEL SERIES
Figure 1.
2
Cessna 400 Marker Beacon Operating Controls
and Indicator Lights (Sheet 1 of 2)
PILOT'S OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT
CESSNA 400 MARKER BEACON
(TYPE R-402A)
1.
OFF/VOLUME CONTROL, -The small, inner control turns
the set on or off and adjusts the audio listening level. Clockwise rotation turns the set on and increases the audio level.
2.
DIM/BRT CONTROL -The large, outer control provides
light dimming for the marker lights. Clockwise rotation
increases light intensity.
3,
TEST SWITCH - (150, 182, 206, 207, 210 & 337 Model
Series Only) When the press-to-test switch button is depressed, the marker beacon lights will illuminate, indicating the lights are operational (the test position is a lamp
test function only).
NOTE
Turn the set on, and rotate the DIM control clockwise (fully on) in order to view the marker beacon
lights during test.
4.
LO/HI SENS SWITCH- (150, 182, 206, 207, 210 & 337
Model Series Only) In the LO position (Up), receiver sensitivity is positioned for ILS approaches. In the HI position
(Down), receiver sensitivity is positioned for airway flying.
5,
SPEAKER/PHONE SWITCH - Selects speaker or phone for
aural reception.
6,
MARKER BEACON INDICATOR UGHTS- Indicates passage
of outer, middle and inner marker beacons. The OUTER
light is blue, the MIDDLE light is amber and the INNER light
is white,
7.
HI/LO/TEST SWITCH- (172, 177, 177RG, 180 & 185 Model
Series Only) In the HI position (Up), receiver sensitivity is
positioned for airway flying, In the LO position (Center), receiver sensitivity is positioned for ILS approaches. In the
TEST position (Down), the marker lights will illuminate, indicating the lights are operational (the test position is a lamp
test function only).
NOTE
Turn the set on, and rotate the BRIGHT control
clockwise (fully on) in order to view the marker
beacon lights during test. The TEST position on
the switch is spring loaded to return the switch to
the LO SENS position when TEST position is released.
Figure 1.
Cessna 400 Marker Beacon Operating Controls
and Indicator Lights (Sheet 2 of 2)
3
CESSNA 400 MARKER BEACON
(TYPE R-402A)
PILOT'S OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT
SECTION
2
LIMITATIONS
There is no change to the airplane limitations when this avionic equipment is installed.
SECTION
3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
There is no change to the airplane emergency procedures when this
avionic equipment is installed.
SECTION
4
NORMAL PROCEDURES
TO OPERATE:
(1) OFF/VOL Control-- VOL position and adjust to desired listening
level.
(2) LO/HI SENS Switch -- SELECT HI position for airway flying or
LO position for ILS approaches.
(3) SPKR/PHONE Switch-- SELECT speaker or phone audio.
(4) TEST Switch -- PRESS and ensure that marker beacon indicator
lights are operative.
NOTE
Ensure that BRT control is on enough to view the marker
beacon during this test.
SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE
There is no change to the airplane performance when this avionic
equipment is installed. However, the installation of an externally mounted antenna or several related external antennas, will result in a minor
reduction in cruise performance.
4
CESSNA 400 GLIDE SLOPE
(TYPE R-443B)
PILOT'S OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT
SUPPLEMENT
CESSNA 400 GLIDE SLOPE
(Type R-4438)
SECTION 1
GENERAL
The Cessna 400 Glide Slope is an airborne navigation receiver which
receives and interprets glide slope signals from a ground-based Instrument Landing System (ILS). It is used with the localizer function of a VHF
navigation system when making instrument approaches to an airport. The
glide slope provides vertical path guidance while the localizer provides
horizontal track guidance.
The Cessna 400 Glide Slope system consists of a remote-mounted
receiver coupled to an existing navigation system, a panel-mounted indicator and an externally-mounted antenna. The glide slope receiver is
designed to receive ILS glide slope signals on any of 40 channels. The
channels are spaced 150kHz apart and cover a frequency range of 329. 15
MHz through 335. 0 MHz. When a localizer frequency is selected on the
NAV receiver, the associated glide slope frequency is selected automatically.
Operation of the Cessna 400 Glide Slope system is controlled by the
associated navigation system. The functions and indications of a typical
30{) series glide slope indicator are pictured and described in Figure 1.
For functions and indications of the optional 400 series indicator or HSI
indicator, refer to the 400 NAV /COM (Type RT-428A) or HSI (Type
IG-832A) write-ups if they are listed in this section as options.
