6430 Femtoamp Sourcemeter Instruction

6430 Femtoamp Sourcemeter Instruction
Model 6430 Sub-Femtoamp Remote SourceMeter
Instruction Manual
A GREATER MEASURE OF CONFIDENCE
WARRANTY
Keithley Instruments, Inc. warrants this product to be free from defects in material and workmanship for a
period of 1 year from date of shipment.
Keithley Instruments, Inc. warrants the following items for 90 days from the date of shipment: probes, cables,
rechargeable batteries, diskettes, and documentation.
During the warranty period, we will, at our option, either repair or replace any product that proves to be
defective.
To exercise this warranty, write or call your local Keithley representative, or contact Keithley headquarters in
Cleveland, Ohio. You will be given prompt assistance and return instructions. Send the product, transportation
prepaid, to the indicated service facility. Repairs will be made and the product returned, transportation prepaid.
Repaired or replaced products are warranted for the balance of the original warranty period, or at least 90 days.
LIMITATION OF WARRANTY
This warranty does not apply to defects resulting from product modification without Keithley’s express written
consent, or misuse of any product or part. This warranty also does not apply to fuses, software, nonrechargeable batteries, damage from battery leakage, or problems arising from normal wear or failure to follow
instructions.
THIS WARRANTY IS IN LIEU OF ALL OTHER WARRANTIES, EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING ANY IMPLIED WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR USE.
THE REMEDIES PROVIDED HEREIN ARE BUYER’S SOLE AND EXCLUSIVE REMEDIES.
NEITHER KEITHLEY INSTRUMENTS, INC. NOR ANY OF ITS EMPLOYEES SHALL BE LIABLE FOR
ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF
THE USE OF ITS INSTRUMENTS AND SOFTWARE EVEN IF KEITHLEY INSTRUMENTS, INC., HAS
BEEN ADVISED IN ADVANCE OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. SUCH EXCLUDED DAMAGES SHALL INCLUDE, BUT ARE NOT LIMITED TO: COSTS OF REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION,
LOSSES SUSTAINED AS THE RESULT OF INJURY TO ANY PERSON, OR DAMAGE TO PROPERTY.
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4/01
Model 6430 Sub-Femtoamp Remote SourceMeter
Instruction Manual
©1999, Keithley Instruments, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.A.
Fourth Printing, June 2001
Document Number: 6430-901-01 Rev. D
Manual Print History
The print history shown below lists the printing dates of all Revisions and Addenda
created for this manual. The Revision Level letter increases alphabetically as the manual
undergoes subsequent updates. Addenda, which are released between Revisions, contain
important change information that the user should incorporate immediately into the
manual. Addenda are numbered sequentially. When a new Revision is created, all Addenda
associated with the previous Revision of the manual are incorporated into the new Revision
of the manual. Each new Revision includes a revised copy of this print history page.
Revision A (Document Number 6430-901-01) ................................................................ May 1999
Addendum A (Document Number 6430-901-02) ............................................................ June 1999
Revision B (Document Number 6430-901-01) ...................................................... September 1999
Addendum B (Document Number 6430-901-02) .................................................. November 1999
Revision C (Document Number 6430-901-01) ........................................................... January 2000
Revision D (Document Number 6430-901-01) ............................................................... June 2001
All Keithley product names are trademarks or registered trademarks of Keithley Instruments, Inc.
Other brand names are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective holders.
Safety Precautions
The following safety precautions should be observed before using this product and any associated instrumentation. Although some instruments and accessories would normally be used with non-hazardous
voltages, there are situations where hazardous conditions may be present.
This product is intended for use by qualified personnel who recognize shock hazards and are familiar
with the safety precautions required to avoid possible injury. Read the operating information carefully
before using the product.
The types of product users are:
Responsible body is the individual or group responsible for the use and maintenance of equipment, for
ensuring that the equipment is operated within its specifications and operating limits, and for ensuring
that operators are adequately trained.
Operators use the product for its intended function. They must be trained in electrical safety procedures
and proper use of the instrument. They must be protected from electric shock and contact with hazardous
live circuits.
Maintenance personnel perform routine procedures on the product to keep it operating, for example,
setting the line voltage or replacing consumable materials. Maintenance procedures are described in the
manual. The procedures explicitly state if the operator may perform them. Otherwise, they should be
performed only by service personnel.
Service personnel are trained to work on live circuits, and perform safe installations and repairs of products. Only properly trained service personnel may perform installation and service procedures.
Keithley products are designed for use with electrical signals that are rated Installation Category I and
Installation Category II, as described in the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Standard
IEC 60664. Most measurement, control, and data I/O signals are Installation Category I and must not
be directly connected to mains voltage or to voltage sources with high transient over-voltages. Installation Category II connections require protection for high transient over-voltages often associated with local AC mains connections. The user should assume all measurement, control, and data I/O connections
are for connection to Category I sources unless otherwise marked or described in the Manual.
Exercise extreme caution when a shock hazard is present. Lethal voltage may be present on cable connector jacks or test fixtures. The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) states that a shock hazard exists when voltage levels greater than 30V RMS, 42.4V peak, or 60VDC are present. A good safety
practice is to expect that hazardous voltage is present in any unknown circuit before measuring.
Users of this product must be protected from electric shock at all times. The responsible body must ensure that users are prevented access and/or insulated from every connection point. In some cases, connections must be exposed to potential human contact. Product users in these circumstances must be
trained to protect themselves from the risk of electric shock. If the circuit is capable of operating at or
above 1000 volts, no conductive part of the circuit may be exposed.
Do not connect switching cards directly to unlimited power circuits. They are intended to be used with
impedance limited sources. NEVER connect switching cards directly to AC mains. When connecting
sources to switching cards, install protective devices to limit fault current and voltage to the card.
Before operating an instrument, make sure the line cord is connected to a properly grounded power receptacle. Inspect the connecting cables, test leads, and jumpers for possible wear, cracks, or breaks before each use.
When installing equipment where access to the main power cord is restricted, such as rack mounting, a
separate main input power disconnect device must be provided, in close proximity to the equipment and
within easy reach of the operator.
For maximum safety, do not touch the product, test cables, or any other instruments while power is applied to
the circuit under test. ALWAYS remove power from the entire test system and discharge any capacitors before:
connecting or disconnecting cables or jumpers, installing or removing switching cards, or making internal
changes, such as installing or removing jumpers.
Do not touch any object that could provide a current path to the common side of the circuit under test or power
line (earth) ground. Always make measurements with dry hands while standing on a dry, insulated surface capable of withstanding the voltage being measured.
The instrument and accessories must be used in accordance with its specifications and operating instructions
or the safety of the equipment may be impaired.
Do not exceed the maximum signal levels of the instruments and accessories, as defined in the specifications
and operating information, and as shown on the instrument or test fixture panels, or switching card.
When fuses are used in a product, replace with same type and rating for continued protection against fire hazard.
Chassis connections must only be used as shield connections for measuring circuits, NOT as safety earth
ground connections.
If you are using a test fixture, keep the lid closed while power is applied to the device under test. Safe operation
requires the use of a lid interlock.
If a
screw is present, connect it to safety earth ground using the wire recommended in the user documentation.
The ! symbol on an instrument indicates that the user should refer to the operating instructions located in
the manual.
The
symbol on an instrument shows that it can source or measure 1000 volts or more, including the combined effect of normal and common mode voltages. Use standard safety precautions to avoid personal contact
with these voltages.
The WARNING heading in a manual explains dangers that might result in personal injury or death. Always
read the associated information very carefully before performing the indicated procedure.
The CAUTION heading in a manual explains hazards that could damage the instrument. Such damage may
invalidate the warranty.
Instrumentation and accessories shall not be connected to humans.
Before performing any maintenance, disconnect the line cord and all test cables.
To maintain protection from electric shock and fire, replacement components in mains circuits, including the
power transformer, test leads, and input jacks, must be purchased from Keithley Instruments. Standard fuses,
with applicable national safety approvals, may be used if the rating and type are the same. Other components
that are not safety related may be purchased from other suppliers as long as they are equivalent to the original
component. (Note that selected parts should be purchased only through Keithley Instruments to maintain accuracy and functionality of the product.) If you are unsure about the applicability of a replacement component,
call a Keithley Instruments office for information.
To clean an instrument, use a damp cloth or mild, water based cleaner. Clean the exterior of the instrument
only. Do not apply cleaner directly to the instrument or allow liquids to enter or spill on the instrument. Products that consist of a circuit board with no case or chassis (e.g., data acquisition board for installation into a
computer) should never require cleaning if handled according to instructions. If the board becomes contaminated and operation is affected, the board should be returned to the factory for proper cleaning/servicing.
Rev. 2/01
Table of Contents
1
Getting Started
General information ................................................................... 1-2
Warranty information .......................................................... 1-2
Contact information ............................................................ 1-2
Manual addenda .................................................................. 1-2
Safety symbols and terms ................................................... 1-2
Inspection ............................................................................ 1-3
Options and accessories ...................................................... 1-3
Product overview ........................................................................ 1-6
Mainframe and Remote PreAmp familiarization ....................... 1-7
Mainframe front panel summary ........................................ 1-7
Mainframe rear panel summary .......................................... 1-9
Remote PreAmp summary ................................................ 1-10
Power-up .................................................................................. 1-12
Line power connection ...................................................... 1-12
Power-up sequence ........................................................... 1-13
System identification ......................................................... 1-13
Line frequency setting ....................................................... 1-13
Fuse replacement .............................................................. 1-14
Display ..................................................................................... 1-15
Display format .................................................................. 1-15
EDIT key ........................................................................... 1-15
TOGGLE key .................................................................... 1-15
Status and error messages ................................................. 1-16
Remote display programming ........................................... 1-16
Front panel tests ................................................................ 1-16
Disabling front panel display ............................................ 1-16
Default settings ......................................................................... 1-17
Saving and restoring user setups ....................................... 1-17
Power-on configuration ..................................................... 1-18
Factory default settings ..................................................... 1-18
Remote setups ................................................................... 1-20
Menus ....................................................................................... 1-21
Main menu ........................................................................ 1-21
Rules to navigate menus ................................................... 1-24
Editing source and compliance values .............................. 1-25
Toggling the source and measure display fields ................ 1-25
Configuration menus ......................................................... 1-26
2
Connections
Connection overview .................................................................. 2-2
Connecting Remote PreAmp to the mainframe .................. 2-2
Source-measure terminals ................................................... 2-3
Test fixture interlock ............................................................ 2-5
Connections to DUT ................................................................... 2-6
Sensing methods .................................................................. 2-6
Guarding methods ...................................................................... 2-9
Cable guard ......................................................................... 2-9
Ohms guard ....................................................................... 2-10
Guard selection .................................................................. 2-13
3
Basic Source-Measure Operation
CAUTION .................................................................................. 3-2
Operation overview .................................................................... 3-3
Source-measure capabilities ................................................ 3-3
Compliance limit ................................................................. 3-4
Setting the compliance limit ................................................ 3-5
Basic circuit configuration .................................................. 3-6
Operation considerations ............................................................ 3-6
Warm-up .............................................................................. 3-6
Auto zero ............................................................................. 3-6
NPLC caching ..................................................................... 3-7
V-source protection ............................................................. 3-8
Source delay ........................................................................ 3-9
Basic source-measure procedure .............................................. 3-10
Output control ................................................................... 3-10
Current measurements and capacitive loads ...................... 3-11
Front panel source-measure procedure ............................. 3-12
Remote command source-measure procedure ................... 3-15
Measure only ............................................................................ 3-17
Front panel measure only .................................................. 3-17
Remote command measure only ....................................... 3-18
Sink operation ........................................................................... 3-19
Overview ........................................................................... 3-19
Sink programming example .............................................. 3-19
4
Ohms Measurements
Ohms configuration menu .......................................................... 4-2
Ohms measurement methods ..................................................... 4-3
Selecting ohms measurement method ................................. 4-4
Auto ohms measurements ................................................... 4-4
Manual ohms measurements ............................................... 4-5
Ohms sensing ............................................................................. 4-6
Offset-compensated ohms .......................................................... 4-7
Measuring high resistance devices ...................................... 4-7
Enabling/disabling offset-compensated ohms .................... 4-8
Offset-compensated ohms procedure .................................. 4-8
Ohms source readback ............................................................... 4-9
6-wire ohms measurements ........................................................ 4-9
Remote ohms programming ..................................................... 4-10
Remote ohms commands .................................................. 4-10
Ohms programming example ............................................ 4-10
5
Source-Measure Concepts
Compliance limit ........................................................................ 5-2
Types of compliance ........................................................... 5-2
Maximum compliance values ............................................. 5-3
Compliance examples ......................................................... 5-3
Compliance principles ........................................................ 5-4
Determining compliance limit ............................................ 5-4
Overheating protection ............................................................... 5-5
Source-delay-measure cycle ....................................................... 5-6
Sweep waveforms ............................................................... 5-8
Operating boundaries ................................................................. 5-9
Source or sink ..................................................................... 5-9
I -Source operating boundaries ......................................... 5-10
V-Source operating boundaries ......................................... 5-14
Source I measure I and source V measure V .................... 5-18
Basic circuit configurations ...................................................... 5-18
Source I ............................................................................. 5-18
Source V ............................................................................ 5-20
Measure only (V or I) ....................................................... 5-21
Guard ........................................................................................ 5-22
Cable guard ....................................................................... 5-22
Ohms guard ....................................................................... 5-24
Guard sense ....................................................................... 5-24
Data flow .................................................................................. 5-26
Buffer considerations ........................................................ 5-28
6
Range, Digits, Speed, and Filters
Range and digits ......................................................................... 6-2
Range ................................................................................... 6-2
Digits ................................................................................... 6-5
Remote range and digits programming ............................... 6-6
Speed .......................................................................................... 6-7
Setting speed ....................................................................... 6-7
Remote speed programming ................................................ 6-8
Filters .......................................................................................... 6-9
Filter stages ......................................................................... 6-9
Auto filter .......................................................................... 6-13
Filter configuration ............................................................ 6-15
Filter control ...................................................................... 6-16
Remote filter programming ............................................... 6-16
7
Relative and Math
Relative ....................................................................................... 7-2
Front panel rel ..................................................................... 7-2
Remote rel programming .................................................... 7-3
Math operations .......................................................................... 7-4
Math functions ..................................................................... 7-4
Front panel math operations ................................................ 7-7
Remote math operations ...................................................... 7-8
User-defined math functions ............................................. 7-10
8
Data Store
Data store overview .................................................................... 8-2
Front panel data store ................................................................. 8-2
Storing readings ................................................................... 8-2
Recalling readings ............................................................... 8-2
Buffer statistics .................................................................... 8-3
Timestamp format ............................................................... 8-4
Timestamp accuracy ............................................................ 8-4
Buffer considerations .......................................................... 8-5
Remote command data store ...................................................... 8-6
Data store commands .......................................................... 8-6
Data store programming example ....................................... 8-7
9
Sweep Operation
Sweep types ................................................................................ 9-2
Linear staircase sweep ........................................................ 9-2
Logarithmic staircase sweep ............................................... 9-3
Custom sweep ..................................................................... 9-4
Source memory sweep ........................................................ 9-5
Configuring and running a sweep ............................................ 9-11
Front panel sweep operation ............................................. 9-11
Performing sweeps ............................................................ 9-13
Remote sweep operation ................................................... 9-18
10
Triggering
Trigger model (front panel operation) ...................................... 10-2
Idle .................................................................................... 10-2
Event detection .................................................................. 10-4
Trigger delay ..................................................................... 10-5
Source, delay, and measure actions ................................... 10-5
Counters ............................................................................ 10-6
Output triggers .................................................................. 10-6
Bench defaults ................................................................... 10-7
Operation summary ........................................................... 10-7
Trigger link ............................................................................... 10-8
Input trigger requirements ................................................. 10-8
Output trigger specifications ............................................. 10-9
External triggering example .............................................. 10-9
Configuring triggering ............................................................ 10-13
CONFIGURE TRIGGER menu ..................................... 10-13
Remote triggering .................................................................. 10-16
Trigger model (remote operation) ................................... 10-16
Idle and initiate ............................................................... 10-16
Event detection ................................................................ 10-18
Arm layer ........................................................................ 10-18
Trigger layer .................................................................... 10-19
Trigger delay ................................................................... 10-20
Source, delay, and measure actions ................................. 10-20
Counters .......................................................................... 10-21
Output triggers ............................................................... 10-21
GPIB defaults .................................................................. 10-22
Operation summary ......................................................... 10-22
Remote trigger commands .............................................. 10-23
Remote trigger example .................................................. 10-24
11
Limit Testing
Types of limits .......................................................................... 11-2
Pass/fail information .......................................................... 11-2
Data flow ........................................................................... 11-3
Limit 1 test (compliance) .................................................. 11-3
Limit 2, limit 3, and limit 5-12 tests .................................. 11-3
Limit test modes ................................................................ 11-4
Binning .............................................................................. 11-4
Operation overview .................................................................. 11-4
Grading mode .................................................................... 11-4
Sorting mode ..................................................................... 11-8
Binning systems ...................................................................... 11-10
Handler interface ............................................................. 11-10
Handler types ................................................................... 11-11
Basic binning systems ..................................................... 11-12
Single-element device binning ........................................ 11-12
Multiple-element device binning ..................................... 11-13
Digital output clear pattern ..................................................... 11-14
Auto-clear timing ............................................................ 11-14
Configuring and performing limit tests .................................. 11-15
Configuring limit tests ..................................................... 11-15
Performing limit tests ...................................................... 11-17
Remote limit testing ............................................................... 11-19
Limit commands .............................................................. 11-19
Limit test programming example .................................... 11-20
12
Digital I/O Port, Interlock, and Output Configuration
Digital I/O port ......................................................................... 12-2
Port configuration .............................................................. 12-2
Digital output configuration .............................................. 12-3
Controlling digital output lines ......................................... 12-4
Safety interlock ......................................................................... 12-6
Front panel output configuration .............................................. 12-7
Configure OUTPUT menu ................................................ 12-7
Output-off states ................................................................ 12-8
Output off states and inductive loads ................................ 12-9
Remote output configuration .................................................... 12-9
Output configuration commands ....................................... 12-9
Output configuration programming example .................. 12-10
13
Remote Operations
Differences: remote vs. local operation .................................... 13-2
Operation enhancements (remote operation) .................... 13-2
Local-to-remote transition ................................................ 13-2
Remote-to-local transition ................................................ 13-3
Selecting an interface ............................................................... 13-3
GPIB operation ........................................................................ 13-4
GPIB standards ................................................................. 13-4
GPIB connections ............................................................. 13-4
Primary address ................................................................. 13-6
General bus commands ............................................................ 13-6
REN (remote enable) ........................................................ 13-7
IFC (interface clear) .......................................................... 13-7
LLO (local lockout) .......................................................... 13-7
GTL (go to local) .............................................................. 13-7
DCL (device clear) ............................................................ 13-8
SDC (selective device clear) ............................................. 13-8
GET (group execute trigger) ............................................. 13-8
SPE, SPD (serial polling) .................................................. 13-8
Front panel GPIB operation ..................................................... 13-9
Error and status messages ................................................. 13-9
GPIB status indicators ....................................................... 13-9
LOCAL key .................................................................... 13-10
Programming syntax .............................................................. 13-10
Command words ............................................................. 13-10
Query commands ............................................................ 13-12
Case sensitivity ............................................................... 13-12
Long-form and short-form versions ................................ 13-12
Short-form rules .............................................................. 13-13
Program messages ........................................................... 13-13
Response messages ......................................................... 13-15
Message exchange protocol ............................................ 13-16
RS-232 interface operation .................................................... 13-16
Sending and receiving data ............................................. 13-16
Baud rate ......................................................................... 13-17
Data bits and parity ......................................................... 13-17
Terminator ....................................................................... 13-17
Flow control (signal handshaking) .................................. 13-18
RS-232 connections ........................................................ 13-18
Error messages ................................................................ 13-19
Programming example .................................................... 13-20
14
Status Structure
Overview .................................................................................. 14-2
Status byte and SRQ .......................................................... 14-2
Status register sets ............................................................. 14-2
Queues ............................................................................... 14-2
Clearing registers and queues ................................................... 14-4
Programming and reading registers .......................................... 14-5
Programming enable registers ........................................... 14-5
Reading registers .............................................................. 14-6
Status byte and service request (SRQ) ..................................... 14-7
Status Byte Register .......................................................... 14-8
Service Request Enable Register ....................................... 14-9
Serial polling and SRQ ...................................................... 14-9
Status byte and service request commands ..................... 14-10
Status register sets .................................................................. 14-11
Register bit descriptions .................................................. 14-11
Condition registers .......................................................... 14-16
Event registers ................................................................. 14-17
Event enable registers ...................................................... 14-17
Queues .................................................................................... 14-19
Output queue ................................................................... 14-19
Error queue ...................................................................... 14-19
15
Common Commands
Command summary .................................................................. 15-2
Command reference .................................................................. 15-3
*IDN? — identification query ........................................... 15-3
*OPC — operation complete ............................................ 15-3
*OPC? — operation complete query ................................ 15-3
*SAV <NRf> — save ........................................................ 15-4
*RCL <NRf> — recall ...................................................... 15-4
*RST — reset .................................................................... 15-5
*TRG — trigger ................................................................ 15-5
*TST? — self-test query ................................................... 15-6
*WAI — wait-to-continue ................................................. 15-6
16
SCPI Signal-Oriented Measurement Commands
Command summary .................................................................
Configuring measurement function ..........................................
:CONFigure:<function> ....................................................
Acquiring readings ...................................................................
:FETCh? ............................................................................
[:SENSe[1]]:DATA[:LATest]? ..........................................
:READ? .............................................................................
:MEASure[:<function>]? ..................................................
17
16-2
16-2
16-2
16-3
16-3
16-4
16-4
16-5
SCPI Command Reference
Reference tables ....................................................................... 17-2
Calculate subsystems ............................................................. 17-22
CALCulate[1] ......................................................................... 17-22
Select (create) math expression name ............................. 17-22
Assign unit suffix ............................................................ 17-27
Define math expression ................................................... 17-27
Enable and read math expression result .......................... 17-30
CALCulate2 ........................................................................... 17-31
Select input path .............................................................. 17-31
Null feed reading ............................................................. 17-31
Read CALC2 ................................................................... 17-32
Configure and control limit tests ..................................... 17-33
Composite testing ............................................................ 17-37
Clear test results ............................................................. 17-39
CALCulate3 ........................................................................... 17-40
Select statistic .................................................................. 17-40
Acquire statistic .............................................................. 17-40
:DISPlay subsystem ............................................................... 17-41
Control display ................................................................ 17-41
Read display .................................................................... 17-43
Define :TEXT messages ................................................. 17-43
FORMat subsystem ................................................................ 17-44
Data format ..................................................................... 17-44
Data elements .................................................................. 17-46
CALC data elements ....................................................... 17-50
Byte order ........................................................................ 17-51
Status register format ...................................................... 17-51
OUTPut subsystem ................................................................ 17-52
Turn source on or off ....................................................... 17-52
Interlock control .............................................................. 17-52
Output-off states .............................................................. 17-53
SENSe1 subsystem ................................................................. 17-54
Select measurement functions ......................................... 17-54
Select measurement range ............................................... 17-57
Select auto range ............................................................. 17-58
Set compliance limit ........................................................ 17-59
Set measurement speed ................................................... 17-60
Configure and control filters ............................................ 17-60
SOURce subsystem ................................................................ 17-64
SOURce[1] ...................................................................... 17-64
Control source output-off ................................................ 17-64
Select function mode ....................................................... 17-65
Select sourcing mode ...................................................... 17-65
Select range ..................................................................... 17-66
Set amplitude for fixed source ......................................... 17-67
Set voltage limit ............................................................... 17-69
Set delay .......................................................................... 17-70
Configure voltage and current sweeps ............................. 17-71
Configure list ................................................................... 17-76
Configure memory sweep ................................................ 17-77
Set scaling factor ............................................................. 17-79
Sweep and list program examples ................................... 17-80
Soak time ......................................................................... 17-82
SOURce2 ......................................................................... 17-82
Setting digital output ....................................................... 17-82
Clearing digital output ..................................................... 17-84
STATus subsystem .................................................................. 17-86
Read event registers ......................................................... 17-86
Program event enable registers ........................................ 17-86
Read condition registers .................................................. 17-87
Select default conditions ................................................. 17-87
Error queue ...................................................................... 17-87
:SYSTem subsystem ............................................................... 17-89
Default conditions ........................................................... 17-89
Select guard mode ........................................................... 17-90
Initialize memory ............................................................ 17-90
Control beeper ................................................................. 17-91
Control auto zero ............................................................. 17-92
Control NPLC caching .................................................... 17-92
Select power line frequency setting ................................. 17-93
Error queue ...................................................................... 17-94
Simulate key presses ....................................................... 17-95
Read version of SCPI standard ........................................ 17-96
RS-232 interface .............................................................. 17-97
Query timestamp ............................................................. 17-97
Reset timestamp .............................................................. 17-98
Auto reset timestamp ...................................................... 17-98
Auto range change mode ................................................ 17-98
:TRACe subsystem ................................................................. 17-99
Read and clear buffer ...................................................... 17-99
Configure and control buffer ........................................... 17-99
Select timestamp format ............................................... 17-101
TRIGger subsystem .............................................................. 17-102
Clear input triggers ....................................................... 17-102
Initiate source/measure cycle ........................................ 17-102
Abort source/measure cycle .......................................... 17-103
Program trigger model .................................................. 17-103
18
Performance Verification
Introduction .............................................................................. 18-2
Verification test requirements ................................................... 18-2
Environmental conditions ................................................. 18-2
Warm-up period ................................................................ 18-3
Line power ........................................................................ 18-3
Recommended test equipment ................................................. 18-3
Test resistor construction ................................................. 18-5
Verification limits ..................................................................... 18-5
Example limits calculation ................................................ 18-5
Resistance limits calculation ............................................. 18-6
Limits calculation with test equipment uncertainty .......... 18-6
Performing the verification test procedures ............................. 18-6
Restoring factory defaults ................................................. 18-6
Test summary .................................................................... 18-7
Test considerations ............................................................ 18-7
Setting the source range and output value ........................ 18-8
Setting the measurement range ......................................... 18-8
Compliance considerations ...................................................... 18-8
Compliance limits ............................................................. 18-8
Types of compliance ......................................................... 18-8
Maximum compliance values ........................................... 18-9
Determining compliance limit ........................................ 18-10
Taking the unit out of compliance ................................... 18-10
Mainframe verification ........................................................... 18-10
Mainframe output voltage accuracy ................................ 18-10
Mainframe voltage measurement accuracy ..................... 18-12
Mainframe output current accuracy ................................ 18-12
Mainframe current measurement accuracy ..................... 18-14
Mainframe resistance measurement accuracy ................ 18-15
Remote PreAmp verification .................................................. 18-17
Connecting Remote PreAmp to the mainframe .............. 18-17
Remote PreAmp output voltage accuracy ....................... 18-18
Remote PreAmp voltage measurement accuracy ............ 18-19
Remote PreAmp output current accuracy ....................... 18-20
Remote PreAmp current measurement accuracy ............ 18-24
Remote PreAmp resistance measurement accuracy ........ 18-26
20Ω-200MΩ range accuracy ........................................... 18-26
2GΩ-200GΩ range accuracy ........................................... 18-28
2TΩ and 20TΩ range accuracy ....................................... 18-30
19
Calibration
Introduction .............................................................................. 19-2
Environmental conditions ......................................................... 19-2
Temperature and relative humidity .................................... 19-2
Warm-up period ................................................................. 19-2
Line power ......................................................................... 19-2
Calibration considerations ........................................................ 19-3
Calibration cycle ................................................................ 19-3
Recommended calibration equipment ...................................... 19-4
Unlocking calibration ............................................................... 19-5
Mainframe calibration .............................................................. 19-6
Mainframe calibration menu ............................................. 19-6
Mainframe calibration procedure ...................................... 19-6
Remote PreAmp calibration ................................................... 19-14
Connecting Remote PreAmp to the mainframe .............. 19-14
Remote PreAmp calibration menu .................................. 19-14
Remote PreAmp calibration procedure ........................... 19-15
Changing the password ........................................................... 19-21
Resetting the calibration password .................................. 19-21
Viewing calibration dates and calibration count ..................... 19-22
20
Routine Maintenance
Introduction .............................................................................. 20-2
Line fuse replacement ............................................................... 20-2
Front panel tests ........................................................................ 20-3
KEYS test .......................................................................... 20-3
DISPLAY PATTERNS test ............................................... 20-4
CHAR SET test ................................................................. 20-4
A
Specifications
Accuracy calculations ...............................................................
Measure accuracy ...............................................................
Source accuracy .................................................................
Source-Delay-Measure (SDM) cycle timing ............................
Definitions ..........................................................................
Timing diagrams ................................................................
B
A-7
A-7
A-7
A-8
A-8
A-9
Status and Error Messages
Introduction ............................................................................... B-2
Status and error messages ......................................................... B-2
Eliminating common SCPI errors ............................................. B-8
C
Data Flow
Introduction ...............................................................................
FETCh? ..............................................................................
CALCulate[1]:DATA? .......................................................
CALCulate2:DATA? ..........................................................
TRACe:DATA? ..................................................................
CALCulate3:DATA? ..........................................................
D
C-2
C-3
C-3
C-3
C-4
C-4
IEEE-488 Bus Overview
Introduction ............................................................................... D-2
Bus description .......................................................................... D-2
Bus lines .................................................................................... D-4
Data lines ........................................................................... D-4
Bus management lines ....................................................... D-5
Handshake lines ................................................................. D-5
Bus commands .......................................................................... D-6
Uniline commands ............................................................. D-7
Universal multiline commands .......................................... D-8
Addressed multiline commands ......................................... D-8
Address commands ............................................................ D-9
Unaddress commands ........................................................ D-9
Common commands .......................................................... D-9
SCPI commands ................................................................. D-9
Command codes ............................................................... D-10
Typical command sequences ............................................ D-12
IEEE command groups .................................................... D-13
Interface function codes .......................................................... D-14
E
IEEE-488 and SCPI Conformance Information
Introduction ............................................................................... E-2
F
Measurement Considerations
Floating measurement safety concerns ...................................... F-2
Low current measurements ........................................................ F-3
Leakage currents and guarding .......................................... F-3
Noise and source impedance .............................................. F-5
Generated currents .............................................................. F-6
Voltage burden .................................................................... F-9
Overload protection .......................................................... F-10
High impedance voltage measurements .................................. F-10
Loading effects ................................................................. F-10
Cable leakage resistance ................................................... F-11
Input capacitance (settling time) ...................................... F-11
High resistance measurements ................................................ F-13
Ohms measurement methods ........................................... F-13
Characteristics of high-valued resistors ........................... F-13
General measurement considerations ...................................... F-14
Ground loops .................................................................... F-14
Light ................................................................................. F-15
Electrostatic interference .................................................. F-15
Magnetic fields ................................................................. F-15
Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) ................................ F-16
G
GPIB 488.1 Protocol
Introduction ............................................................................... G-2
Selecting the 488.1 protocol ...................................................... G-2
Protocol differences ................................................................... G-3
Message exchange protocol (MEP) .................................... G-3
Using SCPI-based programs .............................................. G-3
NRFD hold-off ................................................................... G-4
NDAC hold-off ................................................................... G-4
Trigger-on-talk ................................................................... G-5
Message available ............................................................... G-5
General operation notes ...................................................... G-5
GPIB reading speed comparisons .............................................. G-6
Sweep operation ................................................................. G-6
Single-shot operation .......................................................... G-7
List of Illustrations
1
Getting Started
Figure 1-1
Figure 1-2
Figure 1-3
Figure 1-4
Figure 1-5
Front panel ............................................................................. 1-7
Model 6430 rear panel ........................................................... 1-9
Remote preamp .................................................................... 1-10
Triax connectors ................................................................... 1-11
Main menu tree .................................................................... 1-23
2
Connections
Figure 2-1
Figure 2-2
Figure 2-3
Figure 2-4
Figure 2-5
Figure 2-6
Figure 2-7
Basic input/output configurations .......................................... 2-4
Two-wire sense connections .................................................. 2-6
Four-wire sense connections .................................................. 2-7
High-impedance guarding ...................................................... 2-9
Guarded ohms connections (basic) ...................................... 2-10
Guarded ohms connections (guard sense) ........................... 2-11
Guarded ohms connections (6-wire ohms) .......................... 2-12
3
Basic Source-Measure Operation
Figure 3-1
Fundamental source-measure configuration .......................... 3-6
4
Ohms Measurements
Figure 4-1
Figure 4-2
Ohms configuration ............................................................... 4-2
menu tree ................................................................................ 4-2
5
Source-Measure Concepts
Figure 5-1
Figure 5-2
Figure 5-3
Figure 5-4
Figure 5-5
Figure 5-6
Figure 5-7
Figure 5-8
Figure 5-9
Figure 5-10
Figure 5-11
Figure 5-12
Figure 5-13
Figure 5-14
Figure 5-15
Source-delay-measure (SDM) cycle ...................................... 5-6
Simplified trigger model ........................................................ 5-7
Three basic sweep waveform types ....................................... 5-8
Operating boundaries ........................................................... 5-10
I-Source boundaries ............................................................. 5-11
I-Source operating boundaries ............................................. 5-13
V-Source boundaries ............................................................ 5-15
V-Source operating examples .............................................. 5-17
Source I ................................................................................ 5-19
Source V ............................................................................... 5-20
Measure-only (V or I) .......................................................... 5-21
High-impedance measurements ........................................... 5-23
In-circuit ohms measurements ............................................. 5-24
In-circuit ohms measurements using guard sense ................ 5-25
Data flow front panel ........................................................... 5-27
6
Range, Digits, Speed, and Filters
Figure 6-1
Figure 6-2
Figure 6-3
Figure 6-4
Figure 6-5
Figure 6-6
Speed configuration menu tree ............................................... 6-8
3-stage filtering ....................................................................... 6-9
Repeat filter (count 10) ......................................................... 6-10
Median filter (rank 5) ........................................................... 6-11
Moving filter (count 10) ....................................................... 6-12
Configure filtering menu tree ............................................... 6-15
7
Relative and Math
Figure 7-1
Figure 7-2
Math configuration menu tree ................................................ 7-7
Connections for voltage coefficient tests ................................ 7-9
9
Sweep Operation
Figure 9-1
Figure 9-2
Figure 9-3
Figure 9-4
Figure 9-5
Figure 9-6
Figure 9-7
Figure 9-8
Figure 9-9
Linear staircase sweep ............................................................ 9-2
Logarithmic staircase sweep (example 5-point sweep
from 1 to 10 volts) ............................................................ 9-3
Custom pulse sweep ............................................................... 9-4
Custom sweep with different pulse widths ............................ 9-5
Six-point test branching example ........................................... 9-8
Typical diode I-V curve and test points (not to scale) ............ 9-9
Sweep configuration menu tree ............................................ 9-12
Connections for diode I-V tests ............................................ 9-19
Diode I-V curve .................................................................... 9-19
10
Triggering
Figure 10-1
Figure 10-2
Figure 10-3
Figure 10-4
Figure 10-5
Figure 10-6
Figure 10-7
Figure 10-8
Figure 10-9
Figure 10-10
Trigger model (front panel operation) .................................. 10-3
Rear panel pinout ................................................................. 10-8
Trigger link input pulse specifications ................................. 10-8
Trigger link output pulse specifications ............................... 10-9
DUT test system ................................................................... 10-9
Trigger link connections ..................................................... 10-10
Operation model for triggering example ............................ 10-12
Configure trigger menu tree ............................................... 10-15
Trigger model (remote operation) ...................................... 10-17
Measure action ................................................................... 10-20
11
Limit Testing
Figure 11-1
Figure 11-2
Figure 11-3
Figure 11-4
Figure 11-5
Figure 11-6
Limits tests ........................................................................... 11-2
Grading mode limit testing ................................................... 11-5
Immediate binning ............................................................... 11-6
End binning .......................................................................... 11-6
Sorting mode limit testing .................................................... 11-9
Handler interface connections ............................................ 11-10
Figure 11-7
Figure 11-8
Figure 11-9
Figure 11-10
Figure 11-11
Binning system - single element devices ...........................
Binning system - multiple element devices .......................
Digital output auto-clear timing example ..........................
Limits configuration menu tree ..........................................
Diode pass/fail limits .........................................................
11-12
11-13
11-15
11-17
11-20
12
Digital I/O Port, Interlock, and Output Configuration
Figure 12-1
Figure 12-2
Figure 12-3
Figure 12-4
Figure 12-5
Interlock and digital I/O port ...............................................
Sink operation ......................................................................
Source operation ..................................................................
Using test fixture interlock ...................................................
Output configuration menu tree ...........................................
13
Remote Operations
Figure 13-1
Figure 13-2
Figure 13-3
Figure 13-4
IEEE-488 connector ............................................................. 13-4
IEEE-488 connections ......................................................... 13-5
IEEE-488 connector location ............................................... 13-5
RS-232 interface connector ............................................... 13-18
14
Status Structure
Figure 14-1
Figure 14-2
Figure 14-3
Figure 14-4
Figure 14-5
Figure 14-6
Figure 14-7
SourceMeter status register structure ................................... 14-3
16-bit status register ............................................................. 14-5
Status byte and service request (SRQ) ................................. 14-7
Standard event status .......................................................... 14-11
Operation event status ........................................................ 14-13
Measurement event status .................................................. 14-15
Questionable event status ................................................... 14-16
17
SCPI Command Reference
Figure 17-1
Figure 17-2
Figure 17-3
ASCII data format .............................................................. 17-45
IEEE-754 single precision data format (32 data bits) ........ 17-45
Key-press codes ................................................................. 17-96
12-2
12-3
12-4
12-6
12-7
18
Performance Verification
Figure 18-1
Figure 18-2
Figure 18-3
Figure 18-4
Test resistor construction ...................................................... 18-5
Connections for mainframe voltage verification tests ........ 18-11
Connections for mainframe current verification tests ........ 18-13
Connections for mainframe resistance accuracy
verification .................................................................... 18-15
Connections for Remote PreAmp voltage
verification tests ............................................................ 18-18
Connections for 1µA-100mA range current
verification tests............................................................. 18-21
Connections for 1pA-100nA range current
verification tests............................................................. 18-22
Connections for Remote PreAmp 20Ω-200MΩ
range verification .......................................................... 18-27
Connections for Remote PreAmp 2GΩ-200GΩ
range verification .......................................................... 18-29
Connections for Remote PreAmp 2TΩ and 20TΩ
range verification .......................................................... 18-30
Figure 18-5
Figure 18-6
Figure 18-7
Figure 18-8
Figure 18-9
Figure 18-10
19
Calibration
Figure 19-1
Figure 19-2
Figure 19-3
Figure 19-4
Figure 19-5
Mainframe voltage calibration test connections ................... 19-7
Mainframe current calibration connections ....................... 19-10
Voltage burden calibration connections ............................. 19-16
1µA and 10µA range gain calibration connections ............ 19-17
1pA to 100nA range gain calibration connections ............. 19-19
20
Routine Maintenance
Figure 20-1
Rear panel ............................................................................. 20-2
A
Specifications
Figure A-1
Figure A-2
Figure A-3
Figure A-4
Figure A-5
Figure A-6
Case I timing diagram ........................................................... A-9
Case II timing diagram ........................................................ A-10
Case III timing diagram ...................................................... A-10
Case IV timing diagram ...................................................... A-11
Case V timing diagram ........................................................ A-12
Case VI timing diagram ...................................................... A-12
C
Data Flow
Figure C-1
Data flow block diagram ....................................................... C-2
D
IEEE-488 Bus Overview
Figure D-1
Figure D-2
Figure D-3
IEEE-488 bus configuration .................................................. D-3
IEEE-488 handshake sequence ............................................. D-6
Command codes .................................................................. D-11
F
Measurement Considerations
Figure F-1
Figure F-2
Figure F-3
Figure F-4
Figure F-5
Figure F-6
Figure F-7
Figure F-8
Figure F-9
Floating measurements .......................................................... F-2
Guarding an ionization chamber ............................................ F-4
Voltage burden ....................................................................... F-9
Overload protection for ammeter input ............................... F-10
Meter loading ....................................................................... F-11
Effects of input capacitance ................................................. F-12
Settling time ......................................................................... F-12
Power line ground loops ...................................................... F-14
Eliminating ground loops .................................................... F-14
G
GPIB 488.1 Protocol
Figure G-1
IEEE-488 handshake sequence ............................................. G-4
List of Tables
1
Getting Started
Table 1-1
Table 1-2
Table 1-3
Table 1-4
Table 1-5
Table 1-6
Table 1-7
Table 1-8
Table 1-9
Table 1-10
Line frequency remote commands .......................................
Basic display commands ......................................................
Factory default settings ........................................................
Main menu ...........................................................................
Measurement configuration menus ......................................
Source and range configuration menus ................................
Rel, filter, and limit configuration menus ............................
Trigger configuration menu .................................................
Sweep, digits, speed, and data store configuration menus ...
Output and display configuration menus .............................
2
Connections
Table 2-1
Terminal equivalency between mainframe and
Remote PreAmp ............................................................... 2-3
3
Basic Source-Measure Operation
Table 3-1
Table 3-2
Table 3-3
Table 3-4
Table 3-5
Table 3-6
Table 3-7
Table 3-8
Table 3-9
Compliance limits .................................................................. 3-4
Compliance commands .......................................................... 3-5
Typical NPLC cache test times .............................................. 3-8
Auto source delay .................................................................. 3-9
Maximum capacitive loads .................................................. 3-11
Basic source-measure commands ........................................ 3-15
Basic source-measure command sequence .......................... 3-16
Measure only programming example .................................. 3-18
Sink programming example ................................................. 3-19
4
Ohms Measurements
Table 4-1
Table 4-2
Table 4-3
Auto ohms default test currents ............................................. 4-3
Remote commands for basic ohms measurements .............. 4-10
Commands for ohms programming example ....................... 4-10
5
Source-Measure Concepts
Table 5-1
Table 5-2
Table 5-3
Maximum compliance values ................................................ 5-3
Compliance examples ............................................................ 5-5
Buffer considerations ........................................................... 5-28
1-14
1-16
1-19
1-21
1-27
1-28
1-29
1-30
1-31
1-32
6
Range, Digits, Speed, and Filters
Table 6-1
Table 6-2
Table 6-3
Table 6-4
Table 6-5
Table 6-6
Table 6-7
Table 6-8
Table 6-9
Model 6430 ranges ................................................................. 6-2
Range and digits commands ................................................... 6-6
Range and digits programming example ................................ 6-7
Speed commands .................................................................... 6-8
Auto filter settings where NPLC = 0.01 to 0.10 ................... 6-13
Auto filter settings where NPLC = 0.11 to 1.00 ................... 6-14
Auto filter settings where NPLC = 1.01 to 10 ...................... 6-14
Filter commands ................................................................... 6-16
Filter programming example ................................................ 6-17
7
Relative and Math
Table 7-1
Table 7-2
Table 7-3
Table 7-4
Table 7-5
Table 7-6
Rel commands ........................................................................ 7-3
Rel programming example ..................................................... 7-3
Math commands ..................................................................... 7-8
Voltage coefficient programming example ............................. 7-9
Commands for user-defined math functions ........................ 7-10
User-defined math function programming example ............. 7-11
8
Data Store
Table 8-1
Table 8-2
Data store commands ............................................................. 8-6
Data store example ................................................................. 8-7
9
Sweep Operation
Table 9-1
Table 9-2
Table 9-3
Table 9-4
Table 9-5
Table 9-6
Table 9-7
Table 9-8
Logarithmic sweep points ...................................................... 9-4
Source memory saved configurations .................................... 9-7
Linear and log staircase sweep commands .......................... 9-18
Staircase sweep programming example (diode test) ............ 9-20
Custom sweep commands .................................................... 9-20
Custom sweep programming example ................................. 9-21
Source memory sweep commands ....................................... 9-21
Source memory sweep programming example .................... 9-22
10
Triggering
Table 10-1
Table 10-2
Remote trigger command ................................................... 10-23
Remote triggering example ................................................ 10-24
11
Limit Testing
Table 11-1
Table 11-2
Table 11-3
Limit commands ................................................................. 11-19
Limits test programming example ...................................... 11-21
Limits test results summary ............................................... 11-21
12
Digital I/O Port, Interlock, and Output Configuration
Table 12-1
Table 12-2
Table 12-3
Digital output line settings ................................................... 12-5
Output configuration commands .......................................... 12-9
Output configuration programming example ..................... 12-10
13
Remote Operations
Table 13-1
Table 13-2
Table 13-3
General bus commands ........................................................ 13-6
PC serial port pinout .......................................................... 13-19
RS-232 connector pinout ................................................... 13-19
14
Status Structure
Table 14-1
Table 14-4
Table 14-5
Table 14-6
Table 14-7
Table 14-8
Table 14-9
Common and SCPI commands to reset registers
and clear queues ............................................................. 14-4
Data format commands for reading status registers ............. 14-7
Status Byte and Service Request Enable Register
commands .................................................................... 14-10
Status byte programming example .................................... 14-10
Event register commands ................................................... 14-17
Condition register commands ............................................ 14-17
Program and read register programming example ............. 14-18
Event enable registers commands ...................................... 14-18
Error queue commands ...................................................... 14-20
15
Common Commands
Table 15-1
Table 15-2
Table 15-3
Table 15-4
IEEE-488.2 common commands and queries ......................
*OPC programming example ..............................................
*SAV, *RCL programming example ...................................
*TRG programming example ..............................................
16
SCPI Signal-Oriented Measurement Commands
Table 16-1
Signal-oriented measurement command summary .............. 16-2
17
SCPI Command Reference
Table 17-1
Table 17-2
Table 17-3
Table 17-4
Table 17-5
Table 17-6
Table 17-7
Table 17-8
Table 17-9
Table 17-10
CALCulate command summary .......................................... 17-3
DISPlay command summary ............................................... 17-8
FORMat command summary ............................................... 17-9
OUTPut command summary ............................................... 17-9
SENSe command summary ............................................... 17-10
SOURce command summary ............................................. 17-13
STATus command summary .............................................. 17-17
SYSTem command summary ............................................ 17-18
TRACe command summary .............................................. 17-19
TRIGger command summary ............................................ 17-20
Table 14-2
Table 14-3
15-2
15-4
15-5
15-6
18
Performance Verification
Table 18-1
Table 18-2
Table 18-3
Table 18-4
Table 18-5
Table 18-6
Table 18-7
Table 18-8
Table 18-9
Table 18-10
Recommended verification equipment ................................. 18-4
Maximum compliance values ............................................... 18-9
Mainframe output voltage accuracy limits ......................... 18-11
Mainframe voltage measurement accuracy limits .............. 18-12
Mainframe output current accuracy limits ......................... 18-13
Mainframe current measurement accuracy limits .............. 18-14
Mainframe resistance measurement accuracy limits .......... 18-16
Remote PreAmp output voltage accuracy limits ................ 18-19
Remote PreAmp voltage measurement accuracy limits ..... 18-20
Remote PreAmp 1µA-100mA range output
current accuracy limits ................................................. 18-21
Remote PreAmp 1pA-100nA range output current
accuracy limits .............................................................. 18-23
Remote PreAmp 1µA-100mA range measurement
accuracy limits .............................................................. 18-24
Remote PreAmp 1pA-100nA range measurement
accuracy limits .............................................................. 18-25
Remote PreAmp 20Ω-200MΩ range measurement
accuracy limits .............................................................. 18-28
Remote PreAmp 2GΩ-200GΩ range measurement
accuracy limits .............................................................. 18-30
Remote PreAmp 2TΩ and 20TΩ range measurement
accuracy limits .............................................................. 18-31
Table 18-11
Table 18-12
Table 18-13
Table 18-14
Table 18-15
Table 18-16
19
Calibration
Table 19-1
Table 19-2
Table 19-3
Table 19-4
Table 19-5
Recommended calibration equipment .................................. 19-4
Calibration unlocked states .................................................. 19-5
Mainframe voltage calibration summary ............................. 19-9
Mainframe current calibration summary ............................ 19-12
Standard resistance values for 1pA-100nA
gain calibration ............................................................. 19-20
20
Routine Maintenance
Table 20-1
Power line fuse ..................................................................... 20-3
B
Status and Error Messages
Table B-1
Status and error messages ..................................................... B-3
D
IEEE-488 Bus Overview
Table D-1
Table D-2
Table D-3
Table D-4
Table D-5
Table D-6
IEEE-488 bus command summary ....................................... D-7
Hexadecimal and decimal command codes ........................ D-10
Typical addressed multiline command sequence ................ D-12
Typical addressed common command sequence ................ D-12
IEEE command groups ....................................................... D-13
SourceMeter interface function codes ................................ D-14
E
IEEE-488 and SCPI Conformance Information
Table E-1
Table E-2
IEEE-488 documentation requirements ................................. E-3
Coupled commands ............................................................... E-4
F
Measurement Considerations
Table F-1
Minimum recommended source resistance values ................ F-5
G
GPIB 488.1 Protocol
Table G-1
SCPI/488.1 reading speed comparisons for measure-only
sweep operation (rdgs/sec) ..............................................
SCPI/488.1 reading speed comparisons for source-measure
sweep operation (rdgs/sec) ..............................................
SCPI/488.1 reading speed comparisons for source-memory
sweep operation (rdgs/sec) ..............................................
SCPI/488.1 reading speed comparisons for measure-only
single-shot operation (rdgs/sec) ............................................
SCPI/488.1 reading speed comparisons for
source-measure-limit test sweep operation (rdgs/sec) ....
SCPI/488.1 reading speed comparisons for
source-measure-limit test single-shot
operation (rdgs/sec) .........................................................
SCPI/488.1 reading speed comparisons for source-measure
single-shot operation (rdgs/sec) ......................................
Table G-2
Table G-3
Table G-4
Table G-5
Table G-6
Table G-7
Table G-8
G-6
G-6
G-7
G-7
G-7
G-8
G-8
1
Getting Started
•
General Information — Covers general information that includes warranty information, contact information, safety symbols and terms, inspection, and available options
and accessories.
•
Product Overview — Summarizes the features of the Model 6430 Sub-Femtoamp
Remote SourceMeter.
•
Mainframe and Remote PreAmp Familiarization — Summarizes the controls and
connectors on the mainframe and Remote PreAmp.
•
Power-up — Covers line power connection, line voltage settings, fuse replacement,
and the power-up sequence.
•
Display — Provides information about the Model 6430 display.
•
Default Settings — Covers factory default setups and saving and recalling user setups.
•
Menus — Covers the main and configuration menus as well as rules to navigate menus.
1-2
Getting Started
General information
Warranty information
Warranty information is located at the front of this manual. Should your Model 6430 require
warranty service, contact the Keithley representative or authorized repair facility in your area
for further information. When returning the instrument for repair, be sure to fill out and include
the service form at the back of this manual to provide the repair facility with the necessary
information.
Contact information
Worldwide phone numbers are listed at the front of this manual. If you have any questions,
please contact your local Keithley representative or call one of our Application Engineers at
1-800-348-3735 (U.S. and Canada only).
Manual addenda
Any improvements or changes concerning the instrument or manual will be explained in an
addendum included with the manual. Be sure to note these changes and incorporate them into
the manual.
Safety symbols and terms
The following symbols and terms may be found on the instrument or used in this manual.
The ! symbol on an instrument indicates that the user should refer to the operating
instructions located in the manual.
The
symbol on the instrument shows that high voltage may be present on the terminal(s). Use standard safety precautions to avoid personal contact with these voltages.
The WARNING heading used in this manual explains dangers that might result in personal
injury or death. Always read the associated information very carefully before performing the
indicated procedure.
The CAUTION heading used in this manual explains hazards that could damage the instrument. Such damage may invalidate the warranty.
Getting Started
1-3
Inspection
The SourceMeter was carefully inspected electrically and mechanically before shipment.
After unpacking all items from the shipping carton, check for any obvious signs of physical
damage that may have occurred during transit. (There may be a protective film over the display
lens, which can be removed.) Report any damage to the shipping agent immediately. Save the
original packing carton for possible future shipment. The following items are included with
every Model 6430 Sub-Femtoamp Remote SourceMeter order:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
SourceMeter mainframe with line cord.
SourceMeter Remote PreAmp with cable to mainframe.
8-inch triax-to-alligator clip cable (part number: 6430-322-1A).
5-inch input/output low-to-chassis ground cable (part number: CA-186-1A).
Safety high voltage dual test leads (Model 8607).
Accessories as ordered.
Certificate of calibration.
Instruction Manual.
Support Software Disk including TestPoint instrument library for GPIB and LabVIEW
for Windows driver.
Manual addenda, containing any improvements or changes to the instrument or manual.
If an additional manual is required, order the appropriate manual package (for example,
6430-901-00). The manual packages include a manual and any pertinent addenda.
Options and accessories
The following options and accessories are available from Keithley for use with the
Model 6430.
Triax cables and adapters (for Remote PreAmp)
Model 6430-322-1A — This low-noise 8-inch cable is terminated with a 3-slot male triax
connector on one end, and three booted alligator clips on the other end.
Model 7078-TRX-1 — This low-noise 12-inch triax cable is terminated at both ends with
3-slot male triax connectors.
Model 237-TRX-BAR Barrel Adapter — This is a barrel adapter that allows you to connect two triax cables together. Both ends of the adapter are terminated with 3-lug female triax
connectors.
CS-1053 Barrel Adapter — This barrel adapter is terminated at both ends with 3-slot male
triax connectors.
Model 237-BNC-TRX Adapter — This is a male BNC to 3-lug female triax adapter (guard
disconnected). It is used to terminate a triax cable with a BNC plug.
1-4
Getting Started
Model 237-TRX-T Adapter — This is a 3-slot male to dual 3-lug female triax tee adapter
for use with triax cables.
Model 7078-TRX-BNC Adapter — This is a 3-slot male triax to female BNC adapter. This
adapter lets you connect a BNC cable to the triax input of the Model 6430.
Model 237-TRX-TBC Connector — This is a 3-lug female triax bulkhead connector with
cap for assembly of custom panels and interface connections.
General purpose probes
Model 8605 high performance modular test leads — Consists of two high voltage
(1600V) test probes and leads. The test leads are terminated with a banana plug that has a
retractable sheath on each end.
Model 8606 high performance probe tip kit — Consists of two spade lugs, two alligator
clips, and two spring hook test probes. (The spade lugs and alligator clips are rated at 30V
RMS, 42.4V peak; the test probes are rated at 1000V.) These components are for use with high
performance test leads terminated with banana plugs, such as the Model 8605.
Model 8607 High Performance Banana Cables — Consists of two high voltage (1000V)
banana cables. The cables are terminated with banana plugs that have retractable sheaths.
The following test leads and probes are rated at 30V RMS, 42.4V peak:
Models 5805 and 5805-12 Kelvin probes — Consists of two spring-loaded Kelvin test
probes with banana plug termination. Designed for instruments that measure four-terminal
resistance. The Model 5805 is 0.9m long; the Model 5805-12 is 3.6m long.
Model 5806 Kelvin clip lead set — Includes two Kelvin clip test leads (0.9m) with banana
plug termination. Designed for instruments that measure four-terminal resistance. A set of
replacement rubber bands is available (Keithley P/N GA-22).
Model 8604 SMD probe set — Consists of two test leads (0.9m), each terminated with a
surface mount device “grabber clip” on one end and a banana plug with a retractable sheath on
the other end.
Low thermal probes
Model 8610 low thermal shorting plug — Consists of four banana plugs mounted to a
1-inch square circuit board, interconnected to provide a short circuit among all plugs.
Model 8611 low thermal patch leads — Consists of two test leads (0.9m), each with a
banana plug that has a retractable sheath at each end. These leads minimize the thermallyinduced offsets that can be created by test leads.
Model 8612 low thermal spade leads — Consists of two test leads (0.9m), each terminated
with a spade lug on one end and a banana plug that has a retractable sheath on the other end.
These leads minimize the thermally-induced offsets that can be created by test leads.
Getting Started
1-5
Cables and adapters
CA-176-1D Preamp Cable — Connects the REMOTE Preamp to the Model 6430
mainframe.
Models 7007-1 and 7007-2 shielded GPIB cables — Connect the SourceMeter to the GPIB
bus using shielded cables and connectors to reduce Electromagnetic Interference (EMI). The
Model 7007-1 is 1m long; the Model 7007-2 is 2m long.
Models 8501-1 and 8501-2 trigger link cables — Connect the SourceMeter to other instruments with Trigger Link connectors (e.g., Model 7001 Switch System). The Model 8501-1 is
1m long; the Model 8501-2 is 2m long.
Model 8502 trigger link adapter — Lets you connect any of the six Trigger Link lines of
the SourceMeter to instruments that use the standard BNC trigger connectors.
Model 8503 DIN to BNC trigger cable — Lets you connect Trigger Link lines one (Voltmeter Complete) and two (External Trigger) of the SourceMeter to instruments that use BNC
trigger connectors. The Model 8503 is 1m long.
Rack mount kits
Model 4288-1 single fixed rack mount kit — Mounts a single SourceMeter in a standard
19-inch rack.
Model 4288-2 side-by-side rack mount kit — Mounts two instruments (Models 182, 428,
486, 487, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2010, 2015, 2400, 2410, 2420, 2430, 6430, 6517, 7001) side-byside in a standard 19-inch rack.
Model 4288-3 side-by-side rack mount kit — Mounts a SourceMeter and a Model 199
side-by-side in a standard 19-inch rack.
Model 4288-4 side-by-side rack mount kit — Mounts a SourceMeter and a 5.25-inch
instrument (Models 195A, 196, 220, 224, 230, 263, 595, 614, 617, 705, 740, 775, etc.) side-byside in a standard 19-inch rack.
Model 4288-5 dual fixed rack mounting kit — Mounts a SourceMeter and another
3½-inch high instrument (Model 182, 428, 486, 487, 2000, 2010, 2400, 2410, 2420, 2430, or
7001) side-by-side in a standard 19-inch rack.
Calibration standards
Model 5156 Electrometer Calibration Standard Set — This calibration fixture contains
standardized resistors and capacitors needed to calibrate the Model 6430.
Carrying case
Model 1050 padded carrying case — A carrying case for a SourceMeter. Includes handles
and a shoulder strap.
1-6
Getting Started
Product overview
The SourceMeter combines a precise, low-noise, highly stable DC power supply with a lownoise, highly repeatable, high-impedance multimeter and a remote preamplifier for ultra low
current measurements. It has 0.012% basic accuracy with 5½-digit resolution. At 5½ digits, the
SourceMeter delivers 520 readings/second over the IEEE-488 bus. At 4½ digits, it can read up
to 2000 readings/second into its internal buffer. The unit has broad source and measurement
ranges:
•
•
•
•
NOTE
Source voltage from 5µV to 210V; measure voltage from 1µV to 211V.
Source current from 0.5fA to 105mA; measure current from 10aA to 105.5mA.
Measure resistance from 100µΩ (<100µΩ in manual ohms) to 21.1TΩ.
Maximum source power is 2.2W.
The Model 6430 is Y2K compliant.
Some additional capabilities of the SourceMeter include:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Perform measurements at the DUT using the small Remote PreAmp.
Concurrent measurements of all three functions over the remote interface.
Source-measure sweep capabilities (linear and logarithmic staircase sweeps, source
sweep list of up to 1000 points, memory sweep of up to 100 instrument setups).
6-wire ohms measurement with programmable I-source or V-source with V or I clamp.
2.2W, 4-quadrant source and sink operation.
Up to 11 stages of limit testing with a built-in comparator for pass/fail testing.
Digital I/O for stand-alone binning operations or interface to component handler.
Programming language and remote interfaces — The SourceMeter uses the SCPI programming language and two remote interface ports (IEEE-488/GPIB and RS-232C).
Trigger-Link interface to Keithley Series 7000 switching hardware.
Math expressions — 5 built-in, up to 5 user-defined (bus only).
Reading and setup storage — Up to 2500 readings and seven setups (five user defaults,
factory default, *RST default) can be stored and recalled.
Closed-cover calibration — The instrument can be calibrated either from the front
panel or remote interface.
Getting Started
1-7
Mainframe and Remote PreAmp familiarization
The following information should be reviewed before operating the instrument and is organized as follows:
•
•
•
Mainframe front panel summary — Provides an overview of front panel controls and
the display.
Mainframe rear panel summary — Provides an overview of rear panel connectors.
Remote PreAmp summary — Covers the Remote PreAmp connectors.
Mainframe front panel summary
The front panel of the Model 6430 is shown in Figure 1-1.
Figure 1-1
Front panel
6430 SUB-FEMTOAMP REMOTE SourceMeter ®
MEAS
V
EDIT
DISPLAY
TOGGLE
POWER
I
SOURCE
Ω
FCTN
RANGE
0
1
2
3
LOCAL
REL
FILTER
LIMIT
6
7
8
9
DIGITS SPEED
I
V
STORE RECALL
4
5
EDIT
AUTO
TRIG SWEEP
RANGE
+/-
CONFIG MENU
EXIT
ENTER
Measurement (MEAS) function keys:
V
I
Ω
FCTN
Measure volts.
Measure amps.
Measure ohms.
Perform math functions.
SOURCE function keys:
V
I
▲
▼
Source voltage (V-Source).
Source current (I-Source).
Increase source or compliance value.
Decrease source or compliance value.
ON/OFF
OUTPUT
Getting Started
Operation keys:
EDIT
TOGGLE
▲
LOCAL
REL
FILTER
LIMIT
TRIG
SWEEP
and
DIGITS
SPEED
STORE
RECALL
CONFIG
MENU
▲
1-8
EXIT
ENTER
Select source or compliance reading for editing.
Toggle display positions of source and measure readings, or display V and I
measurements.
Cancel remote operation.
Enable/disable relative reading on present function.
Display digital filter status for present function and toggle filter on/off.
Perform configured limit tests.
Trigger a measurement from the front panel.
Start configured sweep.
Move through parameter values or selections within functions and operations.
Change number of digits of display resolution.
Change measurement speed by selecting accuracy or specifying NPLC.
Set buffer size and enable reading storage.
Display stored readings and timestamp.
Press CONFIG and then appropriate key to configure function or operation.
Access and configure Main Menu selections. When entering numeric data, use to
clear reading to minimum absolute value.
Cancels selection. Use to back out of menu structures.
Accepts selection.
RANGE keys:
▲
▼
AUTO
Moves to next higher range, increments digit, moves to next selection.
Moves to next lower range, decrements digit, moves to previous selection.
Enables or disables measurement auto range.
Annunciators:
EDIT
ERR
REM
TALK
LSTN
SRQ
REAR
REL
FILT
MATH
4W
AUTO
ARM
TRIG
*
Instrument in edit mode.
Questionable reading, invalid cal step.
Instrument in GPIB remote mode.
Instrument addressed to talk over GPIB.
Instrument addressed to listen over GPIB.
Service request over GPIB.
On = Remote Preamp not connected. Off = Remote Preamp connected.
Relative measure reading displayed.
Digital filter enabled.
Math function enabled.
Remote sensing enabled.
Autoranging enabled.
Source-measure operations being performed.
External trigger source selected.
Reading being stored.
Source control:
ON/OFF
Turns the source on or off.
Handle:
Pull out and rotate to desired position.
Getting Started
1-9
Mainframe rear panel summary
The rear panel of the Model 6430 is shown in Figure 1-2.
Figure 1-2
Model 6430
rear panel
WARNING:NO INTERNAL OPERATOR SERVICABLE PARTS,SERVICE BY QUALIFIED PERSONNEL ONLY.
5V
PK
HI
250V
PEAK
250V
PEAK
5V
PEAK
MADE IN
U.S.A.
V, Ω,
GUARD
REMOTE
PreAmp
5V
PEAK
!
GUARD
SENSE
LINE FUSE
SLOWBLOW
LO
4-WIRE
SENSE
INPUT/
OUTPUT
2.5A, 250V
42V
PEAK
LINE RATING
100-240VAC
50, 60, HZ
100VA MAX
IEEE-488
(ENTER IEEE ADDRESS
WITH FRONT PANEL MENU)
RS232
TRIGGER
LINK
INTERLOCKINTERLOCKDIGITALI/O
I/O
DIGITAL
CAUTION:FOR CONTINUED PROTECTION AGAINST FIRE HAZARD,REPLACE FUSE WITH SAME TYPE AND RATING.
Source-measure connectors:
CAUTION
When using the Remote PreAmp, DO NOT use the INPUT/OUTPUT HI
and 4-WIRE SENSE HI banana jacks. Using these source-measure
banana jacks will result in errors and/or noise, and possible damage to the
Remote PreAmp. Use the input/output HI and sense HI terminals on the
Remote PreAmp.
INPUT/OUTPUT HI and LO
4-WIRE SENSE HI and LO
V, Ω GUARD
GUARD SENSE
WARNING
Use to source-measure volts, amps, and ohms.
Use for 4-wire remote sensing.
Driven guard for guarded measurements.
Use to correct for IR drops in Guard Output lead.
Earth (chassis) ground screw.
INPUT/OUTPUT LO is not internally connected to the chassis and can
float up to 42V peak above chassis ground.
The maximum allowable voltage differentials between the various terminals are provided on
the rear panel of the mainframe (see Figure 1-2):
Low voltage differentials — The maximum low voltage differentials are 5V peak. However, to achieve rated accuracy, do not exceed 1V peak on the 100µA through 100mA ranges.
For the lower current ranges (1pA through 10µA), do not exceed the maximum allowable resistance. The maximum resistance for each of these current ranges are provided in Section 2 (see
Connections to DUT, 4-wire sensing specification clarifications).
1-10
Getting Started
High voltage differentials — Exceeding the high voltage differentials (42V peak and 250V
peak) could damage the instrument and create a shock hazard.
Remote PreAmp connector:
REMOTE PREAMP
Connect the Remote PreAmp to the mainframe using the supplied
preamp cable (CA-176-1D).
Interlock and digital input/output port:
INTERLOCK — DIGITAL I/O
Male DB-9 connector for digital output lines, interlock, and
component handler signals.
Power module:
Contains the AC line receptacle and the power line fuse.
Trigger link connector:
TRIGGER LINK
8-pin micro-DIN connector for sending and receiving trigger pulses.
Use a trigger link cable or adapter, such as Models 8501-1, 8501-2,
8502, 8504.
RS-232 connector:
RS-232
Connector for RS-232 remote operation. Use a straight through (not
null modem) DB-9 cable such as Keithley Model 7009-5.
GPIB connector:
IEEE-488 INTERFACE
Connector for GPIB remote operation. Use a shielded cable
(Model 7007-1 or 7007-2).
Remote PreAmp summary
The Remote PreAmp is shown in Figure 1-3 and terminal identification for the IN/OUT
HIGH and SENSE triax connectors is provided in Figure 1-4.
SENSE
HI
40V
Peak
IN/OUT
HIGH
40V
Peak
HI
250V
Peak
KEITHLEY
GUARD 250V IN/OUT
Peak
LO
250V
Peak
REMOTE Preamp
42V
Peak
MAINFRAME
Figure 1-3
Remote preamp
Getting Started
Figure 1-4
Triax
connectors
HI
(Input/Output High)
HI
(4-Wire Sense High)
GUARD
(Cable Guard)
GUARD
(Cable Guard)
LO
(Input/Output Low)
LO
(Input/Output Low)
IN/OUT HIGH Triax Connector
1-11
SENSE Triax Connector
Preamp connector:
MAINFRAME
Connect the Remote PreAmp to the mainframe using the supplied preamp cable.
Triax connectors:
CAUTION
When using the Remote PreAmp, DO NOT use the INPUT/OUTPUT HI
and 4-WIRE SENSE HI banana jacks on the mainframe. Using these
source-measure banana jacks will result in errors and/or noise, and possible damage to the Remote PreAmp.
IN/OUT HIGH
SENSE
NOTE
HI
Guard
LO
HI
Guard
LO
Center conductor – Input/Output HI
Inner shell – Driven cable guard for guarded measurements
Outer shell – Input/Output LO
Center conductor – 4-wire Sense HI
Inner shell – Driven cable guard for guarded measurements
Outer shell – Input/Output LO
Cable guard is always available on the Guard terminals of IN/OUT HIGH and
SENSE regardless of the guard mode setting. Ohms guard can only be accessed at
the V, Ω GUARD banana jack on the mainframe.
The diagram on the Remote PreAmp (Figure 1-3) shows the maximum allowable voltage
differentials between the various terminals. Exceeding the voltage differentials could damage
the SourceMeter and create a shock hazard.
CAUTION
Instrument damage caused by excessive voltage differentials is not covered
by the warranty.
1-12
Getting Started
Power-up
WARNING
To prevent electric shock, power must be off when connecting the Remote
PreAmp to the mainframe. If you wish to connect the Remote PreAmp at
this time, proceed to Section 2, Connecting Remote PreAmp to the
mainframe. Important safety precautions are included with the connection
procedure.
WARNING
During the power-up, voltage spikes may appear on the terminals of the
SourceMeter. These voltage spikes could be at hazardous levels (>42.4V
peak) and could damage sensitive DUTs. Never touch external circuitry or
the test leads when powering up the SourceMeter. It is good practice to
always disconnect DUTs from the SourceMeter before powering up the
unit.
WARNING
To prevent electric shock, test connections must be configured such that
the user cannot come in contact with conductors or any DUT that is in
contact with the conductors. Safe installation requires proper shields, barriers, and grounding to prevent contact with conductors. Operator protection and safety are the responsibility of the person installing the product.
Line power connection
The SourceMeter operates from a line voltage in the range of 85 to 250V at a frequency of
50 or 60Hz. The SourceMeter will also operate at 400Hz; accuracy specifications are not guaranteed however. Line voltage and line frequency are automatically sensed. Therefore, there are
no switches to set. Check to be sure the operating voltage in your area is compatible.
CAUTION
Operating the instrument on an incorrect line voltage may cause damage,
possibly voiding the warranty.
Perform the following steps to connect the SourceMeter to line power and turn it on:
1.
2.
Before plugging in the power cord, make sure the front panel power switch is in the off
(0) position.
Connect the female end of the supplied power cord to the AC receptacle on the rear
panel.
WARNING
3.
The power cord supplied with the SourceMeter contains a separate ground
for use with grounded outlets. When proper connections are made, instrument chassis is connected to power line ground through the ground wire in
the power cord. Failure to use a grounded outlet may result in personal
injury or death due to electric shock.
Turn on the instrument by pressing the front panel power switch to the on (1) position.
Getting Started
1-13
Power-up sequence
On power-up, the SourceMeter performs self-tests on its EPROM and RAM and momentarily lights all segments and annunciators. If a failure is detected, the instrument momentarily
displays an error message, and the ERR annunciator turns on. Error messages are listed in
Appendix B.
NOTE
If a problem develops while the instrument is under warranty, return it to Keithley
Instruments, Inc., for repair.
If the instrument passes the self-tests, the firmware revision levels are displayed. For
example:
REV A01 A02
where: A01 is the main board ROM revision.
A02 is the display board ROM revision.
Also displayed is the line frequency (50, 60, or 400Hz). (If the wrong frequency is displayed, it can be manually set as covered below). The communication interface status is briefly
displayed. If the IEEE-488 bus is the presently selected interface, the identification message
will include the primary address. For example, if the primary address is 24 (factory default), the
“IEEE Addr=24” message is displayed. If the RS-232 interface is selected, the “RS-232” message is displayed.
After the power-up sequence, the instrument goes to its normal display state with the output
off (red OUTPUT indicator light off). With the output off, the “OFF” message is displayed, and
dashes replace the reading. The “OFF” message indicates that the NORMAL output-off state is
selected. See Section 12, Output configuration for details.
System identification
To obtain the serial number and revision information, use the MENU/GENERAL/SERIAL #
selection or the *IDN? query via remote.
Line frequency setting
At the factory, the SourceMeter is configured to sense the power line frequency and automatically select the frequency setting. If, however, the line power source is noisy, the SourceMeter may select the wrong setting on power-up. If this situation occurs, noisy measurement
readings will result, and accuracy may be affected. You can manually set the line frequency
from the front panel or via remote as covered below.
Front panel line frequency
Set the line frequency from the front panel as follows:
1.
Press the MENU key to display MAIN MENU.
1-14
Getting Started
2.
3.
4.
5.
Using the right arrow key, select AD-CTRL then press ENTER to display A/D
CONTROLS.
Select LINE-FREQ, then press ENTER to display LINE FREQUENCY.
Place the cursor on 50Hz, 60Hz, or AUTO, and press ENTER. (Use 50Hz for 400Hz
operation.)
Press EXIT to return to normal display.
Remote command line frequency
Table 1-1 summarizes remote commands used to control line frequency. See Section 17 for
additional information on using these commands.
Programming examples
50 or 400Hz operation:
:SYST:LFR 50
Auto frequency operation:
:SYST:LFR:AUTO ON
Table 1-1
Line frequency remote commands
Commands
Description
:SYSTem:LFRequency <freq>
Select line frequency (freq = 50 or 60).
:SYSTem:LFRequency:AUTO <state> Enable/disable auto frequency (state = ON or OFF).
Fuse replacement
A rear panel fuse protects the power line input of the SourceMeter. If the line fuse needs to
be replaced, perform the following steps:
1.
2.
The fuse is located in a drawer above the AC receptacle. See Figure 1-2. At the bottom
of the fuse drawer is a small tab. At this location, use a small bladed screwdriver to pry
the fuse drawer open.
Slide the fuse drawer out to gain access to the fuse. Note that the fuse drawer does not
pull all the way out of the power module.
CAUTION
3.
4.
For continued protection against fire or instrument damage, replace the
fuse only with the type and rating listed. If the instrument repeatedly
blows fuses, locate and correct the cause of the problem before replacing
the fuse.
Snap the fuse out of the drawer and replace it with the same type (250V, 2.5A,
5 × 20mm). The Keithley part number is FU-72.
Push the fuse drawer back into the power module.
Getting Started
1-15
Display
Display format
The SourceMeter display is used primarily to program source and compliance values and
display measured readings. Annunciators, which are located along the top of the reading/
message display, indicate various states of operation, as covered previously in Front panel
summary.
On power-up, the top (primary) display is used for measurements when the output is on
(with the output off, “OFF” or “ZER” is displayed). The bottom-left display is used for the programmed source value (Vsrc or Isrc), and the bottom-right display is used for the programmed
compliance (Cmpl) limit.
Reading information can be displayed using either engineering units or scientific notation in
either fixed- or floating-point format. Use the GENERAL/NUMBERS selection of the main
MENU to select the display format, as discussed under Menus later in this section.
Engineering units example: 1.23456µA
Scientific notation example: 1.23456e -6
EDIT key
The SourceMeter must be in the edit mode to set source and compliance values. The edit
mode is selected by pressing the EDIT key (EDIT annunciator on). The editing cursor (flashing
digit) appears for the source or compliance reading. If a value is not edited within six seconds,
the edit mode is cancelled. While in the edit mode, the EDIT key toggles between the source
value and compliance value. See Section 3 for details on setting source and compliance values.
TOGGLE key
The TOGGLE key manipulates readings on the top display and on the bottom-left display. It
has no effect on the compliance reading (Cmpl), which is located on the bottom right. Each
press of the TOGGLE key sequences through the display options.
With the voltage (V) or current (I) measurement function selected, the TOGGLE key lets
you display both the current and voltage measurements at the same time. It also allows you to
toggle display positions of the source and measure readings.
With the ohms (Ω) measurement function selected, the ohms measurement is always displayed on the top display. The TOGGLE key lets you display either the programmed source
value, the current measurement, or the voltage measurement on the bottom-left display.
The TOGGLE key is also used to display statistical data on readings stored in the data store.
This function is performed from the data store RECALL mode.
NOTE
If FCTN, REL, or Limits is enabled, the TOGGLE key is disabled.
1-16
Getting Started
Status and error messages
Status and error messages are displayed momentarily. During SourceMeter operation and
programming, you will encounter a number of front panel messages. Typical messages are
either status or error in nature and are listed in Appendix B.
Remote display programming
The display can also be controlled by various SCPI :DISPlay subsystem commands.
Table 1-2 summarizes basic commands. See :DISPlay subsystem in Section 17 for more information on using these commands and also Disabling front panel display later in this section.
Table 1-2
Basic display commands
Command
Description
:DISPlay:ENABle <state>
:DISPlay:CNDisplay
:DISPlay:DIGits <n>
Enable/disable display (state = ON or OFF).
Return to source-measure display.
Set display resolution (n = 4 to 7).
Front panel tests
Use the TEST/DISPLAY TESTS selection of the main MENU to test various aspects of the
front panel. Test selections include:
•
•
•
KEYS — Front panel keys are tested. Pressing a key displays a message that identifies
that key. Pressing EXIT twice cancels this test.
DISPLAY PATTERNS — Use this selection to turn on all display pixels and annunciators. Subsequent key presses cycle through tests that turn off annunciators and corner
pixels of each digit, turn on the rows of the top-left display digit, and turn on all annunciators and pixels of each digit in a sequential manner. Press EXIT to cancel this test.
CHAR SET — This test displays special characters. Press EXIT to cancel the test.
See Menus later in this section for more menu information.
Disabling front panel display
Front panel display circuitry can be disabled to allow the instrument to operate at a higher
speed. While disabled, the display is frozen with the following message:
FRONT PANEL DISABLED
Press LOCAL to resume.
As reported by the message, all front panel controls (except LOCAL, TRIG, and OUTPUT
ON/OFF) are disabled.
Getting Started
1-17
Front panel control
▲
▲
Front panel display circuitry is controlled from the DISABLE DISPLAY configuration
menu, which is accessed by pressing CONFIG and then EDIT (or TOGGLE). To select an
option (NOW, NEVER, SWEEP, or STORE), use the and keys to place the cursor on the
desired option, then press ENTER.
The options for DISABLE DISPLAY are explained as follows:
NOW — Select this option to disable the display now.
NEVER — Select this option if you do not want the display to disable.
SWEEP — Select this option if you want the display to disable while performing a sweep.
The display will disable as soon as sweep is started. The display will automatically re-enable
after the sweep is completed.
STORE — Select this option if you want the display to disable when storing source-measure
readings in the buffer. The display will disable as soon as the buffer is enabled. The display
will automatically re-enable after the storage process is completed. Note that with this
option, the display will disable while performing a sweep. Sweep readings are automatically
stored in the buffer.
Remote command programming
Use the following SCPI commands to enable or disable the front panel display circuitry:
:DISPlay:ENABLe OFF
:DISPlay:ENABLe ON
Disable the display
Enable the display
Default settings
By using appropriate menu selections, you can save and recall various instrument setups,
define the power-on configuration, or restore factory defaults as outlined below.
Saving and restoring user setups
You can save and restore up to five of your own user setups using the following procedures.
Saving setups
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Select the various instrument operating modes you wish to save.
Press the MENU key, select SAVESETUP, then press ENTER.
From the SAVESETUP menu, select GLOBAL, then press ENTER.
From the GLOBAL SETUP MENU, select SAVE, then press ENTER.
Select the setup position (0-4) to save, then press ENTER to complete the process.
1-18
Getting Started
Restoring setups
1.
2.
3.
4.
Press the MENU key, select SAVESETUP, then press ENTER.
From the SAVESETUP menu, select GLOBAL, then press ENTER.
From the GLOBAL SETUP MENU, select RESTORE, then press ENTER.
Select the setup position (0-4) to restore, then press ENTER to complete the process.
Power-on configuration
You can also define which of the stored setups (factory default or user) the instrument
assumes as the power-on configuration as follows:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Press the MENU key, select SAVESETUP, then press ENTER.
From the SAVESETUP menu, select GLOBAL, then press ENTER.
From the GLOBAL SETUP MENU, select POWERON, then press ENTER.
From the SET POWER-ON DEFAULT menu, choose the power-on configuration:
BENCH or GPIB (see below), or USER-SETUP-NUMBER.
If you chose to use a user setup as the power-on configuration, select the user setup
number, then press ENTER.
Factory default settings
As summarized in Table 1-3, there are two sets of factory defaults, BENCH (front panel) and
GPIB (remote). You can restore either of these default conditions as follows:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Press the MENU key, select SAVESETUP, then press ENTER.
From the SAVESETUP menu, select GLOBAL, then press ENTER.
From the GLOBAL SETUP MENU, select RESET, then press ENTER.
Select BENCH or GPIB defaults as desired, then press ENTER to complete the
process.
Getting Started
Table 1-3
Factory default settings
Setting
A/D Controls:
Auto-zero
Line frequency
Beeper
Data Store
Digital output*
Digits
FCTN
Filter:
Auto filter
Moving filter count**
Advanced filter
Median filter rank**
Repeat filter count**
GPIB address
Guard
Limit tests:
DigOut:
Size
Mode:
Binning control
Auto clear:
Delay
Clear pattern*
H/W limits:
Control
Fail mode:
Cmpl pattern*
S/W limits:
Lim 2, 3, 5-12:
Control
Low limit:
Low pattern*
High limit:
High pattern*
Pass (all tests):
Pass pattern*
Source memory location
EOT mode
Numbers
Ohms source mode
Offset compensated ohms
Output
Interlock
Off state
Auto-off
BENCH default
GPIB default
On
No effect
On
No effect
15 or 7
5.5
Power (off)
On
On
1
Off (5% noise tol)
0
1
No effect
Cable
On
No effect
On
No effect
15 or 7
5.5
Power (off)
On
On
1
Off (5% noise tol)
0
1
No effect
Cable
4-bit
Grading
Immediate
Disabled
0.00001 sec
15 or 7
4-bit
Grading
Immediate
Disabled
0.00001 sec
15 or 7
Disabled
In compliance
15 or 7
Disabled
In compliance
15 or 7
Disabled
-1.0
15 or 7
+1.0
15 or 7
Disabled
-1.0
15 or 7
+1.0
15 or 7
15 or 7
Next
EOT
No effect
Manual
Off
Off
Disabled
Normal
Disabled
15 or 7
Next
EOT
No effect
Manual
Off
Off
Disabled
Normal
Disabled
* 15 if digout size is 4-bit, 7 if digout size is 3-bit.
** Changes with range when auto filter is enabled.
1-19
1-20
Getting Started
Table 1-3 (cont.)
Factory default settings
Setting
BENCH default
GPIB default
Power-on default
Ranging (measure):
Auto range
Rel
Value
RS-232
Source delay
Auto-delay
Speed
Sweep
Start
Stop
Step
Sweep count
Sweep Pts
Source ranging
Voltage protection
Triggered source:
Control
Scale factor
Triggering:
Arm layer:
Event
Count
Output trigger
Trigger layer:
Event
Count
Output triggers
Delay
No effect
No effect
Enabled
Off
0.0
No effect
3ms
Disabled
Hi accuracy (10 PLC)
Linear staircase
0V or 0A
0V or 0A
0V or 0A
1
2500
Best fixed
NONE
Enabled
Off
0.0
No effect
3ms
Disabled
Hi accuracy (10 PLC)
Linear staircase
0V or 0A
0V or 0A
0V or 0A
1
2500
Best fixed
NONE
Disabled
+1.0
Disabled
+1.0
Immediate
1
Line #2, Off
Immediate
1
Line #2, Off
Immediate
1
Line #2, All off
0.0 sec
Immediate
1
Line #2, All off
0.0 sec
Remote setups
You can also save and recall setups via remote using the following SCPI commands:
•
•
•
•
Save and recall user setups using *SAV and *RCL (Section 15).
Restore GPIB defaults using *RST (Section 15).
Restore bench defaults using :SYSTem:PRESet (Section 17).
Save the power-on configuration using :SYSTem:POSetup (Section 17).
Getting Started
1-21
Menus
The following paragraphs discuss the main menu, configuration menus, and rules to navigate menus.
Main menu
Use the MENU key to access the Main Menu to select, configure, and/or perform various
instrument operations. These include default setup conditions, communications (GPIB or
RS-232), calibration, front panel tests, digital output states, auto zero and NPLC caching,
timestamp, numeric display format, and the beeper.
The Main Menu structure is summarized in Table 1-4. Use the Rules to navigate menus to
check and/or change menu options. Figure 1-5 shows the main menu tree.
Table 1-4
Main menu
Menu item1
Description
SAVESETUP
GLOBAL
SAVE
RESTORE
POWERON
BENCH
GPIB
USER SETUP NUMBER
RESET
SOURCE MEMORY
SAVE
RESTORE
COMMUNICATION2
GPIB
Configure setup conditions.
Control instrument settings.
Save present SourceMeter setup to memory location.
Return the SourceMeter to setup saved in memory.
Select the power-on default setup.
Powers-on to BENCH defaults.
Powers-on to GPIB defaults.
Powers-on to user setup.
Returns unit to BENCH or GPIB defaults.
Control memory sweep source setup configurations.
Save present setup configuration to memory location.
Return to configuration saved in memory location.
Select and configure remote interface.
Select GPIB (IEEE-488 Bus), set primary address, GPIB
protocol (see Appendix G).
RS-232
BAUD
BITS
PARITY
Select the RS-232 interface, set parameters.
Select baud rate.
Select number of data bits.
Select parity.
TERMINATOR
Select terminator.
FLOW CTRL
Select flow control.
Parameters
0 to 4
0 to 4
See Table 1-3.
See Table 1-3.
0 to 4
See Table 1-3.
1 to 100
1 to 100
0 to 30
(Default: 24)
57600, 38400,
19200, 9600,
4800, 2400,
1200, 600, 300
7 or 8
NONE, ODD,
EVEN
CR, CR+LF, LF,
or LF+CR
NONE or
XON/XOFF
1-22
Getting Started
Table 1-4 (cont.)
Main menu
Menu item1
Description
CAL3
TEST
DISPLAY TESTS4
KEYS
DISPLAY PATTERNS
CHAR SET
A/D CTRL
AUTO ZERO5
DISABLE
ENABLE
ONCE
LINE FREQ
Calibrate SourceMeter. (See Section 19.)
Perform tests on SourceMeter.
Test front panel keys and display digits.
Test front panel keys.
Test display pixels and annunciators.
Test special display characters.
Control auto zero, line frequency, and NPLC caching.
Control auto zero.
Disable auto zero.
Enable auto zero.
Force auto zero immediate update.
Set the line frequency.
NPLC CACHE
DISABLE
ENABLE
REFRESH
RESET
GENERAL
DIGOUT
SERIAL#
TIMESTAMP
NUMBERS
Control NPLC caching.
Disable NPLC caching.
Enable NPLC caching.
Update all NPLC values in cache immediately.
Clear NPLC cache of all NPLC values.
Select general operations.
Set Digital I/O port bit pattern.
Display serial number, firmware revision, SCPI version.
Reset timestamp.
Select engineering units or scientific notation display
format.
Enable or disable beeper.
BEEPER
Parameters
50 or 60Hz, or
AUTO
0-15
YES or NO
ENGR,
SCIENTIFIC
NOTES
1. Top level menu choices indicated in bold. Indentation identifies each lower submenu level.
2. When the remote operation interface selection (GPIB or RS-232) is changed, the SourceMeter performs a power-on reset. To
check or change options of the selected interface, you must re-enter the menu structure.
3. Password is required to unlock calibration. (See Section 19.)
4. Press EXIT key to cancel test.
5. Disabling auto zero will reduce measurement accuracy.
Press MENU key (Use
and
▲
Figure 1-5
Main menu tree
▲
Getting Started
to select item, then press ENTER)
SAVESETUP
GLOBAL
SAVE
RESTORE
POWERON
BENCH
GPIB
USER-SETUP-NUMBER
RESET
SOURCE MEMORY
SAVE
RESTORE
COMMUNICATION
GPIB
RS-232
BAUD
BITS
PARITY
TERMINATOR
FLOW-CTRL
CAL*
UNLOCK
EXECUTE
VIEW-DATES
SAVE
LOCK
CHANGE-PASSWORD
TEST
DISPLAY-TESTS
KEYS
DISPLAY-PATTERNS
CHAR-SET
A/D CTRL
AUTO-ZERO
LINE-FREQ
NPLC-CACHE
GENERAL
DIGOUT
SERIAL#
TIMESTAMP
NUMBERS
BEEPER
* Without PreAmp connected
1-23
1-24
Getting Started
Rules to navigate menus
Many source-measure functions and operations are configured from the front panel menus.
Use the following rules to navigate through these configuration menus:
NOTE
•
•
•
•
Rules to edit source and compliance values are found in Section 3, “Basic sourcemeasure procedure.”