SECTION
2
LIMITATIONS
There is no change to the airplane limitations when this avionic equipment is installed. However, the pilot should be aware that on many Cessna
airplanes equipped with the windshield-mounted glide slope antenna, pilots
should avoid use of 2700±100 RPM with a two-bladed propeller (or 1800±100
RPM with a three-bladed propeller) during ILS approaches to avoid oscillations of the glide slope deviation pointer caused by propeller interference.
1 of 4
CESSNA 400 GLIDE SLOPE
(TYPE R-443B)
PILOT'S OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT
1.
GLIDE SLOPE DEVIATION POINTER- Indicates deviation from normal glide slope.
2.
GLIDE SLOPE "OFF" FLAG -When visible, indicates
unreliable glide slope signal or improperly operating
equipment. The flag disappears when a reliable glide
slope signal is being received.
Spurious glide slope signals may exist in the
area of the localizer back course approach
which can cause the glide slope "OFF" flag
to disappear and present unreliable glide slope
information. Disregard all glide slope signal
indications when making a localizer back
course approach unless a glide slope (ILS BC)
is specified on the approach and landing chart.
Figure 1. Typical 300 Series VOR/LOC/ILS Indicator
2
PILOT'S OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT
SECTION
CESSNA 400 GLIDE SLOPE
(TYPE R-443B)
3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
There is no change to the airplane emergency procedures when this
avionic equipment is installed.
SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES
TO RECEIVE GLIDE SLOPE SIGNALS:
(1)
NA V Frequency Select Knobs -- SELECT desired localizer
frequency (glide slope frequency is automatically selected).
(2) NA V/COM ID-T Switch -- SELECT ID position to disconnect
filter from audio circuit.
(3) NAV VOL Control -- ADJUST to desired listening level to
confirm proper localizer station.
When glide slope "OFF" flag is visible, glide slope indications are unusable.
SECTION
5
PERFORMANCE
There is no change to the airplane performance when this avionic
equipment is installed.
3/(4 blank)
PILar'S OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT
DME
(TYPE 190)
SUPPLEMENT
DME
(Type 190)
SECTION 1
GENERAL
The DME 190 (Distance Measuring Equipment) system consists of a
panel mounted 200 channel UHF transmitter-receiver and an externally
mounted antenna. The transceiver has a single selector knob that changes
the DME's mode of operation to provide the pilot with: distance-to-station,
time-to-station, or ground speed readouts. The DME is designed to operate in altitudes up to a maximum of 50,000 feet at ground speeds up to
250 knots and has a maximum slant range of 199.9 nautical miles.
The DME can be channeled independently or by a remote NAV set.
When coupled with a remote NA V set, the MHz digits will be covered over
by a remote (REM) flag and the DME will utilize the frequency set by the
NAV set's channeling knobs. When the DME is not coupled with a remote
NA V set, the DME will reflect the channel selected on the DME unit. The
transmitter operates in the frequency range of 1041 to 1150 MHz and is
paired with 108 to 117. 95 MHz to provide automatic DME channeling. The
receiver operates in the frequency range of 978 to 1213 MHz and is paired
with 108 to 117. 95 MHz to provide automatic DME channeling.
All operating controls for the DME are mounted on the front panel of
the DME and are described in Figure 1.
SECTION
2
LIMITATIONS
There is no change to the airplane limitations when this avionic equipment is installed.
1 of 4
DME
(TYPE 190)
PILOT'S OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT
1.
READOUT WINDOW - Displays function readout in nautical
miles (distance-to-station), minutes (time-to-station) or
knots (ground speed).
2.
R-NAV INDICATOR LAMP -The green R-NAV indicator lamp
is provided to indicate the DME is coupled to an R-NAV system.
Since this DME is not factory installed with an R-NA V system on
Cessna airplanes, the R-NAV indicator lamp should never be illuminated. However, if an R-NAV system is coupled to the DME,
and when in R-NA V mode, the R-NAV lamp will light which indicates that the distance readout is to the "way point" instead of
the DME station. The DME can only give distance (Miles) in
R-NAV mode.
3.
REMOTE CHANNELING SELECTOR - This knob is held stationary by a stop when not coupled to a remote NAV receiver. When
coupled to a remote NA V receiver, a stop in the selector is removed and the selector becomes a two position selector. In the
first position, the DME will utilize the frequency set by the DME
channeling knobs. In the second position, the MHz digits will utilize the frequency set by the NA V unit's channeling knobs.
4.
WHOLE MEGAHERTZ SELECTOR KNOB - Selects operating
frequency in 1-MHz steps between 108 and 117 MHz.
5.
FREQUENCY INDICATOR -Shows operating frequency selected
on the DME or displays remote (REM) flag to indicate DME is
operating on a frequency selected by a remote NAV receiver.
Figure 1. DME 190 Operating Controls (Sheet 1 of 2)
2
PILOT'S OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT
DME
(TYPE 190)
6.
FRACTIONAL MEGAHERTZ SELECTOR KNOB -Selects operating frequency in 50 kHz steps. This knob has two positions,
one for the 0 and one for the 5.
7.
FRACTIONAL MEGAHERTZ SELECTOR KNOB -Selects operating frequency in tenths of a Megahertz (0-9).
8.
!DENT KNOB - Rotation of this control increases or decreases
the volume of the received station's !dent signal. An erratic
display, accompanied by the presence of two !dent signals, can
result if the airplane is flying in an area where two stations,
using the same frequency, are transmitting.
9.
DIM/PUSH TEST KNOB DIM: Controls the brilliance of the readout lamp's segments.
Rotate the control as desired for proper lamp illumination in the function window (The frequency window is dimmed by the aircraft's radio light dimming control).
PUSH TEST: This control is used to test the illumination of
the readout lamps, with or without being tuned to a station. Press the control, a readout of 188 8 should be
seen with the mode selector switch in the MIN or KNOTS
position. The decimal point along with 188. 8 will light
in the MILES mode. When the control is released, and
had the DME been channeled to a nearby station, the distance to that station will appear. If the station channeled was not in range, a "bar" readout will be seen (--.or-- -).
10.
MODE SELECTOR SWITCH OFF: Turns the DME OFF.
MILES: Allows a digital readout to appear in the window
which represents slant range (in nautical miles) to or
from the channeled station.
MIN: Allows a digital readout (in minutes) to appear in the
window that it will take the airplane to travel the distance to the channeled station. This time is only accurate when flying directly TO the station and after the
ground speed has stabilized.
KNOTS: Allows a digital readout {in knots) to appear in the
window that is ground speed and is valid only after the
stabilization time (approximately 2 minutes) has elapsed
when flying directly TO or FROM the channeled station.
Figure 1. DME 190 Operating Controls (Sheet 2 of 2)
3
DME
(TYPE 190)
PILOT'S OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT
SECTION 3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
There is no change to the airplane emergency procedures when this
avionic equipment is installed.
SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES
TO OPERATE:
(1) Mode Selector Switch-- SELECT desired DME function.
(2) Frequency Selector Knobs -- SELECT desired frequency and allow
equipment to warm-up at least 2 minutes.
NOTE
If frequency is set on remote NA V receiver, place re-
mote channeling selector in the REM position.
(3) PUSH TEST Control -- PUSH and observe reading of 188. 8 in
function window.
(4) DIM Control-- ADJUST.
(5) !DENT Control-- ADJUST audio output in speaker.
(6) Mode Selector Functions:
MILES Position -- Distance-to-Station is slant range in nautical miles.
MIN Position -- Time-to-Station when flying directly to station.
KNOTS Position-- Ground Speed in knots when flying directly to or from station.
!CAUTION\
After the DME 190 has been turned OFF, do not turn it on
again for 5 seconds to allow the protective circuits to reset.
SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE
There is no change to the airplane performance when this avionic
equipment is installed. However, the installation of an externally mounted antenna or several related external antennas, will result in a minor
reduction in cruise performance.
4
PILar'S OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT
HF TRANSCEIVER
(TYPE PT 10-A)
SUPPLEMENT
HF TRANSCEIVER
(Type PT10-A)
SECTION 1
GENERAL
The PT10-A HF Transceiver, shown in Figure 1, is a 10-channel
AM transmitter-receiver which operates in the frequency range of 2. 0 to
18. 0 Megahertz. The transceiver is automatically tuned to the operating
frequency by a Channel Selector. The operating controls for the unit are
mounted on the front panel of the transceiver. The system consists of a
transceiver, antenna load box, fixed wire antenna and associated wiring.
The Channel Selector Knob determines the operating frequency of the
transmitter and receiver. The frequencies of operation are shown on the
frequency chart adjacent to the channel selector.
The VOLUME control incorporates the power switch for the transceiver. Clockwise rotation of the volume control turns the set on and
increases the volume of audio.
The meter on the face of the transceiver indicates transmitter output.
The system utilizes the airplane microphone, headphone and speaker.
When two or more radios are installed, a transmitter selector switch and
a speaker-phone switch are provided.
SECTION 2
LIMITATIONS
There is no change to the airplane limitations when this avionic equipment is installed.
1 of 4
HF TRANSCEIVER
(TYPE PT10-A)
1.