A menu item is selected by placing the cursor on it and pressing ENTER. Cursor position is denoted by the blinking menu item or option. The left and right arrow keys control cursor position.
A displayed arrow on the bottom line indicates there are one or more additional items
(or messages) to select from. Use the appropriate cursor key to display them.
A source or parameter value range is changed by placing the cursor on the range designator (i.e., k, M, G, etc.) and using the SOURCE ▲ or ▼ or RANGE ▲ or ▼ keys. Note
that when the next higher or lower source range is selected, the reading increases or
decreases by a decade.
A parameter value is keyed in by placing the cursor on the digit to be changed and using
one of the following methods:
NOTE
You can clear a parameter value by pressing the MENU key.
-
•
•
•
Use the SOURCE ▲ or ▼ or RANGE ▲ or ▼ keys to increment or decrement the
digit.
- Use the number keys (0 through 9) to key in the value at the selected digit.
- Use the ± key to change source value polarity, regardless of cursor position.
Boolean selections (such as ON/OFF and HIGH/LOW) are toggled by placing the cursor on the selection and pressing a SOURCE or RANGE up or down arrow key.
A change is only executed when ENTER is pressed. Entering an invalid parameter generates an error, and the entry is ignored. However, entering an out-of-range value (too
small or too large) selects the lower or upper limit, respectively.
The EXIT key is used to back out of the menu structure. Any change that is not entered
is cancelled when EXIT is pressed.
Getting Started
1-25
Editing source and compliance values
Use the following keys to edit source and compliance values:
•
•
•
▲
•
•
EDIT: selects the source or compliance display field for editing. A blinking cursor will
appear in the field to be edited. If no key is pressed within a few seconds, the edit mode
will be cancelled automatically.
EDIT and : places the display cursor on the display digit to be changed.
SOURCE ▲ or ▼: increments or decrements the source or compliance value. Note that
pressing either of these keys will automatically enable the source edit mode.
RANGE ▲ or ▼: selects the source or compliance range.
Numeric keys (0-9): allow you to directly enter source or compliance values.
EXIT: exits the edit mode without waiting for the time-out period.
▲
•
The basic procedure for editing source and compliance values is outlined below. See Basic
source-measure procedure in Section 3 for more details.
2.
4.
▲
3.
Press the EDIT key until the blinking cursor is in either the source or compliance display field to be edited.
If desired, use the RANGE ▲ and ▼ keys to select the desired source or compliance
range.
To simply increment or decrement the display value, use the EDIT and keys to
place the blinking cursor on the digit to be changed, then increment or decrement the
value with the SOURCE ▲ and ▼ keys. Note that the source or compliance value will
be updated immediately; you need not press ENTER to complete the process.
To enter the source or compliance value directly, simply key in the desired value with
the numeric keys while the cursor is blinking. Again, the source or compliance value
will be updated immediately.
▲
1.
Toggling the source and measure display fields
Normally the measured reading value will appear in the upper, main display line, while the
source and compliance values will appear in the left and right fields respectively of the lower
display line. You can toggle the source and measure display fields by pressing the TOGGLE
key to place the source and measure values in the desired positions.
1-26
Getting Started
Configuration menus
There are a number of configuration menus that can be accessed by pressing the CONFIG
key followed by the appropriate function or mode key. For example, you can configure the voltage source by pressing CONFIG then SOURCE V. Configuration menus, which are summarized in Table 1-5 through Table 1-10, are available for the following operating modes:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Measure functions (Ω, FCTN): Table 1-5.
SOURCE V, SOURCE I, and RANGE: Table 1-6.
REL, FILTER, and LIMIT: Table 1-7.
TRIG: Table 1-8.
SWEEP, DIGITS, SPEED, and STORE: Table 1-9.
ON/OFF OUTPUT and Display (EDIT or TOGGLE): Table 1-10.
These various configuration menus are covered in detail in the pertinent sections of this
manual.
Getting Started
1-27
Table 1-5
Measurement configuration menus
Configuration menu item
Description
CONFIG MEAS Ω
CONFIG OHMS
SOURCE
MANUAL
AUTO
GUARD
OHMS
CABLE
SRC RDBK
DISABLE
ENABLE
OFFSET COMPENSATION
DISABLE
ENABLE
Configure ohms measure.
CONFIG FCTN
CONFIGURE FUNCTION
POWER
OFF COMP OHMS
VOLT-COEFF
VAR ALPHA
%DEV
Configure functions.
Select manual or auto source for ohms.
Select ohms or cable guard.
Enable/disable source readback.
Enable/disable offset compensation.
Enable power function.
Enable offset-compensated ohms, program parameters.
Enable voltage coefficient, program parameters.
Enable varistor alpha, program parameters.
Enable percent deviation, program parameters.
1-28
Getting Started
Table 1-6
Source and range configuration menus
Configuration menu item
Description
CONFIG SOURCE V
CONFIGURE V SOURCE
PROTECTION
DELAY
AUTO DELAY
DISABLE
ENABLE
GUARD
OHMS
CABLE
TRIG
CONTROL
DISABLE
ENABLE
SCALE FACTOR
Configure V source.
CONFIG SOURCE I
CONFIGURE I SOURCE
GUARD
OHMS
CABLE
DELAY
AUTO DELAY
DISABLE
ENABLE
TRIG
CONTROL
DISABLE
ENABLE
SCALE FACTOR
Configure I source
CONFIG ▲ RANGE
Program upper range limit.
CONFIG ▼ RANGE
Program lower range limit.
CONFIG AUTO RANGE
AUTO RANGE TYPE
SINGLE SRC MTR
MULTIPLE
Select auto range type.
Select single SourceMeter operation.
Select multiple SourceMeter, program soak time.
Select voltage protection.
Program delay between source and measure.
Enable/disable auto delay.
Select ohms or cable guarding.
Control triggered source.
Enable/disable triggered source.
Program scale factor.
Select ohms or cable guarding.
Program delay between source and measure.
Enable/disable auto delay.
Control triggered source.
Enable/disable triggered source.
Program scale factor.
Getting Started
1-29
Table 1-7
Rel, filter, and limit configuration menus
Configuration menu item
Description
CONFIG REL
Program REL value.
CONFIG FILTER
AUTO FILTER
DISABLE
ENABLE
Configure filter.
Enable/disable auto filter.
CONFIG LIMIT
CONFIGURE LIMITS MENU
DIGOUT
SIZE
3-BIT
4-BIT
16-BIT
MODE
GRADING
IMMEDIATE
END
SORTING
AUTO CLEAR
DISABLE
ENABLE
H/W LIMITS
CONTROL
DISABLE
ENABLE
FAIL MODE
IN
OUT
S/W LIMITS
CONTROL
DISABLE
ENABLE
LOLIM
HILIM
PASS
PASS
DIGIO PATTERN
SRC MEM LOC
NEXT
LOCATION#
EOT MODE
BUSY
/BUSY
EOT
/EOT
Configure limit tests.
Program Digital I/O bit patterns for pass/fail.
Select I/O number of bits.
3-bit size
4-bit size
16-bit size (2499-DIGIO option only).
Select Digital I/O mode.
Pass if within HI/LO limits.
Stop test after first failure.
Stop test at end of sweep.
Fail if outside limits, program fail pattern.
Enable/disable auto clear.
Disable auto clear.
Enable auto clear, program pass/fail pattern.
Control and set fail mode for Limit 1 (compliance) test.
Control Limit 1 test.
Disable Limit 1 test.
Enable Limit 1 test.
Select Limit 1 fail mode.
Fail when in compliance, program bit pattern.
Fail when out of compliance, program bit pattern.
Control LIM2, 3, 5-12 tests limits and bit patterns.
Enable/disable limit tests.
Disable test.
Enable test.
Set low limit.
Set high limit.
Set pass Digital I/O bit pattern.
Set limit test pass conditions.
Set pass conditions Digital I/O bit pattern.
Set pass conditions next source memory location.
Use next location.
Specify location number.
Set Digital I/O line 4 to act as EOT or BUSY signal.
Set line 4 HI while unit is busy (3-bit mode).
Set line 4 LO while unit is busy (3-bit mode).
Output line 4 HI pulse at end of test (3-bit mode).
Output line 4 LO pulse at end of test (3-bit mode).
1-30
Getting Started
Table 1-8
Trigger configuration menu
Configuration menu item
Description
CONFIG TRIG
CONFIGURE TRIGGER
ARM LAYER
ARM IN
IMMEDIATE
GPIB
TIMER
MANUAL
TLINK
ONCE
NEVER
↓STEST
ONCE
NEVER
↑STEST
ONCE
NEVER
↑↓STEST
ONCE
NEVER
ARM OUT
LINE
EVENTS
TRIG LAYER EXIT
TL ENTER
COUNT
FINITE
INFINITE
TRIG LAYER
TRIGGER IN
IMMEDIATE
TRIGGER LINK
TRIGGER OUT
LINE
EVENTS
Configure triggering.
DELAY
COUNT
HALT
Configure trigger model arm layer.
Select arm layer detection event.
Immediate event detection.
GPIB GET or *TRG.
After timer interval elapses, enter interval.
Front panel TRIG key.
Enter TLINK line and state.
Bypass event detection once.
Never bypass event detection.
When Digital I/O SOT line is pulsed low.
Bypass event detection once.
Never bypass event detection.
When Digital I/O SOT is pulsed high.
Bypass event detection once.
Never bypass event detection.
When Digital I/O SOT line is pulsed high or low.
Bypass event detection once.
Never bypass event detection.
Configure arm layer output trigger.
Select trigger link output line (1-4).
Enable/disable events.
Enable (ON) or disable (OFF) on exiting trigger layer.
Enable (ON) or disable (OFF) on entering trigger layer.
Specify arm count.
Programmable count.
Never ending count.
Configure trigger layer of trigger model.
Select trigger layer detection event.
Trigger event occurs immediately.
Select trigger link line as event (1-4).
Configure trigger layer output trigger.
Select trigger link line (1-4).
Enable (ON) or disable (OFF) for SOURCE, DELAY,
and MEAS.
Program trigger delay time.
Program trigger count.
Return unit to idle state.
Getting Started
Table 1-9
Sweep, digits, speed, and data store configuration menus
Configuration menu item
Description
CONFIG SWEEP
CONFIGURE SWEEPS
TYPE
STAIR
LOG
CUSTOM
# POINTS
ADJUST POINTS
INIT
SRC MEMORY
START
# POINTS
SWEEP COUNT
FINITE
INFINITE
SOURCE RANGING
BEST FIXED
AUTO RANGE
FIXED
Configure sweeps.
Select sweep type.
Staircase sweep, program START, STOP, STEP.
Log sweep, program START, STOP, # POINTS.
Custom sweep, program parameters.
Program number of sweep points.
Set individual point values.
Set first point value.
Source memory sweep, set parameters.
Set first point value.
Set number of points.
Set sweep count.
Program sweep count value.
Never-ending sweep.
Set sweep ranging mode.
Best fixed range based on maximum value.
Auto range during sweep.
Set fixed source range.
CONFIG DIGITS
DISPLAY DIGITS
Set display number of digits.
Select 3.5, 4.5, 5.5, or 6.5.
CONFIG SPEED
SPEED ACCURACY MENU
FAST
MED
NORMAL
HI ACCURACY
OTHER
Set measurement speed.
CONFIG STORE
STORE TIMESTAMP
ABSOLUTE
DELTA
Configure data store timestamp.
Fast speed.
Medium speed.
Normal.
Maximum accuracy.
Program NPLCs (number power line cycles).
Absolute timestamp.
Delta timestamp.
1-31
1-32
Getting Started
Table 1-10
Output and display configuration menus
Configuration menu item
Description
CONFIG ON/OFF OUTPUT
CONFIGURE OUTPUT
OFF STATE
NORMAL
ZERO
GUARD
AUTO OFF
DISABLE
ENABLE
INTERLOCK
DISABLE
ENABLE
Configure output.
CONFIG EDIT or TOGGLE
DISABLE DISPLAY
NOW
NEVER
SWEEP
STORE
Enable/disable display.
Set up output off state.
Normal off state.
Zero off state.
Guard mode off state.
Enable disable auto off mode.
Keep output on.
Turn output off after each measurement.
Enable/disable interlock.
Disable interlock.
Enable interlock.
Disable display immediately.
Never disable display.
Turn display off during sweep.
Turn display off during buffer store.
2
Connections
•
Connection Overview — Explains how to connect the Remote PreAmp to the mainframe, provides basic information on the input/output connectors, and discusses using a
test fixture interlock.
•
Connections to DUT — Covers various methods for making connections to the DUT,
including 4-wire remote sensing, 2-wire local sensing, cable and ohms guard, as well as
guard selection.
•
Guarding Methods — Discusses different guarding methods including cable guard,
ohms guard, and guard selection.
2-2
Connections
Connection overview
WARNING
To prevent electric shock, test connections must be configured such that
the user cannot come in contact with conductors or any DUT that is in
contact with the conductors. Safe installation requires proper shields, barriers, and grounding to prevent contact with conductors. Operator protection and safety are the responsibility of the person installing the product.
WARNING
During power-up, voltage spikes may appear on the terminals of the
SourceMeter. These voltage spikes could be at hazardous levels (>42.4V
peak) and could damage sensitive DUTs. Never touch external circuitry or
the test leads when powering up the SourceMeter. It is good practice to
always disconnect DUTs from the SourceMeter before powering up the
SourceMeter.
WARNING
Up to 210V may be present on the output and guard terminals. To prevent
electrical shock that could cause injury or death, NEVER make or break
connections to the SourceMeter while it is on or is connected to an external
source.
Connecting Remote PreAmp to the mainframe
WARNING
Potentially hazardous source voltage is routed from the mainframe to the
Remote PreAmp via the preamp cable. Adhere to the following safety precautions to prevent electric shock:
• The SourceMeter must be turned off before connecting (or disconnecting) the Remote PreAmp to the mainframe.
• When not using the Remote PreAmp, disconnect the preamp cable at
the rear panel of the mainframe. DO NOT leave the preamp cable connected to the mainframe if the other end is not connected to the Remote
PreAmp.
• ALWAYS re-install the plastic safety cover onto the mainframe preamp
connector whenever the Remote PreAmp is not being used.
Use the supplied preamp cable to connect the Remote PreAmp to the mainframe as follows:
1.
2.
From the front panel of the SourceMeter, turn the POWER off.
Connect the preamp cable to the Remote PreAmp. The preamp connector on the
Remote PreAmp is labeled “MAINFRAME.”
Connections
3.
4.
2-3
At the rear panel of the mainframe, remove the plastic safety cover from the preamp
connector. This connector is labeled “REMOTE PreAmp.” The plastic cover is secured
to the connector with two screws. Hold on to the plastic cover and the retaining screws.
Whenever the Remote PreAmp is not being used, the plastic safety cover must be reinstalled on the mainframe preamp connector.
Connect the other end of the preamp cable to the mainframe.
Source-measure terminals
The SourceMeter can be used with or without the Remote PreAmp. However, when not
using the Remote PreAmp, the lower current ranges and higher resistance ranges are not available. The small Remote PreAmp can be positioned near the DUT allowing the use of short triax
cables. Short triax cables help minimize cable capacitance which could adversely affect the
response time of low current measurements.
When not using the Remote PreAmp, all connections to the SourceMeter are made at the
rear panel of the mainframe using cables terminated with banana plugs. These terminals are
summarized in Section 1 (Figure 1-2). When using the Remote PreAmp, not all source-measure terminals are available at the preamp and must be accessed at the mainframe. Table 2-1
lists each mainframe terminal and the equivalent Remote PreAmp terminal.
Table 2-1
Terminal equivalency between mainframe and Remote PreAmp
Mainframe terminal
Equivalent Remote PreAmp terminal
INPUT/OUTPUT HI
INPUT/OUTPUT LO
4-WIRE SENSE HI
4-WIRE SENSE LO
V, Ω GUARD
GUARD SENSE
Chassis ground (screw)
IN/OUT HI
IN/OUT LO
SENSE HI
N/A
GUARD (cable guard only)
N/A
N/A
N/A = Not available at Remote PreAmp.
NOTE
Whenever the Remote PreAmp is connected to the mainframe, adhere to the following rules to achieve best performance:
• Do not use INPUT/OUTPUT HI and 4-WIRE SENSE HI on the mainframe.
Access these terminals at the Remote PreAmp.
• Access input/output low at the Remote PreAmp or at the mainframe, but not both.
Test circuit common should be tied to one point to avoid ground loops which
could generate error currents.
• Do not use guard from the mainframe and the Remote PreAmp at the same time.
Use one or the other.
2-4
Connections
Remote PreAmp triax connectors
The electrical configuration of each triax connector is shown in Figure 2-1A. The center
conductor of the connector (and triax cable) is HI (input/output or sense), and the inner shield
is cable guard. The outer shield (shell) of each triax connector is input/output LO.
NOTE
The 6430-322-1A triax cable (which is a supplied accessory) is terminated with a
triax connector on one end and booted alligator clips on the other end. (See Figure
2-1B.) When connected to the Remote PreAmp, the alligator clip with the red boot is
HI, the one with the black boot is GUARD and the one with the green boot is LO.
The outer shells of the triax connectors are connected to Input/Output LO. Therefore, for
floating source-measure operations, a voltage potential will be present on the shells of the triax
connectors. Even with the output of the SourceMeter off, voltage could be applied from the
external test circuit. As a general rule, do not touch the triax cables while any power is present.
WARNING
Figure 2-1
Basic input/output
configurations
To prevent injury from electric shock, DO NOT touch the triax cables of
the Remote PreAmp while the SourceMeter is turned on or any external
source is turned on.
Center Conductor
HI (In/Out or Sense)
Inner Shield
GUARD (Cable)
Outer Shield
LO (In/Out)
A) Remote PreAmp Triax Connector Configuration
6430 Mainframe
HI
INPUT/OUTPUT
LO
Zener
Clamp
Chassis
Ground
42V Peak DC Max
or
10.5mA Max
Chassis Ground Screw
(on Rear Panel)
Triax to Alligator Clip
HI (center conductor)
Red boot
Guard (inner shield)
Black boot
LO (outer shell)
Green boot
B) Terminal identification for 6430-322-1A cable
C) Mainframe Input/Output Configuration
Connections
2-5
Input/output LO and chassis ground
Input/Output LO is not directly connected to chassis ground. For test circuits that require
Input/Output LO connected to chassis ground, you can use the supplied chassis ground plug.
Connect the lug end of the cable to the chassis ground screw on the rear panel of the mainframe, and plug the other end into the INPUT/OUTPUT LO banana jack.
With no Input/Output LO-to-chassis ground connection, floating source-measure operations
(up to 42V peak) can be performed. Inside the mainframe, a zener clamp (Figure 2-1C) is used
to isolate Input/Output LO from the chassis.
WARNING
Exceeding 42V between Input/Output LO and chassis ground creates a
shock hazard and could cause damage to the SourceMeter that is not covered by the warranty.
CAUTION
Do not connect any external sources between Input/Output LO and chassis
ground. Current exceeding 10.5mA will damage the zener clamp
(Figure 2-1C). Such damage is not covered by the warranty.
Test fixture interlock
A test fixture interlock switch can be used with the SourceMeter to help protect the DUT.
The SourceMeter output will turn off when the lid of the test fixture is opened. However, you
must ALWAYS assume that power is present until you verify that the SourceMeter output is
off.
WARNING
To prevent electric shock, test connections must be configured such that
the user cannot come in contact with conductors or any DUT that is in
contact with the conductors. Safe installation requires proper shields, barriers, and grounding to prevent contact with conductors. Operator protection and safety are the responsibility of the person installing the product.
See Section 12 for complete details on using the interlock and output configuration
information.
2-6
Connections
Connections to DUT
NOTE
Connection drawings in this manual are shown using the Remote PreAmp. If not
using the Remote PreAmp, make connections to the equivalent banana jack terminals on the rear panel of the mainframe.
WARNING
To prevent injury from electric shock, DO NOT touch the triax cables of
the Remote PreAmp while the SourceMeter is turned on or is connected to
an external source that is turned on.
CAUTION
When using the Remote PreAmp, DO NOT use the INPUT/OUTPUT HI
and 4-WIRE SENSE HI banana jacks on the mainframe. Using these terminals while the Remote PreAmp is plugged in will result in errors and/or
noise, and possible damage to the Remote Amplifier.
Sensing methods
Basic source-measure operations are performed using either 2-wire sense connections
(Figure 2-2) or 4-wire sense connections (Figure 2-3). See Section 4, Ohms sensing for
additional information.
Triax Cable
DUT
LO
Test
Fixture
SENSE
Connect to earth safety
ground using #18 AWG
wire or larger
*Keithley part number: CA-176-1D.
Noise Shield
KEITHLEY
6430
REMOTE
PreAmp
MAINFRAME
HI
IN/OUT
HIGH
Figure 2-2
Two-wire
sense
connections
WARNING Guard is at the same voltage level as
input/output high. Therefore, if a
hazardous voltage (≥42V peak) is
present on input/output high, it is also
present on the guard terminals of the
Remote PreAmp and mainframe.
Preamp Cable*
Connect to REMOTE
PreAmp connector on rear
panel of mainframe
Connections
Noise Shield
Triax
Cable
LO
DUT
Sense
LO
Test
Fixture
HI
Triax
Cable
Sense HI
KEITHLEY
6430
REMOTE
PreAmp
MAINFRAME
*Keithley part number: CA-176-1D.
IN/OUT
HIGH SENSE
Figure 2-3
Four-wire sense
connections
2-7
Preamp Cable*
WARNING Guard is at the same voltage level as
input/output high. Therefore, if a
hazardous voltage (≥42V peak) is
Connect to earth safety
present on input/output high, it is also
ground using #18 AWG
present on the guard terminals of the
wire or larger
Remote PreAmp and mainframe.
WARNING:NO INTERNAL OPERATOR SERVICABLE PARTS,SERVICE BY QUALIFIED PERSONNEL ONLY.
250V
PEAK
HI
5V
PK
5V
PEAK
250V
PEAK
MADE IN
U.S.A.
V, Ω,
GUARD
REMOTE
PreAmp
5V
PEAK
!
GUARD
SENSE
LINE FUSE
SLOWBLOW
LO
Banana Plug Cable
4-WIRE
SENSE
INPUT/
OUTPUT
2.5A, 250V
42V
PEAK
LINE RATING
100-240VAC
50, 60, HZ
100VA MAX
IEEE-488
(ENTER IEEE ADDRESS
WITH FRONT PANEL MENU)
RS232
TRIGGER
LINK
INTERLOCKDIGITAL I/O
CAUTION:FOR CONTINUED PROTECTION AGAINST FIRE HAZARD,REPLACE FUSE WITH SAME TYPE AND RATING.
6430 Mainframe
(rear panel connectors)
WARNING
There is no direct internal connection between earth ground and the
INPUT/OUTPUT LO terminal of the SourceMeter. Therefore, hazardous
voltages (>30V rms) can appear on the LO terminal. Typically, this can
occur when the SourceMeter is operating in any mode where the output
changes rapidly, such as quick, pulsed waveforms that can be generated
using the ZERO, AUTO-OFF output state, or fast pulse sweep operations.
To eliminate the shock hazard, connect the INPUT/OUTPUT LO terminal
to earth ground. You can connect the LO terminal to the chassis ground
screw terminal on the rear panel using the supplied chassis ground plug, or
connect it to a known safety earth ground.
WARNING
For floating source-measure operations, voltage will be present on the
outer shell (IN/OUT LO) of the triax cable(s). If IN/OUT LO is connected
to a noise shield as shown in Figures 2-2 and 2-3, the floating voltage will
also be present on the shield. To prevent contact with the floating voltage,
enclose the test circuit in a metal test fixture that is connected to safety
earth ground (as shown in Figures 2-2 and 2-3), and do not touch the triax
cable(s).
2-8
Connections
2-wire sensing
When using 2-wire sensing to source and/or measure voltage, the error associated with IR
drops in the test leads could be significant. The ratio between the test lead resistance and DUT
resistance determines the error that is introduced. If the error introduced by the IR drop of the
test leads is not acceptable, use 4-wire sensing.
For example, assume test lead resistance (RL) is 1Ω and the DUT resistance (RDUT) is
10kΩ. The error is calculated as follows:
Error = RL / RDUT
= 1Ω / 10kΩ
= 0.0001
= 0.01%
Notice that as the resistance of the DUT increases, the error decreases. For DUT above
1GΩ, guarding should also be used. See Cable guard.
Since current in a series circuit is the same at all points in the loop, remote sensing does not
improve I-Source or I-Measure accuracy. Thus, if sourcing current and measuring current, you
can use local sensing.
NOTE
For Measure Only (V or I) operation, 2-wire sensing must be used.
4-wire sensing
Voltage source and measure accuracy are optimized by using 4-wire sense connections.
When sourcing voltage, 4-wire sensing ensures that the programmed voltage is delivered to the
DUT. When measuring voltage, only the voltage drop across the DUT is measured.
Use 4-wire sensing for the following source-measure conditions:
•
•
The error contributed by test lead resistance for local sensing is not acceptable.
Optimum Ohms, V-Source, and/or V-Measure accuracy are required.
4-wire sensing specification clarifications
•
•
•
There is no hardware configurations needed to enable 4-wire sense. Simply hook up the
sense wires; otherwise, the Model 6430 will sense the voltage locally through resistors.
Specified accuracies for both source and measure are only achieved using 4-wire
sensing.
Sense wires must be no more than 10Ω per lead.
Connections
•
2-9
The Model 6430 will perform to rated specification with up to 1V drop per source lead
on the 100µA through 100mA ranges. On the 10µA range and belo w (when using the
Remote PreAmp), the allowable voltage drop in each source lead is limited as follows:
Current range
10µA
1µA
100nA
10nA
1nA
100pA
10pA
1pA
Maximum allowable resistance
per source lead
10Ω
50Ω
500Ω
5kΩ
50kΩ
1MΩ
50MΩ
1GΩ
Guarding methods
Cable guard
Use the high-impedance (cable) guard connection scheme shown in Figure 2-4 for the following source-measure condition:
HI
DUT
Guard
LO
Connect to earth
safety ground using
#18 AWG wire or
larger
*Keithley part number: CA-176-1D.
Test Fixture
Triax Cable
Guard
Shield
IN/OUT
HIGH SENSE
Figure 2-4
High-impedance
guarding
Test circuit impedance is >1GΩ.
KEITHLEY
6430
REMOTE
PreAmp
MAINFRAME
•
Preamp Cable*
WARNING Guard is at the same voltage level as
input/output high. Therefore, if a
hazardous voltage (≥42V peak) is
present on input/output high, it is also
present on the guard terminals of the
Remote PreAmp and mainframe.
Connect to
REMOTE PreAmp
connector on rear
panel of mainframe
Cable guard is always available at the Remote PreAmp. If not using the Remote PreAmp,
use the V, Ω GUARD banana jack on the mainframe with CABLE guard selected. See Guard
selection to select cable guard.
A test fixture is typically used when testing high-impedance devices. The test fixture reduces
noise and protects the user from a potentially hazardous voltage on the guard shield (or plate).
See Section 5, Guard for details on using guard.
Note that the test fixture chassis is connected to In/Out LO to reduce noise.
2-10
Connections
Ohms guard
Use ohms guard for the following source-measure operation:
•
In-circuit resistance measurements on the DUT where other parasitic leakage devices
are present.
Note that ohms guard must be selected for this connection scheme. See Guard selection to
select ohms guard.
NOTE
Ohms guard cannot be accessed from the Remote PreAmp. It is only available at the
rear panel of the mainframe.
Figures 2-5, 2-6, and 2-7 show how to make connections to measure the resistance of a
single resistor (DUT) in a resistor network. See Section 4, 6-wire ohms measurements and
Section 5, Guard for more information on guarded ohms measurements.
Figure 2-5
Guarded ohms
connections (basic)
IN/OUT
HIGH SENSE
Triax Cable
Resistor
Network
KEITHLEY
6430
REMOTE
PreAmp
Preamp
Cable*
WARNING Guard is at the same voltage level as
input/output high. Therefore, if a
hazardous voltage (≥42V peak) is
present on input/output high, it is also
present on the guard terminals of the
Remote PreAmp and mainframe.
Ohms
Guard
IG
RG
≥1kΩ
MAINFRAME
*Keithley part number: CA-176-1D.
HI
DUT
Banana Plug Cable
LO
6430 Mainframe (rear panel connectors)
WARNING:NO INTERNAL OPERATOR SERVICABLE PARTS,SERVICE BY QUALIFIED PERSONNEL ONLY.
5V
PK
HI
250V
PEAK
250V
PEAK
5V
PEAK
MADE IN
U.S.A.
V, Ω,
GUARD
REMOTE
PreAmp
5V
PEAK
!
GUARD
SENSE
LINE FUSE
SLOWBLOW
LO
4-WIRE
SENSE
INPUT/
OUTPUT
2.5A, 250V
42V
PEAK
LINE RATING
100-240VAC
50, 60, HZ
100VA MAX
IEEE-488
(ENTER IEEE ADDRESS
WITH FRONT PANEL MENU)
RS232
TRIGGER
LINK
CAUTION:FOR CONTINUED PROTECTION AGAINST FIRE HAZARD,REPLACE FUSE WITH SAME TYPE AND RATING.
INTERLOCKDIGITAL I/O
Connections
2-11
The basic connection scheme for guarded ohms measurements is shown in Figure 2-5. If the
guard resistance path (RG) is <1kΩ, IR drop in the GUARD test lead could be high enough that
the guard voltage at the resistor network is significantly less than the output voltage at the DUT.
This results in leakage current and will corrupt the measurement. To cancel the effect of IR
drop in the GUARD test lead, connect GUARD SENSE to the resistor network as shown in
Figure 2-6. Guard sense ensures that the guard voltage at the resistor network is the same as the
output voltage at the DUT.
Figure 2-6
Guarded ohms
connections
(guard sense)
*Keithley part number: CA-176-1D.
IN/OUT
HIGH SENSE
Resistor
Network
IG
Ohms
Guard
Guard
Sense
RG
<1kΩ
HI
KEITHLEY
MAINFRAME
Triax Cable
6430
REMOTE
PreAmp
Preamp
Cable*
WARNING Guard is at the same voltage level as
input/output high. Therefore, if a
hazardous voltage (≥42V peak) is
present on input/output high, it is
also present on the guard terminals
of the Remote PreAmp and mainframe.
DUT
Banana Plug Cables
LO
6430 Mainframe (rear panel connectors)
WARNING:NO INTERNAL OPERATOR SERVICABLE PARTS,SERVICE BY QUALIFIED PERSONNEL ONLY.
5V
PK
HI
250V
PEAK
250V
PEAK
5V
PEAK
MADE IN
U.S.A.
V, Ω,
GUARD
REMOTE
PreAmp
5V
PEAK
!
GUARD
SENSE
LINE FUSE
SLOWBLOW
LO
4-WIRE
SENSE
INPUT/
OUTPUT
2.5A, 250V
42V
PEAK
LINE RATING
100-240VAC
50, 60, HZ
100VA MAX
IEEE-488
(ENTER IEEE ADDRESS
WITH FRONT PANEL MENU)
RS232
TRIGGER
LINK
CAUTION:FOR CONTINUED PROTECTION AGAINST FIRE HAZARD,REPLACE FUSE WITH SAME TYPE AND RATING.
INTERLOCKDIGITAL I/O
2-12
Connections
Note that if the DUT is <1kΩ, you should use the 4-wire measurement method (remote sensing) by connecting SENSE HI and LO to the DUT (Figure 2-7).
Figure 2-7
Guarded ohms
connections
(6-wire ohms)
IN/OUT
HIGH SENSE
Triax
Cable
Triax
Cable
Resistor
Network
Ohms Guard
Guard Sense
HI
RG
<1kΩ
DUT
<1kΩ
MAINFRAME
*Keithley part number: CA-176-1D.
KEITHLEY
6430
REMOTE
PreAmp
Preamp
Cable*
WARNING Guard is at the same voltage level as
input/output high. Therefore, if a
hazardous voltage (≥42V peak) is
present on input/output high, it is also
present on the guard terminals of the
Remote PreAmp and mainframe.
Sense HI
Banana Plug Cables
Sense LO
LO
6430 Mainframe (rear panel connectors)
WARNING:NO INTERNAL OPERATOR SERVICABLE PARTS,SERVICE BY QUALIFIED PERSONNEL ONLY.
250V
PEAK
HI
5V
PK
5V
PEAK
250V
PEAK
MADE IN
U.S.A.
V, Ω,
GUARD
REMOTE
PreAmp
5V
PEAK
!
GUARD
SENSE
LINE FUSE
SLOWBLOW
LO
4-WIRE
SENSE
INPUT/
OUTPUT
2.5A, 250V
42V
PEAK
LINE RATING
100-240VAC
50, 60, HZ
100VA MAX
IEEE-488
(ENTER IEEE ADDRESS
WITH FRONT PANEL MENU)
RS232
TRIGGER
LINK
INTERLOCKDIGITAL I/O
CAUTION:FOR CONTINUED PROTECTION AGAINST FIRE HAZARD,REPLACE FUSE WITH SAME TYPE AND RATING.
NOTE
Guard current (IG) must never exceed 50mA. If it does, guard voltage will become
less than the output voltage and corrupt the measurement.
Connections
2-13
Guard selection
Cable guard is used for high-impedance guarding for cables (i.e., coax and triax) and test
fixtures. Ohms guard provides a high-current guard output, which allows in-circuit guarded
ohms measurements.
The guard setting (cable or ohms) only applies to mainframe guard (V,Ω GUARD banana
jack). Cable guard is always available at the Remote PreAmp, regardless of the guard setting.
Ohms guard is only available at the mainframe. On power-up, the mainframe defaults to cable
guard.
NOTE
When the guard selection is changed, the OUTPUT will turn OFF.
Front panel guard selection
Perform the following steps to check or change the guard selection:
NOTE
3.
▲
2.
Press CONFIG and then the SOURCE V, SOURCE I, or Ω. Changing guard in one configuration menu changes it in all of the others.
Using the and keys, place the cursor (flashing menu item) on GUARD and press
ENTER.
▲
1.
Cursor position indicates the present guard selection (OHMS or CABLE). To retain
the present selection, use the EXIT key to back out of the menu structure and skip the
next two steps.
4.
To change the guard selection, place the cursor on the alternate selection and press
ENTER.
Use the EXIT key to back out of the menu structure.
NOTE
Do not connect ohms guard using coaxial cabling, or oscillations may occur.
Remote command guard selection
Use the :SYSTem:GUARd command in Section 17 to choose between cable and ohms guard
mode via remote. For example, send the following command to enable ohms guard:
:SYST:GUAR OHMS
Conversely, send this command to enable cable guard:
:SYST:GUAR CABL
2-14
Connections
3
Basic Source-Measure
Operation
•
Operation Overview — Discusses source-measure capabilities, compliance limit, and
fundamental source-measure configuration.
•
Operation Considerations — Covers warm-up, auto zero, V-source protection, and
source delay.
•
Basic Source-Measure Procedure — Describes the basic procedure for setting up the
SourceMeter for source-measure operations, including selecting the source function,
output values, and compliance limits; choosing measurement range and function; and
turning the output on and off.
•
Measure Only — Covers how to use the SourceMeter for measurements only.
•
Sink Operation — Describes sink operation.
3-2
Basic Source-Measure Operation
CAUTION
Excessive heat could damage the SourceMeter and at the very least, degrade its performance. The SourceMeter must be operated in an environment where the ambient temperature
does not exceed 50°C.
The SourceMeter uses a heat sink to dissipate heat. The left side of the case is cut out to
expose the black, finned heat sink. To prevent damaging heat build-up and thus, ensure specified performance, adhere to the following precautions:
• Keep the heat sink free of dust, dirt, and contaminates, since its ability to dissipate
heat could become impaired.
• Keep the bottom cooling vents from becoming blocked. NEVER remove the plastic
feet and place the SourceMeter directly on a flat surface. NEVER operate the
SourceMeter when it is sitting on a conformable surface (such as a carpet). This
could block the bottom cooling vents.
• Do not position any devices adjacent to the SourceMeter that force air (heated or
unheated) into or onto its surfaces or cooling vents. This additional airflow could
compromise accuracy performance.
• When rack mounting the SourceMeter, make sure there is adequate airflow around
the bottom and sides to ensure proper cooling. Adequate airflow enables air temperatures within approximately one inch of the SourceMeter surfaces to remain within
specified limits under all operating conditions.
• Rack mounting high power dissipation equipment adjacent to the SourceMeter
could cause excessive heating to occur. The specified ambient temperatures must be
maintained around the surfaces of the SourceMeter to specified accuracies.
• A good measure to ensure proper cooling in rack situations with convection cooling
only is to place the hottest equipment (i.e., power supply) at the top of the rack.
Precision equipment, such as the SourceMeter, should be placed as low as possible in
the rack where temperatures are the coolest. Adding spacer panels below the
SourceMeter will help ensure adequate airflow.
Basic Source-Measure Operation
3-3
Operation overview
Source-measure capabilities
From the front panel, the SourceMeter can be configured to perform the following
operations:
•
•
•
•
Source voltage — Display current and/or voltage measurement
Source current — Display voltage and/or current measurement
Measure resistance — Display voltage or current component of measurement
Measure only (V or I) — Display voltage or current measurement
Voltage — The V-Source can output voltage from ±5µV to ±210V and limit current from
1fA to 105mA. The V-Meter can measure voltage from ±1µV to ±211V. The V-Source and
V-Meter each have four ranges; 200mV, 2V, 20V, and 200V.
Current — With the Remote PreAmp, the I-Source can output current from ±0.5fA to
±105mA and limit voltage from 200µV to 210V. The I-Meter can measure current from ±10aA
to ±105.5mA. The I-Source and I-Meter each have 12 ranges; 1pA, 10pA, 100pA, 1nA, 10nA,
100nA, 1µA, 10µA, 100µA, 1mA, 10mA, and 100mA.
Without the Remote PreAmp, the 1pA, 10pA, 100pA, 1nA, 10nA, and 100nA ranges are not
available. Therefore, without the Remote PreAmp, the I-Source can output current from ±50pA
to ±105mA and measure current from ±10pA to ±105.5mA.
Resistance — With the Remote PreAmp, the SourceMeter can make resistance measurements from <100µΩ to >20TΩ. When using the auto ohms measurement method, the following
ohms ranges are available, 20Ω, 200Ω, 2kΩ, 20kΩ, 200kΩ, 2MΩ, 20MΩ, 200MΩ, 2GΩ,
20GΩ, 200GΩ, 2TΩ, and 20TΩ. When using the manual ohms measurement method, you cannot select ohms ranges. The ohms reading is the mathematical result of V/I.
Without the Remote PreAmp, the 200MΩ, 2GΩ, 20GΩ, 200GΩ, 2TΩ, and 20TΩ auto ohms
ranges and, as previously pointed out, the six lowest current ranges are not available. Therefore,
without the Remote PreAmp, the SourceMeter can measure resistance from <100µΩ to
>20MΩ.
Measure only (V or I) — The SourceMeter can be used exclusively as a voltmeter
(V-Meter) or an ammeter (I-Meter). When used as a V-Meter only, the I-Source is set to output
0A. When used as an I-Meter only, the V-Source is set to output 0V.
Range of operation — The maximum power output of the SourceMeter is 2.2W. At
maximum source levels, you can output 210V at 10.5mA or 21V at 105mA. The full range of
operation is explained in Section 5, Operating boundaries.
3-4
Basic Source-Measure Operation
NOTE
Load regulation – The voltage specification for V-source mode load changes is
0.01% +100µV. This means that on the 200mV range, the load current can be
changed from zero to full scale with less than 1.02mV of error. Calculation:
error = (0.01% × 0.2V) + 100µV
= 0.02mV + 100µV
= 0.12mV
Assuming a 0 to 100mA change in current, the output impedance equates to 1.2mΩ
(0.12mV/100mA = 1.2mW). This level can only be achieved using 4-wire sensing.
Compliance limit
When sourcing voltage, the SourceMeter can be set to limit current (from 1fA to 105mA).
Conversely, when sourcing current, the SourceMeter can be set to limit voltage (from 200µV to
210V). The SourceMeter output will not exceed the compliance limit.
Table 3-1 summarizes compliance limits according to range. See Section 5 for more details
on compliance limits.
Table 3-1
Compliance limits
Measurement range
Maximum compliance
value
200mV
002V
020V
200V
210mV
002.1V
021V
210V
001pA*
010pA*
100pA*
001nA*
010nA*
100nA*
001µA
010µA
100µA
001mA
010mA
100mA
001.05pA
010.5pA
105pA
001.05nA
010.5nA
105nA
001.05µA
010.5µA
105µA
001.05mA
010.5mA
105mA
* Only available when using the Remote PreAmp.
Basic Source-Measure Operation
3-5
Setting the compliance limit
Front panel compliance limit
Set the compliance limit from the front panel as follows:
5.
▲
Select the desired source and measure functions using the MEAS and SOURCE keys.
Press the EDIT key until the cursor flashes in the compliance (Compl:) display field.
Select the desired compliance range using the RANGE ▲ and ▼ keys.
To increment or decrement the compliance value, use the EDIT and keys to place
the cursor over the digit to be changed, then press the SOURCE ▲ or ▼ key to increment or decrement the compliance value.
To change the compliance value directly, simply enter the value using the numeric keys
while the cursor is flashing in the compliance display field.
▲
1.
2.
3.
4.
Remote compliance limit
Table 3-2 summarizes basic commands to program the compliance limit. See Section 17, Set
compliance limit for more details on these commands. To program the compliance, simply send
the command using the desired parameter. For example, the following command sets the current compliance to 50mA:
:SENS:CURR:PROT 50E-3
Similarly, the following command sets the voltage compliance to 4V:
:SENS:VOLT:PROT 4
Table 3-2
Compliance commands
Command
Description
:SENSe:CURRent:PROTection <n>
:SENSe:VOLTage:PROTection <n>
Set current compliance (n = compliance).
Set voltage compliance (n = compliance).
3-6
Basic Source-Measure Operation
Basic circuit configuration
The fundamental source-measure configuration for the SourceMeter (with Remote PreAmp)
is shown in Figure 3-1, where the Source is either the V-Source or the I-Source. If not using the
Remote PreAmp, Input/Output HI and LO is accessed at the rear panel of the mainframe.
NOTE
igure 3-1
undamental
ource-measure
onfiguration
When using the Remote PreAmp, nothing should be connected to INPUT/OUTPUT
HI banana jack on the mainframe. If using mainframe INPUT/OUTUT HI, the cable
to the Remote PreAmp should be disconnected.
Mainframe
I-Meter
Source
A
V-Meter
REMOTE
PreAmp
HI
IN/OUT
HIGH
LO
Operation considerations
The following paragraphs discuss warm-up period, auto zero, V-source protection, and
source delay.
Warm-up
The SourceMeter must be turned on and allowed to warm up for at least one hour to achieve
rated accuracies. See Appendix A for specifications.
Auto zero
Every A/D conversion (reading) is calculated from a series of zero, reference, and signal
measurements. With auto zero enabled, all three of these measurements are performed for each
reading to achieve rated accuracy. With auto-zero disabled, zero and reference are not measured. This increases measurement speed, but zero drift will eventually corrupt accuracy. With
auto zero disabled, periodically change measurement speed.
Basic Source-Measure Operation
3-7
Temperature changes across components within the instrument can cause the reference and
zero values for the A/D converter to drift due to thermo-electric effects. Auto zero acts to negate
the effects of drift in order to maintain measurement accuracy over time. Without auto zero
enabled, measurements can drift and become erroneous.
Front panel auto zero
Set the auto zero from the front panel as follows:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Press the MENU key.
Select A/D CTRL from the main menu, then press ENTER.
Select AUTO ZERO, then press ENTER.
Select ENABLE or DISABLE as appropriate, then press ENTER.
Press EXIT as necessary to return to normal display.
Remote command auto zero
Use the :SYSTem:AZERo command to enable or disable auto zero via remote. For example,
send the following command to disable auto zero:
:SYST:AZER ON
Conversely, send this command to disable auto-zero:
:SYST:AZER OFF
NPLC caching
NPLC caching speeds up source memory sweeps by caching A/D reference and zero values.
When NPLC caching is enabled (using the NPLC-CACHE/ENABLE menu selection), the A/D
reference and zero values will be saved for up to the 10 most recent voltage, current, and resistance measurement function settings. Whenever the integration rate is changed via the SPEED
key, a recalled user setup (using the SAVESETUP/RESTORE menu selection), or during a
source memory recall (either with the SOURCE-MEMORY/RESTORE menu or during a
source memory sweep), NPLC caching will occur. If the integration rate is already stored in the
cache, the stored reference and zero values are recalled and used. Otherwise, a reference and
zero value are acquired and stored in the cache. If there are already 10 NPLC values stored, the
oldest one will be overwritten by the newest one.
NOTE
Auto zero should be disabled for maximum source memory sweep speed; otherwise
the cache is of little use. With auto zero enabled, new A/D reference and zero values
are taken for every reading and saved into the cache, slowing down sweep operation.
However, with auto zero disabled, measurements may drift and become erroneous.
To minimize drift when using NPLC caching with auto zero disabled, periodically
select AUTO-ZERO/ONCE in the A/D-CTRL menu to force an immediate auto zero
update.
3-8
Basic Source-Measure Operation
NPLC cache setup
Follow the steps below to enable and use NPLC caching with a source memory sweep:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Press the MENU key, select A/D-CTRL, then press ENTER.
Select AUTO-ZERO, then press ENTER.
Choose DISABLE, then press ENTER to disable auto zero.
From the A/D CONTROLS menu, select NPLC-CACHE, then press ENTER.
Select ENABLE, then press ENTER to enable NPLC caching.
Use the EXIT key to back out of the main menu structure.
Set up the source memory parameters, and run the source memory sweep. (See Source
memory sweep in Section 9.)
Typical NPLC cache test times
Typically, NPLC caching will decrease source memory sweep times by a factor of three.
Table 3-3 shows typical averaged times for a test consisting of 10 sweeps of four source memory locations with NPLC values for successive memory locations set to 10, 1, 0.1, and 0.01
respectively.
Table 3-3
Typical NPLC cache test times
NPLC cache conditions
Auto Zero OFF, Caching OFF
Auto Zero ON, Caching OFF
Auto Zero OFF, Caching ON
Auto Zero ON, Caching ON
Auto Zero OFF, Caching ON, Cache empty
Time
5.89s
5.89s
2.05s
5.89s
2.5s
V-source protection
Use V-source protection to select the maximum voltage level the SourceMeter can output.
Available limit values include 20V, 40V, 60V, 80V, 100V, 120V, 160V, and NONE (allows voltage >160V). These are absolute values with 5% tolerance. The power-on default is NONE.
WARNING
Even with the voltage protection limit set to the lowest value (20V),
NEVER touch the triax cable(s) or anything connected to the terminals of
the SourceMeter when it is on or connected to an external source. Always
assume that a hazardous voltage (>30V rms) is present when the power is
on.
To prevent damage to DUT (devices under test) or external circuitry, DO
NOT program the V-Source to levels that exceed the voltage protection
limit.
Basic Source-Measure Operation
3-9
Front panel V-source protection
To program V-source protection from the front panel:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Press CONFIG then SOURCE V.
Select PROTECTION from the displayed choices, then press ENTER.
Select the desired protection value, then press ENTER.
Press EXIT to return to normal display.
Remote command V-source protection
Use the :SOURce:VOLTage:PROTection command to program the V-source protection
value via remote. See Section 17 for details. For example, the following command sets the protection value to 20V:
:SOUR:VOLT:PROT 20
Source delay
The source delay options are used to set the settling time for the source. This source delay is
the delay phase of the Source-delay-measure cycle. See Section 5. The auto delay period is current range dependent (Table 3-4).
Table 3-4
Auto source delay
SourceMeter
I-Range
Auto Delay
1pA
1sec
10pA
350msec
100pA
50msec
1nA
35msec
10nA
10msec
100nA
6msec
1µA
5msec
10µA
5msec
100µA
3msec
1mA
3msec
10mA
3msec
100mA
3msec
Manual delay can be set from 0000.00000 to 9999.99800 seconds. Manually setting the
delay disables auto delay.
3-10
Basic Source-Measure Operation
Front panel source delay
To set the manual source delay from the front panel:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Press CONFIG then SOURCE V (or SOURCE I).
Select DELAY from the displayed choices, then press ENTER.
Enter the desired DELAY value, then press ENTER.
Press EXIT to return to normal display.
To set the auto source delay state from the front panel:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Press CONFIG then SOURCE V (or SOURCE I).
Select AUTO DELAY from the displayed choices, then press ENTER.
Select ENABLE or DISABLE as desired, then press ENTER.
Press EXIT to return to normal display.
Remote command source delay
Use the :SOURce:DELay or :SOURce:DELay:AUTO commands to program the source
delay via remote. See Section 17 for details. For example, the following command sets the
source delay to 500ms:
:SOUR:DEL 0.5
Similarly, send the following command to enable auto delay:
:SOUR:DEL:AUTO ON
Basic source-measure procedure
Output control
Use the ON/OFF OUTPUT key to turn the SourceMeter output on or off for basic sourcemeasure situations. With the output on, the red ON/OFF OUTPUT indicator light will be on.
The indicator light turns off when the output is turned off.
You can also control the output off state (normal, zero, or guard) and program the instrument
for auto output off operation. See Section 12 for complete details on these aspects.
WARNING
To prevent electric shock, do not make or break connections to the
SourceMeter while it is on.
Basic Source-Measure Operation
3-11
Current measurements and capacitive loads
When measuring current in a test circuit that has high capacitance, ringing may occur. Ringing is the fluctuation of current readings that is initiated by a voltage step. This fluctuation
eventually decays to a settled current reading. The higher the capacitance, the more ringing that
will occur.
Table 3-5 lists the maximum capacitive loads that the Model 6430 can accommodate effectively. For the higher current ranges (1nA range and higher), the listed values represent the largest capacitance in which ringing created by a voltage step will decay in less than one power line
cycle. For the lower current ranges (100pA and lower), the listed values represent the largest
capacitance that causes ringing that will settle in a reasonable amount of time.
Current measurements can be performed for higher capacitive loads as long as the increased
ringing can be tolerated. Ringing can be reduced by adding a resistor in a series with the load at
the expense of longer settling times. See Source capacitance in Appendix F for more
information.
Table 3-5
Maximum capacitive loads
Current range
100mA
10mA
1mA
100µA
10µA
1µA
100nA
10nA
1nA
100pA
10pA
1pA
Maximum
Capacitive Load
0.2µF
0.2µF
0.2µF
0.04µF
3300pF
470pF
100pF
100pF
100pF
100pF
100pF
100pF
Basic Source-Measure Operation
Front panel source-measure procedure
Refer to Section 4 to measure ohms.
NOTE
The following procedure assumes that the SourceMeter is already connected to the
DUT as explained in Section 2.
Step 1: Select source.
Press SOURCE V to select the V-Source or press SOURCE I to select the I-Source. The
presently programmed source value (VSRC or ISRC) and compliance level (Cmpl) are
displayed.
Step 2: Set source level and compliance limit.
The source level is the voltage or current setting of the selected source (V-Source or
I-Source). A compliance limit is set to protect the DUT from damaging currents or voltages.
When using the V-Source, a current compliance is set. When using the I-Source, a voltage compliance is set. Compliance defines the maximum absolute value the SourceMeter can output.
Note that compliance can also be determined by the measurement range. Depending on
which value is lower, compliance occurs at the programmed value (real compliance) or at the
maximum compliance value for the present fixed measurement range (range compliance). For
example, with compliance set to 2V and the 200mV measurement range selected, compliance
will occur at 210mV. On the 20V measurement range, compliance will occur at 2V. See
Section 5, Compliance limit for details on real and range compliance.
NOTE
The SourceMeter must be in the edit mode (EDIT annunciator ON) to set source and
compliance values. The edit mode is selected by pressing the EDIT key. The flashing
digit for the source or compliance reading indicates that the SourceMeter is in the
edit mode. If no editing operation is performed within six seconds, the edit mode
times out and is cancelled. To return to the edit mode, press EDIT again. While in the
edit mode, the EDIT key toggles between the source value and the compliance value.
and
▲
The SOURCE ▲ and ▼ and
the last selected field.
▲
3-12
keys also enable the edit mode. They choose
When editing the source value, the source is updated immediately, allowing you to
adjust the source value while the output is on.
The source value cannot be changed while the SourceMeter is performing a sweep.
This occurs with Output ON and either the SWEEP key is pressed, Offset Compensation is enabled under Ohms, or OFF-COMP-OHMS, VOLT-COEFF, or VAR-ALPHA
functions are enabled.
When editing the compliance value, compliance is not updated until ENTER is
pressed or the edit mode is allowed to time out.
EDIT always goes to the source field first, except while sweeping, in which case it
goes into the compliance field.
Source and compliance values cannot be edited in AUTO OHMS mode.
Basic Source-Measure Operation
3-13
Perform the following steps to edit the source and compliance values:
1.
2.
3.
Press EDIT to enter the edit mode. The flashing digit indicates which reading (source or
compliance) is presently selected for editing. If you wish to edit the other field, press
EDIT again.
Use the RANGE ▲ and ▼ keys to select a range that will accommodate the value you
want to set. For best accuracy, use the lowest possible source range.
Enter the desired source or compliance value. There are two methods to edit the value:
value adjust and numeric entry.
NOTE
To clear the source value to 0V or 0A, press the MENU key while in the edit source
field.
Value adjust — To adjust the value, use the EDIT cursor keys to place the cursor
at the appropriate position, and use the SOURCE ▲ and ▼ keys to increment or
decrement the value.
• Numeric entry — When the edit mode is entered, the cursor is located on the most
significant digit of the value. From this position, you can key in the value using the
number keys (0 through 9). After each number is keyed in, the cursor moves one
position to the right. If desired, you can use the EDIT cursor keys to place the cursor on a digit to be changed, and press the appropriate number key. The cursor does
not have to be on the polarity sign of the value to change polarity. If the MENU
key is pressed, the Source Value will be clear to 0V or 0A.
To edit the other field, press EDIT to select it, and repeat steps 1 and 2.
When finished editing the source and compliance values, press ENTER or wait six seconds to exit from the edit mode.
•
4.
5.
NOTE
When a compliance limit value is entered, the SourceMeter automatically goes to the
lowest (most sensitive) compliance range that will accommodate that value.
The lowest compliance levels that can be set are 0.00100pA (1fA) and 000.200mV
(200µV).
Step 3: Select measurement function and range.
Select the desired measurement function by pressing MEAS V (voltage) or MEAS I
(current).
When measuring the source (i.e., Source V Measure V), you cannot select the range using
the measurement RANGE keys. The selected source range determines the measurement range.
When not measuring the source (i.e., Source V Measure I), measurement range selection can
be done manually or automatically. When using manual ranging, use the lowest possible range
for best accuracy. In autorange, the SourceMeter automatically goes to the most sensitive range
to make the measurement.
3-14
Basic Source-Measure Operation
Measuring voltage — When sourcing current, you can use the RANGE ▲ and ▼ keys to
manually select the voltage measurement range. You can also press AUTO to select autoranging. When sourcing voltage, the RANGE keys are inoperative.
Measuring current — When sourcing voltage, you can use the RANGE ▲ and ▼ keys to
manually select the current measurement range. You can also press AUTO to select autoranging. When sourcing current, the RANGE keys are inoperative.
NOTE
With the 200V V-Source range selected, the highest current measurement range is
10mA. With the 100mA I-Source range selected, the highest voltage measurement
range is 20V.
Measurement range is also limited by the compliance setting. For example, if voltage
compliance is 1V (2V compliance range), the highest voltage measurement range
that can be selected is 2V.
Step 4: Turn output on.
Turn the output on by pressing the ON/OFF OUTPUT key. The OUTPUT indicator will turn
on to indicate the output is on.
Step 5: Observe readings on the display.
The SourceMeter is in compliance if the “Cmpl” label or the units label (i.e. “mA”) for the
displayed compliance setting is flashing. If the “Cmpl” label is flashing, real compliance has
occurred. The output is clamped at the displayed compliance value. If the units label is flashing,
range compliance has occurred. The output is clamped at the maximum compliance value for
the present fixed measurement range. For example, if presently on the 2V measurement range,
a flashing units label for the voltage compliance value indicates that the output is clamped at
2.1V.
The SourceMeter can be taken out of compliance by going into the edit mode and decreasing the source value or increasing the compliance value. Note that increasing the compliance
limit may compromise protection for the DUT. If in range compliance, selecting a higher measurement range may take the SourceMeter out of compliance.
NOTE
See Section 5,“Compliance limit” for details on real and range compliance.
Step 6: Turn output off.
When finished, turn the output off by pressing the ON/OFF OUTPUT key. The OUTPUT
indicator light will turn off.
Basic Source-Measure Operation
3-15
Remote command source-measure procedure
Basic source-measurement procedures can also be performed via remote by sending appropriate commands in the right sequence. The following paragraphs summarize the basic commands and give a simple programming example.
Basic source-measure commands
Table 3-6 summarizes basic source-measure commands. See Section 17 for more information on using these commands.
Table 3-6
Basic source-measure commands
Command
Description
Select source function (function = VOLTage or CURRent).
:SOURce:CURRent:MODE FIXed Select fixed sourcing mode for I-source.
:SOURce:VOLTage:MODE FIXed Select fixed sourcing mode for V-source.
Select I-source range (n = range).
:SOURce:CURRent:RANGe <n>
Select V-source range (n = range).
:SOURce:VOLTage:RANGe <n>
Set I-source amplitude (n = amplitude in amps).
:SOURce:CURRent:LEVel <n>
Set V-source amplitude (n = amplitude in volts).
:SOURce:VOLTage:LEVel <n>
Select measure function (function = “VOLTage” or
:SENSe:FUNCtion <function>
“CURRent”).
:SENSe:CURRent:PROTection <n> Set current compliance (n = compliance).
:SENSe:VOLTage:PROTection <n> Set voltage compliance (n = compliance).
Set current measure range (n = range).
:SENSe:CURRent:RANGe <n>
Set voltage measure range (n = range).
:SENSe:VOLTage:RANGe <n>
Select output state (state = ON or OFF)
:OUTPut <state>
Trigger and acquire reading.
:READ?
:SOURce:FUNCtion <function>
3-16
Basic Source-Measure Operation
Source-measure programming example
Table 3-7 summarizes the command sequence for a basic source-measure procedure. Note
that the steps correspond to those listed previously in Front panel source-measure procedure.
These commands set up the SourceMeter as follows:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Source function: volts
Source mode: fixed
Source range: 20V
Source output level: 10V
Current compliance: 10mA
Measure function: current
Measure range: 10mA
Table 3-7
Basic source-measure command sequence
Step1 Action
Commands2,3
Comments
4
Set measure function,
range.
Turn on output.
*RST
:SOUR:FUNC VOLT
:SOUR:VOLT:MODE FIXED
:SOUR:VOLT:RANG 20
:SOUR:VOLT:LEV 10
:SENS:CURR:PROT 10E-3
:SENS:FUNC “CURR”
:SENS:CURR:RANG 10E-3
:OUTP ON
Restore GPIB defaults.
Select voltage source.
Fixed voltage source mode.
Select 20V source range.
Source output = 10V.
10mA compliance.
Current measure function.
10mA measure range.
Output on before measuring.
5
6
Read data.
Turn off output.
:READ?
:OUTP OFF
Trigger, acquire reading.
1
2
3
Select source function,
mode.
Set source range,
level, compliance.
1Steps
correspond to front panel steps listed previously in Front panel source-measure procedure.
must be sent in order given.
3Instrument must be addressed to talk after :READ? to acquire data.
2Commands
Basic Source-Measure Operation
3-17
Measure only
Front panel measure only
In addition to being used for conventional source-measure operations, the SourceMeter can
also be used to measure only voltage or current. Perform the following steps to use the
SourceMeter to measure voltage or current:
1.
2.
Select source-measure functions.
Measure voltage only (voltmeter) — Press SOURCE I to select the I-Source, and
press MEAS V to select the voltage measurement function.
Measure current only (ammeter) — Press SOURCE V to select the V-Source, and
press MEAS I to select the current measurement function.
Set source and compliance levels.
Use the editing procedure provided in step 2 of Basic source-measure procedure to edit
the source and compliance levels as follows:
a. Select the lowest source range and set the source level to zero (0.00000pA or
000.000mV).
b. Set compliance to a level that is higher than the expected measurement.
CAUTION
3.
Select range.
Use the RANGE ▲ and ▼ keys to select a fixed measurement range that will accommodate the expected reading. Use the lowest possible range for best accuracy.
When measuring current, AUTO range can be used instead. The SourceMeter will automatically go to the most sensitive range. When measuring voltage, DO NOT use AUTO
range. See the following CAUTION.
CAUTION
4.
5.
6.
7.
When using the SourceMeter as a voltmeter, V-Compliance must be set
higher than the voltage that is being measured. Failure to do this could
result in instrument damage due to excessive current that will flow into the
SourceMeter.
When using the SourceMeter as a voltmeter only, DO NOT use AUTO
range and NEVER select a measurement range that is below the applied
signal level. For these conditions, high current will be drawn from the
external source. This high current could damage the external source or test
circuit.
Connect voltage or current to be measured. Connect the DUT to the SourceMeter using
2-wire connections. See Figure 2-2.
Turn output on. Press the ON/OFF key to turn the output on.
Take a reading from the display.
When finished, turn output off.
3-18
Basic Source-Measure Operation
Remote command measure only
Table 3-8 summarizes the basic command sequence for measure only. The steps outlined
correspond to those in the Front panel measure only sequence above. These commands set up
the SourceMeter for measure only voltage measurements up to 20V as follows:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Measure function: volts
Source function: current
Source mode: fixed
Source range: minimum
Source value: 0mA
Measure range: 20V
Compliance 25V
Table 3-8
Measure only programming example
Step1
Action
1
Select measure, source functions.
2
Set source and compliance.
3
5
6
7
Select volts measure range.
Turn on output.
Read data.
Turn off output.
Commands2,3
*RST
:SOUR:FUNC CURR
:SOUR:CURR:MODE FIXED
:SENS:FUNC “VOLT”
:SOUR:CURR:RANG MIN
:SOUR:CURR:LEV 0
:SENS:VOLT:PROT 25
:SENS:VOLT:RANG 20
:OUTP ON
:READ?
:OUTP OFF
Comments
Restore GPIB defaults.
Current source function.
Fixed current source mode.
Volts measure function.
Lowest source range.
0µA source level.
25V compliance.
20V range.
Output on before measuring.
Trigger, acquire reading.
Output off after measuring.
1Steps correspond to front panel steps listed previously in Front panel measure only. DUT should be connected to SourceMeter before
running program.
must be sent in order given.
3Instrument must be addressed to talk after :READ? to acquire data.
2Commands
Basic Source-Measure Operation
3-19
Sink operation
Overview
When operating as a sink (V and I have opposite polarity), the SourceMeter is dissipating
power rather than sourcing it. An external source (i.e., battery) or an energy storage device (i.e.,
capacitor) can force operation into the sink region.
For example, if a 12V battery is connected to the V-Source (In/Out HI to battery high) that is
programmed for +10V, sink operation will occur in the second quadrant (Source +V and
measure -I).
CAUTION
NOTE
When using the I-Source as a sink, ALWAYS set V-Compliance to a level
that is higher than the external voltage level. Failure to do so could damage the instrument due to excessive current that will flow into the
SourceMeter.
The sink operating limits are shown in Section 5, “Operating boundaries.”
Sink programming example
Table 3-9 lists a command sequence to program the SourceMeter for sink operation. These
commands set up the unit as follows:
•
•
•
•
•
Source function: volts
Measure function: current
Source voltage: 0V
Measure range: auto
Compliance (discharge current): 100mA
Table 3-9
Sink programming example
Command
Description
*RST
:SOUR:FUNC VOLT
:SOUR:VOLT:MODE FIXED
:SENS:FUNC “CURR”
:SENS:CURR:RANG:AUTO ON
:SENS:CURR:PROT 100E-3
:OUTP ON
:READ?
Restore GPIB defaults.
V-source function.
Fixed source mode.
Current measure function.
Auto measure range.
100mA compliance (discharge current).
Turn on output.
Trigger and acquire reading.
3-20
Basic Source-Measure Operation
4
Ohms Measurements
•
Ohms Configuration Menu — Outlines the ohms configuration menu that allows you
to set up various ohms measurement aspects.
•
Ohms Measurement Methods — Discusses auto and manual ohms measurement
methods and how to select them.
•
Ohms Sensing — Covers 2-wire and 4-wire ohms sensing.
•
Offset-compensated ohms — Describes offset-compensated ohms, which can be used
to overcome the effects of offsets when making low-resistance measurements.
•
Ohms Source Readback — Covers enabling and disabling ohms source readback.
•
6-wire Ohms Measurements — Describes the basic procedure for setting up the
SourceMeter for 6-wire ohms measurement, which can be used for measuring resistor
networks and hybrid circuits.
•
Remote Ohms Programming — Summarizes the basic remote commands required to
program the SourceMeter for ohms measurements and gives several typical programming examples.
4-2
Ohms Measurements
Ohms configuration menu
Press CONFIG then Ω to access the ohms configuration menu. Use the Rules to navigate
menus in Section 1 to select the various items in the menu tree, which is shown in Figure 4-1.
Menu items include:
•
•
•
•
SOURCE — Select AUTO or MANUAL source mode.
GUARD — Choose OHMS or CABLE guard.
SRC RDBK — Enable or disable source readback mode.
OFFSET COMPENSATION — Enable or disable offset-compensated ohms.
The following paragraphs discuss each of these aspects in detail.
Figure 4-1
Ohms configuration
menu tree
CONFIG
Ω
SOURCE
AUTO MANUAL
GUARD
OHMS
CABLE
SRC
RDBK
OFFSET
COMPENSATION
ENABLE DISABLE
ENABLE DISABLE
Ohms Measurements
4-3
Ohms measurement methods
There are two methods to measure ohms: auto ohms and manual ohms. When using auto
ohms, the SourceMeter operates as a conventional constant current source ohmmeter. To use
this method, simply select an ohms measurement range (or use autorange), and take the reading
from the display. When using auto ohms, the default test current varies with the ohms range, as
summarized in Table 4-1.
NOTE
You cannot change the test current in the auto ohms mode. If you attempt to change
the source current in auto ohms, the SourceMeter will display an error message.
With the manual ohms mode you can select either source V or source I to make ohms measurements, and the unit will automatically compute the resistance reading using the V/I measurement method. After configuring the desired source and selecting a voltage or current
measuring range, select the Ω measurement method to display the calculated V/I ohms reading.
NOTE
To achieve optimum accuracy, the SourceMeter measures both V and I and uses
these values in ohms calculations (with source readback enabled). The measured
source value is more accurate than the programmed source value. For remote operation, the user specifies the functions to measure. See the resistance measurement
accuracy specifications in Appendix A for more information.
Table 4-1
Auto ohms default test currents
Auto ohms range*
Default test current
020Ω
200Ω
002kΩ
020kΩ
200kΩ
002MΩ
020MΩ
200MΩ
002GΩ
020GΩ
200GΩ
002TΩ
020TΩ
100mA
010mA
001mA
100mA
010mA
001mA
001mA
100nA
010nA
001nA
100pA
010pA
001pA
*200MΩ maximum without PreAmp
4-4
Ohms Measurements
Selecting ohms measurement method
On power-up, auto ohms is the default method for the ohms function. Perform the following
steps to check and/or change the ohms measurement method:
1.
2.
NOTE
3.
4.
Press CONFIG and then Ω to display the ohms configuration menu.
Using left and right arrow EDIT keys, place the cursor (flashing menu item) on
SOURCE and press ENTER.
Cursor position indicates the presently selected ohms measurement method. To
retain this selection, use the EXIT key to back out of the menu structure and skip the
next two steps.
To change the measurement method, place the cursor on the alternate selection (AUTO
or MANUAL), and press ENTER.
Press EXIT to exit from the menu structure.
Auto ohms measurements
Perform the following steps to perform auto ohms measurements.
NOTE
The following procedure assumes that the SourceMeter is already connected to the
DUT as explained in Section 2.
WARNING
1.
2.
NOTE
To prevent electric shock, do not make or break connections to the
SourceMeter with the output on. If on, press the ON/OFF OUTPUT key to
turn the output off.
Select ohms measurement function.
Press MEAS Ω to select the ohms measurement function.
Select auto ohms measurement method.
• Press CONFIG then Ω.
• Select SOURCE, then press ENTER.
• Select AUTO, then press ENTER.
• Press EXIT to return to normal display.
Note that the SourceMeter will be configured to Source I and Measure V. Also, the
I-Source level and V-Compliance limit are based on the measurement range and cannot
be edited.
Use the manual ohms mode and the V-source method when high-speed settling is
required.
Ohms Measurements
3.
4.
5.
6.
4-5
Select measurement range.
Use the RANGE ▲ and ▼ keys to select a range appropriate for the expected ohms
reading, or use autorange by pressing AUTO. When using manual ranging, selecting the
most sensitive (lowest) range provides the best accuracy. Autorange automatically goes
to the most sensitive range.
Turn output on.
Turn the output on by pressing the ON/OFF OUTPUT key. The OUTPUT indicator will
turn on to indicate the output is on.
Observe reading on display.
The SourceMeter will go into compliance if you exceed the maximum ohms measurement range.
Turn output off.
When finished, turn the output off by pressing the ON/OFF OUTPUT key. The
OUTPUT indicator light will turn off.
Manual ohms measurements
Perform the following steps to perform manual ohms measurements.
NOTE
The following procedure assumes that the SourceMeter is already connected to the
DUT as explained in Section 2.
WARNING
1.
2.
3.
NOTE
To prevent electric shock, do not make or break connections to the SourceMeter with the output on. If on, press the ON/OFF OUTPUT key to turn
the output off.
Select ohms measurement function.
Press MEAS Ω to select the ohms measurement function.
Select manual ohms measurement method.
• Press CONFIG then Ω.
• Select SOURCE, then press ENTER.
• Select MANUAL, then press ENTER.
• Press EXIT to return to normal display.
Configure source.
For manual ohms, you can Source I or Source V at the user-programmed output level.
The lowest allowable compliance limit is based on the load and the source value. For
example, if sourcing 1V to a 1kΩ resistor, the lowest allowable current compliance is
1mA (1V/1kΩ = 1mA). Setting a limit lower than 1mA will place the source in compliance. Refer to steps 1 and 2 of Section 3, Basic source-measure procedure to configure
the source.
Use the V-Source for manual ohms measurements when high-speed settling is
required (i.e., production testing).
4-6
Ohms Measurements
4.
Select measurement range.
Using the RANGE ▲ and ▼ keys, select the lowest possible fixed range or use AUTO
range. Note that if sourcing current, you will be setting the voltage measurement range.
Conversely, if sourcing voltage, you will be setting the current measurement range. The
most sensitive measurement range provides the best accuracy.
NOTE
5.
6.
Measurement range is limited by the compliance setting. For example, if the voltage
compliance is 1V, (2V compliance range), the highest voltage measurement range
that can be selected is 2V.
Turn output on.
Turn the output on by pressing the ON/OFF OUTPUT key. The OUTPUT indicator will
turn on to indicate the output is on.
Observe reading on display.
The SourceMeter is in compliance if the Cmpl label or the units label (i.e. “mA”) for
the displayed compliance setting is flashing. If the Cmpl label is flashing, real compliance has occurred. The output is clamped at the displayed compliance value. If the units
label is flashing, range compliance has occurred. The output is clamped at the maximum compliance value for the present fixed measurement range. For example, if presently on the 2V measurement range, a flashing units label for the voltage compliance
reading indicates that the output is clamped at 2.1V.
The SourceMeter can be taken out of compliance (real or range) by going into the edit
mode and decreasing the source value or increasing the compliance value. Note that
increasing the compliance limit may compromise protection for the DUT. If in range
compliance, selecting a higher measurement range may take the SourceMeter out of
compliance.
NOTE
7.
See Section 5, “Compliance limit” for details on real and range compliance.
Turn output off.
When finished, turn the output off by pressing the ON/OFF OUTPUT key. The
OUTPUT indicator light will turn off.
Ohms sensing
Ohms measurements can be made using either 2-wire or 4-wire sensing. See Section 2 for
details on sensing. Note that resistance measurement accuracy specifications are based on using
4-wire sensing.
Ohms Measurements
4-7
Offset-compensated ohms
The presence of thermal EMFs (VEMF) can adversely affect low-resistance measurement
accuracy. To overcome these unwanted offset voltages, use the offset-compensated ohms measurement method.
In general, this method measures resistance (V/I) at a specific source level and then subtracts
a resistance measurement made with the source set to zero. With the source set to zero, the
source level is VEMF. Thus, the resistance contributed by the presence of VEMF is eliminated.
This two-point measurement method is mathematically expressed as:
Offset-Compensated Ω = ∆V / ∆I where ∆V = V2 – V1 and ∆I = I2 – I1.
V1 is the voltage measurement with the source set to a specific level.
V2 is the voltage measurement with the source set to zero.
I1 is the current measurement with the source set to a specific level.
I2 is the current measurement with the source set to zero.
For auto ohms, the SourceMeter will select the appropriate current source level and voltage
measurement range. For manual ohms, first select the appropriate source (V or I) value while
the output is off. When the source is turned on, the output will cycle between the programmed
value and zero (0A or 0V) to derive the offset-compensated ohms measurement.
NOTE
Manual offset-compensated ohms is also available as a math (FCTN) operation.
This math function allows you to specify both source values. For details, see
Section 7, “Offset-compensated Ω.”
Measuring high resistance devices
When using offset-compensated ohms to measure high resistance values, an appropriate
source delay must be used to provide settled readings. There is a rise time associated with high
ohms measurements. For normal ohms measurements, you can watch the reading change on
the display. When it stops changing, you know you have the final, settled reading. For offsetcompensated ohms, this process is not as straight forward since the source is constantly changing between two values. If measurements are performed while the source is still rising (or falling), incorrect offset-compensated ohms readings will result. Therefore, it is imperative that an
adequate source delay be used to make sure that measurements occur while the source is at its
final, settled values.
Settling times are drastically different from one type of resistor to another. Another factor
that affects settling time is the test setup (i.e., cabling, fixturing, and guarding). These variables
make it necessary for the user to characterize his test system to assure that the source delay is
adequate.
NOTE
Source delay is set from the source configuration menu (press CONFIG > select
SOURCE I (or V) > select DELAY). See “Source delay” in Section 3 for details.
4-8
Ohms Measurements
Enabling/disabling offset-compensated ohms
Offset-compensated ohms is enabled or disabled from the OFFSET COMPENSATION
option of the CONFIG OHMS menu as follows:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Press CONFIG and then Ω to display the ohms configuration menu.
Place the cursor on OFFSET COMPENSATION, and press ENTER.
Place the cursor over ON (to enable compensation) or OFF (to disable compensation),
and press ENTER.
Use the EXIT key to exit the menu structure.
Offset-compensated ohms procedure
NOTE
1.
2.
3.
NOTE
4.
5.
NOTE
6.
The following procedure assumes that the desired ohms measurement method (auto
or manual) is already selected and the SourceMeter is connected to the DUT as
explained in Section 2. Refer to “Selecting ohms measurement method” to check or
change the measurement method.
Turn the output off and select the Ω measurement function.
If measuring high resistance, set an adequate source delay (see Measuring high resistance devices). Source delay is set from the source configuration menu (press
CONFIG > select SOURCE I (or V) > select DELAY). See Section 3, Source delay for
details.
Enable offset compensation as previously explained in Enabling/disabling
offset-compensated ohms.
If using the auto ohms measurement method, go to step 5.
For manual ohms measurements, configure the desired source (V or I) to output the
appropriate source level. Set compliance and select a measurement range (or use AUTO
range). See steps 1, 2, and 3 of Section 3, Basic source-measure procedure for details.
Turn the output on, and observe the offset-compensated ohms reading on the display.
Note that the source alternates between the programmed output value and zero.
When the output is turned off, the displayed source value may be zero (0V or 0A). It
will usually be the previously programmed value in Manual Ohms mode. However,
the programmed source value is remembered and used when the output is turned
back on. If a new source value is programmed, the SourceMeter uses the new source
value when the output is turned back on. The source value cannot be changed while
the output is on. If a global setup or source memory location is saved, the previously
programmed source value will always be stored.
When finished, turn the output off, and disable offset-compensated ohms.
Ohms Measurements
4-9
Ohms source readback
With ohms source readback enabled, the instrument measures the actual source value used
for ohms measurements and then uses that measured value for reading calculations. Normally,
ohms source readback should be left enabled for optimum measurement accuracy. However,
disabling source readback will allow you to make valid ohms measurements with the source in
compliance. Use the following procedure to enable or disable ohms source readback:
1.
2.
3.
4.
NOTE
Press CONFIG then Ω.
Select SRC RDBK, then press ENTER.
Select DISABLE or ENABLE as desired, then press ENTER.
Press EXIT to return to normal display.
Readings in the compliance field will be invalid with source readback disabled.
6-wire ohms measurements
The 6-wire ohms measurement configuration allows you to make accurate resistance measurements on resistor networks and hybrid devices in cases where internal resistance connection nodes are not accessible. The combination of 4-wire Kelvin connections and guarded ohms
features eliminates the effects of internal parallel resistances that could degrade measurement
accuracy and reduce measurement speed. The basic procedure for setting up the SourceMeter
for 6-wire ohms measurements is covered below.
NOTE
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
See Figure 2-7 for 6-wire ohms connections. See also Section 2, “Ohms guard” and
Section 5, “Guard” for more information. Keep in mind that ohms guard is only
available at the rear panel of the mainframe.
Press CONFIG then Ω to display the CONFIG OHMS menu.
Select GUARD, then press ENTER.
Select OHMS, then press ENTER.
Press EXIT to return to normal display.
Press MEAS then Ω to select the ohms measurement function.
Select the appropriate measurement range, or use autoranging if desired.
Turn on the output by pressing the ON/OFF OUTPUT key.
Take readings from the display.
Turn the output off when done by pressing the ON/OFF OUTPUT key.
4-10
Ohms Measurements
Remote ohms programming
The following paragraphs summarize those basic command necessary for remote ohms programming and also give a programming example for a typical ohms measurement situation.
Remote ohms commands
Table 4-2 summarizes the remote commands for making basic ohms measurements. See
Section 17 for more details on these commands.
Table 4-2
Remote commands for basic ohms measurements
Command
Description
:SENSe:FUNCtion “RESistance”
:SENSe:RESistance:RANGe <n>
:SENSe:RESistance:MODE <name>
:SENSe:RESistance:OCOMpensated <state>
:OUTPut <state>
:READ?
Select ohms function.
Select ohms range (n = range).
Select ohms mode (name = MANual or AUTO).
Enable/disable offset compensation (state = ON or OFF).
Turn output on or off (state = ON or OFF).
Trigger and acquire reading.
Ohms programming example
Table 4-3 summarizes the command sequence for a typical ohms measurement. These commands set up the SourceMeter as follows:
•
•
Ohms mode and range: auto, 20kΩ
Offset compensation: off
Table 4-3
Commands for ohms programming example
Command*
Description
*RST
FUNC “RES”
RES:RANG 20E3
RES:MODE AUTO
:OUTP ON
:READ?
:OUTP OFF
Restore GPIB defaults.
Select ohms measurement function.
Choose 20kΩ range.
Auto ohms mode.
Turn on output.
Trigger and acquire reading.
Turn off output.
* Send commands in order given. Instrument must be addressed to talk after :READ?
5
Source-Measure Concepts
•
Compliance Limit — Discusses compliance limit including real and range compliances, maximum compliance values, and how to determine compliance limit.
•
Overheating Protection — Explains how to keep the SourceMeter from overheating.
•
Source-Delay-Measure Cycle — Describes the various phases of the source-delaymeasure cycle as well as sweep waveforms.
•
Operating Boundaries — Covers voltage and current operating boundaries for source
and sink operation, I-source and V-source, and source-measure modes.
•
Basic Circuit Configurations — Covers basic circuit configurations for source I,
source V, and measure only operating modes.
•
Guard — Covers cable guard, ohms guard, and guard sense.
•
Data Flow — Describes measurement readings, math, rel, and limits operation, and
how data is stored in the buffer.
5-2
Source-Measure Concepts
Compliance limit
When sourcing voltage, the SourceMeter can be set to limit current (from 1fA to 105mA).
Conversely, when sourcing current, the SourceMeter can be set to limit voltage (from 200µV to
210V). The SourceMeter output will not exceed the compliance limit.
NOTE
For the following discussion, “measurement range” refers to the measurement function that is the opposite of the source function. When sourcing voltage, the current
measurement range is the point of discussion. Conversely, when sourcing current,
the voltage measurement range is the point of discussion.
Types of compliance
There are two types of compliance: “real” and “range.” Depending upon which value is
lower, the output will clamp at either the displayed compliance setting (real compliance) or at
the maximum possible compliance value for the fixed measurement range (range compliance).
This clamping action effectively limits the power that can be delivered to the device. When the
SourceMeter is acting as a current source, the voltage is clamped at the compliance value; conversely, the current is clamped at the compliance value when the SourceMeter is acting as a
voltage source. Note that range compliance cannot occur if the AUTO measurement range is
selected. Thus, to avoid range compliance, use AUTO range.
When in real compliance, the source clamps at the displayed compliance value. For example, if the compliance voltage is set to 1V and the measurement range is 2V, output voltage will
clamp at 1V. In this case, the “CMPL” annunciator will flash.
When in range compliance, the source output clamps at the maximum compliance value for
the fixed measurement range (not the compliance value). For example, if compliance is set to
1V and the measurement range is 200mV, output voltage will clamp at 210mV. In this situation,
the units in the compliance display field will flash. For example, with the following display:
Vcmpl: 10mA, the “mA” units indication will flash.
Source-Measure Concepts
5-3
Maximum compliance values
The maximum compliance values for the measurement ranges are summarized in Table 5-1.
Table 5-1
Maximum compliance values
Measurement
range
200mV
2V
20V
200V
1pA*
10pA*
100pA*
1nA*
10nA*
100nA*
1µA
10µA
100µA
1mA
10mA
100mA
Maximum compliance
value
210mV
2.1V
21V
210V
1.05pA
10.5pA
105pA
1.05nA
10.5nA
105nA
1.05µA
10.5µA
105µA
1.05mA
10.5mA
105mA
* Only available when using the Remote PreAmp.
Compliance examples
When the SourceMeter goes into real compliance, the “Cmpl” label for the compliance display will flash. When the SourceMeter goes into range compliance, the units label (“mA”) will
instead flash. For the following examples, labels in boldface indicate that they are flashing.
Measurement Range:
Compliance Setting:
100mA
Cmpl: 075.000 mA
Measurement Range:
Compliance Setting:
10mA
Cmpl: 075.000 mA
Flashing “Cmpl” indicates that
real compliance has occurred.
The output is clamped at 75mA.
Flashing “mA” indicates that
range compliance has occurred.
The output is clamped at 10.5mA.
5-4
Source-Measure Concepts
Compliance principles
Compliance acts as a clamp. If the output reaches the compliance value, the SourceMeter
will attempt to prevent the output from exceeding that value. This action implies that the source
will switch from a V-source to an I-source (or from an I-source to a V-source) when in compliance. The clamping value is determined either by a user-defined value (compliance setting) or
the measurement range (range compliance) since the unit will not output more than it is configured to measure.
As an example, assume the following:
SourceMeter: VSRC = 10V; ICMPL = 10mA
DUT resistance: 1Ω
With a source voltage of 10V and a DUT resistance of 1Ω, the current through the DUT
should be: 10V/1Ω = 10A. However, because the compliance is set to 10mA, the current will
not exceed that value, and the voltage across the resistance is limited to 10mV. In effect, the
10V voltage source is transformed into a 10mA current source with a 10mV compliance value.
Determining compliance limit
The relationships to determine which compliance is in effect are summarized as follows:
•
•
Compliance Setting < Measurement Range = Real Compliance
Measurement Range < Compliance Setting = Range Compliance
The compliance that is in effect can be determined by comparing the displayed compliance
setting to the present measurement range. Make sure the correct measurement function is displayed. If sourcing voltage, select the current measurement function. Conversely, if sourcing
current, select the voltage measurement function.
If the compliance setting is lower than the maximum compliance value on the present fixed
measurement range, then the compliance setting is the compliance limit. If the compliance setting is higher than the measurement range, then the maximum compliance value on that measurement range is the compliance limit.
Table 5-2 provides examples for determining the actual compliance limit. For the first three
entries in the table, the compliance setting is 150V. On the 200V measurement range, the actual
compliance is 150V (compliance setting < measure range = real compliance). On the 20V and
200mV measurement ranges, compliance is 21V and 210mV, respectively (measure range
< compliance setting = range compliance). The same rules apply for the next three entries for
current compliance.
Source-Measure Concepts
5-5
Table 5-2
Compliance examples
Compliance setting
Measurement range
Display message
Setting
Display message Range
Cmpl: 150.000 V
Cmpl: 150.000 V
Cmpl: 150.000 V
150V
150V
150V
---.---V
--.----V
---.---mV
Cmpl: 075.000 mA
Cmpl: 075.000 mA
Cmpl: 075.000 mA
75mA
75mA
75mA
---.---mA
--.---mA
-.-----mA
Actual compliance
Value
Type
200V
20V
200mV
150V
21V
210mV
Real
Range
Range
100mA
10mA
1mA
75mA
10.5mA
1.05mA
Real
Range
Range
Over the bus, use the appropriate SCPI commands to determine the measurement range and
the compliance setting. Once those parameters are known, compare them as previously
explained to determine the compliance in effect.
When sourcing current, use the following commands to acquire the measurement range and
the compliance setting:
VOLTage:RANGe?
VOLTage:PROTection?
Query voltage measurement range.
Query voltage compliance limit.
When sourcing voltage, use the following commands to acquire the measurement range and
the compliance setting:
CURRent:RANGe?
CURRent:PROTection?
Query current measurement range.
Query current compliance limit.
Overheating protection
Proper ventilation is required to keep the SourceMeter from overheating. See the
“CAUTION” located at the beginning of Section 3 for details on maintaining proper
ventilation.
The SourceMeter has an over-temperature protection circuit that will turn the output off in
the event that the instrument overheats. If the output trips due to overheating, a message indicating this condition will be displayed. You will not be able to turn the output back on until the
instrument cools down.
5-6
Source-Measure Concepts
Source-delay-measure cycle
In addition to static source and/or measure operation, SourceMeter operation can consist of
a series of source-delay-measure (SDM) cycles (Figure 5-1). During each SDM cycle, the following occurs:
1.
2.
3.
Figure 5-1
Source-delay-measure
(SDM) cycle
Set the source output level.
Wait for the delay.
Make the measurement.
Start of A/D Conversion
End of A/D
Conversion
Source
Value
Trigger
Trigger
Latency
(100µs)
Delay
Measure
Figure 5-2 shows how the SDM cycle fits into the trigger model. See Section 10 for complete details on the trigger model. When the source is turned on (triggered), an approximate
100µsec trigger latency occurs before the programmed source level is output. As long as the
source output stays on, trigger latency will not be included in subsequent SDM cycles. Trigger
latency only occurs when the output makes the transition from off to on. See the specifications
in Appendix A for definitions of trigger latency as well as other trigger specifications.
The delay phase of the SDM cycle allows the source to settle before the measurement is performed. The delay period depends on how the source delay is configured. The source delay can
be manually set from 0000.00000 seconds to 9999.9990 seconds. If using auto delay, the delay
depends on which source range is presently selected, as summarized in Table 3-4; see Section 3
for details.
Source-Measure Concepts
5-7
The manually set delay (up to 9999.999 sec) is available to compensate for longer settling
required by external circuitry. The more capacitance seen at the output, the more settling time is
required for the source. The actual delay period needed can be calculated or determined by trial
and error. For purely resistive loads and at higher current levels, the programmable delay can
be set to 0msec.
The measure time depends on the selected measurement speed. For example, if speed is set
at 0.01 PLC (power line cycles), the measure time would be 167µsec for 60Hz operation
(0.01/60).
Figure 5-2
Simplified
trigger model
:idle
Event
Trig
Arm
Layer
Source Delay Measure
Event
Trig
Trigger
Layer
S D M
See Section 11
for trigger model details.