FREQUENCY CHART -Shows the frequency of the
channel in use (frequencies shown may vary and are
shown for reference purposes only).
2.
CHANNEL SELECTOR - Selects channels 1 thru 10
as listed in the frequency chart.
3.
CHANNEL READOUT WINDOW - Displays channel selected
in frequency chart.
4.
SENSITIVITY CONTROL- Controls the receiver sensitivity
for audio gain.
5.
ANTENNA TUNING METER - Indicates the energy
flowing from the transmitter into the antenna. The
optimum power transfer is indicated by the maximum
meter reading.
6.
ON/OFF VOLUME CONTROL -Turns complete set
on and controls volume of audio.
Figure 1.
2
PILOT'S OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT
HF Transceiver (Type PT10-A)
PILOT'S OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT
HF TRANSCEIVER
(TYPE PTlO-A)
SECTION 3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
There is no change to the airplane emergency procedures when this
avionic equipment is installed.
SECTION 4
NORMAL PROCEDURES
COMMUNICATIONS TRANSCEIVER OPERATION:
(1) XMTR SEL Switch-- SELECT transceiver.
(2) SPEAKER/PHONE (or AUTO) Switch-- SELECT desired mode.
(3) VOLUME Control-- ON (allow equipment to warm up and adjust
audio to comfortable listening level).
( 4) Frequency Chart -- SELECT desired operating frequency.
(5) Channel Selector -- DIAL in frequency selected in step 4.
(6) SENSITIVITY Control-- ROTATE clockwise to maximum position.
NOTE
If receiver becomes overloaded by very strong signals,
back off SENSITIVITY control until background noise
is barely audible.
NOTE
The antenna tuning meter indicates the energy flowing
from the airplane's transmitter into the antenna. The
optimum power transfer is indicated by the maximum
meter reading.
(7) Mike Button:
a. To Transmit -- DEPRESS and SPEAK into microphone.
b. To Receive -- RELEASE.
SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE
There is no change to the airplane performance when this avionic
equipment is installed. However, the installation of an externally mounted antenna or several related external antennas, will result in a minor
reduction in cruise performance.
3/(4 blank)
PILOT'S OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT
SSB HF TRANSCEIVER
(TYPE ASB-125)
SUPPLEMENT
SSB HF TRANSCEIVER
(Type ASB-125)
SECTION 1
GENERAL
The ASB-125 HF transceiver is an airborne, 10-channel, single sideband (SSB) radio with a compatible amplitude modulated (AM) transmittingreceiving system for long range voice communications in the 2 to 18 MHz
frequency range. The system consists of a panel mounted receiver/
exciter, a remote mounted power amplifier /power supply, an antenna
coupler and an externally mounted, fixed wire, medium/high frequency
antenna.
A channel selector knob determines the operating frequency of the
transceiver which has predetermined crystals installed to provide the
desired operating frequencies. A mode selector control is provided to
supply the type of emission required for the channel, either sideband,
AM or telephone for public correspondence. An audio knob, clarifier
knob and squelch knob are provided to assist in audio operation during
receive. In addition to the aforementioned controls, which are all
located on the receiver/exciter, a meter is incorporated to provide
antenna loading readouts.
The system utilizes the airplane microphone, headphone and speaker.
When two or more radios are installed, a transmitter selector switch and
a speaker-phone switch are provided.
SECTION 2
LIMITATIONS
There is no change to the airplane limitations when this avionic equipment is installed. However, the pilot should be aware of the two following
radio limitations:
(1) For sideband operation in the United States, Canada and various
1 of 4
SSB HF TRANSCEIVER
(TYPE ASB-125)
1.
CHANNEL WINDOW - Displays selected channel.
2.
RELATIVE POWER METER -Indicates relative radiated
power of the power amplifier/antenna system.
3.
MODE SELECTOR CONTROL -Selects One of the desired
operating modes:
USB - Selects upper side band operation for long range
voice communications.
AM - Selects compatible AM operation and full AM reception.
TEL- Selects upper sideband with reduced carrier, used for
public correspondence telephone and ship-to-shore.
LSB - (Optional) Selects lower sideband operation (not legal
in U.S., Canada and most other countries).
4.
SQUELCH CONTROL- Used to adjust signal threshold necessary
to activate receiver audio. Clockwise rotation increases background noise (decreases squelch action); counterclockwise rotation decreases background noise.
5.
CLARIFIER CONTROL -Used to "clarify" single sideband
speech during receive while in USB mode only.
6.
CHANNEL SELECTOR CONTROL -Selects desired channel.
Also selects AM mode if channel frequency is 2003kHz, 2182kHz
or 2638kHz.
7.
ON- AUDIO CONTROL - Turns set ON and controls receiver
audio gain.
F~gure
2
PILOI''S OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLE :ME NT
1. SSB HF Transceiver Operating Controls
PILOT'S OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLE:MENT
SSB HF TRANSCEIVER
(TYPE ASB-125)
other countries, only the upper sideband may be used. Use of lower side
band is prohibited.
(2) Only AM transmissions are permitted on frequencies 2003kHz,
2182kHz, and 2638kHz. The selection of these channels will automatically select the AM mode of transmission,
SECTION
3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
There is no change to the airplane emergency procedures when this
avionic equipment is installed.
SECTION
4
NORMAL PROCEDURES
COMMUNICATIONS TRANSCEIVER OPERATION:
(1) XMTR SEL Switch-- SELECT transceiver.
(2) SPEAKER/PHONE (or AUTO) Switch-- SELECT desired mode.
(3) ON-AUDIO Control -- ON (allow equipment to warm up for 5
minutes for sideband or one minute for AM operation and adjust
audio to comfortable listening level).
(4) Channel Selector Control-- SELECT desired frequency.
(5) Mode Selector Control -- SELECT operating mode.
(6) Squelch Control-- ADJUST the audio gain counterclockwise for
normal noise output, then slowly adjust clockwise until the receiver
is silent.
(7) Clarifier Control-- ADJUST when upper single sideband RF
signal is being received for maximum clarity.
(8) Mike Button:
a. To Transmit-- DEPRESS and SPEAK into microphone.
b. To Receive -- RELEASE.
NOTE
Voice communications are not available in the LSB mode.
NOTE
Lower sideband (LSB) mode is not legal in the U.S.,
Canada, and most other countries.
3
SSB HF TRANSCEIVER
(TYPE ASB-125)
PILOT'S OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT
SECTION
5
PERFORMANCE
There is no change to the airplane performance when this avionic
equipment is installed. However, the installation of an externally mounted antenna or several related external antennas, will result in a minor
reduction in cruise performance.
4
PILar'S OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT
CESSNA 200A AUTOPILOT
(TYPE AF-295B)
SUPPLEMENT
CESSNA NAVOMATIC 200A AUTOPILOT
(Type AF-2958)
SECTION 1
GENERAL
The Cessna 200A Navomatic is an all electric, single-axis (aileron
control) autopilot system that provides added lateral and directional stability. Cmpponents are a computer-amplifier, a turn coordinator, an
aileron actuator,-and a course deviation indicator(s) incorporating a localizer reversed (BC) indicator light.
Roll and yaw motions of the airplane are sensed by the turn coordinator gyro. The computer-amplifier electronically computes the necessary
correction and signals the actuator to move the ailerons to maintain the
airplane in the commanded lateral attitude.
The 200A Navomatic will also capture and track a VOR or localizer
course using signals from a VHF navigation receiver.
The operating controls for the Cessna 200A Navomatic are located on
the front panel of the computer -amplifier, shown in Figure 1. The primary function pushbuttons (DIR HOLD, NA V CAPT, and NAV TRK), are
interlocked so that only one function can be selected at a time. The m
SENS and BACK CRS pushbuttons are not interlocked so that either or
both of these functions can be selected at any time.
SECTION 2
LIMITATIONS
There is no change to the airplane limitations when this avionic equipment is installed. However, the following autopilot limitation should be
adhered to during airplane operation:
BEFORE TAKE-OFF AND LANDING:
(1) A/P ON-OFF Switch -- OFF.
1 of 6
CESSNA 200A AUTOPILOT
(TYPE AF-295B)
NAV 1
0
PILOT'S OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT
NAV 2
CDI INDICATORS
AILERON
ACTUATOR
TURN COORDINATOR
COMPUTER
AMPLIFIER
Figure 1. Cessna 200A Autopilot, Operating Controls and Indicators
(Sheet 1 of 2)
2
PILar'S OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT
CESSNA 200A A UTOPILar
(TYPE AF-295B)
1.
COURSE DEVIATION INDICATOR- Provides VOR/LOC navigation mputs to autopilot
for mtercept and trackmg modes.
2.
LOCALIZER REVERSED INDICATOR LIGHT- Amber light, labeled BC, illuminates
when BACK CRS button is pushed in (engaged) and LOC frequency selected. BC light
indicates course indicator needle is reversed on selected receiver (when tuned to a
localizer frequency). This light is located within the CDI mdicator.
3.
TURN COORDINATOR- Senses roll and yaw for wings leveling and command turn
functions.
4.