5-8
Source-Measure Concepts
Sweep waveforms
There are four basic sweep types to select from: linear staircase, logarithmic staircase, custom, and source memory. Three of the sweeps are shown in Figure 5-3. The linear staircase
sweep goes from the start level to the stop level in equal linear steps. The logarithmic staircase
sweep is similar except it is done on a log scale with a specified number of steps per decade.
The custom sweep lets you construct your own sweep by specifying the number of measure
points and the source level at each point. For a source memory sweep, up to 100 setup configurations can be saved in memory. When the sweep is performed, the setup at each memory point
is recalled. See Section 9 for more details on sweep operation.
Figure 5-3
Three basic sweep
waveform types
Stop
Start
Bias
Linear Staircase Sweep
Stop
100
10
1
Start
0.1
Bias
Logarithmic scale
shown for staircase steps
Logarithmic Staircase Sweep
First Point
Last Point
Bias
Custom Sweep
An SDM cycle is performed on each step (or point) of the sweep. Thus, one measurement
will be performed at each step (level). The time spent at each step (level) depends on how the
SDM cycle is configured (i.e., source delay, measure speed) and the trigger delay (if used).
Source-Measure Concepts
5-9
Typical applications for staircase sweeps include: I-V curves for two- and three-terminal
semiconductor devices, characterization of leakage versus voltage, and semiconductor breakdown. Pulse sweeps are used in applications where thermal response is measured or where sustained power levels can damage the external Device Under Test (DUT). Source memory
sweeps are used in applications where multiple source-measure functions and/or math expressions are required.
The custom sweep can be used to configure a pulse sweep with a 50% duty cycle. For example, a 1V pulse sweep can be configured by programming the odd numbered points for 1V and
the even numbered points for 0V. When the sweep is run, the output will alternate between 1V
and 0V.
For a sweep that has a finite sweep count, the data will automatically be stored in the buffer.
This data can be accessed from the front panel or sent to a computer (remote operation) for
evaluation (plotting). Statistical information on readings stored in the buffer are also available
from the front panel.
Operating boundaries
Source or sink
Depending on how it is programmed and what is connected to the output (load or source),
the SourceMeter can operate in any of the four quadrants. The four quadrants of operation are
shown in Figure 5-4. When operating in the first (I) or third (III) quadrant, the SourceMeter is
operating as a source (V and I have the same polarity). As a source, the SourceMeter is delivering power to a load.
When operating in the second (II) or fourth (IV) quadrant, the SourceMeter is operating as a
sink (V and I have opposite polarity). As a sink, it is dissipating power rather than sourcing it.
An external source or an energy storage device, such as a capacitor or battery, can force operation in the sink region. See Section 3, Sink operation for more information.
5-10
Source-Measure Concepts
The general operating boundaries for the SourceMeter are shown in Figure 5-4. In this drawing, the 100mA, 20V and 10mA, 200V magnitudes are nominal values. The actual maximum
output magnitudes of the SourceMeter are 105mA, 21V and 10.5mA, 210V. Also note that the
boundaries are not drawn to scale.
Figure 5-4
Operating boundaries
+I
100mA
10mA
(IV)
Sink
-V
-200V
(I)
Source
+V
20V
-20V
(III)
Source
-10mA
200V
(II)
Sink
-100mA
-I
I -Source operating boundaries
Figure 5-5 shows the operating boundaries for the I-Source. Only the first quadrant of operation is covered. Operation in the other three quadrants is similar.
Figure 5-5A shows the output characteristics for the I-Source. As shown, the SourceMeter
can output up to 10.5mA at 210V, or 105mA at 21V. Note that when sourcing more
than10.5mA, voltage is limited to 21V.
Figure 5-5B shows the limit lines for the I-Source. The current source limit line represents
the maximum source value possible for the presently selected current source range. For example, if on the 100mA current source range, the current source limit line is at 105mA. The voltage compliance limit line represents the actual compliance that is in effect. Remember that
compliance can be real or range. See Compliance limit. These limit lines are boundaries that
represent the operating limits of the SourceMeter for this quadrant of operation. The operating
point can be anywhere inside (or on) these limit lines. The limit line boundaries for the other
quadrants are similar.
Source-Measure Concepts
Figure 5-5
I-Source boundaries
Limit
V
210V
21V
10.5mA
105mA
Source
I
A) Output Characteristics
Voltage Compliance
Limit Line
V Measure
Current Source
Limit Line
I Source
B) Limit Lines
5-11
5-12
Source-Measure Concepts
Where within the boundaries the SourceMeter operates depends on the load (DUT) that is
connected to its output. Figure 5-6 shows operation examples for resistive loads that are 50Ω
and 200Ω, respectively. For these examples, the SourceMeter is programmed to source 100mA
and limit 10V.
In Figure 5-6A, the SourceMeter is sourcing 100mA to the 50Ω load and subsequently measures 5V. As shown, the load line for 50Ω intersects the 100mA current source line at 5V.
Figure 5-6B shows what happens if the resistance of the load is increased to 200Ω. The DUT
load line for 200Ω intersects the voltage compliance limit line placing the SourceMeter in compliance. In compliance, the SourceMeter will not be able to source its programmed current
(100mA). For the 200Ω DUT, the SourceMeter will only output 50mA (at the 10V limit).
Notice that as resistance increases, the slope of the DUT load line increases. As resistance
approaches infinity (open output), the SourceMeter will source virtually 0mA at 10V. Conversely, as resistance decreases, the slope of the DUT load line decreases. At zero resistance
(shorted output), the SourceMeter will source 100mA at virtually 0V.
Regardless of the load, voltage will never exceed the programmed compliance of 10V.
Source-Measure Concepts
Voltage Limit
Load Line
Figure 5-6
I-Source operating
boundaries
10V
V-Meter
(VM)
5V
ine
UT
L
oad
Operating
Point
(R)
L
Current Source
Load Line
ΩD
50
I-Source (IS)
100mA
V-Meter = IS • R
= (100mA) (50Ω)
= 5V
A) Normal I-source operation
Voltage Limit
Load Line
UT
ΩD
200
V-Meter
(VM)
Loa
dL
ine
(R)
10V
Operating
Point
Current Source
Load Line
50mA
I-Source (IS)
IS = VM / R
= 10V / 200Ω
= 50mA
B) I-source in compliance
100mA
5-13
5-14
Source-Measure Concepts
V-Source operating boundaries
Figure 5-7 shows the operating boundaries for the V-Source. Only the first quadrant of operation is covered. Operation in the other three quadrants is similar.
Figure 5-7A shows the output characteristics for the V-Source. As shown, the SourceMeter
can output up to 21V at 105mA, or 210V at 10.5mA. Note that when sourcing more than 21V,
current is limited to 10.5mA.
Figure 5-7B shows the limit lines for the V-Source. The voltage source limit line represents
the maximum source value possible for the presently selected voltage source range. For example, if on the 20V source range, the voltage source limit line is at 21V. The current compliance
limit line represents the actual compliance in effect. Remember that compliance can be real or
range. See Compliance limit. These limit lines are boundaries that represent the operating limits of the SourceMeter for this quadrant of operation. The operating point can be anywhere
inside (or on) these limit lines. The limit line boundaries for the other quadrants are similar.
Source-Measure Concepts
Figure 5-7
V-Source boundaries
Limit I
105mA
10.5mA
Source
V
21V
210V
A) Output characteristics
Current Compliance
Limit Line
I Measure
Voltage Source
Limit Line
V Source
B) Limit lines
5-15
5-16
Source-Measure Concepts
Where within the boundaries the SourceMeter operates depends on the load (DUT) that is
connected to the output. Figure 5-8 shows operation examples for resistive loads that are 2kΩ
and 800Ω, respectively. For these examples, the SourceMeter is programmed to source 10V
and limit 10mA.
In Figure 5-8A, the SourceMeter is sourcing 10V to the 2kΩ load and subsequently measures 5mA. As shown, the load line for 2kΩ intersects the 10V voltage source line at 5mA.
Figure 5-8B shows what happens if the resistance of the load is decreased to 800Ω. The
DUT load line for 800kΩ intersects the current compliance limit line placing the SourceMeter
in compliance. In compliance, the SourceMeter will not be able to source its programmed voltage (10V). For the 800kΩ DUT, the SourceMeter will only output 8V (at the 10mA limit).
Notice that as resistance decreases, the slope of the DUT load line increases. As resistance
approaches infinity (open output), the SourceMeter will source virtually 10V at 0mA. Conversely, as resistance increases, the slope of the DUT load line decreases. At zero resistance
(shorted output), the SourceMeter will source virtually 0V at 10mA.
Regardless of the load, current will never exceed the programmed compliance of 10mA.
Source-Measure Concepts
Current Limit
Load Line
10mA
I-Meter
(IM)
5mA
oad
e
Lin
Operating
Point
(R)
TL
2k
U
ΩD
Voltage Source
Load Line
V-Source (VS)
10V
IM = VS / R
= 10V/2kΩ
= 5mA
A) Normal V-source operation
Current Limit
Load Line
Operating
Point
Lin
e(
R)
10mA
0Ω
DU
T
Lo
ad
I-Meter
(IM)
Voltage Source
Load Line
80
Figure 5-8
V-Source operating
examples
80V 100V
V-Source (VS)
VS = IM • R
= (10mA) (800Ω)
= 8V
B) V-Source in compliance
5-17
5-18
Source-Measure Concepts
Source I measure I and source V measure V
The SourceMeter can measure the function it is sourcing. When sourcing a voltage, you can
measure voltage. Conversely, if you are sourcing current, you can measure the output current.
For these measure source operations, the measure range is the same as the source range.
This feature is valuable when operating with the source in compliance. When in compliance,
the programmed source value is not reached. Thus, measuring the source lets you measure the
actual output voltage. With the use of the TOGGLE key, you can display the measurement of
any two of the three functions (volts, amps, and ohms) concurrently. For remote operation, you
can measure all three functions concurrently. See Sections 16 and 17.
Source readback accuracy
SourceMeter measurement accuracy is better than sourcing accuracy (see the source and
measure specifications in Appendix A). For that reason, select the same measurement and
source functions, then use the measured value instead of the programmed source value for optimum accuracy.
Basic circuit configurations
Source I
When configured to source current (I-Source) as shown in Figure 5-9, the SourceMeter
functions as a high-impedance current source with voltage limit capability and can measure
current (I-Meter) or voltage (V-Meter).
For 2-wire local sensing, voltage is measured at the Input/Output terminals of the SourceMeter. For 4-wire remote sensing, voltage is measured directly at the DUT using the sense terminals. This eliminates any voltage drops that may be in the test leads or connections between
the SourceMeter and the DUT.
NOTE
The current source does not require or use the sense leads to enhance current source
accuracy.
Source-Measure Concepts
Figure 5-9
Source I
GUARD SENSE
Mainframe
V,Ω Guard
_
x1
Guard
Cable Guard
+
I-Meter
IN/OUT HIGH
HI (Input/Output)
Local
A
Remote
I-Source
V-Meter
Guard (Cable)
LO (Input/Output)
Preamp
SENSE
HI (Sense)
REMOTE
PreAmp
Guard (Cable)
LO (Input/Output)
Remote
Local
4-WIRE SENSE LO
INPUT/OUTPUT LO
5-19
5-20
Source-Measure Concepts
Source V
When configured to source voltage (V-Source) as shown in Figure 5-10, the SourceMeter
functions as a low-impedance voltage source with current limit capability and can measure current (I-Meter) or voltage (V-Meter).
Sense circuitry is used to continuously monitor the output voltage and make adjustments to
the V-Source as needed. The V-Meter senses the voltage at the input/output terminals (2-wire
local sense) or at the DUT (4-wire remote sense using the sense terminals) and compares it to
the programmed voltage level. If the sensed level and the programmed value are not the same,
the V-Source is adjusted accordingly. Remote sense eliminates the effect of voltage drops in the
test leads ensuring that the exact programmed voltage appears at the DUT.
NOTE
Figure 5-10
Source V
The voltage error feedback to the V-Source is an analog function. The source error
amplifier is used to compensate for IR drop in the test leads.
GUARD SENSE
Mainframe
V,Ω Guard
_
x1
Guard
Cable Guard
+
I-Meter
IN/OUT HIGH
Local
HI (Input/Output)
A
LO (Input/Output)
Remote
Sense
Output
V-Source
Feedback
V-Meter
Adjust
V-Source
Guard (Cable)
Preamp
SENSE
HI (Sense)
REMOTE
PreAmp
Guard (Cable)
LO (Input/Output)
Remote
Local
4-WIRE SENSE LO
INPUT/OUTPUT LO
NOTE: The voltage error feedback to the V-Source is an analog
function. The source error amplifer is used to
compensate for IR drop in the leads.
Source-Measure Concepts
5-21
Measure only (V or I)
Figure 5-11 shows the configurations for using the SourceMeter exclusively as a voltmeter
or ammeter. As shown in Figure 5-11A, the SourceMeter is configured to measure voltage-only
by setting it to source 0A and measure voltage.
CAUTION
V-Compliance must be set to a level that is higher than the measured voltage. Otherwise, excessive current will flow into the SourceMeter. This current could damage the SourceMeter. Also, when connecting an external
voltage to the I-Source, set the output off state to the high-impedance
mode. See Section 12, Output configuration.
In Figure 5-11B, the SourceMeter is configured to measure current-only by setting it to
source 0V and measure current. Note that in order to obtain positive (+) readings, conventional
current must flow from IN/OUT HI to LO.
NOTE
Figure 5-11
Measure-only (V or I)
If the Remote PreAmp is not used, use the INPUT/OUTPUT H1 and LO terminals on
the mainframe. Note however, that when not using the Remote PreAmp, the 100nA
through 1pA current ranges are not available.
6430
I-Source
(0.00000pA
Sense Selection: 2-wire
V-Meter
REMOTE
PreAmp
HI
IN/OUT
HIGH
DUT Voltage
Source
LO
A. Measure Voltage Only
6430
Sense Selection: 2-wire
HI
I-Meter
V-Source
(000.000mV)
REMOTE
PreAmp
IN/OUT
HIGH
Positive
Current
DUT
LO
NOTE: Positive current flowing out of input/output HI results
in positive (+) measurements.
B. Measure Current Only
Current
Source
5-22
Source-Measure Concepts
Guard
WARNING
Guard is at the same potential as input/output HI. Thus, if hazardous
voltages are present at input/output HI, they are also present at the guard
terminals.
The driven guard is always enabled and provides a buffered voltage that is at the same level
as the input/output HI (or sense HI for remote sense) voltage. The purpose of guarding is to
eliminate the effects of leakage current (and capacitance) that can exist between input/output
high and low. In the absence of a driven guard, leakage in the external test circuit could be high
enough to adversely affect the performance of the SourceMeter.
Leakage current can occur through parasitic or non-parasitic leakage paths. An example of
parasitic resistance is the leakage path across the insulator in a coax or triax cable. An example
of non-parasitic resistance is the leakage path through a resistor that is connected in parallel to
the DUT.
Guard modes — There are two programmable output impedance levels for the guard output. The high-impedance (~10kΩ) cable guard is used to reduce the effects of capacitance and
leakage current paths in the test circuit. The low-impedance (<1Ω) ohms guard is used to cancel the effects of parallel resistances when measuring a resistor element of a resistor network.
Cable guard or ohms guard is available at the GUARD banana jack on the mainframe. Guard
mode (Cable or Ohms) is selected from the V or I source configuration menu as explained in
Section 2.
Cable guard is always available at the Remote PreAmp, regardless of the guard setting.
Ohms guard is not available at the Remote PreAmp.
NOTE
Cable guard at the Remote PreAmp and guard accessed at the V,Ω GUARD terminal
on the mainframe are different signals and should never be shorted together.
Cable guard
WARNING
To prevent injury or death, a safety shield must be used to prevent physical
contact with a guard plate or guard shield that is at a hazardous potential
(>30Vrms or 42.4V peak). This safety shield must completely enclose the
guard plate or shield and must be connected to safety earth ground.
Figure 5-12B shows the metal case of a test fixture being used as a safety
shield.
Cable guard provides a high-impedance (~10kΩ) driven guard to prevent positive feedback,
which could cause oscillations when using shielded cables. Cable guard is used to drive the
shields of cables and test fixtures. From the Remote PreAmp, cable guard is extended to the test
fixture using standard 3-slot triax cable (inner shield is guard). From the mainframe, cable
guard is extended to a test fixture using a safety banana plug (such as the Model 8008-BAN).
Inside the test fixture, the guard can be connected to a guard plate or shield that surrounds the
DUT.
Source-Measure Concepts
5-23
Inside the test fixture, a triaxial cable can be used to extend guard to the DUT. The center
conductor of the cable is used for In/Out HI, the inner shield is used for guard, and the outer
shield is used for In/Out LO and is connected to the safety shield (which is connected to safety
earth ground).
A coaxial cable can be used if the guard potential does not exceed 30Vrms (42.4V peak).
The center conductor is used for In/Out HI, and the outer shield is used for guard. For higher
guard potentials, use a triaxial cable as previously explained.
Figure 5-12 shows how cable guard can eliminate leakage current through the insulators in a
test fixture. In Figure 5-12A, leakage current (IL) flows through the insulators (RL1 and RL2) to
In/Out LO, adversely affecting the low-current (or high-resistance) measurement of the DUT.
In Figure 5-12B, the driven guard is connected to the metal guard plate for the insulators.
Since the voltage on either end of RL1 is the same (0V drop), no current can flow through the
leakage resistance path. Thus, the SourceMeter only measures the current through the DUT.
Cable guard should be used when sourcing or measuring low current (<1µA).
NOTE
Figure 5-12
High-impedance
measurements
When using shielded, triaxial, or coaxial cabling with guard, cable guard (not ohms
guard) must be used to prevent oscillations. CABLE guard is the factory default
setting.
Insulator
Insulator
6430
I-Meter
V-Source
In/Out HI
Guard REMOTE
x1
PreAmp
IN/OUT HIGH
HI (In/Out)
Guard (Cable)
LO (In/Out)
ID
IM= ID+ IL
DUT
IL
RL1
RL2
Metal Mounting Plate
ID = Measured current
ID = DUT current
IL = Leakage current
In/Out LO
A. Unguarded
Metal Case
IN/OUT HIGH
6430
I-Meter
In/Out HI
x1
V-Source
Guard REMOTE
PreAmp
In/Out LO
B. Guarded
HI (In/Out)
Guard (Cable)
LO (In/Out)
0V
RL1
ID
IM=ID
DUT
Metal Mounting Plate
Connect to earth safety
ground using #18 AWG
wire or larger
5-24
Source-Measure Concepts
Ohms guard
The OHMS guard selection provides a low-impedance (<1Ω), high current (up to 50mA)
driven guard. This lets you perform in-circuit ohms measurements of the DUT where other parallel resistive paths are present. These measurements are typically performed in Delta or Wye
configurations.
NOTE
Ohms guard is only available at the V,Ω banana jack on the mainframe. It is not
available at the Remote PreAmp. See also “6-wire ohms measurements” in Section 4
and “Ohms guard” in Section 2.
If you want to measure the resistance of a single resistor in the network, you must use the
ohms guard configuration. Figure 5-13 shows how to measure the resistance of R1. Since the
voltage on either side of R2 is the same, no current can flow through it. Thus, all the programmed current (IM) from the SourceMeter will flow through R1. The voltage across R1 is
then measured, and an accurate resistance measurement is calculated, in this case 20kΩ.
Figure 5-13
In-circuit ohms
measurements
6430
x1
V,Ω GUARD (Ohms Guard)
Guard
Resistor
Network
IN/OUT HIGH
HI (In/Out)
In/Out HI
I-Source V-Meter
Guard (Cable)
REMOTE
PreAmp
LO (In/Out)
R1
20kΩ
IG
0V
R2
10kΩ
R3
100kΩ
In/Out LO
Ohms Guard Selected
NOTE
IG =VM /R3
Ohms guard current (IG) must not exceed 50mA. If it does, the guard voltage drops
lower than the output voltage allowing leakage current. Thus, the guarded ohms
measurement becomes corrupted.
Guard sense
When the GUARD-to-LO resistance path is less than 1kΩ, remote guard sensing should be
used to compensate for IR drop in the GUARD test lead and/or switch contacts on a switching
card.
In Figure 5-14A, Figure 5-13 was modified by changing the value of R3 to 100Ω and showing the 1Ω resistance (RTL) of the GUARD test lead. Since the resistance path from GUARDto-LO is less than 1kΩ, the IR drop in the guard test lead (RTL) becomes significant. The guard
voltage applied to the bottom of R2 is now significantly lower than the In/Out HI voltage of the
SourceMeter. As a result, leakage current (IL) flows through R2, adversely affecting the resistance measurement of R1.
Source-Measure Concepts
5-25
The guard test lead IR drop is compensated for by connecting GUARD SENSE as shown in
Figure 5-14B. Sensing allows the guard voltage to be sensed (measured) at the resistor network
for better guard voltage regulation. If the remotely sensed guard voltage is less than the output
voltage of the SourceMeter, the guard voltage will be increased until the sensed guard voltage
equals the output HI voltage.
Note that in order to ensure that ohms guard current (IG) in Figure 5-14 does not exceed
50mA, output voltage from the SourceMeter must not exceed 5V (50mA × 100Ω = 5V).
NOTE
Figure 5-14
In-circuit ohms
measurements
using guard sense
For 6-wire ohms guard measurements, configure the output-off state to the GUARD
mode. For details on the GUARD output-off state, see Section 12, “Output
configuration.”
Test Lead Resistance
6430
x1
V,Ω GUARD
(Ohms Guard)
Guard
1Ω
IN/OUT HIGH
HI (In/Out)
In/Out HI
I-Source V-Meter
IL
Guard (Cable)
REMOTE
PreAmp
IG
RTL
R2
10kΩ
LO (In/Out)
R1
20kΩ
R3
100kΩ
In/Out LO
Ohms Guard Selected
A. Local Guard Sense
GUARD SENSE
6430
-
V,Ω GUARD
(Ohms Guard)
Guard
x1
+
IG
RTL
1Ω
IN/OUT HIGH
HI (In/Out)
Guard (Cable)
In/Out HI
I-Source V-Meter
In/Out LO
Ohms Guard Selected
B. Remote Guard Sense
REMOTE
PreAmp
LO (In/Out)
R1
20kΩ
IL
R2
10kΩ
R3
100kΩ
5-26
Source-Measure Concepts
Data flow
Data flow for front panel operation is summarized by the block diagrams provided in
Figure 5-15. Note that if REL is enabled, the result of the rel operation is sent to the other
blocks.
NOTE
See Appendix C for remote operation data flow information.
With Math (FCTN) and Limit Tests (LIMITS) disabled (Figure 5-15A), the SourceMeter
displays the measurement readings. If the data store is used, these readings are also stored in
the buffer for later recall. Statistical data for these readings is also available upon recall.
Figure 5-15B shows data flow when Math or Limit Tests is enabled. If Math is enabled, the
result of the math operation is displayed. If Limit Tests is enabled, the raw reading along with
the results of the tests (pass or fail) is displayed. As in the previous case, these readings can also
be stored in the data store.
Figure 5-15C shows data flow when both Math and Limit Tests are enabled. The Math operation is performed first, and then limit tests are performed on that math result. The result of the
math operation and the result of the limit tests (pass or fail) are displayed. As shown, these
readings can also be stored in the data store.
Source-Measure Concepts
Figure 5-15
Data flow front
panel
Measurement
Conversions
V, I, Ω
REL
Data
Store
Display Buffer and
Statistics Readings
Display Readings
A. Math (FCTN) and limit tests disabled
Measurement
Conversions
Display Buffer and
Statistics Readings
Data
Store
V, I, Ω
Math (FCTN)
or Limit Tests
Display Math or
Limits Results
B. Math (FCTN) or limit tests enabled
Measurement
Conversions
Data
Store
V, I, Ω
Math
(FCTN)
REL
C. Both Math (FCTN) and limit tests enabled
Display Buffer and
Statistics Readings
Limit
Tests
Display Math and
Limits Results
5-27
5-28
Source-Measure Concepts
Buffer considerations
When the SourceMeter is in the process of storing readings, configuration changes affect
what gets stored in the buffer. These storage considerations and restrictions are summarized in
Table 5-3.
Table 5-3
Buffer considerations
Configuration at start
of the storage process
What happens if
the basic measure- What happens if
ment function (V, I, the MATH function is changed
or W) is changed
Measure V, I, or Ω
Buffer tracks
MATH (FCTN) enabled Buffer pauses
V, I, or Ω stored
MATH not stored
OK
REL/LIMITS enabled
Buffer pauses
Buffer pauses
What happens if
REL or LIMITS is
changed
V, I, or Ω stored REL
or Limits not stored
MATH stored REL or
Limits not stored
OK
The first column of Table 5-3 shows the SourceMeter configuration when the storage process is started. The next three columns show what happens when configuration changes are
made while the SourceMeter is storing readings.
Changing V, I, or Ω measurement function
•
•
If you started with only a basic measurement function selected, the buffer will track a
basic measurement function change. For example, if you started in volts and changed to
current, the buffer will store the current readings.
If you started with MATH, REL, and/or LIMITS enabled, the buffer will stop storing
readings if you change the basic measurement function. Storage will continue if you
return to the original configuration.
See Section 3, Basic source-measure procedure, for more information on selecting the measurement function.
Source-Measure Concepts
5-29
Changing MATH function
•
•
•
If you started with only a basic measurement function selected, you can enable a
MATH function, but only the voltage, current, or resistance component of the calculation will be stored in the buffer. The results of the MATH function will not be stored.
If you started with a MATH function enabled, you can select a different MATH function. The results of the new MATH function are stored in the buffer.
If you started with REL and/or LIMITS enabled, the buffer will stop storing readings if
you select a MATH function. Storage will continue if you return to the original configuration.
See Section 7 for more information on MATH.
Changing REL or LIMITS
•
•
•
If you started with only a basic measurement function selected, you can enable REL
and/or LIMITS, but only the voltage, current, or resistance component of the operation
will be stored in the buffer. The results of REL and/or LIMITS are not stored.
If you started with a MATH function enabled, only the result of the MATH calculation
will be stored in the buffer if REL and/or LIMITS is enabled.
If you started with REL and/or LIMITS enabled, you can change REL and or LIMITS.
The results of new REL and/or LIMITS are stored in the buffer.
See Section 7 for REL information and Section 11 for details on LIMITS.
5-30
Source-Measure Concepts
6
Range, Digits, Speed, and Filters
•
Range and Digits — Discusses available ranges, maximum readings, ranging limitations, manual and autoranging, and display resolution.
•
Speed — Discusses speed settings, which are used to control the integration period of
the A/D converter.
•
Filters — Provides information on the 3-stage filtering process that can be used to
reduce reading noise.
6-2
Range, Digits, Speed, and Filters
Range and digits
Range
The selected measurement range affects the accuracy of the measurements as well as the
maximum signal that can be measured. Note that with the output off, dashed lines are displayed
(i.e., --.---- µA), to indicate that measurements are not being performed.
Available ranges
The SourceMeter consists of a mainframe and a Remote PreAmp. The mainframe can be
used with or without the Remote PreAmp. However, when not using the Remote PreAmp, the
lower current ranges and higher resistance ranges are not available. Table 6-1 lists the available
ranges for the SourceMeter.
Table 6-1
Model 6430 ranges
Voltage Ranges
Current Ranges
Ohms Ranges
With Remote
PreAmp
Mainframe
Only
With Remote
PreAmp
Mainframe
Only
With Remote
PreAmp
200V
20V
2V
200mV
200V
20V
2V
200mV
100mA
10mA
1mA
100µA
10µA
1µA
100nA
10nA
1nA
100pA
10pA
1pA
100mA
10mA
1mA
100µA
10µA
1µA
<2Ω*
20Ω
200Ω
2kΩ
20kΩ
200kΩ
2MΩ
20MΩ
200MΩ
2GΩ
20GΩ
200GΩ
2TΩ
20TΩ
*Manual ohms mode only
Mainframe
Only
<2Ω*
20Ω
200Ω
2kΩ
20kΩ
200kΩ
2MΩ
20MΩ
Range, Digits, Speed, and Filters
6-3
Maximum readings
The full scale input for each voltage and current measurement range is 105.5% of the
selected range. For example, ±2.11V is the full scale reading for the 2V range, ±105.5mA is the
full scale reading for the 100mA range. The full scale reading for auto ohms is 110% of the
selected ohms measurement range. For example, 2.2kΩ is the full scale reading for the 2kΩ
range.
For manual ohms measurements, the display reading is the result of the V/I calculation.
Effectively, there are no ohms ranges. Thus, there are never any leading zeroes in the display
reading. For example, a resistor that is measured at 936.236kΩ will be displayed as 936.236kΩ
(5½ digit resolution). The RANGE keys are used to select the voltage or current measurement
range.
Input levels that exceed the maximum levels cause the “OVERFLOW” message to be
displayed.
Ranging limitations
•
•
•
When sourcing voltage (Source V), you cannot use the RANGE keys to change the
voltage measurement (Measure V) range. Also, when sourcing current (Source I), you
cannot use the RANGE keys to change the current measurement (Measure I) range. For
these source-measure configurations, the measurement range is determined by the
selected source range.
With the 200V V-Source range selected, the highest current measurement range is
10mA. With the 100mA I-Source range selected, the highest voltage measurement
range is 20V.
The present I-Compliance range determines the highest current measurement range that
can be selected. Similarly, the present V-Compliance range determines the highest voltage measurement range that can be selected. For example, if I-Compliance is on the
100mA range, the highest current measurement range that can be selected is 100mA. If
V-Compliance is on the 2V range, the highest voltage measurement range that can be
selected is 2V.
Manual ranging
For the Source V Measure I, Source I Measure V, and Ohms configurations, the RANGE ▲
and ▼ are used to select a fixed range. Note that the highest available range is dependent on the
corresponding compliance setting. See Ranging limitations.
Within range compliance or if the instrument displays the “OVERFLOW” message on a particular range, select a higher range until an on-range reading is displayed. Use the lowest range
possible without causing an overflow to ensure best accuracy and resolution.
6-4
Range, Digits, Speed, and Filters
Auto ranging
For the Source V Measure I, Source I Measure V, and Ohms configurations, press AUTO
RANGE to enable auto ranging. The AUTO annunciator turns on when auto ranging is
selected. With auto ranging selected, the instrument automatically chooses the best range to
measure the applied signal. Note that the highest available range is dependent on the corresponding compliance setting. See Ranging limitations.
NOTE
With the median filter enabled, auto ranging could be very slow. See “Median filter”
(in this section) for details.
Source settling time can affect the time it takes the instrument to auto range. When
the instrument auto ranges, both the source and sense circuits monitor each another,
so if one takes longer to settle, the other will as well.
Auto range change mode
The auto range change mode determines how the instrument performs autoranging. In the
SINGLE mode, the SourceMeter will auto range only after first taking a reading. In the
MULTIPLE mode, the SourceMeter will auto range up on compliance in the Delay phase of the
Source-Delay-Measure (SDM) cycle, thereby minimizing the possibility that a SourceMeter
will be in compliance in a multiple-SourceMeter system. The SourceMeter can downrange
only once a reading has been taken.
NOTE
See Section 5, “Source-delay-measure cycle” for more SDM information.
With the auto range change mode set to MULTIPLE, you can also program the soak time,
which specifies the amount of time after the first point of a sweep that the unit will sit in a loop
actively auto ranging up and down to allow a multiple SourceMeter configuration to settle. This
process will occur only during the first SDM cycle after the initial sweep trigger. See
Section 10, Trigger model. This feature is especially useful for situations with long DUT settling times (such as low current measurements) when several down-range change cycles from
the higher ranges are required.
NOTE
The soak time takes the place of the delay time only during the delay phase of the
first SDM cycle after an initial sweep trigger. See Figure 10-1 for an overview of the
trigger model.
Selecting the auto range change mode
To configure the auto range change mode, press CONFIG then AUTO. Choose SINGLE
SRC MTR or MULTIPLE as desired from the AUTO RANGE TYPE menu. If you choose
MULTIPLE, you will also be prompted to enter the SOAK time, which can be programmed in
the range of 0.000s to 9999.999s.
Range, Digits, Speed, and Filters
6-5
Auto range limits
Auto range limits are included to support the auto range change mode. For voltage and current, the upper limit is controlled by the compliance range and cannot be programmed. For the
auto ohms mode, however, the upper limit is adjustable. The lower limit for all three functions
is programmable and must be less than or equal to the upper limit. If the lower limit is equal to
the upper limit, auto ranging is effectively disabled. When auto ranging is disabled, you can
manually change to any range below the lower limit (V, I or Ohms) or any range above the
upper limit (Ohms only).
Setting auto range limits
To set the upper or lower auto range limit press CONFIG ▲ or CONFIG ▼ respectively, then
use the left and right cursor keys to set the limit at the ULIMIT or LLIMIT prompt. Remember
that you cannot set the upper limit in the V and I modes, but the unit will display the upper limit
with those two functions.
Digits
The display resolution of the measured reading depends on the DIGITS setting. This setting
is global, which means the digits setting selects display resolution for all measurement
functions.
The DIGITS setting has no effect on the remote reading format. The number of displayed
digits does not affect accuracy or speed. Those parameters are controlled by the SPEED setting.
Setting display resolution
There are two ways to set display resolution:
•
•
NOTE
DIGITS — Press the DIGITS key until the desired number of digits is displayed.
CONFIG DIGITS — Press CONFIG and then DIGITS to display the digits menu.
Place the cursor on the desired number of digits (3.5, 4.5, 5.5, or 6.5) and press
ENTER.
The concurrent measurement (available on the secondary display by using the TOGGLE key) is always 5.5 digits.
Changing SPEED changes DIGITS, but changing DIGITS does not change SPEED.
6-6
Range, Digits, Speed, and Filters
Remote range and digits programming
Table 6-2 summarizes the commands necessary to control range and digits. See Section 17
for more details on these commands.
Table 6-2
Range and digits commands
Commands
Description
:SENSe:CURRent:RANGe <n>
:SENSe:CURRent:RANGe:AUTO <state>
:SENSe:CURRent:RANGe:AUTO:ULIMit?
:SENSe:CURRent:RANGe:AUTO:LLIMit <n>
:SENSe:VOLTage:RANGe <n>
:SENSe:VOLTage:RANGe:AUTO <state>
:SENSe:VOLTage:RANGe:AUTO:ULIMit?
:SENSe:VOLTage:RANGe:AUTO:LLIMit <n>
:SENSe:RESistance:RANGe <n>
:SENSe:RESistance:RANGe:AUTO <state>
:SENSe:RESistance:RANGe:AUTO:ULIMit?
:SENSe:RESistance:RANGe:AUTO:LLIMit <n>
:DISPlay:DIGits <n>
Select manual amps range (n = range).
Enable/disable auto amps range (state = ON or OFF).
Returns I compliance range.
Set lower limit for amps auto range (n = range).
Select manual volts measure range (n = range).
Enable/disable auto volts range (state = ON or OFF).
Returns V compliance range.
Set lower limit for volts auto range (n = range).
Select manual ohms range (n = range).
Enable/disable auto ohms range (state = ON or OFF).
Set upper limit for ohms auto range (n = range).
Set lower limit for ohms auto range (n = range).
Set display digits (n = 4, 5, 6, or 7).
Range, Digits, Speed, and Filters
6-7
Range and digits programming example
Table 6-3 shows a programming example for controlling range and digits. The SourceMeter
is set up as follows:
•
•
•
•
•
Source function: volts
Source level: 10V
Measure function: amps
Amps range: 10µA
Display digits: 5½
Table 6-3
Range and digits programming example
Command
Description
*RST
:SOUR:FUNC VOLT
:SOUR:VOLT 10
:SENS:FUNC “CURR”
:SENS:CURR:RANG 10E-6
:DISP:DIG 5
:OUTP ON
:READ?
:OUTP OFF
Restore GPIB defaults.
Volts source function.
Output 10V.
Amps measure function.
10mA range.
5½ display digits.
Turn on output.
Trigger and acquire reading.
Turn off output.
Speed
The Speed/Accuracy menu is used to set the integration time of the A/D converter (period of
time the input signal is measured). The integration time affects the usable digits, the amount of
reading noise, and the ultimate reading rate of the instrument. The integration time is specified
in parameters based on the Number of Power Line Cycles (NPLC), where 1 PLC for 60Hz is
16.67msec (1/60) and 1 PLC for 50Hz and 400Hz is 20msec (1/50).
In general, the fastest integration time (FAST; 0.01 PLC) results in increased reading noise
and fewer usable digits. The slowest integration time (HI ACCURACY; 10 PLC) provides the
best common-mode and normal-mode noise rejection. In-between settings are a compromise
between speed and noise. The default power-on speed setting is HI ACCURACY (10 PLC).
Setting speed
Speed is set from the SPEED ACCURACY MENU and is structured as follows. Use
Section 1, Rules to navigate menus to check and/or change the speed setting.
6-8
Range, Digits, Speed, and Filters
SPEED-ACCURACY MENU
Press SPEED or CONFIG SPEED to display the menu.
•
•
•
•
•
NOTE
FAST — Sets speed to 0.01 PLC and sets display resolution to 3½ digits.
MED — Sets speed to 0.10 PLC and sets display resolution to 4½ digits.
NORMAL — Sets speed to 1.00 PLC and sets display resolution to 5½ digits.
HI ACCURACY — Sets speed to 10.00 PLC and sets display resolution to 6½ digits.
OTHER — Use to set speed to any PLC value from 0.01 to 10. Display resolution is
not changed when speed is set with this option.
After setting speed, display resolution can be changed using the DIGITS key.
Figure 6-1
Speed configuration
menu tree
SPEED
FAST
(0.01PLC,
3½ digits)
MED
(0.10PLC,
4½ digits)
NORMAL
(1.00PLC,
5½ digits)
HI ACCURACY
(10PLC,
6½ digits)
OTHER
(Set speed
0.01 to 10PLC)
Remote speed programming
Speed commands
Table 6-4 summarizes commands to control speed. See Section 17 for more information.
Table 6-4
Speed commands
Command
Description
:SENSe:CURRent:NPLCycles <n>
:SENSe:VOLTage:NPLCycles <n>
:SENSe:RESistance:NPLCycles <n>
Set amps speed (n = PLC, 0.01 to 10).
Set volts speed (n = PLC, 0.01 to 10).
Set ohms speed (n =PLC, 0.01 to 10).
Speed programming example
Use the appropriate NPLC command to set the speed. For example, send the following command to set the amps speed to 10 PLC:
:SENS:CURR:NPLC 10
Range, Digits, Speed, and Filters
6-9
Filters
Filtering stabilizes noisy measurements caused by noisy input signals. However, the more
filtering that is used, the slower the measurement process becomes. The SourceMeter uses three
stages of filtering; repeat, median, and moving. The displayed, stored, or transmitted reading is
simply the result of the filtering processes.
You can use the Auto Filter or you can manually configure the filters. With Auto Filter
enabled, the filters are configured to provide heavy filtering on the low current ranges, and less
filtering as the current range increases.
If you disable Auto Filter and manually configure the filters, that configuration is used for
every voltage and current measurement range.
Filter stages
The SourceMeter uses a 3-stage filtering system as shown in Figure 6-2. The first stage
applies the Repeat Filter to the measurement conversions. The second stage applies the Median
Filter to the output of the first stage, and the last stage applies the Moving Filter to the output of
the second stage. When a filter stage is disabled, a reading simply passes through it.
Figure 6-2
3-stage filtering
A/D
Conversions
Repeat
Filter
Median
Filter
Moving
Filter*
Final
Filtered
Readings
*Normal or Advanced
Each filter stage uses a stack to temporarily store readings to be filtered. The size of a stack,
which is set by the user, determines how many readings will be filtered. A stack size of one disables that filter.
NOTE
A source level change due to a sweep step resets the filters. That is, readings are
flushed from stack, and the filtering process starts over at the beginning. When not
sweeping, source level changes do not reset the filters.
NOTE
Any range change for source or measure will also reset the filters.
6-10
Range, Digits, Speed, and Filters
Repeat filter
The Repeat Filter places the specified number of measurement conversions into a stack and
averages them to yield a single Repeat Filter reading. The stack is then cleared, and the process
starts over. For example, if the repeat count (stack size) is 10, every 10 measurement conversions will yield a single reading. Figure 6-3 illustrates the Repeat Filter process. The maximum
count (stack size) for the Repeat Filter is 100. Note that setting the count to one disables the
Repeat Filter.
Choose the Repeat Filter for sweeping so readings for other source levels are not averaged
with the present source level.
Figure 6-3
Repeat filter
(count 10)
Conversion #10
#9
#8
#7
•
#6
•
#5
•
#4
#3
#2
Conversion #1
Repeat
Reading
#1
Conversion #20
#19
#18
#17
•
#16
•
#15
•
#14
#13
#12
Conversion #11
Repeat
Reading
#2
Conversion #30
#29
#28
#27
•
#26
•
#25
•
#24
#23
#22
Conversion #21
Repeat
Reading
#3
Median filter
The Median Filter is used to pass the “middle-most” reading from a group of readings that
are arranged according to size. For example, assume the following readings:
2mA, 1nA, 3nA
The readings are placed in a stack, re-arranged in ascending order as follows:
1nA, 3nA, 2mA
From the above readings, it can be plainly seen that 3nA is the median (middle-most) reading. Therefore, the 3nA reading is allowed to pass, while the other two readings are discarded
(filtered out). The Median Filter provides a good method to reject noise spikes.
The number of reading samples (stack size) for the Median Filter is determined by the
selected rank (1 to 5) as follows:
Sample readings = 2n + 1
Where; n is the selected rank (0 to 5)
Range, Digits, Speed, and Filters
6-11
From the above equation, it can be seen that the minimum number of sample readings is 1
(n=0) and the maximum number is 11 (n=5). The following table shows the number of sample
readings for each rank setting.
Rank
setting
# of Sample
readings
0
1
2
3
4
5
1
3
5
7
9
11
The first-in, first-out stack for the Median Filter operates as a moving type after it fills. For
example, if the Median Filter is configured to sample 11 readings (Rank 5) as shown in
Figure 6-4, the first filtered reading will be calculated (and displayed) after 11 readings are
acquired and placed in its filter stack. Each subsequent reading will then be added to the stack
(oldest reading discarded) and another Median Filter reading will be calculated and displayed.
Figure 6-4
Median filter
(rank 5)
NOTE
With auto range enabled, a range change cannot occur until a reading is yielded by
the median filter process. Therefore, auto ranging could be very slow when the
median filter is enabled.
NOTE
If the Repeat Filter is enabled, the Median Filter operation will not start until after
the Repeat Filter operation yields a reading. In other words, after a Repeat Filter
reading is yielded, that reading will then be sent to the Median Filter stack.
Reading
•
•
•
Reading
#11
#10
#9
#8
#7
#6
#5
#4
#3
#2
#1
Reading
Median
Reading
#1
•
•
•
Reading
#12
#11
#10
#9
#8
#7
#6
#5
#4
#3
#2
Reading
Median
Reading
#2
•
•
•
Reading
#13
#12
#11
#10
#9
#8
#7
#6
#5
#4
#3
Median
Reading
#3
6-12
Range, Digits, Speed, and Filters
Moving filter
The moving average filter uses a first-in, first-out stack. When the stack (filter count)
becomes full, the readings are averaged, yielding a filtered reading. For each subsequent reading placed into the stack, the oldest reading is discarded. The stack is re-averaged, yielding a
new reading.
When the filter is first enabled, the stack is empty. Keep in mind that a Moving Filter reading
is not yielded until the stack is full. The first reading is placed in the stack and is then copied to
the other stack locations in order to fill it. Therefore, the first filtered reading is the same as the
first reading that entered the stack. Now the normal moving average filter process can continue.
Note that a true average is not yielded until the stack is filled with new readings (no copies in
stack). For example, in Figure 6-5, it takes ten filtered readings to fill the stack with new readings. The first nine filtered readings are calculated using copied readings.
Figure 6-5
Moving filter
(count 10)
Reading
•
•
•
Reading
#11
#10
#9
#8
#7
#6
#5
#4
#3
#2
#1
Reading
Median
Reading
#1
•
•
•
Reading
#12
#11
#10
#9
#8
#7
#6
#5
#4
#3
#2
Reading
•
•
•
Median
Reading
#2
Reading
#13
#12
#11
#10
#9
#8
#7
#6
#5
#4
#3
Median
Reading
#3
Advanced filter — The Advanced Filter is part of the Moving Filter. With the Advanced
Filter enabled, a user-programmable noise “window” is used with the Moving Filter. The noise
window, which is expressed as a percentage of range (0-105%), allows a faster response time to
large signal step changes. If the readings are within the noise window, the Moving Filter
operates normally as previously explained. If, however, a reading falls outside the window, the
stack is flushed of old readings and filled with the new reading.
For example, assume the window is set to 10% and the 10mA range is selected. Therefore,
the noise window is ±1mA (10mA × 10% = 1mA). Also assume the first reading is 2mA. Per
normal filter operation, the stack is filled with that reading. As long as each subsequent reading
is within ±1mA of the previous reading, the filter operates normally. Now assume a 10mA
noise spike occurs. This noise window violation causes the stack to flush out the old readings
and fill it with 10mA reading.
NOTE
The Advanced Filter disables when Auto Filter is enabled.
NOTE
If the Repeat or Median Filter is enabled, the Moving Filter operation will not start
until after the previous filter yields a reading. In other words, after a reading is
yielded from the Repeat or Median Filter, that reading will then be sent to the Moving Filter stack.
Range, Digits, Speed, and Filters
6-13
Auto filter
When Auto Filter is enabled, it automatically selects filter settings that provide heavy filtering on the low current ranges, and less filtering as the current range increases. See Tables 6-5
through 6-7.
NOTE
Enabling Auto Filter disables the Advanced Filter.
When Auto Filter is disabled, the present count and rank settings for the three filters are used
for all measurement functions and ranges. For example, assume Auto Filter is enabled, speed is
set to 1 PLC and the 10pA range is selected. For this configuration (as shown in Table 6-6),
repeat count is 10, median rank is 3 and moving count is 5. If you disable Auto Filter, these settings will be retained for every voltage and current range.
Table 6-5
Auto filter settings where NPLC = 0.01 to 0.10
Current range
Repeat count
Median rank
Moving count
001pA
010pA
100pA
001nA
010nA
100nA
001µA
010µA
100µA
001mA
010mA
100mA
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
1
1
1
1
1
5
3
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
34
15
10
5
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
6-14
Range, Digits, Speed, and Filters
Table 6-6
Auto filter settings where NPLC = 0.11 to 1.00
Current range
Repeat count
Median rank
Moving count
001pA
010pA
100pA
001nA
010nA
100nA
001µA
010µA
100µA
001mA
010mA
100mA
10
10
10
10
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
5
3
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
34
15
5
5
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Table 6-7
Auto filter settings where NPLC = 1.01 to 10
Current range
Repeat count
Median rank
Moving count
001pA
010pA
100pA
001nA
010nA
100nA
001µA
010µA
100µA
001mA
010mA
100mA
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
5
3
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
34
15
5
5
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Range, Digits, Speed, and Filters
6-15
Filter configuration
8.
11.
12.
13.
▲
Figure 6-6
Configure filtering
menu tree
▲
10.
▲
9.
▲
7.
▲
6.
▲
5.
▲
4.
▲
3.
▲
2.
Press the CONFIG key and then the FILTER key to access the filter configuration
menu. The blinking cursor will indicate the state of Auto Filter.
Use the or key to place the cursor on the desired Auto Filter selection (DISABLE
or ENABLE), and press ENTER.
If you selected ENABLE, the FILT annunciator will turn on and the SourceMeter will
exit from the menu structure. If you selected DISABLE, the Configure Filtering menu
will be displayed. (See Figure 6-6.) Proceed to the next step.
Place the cursor on REPEAT COUNT and press ENTER to display the present repeat
count for the Repeat Filter.
Use the , , ▲ and ▼ keys to display the desired repeat count (1 to 100), and press
ENTER. Keep in mind that a count of one disables the Repeat Filter.
Place the cursor on MOVING COUNT and press ENTER to display the present moving
count for the Moving Filter.
Use the , , ▲ and ▼ keys to display the desired moving count (1 to 100), and press
ENTER. Keep in mind that a count of one disables the Moving Filter.
Place the cursor on ADVANCED and press ENTER. The blinking cursor will indicate
the state of Advanced Filter.
Use the or key to place the cursor on the desired Advanced Filter selection (DISABLE or ENABLE), and press ENTER.
If you enabled the Advanced Filter, use the , , ▲ and ▼ keys to display the desired
noise window (0% to 105%), and press ENTER.
Place the cursor on MEDIAN RANK and press ENTER to display the present median
rank for the Median Filter.
Place the cursor on the desired rank value (0 to 5) and press ENTER. Keep in mind that
a rank of 0 disables the Median Filter.
Use the EXIT key to back out of the menu structure.
▲
1.
DISABLE
REPEAT
COUNT
MOVING
COUNT
ADVANCED
FILTER
MEDIAN
RANK
6-16
Range, Digits, Speed, and Filters
Filter control
When filtering is being applied to the input signal, the FILT annunciator will be on. When
Auto Filter is enabled, the FILT annunciator will turn on to indicate that the Auto Filter configuration is being applied.
The FILTER key is used to control filtering. Pressing FILTER turns on the FILT annunciator
to indicate that the filter configuration is being applied to the input. Pressing FILTER a second
time turns the FILT annunciator off to indicate that filtering is turned off.
Remote filter programming
Filter commands
Table 6-8 summarizes filter commands. See Section 17 for more details.
NOTE
When Auto Filter is enabled, the filter configuration cannot be changed. Therefore,
the commands in Table 6-8 for the Repeat Filter, Median Filter and Moving Filter
are no-operations with Auto Filter on.
Table 6-8
Filter commands
Commands
Description
for Auto Filter:
[:SENSe]:AVERage:AUTO <state>
Enable/disable Auto Filter (state = ON or OFF).
for Repeat Filter:
[:SENSe]:AVERage:REPeat:COUNt <n>
[:SENSe]:AVERage:REPeat[:STATe] <state>
Set Repeat Filter count (n = count, 1 to 100).
Enable/disable Repeat Filter (state = ON or OFF).
for Median Filter:
[:SENSe]:MEDian:RANK <NRf>
[:SENSe]:MEDian[:STATe] <state>
Set Median Filter rank (NRf = rank, 0 to 5).
Enable/disable Median Filter (state = ON or OFF).
for Moving Filter:
[:SENSe]:AVERage:COUNt <n>
[:SENSe]:AVERage[:STATe] <state>
[:SENSe]:AVERage:ADVanced:NTOLerance <NRf>
[:SENSe]:AVERage:ADVanced[:STATe] <state>
Set Moving Filter count (n = count, 1 to 100).
Enable/disable Moving Filter (state = ON or OFF).
Set Advanced Filter noise window in % (NRf = noise
window, 0 to 105).
Enable/disable Advanced Filter (state = ON or OFF).
Range, Digits, Speed, and Filters
Filter programming example
Table 6-9 summarizes the command sequence to program filter aspects as follows:
•
•
•
•
Auto Filter off
Repeat Filter off
Median Filter on, rank 5
Moving Filter on, count 20, Advanced Filter off
Table 6-9
Filter programming example
Command
Description
:AVER:AUTO OFF
:AVER:REPeat OFF
:MED:RANK 5
:MED ON
:AVER:COUN 20
:AVER ON
:AVER:ADV OFF
Disable Auto Filter.
Disable Repeat Filter.
Set median rank to 5.
Enable Median Filter.
Set moving count to 20.
Enable Moving Filter.
Disable Moving Filter.
6-17
6-18
Range, Digits, Speed, and Filters
7
Relative and Math
•
Relative — Discusses the relative (REL) mode that can be used to null offsets or subtract a baseline value from readings.
•
Math Operations — Provides detailed information on the following math (FCTN)
operations: power, offset-compensated ohms, varistor, alpha, voltage coefficient, and
percent deviation.
7-2
Relative and Math
Relative
The rel (relative) feature can be used to null offsets or subtract a baseline reading from
present and future readings. With REL enabled, subsequent readings will be the difference
between the actual input value and the rel value as follows:
Displayed Reading = Actual Input - Rel Value
Once a rel value is established for a measurement function, the value is the same for all
ranges. For example, if 5V is set as a rel value on the 20V range, the rel value is also 5V on the
2V and 200mV ranges.
Selecting a range that cannot accommodate the rel value does not cause an overflow condition, but it also does not increase the maximum allowable input for that range. For example, on
20V range, the SourceMeter still overflows for a >21.1V input.
NOTE
When rel is enabled, the REL annunciator turns on. Changing measurement functions disables rel.
Front panel rel
Enabling and disabling rel
Rel can be used to null out zero offsets or to establish a zero baseline by pressing the REL
key. The reading (which becomes the rel value) is subtracted from itself. As a result, a zero
reading is displayed. Pressing REL a second time disables rel.
Defining a rel value
A unique rel value can be established for the selected measurement function from the front
panel as follows:
1.
2.
3.
Press CONFIG and then REL. The present rel value will be displayed.
Set the desired rel value. See Section 1, Rules to navigate menus for details.
With the desired rel value displayed, press ENTER. The SourceMeter will return to the
normal source-measure display with rel enabled. The reading will reflect the defined rel
value.
Relative and Math
Remote rel programming
Rel commands
Table 7-1 summarizes rel commands. See Section 17 for additional information.
Table 7-1
Rel commands
Command
Description
:CALCulate2:NULL:OFFSet <n>
:CALCulate2:NULL:STATe <state>
:CALCulate2:NULL:ACQuire
Define null (rel) value (n = rel value).
Enable/disable rel (state = ON or OFF).
Automatically acquire rel value (must have
non-overflowed reading).
Rel programming example
Table 7-2 lists commands for setting up and enabling rel. These commands set up the
SourceMeter as follows:
•
•
Rel value: 5
Rel state: enabled
Table 7-2
Rel programming example
Command
Description
:CALC2:NULL:OFFS 5
:CALC2:NULL:STAT ON
Rel value = 5.
Enable rel.
7-3
7-4
Relative and Math
Math operations
Math functions
The SourceMeter has built-in math functions to calculate the following:
•
•
•
•
•
Power
Offset Compensated Ω
Varistor Alpha
Voltage Coefficient
Percent Deviation
The Power and Percent Deviation math functions use a single voltage and/or current measurement to perform the calculation. The Offset-Compensated Ω, Varistor Alpha, and Voltage
Coefficient math functions require 2-point measurements to perform a calculation.
Power
This math function calculates power using the measured voltage and measured current values as follows:
Power = V × I
where:
V = measured voltage
I = measured current
Offset-compensated Ω
The presence of thermal EMFs (VEMF) can adversely affect low-resistance measurement
accuracy. To overcome these unwanted OFFset voltages use the Offset Compensated Ω measurement method. In general, this method measures resistance (V/I) at a specific I-Source level
and then subtracts a resistance measurement made with the I-Source set to a different level
(typically zero).
NOTE
Offset-compensated Ω is also available from the CONFIG OHMS menu structure.
Using Offset-Compensated Ω from this menu automatically selects zero as one of the
source values. For details, see Section 4, “Offset-compensated ohms.”
This two-point measurement method is mathematically expressed as:
Offset-Compensated Ω = ∆V / ∆I where ∆V = V2 – V1 and ∆I = I2 – I1.
•
•
•
•
V1 is the voltage measurement with the I-Source set to a specific level.
V2 is the voltage measurement with the I-Source set to a different level (typically zero).
I1 is the current measurement with the I-Source set to a specific level.
I2 is the current measurement with the I-Source set to a different level (typically zero).
You will be prompted to enter the two I-Source values. See Front panel math operations.
Relative and Math
7-5
Measuring high resistance devices — When using offset-compensated ohms to measure
high resistance values, an appropriate source delay must be used to provide settled readings.
There is a rise time associated with high ohms measurements. For normal ohms measurements,
you can watch the reading change on the display. When it stops changing, you know you have
the final, settled reading. For offset-compensated ohms, this process is not as straight forward
since the source is constantly changing between two values. If measurements are performed
while the source is still rising (or falling), incorrect offset-compensated ohms readings will
result. Therefore, it is imperative that an adequate source delay be used to make sure that measurements occur while the source is at its final, settled values.
Settling times are drastically different from one type of resistor to another. Another factor
that affects settling time is the test setup (i.e., cabling, fixturing, and guarding). These variables
make it necessary for the user to characterize his test system to assure that the source delay setting is adequate.
NOTE
Source delay is set from the source configuration menu (press CONFIG > select
SOURCE I (or V) > select DELAY). See “Source delay” in Section 3 for details.
Varistor alpha
This math formula is used to determine ALPHA (α), which is the logarithmic ratio of two
voltage measurement points on a non-linear V-I curve and is expressed as follows:
log ( I2 ⁄ I1 )
α = -------------------------------log ( V2 ⁄ V1 )
where:
V1 is the voltage measurement at the first I-Source point.
V2 is the voltage measurement at the second I-Source point.
The log (x) function uses the absolute value of x.
When configuring this math function, you will be prompted to enter the two I-source values.
See Front panel math operations.
Voltage coefficient
High value or high-megohm resistors exhibit a change in resistance with a change in applied
voltage. This effect is known as voltage coefficient. The voltage coefficient is the percent
change in resistance per unit change in applied voltage and is defined as follows:
∆R
Coefficient% = ---------------------- × 100%
R2 × ∆V
where:
∆R = R2 - R1
∆V = V2 - V1
R1 is the resistance measurement at the first source point.
R2 is the resistance measurement at the second source point.
V1 is the voltage measurement at the first source point.
V2 is the voltage measurement at the second source point.
If sourcing voltage, you will be prompted to enter the two V-source values. If sourcing current, you will be prompted to enter the two I-source values. See Front panel math operations.
7-6
Relative and Math
Percent deviation
This calculation provides the percent deviation between the normal display reading and the
user set reference value:
(X – Y)
%Deviation = ------------------- × 100
Y
where:
X is the normal display measurement reading (V, I, or Ω).
Y is the reference value.
When prompted to enter the reference value (Y), you can enter the value or have the
SourceMeter acquire the reference value. To acquire the reference value, turn on the output and
press AUTO. The SourceMeter will perform a measurement and display that reading as the reference.
Limit Testing — After the reference value is entered, you will be prompted to enter high and
low tolerances (in %) for the reference value. These tolerances set the high and low limits for
Limit 2 test.
For example, perform the following steps to test 1kΩ, 1% resistors:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Select the Ω function, select the 1kΩ measurement range (or use AUTO range), and
connect the resistor to be tested to the SourceMeter.
Configure the percent deviation math function:
a. Press CONFIG, press FCTN, then select %DEV.
b. Set the reference (REF) value to +1.000000 k, then press ENTER.
c. Set the high tolerance (HI TOL) to 01.00%, then press ENTER.
d. Set the low tolerance (LO TOL) to 01.00%, then press ENTER.
Turn the output on. The measured reading of the resistor is displayed.
Press FCTN to select the percent deviation math function. The actual tolerance of the
resistor will be displayed along with the result of the limit test. If the resistor reading is
within ±1% of 1kΩ, the “PASS” test message is displayed. If outside the 1% tolerance,
the “FAIL” message is displayed.
When finished, turn the ouput off.
NOTE
The reading format is fixed at ±XXX.XXX%
NOTE
Limit testing can be disabled by pressing the LIMIT key.
Relative and Math
7-7
Front panel math operations
Perform the following steps to select and enable a math expression. Figure 7-1 shows the
math configuration menu tree.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Select the appropriate source (V or I) for the math expression.
Press CONFIG and then FCTN to display the math expression selections. Place the cursor on the desired math expression and press ENTER:
• For 2-point math expressions, you will be prompted to enter the two source values.
Press ENTER after entering each source value.
• For Percent Deviation, you will be prompted to set the reference value, and enter
the tolerances for the reference. The following methods are available to set the reference value:
- User-specified reference value — Enter the desired reference value and press
ENTER.
- Acquire reference value — With the output on, press the AUTO range key.
The SourceMeter will perform a measurement and display that reading as the
reference. Press ENTER to select that reference value.
Turn on the output by pressing the ON/OFF key.
Press the FCTN key to enable the selected math function. The MATH annunciator will
turn on, and the result of the math expression will be displayed.
Note that with FCTN enabled, the sweep for a 2-point math expression runs continuously.
Each sweep updates the reading. The source value cannot be changed while the 2-point sweep
is running. However, the range keys remain active.
Figure 7-1
Math configuration
menu tree
CONFIG
FCTN
POWER
OFF COMP
OHMS
VOLT COEFF
VAR ALPHA
% DEV
7-8
Relative and Math
Remote math operations
Math commands
Table 7-3 summarizes commands to control the math functions. See Section 17 for more
detailed information on these and other math commands.
Table 7-3
Math commands
Command
Description
:CALCulate:MATH:NAME <name> Select match expression (name = “POWER”, “OFFCOMPOHM”, “VOLTCOEF”, “VARALPHA”).
Enable/disable math (state = ON or OFF).
:CALCulate:STATe <state>
Query math data.
:CALCulate:DATA?
Math programming example
Table 7-4 summarizes the basic command sequence for voltage coefficient testing, which is
a change in resistance of resistive elements with applied voltage. Although such changes in
resistance with voltage are present in virtually all resistors to at least some degree, voltage
coefficients are most noticeable in high-value resistors (>1010Ω). See Figure 7-2 for DUT
connections.
This example sets up the SourceMeter as follows:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Source function: volts
Sense functions: all
Source delay: 1sec
Start voltage: 10V
Stop voltage: 50V
Math expression: voltage coefficient
Relative and Math
7-9
Table 7-4
Voltage coefficient programming example
Description
*RST
:SENS:FUNC:ON:ALL
:SENS:RES:MODE MAN
:SOUR:FUNC VOLT
:SOUR:VOLT:STAR 10
:SOUR:VOLT:STOP 50
:SOUR:VOLT:MODE SWE
:SOUR:SWE:POIN 2
:TRIG:COUN 2
:CALC:MATH:NAME “VOLTCOEF”
:CALC:STAT ON
:OUTP ON
:INIT
:CALC:DATA?
Reset unit to GPIB defaults.
Enable all sense functions.
Manual resistance mode.
Volts source function.
10V start voltage.
50V stop voltage.
Volts sweep mode.
Sweep points = 2.
Trigger count = 2.
Select voltage coefficient math expression.
Enable math.
Turn on output.
Trigger sweep.
Request voltage coefficient data.
HI
LO
Triax Cable
IN/OUT
HIGH SENSE
Figure 7-2
Resistor
Connections for
Under
Test
voltage coefficient
tests
KEITHLEY
6430
REMOTE
PreAmp
MAINFRAME
Command
Preamp Cable
Connect to REMOTE
PreAmp connector on rear
panel of mainframe
7-10
Relative and Math
User-defined math functions
In addition to the pre-defined math functions, you can also define your own functions by
using appropriate remote commands (user-defined math functions are not available from the
front panel). The following paragraphs summarize the basic commands for user-defined functions and also list a basic programming example. See Section 17, Calculate subsystems, for
more details on user-defined math functions.
Commands for user-defined math functions
Table 7-5 summarizes the commands for user-defined math functions. To define a math
function:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
If desired, assign units to the calculation result using :CALC:MATH:UNIT. Units is
stored for the calculation.
Assign a name to the expression (using up to 10 ASCII characters) using the
:CALC:MATH:NAME “user-name” command.
Define the expression using the :CALC:MATH:DEFine or :CALC:MATH:EXPression
command. The new expression is the one that will be presently selected.
Enable the math function by sending :CALC:STATE ON.
Turn on the output by sending :OUTP ON, then send :INIT to trigger the unit.
Request the data with the :CALC:DATA? query.
Table 7-5
Commands for user-defined math functions
Command
Description
:CALCulate:MATH:UNITs <name>
Specified units for user-defined function (name = three ASCII
characters in quotes).
Define math name (name = “user-name”).
Define math formula (form = formula)
Valid names: VOLTage, CURRent, RESistance, TIME
Valid math operators: + - * / ^ log, ln, sin, cos, tan, exp
Enable/disable math (state = ON or OFF).
Query math data.
:CALCulate:MATH:NAME <name>
:CALCulate:MATH[EXPression] <form>
:CALCulate:STATe <state>
:CALCulate:DATA?
Relative and Math
User-defined math function programming example
Table 7-6 shows the command sequence for a typical user-defined math function. This
example defines a percent deviation math function.
Table 7-6
User-defined math function programming example
Command
Description
*RST
:SENS:FUNC:OFF:ALL
:SENS:FUNC:ON “RES”
:CALC:MATH:UNIT “%”
:CALC:MATH:EXPR:NAME “PER_DEV”
:CALC:MATH:EXPR (((RES - 10e3) / 10e3) * 100)
:CALC:STAT ON
:OUTP ON
:INIT
:CALC:DATA?
Restore GPIB defaults.
Disable concurrent functions.
Select resistance function.
Define “%” units name.
Define math expression name.
Define math expression.
Enable math data.
Turn on output.
Trigger unit.
Request math data.
7-11
7-12
Relative and Math
8
Data Store
•
Data Store Overview — Outlines basic data store (buffer) capabilities.
•
Storing Readings — Discusses the procedure for storing readings in the internal
buffer.
•
Recalling Readings — Provides detailed information for recalling readings stored in
the buffer.
•
Buffer Statistics — Discusses the various statistics available on buffer data including
minimum and maximum values, average (mean), standard deviation, and peak-to-peak
values.
•
Timestamp Format — Explains how to select the timestamp format (absolute or delta)
for recalled buffer readings.
•
Remote Command Data Store — Summarizes the commands to control the data store
and provides a programming example.
8-2
Data Store
Data store overview
The SourceMeter has a data store (buffer) to store from 1 to 2500 source-measure readings.
The instrument stores the source-measure readings that are displayed during the storage process. Each source-measure reading also includes the buffer location number and a timestamp.
“Cmpl” will flash in buffer recall if the reading is in compliance.
The data store also provides statistical data on the measured readings stored in the buffer.
These include minimum, maximum, mean, and standard deviation.
NOTE
For a sweep that has a finite sweep count, the readings are automatically stored in
the buffer.
Front panel data store
Storing readings
Perform the following steps to store readings:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Set up the SourceMeter for the desired configuration.
Press the STORE key.
Use the left and right cursor keys, and the SOURCE (▲ and ▼) or RANGE (▲ and ▼)
keys to specify the number of readings to store in the buffer.
Press ENTER. The asterisk (*) annunciator turns on to indicate data storage operation.
It will turn off when the storage is finished.
Turn on the output and (if necessary) trigger the unit to begin taking and storing
readings.
Recalling readings
Readings stored in the buffer are displayed by pressing the RECALL key. The sourcemeasure readings are positioned at the left side of the display, while the buffer location number
and timestamp are positioned at the right side.
Buffer location number
The buffer location number indicates the memory location of the source-measure reading.
Location #0000 indicates that the displayed source-measure reading is stored at the first memory location. If limit testing was performed, a “P” or an “F” will precede the buffer location
number to indicate the pass/fail result of the test. Limit testing is covered in Section 11.
Data Store
8-3
Timestamp
The first source-measure reading stored in the buffer (#0000) is timestamped at
0000000.000 seconds. Subsequent readings can be recalled in absolute or delta timestamp format. For the absolute format, the timestamp references readings to zero seconds. For the delta
format, the timestamp indicates the time between the displayed reading and the reading before
it. To set the timestamp format, see Timestamp format in this section.
Displaying other buffer readings
To display the other source-readings stored in the buffer, display the desired memory location number. The ▲ and ▼ keys for SOURCE and RANGE increment and decrement the
selected digit of the location number. Cursor position is controlled by the left and right arrow
keys. When scrolling forward past the last stored reading, the buffer wraps to the first stored
reading. Conversely, when scrolling in reverse past the first stored reading, the buffer wraps to
the last stored reading. A different key click tone announces the wrap-around.
The memory location number can also be keyed in using the 0 through 9 number keys. Position the cursor on the appropriate digit and press the desired number key. The cursor then
moves right to the next least significant digit. For example, to display reading #0236, position
the cursor all the way to the left (MSD) and press 0, 2, 3, 6. Note that if keying in a number that
exceeds the buffer size, the reading at the highest memory location is displayed.
To exit from the data store recall mode, press EXIT.
Buffer statistics
With the data store in the recall mode, buffer statistics are displayed by using the TOGGLE
key. Use the TOGGLE key to sequence through the statistics and return the SourceMeter to the
normal data store recall state. Pressing EXIT at any time returns the instrument to the normal
source-measure display state.
NOTE
Buffer statistics for V, I, Ω, and MATH are calculated and displayed separately. For
example, if ohms readings are displayed, all buffer statistics displayed are based on
ohms readings.
Minimum and maximum
This mode displays the minimum and maximum readings stored in the buffer. The buffer
location number and timestamp are also provided for these readings. If desired, you can go to
those buffer locations to obtain more data about the readings.
Peak-to-peak
This mode displays the peak-to-peak reading (peak-to-peak = Maximum - Minimum).
8-4
Data Store
Average
The average mode displays the mean (average) of all measured readings stored in the buffer.
The following equation is used to calculate mean:
n
∑ Xi
i=1
y = --------------n
where:
y is the average.
Xi is a stored reading.
n is the number of stored readings.
Standard deviation
This mode displays the standard deviation of buffered readings. The following equation is
used to calculate standard deviation:
n
y =
where:
n
2
 
2 1
X i –  ---  ∑ X i 
n
 i = 1  
i = n–1
-------------------------------------------------------------n–1
∑
y is the average.
Xi is a stored reading.
n is the number of stored readings.
Timestamp format
Buffer readings can be recalled using the absolute timestamp format or the delta format. For
the absolute format, readings are referenced to zero seconds. For the delta format, the timestamp indicates the time between the displayed reading and the previous reading.
Perform the following steps to set the timestamp format:
1.
2.
While in the normal display mode, press CONFIG and then STORE to display the
timestamp choices.
Place the cursor on ABSOLUTE or DELTA and press ENTER.
Timestamp accuracy
Because of internal timing methods, the timestamp value is only approximate. The method
in which the timestamp is implemented limits its use in time-critical applications. If accurate
test timing is crucial, it is recommended that an external timer be used in conjunction with the
SourceMeter.
Data Store
8-5
The timestamp is based on an oscillator with a frequency of approximately 8kHz. This oscillator is used as the system clock and is divided by eight to generate system “ticks” every millisecond. Therefore, the timestamp should provide lms resolution for test timing. However, since
the actual oscillator frequency is 8.192kHz, a system tick occurs every 8.192kHz/8 or 1024
times a second, which results in a system tick every 0.9765625ms. As a result, the reported
timestamp value is off by 24ms every second. Thus, to obtain more accurate timestamp values,
simply multiply the timestamp displayed on the front panel or returned via remote by a factor
of 0.9765625.
Buffer considerations
From the front panel, 2,500 source-measure readings can be stored and accessed using the
method described earlier in this section. Over the bus, however, there are actually two separate
2,500 reading buffers for a total of 5,000 readings. The :TRACe buffer is a 2,500 reading buffer
used by front panel data store, bus :TRACe commands, and to store sweep data, and it is battery backed-up. The READ? buffer is a separate 2,500 reading buffer that can only be accessed
over the bus using the :READ? command. You can store and access data from these two buffers
separately as outlined below.
Using :TRACe commands to store data
Use :TRAC:POIN <n> and :TRIG:COUN <n> followed by :TRAC:FEED:CONT NEXT to
store data. (n = number of readings; 2,500 maximum.) Turn on the output with :OUTP ON and
then send :INIT to take the unit out of idle and store readings. After data is stored, send
:TRAC:DATA? to access it. See Table 8-1 for a summary of these commands and :TRACe subsystem in Section 17 for more details.
Using :READ? to store data
Use :TRIG:COUN <n> to set the number of readings to be stored. (n = number of readings;
2,500 maximum.) Turn on the output with :OUTP ON and then send the :READ? command to
trigger and access readings. (Once you access these readings, you will still be able to access
previously stored. :TRACe buffer readings using :TRAC:DATA?.) See Section 10 and Trigger
subsystem in Section 17 for triggering details, and Section 16 for information on the :READ?
command.
8-6
Data Store
Remote command data store
Data store commands
Table 8-1 summarizes commands associated with data store operation. See TRACe subsystem and CALCulate3 in Section 17 for more detailed information on these commands.
Table 8-1
Data store commands
Command
Description
:TRACe:DATA?
:TRACe:CLEar
:TRACe:FREE?
:TRACe:POINts <n>
:TRACe:POINts:ACTual?
:TRACe:FEED <name>
Read contents of buffer.
Clear buffer.
Read buffer memory status.
Specify buffer size (n = buffer size.)
Query number of stored readings.
Specify reading source. Name = SENSe[1] (raw readings),
CALCulate[1] (Calc1 readings), or CALCulate2 (Calc2 readings).
Start or stop buffer. Name = NEXT (fill buffer and stop) or NEVer
(disable buffer).
Select timestamp format. Name = ABSolute (reference to first buffer
reading) or DELTa (time between buffer readings).
Select buffer statistic (name = MEAN, SDEViation, MAXimum,
MINimum, or PKPK).
Read buffer statistic data.*
:TRACe:FEED:CONTrol <name>
:TRACe:TSTamp:FORMat <name>
:CALCulate3:FORMat <name>
:CALCulate3:DATA?
*If :TRACe:FEED is set to :SENSe[1], this command will return one V, I, Ω, and MATH result.
Data Store
8-7
Data store programming example
Table 8-2 summarizes the commands for basic data store operation. These commands set up
the SourceMeter as follows:
•
•
•
NOTE
Reading source: raw readings.
Number of points: 10.
Acquired data: buffer readings, mean (average), and standard deviation.
You can determine when the buffer is full by reading the appropriate status register
bit. See Section 14 for details on the status structure.
Table 8-2
Data store example
Command
Description
*RST
:SOUR:VOLT 10
:TRAC:FEED SENS
:TRAC:POIN 10
:TRAC:FEED:CONT NEXT
:TRIG:COUN 10
:OUTP ON
:INIT
:TRACE:DATA?
:CALC3:FORM MEAN
:CALC3:DATA?
:CALC3:FORM SDEV
:CALC3:DATA?
Restore GPIB defaults.
Source 10V.
Store raw readings in buffer.
Store 10 readings in buffer.
Enable buffer.
Trigger count = 10.
Turn on output.
Trigger readings.
Request raw buffer readings.
Select mean buffer statistic.
Request buffer mean data.
Select standard deviation statistic.
Request standard deviation data.
8-8
Data Store
9
Sweep Operation
•
Sweep Types — Describes the four basic sweep types: Linear staircase, logarithmic
staircase, custom, and source memory sweep.
•
Configuring and Running a Sweep — Discusses the procedure for setting up and performing sweeps including selecting and configuring a sweep, setting the delay, and performing a sweep.
9-2
Sweep Operation
Sweep types
The four basic sweep types described in the following paragraphs include:
•
•
•
•
NOTE
Linear staircase
Logarithmic staircase
Custom
Source memory
Only voltage or current sweeps can be performed. Sweep readings are automatically
stored in the buffer. See Section 8 for details on the data store (buffer).
Linear staircase sweep
As shown in Figure 9-1, this sweep steps from a start source value to an ending (stop) source
value. Programmable parameters include the start, stop, and step source levels.
When this sweep is triggered to start, the output will go from the bias level to the start source
level. The output will then change in equal steps until the stop source level is reached. With
trigger delay set to zero, the time duration at each step is determined by the source delay and
the time it takes to perform the measurement (NPLC setting). Note that the delay cannot
change once a sweep is configured and running and is the same for all steps.
Figure 9-1
Linear staircase
sweep
Delay
X
Step
Delay
X
Step
Delay
X
Step
Start
Delay
X
Bias
X = Measurement point
Measure
Measure
Measure
Measure
Stop
Sweep Operation
9-3
Logarithmic staircase sweep
This sweep is similar to the linear staircase sweep. The steps, however, are done on a logarithmic scale as shown in the example sweep in Figure 9-2. This is a 5-point log sweep from 1
to 10V. As with the staircase sweep, the delay period is the same for all steps.
Figure 9-2
Logarithmic staircase sweep (example
5-point sweep from
1 to 10 volts)
Log
Scale
Delay
10
X
Delay
5.6234
X
Volts
Delay
3.1623
X
Delay
1.7783
1
Stop
(10)
X
Log Points = 5
Delay
X
Start
Bias
Measure
#1
Measure
#2
Measure
#3
Measure
#4
Measure
#5
X = Measurement Point
The programmable parameters for a log sweep include the start and stop levels and the number of measurement points for the sweep. The specified start, stop, and point parameters determine the logarithmic step size for the sweep. Step size for the sweep in Figure 9-2 is calculated
as follows:
log10(stop) – log10(start)
Log Step Size = ------------------------------------------------------------Points – 1
log10(10) – log10(1)
= -------------------------------------------------5–1
(1 – 0)
= ---------------4
= 0.25
9-4
Sweep Operation
Thus, the five log steps for this sweep are 0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, and 1.00. The actual V-Source
levels at these points are listed in Table 9-1 (the V-Source level is the anti-log of the log step).
Table 9-1
Logarithmic sweep points
Measure point
Log step
V-Source level (volts)
Point 1
Point 2
Point 3
Point 4
Point 5
0
0.25
0.50
0.75
1.0
1
1.7783
3.1623
5.6234
10
When this sweep is triggered to start, the output will go from the bias level to the start source
level (1V) and sweep through the symmetrical log points. With trigger delay set to zero, the
time duration at each step is determined by the source delay and the time it takes to perform the
measurement (NPLC setting).
Custom sweep
This sweep type lets you configure a customized sweep. Programmable parameters include
the number of measurement points in the sweep and the source level at each point.
When this sweep is started, the output goes from the bias level to the first source-measure
point in the sweep. The sweep will continue through the source-measure points in the order
they were programmed and stop after the last source-measure point. With trigger delay set to
zero, the time duration at each step is determined by the source delay and the time it takes to
perform the measurement (NPLC setting). This delay is the same for all sweep points.
Custom sweep examples
The custom sweep can be configured to provide a 50% duty cycle pulse sweep. Figure 9-3
shows a pulse sweep that provides three 1V pulses on a 0V bias level. This pulse sweep is configured by specifying six points for the custom sweep. The specified voltage levels at points P0,
P2, and P4 are 1V, and the specified voltage levels at points P1, P3, and P5 are 0V. Six measurements are performed for this sweep, three at 1V and three at 0V.
Figure 9-3
Custom pulse
sweep
P0
1V
P2
P1
Measure
#1
Delay
Delay
Delay
Bias 0V
P4
Delay
Measure
#2
P3
Delay
Measure
#3
Measure
#4
P5
Delay
Bias
Measure
#5
Measure
#6
Sweep Operation
9-5
Figure 9-4 shows a custom sweep example with different pulse widths. In this example, the
first two points are configured with the same source value so that the duration of the first pulse
is effectively doubled.
Figure 9-4
Custom sweep with
different pulse widths
1V
0V
Delay
#1
Delay
Delay
Delay
Delay
#2
#5
#3
#4
#6
All have same delay, but pulse widths differ.
Delay
#7
Source memory sweep
For a source memory sweep, up to 100 setup configurations can be saved in memory. When
the sweep is performed, the setup at each memory point is recalled. This allows multiple functions and math expressions to be used in a sweep. For example, the first point in a source memory sweep may source voltage and measure current, the next point may source current and
measure voltage, the third point may source voltage and measure voltage, and the last point
may use a math expression. This feature allows you to customize each sweep point with specific instrument settings instead of being tied to one set of settings for all sweep points.
Once source memory setups are saved and the sweep is initiated, the SourceMeter then
sequences through the setups very rapidly. This feature allows you to use the instrument as a
fast, automatic test sequencer.
Sweep configuration
The user specifies the number of memory location points to sweep and where to start the
sweep. For example, you can specify a six point sweep that starts at memory location 98. When
the sweep is started, the setups at memory location points 98, 99, 100, 1, 2, and 3 are recalled.
When sweeping past point 100, the sweep automatically wraps back to memory location
point 1. These and other components of the sweep are configured from the CONFIGURE
SWEEPS menu.
NOTE
These and other components of the sweep are configured from the CONFIGURE
SWEEPS menu. See “Configuring and running a sweep” later in this section.
Setups are saved in battery backed-up memory, and they remain and can be recalled
even if the SourceMeter looses external power.
NPLC caching can be used to speed up source memory sweeps. See “NPLC caching” in Section 3.
9-6
Sweep Operation
Saving and restoring source memory setups
Source memory setups are saved in memory and restored from the SAVESETUP (SOURCE
MEMORY) option of the MAIN MENU. (See Section 1, Main Menu.)
NOTE
Source memory setups are different from the power-on and user-defined setups,
which are programmed from the SAVESETUP (GLOBAL) MAIN MENU option. See
Section 1 for details.
Saving source memory setups
Perform the following steps to save source memory setups:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Configure the SourceMeter for the desired source, measure, and/or math expression
operation.
Press MENU to display the MAIN MENU:
• Select SAVESETUP.
• Select SOURCE MEMORY.
• Select SAVE.
• Use the ▲ and ▼ keys, and the cursor keys to display the desired memory location,
and press ENTER.
• Use the EXIT key to back out of the menu structure.
Configure the SourceMeter for the next point in the sweep and repeat Step 2 to save that
setup in the next memory location.
Repeat Step 3 for all points in the sweep.
Restoring source memory setups
In addition to automatically sweeping through source memory locations (see Configuring
and running a sweep later in this section), you can also recall them individually as follows:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Press MENU to display the MAIN MENU.
Select SAVESETUP, then press ENTER.
Choose SOURCE MEMORY, then press ENTER.
Select RESTORE, then press ENTER.
Select the source memory location to restore (1-100), then press ENTER.
Saving multiple source memory sweeps
If desired, you can save multiple source memory sweeps in the 100 memory locations. For
example, you could save setups in locations 1 through 4 for one sweep, and other setups in any
other range of memory locations such as locations 50 through 58. To select which sweep to
execute, simply select two settings: (1) the sweep start location, and (2) the number of sweep
points. (See Performing a source memory sweep later in this section.)
Saved source memory configurations
Table 9-2 summarizes the configurations that are saved at each source memory location
along with the equivalent remote command. See Section 17 for more details on these remote
Sweep Operation
9-7
commands. The SCPI command reference tables, Tables 17-1 through 17-11, also list source
memory parameters.
Table 9-2
Source memory saved configurations
Mode
Remote command
Current integration rate
Resistance integration rate
Voltage integration rate
Concurrent functions
Enable functions
Disable functions
Manual/auto ohms
Offset-compensated ohms
Enable/disable filter
Filter type
Filter count
Source mode
Source delay
Source auto delay
Scaling factor*
Enable/disable scaling*
Source Value, Range, Auto Range
Sense Protection, Range, Auto Range
Enable/disable auto-zero
Enable/disable remote sense
Front/rear terminals
Enable/disable CALC1
CALC1 math expression
CALC2 input path
REL value
REL on/off
Limit 1 on/off
Limit 1 fail conditions
Limit 1 bit pattern
Enable/disable Limit X**
Limit X upper limit
Limit X upper bit pattern
Limit X lower limit
Limit X lower bit pattern
Composite limits bit pattern
Next pass memory location
Trigger delay
SENSe[1]:CURRent:NPLCycles
SENSe[1]:RESistance:NPLCycles
SENSe[1]:VOLTage:NPLCycles
SENSe[1]:FUNCtion:CONCurrent
SENSe[1]:FUNCtion:ON
SENSe[1]:FUNCtion:OFF
SENSe[1]:RESistance:MODE
SENSe[1]:RESistance:OCOMpensated
SENSe[1]:AVERage:STATe
SENSe[1]:AVERage:TCONtrol
SENSe[1]:AVERage:COUNt
SOURce[1]:FUNCtion:MODE
SOURce[1]:DELay
SOURce[1]:DELay:AUTO
SOURce[1]...X...:TRIGgered:SFACtor
SOURce[1]...X...:TRIGgered:SFACtor:STATe
**X = CURRent or VOLTage.
**Limit X = Limit 2, 3, 5-12.
SYSTem:AZERo:STATe
SYSTem:RSENse
ROUTe:TERMinals
CALCulate1:STATe
CALCulate1:MATH[:EXPRession]:NAME
CALCulate2:FEED
CALCulate2:NULL:OFFSet
CALCulate2:NULL:STATe
CALCulate2:LIMit[1]:STATe
CALCulate2:LIMit[1]:COMPliance:FAIL
CALCulate2:LIMit[1]:COMPliance:SOURce2
CALCulate2:LIMitX:STATe
CALCulate2:LIMitX:UPPer[:DATA]
CALCulate2:LIMitX:UPPer:SOURce2
CALCulate2:LIMitX:LOWer[:DATA]
CALCulate2:LIMitX:LOWer:SOURce2
CALCulate2:CLIMits:PASS:SOURce2
CALCulate2:CLIMits:PASS:SMLocation
TRIGger:DELay
9-8
Sweep Operation
Sweep branching
When using a Source Memory Sweep while performing limit tests, the normal sequence of
sweep memory points can be changed. This is useful when, based on the results of an initial
test, a different set of tests are needed.
The sweep can branch to a specified memory location point, or proceed to the next memory
location in the list. When a memory location is specified, the sweep will branch to that memory
location if the test is successful (PASS condition). If not successful (FAIL condition), the
sweep proceeds to the next memory location in the list. With NEXT selected (the default), the
sweep proceeds to the next memory location in the list regardless of the outcome of the test
(PASS or FAIL condition).
Figure 9-5 shows a six-point sweep branching example. In this case, the unit is programmed
to branch to location 7 when a pass condition occurs at location 3.
Figure 9-5
Six-point test
branching example
Source Memory Locations
1
2
Pass
3
4
7
5
8
6
9
Should be the same to
maintain triggering sequence.
Caution must be used when branching since infinite memory loops can inadvertently be created. A single Source Memory Sweep will always sweep the number of points specified,
regardless of how many branches were taken.
Memory sweep branching option is set from the PASS (SRC MEM LOC) item of the CONFIG LIMITS MENU. (See Section 11, Limit testing and Configure limit tests for details.) Via
remote, use the :CALCulate2:CLIMits:PASS:SMLocation command. (See Section 17, Configuring and running a sweep.) See Diode test example below for a typical example.
NOTE
Branch on fail is available via remote only with CALC2:CLIM:FAIL:SML. See
Section 17 for details.
Testing polarized devices — Branching can simplify the testing of polarized devices such
as diodes. Because a diode is polarity sensitive, you normally have to be careful when installing
it in the component handler. Installing the diode one way forward biases it, and installing it the
other way reverse biases it. Memory sweep branching can eliminate this installation problem.
Sweep Operation
9-9
If, for example, your test requires that the diode be forward biased, you can configure the
compliance limit test (LIMIT 1) to fail if out of compliance. This fail condition would indicate
that the diode is forward biased, and the memory sweep will proceed to the next source memory location to perform the source-measure operation. If, however, the diode is installed backwards, the compliance limit test will PASS (in compliance). The pass condition will cause the
sweep to branch to a memory location where the polarity of the source is reversed, again forward biasing the diode for the source-measure operation.
This branching technique simplifies installation of the diode in the component handler
because polarity is no longer a concern. If the diode is installed backwards, the sweep will
branch to a memory location that reverses source polarity.
Diode test example
Limit testing and a source memory sweep can be used to test a diode. Three tests that are
typically performed on a diode include the Forward Voltage Test (VF), Reverse Breakdown
Voltage Test (VR) and Leakage Current Test (IR). Figure 9-6 illustrates the test points on a typical diode curve.
Figure 9-6
Typical diode I-V curve and
test points (not to scale)
I
-V
VR Test
VF Test
V
IR Test
-I
Forward Voltage Test (VF) — This test involves sourcing a specified forward bias current
within the normal operating range of the diode, then measuring the resulting voltage drop. To
pass the test, the voltage must be within the specified minimum and maximum values.
Reverse Breakdown Test (VR) — A specified reverse current bias is sourced and the resulting voltage drop across the diode is measured. The voltage reading is compared to a specified
minimum limit to determine the pass/fail status of the test.
Leakage Current Test (IR) — The leakage test verifies the low level of current that leaks
across the diode under reverse voltage conditions. A specified reverse voltage is sourced, then
the resultant leakage current is measured. Good diodes have leakage current that is less than or
equal to the specified maximum value.
This test example also uses sweep branching to simplify handling of each diode. No matter
how the polarity sensitive diode is installed in the test fixture, it will be biased properly. See
Sweep branching for details.