DIR HOLD PUSHBUTTON- Selects direction hold mode.
flymg at time button IS pushed.
5.
NAV CAPT PUSHBUTTON- Selects NAV capture mode. When parallel to desired
course, airplane will turn to and capture selected VOR or LOC course.
6.
NAV TRK PUSHBUTTON- Selects NAV track mode. Airplane tracks selected VOR or
LOC course.
7.
HI SENS PUSHBUTTON- Durmg NAV CAPT or NAV TRK operation, th1s h1gh sensitivity
setting mcreases autopilot response to NAV signal to provide more precise operation
durmg localizer approach. In low sensitivity position (pushbutton out), response to
NAV signal Is dampened for smoother trackmg of enroute VOR radials; it also smooths
out effect of course scallopmg during NAV operation.
8.
BACK CRS PUSHBUTTON- Used with LOC operation only. With A/P switch OFF or
ON, and when navigation receiver selected by NAV switch 1s set to a localizer frequency,
it reverses normal localizer needle mdication (CDI) and causes localizer reversed (BC)
light to illummate. With A/P switch ON, reverses localizer Signal to autopilot.
9.
ACTUATOR- The torque motor m the actuator causes the ailerons to move m the
commanded direction.
Airplane holds direction it
IS
10.
NAV SWITCH- Selects NAV 1 or NAV 2 navigation receiver.
11.
PULL TURN KNOB - When pulled out and centered m detent, airplane will fly wingslevel; when turned to the right (R), the airplane will execute a right, standard rate turn;
when turned to the left (L}, the airplane will execute a left, standard rate turn. When
centered m detent and pushed m, the operating mode selected by a pushbutton is engaged.
12.
TRIM- Used to tnm autopilot to compensate for mmor variations in aircraft trim or
weight distribution. (For proper operation, the aircraft's rudder trim (if so equipped)
must be manually trimmed before the autopilot is engaged.)
13.
A/P Switch - Turns autopilot ON or OFF.
Figure 1.
Cessna 200A Autopilot, Operating Controls and Indicators
(Sheet 2 of 2)
3
CESSNA 200A AUTOPILOT
(TYPE AF-295B)
PILOT'S OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT
SECTION
3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
TO OVERRIDE THE AUTOPILOT:
(1) Airplane control Wheel-- ROTATE as required to override autopilot.
NOTE
The servo may be overpowered at anytime without damage.
TO TURN OFF AUTOPILOT:
(1) A/P ON-OFF Switch -- OFF.
SECTION
4
NORMAL PROCEDURES
BEFORE TAKE-OFF AND LANDING:
(1) A/P ON-OFF Switch -- OFF.
(2) BACK CRS Button-- OFF (see Caution note under Nav Capture).
NOTE
Periodically verify operation of amber warning light(s),
labeled BC on CDI(s), by engaging BACK CRS button
with a LOC frequency selected.
INFLIGHT WINGS LEVELING:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
Airplane Trim -- ADJUST.
PULL-TURN Knob-- CENTER and PULL out.
A/P ON-OFF Switch-- ON
Autopilot TRIM Control -- ADJUST for zero turn rate.
COMMAND TURNS:
(1)
4
PULL-TURN Knob-- CENTER, PULL out and ROTATE.
PILOT'S OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT
CESSNA 200A A UTOPILar
(TYPE AF-295B)
DIRECTION HOLD:
(1) PULL-TURN Knob -- CENTER and PULL out.
(2) Turn Coordinator -- WINGS LEVEL INDICATION.
(3) DIR HOLD Button -- PUSH.
(4) PULL-TURN Knob -- PUSH in detent position.
(5) Autopilot TRIM Control -- READJUST to minimize heading drift.
NA v C-APTURE (VOR/LOC):
(1) PULL-TURN Knob -- CENTER and PULL out.
(2) NAV 1-2 Selector Switch-- SELECT desired VOR receiver.
(3) Nav Receiver OBS -- SET desired VOR course (if tracking omni).
(4) NAV CAPT Button-- PUSH.
(5) HI SENS Button -- PUSH for localizer and "close-in" omni
intercepts.
(6) BACK CRS Button -- PUSH only if intercepting localizer front
course outbound or back course inbound.
With BACK CRS button pushed in and localizer frequency
selected, the CDI on selected nav radio will be reversed
even when the autopilot switch is OFF.
(7) PULL-TURN Knob -- Turn airplane parallel to desired course.
NOTE
Airplane must be turned until heading is within ±5° of desired course.
(8) PULL TURN Knob --CENTER and PUSH in. The airplane should
then turn toward desired course at 45° ±10° intercept angle (if the
CDI needle is in full deflection).
NOTE
If more than 15 miles from the station or more than 3 minutes from intercept, use a manual intercept procedure.
NAV TRACKING (VOR/LOC):
(1) NAV TRK Button -- PUSH when CDI centers and airplane is
within ±5° of course heading.
(2) HI SENS BUTTON -- DISENGAGE for enroute omni tracking
(leave ENGAGED for localizer).
(3) Autopilot TRIM Control -- READJUST as required to maintain
track.
5
CESSNA 200A AUTOPILOT
(TYPE AF-295B)
PILOI''S OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT
SECTION
5
PERFORMANCE
There is no change to the airplane performance when this avionic
equipment is installed.
6
PILOT'S OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLE :ME NT
CESSNA 300A AUTOPILOT
(TYPE AF-395A)
SUPPLEMENT
CESSNA NAVOMATIC 300A AUTOPILOT
(Type AF-395A)
SECTION 1
GENERAL
The Cessna 300A Navomatic is an all electric, single-axis (aileron
control) autopilot system that provides added lateral and directional stability. Components are a computer-amplifier, a turn coordinator, a
directional gyro, an aileron actuator and a course deviation indicator(s)
incorporating a localizer reversed (BC) indicator light.
Roll and yaw motions of the airplane are sensed by the turn coordinator
gyro. Deviations from the selected heading are sensed by the directional
gyro. The computer-amplifier electronically computes the necessary correction and signals the actuator to move the ailerons to maintain the airplane in the commanded lateral attitude or heading.
The 300A Navomatic will also intercept and track a VOR or localizer
course using signals from a VHF navigation receiver.
The operating controls for the Cessna 300A Navomatic are located on
the front panel of the computer-amplifier and on the directional gyro,
shown in Figure 1. The primary function pushbuttons (HDG SEL, NA V
INT, and NAV TRK), are interlocked so that only one function can be
selected at a time. The HI SENS and BACK CRS pushbuttons are not interlocked so that either or both of these functions can be selected at any time.
SECTION 2
LIMITATIONS
There is no change to the airplane limitations when this avionic equipl of 6
CESSNA 300A AUTOPILOT
(TYPE AF-395A)
NAV 1
PILOT'S OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT
NAV 2
AILERON
.{
I
I
I
I
I
COMPUTER
AMPLIFIER
TURN COORDINATOR
Figure 1. Cessna 300A Autopilot, Operating Controls and Indicators
(Sheet 1 of 2)
2
PILOT'S OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT
CESSNA 300A AUTOPILOT
(TYPE AF-395A)
1.
COURSE DEVIATION INDICATOR- Provides VOR/LOC navigation inputs to autopilot
for mtercept and trackmg modes.
2.
LOCALIZER REVERSED INDICATOR LIGHT- Amber'light, labeled BC, illuminates
when BACK CRS button is pushed in (engaged) and LOC frequency selected. BC light
indicates course indicator needle is reversed on selected receiver (when tuned to a
localizer frequency). This light is located within the CDI indicator.
3.
DIRECTIONAL GYRO INDICATOR - Provides heading mformation to the autopilot for
heading mtercept and hold. Heading bug on mdicator IS used to select desired heading
or VOR/LOC course to be flown.
4.
TURN COORDINATOR - Senses roll and yaw for wmgs leveling and command turn
functions.
5.
HDG SEL PUSHBUTTON - Aircraft will turn to and hold heading selected by the heading
"bug" on the directional gyro.
6,
NAV INT PUSHBUTTON- When heading "bug" on DG IS set to selected course, aircraft
will turn to and mtercept selected VOR or LOC course.
7.
NAV TRK PUSHBUTTON- When heading "bug" on DG IS set to selected course, aircraft
will track selected VOR or LOC course.
8.
HI SENS PUSHBUTTON- :Qurmg NAV INT or NAV TRK operation, thiS high sensitivity
setting mcreases autopilot response to NAV Signal to provtde more prectse operation
durmg localizer approach. In low-sensitivity position (pushbutton out), response to
NAV signal Is dampened for smoother trackmg of enroute VOR radials; it also smooths
out effect of course scallopmg durmg NAV operation.
9.
BACK CRS PUSHBUTTON - Used with LOC operation only. With A/P switch OFF
or ON, and when navigation receiver selected by NAV switch is set to a localizer
frequency, it reverses normal localizer needle mdication (CDI) and causes localizer
reversed (BC) light to illuminate. With A/P switch ON, reverses localizer signal to
autopilot.
10.
ACTUATOR - The torque motor m the actuator causes the ailerons to move m the commanded direction.
11.