9-10
Sweep Operation
Testing process — The test uses seven SMLs (source memory locations). However, only
four memory locations are used for each tested diode. If the diode is installed correctly, tests at
locations 001, 002, 003, and 004 are performed. If the diode is installed backwards, tests at
locations 001, 005, 006, and 007 are performed. To sweep four memory locations, the sweep
count must be set to four. The source memory sweep is summarized as follows:
SML 001 — Compliance Test
•
•
Limit 1 test – Fail if in compliance, branch to source memory location 005 for “pass”
condition.
Summary – Limit 1 test is configured such that if the diode is installed correctly in the
test fixture, it will fail the compliance test and operation will proceed to the tests at
memory locations 002, 003, and 004. If the diode is installed backwards, it will pass the
compliance test, and operation will branch around locations 002, 003, and 004 to perform the tests at locations 005, 006, and 007. Source Memory Location 002 - Forward
Voltage Test (diode installed correctly).
SML 002 — Forward Voltage Test
•
•
•
Source I, Measure V.
Limit 2 test – Min/max limits for voltage reading.
Summary – The voltage measurement and the result of the test (pass or fail) is stored in
the buffer.
SML 003 — Reverse Breakdown Test
•
•
•
Source -I, Measure V.
Limit 2 test – Min/max limits for voltage reading.
Summary – The voltage measurement and the result of the test (pass or fail) is stored in
the buffer.
SML 004 — Leakage Current Test
•
•
•
Source -V, Measure I.
Limit 2 test – Min/max limits for current reading.
Summary – The current measurement and the result of the test (pass or fail) is stored in
the buffer.
SML 005 — Forward Voltage Test
•
•
•
Source -I, Measure V.
Limit 2 test – Min/max limits for voltage reading.
Summary – This test is the same as the test at memory location 002, except the source
current is reversed to properly bias the diode that was installed backwards.
SML 006 — Reverse Breakdown Test
•
•
•
Source +I, Measure V.
Limit 2 test – Min/max limits for voltage reading.
Summary – This test is the same as the test at memory location 003, except the source
current is reversed to properly bias the diode that was installed backwards.
Sweep Operation
9-11
SML 007 — Leakage Current Test
•
•
•
Source +V, Measure I.
Limit 2 test – Min/max limits for current reading.
Summary – This test is the same as the test at memory location 004, except the source
voltage is reversed to properly bias the diode that was installed backwards.
Test results — The test results for the 4-point source memory sweep are stored in the buffer.
Stored readings are accessed by pressing the RECALL key. Each of the four reading numbers
are preceded by a “P” or an “F” to indicate the “Pass” or “Fail” result of the corresponding test.
See Section 8 for details on the data store.
Configuring and running a sweep
Front panel sweep operation
Configuring a sweep
The sweep configuration menu is structured as follows and shown in Figure 9-7. Note that
bullets indicate the primary items of the sweep menu and dashes indicate the options of each
menu item. Using Section 1, Rules to navigate menus, go through the following menu to select
and configure the desired sweep.
CONFIGURE SWEEPS menu:
Press CONFIG then SWEEP to display the sweep configuration menu.
•
TYPE – Use this menu item to select the type of sweep:
- STAIR – When the linear staircase sweep is selected, you will be prompted to enter
the START, STOP, and STEP levels.
- LOG – When the logarithmic staircase sweep is selected, you will be prompted to
enter the START and STOP levels and specify the number of measurement points.
- CUSTOM – With the custom sweep selected, you specify the number of measurement points (# POINTS) in the sweep and the source level at each point (ADJUST
POINTS). With the INIT option, you can set a consecutive range of measurement
points in the sweep to a specific level. For example, assume that for a 20-point custom voltage sweep (# POINTS = 20), you want points 10 through 15 to be set for
1V. After selecting the INIT option, set the VALUE to +1.000000V, set the START
PT to 10, and set the STOP PT to 15.
- SRC MEMORY – With the Source Memory Sweep selected, you specify the memory location START point to start the sweep (1 is the default) and the number of
memory location points (# POINTS) in the sweep. When configured to sweep past
point 100, the sweep automatically wraps around to point 1.
9-12
Sweep Operation
•
•
SWEEP COUNT – Use this menu item to specify how many sweeps to perform:
- FINITE – Use this option to enter a discrete number of sweeps to perform with the
results stored in the data store buffer. The maximum number of finite sweeps that
can be performed is determined as follows:
maximum finite sweep count = 2500 / # Points in sweep
- INFINITE – Select this option to continuously repeat the configured sweep. Use
the EXIT key to stop the sweep. Data is not stored in the buffer.
SOURCE RANGING – Use this menu item to control source ranging (ignored in
source memory):
- BEST FIXED – With this option, the SourceMeter will select a single fixed source
range that will accommodate all of the source levels in the sweep. For example, if
the minimum and maximum source levels in the sweep are 1V and 30V, the 200V
source range will be used.
- AUTO RANGE – With this option, the SourceMeter will select the most sensitive
source range for each source level in the sweep. For example, for a 1V source
level, the 2V source range will be used, and for a 3V source level, the 20V source
range will be used. Note that the range changing process of AUTO RANGE may
cause transients in the sweep. If these transients cannot be tolerated, use the BEST
FIXED source range.
- FIXED – With this option, the source remains on the range presently on when the
sweep is started. For sweep points that exceed the source range capability, the
source will output the maximum level for that range. For example, if the source is
on the 2V range when the sweep is started, it will remain on the 2V range for the
entire sweep. If the configured sweep points are 1V, 2V, 3V, 4V, and 5V, the sweep
will be 1V, 2V, 2.1V, 2.1V, and 2.1V.
Figure 9-7
Sweep configuration
menu tree
CONFIG
SWEEP
TYPE
STAIR
LOG
SRC
CUSTOM MEMORY
SOURCE
RANGING
SWEEP
COUNT
FINITE
INFINITE
BEST
FIXED
AUTO
RANGE
FIXED
Sweep Operation
9-13
Setting delay
Generally, the time duration spent at each step (or point) of a sweep consists of the source
delay and the time it takes to perform the measurement (NPLC setting).
The source delay is part of the SDM cycle and is used to allow the source to settle before the
measurement is made. See Section 5, Source-delay-measure cycle for details.
The total time period of the source delay could include an auto-delay and/or a user programmed delay. With auto-delay enabled, 1ms of delay is used. The user programmable source
delay adds 0000.0000 to 9999.9990 seconds of delay. See Section 3, Source delay to set these
delays.
Additional delay for a sweep is available by using the trigger delay. This user-specified
delay (0000.0000 to 9999.99990 seconds) occurs before each SDM cycle (device action) of the
sweep. Thus, the trigger delay is executed before each new source-point in the sweep. See
Section 10, Trigger model and Configuring triggering to set trigger delay.
NOTE
For linear staircase, log staircase, and custom sweeps, source delay, trigger delay,
and NPLC settings are global and affect all sweep points simultaneously. For source
memory sweep only, both the source delay and NPLC settings can be set to different
values for each point in the sweep.
Trigger count and sweep points
The trigger count and number of sweep points should be the same or multiples of one
another. For example, with five sweep points and a trigger count of 10, the sweep will run
twice. See Section 10 for details on trigger count.
Performing sweeps
Procedures for the various sweep types are covered below.
NOTE
The following procedure assumes that the SourceMeter is already connected to the
DUT as explained in Section 2.
WARNING
Hazardous voltages (>30V rms) can appear on the selected INPUT/
OUTPUT LO or Remote PreAmp terminals when performing fast pulse
sweep operations. To eliminate this shock hazard, connect the LO terminal
to earth ground. The ground connection can be made at the chassis ground
screw on the rear panel or to a known safety earth ground.
9-14
Sweep Operation
Performing a linear staircase sweep
Step 1: Configure source-measure functions.
Configure the SourceMeter for the desired source-measure operations as follows:
1.
2.
3.
Select the desired source function by pressing SOURCE V or SOURCE I.
Set the source level and compliance limit to the desired values.
Press MEAS V or MEAS I to select the desired measurement function, then choose the
desired measurement range.
See Section 3, Basic source-measure, for more information.
The source level you set becomes the bias level for the sweep. When turned on, the output
will maintain this bias level until the sweep is started. Typically, 0V or 0A is used as the bias
level.
If using a fixed measurement range, make sure it can accommodate every measurement
point in the sweep. Otherwise, use autoranging.
Step 2: Configure sweep.
Configure the sweep as follows:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Press CONFIG then SWEEP.
Select TYPE, then press ENTER.
Select STAIR, then press ENTER.
At the prompts, enter the desired START, STOP, and STEP values.
From the CONFIGURE SWEEPS menu, select SWEEP COUNT, press ENTER, then
choose FINITE or INFINITE as desired.
Again from the CONFIGURE SWEEPS menu, choose SOURCE RANGING, press
ENTER, then select BEST FIXED, AUTO RANGE, or FIXED as appropriate.
Press EXIT to return to normal display.
Step 3: Set delay.
Set the source delay as follows:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Press CONFIG then SOURCE V or SOURCE I depending on the selected source
function.
Select DELAY, then press ENTER.
Set the delay to the desired value, then press ENTER.
Press EXIT to return to normal display.
Step 4: Turn output on.
Press the ON/OFF OUTPUT key to turn the output on (OUTPUT indicator turns on). The
SourceMeter will output the programmed bias level.
Sweep Operation
9-15
Step 5: Run sweep.
To run the sweep, press the SWEEP key. After the sweep is completed, turn the output off by
pressing the ON/OFF OUTPUT key.
Step 6: Read buffer.
Use the RECALL key to access the source-measure readings stored in the buffer. Use the
TOGGLE to display statistical information. (See Section 8, Data store.)
Performing a log staircase sweep
Step 1: Configure source-measure functions.
Configure the SourceMeter for the desired source-measure operations as follows:
1.
2.
3.
Select the desired source function by pressing SOURCE V or SOURCE I.
Set the source level and compliance limit to the desired values.
Press MEAS V or MEAS I to select the desired measurement function, then choose the
desired measurement range.
Step 2: Configure sweep.
Configure the sweep as follows:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Press CONFIG then SWEEP.
Select TYPE, then press ENTER.
Select LOG, then press ENTER.
At the prompts, enter the desired START, STOP, and NO OF POINTS values.
From the CONFIGURE SWEEPS menu, select SWEEP COUNT, press ENTER, then
choose FINITE or INFINITE as desired.
Again from the CONFIGURE SWEEPS menu, choose SOURCE RANGING, press
ENTER, then select BEST FIXED, AUTO RANGE, or FIXED as appropriate.
Press EXIT to return to normal display.
Step 3: Set delay.
Set the source delay as follows:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Press CONFIG then SOURCE V or SOURCE I depending on the selected source
function.
Select DELAY, then press ENTER.
Set the delay to the desired value, then press ENTER.
Press EXIT to return to normal display.
Step 4: Turn output on.
Press the ON/OFF OUTPUT key to turn the output on (OUTPUT indicator turns on). The
SourceMeter will output the programmed bias level.
9-16
Sweep Operation
Step 5: Run sweep.
To run the sweep, press the SWEEP key. After the sweep is completed, turn the output off by
pressing the ON/OFF OUTPUT key.
Step 6: Read buffer.
Use the RECALL key to access the source-measure readings stored in the buffer. Use the
TOGGLE to display statistical information.
Performing a custom sweep
Step 1: Configure source-measure functions.
Configure the SourceMeter for the desired source-measure operations as follows:
1.
2.
3.
Select the desired source function by pressing SOURCE V or SOURCE I.
Set the source level and compliance limit to the desired values.
Press MEAS V or MEAS I to select the desired measurement function, then choose the
desired measurement range.
Step 2: Configure sweep.
Configure the sweep as follows:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Press CONFIG then SWEEP.
Select TYPE, then press ENTER.
Select CUSTOM, then press ENTER.
Use the displayed menu selections to enter the desired # POINTS, individual point values (ADJUST POINTS), and INIT (initial) value.
From the CONFIGURE SWEEPS menu, select SWEEP COUNT, press ENTER, then
choose FINITE or INFINITE as desired.
Again from the CONFIGURE SWEEPS menu, choose SOURCE RANGING, press
ENTER, then select BEST FIXED, AUTO RANGE, or FIXED as appropriate.
Press EXIT to return to normal display.
Step 3: Set delay.
Set the source delay as follows:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Press CONFIG then SOURCE V or SOURCE I depending on the selected source
function.
Select DELAY, then press ENTER.
Set the delay to the desired value, then press ENTER.
Press EXIT to return to normal display.
Sweep Operation
9-17
Step 4: Turn output on.
Press the ON/OFF OUTPUT key to turn the output on (OUTPUT indicator turns on). The
SourceMeter will output the programmed bias level.
Step 5: Run sweep.
To run the sweep, press the SWEEP key. After the sweep is completed, turn the output off by
pressing the ON/OFF OUTPUT key.
Step 6: Read buffer.
Use the RECALL key to access the source-measure readings stored in the buffer. Use the
TOGGLE to display statistical information.
Performing a source memory sweep
Step 1: Store setups in source memory.
Store instrument setups in source memory as follows:
1.
2.
3.
Configure the SourceMeter for various desired operating modes such as source, measure, delay, and/or math expression operation. See Table 9-2 for settings that can be
stored in each source memory location.
Press MENU to display the MAIN MENU:
• Select SAVESETUP.
• Select SOURCE MEMORY.
• Select SAVE.
• Use the ▲ and ▼ keys, and the cursor keys to display the desired memory location,
and press ENTER.
• Use the EXIT key to back out of the menu structure.
Repeat Steps 1 and 2 for all points in the sweep.
Step 2: Configure sweep
Configure the sweep as follows:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Press CONFIG then SWEEP.
Select TYPE, then press ENTER.
Select SRC MEMORY, then press ENTER.
Use the menu selections to enter the desired START memory location and # POINTS
for the source memory sweep.
From the CONFIGURE SWEEPS menu, select SWEEP COUNT, press ENTER, then
choose FINITE or INFINITE as desired.
Again from the CONFIGURE SWEEPS menu, choose SOURCE RANGING, press
ENTER, then select BEST FIXED, AUTO RANGE, or FIXED as appropriate.
Press EXIT to return to normal display.
9-18
Sweep Operation
Step 3: Turn output on.
Press the ON/OFF OUTPUT key to turn the output on (OUTPUT indicator turns on).
Step 4: Run sweep.
To run the sweep, press the SWEEP key. After the sweep is completed, turn the output off by
pressing the ON/OFF OUTPUT key.
Step 5: Read buffer.
Use the RECALL key to access the source-measure readings stored in the buffer. Use the
TOGGLE to display statistical information.
Remote sweep operation
Staircase sweep commands
Table 9-3 summarizes remote commands used for linear and log staircase sweep operation.
See Section 17, Configure voltage and current sweeps, for more details on these commands.
Table 9-3
Linear and log staircase sweep commands
Command
Description
Select current source sweep mode.
Specify sweep start current (n = current).
Specify sweep stop current (n = current).
Specify sweep step current (n = current).
Specify sweep center current (n = current).
Specify sweep span current (n = current).
Select voltage source sweep mode.
Specify sweep start voltage (n = voltage).
Specify sweep stop voltage (n = voltage).
Specify sweep step voltage (n = voltage).
Specify sweep center voltage (n = voltage).
Specify sweep span voltage (n = voltage).
Select source ranging (name = BEST, AUTO, or
FIXed).
:SOURce:SWEep:SPACing <name> Select sweep scale (name = LINear or LOGarithmic).
Set number of sweep points (n = points).
:SOURce:SWEep:POINts <n>
:SOURce:SWEep:DIREction <name> Set sweep direction. Name = UP (sweep start to stop)
or DOWn (sweep stop to start).
:SOURce:CURRent:MODE SWEep
:SOURce:CURRent:STARt <n>
:SOURce:CURRent:STOP <n>
:SOURce:CURRent:STEP <n>
:SOURce:CURRent:CENTer <n>
:SOURce:CURRent:SPAN <n>
:SOURce:VOLTage:MODE SWEep
:SOURce:VOLTage:STARt <n>
:SOURce:VOLTage:STOP <n>
:SOURce:VOLTage:STEP <n>
:SOURce:VOLTage:CENTer <n>
:SOURce:VOLTage:SPAN <n>
:SOURce:SWEep:RANGing <name>
Sweep Operation
9-19
Staircase sweep programming example
As an example of linear staircase sweep operation, assume the SourceMeter is to be used to
generate the I-V characteristics of a diode. Many diode tests, such as breakdown voltage and
leakage current, require only single-point measurements. Some, such as quality-assurance
analysis of marginal parts, involve performing a complete I-V sweep for detailed analysis.
For the purposes of this test, assume the following basic sweep parameters:
Source Function: current
Sense Function: volts
Source Mode: sweep
Start Current: 1mA
Stop Current: 10mA
Step Current: 1mA
Voltage Compliance: 1V
Source Delay: 100ms
HI
Triax Cable
LO
Optional Noise Shield
IN/OUT
HIGH SENSE
Figure 9-8
Connections for
diode I-V tests
KEITHLEY
6430
REMOTE
PreAmp
MAINFRAME
Figure 9-8 shows typical test connections for this test, and Figure 9-9 shows a typical diode
curve. Note that the diode anode is connected to HI, and the cathode is connected to LO. These
connections are required to properly forward bias the diode for the purposes of the test. The test
connections could also be reversed by using negative sweep voltage parameters.
Preamp Cable
Connect to REMOTE
PreAmp connector on rear
panel of mainframe
Figure 9-9
Diode I-V curve
I
-V
Vreverse
Ileakage
-I
V
Vforward
9-20
Sweep Operation
Table 9-4 lists the command sequence for the diode programming example.
Table 9-4
Staircase sweep programming example (diode test)
Command
Description
*RST
:SENS:FUNC:CONC OFF
:SOUR:FUNC CURR
:SENS:FUNC ‘VOLT:DC’
:SENS:VOLT:PROT 1
:SOUR:CURR:START 1E-3
:SOUR:CURR:STOP 10E-3
:SOUR:CURR:STEP 1E-3
:SOUR:CURR:MODE SWE
:SOUR:SWE:RANG AUTO
:SOUR:SWE:SPAC LIN
:TRIG:COUN 10
:SOUR:DEL 0.1
:OUTP ON
:READ?
Restore GPIB default conditions.
Turn off concurrent functions.
Current source function.
Volts sense function.
1V voltage compliance.
1mA start current.
10mA stop current.
1mA step current.
Select current sweep mode.1
Auto source ranging.
Select linear staircase sweep.
Trigger count = # sweep points.2
100ms source delay.
Turn on source output.
Trigger sweep, request data.
1This
command should normally be sent after START, STOP, and STEP to avoid delays caused by rebuilding
sweep when each command is sent.
2For single sweep, trigger count should equal number of points in sweep: Points = (Stop-Start)/Step + 1. You
can use SOUR:SWE:POIN? query to read the number of points.
Custom sweep commands
Table 9-5 summarizes remote commands used for custom sweep operation. See Section 17,
Configure list, for more details on these commands.
Table 9-5
Custom sweep commands
Command
Description
:SOURce:CURRent:MODE LIST
:SOURce:VOLTage:MODE LIST
:SOURce:LIST:CURRent <list>
:SOURce:LIST:CURRent:APPend <list>
:SOURce:LIST:CURRent:POINts?
:SOURce:LIST:VOLTage < list>
:SOURce:LIST:VOLTage:APPend <list>
:SOURce:LIST:VOLTage:POINts?
:SOURce:SWEep:RANGing <name>
Select current list (custom) sweep mode.
Select voltage list (custom) sweep mode.
Define I-source (list = I1, I2,… In).
Add I-source list value(s) (list =I1, I2,…In).
Query length of I-source list.
Define V-source list (list = V1, V2,… Vn).
Add V-source list value(s) (list =V1, V2,…Vn).
Query length of V-source list.
Select source ranging (name = BEST, AUTO, or FIXed).
Sweep Operation
9-21
Custom sweep programming example
As an example of custom sweep operation, assume a five-point sweep with the following
parameters:
Source Function: volts
Sense Function: current
Voltage Sweep Mode: list (custom sweep)
Sweep Voltage Points: 7V, 1V, 3V, 8V, 2V
Current Compliance: 100mA
Source Delay: 100ms
Table 9-6 summarizes the basic remote command sequence for performing the custom
sweep described above.
Table 9-6
Custom sweep programming example
Command
Description
*RST
:SENS:FUNC:CONC OFF
:SOUR:FUNC VOLT
:SENS:FUNC ‘CURR:DC’
:SENS:CURR:PROT 0.1
:SOUR:VOLT:MODE LIST
:SOUR:LIST:VOLT 7,1,3,8,2
:TRIG:COUN 5
:SOUR:DEL 0.1
:OUTP ON
:READ?
Restore GPIB default conditions.
Turn off concurrent functions.
Volts source function.
Current sense function.
100mA current compliance.
List volts sweep mode.
7V, 1V, 3V, 8V, 2V sweep points.
Trigger count = # sweep points.
100ms source delay.
Turn on source output.
Trigger sweep, request data.
Source memory sweep commands
Table 9-7 summarizes remote commands used for custom sweep operation. See Section 17,
Configure memory sweep, for more details on these commands.
Table 9-7
Source memory sweep commands
Command
Description
:SOURce:FUNCtion MEM
:SOURce:MEMory:POINts <n>
:SOURce:MEMory:STARt <n>
:SOURce:MEMory:RECall <n>
:SOURce:SAVE <n>
Select memory sweep mode.
Specify number of sweep points (n = points).
Select source memory start location (n =location).
Return to specified setup (n = memory location).
Save setup in memory (n = memory location).
9-22
Sweep Operation
Source memory sweep programming example
As an example of source memory sweep operation, assume a three-point sweep with the following operating modes:
Source Memory Location #1: source voltage, measure current, 10V source value
Source Memory Location #2: source current, measure voltage, 100mA source value
Source Memory Location #3: source current, measure current, 100mA source value
Table 9-8 summarizes the basic remote command sequence for performing the basic source
memory sweep described above.
Table 9-8
Source memory sweep programming example
Command
Description
*RST
:SENS:FUNC:CONC OFF
:SOUR:FUNC MEM
:SOUR:MEM:POIN 3
:SOUR:MEM:STAR 1
:SOUR:FUNC VOLT
:SENS:FUNC ‘CURR:DC’
:SOUR:VOLT 10
:SOUR:MEM:SAVE 1
:SOUR:FUNC CURR
:SENS:FUNC ‘VOLT:DC’
:SOUR:CURR 100E-3
:SOUR:MEM:SAVE 2
:SENS:FUNC ‘CURR:DC’
:SOUR:MEM:SAVE 3
:TRIG:COUN 3
:OUTP ON
:READ?
Restore GPIB default conditions.
Turn off concurrent functions.
Source memory sweep mode.
Number memory points = 3.
Start at memory location 1.
Volts source function.
Current sense function.
10V source voltage.
Save in source memory location 1.
Current source function.
Volts sense function.
100mA source current.
Save in source memory location 2.
Current sense function.
Save in source memory location 3.
Trigger count = # sweep points.
Turn on source output.
Trigger sweep, request data.
Sweep Operation
9-23
Sweep branching program example
The code fragment below is a Visual Basic sweep branching subroutine. This example sets
up source memory locations 1-3 as indicated in code comments. Location 100 is used as a
dummy location. Failure at any one of locations 1-3 causes a branch to location 100 to stop the
sweep as soon as possible in the event of failure. For all three source memory locations, operating modes are set as follows:
•
•
•
Source function: volts, 10V output voltage
Measurement function: current, 100mA range, 105mA compliance
Delay: 1s
Test limits for the three memory locations are:
•
•
•
Location 1: 10mA to 20mA
Location 2: 20mA to 30mA
Location 3: 30mA to 40mA
Attribute VB_Name = “Headers”
Option Explicit
Public Sub RunSourceMemory()
Dim intGPIB As Integer
Dim strAnswer As String
intGPIB = 24
‘ Primary address = 24.
Call OutputCmd(intGPIB, “:TRAC:CLE”)
‘Clear Readings from Buffer
‘Setup Source Memory Location 1
‘-----------------------------Call OutputCmd(intGPIB, “*RST”)
Call OutputCmd(intGPIB, “:SOUR:FUNC VOLT”)
Call OutputCmd(intGPIB, “:SENS:FUNC ‘CURR:DC’”)
Call OutputCmd(intGPIB, “:SENS:CURR:PROT .105”)
Call OutputCmd(intGPIB, “:SENS:CURR:RANGE .1”)
Call OutputCmd(intGPIB, “:SOUR:DEL 1”)
Call OutputCmd(intGPIB, “:SOUR:VOLT 10”)
Call OutputCmd(intGPIB, “:CALC2:FEED CURR”)
‘Restore GPIB default conditions.
‘Current Source Function.
‘Current Sense Function.
‘Set 105mA Compliance
‘Set 100mA Current Measure Range
‘Set Source Delay to 1
‘10V Source Voltage.
‘Send Current(A) Readings to Buffer
Call OutputCmd(intGPIB, “:CALC2:LIM1:STAT ON”)
Call OutputCmd(intGPIB, “:CALC2:LIM1:COMP:FAIL IN”)
Call OutputCmd(intGPIB, “:CALC2:LIM1:COMP:SOUR2 8”)
‘Set Limit1 on
‘Set Fail Mode to In Compliance
‘Set Digital Output Pattern for Compliance Failure
Call OutputCmd(intGPIB,
Call OutputCmd(intGPIB,
Call OutputCmd(intGPIB,
Call OutputCmd(intGPIB,
Failure
Call OutputCmd(intGPIB,
Failure
Call OutputCmd(intGPIB,
“:CALC2:LIM2:STAT ON”)
“:CALC2:LIM2:UPP 2E-2”)
“:CALC2:LIM2:LOW 1E-3”)
“:CALC2:LIM2:UPP:SOUR2 2”)
‘Set
‘Set
‘Set
‘Set
“:CALC2:LIM2:LOW:SOUR2 3”)
‘Set Digital Output Pattern for Lower Limit #2
Call
Call
Call
Call
Call
“:CALC2:CLIM:MODE GRAD”)
“:CALC2:CLIM:BCON END”)
“:CALC2:CLIM:PASS:SML NEXT”)
“:CALC2:CLIM:FAIL:SML 100”)
“:SOUR:MEM:SAVE 1”)
OutputCmd(intGPIB,
OutputCmd(intGPIB,
OutputCmd(intGPIB,
OutputCmd(intGPIB,
OutputCmd(intGPIB,
Limit2 on
Upper Limit to 20mA
Lower Limit to 10mA
Digital Output Pattern for Upper Limit #2
“:CALC2:CLIM:PASS:SOUR2 13”) ‘Set Digital Output Pattern for Limit #2 Passing
‘Set Limit Results to Grading
‘Set Binning Control to End
‘Set SML Pass Location
‘Set SML Fail Location
‘Save in Source Memory Location 1.
9-24
Sweep Operation
‘Setup Source Memory Location 2
‘-----------------------------Call OutputCmd(intGPIB, “*RST”)
Call OutputCmd(intGPIB, “:SOUR:FUNC VOLT”)
Call OutputCmd(intGPIB, “:SENS:FUNC ‘CURR:DC’”)
Call OutputCmd(intGPIB, “:SENS:CURR:PROT .105”)
Call OutputCmd(intGPIB, “:SENS:CURR:RANGE .1”)
Call OutputCmd(intGPIB, “:SOUR:DEL 1”)
Call OutputCmd(intGPIB, “:SOUR:VOLT 10”)
Call OutputCmd(intGPIB, “:CALC2:FEED CURR”)
‘Restore GPIB default conditions.
‘Current Source Function.
‘Current Sense Function.
‘Set 105mA Compliance
‘Set 100mA Current Measure Range
‘Set Source Delay to 1
‘10V Source Voltage.
‘Send Current(A) Readings to Buffer
Call OutputCmd(intGPIB, “:CALC2:LIM1:STAT ON”)
Call OutputCmd(intGPIB, “:CALC2:LIM1:COMP:FAIL IN”)
Call OutputCmd(intGPIB, “:CALC2:LIM1:COMP:SOUR2 5”)
‘Set Limit 1 on
‘Set Fail Mode to In Compliance
‘Set Digital Output Pattern for Compliance Failure
Call OutputCmd(intGPIB,
Call OutputCmd(intGPIB,
Call OutputCmd(intGPIB,
Call OutputCmd(intGPIB,
Failure
Call OutputCmd(intGPIB,
Failure
Call OutputCmd(intGPIB,
“:CALC2:LIM2:STAT ON”)
“:CALC2:LIM2:UPP 3E-2”)
“:CALC2:LIM2:LOW 2E-2”)
“:CALC2:LIM2:UPP:SOUR2 4”)
‘Set
‘Set
‘Set
‘Set
“:CALC2:LIM2:LOW:SOUR2 5”)
‘Set Digital Output Pattern for Lower Limit #2
Call
Call
Call
Call
Call
“:CALC2:CLIM:MODE GRAD”)
“:CALC2:CLIM:BCON END”)
“:CALC2:CLIM:PASS:SML NEXT”)
“:CALC2:CLIM:FAIL:SML 100”)
“:SOUR:MEM:SAVE 2”)
OutputCmd(intGPIB,
OutputCmd(intGPIB,
OutputCmd(intGPIB,
OutputCmd(intGPIB,
OutputCmd(intGPIB,
Limit2 on
Upper Limit to 30mA
Lower Limit to 20mA
Digital Output Pattern for Upper Limit #2
“:CALC2:CLIM:PASS:SOUR2 14”) ‘Set Digital Output Pattern for Limit #2 Passing
‘Setup Source Memory Location 3
‘-----------------------------Call OutputCmd(intGPIB, “*RST”)
Call OutputCmd(intGPIB, “:SOUR:FUNC VOLT”)
Call OutputCmd(intGPIB, “:SENS:FUNC ‘CURR:DC’”)
Call OutputCmd(intGPIB, “:SENS:CURR:PROT .105”)
Call OutputCmd(intGPIB, “:SENS:CURR:RANGE .1”)
Call OutputCmd(intGPIB, “:SOUR:DEL 1”)
Call OutputCmd(intGPIB, “:SOUR:VOLT 10”)
Call OutputCmd(intGPIB, “:CALC2:FEED CURR”)
‘Set Limit Results to Grading
‘Set Binning Control to End
‘Set SML Pass Location
‘Set SML Fail Location
‘Save in Source Memory Location 2.
‘Restore GPIB default conditions.
‘Current Source Function.
‘Current Sense Function.
‘Set 105mA Compliance
‘Set 100mA Current Measure Range
‘Set Source Delay to 1
‘10V Source Voltage.
‘Send Current(A) Readings to Buffer
Call OutputCmd(intGPIB, “:CALC2:LIM1:STAT ON”)
‘Set Limit 1 on
Call OutputCmd(intGPIB, “:CALC2:LIM1:COMP:FAIL IN”) ‘Set Fail Mode to In Compliance
Call OutputCmd(intGPIB, “:CALC2:LIM1:COMP:SOUR2 10”) ‘Set Digital Output Pattern for Compliance Failure
Call OutputCmd(intGPIB,
Call OutputCmd(intGPIB,
Call OutputCmd(intGPIB,
Call OutputCmd(intGPIB,
Failure
Call OutputCmd(intGPIB,
Failure
Call OutputCmd(intGPIB,
“:CALC2:LIM2:STAT ON”)
“:CALC2:LIM2:UPP 4E-2”)
“:CALC2:LIM2:LOW 3E-3”)
“:CALC2:LIM2:UPP:SOUR2 6”)
‘Set
‘Set
‘Set
‘Set
“:CALC2:LIM2:LOW:SOUR2 7”)
‘Set Digital Output Pattern for Lower Limit #2
Call
Call
Call
Call
Call
“:CALC2:CLIM:MODE GRAD”)
“:CALC2:CLIM:BCON END”)
“:CALC2:CLIM:PASS:SML NEXT”)
“:CALC2:CLIM:FAIL:SML 100”)
“:SOUR:MEM:SAVE 3”)
OutputCmd(intGPIB,
OutputCmd(intGPIB,
OutputCmd(intGPIB,
OutputCmd(intGPIB,
OutputCmd(intGPIB,
Limit2 on
Upper Limit to 40mA
Lower Limit to 30mA
Digital Output Pattern for Upper Limit #2
“:CALC2:cLIM:PASS:SOUR2 15”) ‘Set Digital Output Pattern for Limit #2 Passing
‘Set Limit Results to Grading
‘Set Binning Control to End
‘Set SML Pass Location
‘Set SML Fail Location
‘Save in source memory location 3.
Sweep Operation
9-25
‘Setup Source Memory Location 100 (Dummy Location)
‘Turn off everything to increase speed.
‘-----------------------------------------------------‘ Using a Dummy Location allows the Source Memory
‘ Sweep to stop testing the DUT as quickly as possible.
‘ This allows the test setup to ensure high yields and
‘ to not waste test time on devices that fail early
‘ in the Source Memory Sweep.
‘-----------------------------------------------------Call OutputCmd(intGPIB, “*RST”)
‘Restore GPIB default conditions.
Call OutputCmd(intGPIB, “:SOUR:DEL 0”)
‘Set Source Delay to 0
Call OutputCmd(intGPIB, “:SOUR:VOLT 0”)
‘Set Source Voltage to 0
Call OutputCmd(intGPIB, “:SENS:FUNC:OFF:ALL”)
‘Turn off all Measure Functions
Call
Call
Call
Call
Call
OutputCmd(intGPIB,
OutputCmd(intGPIB,
OutputCmd(intGPIB,
OutputCmd(intGPIB,
OutputCmd(intGPIB,
“:CALC2:LIM1:STAT OFF”)
“:CALC2:LIM2:STAT OFF”)
“:CALC2:CLIM:PASS:SML NEXT”)
“:CALC2:CLIM:FAIL:SML 100”)
“:SOUR:MEM:SAVE 100”)
Call
Call
Call
Call
Call
Call
Call
Call
Call
Call
Call
OutputCmd(intGPIB,
OutputCmd(intGPIB,
OutputCmd(intGPIB,
OutputCmd(intGPIB,
OutputCmd(intGPIB,
OutputCmd(intGPIB,
OutputCmd(intGPIB,
OutputCmd(intGPIB,
OutputCmd(intGPIB,
OutputCmd(intGPIB,
OutputCmd(intGPIB,
“*RST”)
‘Restore GPIB default conditions.
“:CALC2:CLIM:BCON END”)
“:SENSE:FUNC:CONC OFF”)
‘Turn off Concurrent Functions.
“TRIG:COUN 3”)
‘Trigger count = # sweep points.
“:SOUR:FUNC MEM”)
‘Source Memory sweep Mode.
“:SOUR:MEM:POIN 3”)
‘Number of Memory Points = 3.
“:SOUR:MEM:STAR 1”)
‘Start @ Memory Location 1.
“SOUR2:CLE:AUTO ON;:SOUR2:CLE:AUTO:DEL 1”) ‘Set Digital I/O auto-clear
“:CALC2:cLIM:PASS:SOUR2 12” ‘Set Digital Output Pattern for Limit #2 Passing
“OUTPUT ON”)
‘Turn on Output
“:INIT”)
‘Trigger Sweep.
End Sub
‘Turn Limit 1 Off
‘Turn Limit 2 Off
‘Set SML Pass Location
‘Set SML Fail Location
‘Save in source memory location 100.
9-26
Sweep Operation
10
Triggering
•
Trigger Model — Discusses the trigger model, including various layers, event detection, delay, and device action.
•
Trigger Link — Discusses the trigger link, including input triggers, output triggers, and
external triggering example.
•
Configuring Triggering — Details how to configure the various triggering aspects.
•
Remote Triggering — Details the remote trigger model, summarizes trigger commands, and gives a basic triggering example.
10-2
Triggering
Trigger model (front panel operation)
The flowchart in Figure 10-1 summarizes triggering for front panel operation. The trigger
model is modeled after the remote commands used to control triggering. Refer to Trigger
model (remote operation) later in this section. Key trigger model settings are included in the
flowchart. Note that the BENCH defaults are denoted by the “✛” symbol.
The primary actions of the trigger model are Source, Delay, and Measure. The source action
outputs the programmed voltage or current value, and the programmed delay provides a settling period for the source before the measurement is performed.
The trigger model consists of two layers (Arm Layer and Trigger Layer) to provide versatility. Programmable counters allow operations to be repeated, and various input and output trigger options are available to provide source-measure synchronization between the SourceMeter
and other instruments (via the Trigger Link).
Unless otherwise noted, the programmable aspects of the trigger model are performed from
the CONFIGURE TRIGGER menu. See Configuring triggering.
Idle
The SourceMeter is in idle when it is not operating in the Arm Layer or Trigger Layer of the
trigger model. When in idle, the ARM annunciator is off. To take the SourceMeter out of idle,
turn the output ON.
The SourceMeter can be returned to idle at any time by selecting the HALT menu item of
the CONFIGURE TRIGGER menu. See Configuring triggering.
Triggering
Figure 10-1
Trigger model
(front panel
operation)
Idle
✛ Immediate
GPIB
Timer
Manual
TLink
↓Stest
↑Stest
↑↓Stest
Turn Output ON
Bypass
Arm Event
Detector
?
✛ NEVER
Arm-In
Event
Idle
Once
No
Yes
Another
Arm
?
Arm Event
Detector
Arm-Out Event
Arm-Out Event
Arm
Counter
✛1
Source Event
Detector
Arm
Layer
✛
On/Off
On/Off
✛
Once
Bypass
Source Event
Detector
?
✛ Never
✛
On/Off
10-3
Trigger
Layer
No
Yes
Another
Trigger
?
Trigger
Counter
✛1
Trigger Delay ✛ 0.0 sec
MEASURE
Action
SOURCE
Action
✛
Trigger Out Event
On/Off
✛
✛ Immediate Trigger-In On/Off Delay Event
Detector
Trigger Link Source
CONV
CONV
DELAY
Action*
✛ = Bench Default
= Output Trigger
Trigger Out Event
✛
Measure
On/Off
Event
Detector
✛ 0.001 sec
MEASURE
Action
Trigger Out Event
Filter
Process
(Repeat)
✛
On/Off
CONV
CONV = Reading Conversion
On/Off ✛
* Soak time takes the place of the delay time only during the first SDM
cycle after initial sweep trigger if the unit is in the MULTIPLE mode.
See Section 6, Auto range change mode.
10-4
Triggering
Event detection
In general, operation is held up at an Event Detector until the programmed event occurs.
Note however, that if an event detector has a bypass, operation can be programmed to loop
around the event detector.
Arm layer
Event Detector Bypass — As shown in Figure 10-1, there is a bypass for the Arm Event
Detector. This bypass can only be used if TLINK or STEST is the selected Arm-In Event. The
bypass serves to “jump-start” operation. With the event detector bypass set to ONCE, operation
will loop around the Arm Event Detector when the output is turned ON.
The programmable arm-in events for the Arm Layer are described as follows:
IMMEDIATE — Event detection occurs immediately allowing operation to continue.
GPIB — Event detection occurs when a bus trigger (GET or *TRG) is received.
TIMER — With the Timer selected, event detection occurs immediately when the output is
turned ON. On repeated passes via “Another Arm ? Yes”, event detection occurs when the programmed timer interval expires. If operation takes the “Another Arm ? No” route, the Timer
resets allowing event detection to again occur immediately.
MANUAL — Event detection occurs when the TRIG key is pressed.
TLINK — Event detection occurs when an input trigger via the Trigger Link input line is
received (see Trigger link for more information). With TLink selected, you can loop around the
Arm Event Detector by setting the event detector bypass to ONCE.
↓STEST — Event detection occurs when the SOT (start of test) line of the Digital I/O port
is pulsed low. This pulse is received from the handler to start limit testing. See Section 11.
↑STEST — Event detection occurs when the SOT (start of test) line of the Digital I/O port
is pulsed high. This pulse is received from the handler to start limit testing. See Section 11.
↑↓STEST — Event detection occurs when the SOT (start of test) line of the Digital I/O port
is pulsed either high or low. This pulse is received from the handler to start limit testing. See
Section 11.
NOTE
STEST can be used only at the beginning of a sweep and should not be used to trigger each point in a sweep.
Triggering
10-5
Trigger layer
The Trigger Layer uses three event detectors; one for each action (Source, Delay, and
Measure).
Event Detector Bypass — As shown in Figure 10-1, there is a bypass for the Source Event
Detector. This bypass is in effect only if Trigger Link is the selected Trigger-In Source. With
this event detector bypass set to ONCE, operation will proceed around the Source Event
Detector.
The programmable trigger-in sources for the Trigger Layer are described as follows:
IMMEDIATE — With Immediate selected, event detection for the three detectors is satisfied immediately. Operation proceeds through the Trigger Layer to perform the Source, Delay,
and Measure actions.
TRIGGER LINK — With Trigger Link selected, event detection at each enabled detector
occurs when an input trigger via the Trigger Link input line is received. For example, if the
Trigger In Event for the Source Event Detector is ON, operation will hold up at that detector
until an input trigger is received. If, however, the Source Event Detector is disabled (OFF),
operation will not hold up. Operation will simply continue on and perform the Source action.
With the Trigger Link Trigger-In Source selected, operation will go around the Source Event
Detector (Figure 10-1) by setting the event detector bypass to ONCE.
Trigger delay
A programmable delay is available before the Source Action. The Trigger Delay can be
manually set from 0.00000 to 999.99990 seconds. Note that this delay is separate from the
Delay Action of the SDM cycle. The Delay Action is discussed next.
Source, delay, and measure actions
The SDM cycle of the SourceMeter consists of three actions: Source, Delay, and Measure:
SOURCE Action — Any programmed output voltage or current level changes are performed.
DELAY Action — This programmable delay is used to allow the source to settle before a
measurement is performed. It can be manually set from 0.00000 to 9999.99900 seconds, or
Auto Delay can be enabled. With Auto Delay enabled, the SourceMeter automatically selects a
nominal delay period based on the selected function and range.
NOTE
The Delay Action is set from the CONFIGURE V-SOURCE or CONFIGURE
I-SOURCE menu. See Section 3, “Source delay.”
In MULTIPLE mode, the soak time takes the place of the delay time only during the
first SDM cycle after the initial sweep trigger. See Section 6, “Auto range change
mode.”
10-6
Triggering
MEASURE Action — During this phase of the SDM cycle, the measurement process takes
place. If the repeat filter is enabled, as shown in the blow-up drawing for Measure Action, the
instrument samples the specified number of reading conversions to yield a single filtered reading (measurement). If using the moving filter or if the filter is disabled, only a single reading
conversion will yield a reading.
Counters
Programmable counters are used to repeat operations within the trigger model layers. For
example, if performing a 10-point sweep, the trigger counter would be set to 10. Operation will
stay in the Trigger Layer until the 10 source-delay-measure points of the sweep are performed.
If you wanted to repeat the sweep three times, the arm counter would be set to three. Three
10-point sweeps can then be performed for a total of 30 source-delay-measure actions.
The maximum buffer size for the SourceMeter is 2500 readings. The product of the two
counter values cannot exceed 2500. For example, if you set an arm count of two, the maximum
trigger count will be 1250 (2500 / 2 = 1250). However, you can set the arm count to INFINITE.
With an infinite arm count, the maximum trigger count is 2500.
NOTE
When a sweep is configured, the trigger model settings will not change until the
sweep is started. After the sweep is finished, the trigger model will reset back to the
previous settings.
Output triggers
The SourceMeter can be programmed to output a trigger (via rear panel Trigger Link connector) after various trigger model operations. An output trigger is used to trigger another
instrument to perform an operation. See Trigger link for more information.
Trigger Layer Output Triggers — After each action (Source, Delay, and Measure), the
SourceMeter can be programmed to send out an output trigger if Trigger Link is the selected
Trigger-In Source. For example, if the Trigger Out Event for Measure is ON, an output trigger
will be sent after the Measure action. When used with a scanner, an output trigger after each
measurement can signal the scanner to select the next channel in the scan.
Arm Layer Output Triggers — The SourceMeter can also be programmed to output a trigger when operation enters the Trigger Layer, or after operation leaves the Trigger Layer and
enters back into the Arm Layer. This output trigger is typically sent to another instrument to
signal the end of a scan or sweep.
Triggering
10-7
Bench defaults
The bench defaults are listed as follows. They are also denoted in Figure 10-1 by the “✛”
symbol.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Arm-In Event = Immediate
Trigger-In Source = Immediate
Arm Count = 1
Trigger Count = 1
Trigger Delay = 0.0 sec
Delay Action = 0.001 sec
Source Trigger In Event = On
Delay Trigger In Event = Off
Measure Trigger In Event = Off
Trigger Out Events = All Trigger Out Events are disabled (off)
Arm Out Events = Off
Event Detection Bypasses = Never (both layers)
When the output is turned ON, the SourceMeter will run in a continuous loop around the
trigger model. After each Measure Action, operation will continue at the top of the trigger
model. The SourceMeter can be returned to idle by turning the output OFF.
Operation summary
The trigger model is designed to offer versatility for the various source-measure applications. Typically, it allows you to perform a specified number of measurements at various source
levels.
For example, assume you want to perform three measurements each at two different
V-source levels (1V and 2V). To do this, set the arm count to two, the trigger count to three,
and use a 6-point Custom Sweep configured as follows:
P0000 = 1V
P0001 = 1V
P0002 = 1V
P0003 = 2V
P0004 = 2V
P0005 = 2V
When the sweep is started, operation falls into the Trigger Layer and performs three measurements at the 1V source level. Operation then loops back into the Trigger Layer to perform
three measurements at the 2V source level. The six readings are stored in the buffer.
Note that after the sweep is finished, the SourceMeter does not return to idle. Operation continues at the top of the trigger model. Subsequent measurements are performed at the 2V level
and are not stored in the buffer.
For details on the Custom Sweep, see Section 9.
10-8
Triggering
Trigger link
Input and output triggers are received and sent via the rear panel TRIGGER LINK connector. The trigger link has four lines. At the factory, line #2 is selected for output triggers, and line
#1 is selected for input triggers. These input/output line assignments can be changed from the
CONFIGURE TRIGGER menu. See Configuring triggering later in this section. The connector
pinout is shown in Figure 10-2.
Figure 10-2
Rear panel pinout
Rear Panel Pinout
8
5
Pin Number
7 6
4 3
2
1
Description
1
Trigger Link 1
2
Trigger Link 2
3
Trigger Link 3
4
Trigger Link 4
5
Trigger Link 5 (not used)
6
Trigger Link 6 (not used)
7
Ground
8
Ground
Input trigger requirements
An input trigger is used to satisfy event detection for a trigger model layer that is configured
for the TRIGGER LINK event. See Trigger model. The input requires a falling-edge, TTL compatible pulse with the specifications shown in Figure 10-3.
Figure 10-3
Trigger link input pulse
specifications
Triggers on
Leading Edge
TTL High
(2V – 5V)
TTL Low
(≤0.8V)
10µs
Minimum
Triggering
10-9
Output trigger specifications
The SourceMeter can be programmed to output a trigger after various trigger model actions.
See Trigger model. The output trigger provides a TTL-compatible output pulse that can be used
to trigger other instruments. The specifications for this trigger pulse are shown in Figure 10-4.
A trigger link line can source 1mA and sink up to 50mA.
Figure 10-4
Trigger link output pulse
specifications
Meter Complete
TTL High
(3.4V Typical)
TTL Low
(0.25V Typical)
10µs
Minimum
External triggering example
In a simple test system, you may want to close a switching channel and then measure the
resistance of the DUT connected to that channel. This test system is shown in Figure 10-5,
which uses a SourceMeter to measure 10 DUTs switched by a Model 7011 multiplexer card in
a Model 7001/7002 Switch System.
Figure 10-5
DUT test system
DUT
#2
2
DUT
#10
10
OUTPUT
Triax
Cable
LO
SENSE IN/OUT
HIGH
Remote
PreAmp
KEITHLEY
1
HI
6430
REMOTE
PreAmp
DUT
#1
Card 1
7011 MUX Card
MAINFRAME
Preamp
Cable
Connect to REMOTE
PreAmp connector on rear
panel of mainframe
10-10
Triggering
The Trigger Link connections for this test system are shown in Figure 10-6. Trigger Link of
the SourceMeter is connected to Trigger Link (IN or OUT) of the switching mainframe. Note
that with the default trigger settings of the switching mainframe, line #1 is an input, and line #2
is an output.
Figure 10-6
Trigger link
connections
6430 SourceMeter
7001 or 7002 Switch System
WARNING:NO INTERNAL OPERATOR SERVICABLE PARTS,SERVICE BY QUALIFIED PERSONNEL ONLY.
WARNING:NO INTERNAL OPERATOR SERVICABLE PARTS,SERVICE BY QUALIFIED PERSONNEL ONLY.
250V
PEAK
HI
5V
PK
5V
PEAK
250V
PEAK
MADE IN
U.S.A.
V, Ω
GUARD
REMOTE
PreAmp
5V
PEAK
!
GUARD
SENSE
MADE IN USA
LINE FUSE
SLOWBLOW
LO
IN
OUT
4-WIRE
SENSE
2.5A, 250V
42V
PEAK
LINE RATING
100-240VAC
50, 60, HZ
100VA MAX
(ENTER IEEE ADDRESS
WITH FRONT PANEL MENU)
RS232
CAUTION:FOR CONTINUED PROTECTION AGAINST FIRE HAZARD,REPLACE FUSE WITH SAME TYPE AND RATING.
Trigger
Link
INPUT/
OUTPUT
IEEE-488
INTERLOCKDIGITAL I/O
TRIGGER
LINK
CAUTION:FOR CONTINUED PROTECTION AGAINST FIRE HAZARD,REPLACE FUSE WITH SAME TYPE AND RATING.
Trigger
Link Cable
(8501)
Trigger
Link
For this example, the SourceMeter and Switching Mainframe are configured as follows.
SourceMeter setup
Step 1: Restore bench defaults
Press the MENU key, select SAVESETUP, then press the ENTER key. From the
SAVESETUP menu, select GLOBAL, then press ENTER. From the GLOBAL SETUP
MENU, select RESET, then press ENTER. Select BENCH, then press ENTER.
Step 2: Set up trigger parameters
Press the CONFIG key, and then the TRIG key to access the CONFIGURE TRIGGER
menu. Select TRIG-LAYER, and then press ENTER to access the CONFIGURE TRIGLAYER menu.
Step 3: Set trigger-in event to TRIGGER-LINK
Select TRIGGER-IN, then press ENTER. Select TRIGGER-LINK, then press ENTER.
Step 4: Set trigger input line to #2
Select #2, then press ENTER three times to return to CONFIGURE TRIG-LAYER menu.
Step 5: Set trigger output line to # 1
Select TRIGGER-OUT, then press ENTER. Select LINE, then press ENTER. Select #1,
then press ENTER.
Triggering
10-11
Step 6: Set trigger out events to MEAS=ON (all others to OFF)
Select EVENTS, then press ENTER. Select MEAS=OFF and toggle the value to ON using
the ▲ and ▼ keys. Press ENTER, and then press EXIT to return to the CONFIGURE TRIGLAYER menu.
Step 7: Set trigger count to 10
Use the right cursor key to scroll to the far right of the menu selections and select COUNT,
then press ENTER. Set the count to 10, then press the ENTER key. Press the EXIT key twice to
leave CONFIGURE TRIGGER menus.
Step 8: Enable auto output off
Press the CONFIG key and then the ON/OFF key to access the CONFIGURE OUTPUT
menu. Select AUTO-OFF, then press ENTER. Select ENABLE, then press ENTER. Select
ALWAYS, then press ENTER. Press the EXIT key to leave the CONFIGURE OUTPUT menu.
Switching mainframe setup
Step 1: Restore bench defaults
Press the MENU key, select SAVESETUP, and then press ENTER. From the SAVESETUP
menu, select RESET, then press ENTER. Press ENTER to confirm the action. Press ENTER to
return to the SETUP MENU. Press EXIT to leave the SETUP MENU. Press EXIT to leave the
MAIN MENU.
Step 2: Set up scan list: 1!1 - 1!10
Press the SCAN LIST key. Press 1, 1 - 1, 1, 0 , then press the ENTER key.
Step 3: Set then number of scans to 1
Press the SCAN key, select SCAN-CONTROL, and then press ENTER. From the SCAN
CONTROL menu, select NUMBER-OF-SCANS, then press ENTER. Select ENTER-SCANCOUNT, then press ENTER. Set the count to 1, then press ENTER. Press the EXIT key to
return to the CONFIGURE SCAN menu.
Step 4: Set channel spacing to trigger-link
Select CHAN-CONTROL from the CONFIGURE SCAN menu, then press ENTER. Select
CHANNEL-SPACING from the CHANNEL CONTROL menu, then press ENTER. Select
TRIGLINK, then press ENTER. Select ASYNCHRONOUS, then press ENTER. Press
ENTER, ENTER, then EXIT, EXIT, EXIT to leave the CONFIGURE SCAN menu.
10-12
Triggering
Operation
1.
2.
3.
To store the readings in the SourceMeter buffer, press STORE, and set the buffer size
for 10. When ENTER is pressed, the asterisk (*) annunciator will turn on to indicate the
buffer is enabled. See Section 8 for details.
Turn the SourceMeter OUTPUT ON. The SourceMeter waits for an external trigger
from the switching mainframe.
Press STEP on the Model 7001/7002 to take it out of idle and start the scan. The scanner's output pulse triggers the SourceMeter to take a reading and store it. The SourceMeter then sends a trigger pulse to the switching mainframe to close the next channel.
This process continues until all 10 channels are scanned, measured, and stored.
Details of this testing process are explained in the following paragraphs and are referenced
to the operation model shown in Figure 10-7.
A) Turning the SourceMeter OUTPUT ON places it at point A in the flowchart, where it
waits for an external trigger.
B) Pressing STEP takes the Model 7001/2 out of the idle state and places operation at point
B in the flowchart.
Figure 10-7
Operation model for
triggering example
7001or 7002
Press STEP to start scan
SourceMeter
Idle
Bypass
Idle
B
A
Wait for
Trigger Link
Trigger
C
Scan
Channel
D
Output
Trigger
No
Scanned
10
Channels
?
Yes
Wait for
Trigger Link
Trigger
Trigger
Trigger
Make
Measurement
E
Output
Trigger
F
Made
10
Measurements
?
Yes
No
Triggering
10-13
C) For the first pass through the model, the scanner does not wait at point B. Instead, it
closes the first channel (point C).
D) After the relay settles, the Model 7001/2 outputs a trigger pulse. Since the instrument is
programmed to scan 10 channels, operation loops back to point B, where it waits for an input
trigger.
E) and F) With the SourceMeter operation at point A, the output trigger pulse from the
Model 7001/2 triggers a measurement of DUT #1 (point E). After the measurement is complete, the SourceMeter outputs a trigger pulse and then loops back to point A, where it waits for
another input trigger.
The trigger applied to the Model 7001/2 from the SourceMeter closes the next channel in the
scan, which then triggers the SourceMeter to measure that DUT. This process continues until
all 10 channels are scanned and measured.
Configuring triggering
Triggering is configured from the CONFIGURE TRIGGER menu and is structured as
follows.
NOTE
See “Trigger model” for details on the following programmable aspects of
triggering.
CONFIGURE TRIGGER menu
Press CONFIG and then TRIG to display the menu shown below and in Figure 10-8. (Note
that bullets indicate the primary items of the menu, while dashes and slashes indicate options.
See Section 1, Rules to navigate menus to check and/or change trigger options.)
•
ARM LAYER — Use this menu item to configure the arm layer of the trigger model:
- ARM IN — Use to select the detection event for the arm layer:
/ IMMEDIATE — Event detection occurs immediately.
/ MANUAL — Event detection occurs when the TRG key is pressed.
/ GPIB — Event detection occurs when a bus trigger (GET or *TRG) is received.
/ TIMER — Initially, event detection is satisfied immediately. Subsequent event
detection occurs after the timer interval elapses. After selecting this arm event,
you will be prompted to specify the timer interval (in seconds).
/ MANUAL — Event detection occurs when the TRIG key is pressed.
/ TLINK — After selecting this arm event, you will be prompted to select the input
line for the Trigger Link and the state of the event detection bypass. With ONCE
selected, operation will loop around the arm event detector on each new pass
through the trigger model. With NEVER selected, operation always waits for the
input trigger.
10-14
Triggering
•
/ ↓STEST — Event detection occurs when the SOT line of the Digital I/O port is
pulsed low. After selecting this arm event, you will be prompted to select the state
of the event detection bypass. With ONCE selected, operation will loop around
the arm event detector on each new pass through the trigger model. With NEVER
selected, operation always waits for the input trigger.
/ ↑STEST — Event detection occurs when the SOT line of the Digital I/O port is
pulsed high. After selecting this arm event, you will be prompted to select the
state of the event detection bypass.
/ ↑↓STEST — Event detection occurs when the SOT line of the Digital I/O port is
pulsed either high or low. After selecting this arm event, you will be prompted to
select the state of the event detection bypass.
- ARM OUT — Use to configure the arm layer output trigger:
/ LINE — Select the Trigger Link line for the output trigger: line #1, #2, #3, or #4.
/ EVENTS — Enable (ON) or disable (OFF) the arm layer output triggers. TRIG
LAYER EXIT ON enables an output trigger on exiting the trigger layer, while TL
ENTER ON enables a trigger on entering the trigger layer.
- COUNT — Specify the arm count, FINITE (programmable count) or INFINITE
(never ending count).
TRIG LAYER — Use this menu item to configure the trigger layer of the trigger
model:
- TRIGGER IN — Use to select the detection event for the trigger layer:
/ IMMEDIATE — Event detection occurs immediately.
/ TRIGGER LINK — After selecting this trigger-in source, you will be prompted
in sequence as follows:
> TRIG-IN TLINK LINE — Select the input line (#1, #2, #3, or #4) for the
Trigger Link.
> EVENT DETECT BYPASS — Set the bypass for the Source Event Detector.
With ONCE, operation will loop around the Source Event Detector. With
NEVER selected, operation will wait for an input trigger.
> TRIGGER IN EVENTS — Enable (ON) or disable (OFF) trigger-in events
(SOURCE, DELAY, and MEASURE). With a trigger-in event ON, operation
will wait at that event for an input trigger. With the trigger-in event OFF, operation will not wait. It will simply continue on and perform the appropriate
action.
- TRIGGER OUT — Use to configure the trigger layer output trigger:
/ LINE — Select the Trigger Link line for the output trigger; line #1, #2, #3, or #4.
/ EVENTS — Enable (ON) or disable (OFF) output triggers that occur after the
source, delay, and measure actions.
- DELAY — Specify the time delay (in seconds) for the trigger delay.
- COUNT — Specify the trigger count.
Triggering
•
10-15
HALT — Use to return the SourceMeter to the idle state. HALT does not turn off the
output. The programmed source level will still be available at the OUTPUT terminals.
The following actions will take the SourceMeter out of idle:
- Turn the output off and then on again.
- Re-select the arm or trigger event.
- Exit from the menu structure, and then re-enter it by pressing CONFIG and then
TRIG.
Figure 10-8
Configure trigger
menu tree
CONFIG
TRIG
ARM
LAYER
ARM
OUT
ARM IN
LINE
IMMEDIATE
GPIB
TRIG
LAYER
EVENTS
TIMER
MANUAL
TRIGGER
OUT
TRIGGER
IN
COUNT
IMMEDIATE
TLINK
TRIGGER
LINK
⇓STEST
HALT
LINE
DELAY
EVENTS
⇑STEST ⇑⇓STEST
COUNT
10-16
Triggering
Remote triggering
Trigger model (remote operation)
The trigger model flowchart in Figure 10-9 summarizes remote trigger operation. Operation
is controlled by SCPI commands from the Trigger Subsystem. Key remote commands are
included in the trigger model. Also note that the GPIB defaults are denoted by the “✛” symbol.
The primary actions of the trigger model are Source, Delay, and Measure. The source action
outputs the programmed voltage or current value, and the programmed delay provides a settling period for the source before the measurement is performed.
The trigger model consists of two layers (Arm Layer and Trigger Layer) to provide versatility. Programmable counters allow operations to be repeated, and various input and output trigger options are available to provide source-measure synchronization between the SourceMeter
and other instruments (via the Trigger Link).
Idle and initiate
The instrument is considered to be in the idle state (ARM annunciator off) when it is not
operating within the trigger model layers. While in the idle state, the instrument cannot perform
any measurements. An initiate command is required to take the instrument out of idle. The following commands perform an initiate operation:
•
•
•
:INITiate
:READ?
:MEASure?
Conversely, if the unit is taking readings, most commands (except DCL, SDC, IFC, and
ABORt) are queued up and will not be executed until the unit returns to idle.
When auto output-off is disabled (:SOURce1:CLEar:AUTO OFF), you must first turn the
source output on before sending the :INITiate or :READ? command. The :MEASure? command will automatically turn the output on. Note that after the instrument returns to the idle
state, the output will remain on.
When auto output-off is enabled (:SOURce1:CLEar:AUTO ON), any of the above three
commands can be used to initiate operation. The source output will automatically turn on at the
beginning of each SDM (source-delay-measure) cycle and turn off after each measurement is
completed.
Triggering
Figure 10-9
Trigger model
(remote operation)
Note: The following commands
place the SourceMeter into
idle: DCL, SDC, ABORt,
*RST, SYSTem:PREset and
*RCL
See Note
INITiate
?
No
Idle
Yes
Arm
Layer
ARM
:DIRection
SOURce
No
ARM :SOURce
ARM:COUNt
Another
✛ IMMediate
Yes
✛ ACCeptor
<n>|INF
Arm
BUS
✛1
?
TIMer
MANual
Arm
Event
Arm-In
TLINk
Detector
Event
✛
NSTest
NONE|TEXit
ARM:OUTPut
PSTest
BSTest
ARM:OUTPut
NONE|TENTer
✛
TRIGger
:DIRection
Trigger
Layer
SOURce
✛ ACCeptor
TRIGger:INPut
✛ SOURce
No
Yes
Source Event
Detector
Trigger Delay
Another
Trigger
?
TRIGger:DELay
<n>
✛ 0.0 sec
SOURCE
Action
TRIGger:OUTPut*
TRIGger:SOURce
✛ IMMediate
TLINk
Trigger-In
Source
TRIGger:INPut
DELay
SOURce
Delay Event
Detector
DELAY**
Action
TRIGger:OUTPut*
TRIGger:INPut
SENSe
✛ = GPIB Default
= Output Trigger
SOURce:DELay
<n>|AUTO
✛ 0.001 sec
DELay
Measure
Event
Detector
MEASURE
Action
TRIGger:OUTPut*
10-17
SENSe
* GPIB default parameter for TRIGGER:OUTPut is NONE
** In :SYSTem:RCMode MULTiple, the soak time programmed with
:SOURce[1]:SOAK takes the place of the delay time only during the
first SDM cycle after the initial sweep trigger. See Section 17 for details.
TRIGger:COUNt
<n>
✛1
10-18
Triggering
While operating within the trigger model (ARM indicator on), most commands will not be
executed until the SourceMeter completes all of its programmed source-measure operations
and returns to the idle state. The IFC (interface clear), SDC (selected device clear) and DCL
(device clear) commands can be executed under any circumstance while operating within the
trigger model. They will abort any other command or query.
•
•
•
•
•
NOTE
:ABORt
:SYSTem:PRESet
*TRG or GET
*RST
*RCL
SDC, DCL, or :ABORt place the SourceMeter in the idle state. For fastest response,
use SDC or DCL to return to idle.
Event detection
Once the instrument is taken out of idle, operation proceeds through the trigger model to
perform the Source, Delay, and Measure actions.
In general, operation is held up at an event detector until the programmed event occurs. Note
however, that if an event detector has a bypass (:DIRection), operation can be programmed to
loop around the event detector.
Arm layer
Event Detector Bypass — As shown in Figure 10-9, there is a bypass (ARM:DIRection)
for the Arm Event Detector. This bypass can only be used if TLINk, PSTest, NSTest, or BSTest
is the selected Arm-In Event. The bypass serves to “jump-start” operation. With the bypass set
to SOURce, operation will loop around the Arm Event Detector when an INITiate command is
sent (assuming the output is turned ON).
The programmable arm-in events for the Arm Layer are described as follows:
IMMediate — Event detection occurs immediately allowing operation to continue.
BUS — Event detection occurs when a bus trigger (GET or *TRG) is received.
TIMer — Event detection occurs immediately on the initial pass through the trigger model.
Each subsequent detection is satisfied when the programmed timer interval elapses. The timer
resets to its initial state when the instrument goes into idle.
MANual — Event detection occurs when the TRIG key is pressed. The SourceMeter must
be in LOCAL mode for it to respond to the TRIG key. Press the LOCAL key or send LOCAL
24 over the bus to take the SourceMeter out of remote.
TLINk — Event detection occurs when an input trigger via the Trigger Link input line is
received (see Trigger Link for more information). With TLINk selected, you can loop around
the Arm Event Detector by setting the event detector bypass (ARM:DIRection) to SOURce.
Triggering
10-19
NSTest — Event detection occurs when the SOT (start of test) line of the Digital I/O port is
pulsed low. This pulse is received from the handler to start limit testing. See Section 11.
PSTest — Event detection occurs when the SOT (start of test) line of the Digital I/O port is
pulsed high. This pulse is received from the handler to start limit testing. See Section 11.
BSTest — Event detection occurs when the SOT (start of test) line of the Digital I/O port is
pulsed either high or low. This pulse is received from the handler to start limit testing. See Section 11.
NOTE
NSTest, PSTest, and BSTest can be used only at the beginning of a sweep and should
not be used to trigger each point in a sweep.
Trigger layer
The Trigger Layer uses three event detectors; one for each action (Source, Delay, and
Measure).
Event Detector Bypass — As shown in Figure 10-9, there is a bypass (TRIGger:DIRection)
for the Source Event Detector. This bypass is in effect only if TLINk is the selected Trigger-In
Source. With this event detector bypass set to SOURce, operation will proceed around the
Source Event Detector.
The programmable trigger-in sources for the Trigger Layer are described as follows:
IMMediate — With Immediate selected, event detection for the three detectors is satisfied
immediately. Operation proceeds through the Trigger Layer to perform the Source, Delay, and
Measure actions.
TLINk — With TLINk selected, event detection at each enabled detector occurs when an
input trigger via the Trigger Link input line is received. A detector is enabled by including its
parameter name with the TRIGger:INPut command.
For example, to enable the Delay Event Detector and Measure Event Detector, the following
command must be sent:
TRIGger:INPut DELay, SENSe
The above command disables the Source Event Detector since its parameter name
(SOURce) is not included in the parameter list.
With the Source Event Detector disabled, operation will not hold up. It will simply continue
on and perform the Source Action. Operation will hold up at the Delay Event Detector until an
input trigger is received, and then it will hold up at the Measure Event Detector until another
input trigger is received.
10-20
Triggering
Trigger delay
A programmable delay is available before the Source Action. The Trigger Delay can be
manually set from 0.00000 to 999.99990 seconds. Note that this delay is separate from the
Delay Action of the SDM cycle. The Delay Action is discussed next.
Source, delay, and measure actions
The SDM cycle of the SourceMeter consists of three actions: Source, Delay, and Measure:
SOURCE Action — Any programmed output voltage or current level changes are
performed.
DELAY Action — This programmable delay is used to allow the source to settle before a
measurement is performed. It can be manually set from 0.00000 to 9999.99900 seconds, or
Auto Delay can be enabled. With Auto Delay enabled, the SourceMeter automatically selects a
nominal delay period based on the selected function and range.
NOTE
In the :SYSTem:RCMode MULTiple mode, the soak time programmed with
:SOURce[1]:SOAK takes the place of the delay time only during the first SDM cycle
after the initial sweep trigger. See Section 17.
MEASURE Action — During this phase of the SDM cycle, the measurement process takes
place. If the repeat filter is enabled, as shown in Figure 10-10, the instrument samples the
specified number of reading conversions to yield a single filtered reading (measurement). If
using the moving filter or if the filter is disabled, only a single reading conversion will yield a
reading.
Figure 10-10
Measure action
MEASURE
Action
CONV
CONV
Filter Process
Offsest Comp. Ohms
Autorange
CALC1, CALC2
(Repeat)
CONV
CONV = Reading Conversion
Triggering
10-21
Counters
Programmable counters are used to repeat operations within the trigger model layers. For
example, if performing a 10-point sweep, the trigger counter would be set to 10 (TRIGger:
COUNt 10). Operation will stay in the Trigger Layer until the 10 source-delay-measure points
of the sweep are performed.
If you wanted to repeat the sweep three times, the arm counter would be set to three
(ARM:COUNt 3). Three 10-point sweeps can then be performed for a total of 30 sourcedelay-measure actions.
The maximum buffer size for the SourceMeter is 2500 readings. The product of the finite
values of the two counters cannot exceed 2500. For example, if you set an arm count of two, the
maximum trigger count will be 1250 (2500 / 2 = 1250). However, you can set the arm count to
infinite (INF). With an infinite arm count, the maximum trigger count is 2500.
NOTE
With front panel operation only, when a sweep is configured, the trigger model settings will not change until the sweep is started. After the sweep is finished, the trigger model will reset back to the previous settings.
Output triggers
The SourceMeter can be programmed to output a trigger (via rear panel Trigger Link
connector) after various trigger model operations. An output trigger is used to trigger another
instrument to perform an operation. See Trigger link earlier in this section for more
information.
Trigger Layer Output Triggers — The SourceMeter can be programmed to output a trigger
after each action of the SDM cycle (Source, Delay, and Measure). Output triggers are controlled with the TRIGger:OUTPut command.
For example, to output a trigger after the Measure Action, the following command must be
sent:
TRIGger:OUTPut SENSe
The above command disables output triggers for the Source and Delay Actions since their
parameter names (SOURce and DELay) are not included in the parameter list.
When used with a scanner, an output trigger after each measurement can signal the scanner
to select the next channel in the scan.
Arm Layer Output Triggers — As shown in Figure 10-9, the SourceMeter can be programmed to output a trigger when operation leaves the Arm Layer and enters the Trigger Layer,
or after operation leaves the Trigger Layer and enters back into the Arm Layer. This output trigger is typically sent to another instrument to signal the end of a scan or sweep. The ARM:OUTPut command is used to control these output triggers. The TENTer parameter enables the
trigger on entering the Trigger Layer, the TEXit parameter enables the trigger on exiting the
Trigger Layer, and the NONE parameter disables both output triggers.
10-22
Triggering
GPIB defaults
The GPIB defaults are listed as follows. They are also denoted in Figure 10-9 by the “✛”
symbol.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Arm-In Event = Immediate
Trigger-In Source = Immediate
Arm Count = 1
Trigger Count = 1
Trigger Delay = 0.0 sec
Delay Action = 0.001 sec
Enabled event detector = Source Event Detector (Delay and Measure detection
disabled)
Enabled output triggers = None
Event detection bypasses = Acceptor (both layers)
With output turned ON (OUTPut ON), the SourceMeter will perform one SDM cycle when
the INITiate command is sent. After the measurement, the SourceMeter returns to the idle state.
Operation summary
The trigger model is designed to offer versatility for the various source-measure applications. Typically, it allows you to perform a specified number of measurements at various source
levels.
For example, assume you want to perform three measurements each at two different
V-source levels. (1V and 2V). To do this, set the arm count to two (arm:count 2), the trigger
count to three (trigger:count 3), and use the list sourcing mode with the following defined list:
source:list:volt 1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 2
On the first pass through the trigger model, three measurements will be performed at the 1V
source level. On the second pass, three measurements will be performed at the 2V source level.
After the last measurement, the SourceMeter returns to the idle state. Note that the product of
the arm count (finite value) and trigger count determines the number of measurements that are
performed. In this example, six measurements are performed (2 × 3).
For details on the list source mode, see Section 17, SOURce Subsystem.
Triggering
10-23
Remote trigger commands
Table 10-1 summarizes remote trigger commands. These commands are covered in more
detail in Section 17 except for *TRG, a common command covered in Section 15.
Table 10-1
Remote trigger command
Command
Description
:INITiate
:ABORt
:ARM:COUNt <n>
:ARM:SOURce <name>
Take SourceMeter out of idle state.
Abort operation, return to idle.
Set arm count (n = count).
Specify arm control source. Name = IMMediate, TLINk, TIMer, MANual,
BUS, NSTest, PSTest, or BSTest.
Set arm layer timer interval (n = interval).
Control arm bypass. (Name = SOURce or ACCeptor).
Select arm layer input line. (NRf = input line #).
Select arm layer output line (NRf = output line #).
Select arm layer output events. (Event list = TENTer, TEXit, or NONE).
Clear any pending input triggers immediately.
Set trigger count (n = count).
Set trigger delay (n = delay).
Specify trigger control source. Name = IMMediate or TLINk.
Control trigger bypass. (Name = SOURce or ACCeptor).
Select trigger layer input line (NRf = input line).
Select trigger layer output line (NRf = output line).
Select trigger input layer events. (Event list = SOURce, DELay, SENSe, or
NONE).
Select trigger layer output events. (Event list = SOURce, DELay, SENSe,
or NONE).
Trigger SourceMeter (if BUS source selected).
:ARM:TIMer <n>
:ARM:DIRection <name>
:ARM:ILINe <NRf>
:ARM:OLINe <NRf>
:ARM:OUTPut <event list>
:TRIGger:CLEar
:TRIGger:COUNt <n>
:TRIGger:DELay <n>
:TRIGger:SOURce <name>
:TRIGger:DIRection <name>
:TRIGger:ILINe <NRf>
:TRIGger:OLINe <NRf>
:TRIGger:INPut <event list>
:TRIGger:OUTPut <event list>
*TRG
10-24
Triggering
Remote trigger example
Table 10-2 summarizes the command sequence for basic trigger operation. These commands
set up the SourceMeter as follows:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Arm layer source: bus
Arm layer count: 2
Trigger layer delay: 0.1s
Trigger layer count: 10
Trigger layer output events: source and sense
Trigger layout trigger link output line: 1
After the unit is set up, :INIT is sent to take the unit out of idle. *TRG is sent to trigger the
unit, after which it cycles 10 times through the trigger layer. A second *TRG is required to trigger the unit the second time, and it then completes the second cycle through the trigger layer.
NOTE
You must allow sufficient time between the first and second *TRG commands, or the
second trigger will be ignored.
Table 10-2
Remote triggering example
Command
Description
*RST
:SOUR:VOLT 10
:ARM:SOUR BUS
:ARM:COUN 2
:TRIG:DEL 0.1
:TRIG:COUN 10
:TRIG:OUTP SOUR,SENS
:TRIG:OLIN 1
:OUTP ON
:INIT
*TRG
*TRG
:OUTP OFF
:FETC?
Restore GPIB defaults.
Source 10V.
Select bus arm layer source (*TRG command).
Arm layer count = 2.
0.1s trigger layer delay.
Trigger layer count = 10.
Source, sense output trigger events.
Trigger output line = #1.
Turn on output.
Take unit out of idle.
Trigger first sequence.
Trigger second sequence.
Turn off output.
Request readings.
11
Limit Testing
•
Types of Limits — Discusses the three types of limits: compliance, coarse limits, and
fine limits. Also summarizes the two operating modes; grading and sorting.
•
Operation Overview — Covers binning control and pass/fail conditions.
•
Binning Systems — Details the handler interface, as well as single-element and
multiple-element binning.
•
Digital Output Clear Pattern — Details the digital output bit pattern that occurs after
a binning operation.
•
Configuring and Performing Limit Tests — Describes how to configure the
SourceMeter for limit testing and summarizes a typical test procedure.
•
Remote Limit Testing — Summarizes limit commands and provides a basic
programming example.
11-2
Limit Testing
Types of limits
As shown in Figure 11-1, there are 11 limit tests that can be performed on a DUT.
•
•
•
Limit 1: compliance test
Limit 2: course limits
Limits 3, 5-12: fine limits
A test is only performed if it is enabled. Thus, you can perform one, two, or all 11 tests. The
tests are always performed in the order shown in the drawing.
Figure 11-1
Limits tests
Limit 1 Test
(Compliance)
Pass or Fail on Compliance
HI
LO
Fail
Pass
Limit
Limit
LO
HI
Fail
Pass
Limit
Fail
Limit 2 Test
(Coarse Limits)
Fail
Limit 3, 5-12 Tests
(Fine Limits)
Limit
Pass/fail information
Pass/fail information for limit tests can be obtained as follows:
•
•
•
•
•
A “PASS” or “FAIL” indication on the front panel display.
By programming the unit to output specific pass/fail bit patterns on the Digital I/O port,
which can be used to control other equipment such as a device handler for binning operations. See Binning systems later in this section and Section 12, Digital I/O port, for
more information.
With the :CALCulate2:LIMit<n>:FAIL? query via remote, where <n> is the limit test
number (Section 17, CALCulate 2).
By reading various status bits (Section 14, Status structure, and Section 17, FORMat
subsystem.)
By noting a “P” or “F” preceding buffer location numbers (Section 8, Buffer location
number).
Limit Testing
11-3
Data flow
All limit tests are part of the CALC2 data block. See Appendix C for an overview on how
limit testing fits into the overall data flow through the SourceMeter.
Limit 1 test (compliance)
This hardware (H/W) test checks the compliance state of the SourceMeter. It uses the programmed compliance as the test limit. At or above the programmed limit, the instrument is in
compliance. Below the limit, the instrument is not in compliance.
For example, assume you want to “pass” resistors that are below 1kΩ. To do this set the
I-Source to output 1mA at a compliance limit of 1V, and configure the test to fail on compliance. If, for example, the resistor under test is 750Ω, output voltage will be 0.75V
(1mA × 750Ω = 0.75V). Since the output voltage is below the 1V limit, the test passes. If the
resistor is 1kΩ (or more), output voltage will be 1V (1mA × 1kΩ = 1V). Since the 1V limit is
reached, which places the SourceMeter in compliance, the test fails.
The Limit 1 test can be used to determine the polarity of a device, such as a diode. By using
this test with a source memory sweep, you can branch to a different setup at a specified memory location when the device is installed backwards. See the programming example at the end
of this section for details on diode testing.
Limit 2, limit 3, and limit 5-12 tests
These software (S/W) tests are used to determine if a DUT is within specified high and low
limits. Typically, the Limit 2 test is used to test for “coarse” tolerance limits, and the Limit 3
and Limit 5-12 tests are used for “fine” tolerance limits.
For example, assume you want to sort resistors into three groups: 1%, 5%, and >5% tolerance. To do this, configure Limit 2 test for 5% HI and LO limits, and Limit 3 test for 1% HI and
LO limits. If Limit 2 fails, the handler places the DUT in the bin labeled >5%. If Limit 2
passes, Limit 3 test is run. If Limit 3 fails, the DUT is placed in the bin labeled 5%. If Limit 3
passes, the handler places the DUT in the bin labeled 1%.
NOTE
Limit 2 can be used with the percent deviation math function. See “Percent deviation” in Section 7 for details.
11-4
Limit Testing
Limit test modes
There are two modes of operation for limit tests; grading and sorting. For Limit 1 test (compliance), operation is similar for both limit test modes. If Limit 1 test fails, the “FAIL” message
is displayed and the testing process for that DUT (or DUT element) is terminated. A pass condition allows the testing process to proceed to the next enabled limit test.
With the grading mode selected, each enable software test (Limit 2, 3, 5-12) is performed
until a failure occurs. When a test fails, the “FAIL” message is displayed and the testing process for that DUT (or DUT element) is terminated.
With the sorting mode selected, each enabled software test (Limit 2, 3, 5-12) is performed
until a test passes. When a test passes, the “PASS” message is displayed and the testing process
for that DUT is terminated.
Binning
Even though no additional equipment is required to perform limit tests on the DUT, the
SourceMeter is typically used with a component handler to perform binning operations. After
the testing process, the DUT will be placed in an assigned bin.
For the grading mode, the binning system can be further automated by adding a scanner.
With the use of a scanner, the tests can be repeated (cycled) to test individual elements of a single package (i.e., resistor network). See Binning systems for more information on using component handlers and scanners to perform binning operations.
Operation overview
Grading mode
Grading mode limits operation is detailed by the flowchart in Figure 11-2. A test is only performed if it is enabled. If disabled, operation proceeds to the next test. The following assumes
the first three limit tests are enabled and the digital output of the SourceMeter is connected to a
component handler for DUT binning. See Binning systems. If a handler is not used, ignore digital input/output (handler interface) actions.
With the limit tests properly configured, turn the SourceMeter output on and press the
LIMIT key. The testing process will start when the component handler sends the SOT (start-oftest) strobe pulse to the SourceMeter. Note that if a handler is not used, testing will start when
LIMIT is pressed. Pressing LIMIT a second time terminates the testing process.
As shown in the flowchart, limit tests are performed after a measurement conversion.
Limit Testing
Figure 11-2
Grading mode
limit testing
Start
Turn Output ON and press LIMIT key.
Wait for SOT pulse
from handler
Perform SourceMeasure action
Yes
Perform
Limit 1 Test
?
Pass
?
No
No
Display
“FAIL”
Binning
Control
End
Yes
Immediate
First
Failure
?
Yes
Output Limit 1
Fail Pattern
Store Limit 1 Fail
Pattern in Memory
No
Yes
Perform
Limit 2 Test
?
Pass
?
No
No
Display
“FAIL”
Binning
Control
End
Yes
Immediate
First
Failure
?
Yes
Output Limit 2
Fail Pattern
Store Limit 2 Fail
Pattern in Memory
No
Perform
Limit 3, 5-12
Tests
?
No
Yes
Any
Failures
?
No
Pass
?
Yes
Display
“PASS”
Yes
Immediate
Binning
Control
End
Yes
Another
Test Cycle
?
No
Any
Failures
?
No
Yes
Output First
Fail Pattern
Yes
Output Pass
Pattern
Test
Another
Device
?
No
Stop
Press LIMIT
No
Display
“FAIL”
Binning
Control
End
Immediate
First
Failure
?
No
Yes
Output Limit 3
Fail Pattern
Store Limit 3, 5-12 Fail
Pattern in Memory
11-5
11-6
Limit Testing
Binning control
The binning control selection determines when the testing process stops and the appropriate
binning operation occurs. The results are communicated through the Digital I/O port based on
limit test data. (See Binning systems later in this section.) There are two types of binning control for the grading mode: immediate and end.
Immediate binning — Use immediate binning when you want to stop all testing after the
first failure occurs. Any pending tests will be cancelled, and the DUT will be placed in the bin
assigned to that test failure. If no failures occur, all enabled tests will be performed, and the
DUT will be placed in the assigned “pass” bin. This process is demonstrated in Figure 11-3.
Using a sweep with immediate binning lets you test different devices at different source levels. For example, assume a 3-point linear sweep at 1V, 2V, and 3V step levels. The first DUT is
tested at 1V, the second DUT is tested at 2V, and the third DUT is tested at 3V.
Figure 11-3
Immediate binning
Test1
Test2
Pass
Digital I/O
Pass/Fail
Notification
Test3
Fail
Pass
End binning — End binning allows a sweep to finish before performing the binning operation. In the event of a failure, the first test failure determines the bin assignment. (See Figure
11-4.)
Using a sweep with end binning lets you test a device at different source levels. For example, assume a 3-point list sweep at 1.1V, 2.2V, and 3.3V source levels. Limit testing will be performed at each source level. After the completion of the three test cycles, the DUT is placed in
the appropriate bin.
Adding a scanner to the system lets you test each element of a multi-element device (i.e.,
resistor network). For example, the previous 3-point list sweep can be used to test a 3-element
resistor network. The first test cycle (using the 1.1V source level) tests the first element of the
network. The second test cycle (2.2V) tests the second element of the network, and last test
cycle (3.3V) tests the third element. After the three test cycles are finished, the resistor network
is placed in the appropriate bin.
Figure 11-4
End binning
Test1
(Pass)
Test2
(Fail)
Test3
(Pass)
Digital I/O
Notification
Fail
Limit Testing
11-7
Pass condition
For this discussion, assume that all grading mode limit tests pass. After the three limit tests
pass, the “PASS” message is displayed, and operation drops down to the Binning Control decision block. (Note that the pass condition can also be determined with the
:CALC2:LIM<n>FAIL? query via remote.)
Immediate binning — For immediate binning, the testing process stops. The SourceMeter
outputs the pass pattern to the component handler to perform the binning operation.
End binning — For end binning, operation drops down to the Another Test Cycle? decision
block. If programmed to perform additional tests (i.e., sweep) on the DUT package, operation
loops back up to perform the next source-measure action. After all programmed test cycles are
successfully completed, the SourceMeter outputs the pass pattern to the component handler to
perform the binning operation.
If configured to test another DUT package, operation loops back to the top of the flowchart
and waits for the SOT (start of test) pulse from the component handler.
Fail condition
When a failure occurs, the FAIL message is displayed (and also can be read via remote with
:CALC2:LIM<n>FAIL?), and operation proceeds to the Binning Control decision block.
Immediate binning — For immediate binning, the testing process is terminated and the fail
pattern for that particular failure is sent to the component handler to perform the binning
operation.
End binning — For end binning, the fail pattern for the first failure is stored in memory and
operation proceeds to the Another Test Cycle? decision block. If programmed to perform additional tests (i.e., sweep) on the DUT package, operation loops back up to perform the next
source-measure action. Note that when a failure occurs, subsequent tests in the test cycle are
not performed.
After all programmed test cycles are completed, the SourceMeter outputs the fail pattern
stored in memory. This reflects the first failure that occurred in the testing process for the
device package. The component handler places the DUT in the appropriate bin.
If configured to test another DUT package, operation loops back to the top of the flowchart
and waits for the SOT (start-of-test) pulse from the component handler.
11-8
Limit Testing
Sorting mode
Sorting mode limits operation is detailed by the flowchart in Figure 11-5. A test is only performed if it is enabled. If disabled, operation proceeds to the next test. The following assumes
the digital output of the SourceMeter is connected to a component handler for DUT binning.
See Binning systems. If a handler is not used, ignore digital input/output (handler interface)
actions.
With the limit tests properly configured, turn the SourceMeter output on and press the
LIMIT key. The testing process will start when the component handler sends the SOT (start-oftest) strobe pulse to the SourceMeter. Note that if a handler is not used, testing will start when
LIMIT is pressed. Pressing LIMIT a second time terminates the testing process. As shown in
the flowchart, limit tests are performed after a measurement conversion.
For Limit 1 test (compliance), a failure will display the “FAIL” message and terminate the
testing process for that DUT. For the pass condition, operation will proceed to the next enabled
limit test. If, however, there are no software limit tests (Limit 2, 3, 5-12) enabled, the testing
process will terminate and the “PASS” message will be displayed.
Assuming Limit 1 passes, each enabled software limit test will be performed until one of
them passes. When a test passes, the “PASS” message is displayed and any pending limit tests
for that DUT are cancelled. If all the limit tests fail, the “FAIL” message will be displayed.
Binning
For the sorting mode, only immediate binning can be performed. After the testing process is
finished (“FAIL” or “PASS” displayed), the appropriate output bit pattern will be sent to the
component handler which will place the DUT in the assigned bin. (The pass/fail condition can
also be queried via remote with :CALC2:LIM<n>:FAIL?.)
Using a sweep with immediate binning lets you test different devices at different source levels. For example, assume a 3-point linear sweep at 1V, 2V, and 3V step levels. The first DUT is
tested at 1V, the second DUT is tested at 2V, and the third DUT is tested at 3V.
Limit Testing
Figure 11-5
Sorting mode
limit testing
Start
Turn Output ON and press LIMIT key.
Wait for SOT pulse
from handler
Perform SourceMeasure action
Yes
Perform
Limit 1 Test
?
Pass
?
No
No
Display
“FAIL”
Output Limit 1
Fail Pattern
Display
“PASS”
Output Pass
Pattern
Yes
Display
“PASS”
Output Limit 2
Pass Pattern
Yes
Display
“PASS”
Yes
Limits
Yes
2, 3 and 5-12
Disabled
?
No
Yes
Perform
Limit 2 Test
?
No
No
Perform
Limit 3, 5-12
Tests
?
No
Yes
Display
“FAIL”
Output
Fail Pattern
Yes
Test
Another
Device
?
No
Stop
Pass
?
Press LIMIT
Pass
?
No
Output Limit 3, 5-12
Pass Pattern
11-9
11-10
Limit Testing
Binning systems
The SourceMeter can be used with a component handler to perform binning operations on
DUT packages. With this system, you can test single-element devices (i.e., resistor). Adding a
scanner to the system allows binning operations on multiple-element DUT packages. See Limit
test programming example at the end of this section.
Handler interface
The SourceMeter is interfaced to a handler via the Digital I/O port as shown in Figure 11-6.
The I/O port has four lines for output signals and one line for input signals. The output lines are
used to send the test pass/fail signal(s) to the handler to perform the binning operation.
Figure 11-6
Handler interface
connections
SourceMeter
Handler
Out 1
Line 1
Out 2
Line 2
Out 3
Line 3
Out 4
Line 4 (EOT or BUSY)
Gnd
Dig I/O
1
5
6
9
Input (SOT)
Gnd
/INT
+5V
SOT Strobe Line
Digital I/O connector
These digital I/O lines are available at the DB-9 Digital I/O connector on the rear panel of
the SourceMeter. A custom cable using a standard female DB-9 connector is required for connection to the SourceMeter. See Digital I/O port in Section 12 for more information.
Digital output lines
The four output lines output a specific bit pattern based on the pass/fail results of the various
limit tests. (See Types of limits earlier in this section). In the 3-bit output mode, Line 4 can also
be used either as an EOT (End of Test) or BUSY signal depending on the END OF TEST
mode. (See Configuring limit tests later in this section.)
Limit Testing
11-11
SOT line
The input line (SOT) of the Digital I/O is used to control the start of the testing process.
When ↓STEST is the selected arm event of the trigger model, the testing process will start
when the SOT line is pulsed low. When ↑STEST is the selected arm event, the testing process
will start when the SOT line is pulsed high. When ↑↓STEST is the selected arm event, the testing process will start when the SOT line is pulsed either high or low. With the IMMEDIATE
arm event selected, the testing process will start as soon as the LIMITS key is pressed (assuming the output is ON). See Section 10 for details on trigger model configuration.
When using the SOT line, the handler will not pulse the line while it is in a not ready condition. When the handler is ready (DUT properly positioned in the handler), it pulses the SOT
line low or high to start the test.
/INT line
The /INT line of the Digital I/O can be used if the component handler is equipped with an
interlock switch. With proper use of the interlock, power is removed from the DUT when the
lid of the handler is opened. See Section 12, Digital I/O port and Safety interlock for operation
details on the interlock.
Handler types
The SourceMeter can be used with either of the two basic types of handlers. When used with
a Category Pulse Handler, the SourceMeter pulses one of the four handler lines. The handler
then places the DUT into the bin assigned to the pulsed line.
When used with a Category Register Handler, the SourceMeter outputs a bit pattern to three
handler lines. After the SourceMeter sends the end-of-test (EOT) strobe pulse to the fourth handler line, the handler places the DUT into the bin assigned to that bit pattern.
Category pulse component handler
When using this type of handler, the SourceMeter pulses one of the four handler lines when
a pass or fail condition occurs. The handler then places the DUT in the bin assigned to that
pulsed line. When interfacing to this type of handler, a maximum of four component handler
bins are supported.
If the handler requires low-going pulses, then the four digital output lines of the SourceMeter must be initially set to high. This initial HI, HI, HI, HI clear pattern on the output lines
represents a “no action” condition for the handler since it is waiting for one of the lines to go
low. A line goes low when the defined fail or pass pattern sets it low. For example, if you want
a particular test failure to pulse line #4 of the handler, the defined fail pattern has to be HI, HI,
HI, LO. When the failure occurs, line #4 will be pulled low, and the DUT will be placed in the
bin assigned to that pulsed line.
If the handler requires a high-going pulse, the four digital output lines of the SourceMeter
must initially be set low. The LO, LO, LO, LO clear pattern represents the “no action” condition for the handler. When one of those lines are pulled high by a defined pass or fail bit pattern
(i.e., LO, LO, LO, HI), the DUT will be placed in the bit assigned to that pulsed line.
11-12
Limit Testing
Category register component handler
When using this type of handler, the SourceMeter sends a bit pattern to three handler lines
when a pass or fail condition occurs. This bit pattern determines the bin assignment for the
DUT. With the pass/fail pattern on the output, line #4 is then pulsed. This EOT (end-of-test)
pulse latches the bit pattern into the register of the handler, which places the DUT in the
assigned bin. When interfacing to this type of handler, a maximum of eight component handler
bins are supported.
If the handler requires a high-going or low-going EOT pulse, program SourceMeter for 3-bit
operation and appropriate EOT mode.
NOTE
The EOT and 3-bit modes are configured from the CONFIG LIMIT MENU. See
“Configuring limit tests” later in this section.
Basic binning systems
Two basic binning systems are shown in Figures 11-7 and 11-8. Both systems require a handler to physically place the device packages in the appropriate bins. The handler is controlled
by the SourceMeter via the Digital I/O port.
Single-element device binning
Figure 11-7 shows a basic binning system for single-element devices (i.e., resistors). After
all programmed testing on the DUT is completed, the appropriate digital output information is
sent to the component handler, which then places the DUT in the appropriate bin. The component handler selects the next DUT, and the testing process is repeated.
Figure 11-7
Binning system - single
element devices
Handler
Dig
In
DUT
IN/OUT
LO
HI
Dig
I/O
6430
Limit Testing
11-13
Multiple-element device binning
Figure 11-8 shows a basic binning system to test three-element resistor networks. Note that
this system requires a scanner card that is installed in a switching mainframe. Scanner card
switching is controlled through the Trigger Link. End binning control is required for this test
system, therefore, the grading mode must be used.
Trigger operations for the scanner and SourceMeter must be configured appropriately for
this test. In general, the scanner must be configured to scan three channels, and the SourceMeter must be configured to perform a 3-point sweep and output a trigger to the scanner after
each measurement. See Section 10 for details.
When the testing process is started, Ch 1 of the scanner card closes, and R1 is measured.
Two events occur concurrently after the measurement is completed: R1 is tested, and the
SourceMeter sends a trigger pulse to the switching mainframe causing Ch 1 to open and Ch 2
to close. Assuming there is no failure, a measurement is then performed on R2. While R2 is
being tested, Ch 2 opens and Ch 3 closes. Again assuming no failure, a measurement is performed on R3 and it is then tested. Assuming that all the tests on all three resistors passed, the
device package is placed in the pass bin.
If any of the resistors in the network fails a test, the FAIL message is displayed, and the digital output information for the first failure is stored in memory (assuming that END binning
control is selected). After the sweep is completed, the SourceMeter sends the output pattern
stored in memory. This is the output pattern for the first test failure. The component handler
places the DUT package into the bin assigned to that particular failure.
The handler selects the next resistor network, and the testing process is repeated.
Figure 11-8
Binning system multiple element
devices
Switching Mainframe
Handler
Dig
In
Trigger
Link
Ch 1
Multi-Element
Device Package
R1
Ch 2
R2
Ch 3
R3
Scanner Card
In/Out
HI
LO
Trigger
Link *
Dig
I/O
6430
* Trigger layer configured to output trigger pulse after each measurement.
11-14
Limit Testing
Digital output clear pattern
After every binning operation, the digital output needs to be reset to a clear pattern, which
serves as a “no action” condition for the component handler.
The SourceMeter can be programmed to automatically clear the digital output after the pass
or fail pattern is sent. With auto-clear, you must specify the required pulse width (delay) for the
pass or fail pattern. When not using auto-clear, you must return the digital output to its clear
pattern from the DIGOUT AUTO CLEAR option of the CONFIG LIMIT menu. This option
also sets the pass/fail pattern and pulse width.
Enabling auto-clear
To enable auto-clear:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Press CONFIG then LIMIT.
Select DIGOUT, then press ENTER.
Choose AUTO CLEAR, then press ENTER.
Select ENABLE, then press ENTER.
At the prompts, set the auto-clear pulse width (0s to 60s) and clear bit pattern (0 to 15,
4-bit; 0 to 7, 3-bit size). Use EXIT to return to normal display.
Auto-clear timing
The following example timing diagram (Figure 11-9) and discussion explain the relationship
between the digital output lines for auto-clear. This example uses the 3-bit digital output mode,
and uses line 4 as /EOT. That is, line 4 will pulse low to signal “end of test.”
Initially, the four digital output lines are cleared (in this case, they are all set high). Limit
tests start when the start-of-test (SOT) pulse is received from the component handler. When the
testing process is finished, the pass or fail pattern is applied to the digital output. As shown in
the diagram, lines 2, 3, and 4 go low while line 1 remains high.
The pulse width (delay) of the pas/fail pattern can be set from 0 to 60sec (100µsec resolution) as required by the component handler. Note that the delay specifies the pulse width of line
4. The pulse width of lines 1, 2, and 3 is actually 20µsec longer. Line 4 is skewed because it is
used as the end-of-test (EOT) strobe by category register component handlers. Lines 1, 2, and 3
establish the bit pattern and then 10µsec later the SOT strobe “tells” the handler to read the bit
pattern and perform the binning operation. This 10µsec offset is used to make sure the correct
bit pattern is read by the handler.
After the pass/fail is read by the handler, the digital output returns to the clear pattern.
Limit Testing
Figure 11-9
Digital output
auto-clear timing
example
11-15
SOT*
Line 1
Meas.
Line 2
Line 3
Line 4
/EOT (3-bit mode)
10µs
Delay
10µs
* With the SOT line being pulsed low (as shown), ⇓STEST must be the selected arm
event for the trigger model. If the SOT line is instead pulsed high by the handler,
⇑STEST must be the selected arm event.
Configuring and performing limit tests
Configuring limit tests
Press CONFIG and then LIMITS to display the CONFIG LIMITS MENU. The limits configuration menu is structured shown below and in Figure 11-10. The limits configuration menu
is structured as follows. Note that bullets indicate the primary items of the limit menu and
dashes indicate the options of each menu item. Refer to Section 1, Rules to navigate menus to
configure the limit tests.
•
DIGOUT — Use this menu item to control the following Digital I/O aspects:
- SIZE — Use to select 3-BIT or 4-BIT Digital I/O bit size (or 16-BIT with 2499DIGIO opion). In the 3-BIT mode, Digital I/O line 4 becomes the EOT, /EOT,
BUSY, or /BUSY signal depending on the selected END OF TEST mode. In the 4BITmode, Digital I/O line 4 is controlled manually if the END OF TEST mode is
set to EOT.
- MODE — Use to select GRADING or SORTING mode. In GRADING mode, a
reading passes if it is within all of the HI/LO limit tolerances enabled, assuming
that it has passed the Compliance tests first. The Digital I/O will be driven with the
first pattern of the first Compliance, HI, or LO failure. Otherwise, the pass pattern
will be output. In GRADING mode, you will also choose bin control modes. With
IMMEDIATE, the testing process will stop after the first failure and place the fail
pattern on the digital output. If none of the limit tests fail, the pass pattern will be
placed on the output, and the testing process will stop. With END, the testing process will continue until the programmed sweep is completed, regardless of how
many failures occur. This allows multi-element devices (i.e., resistor networks) to
be tested. After testing is finished, the bit pattern for the first failure is placed on
the output. If all tests pass, the pass pattern will instead be placed on the output.
11-16
Limit Testing
–
NOTE
•
•
•
In SORTING mode, a reading will fail if it fails the Compliance Test, or is not
within any of the Digital I/O Bands. If the tests pass and only Limit 1 is enabled,
the associated pass pattern will be output. Otherwise, the first limit test band that
passes will output its lower limit pattern (upper limit patterns will be ignored). If
Limit 1 fails, its failure patterns will be output. If no Limit 2, 3, or 5-12 passes,
their failure pattern will be output. When SORTING is selected, the Digital I/O bit
pattern can also be set (0 to 7, 3-bit; 0 to 15, 4-bit).
AUTO CLEAR — Use this menu item to ENABLE or DISABLE auto-clear for
the digital output. After enabling auto-clear, you will be prompted to set the pass/
fail pattern pulse width (delay; 0 to 60.00000sec). You will then be prompted to set
the digital output clear pattern (0 to 7, 3-bit; 0 to 15, 4-bit; 0 to 65535, 16-bit).
16-bit digital output patterns are available only with the 2499-DIGIO option.
H/W LIMITS — Use this menu item to control and set the fail mode for the Limit 1
(Compliance) test:
- CONTROL — Use to ENABLE or DISABLE the test.
- FAIL MODE — Use to select the fail mode for Limit 1 test. With IN selected, the
test will fail when the SourceMeter is in compliance. With OUT selected, the test
will fail when not in compliance. Also use to specify the digital output bit pattern
for Limit #1 IN or OUT test failure (0 to 7, 3-bit; 0 to 15, 4-bit; 0 to 65535, 16-bit).
S/W LIMITS — Use this menu item to control, set limits for, and define output bit patterns for LIM2, LIM3, and LIM5 through LIM12 tests:
- CONTROL — Use to ENABLE or DISABLE the test.
- LOLIM — Use to set the low limit and, for the grading mode, specify the “fail” bit
pattern (0-7; 3-bit; 0 to 15; 4-bit; 0 to 65535, 16-bit).
- HILIM — Use to set the high limit and, for the grading mode, specify the “fail” bit
pattern (0 to 7; 3-bit); 0 to 15; 4-bit; 0 to 65535, 16-bit).
- PASS — Use to specify the “pass” bit pattern for the sorting mode software limit
tests.
PASS — Use this menu item to dictate actions upon a PASS condition:
- DIGIO PATTERN — Use this option item to define the digital output bit pattern
(0 to 7, 3-bit; 0 to 15, 4-bit; 0 to 65535, 16-bit). For the grading mode, it is the pass
pattern for the “all tests pass” condition. For the sorting mode, it is the pass pattern
for Limit 1 (compliance) when all other software limit tests are disabled (0 to 7, 3bit; 0 to 15, 4-bit; 0 to 65535, 16-bit).
- SRC MEM LOC — Use this option with a Source Memory Sweep to select the
next memory location point in the sweep when the PASS condition occurs. If
NEXT is selected, the next point in the sweep list will be selected. You can also
branch to a different point in the sweep by specifying the memory LOCATION# (1
to 100).
Limit Testing
•
11-17
EOT MODE — Use this menu item to control the operation of Digital I/O line 4 to act
as an EOT (End of Test) or BUSY signal:
- EOT — In 3-bit mode, automatically output a HI pulse on Digital I/O line 4 at end
of test. In 4-bit mode, EOT is not automatically controlled.
- /EOT — In 3-bit mode, automatically output a LO pulse on Digital I/O line 4 at
end of test. In 4-bit mode, this option is not available.
- BUSY — Set Digital I/O line 4 HI while unit is busy. With BUSY selected, the
unit behaves as if it is in 3-bit mode.
- /BUSY — Set Digital I/O line 4 LO while unit is busy. With /BUSY selected, the
unit behaves as if it is in 3-bit mode.
Figure 11-10
Limits configuration
menu tree
CONFIG
LIMIT
H/W
LIMITS
DIGOUT
SIZE
MODE
AUTO
CLEAR
CONTROL
S/W
LIMITS
FAIL
MODE
LIM2,3
LIM5-12
CONTROL
LOLIM
EOT
MODE
PASS
DIG I/O
PATTERN
HILIM
SRC MEM
LOC
BUSY
/BUSY
EOT
/EOT
Performing limit tests
Perform the following steps to run limit tests:
Step 1: Configure test system.
As previously explained in Section 2, your test system could be as simple as connecting a
DUT to the SourceMeter or could employ the use of a handler for binning operations. Adding a
scanner to the test system allows you to test multi-element devices (such as resistor networks).
Make sure that the Digital I/O is configured appropriately for the handler you are using.
Step 2: Configure source-measure functions.
Configure the SourceMeter for the desired source-measure operations as follows:
1.
2.
Select the desired source function by pressing SOURCE V or SOURCE I.
Set the source level and compliance limit to the desired values.
11-18
Limit Testing
3.
Press MEAS V or MEAS I to select the desired measurement function, then choose the
desired measurement range.
Refer to the Basic source-measure procedure in Section 3 for more information.
Step 3: Configure limit tests.
Select and configure the following limit tests parameters as explained in Configuring limit
tests:
•
•
•
•
Use DIGOUT to configure the Digital I/O port for SIZE, MODE, and AUTO CLEAR.
Set your H/W LIMITS and S/W LIMITS parameters as desired.
Set up PASS conditions for Digital I/O bit pattern and memory source location if using
source memory sweep.
If using 3-bit port size, program the Digital I/O Line 4 EOT MODE for EOT or BUSY,
as appropriate.
Step 4: Turn output on.
Press the ON/OFF key to turn the output on (OUTPUT indicator turns on). The SourceMeter will output the programmed bias level.
Step 5: Start testing process.
To enable the limit tests, press the LIMIT key. If the /SOT line of the Digital I/O is being
used by a handler, the testing process will not start until the handler sends a low-going pulse.
Otherwise, the testing process will start when LIMIT is pressed.
NOTE
The “PASS” and “FAIL” messages indicate the status of each test cycle, with the following exceptions:
• When in the NORMAL or GUARD output-off state, the “OFF” message is displayed. The pass and fail conditions will be displayed as “P OFF” and “F OFF”
respectively.
• When in the ZERO output-off state, the “ZER” message is displayed. The pass
and fail conditions will be displayed as “P ZER” and “F ZER” respectively.
• If the source reaches the OVP (Over-Voltage Protection) limit, the “OVP” message will be displayed. The pass and fail conditions will be displayed as “P OVP”
and “F OVP” respectively.
Step 6: Stop testing process.
The testing process can be terminated at any time by again pressing LIMIT. When using a
handler, the testing process will stop after the last DUT is tested.
Limit Testing
11-19
Remote limit testing
Limit commands
Table 11-1 summarizes remote commands to control limit testing. See CALCulate2 and
SOURce2 in Section 17 for more details on these commands.
Table 11-1
Limit commands
Command*
:CALCulate2:FEED <name>
Description*
Select limit test input path (name = CALCulate[1],
VOLTage, CURRent, or RESistance).
:CALCulate2:DATA?
Acquire limit test data.
:CALCulate2:LIMit:COMPliance:FAIL <name>
Set Limit 1 fail condition. Name = IN (fail into
compliance) or OUT (fail out of compliance).
:CALCulate2:LIMitX:LOWer <n>
Specify lower Limit X; X = 2, 3, 5-12 (n = limit).
:CALCulate2:LIMitX:UPPer <n>
Specify upper Limit X; X = 2, 3, 5-`2 2 (n = limit).
:CALCulate2:LIMit[1]:COMPliance:SOURce2 <NRf> |
Specify limit 1 fail bit pattern.
<NDN>
(NRf | NDN = pattern).
:CALCulate2:LIMitX:LOWer:SOURce2 <NRf> | <NDN> Specify lower Limit X fail bit pattern for grading
mode; X = 2, 3, 5-12 (NRf | NDN = bit pattern).
:CALCulate2:LIMitX:UPPer:SOURce2 <NRf> | <NDN> Specify upper Limit X fail bit pattern for grading
mode; X = 2, 3, 5-12 (NRf = bit pattern).
:CALCulate2:LIMitX:PASS:SOURce2 <NRf> | <NDN> Specify pass pattern for sorting mode
(NRf | NDN = bit pattern).
:CALCulate2:LIMit[1]:STATe <state>
Enable/disable Limit 1 test (state = ON or OFF).
:CALCulate2:LIMitX:STATe <state>
Enable/disable Limit X test; X = 2, 3, 5-12
(state = ON or OFF).
:CALCulate2:LIMit[1]:FAIL?
Query Limit 1 test result (0 = pass, 1 = fail).
:CALCulate2:LIMitX:FAIL?
Query Limit X test result; X = 2, 3, 5-12
(0 = pass, 1 = fail).
:CALCulate2:CLIMits:PASS:SOURce2 <NRf> | <NDN> Specify pass bit pattern (NRf | NDN = pattern).
Sorting mode only if limits 2, 3 and 5-12
disabled.
:CALCulate2:CLIMits:FAIL:SOURce2 <NRf> | <NDN> Specify fail bit pattern for sorting mode
(NRf | NDN = pattern).
:CALCulate2:CLIMits:PASS:SMLocation <location>
Specify pass source memory location. Location =
NRf (memory #) or NEXT (next location).
:CALCulate2:CLIMits:FAIL:SMLocation <location>
Specify fail source memory location. (Location =
NRf (memory #) or NEXT (next location).
:CALCulate2:CLIMits:BCONtrol <name>
Control I/O port pass/fail update. Name =
IMMediate (at failure) or END (end of sweep).
:CALCulate2:CLIMits:CLEar
Clear test results, reset I/O port.
:CALCulate2:CLIMits:CLEar:AUTO <state>
Enable/disable auto-clear (state = ON or OFF).
:CALCulate2:CLIMits:MODE <name>
Select Digital I/O control mode (name = GRADing
or SORTing).
11-20
Limit Testing
Table 11-1 (cont.)
Limit commands
Command*
:SOURce2:BSIZe <n>
:SOURce2:TTL <NRf> | <NDN>
:SOURce2:TTL:ACTual?
:SOURce2:TTL4:MODE <name>
Description*
Set Digital I/O port bit size (n = 3 or 4).
Set I/O port bit pattern (NRf | NDN = pattern).
Query bit pattern on digital output port.
Set Digital I/O line 4 mode (name = EOTest or
BUSY).
Set BUSY and EOT polarity (HI or LO).
Clear digital output lines.
Enable/disable I/O port auto clear (state = ON or
OFF).
Set auto-clear delay (n = delay).
:SOURce2:TTL4:BSTate <state>
:SOURce2:CLEar
:SOURce2:CLEar:AUTO <state>
:SOURce2:CLEar:AUTO:DELay <n>
*LIMitX = LIMit2, LIMit3, LIMit5 through LIMit12.
Limit test programming example
Diode breakdown voltage test is an example that readily lends itself to pass/fail analysis.
This test verifies the reverse and often the forward voltage at which the device begins to show a
large deviation in current for a small deviation in voltage. The test is performed by sourcing a
specified current level and then measuring the resulting voltage drop. The voltage drop is then
compared with one set of limits to determine if the diode passes, or fails and should be discarded. Voltage measurements for failing diodes are also compared against a more restricted
range of limits to determine if they should be routed to QA (Quality Assurance) for further
analysis.
Test parameters for this test include:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Source Function: current
Sense Function: voltage
Source Current: 100mA
Source Delay: 100ms
Limit 2 Upper Value: 0.85V
Limit 2 Lower Value: 0.75V
Limit 3 Upper Value: 0.82V
Limit 3 Lower Value: 0.78V
Figure 11-11 demonstrates graphically how parts are sorted. Diodes with a voltage between
0.78V and 0.82V are considered good and will pass the limits test. Diodes that test with a
slightly wider voltage range are routed to QA for analysis, while those with the largest voltage
tolerance will be discarded.
Figure 11-11
Diode pass/fail limits
Bad Diode,
Discard
Bad Diode,
to QA
Low Limit 2
(0.75V)
Good
Diode
Low Limit 3
(0.78V)
Bad Diode, Bad Diode,
to QA
Discard
Upper Limit 3
(0.82V)
Upper Limit 2
(0.85V)
Limit Testing
11-21
Table 11-2 summarizes the basic SCPI command sequence for performing a limit test for the
diode breakdown and Table 11-3 summarizes pass/fail parameters.
NOTE
Additional programming steps will be necessary to test the values returned by the
:CALC2:LIM2:FAIL? and :CALC:LIM3:FAIL? queries. A returned value of 1 indicated a failure of that limit test.
Table 11-2
Limits test programming example
Command
Description
*RST
:SENS:FUNC:CONC OFF
:SOUR:FUNC CURR
:SENS:FUNC 'VOLT:DC'
:SOUR:CURR:TRIG 0.1
:SOUR:DEL 0.1
:CALC2:FEED VOLT
:CALC2:LIM2:UPP 0.85
:CALC2:LIM2:LOW 0.75
:CALC2:LIM3:UPP 0.82
:CALC2:LIM3:LOW 0.78
:CALC2:CLIM:PASS:SOUR2 1
:CALC2:LIM2:UPP:SOUR2 2
:CALC2:LIM2:LOW:SOUR2 2
:CALC2:LIM3:UPP:SOUR2 3
:CALC2:LIM3:LOW:SOUR2 3
:CALC2:CLIM:BCON IMM
:CALC2:LIM1:STAT 0
:CALC2:LIM2:STAT 1
:CALC2:LIM3:STAT 1
:OUTPUT ON
:INIT
:OUTP OFF
:CALC2:LIM2:FAIL?
:CALC2:LIM3:FAIL?
Restore GPIB default conditions.
Turn off concurrent functions.
Current source function.
Volts sense function.
Output 100mA when triggered.
100ms source delay.
Use voltage for limits comparison.
Limit 2 upper value = 0.85V.
Limit 2 lower value = 0.75V.
Limit 3 upper value = 0.82V.
Limit 3 lower value = 0.78V.
Digital I/O port = 0001 (1) when test passes.
Digital I/O port = 0010 (2) when upper Limit 2 fails.
Digital I/O port = 0010 (2) when lower Limit 2 fails.
Digital I/O port = 0011 (3) when upper Limit 3 fails.
Digital I/O port = 0011 (3) when lower Limit 3 fails.
Update Digital I/O port immediately after test.
Turn off Limit 1 test.
Turn on Limit 2 test.
Turn on Limit 3 test.
Turn on source output.
Trigger reading and limits test.
Turn off output.
Query Limit 2 test results (1 = discard diode).
Query Limit 3 test results (1 = send diode to QA).
Table 11-3
Limits test results summary
Diode voltage range
Test result
Digital I/O port
binary value
Handler bin
number
0.78 to 0.82V
0.75 to 0.78V or 0.82 to 0.85V
<0.75, >0.85V
Pass
Send to QA
Discard
0001
0010
0011
1
2
3
11-22
Limit Testing
12
Digital I/O Port, Interlock, and
Output Configuration
•
Digital I/O Port — Discusses the various input/output lines on the Digital I/O Port as
well as the +5V line that can be used to power external logic circuits.
•
Safety Interlock — Describes how to use the Digital I/O Port as a safety interlock.
•
Front Panel Output Configuration — Details configuration of the Digital I/O Port as
an interlock as well as configuring main output off states.
•
Remote Output Configuration — Summarizes the remote commands used to control
the Digital I/O Port interlock and main output off states. A simple programming example is also provided.
12-2
Digital I/O Port, Interlock, and Output Configuration
Digital I/O port
The SourceMeter has a digital input/output port that can be used to control external digital
circuitry, such as a handler that is used to perform binning operations when testing limits.
Port configuration
The Digital I/O Port is located on the rear panel and is shown in Figure 12-1. Note that a
standard male DB-9 connector is used for the Digital I/O port.
NOTE
Figure 12-1
Interlock and
digital I/O port
The four digital output lines and the SOT line are primarily intended for limit testing
with a device handler. See “Limit testing” in Section 11 for details on performing
limit tests and interfacing to handlers and “Triggering” in Section 10 for information on programming the SourceMeter to respond to the SOT (start-of-test) pulse
from a handler.
SourceMeter
ONLY.
1
5
6
INTERLOCKDIGITAL I/O
D RATING.
9
1 = Digital Output #1
2 = Digital Output #2
3 = Digital Output #3
4 = Digital Output #4 (EOT, /EOT, BUSY, /BUSY)
5 = Ground
6 = Trigger Input (SOT)
7 = +5V
8 = /Interlock
9 = Ground
Digital output lines
The port provides four output lines and one input line. Each open-collector output can be set
high (+5V) or low (0V). Each output line can source up to 2mA or sink up to 500mA. When
using a category register handler for limit testing, output line #4 is typically used for the EOT
(End-of-Test) or BUSY pulse. This pulse from the SourceMeter signals the handler to perform
the binning operation, or indicates a busy condition. (See Section 11, Configuring limit tests.)
SOT line
The input line (SOT) is used by the handler to start limit testing. With the ↓STEST arm
event selected, the handler must pulse SOT low in order to provide event detection which starts
the testing process. With the ↑STEST arm event selected, the handler must pulse SOT high in
order to provide event detection and start the testing process. With the ↑↓STEST arm event
selected, the handler must pulse SOT either high or low in order to provide event detection and
start the testing process.
Digital I/O Port, Interlock, and Output Configuration
12-3
EOT/BUSY line
Line 4 can be used for a normal bit pattern, EOT (End-of-Test), or BUSY signal, depending
on the selected END OF TEST mode.
NOTE
See Section 11 for details on performing limit tests and Section 10 for information
on programming the SourceMeter to respond to the SOT (start-of-test) pulse from a
handler.
+5V output
The Digital I/O Port provides a +5V output that can be used to drive external logic circuitry.
Maximum current output for this line is 300mA. This line is protected by a self-resetting fuse
(one hour recovery time).
Digital output configuration
There are two basic methods to connect external components to the digital output lines, sink
operation and source operation.
Sink operation
Figure 12-2 shows the basic output configuration for sink operation. Note that the external
relay coil is connected between the digital output line (pins 1 to 4) and +5V (pin 7). With this
configuration, the digital output line must be set LO to energize the relay, and the maximum
sink current is 500mA.
Figure 12-2
Sink operation
SourceMeter
+5V
Pin 7
External
Relay
To other
Circuits
Pins 1-4
Pin 9
Digital I/O
Port
Maximum sink current: 500mA
12-4
Digital I/O Port, Interlock, and Output Configuration
Source operation
Figure 12-3 shows the basic output configuration for source operation. In this case, the
external relay coil is connected between the digital output line (pins 1 to 4) and ground (pin 9).
With this configuration, the digital output line must be set HI to energize the relay, and the
maximum source current is 2mA.
Figure 12-3
Source operation
SourceMeter
+5V
Maximum source current: 2mA
Pin 7
To other
Circuits
Pins 1-4
Pin 9
External
Relay
Digital I/O
Port
Controlling digital output lines
Although the digital output lines are primarily intended for use with a device handler for
limit testing, they can also be used for other purposes such as controlling external relays or
indicator lights. You can control these lines either from the front panel or via remote as follows.
Front panel digital output control
Set digital output line logic levels from the front panel as follows:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Press the MENU key.
Select GENERAL, then press ENTER.
Select DIGOUT, then press ENTER.
Using the RANGE and cursor keys, set the digital output parameter to the desired decimal value (Table 12-1). For example, to set the output lines to L, H, H, H, set the digital
output parameter value to 7.
Press EXIT to return to normal display.
Digital I/O Port, Interlock, and Output Configuration
12-5
Remote digital output control
Use the :SOURce:TTL <NRf> command to control the digital output line logic levels,
where <NRf> is the decimal value shown in Table 12-1. For example, send the following command to set the output lines to L, H, L, H:
:SOUR:TTL 5
Table 12-1
Digital output line settings
OUT 4
OUT 3
OUT 2
OUT 1
Decimal value*
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
L
L
L
L
H
H
H
H
L
L
L
L
H
H
H
H
L
L
H
H
L
L
H
H
L
L
H
H
L
L
H
H
L
H
L
H
L
H
L
H
L
H
L
H
L
H
L
H
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
L = Low (Gnd)
H = High (>+3V)
*0-7 in 3-bit mode, which is controlled by CONFIG LIMIT menu. (See Section 11.)
*0-65535 with 2499-DIGIO 16-bit option.
12-6
Digital I/O Port, Interlock, and Output Configuration
Safety interlock
The Digital I/O Port provides an interlock line for use with a test fixture interlock switch.
When properly used, the OUTPUT of the SourceMeter will turn OFF when the lid of the test
fixture is opened. See Connections in Section 2 for important safety information when using
the test fixture interlock.
When the interlock is enabled (see Front panel output configuration later in this section), the
output of the SourceMeter cannot be turned on unless the interlock line is pulled low through a
switch to ground as shown in Figure 12-4A. If the lid of the test fixture opens (Figure 12-4B),
the switch opens, and the interlock line goes high turning the OUTPUT of the SourceMeter
OFF (high impedance). The output can only be turned back on by first closing the lid of the test
fixture and then pressing the OUTPUT ON/OFF key.
Figure 12-4
Using test fixture
interlock
SourceMeter
Test Fixture
/Interlock
(pin 8)
InterlockDigital I/O
Interlock Switch
(Lid Closed)
GND
(pin 5 or 9)
A. SourceMeter OUTPUT can be turned on.
SourceMeter
Test Fixture
/Interlock
(pin 8)
InterlockDigital I/O
Interlock Switch
(Lid Open)
GND
(pin 5 or 9)
B. SourceMeter OUTPUT turns off.
NOTE
Interlock can be driven by Digital I/O. Allow 100µs settling and response time. The
Digital I/O lines are open-collector, edge-sensitive and signals should be debounced to avoid erratic operation.
Digital I/O Port, Interlock, and Output Configuration
12-7
Front panel output configuration
The output is configured from the CONFIGURE OUTPUT menu and is structured as follows. Note that bullets indicate the primary items of the sweep menu, while dashes indicate
options. Use Section 1, Rules to navigate menus to check and/or change operate options.
Configure OUTPUT menu
Press CONFIG and then ON/OFF OUTPUT to display the menu, which is also shown in
Figure 12-5.
•
•
•
OFF STATE — Use to select the OFF state of the output. (See Output-off states for
details.)
- NORMAL — When the OUTPUT is turned off, the V-Source is selected and set to
0V. Current compliance is set to 0.5% full scale of the present current range.
NORMAL is the default off-state.
- ZERO — When the V-Source OUTPUT is turned off, the V-Source is set to 0V
and current compliance is not changed. When the I-Source OUTPUT is turned off,
the V-Source mode is selected and set to 0V. Current compliance is set to the programmed Source I value or to 0.5% full scale of the present current range, whichever is greater. Measurements are performed and displayed while the OUTPUT is
off.
- GUARD — When OUTPUT is turned OFF, the current source is selected and set
to 0A. Voltage compliance is set to 0.5% full scale of the present voltage range.
AUTO OFF — Use to ENABLE or DISABLE auto output off. When enabled, the
OUTPUT will turn off after the measurement phase of every SDM cycle. The OUTPUT
turns back on at the beginning of the next SDM cycle. When disabled, the OUTPUT
stays on as long as the SourceMeter is operating within the trigger model (ARM annunciator on). With the OUTPUT enabled, pressing the ON/OFF key will disable the OUTPUT and disable auto output off.
INTERLOCK — Use to ENABLE or DISABLE the interlock line of the Digital output. This line is used as an interlock for a test fixture. See Safety interlock.
Figure 12-5
Output configuration
menu tree
CONFIG
ON/OFF
OUTPUT
OFF STATE
NORMAL
ZERO
GUARD
AUTO OFF
INTERLOCK
DISABLE ENABLE
DISABLE ENABLE
12-8
Digital I/O Port, Interlock, and Output Configuration
Output-off states
NORMAL
When in this relatively high-impedance output-off state, the V-Source is selected and set to
0V. Current compliance is set to 0.5% full scale of the present current range. In theory, with the
V-Source set to zero, the SourceMeter will not source or sink power. In practice, the source
value may not be exactly at zero. Therefore, the SourceMeter may source or sink a very small
amount of power. In most cases, this source or sink power level is not significant.
ZERO
When in this output-off state, the “ZER” message is displayed (instead of “OFF”), and the
SourceMeter is configured as follows:
When the V-Source is the selected source:
•
•
•
•
The programmed V-Source value remains on the display.
Internally, the V-Source is set to 0V.
The current compliance setting remains the same as the output-on value. “Real” and
“range” compliance detection remains active.
Measurements are performed and displayed.
When the I-Source is the selected source:
•
•
•
•
The programmed I-Source value remains on the display.
Internally, the V-Source is selected and set to 0V.
Current compliance is set to the programmed Source I value or to 0.5% full scale of the
present current range, whichever is greater.
Measurements are performed and displayed.
While in the ZERO output-off state, the SourceMeter can be used as an I-Meter.
The ZERO output-off state can also be used with the V-Source and Output Auto-Off to generate very quick pulsed voltage waveforms. For example, with Output Auto-Off enabled, you
can generate 0 to +5V pulses. While in this relatively low-impedance output-off state, the
Source-Meter will be able to quickly dissipate (sink) current caused by high input capacitance
(i.e., cable capacitance) or an external source. This results in fast settling time. If you instead
used the NORMAL output-off state for this application, current would dissipate very slowly
(slow settling time) resulting in distorted pulses.
WARNING
Hazardous voltages (30V rms) can appear on the selected INPUT/OUTPUT LO terminal when generating quick, pulsed waveforms using the
ZERO AUTO-OFF output state. To eliminate this shock hazard, connect
the LO terminal to earth ground. If using the front panel terminals, ground
the front panel LO terminal. If using the rear panel terminals, ground the
rear panel LO terminal. The ground connection can be made at the chassis
ground screw on the rear panel or to a known safety earth ground.
Digital I/O Port, Interlock, and Output Configuration
12-9
GUARD
With this output-off state, the current source is selected and set to 0A. Voltage compliance is
set to 0.5% full scale of the present voltage range. This output-off state should be used when
performing 6-wire guarded ohms measurements or for any other load that uses an active
source.
NOTE
When changing the output-off state with the output off, the selected output-off state
will be entered immediately.
Output off states and inductive loads
The output off state you select for inductive loads depends on how much energy the inductor
holds. The Normal output off state is not recommended as it lowers the compliance setting. The
Zero or the Guard state are better suited, as Zero does not change the compliance setting and
the Guard output off state would change the voltage source to a current source with a voltage
compliance. The Guard state is typically used only for guarded ohms measurements.
To protect the unit from inductive energy, the application may require a spark gap across the
INPUT HI and LO terminals. The SourceMeter does not have internal spark gap protection, as
some leakage current (nA) is associated with the protection circuits.
Remote output configuration
Output configuration commands
Table 12-2 summarizes output configuration commands. These commands include those to
enable and disable the interlock as well as commands to control output off states. See Section
17, OUTPut subsystem and SOURce subsystem for more information.
Table 12-2
Output configuration commands
Command
:OUTPut:INTerlock:STATe <state>
:OUTPut:INTerlock:TRIPped?
:OUTPut:SMODe <name>
:SOURce:CLEar
:SOURce:CLEar:AUTO <state>
Description
Enable/disable interlock (state = ON or OFF).
Query interlock tripped state (1 = tripped).
Select output-off mode (state = NORMal, ZERO, or GUARd).
Turn output source off when in idle state.
Enable/disable auto output-off. State = ON (output off after
measurement) or ON (output stays on).
:SOURce:CLEar:AUTO:MODE <name> Auto clear mode. Name = ALWays (every reading; default) or
TCOunt (ON when trigger layer entered; OFF when leaving
trigger layer).
12-10
Digital I/O Port, Interlock, and Output Configuration
Output configuration programming example
Table 12-3 lists the command sequence for output configuration. These commands set up the
SourceMeter as follows:
•
•
•
NOTE
Interlock: enabled
Output-off mode: normal
Auto-off mode: on
Connect pins 8 and 9 of the Digital I/O Port together to simulate a closed interlock
switch. Otherwise, the unit will not turn on its output when the measurement is made.
Table 12-3
Output configuration programming example
Command
Description
*RST
:SOUR:VOLT 10
:OUTP:INT:STAT ON
:OUTP:SMOD NORM
:SOUR:CLE:AUTO ON
:READ?
Restore GPIB defaults.
Output 10V.
Enable interlock.*
Select normal output-off mode.
Enable auto-off mode.
Trigger and acquire readings.
*Connect pins 8 and 9 of Digital I/O Port to simulate closed interlock switch.
13
Remote Operations
•
Differences: Remote vs. Local Operation — Summarizes remote operation enhancements and local-to-remote and remote-to-local transitions.
•
Selecting an Interface — Describes how to select between the GPIB and RS-232
interfaces.
•
GPIB Operation — Covers GPIB bus standards, bus connections, and primary address
selection.
•
General Bus Commands — Describes general bus commands used for fundamental
GPIB control.
•
Front Panel GPIB Operation — Summarizes GPIB error messages, status indicators,
and using the LOCAL key.
•
Programming Syntax — Describes the basic programming syntax for both common
and SCPI commands.
•
RS-232 Interface Operation — Outlines use of the RS-232 interface to control the
SourceMeter via remote.
13-2
Remote Operations
Differences: remote vs. local operation
Operation enhancements (remote operation)
There are some source-measure operations you can do over the IEEE-488 bus and RS-232
interface that you cannot do from the front panel; these are summarized below.
Math expressions
There are five math expressions available from the panel. All except the Percent Deviation
are available as pre-defined math expressions for remote operation. However, remote operation
allows you to create up to five user-defined math expressions for a total of nine expressions. An
example program shows how to create Percent Deviation as a user-defined math expression.
Concurrent measurements
With the use of the TOGGLE key, you can measure (display) two functions concurrently.
Using remote operation, you can perform concurrent measurements on all three functions (voltage, current, and resistance). See Section 17, SENSe1 Subsystem for details.
Local-to-remote transition
When changing from local to remote operation, the following actions occur:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
The SourceMeter stops performing source-measure operations and returns to the idle
state (ARM annunciator off).
All sweep operations are aborted.
All menus are exited.
All pending front panel commands are aborted.
Source and compliance editing are disabled.
Data in the sample buffer is lost (i.e., :FETCh?, :CALC1:DATA?, and :CALC2:DATA?
will not return any data until readings are taken while in remote).
Concurrent measurements are enabled.
All other settings are not affected, including those for the :TRACe buffer (data store).
Remote Operations
13-3
Remote-to-local transition
When changing from remote to local operation, the following actions occur.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
The SourceMeter stops performing source-measure operations and returns to the idle
state (ARM annunciator off).
All sweep operations are aborted.
All user-defined display messages are cancelled.
The display is turned on (if it was previously turned off).
Source autoranging is disabled.
Concurrent measurements are enabled.
If resistance was enabled, source readback is enabled.
The display is set to the default toggle state.
Readings are continuously taken (if OUTPUT is on).
Selecting an interface
The SourceMeter supports two built-in remote interfaces:
•
•
GPIB (General Purpose Interface Bus)
RS-232 interface
You can use only one interface at a time. The factory interface selection is the GPIB bus. You
can select the interface only from the front panel. The interface selection is stored in nonvolatile memory; it does not change when power has been off or after a remote interface reset.
The GPIB bus is the IEEE-488 interface. You must select a unique address for the SourceMeter. The address is displayed when the instrument is turned on. At the factory, the address is
set to 24.
The RS-232 interface is a serial interface. Programmable aspects of this interface include the
following (factory default settings are shown in parentheses):
•
•
•
•
•
Baud rate (9600)
Data bits (8)
Parity (none)
Terminator (CR)
Flow control (none)
An interface is selected and configured from the COMMUNICATIONS option of the Main
Menu. See Section 1, Main menu. For details on the programmable aspects of the interfaces,
see Primary address and RS-232 interface operation in this section.
NOTE
When changing interface selections, the SourceMeter performs a power-on reset. To
check and/or change options of the selected interface, you must re-enter the menu
structure.
13-4
Remote Operations
GPIB operation
This section contains information about GPIB standards, bus connections, and primary
address selection.
GPIB standards
The GPIB is the IEEE-488 instrumentation data bus with hardware and programming standards originally adopted by the IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers) in 1975.
The SourceMeter conforms to these standards:
•
•
IEEE-488.1-1987
IEEE-488.2-1992
The above standards define a syntax for sending data to and from instruments, how an
instrument interprets this data, what registers should exist to record the state of the instrument,
and a group of common commands. The SourceMeter also conforms to this standard:
•
SCPI 1996.0 (Standard Commands for Programmable Instruments)
This standard defines a command language protocol. It goes one step farther than
IEEE-488.2-1992 and defines a standard set of commands to control every programmable
aspect of an instrument.
GPIB connections
To connect the SourceMeter to the GPIB bus, use a cable equipped with standard IEEE-488
connectors as shown in Figure 13-1.
Figure 13-1
IEEE-488 connector
To allow many parallel connections to one instrument, stack the connectors. Two screws are
located on each connector to ensure that connections remain secure. Present standards call for
metric threads, which are identified with dark-colored screws. Earlier versions have different
screws, which are silver-colored. Do not use these types of connectors on the SourceMeter; it is
designed for metric threads.
Remote Operations
13-5
Figure 13-2 shows a typical connecting scheme for a multi-unit test system.
To avoid possible mechanical damage, stack no more than three connectors on any one unit.
NOTE
To minimize interference caused by electromagnetic radiation, use only shielded
IEEE-488 cables. Available shielded cables from Keithley are Models 7007-1 and
7007-2.
Figure 13-2
IEEE-488 connections
Instrument
Instrument
Instrument
Controller
To connect the SourceMeter to the IEEE-488 bus, follow these steps:
1.
2.
Line up the cable connector with the connector located on the rear panel. The connector
is designed so it will fit only one way. Figure 13-3 shows the location of the IEEE-488
connector.
Tighten the screws securely, making sure not to overtighten them.
Figure 13-3
IEEE-488 connector location
WARNING:NO INTERNAL OPERATOR SERVICAB
5V
PK
HI
250V
PEAK
250V
PEAK
5V
PEAK
V, Ω,
GUARD
5V
PEAK
GUARD
SENSE
LO
4-WIRE
SENSE
INPUT/
OUTPUT
42V
PEAK
IEEE-488
(ENTER IEEE ADDRESS
WITH FRONT PANEL MENU)
RS232
CAUTION:FOR CONTINUED PROTECTION AGAINST FIR
13-6
Remote Operations
3.
4.
NOTE
Connect any additional connectors from other instruments as required for your
application.
Make sure the other end of the cable is properly connected to the controller. Most controllers are equipped with an IEEE-488 style connector, but a few may require a different type of connecting cable. See your controller's instruction manual for information
about properly connecting to the IEEE-488 bus.
You can only have 15 devices connected to a IEEE-488 bus, including the controller.
The maximum cable length is either 20 meters or two meters multiplied by the number of devices, whichever is less. Not observing these limits may cause erratic bus
operation.
Primary address
The SourceMeter ships from the factory with a GPIB primary address of 24. When the unit
powers up, it momentarily displays the primary address. You can set the address to a value from
0 to 30, but do not assign the same address to another device or to a controller that is on the
same GPIB bus (controller addresses are usually 0 or 21).
The primary address can be checked and/or changed from the COMMUNICATIONS/GPIB
option of the Main Menu. See Section 1, Main menu. This menu option also allows you to
select the 488.1 or SCPI protocol (see Appendix G).
General bus commands
General commands are those commands, such as DCL, that have the same general meaning
regardless of the instrument. Table 13-1 lists the general bus commands.
Table 13-1
General bus commands
Command
Effect on SourceMeter
REN
IFC
LLO
GTL
DCL
SDC
GET
SPE, SPD
Goes into remote when next addressed to listen.
Goes into talker and listener idle states.
LOCAL key locked out.
Cancel remote; restore SourceMeter front panel operation.
Returns all devices to known conditions.
Returns SourceMeter to known conditions.
Initiates a trigger.
Serial polls the SourceMeter.
Remote Operations
13-7
REN (remote enable)
The remote enable command is sent to the SourceMeter by the controller to set up the instrument for remote operation. Generally, the instrument should be placed in the remote mode
before you attempt to program it over the bus. Setting REN true does not place the instrument
in the remote state. You must address the instrument to listen after setting REN true before it
goes into remote.
The SourceMeter must be in remote in order to use the following commands to trigger and
acquire readings:
•
•
•
:INITiate and then :FETCh?
:READ?
:MEASure?
IFC (interface clear)
The IFC command is sent by the controller to place the SourceMeter in the local, talker, listener idle states. The unit responds to the IFC command by cancelling front panel TALK or
LSTN lights, if the instrument was previously placed in one of these states.
Note that this command does not affect the status of the instrument. Settings, data, and event
registers are not changed.
With auto output off enabled (:SOURce1:CLEar:AUTO ON), the output will remain on if
operation is terminated before the output has a chance to automatically turn off.
To send the IFC command, the controller need only set the IFC line true for a minimum of
100µs.
LLO (local lockout)
Use the LLO command to prevent local operation of the instrument. After the unit receives
LLO, all of its front panel controls except OUTPUT OFF are inoperative. In this state, pressing
LOCAL will not restore control to the front panel. The GTL command restores control to the
front panel. Cycling power will also cancel local lockout.
GTL (go to local)
Use the GTL command to put a remote-mode instrument into local mode. The GTL command also restores front panel key operation.
13-8
Remote Operations
DCL (device clear)
Use the DCL command to clear the GPIB interface and return it to a known state. Note that
the DCL command is not an addressed command, so all instruments equipped to implement
DCL will do so simultaneously.
When the SourceMeter receives a DCL command, it clears the Input Buffer and Output
Queue, cancels deferred commands, and clears any command that prevents the processing of
any other device command. A DCL does not affect instrument settings and stored data.
SDC (selective device clear)
The SDC command is an addressed command that performs essentially the same function as
the DCL command. However, since each device must be individually addressed, the SDC command provides a method to clear only selected instruments instead of clearing all instruments
simultaneously, as is the case with DCL.
GET (group execute trigger)
GET is a GPIB trigger that is used as an arm event to control operation. The SourceMeter
reacts to this trigger if it is the programmed arm control source. The following command
selects the GPIB arm control source:
:ARM:SOURce BUS
NOTE
With :ARM:SOURce BUS selected and an :INITiate command sent, do not send any
commands (except GET, DCL, SDC, IFC, *TRG, and :ABORt) while performing
source-measure operations (ARM annunciator on). If you do, erratic operation will
occur.
SPE, SPD (serial polling)
Use the serial polling sequence to obtain the SourceMeter serial poll byte. The serial poll
byte contains important information about internal functions. See Section 14. Generally, the
serial polling sequence is used by the controller to determine which of several instruments has
requested service with the SRQ line. However, the serial polling sequence may be performed at
any time to obtain the status byte from the SourceMeter.
Remote Operations
13-9
Front panel GPIB operation
This section describes aspects of the front panel that are part of GPIB operation, including
messages, status indicators, and the LOCAL key.
Error and status messages
See Appendix B for a list of status and error messages associated with IEEE-488 programming. The instrument can be programmed to generate an SRQ, and command queries can be
performed to check for specific error conditions.
GPIB status indicators
The REM (remote), TALK (talk), LSTN (listen), and SRQ (service request) annunciators
show the GPIB bus status. Each of these indicators is described below.
REM
This indicator shows when the instrument is in the remote state. REM does not necessarily
indicate the state of the bus REN line, as the instrument must be addressed to listen with REN
true before the REM indicator turns on. When the instrument is in remote, all front panel keys,
except for the LOCAL key, are locked out. When REM is turned off, the instrument is in the
local state, and front panel operation is restored.
NOTE
If LLO is in effect, LOCAL will be locked out. OUTPUT ON/OFF is still operational
in remote. If ARM:SOUR is set to manual, the TRIG key will be active in remote.
TALK
This indicator is on when the instrument is in the talker active state. Place the unit in the talk
state by addressing it to talk with the correct MTA (My Talk Address) command. TALK is off
when the unit is in the talker idle state. Place the unit in the talker idle state by sending an UNT
(Untalk) command, addressing it to listen, or sending the IFC (Interface Clear) command.
LSTN
This indicator is on when the SourceMeter is in the listener active state, which is activated
by addressing the instrument to listen with the correct MLA (My Listen Address) command.
LSTN is off when the unit is in the listener idle state. Place the unit in the listener idle state by
sending UNL (Unlisten), addressing it to talk, or sending IFC (Interface Clear) command over
the bus.
SRQ
You can program the instrument to generate a service request (SRQ) when one or more
errors or conditions occur. When this indicator is on, a service request has been generated. This
indicator stays on until the serial poll byte is read or all the conditions that caused SRQ have
been cleared. See Section 14 for more information.
13-10
Remote Operations
LOCAL key
The LOCAL key cancels the remote state and restores local operation of the instrument.
Pressing the LOCAL key also turns off the REM indicator and returns the display to normal
if a user-defined message was displayed.
If the LLO (Local Lockout) command is in effect, the LOCAL key is also inoperative.
For safety reasons, the OUTPUT key can be used to turn the output off while in LLO.
Programming syntax
The information in this section covers syntax for both common commands and SCPI commands. For information not covered here, see the IEEE- 488.2 and SCPI standards. See Section
15 and Section 17 for more details on common and SCPI commands, respectively.
Command words
Program messages are made up of one or more command words.
Commands and command parameters
Common commands and SCPI commands may or may not use a parameter. The following
are some examples:
*SAV <NRf>
*RST
:CALCulate1:STATe <b>
:SYSTem:PRESet
NOTE
Parameter (NRf) required
No parameter used
Parameter <b> required
No parameter used
At least one space between the command word and the parameter is required.
Brackets [ ] — Some command words are enclosed in brackets ([ ]). These brackets are used
to denote an optional command word that does not need to be included in the program message. For example:
:INITiate[:IMMediate]
These brackets indicate that :IMMediate is implied (optional) and does not have to be used.
Thus, the above command can be sent in one of two ways:
:INITiate
or
:INITiate:IMMediate
Notice that the optional command is used without the brackets. When using optional command words in your program, do not include the brackets.
Remote Operations
13-11
Parameter types — The following are some of the more common parameter types:
<b>
<name>
<NRf>
<n>
<numlist>
<NDN>
Boolean — Used to enable or disable an instrument operation. 0 or OFF disables the operation, and 1 or ON enables the operation. Example:
:CALCulate1:STATe ON
Enable Calc 1 math expression
Name parameter — Select a parameter name from a listed group.
Example:
<name> = NEVer
= NEXt
:TRACe:FEED:CONTrol NEXt
Numeric representation format — This parameter is a number that can be
expressed as an integer (e.g., 8), a real number (e.g., 23.6), or an exponent
(2.3E6). Example:
:SYSTem:KEY 11
Press EXIT key from over the bus
Numeric value — A numeric value parameter can consist of an NRf number
or one of the following name parameters: DEFault, MINimum, MAXimum.
When the DEFault parameter is used, the instrument is programmed to the
*RST default value. When the MINimum parameter is used, the instrument
is programmed to the lowest allowable value. When the MAXimum parameter is used, the instrument is programmed to the largest allowable value. Examples:
:ARM:TIMer 0.1
Sets timer to 100 msec.
:ARM:TIMer DEFault
Sets timer to 0.1 sec.
:ARM:TIMer MINimum
Sets timer to 1 msec.
:ARM:TIMer MAXimum
Sets timer to 99999.99 sec.
Numlist — Specify one or more numbers for a list. Example:
:STATus:QUEue:ENABle (-110:-222)
Enable errors -110
through -222
Non-decimal numeric — This parameter is used to send values in the binary, octal, or hexadecimal format. The prefix designates the format type:
#Bxx...x
#B specifies the binary format.
xx...x is the binary number (using 0s and 1s).
#Qxx...x
#Q specifies the octal format.
xx...x is the octal number (values 0 through 7).
#Hxx...x
#H specifies the hexadecimal format.
xx...x is the hexadecimal number (values 0 through
9 and A through F).
Examples to send the decimal value 36 in the non-decimal formats:
*ESE #b100100
Binary format
*ESE #q44
Octal format
*ESE #h24
Hexadecimal format
13-12
Remote Operations
Angle brackets < > — Angle brackets (< >) are used to denote a parameter type. Do not include the brackets in the program message. For example:
:OUTPut <b>
The <b> indicates a Boolean-type parameter is required. Therefore, to enable
the selected source, you must send the command with the ON or 1 parameter
as follows:
:OUTPut ON
:OUTPut 1
Query commands
This type of command requests (queries) the presently programmed status. It is identified by
the question mark (?) at the end of the fundamental form of the command. Most commands
have a query form:
:ARM:TIMer?
Queries the timer interval.
Most commands that require a numeric parameter (<n>) can also use the DEFault,
MINimum, and MAXimum parameters for the query form. These query forms are used to
determine the *RST default value and the upper and lower limits for the fundamental
command. Examples are:
:ARM:TIMer? DEFault
:ARM:TIMer? MINimum
:ARM:TIMer? MAXimum
Queries the *RST default value.
Queries the lowest allowable value.
Queries the largest allowable value.
Case sensitivity
Common commands and SCPI commands are not case sensitive. You can use upper or lower
case and any case combination. Examples:
*RST = *rst
:DATA? = :data?
:SYSTem:PRESet = :system:preset
NOTE
Using all upper case will result in slightly faster command response times.
Long-form and short-form versions
A SCPI command word can be sent in its long-form or short-form version. The command
subsystem tables in Section 17 provide the long-form version. However, the short-form version
is indicated by upper case characters. Examples:
:SYSTem:PRESet
:SYST:PRES
:SYSTem:PRES
long-form
short-form
long-form and short-form combination
Note that each command word must be in long-form or short-form, and not something in
between. For example, :SYSTe:PRESe is illegal and will generate an error. The command will
not be executed.
Remote Operations
13-13
Short-form rules
Use the following rules to determine the short-form version of any SCPI command:
•
If the length of the command word is four letters or less, no short form version exists.
Example:
:auto = :auto
These rules apply to command words that exceed four letters:
•
•
•
•
NOTE
If the fourth letter of the command word is a vowel (including “y”), delete it and all the
letters after it. Example:
:immediate = :imm
If the fourth letter of the command word is a consonant, retain it but drop all the letters
after it. Example:
:format = :form
If the command contains a question mark (?; query) or a non-optional number included
in the command word, you must include it in the short-form version. Example:
:delay? = :del?
Command words or characters that are enclosed in brackets ([ ]) are optional and need
not be included in the program message.
For fastest response to commands, always use short forms.
Program messages
A program message is made up of one or more command words sent by the computer to the
instrument. Each common command is a three letter acronym preceded by an asterisk (*). SCPI
commands are categorized in the :STATus subsystem and are used to explain how command
words are structured to formulate program messages.
:STATus
:OPERation
:ENABle <NRf>
:ENABle?
:PRESet
Path (Root)
Path
Command and parameter
Query command
Command
13-14
Remote Operations
Single command messages
The above command structure has three levels. The first level is made up of the root
command (:STATus) and serves as a path. The second level is made up of another path
(:OPERation) and a command (:PRESet). The third path is made up of one command for the
:OPERation path. The three commands in this structure can be executed by sending three
separate program messages as follows:
:stat:oper:enab <NRf>
:stat:oper:enab?
:stat:pres
In each of the above program messages, the path pointer starts at the root command (:stat)
and moves down the command levels until the command is executed.
Multiple command messages
You can send multiple command messages in the same program message as long as they are
separated by semicolons (;). The following is an example showing two commands in one program message:
:stat:oper:enab <NRf>; :stat:oper:enab?
When the above is sent, the first command word is recognized as the root command (:stat).
When the next colon is detected, the path pointer moves down to the next command level and
executes the command. When the path pointer sees the colon after the semicolon (;), it resets
back to the root level and starts over.
Commands that are on the same command level can be executed without having to retype
the entire command path. Example:
:stat:oper:enab <NRf>; enab?
After the first command (:enab) is executed, the path pointer is at the third command level in
the structure. Since :enab? is also on the third level, it can be typed in without repeating the
entire path name. Notice that the leading colon for :enab? is not included in the program message. If a colon were included, the path pointer would reset to the root level and expect a root
command. Since :enab? is not a root command, an error would occur.
Command path rules
•
•
•
•
Each new program message must begin with the root command, unless it is optional
(e.g., [:SENSe]). If the root is optional, simply treat a command word on the next level
as the root. For fastest operation, do not send optional data.
The colon (:) at the beginning of a program message is optional and need not be used.
Note that eliminating the first colon will result in fastest operation. Example:
:stat:pres = stat:pres
When the path pointer detects a colon (:) it moves down to the next command level. An
exception is when the path pointer detects a semicolon (;), which is used to separate
commands within the program message (see next rule).
Remote Operations
•
•
13-15
When the path pointer detects a colon (:) that immediately follows a semicolon (;), it
resets back to the root level.
The path pointer can only move down. It cannot be moved up a level. Executing a command at a higher level requires that you start over at the root command.
Using common and SCPI commands in the same message
Both common commands and SCPI commands can be used in the same message as long as
they are separated by semicolons (;). A common command can be executed at any command
level and will not affect the path pointer. Example:
:stat:oper:enab <NRf>; *ESE <NRf>
Program message terminator (PMT)
Each program message must be terminated with an LF (line feed), EOI (end or identify), or
an LF+EOI. The bus will hang if your computer does not provide this termination. The following example shows how a command program message must be terminated:
:outp on <PMT>
Command execution rules
•
•
•
•
Commands execute in the order that they are presented in the program message.
An invalid command generates an error and, of course, is not executed.
Valid commands that precede an invalid command in a multiple command program
message are executed.
Valid commands that follow an invalid command in a multiple command program message are ignored.
Response messages
A response message is the message sent by the instrument to the computer in response to a
query command program message.
Sending a response message
After sending a query command, the response message is placed in the Output Queue. When
the SourceMeter is then addressed to talk, the response message is sent from the Output Queue
to the computer.
13-16
Remote Operations
Multiple response messages
If you send more than one query command in the same program message (Multiple command messages), the multiple response messages for all the queries are sent to the computer
when the SourceMeter is addressed to talk. The responses are sent in the order the query commands were sent and are separated by semicolons (;). Items within the same query are separated by commas (,). The following example shows the response message for a program
message that contains four single item query commands:
0; 1; 1; 0
Response message terminator (RMT)
Each response is terminated with an LF (Line Feed) and EOI (End Or Identify). The following example shows how a multiple response message is terminated:
0; 1; 1; 0 <RMT>
Message exchange protocol
Two rules summarize the message exchange protocol:
Rule 1. You must always tell the SourceMeter what to send to the computer.
The following two steps must always be performed to send information from the instrument
to the computer:
1.
2.
Send the appropriate query command(s) in a program message.
Address the SourceMeter to talk.
Rule 2. The complete response message must be received by the computer before another
program message can be sent to the SourceMeter.
RS-232 interface operation
NOTE
The programmable aspects of RS-232 operation (baud rate, data bits, parity, and
terminator) are configured from the COMMUNICATION option of the Main Menu.
See Section 1, “Main Menu.”
Sending and receiving data
The RS-232 interface transfers data using 8 data bits, 1 stop bit, and no parity. Make sure the
device you connect to the SourceMeter also uses these settings.
You can break data transmissions by sending a ^C (decimal 3) or ^X (decimal 18) character
string to the instrument, or by sending an RS-232 break condition (holding the transmit line
low for >11 bits). This clears any pending operation, discards any pending output, and returns a
“DCL.”
Remote Operations
13-17
Baud rate
The baud rate is the rate at which the SourceMeter and the programming terminal communicate. Choose one these available rates:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
57600
38400
19200
9600
4800
2400
1200
600
300
The factory selected baud rate is 9600.
When you choose a baud rate, make sure the programming terminal or printer that you are
connecting to the SourceMeter can support the baud rate you selected. Both the SourceMeter
and the other device must be configured for the same baud rate.
Data bits and parity
The RS-232 interface can be configured to send/receive data that is 7 or 8 bits long using
even, odd, or no parity. No parity is only valid when using 8 data bits.
Terminator
The SourceMeter can be configured to terminate each program message that it transmits to
the controller with any of the following combinations of <CR> and <LF>:
<CR>
<CR+LF>
<LF>
<LF+CR>
Carriage return
Carriage return and line feed
Line feed
Line feed and carriage return
13-18
Remote Operations
Flow control (signal handshaking)
Signal handshaking between the controller and the instrument lets the two devices communicate with each other about readiness to receive data. The SourceMeter does not support hardware handshaking (flow control).
Software flow control is in the form of XON and XOFF characters and is enabled when
XON-XOFF is selected from the RS-232 FLOW CONTROL menu. When the input queue of
the unit becomes more than 3/4 full, the instrument issues an XOFF command. The control
program should respond to this and stop sending characters until the SourceMeter issues the
XON, which it will do once its input buffer has dropped below half-full. The SourceMeter recognizes XON and XOFF sent from the controller. An XOFF will cause the instrument to stop
outputting characters until it sees an XON. Incoming commands are processed after the <CR>
character is received from the controller.
If NONE is the selected flow control, there will be no signal handshaking between the controller and the SourceMeter. Data will be lost if transmitted before the receiving device is ready.
RS-232 connections
The RS-232 serial port is connected to the serial port of a computer using a straight-through
RS-232 cable terminated with DB-9 connectors. Do not use a null modem cable. The serial port
uses the transmit (TXD), receive (RXD), and signal ground (GND) lines of the RS-232 standard. Figure 13-4 shows the rear panel connector for the RS-232 interface, and Table 13-2
shows the pinout for the connector.
If your computer uses a DB-25 connector for the RS-232 interface, you will need a cable or
adapter with a DB-25 connector on one end and a DB-9 connector on the other, wired straight
through (not null modem).
Figure 13-4
RS-232 interface connector
RS-232
5 4 3 2 1
9 8 7 6
Rear Panel Connector
Remote Operations
13-19
Table 13-2
RS-232 connector pinout
Pin number
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Description
Not used
TXD, transmit data
RXD, receive data
Not used
GND, signal ground
Not used
RTS, ready to send
CTS, clear to send
Not used
Note: CTS and RTS are tied together.
Pins 1, 4, and 6 are tied together.
Table 13-3 provides pinout identification for the 9-pin (DB-9) or 25-pin (DB-25) serial port
connector on the computer (PC).
Table 13-3
PC serial port pinout
Signal
DCD, data carrier detect
RXD, receive data
TXD, transmit data
DTR, data terminal ready
GND, signal ground
DSR, data set ready
RTS, request to send
CTS, clear to send
RI, ring indicator
DB-9 pin
number
DB-25 pin
number
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
8
3
2
20
7
6
4
5
22
Error messages
See Appendix B for RS-232 error messages.
13-20
Remote Operations
Programming example
The following QuickBasic 4.5 programming example will control the SourceMeter via the
RS-232 COM2 port. Place the SourceMeter into the RS-232 mode from the front panel main
menu (press MENU, select COMMUNICATION, select RS-232). When the communication
setting is changed, the SourceMeter will reset into that mode.
RD$ = SPACE$ (1500)
‘ Set string space.
CLS
‘ Clear screen.
PRINT “Set COM2 baud rate to 9600”
PRINT “Set no flow control, and CR as terminator.”
‘ Configure serial port parameters.
‘ The following values are the default settings for the SourceMeter:
ComOpen$ = “COM2: 9600,N,8,1,ASC,CD0,CS0,DS0,LF,OP0,RS,TB8192,RB8192”
OPEN ComOpen$ FOR RANDOM AS #1
‘ SourceMeter setup commands:
PRINT #1,
“*RST”
PRINT #1,
“:SENS:FUNC ‘RES’ “
PRINT #1,
“:SENS:RES:NPLC 1”
PRINT #1,
“:SENS:RES:MODE MAN”
PRINT #1,
“:SOUR:FUNC CURR”
PRINT #1,
“:SOUR:CURR 0.01”
PRINT #1,
“:SOUR:CLE:AUTO ON”
PRINT #1,
“:SENS:VOLT:PROT 10”
PRINT #1,
“:TRIG:COUN 1”
PRINT #1,
“:FORM:ELEM RES”
‘
‘
‘
‘
‘
‘
‘
‘
‘
‘
Reset instrument to default parameters.
Select ohms measurement function.
Set measurement speed to 1 PLC.
Select manual ohms mode.
Select current source function.
Set source to output 10mA.
Enable source auto output-off.
Set 10V compliance limit.
Set to perform one measurement.
Set to output ohms reading to PC.
‘ Initiate a reading and print results:
PRINT #1,
“:READ?”
‘ Trigger and acquire one reading.
LINE INPUT #1, RD$
RD$ = “Resistance: “ + RD$
PRINT RD$
‘ Clean up and quit:
finish:
CLOSE #1
CLEAR
END
‘ Close file.
‘ Interface clear.
14
Status Structure
•
Overview — Provides an operational overview of the status structure for the
SourceMeter.
•
Clearing Registers and Queues — Covers the actions that clear (reset) registers and
queues.
•
Programming and Reading Registers — Explains how to program enable registers
and read any register in the status structure.
•
Status Byte and Service Request (SRQ) — Explains how to program the Status Byte
to generate service requests (SRQs). Shows how to use the serial poll sequence to detect
SRQs.
•
Status Register Sets — Provides bit identification and command information for the
four status register sets: Standard Event Status, Operation Event Status, Measurement
Event Status, and Questionable Event Status.
•
Queues — Provides details and command information on the Output Queue and Error
Queue.
14-2
Status Structure
Overview
The SourceMeter provides a series of status registers and queues allowing the operator to
monitor and manipulate the various instrument events. The status structure is shown in Figure
14-1. The heart of the status structure is the Status Byte Register. This register can be read by
the user's test program to determine if a service request (SRQ) has occurred, and what event
caused it.
Status byte and SRQ
The Status Byte Register receives the summary bits of four status register sets and two
queues. The register sets and queues monitor the various instrument events. When an enabled
event occurs, it sets a summary bit in the Status Byte Register. When a summary bit of the Status Byte is set and its corresponding enable bit is set (as programmed by the user), the RQS/
MSS bit will set to indicate that an SRQ has occurred.
Status register sets
A typical status register set is made up of a condition register, an event register and an event
enable register. A condition register is a read-only register that constantly updates to reflect the
present operating conditions of the instrument.
When an event occurs, the appropriate event register bit sets to 1. The bit remains latched to
1 until the register is reset. When an event register bit is set and its corresponding enable bit is
set (as programmed by the user), the output (summary) of the register will set to 1, which in
turn sets the summary bit of the Status Byte Register.
Queues
The SourceMeter uses an Output Queue and an Error Queue. The response messages to
query commands are placed in the Output Queue. As various programming errors and status
messages occur, they are placed in the Error Queue. When a queue contains data, it sets the
appropriate summary bit of the Status Byte Register.
Status Structure
Figure 14-1
SourceMeter status
register structure
Questionable Questionable
Condition
Event
Register
Register
&
0
0
&
1
1
&
2
2
&
3
3
&
4
4
&
5
5
&
6
6
&
7
7
&
Calibration Summary Cal
Cal
&
9
9
&
10
10
&
11
11
&
12
12
&
13
13
Command Warning Warn
Warn
&
&
15
(Always Zero) 15
Questionable
Event
Enable
Register
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Cal
9
10
14-3
Logical
OR
11
Error Queue
12
13
Warn
15
Output Queue
Standard
Event
Status
Enable
Register
Standard
Event
Status
Register
Operation Complete OPC
1
Query Error QYE
Device Specific Error DDE
Execution Error EXE
Command Error CME
User Request URQ
Power On PON
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
(Always Zero) 15
*ESR?
Measurement
Condition
Register
Limit 1 Fail
L1
Low Limit 2 Fail LL2F
High Limit 2 Fail HL2F
Low Limit 3 Fail LL3F
High Limit 3 Fail HL3F
Limits Pass
LP
Reading Available RAV
Reading Overflow ROF
Buffer Available BAV
Buffer Full BFL
10
Interlock Asserted INT
Over Temperature OT
Over Voltage Protection OVP
Compliance Comp
(Always Zero)
15
&
OPC
1
QYE
DDE
EXE
CME
URQ
PON
8
9
10
&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&
11
&
12
13
14
15
*ESE
*ESE?
&
&
&
Measurement
Event
Register
L1
LL2F
HL2F
LL3F
HL3F
LP
RAV
ROF
BAV
BFL
10
INT
OT
OVP
Comp
15
&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&
Measurement
Event
Enable
Register
L1
LL2F
HL2F
LL3F
HL3F
LP
RAV
ROF
BAV
BFL
10
INT
OT
OVP
Comp
15
Service
Request
Enable
Register
Status
Byte
Register
MSB
1
EAV
QSB
MAV
ESB
RQS/MSS
OSB
MSB
1
EAV
QSB
MAV
ESB
6
OSB
&
&
&
&
&
&
&
*STB?
Logical
OR
*SRE
*SRE?
Master Summary Status (MSS)
Logical
OR
MSB = Measurement Summary Bit
EAV = Error Available
QSB = Questionable Summary Bit
MAV = Message Available
ESB = Event Summary Bit
RQS/MSS = Request for Service/Master Summary Staus
OSB = Operation Summary Bit
Note : RQS bit is in serial poll byte,
MSS bit is in *STB? response.
Logical
OR
Operation
Condition
Register
Calibrating Cal
1
2
Sweeping Swp
4
Waiting for Trigger Trig
Waiting for Arm Arm
7
8
9
Idle Idle
Operation
Event
Enable
Register
Operation
Event
Register
Cal
1
2
Swp
4
Trig
Arm
7
8
9
Idle
Cal
1
2
Swp
&
4
Trig
Arm
7
8
9
Idle
&
11
11
&
11
12
13
14
15
12
13
14
15
&
12
13
14
15
&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&
Logical
OR
14-4
Status Structure
Clearing registers and queues
When the SourceMeter is turned on, the bits of all registers in the status structure are cleared
(reset to 0), and the two queues are empty. Commands to reset the event and event enable registers, and the Error Queue are listed in Table 14-1. In addition to these commands, any enable
register can be reset by sending the 0 parameter value with the individual command to program
the register.
NOTE
SYSTem:PRESet and *RST have no effect on status structure registers and queues.
Table 14-1
Common and SCPI commands to reset registers and clear queues
Commands
Description
Ref.
Reset all bits of the following event registers to 0:
Standard Event Register
Operation Event Register
Measurement Event Register
Questionable Event Register
Note 1
Reset all bits of the following enable registers to 0:
Operation Event Enable Register
Measurement Event Enable Register
Questionable Event Enable Register
Note 1
To Clear Error Queue:
*CLS
Clear all messages from Error Queue
Note 2
:STATus:QUEue:CLEar
Clear messages from Error Queue
Note 3
:SYSTem:ERRor:CLEar
Clear messages from Error Queue
Note 3
To Reset Registers:
*CLS
:STATus:PRESet
Notes:
1. The Standard Event Enable Register is not reset by STATus:PRESet or *CLS. Send the 0 parameter value
with *ESE to reset all bits of that enable register to 0. See Status byte and service request commands.
2. STATus:PRESet has no effect on the Error Queue.
3. Use either of the two clear commands to clear the Error Queue.
Status Structure
14-5
Programming and reading registers
Programming enable registers
The only registers that can be programmed by the user are the enable registers. All other registers in the status structure are read-only registers. The following explains how to ascertain the
parameter values for the various commands used to program enable registers. The actual commands are covered later in this section (Tables 14-3 and 14-6).
A command to program an event enable register is sent with a parameter value that determines the desired state (0 or 1) of each bit in the appropriate register. An enable register can be
programmed using any of the following data formats for the parameter value: binary, decimal,
hexadecimal, or octal.
The bit positions of the register (Figure 14-2) indicate the binary parameter value. For example, if you wish to sets bits B4, B3, and B1, the binary value would be 11010 (where B4=1,
B3=1, B1=1, and all other bits are 0). When you use one of the other formats, convert the
binary number to its decimal, hexadecimal, or octal equivalent:
Binary 11010 = Decimal 26 = Hexadecimal 1A = Octal 32
Note that Figure 14-2 includes the decimal weight for each register bit. To set bits B4, B3,
and B1, the decimal parameter value would be the sum of the decimal weights for those bits
(16+8+2 = 26).
Figure 14-2
16-bit status
register
A) Bits 0 through 7
Bit Position
Binary Value
B7
0/1
Decimal
128
64
32
Weights
(27)
(26)
(25)
B15
0/1
B14
0/1
B13
0/1
B6
B5
0/1
0/1
B3
B2
B1
B0
0/1
0/1
0/1
0/1
16
8
1
(23)
4
(22)
2
(24)
(21)
(20)
B12
0/1
B11
0/1
B10
0/1
B9
0/1
B8
0/1
4096
2048
1024
512
256
(212)
(211)
(210)
(29)
(28)
B4
0/1
B) Bits 8 through 15
Bit Position
Binary Value
Decimal
Weights
32768 16384 8192
(215)
(214) (213)
14-6
Status Structure
The <NDN> (non-decimal numeric) parameter type is used to send non-decimal values.
These values require a header (#B, #H, or #Q) to identify the data format being sent. The letter
in the header can be upper or lower case. The <NRf> (numeric representation format) parameter type is used to send decimal values, and does not use a header. The following examples
show the proper parameter syntax for setting Bits B5, B3, and B2:
#b101100
#h2C
#q54
44
Binary format (<NDN> parameter type)
Hexadecimal format (<NDN> parameter type)
Octal format (<NDN> parameter type)
Decimal format (<NRf> parameter type)
Valid characters for the non-decimal parameter values are shown as follows:
<NDN> format
Valid characters
Binary
Hexadecimal
Octal
1s and 0s
0 through 9 and A through F
0 through 7
Reading registers
Any register in the status structure can be read by using the appropriate query (?) command.
The following explains how to interpret the returned value (response message). The actual
query commands are covered later in this section (Tables 14-3 through 14-7).
The response message will be a value that indicates which bits in the register are set. That
value (if not already binary) will have to be converted to its binary equivalent. For example, for
a binary value of 100101, bits B5, B2, and B0 are set.
The returned value can be in the binary, decimal, hexadecimal, or octal format. The
FORMat:SREGister command is used to select the data format for the returned value
(Table 14-2).
For non-decimal formats, one of the following headers will accompany the returned value to
indicate which format is selected:
#B = Header for binary values
#H = Header for hexadecimal values
#Q = Header for octal values
Status Structure
14-7
Table 14-2
Data format commands for reading status registers
Command
Description
Default
:FORMat:SREGister <name>
Select data format for reading status registers:
<name> = ASCii
Decimal format
HEXadecimal Hexadecimal format
OCTal
Octal format
BINary
Binary format
ASCii
Status byte and service request (SRQ)
Service request is controlled by two 8-bit registers; the Status Byte Register and the Service
Request Enable Register. Figure 14-3 shows the structure of these registers.
Figure 14-3
Status byte and
service request
(SRQ)
Status Summary Message
Read by Serial Poll
Service
Request
Generation
RQS
ESB MAV QSB EAV __ MSB Status Byte
(B6)
Serial Poll (B77) MSS (B5) (B4) (B3) (B2) (B1) (B0) Register
*STB?
OSB
Read by *STB?
&
&
&
OR
&
&
&
Service
ESB MAV QSB EAV __ MSB Request
*SRE? (B7) (B6) (B5) (B4) (B3) (B2) (B1) (B0) Enable
Register
*SRE
OSB __
OSB = Operation Summary Bit
MSS = Master Summary Status
RQS = Request for Service
ESB = Event Summary Bit
Mav = Message Available
QSB = Questionable Summary Bit
EAV = Error Available
MSB = Measurement Summary Bit
& = Logical AND
OR = Logical OR
14-8
Status Structure
Status Byte Register
The summary messages from the status registers and queues are used to set or clear the
appropriate bits (B0, B2, B3, B4, B5, and B7) of the Status Byte Register. These summary bits
do not latch, and their states (0 or 1) are solely dependent on the summary messages (0 or 1).
For example, if the Standard Event Register is read, its register will clear. As a result, its summary message will reset to 0, which in turn will reset the ESB bit in the Status Byte Register.
The bits of the Status Byte Register are described as follows:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Bit B0, Measurement Summary Bit (MSB) — Set summary bit indicates that an
enabled measurement event has occurred.
Bit B1 — Not used.
Bit B2, Error Available (EAV) — Set summary bit indicates that an error or status
message is present in the Error Queue.
Bit B3, Questionable Summary Bit (QSB) — Set summary bit indicates that an
enabled questionable event has occurred.
Bit B4, Message Available (MAV) — Set summary bit indicates that a response message is present in the Output Queue.
Bit B5, Event Summary Bit (ESB) — Set summary bit indicates that an enabled standard event has occurred.
Bit B6, Request Service (RQS)/Master Summary Status (MSS) — Set bit indicates
that an enabled summary bit of the Status Byte Register is set.
Bit B7, Operation Summary (OSB) — Set summary bit indicates that an enabled
operation event has occurred.
Depending on how it is used, Bit B6 of the Status Byte Register is either the Request for Service (RQS) bit or the Master Summary Status (MSS) bit:
•
•
When using the serial poll sequence of the SourceMeter to obtain the status byte (a.k.a.
serial poll byte), B6 is the RQS bit. See Serial polling and SRQ for details on using the
serial poll sequence.
When using the *STB? command (Table 14-3) to read the status byte, B6 is the MSS
bit.
Status Structure
14-9
Service Request Enable Register
The generation of a service request is controlled by the Service Request Enable Register.
This register is programmed by you and is used to enable or disable the setting of bit B6 (RQS/
MSS) by the Status Summary Message bits (B0, B2, B3, B4, B5, and B7) of the Status Byte
Register. As shown in Figure 14-3, the summary bits are logically ANDed (&) with the corresponding enable bits of the Service Request Enable Register. When a set (1) summary bit is
ANDed with an enabled (1) bit of the enable register, the logic “1” output is applied to the input
of the OR gate and, therefore, sets the MSS/RQS bit in the Status Byte Register.
The individual bits of the Service Request Enable Register can be set or cleared by using the
*SRE common command. To read the Service Request Enable Register, use the *SRE? query
command. The Service Request Enable Register clears when power is cycled or a parameter
value of 0 is sent with the *SRE command (i.e. *SRE 0). The commands to program and read
the SRQ Enable Register are listed in Table 14-3.
Serial polling and SRQ
Any enabled event summary bit that goes from 0 to 1 will set bit B6 and generate an SRQ
(service request). In your test program, you can periodically read the Status Byte to check if an
SRQ has occurred and what caused it. If an SRQ occurs, the program can, for example, branch
to an appropriate subroutine that will service the request.
Typically, SRQs are managed by the serial poll sequence of the SourceMeter. If an SRQ
does not occur, bit B6 (RQS) of the Status Byte Register will remain cleared, and the program
will simply proceed normally after the serial poll is performed. If an SRQ does occur, bit B6 of
the Status Byte Register will set, and the program can branch to a service subroutine when the
SRQ is detected by the serial poll.
The serial poll automatically resets RQS of the Status Byte Register. This allows subsequent
serial polls to monitor bit B6 for an SRQ occurrence generated by other event types. After a
serial poll, the same event can cause another SRQ, even if the event register that caused the first
SRQ has not been cleared.
The serial poll does not clear MSS. The MSS bit stays set until all Status Byte summary bits
are reset.
SPE, SPD (serial polling)
The SPE, SPD General Bus Command sequence is used to serial poll the SourceMeter.
Serial polling obtains the serial poll byte (status byte). Typically, serial polling is used by the
controller to determine which of several instruments has requested service with the SRQ line.
14-10
Status Structure
Status byte and service request commands
The commands to program and read the Status Byte Register and Service Request Enable
Register are listed in Table 14-3. For details on programming and reading registers, see Programming enable registers and Reading registers.
NOTE
To reset the bits of the Service Request Enable Register to 0, use 0 as the parameter
value for the *SRE command (i.e. *SRE 0).
Table 14-3
Status Byte and Service Request Enable Register commands
Command
Description
*STB?
*SRE <NDN> or <NRf>
Read Status Byte Register.
Program the Service Request Enable Register:
<NDN>
= #Bxx…x Binary format (each x = 1 or 0)
= #Hx
Hexadecimal format (x = 0 to FF)
= #Qx
Octal format (x = 0 to 377)
<NRf>
= 0 to 255
Decimal format
Read the Service Request Enable Register
*SRE?
Default
Note
Note: *CLS and STATus:PRESet have no effect on the Service Request Enable Register.
Programming example - set MSS (B6) when error occurs
The first command of sequence in Table 14-4 enables EAV (error available). When an
invalid command is sent (line 4), bits B2 (EAV) and B6 (MSS) of the Status Byte Register set
to 1. The last command reads the Status Byte Register using the binary format (which directly
indicates which bits are set). The command to select format (FORMat:SREGister) is documented in Table 14-2. To determine the exact nature of the error, you will have to read the Error
Queue. Refer to Queues.
Table 14-4
Status byte programming example
Command
Description
*CLS
*SRE 4
FORM:SREG BIN
*XYZ
*STB?
Clear Error Queue.
Enable EAV.
Select binary format.
Generate error.
Read Status Byte Register.
Status Structure
14-11
Status register sets
As shown in Figure 14-1, there are four status register sets in the status structure of the
SourceMeter: Standard Event Status, Operation Event Status, Measurement Event Status, and
Questionable Event Status.
NOTE
See Appendix B for details on which register bits are set by specific error and status
conditions.
Register bit descriptions
Standard Event Register
The used bits of the Standard Event Register (shown in Figure 14-4) are described as
follows:
•
•
•
•
Figure 14-4
Standard event
status
Bit B0, Operation Complete — Set bit indicates that all pending selected device operations are completed and the SourceMeter is ready to accept new commands. This bit
only sets in response to the *OPC? query command. See Section 15 for details on
*OPC and *OPC?.
Bit B1 — Not used.
Bit B2, Query Error (QYE) — Set bit indicates that you attempted to read data from
an empty Output Queue.
Bit B3, Device-Dependent Error (DDE) — Set bit indicates that an instrument operation did not execute properly due to some internal condition.
*ESR?
—
(B15 - B8)
PON URQ CME
(B7) (B6) (B5)
EXE
(B4)
DDE QYE
(B3) (B2)
—
(B1)
OPC
(B0)
Standard Event
Status Register
&
&
&
OR
&
&
&
&
To Event
Summary Bit
(ESB) of Status
Byte Register
(Figure 14-3)
*ESE
*ESE?
—
(B15 - B8)
PON URQ CME
(B7) (B6) (B5)
PON = Power On
URQ = User Request
CME = Command Error
EXE = Execution Error
EXE
(B4)
DDE QYE
(B3) (B2)
—
(B1)
OPC
(B0)
DDE = Device-Dependent Error
QYE = Query Error
OPC = Operation Complete
& = Logical AND
OR = Logical OR
Standard Event Status
Enable Register
14-12
Status Structure
•
•
•
•
Bit B4, Execution Error (EXE) — Set bit indicates that the SourceMeter detected an
error while trying to execute a command.
Bit B5, Command Error (CME) — Set bit indicates that a command error has
occurred.
Command errors include:
- IEEE-488.2 syntax error — SourceMeter received a message that does not follow
the defined syntax of the IEEE-488.2 standard.
- Semantic error — SourceMeter received a command that was misspelled or
received an optional IEEE-488.2 command that is not implemented.
- The instrument received a Group Execute Trigger (GET) inside a program
message.
Bit B6, User Request (URQ) — Set bit indicates that the LOCAL key on the
SourceMeter front panel was pressed.
Bit B7, Power ON (PON) — Set bit indicates that the SourceMeter has been turned off
and turned back on since the last time this register has been read.
Operation Event Register
The used bits of the Operation Event Register (shown in Figure 14-5) are described as
follows:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Bit B0, Calibrating (Cal) — Set bit indicates that the SourceMeter is calibrating.
Bits B1 and B2 — Not used.
Bit B3, Sweeping (Swp) — Set bit indicates the instrument is performing a sweep
operation.
Bit B4 — Not used.
Bit B5, Waiting for Trigger Event (Trig) — Set bit indicates that the SourceMeter is
in the trigger layer waiting for a TLINK trigger event to occur.
Bit B6, Waiting for Arm Event (Arm) — Set bit indicates that the SourceMeter is in
the arm layer waiting for an arm event to occur.
Bits B7 through B9 — Not used.
Bit B10, Idle State (Idle) — Set bit indicates the SourceMeter is in the idle state.
Bits B11 through B15 — Not used.
Status Structure
14-13
Figure 14-5
Operation
event status
Stat: oper: cond ?
Stat: oper: ?
—
—
Idle
(B15 - B11) (B10) (B9 - B7)
—
Idle
(B15 - B11) (B10)
—
(B9 - B7)
Arm Trig — Swp —
— Cal Operation
(B6) (B5) (B4) (B3) (B2) (B1) (B0) Condition Register
Arm Trig — Swp —
— Cal Operation Event
(B6) (B5) (B4) (B3) (B2) (B1) (B0) Register
&
&
OR
&
&
To Operation
Summary Bit
(OSB) of Status
Byte Register
(Figure 14-3)
&
:stat: oper: enab <NRf>
—
Idle
:stat: oper: enab ?
(B15 - B11) (B10)
—
Arm Trig — Swp —
(B9 - B7) (B6) (B5) (B4) (B3) (B2)
Idle = In idle state
& = Logical AND
Arm = Waiting for arm event OR = Logical OR
Trg = Waiting for trigger event
Swp = Sweeping
Cal = Calibrating
— Cal Operation Event
(B1) (B0) Enable Register
14-14
Status Structure
Measurement Event Register
The used bits of the Measurement Event Register (shown in Figure 14-6) are described as
follows:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Bit B0, Limit 1 Fail (L1) — Set bit indicates that the Limit 1 test has failed.