NAV SWITCH- Selects NAV 1 or NAV 2 navigation receiver.
12.
PULL TURN KNOB - When pulled out and centered in detent, airplane will fly wings-level;
when turned to the right (R), the airplane will execute a rtght, standard rate turn; when
turned to the left (L), the! airplane will execute a left, standard rate turn. When centered
in detent and pushed in, the operating mode selected by a pushbutton is engaged.
13.
TIDM- Used to trim autopilot to compensate for mmor vartations m rurcraft trim or
lateral weight distribution. (For proper operation, the aircraft's rudder tnm (if so
equtpped) must be manually trimmed before the autopilot ts engaged. )
14.
A/P SWITCH- Turns autopilot ON or OFF.
Figure 1. Cessna 300A Autopilot, Operating Controls and Indicators
{Sheet 2 of 2)
3
CESSNA 300A AUTOPILOT
(TYPE AF-395A)
PILOT'S OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT
ment is installed. However, the following autopilot limitation should be
adhered to during airplane operation:
BEFORE TAKE-OFF AND LANDING:
(1) A/P ON-OFF Switch-- OFF.
SECTION
3
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
TO OVERRIDE THE AUTOPILOT:
(1) Airplane Control Wheel-- ROTATE as required to override
autopilot.
NOTE
The servo may be overpowered at any time without damage.
TO TURN OFF AUTOPILOT:
(1) A/P ON-OFF Switch-- OFF.
SECTION
4
NORMAL PROCEDURES
BEFORE TAKE-OFF AND LANDING:
(1) A/P ON-OFF Switch-- OFF.
(2) BACK CRS Button -- OFF (see caution note under Nav Intercept).
NOTE
Periodically verify operation of amber warning light(s),
labeled BC on CDI(s), by engaging BACK CRS button
with a LOC frequency selected.
INFLIGHT WINGS LEVELING:
(1) Airplane Trim-- ADJUST.
4
CESSNA 300A AUTOPILOT
(TYPE AF-395A)
PILOT'S OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEMENT
(2) PULL-TURN Knob -- CENTER and PULL out.
(3) A/P ON-OFF Switch -- ON.
(4) Autopilot TRIM Control -- ADJUST for zero turn rate.
COMMAND TURNS:
(1)
PULL~TURN
Knob-- CENTER, PULL out and ROTATE.
HEADING SELECT:
(1) Directional Gyro -- SET to airplane magnetic heading.
(2) Heading Selector Knob -- ROT ATE bug to desired heading.
(3) Heading Select Button -- PUSH.
(4) PULL-TURN Knob -- CENTER and PUSH.
NOTE
Airplane will turn automatically to selected heading. If
airplane fails to hold the precise heading, readjust autopilot lateral TRIM knob as required or disengage autopilot and reset manual rudder trim (if installed).
NAV INTERCEPT (VOR/LOC):
(1) PULL-TURN Knob -- CENTER and PULL out.
(2) NAV 1-2 Selector Switch -- SELECT desired receiver.
(3) Nav Receiver OBS -- SET desired VOR course (if tracking omni).
(4) Heading Selector Knob -- ROT ATE bug to selected course (VOR
or localizer - inbound or outbound as appropriate).
(5) Directional Gyro -- SET for magnetic heading.
(6) NAV INT Button-- PUSH.
(7) HI SENS Button -- PUSH for localizer and"close-in" omni intercepts.
(8) BACK CRS Button -- PUSH only if intercepting localizer front
course outbound or back course inbound.
With BACK CRS button pushed in and localizer frequency
selected, the CDI on selected nav radio will be reversed
even when the autopilot switch is OFF.
(9) PULL-TURN Knob-- PUSH.
NOTE
Airplane will automatically turn to a 45° intercept angle.
5
CESSNA 300A AUTOPILOT
(TYPE AF-395A)
PILar'S OPERATING HANDBOOK
SUPPLEl.VIENT
NAV TRACKING (VOR/LOC):
(1) NAV TRK Button-- PUSH when CDI centers (within one dot) and
airplane is within ±10° of course heading.
(2) HI SENS Button -- Disengage for enroute omni tracking (leave
engaged for localizer).
NOTE
If CDI remains steadily off center, readjust autopilot.
lateral trim control as required.
SECTION 5
PERFORMANCE
There is no change to the airplane performance when this avionic
equipment is installed.
6
~
Cessna~
"TAKE YOUR CESSNA HOME
FOR SERVICE AT THE SIGN
OF THE CESSNA SHIELD".
CESSNA AIRCRAFT COMPANY
WICHITA, KANSAS
111111111111111111111111111
D1082-13
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