Bit B1, Low Limit 2 Fail (LL2) — Set bit indicates that the Low Limit 2 test has failed.
Bit B2, High Limit 2 Fail (HL2) — Set bit indicates that the High Limit 2 test has
failed.
Bit B3, Low Limit 3 Fail (LL3) — Set bit indicates that the Low Limit 3 test has failed.
Bit B4, High Limit 3 Fail (HL3) — Set bit indicates that the High Limit 3 test has
failed.
Bit B5, Limits Pass (LP) — Set bit indicates that all limit tests passed.
Bit B6, Reading Available (RAV) — Set bit indicates that a reading was taken and
processed.
Bit B7, Reading Overflow (ROF) — Set bit indicates that the volts or amps reading
exceeds the selected measurement range of the SourceMeter.
Bit B8, Buffer Available (BAV) — Set bit indicates that there are at least two readings
in the buffer.
Bit B9, Buffer Full (BFL) — Set bit indicates that the trace buffer is full.
Bit B10 — Not used.
Bit B11, Interlock Asserted (Int) — Set bit indicates that the interlock line is at digital
low (asserted). The source output can be turned on.
Bit B12, Over Temperature (OT) — Set bit indicates that an over temperature condition exists. The source output cannot be turned on.
Bit B13, Over Voltage Protection (OVP) — Set bit indicates that the source is being
limited at the programmed limit level.
Bit B14, Compliance (Comp) — Set bit indicates that the source is in compliance.
Bit B15 — Not used.
Status Structure
14-15
Figure 14-6
Measurement event status
stat:meas:cond?
— Comp OVP OT INT
BFL
(B15) (B14) (B13) (B12) (B11) (B10) (B9)
BAV
(B8)
ROF
(B7)
RAV
(B6)
LP
(B5)
HL3
(B4)
LL3
(B3)
HL2
(B2)
LL2
(B1)
L1
(B0)
Measurement
Condition Register
stat:meas?
BFL
— Comp OVP OT INT
(B15) (B14) (B13) (B12) (B11) (B10) (B9)
BAV
(B8)
ROF
(B7)
RAV
(B6)
LP
(B5)
HL3
(B4)
LL3
(B3)
HL2
(B2)
LL2
(B1)
L1
(B0)
Measurement Event
Register
&
&
&
&
&
&
OR
&
&
&
&
&
To Measurement
Summary Bit
(OSB) of Status
Byte Register
(Figure 14-3)
stat:meas:enab <NRF>
stat:meas:enab?
&
&
&
— Comp OVP OT INT
BFL
(B15) (B14) (B13) (B12) (B11) (B10) (B9)
Comp = In Compliance
OVP = Over Voltage Protection
OT = Over Temperature
INT = Interlock Asserted
BFL = Buffer Full
BAV = Buffer Available
ROF = Reading Overflow
RAV = Reading Available
LP = Limits Pass
BAV
(B8)
ROF
(B7)
RAV
(B6)
LP
(B5)
HL3 = High Limit 3
LL3 = Low Limit 3
HL2 = High Limit 2
LL2 = Low Limit 2
L1 = Limit 1
& = Logical AND
OR = Logical OR
HL3
(B4)
LL3
(B3)
HL2
(B2)
LL2
(B1)
L1
(B0)
Measurement Event
Enable Register
14-16
Status Structure
Questionable Event Register
The used bits of the Questionable Event Register (shown in Figure 14-7) are described as
follows:
•
•
•
•
•
Figure 14-7
Questionable
event status
Bits B0 through B7 — Not used.
Bit B8, Calibration Summary (Cal) — Set bit indicates that an invalid calibration constant was detected during the power-up sequence. This error will clear after successful
calibration of the instrument.
Bits B9 through B13 — Not used.
Bit B14, Command Warning (Warn) — Set bit indicates that a Signal Oriented Measurement Command parameter has been ignored.
Bit B15 — Not used.
stat:ques:cond?
— Warn
(B15) (B14)
—
(B13 - B9)
CAL
(B8)
—
(B7 - B0)
stat:ques?
— Warn
(B15) (B14)
—
(B13 - B9)
CAL
(B8)
—
(B7 - B0)
OR
Questionable
Condition Register
Questionable
Event Register
&
&
To QSB of Status
Byte Register
(Figure 15-3)
stat:ques:enab <NRf> — Warn
stat:ques:enab? (B15) (B14)
—
(B13 - B9)
Warn = Command Warning
Cal = Calibration Summary
CAL
(B8)
—
(B7 - B0)
Questionable Event
Enable Register
& = Logical AND
OR = Logical OR
Condition registers
As Figure 14-1 shows, each status register set (except the Standard Event Register set) has a
condition register. A condition register is a real-time, read-only register that constantly updates
to reflect the present operating conditions of the instrument. For example, while the SourceMeter is in the idle state, bit B10 (Idle) of the Operation Condition Register will be set. When
the instrument is taken out of idle, bit B10 clears.
The commands to read the condition registers are listed in Table 14-5. For details on reading
registers, see Reading registers.
Status Structure
14-17
Table 14-5
Condition register commands
Command
Description
:STATus:OPERation:CONDition?
:STATus:MEASurement:CONDition?
:STATus:QUEStionable:CONDition?
Read Operation Condition Register.
Read Measurement Condition Register.
Read Questionable Condition Register.
Event registers
As Figure 14-1 shows, each status register set has an event register. When an event occurs,
the appropriate event register bit sets to 1. The bit remains latched to 1 until the register is reset.
Reading an event register clears the bits of that register. *CLS resets all four event registers.
The commands to read the event registers are listed in Table 14-6. For details on reading registers, see Reading registers.
Table 14-6
Event register commands
Command
Description
Default
*ESR?
:STATus:OPERation:[:EVENt]?
:STATus:MEASurement:[:EVENt]?
:STATus:QUEStionable:[:EVENt]?
Read Standard Event Status Register.
Read Operation Event Register.
Read Measurement Event Register.
Read Questionable Event Register.
Note
Note: Power-up and *CLS resets all bits of all event registers to 0. STATus:PRESet has no effect.
Event enable registers
As Figure 14-1 shows, each status register set has an enable register. Each event register bit
is logically ANDed (&) to a corresponding enable bit of an enable register. Therefore, when an
event bit is set and the corresponding enable bit is set (as programmed by the user), the output
(summary) of the register will set to 1, which in turn sets the summary bit of the Status Byte
Register.
The commands to program and read the event enable registers are listed in Table 14-7. For
details on programming and reading registers, see Programming enable registers and Reading
registers.
NOTE
The bits of any enable register can be reset to 0 by sending the 0 parameter value
with the appropriate enable command (i.e. STATus:OPERation:ENABle 0).
14-18
Status Structure
Table 14-7
Event enable registers commands
Command
Description
Default
*ESE <NDN> or <NRf>
*ESE?
Program Standard Event Enable Register. See Parameters.
Read Standard Event Enable Register.
Note
STATus
:OPERation
:ENABle <NDN> or <NRf>
:ENABle?
:MEASurement
:ENABle <NDN> or <NRf>
:ENABle?
:QUEStionable
:ENABle <NDN> or <NRf>
:ENABle?
STATus Subsystem:
Operation Event Enable Register:
Program enable register. See Parameters.
Read enable register.
Measurement Event Enable Register:
Program enable register. See Parameters.
Read enable register.
Questionable Event Enable Register:
Program enable register. See Parameters.
Read Measurement Event Enable Register:
Parameters:
<NDN> =
=
=
<NRf> =
#Bxx…x
#Hx
#Qx
0 to 65535
Binary format (each x = 1 or 0)
Hexadecimal format (x = 0 to FFFF)
Octal format (x = 0 to 177777)
Decimal format
Note: Power-up and STATus:PRESet resets all bits of all enable registers to 0. *CLS has no effect.
Programming example - program and read register set
The command sequence in Table 14-8 programs and reads the measurement register set.
Registers are read using the binary format (which directly indicates which bits are set). The
command to select format (FORMat:SREGister) is documented in Table 14-2.
Table 14-8
Program and read register programming example
Command
Description
FORM:SREG BIN
STAT:MEAS:ENAB 512
STAT:MEAS:COND?
STAT:MEAS?
Select binary format to read registers.
Enable BFL (buffer full).
Read Measurement Condition Register.
Read Measurement Event Register.
Status Structure
14-19
Queues
The SourceMeter uses two queues, which are first-in, first-out (FIFO) registers:
•
•
Output Queue — Used to hold reading and response messages.
Error Queue — Used to hold error and status messages. (See Appendix B.)
The SourceMeter status model (Figure 14-1) shows how the two queues are structured with
the other registers.
Output queue
The output queue holds data that pertains to the normal operation of the instrument. For
example, when a query command is sent, the response message is placed in the Output Queue.
When data is placed in the Output Queue, the Message Available (MAV) bit in the Status
Byte Register sets. A data message is cleared from the Output Queue when it is read. The Output Queue is considered cleared when it is empty. An empty Output Queue clears the MAV bit
in the Status Byte Register.
A message is read from the Output Queue by addressing the SourceMeter to talk after the
appropriate query is sent.
Error queue
The Error Queue holds error and status messages. When an error or status event occurs, a
message that defines the error/status is placed in the Error Queue.
When a message is placed in the Error Queue, the Error Available (EAV) bit in the Status
Byte Register is set. An error/status message is cleared from the Error Queue when it is read.
The Error Queue is considered cleared when it is empty. An empty Error Queue clears the EAV
bit in the Status Byte Register.
The Error Queue holds up to 10 error/status messages. The commands to read the Error
Queue are listed in Table 14-9. When you read a single message in the Error Queue, the “oldest” message is read and then removed from the queue. If the queue becomes full, the message
“350, ‘Queue Overflow’” will occupy the last memory location. On power-up, the Error Queue
is empty. When empty, the message “0, No Error” is placed in the queue.
Messages in the Error Queue are preceded by a code number. Negative (-) numbers are used
for SCPI-defined messages, and positive (+) numbers are used for Keithley-defined messages.
The messages are listed in Appendix B. As shown in Table 14-7, there are commands to read
the entire message (code and message) or the code only.
14-20
Status Structure
On power-up, all error messages are enabled and will go into the Error Queue as they occur.
Status messages are not enabled and will not go into the queue. As listed in Table 14-9, there
are commands to enable and/or disable messages. For these commands, the <list> parameter is
used to specify which messages to enable or disable. The messages are specified by their codes.
The following examples show various forms for using the <list> parameter.
<list> = (-110)
= (-110:-222)
= (-110:-222, -220)
Single message
Range of messages (-110 through -222)
Range entry and single entry (separated by a comma)
When you enable messages, messages not specified in the list are disabled. When you disable messages, each listed message is removed from the enabled list.
NOTE
To prevent all messages from entering the Error Queue, send the enable command
along with the null list parameter as follows: STATus:QUEue:ENABle ().
Table 14-9
Error queue commands
Command
Description
STATus
:QUEue
[:NEXT]?
:ENABle <list>
:ENABle?
:DISable <list>
:DISable?
:CLEar
STATus Subsystem:
Read Error Queue:
Read and clear oldest error/status (code and message).
Specify error and status messages for Error Queue.
Read the enabled messages.
Specify messages not to be placed in queue.
Read the disabled messages.
Clear messages from Error Queue.
SYSTem
:ERRor
[:NEXT]?
:ALL?
:COUNt?
:CODE
[:NEXT]?
:ALL?
:CLEar
SYSTem Subsystem:
Read Error Queue:
Read and clear oldest error/status (code and message).
Read and clear all errors/status (code and message).
Read the number of messages in queue.
Code numbers only:
Read and clear oldest error/status (code only).
Read and clear all errors/status (codes only).
Clear messages from Error Queue.
Notes:
1. Power-up and *CLS empties the Error Queue. STATus:PRESet has no effect.
2. Power-up enables error messages and disables status messages. *CLS and STATus:PRESet have no effect.
Programming example - read error queue
The following command reads the error queue:
STAT:QUE?
Default
Note 1
Note 2
Note 2
Note 1
15
Common Commands
•
Command Summary — Lists the IEEE-488.2 common commands used by the
SourceMeter.
•
Command Reference — Provides a detailed reference for all common commands
except for those associated with the status structure, which are discussed in Section 14.
15-2
Common Commands
Command summary
Common commands (summarized in Table 15-1) are device commands that are common to
all devices on the bus. These commands are designated and defined by the IEEE-488.2 standard. Most of these commands are described in detail in this section.
NOTE
The following common commands associated with the status structure are covered in
Section 14: *CLS, *ESE, *ESE?, *ESR?, *SRE, *SRE?, and *STB?.
Table 15-1
IEEE-488.2 common commands and queries
Mnemonic
Name
Description
*CLS
*ESE <NRf>
*ESE?
*ESR?
*IDN?
Clear status
Event enable command
Event enable query
Event status register query
Identification query
*OPC
Operation complete command
*OPC?
Operation complete query
*RCL <NRf>
*RST
Recall command
Reset command
*SAV <NRf>
*SRE <NRf>
*SRE?
*STB?
*TRG
*TST?
Save command
Service request enable command
Service request enable query
Status byte query
Trigger command
Self-test query
*WAI
Wait-to-continue command
Clears all event registers and Error Queue.1
Program the Standard Event Enable Register.1
Read the Standard Event Enable Register.1
Read and clear the Standard Event Enable Register.1
Returns the manufacturer, model number, serial number, and firmware revision levels of the unit.
Set the Operation Complete bit in the Standard Event
Register after all pending commands have been
executed.
Places an ASCII “1” into the Output Queue when all
pending selected device operations have been completed.
Returns the SourceMeter to the user-saved setup.
Returns the SourceMeter to the *RST default
conditions.
Saves the present setup as the user-saved setup.
Programs the Service Request Enable Register.1
Reads the Service Request Enable Register.1
Reads the Status Byte Register.1
Sends a bus trigger to the SourceMeter.
Performs a checksum test on ROM and returns the
result.
Wait until all previous commands are executed.
1
Status commands are covered in Section 14.
Common Commands
15-3
Command reference
*IDN? — identification query
Reads identification code
The identification code includes the manufacturer, model number, serial number, and firmware revision levels and is sent in the following format:
KEITHLEY INSTRUMENTS INC., MODEL 6430, xxxxxxx, yyyyy/zzzzz /a/d
Where:
xxxxxxx is the serial number.
yyyyy/zzzzz is the firmware revision levels of the digital board ROM and display
board ROM, including date and time of build.
a is the analog board revision level.
d is the digital board revision level.
*OPC — operation complete
*OPC? — operation complete query
Sets OPC bit
Places a “1” in output queue
When *OPC is sent, the OPC bit in the Standard Event Register will set after all pending
command operations are complete. When *OPC? is sent, an ASCII “1” is placed in the Output
Queue after all pending command operations are complete.
Typically, either one of these commands is sent after the INITiate command. The INITiate
command is used to take the instrument out of idle in order to perform measurements. While
operating within the trigger model layers, all sent commands (except DCL, SDC, IFC,
SYSTem:PRESet, *RST, *RCL, *TRG, GET, and ABORt) will not execute.
After all programmed operations are completed, the instrument returns to the idle state at
which time all pending commands (including *OPC and/or *OPC?) are executed. After the last
pending command is executed, the OPC bit and/or an ASCII “1” is placed in the Output Queue.
15-4
Common Commands
*OPC programming example
The command sequence in Table 15-2 will perform 10 measurements. After the measurements are completed (in approximately 10 seconds), an ASCII “1” will be placed in the Output
Queue and displayed on the computer CRT. Note that additional codes must be added to query
the instrument for the presence of the ASCII “1” in the Output Queue.
Table 15-2
*OPC programming example
Command
Description
*RST
:TRIG:DEL 1
:ARM:COUN 10
:OUTP ON
:INIT
*OPC?
Return SourceMeter to GPIB defaults (idle).
Set trigger delay for 1 second.
Program for 5 measurements and stop.
Turn on output.
Start measurements.
Send *OPC? to query Output Queue.
*Additional code required to test for “1” in Output Queue.
*SAV <NRf> — save
*RCL <NRf> — recall
Save present setup in memory
Return to setup stored in memory
Parameters: 0 = Memory location 0
1 = Memory location 1
2 = Memory location 2
3 = Memory location 3
4 = Memory location 4
Use the *SAV command to save the present instrument setup configuration in memory for
later recall. Any control affected by *RST can be saved by the *SAV command. The *RCL
command is used to restore the instrument to the saved setup configuration. Five setup configurations can be saved and recalled.
The SourceMeter ships from the factory with SYSTem:PRESet defaults loaded into the
available setup memory. If a recall error occurs, the setup memory defaults to the SYSTem:
PRESet values.
Common Commands
15-5
*SAV, *RCL programming example
Table 15-3 summarizes the basic command sequence for saving and recalling a setup. The
present setup is stored in memory location 2, GPIB defaults are restored, and the memory location 2 setup is recalled.
Table 15-3
*SAV, *RCL programming example
Command
Description
*SAV 2
*RST
*RCL 2
Save present setup in memory location 2.
Restore GPIB defaults.
Recall location 2 setup.
*RST — reset
Return SourceMeter to GPIB defaults
When the *RST command is sent, the SourceMeter performs the following operations:
•
•
•
Returns the SourceMeter to the GPIB default conditions. Refer to “Default parameters”
column of SCPI tables in Section 17.
Cancels all pending commands.
Cancels response to any previously received *OPC and *OPC? commands.
*TRG — trigger
Send bus trigger to SourceMeter
Use the *TRG command to issue a GPIB trigger to the SourceMeter. It has the same effect
as a group execute trigger (GET).
Use the *TRG command as an event to control operation. The SourceMeter reacts to this
trigger if BUS is the programmed arm control source. The control source is programmed from
the TRIGger subsystem.
NOTE
Details on triggering are covered in Section 10.
15-6
Common Commands
*TRG programming example
The command sequence in Table 15-4 configures the SourceMeter to be controlled by bus
triggers. The last command, which sends a bus trigger, triggers one measurement. Each subsequent bus trigger will also trigger a single measurement.
NOTE
With :ARM:SOURce BUS selected, do not send any commands (except *TRG, GET,
DCL, SDC, IFC, and ABORt) while performing source-measure operations. Otherwise, erratic operation will occur.
Table 15-4
*TRG programming example
Command
Description
*RST
:ARM:SOUR BUS
:ARM:COUN INF
:OUTP ON
:INIT
*TRG
Restore GPIB defaults.
Select BUS control source.
Set arm layer count to infinite.
Turn on output.
Take SourceMeter out of idle.
Trigger one measurement.
*TST? — self-test query
Run self test and read result
Use this query command to perform a checksum test on ROM. The command places the
coded result (0 or 1) in the Output Queue. When the SourceMeter is addressed to talk, the
coded result is sent from the Output Queue to the computer.
A returned value of zero (0) indicates that the test passed, and a value of one (1) indicates
that the test failed.
*WAI — wait-to-continue
Wait until previous commands are completed
Effectively, the *WAI command is a No-Op (no operation) for the SourceMeter and thus,
does not need to be used.
Two types of device commands exist:
•
•
Sequential commands — A command whose operations are allowed to finish before the
next command is executed.
Overlapped commands — A command that allows the execution of subsequent commands while device operations of the Overlapped command are still in progress.
The *WAI command is used to suspend the execution of subsequent commands until the
device operations of all previous Overlapped commands are finished. The *WAI command is
not needed for Sequential commands.
16
SCPI Signal-Oriented
Measurement Commands
•
Command Summary — Summarizes those commands used to configure and acquire
readings.
•
Configuring Measurement Function — Provides detailed information on commands
to configure the measurement function.
•
Acquiring Readings — Describes commands to acquire post-processed readings, both
trigger and acquire readings, and to perform a single measurement.
16-2
SCPI Signal-Oriented Measurement Commands
Command summary
The signal-oriented measurement commands are used to acquire readings. You can use these
high-level instructions to control the measurement process. These commands are summarized
in Table 16-1.
Table 16-1
Signal-oriented measurement command summary
Command
Description
:CONFigure:<function>
:CONFigure?
:FETCh?
:READ?
:MEASure[:<function>]?
Configures SourceMeter for measurements on specified
function. Output turns on.
Returns active function(s).
Requests latest readings.
Performs an :INITiate and a :FETCh?.
One-shot measurement mode. Performs a :CONFigure and a
:READ?.
Configuring measurement function
:CONFigure:<function>
Parameters
<function> = CURRent[:DC]
VOLTage[:DC]
RESistance
Query
:CONFigure?
Description
This command configures the instrument to a specific setup for measurements on the specified function. The :READ? command is then typically
used to trigger a specified number of measurements. See :READ?.
Amps function
Volts function
Ohms function
Returns active function(s).
When this command is sent, the SourceMeter will be configured as follows:
• Select specified function.
• All controls related to the selected function are defaulted to the *RST
values.
• The event control source of the Trigger Model is set to Immediate.
• The count values of the Trigger Model are set to one.
• The Delay of the Trigger Model is set to zero.
• All math calculations are disabled.
• Buffer operation is disabled.
• Autozero is enabled.
• The source output will turn on.
SCPI Signal-Oriented Measurement Commands
WARNING
NOTE
16-3
When :CONFigure is sent, the output will turn on. Beware of hazardous
voltage that may be present on the output terminals.
This command is automatically asserted when the :MEASure? command is sent.
Acquiring readings
:FETCh?
Description
This query command requests the latest post-processed readings stored in
the sample buffer. See Appendix C. After sending this command and
addressing the SourceMeter to talk, the readings are sent to the computer.
This command does not affect the instrument setup.
This command does not trigger source-measure operations; it simply
requests the last available readings. Note that this command can repeatedly
return the same readings. Until there are new readings, this command continues to return the old readings. For example, assume that the
SourceMeter performed 20 source-measure operations. The :FETCh? command will request the readings for those 20 source-measure operations. If
:FETCh? is sent while performing source-measure operations (ARM annunciator on), it will not be executed until the SourceMeter goes back into idle.
The readings that are acquired depend on which data elements are selected
(Section 17, FORMat subsystem, Data elements), and what the instrument is
presently programmed to source-measure. Measure readings take priority
over source readings, and functions not sourced or measured are assigned
the NAN (not a number) value of +9.91e37.
For example, assume that voltage, current and resistance readings are
selected as data elements, and the instrument is programmed to Source V
and Measure I. A reading string acquired by :FETch? will include the programmed
V-Source value and the I-Measure reading. The reading for resistance will
be NAN since resistance was not measured.
If the SourceMeter is instead programmed to Source V and Measure V, the
voltage reading will be the V-Measure reading (not the programmed
V-Source value). Both current and resistance readings will be NANs (current is not measured or sourced).
NOTE
The :FETCh? command is automatically asserted when the :READ? or :MEASure?
command is sent.
NOTE
See Appendix C for a detailed explanation on how data flows through the various
operation blocks of the SourceMeter. It clarifies the types of readings that are
acquired by the various commands to read data.
16-4
SCPI Signal-Oriented Measurement Commands
[:SENSe[1]]:DATA[:LATest]?
Description
This command works exactly like FETCh?, except that it returns only the
most recent reading.
:READ?
Description
This command is used to trigger and acquire readings. The number of readings depends on how the trigger model is configured. For example, if configured for 20 source-measure operations (arm count 1, trigger count 20),
then 20 sets of readings will be acquired after the SourceMeter returns to the
idle state.
When this command is sent, the following commands execute in the order
that they are presented:
• :INITiate
• :FETCh?
The :INITiate command starts operation by taking the instrument out of
idle.
After all source-measure operations are completed, the SourceMeter goes
back into idle at which time the :FETCh? command is executed. The readings are sent to the computer and displayed when the SourceMeter is
addressed to talk.
Note that if auto output-off is disabled (:SOURce1:CLEar:AUTO OFF),
then the output must be turned on before you can perform a :READ?. The
output will then remain on after all source-measure operations are
completed.
If auto output-off is enabled (:SOURce1:CLEar:AUTO ON), then the output
will automatically turn on at the beginning of each SDM (source-delaymeasure) cycle and turn off after each measurement.
NOTE
See Appendix C for a detailed explanation on how data flows through the various
operation blocks of the SourceMeter. It clarifies the type of readings that are
acquired by the various commands to read data.
SCPI Signal-Oriented Measurement Commands
16-5
:MEASure[:<function>]?
Parameters
<function> = CURRent[:DC]
VOLTage[:DC]
RESistance
Description
This command combines other signal-oriented measurement commands to
perform a “one-shot” measurement and acquire the reading. Note that if a
function is not specified, the measurement will be done on the function that
is presently selected.
Amps function
Volts function
Ohms function
When this command is sent, the following commands execute in the order
that they are presented.
• :CONFigure:<function>
• :READ?
When :CONFigure is executed, the instrument goes into a “one-shot” measurement mode. See :CONFigure<function> for more details.
When :READ? is executed, its operations will then be performed. In general, another :ABORt is performed, then an :INITiate, and finally a FETCh?
to acquire the readings. See :READ? for more details.
When :MEASure? is sent, the source turns on and a single measurement is
performed. If auto output-off is enabled (:SOURce1:CLEar:AUTO ON),
then the output will turn off after the measurement is completed. If auto
output-off is disabled (:SOURce1:CLEar:AUTO OFF), then the output will
remain on after the measurement is completed.
WARNING
With auto output-off disabled, the output will remain on after the one-shot
source-measure operation is performed. Beware of hazardous voltage that
may be present on the output terminals.
16-6
SCPI Signal-Oriented Measurement Commands
17
SCPI Command Reference
•
Reference Tables — Summarizes each SCPI command subsystem.
•
SCPI Subsystems — Provides detailed information on all commands in each SCPI
subsystem.
17-2
SCPI Command Reference
Reference tables
Tables 17-1 through 17-10 summarize the commands for each SCPI subsystem. The following list includes the SCPI subsystem commands, the table number where each command is
summarized, and the reference page where detailed information begins.
Summary table
Subsystem
Reference page
17-1
17-2
17-3
17-4
17-5
17-6
17-7
17-8
17-9
17-10
CALCulate
DISPlay
FORMat
OUTPut
SENSe
SOURce
STATus
SYSTem
TRACe
TRIGger
17-22
17-41
17-44
17-52
17-54
17-64
17-86
17-89
17-99
17-102
General notes:
Brackets ([ ]) are used to denote optional character sets. These optional characters do not
have to be included in the program message. Do not use brackets in the program message.
Angle brackets (< >) are used to indicate parameter type. Do not use angle brackets in the
program message.
The Boolean parameter (<b>) is used to enable or disable an instrument operation. 1 or ON
enables the operation, and 0 or OFF disables the operation.
Upper case characters indicate the short-form version for each command word.
Default Parameter — Listed parameters are both the *RST and :SYSTem:PRESet defaults,
unless noted otherwise. Parameter notes are located at the end of each table.
SCPI — A checkmark (✓) indicates that the command and its parameters are SCPI confirmed. An unmarked command indicates that it is a SCPI command, but does not conform to
the SCPI standard set of commands. It is not a recognized command by the SCPI consortium.
SCPI confirmed commands that use one or more non-SCPI parameters are explained by notes.
Source Memory — A checkmark (✓) indicates that the parameters associated with the
specified command are saved in any one of 100 memory locations by the
:SOURce[1]:MEMory:SAVE command.
SCPI Command Reference
17-3
Table 17-1
CALCulate command summary
Command
Description
Subsystem to control CALC1:
Path to configure and control math expressions:
Define math expression using standard math
operator symbols.
Query math expression.
[:EXPRession]?
Query list of math expression names.
:CATalog?
Create name for new user-defined expression.
:NAME <name>
Query created name.
:NAME?
Same as :EXPRession <form> command.
[:DEFine] <form>
Path to delete user-defined expressions.
:DELete
Delete specified expression.
[:SELected] <name>
Delete all user-defined expressions.
:ALL
Define units name for math expression (3
:UNITs <name>
ASCII characters).
Query math expression units name.
:UNITs?
Enable or disable math expression.
:STATe <b>
Query state of math expression.
:STATe?
Path to CALC1 data.
:DATA
Return only most recent math result.
:LATest?
Read result of math expression.
:DATA?
Default
Source
parameter SCPI memory
✓
✓
✓
:CALCulate[1]
:MATH
[:EXPRession] <form>
:CALCulate2
:FEED <name>
:FEED?
:NULL
:OFFSet <NRf>
:OFFSet?
:STATe <b>
:STATe?
:ACQuire
:DATA
:LATest?
:DATA?
:LIMit[1]
:COMPliance
:FAIL <name>
:FAIL?
Subsystem to control CALC2:
Select input path (CALCulate[1], CURRent,
VOLTage, or RESistance).
Query CALC2 feed.
Path to configure and control REL:
Specify REL value (-9.999999e20 to
9.999999e20).
Query REL value.
Enable or disable REL.
Query state of REL.
Automatically acquire REL value.
Path to CALC2 data.
Return only most recent REL or LIMIT result.
Read math result of CALC2.
Path to control LIMIT 1 test:
Configure Limit 1 test:
Specify “fail” condition (IN or OUT of
compliance).
Query “fail” condition.
Power
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
“W”
OFF
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
VOLT
✓
✓
✓
✓
0
✓
OFF
✓
✓
✓
✓
IN
✓
17-4
SCPI Command Reference
Table 17-1 (cont.)
CALCulate command summary
Command
:CALCulate2
:LIMit[1]
:COMPliance
:SOURce2 <NRf>
| <NDN>
:SOURce2?
:STATe <b>
:STATe?
:FAIL?
:LIMit2
:UPPer
[:DATA] <n>
[:DATA]?
:SOURce2 <NRf>
| <NDN>
:SOURce2?
:LOWer
[:DATA] <n>
[:DATA]?
:SOURce2 <NRf>
| <NDN>
:SOURce2?
:PASS
:SOURce2 <NRf>
| <NDN>
:SOURce2?
:STATe <b>
:STATe?
:FAIL?
:LIMit3
:UPPer
[:DATA] <n>
[:DATA]?
:SOURce2 <NRf>
| <NDN>
:SOURce2?
1The
Description
Specify output “fail” pattern (0 to 7, 3-bit;
0 to 15, 4-bit).2
Query “fail” bit pattern.1
Enable or disable Limit 1 test.
Query state of Limit 1 test.
Returns result of Limit 1 test: 0 (pass) or 1 (fail).
Path to control LIMIT 2 test:
Configure upper limit:
Specify upper limit (-9.999999e20 to
9.999999e20).
Query upper limit.
Specify output “fail” pattern for grading mode
(0 to 7, 3-bit;0 to 15, 4-bit).2
Query “fail” bit pattern.1
Configure lower limit:
Specify lower limit (-9.999999e20 to
9.999999e20).
Query lower limit.
Specify output “fail” pattern for grading mode
(0 to 7, 3-bit; 0 to 15, 4-bit).2
Query “fail” bit pattern.1
Path to specify “pass” pattern for sorting mode:
Specify output “pass” pattern (0 to 7, 3-bit;
0 to 15, 4-bit).2
Query “pass” bit pattern.1
Enable or disable Limit 2 test.
Query state of Limit 2 test.
Return result of Limit 2 test: 0 (pass) or 1 (fail).
Path to control LIMIT 3 test:
Configure upper limit:
Specify upper limit (-9.999999e20 to
9.999999e20).
Query upper limit.
Specify output “fail” pattern (0 to 7, 3-bit;
0 to 15, 4-bit).2
Query “fail” bit pattern.1
Default
Source
parameter SCPI memory
✓
15 or 7
OFF
1
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
15 or 7
-1
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
15 or 7
15 or 7
✓
✓
OFF
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
1
✓
✓
15 or 7
✓
format (ASCII, hexadecimal, octal, or binary) for the returned value is set by FORMat:SOURce2 <name>.
based on present digital output size (:SOURce2:BSIZe <n>). 3-bit default is 7. 4-bit default is 15. 16-bit default is 65535.
2Default
SCPI Command Reference
17-5
Table 17-1 (cont.)
CALCulate command summary
Command
:CALCulate2
:LIMit3
:LOWer
[:DATA] <n>
[:DATA]?
:SOURce2 <NRf>
| <NDN>
:SOURce2?
:PASS
:SOURce2 <NRf>
| <NDN>
:SOURce2?
:STATe <b>
:STATe?
:FAIL?
:LIMit5…12
:UPPer
[:DATA] <n>
[:DATA]?
:SOURce2 <NRf>
| <NDN>
:SOURce2?
1The
Description
Configure lower limit:
Specify lower limit (-9.999999e20 to
9.999999e20).
Query lower limit.
Specify output “fail” pattern for grading mode
(0 to 7, 3-bit; 0 to 15, 4-bit).2
Query “fail” bit pattern.1
Path to specify “pass” pattern for sorting mode:
Specify output “pass” pattern (0 to 7, 3-bit;
0 to 15, 4-bit).2
Query “pass” bit pattern.1
Enable or disable Limit 3 test.
Query state of Limit 3 test.
Return result of Limit 3 test: 0 (pass) or 1 (fail).
Path to control LIMIT 5 to LIMIT 12 tests (see
Note):
Configure upper limit:
Specify upper limit (-9.999999e20 to
9.999999e20).
Query upper limit.
Specify output “fail” pattern for grading mode
(0 to 7, 3-bit; 0 to 15, 4-bit).2
Query “fail” bit pattern.1
Default
Source
parameter SCPI memory
-1
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
15 or 7
15 or 7
✓
✓
OFF
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
1
✓
✓
✓
✓
15 or 7
✓
format (ASCII, hexadecimal, octal, or binary) for the returned value is set by FORMat:SOURce2 <name>.
based on present digital output size (:SOURce2:BSIZe <n>). 3-bit default is 7. 4-bit default is 15. 16-bit default is 65535.
Note: Use LIMit5 through LIMit12 to control Limit 5 through Limit 12 tests respectively. For example, send :LIM5:STAT ON to
enable Limit 5; send LIM10:FAIL? to return the result of Limit 10.
2Default
17-6
SCPI Command Reference
Table 17-1 (cont.)
CALCulate command summary
Command
:CALCulate2
:LIMit5…12
:LOWer
[:DATA] <n>
[:DATA]?
:SOURce2 <NRf>
| <NDN>
:SOURce2?
:PASS
:SOURce2 <NRf>
| <NDN>
:SOURce2?
:STATe <b>
:STATe?
:FAIL?
:CLIMits
:BCONtrol <name>
:BCONtrol?
:MODE <name>
:MODE?
:CLEar
[:IMMediate]
:AUTO <b>
:AUTO?
:PASS
:SOURce2 <NRf>
| <NDN>
:SOURce2?
:SMLocation <NRf>
| NEXT
:SMLocation?
1The
Description
Configure lower limit:
Specify lower limit (-9.999999e20 to
9.999999e20).
Query lower limit.
Specify output “fail” pattern for grading mode
(0 to 7, 3-bit; 0 to 15, 4-bit).2
Query “fail” bit pattern.1
Path to specify “pass” pattern for sorting mode:
Specify output “pass” pattern (0 to 7, 3-bit;
0 to 15, 4-bit).2
Query “pass” bit pattern.
Enable or disable Limit 5 to 12 tests.
Query state of Limit 5 to 12 tests.
Return result of Limit 5 to 12 tests: 0 (pass) or
1 (fail).
Composite limits for Limit 1 through Limit 12:
Specify when to send binning info to handler. A
limit test is performed (IMMediate) or after a
sweep, list, or memory sequence (END).
Query binning control.
Set how limit results control Digital I/O lines
(GRADing or SORTing).
Query limit results control of Digital I/O lines.
Clear test results:
Clear latest limit test result and reset Digital
I/O port back to :SOURce2:TTL settings.
Enable or disable clearing of test results when
:INITiate command is sent.
Query state of auto clear.
Define “pass” digital output pattern. Sorting
mode only if limits 2, 3, 5-12 disabled.
Specify output “pass” pattern: (0 to 7, 3-bit;
0 to 15, 4-bit).2
Query “pass” bit pattern.1
Specify next “PASS” Source Memory Sweep
location (NEXT location or 1 to 100).
Query “PASS” memory location.
Default
Source
parameter SCPI memory
-1
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
15 or 7
15 or 7
✓
✓
OFF
✓
✓
✓
✓
IMM
GRAD
ON
15 or 7
✓
NEXT
✓
format (ASCII, hexadecimal, octal, or binary) for the returned value is set by FORMat:SOURce2 <name>.
based on present digital output size (:SOURce2:BSIZe <n>). 3-bit default is 7. 4-bit default is 15. 16-bit default is 65535.
2Default
SCPI Command Reference
17-7
Table 17-1 (cont.)
CALCulate command summary
Command
:CALCulate2
:CLIMits
:FAIL
:SOURce2 <NRf>
| <NDN>
:SOURce2?
:SMLocation <NRf>
| NEXT
:SMLocation?
:CALCulate3
:FORMat <name>
:FORMat?
:DATA?
1The
Description
Default
Source
parameter SCPI memory
Define “fail” digital output pattern:
Specify output “fail” pattern: (0 to 7, 3-bit;
15 or 7
0 to 15, 4-bit).2
Query “fail” bit pattern.1
Specify next “FAIL” Source Memory Location NEXT
(NEXT location or 1 to 100).
Query “FAIL” memory location.
Subsystem to control CALC3:
Specify math format (MEAN, SDEViation,
MAXimum, MINimum, or PKPK).
Query math format.
Read math result of CALC3.
MEAN
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
format (ASCII, hexadecimal, octal, or binary) for the returned value is set by FORMat:SOURce2 <name>.
based on present digital output size (:SOURce2:BSIZe <n>). 3-bit default is 7. 4-bit default is 15. 16-bit default is 65535.
2Default
17-8
SCPI Command Reference
Table 17-2
DISPlay command summary
Command
:DISPlay
:ENABle <b>
:ENABle?
:CNDisplay
[:WINDow[1]]
:TEXT
:DATA <a>
:DATA?
:STATe <b>
:STATe?
:DATA?
:ATTRibutes?
:WINDow2
:TEXT
:DATA <a>
:DATA?
:STATe <b>
:STATe?
:DATA?
:ATTRibutes?
:DIGits <n>
:DIGits?
Description
Turn on or turn off front panel display.
Query state of display.
Return to source-measure display state.
Path to locate message to top display:
Control user test message:
Define ASCII message “a” (up to 20 characters).
Query text message.
Enable or disable message mode.
Query text message state.
Query data on top portion of display.
Query attributes of message characters: blinking (1)
or not blinking (0).
Path to locate message to bottom display:
Control user test message:
Define ASCII message “a” (up to 32 characters).
Query text message.
Enable or disable message mode.
Query text message state.
Query data on bottom portion of display.
Query attributes of message characters: blinking (1)
or not blinking (0).
Specify display resolution (4 to 7).
Query display resolution.
Default
parameter
Note 1
Note 2
Note 3
Note 2
Note 3
SCPI
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
6
Notes:
1. *RST and :SYSTem:PRESet has no effect on the display circuitry. Pressing LOCAL or cycling power enables (ON) the display
circuit.
2. *RST and :SYSTem:PRESet has no effect on a user-defined message. Pressing LOCAL or cycling power cancels all userdefined messages.
3. *RST and :SYSTem:PRESet has no effect on the state of the message mode. Pressing LOCAL or cycling power disables (OFF)
the message mode.
SCPI Command Reference
17-9
Table 17-3
FORMat command summary
Command
Default
parameter
Description
:FORMat
:SREGister <name>
:SREGister?
[:DATA] <type>[<,length>]
[:DATA]?
:BORDer <name>
:BORDer?
:ELEMents
[:SENSe[1]] <item list>
[:SENSe[1]]?
:CALCulate <item list>
:CALCulate?
:SOURce2 <name>
:SOURce2?
Select data format for reading status event registers
(ASCii, HEXadecimal, OCTal or BINary).
Query format for reading status event registers.
Specify data format (ASCii, REAL, 32 or SREal).
Query data format.
Specify byte order (NORMal or SWAPped).
Query byte order.
SCPI
ASCii
✓
ASCii
✓
✓
✓
✓
Note
All
Specify data elements (VOLTage, CURRent,
RESistance, TIME, and STATus).
Query data format elements.
Specify CALC data elements (CALC, TIME, or
CALC
STATus).
Query CALC data elements.
Specify SOURce2 data format (ASCii, HEXadecimal, ASCii
OCTal, or BIN).
Query SOURce2 data format.
Note: Byte order — *RST default is NORMal. :SYSTem:PRESet default is SWAPped.
Table 17-4
OUTPut command summary
Command
:OUTPut[1]
:STATe <b>
:STATe?
:INTerlock
:STATe <b>
:STATe?
:TRIPped?
:SMODe <name>
:SMODe?
Description
Turn source on or off.
Query state of source.
Path to control interlock:
Enable or disable interlock.
Query state of interlock.
Interlock tripped?: 1 (yes) or 0 (no).
Select output off mode (NORMal, ZERO or
GUARd).
Query output off mode.
Default
parameter
OFF
SCPI
Source
memory
✓
✓
✓
OFF
NORMAL
✓
17-10
SCPI Command Reference
Table 17-5
SENSe command summary
Command
Description
[:SENSe[1]]
:DATA
[:LATest?]
:FUNCtion
:CONCurrent <b>
Sense 1 Subsystem:
Path to SENSe[1] data.
Return only most recent reading.
Select measurement function(s):
Enable or disable ability to measure more than
one function simultaneously. When disabled,
volts function is enabled.
Query concurrent state.
Specify functions to enable (VOLTage[:DC],
CURRent[:DC], or RESistance).
Enable all functions (concurrent enabled) or
enable ohms function (concurrent
disabled).
Query number of functions that are enabled.
Returns list of functions that are enabled.
Specify functions to disable:
(VOLTage[:DC], CURRent[:DC], or
RESistance).
Disable all measurement functions.
Query number of functions that are disabled.
Returns list of functions that are disabled.
Query state of specified function: 1 (on) or 0
(off).
Path to configure current:
Configure measurement range:
Select range by specifying the expected
current reading; 0 to ±105e-3.
Query range.
Enable or disable auto range.
Query auto range.
Returns I compliance range.
Set auto ranging lower limit (-105e-3 to
105e-3).
Query auto ranging lower limit.
:CONCurrent?
[:ON] <function list>
:ALL
:COUNt?
[:ON]?
:OFF <function list>
:ALL
:COUNt?
:OFF?
:STATe? <name>
:CURRent[:DC]
:RANGe
[:UPPer]
<n>|UP|DOWN
[:UPPer]?
:AUTO <b>
:AUTO?
:ULIMit?
:LLIMit <n>
:LLIMit?
1If
source V is active.
Default
Source
parameter SCPI memory
✓
✓
ON
✓
✓
✓
CURRent
✓
✓
✓
✓
VOLTage,
RESistance
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓1
1.05e-4
ON
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
1e-6
✓
✓1
SCPI Command Reference
17-11
Table 17-5 (cont.)
SENSe command summary
Command
[:SENSe[1]]
:CURRent[:DC]
:NPLCycles <n>
:NPLCycles?
:PROTection
[:LEVel] <n>
[:LEVel]?
:TRIPped?
:VOLTage[:DC]
:RANGe
[:UPPer]
<n>|UP|DOWN
[:UPPer]?
:AUTO <b>
:AUTO?
:ULIMit?
:LLIMit <n>
:LLIMit?
:NPLCycles <n>
:NPLCycles?
:PROTection
[:LEVel] <n>
[:LEVel]?
:TRIPped?
:RESistance
:MODE <name>
:MODE?
:OCOMpensated <b>
:OCOMpensated?
1If
2If
Description
Specify integration rate (in line cycles): 0.01
to 10.
Query integration rate.
Path to configure current compliance:
Specify current limit for V-Source; -105e-3
to 105e-3.
Query current compliance limit.
In current compliance: 1 (yes), 0 (no).
Path to configure volts:
Configure measurement range:
Select range by specifying the expected
voltage reading; 0 to ±210.
Query range.
Enable or disable auto range.
Query auto range.
Returns V compliance range.
Set auto range lower limit (-21 to 21).
Query auto range lower limit.
Specify integration rate (in line cycles): 0.01
to 10.
Query integration rate.
Path to configure voltage compliance:
Specify voltage limit for I-Source; -210 to
210.
Query voltage compliance limit.
In voltage compliance?: 1 (yes), 0 (no).
Path to configure resistance:
Select ohms mode (MANual or AUTO).
Query ohms mode.
Enable or disable offset-compensated ohms.
Query state of offset-compensated ohms.
source V is active.
source I is active and auto ohms is disabled.
Default
Source
parameter SCPI memory
10
✓
✓1
1.05e-4
✓
✓
✓
✓1
21
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓2
10
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
21
✓
✓
✓
ON
0.21
✓2
✓2
✓2
✓
✓
✓
✓
MANual
OFF
✓
✓
✓
17-12
SCPI Command Reference
Table 17-5 (cont.)
SENSe command summary
Command
[:SENSe[1]]
:RESistance
:RANGe
[:UPPer]
<n>|UP|DOWN
[:UPPer]?
:AUTO <b>
:AUTO?
ULIMit <n>
ULIMit?
LLIMit <n>
LLIMit?
:NPLCycles <n>
:NPLCycles?
:AVERage
:AUTO <b>
:AUTO?
:COUNt <n>
:COUNt?
[:STATe] <b>
[:STATe]?
:ADVanced
:NTOLerance <NRf>
:NTOLerance?
[:STATe] <b>
[:STATe]?
:REPeat
:COUNt <n>
:COUNt?
[:STATe] <b>
[:STATE]:
:MEDian
:RANK <NRf>
:RANK ?
[:STATe] <b>
[:STATe]?
Description
Configure measurement range:
Select range by specifying the expected
resistance reading.1
Query range.
Enable or disable auto range.
Query auto range.
Set upper limit.1
Query auto range upper limit.
Set lower limit.1
Query auto range lower limit.
Specify integration rate (in line cycles):
0.01 to 10.
Query integration rate.
Path to configure moving and repeat filters:
Enable or disable auto filter.
Query state of auto filter.
Specify moving filter count; 1 to 100.
Query moving filter count.
Enable or disable moving filter.
Query state of moving filter.
Configure the advanced filter:
Set filter noise window (in %); 0 to 105.
Query filter noise window setting.
Enable or disable advanced filter.
Query state of advanced filter.
Confifgure the repeat filter:
Specify repeat filter count; 1 to 100.
Query repeat filter count.
Enable or disable repeat filter.
Query state of repeat filter.
Configure and control the median filter:
Specify median filter rank; 0 to 5.
Query median filter rank.
Enable or disable median filter.
Query state of median filter.
Notes:
1. 0 to 2.1e13 with PreAmp. 0 to 2.1e7 without PreAmp.
2. 1e13 with PreAmp. 2.1e7 without PreAmp.
3. If auto ohms is enabled.
Default
Source
parameter SCPI memory
2.1e5
ON
Note 2
2.1e1
1.0
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓3
✓
✓
✓
ON
1
ON
5
OFF
1
ON
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
0
✓
ON
✓
SCPI Command Reference
17-13
Table 17-6
SOURce command summary
Command
Description
:SOURce[1]
:CLEar
[:IMMediate]
:AUTO <b>
:AUTO?
:MODE <name>
Path to control sourcing:
Path to clear source:
Turn selected source off.
Enable or disable auto clear for source.
Query state of auto clear.
Specify auto clear mode (ALWays or
TCOunt).
Query auto clear mode.
Source selection:
Select source mode (VOLTage, CURRent or
MEMory).
Query source selection.
Specify settling time (in sec): 0 to 9999.999.
Enable or disable auto settling time.
Query state of auto settling time.
Query source settling time.
:MODE?
:FUNCtion
[:MODE] <name>
[:MODE]?
:DELay <n>
:AUTO <b>
:AUTO?
:DELay?
:CURRent
:MODE <n>
:MODE?
:RANGe <n>|UP|DOWN|
:AUTO <b>
:AUTO?
:RANGe?
[:LEVel]
[:IMMediate]
[:AMPLitude] <n>
[:AMPLitude]?
:TRIGgered
[:AMPLitude] <n>
[:AMPLitude]?
:SFACtor <n>
:STATe <b>
:STATe?
:SFACtor?
:STARt <n>
1If
source V is active.
Path to configure I-Source:
Select I-Source mode (FIXed, SWEep, or
LIST).
Query I-Source mode.
Select fixed I-Source range; 0 to 0.105.
Enable or disable autoranging.
Query state of autoranging.
Query I-Source range setting.
Set I-Source level (in amps):
Set level immediately:
Specify current level; -0.105 to 0.105.
Query current level.
Set level when triggered:
Specify current level; -0.105 to 0.105.
Query current level.
Set current scaling factor (-999.9999e+18
to +999.999e+18).
Enable/disable current scaling factor.
Query current scaling factor state.
Query current scaling factor.
Specify start level for I-sweep; -105e-3 to
105e-3.
Default
Source
parameter SCPI memory
✓
OFF
ALWays
VOLTage
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
0.003
OFF
FIXed
1.05e-4
ON
0
0
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓1
✓1
1.0
✓1
OFF
✓1
0
✓
✓
17-14
SCPI Command Reference
Table 17-6 (cont.)
SOURce command summary
Command
:SOURce[1]
:CURRent
:STARt?
:STOP <n>
:STOP?
:STEP <n>
:STEP?
:SPAN <n>
:SPAN?
:CENTer <n>
:CENTer?
:VOLTage
:MODE <n>
:MODE?
:RANGe <n>|UP|DOWN|
AUTO <b>
:AUTO?
:RANGe?
[:LEVel]
[:IMMediate]
[:AMPLitude] <n>
[:AMPLitude]?
:TRIGgered
[:AMPLitude] <n>
[:AMPLitude]?
:SFACtor <n>
:STATe <b>
:STATe?
:SFACtor?
:PROTection
[:LEVel] <NRf>
[:LEVel]?
:TRIPped?
1If
source V is active.
Description
Query start level for current sweep.
Specify stop level for I-sweep; -105e-3 to
105e-3.
Query stop level for current sweep.
Specify step value for I-sweep; -210e-3 to
210e-3.
Query step value for current sweep.
Specify span; -210e-3 to 210e-3.
Query span.
Specify center point; -210e-3 to 210e-3.
Query center point.
Path to configure V-Source:
Select V-Source mode (FIXed, SWEep, or
LIST).
Query V-Source mode.
Select fixed V-Source range; 0 to 210.
Enable or disable autoranging.
Query state of autoranging.
Query V-Source range setting.
Set V-Source level (in volts):
Set specified level immediately:
Specify voltage level; -210 to 210.
Query voltage level.
Set specified level when triggered:
Specify voltage level; -210 to 210.
Query voltage level.
Set voltage scaling factor (-999.9999e+18
to +999.9999e+18).
Enable/disable voltage scaling factor.
Query voltage scaling factor state.
Query voltage scaling factor.
Path to limit output voltage:
Specify voltage limit level; -210 to 210.
Query voltage limit.
Voltage limit detected: 1 (yes), 0 (no).
Default
Source
parameter SCPI memory
0
✓
✓
0
0
0
FIXed
21
ON
0
0
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓1
✓1
✓1
0
✓1
OFF
✓1
210
✓
✓
✓
✓
SCPI Command Reference
17-15
Table 17-6 (cont.)
SOURce command summary
Command
:SOURce[1]
:VOLTage
:STARt <n>
:STARt?
:STOP <n>
:STOP?
:STEP <n>
:STEP?
:SPAN <n>
:SPAN?
:CENTer <n>
:CENTer?
:SOAK <NRf>
:SOAK?
:SWEep
:SPACing <name>
:SPACing?
:POINts <n>
:POINts?
:DIRection <name>
:DIRection?
:RANGing <name>
:RANGing?
:LIST
:CURRent <NRf>
:APPend <NRf>
:POINts?
:CURRent?
:VOLTage <NRf>
:APPend <NRf>
:POINts?
:VOLTage?
Description
Specify start level for V-sweep; -210 to 210.
Query start level for voltage sweep.
Specify stop level for V-sweep; -210 to 210.
Query stop level for voltage sweep.
Specify step value for V-sweep; -420 to 420.
Query step value for voltage sweep.
Specify span; -420 to 420.
Query span.
Specify center point; -420 to 420.
Query center point.
Set first sweep point soak time (0.00000 to
9999.999s).
Query soak time.
Configure SWEep source mode:
Select sweep spacing type (LINear or
LOGarithmic).
Query sweep spacing.
Specify number of sweep points (2 to 2500).
Query number of points in sweep.
Sweep from start to stop (UP) or from stop to
start (DOWN).
Query sweep direction.
Select source ranging mode (BEST, AUTO,
or FIXed).
Query source ranging mode.
Configure LIST source mode:
Create list of I-Source values; -0.105 to
0.105.
Add I-Source values to end of list.
Query number of source values in list.
Query I-Source list.
Create list of V-Source values; -210 to 210.
Add V-Source values to end of list.
Query number of source values in list.
Query V-Source list.
Default
Source
parameter SCPI memory
0
0
✓
✓
✓
✓
0
0
0
0.00000
LINear
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
2500
UP
BEST
17-16
SCPI Command Reference
Table 17-6 (cont.)
SOURce command summary
Command
:SOURce[1]
:MEMory
:SAVE <n>
:RECall <n>
:POINts <n>
:POINts?
:STARt <NRf>
:STARt?
:SOURce2
:BSIZe <n>
:BSIZe?
:TTL
[:LEVel]
[:DEFault] <NRf>,
<NDN>
:ACTual?
[:DEFault]?
:TTL4
:MODE <name>
:MODE?
:BSTate <b>
:BSTate?
:CLEar
[:IMMediate]
:AUTO <b>
:AUTO?
:DELay <n>
:DELay?
316-bit
4Bit
Description
Configure Source Memory Sweep:
Save settings at memory location (1 to 100).
Recall settings from memory (1 to 100).
Specify number of sweep points (1 to 100).
Query number of sweep points.
Specify start location for Source Memory
Sweep (1 to 100).
Query start location.
Path to control digital output lines:
Set Digital I/O bit size (3, or 4).3
Query Digital I/O bit size.
Specify digital output pattern.4
Default
Source
parameter SCPI memory
1
1
No effect
15 or 7
Query actual pattern on digital output port.
Query the programmed output pattern value
Set Digital I/O mode (EOTest or BUSY).
Query Digital I/O line 4 mode.
Set BUSY and EOT polarity (HI or LO).
Query BUSY and EOT polarity.
Clear digital output:
Restore (clear) to :TTL output pattern.
Enable or disable auto-clear.
Query state of auto-clear.
Specify pulse-width of pass/fail pattern
(0.0000 to 60 sec).
Query delay.
EOTest
LO
OFF
0.00010
size available with 2499-DIGIO option.
range set by :BSIZe. Default for 3-bit is 7. Default for 4-bit is 15. Default for 16-bit is 65535.
SCPI Command Reference
17-17
Table 17-7
STATus command summary
Command
:STATus
:MEASurement
[:EVENt]?
:ENABle <NDN>
or <NRf>
:ENABle?
:CONDition?
:OPERation
[:EVENt]?
:ENABle <NDN>
or <NRf>
:ENABle?
:CONDition?
:QUEStionable
[:EVENt]?
:ENABle <NDN>
or <NRf>
:ENABle?
:CONDition?
:PRESet
:QUEue
[:NEXT]?
:ENABle <list>
:ENABle?
:DISable <list>
:DISable?
:CLEar
Description
Control measurement event registers:
Read the event register.6
Program the enable register.
Read the enable register.6
Read the condition register.6
Control operation status registers:
Read the event register.6
Program the enable register.
Read the enable register.6
Read the condition register.6
Control questionable status registers:
Read the event register.6
Program the enable register.
Read the enable register.6
Read the condition register.6
Return status registers to default states.
Path to access error queue:
Read the most recent error message.
Specify error and status messages for error queue.
Read the enabled messages.
Specify messages not to be placed in error queue.
Read the disabled messages.
Clears all messages from error queue.
Default
parameter
SCPI
Note 1
✓
Note 2
Note 3
✓
✓
Note 2
Note 3
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
Note 2
Note 3
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
Note 4
Note 5
✓
✓
✓
Note 5
Notes:
1. Commands in this subsystem are not affected by *RST and :SYSTem:PREset. The effects of cycling power, *CLS and
:STATus:PRESet, are explained by the following notes.
2. Event Registers — Power-up and *CLS clears all bits.:STATus:PRESet has no effect.
3. Enable Registers — Power-up and :STATus:PRESet clears all bits. *CLS has no effect. Accepts the SCPI 1995.0 mandated
(non-decimal numeric) format (#H, #Q, or #B).
4. Error Queue — Power-up and *CLS clears all bits of the registers.
5. Error Queue Messages — Power-up clears list of messages. *CLS and :STATus:PRESet have no effect.
6. Register Query Commands — The format for the response messages (ASCII, hexadecimal, octal, or binary) depends on which
data format is presently selected. See the :FORMat:SREGister command.
17-18
SCPI Command Reference
Table 17-8
SYSTem command summary
Command
:SYSTem
:PRESet
:POSetup <name>
:POSetup?
:VERSion?
:ERRor
[:NEXT]?
:ALL?
:COUNt?
:CODE
[:NEXT]?
ALL?
:CLEar
:KEY <n>
:KEY?
:GUARd <name>
:GUARd?
:BEEPer
[:IMMediate]
<freq, time>
:STATe <b>
:STATe?
:AZERo
[:STATe] <name>
[:STATe]?
:CACHing
[:STATe] <b>
[:STATe]?
:REFResh
:RESet
:NPLCycles?
:LFRequency <freq>
:AUTO <b>
:AUTO?
:LFRequency?
Description
Return to :SYSTem:PRESet defaults.
Select power-on setup (RST, PRESet or SAV 0-4).
Query power-on setup.
Query revision level of SCPI.
Path to read messages in error queue. 1
Return and clear oldest error (code and message).
Return and clear all errors (codes and messages).
Return the number of errors.
Path to return error code numbers only:
Return and clear oldest error (code only).
Return and clear all errors (codes only).
Clears messages from error queue.
Simulate key-press (1 to 31). See Figure 17-3.
Query the last “pressed” key.
Select guard type (OHMS or CABLe).
Query guard type.
Control beeper:
Beep at specified frequency (65 to 2e6 Hz) for
specified time period (0 to 7.9 seconds).
Enable or disable beeper.
Query state of beeper.
Control auto zero and NPLC caching:
Control auto zero (ON, OFF, or ONCE).
Query state of auto zero.
Control NPLC caching.
Enable or disable NPLC caching.
Query NPLC caching state.
Force immediate update of NPLC cache values.
Clear cache of all NPLC values.
Return list of NPLC values in cache.
Select line frequency: 50 or 60 (Hz):
Enable or disable auto frequency.
Query state of auto frequency.
Query line frequency.
Default
parameter SCPI Memory
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
CABLe
ON
✓
✓
ON
✓
✓
✓
OFF
Note 2
Notes:
1. Clearing Error Queue — Power-up and *CLS clears the error queue. *RST, :SYSTem:PRESet, and :STATus:PRESet have no
effect.
2. The auto line frequency setting is not affected by *RST and :SYSTem:PRESet.
SCPI Command Reference
17-19
Table 17-8 (cont.)
SYSTem command summary
Command
:SYSTem
:TIME
:RESet
:AUTO <b>
:TIME?
:MEMory
:INITialize
:LOCal
:REMote
:RWLock <b>
:RCMode <name>
:RCMode?
:MEP
[:STATe]?
:HOLDoff <b>
Description
Timestamp:
Reset timestamp to zero seconds.
Enable/disable timestamp reset on exiting idle.
Query timestamp.
Initialize memory:
Initialize battery backed RAM.
Take unit out of remote (RS-232 only).
Put unit in remote (RS-232 only).
Enable or disable local lockout (RS-232 only).
Set auto range on compliance mode (SINGle or
MULTiple).
Query auto range on compliance mode.
Path to 488.1 protocol (Appendix G).
Query protocol (1 = SCPI, 0 = 488.1).
Enable/disable NDAC hold-off.
Default
parameter SCPI Memory
OFF
✓
✓
SINGle
OFF
Table 17-9
TRACe command summary
Command
Description
:TRACe|:DATA
:DATA?
:CLEar
:FREE?
:POINts <NRf>
:ACTual?
:POINts?
:FEED <name>
Use :TRACe or :DATA as root command:
Read the contents of the buffer (data store).
Clear readings from buffer.
Query bytes available and bytes in use.
Specify size of buffer (1 to 2500).
Queries number of readings stored in the buffer.
Query buffer size.
Select source of readings (SENSe[1], CALCulate[1],
or CALCulate2).
Specify buffer control mode (NEVER or NEXT).
Query buffer control mode.
Path to set timestamp format:
Select format (ABSolute or DELTa).
Query timestamp format.
:CONTrol <name>
:CONTrol?
:TSTamp
:FORMat <name>
:FORMat?
Note: :SYSTem:PRESet and *RST have no effect on the commands in this subsystem.
Default
parameter
Note
SCPI
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
17-20
SCPI Command Reference
Table 17-10
TRIGger command summary
Command
Description
:INITiate[:IMMediate]
:ABORt
:ARM
[:SEQuence[1]]
[:LAYer[1]]
:COUNt <n>
:COUNt?
:SOURce <name>
Initiate source-measure cycle(s).
Reset trigger system. Goes to idle state.
Path to program Arm Layer:
:SOURce?
:TIMer <n>
:TIMer?
[:TCONfigure]
:DIRection <name>
:DIRection?
[:ASYNchronous]
:ILINe <n>
:ILINe?
:OLINe <n>
:OLINe?
:OUTPut <name>
:OUTPut?
:TRIGger
:CLEar
[:SEQuence[1]]
:COUNt <n>
:COUNt?
:DELay <n>
:DELay?
:SOURce <name>
:SOURce?
Default
parameter
Specify arm count (1 to 2500 or INFinite).
1
Query arm count (INFinite = +9.9e37).
Specify control source (IMMediate, TIMer,
IMMediate
MANual, BUS, TLINk, NSTest, PSTest, BSTest).
Query control source.
Set timer interval in seconds (0.001 to 99999.99). 0.1
Query timer interval.
Enable (SOURce) or disable (ACCeptor)
bypass.
Query state of bypass.
Configure output triggers:
Select input trigger line (1, 2, 3, or 4).
Query input trigger line.
Select output trigger line (1, 2, 3, or 4).
Query output trigger line.
Output TENTer, TEXit, or NONE.
Query arm output trigger status.
Path to program Trigger Layer:
Clear any pending input triggers immediately.
Specify trigger count (1 to 2500).
Query trigger count.
Specify trigger delay: 0 to 999.9999 (sec).
Query source delay.
Specify control source (IMMediate or TLINk).
Query control source.
ACCeptor
SCPI
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
1
2
NONE
1
0
IMMediate
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
SCPI Command Reference
17-21
Table 17-10 (cont.)
TRIGger command summary
Command
:TRIGger
[:SEQuence[1]]
[:TCONfigure]
:DIRection <name>
:DIRection
[:ASYNchronous]
:ILINe <n>
:ILINe?
:INPut <event list>
:INPut?
:OLINe <n>
:OLINe?
:OUTPut <event list>
:OUTPut?
Description
Enable (SOURce) or disable (ACCeptor) bypass.
Query state of bypass.
Configure output triggers:
Select input trigger line (1, 2, 3, or 4).
Query input trigger line.
Enable input event detectors (SOURce, DELay,
SENSe, or NONE).
Query enabled input event detectors.
Select output trigger line (1, 2, 3, or 4).
Query output trigger line.
Output trigger after SOURce, DELay, SENSe or
not (NONE) at all.
Query when output trigger is going to occur.
Default
parameter
SCPI
✓
✓
✓
✓
1
NONE
2
NONE
17-22
SCPI Command Reference
Calculate subsystems
There are three Calculate Subsystems. The CALC1 Subsystem is used for math expressions,
CALC2 is used for limit tests, and CALC3 provides statistical data on readings stored in the
buffer. The commands in these subsystems are summarized in Table 17-1.
CALCulate[1]
NOTE
Configure and control math expressions
Percent deviation (%DEV) is included in the catalog as a built-in math expression
but is only available from the front panel. However, percent deviation can be added
as a user-defined math expression for remote operation. See “Program examples.”
Select (create) math expression name
:CATalog?
:CALCulate[1]:MATH[:EXPression]:CATalog?
Description
Query list of expression names
This query command is used to list the math expression names. This list
includes the built-in expression names as well as the names of expressions
defined by the user. The names for the built-in expressions are as follows:
“POWER”, “OFFCOMPOHM”, “VOLTCOEF”, “VARALPHA”, “%DEV”
Thus, the :CATalog? command will return the above names as well as the
names of any user-defined expressions. See :NAME to assign names to userdefined expressions.
:NAME <name>
:CALCulate[1]:MATH[:EXPression]:NAME <name>
Select math expression
Parameters
<name> = “POWER”
“OFFCOMPOHM”
“VOLTCOEF”
“VARALPHA”
“user-name”
Query
:NAME?
Description
This command can be used to select a math expression that already exists
(built-in or user-defined). Math expression names that already exist can be
listed using the :CATalog? command. The actual math expression can be
read using the :MATH? command. The built-in math expressions (except
POWER) require a two-point sweep in order to perform the calculation. The
“Program fragments” show how to configure the SourceMeter for these
math expressions.
Instantaneous power equation
Offset compensated ohms equation
Resistor voltage coefficient equation
Varistor alpha equation
Assigned name for user-defined
expression where the user name is made
up of ASCII characters (up to 10).
Query selected math expression
SCPI Command Reference
17-23
When you want to create a new user-defined math expression, perform the
following steps in order:
1. If desired, assign units to the calculation result. See :UNITs. Units is
stored for the calculation.
2. Assign a name to the expression (using up to 10 ASCII characters) using
this command.
3. Define the expression using the: DEFine or EXPRession command. The
new expression is the one that will be presently selected.
Math expression errors:
+801 “Insufficient vector data” — Returned to idle before acquiring enough
data to fully populate the vector. A CALC1 result is not built.
+804 “Expression list full” — Attempted to create a new expression name
when the list (catalog) is full. The maximum number of user-defined
expression names is five.
+805 “Undefined expression exists” — Attempted to create a new expression name while a previous expression name remains undefined.
Remember, after creating a name, you have to define the expression.
+806 “Expression not found” — Attempted to delete a named math expression that cannot be found.
+807 “Definition not allowed” — Attempted to define an expression that has
not been previously named.
+808 “Expression cannot be deleted” — Attempted to delete one of the
built-in math expressions. See :DELete.
+809 “Source memory location revised” — Occurs when a
:SOURce:MEMory sweep location references an expression that no
longer exists.
+811 “Not an operator or number” — Defined a null math expression by not
using a valid operator or number.
+812 “Mismatched parenthesis” — Number of open parentheses must be
the same as the number of closed parentheses. For example,
CALC1:MATH:EXPR (2*sin(VOLT) generates this error.
+813 “Not a number of data handle” — An invalid floating point number or
symbol other than VOLT, CURR, RES, or TIME appears in the math
expression.
+814 “Mismatched brackets” — Improper use of brackets for vectored math
expression indices. For example, CALC1:MATH:EXPR
(VOLT[0*CURR[0]) generates this error.
+815 “Too many parenthesis” — Too many closed parentheses were
detected. For example, CALC1:MATH:EXPR (In(VOLT)) generates
this error.
+816 “Entire expression not parsed” — Occurs when the input expression
does not produce a function for the SourceMeter to calculate.
17-24
SCPI Command Reference
+817 “Unknown token” — Attempted to define an expression using an
invalid function name.
+818 “Error parsing mantissa” — Occurs when a floating point number has
an invalid mantissa.
+819 “Error parsing exponent” — Occurs when a floating point number has
an invalid exponent.
+820 “Error parsing value” — Occurs when an invalid floating point number is entered.
+821 “Invalid data handle index” — An invalid array index value was
assigned to a vectored expression. Array indices start at 0 and can be
as high as 2499.
Notes:
• Up to five user-defined math expressions can be created.
• A selected math expression can only be performed if CALC1 is enabled.
See :STATe.
• When the math expression is vectored, the math result will not be
generated until all source-measure operations for the vector array are
performed.
• Initializing memory (:SYSTem:MEMory:INITialize) deletes all userdefined math expressions and selects the POWER expression.
Program examples
OFFCOMPOHM, VOLTCOEF, and VARALPHA require two sourcemeasure sweep points in order to perform the math expressions. Shown
below are code fragments that will properly configure the SourceMeter to
perform the built-in math expressions:
Power:
*RST
:SENS:FUNC:OFF:ALL
:SENS:FUNC
:CALC:MATH:EXPR:NAME
:CALC:STAT
:OUTPUT
:INIT
:CALC:DATA?
“VOLT”,“CURR”
“POWER”
ON
ON
Offset compensated ohms:
*RST
:SENS:FUNC:OFF:ALL
:SENS:FUNC
:SOUR:FUNC
if :SOUR:FUNC VOLT then
if :SOUR:FUNC CURR then
“VOLT”,“CURR”
VOLT or CURR
:SOUR:VOLT:STAR <n>;
STOP <n>; MODE SWE
:SOUR:CURR:STAR <n>;
STOP <n>; MODE SWE
SCPI Command Reference
:SOUR:SWE:POIN
:TRIG:COUN
:CALC:MATH:EXPR:NAME
:CALC:STAT
:OUTPUT
:INIT
:CALC:DATA?
17-25
2
2
“OFFCOMPOHM”
ON
ON
Resistor voltage coefficient
*RST
:SENS:FUNC:ON:ALL
:SENS:RES:MODE
:SOUR:FUNC:ON
if :SOUR:FUNC VOLT then
if :SOUR:FUNC CURR then
:SOUR:SWE:POIN
:TRIG:COUN
:CALC:MATH:EXPR:NAME
:CALC:STAT
:OUTPUT
:INIT
:CALC:DATA?
MAN
VOLT or CURR
:SOUR:VOLT:STAR <n>;
STOP <n>; MODE SWE
:SOUR:CURR:STAR <n>;
STOP <n>; MODE SWE
2
2
“VOLTCOEF”
ON
ON
Varistor alpha
*RST
:SENS:FUNC:OFF:ALL
:SENS:FUNC:ON
:SOUR:FUNC:MODE
:SOUR:CURR:STAR
:TRIG:COUN
:CALC:MATH:EXPR:NAME
:CALC:STAT
:OUTPUT
:INIT
:CALC:DATA?
“VOLT”,“CURR”
CURR
<n>;STOP <n>;MODE SWE
2
“VARALPHA”
ON
ON
Percent Deviation
NOTE
Percent deviation is not a built-in math expression for remote operation. This program example creates the following percent deviation (PER_DEV) calculation to
test 10kΩ resistors. This user-defined math expression is added to the catalog.
( RES – 10kΩ )
PER_DEV = ------------------------------------ × 100
10kΩ
Where: RES is the actual measured resistance of the DUT.
10kΩ is the reference value.
17-26
SCPI Command Reference
*RST
:SENS:FUNC:OFF:ALL
:SENS:FUNC:ON or “RES”
:CALC:MATH:UNIT “%”
:CALC:MATH:EXPR:NAME “PER_DEV”
:CALC:MATH:EXPR ((RES - 10e3) / 10e3) * 100
:CALC:MATH:EXPR:NAME “PER_DEV” (optional command)
:CALC:STAT ON
:OUTPUT ON
:INIT
:CALC:DATA?
NOTE
Parameter <n> referenced in the :SOUR:VOLT and :SOUR:CURR commands
above represent the actual numbers that the user would program. All other commands should be entered as shown.
:DELete[:SELected] <name>
:CALCulate[1]:MATH[:EXPRession]:DELete[:SELected] <name>
Delete user-defined math expression
Parameters
<name> = “user-name”
Description
This command is used to remove (delete) the specified user-defined math
expression from the catalog. Once removed, that math expression can no
longer be selected. You can use the :CATalog? command to verify that the
math expression is gone.
Name of user-defined math expression
For example, if you wish to delete a user-defined math expression that is
named “math1”, you would send the following command:
:DELete “math1”
You cannot delete built-in math expressions. This will result in error +808,
“Expression cannot be deleted”.
:DELete:ALL
:CALCulate[1]:MATH[:EXPRession]:DELete:ALL
Description
Delete all user-defined math expression
This action command will remove (delete) all user-defined math expressions
from the catalog. Built-in math expressions are not affected.
SCPI Command Reference
17-27
Assign unit suffix
:UNITs <name>
:CALCulate[1]:MATH:UNITs <name>
Parameters
Query
Description
Specify units for user-defined calculation
<name> = Three ASCII characters enclosed in single or double quotes
:UNITs?
Query units for user-defined calculation
This command is used to specify the units suffix name for a user-defined
math calculation. Use three ASCII characters for the units suffix name. If
using fewer than three characters, add spaces to the right of the units name
in the string. For example, if the units name is “Z”, send it as follows:
:calc:math:unit “Z ”
The units name can also be enclosed in single quotes as follows:
:calc:math:unit ‘Z’
Define math expression
[:EXPRession] <form> or [:DEFine] <form>
:CALCulate[1]:MATH[:EXPRession] <form>
:CALCulate[1]:MATH[:EXPRession][:DEFine] <form>
Define math formula
Define math formula
Parameters
<form> = mathematical formula using instrument readings, numbers and
standard math operator symbols. See Description for details.
Query
Description
:MATH?
Query user-defined math expression
Use either of these two commands to define a math formula using measure
and source readings, numeric constants, and standard math operator symbols. After the math expression is defined, it will be assigned to the name
that was created using the :NAME command and will become the selected
math expression. See :NAME for more details.
Valid parameter names for measure and source readings include:
VOLTage
Use V-Measure or V-Source reading
CURRent
Use I-Measure or I-Source reading
RESistance
Use ohms reading
TIME
Use timestamp reading
Valid math operators and their operations are listed as follows:
+
Add
Subtract
*
Multiply
/
Divide
^
Exponent
log
Logarithmic, base 10
ln
Natural log
sin
Sine
cos
Cosine
tan
Tangent
exp
ex
abs
Absolute value
17-28
SCPI Command Reference
NOTE
The log and ln operations are performed on the absolute value of the specified number. For example, log (100) = 2 and log (-100) = 2.
Expressions are evaluated according to the following precedence rules:
1. Enclosed by parentheses
2. Unary operators (+ and -)
3. ^ (exponentiation)
4. * (multiplication) and / (division)
5. + (addition) and - (subtraction)
6. Left to right.
The readings used for the calculation depend on how the SourceMeter is
configured. If configured to Source V Measure I, the voltage reading for the
calculation will be the source value, and the current reading will be the current measurement. Conversely, if configured to Source I Measure V, the current reading will be the source value, and the voltage reading will be the
voltage measurement.
Measure readings take priority over source readings. Thus, if configured to
Source V Measure V, the voltage reading for the calculation will be the voltage measurement (not the programmed V-Source value). Conversely, if configured to Source I Measure I, the current reading for the calculation will be
the current measurement.
The result of a calculation using a reading that is not sourced or measured
will be the invalid NAN (not a number) value of +9.91e37. For example,
using a current reading in a calculation for Source V Measure V will cause a
NAN result.
Example using Source I Measure V configuration:
:calc:math (volt * curr)
Calculate power using voltage measurement
and I-Source value.
After a calculation is configured and enabled, the results are displayed when
source-measure operations are performed. See :STATe. Use the :data? command to send the results to the computer.
Vectored math
By incorporating vectors, you select which readings to use for the math calculation. After all programmed source-measure operations are completed,
the math calculation(s) are performed using readings indicated by the specified vectors.
Vector numbers are enclosed in brackets ([]), and start at 0. Thus, vector 0 is
the first reading in the array, vector 1 is the second reading in the array, and
so on. The largest vector number in the expression defines the vector array
size.
For example, assume the SourceMeter is programmed to perform 10 sourcemeasure operations, and the following vectored math calculation is used:
(volt[3] - volt[9])
The above expression defines a vector array that is made up of 10 readings.
Since the SourceMeter is programmed to perform 10 source-measure opera-
SCPI Command Reference
17-29
tions, the calculation will yield one result every 10 SDM cycles. The fourth
voltage reading (vector 3) and the 10th voltage reading (vector 9) are used
for the calculation.
Now assume that the SourceMeter is configured to perform 20 sourcemeasure operations. Since the vector size is still 10, two 10-reading arrays
will be created. The calculation will now yield two results, one for each
array.
The first result, as before, is based on the fourth and 10th readings of the
first array. The second result is based on the 14th and 20th readings. These
are the fourth (vector 3) and 10th (vector 9) readings of the second array.
Note that you need complete vector arrays to acquire valid calculation
results. If, in the preceding example, the SourceMeter is changed to perform
25 source-measure operations, then the third array will be incomplete (first
array is 10 readings, second array is 10 readings, third array is only 5 readings). After the SourceMeter goes back into idle, the “Insufficient vector
data” error message will be displayed, and the third result will be NAN
(+9.91e37).
To avoid incomplete vector arrays, make sure the programmed number of
source-measure operations (arm count × trigger count) is a multiple of the
vector array size. In the preceding example, vector array size is 10. Thus, in
order to avoid “Insufficient vector data” errors, the programmed number of
source-measure operations has to be a multiple of 10 (10, 20, 30, 40, and so
on).
The following vector math expression to calculate offset compensated ohms
demonstrates proper syntax:
:calc:math ( (volt[1] - volt[0]) / (curr[1] - curr[0]) )
Notes:
1. Use nested parentheses to force math operations that are imbedded in the
calculation. See the vector math example.
2. A calculation expression can be up to 256 characters in length, including
parentheses and white spaces.
3. When using the filter, the measured readings used in the calculation are
filtered - NOT the result of the calculation.
4. For vector math, it is recommended that only the REPEAT filter be used.
For the repeat filter, the calculations use only the filtered readings of the
vector points. If you instead use the MOVING filter, each vector point
will reflect the filtered average of all the previous readings in the vector
array.
5. The data format (ASCII or binary) for calculation results is selected
using the :FORMat:DATA? command. See FORMat Subsystem. The
*RST and :SYSTem:PRESet default is ASCII.
6. When brackets ([]) are left out of an expression, it is assumed that it is
referencing the first vector point in the array (i.e., VOLT is the same as
VOLT[0]).
17-30
SCPI Command Reference
Enable and read math expression result
:STATe <b>
:CALCulate[1]:STATe <b>
Control CALC1
Parameters
<b> =
Query
:STATe?
Description
This command is used to enable or disable the CALC1 calculation. When
enabled, the selected math expression will be performed when the SourceMeter is triggered to perform the programmed source-measure operations.
0 or OFF
1 or ON
Disable CALC1 calculation
Enable CALC1 calculation
Query state (on or off) of CALC1
After the SourceMeter returns to idle, you can read the result of the selected
math expression using the :CALC1:DATA? command. See the next
command.
When disabled, the :CALC1:DATA? command will return the NAN (not a
number) value of +9.91e37.
:DATA?
:CALCulate[1]:DATA?
Description
Read CALC1 result
This query command is used to read the result of the CALC1 calculation.
The largest valid calculation result can be ±9.9e37, which (defined by SCPI)
is infinity.
For scalar math (non-vectored math), this command is used to return calculation results for all the programmed source-measure points. For example, if
20 source-measure operations were performed, this command will return 20
calculation results.
For vector math, this command will only return the calculation results for
the specified vector points.
An invalid NAN (not a number) result of +9.91e37 indicates that one of the
following conditions exist:
• Error in the expression.
• The required measurement function is disabled.
• CALC1 is disabled. See :STATe.
NOTE
See Appendix C for a detailed explanation on how data flows through the various
operation blocks of the SourceMeter. It clarifies the type of readings that are
acquired by the various commands to read data.
:LATest?
:CALCulate[1]:DATA:LATest?
Description
Read latest CALC1 result
This command works exactly like CALC1:DATA? except that it returns
only the latest CALC1 result.
SCPI Command Reference
CALCulate2
17-31
Configure and control limit tests
The following commands are used to configure and control the three limit tests for DUT.
When used with a handler to provide binning operations, communication between the
SourceMeter and the handler is provided via the Digital I/O port. Many control aspects of the
digital output lines are performed from the SOURce2 Subsystem. These control aspects include
setting and clearing the digital output lines, and setting pulse width. See SOURce2 for details.
Select input path
:FEED <name>
:CALCulate2:FEED <name>
Select input path for limit tests
Parameters
<name> = CALCulate[1]
VOLTage
CURRent
RESistance
Query
:FEED?
Description
This command is used to select the input path for the limit tests. With
CALCulate[1] selected, the specified limits will be compared to the result of
CALC1. With VOLTage selected, limits will be compared to the voltage
measurement. With CURRent or RESistance selected, limits will be
compared with the respective current or resistance measurement.
Use result of CALC1
Use measured voltage reading
Use measured current reading
Use measured resistance reading
Query input path for limit tests
Null feed reading
:OFFSet <n>
:CALCulate2:NULL:OFFSet <n>
Specify null offset (REL) for feed
Parameters
<n> = -9.999999e20 to
9.999999e20
Query
:OFFSet?
Description
This command lets you establish a null offset (REL) for the selected feed.
When Null Offset is enabled (see :Ingolstadt), the result is the algebraic difference between the feed reading and the offset value:
Specify null offset value
Query null offset value
CALC2 reading = feed reading - null offset
17-32
SCPI Command Reference
:ACQuire
:CALCulate2:NULL:ACQuire
Description
Automatically acquire REL value
This command automatically acquires the null offset value. The next available reading will become the offset value.
:STATe <b>
:CALCulate2:NULL:STATe <b>
Control null offset
Parameters
<b> =
Query
:STATe?
Description
This command is used to enable or disable null offset. When enabled, the
CALC2 reading will include the null offset value. See :OFFSet. When disabled, CALC2 will not include the null offset.
1 or ON
0 or OFF
Enable null offset
Disable null offset
Query state of null offset
Read CALC2
:DATA?
:CALCulate2:DATA?
Description
Read CALC2
This command is used to acquire all the readings used for the CALC2 limit
tests. Note that if null offset is enabled, then the CALC2 readings will
include the null offset value. See Null Feed Reading.
At least one of the limit tests have to be enabled to a acquire limit test readings. See Configure and control limit tests; :STATe.
NOTE
See Appendix C for a detailed explanation on how data flows through the various
operation blocks of the SourceMeter. It clarifies the type of readings that are
acquired by the various commands to read data.
:LATest?
:CALCulate2:DATA:LATest?
Description
Read latest CALC2 data
This command works exactly like CALC2:DATA, except it returns only the
latest null offset or limit result.
SCPI Command Reference
17-33
Configure and control limit tests
:COMPliance:FAIL <name>
:CALCulate2:LIMit[1]:COMPliance:FAIL <name>
Parameters
<name> =
IN
Fail Limit 1 test when unit goes into
compliance
Fail Limit 1 test when unit comes out of
compliance
OUT
Query
:FAIL?
Description
This command is used to specify the condition that will cause Limit 1 test to
fail. With IN specified, the test will fail when the SourceMeter goes into
compliance. With OUT specified, the test will fail when the SourceMeter
comes out of compliance.
Query when Limit 1 test failure occurs
[:DATA] <n>
:CALCulate2:LIMitx:LOWer[:DATA] <n>
:CALCulate2:LIMitx:UPPer[:DATA] <n>
Parameters
<n> =
Specify lower LIMIT x (x = 2, 3, 5-12)
Specify upper LIMIT x (x = 2, 3, 5-12)
-9.999999e20 to
9.999999e20
DEFault
MINimum
MAXimum
Specify limit value
Set specified lower limit to -1
Set specified upper limit to 1
Set specified limit to -9.999999e20
Set specified limit to +9.999999e20
Query
:UPPer?
:UPPer? DEFault
:UPPer? MINimum
:UPPer? MAXimum
:LOWer?
:LOWer? DEFault
:LOWer? MINimum
:LOWer? MAXimum
Description
These commands are used to set the upper and lower limits for LIMIT 2,
LIMIT 3, and LIMIT 5 through LIMIT 12 tests. The actual limit depends on
which measurement function is currently selected. For example, a limit
value of 1µ is 1µA for the amps function and 1µV for the v olts function. A
limit value is not range sensitive. A limit of 2 for volts is 2V on all measurement ranges.
Query specified upper limit
Query *RST default upper limit
Query lowest allowable upper limit
Query largest allowable upper limit
Query specified lower limit
Query *RST default lower limit
Query lowest allowable lower limit
Query largest allowable lower limit
17-34
SCPI Command Reference
:SOURce2 <NRf> |<NDN>
:CALCulate2:LIMit[1]:COMPliance:SOURce2 <NRf> |<NDN> Specify pattern; LIMIT 1 failure
:CALCulate2:LIMitx:LOWer:SOURce2 <NRf>|<NDN>
Specify pattern for grading mode; lower
LIMIT x failure (x = 2, 3, 5-12)
:CALCulate2:LIMitx:UPPer:SOURce2 <NRf>|<NDN>
Specify pattern for grading mode; upper
LIMIT x failure (x = 2, 3, 5-12)
Parameters
<NRf> =
<NDN> =
0 to 7 (3-bit)
0 to 15 (4-bit)
0 to #b111 (3-bit)
0 to #b1111 (4-bit)
0 to #q7 (3-bit)
0 to #q17 (4-bit)
0 to #h7 (3-bit)
0 to #hF (4-bit)
Decimal value
Decimal value
Binary value
Binary value
Octal value
Octal value
Hexadecimal value
Hexadecimal value
Query
:SOURce2?
Description
These commands are used to define the digital output “fail” patterns for the
specified tests (0 to 7, 3-bit; 0 to 15, 4-bit). Note that the “fail” patterns for
Limits 2, 3, and 5-12 apply only to the grading mode.
Query source value for specified limit
Tests are performed in the following order:
1. Limit Test 1
2. Limit Test 2
A. Lower Limit 2
B. Upper Limit 2
3. Limit Test x, where x = 3, 5-12 in ascending numerical order.
A. Lower Limit x
B. Upper Limit x
The first failure in the test sequence determines the bit pattern for the digital
output port. Subsequent failures in the test sequence will not change the
defined digital output pattern. Note that the output value can be specified as
a binary, octal, decimal, or hexadecimal value.
NOTE
16-bit I/O is available with the 2499-DIGIO option. The maximum 16-bit output
value is 65535.
SCPI Command Reference
17-35
Use the following table to determine the parameter value for the desired
decimal digital output pattern. For non-decimal parameters, convert the decimal value to its binary, octal, or hexadecimal equivalent.
OUT 4*
OUT 3
OUT 2
OUT 1
Decimal value*
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
L
L
L
L
H
H
H
H
L
L
L
L
H
H
H
H
L
L
H
H
L
L
H
H
L
L
H
H
L
L
H
H
L
H
L
H
L
H
L
H
L
H
L
H
L
H
L
H
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
L = Low (Gnd)
H = High (>+3V)
*OUT 4 not used in 3-bit mode (values = 0 to 7)
The SourceMeter can be configured to place the defined “fail” bit pattern on
the digital output immediately when a “fail” condition occurs, or it can wait
until all testing on a device package is completed (operation leaves trigger
layer). See Composite testing; :BCONtrol for details.
PASS:SOURce2 <NRf> | NDN
:CALCulate2:LIMitx:PASS:SOURce2 <NRf> | <NDN>
Parameters
<NRf> =
<NDN> =
0 to 7 (3-bit)
0 to 15 (4-bit)
0 to #b111 (3-bit)
0 to #b1111 (4-bit)
0 to #q7 (3-bit)
0 to #q17 (4-bit)
0 to #h7 (3-bit)
0 to #hF (4-bit)
Set sorting mode “pass” pattern (x = 2, 3,
5-12)
Decimal value
Decimal value
Binary value
Binary value
Octal value
Octal value
Hexadecimal value
Hexadecimal value
17-36
SCPI Command Reference
Query
:SOURce2?
Description
This command is used to define the 3-bit or 4-bit output pattern for the
Digital I/O Port when a test (limit 2, 3, 5-12) for the sorting mode passes.
Note that the output value can be specified in binary, octal, decimal, or
hexadecimal format. Use the table provided in :SOURce2<NRf> | <NDN>,
Description to determine the parameter value for the desired decimal digital
output pattern.
NOTE
Query programmed source value
16-bit I/O is available with the 2499-DIGIO option. The maximum 16-bit output
value is 65535.
:STATe <b>
:CALCulate2:LIMit[1]:STATe <b>
:CALCulate2:LIMitx:STATe <b>
Control LIMIT 1 test
Control LIMIT x test (x = 2, 3, 5-12)
Parameters
<b> =
Query
:STATe?
Description
These commands are used to enable or disable LIMIT 1, LIMIT 2, LIMIT 3,
and LIMIT 5 to LIMIT 12 tests. Any limit test not enabled is simply not
performed.
1 or ON
0 or OFF
Enable specified limit test
Disable specified limit test
Query state of specified limit test
When a limit test is enabled, the Digital I/O port comes under control of
limit tests. That is, the result of the testing process updates the output pattern on the I/O port.
:FAIL?
:CALCulate2:LIMit[1]:FAIL?
:CALCulate2:LIMitx:FAIL?
Description
Read LIMIT 1 test result
Read LIMIT x test result (x = 2, 3, 5-12)
These commands are used to read the results of LIMIT 1, LIMIT 2, LIMIT
3, and LIMIT 5 to LIMIT 12 tests:
0 = Limit test passed
1 = Limit test failed
The response message (0 or 1) only tells you if a limit test has passed or
failed. For Limit 2, Limit 3, and Limit 5-12, it does not tell you which limit
(upper or lower) has failed. To determine which limit has failed, you will
have to read the Measurement Event Register. See STATus subsystem.
Reading the results of a limit test does not clear the fail indication of the
test. A failure can be cleared by using a :CLEar command.
SCPI Command Reference
17-37
Composite testing
PASS:SOURce2 <NRf> | NDN
:CALCulate2:CLIMits:PASS:SOURce2 <NRf> | <NDN>
Parameters
<NRf> =
<NDN> =
Query
Description
NOTE
0 to 7 (3-bit)
0 to 15 (4-bit)
0 to #b111 (3-bit)
0 to #b1111 (4-bit)
0 to #q7 (3-bit)
0 to #q17 (4-bit)
0 to #h7 (3-bit)
0 to #hF (4-bit)
:SOURce2?
Specify composite “pass” pattern
Decimal value
Decimal value
Binary value
Binary value
Octal value
Octal value
Hexadecimal value
Hexadecimal value
Query programmed source value
This command is used to define the 3-bit or 4-bit output pattern for the Digital I/O Port when there are no failures. Note that the output value can be
specified in binary, octal, decimal, or hexadecimal format. Use the table provided in :SOURce2<NRf> | <NDN>, Description to determine the parameter value for the desired decimal digital output pattern.
The SourceMeter can be configured to place the defined “pass” bit pattern
on the digital output immediately when the “pass” condition occurs, or it
can wait until all testing on a device package is completed (operation leaves
trigger layer). See :BCONtrol for details.
For the sorting mode, this command defines the 3-bit or 4-bit output “pass”
pattern for the Limit 1 test (compliance) when Limits 2, 3, and 5-12 are
disabled.
16-bit I/O is available with the 2499-DIGIO option. The maximum 16-bit output
value is 65535.
FAIL:SOURce2 <NRf> | <NDN>
:CALCulate2:CLIMits:FAIL:SOURce2 <NRf> | <NDN>
Parameters
<NRf> =
<NDN> =
Query
Description
:SOURce2?
0 to 7 (3-bit)
0 to 15 (4-bit)
0 to #b111 (3-bit)
0 to #b1111 (4-bit)
0 to #q7 (3-bit)
0 to #q17 (4-bit)
0 to #h7 (3-bit)
0 to #hF (4-bit)
Specify “fail” pattern
Decimal value
Decimal value
Binary value
Binary value
Octal value
Octal value
Hexadecimal value
Hexadecimal value
Query programmed source value
For the sorting mode, this command is used to define the 3-bit or 4-bit
output pattern for the Digital I/O Port when there are failures. Note that the
output value can be specified using binary, octal, decimal, or hexadecimal
format. Use the table provided in :SOURce2<NRf> | <NDN>, Description
to determine the decimal parameter value for the desired digital output
pattern.
17-38
SCPI Command Reference
FAIL:SMLocation <NRf> | NEXT
PASS:SMLocation <NRf> | NEXT
:CALCulate2:CLIMits:FAIL:SMLocation <NRf> | Next
:CALCulate2:CLIMits:PASS:SMLocation <NRf> | Next
Parameters
<NRf> = 1 to 100
NEXT
Query
Description
:SMLocation?
Specify “fail” source memory location
Specify “pass” source memory location
Specify memory location point
Next memory location point in list
(present location + 1)
Query “pass” or “fail” source memory location
While using a Source Memory Sweep when performing limit tests, the
sweep can branch to a specified memory location point or proceed to the
next memory location in the list.
When a memory location is specified with PASS, the sweep will branch to
that memory location if the test is successful (PASS condition). If not successful (FAIL condition), the sweep proceeds to the next memory location
in the list. With NEXT selected (the default), the sweep proceeds to the next
memory location (present location + 1) in the list regardless of the outcome
of the test (PASS or FAIL condition).
When a memory location is specified with FAIL, the sweep will branch to
that location on a failure. If not (PASS condition), the sweep proceeds to the
next memory location in the list. With NEXT selected (the default), the
sweep proceeds to the next memory location (present location + 1) in the list
regardless of the outcome of the test (FAIL or PASS condition). Note that
branch on FAIL is available only via remote.
See Section 9, Source memory sweep for more information.
:BCONtrol <name>
:CALCulate2:CLIMits:BCONtrol <name>
Parameters
<name> =
Query
Description
:BCONtrol?
IMMediate
END
Control Digital I/O port pass/fail update
Update output when first failure occurs
Update output after sweep is completed
Query when digital output will update
This command is used to control when the digital output will update to the
“pass” or “fail” bit pattern. The “pass” or “fail” bit pattern tells the handler
to stop the testing process and place the DUT in the appropriate bin.
With IMMediate selected, the digital output will update immediately to the
bit pattern for the first failure in the testing process. If all the tests pass, the
output will update to the “pass” bit pattern.
With END selected, the digital output will not update to the “pass” or “fail”
bit pattern until the SourceMeter completes the sweep or list operation. This
allows multiple test cycles to be performed on DUT. With the use of a scanner card, multi-element devices (i.e. resistor network) can be tested. If, for
example, you didn't use END and the first element in the device package
passed, the “pass” bit pattern will be output. The testing process will stop
and the DUT will be binned. As a consequence, the other elements in the
device package are not tested.
SCPI Command Reference
17-39
:MODE <name>
:CALCulate2:CLIMits:MODE <name>
Control Digital I/O port pass/fail output
Parameters
<name> =
Query
:MODE?
Description
This command controls how limit calculations drive the Digital I/O lines. In
GRADing mode, a reading passes if it is within all of the hi/low limit tolerances enabled, assuming that it has passed LIMIT 1 compliance test first.
The Digital I/O lines will be driven with the first pattern of the first compliance, hi, or low failure. Otherwise, the CALC2:CLIM:PASS:SOUR2 pattern will be output.
GRADing
SORTing
Output graded “pass/fail” pattern
Output sorted “pass/fail” pattern
Query Digital I/O pass/fail mode
In SORTing mode, a reading will fail if it fails the compliance test, or is not
within any of the Digital I/O Bands. If the tests pass and only LIMIT 1 is
enabled, the CALC2:CLIM:PASS:SOUR2 pattern will be output. Otherwise, the first limit test band that passes will output its LOW:SOUR2 pattern
(UPP:SOUR2 patterns will be ignored). If LIMIT1 fails, its SOUR2 pattern
will be output. If no LIMIT2, 3, 5-12 limit passes, the
CALC2:CLIM:FAIL:SOUR2 pattern will be output.
Clear test results
[:IMMediate]
:CALCulate2:CLIMits:CLEar[:IMMediate]
Description
Clears test results and resets Digital I/O
Port
This command clears the test results (pass or fail) of the limit tests and
resets the output lines of the Digital I/O port back to the :SOURce2:TTL
settings. See SOURce2.
:AUTO <b>
:CALCulate2:CLIMits:CLEar:AUTO <b>
Control auto-clear for test results
Parameters
<b> =
Query
:AUTO?
Description
With auto-clear enabled, test results will clear and the output lines of the
Digital I/O port will reset when the :INITiate command is sent to start a new
test sequence.
1 or ON
0 or OFF
Enable auto-clear
Disable auto-clear
Query state of auto-clear
When disabled, you must use :IMMediate to perform the clear actions.
17-40
SCPI Command Reference
CALCulate3
Provides statistical data on buffer readings
Select statistic
:FORMat <name>
:CALCulate3:FORMat <name>
Specify CALC3 format
Parameters
<name> =
Query
:FORMat?
Description
This command is used to select the desired statistic on readings stored in the
buffer. See Section 8 for details on these statistics.
MEAN
SDEViation
MAXimum
MINimum
PKPK
Mean value of readings in buffer
Standard deviation of readings in buffer
Largest reading in buffer
Lowest reading in buffer
MAXimum - MINimum
Query programmed math format
Readings stored in the buffer can be “raw” measured readings, the results of
the CALC1 calculation, or CALC2 readings. The :TRACe:FEED command
in the :TRACe Subsystem is used to select the type of readings to store.
Acquire statistic
:DATA?
:CALCulate3:DATA?
Description
Read CALC3 result
This query command is used to perform the selected statistic operation and
read the result(s). The result(s) is always returned in ASCII format.
If the buffer is configured to store “raw” measured readings (:TRACe:FEED
SENSe1) and multiple functions were measured, the selected statistic operation will be performed on all the measured readings. For example, if voltage
and current measurements were stored in the buffer, then the selected statistic operation will be performed on both readings. Statistics for multiple
measurement functions are returned in the following order:
voltage statistic, current statistic, resistance statistic
Statistic operations are not performed on TIME and STATus data elements
that are stored in the buffer.
If the buffer is configured to store the result of CALC1 or CALC2
(:TRACe:FEED CALC1 or CALC2), only one result will be returned by
this query command.
Notes:
1. If there is no data in the buffer, the NAN (not a number) value +9.91e37
will be returned.
SCPI Command Reference
17-41
2. If there are a lot of readings stored in the buffer, some statistic operations
may take too long and cause a bus time-out error. To avoid this, send the
:calc3:data? command and then wait for the MAV (message available) bit
in the Status Byte Register to set before addressing the SourceMeter to
talk. See Section 14.
3. See Appendix C for a detailed explanation on how data flows through the
various operation blocks of the SourceMeter. It clarifies the types of readings that are acquired by the various commands to read data.
:DISPlay subsystem
The display subsystem controls the display of the SourceMeter and is summarized in
Table 17-2.
Control display
:DIGits <n>
:DISPlay:DIGits <n>
Set display resolution
Parameters
<n> =
Query
:DIGits?
:DIGits? DEFault
:DIGits? MINimum
:DIGits? MAXimum
Description
This command is used to set the display resolution. Note that you can
instead use rational numbers. For example, to select 4.5 digit resolution, you
can send a parameter value of 4.5 (instead of 5). The SourceMeter rounds
the rational number to an integer.
4
5
6
7
DEFault
MINimum
MAXimum
3.5 digit resolution
4.5 digit resolution
5.5 digit resolution
6.5 digit resolution
5.5 digit resolution
3.5 digit resolution
6.5 digit resolution
Query display resolution
Query *RST default resolution
Query lowest allowable display resolution
Query largest allowable display resolution
17-42
SCPI Command Reference
:ENABle <b>
:DISPlay:ENABle <b>
Control display circuitry
Parameters
<b> =
Query
:ENABle?
Description
This command is used to enable and disable the front panel display circuitry. When disabled, the instrument operates at a higher speed. While disabled, the display is frozen with the following message:
FRONT PANEL DISABLED
Press LOCAL to resume.
As reported by the message, all front panel controls (except LOCAL and
OUTPUT OFF) are disabled. Normal display operation can be resumed by
using the :ENABle command to enable the display or by putting the
SourceMeter into local.
0 or OFF
1 or ON
Disable display circuitry
Enable display circuitry
Query state of display
:ATTRibutes?
:DISPlay[:WINDow[1]]:ATTRibutes?
:DISPlay:WINDow2:ATTRibutes?
Description
Query attributes; top display
Query attributes; bottom display
This query command is used to determine which characters on the display
are blinking and which are not. The response message provides that status
of each character position for the specified display. The primary display
consists of 20 characters and the secondary display consists of 32
characters.
1 = Character is blinking
0 = Character is not blinking
For example, assume the following menu is displayed with the
SAVESETUP option blinking:
MAIN MENU
SAVESETUP COMMUNICATION CAL >
The response message for :disp:attr? (top display) will result in 20 zeroes as
follows:
00000000000000000000
The response message for :disp:wind2:attr? (bottom display) will display
ones at the character positions for SAVESETUP as follows:
11111111100000000000000000000000
:CNDisplay
:DISPlay:CNDisplay
Description
Return to source-measure display state
This action command is used to return the instrument to the source-measure
display state (source, measure, and compliance readings displayed). For
example, if a menu structure is presently being displayed, this command
will exit the menu and return to the source-measure display state.
SCPI Command Reference
17-43
Read display
:DATA?
:DISPlay[:WINDow[1]]:DATA?
:DISPlay:WINDow2:DATA?
Description
Read top display
Read bottom display
These query commands are used to read what is currently being displayed
on the top and bottom displays. After sending one of these commands and
addressing the SourceMeter to talk, the displayed data (message or reading)
will be sent to the computer.
Define :TEXT messages
:DATA <a>
:DISPlay[:WINDow[1]]:TEXT:DATA <a>
:DISPlay:WINDow2:TEXT:DATA <a>
Define message; top display
Define message; bottom display
Parameters
<a> = ASCII characters for message
Types:
String
‘aa...a’ or “aa...a”
Indefinite Block
#0aa...a
Definite Block
#XYaa...a
where
Y = number of characters in message:
Up to 20 for top display
Up to 32 for bottom display
X = number of digits that make up Y (1 or 2)
Query
:DATA?
Description
These commands define text messages for the display. A message can be as
long as 20 characters for the top display, and up to 32 characters for the bottom display. A space is counted as a character. Excess message characters
result in an error.
Query the defined text message
An indefinite block message must be the only command in the program
message or the last command in the program message. If you include a command after an indefinite block message (on the same line), it will be treated
as part of the message and is displayed instead of executed.
17-44
SCPI Command Reference
:STATe <b>
:DISPlay[:WINDow[1]]:TEXT:STATe <b>
:DISPlay:WINDow2:TEXT:STATe <b>
Control message; top display
Control message; bottom display
Parameters
<b> =
Query
:STATe?
Description
These commands enable and disable the text message modes. When
enabled, a defined message is displayed. When disabled, the message is
removed from the display.
0 or OFF
1 or ON
Disable text message for specified display
Enable text message for specified display
Query state of message mode for specified
display
GPIB Operation — A user defined text message remains displayed only as
long as the instrument is in remote. Taking the instrument out of remote (by
pressing the LOCAL key or sending LOCAL 27) cancels the message and
disables the text message mode.
RS-232 Operation — A user defined test message can be cancelled by
sending the :SYSTem:LOCal command or pressing the LOCAL key.
FORMat subsystem
The commands for this subsystem are used to select the data format for transferring instrument readings over the bus. These commands are summarized in Table 17-3.
Data format
[:DATA] <type>[,length]
:FORMat[:DATA] <type>[,<length>]
Parameters
NOTE
Select data format
<type>[,<length>] = ASCii
REAL,32
SREal
ASCII format
IEEE754 single precision format
IEEE754 single precision format
<length> is not used for the ASCii or SREal parameters. It is optional for the REAL
parameter. If you do not use <length> with the REAL parameter, the <length>
defaults to 32 (single precision format).
Query
[:DATA]?
Description
This command is used to select the data format for transferring readings
over the bus. Only the ASCII format is allowed over the RS-232 interface.
This command only affects the output of READ?, FETCh?, MEASure?,
TRACe:DATA?, CALC1:DATA? and CALC2:DATA? over the GPIB. All
other queries are returned in the ASCII format.
Query data format
SCPI Command Reference
NOTE
17-45
Regardless of which data format for output strings is selected, the SourceMeter will
only respond to input commands using the ASCII format.
ASCII format
The ASCII data format is in a direct readable form for the operator. Most
BASIC languages easily convert ASCII mantissa and exponent to other formats. However, some speed is compromised to accommodate the conversion. Figure 17-1 shows an example ASCII string that includes all the data
elements. See :ELEMents.
Figure 17-1 also shows the byte order of the data string. Data elements not
specified by the :ELEMents command are simply not included in the string.
Keep in mind that the byte order can only be reversed for the binary format.
See :BORDer.
Figure 17-1
ASCII data format
+1.000206E+00, +1.000000E-04, +1.000236E+04, +7.282600E+01, +4.813200E+04
Voltage
Reading
Current
Reading
Resistance
Reading
Time
Status
IEEE-754 single precision format
REAL,32, or SREal will select the binary IEEE-754 single precision data
format. Figure 17-2 shows the normal byte order format for each data element. For example, if three valid elements are specified, the data string for
each reading conversion is made up of three 4-byte data blocks. Note that
the data string for each reading conversion is preceded by a 2-byte header
that is the binary equivalent of an ASCII # sign and 0. Figure 17-2 does not
show the byte for the terminator that is attached to the end of each data
string.
Figure 17-2
IEEE-754 single
precision data
format (32 data
bits)
Header
Byte 1
Byte 2
Byte 3
Byte 4
# 0
7
s
0 7
e
0 7
0 7
f
s = sign bit (0 = positive, 1 = negative)
e = exponent bits (8)
f = fraction bits (23)
Normal byte order shown. For swapped byte order, bytes sent
in reverse order: Header, Byte 4, Byte 3, Byte 2, Byte 1.
The header and terminator are sent only once for each READ?
0
17-46
SCPI Command Reference
During binary transfers, never un-talk the SourceMeter until after the data is
read (input) to the computer. Also, to avoid erratic operation, the readings of
the data string (and terminator) should be acquired in one piece. The header
(#0) can be read separately before the rest of the string.
The number of bytes to be transferred can be calculated as follows:
Bytes=2+(Rdgs × 4) + 1
where 2 is the number of bytes for the header (#0).
Rdgs is the product of the number of selected data elements, arm
count, and trigger count.
4 is the number of bytes for each reading.
is the byte for the terminator.
For example, assume the SourceMeter is configured to perform 10 sourcemeasure operations and send the 10 current measurements to the computer
using the binary format.
Bytes = 2 + (10 × 4) + 1
= 43
Data elements
:ELEMents <item list>
:FORMat:ELEMents [SENSe[1]] <item list>
Parameters
NOTE
Specify data elements for data string
<item list> = VOLTage
CURRent
RESistance
TIME
STATus
Includes voltage reading
Includes current reading
Includes resistance reading
Includes timestamp
Includes status information
Each item in the list must be separated by a comma (i.e., :ELEMents, VOLTage,
CURRent, RESistance).
Query
:ELEMents?
Description
This command is used to specify the elements to be included in the data
string in response to the following queries:
Query elements in data string
:FETCh?
:READ?
:MEASure?
:TRACe:DATA?
You can specify from one to all five elements. Each element in the list must
be separated by a comma (,). These elements (shown in Figure 17-1) are
explained as follows:
NOTE
An overflow reading reads as +9.9E37.
SCPI Command Reference
17-47
VOLTage — This element provides the voltage measurement or the programmed voltage source reading. If sourcing voltage and measuring voltage, this element will provide the voltage measurement (measure reading
takes priority over source reading). If voltage is not sourced or measured,
the NAN (not a number) value of +9.91e37 is used.
CURRent — This element provides the current measurement or the programmed current source reading. If sourcing current and measuring current,
this element will provide the current measurement (measure reading takes
priority over source reading). If current is not sourced or measured, the
NAN (not a number) value of +9.91e37 is used.
RESistance — This element provides the resistance measurement. If resistance is not measured, the NAN (not a number) value of +9.91e37 is used.
TIME — A timestamp is available to reference each group of readings to a
point in time. The relative timestamp operates as a timer that starts at zero
seconds when the instrument is turned on or when the relative timestamp is
reset (:SYSTem:TIME:RESet). The timestamp for each reading sent over
the bus is referenced, in seconds, to the start time. After 99,999.999 seconds,
the timer resets back to zero and starts over.
Timestamp is also available for buffer readings. Timestamp can be referenced to the first reading stored in the buffer (absolute format) which is
timestamped at 0 seconds, or can provide the time between each reading
(delta format). The :TRACe:TSTamp:FORMat command is used to select
the absolute or delta format.
NOTE
Timestamp values are approximate. See Section 8 for details.
STATus — A status word is available to provide status information concerning SourceMeter operation. The 24-bit status word is sent in a decimal
form and has to be converted by the user to the binary equivalent to determine the state of each bit in the word. For example, if the status value is 65,
the binary equivalent is 0000000000001000001. Bits 0 and 6 are set.
The significance of each status bit is explained as follows:
Bit 0 (OFLO) — Set to 1 if measurement was made while in over-range.
Bit 1 (Filter) — Set to 1 if measurement was made with the filter enabled.
Bit 2 — Not used.
Bit 3 (Compliance) — Set to 1 if in “real” compliance.
Bit 4 (OVP) — Set to 1 if the over voltage protection limit was reached.
Bit 5 (Math) — Set to 1 if math expression (calc1) is enabled.
Bit 6 (Null) — Set to 1 if Null is enabled.
Bit 7 (Limits) — Set to 1 if a limit test (calc2) is enabled.
Bits 8 and 9 (Limit Results) — Provides limit test results. See grading and
sorting modes in the following paragraph, Limit test bits.
Bit 10 (Auto-ohms) — Set to 1 if auto-ohms enabled.
Bit 11 (V-Meas) — Set to 1 if V-Measure is enabled.
Bit 12 (I-Meas) — Set to 1 if I-Measure is enabled.
17-48
SCPI Command Reference
Bit 13 (Ω-Meas) — Set to 1 if Ω-Measure is enabled.
Bit 14 (V-Sour) — Set to 1 if V-Source used.
Bit 15 (I-Sour) — Set to 1 if I-Source used.
Bit 16 (Range Compliance) — Set to 1 if in “range” compliance.
Bit 17 (Offset Compensation) — Set to 1 if Offset Compensated Ohms is
enabled.
Bit 18 — Not used.
Bits 19, 20 and 21 (Limit Results) — Provides limit test results. See grading
and sorting modes in the following paragraph, Limit test bits.
Bit 22 — Not used.
Bit 23 — Not used.
Limit test bits
Bits 8, 9, and 19-21 flag pass/fail conditions for the various limits tests. The
bit values for the grading and sorting modes are covered below. See
:CALC2:CLIM:MODE and associated commands in Calculate subsystems.
Sorting mode status bit values:
21 20 19 9
8
Meas. Event
Status1
Limit 1 pass and 2, 3, and 5-12
disabled
0
0
0
0
0
Bit 5 (LP)
Limit test 1 fail
0
0
0
0
1
Bit 0 (L1)
Limit test 2 pass
0
0
0
1
0
Bit 5 (LP)
Limit test 3 pass
0
0
0
1
1
Bit 4 (HL3)
Limit test 5 pass
0
0
1
0
0
Bit 5 (LP)
Limit test 6 pass
0
0
1
1
0
Bit 5 (LP)
Limit test 7 pass
0
0
1
1
1
Bit 5 (LP)
Limit test 8 pass
0
1
0
0
0
Bit 5 (LP)
Limit test 9 pass
0
1
0
0
0
Bit 5 (LP)
Limit test 10 pass
0
1
0
1
0
Bit 5 (LP)
Limit test 11 pass
0
1
0
1
1
Bit 5 (LP)
Limit test 12 pass
0
1
1
0
0
Bit 5 (LP)
Limit 1 pass and 2, 3, and 5-12
fail
1
1
1
1
1
-
Result
1See
Bit #:
Section 14, Measurement Event Register and Figure 14-6 for details.
SCPI Command Reference
17-49
Grading mode status bit values:
21 20 19 9
8
Meas. Event
Status1
All limits pass
0
0
0
0
0
Bit 5 (LP)
Limit test 1 fail
0
0
0
0
1
Bit 0 (L1)
Hi Limit test 2 fail
1
0
0
1
0
Bit 2 (HL2)
Lo Limit test 2 fail
0
0
0
1
0
Bit 1 (LL2)
Hi Limit test 3 fail
1
0
0
1
1
Bit 4 (HL3)
Lo Limit test 3 fail
0
0
0
1
1
Bit 3 (LL3)
Hi Limit test 5 fail
1
0
1
0
0
-
Lo Limit test 5 fail
0
0
1
0
0
-
Hi Limit test 6 fail
1
0
1
1
0
-
Lo Limit test 6 fail
0
0
1
1
0
-
Hi Limit test 7 fail
1
0
1
1
1
-
Lo Limit test 7 fail
0
0
1
1
1
-
Hi Limit test 8 fail
1
1
0
0
0
-
Lo Limit test 8 fail
0
1
0
0
0
-
Hi Limit test 9 fail
1
1
0
0
1
-
Lo Limit test 9 fail
0
1
0
0
1
-
Hi Limit test 10 fail
1
1
0
1
0
-
Lo Limit test 10 fail
0
1
0
1
0
-
Hi Limit test 11 fail
1
1
0
1
1
-
Lo Limit test 11 fail
0
1
0
1
1
-
Hi Limit test 12 fail
1
1
1
0
0
-
Lo Limit test 12 fail
0
1
1
0
0
-
Result
1See
Bit #:
Section 14, Measurement Event Register and Figure 14-6 for details.
Example reading string
The example ASCII reading string shown in Figure 17-1 shows a measurement of a 10kΩ resistor, with the SourceMeter configured to Source I Measure V. The voltage reading is the voltage measurement (1.000236V), the
current reading is the current source value (100Ω), and the operation was
performed 72.826 seconds after the SourceMeter was turned on (or after
timestamp was reset). The status reading of 48,132 indicates that bits 2, 10,
11, 12, 13, and 15 of the status word are set.
17-50
SCPI Command Reference
:SOURce2 <name>
:FORMat:SOURce2 <name>
Set SOUR2 and TTL response formats
Parameters
<name> =
Query
:SOURce2?
Description
This command controls the response format for all CALC2:XXXX:SOUR2
and SOUR2:TTL queries in a manner similar to formats set by the
FORM:SREG command. See Calculate subsystems and SOURce subsystem
topics for details.
ASCii
HEXadecimal
OCTal
BINary
ASCII format
Hexadecimal format
Octal format
Binary format
Query response format
CALC data elements
:CALCulate <item list>
:FORMat:ELEMents:CALCulate <item list>
Parameters
NOTE
<item list> = CALC
TIME
STATus
Set CALC data elements
Include CALC1 or CALC2 data
Include timestamp
Include status information
Each item in the list must be separated by a comma (for example, :CALCulate
CALC,TIME,STAT).
Query
:CALCulate?
Description
This command allows you to retrieve timestamp and status information with
the CALC1:DATA? And CALC2:DATA? queries. It also allows you to
retrieve timestamp and status information from the buffer when
TRACe:FEED is set to CALC1 or CALC2. See Calculate subsystems for a
complete description of CALC1 and CALC2. See also Data elements for a
description of TIME and STATus information.
Query CALC data element list
SCPI Command Reference
17-51
Byte order
:BORDer <name>
:FORMat:BORDer <name>
Parameters
<name> =
Query
Description
:BORDer?
NOTE
Specify binary byte order
NORMal
SWAPped
Normal byte order for binary formats
Reverse byte order for binary formats
Query byte order
This command is used to control the byte order for the IEEE-754 binary
formats. For normal byte order, the data format for each element is sent as
follows:
Byte 1 Byte 2 Byte 3 Byte 4 (Single precision)
For reverse byte order, the data format for each element is sent as follows:
Byte 4 Byte 3 Byte 2 Byte 1 (Single precision)
The “#0” Header is not affected by this command. The Header is always
sent at the beginning of the data string for each measurement conversion.
The ASCII data format can only be sent in the normal byte order. The
SWAPped selection is simply ignored when the ASCII format is selected.
The SWAPped byte order must be used when transmitting binary data to any IBM PC
compatible computer.
Status register format
:SREGister <name>
:FORMat:SREGister <name>
Parameters
<name> =
Query
Description
:SREGister?
Set data format for reading status registers
ASCii
Hexadecimal
OCTal
BINary
Decimal format
Hexadecimal format
Octal format
Binary format
Query format for reading status registers
Query commands are used to read the contents of the status event registers.
This command is used to set the response message format for those query
commands.
When a status register is queried, the response message is a value that indicates which bits in the register are set. For example, if bits B5, B4, B2, B1,
and B0 of a register are set (110111), the following values will be returned
for the selected data format:
ASCii
55
(decimal value)
Hexadecimal #H37
(hexadecimal value)
OCTal
#Q67
(octal value)
BINary
#B110111
(binary value)
See Section 15 and STATus subsystem in this section for more information.
17-52
SCPI Command Reference
OUTPut subsystem
This subsystem is used to control the output of the selected source, and the interlock. These
commands are summarized in Table 17-4.
Turn source on or off
[:STATe] <b>
:OUTPut[1][:STATe] <b>
Turn source on or off
Parameters
<b> =
Query
:OUTPut?
Description
This command is used to turn the source output on or off. Measurements
cannot be made while the source is off.
0 or OFF
1 or ON
Turn source off (standby)
Turn source on (operate)
Query state of source
Turning the source off places the SourceMeter in the idle state. The only
exception to this is when source auto clear is enabled. In this mode, the
source turns on during each source phase of the SDM cycle and then turns
off after each measurement. See :SOURce[1]:CLEar:AUTO in SOURce
subsystem.
NOTE
The :SOURce:CLEar command will also turn the source off.
Interlock control
:STATe <b>
:OUTPut[1]:INTerlock:STATe <b>
Control hardware interlock
Parameters
<b> =
Query
:STATe?
Description
This command is used to enable or disable the hardware interlock. When
enabled, the source cannot be turned on unless the interlock line (pin 8 of
the rear panel Interlock - Digital I/O connector) is pulled to a logic low
state. When the interlock line goes to a logic high state, the source turns off.
See Section 12, Digital I/O port and Safety interlock for details using interlock with a test fixture.
0 or OFF
1 or ON
Disable interlock
Enable interlock
Query state of interlock
When disabled, the logic level on the interlock line has no effect on the output state of the source.
SCPI Command Reference
17-53
:TRIPped?
:OUTPut[1]:INTerlock:TRIPped?
Description
This query command is used to determine if the enabled interlock has been
tripped. The tripped condition (“1”) means that the source can be turned on
(interlock line at logic low level).
A “0” will be returned if the source cannot be turned on (interlock line at
logic high level).
Output-off states
:SMODe
:OUTPut[1]:SMODe <name>
Select output-off mode
Parameters
<name> =
Query
:SMODe?
Description
This command is used to select the output-off state of the SourceMeter.
NORMal
ZERO
GUARd
Normal output-off state
Zero output-off state
Guard output-off state
Query output off mode
With NORMal selected (which is the default), the V-Source is selected and
set to 0V when the output is turned off. Compliance is set to 0.5% full scale
of the present current range.
In the ZERO output-off state when the V-Source OUTPUT is turned off, the
V-Source is set to 0V and current compliance is not changed. When the
I-Source OUTPUT is turned off, the V-Source mode is selected and set to
0V. Current compliance is set to the programmed Source I value or to 0.5%
full scale of the present current range, whichever is greater.
The ZERO output-off state is typically used with the V-Source and Output
Auto-On (see the :SOURce1:CLEar:AUTO command) to generate voltage
waveforms that alternate between 0V and the programmed output-on
voltage.
With GUARd selected, the I-Source is selected and set to 0A. Voltage compliance is set to 0.5% full scale of the present voltage range. This output-off
state should be used when performing 6-wire guarded ohms measurements
or for any other load that uses an active source.
NOTE
For more information on output-off states, see Section 12, “Output configuration.”
17-54
SCPI Command Reference
SENSe1 subsystem
The Sense1 subsystem is used to configure and control the measurement functions of the
SourceMeter. Many of the commands are global, where a single command affects all functions.
Some commands are unique to a specific function. For example, you can program a unique
range setting for each basic function (amps, volts, and ohms).
A function does not have to be selected before you can program its various configurations.
Whenever a programmed function is selected, it assumes the programmed states.
The commands for this subsystem are summarized in Table 17-5.
Select measurement functions
:CONCurrent <b>
[:SENSe[1]]:FUNCtion:CONCurrent <b>
Control concurrent measurements
Parameters
<b> =
Query
:CONCurrent?
Description
This command is used to enable or disable the ability of the instrument to
measure more than one function simultaneously. When enabled, the instrument will measure the functions that are selected. See [:ON], :OFF and
:ALL.
0 or OFF
1 or ON
Disable concurrent measurements
Enable concurrent measurements
Query state of concurrent measurements
When disabled, only one measurement function can be enabled. When making the transition from :CONCurrent ON to :CONCurrent OFF, the voltage
(VOLT:DC) measurement function will be selected. All other measurement
functions will be disabled. Use the :FUNCTion[:ON] command to select
one of the other measurement functions.
[:ON] <function list>
:OFF <function list>
[:SENSe[1]]:FUNCtion[:ON] <function list>
[:SENSe[1]]:FUNCtion:OFF <function list>
Parameters
NOTE
<function list> = “CURRent[:DC]”
“VOLTage[:DC]”
“RESistance”
Specify functions to be enabled
Specify functions to be disabled
Amps measurement function
Volts measurement function
Ohms measurement function
Each function in the list must be enclosed in quotes (double or single) and separated
by a comma (i.e., :func:on “volt”, “curr”).
SCPI Command Reference
17-55
Query
[:ON]?
:OFF?
Description
When concurrent measurements are enabled, these commands are used to
enable or disable functions to be measured. The [:ON] command is used to
include (enable) one or more measurement functions in the list, and the
:OFF command is used to remove (disable) one or more functions from the
list.
Query functions that are enabled
Query functions that are disabled
Note that each function specified in the list must be enclosed in single or
double quotes, and functions must be separated by commas (,). Examples:
:FUNCtion “VOLTage”, “CURRent”
Enable volts and amps functions
:FUNCtion:OFF ‘VOLTage’, ‘CURRent’ Disable volts and amps functions
Note that there is a stand-alone command that can be used to enable or disable all three measurement functions. See :ALL.
If concurrent measurements (:CONCurrent) are disabled, the :ON command
can only turn on one function at a time.
:ALL
[:SENSe[1]]:FUNCtion[:ON]:ALL
[:SENSe[1]]:FUNCtion:OFF:ALL
Description
Enable all measurement functions
Disable all measurement functions
This command is used to enable or disable all measurement functions.
When enabled (:ON:ALL), amps, volts, and ohms measurements will be
performed simultaneously if concurrent measurements are enabled. See
:CONCurrent. If concurrent measurements are disabled, only the ohms
function will be enabled.
The :OFF:ALL command disables all measurements.
:COUNt?
[:SENSe[1]]:FUNCtion[:ON]:COUNt?
[:SENSe[1]]:FUNCtion:OFF:COUNt?
Description
Query number of functions enabled
Query number of functions disabled
This query command is used to determine the number of functions that are
enabled or disabled.
When :ON:COUNt? is sent, the response message will indicate the number
of functions that are enabled.
When :OFF:COUNt? is sent, the response message will indicate the number
of functions that are disabled.
:STATe? <name>
[:SENSe[1]]:FUNCtion:STATe <name>
Parameters
<name> =
“CURRent[:DC]”
“VOLTage[:DC]”
“RESistance”
Query state of specified function
Amps measurement function
Volts measurement function
Ohms measurement function
17-56
SCPI Command Reference
NOTE
The function name must be enclosed in double or single quotes (i.e., :func:stat?
“volt”).
Description
This command is used to query the state of the specified measurement function. A returned response message of “0” indicates that the specified function is disabled, while a “1” indicates that the function is enabled.
:RESistance:MODE <name>
[:SENSe[1]]:RESistance:MODE <name>
Select ohms measurement mode
Parameters
<name> =
Query
:MODE?
Description
This command is used to select the ohms measurement mode. With
MANual ohms selected, the user must configure the source and measure
aspects of the operation. When the ohms function is selected, the ohms
reading is simply the result of the V/I calculation.
MANual
AUTO
Manual ohms mode
Auto ohms mode
Query ohms mode
Range changes cannot be made in manual ohms.
With AUTO ohms selected, the SourceMeter will be configured to Source I
Measure V when the ohms function is selected. The current source value
and voltage measurement range used depend on the ohms measurement
range that is selected.
See Section 4 for details on manual and auto ohms.
:RESistance:OCOMpensated <b>
[:SENSe[1]]:RESistance:OCOMpensated <b>
Control offset-compensated ohms
Parameters
<b> =
Query
:OCOMpensated? Query state of offset compensation
Description
This command is used to enable or disable offset-compensated ohms. When
using the auto ohms measurement mode, the current source level is automatically set. When using the manual ohms measurement mode, you must set
the source (V or I) output level.
1 or ON
0 or OFF
Enable offset compensation
Disable offset compensation
See Section 4, Offset-compensated ohms for details on making offsetcompensated ohms measurements.
NOTE
Offset-compensated ohms will disable when the :MEASure? command (for the resistance function) or the :CONFigure:RESistance command is sent.
SCPI Command Reference
17-57
Select measurement range
Notes:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
You cannot select a current measurement range if sourcing current. Conversely, you
cannot select a voltage measurement range if sourcing voltage. Also, autorange cannot
be enabled for those source-measure configurations. The programmed source range
determines measurement range.
You cannot select an ohms measurement range if in manual ohms (you must be in auto
ohms).
The highest current measurement range that can be selected is limited by the current
compliance range. For example, if current compliance is set for 50mA (100mA range),
then the highest available current measurement range is 100mA. Similarly, the highest
voltage measurement range is limited by the voltage compliance range.
When on the 200V V-Source range, the maximum I-Measure range is 10mA.
When on the 100mA I-Source range, the maximum V-Measure range is 20V.
[:UPPer] <n>
[:SENSe[1]]:CURRent[:DC]:RANGe[:UPPer] <n>|UP|DOWN Select range for amps
[:SENSe[1]]:VOLTage[:DC]:RANGe[:UPPer] <n>|UP|DOWN Select range for volts
[:SENSe[1]]:RESistance:RANGe[:UPPer] <n>|UP|DOWN
Select range for ohms
Parameters
<n> = -105e-3 to 105e-3
-210 to 210
0 to 2.1e13
0 to 2.1e7
DEFault
MINimum
MAXimum
UP
DOWN
Query
:RANGe?
:RANGe? DEFault
:RANGe? MINimum
:RANGe? MAXimum
Description
This command is used to manually select the measurement range for the
specified measurement function. The range is selected by specifying the
expected reading. The instrument will then go to the most sensitive reading
that will accommodate that reading. For example, if you expect a reading of
approximately 50mV, then simply let <n> = 0.05 (or 50e-3) in order to
select the 200mV range.
You can also use the UP and DOWN parameters to select range. Each time
UP or DOWN is sent, the next higher or lower measurement range is
selected. When on the maximum range, sending UP is a No-Op (no operation). When on the lowest range, sending DOWN is a NO-Op.
Measurement ranges can instead be automatically selected by the instrument. See :AUTO.
Expected reading in amps
Expected reading in volts
Expected reading in ohms (with PreAmp)
Expected reading in ohms (without PreAmp)
1.05e-4 (amps), 21 (volts), 2.1e5 (ohms)
-105e-3 (amps), -210 (volts), 0 (ohms)
105e-3 (amps), 210 (volts), 2.1e13 (ohms)
Select next higher measurement range
Select next lower measurement range
Query measurement range
Query *RST default range
Query lowest range (returns 0)
Query highest range
17-58
SCPI Command Reference
Select auto range
:AUTO <b>
[:SENSe[1]]:CURRent[:DC]:RANGe:AUTO <b>
[:SENSe[1]]:VOLTage[:DC]:RANGe:AUTO <b>
[:SENSe[1]]:RESistance:RANGe:AUTO <b>
Control auto ranging for amps
Control auto ranging for volts
Control auto ranging for ohms
Parameters
<b> =
Query
:AUTO?
Description
This command is used to control auto ranging. With auto ranging enabled,
the instrument automatically goes to the most sensitive range to perform the
measurement.
0 or OFF
1 or ON
Disable auto range
Enable auto range
Query state of auto range
When this command is used to disable auto range, the instrument remains at
the automatically selected range. When a range is manually selected, auto
range is disabled. See the previous command.
:LLIMit <n>
[:SENSe[1]]:CURRent[:DC]:RANGe:AUTO:LLIMit <n>
[:SENSe[1]]:VOLTage[:DC]:RANGe:AUTO:LLIMit <n>
[:SENSe[1]]:RESistance:RANGe:AUTO:LLIMit <n>
Set auto ranging lower limit for amps
Set auto ranging lower limit for volts
Set auto ranging lower limit for ohms
Parameters
<n> =
Query
:LLIMit?
Description
Auto range lower limits are intended primarily for SYST:RCM MULT support. See :SYSTem subsystem. The lower limit for all three functions is programmable and must be less than or equal to the upper limit. If the lower
limit is equal to the upper limit, auto ranging is effectively disabled. See
below. When autoranging is disabled, you can manually program the unit
for any range below the lower limit.
-105e-3 to 105e-3
-21 to 21
0 to 2.1e13
0 to 2.1e7
Amps lower limit
Volts lower limit
Ohms lower limit with PreAmp
Ohms lower limit without PreAmp
Query auto range lower limit
:ULIMit <n>
[:SENSe[1]]:CURRent[:DC]:RANGe:AUTO:ULIMit?
[:SENSe[1]]:VOLTage[:DC]:RANGe:AUTO:ULIMit?
[:SENSe[1]]:RESistance:RANGe:AUTO:ULIMit <n>
Query auto ranging upper limit for amps
Query auto ranging upper limit for volts
Set auto ranging upper limit for ohms
Parameters
<n> =
0 to 2.1e13
0 to 2.1e7
Parameters
:ULIMit?
Query auto range upper limit
Description
Auto range upper limits are intended primarily for SYST:RCM MULT support. See :SYSTem subsystem. For voltage and current, the upper limit is
controlled by the compliance range and, therefore, is available only as a
query. When autoranging is disabled, you can manually program the unit for
any range above the upper limit (ohms only).
Ohms upper limit with PreAmp
Ohms upper limit without PreAmp
SCPI Command Reference
17-59
Set compliance limit
[:LEVel] <n>
[:SENSe[1]]:CURRent[:DC]:PROTection[:LEVel] <n>
[:SENSe[1]]:VOLTage[:DC]:PROTection[:LEVel] <n>
Set current compliance
Set voltage compliance
Parameters
<n> =
Query
:LEVel?
:LEVel? DEFault
:LEVel? MINimum
:LEVel? MAXimum
Description
This command is used to set compliance limits. A current compliance limit
is set for the V-Source, and a voltage compliance limit is set for the ISource. The SourceMeter cannot source levels that exceed these specified
limits.
-105e-3 to 105e-3
-210 to 210
DEFault
MINimum
MAXimum
Current compliance limit
Voltage compliance limit
105uA, 21V
-105e-3A, -210V
105e-3A, 210V
Query compliance value
Query *RST default compliance
Query minimum allowable compliance
Query maximum allowable compliance
The :SENSe:CURRent:PROTection[:LIMit] command is used to set the
current compliance for the V-Source and the
:SENSe:VOLTage:PROTection[:LIMit] command is used to set the voltage
compliance for the I-Source.
NOTE
You cannot set compliance less than 0.1% of the present measurement range.
:TRIPped?
[:SENSe[1]]:CURRent[:DC]:PROTection:TRIPped?
[:SENSe[1]]:VOLTage[:DC]:PROTection:TRIPped?
Description
Query current compliance state
Query voltage compliance state
This command is used to determine if the source is in compliance. If a “1” is
returned, then the source is in compliance. A “0” indicates that the source is
not in compliance.
The :CURRent:PROTection:TRIPped? command is used to check the compliance state of the V-Source, and the :VOLTage: PROTection:TRIPped?
command is used to check the compliance state of the I-Source.
17-60
SCPI Command Reference
Set measurement speed
:NPLCycles <n>
[:SENSe[1]]:CURRent[:DC]:NPLCycles <n>
[:SENSe[1]]:VOLTage[:DC]:NPLCycles <n>
[:SENSe[1]]:RESistance:NPLCycles <n>
Set speed (PLC)
Set speed (PLC)
Set speed (PLC)
Parameters
<n> =
Query
:NPLCycles?
:NPLCycles? DEFault
:NPLCycles? MINimum
:NPLCycles? MAXimum
Description
This command is used to set the integration period (speed) for measurements. NPLC (Number of Power Line Cycles) expresses the integration
period by basing it on the power line frequency. For example, for a PLC of
1, the integration period would be 1/60 (for 60Hz line power) which is 16.67
msec.
0.01 to 10
DEFault
MINimum
MAXimum
Power-line cycles per integration
10
0.01
10
Query programmed PLC value
Query *RST default PLC
Query minimum PLC
Query maximum PLC
Note that this is a global command. Thus, if you set the speed for voltage
measurements to 10 PLC, then current and resistance will also set to 10
PLC.
Configure and control filters
NOTE
Detailed information on the repeat, median and moving filters are provided in Section 6,“Filters.”
:AUTO <b>
[:SENSe[1]]:AVERage:AUTO <b>
Enable/disable auto filter
Parameters
<b> =
Query
:AUTO?
Description
With auto filter enabled, the instrument automatically selects filter settings
for current measurements. Heavy filtering is used for the low current ranges,
and less filtering as the current range increases. The auto filter settings are
listed in Tables 6-5, 6-6, and 6-7. For voltage measurements, auto filter sets
the repeat and moving count to one, and the median rank to zero. These settings effectively disable the three filters.
0 or OFF
1 or ON
Disable auto filter
Enable auto filter
Query state of auto filter
When auto filter is disabled, the present count and rank settings for the three
filters are used for all measurement functions and ranges.
SCPI Command Reference
17-61
Repeat filter commands
:REPeat:COUNt <n>
[:SENSe[1]]:AVERage:REPeat:COUNt <n>
Set repeat filter count
Parameters
<n> =
Query
:COUNt?
:COUNt? DEFault
:COUNt? MINimum
:COUNt? MAXimum
Description
This command is used to specify the repeat filter count. In general, the filter
count is the number of readings that are acquired and stored in the filter
buffer for the averaging calculation. Each aquired group of readings yields a
single filtered reading. The larger the filter count, the more filtering that is
performed.
1 to 100
DEFault
MINimum
MAXimum
Specify repeat filter count
1
1
100
Query filter count
Query the *RST default filter count
Query the lowest allowable filter count
Query the largest allowable filter count
:REPeat[:STATe] <b>
[:SENSe[1]]:AVERage:REPeat[:STATe] <b>
Enable/disable repeat filter
Parameters
<b> =
Query
[:STATe]?
Description
This command is used to enable or disable the repeat filter. When enabled,
voltage, current, and resistance readings are filtered according to how the
repeat filter is configured. When disabled, the repeat filter stage is bypassed.
0 or OFF
1 or ON
Disable repeat filter
Enable repeat filter
Query state of repeat filter
Median filter commands
:MEDian:RANK <NRf>
[:SENSe[1]]:MEDian:RANK <NRf>
Set median filter rank
Parameters
<NRf> =
RANK?
Description
The median filter is used to pass the “middle-most” reading from a group of
readings that are arranged according to size. This command is specify the
rank, which determines the number of reading samples for the filter process.
0 to 5
Specify rank value for median filter
Query median filter rank
The number of reading samples are determined as follows:
Sample readings = 2n + 1
Where; n is the selected rank (0 to 5).
17-62
SCPI Command Reference
:MEDian[:STATe] <b>
[:SENSe[1]]:MEDian[:STATe] <b>
Enable/disable median filter
Parameters
<b> =
Query
[:STATe]?
Description
This command is used to enable or disable the median filter. When enabled,
voltage, current, and resistance readings are filtered according to the specified rank. When disabled, the median filter stage is bypassed.
0 or OFF
1 or ON
Disable repeat filter
Enable repeat filter
Query state of repeat filter
Moving filter commands
:AVERage:COUNt <n>
[:SENSe[1]]:AVERage:COUNt <n>
Set moving filter count
Parameters
<n> =
Query
:COUNt?
:COUNt? DEFault
:COUNt? MINimum
:COUNt? MAXimum
Description
This command is used to specify the moving filter count. In general, the filter count is the number of readings that are stored in the moving filter buffer
for the averaging calculation. After the buffer fills with readings, a new
reading goes into the buffer and the oldest reading is discarded. The filter
process if performed after each new reading is placed in the buffer.
1 to 100
DEFault
MINimum
MAXimum
Specify moving filter count
1
1
100
Query filter count
Query the *RST default filter count
Query the lowest allowable filter count
Query the largest allowable filter count
:AVERage[:STATe] <b>
[:SENSe[1]]:AVERage[:STATe] <b>
Enable/disable moving filter
Parameters
<b> =
Query
[:STATe]?
Description
This command is used to enable or disable the moving filter. When enabled,
voltage, current, and resistance readings are filtered according to how the
filter is configured. When disabled, the moving filter stage is bypassed.
0 or OFF
1 or ON
Disable moving filter
Enable moving filter
Query state of moving filter
SCPI Command Reference
17-63
:ADVanced:NTOLerance <NRf>
[:SENSe[1]]:AVERage:ADVanced:NTOLerance <NRf>
Set moving filter noise filter
Parameters
<NRf> =
Query
:NTOLerance?
Description
When the advanced filter is enabled, using the next command, a noise window is used with the moving filter. This command is used to specify the
noise window. If readings are within the noise window, the moving filter
operates normally. If, however, a reading falls outside the window, the
buffer is flushed of old readings and filled with the new reading.
0 to 105
Specify filter noise filter in %
Query filter noise filter value
:ADVanced[:STATe] <b>
[:SENSe[1]]:AVERage:ADVanced[:STATe] <b>
Enable/disable advanced filter
Parameters
<b> =
Query
[:STATe]?
Description
This command is used to enable or disable the advanced filter. When
enabled, the noise window is used with the moving filter. When disabled,
the noise window is not used.
0 or OFF
1 or ON
Disable advanced filter
Enable advanced filter
Query state of advanced filter
17-64
SCPI Command Reference
SOURce subsystem
This subsystem is used to configure and control the I-Source and V-Source, and to set the
logic level (high or low) of each digital output line. The commands for this subsystem are summarized in Table 17-6.
SOURce[1]
Use the following commands to configure and control the I-Source and V-Source. At the end
of this subsystem are program examples of sweeps and lists.
Control source output-off
[:IMMediate]
:SOURce[1]:CLEar[:IMMediate]
Description
Turn source output off
This command is used to turn off the source output. The output will turn off
after all programmed source-measure operations are completed and the
instrument returns to the idle state.
Note that if auto output-off is enabled, the source output will automatically
turn off. See the next command.
:AUTO
:SOURce[1]:CLEar:AUTO <b>
Control auto output-off
Parameters
<b> =
Query
:AUTO?
Description
This command is used to control auto output-off for the source. With auto
output-off enabled, an :INITiate (or :READ? or MEASure?) will start
source-measure operation. The output will turn on at the beginning of each
SDM (source-delay-measure) cycle and turn off after each measurement is
completed.
1 or ON
0 or OFF
Enable auto output-off
Disable auto output-off
Query state of auto output-off
With auto output-off disabled, the source output must be on before an
:INITiate or :READ? can be used to start source-measure operation. The
:MEASure? command will automatically turn on the source output. Once
operation is started, the source output will stay on even after the instrument
returns to the idle state. Auto output-off is the *RST and :SYSTem:PRESet
default.
WARNING
With auto output-off disabled, the source output will remain on after all
programmed source-measure operations are completed. Beware of hazardous voltage that may be present on the output terminals.
SCPI Command Reference
17-65
Select function mode
[:MODE] <name>
:SOURce[1]:FUNCtion[:MODE] <name>
Select source mode
Parameters
<name> =
Query
[:MODE]?
Description
This command is used to select the source mode. With VOLTage selected,
the V-Source will be used, and with CURRent selected, the I-Source will be
used.
VOLTage
CURRent
MEMory
Select voltage mode
Select current mode
Select memory mode
Query selected source
With MEMory selected, a memory sweep can be performed. Operating setups (up to 100) saved in memory can be sequentially recalled. This allows
multiple source/measure functions to be used in a sweep.
Select sourcing mode
:MODE <name>
:SOURce[1]:CURRent:MODE <name>
:SOURce[1]:VOLTage:MODE <name>
Select DC sourcing mode for I-Source
Select DC sourcing mode for V-Source
Parameters
<name> =
Query
:MODE?
Description
This command is used to select the DC sourcing mode for the specified
source. The three modes are explained as follows:
FIXed
LIST
SWEep
Select fixed sourcing mode
Select list sourcing mode
Select sweep sourcing mode
Query DC sourcing mode
FIXed — In this DC sourcing mode, the specified source will output a fixed
level. Use the :RANGe and :AMPLitude commands to specify the fixed
source level. See Select range and Set amplitude for fixed source.
LIST — In this mode, the source will output levels that are specified in a
list. See Configure list for commands to define and control the execution of
the list.
SWEep — In this mode, the source will perform a voltage, current or memory sweep. See Configure voltage and current sweeps and Configure memory sweep for commands to define the sweep.
NOTE
The sourcing mode will default to FIXed whenever the SourceMeter goes to the local
state.
17-66
SCPI Command Reference
Select range
:RANGe <n>
:SOURce[1]:CURRent:RANGe <n>
:SOURce[1]:VOLTage:RANGe <n>
Parameters
<n> =
Select range for I-Source
Select range for V-Source
-105e-3 to 105e-3
-210 to 210
DEFault
Minimum
MAXimum
UP
DOWN
Specify I-Source level (amps)
Specify V-Source level (volts)
I-Source: 100µA range
V-Source: 20V range
I-Source: 1pA range (Remote PreAmp)
1µA range (Mainframe-only)
V-Source: 200mV range
I-Source: 100mA range
V-Source: 200V range
Select next higher range
Select next lower range
Query
:RANGe?
:RANGe? DEFault
:RANGe? MINimum
:RANGe? MAXimum
Description
This command is used to manually select the range for the specified source.
Range is selected by specifying the approximate source magnitude that you
will be using. The instrument will then go to the lowest range that can
accommodate that level. For example, if you expect to source levels around
3V, send the following command:
Query range for specified source
Query *RST default source range
Query lowest source range
Query highest source range
:SOURce:VOLTage:RANGe 3
The above command will select the 20V range for the V-Source.
As listed in Parameters, you can also use the MINimum, MAXimum and
DEFault parameters to manually select the source range. The UP parameter
selects the next higher source range, while DOWN selects the next lower
source range.
Note that source range can be selected automatically by the instrument. See
the next command.
SCPI Command Reference
17-67
:AUTO <b>
:SOURce[1]:CURRent:RANGe:AUTO <b>
:SOURce[1]:VOLTage:RANGe:AUTO <b>
Select auto range for I-Source
Select auto range for V-Source
Parameters
<b> =
Query
AUTO?
Description
This command is used to enable or disable auto range for the specified
source. When enabled, the instrument will automatically select the most
sensitive range for the specified source level. When disabled, the instrument
will use the range that the instrument is currently on.
0 or OFF
1 or ON
Disable auto range
Enable auto range
Query state of auto range
Auto range will be disabled if a fixed range is selected. See the previous
command.
Both *RST and :SYSTem:PREset enables source auto range. When the
SourceMeter goes into the local state, source auto range disables.
Set amplitude for fixed source
[:IMMediate][:AMPLitude] <n>
:SOURce[1]:CURRent[:LEVel][:IMMediate][:AMPLitude] <n> Set fixed I-Source amplitude immediately
:SOURce[1]:VOLTage[:LEVel][:IMMediate][:AMPLitude] <n> Set fixed V-Source amplitude immediately
Parameters
<n> =
Query
:CURRent?
:CURRent? DEFault
:CURRent? MINimum
:CURRent? MAXimum
:VOLTage?
:VOLTage? DEFault
:VOLTage? MINimum
:VOLTage? MAXimum
Description
This command is used to immediately update the amplitude of a fixed
source. This command is not valid if the list or sweep mode is selected.
NOTE
-105e-3 to 105e-3
-210 to 210
DEFault
MINimum
MAXimum
Set I-Source amplitude (amps)
Set V-Source amplitude (volts)
0A or 0V
-105e-3A or -210V
+105e-3A or +210V
Query programmed amplitude of I-Source
Query *RST default amplitude
Query lowest allowable amplitude
Query highest allowable amplitude
Query programmed amplitude of V-Source
Query *RST default amplitude
Query lowest allowable amplitude
Query highest allowable amplitude
The sourcing :MODE command is used to select a fixed source. See “Select sourcing
mode.”
17-68
SCPI Command Reference
If a manual source range is presently selected, then the specified amplitude
cannot exceed that range. For example, if the V-Source is on the 2V range
(auto range disabled), you will not be able to set the V-Source amplitude to
3V. In auto range, the amplitude can be set to any level that is within the
capabilities of the source.
The MINimum and MAXimum parameters are only valid if the highest
source range is presently selected. Sending the MINimum or MAXimum
parameters on a lower source range will generate error -221 (Setting
Conflict).
:TRIGgered[:AMPLitude] <n>
:SOURce[1]:CURRent[:LEVel]:TRIGgered[:AMPLitude] <n>
:SOURce[1]:VOLTage[:LEVel]:TRIGgered[:AMPLitude] <n>
Set fixed I-Source amplitude when triggered
Set fixed V-Source amplitude when
triggered
Parameters
<n> =
Query
:TRIGgered?
:TRIGgered? DEFault
:TRIGgered? MINimum
:TRIGgered? MAXimum
Description
This command performs the same as the [:IMMediate][:AMPLitude] command except that the amplitude is not updated immediately.
-105e-3 to 105e-3
-210 to 210
DEFault
MINimum
MAXimum
Set I-Source amplitude (amps)
Set V-Source amplitude (volts)
0A or 0V
-105e-3A or -210V
+105e-3A or +210V
Query triggered amplitude for fixed source
Query *RST default amplitude
Query lowest allowable amplitude
Query highest allowable amplitude
With this command, the amplitude is updated when the SourceMeter is
triggered to perform a source-measure operation. For example, if the
instrument is waiting in the trigger layer for an external trigger, the
amplitude of the source will not update until that external trigger is received
by the SourceMeter. See Section 10, Trigger model for details on trigger
model operation.
The MINimum and MAXimum parameters are only valid if the highest
source range is presently selected. Sending the MINimum or MAXimum
parameters on a lower source range will generate error -221 (Setting
Conflict).
SCPI Command Reference
17-69
Set voltage limit
[:LEVel] <n>
:SOURce[1]:VOLTage:PROTection[:LEVel] <n>
Set voltage limit for V-Source
Parameters
<n> =
Query
[:LIMit]?
[:LIMit]? DEFault
[:LIMit]? MINimum
[:LIMit]? MAXimum
Description
This command is used to set the Over Voltage Protection (OVP) limit for the
V-Source. The V-Source output will not exceed the selected limit. An
exception to this is a parameter value that exceeds 160V. Exceeding this
value allows the V-Source to output its maximum voltage. The OVP limit is
also enforced when in the I-Source Mode.
-210 to 210
20
40
60
80
100
120
160
161 to 210
NONE
DEFault
MINimum
MAXimum
Specify V-Source limit
Set limit to 20V
Set limit to 40V
Set limit to 60V
Set limit to 80V
Set limit to 100V
Set limit to 120V
Set limit to 160V
Set limit to NONE
Set limit to 210V
Set limit to 210V (NONE)
Set limit to 20V
Set limit to 210V (NONE)
Query limit level
Query *RST default limit
Query lowest allowable limit
Query highest allowable limit
The limit parameter values are magnitudes and are in effect for both positive
and negative output voltage. You can express the limit as a positive or negative value.
If you specify a value that is less than the lowest limit, the lowest limit will
be selected. If you specify a value that is between limits, the lower limit will
be selected. For example, if you specify a value of 110, the 100V limit will
be selected.
WARNING
Even with the voltage protection limit set to the lowest value (20V),
NEVER touch anything connected to the terminals of the SourceMeter
when the OUTPUT is ON. Always assume that a hazardous voltage
(>30V rms) is present when the OUTPUT is ON.
To prevent damage to DUT (devices under test) or external circuitry, DO
NOT program the V-Source to levels that exceed the voltage protection
limit.
17-70
SCPI Command Reference
Set delay
:DELay <n>
:SOURce[1]:DELay <n>
Manually set source delay
Parameters
<n> =
Query
:DELay?
:DELay? DEFault
:DELay? MINimum
:DELay? MAXimum
Description
This command is used to manually set a delay (settling time) for the source.
After the programmed source is turned on, this delay occurs to allow the
source level to settle before a measurement is taken. Note that this delay is
the same for both the I-Source and V-Source.
0 to 999.9999
MINimum
MAXimum
DEFault
Specify delay in seconds
0 seconds
999.9999 seconds
0.003
Query delay
Query *RST default delay
Query lowest allowable delay
Query highest allowable delay
Do not confuse this source delay with the trigger delay. The source delay is
part of the device action (SDM cycle) while the trigger delay occurs before
the device action. See Section 10, Trigger model for more information.
Auto delay can instead be used to automatically set the source delay. See the
next command.
:AUTO <b>
:SOURce[1]:DELay:AUTO <b>
Enable/disable auto delay for source
Parameters
<b> =
Query
:AUTO?
Description
This command is used to enable or disable auto delay. When enabled, the
instrument will automatically select a delay period that is appropriate for the
present source/measure setup configuration. See Table 3-2. *RST and
SYST:PRES default is OFF.
0 or OFF
1 or ON
Disable auto delay
Enable auto delay
Query state of auto delay
SCPI Command Reference
17-71
Configure voltage and current sweeps
There are two methods to configure the start and stop levels of a sweep. You can use either
the :STARt and :STOP commands or you can use the :CENTer and :SPAN commands.
NOTE
In order to run a sweep, the selected source must be in the sweep sourcing mode and
the trigger count should be the same as the number of source-measure points in the
sweep.
Use the :FUNCtion:MODE command to select the current or voltage source function. See
Select function mode. Use the :CURRent:MODE or VOLTage:MODE command to select the
SWEep sourcing mode. See Select sourcing mode. The trigger count is set using the
TRIGger:COUNt command. See Trigger subsystem.
:RANGing <name>
:SOURce[1]:SWEep:RANGing <name>
Parameters
<name> = BEST
AUTO
FIXed
Select source ranging mode
Use the best fixed mode
Use the most sensitive source range for
each sweep level
Use the present source range for the
entire sweep
Query
:RANGing?
Description
This command is used to select the source ranging mode for sweeps. With
BEST selected, the SourceMeter will select a single fixed source range that
will accommodate all the source levels in the sweep. For front panel operation, this is the BEST FIXED option.
Query source ranging mode
With AUTO selected, the SourceMeter will automatically go to the most
sensitive source range for each source level in the sweep. For front panel
operation, this is the AUTO RANGE option.
With FIXed selected, the source remains on the range that it is presently on
when the sweep is started. For sweep points that exceed the source range
capability, the source will output the maximum level for that range. For
front panel operation, this is the FIXED option.
:SPACing <name>
:SOURce[1]:SWEep:SPACing <name>
Select scale for sweep
Parameters
<name> = LINear
LOGarithmic
Query
:SPACing?
Description
This command is used to select the scale for the sweep. With LINear
selected, the source-measure points in the sweep will be performed on a linear scale. With LOGarithmic selected, the source-measure points will be
performed on a logarithmic scale.
Linear scale
Logarithmic scale
Query scale for sweep
17-72
SCPI Command Reference
:STARt <n>
:STOP <n>
:SOURce[1]:CURRent:STARt <n>
:SOURce[1]:VOLTage:STARt <n>
:SOURce[1]:CURRent:STOP <n>
:SOURce[1]:VOLTage:STOP <n>
Specify start current level (current sweep)
Specify start voltage level (voltage sweep)
Specify stop current level (current sweep)
Specify stop voltage level (voltage sweep)
Parameters
<n> =
Query
:STARt?
:STARt? DEFault
:STARt? MINimum
:STARt? MAXimum
Query start level for sweep
Query *RST default level
Query lowest allowable level
Query highest allowable level
:STOP?
:STOP? DEFault
:STOP? MINimum
:STOP? MAXimum
Query start level for sweep
Query *RST default level
Query lowest allowable level
Query highest allowable level
Description
-105e-3 to 105e-3
-210 to 210
DEFault
MINimum
MAXimum
Set I-Source level (amps)
Set V-Source level (volts)
0A or 0V
-105e-3A or -210V
+105e-3A or +210V
These commands are used to specify the start and stop levels for a sweep. If
using a fixed (manual) source range, the sweep will be performed using a
source range that will accommodate all source values (Best Fixed Range).
You can use source auto range if sweeping through one or more source
ranges.
When the sweep is started, the source will output the specified start level
and, after the delay period of the SDM cycle, a measurement is performed.
The sweep continues until the source outputs the specified stop level. At this
level, the instrument again performs another measurement (after the SDM
delay) and then stops the sweep.
The source-measure points in a sweep can be set by specifying a step size,
or by specifying the number of source-measure points in the sweep. Refer to
:STEP and :POINts.
:STARt and :STOP are coupled to :CENTer and :SPAN. Thus, when start
and stop values are changed, the values for center and span are affected as
follows:
Center = (Start + Stop) / 2
Span = Stop - Start
SCPI Command Reference
17-73
:CENTer <n>
:SPAN <n>
:SOURce[1]:CURRent:CENTer <n>
:SOURce[1]:VOLTage:CENTer <n>
:SOURce[1]:CURRent:SPAN <n>
:SOURce[1]:VOLTage:SPAN <n>
Specify center point of current sweep
Specify center point of voltage sweep
Specify span of the current sweep
Specify span of the voltage sweep
Parameters
<n> =
Query
:CENTer?
:CENTer? DEFault
:CENTer? MINimum
:CENTER? MAXimum
:SPAN?
:SPAN? DEFault
:SPAN? MINimum
:SPAN? MAXimum
Description
A sweep can be configured by specifying center and span parameters. By
specifying a center point, you can sweep through the operating point of a
device. The span determines the sweep width with the operating point at the
center of the sweep.
-210e-3 to 210e-3
-420 to 420
DEFault
MINimum
MAXimum
Set I-Source level (amps)
Set V-Source level (volts)
0A or 0V
-210e-3A or -420V
+210e-3A or +420V
Query center point for sweep
Query *RST default level
Query lowest allowable level
Query highest allowable level
Query span for sweep
Query *RST default level
Query lowest allowable level
Query highest allowable level
For example, assume you are testing a device that operates at 10V, and you
want to sweep from 8 to 12 volts. To do this, you would specify the center to
be 10V and the span to be 4 volts (12 - 8).
Use the :STEP or :POINts command to specify the number of sourcemeasure points in the sweep.
:CENTer and :SPAN are coupled to STARt and :STOP. Thus, when center
and span values are changed, the values for start and stop are affected as
follows:
Start = Center - (Span / 2)
Stop = Center + (Span / 2)
17-74
SCPI Command Reference
:STEP <n>
:SOURce[1]:CURRent:STEP <n>
:SOURce[1]:VOLTage:STEP <n>
Specify step size (current sweep)
Specify step size (voltage sweep)
Parameters
<n> =
Query
:STEP
:STEP? DEFault
:STEP? MINimum
:STEP? MAXimum
Description
This command is used to specify a step size for a linear sweep. When the
sweep is started, the source level changes in equal steps from the start level
to the stop level. A measurement is performed at each source step (including
the start and stop levels).
NOTE
-210e-3 to 210e-3
-420 to 420
DEFault
MINimum
MAXimum
Set I-Source level (amps)
Set V-Source level (volts)
0A or 0V
-210e-3A or -420V
+201e-3A or +420V
Query step size for sweep
Query *RST default level
Query lowest allowable level
Query highest allowable level
This command cannot be used for a logarithmic sweep. Use the :POints command to
set the source-measure points for a log sweep.
To avoid a setting conflicts error, make sure the step size is greater than the
start value and less than the stop value.
The number of source-measure points in a linear sweep can be calculated as
follows:
Points = [(Stop - Start) / Step] + 1
Points = (Span / Step) + 1
An alternate way to set the source-measure points in a linear sweep is to
simply specify the number of source-measure points in the sweep using the
:POINts command.
Note that the :STEP and :POINts commands are coupled. Changing the step
size also changes the number of source-measure points. Conversely, changing the number of source-measure points changes the step size.
SCPI Command Reference
17-75
:POINts <n>
:SOURce[1]:SWEep:POINts <n>
Set source-measure points for sweep
Parameters
<n> =
Query
:POINts?
:POINts? DEFault
:POINts? MINimum
1 to 2500
MINimum
MAXimum
DEFault
:POINts? MAXimum
Description
Specify number of source-measure points
1
2500
2500
Query number of sweep points
Query *RST default number of sweep points
Query lowest allowable number of sweep
points
Query highest allowable number of sweep
points
The :POINts command specifies the total number of source-measure points
in a sweep. For a linear sweep, the source-measure points are equally spaced
(stepped) between the start level and the stop level. For a log sweep, the
source-measure points are equally spaced on a logarithmic scale. Note that
the start and stop levels are source-measure points.
Step size for a linear sweep can be calculated as follows:
Step Size = (Stop - Start) / (Points - 1)
Step Size = Span / (Points -1)
Step size for a logarithmic sweep can be calculated as follows:
log 10 (Stop)- log10 (Start)
Log Step Size = ----------------------------------------------------------------Points - 1
An alternate way to set the source-measure points in a sweep is to specify
the step size using the :STEP command.
Note that the :POINts and :STEP commands are coupled. Changing the
number of source-measure points also changes the step size. Conversely,
changing the step size changes the number of source-measure points.
:DIRection <name>
:SOURce[1]:SWEep:DIRection <name>
Set direction of sweep
Parameters
<name> =
Query
:DIRection?
Description
Normally, a sweep is run from the start level to the stop level. The :STARt
and :STOP, or :CENTer and :SPAN commands are used to set these levels.
UP
DOWn
Run sweep from start to stop
Run sweep from stop to start
Query direction of sweep
This command lets you change the execution direction of the sweep. With
DOWn selected, the sweep will begin at the stop level and end at the start
level. Selecting UP restores sweep operation to the normal start to stop
direction.
17-76
SCPI Command Reference
Configure list
:CURRent <NRf list>
:VOLTage <NRf list>
:SOURce[1]:LIST:CURRent <NRf list>
:SOURce[1]:LIST:VOLTage <NRf list>
Parameters
Define I-Source list
Define V-Source list
<NRf list> = NRf, NRf … NRf
NRf =
-105e-3 to 105e-3
-210 to 210
I-Source value
V-Source value
Query
:CURRent?
:VOLTage?
Description
These commands are used to define a list of source values (up to 100) for the
list sourcing mode of operation. When operation is started, the instrument
will sequentially source each current or voltage value in the list. A measurement is performed at each source level.
Query I-Source list
Query V-Source list
The following command shows the proper format for defining an I-Source
list using current source values of 10mA, 130mA, and 5mA:
:SOURce[1]:LIST:CURRent 0.01, 0.13, 0.005
If using manual source ranging, you can use auto range for source values
that are not within a single range.
NOTE
In order to execute a source list, the selected source must be in the list sourcing
mode, and the product of the arm and trigger count should be at least the same as
the number of source points in the list.
Use the :FUNCtion:MODE command to select the current or voltage source
function. See Select function mode. Use the :CURRent:MODE or
VOLTage:MODE command to select the LIST sourcing mode. See Select
sourcing mode. The trigger count is set using the TRIGger:COUNt
command. See Trigger subsystem.
:APPend <NRf list>
:SOURce[1]:LIST:CURRent:APPend <NRf list>
:SOURce[1]:LIST:VOLTage:APPend <NRf list>
Parameters
Description
<NRf list> = NRf, NRf … NRf
NRf =
-105e-3 to 105e-3
-210 to 210
Add value(s) to I-Source list
Add value(s) to V-Source list
I-Source value
V-Source value
This command is used to add one or more values (up to 100) to a source list
that already exists. The source values are appended to the end of the list. (By
using multiple appended lists, up to 2500 points can be in a list.)
SCPI Command Reference
17-77
:POINts?
:SOURce[1]:LIST:CURRent:POINts?
:SOURce[1]:LIST:VOLTage:POINts?
Description
Query length of I-Source list
Query length of V-Source list
This command is used to determine the length of the specified source list.
The response message indicates the number of source values in the list.
Configure memory sweep
A memory sweep lets you perform a sweep using setups stored in up to 100 memory locations. This allows you to sweep using multiple source-measure operations and math expressions. See CALCulate1.
NOTE
In order to run a memory sweep, the memory function must be selected, and the trigger count must be the same as the number of memory points in the sweep. Use the
:FUNCtion:MODE command to select the MEMory function. See “Select function
mode.” Arm count (ARM:COUNt) and trigger count (TRIGger:COUNt) are set from
the Trigger Subsystem.
When memory is initialized (:SYSTem:MEMory:INITialize), all 100 memory locations for a memory sweep are initialized to the present setup configuration of the
SourceMeter with CALC 1 disabled. User-defined math expressions are replaced
with the “Power” math expression.
Error 809 “Source memory location revised” occurs when a memory sweep references an expression that no longer exists. The memory sweep is revised to disable
CALC1.
In order to execute a memory sweep, the product of the arm count and trigger count
should be at least the same as the number of points in the sweep.
Use the :FUNCtion:MODE command to select the MEMory function. See Select function
mode. Arm count (ARM:COUNt) and trigger count (TRIGger:COUNt) are set from the Trigger
Subsystem.
:SAVE <NRf>
:SOURce[1]:MEMory:SAVE <NRf>
Save setup in specified memory location
Parameters
<NRf> = 1 to 100
Description
This command is used to save the present instrument setup in a memory
location. Up to 100 setups can be saved. The following settings are saved in
each source memory location:
Specify memory location
SENSe[1]:CURRent:NPLCycles
SENSe[1]:RESistance:NPLCycles
SENSe[1]:VOLTage:NPLCycles
SENSe[1]:FUNCtion:CONCurrent
SENSe[1]:FUNCtion:ON
SENSe[1]:FUNCtion:OFF
17-78
SCPI Command Reference
SENSe[1]:RESistance:MODE
SENSe[1]:RESistance:OCOMpensated
SENSe[1]:AVERage:STATe
SENSe[1]:AVERage:TCONtrol
SENSe[1]:AVERage:COUNt
SOURce[1]:FUNCtion:MODE
SOURce[1]:DELay
SOURce[1]:DELay:AUTO
SOURce[1]...X...:TRIGgered:SFACtor
SOURce[1]...X...:TRIGgered:SFACtor:STATe
where ...X... = :CURRent or :VOLTage (based on source mode)
Source Value, Range, Auto Range
Sense Protection, Range, Auto Range
SYSTem:AZERo:STATe
CALCulate1:STATe
CALCulate1:MATH[:EXPRession]:NAME
CALCulate2:FEED
CALCulate2:NULL:OFFSet
CALCulate2:NULL:STATe
CALCulate2:LIMit[1]:STATe
CALCulate2:LIMit[1]:COMPliance:FAIL
CALCulate2:LIMit[1]:COMPliance:SOURce2
CALCulate2:LIMitX:STATe
CALCulate2:LIMitX:UPPer[:DATA]
CALCulate2:LIMitX:UPPer:SOURce2
CALCulate2:LIMitX:LOWer[:DATA]
CALCulate2:LIMitX:LOWer:SOURce2
CALCulate2:LIMitX:PASS:SOUR
where X = 2, 3 and 5 through 12
CALCulate2:CLIMits:PASS:SOURce2
CALCulate2:CLIMits:PASS:SMLocation
TRIGger:DELay
After saving the desired setups in consecutive memory locations (unless
branching, see CALC2:CLIM:PASS:SML), use the :POINts command to
specify how many sweep points to perform and the :STARt command to
specify where to start from.
SCPI Command Reference
17-79
:POINts <NRf>
:SOURCe:MEMory:POINts <NRf>
Specify number of sweep points to execute
Parameters
<NRf> = 1 to 100
Description
This command is used to specify the number of points for the sweep. For
example, if you saved setups in memory locations 1 through 12 for a sweep,
specify a 12-point sweep using this command.
Number of sweep points
:STARt <NRf>
:SOURCe:MEMory:STARt <NRf>
Select Source Memory Sweep start
location
Parameters
<NRf> = 1 to 100
Description
This command is used to set the starting location of a Source Memory
Sweep. For example, for setups saved in memory locations 98 through 5,
specify a starting location of 98.
Specify memory location
:RECall <NRf>
:SOURCe:MEMory:RECall <NRf>
Return to specified setup
Parameters
<NRf> = 1 to 100
Description
This command is used to return the SourceMeter to the setup stored at the
specified memory location.
Specify memory location
Set scaling factor
:TRIGgered:SFACtor <n>
:SOURce[1]:CURRent[:LEVel]:TRIGgered:SFACtor <n>
:SOURce[1]:VOLTage[:LEVel]:TRIGgered:SFACtor <n>
Set current scaling factor
Set voltage scaling factor
Parameters
<n> =
Query
:SFACTor?
Description
:SFAC instructs the SourceMeter to source the scaling factor times the previous source memory location value. For example, if 10.0V is stored in the
first source memory (Source I, Measure V Mode), and the unit is in the
Source V, Measure I mode with :SFAC set to 0.1 and enabled, the unit will
output 1.0V for the second source memory location.
NOTE
-999.9999e+18 to 999.9999e+18
Scaling factor
Query scaling factor
These commands work only with source memory sweeps.
17-80
SCPI Command Reference
:TRIGgered:SFACtor:STATe <b>
:SOURce[1]:CURRent[:LEVel]:TRIGgered:SFACtor:STATe <b> Enable/disable current scaling
:SOURce[1]:VOLTage[:LEVel]:TRIGgered:SFACtor:STATe <b> Enable/disable voltage scaling
Parameters
<b> =
Query
:SFACtor:STATe?
Description
:SFAC:STAT enables or disables scaling.
NOTE
1 or ON
0 or OFF
Enable scaling
Disable scaling
Query enabled/disabled scaling state
These commands work only with source memory sweeps.
Sweep and list program examples
Linear voltage sweep
Linear voltage sweep from 1V to 10V in 1V increments:
*RST
SOUR:FUNC:MODE VOLT
SOUR:SWE:SPAC LIN
SOUR:VOLT:STAR 1.0
SOUR:VOLT:STOP 10.0
SOUR:VOLT:STEP 1.0
SOUR:SWE:POIN? (returns 10)
TRIG:COUN 10
SOUR:VOLT:MODE SWE
OUTP ON
INIT
Voltage list
The previous Linear Voltage Sweep can instead be performed using a Voltage List as
follows:
*RST
SOUR:FUNC:MODE VOLT
SOUR:LIST:VOLT 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10
SOUR:LIST:VOLT:POIN? (returns 10)
TRIG:COUN 10
SOUR:VOLT:MODE LIST
OUTP ON
INIT
SCPI Command Reference
17-81
Logarithmic current sweep
Logarithmic current sweep from 1mA to 100mA in 20 points:
*RST
SOUR:FUNC:MODE CURR
SOUR:SWE:SPAC LOG
SOUR:CURR:STAR .001
SOUR:CURR:STOP .1
SOUR:SWE:POIN 20
TRIG:COUN 20
SOUR:CURR:MODE SWE
OUTP ON
INIT
To determine the source values that will be generated:
Start:
Stop:
0.001
0.1
LogStep =
=
=
=
Log10(Start):
Log10(Stop):
-3
-1
(Log10(Stop) - Log10(Start)) / (SWE:POIN -1)
(-1 - (-3) / (20 - 1)
2/ 19
0.105263
Now add the LogStep value to Log10(Start) and to each subsequent result. This will create a
list of Log10 Values. Next take the anti-log of each Log10 Value to get the actual sweep values:
Value#
Log10 Value
Sweep Value
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
-3.000000
-2.894737
-2.789474
-2.684211
-2.578948
-2.473685
-2.368422
-2.263159
-2.157896
-2.052633
-1.947370
-1.842107
-1.736844
-1.631581
-1.526318
-1.421055
-1.315792
-1.210526
-1.105263
-1.000000
0.001000
0.001274
0.001623
0.002069
0.002637
0.003360
0.004281
0.005456
0.006952
0.008859
0.011288
0.014384
0.018329
0.023357
0.029763
0.037927
0.048329
0.061584
0.078475
0.100000
17-82
SCPI Command Reference
Current list
The Previous Log Current Sweep can instead be performed by using the sweep values in a
Current List as follows:
*RST
SOUR:FUNC:MODE CURR
SOUR:LIST:CURR 0.001,0.001274,0.001623,0.002069,0.002637,0.003360,0.004281
SOUR:LIST:CURR:APP 0.005456,0.006952,0.008859,0.011288,0.014384,0.018329
SOUR:LIST:CURR:APP 0.023357,0.029763,0.037927,0.048329,0.061584,0.078475,0.1
SOUR:LIST:CURR:POIN? (returns 20)
TRIG:COUN 20
SOUR:CURR:MODE LIST
OUTP ON
INIT
Soak time
:SOAK <NRf>
:SOURce[1]:SOAK <NRf>
Set multiple mode soak time
Parameters
<NRf> =
Query
:SOAK?
Description
With SYST:RCMode set to MULTiple, SOUR:SOAK specifies the amount
of time after the first point of a sweep that the unit will sit in a loop actively
autoranging up and down to allow a multiple SourceMeter configuration to
settle. See :SYSTem subsystem. This process will be done only once per
INIT, READ?, or MEAS? command. The soak time is especially useful for
low current measurements when multiple down-range changes from the
higher ranges are required.
soak time (s)
0.000 to 9999.999s
Query multiple mode soak time
SOURce2
The following commands are used to set the logic level of the digital output lines, and control the pulse width of limit test output patterns that are sent to component handlers. Limit tests
are configured and controlled from the CALCulate2 Subsystem. For details on limit testing, see
Section 11.
Setting digital output
[:LEVel] <NRf> | <NDN>
:SOURce2:TTL[:LEVel][:DEFault] <NRf> | <NDN>
Parameters
<NRf>
=
0 to 7
0 to 15
Set digital output pattern
Decimal format for 3-bit
Decimal format for 4-bit
SCPI Command Reference
<NDN>
#Bx
#Hx
#Qx
17-83
Binary format:
3-bit: x = 000 to 111
4-bit: x = 0000 to 1111
Hexadecimal format:
3-bit: x = 0 to 7
4-bit: x = 0 to F
Octal format:
3-bit: x = 0 to 7
4-bit: x = 0 to 17
Query
:TTL?
Description
This command is used to set the logic levels of the output lines of the Digital
I/O port. When set high, the specified output line will be at approximately
+5V. When set low, the output line will be at 0V.
Query digital output value
Use the following table to determine the parameter value for the desired
decimal digital output pattern:
OUT 4
OUT 3
OUT 2
OUT 1
Decimal value*
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
L
L
L
L
H
H
H
H
L
L
L
L
H
H
H
H
L
L
H
H
L
L
H
H
L
L
H
H
L
L
H
H
L
H
L
H
L
H
L
H
L
H
L
H
L
H
L
H
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
L = Low (Gnd)
H = High (>+3V)
*0-7 in 3-bit mode.
:ACTual?
:SOURce2:TTL[:LEVel]:ACTual?
Description
Query bit pattern on digital output port.
This query command is used to read the bit pattern that is actually on the
digital output port.
17-84
SCPI Command Reference
:MODE <name>
:SOURce2:TTL4:MODE <name>
Control Digital I/O port line 4 mode
Parameters
<name> =
Query
:MODE?
Description
This command controls the operation of Digital I/O line 4 to act as either an
End-of-Test or Busy signal in the 3-bit output mode. EOT is not automatically controlled in 4-bit mode. See :BSIZe below. Likewise, with BUSY
enabled in the 4-bit mode, the unit behaves if it were in 3-bit mode by ignoring all attempts to drive Digital I/O line 4.
EOTest
BUSY
Use line 4 as EOT signal
Use line 4 as BUSY signal
Query Digital I/O line 4 mode
:BSTate <b>
:SOURce2:TTL4:BSTate <b>
Control BUSY and EOT polarity
Parameters
<b> =
Query
:BSTate?
Description
This command sets the polarity of the EOT or BUSY signal in the 3-bit
mode.
1
0
Set EOT/BUSYpolarity high
Set EOT/BUSY polarity low
Query EOT/BUSY polarity
:BSIZe <n>
:SOURce2:BSIZe <n>
Set Digital I/O bit size
Parameters
<n> =
Query
:BSIZe?
Description
This command sets the Digital I/O bit size to 3 or 4. In the 3-bit mode, Digital I/O line 4 becomes EOT, /EOT, BUSY, or /BUSY based on the
SOUR2:TTL4:MODE and SOUR2:TTL4:BST commands above. In 4-bit
mode, Digital I/O line 4 is controlled manually if SOUR2:TTL4:MODE is
set to EOT. If SOUR2:TTL4:MODE is set to BUSY, operation is identical to
the 3-bit mode. The 16-bit size is available with the 2499-DIGIO option
connected to the Digital I/O port.
NOTE
3
4
16
Set 3-bit size
Set 4-bit size
Set 16-bit size (2499-DIGIO option)
Query Digital I/O port bit size
This command is not affected by *RST, :SYSTem:PRESet, or *RCL.
Clearing digital output
[:IMMediate]
:SOURce2:CLEar[:IMMediate]
Description
Clear digital output lines
This action command is used to immediately restore the digital output lines
to the output pattern defined by the :TTL:LEVel command.
SCPI Command Reference
17-85
:AUTO <b>
:SOURce2:CLEar:AUTO <b>
Control auto-clear for digital output
Parameters
<b> =
Query
:AUTO?
Description
This command is used to enable or disable auto-clear for the digital output
lines. When enabled, the output pattern will clear automatically after the
“pass or fail” output bit pattern of a limit test is sent to a handler via the digital output lines.
0 or OFF
1 or ON
Disable auto-clear
Enable auto-clear
Query auto-clear
The :DELay command specifies the pulse width of the limit test bit pattern.
See the next command. After the delay period times out, the digital output
clears back to the output pattern programmed by the :TTL:LEVel command.
When auto-clear is disabled, the digital output pattern can only be cleared
by the :IMMediate command.
On power-up, auto clear is enabled.
See :CALCulate2 and Section 11 for details on limit tests.
:DELay <n>
:SOURce2:CLEar:AUTO:DELay <n>
Set delay for auto-clear
Parameters
<n> =
Query
:DELay?
:DELay? DEFault
:DELay? MINimum
:DELay? MAXimum
Description
This command is used to set the delay for digital output auto-clear. This
delay determines the pulse width of the limit test output pattern as required
by the handler. After the delay, the output returns (clears) to the pattern programmed by the :TTL:LEVel command.
0 to 60
DEFault
MINimum
MAXimum
Specify delay (in seconds)
100µsec delay
0 sec
60 sec
Query delay
Query *RST default delay
Query lowest allowable delay
Query maximum allowable delay
The delay actually defines the pulse width for line 4, which is used by category register component handlers as the EOT (end of test) strobe. The pulse
width of the other three lines are 20µsec longer (10µsec before line 4 is toggled, and 10µsec after line 4 is cleared). Skewing the timing on line 4 provides “setup” and “hold” time for category register component handlers.
See Section 11 for details on timing.
17-86
SCPI Command Reference
STATus subsystem
The STATus subsystem is used to control the status registers of the SourceMeter. The commands in this subsystem are summarized in Table 17-7.
NOTE
These registers and the overall status structure are fully explained in Section 14.
Read event registers
[:EVENt]?
:STATus:MEASurement[:EVENt]?
:STATus:QUEStionable[:EVENt]?
:STATus:OPERation[:EVENt]?
Description
Read Measurement Event Register
Read Questionable Event Register
Read Operation Event Register
These query commands are used to read the contents of the status event registers. After sending one of these commands and addressing the SourceMeter to talk, a value is sent to the computer. This value indicates which bits in
the appropriate register are set.
Program event enable registers
:ENABle <NDN> or <NRf>
:STATus:MEASurement:ENABle <NDN> or <NRf>
:STATus:QUEStionable:ENABle <NDN> or <NRf>
:STATus:OPERation:ENABle <NDN> or <NRf>
Parameters
<NDN> =
<NRf> =
#Bxx...x
#Hx
#Qx
0 to 65535
Program Measurement Event Enable Register
Program Questionable Event Enable Register
Program Operation Event Enable Register
Binary format (each x = 1 or 0)
Hexadecimal format (x = 0 to FFFF)
Octal format (x = 0 to 177777)
Decimal format
Query
:ENABle?
Description
These commands are used to program the enable registers of the status
structure. The binary equivalent of the parameter value that is sent determines which bits in the register gets set. See Section 14 for details.
Read an enable register
SCPI Command Reference
17-87
Read condition registers
:CONDition?
:STATus:MEASurement:CONDition?
:STATus:QUEStionable:CONDition?
:STATus:OPERation:CONDition?
Description
Read Measurement Condition
Read Questionable Register
Read Operation Condition
These query commands are used to read the contents of the condition
registers.
Select default conditions
:PRESet
:STATus:PRESet
Description
Return registers to default conditions
When this command is sent, the following SCPI event registers are cleared
to zero (0):
1. Operation Event Enable Register.
2. Event Enable Register.
3. Measurement Event Enable Register.
NOTE
The Standard Event Register is not affected by this command.
Error queue
[:NEXT]?
:STATus:QUEue[:NEXT]?
Description
NOTE
Read Error Queue
As error and status messages occur, they are placed into the Error Queue.
This query command is used to read those messages. See Appendix B for a
list of messages.
The :STATus:QUEue[:NEXT]? query command performs the same function as the
:SYSTem:ERRor? query command. See “:SYSTem subsystem.”
:CLEar
:STATus:QUEue:CLEar
Description
Clear Error Queue
This action command is used to clear the Error Queue of messages.
17-88
SCPI Command Reference
ENABle <list>
:STATus:QUEue:ENABle <list>
Parameters
Enable messages for Error Queue
<list> = (numlist)
where numlist is a specified list of messages that you wish to enable for the
Error.
Query
:ENABle?
Description
On power-up, all error messages are enabled and will go into the Error
Queue as they occur. Status messages are not enabled and will not go into
the queue. This command is used to specify which messages you want
enabled. Messages not specified will be disabled and prevented from entering the queue.
Query list of enabled messages
DISable <list>
:STATus:QUEue:DISable <list>
Parameters
Disable messages for Error Queue
<list> = (numlist)
where numlist is a specified list of messages that you wish to disable for the
Error Queue.
Query
:DISable?
Description
On power-up, all error messages are enabled and will go into the Error
Queue as they occur. Status messages are not enabled and will not go into
the queue. This command is used to specify which messages you want disabled. Disabled messages are prevented from going into the Error Queue.
Query list of disabled messages
SCPI Command Reference
17-89
:SYSTem subsystem
The SYSTem subsystem contains miscellaneous commands that are summarized in
Table 17-8.
Default conditions
:PRESet
:SYSTem:PRESet
Description
Return to :SYSTem:PRESet defaults
This command returns the instrument to states optimized for front panel
operation. :SYSTem:PRESet defaults are listed in the SCPI tables
(Tables 17-1 through 17-10).
:POSetup
:SYSTem:POSetup <name>
Program power-on defaults
Parameters
<name> =
Query
:POSetup?
Description
This command is used to select the power-on defaults. With RST selected,
the instrument powers up to the *RST default conditions. With PRES
selected, the instrument powers up to the :SYStem:PRESet default conditions. Default conditions are listed in the SCPI tables (Tables 17-1 through
17-10).
RST
PRESet
SAV0
SAV1
SAV2
SAV3
SAV4
Power-up to *RST defaults
Power-up to :SYSTem:PRESet defaults
Power-up to setup stored at memory location 0
Power-up to setup stored at memory location 1
Power-up to setup stored at memory location 2
Power-up to setup stored at memory location 3
Power-up to setup stored at memory location 4
Query power-on setup
With the SAV0-4 parameters specified, the instrument powers-on to the
setup that is saved in the specified location using the *SAV command.
17-90
SCPI Command Reference
Select guard mode
:GUARd <name>
:SYSTem:GUARd <name>
Select guard mode
Parameters
<name> =
Query
:GUARd?
Description
This command is used to select the guard mode. OHMS guard is a lowimpedance guard drive used for in-circuit resistance measurements. CABLE
guard provides a high-impedance guard drive that is used to eliminate leakage currents in cabling and test fixtures.
OHMS
CABLe
Ohms guard mode
Cable guard mode
Query guard mode
When performing 6-wire ohms guard measurements, use the GUARD output state. The OUTPut [1]:SMODe GUARd command is used to select the
GUARD output-off state.
NOTE
See Section 2 for details on guarding.
Initialize memory
:INITialize
:SYSTem:MEMory:INITialize
Description
Initializes battery backed RAM
When this command is used, the following actions to initialize battery
backed RAM occur:
• TRACe (data store) data is lost, buffer size is reset to 100, and timestamp
is set to the absolute format.
• SOURce1:LIST:CURR and VOLT are reset to 0A and 0V, respectively.
• Deletes all user-defined math expressions. See CALCulate1.
• All 100 memory locations for a memory sweep are initialized to the
present setup configuration of the SourceMeter with CALC 1 disabled.
User-defined math expressions are replaced with the “Power” math
expression.
• The four standard save setups (*SAV0 - *SAV4) are initialized to the
present setup configuration of the SourceMeter.
• All CALCulate1 user-defined math expressions are deleted.
SCPI Command Reference
17-91
Control beeper
[:IMMediate] <freq, time>
:SYSTem:BEEPer[:IMMediate] <freq, time>
Parameters
NOTE
freq =
time =
65 to 2e6
0 to 7.9
Specify frequency in Hz
Specify time duration
The frequency and time values must be separated by a comma (i.e., :syst:beep
100, 3).
Description
The beeper of the SourceMeter can be used to provide an audible signal at a
specified frequency and time duration (up to 7.9 seconds @ 65Hz). This
beeper can, for example, be used to signal the end of a lengthy sweep.
Example: :SYSTem:BEEPer
500, 1
Beep at 500Hz for 1 second
The correlation between the duration and frequency of the beep is expressed
as follows:
Maximum Time = 512/ Frequency
For example, at a frequency of 512Hz, the maximum beep time is one second. You can set the time greater than one (1) second, but it will only beep
for one second.
Note that in order to use this command, the beeper must be enabled. See the
next command.
:STATe <b>
:SYSTem:BEEPer:STATe <b>
Enable or disable beeper
Parameters
<b> =
Query
:STATe?
Description
This command is used to enable or disable the beeper. When enabled, a
short beep is provided to signal that a front panel key has been pressed.
1 or ON
0 or OFF
Enable beeper
Disable beeper
Query state of beeper
17-92
SCPI Command Reference
Control auto zero
:STATe <name>
:SYSTem:AZERo:STATe <name>
Control auto zero
Parameters
<name> =
Query
:STATe?
Description
This command is used to enable or disable auto zero, or to force an immediate one-time auto zero update if auto zero is disabled. When auto zero is
enabled, accuracy is optimized. When auto zero is disabled, speed is
increased at the expense of accuracy.
ON
OFF
ONCE
Enable auto zero
Disable auto zero
Force immediate auto zero update
Query state of auto zero
Control NPLC caching
:CACHing
:SYSTem:AZERo:CACHing[:STATe] <b>
:SYSTem:AZERo:CACHing:REFResh
:SYSTem:AZERo:CACHing:RESet
:SYSTem:AZERo:CACHing:NPLCycles?
Enable/disable NPLC caching
Update NPLC cache values
Clear NPLC values from cache
Return list of NPLC values
Parameters
<b> =
Query
[:STATe]?
:NPLCycles?
Description
NPLC caching speeds up source memory sweeps by caching A/D reference
and zero values. When SYST:AZER:CACH is enabled, the A/D reference
and zero values will be saved for up to the 10 most recent [:SENSe[1 ]]
:VOLTage[:DC]:NPLCycles, [:SENSe[1 ]]:CURRent[: DC]:NPLCycles, or
[:SENSe[1]]:RESistance:NPLCycles settings. Whenever the integration rate
is changed via an NPLC command, user setup recall (*RCL), or a source
memory recall (:SOUR:MEM command or during a source memory
sweep), NPLC caching will occur. If the integration rate is already stored in
the cache, the stored reference and zero values are recalled and used. Otherwise, a reference and zero value are acquired and stored in the cache. If
there are already 10 NPLC values stored, the oldest one will be overwritten
by the newest one.
1 or ON
0 or OFF
Enable NPLC caching
Disable NPLC caching
Query state of NPLC caching
Return list of NPLC values stored in cache
from oldest to newest.
SCPI Command Reference
17-93
Following these general steps to program and use NPLC caching:
1. Send this command to disable auto zero: SYST:AZER OFF.
2. Enable NPLC caching by sending: SYST:AZER:CACH ON.
3. Set up and run your source memory sweep with the :SOUR:MEM commands along with the various other commands required to program
additional operating modes. (See Configure memory sweep as well as
other pertinent command descriptions in this section for details.)
NOTE
Auto zero should be disabled with the :SYST:AZER OFF command for maximum
source memory sweep speed; otherwise, the cache is of little use. With auto zero
enabled, new A/D reference and zero values are taken for every reading and saved
into the cache, slowing down sweep operation. However, with auto zero disabled,
measurements may drift and become erroneous. To minimize drift when using NPLC
caching with auto zero disabled, periodically send :SYST:AZER ONCE to force an
immediate auto zero update.
Select power line frequency setting
:LFRequency <freq>
:SYSTem:LFRequency <freq>
Select line frequency
Parameters
<freq> =
Query
:LFRequency?
Description
Use this command to manually select the line frequency setting (50 or
60Hz). For 400Hz operation, select 50Hz.
50
60
50Hz or 400Hz setting
60Hz setting
Query line frequency selection.
:AUTO <b>
:SYSTem:LFRequency:AUTO <b>
Control auto line frequency selection
Parameters
<b> =
Query
:AUTO?
Description
This command is used to enable or disable auto line frequency detection.
When enabled, the SourceMeter will sense the line frequency on power-up
and select the appropriate line frequency setting.
1 or ON
0 or OFF
Enable and line frequency selection
Disable auto line frequency selection
Query state of auto line frequency selection.
Manually setting the line frequency disables auto frequency. See the previous command.
17-94
SCPI Command Reference
Error queue
NOTE
See Section 14 for details on the error queue.
[:NEXT]?
:SYSTem:ERRor[:NEXT]?
Description
NOTE
Read oldest error (code and message)
As error and status messages occur, they are placed in the Error Queue. The
Error Queue is a first-in, first-out (FIFO) register that can hold up to 10 messages. After sending this command and addressing the SourceMeter to talk,
the oldest message is sent to the computer and is then removed from the
queue.
The :STATus:Queue? command performs the same function as
:SYSTem:ERRor[:NEXT]?. See “STATus subsystem.”
:ALL?
:SYSTem:ERRor:ALL?
Description
Read all errors (codes and messages)
This query command is similar to the [:NEXT]? command except that all
messages in the Error Queue are sent to the computer when the SourceMeter is addressed to talk. All messages are removed from the queue.
:COUNt?
:SYSTem:ERRor:COUNt?
Description
Return the number of errors
After sending this command and addressing the SourceMeter to talk, a decimal number will be sent to the computer. That is the number of messages in
the Error Queue.
:CODE[:NEXT]?
:SYSTem:ERRor:CODE[:NEXT]?
Description
Read oldest error (code only)
This command is identical to the [:NEXT]? command, except only the code
is returned. The message itself is not returned. The error is cleared from the
queue.
:CODE:ALL?
SYSTem:ERRor:CODE:ALL?
Description
Read all errors (codes only)
This query command is identical to the :ALL? command, except only the
codes are returned. The actual messages are not returned. All errors are
cleared from the queue.
:CLEar
:SYSTem:CLEar
Description
Clear Error Queue
This action command is used to clear the Error Queue of messages.
SCPI Command Reference
17-95
Simulate key presses
:KEY
:SYSTem:KEY <NRf>
Simulate key-press
Parameters
<NRf> =
Query
:KEY?
Description
This command is used to simulate front panel key presses. For example, to
select the voltage measurement function (V), you can send the following
command to simulate pressing the V (MEAS) key:
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
RANGE up arrow key
SOURCE down arrow key
left arrow key
MENU key
FCTN key
FILTER key
SPEED key
EDIT key
AUTO key
right arrow key
EXIT key
V (SOURCE) key
LIMITS key
STORE key
V (MEAS) key
TOGGLE key
RANGE down arrow key
ENTER key
I (SOURCE) key
TRIG key
RECALL key
I (MEAS) key
LOCAL key
ON/OFF key
----SOURCE up arrow key
SWEEP key
CONFIG key
Ω key
REL key
DIGITS key
Query last “pressed” key.
:syst:key 15
The parameter listing provides the key-press code in numeric order.
Figure 17-3 also illustrates the key-press codes.
17-96
SCPI Command Reference
The queue for the :KEY? query command can only hold one key-press.
When :KEY? is sent over the bus, and the SourceMeter is addressed to talk,
the key-press code number for the last key pressed (either physically or with
:KEY) is sent to the computer.
The key-press code number for the last key pressed (either physically or
with :key) is sent to the computer.
Figure 17-3
Key-press
codes
15 22 29 5
26 2
12 19
8
1

6430 SUB-FEMTOAMP SourceMeter ®
MEAS
V
EDIT
DISPLAY
TOGGLE
POWER
Ω
I
FCTN
1
2
3
REL
FILTER
LIMIT
6
7
8
9
23
31
STORE RECALL
7 6
I
V
RANGE
0
LOCAL
DIGITS SPEED
16
SOURCE
4
EDIT
5
AUTO
TRIG SWEEP
CONFIG MENU
21 20
30 14 13 28
ON/OFF
RANGE
+/-
EXIT
4 3
27 11
ENTER
18
10
OUTPUT
17
24
9
Parameters
<NRf> = 1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
RANGE up arrow key
SOURCE down arrow key
left arrow key
MENU key
FCTN key
FILTER key
SPEED key
EDIT key
AUTO key
right arrow key
EXIT key
V (SOURCE) key
LIMITS key
STORE key
V (MEAS) key
TOGGLE key
RANGE down arrow key
ENTER key
I (SOURCE) key
TRIG key
RECALL key
I (MEAS) key
LOCAL key
ON/OFF key
- (not used)
SOURCE up arrow key
SWEEP key
CONFIG key
Ω key
REL key
DIGITS key
Read version of SCPI standard
:VERSion?
:SYSTem:VERSion?
Description
Read SCPI version
This query command is used to read the version of the SCPI standard being
used by the SourceMeter. Example code:
1996.0
The above response message indicates the version of the SCPI standard.
SCPI Command Reference
17-97
RS-232 interface
:LOCal
:SYSTem:LOCal
Description
Take SourceMeter out of remote
Normally, during RS-232 communications, front panel keys are operational.
However, the user may wish to lock out front panel keys during RS-232
communications. See :RWLock.
This action command is used to remove the SourceMeter from the remote
state and enables the operation of front panel keys. Note that this command
can only be sent over the RS-232 interface.
:REMote
:SYSTem:REMote
Description
Place the SourceMeter in remote
This action command is used to place the SourceMeter in the remote state.
In remote, the front panel keys will be locked out if local lockout is asserted.
See :RWLock. Note that this command can only be sent over the RS-232
interface.
:RWLock <b>
:SYSTem:RWLock <b>
Disable or enable front panel keys
Parameters
<b> =
Query
:RWLock
Description
This command is used to enable or disable local lockout. When enabled, the
front panel keys are locked out (not operational) when the instrument is in
remote. (See :REMote.) When disabled, the front panel keys are operational
in remote.
0 or OFF
1 or ON
Disable local lockout
Enable local lockout
Query state of local lockout
Removing the instrument from remote (:LOCal) restores front panel keys
operation but does not change the status of the :RWLock command.
Note that this command can only be sent over the RS-232 interface.
Query timestamp
:TIME?
:SYSTem:TIME?
Query timestamp
Query
:TIME?
Description
This query returns the current timestamp value.
Query timestamp
17-98
SCPI Command Reference
Reset timestamp
:RESet
:SYSTem:TIME:RESet
Description
Reset timestamp
This action command is used to reset the absolute timestamp to 0 seconds.
The timestamp also resets to 0 seconds every time the SourceMeter is turned
on.
Auto reset timestamp
:RESet:AUTO <b>
:SYSTem:TIME:RESet:AUTO <b>
Reset timestamp when exiting idle
Parameters
<b> =
Query
:AUTO?
Description
:RES:AUTO enables or disables auto timestamp reset. When enabled, the
timestamp will be automatically reset when exiting the idle layer of the trigger model. This command is intended for use with READ?/INIT when taking more than one reading.
1 or ON
0 or OFF
Enable auto timestamp reset
Disable auto timestamp reset
Query enabled/disabled auto timestamp reset
state
Auto range change mode
:RCMode <name>
:SYSTem:RCMode <name>
Control auto range change mode
Parameters
<name> = SINGle
MULTiple
Query
:RCMode?
Description
This command controls the auto range change mode. In the SINGle mode,
the SourceMeter will auto range only after first taking a reading. In the
MULTiple mode, the SourceMeter will auto range up on compliance in the
Delay phase of the Source-Delay-Measure cycle, thereby minimizing the
chance of a SourceMeter being in compliance in a multiple-SourceMeter
system. A SourceMeter can downrange only once a reading has been taken.
In the MULTiple mode, you can control the soak time using the
:SOUR:SOAK command. See SOURce subsystem. Note that you can use
the LLIMIT and ULIMIT commands to control auto range limits. See
SENSe1 subsystem.
Single mode
Multiple mode
Query auto range change mode
SCPI Command Reference
17-99
:TRACe subsystem
The commands in this subsystem are used to configure and control data storage into the
buffer. The commands are summarized in Table 17-9.
:TRACe|:DATA
The bar (|) indicates that :TRACe or :DATA can be used as the root command for this subsystem. From this point on, the documentation in this manual uses :TRACe. If you prefer to use
:DATA, simply replace all the :TRACe command words with :DATA.
Read and clear buffer
:DATA?
:TRACe:DATA?
Description
Read contents of buffer
When this command is sent and the SourceMeter is addressed to talk, all the
readings stored in the data store are sent to the computer.
The format used to send readings over the bus is controlled from the
:FORMat subsystem.
NOTE
See Appendix C for a detailed explanation on how data flows through the various
operation blocks of the SourceMeter. It clarifies the types of readings that are
acquired by the various commands to read data.
:CLEar
:TRACe:CLEar
Description
Clear buffer
This action command is used to clear the buffer of readings. If you do not
clear the buffer, a subsequent store will overwrite the old readings.
Configure and control buffer
:FREE?
:TRACe:FREE?
Description
Read status of memory
This command is used to read the status of storage memory. After sending
this command and addressing the SourceMeter to talk, two values separated
by commas are sent to the computer. The first value indicates how many
bytes of memory are available, and the second value indicates how many
bytes are reserved to store readings.
17-100 SCPI Command Reference
:POINts <n>
:TRACe:POINts <n>
Specify buffer size
Parameters
<n> =
Query
:POINts?
:POINts? MINimum
:POINts? MAXimum
:POINts? DEFault
Description
This command is used to specify the size of the buffer.
1 to 2500
MINimum
MAXimum
DEFault
Specify buffer size
1
2500
100
Query buffer size
Query smallest allowable buffer size
Query largest allowable buffer size
Query *RST default buffer size
:ACTual?
:TRACe:POINts:ACTual?
Description
Query number of stored readings
This query command is used to determine how many stored readings are in
the buffer. After sending this command and addressing the unit to talk, the
number of readings stored in the buffer will be sent to the computer.
:FEED <name>
:TRACe:FEED <name>
Specify readings source
Parameters
<name> =
Query
:FEED?
Description
This command is used to select the source of readings to be placed in the
buffer. With SENSe[1] selected, raw readings are placed in the buffer when
storage is performed.
SENSe[1]
CALCulate[1]
CALCulate2
Put raw readings in buffer
Put Calc1 readings in buffer
Put Calc2 readings in buffer
Query buffer feed
With CALCulate[1] selected, math expression results (Calc1) are placed in
the buffer. With CALCulate2 selected, Calc2 readings are placed in the
buffer.
TRACe:FEED cannot be changed while buffer storage is active. See
Section 8 for more information.
SCPI Command Reference 17-101
:CONTrol <name>
:TRACe:FEED:CONTrol <name>
Start or stop buffer
Parameters
<name> =
Query
:CONTrol?
Description
This command is used to select the buffer control. When NEXT is selected,
the asterisk (*) annunciator turns on to indicate that the buffer is enabled.
The storage process starts when SourceMeter is taken out of idle to perform
source-measure operations.
NEXT
NEVer
Fills buffer and stops
Disables buffer storage
Query buffer control
After the buffer stores the specified number of reading arrays (as set by the
:POINTs command), the asterisk annuciator turns off to indicate that storage is done.
With NEVer selected, storage into the buffer is disabled.
Select timestamp format
:FORMat <name>
:TRACe:TSTamp:FORMat <name>
Select timestamp format
Parameters
<name> =
Query
:FORMat?
Description
This command is used to select the timestamp format for buffer readings.
With ABSolute selected, each timestamp is referenced to the first reading
stored in the buffer. With DELTa selected, timestamps provide the time
between each buffer reading.
ABSolute
DELTa
Reference to first buffer reading
Time between buffer readings
Query timestamp format
17-102 SCPI Command Reference
TRIGger subsystem
The TRIGger subsystem is made up of a series of commands and subsystems to configure
the Trigger Model. These commands and subsystems are summarized in Table 17-10.
NOTE
See Section 10 for more details on triggering and the trigger model.
Clear input triggers
:CLEar
:TRIGger:CLEar
Description
Clear pending input triggers
When this action command is sent, any pending (latched) input triggers are
cleared immediately. When the SourceMeter is being triggered by another
instrument, it may inadvertently receive and latch input triggers that do not
get executed. These pending triggers could adversely affect subsequent
operation.
When using external triggering, it is recommended that TRIGger:CLEar be
sent after sending the ABORt command and at the beginning of a program
before sending an initiate command. (See :INITiate command.)
Initiate source/measure cycle
:INITiate
:INITiate[:IMMediate]
Description
Take SourceMeter out of idle state
This command is used to initiate source-measure operation by taking the
SourceMeter out of idle. The :READ? and :MEASure? commands also perform an initiation.
Note that if auto output-off is disabled (SOURce1:CLEar:AUTO OFF), the
source output must first be turned on before an initiation can be performed.
The :MEASure? command automatically turns the output source on before
performing the initiation.
WARNING
With auto output-off disabled, the source output will remain on after all
programmed source-measure operations are completed. Beware of hazardous voltage (30VDC, 42.4 peak-to-peak or more) that may be present on
the output terminals.
With auto output-off enabled, an initiation will start operation immediately.
The source output will automatically turn on at the beginning of each SDM
(source-delay-measure) cycle and turn off after each measurement is
completed.
SCPI Command Reference 17-103
Abort source/measure cycle
:ABORt
Abort operation
Description
When this action command is sent, the SourceMeter aborts operation and
returns to the idle state.
A faster way to return to idle is to use the DCL or SDC command.
With auto output-off enabled (:SOURce1:CLEar:AUTO ON), the output
will remain on if operation is terminated before the output has a chance to
automatically turn off.
Program trigger model
:COUNt <n>
:ARM[:SEQuence[1]][LAYer[1]]:COUNt <n>
:TRIGger[:SEQuence[1]]:COUNt <n>
Parameters
NOTE
<n> =
1 to 2500
DEFault
MINimum
MAXimum
INFinite
Set arm count
Set trigger count
Specify count (see NOTE)
Sets count to 1
Sets count to 1
See NOTE
(ARM:COUNt only)
The product of arm count and trigger count cannot exceed 2500.
Query
:COUNt?
:COUNt? DEFault
:COUNt? MINimum
:COUNt? MAXimum
Description
This command is used to specify how many times an operation is performed
in the specified layer of the trigger model.
Queries programmed count
Queries *RST default count
Queries lowest allowable count
Queries largest allowable count
For example, assume the arm count is set to 2 and the trigger counter is set
to 10, the SourceMeter is configured to perform 10 source-measure operations twice for a total of 20 source-measure operations.
The product of the arm count and trigger count cannot exceed 2500. If, for
example, the arm count is 2, then the maximum trigger count is 1250.
NOTE
INFinite can be used only with ARM:COUNt, and FETCh?, READ?, MEAS?,
CALC1:DATA?, or CALC2:DATA? cannot be used with infinite arm count. Only
INIT will start measurements, and only interlock, over-temperature, SDC, DCL, or
ABORt should be used to stop the sweep.
ARM:COUNt INFinite can be used for repetitive source waveforms or for
long tests where only the last reading is important. For example, the limits
could be used to drive the interlock to abort a test when some condition is
met. DATA? would then give the answer to the test.
17-104 SCPI Command Reference
:DELay <n>
:TRIGger[:SEQuence[1]]:DELay <n>
Set trigger layer delay
Parameters
<n> =
Query
:DELay?
:DELay? DEFault
:DELay? MINimum
:DELay? MAXimum
Description
The delay is used to delay operation in the trigger layer. After the programmed trigger event occurs, the instrument waits until the delay period
expires before performing the Device Action.
0 to 999.9999
DEFault
MINimum
MAXimum
Specify delay in seconds
0 second delay
0 second delay
999.9999 second delay
Query the programmed delay
Query the *RST default delay
Query the lowest allowable delay
Query the largest allowable delay
:SOURce <name>
:ARM[:SEQuence[1]][LAYer[1]]:SOURce <name>
:TRIGger[:SEQuence[1]]:SOURce <name>
Parameters
NOTE
<name> =
IMMediate
TLINk
TIMer
MANual
BUS
NSTest
PSTest
BSTest
Specify arm event control source
Specify trigger event control source
Pass operation through immediately
Select Trigger Link trigger as event
Select timer as event
Select manual event
Select bus trigger as event
Select low SOT pulse as event
Select high SOT pulse as event
Select high or low SOT pulse as event
Only IMMediate and TLINk are available as trigger layer control sources.
Query
:SOURce?
Description
These commands are used to select the event control source. With IMMediate selected, operation immediately continues.
Query programmed control source
A specific event can be used to control operation. With TLINk selected,
operation continues when a trigger pulse is received via the Trigger Link.
NOTE
The following control sources are not available for the trigger layer.
With TIMer selected, the event occurs at the beginning of the timer interval,
and every time it times out. For example, if the timer is programmed for a
30 second interval, the first pass through the control source occurs immediately. Subsequent arm events will then occur every 30 seconds. The interval
for the timer is set using the :TIMer command.
With MANual selected, the event occurs when the TRIG key is pressed.
SCPI Command Reference 17-105
With BUS selected, the event occurs when a GET or *TRG command is
sent over the bus.
With NSTESt selected, the event occurs when the SOT (start of test) low
pulse is received from a component handler via the Digital I/O port. This is
used for limit testing.
With PSTest selected, the event occurs when SOT (start of test) high pulse is
received from a component handler via the Digital I/O port. This is used for
limit testing.
:TIMer <n>
:ARM[:SEQuence[1]][:LAYer[1]]:TIMer <n>
Set interval for arm layer timer
Parameters
<n> =
Specify timer interval in seconds
Specify timer interval in seconds
Query
:TIMer?
Description
These commands are used to set the interval for the timer. Note that the
timer is in effect only if the timer is the selected control source.
0.001 to 9999.999
10000.00 to 99999.99
Query programmed timer interval
:DIRection <name>
:ARM[:SEQuence[1]][LAYer[1]][:TCONfigure]:DIRection <name>Control arm bypass
:TRIGger[:SEQuence[1]][:TCONfigure]:DIRection <name>
Control trigger bypass
Parameters
<name> =
Query
:DIRection?
Description
This command is used to enable (SOURce) or disable (ACCeptor) control
source bypass. When enabled, operation will loop around the control source
on the first pass in the layer. After that, repeat passes in the layer are held up
and will wait for the programmed control source event.
SOURce
ACCeptor
Enable control source bypass
Disable control source bypass
Query state of bypass
INPut <event list>
:TRIGger[:SEQuence[1]][:TCONfigure][:ASYNchronous]:INPut <event list>
Parameters
NOTE
Query
<event list> = SOURce
DELay
SENSe
NONE
Enable event detectors
Enable Source Event Detector
Enable Delay Event Detector
Enable Measure Event Detector
Disable all event detectors in Trigger Layer
Each event in the list must be separated by a comma (i.e. trigger:input source, delay,
sense).
:INPut?
Query enabled event detectors in Trigger Layer
17-106 SCPI Command Reference
Description
When TLINk is the selected Trigger Layer control source, and an event
detector in the Trigger Layer is enabled, operation will hold up at that detector until an input trigger is received via the Trigger Link. When the event
detector is disabled, operation will not hold up. It continues on and performs
the appropriate action.
A Trigger Layer event detector is enabled by including the parameter name
in the event list for the INPut command. For example, to enable the Source
Event Detector and Measure Event Detector, send the following command:
:TRIGger:INPut SOURce, SENSe
The Delay Event Detector will be disabled since the DELay parameter is not
included in the above event list.
NOTE
To disable all the Trigger Layer event detectors, the NONE parameter must be sent
alone (i.e. trigger:input none). If it is listed with any of the other parameters, NONE
will be ignored.
:ILINe <NRf>
:ARM[:SEQuence[1]][LAYer[1]][:TCONfigure]:ILINe <NRf>
:TRIGger[:SEQuence[1]][:TCONfigure]:ILINe <NRf>
Select input line; arm layer
Select input line; trigger layer
Parameters
<NRf> =
Query
:ILINe?
Description
This command is used to select input lines for the Trigger Link. For normal
operation, Trigger Link input and output (see :OLINe) should not share the
same line.
1
2
3
4
Line #1
Line #2
Line #3
Line #4
Query input trigger line
:OLINe <NRf>
:ARM[:SEQuence[1]][LAYer[1]][:TCONfigure]:OLINe <NRf>
:TRIGger[:SEQuence[1]][:TCONfigure]:OLINe <NRf>
Select output line; arm layer
Select output line; trigger layer
Parameters
<NRf> =
Query
:OLINe?
Description
This command is used to select output lines for the Trigger Link. For normal
operation, Trigger Link input and output (see :ILINe) should not share the
same line.
1
2
3
4
Line #1
Line #2
Line #3
Line #4
Query output trigger line
SCPI Command Reference 17-107
OUTPut <event list>
:ARM[:SEQuence[1]][LAYer[1]][:TCONfigure]:OUTPut <event list>
:TRIGger[:SEQuence[1]][:TCONfigure]:OUTPut <event list>
Parameters
NOTE
Arm Layer Triggers
<event list >: TENTer
TEXit
NONE
Trigger Layer Triggers
<event list>: SOURce
DELay
SENSe
NONE
Arm layer events
Trigger layer events
Trigger on entering trigger layer
Trigger on exiting trigger layer
Disable arm layer output trigger
Output trigger after source level is set
Output trigger after delay period
Output Trigger after measurement
Disable trigger layer triggers
Each event in the list must be separated by a comma (i.e., :arm:output source, delay,
sense).
Query
:OUTPut?
Description
This command is used to specify when trigger pulses occur on the specified
output trigger line of the Trigger Link (:OLINe).
Query output trigger event(s)
Arm Layer Triggers — With TEXit selected, an output trigger will occur
when exiting the trigger layer. With TENTer selected, an output trigger will
occur when entering the trigger layer. With NONE selected, the arm layer
output trigger is disabled.
Trigger Layer Triggers — You can specify from one to all three events. Each
event in the list must be separated by a comma (,).
The SOURce, DELay and MEASure events refer to the Source-DelayMeasure (SDM) cycle. This is the Device Action in the Trigger Model. See
Figures 10-7 and 10-8. With SOURce specified, an output trigger occurs
after the source is set. With DELay specified, an output trigger occurs after
the delay period. With MEASure specified, an output trigger occurs after the
measurement.
NOTE
When disabling triggers, the NONE parameter must be sent alone (i.e., trig:outp
none). If it is listed with any of the other event parameters, NONE will be ignored.
17-108 SCPI Command Reference
18
Performance Verification
•
Verification Test Requirements — Summarizes environmental conditions, warm-up
period, and line power requirements.
•
Recommended Test Equipment — Lists all the test equipment needed to perform the
verification tests.
•
Verification Limits — Describes how the verification reading limits are calculated.
•
Performing the Verification Test Procedures — Details restoring factory defaults and
setting ranges and output values.
•
Compliance Considerations — Discusses the types of compliance and how to take the
unit out of compliance.
•
Mainframe Verification — Covers the procedures necessary to verify accuracy of the
mainframe alone without the Remote PreAmp.
•
Remote Preamp Verification — Describes how to verify Remote PreAmp measurement accuracy.
18-2
Performance Verification
Introduction
Use the procedures in this section to verify that Model 6430 accuracy is within the limits
stated in the instrument’s one-year accuracy specifications. You can perform these verification
procedures:
•
•
•
•
When you first receive the instrument to make sure that it was not damaged during
shipment.
To verify that the unit meets factory specifications.
To determine if calibration is required.
Following calibration to make sure it was performed properly.
WARNING
The information in this section is intended for qualified service personnel
only. Do not attempt these procedures unless you are qualified to do so.
Some of these procedures may expose you to hazardous voltages, which
could cause personal injury or death if contacted. Use standard safety precautions when working with hazardous voltages.
The Remote PreAmp connectors carry hazardous voltage. To prevent risk
of electric shock, connectors must be fully mated or safety covers must be
placed over the open connectors. Proper installation requires that the operator is protected from exposed voltages by insulation or barriers.
NOTE
If the instrument is still under warranty and its performance is outside specified limits, contact your Keithley representative or the factory to determine the correct
course of action.
Verification test requirements
Be sure that you perform the verification tests:
•
•
•
•
•
Under the proper environmental conditions.
After the specified warm-up period.
Using the correct line voltage.
Using the proper test equipment.
Using the specified output signals and reading limits.
Environmental conditions
Conduct your performance verification procedures in a test environment with:
•
•
An ambient temperature of 18-28°C (65-82°F).
A relative humidity of less than 60% unless otherwise noted.
Performance Verification
18-3
Warm-up period
Allow the Model 6430 to warm up for at least one hour before conducting the verification
procedures.
If the instrument has been subjected to temperature extremes (those outside the ranges stated
above), allow additional time for the instrument’s internal temperature to stabilize. Typically,
allow one extra hour to stabilize a unit that is 10°C (18°F) outside the specified temperature
range.
Also, allow the test equipment to warm up for the minimum time specified by the
manufacturer.
Line power
The Model 6430 requires a line voltage of 100 to 240V and a line frequency of 50 or 60Hz.
Verification tests must be performed within this range.
Recommended test equipment
Table 18-1 summarizes recommended verification equipment. You can use alternate equipment as long as that equipment has specifications at least as good as those listed in Table 18-1.
Keep in mind, however, that test equipment uncertainty will add to the uncertainty of each measurement. Generally, test equipment uncertainty should be at least four times better than corresponding Model 6430 specifications. Table 18-1 also lists the specifications of the
recommended test equipment.
NOTE
Model 5156 Electrometer Calibration Standard uncertainty is less than four times
better than Model 6430 specifications. As a result, 1pA-100nA and 2GΩ-200GΩ
range reading limits include Model 5156 uncertainty.
CAUTION
Before testing the 20Ω and 200Ω ohms ranges, make sure your resistance
calibrator can safely handle the default test currents for those ranges
(100mA and 10mA for the 20Ω and 200Ω ranges, respectively). If not, use
the Model 6430 MANUAL ohms mode, and set the test current to the maximum safe calibrator current. Note that Model 6430 measurement accuracy is reduced and reading limits should be recalculated using the
additional uncertainty when using MANUAL ohms. See the specifications
in Appendix A for details.
18-4
Performance Verification
Table 18-1
Recommended verification equipment
Description
Manufacturer/Model
Specifications
Digital Multimeter1
Hewlett Packard
HP3458A
DC Voltage
1V:
10V:
100V:
1000V:
5.6ppm
4.3ppm
6.3ppm
6.1ppm
DC Current
1mA:
10mA:
100mA:
1mA:
10mA:
100mA:
55ppm
25ppm
23ppm
20ppm
20ppm
35ppm
Resistance Calibrator1
Fluke 5450A
Resistance
19Ω:
190Ω:
1.9kΩ:
19kΩ:
190kΩ:
1.9MΩ:
19MΩ:
65ppm
10.5ppm
8ppm
7.5ppm
8.5ppm
11.5ppm
30ppm
Electrometer
Calibration Standard2
Keithley 5156
Resistance
100MΩ
1GΩ
10GΩ
100GΩ
200ppm
300ppm
400ppm
500ppm
Precision Resistors3
Any suitable
Resistance
1TΩ
10TΩ
2,000ppm
5,000ppm
Coax Cables (2)
Shielded Cables (2)
Triax-BNC Adapters
Triax-triax Adapters
Low-noise
Keithley 4801
Dual banana
Keithley CA-18-1
Keithley 7078-TRX-GND Male/female
Male/male
190-day,
full-scale DMM accuracy specifications of ranges required for various measurement points.
accuracy specifications shown for Model 5156.
3Resistors should be accurately characterized to uncertainty shown and mounted in a shielded enclosure.
2Characterization
Performance Verification
18-5
Test resistor construction
The 1TΩ and 10TΩ test resistors used to test the 2TΩ and 20TΩ resistance ranges should be
mounted in a shielded, guarded enclosure like the one shown in Figure 18-1. The resistors
should be properly characterized to the accuracy stated in Table 18-1 before use. Connect the
resistors terminals to the triax jack center conductor and outer shell. Connect the guard shield
to the triax jack inner ring.
WARNING
Figure 18-1
Test resistor
construction
To avoid a shock hazard, do not connect guard to an exposed shield.
1TΩ or 10TΩ
Resistor
Center
Conductor
Triax Jack
Guard
Shield
Inner Ring
Shell
Verification limits
Most of the verification reading limits stated in this section have been calculated using only
the Model 6430 one-year accuracy specifications, and most reading limits do not include test
equipment uncertainty. (However, 1pA-100nA and 2GΩ-200GΩ range limits do include the
uncertainty of the Model 5156 Electrometer Calibration Standard.) If a particular measurement
falls outside the allowable range, recalculate new limits based both on Model 6430 specifications and corresponding test equipment specifications.
Example limits calculation
As an example of how verification limits are calculated, assume you are testing the 20V DC
source range using a 20V output value. Using the Model 6430 20V range one-year accuracy
specification of ±(0.02% of output + 2.4mV offset), the calculated output limits are:
Output limits = 20V ± [(20V × 0.02%) + 2.4mV]
Output limits = 20V ± (0.004 + 0.0024)
Output limits = 20V ± 0.0064V
Output limits = 19.9936V to 20.0064V
18-6
Performance Verification
Resistance limits calculation
When verifying the resistance measurement accuracy, it will most likely be necessary to
recalculate resistance limits based on the actual calibrator resistance values. You can calculate
resistance reading limits in the same manner described above, but be sure to use the actual
calibrator resistance values and the Model 6430 normal accuracy specifications for your
calculations.
As an example, assume you are testing the 20kΩ range, and that the actual value of the nominal 19kΩ calibrator resistor is 19.01kΩ. Using the Model 6430 20kΩ range one-year normal
accuracy specifications of ±(0.063% of reading + 3Ω), the recalculated reading limits are:
Reading limits = 19.01kΩ ± [(19.01kΩ × 0.063%) + 3Ω]
Reading limits = 19.01kΩ ±15Ω
Reading limits = 18.9950kΩ to 19.0250kΩ
Limits calculation with test equipment uncertainty
Reading limits given in this section for the 1pA-100nA and 2GΩ-200GΩ ranges include the
characterization accuracy of the Model 5156 Electrometer Calibration Standard. Reading limits
for these ranges are calculated as indicated above except that they also take into account Model
5156 uncertainty. For example, using the 1GΩ Model 5156 resistor to test the Model 6430
2GΩ range, we have:
Model 6430 normal accuracy specifications: ±(0.085% + 100kΩ)
Model 5156 1GΩ characterization accuracy: 300ppm (0.03%)
Assuming an actual Model 5156 characterized value of 1.02GΩ, we have:
Reading limits = 1.02GΩ ± [(1.02GΩ × (0.085% + 0.03%)) + 100kΩ]
Reading limits = 1.02GΩ ±1.273MΩ
Reading limits = 1.01873GΩ to 1.02127GΩ
Performing the verification test procedures
Restoring factory defaults
Before performing the verification procedures, restore the instrument to its factory front
panel (bench) defaults as follows:
1.
Press the MENU key. The instrument will display the following prompt:
MAIN MENU
2.
Select SAVESETUP, and then press ENTER. The unit then displays:
SAVESETUP MENU
SAVESETUP COMMUNICATION CAL
GLOBAL SOURCE-MEMORY
Performance Verification
3.
Select GLOBAL, and then press ENTER. The unit then displays:
GLOBAL SETUP MENU
4.
Select RESET, and then press ENTER. The unit displays:
RESET ORIGINAL DFLTS
5.
Select BENCH, and then press ENTER to restore BENCH defaults.
18-7
SAVE RESTORE POWERON RESET
BENCH GPIB
Test summary
•
•
•
•
•
DC voltage output accuracy
DC voltage measurement accuracy
DC current output accuracy
DC current measurement accuracy
Resistance measurement accuracy
If the Model 6430 is not within specifications and not under warranty, see the calibration
procedures in Section 19 for information on calibrating the unit.
Test considerations
When performing the verification procedures:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Restore factory front panel defaults as previously outlined.
Make sure that the test equipment is properly warmed up and connected to the Model
6430 jacks.
Set the Model 6430 to the correct source range. See below.
Be sure that the Model 6430 output is turned on before making measurements.
Be sure the test equipment is set up for the proper function and range.
Allow the Model 6430 output signal to settle before making a measurement.
Do not connect test equipment to the Model 6430 through a scanner, multiplexer, or
other switching equipment.
WARNING
The maximum common-mode voltage (voltage between mainframe LO
and chassis ground or PreAmp IN/OUT LOW and chassis ground) is ±42V
DC. Exceeding this value may create a shock hazard.
CAUTION
Exceeding the following voltage values between these terminals may result
in instrument damage:
•
•
•
•
•
•
INPUT/OUTPUT HI and LO: 250V peak.
4-WIRE SENSE HI and LO: 250V peak.
INPUT/OUTPUT HI and 4-WIRE SENSE HI: 5V.
INPUT/OUTPUT LO and 4-WIRE SENSE LO: 5V.
Preamp IN/OUT HI or SENSE HI and GUARD: 40V peak.
Preamp GUARD and IN/OUT LOW: 250V peak.
18-8
Performance Verification
Setting the source range and output value
Before testing each verification point, you must properly set the source range and output
value as outlined below.
1.
2.
3.
5.
▲
▲
4.
Press either the SOURCE V or SOURCE I key to select the appropriate source
function.
Press the EDIT key as required to select the source display field. Note that the cursor
will flash in the source field while its value is being edited.
With the cursor in the source display field flashing, set the source range to the lowest
possible range for the value to be sourced using the RANGE ▲ or ▼ key. For example,
you should use the 20V source range to output a 20V source value. With a 20V source
value and the 20V range selected, the source field display will appear as follows:
Vsrc:+20.0000 V
With the source field cursor flashing, set the source output to the required value using
either:
The SOURCE ▲ and ▼ and and keys.
The numeric keys.
Note that the source output value will be updated immediately; you need not press
ENTER when setting the source value.
Setting the measurement range
When simultaneously sourcing and measuring either voltage or current, the measure range is
coupled to the source range, and you cannot independently control the measure range. Thus, it
is not necessary for you to set the measure range when testing voltage or current measurement
accuracy.
Compliance considerations
Compliance limits
When sourcing voltage, you can set the unit to limit current from 1fA (with PreAmp) to
105mA. Conversely, when sourcing current, you can set the unit to limit voltage from 0.2mV to
210V. The instrument output will not exceed the programmed compliance limit.
Types of compliance
There are two types of compliance that can occur: “real” and “range.” Depending on which
value is lower, the output will clamp at either the displayed compliance setting (“real”) or at the
maximum measurement range reading (“range”).
Performance Verification
18-9
The “real” compliance condition can occur when the compliance setting is less than the
highest possible reading of the measurement range. When in compliance, the source output
clamps at the displayed compliance value. For example, if the compliance voltage is set to 1V
and the measurement range is 2V, the output voltage will clamp (limit) at 1V.
“Range” compliance can occur when the compliance setting is higher than the possible
reading of the selected measurement range. When in compliance, the source output clamps at
the maximum measurement range reading (not the compliance value). For example, if the compliance voltage is set to 1V and the measurement range is 200mV, the output voltage will clamp
(limit) at 210mV.
Maximum compliance values
The maximum compliance values for the measurement ranges are summarized in
Table 18-2.
Table 18-2
Maximum compliance values
Measurement range1
Maximum
compliance value
200mV
002V
020V
200V
210mV
002.1V
021V
210V
001pA
010pA
100pA
001nA
010nA
100nA
001µA
010µA
100µA
001mA
010mA
100mA
001.05pA
010.5pA
105pA
001.05nA
010.5nA
105nA
001.05µA
010.5µA
105µA
001.05mA
010.5mA
105mA
11pA-100nA
ranges with PreAmp.
When the unit goes into compliance, the “Cmpl” label or the units label (i.e., “mA”) for the
compliance display will flash.
18-10
Performance Verification
Determining compliance limit
The relationships to determine which compliance is in effect are summarized as follows.
They assume that the measurement function is the same as the compliance function.
•
•
Compliance Setting < Measurement Range = Real Compliance
Measurement Range < Compliance Setting = Range Compliance
You can determine the compliance that is in effect by comparing the displayed compliance
setting to the present measurement range. If the compliance setting is lower than the maximum
possible reading on the present measurement range, the compliance setting is the compliance
limit. If the compliance setting is higher than the measurement range, the maximum reading on
that measurement range is the compliance limit.
Taking the unit out of compliance
Verification measurements should not be made when the unit is in compliance. For purposes
of the verification tests, the instrument can be taken out of compliance by going into the edit
mode and increasing the compliance limit.
NOTE
Do not take the unit out of compliance by decreasing the source value or changing
the range. Always use the recommended range and source settings when performing
the verification tests.
Mainframe verification
Follow the procedures below to verify accuracy of the Model 6430 mainframe without the
Remote PreAmp. See Remote PreAmp verification later in this section for procedures on verifying the complete unit with the Remote PreAmp.
NOTE
Be sure the Remote PreAmp is completely disconnected from the mainframe before
performing these mainframe verification procedures, and replace the safety cap on
the mainframe connector.
Mainframe output voltage accuracy
Follow the steps below to verify that Model 6430 mainframe output voltage accuracy is
within specified limits. This test involves setting the output voltage to each full-range value and
measuring the voltages with a precision digital multimeter.
1.
2.
With the power off, connect the digital multimeter to the Model 6430 INPUT/OUTPUT
jacks as shown in Figure 18-2. (Connect Model 6430 INPUT/OUTPUT HI to DMM
INPUT HI; INPUT/OUTPUT LO to INPUT LO.)
Select the multimeter DC volts measuring function.
Performance Verification
3.
4.
5.
18-11
Press the Model 6430 SOURCE V key to source voltage, and make sure the source output is turned on.
Verify output voltage accuracy for each of the voltages listed in Table 18-3. For each
test point:
• Select the correct source range.
• Set the Model 6430 output voltage to the indicated value.
• Verify that the multimeter reading is within the limits given in the table.
Repeat the procedure for negative output voltages with the same magnitudes as those
listed in Table 18-3.
Figure 18-2
Connections for
mainframe voltage
verification tests
Model 6430
WARNING:NO INTERNAL OPERATOR SERVICABLE PARTS,SERVICE BY QUALIFIED PERSONNEL ONLY.
250V
PEAK
HI
5V
PK
5V
PEAK
250V
PEAK
MADE IN
U.S.A.
V, Ω,
GUARD
REMOTE
PreAmp
5V
PEAK
!
GUARD
SENSE
LINE FUSE
SLOWBLOW
LO
4-WIRE
SENSE
INPUT/
OUTPUT
2.5A, 250V
42V
PEAK
LINE RATING
100-240VAC
50, 60, HZ
100VA MAX
IEEE-488
(ENTER IEEE ADDRESS
WITH FRONT PANEL MENU)
RS232
TRIGGER
LINK
INTERLOCKDIGITAL I/O
CAUTION:FOR CONTINUED PROTECTION AGAINST FIRE HAZARD,REPLACE FUSE WITH SAME TYPE AND RATING.
Input HI
Input LO
Digital Multimeter
Table 18-3
Mainframe output voltage accuracy limits
Model 6430
source range
Model 6430
output voltage setting
Output voltage limits
(1 year, 18°-28°C)
200mV
002V
020V
200V
200.000mV
002.00000V
020.0000V
200.000V
199.360 to 200.640mV
1.99900 to 2.00100V
19.9936 to 20.0064V
199.936 to 200.064V
18-12
Performance Verification
Mainframe voltage measurement accuracy
Follow the steps below to verify that Model 6430 mainframe voltage measurement accuracy
is within specified limits. The test involves setting the source voltage to full-range values, as
measured by a precision digital multimeter, and then verifying that the Model 6430 voltage
readings are within required limits.
1.
2.
3.
4.
With the power off, connect the digital multimeter to the Model 6430 INPUT/OUTPUT
jacks as shown in Figure 18-2. (Connect Model 6430 INPUT/OUTPUT HI to DMM
INPUT HI; INPUT OUTPUT LO to INPUT LO.)
Select the multimeter DC volts function.
Set the Model 6430 to both source and measure voltage by pressing the SOURCE V
and MEAS V keys, and make sure the source output is turned on.
Verify output voltage accuracy for each of the voltages listed in Table 18-4. For each
test point:
• Select the correct source range.
• Set the Model 6430 output voltage to the indicated value as measured by the digital
multimeter.
• Verify that the Model 6430 voltage reading is within the limits given in the table.
NOTE
5.
It may not be possible to set the voltage source to the specified value. Use the closest
possible setting, and modify reading limits accordingly.
Repeat the procedure for negative source voltages with the same magnitudes as those
listed in Table 18-4.
Table 18-4
Mainframe voltage measurement accuracy limits
Model 6430 source
and measure range1
200mV
2V
20V
200V
Source voltage2
200.000mV
2.00000V
20.0000V
200.000V
Model 6430 voltage reading
limits (1 year, 18°-28°C)
199.626 to 200.374mV
1.99941 to 2.00059V
19.9955 to 20.0045V
199.960 to 200.040V
1Measure
2As
range coupled to source range when simultaneously sourcing and measuring voltage.
measured by precision digital multimeter.
Mainframe output current accuracy
Follow the steps below to verify that Model 6430 output current accuracy is within specified
limits. The test involves setting the output current to each full-range value and measuring the
currents with a precision digital multimeter.
Performance Verification
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
18-13
With the power off, connect the digital multimeter to the Model 6430 INPUT/OUTPUT
jacks as shown in Figure 18-3. (Connect Model 6430 INPUT/OUTPUT HI to DMM
AMPS input; INPUT/OUTPUT LO to INPUT LO.)
Select the multimeter DC current measuring function.
Press the Model 6430 SOURCE I key to source current, and make sure the source output is turned on.
Verify output current accuracy for the currents listed in Table 18-5. For each test point:
• Select the correct source range.
• Set the Model 6430 output current to the correct value.
• Verify that the multimeter reading is within the limits given in the table.
Repeat the procedure for negative output currents with the same magnitudes as those
listed in Table 18-5.
Figure 18-3
Connections for
mainframe current
verification tests
Model 6430
WARNING:NO INTERNAL OPERATOR SERVICABLE PARTS,SERVICE BY QUALIFIED PERSONNEL ONLY.
250V
PEAK
HI
5V
PK
5V
PEAK
250V
PEAK
MADE IN
U.S.A.
V, Ω,
GUARD
REMOTE
PreAmp
5V
PEAK
!
GUARD
SENSE
LINE FUSE
SLOWBLOW
LO
4-WIRE
SENSE
INPUT/
OUTPUT
2.5A, 250V
42V
PEAK
LINE RATING
100-240VAC
50, 60, HZ
100VA MAX
IEEE-488
(ENTER IEEE ADDRESS
WITH FRONT PANEL MENU)
RS232
TRIGGER
LINK
INTERLOCKDIGITAL I/O
CAUTION:FOR CONTINUED PROTECTION AGAINST FIRE HAZARD,REPLACE FUSE WITH SAME TYPE AND RATING.
Input LO
Amps
Digital Multimeter
Table 18-5
Mainframe output current accuracy limits
Model 6430
source range
1µA
10µA
100µA
1mA
10mA
100mA
Model 6430
output current setting
1.00000µA
10.0000µA
100.000µA
1.00000mA
10.0000mA
100.000mA
Output current limits
(1 year, 18°-28°C)
0.99905
9.9947
99.949
0.99946
9.9935
99.914
to 1.00095µA
to 10.0053µA
to 100.051µA
to 1.00054mA
to 10.0065mA
to 100.086mA
18-14
Performance Verification
Mainframe current measurement accuracy
Follow the steps below to verify that Model 6430 mainframe current measurement accuracy
is within specified limits. The procedure involves applying accurate currents from the Model
6430 current source and then verifying that Model 6430 current measurements are within
required limits.
1.
2.
3.
4.
With the power off, connect the digital multimeter to the Model 6430 INPUT/OUTPUT
jacks as shown in Figure 18-3. (Connect Model 6430 INPUT/OUTPUT HI to DMM
AMPS input; INPUT/OUTPUT LO to INPUT LO.)
Select the multimeter DC current function.
Set the Model 6430 to both source and measure current by pressing the SOURCE I and
MEAS I keys, and make sure the source output is turned on.
Verify measure current accuracy for the currents listed in Table 18-6. For each
measurement:
• Select the correct source range.
• Set the Model 6430 source output to the correct value as measured by the digital
multimeter.
• Verify that the Model 6430 current reading is within the limits given in the table.
NOTE
5.
It may not be possible to set the current source to the specified value. Use the closest
possible setting, and modify reading limits accordingly.
Repeat the procedure for negative calibrator currents with the same magnitudes as those
listed in Table 18-6.
Table 18-6
Mainframe current measurement accuracy limits
Model 6430 source
and measure range1
1µA
10µA
100µA
1mA
10mA
100mA
1Measure
2As
Source current2
1.000000µA
10.00000µA
100.000µA
1.00000mA
10.0000mA
100.000mA
Model 6430 current reading limits
(1 year, 18°-28°C)
0.99920
9.9930
99.969
0.99967
9.9959
99.939
to 1.00080µA
to 10.0070µA
to 100.031µA
to 1.00033mA
to 10.0041mA
to 100.061mA
range coupled to source range when simultaneously sourcing and measuring current.
measured by precision digital multimeter.
Performance Verification
18-15
Mainframe resistance measurement accuracy
Use the following steps to verify that Model 6430 resistance measurement accuracy is
within specified limits. This procedure involves applying accurate resistances from a resistance
calibrator and then verifying that Model 6430 resistance measurements are within required
limits.
NOTE
Before making resistance measurements, put the Model 6430 in the AUTO SOURCE
mode (press CONFIG, then Ω, select SOURCE, select AUTO, then press ENTER).
CAUTION
1.
Figure 18-4
Connections for
mainframe resistance
accuracy verification
Before testing the 20Ω and 200Ω ohms ranges, make sure your resistance
calibrator can safely handle the default test currents for those ranges
(100mA and 10mA for the 20Ω and 200Ω ranges respectively). If not, use
the Model 6430 MANUAL ohms mode, and set the test current to the maximum safe calibrator current. Note that Model 6430 measurement accuracy is reduced and reading limits should be recalculated using the
additional uncertainty when using MANUAL ohms. See the specifications
in Appendix A for details.
With the power off, connect the resistance calibrator to the Model 6430 INPUT/
OUTPUT and 4-WIRE SENSE jacks as shown in Figure 18-4. Be sure to use the 4-wire
connections as shown.
Model 6430
WARNING:NO INTERNAL OPERATOR SERVICABLE PARTS,SERVICE BY QUALIFIED PERSONNEL ONLY.
250V
PEAK
HI
5V
PK
5V
PEAK
250V
PEAK
MADE IN
U.S.A.
V, Ω,
GUARD
REMOTE
PreAmp
5V
PEAK
!
GUARD
SENSE
LINE FUSE
SLOWBLOW
LO
4-WIRE
SENSE
INPUT/
OUTPUT
2.5A, 250V
42V
PEAK
LINE RATING
100-240VAC
50, 60, HZ
100VA MAX
IEEE-488
(ENTER IEEE ADDRESS
WITH FRONT PANEL MENU)
RS232
INTERLOCKDIGITAL I/O
TRIGGER
LINK
CAUTION:FOR CONTINUED PROTECTION AGAINST FIRE HAZARD,REPLACE FUSE WITH SAME TYPE AND RATING.
Output HI
Resistance Calibrator
Output LO
Sense HI
Sense LO
18-16
Performance Verification
2.
3.
4.
5.
Select the resistance calibrator external sense mode.
For the Model 6430, select the auto ohms measurement method.
Press MEAS Ω to select the ohms measurement function, and make sure the source output is turned on.
Verify ohms measurement accuracy for each of the resistance values listed in
Table 18-7. For each measurement:
• Set the resistance calibrator output to the nominal resistance or closest available
value.
NOTE
It may not be possible to set the resistance calibrator to the specified value. Use the
closest possible setting, and modify reading limits accordingly.
•
•
Select the appropriate ohms measurement range with the RANGE keys.
Verify that the Model 6430 resistance reading is within the limits given in the
table.
Table 18-7
Mainframe resistance measurement accuracy limits
Model 6430 range
20Ω
200Ω
2kΩ
20kΩ
200kΩ
2MΩ
20MΩ
1Nominal
Calibrator resistance1
19Ω
190Ω
1.9kΩ
19kΩ
190kΩ
1.9MΩ
19MΩ
Model 6430 resistance reading limits2
(1 year, 18°-28°C)
18.9784 to 19.0216Ω
189.824 to 190.176Ω
1.89845 to 1.90155kΩ
18.9850 to 19.0150kΩ
189.814 to 190.186kΩ
1.89814 to 1.90186MΩ
18.9829 to 19.0171MΩ
resistance value.
limits based on Model 6430 normal accuracy specifications and nominal resistance values. If actual
resistance values differ from nominal values shown, recalculate reading limits using actual calibrator resistance values and Model 6430 normal accuracy specifications. See Verification limits earlier in this section for
details.
2Reading
Performance Verification
18-17
Remote PreAmp verification
Follow the procedures below to verify accuracy of the Model 6430 with the Remote
PreAmp.
NOTE
Be sure the Remote PreAmp MAINFRAME connector is connected to the mainframe
REMOTE PreAmp connector before performing these Remote PreAmp verification
procedures.
Connecting Remote PreAmp to the mainframe
WARNING
Potentially hazardous source voltage is routed from the mainframe to the
Remote PreAmp via the PreAmp cable. Adhere to the following safety precautions to prevent electric shock:
•
The SourceMeter must be turned off before connecting (or disconnecting) the Remote PreAmp to the mainframe.
•
When not using the Remote PreAmp, disconnect the PreAmp cable at
the PreAmp connector on the mainframe. DO NOT leave the PreAmp
cable connected to the mainframe if the other end is not connected to
the Remote PreAmp.
•
ALWAYS re-install the plastic safety cover onto the mainframe
PreAmp connector whenever the Remote PreAmp is not being used.
Use the supplied PreAmp cable to connect the Remote PreAmp to the mainframe as follows:
1.
2.
3.
4.
From the front panel of the SourceMeter, turn the POWER off.
Connect the PreAmp cable to the Remote PreAmp. The PreAmp connector on the
Remote PreAmp is labeled “MAINFRAME.”
At the rear panel of the mainframe, remove the plastic safety cover from the PreAmp
connector. This PreAmp connector is labeled “REMOTE PreAmp.” The plastic cover is
secured to the connector with two screws. Hold on to the plastic cover and the retaining
screws. Whenever the Remote PreAmp is not being used, the plastic safety cover must
be re-installed on the mainframe PreAmp connector.
Connect the other end of the PreAmp cable to the mainframe.
18-18
Performance Verification
Remote PreAmp output voltage accuracy
Follow the steps below to verify that Model 6430 Remote PreAmp output voltage accuracy
is within specified limits. This test involves setting the output voltage to each full-range value
and measuring the voltages with a precision digital multimeter.
Model 6430
WARNING:NO INTERNAL OPERATOR SERVICABLE PARTS,SERVICE BY QUALIFIED PERSONNEL ONLY.
250V
PEAK
HI
5V
PK
5V
PEAK
250V
PEAK
MADE IN
U.S.A.
V, Ω,
GUARD
REMOTE
PreAmp
5V
PEAK
!
GUARD
SENSE
LINE FUSE
SLOWBLOW
LO
INPUT/
OUTPUT
2.5A, 250V
42V
PEAK
LINE RATING
100-240VAC
50, 60, HZ
100VA MAX
IEEE-488
(ENTER IEEE ADDRESS
WITH FRONT PANEL MENU)
RS232
INTERLOCKDIGITAL I/O
TRIGGER
LINK
CAUTION:FOR CONTINUED PROTECTION AGAINST FIRE HAZARD,REPLACE FUSE WITH SAME TYPE AND RATING.
IN/OUT HIGH Jack
Triax-to-BNC
Adapter
CAT I
!
250
PEAK
250
PEAK
LOW
IN/OUT
42V
PEAK
MAINFRAME
SENSE
IN/OUT
HIGH
Mainframe/PreAmp
Cable
GUARD
4-WIRE
SENSE
40V
PEAK
MADE IN
U.S.A.
Figure 18-5
Connections for
Remote PreAmp
voltage verification
tests
Select the SourceMeter 10µA measurement range.
Select the multimeter DC volts measuring function.
Press the Model 6430 SOURCE V key to source voltage, and make sure the source output is turned on.
WARNING: NO INTERNAL OPERATOR SERVICEABLE
PARTS SERVICE BY QUALIFIED
PERSONNEL ONLY
2.
3.
4.
Use the type of triax-to-BNC adapter that connects triax shell to BNC shell. Also be
sure that the cable shield is connected to DMM INPUT LO.
250
PEAK
NOTE
With the power off, connect the digital multimeter to the Remote PreAmp IN/OUT
HIGH jack as shown in Figure 18-5. (Connect the IN/OUT HIGH jack to the DMM
INPUT HI and LO jacks using the adapters and coax cable as shown.)
40V
PEAK
1.
Coax Cable
Remote PreAmp
Dual
Banana-to-BNC
Adapter
Input HI
Input LO
Digital Multimeter
Performance Verification
5.
18-19
Verify output voltage accuracy for each of the voltages listed in Table 18-8. For each
test point:
• Select the correct source range.
• Set the Model 6430 output voltage to the indicated value.
• Verify that the multimeter reading is within the limits given in the table.
Repeat the procedure for negative output voltages with the same magnitudes as those
listed in Table 18-8.
6.
Table 18-8
Remote PreAmp output voltage accuracy limits
Model 6430
source range
200mV
2V
20V
200V
Model 6430
output voltage setting
200.000mV
2.00000V
20.0000V
200.000V
Output voltage limits
(1 year, 18°-28°C)
199.360 to 200.640mV
1.99900 to 2.00100V
19.9936 to 20.0064V
199.936 to 200.064V
Remote PreAmp voltage measurement accuracy
Follow the steps below to verify that Model 6430 Remote PreAmp voltage measurement
accuracy is within specified limits. The test involves setting the source voltage to full-range values, as measured by a precision digital multimeter, and then verifying that the Model 6430 voltage readings are within required limits.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
NOTE
With the power off, connect the digital multimeter to the PreAmp IN/OUT HIGH jack
as shown in Figure 18-5. (Connect the IN/OUT HIGH jack to the DMM INPUT HI and
LO jacks using the adapters and coax cable as shown.)
Select the SourceMeter 10µA measurement range.
Select the multimeter DC volts function.
Set the Model 6430 to both source and measure voltage by pressing the SOURCE V
and MEAS V keys, and make sure the source output is turned on.
Verify output voltage accuracy for each of the voltages listed in Table 18-9. For each
test point:
• Select the correct source range.
• Set the Model 6430 output voltage to the indicated value as measured by the digital
multimeter.
• Verify that the Model 6430 voltage reading is within the limits given in the table.
It may not be possible to set the voltage source to the specified value. Use the closest
possible setting, and modify reading limits accordingly.
18-20
Performance Verification
6.
Repeat the procedure for negative source voltages with the same magnitudes as those
listed in Table 18-9.
Table 18-9
Remote PreAmp voltage measurement accuracy limits
Model 6430 source
and measure range1
200mV
2V
20V
200V
Source voltage2
200.000mV
2.00000V
20.0000V
200.000V
Model 6430 voltage reading
limits (1 year, 18°-28°C)
199.626 to 200.374mV
1.99941 to 2.00059V
19.9955 to 20.0045V
199.960 to 200.040V
1Measure
2As
range coupled to source range when simultaneously sourcing and measuring voltage.
measured by precision digital multimeter.
Remote PreAmp output current accuracy
Follow the steps below to verify that Model 6430 Remote PreAmp output current accuracy
is within specified limits. The test involves setting the output current to each full-range value
and measuring the currents with a precision digital multimeter.
1µA-100mA range accuracy
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
With the power off, connect the digital multimeter to the Model 6430 Remote PreAmp
IN/OUT HIGH jack as shown in Figure 18-6. (Connect the IN/OUT HIGH jack to the
DMM AMPS and INPUT LO jacks using the adapters shown. Use a triax-to-BNC
adapter that connects triax shell to BNC shell, and be sure to connect the cable shield to
DMM INPUT LO.)
Select the multimeter DC current measuring function.
Press the Model 6430 SOURCE I key to source current, and make sure the source output is turned on.
Verify output current accuracy for the currents listed in Table 18-10. For each test point:
• Select the correct source range.
• Set the Model 6430 output current to the correct value.
• Verify that the multimeter reading is within the limits given in the table.
Repeat the procedure for negative output currents with the same magnitudes as those
listed in Table 18-10.
Performance Verification
Model 6430
WARNING:NO INTERNAL OPERATOR SERVICABLE PARTS,SERVICE BY QUALIFIED PERSONNEL ONLY.
5V
PK
HI
250V
PEAK
250V
PEAK
5V
PEAK
MADE IN
U.S.A.
V, Ω,
GUARD
REMOTE
PreAmp
5V
PEAK
!
GUARD
SENSE
LINE FUSE
SLOWBLOW
LO
4-WIRE
SENSE
INPUT/
OUTPUT
2.5A, 250V
42V
PEAK
LINE RATING
100-240VAC
50, 60, HZ
100VA MAX
IEEE-488
(ENTER IEEE ADDRESS
WITH FRONT PANEL MENU)
RS232
INTERLOCKDIGITAL I/O
TRIGGER
LINK
CAUTION:FOR CONTINUED PROTECTION AGAINST FIRE HAZARD,REPLACE FUSE WITH SAME TYPE AND RATING.
Mainframe/PreAmp
Cable
IN/OUT HIGH Jack
250
PEAK
40V
PEAK
WARNING: NO INTERNAL OPERATOR SERVICEABLE
PARTS SERVICE BY QUALIFIED
PERSONNEL ONLY
CAT I
!
GUARD
250
PEAK
250
PEAK
LOW
IN/OUT
42V
PEAK
MAINFRAME
SENSE
IN/OUT
HIGH
Triax-to-BNC Adapter
40V
PEAK
MADE IN
U.S.A.
Figure 18-6
Connections for
1µA-100mA
range current
verification tests
Coax Cable
Remote PreAmp
Input LO
Dual
Banana-to-BNC
Adapter
Amps
Digital Multimeter
Table 18-10
Remote PreAmp 1µA-100mA range output current accuracy limits
Model 6430
source range
1µA
10µA
100µA
1mA
10mA
100mA
Model 6430
output current setting
1.00000µA
10.0000µA
100.000µA
1.00000mA
10.0000mA
100.000mA
Output current limits
(1 year, 18°-28°C)
099920
9.9930
99.949
0.99946
9.9935
99.914
to 1.00080µA
to 10.0070µA
to 100.051µA
to 1.00054mA
to 10.0065mA
to 100.086mA
18-21
18-22
Performance Verification
1pA-100nA range accuracy
1.
Figure 18-7
Connections for
1pA-100nA
range current
verification tests
With the power off, connect the digital multimeter and calibration standard to the
Model 6430 mainframe and Remote PreAmp as shown in Figure 18-7. (Connect the
mainframe INPUT/OUTPUT HI and LO jacks to DMM INPUT HI and LO respectively. Connect the PreAmp IN/OUT HIGH jack directly to the Model 5156 OUTPUT
jack, and connect the BNC shorting cap to the 100GΩ resistance jack. Also be sure to
remove the link between the Model 5156 SHIELD and CHASSIS jacks.)
Model 6430
WARNING:NO INTERNAL OPERATOR SERVICABLE PARTS,SERVICE BY QUALIFIED PERSONNEL ONLY.
250V
PEAK
HI
5V
PK
5V
PEAK
250V
PEAK
MADE IN
U.S.A.
V, Ω,
GUARD
REMOTE
PreAmp
5V
PEAK
!
GUARD
SENSE
LINE FUSE
SLOWBLOW
LO
4-WIRE
SENSE
INPUT/
OUTPUT
2.5A, 250V
42V
PEAK
LINE RATING
100-240VAC
50, 60, HZ
100VA MAX
IEEE-488
(ENTER IEEE ADDRESS
WITH FRONT PANEL MENU)
RS232
Connect PreAmp IN/OUT HIGH Jack
Directly to 5156 OUTPUT Jack
using triax male-to-male Adapter
INTERLOCKDIGITAL I/O
TRIGGER
LINK
BNC Shorting Plug
(Connect to Resistor
Being used)
CAUTION:FOR CONTINUED PROTECTION AGAINST FIRE HAZARD,REPLACE FUSE WITH SAME TYPE AND RATING.
Mainframe/PreAmp Cable
100GΩ
1 nF
10GΩ
1GΩ
100nF
100MΩ
Model 5156 Electrometer Calibration Standard
Note: Remove Link Between
SHIELD and CHASSIS
Input HI
Digital Multimeter
Input LO
Performance Verification
2.
3.
4.
5.
18-23
Select the multimeter DC current measuring function.
Press the Model 6430 SOURCE I key to source current, and make sure the source output is turned on.
Verify output current accuracy for the currents listed in Table 18-11. For each test point:
• Connect the BNC shorting cap to the appropriate Model 5156 resistance jack.
• Select the correct source range.
• Set the Model 6430 output current to the correct value.
• Calculate the current from the DMM reading and actual resistance value: I=V/R.
• Verify that the calculated current is within the limits given in the table.
Repeat the procedure for negative output currents with the same magnitudes as those
listed in Table 18-11.
Table 18-11
Remote PreAmp 1pA-100nA range output current accuracy limits
Model 6430
source range
Standard
resistor1
1pA
10pA
100pA
1nA
10nA
100nA
100GΩ
100GΩ
10GΩ
1GΩ
1GΩ
100MΩ
1Nominal
Model 6430
output current setting
1.00000pA
10.0000pA
100.000pA
1.00000nA
10.0000nA
100.000nA
Output current limits
(1 year, 18°-28°C)2
0.97950
9.9150
99.770
0.99900
9.9990
99.910
to 1.02050pA
to 10.0085pA
to 100.230pA
to 1.00100nA
to 10.0100nA
to 100.090nA
Model 5156 values. Use characterized values in calculations.
from DMM voltage reading and actual standard resistance value: I = V/R. Limits shown include
Model 5156 characterization accuracy.
2Calculated
18-24
Performance Verification
Remote PreAmp current measurement accuracy
Follow the steps below to verify that Model 6430 Remote PreAmp current measurement
accuracy is within specified limits. The procedure involves applying accurate currents from the
Model 6430 current source and then verifying that Model 6430 current measurements are
within required limits.
1µA-100mA range accuracy
1.
2.
3.
4.
With the power off, connect the digital multimeter to the PreAmp IN/OUT HIGH jack
as shown in Figure 18-6. (Connect the IN/OUT HIGH jack to the DMM AMPS and
INPUT LO jacks using the adapters shown. Use a triax-to-BNC adapter that connects
triax shell to BNC shell, and be sure to connect the cable shield to DMM INPUT LO.)
Select the multimeter DC current function.
Set the Model 6430 to both source and measure current by pressing the SOURCE I and
MEAS I keys, and make sure the source output is turned on.
Verify measure current accuracy for the currents listed in Table 18-12. For each
measurement:
• Select the correct source range.
• Set the Model 6430 source output to the correct value as measured by the digital
multimeter.
• Verify that the Model 6430 current reading is within the limits given in the table.
NOTE
5.
It may not be possible to set the current source to the specified value. Use the closest
possible setting, and modify reading limits accordingly.
Repeat the procedure for negative calibrator currents with the same magnitudes as those
listed in Table 18-12.
Table 18-12
Remote PreAmp 1µA-100mA range measurement accuracy limits
Model 6430 range1
1µA
10µA
100µA
1mA
10mA
100mA
1Measure
Source current2
1.000000µA
10.00000µA
100.000µA
1.00000mA
10.0000mA
100.000mA
Model 6430 current reading
limits (1 year, 18°-28°C)
0.99920
9.9930
99.969
0.99967
9.9959
99.939
to 1.00080µA
to 10.0070µA
to 100.031µA
to 1.00033mA
to 10.0041mA
to 100.061mA
range coupled to source range when simultaneously sourcing and measuring current.
measured by precision digital multimeter. Use closest possible value, and modify reading limits accordingly if necessary.
2As
Performance Verification
18-25
1pA-100nA range accuracy
1.
With the power off, connect the digital multimeter and calibration standard to the mainframe and PreAmp as shown in Figure 18-7. (Connect the mainframe INPUT/OUTPUT
HI and LO jacks to DMM INPUT HI and LO respectively. Connect the PreAmp IN/
OUT HIGH jack directly to the Model 5156 OUTPUT jack, and connect the BNC
shorting cap to the 100GΩ resistance jack. Also be sure to remove the link between
the Model 5156 SHIELD and CHASSIS jacks.)
Select the multimeter DC current function.
Set the Model 6430 to both source and measure current by pressing the SOURCE I and
MEAS I keys, and make sure the source output is turned on.
Verify measure current accuracy for the currents listed in Table 18-13. For each
measurement:
• Connect the BNC shorting cap to the correct Model 5156 resistance jack.
• Select the correct source range.
• Calculate the current from the DMM reading and actual standard resistance:
I = V/R.
• Set the Model 6430 source output to the calculated current.
• Verify that the Model 6430 current reading is within the limits given in the table.
2.
3.
4.
NOTE
5.
It may not be possible to set the current source to the specified value. Use the closest
possible setting, and modify reading limits accordingly.
Repeat the procedure for negative currents with the same magnitudes as those listed in
Table 18-13.
Table 18-13
Remote PreAmp 1pA-100nA range measurement accuracy limits
Model 6430
range
Standard
resistor1
Source current
1pA
10pA
100pA
1nA
10nA
100nA
100GΩ
100GΩ
10GΩ
1GΩ
1GΩ
100MΩ
1.000000pA
10.00000pA
100.000pA
1.00000nA
10.0000nA
100.000nA
1Nominal
Model 6430 current reading
limits (1 year, 18°-28°C)2
0.98300
9.9430
99.820
0.99930
9.9930
99.930
to 1.01700pA
to 10.0570pA
to 100.180pA
to 1.00070nA
to 10.0070nA
to 100.070nA
values. Use characterized values in current calculations.
from DMM reading and nominal resistance values. Use closest value, and modify reading limits
accordingly. Limits shown include Model 5156 characterization uncertainty.
2Calculated
18-26
Performance Verification
Remote PreAmp resistance measurement accuracy
Use the following steps to verify that Model 6430 Remote PreAmp resistance measurement
accuracy is within specified limits. This procedure involves applying accurate resistances from
a resistance calibrator or standard resistor and then verifying that Model 6430 resistance measurements are within required limits.
NOTE
Before making resistance measurements, put the Model 6430 in the AUTO SOURCE
mode (press CONFIG, then Ω, select SOURCE, select AUTO, then press ENTER).
CAUTION
Before testing the 20Ω and 200Ω ohms ranges, make sure your resistance
calibrator can safely handle the default test currents for those ranges
(100mA and 10mA for the 20Ω and 200Ω ranges respectively). If not, use
the Model 6430 MANUAL ohms mode, and set the test current to the maximum safe calibrator current. Note that Model 6430 measurement accuracy is reduced and reading limits should be recalculated using the
additional uncertainty when using MANUAL ohms. See the specifications
in Appendix A for details.
20Ω-200MΩ range accuracy
1.
2.
3.
With the power off, connect the Remote PreAmp IN/OUT HIGH and SENSE jacks to
the resistance calibrator as shown in Figure 18-8. (Connect PreAmp IN/OUT HIGH to
calibrator OUTPUT; PreAmp SENSE to calibrator SENSE using the adapters and
cables shown.)
Select the resistance calibrator external sense mode.
Press MEAS Ω to select the ohms measurement function, and make sure the source output is turned on.
Performance Verification
Model 6430
WARNING:NO INTERNAL OPERATOR SERVICABLE PARTS,SERVICE BY QUALIFIED PERSONNEL ONLY.
250V
PEAK
HI
5V
PK
5V
PEAK
250V
PEAK
MADE IN
U.S.A.
V, Ω,
GUARD
REMOTE
PreAmp
5V
PEAK
!
GUARD
SENSE
LINE FUSE
SLOWBLOW
LO
INPUT/
OUTPUT
2.5A, 250V
42V
PEAK
LINE RATING
100-240VAC
50, 60, HZ
100VA MAX
IEEE-488
(ENTER IEEE ADDRESS
WITH FRONT PANEL MENU)
RS232
TRIGGER
LINK
INTERLOCKDIGITAL I/O
CAUTION:FOR CONTINUED PROTECTION AGAINST FIRE HAZARD,REPLACE FUSE WITH SAME TYPE AND RATING.
IN/OUT HIGH Jack
Triax-to-BNC Adapters
WARNING: NO INTERNAL OPERATOR SERVICEABLE
PARTS SERVICE BY QUALIFIED
PERSONNEL ONLY
40V
PEAK
CAT I
!
GUARD
250
PEAK
LOW
IN/OUT
250
PEAK
42V
PEAK
MAINFRAME
SENSE
IN/OUT
HIGH
Mainframe/PreAmp
Cable
Remote PreAmp
250
PEAK
MADE IN
U.S.A.
4-WIRE
SENSE
40V
PEAK
Figure 18-8
Connections for
Remote PreAmp
20Ω-200MΩ range
verification
18-27
SENSE Jack
Sense HI
Coax Cable
Dual
Banana-to-BNC
Adapters
Output
HI
Resistance Calibrator
Sense LO
Output
LO
18-28
Performance Verification
4.
Verify ohms measurement accuracy for each of the resistance values listed in
Table 18-14. For each measurement:
• Set the resistance calibrator output to the nominal resistance or closest available
value.
NOTE
It may not be possible to set the resistance calibrator to the specified value. Use the
closest possible setting, and modify reading limits accordingly.
•
•
Select the appropriate ohms measurement range with the RANGE keys.
Verify that the Model 6430 resistance reading is within the limits given in the
table.
Table 18-14
Remote PreAmp 20Ω-200MΩ range measurement accuracy limits
Model 6430 range
20Ω
200Ω
2kΩ
20kΩ
200kΩ
2MΩ
20MΩ
200MΩ
Calibrator
resistance1
19Ω
190Ω
1.9kΩ
19kΩ
190kΩ
1.9MΩ
19MΩ
100MΩ
Model 6430 resistance reading limits2
(1 year, 18°-28°C)
18.9784
189.824
1.89845
18.9850
189.814
1.89814
18.9829
99.905
to 19.0216Ω
to 190.176Ω
to 1.90155kΩ
to 19.0150kΩ
to 190.186kΩ
to 1.90186MΩ
to 19.0171MΩ
to 100.095MΩ
1Nominal
resistance value.
limits based on Model 6430 normal accuracy specifications and nominal resistance values. If actual
resistance values differ from nominal values shown, recalculate reading limits using actual calibrator resistance values and Model 6430 normal accuracy specifications. See Verification limits earlier in this section for
details.
2Reading
2GΩ-200GΩ range accuracy
1.
With the power off, connect the Remote PreAmp IN/OUT HIGH jack directly to the
Model 5156 OUTPUT jack as shown in Figure 18-9. (Use male triax-to-triax adapters.
Also, be sure to remove the link between Model 5156 SHIELD and CHASSIS, and
connect the BNC shorting cap to the resistance cap being used.)
Performance Verification
Figure 18-9
Connections for
Remote PreAmp
2GΩ-200GΩ
range verification
18-29
Model 6430
WARNING:NO INTERNAL OPERATOR SERVICABLE PARTS,SERVICE BY QUALIFIED PERSONNEL ONLY.
250V
PEAK
HI
5V
PK
5V
PEAK
250V
PEAK
MADE IN
U.S.A.
V, Ω,
GUARD
REMOTE
PreAmp
5V
PEAK
!
GUARD
SENSE
LINE FUSE
SLOWBLOW
LO
4-WIRE
SENSE
INPUT/
OUTPUT
2.5A, 250V
42V
PEAK
LINE RATING
100-240VAC
50, 60, HZ
100VA MAX
IEEE-488
(ENTER IEEE ADDRESS
WITH FRONT PANEL MENU)
RS232
Connect PreAmp
IN/OUT HIGH Jack
Directly to 5156 OUTPUT Jack
INTERLOCKDIGITAL I/O
TRIGGER
LINK
CAUTION:FOR CONTINUED PROTECTION AGAINST FIRE HAZARD,REPLACE FUSE WITH SAME TYPE AND RATING.
BNC Shorting Plug
(Connect to Resistor
Being used)
Mainframe/PreAmp Cable
100GΩ
Note: Remove Link Between
SHIELD and CHASSIS
2.
1 nF
10GΩ
1GΩ
100nF
100MΩ
Model 5156 Electrometer Calibration Standard
Connect the Model 6430 ohms function for the 2-wire sense and configure guard mode
as follows:
• Press CONFIG then MEAS Ω. The instrument will display the following:
CONFIG OHMS
SOURCE GUARD
•
Select GUARD, and then press ENTER. The following will be displayed:
GUARD
•
•
Select CABLE, and then press ENTER.
Press EXIT to return to normal display.
OHMS CABLE
WARNING
3.
Hazardous voltage may be present on SHIELD when using guarding.
Press MEAS Ω to select the ohms measurement function, and make sure the source output is turned on.
18-30
Performance Verification
4.
Verify ohms measurement accuracy for each of the resistance values listed in
Table 18-15. For each measurement:
• Connect the BNC shorting cap to select the appropriate resistance value.
• Select the appropriate ohms measurement range with the RANGE keys.
• Verify that the Model 6430 resistance reading is within the limits given in the
table.
Table 18-15
Remote PreAmp 2GΩ-200GΩ range measurement accuracy limits
Model 6430 resistance reading limits2
(1 year, 18°-28°C)
Standard resistance1
Model 6430 range
0.99875 to 1.00125GΩ
9.9865 to 10.0135GΩ
99.735 to 100.265GΩ
1GΩ
10GΩ
100GΩ
2GΩ
20GΩ
200GΩ
1Nominal
values shown. Use characterized values.
using Model 6430 normal accuracy specifications and Model 5156 nominal values. Limits include
Model 5156 characterization accuracy.
2Calculated
2TΩ and 20TΩ range accuracy
Model 6430
WARNING:NO INTERNAL OPERATOR SERVICABLE PARTS,SERVICE BY QUALIFIED PERSONNEL ONLY.
250V
PEAK
HI
5V
PK
5V
PEAK
250V
PEAK
MADE IN
U.S.A.
V, Ω,
GUARD
REMOTE
PreAmp
5V
PEAK
!
GUARD
SENSE
LINE FUSE
SLOWBLOW
LO
INPUT/
OUTPUT
2.5A, 250V
42V
PEAK
LINE RATING
100-240VAC
50, 60, HZ
100VA MAX
IEEE-488
(ENTER IEEE ADDRESS
WITH FRONT PANEL MENU)
RS232
INTERLOCKDIGITAL I/O
TRIGGER
LINK
CAUTION:FOR CONTINUED PROTECTION AGAINST FIRE HAZARD,REPLACE FUSE WITH SAME TYPE AND RATING.
Mainframe/PreAmp
Cable
WARNING: NO INTERNAL OPERATOR SERVICEABLE
PARTS SERVICE BY QUALIFIED
PERSONNEL ONLY
CAT I
!
GUARD
250
PEAK
250
PEAK
LOW
IN/OUT
42V
PEAK
MAINFRAME
SENSE
IN/OUT
HIGH
Connect Resistor to
IN/OUT HIGH Jack
using Triax Adapter
40V
PEAK
4-WIRE
SENSE
250
PEAK
MADE IN
U.S.A.
Figure 18-10
Connections for Remote
PreAmp 2TΩ and 20TΩ
range verification
With the power off, connect the characterized 1TΩ resistor directly to the Remote
PreAmp IN/OUT HIGH jack as shown in Figure 18-10. (Use a male triax-to-triax
adapter.)
40V
PEAK
1.
Remote PreAmp
Test Resistor
(See Figure 18-1)
Performance Verification
2.
18-31
Configure the Model 6430 ohms function for the 2-wire sense and guard modes as
follows:
• Press CONFIG then MEAS Ω. The instrument will display the following:
CONFIG OHMS
SOURCE GUARD
•
Select GUARD, and then press ENTER. The following will be displayed:
GUARD
OHMS CABLE
•
•
Select CABLE, and then press ENTER.
Press EXIT to return to normal display.
WARNING
3.
4.
Hazardous voltage may be present on SHIELD when using guarding.
Press MEAS Ω to select the ohms measurement function, and make sure the source output is turned on.
Verify ohms measurement accuracy for each of the resistance values listed in
Table 18-16. For each measurement:
• Connect the correct standard resistance directly to the IN/OUT HIGH jack.
• Select the appropriate ohms measurement range with the RANGE keys.
• Verify that the Model 6430 resistance reading is within the limits given in the
table.
Table 18-16
Remote PreAmp 2TΩ and 20TΩ range measurement accuracy limits
Model 6430 range
2TΩ
20TΩ
1Nominal
Standard
resistance1
1TΩ
10TΩ
Model 6430 resistance reading limits2
(1 year, 18°-28°C)
0.99168 to 1.00832TΩ
9.79300 to 10.2070Ω
values shown.
using Model 6430 normal accuracy specifications and nominal resistance values.
2Calculated
18-32
Performance Verification
19
Calibration
•
Environmental Conditions — Covers the temperature and humidity, warm-up period,
and line power required for calibration.
•
Calibration Considerations — Lists important considerations that should be observed
when calibrating the unit.
•
Recommended Calibration Equipment — Provides a list of recommended test equipment required for calibration.
•
Unlocking Calibration — Gives the procedure for unlocking calibration and lists calibration unlocked states.
•
Mainframe Calibration — Includes procedures to calibrate the Model 6430 mainframe without the Remote PreAmp.
•
Remote PreAmp Calibration — Outlines procedures to calibrate the mainframe and
Remote PreAmp together as a unit.
•
Changing the Password — Details how to change the password.
•
Viewing Calibration Dates and Count — Describes how to view calibration dates and
calibration count.
19-2
Calibration
Introduction
Use the procedures in this section to calibrate both the Model 6430 mainframe and the
Remote PreAmp. These procedures require accurate test equipment to measure precise DC
voltages and currents.
NOTE
Mainframe and Remote PreAmp calibration are performed separately. The mainframe must be calibrated before the Remote PreAmp.
WARNING
This information in this section is intended for qualified service personnel
only. Do not attempt these procedures unless you are qualified to do so.
Some of these procedures may expose you to hazardous voltages.
The Remote PreAmp connectors carry hazardous voltage. To prevent risk
of electric shock, connectors must be fully mated or safety covers must be
placed over the open connectors. Proper installation requires that the operator is protected from exposed voltages by insulation or barriers.
Environmental conditions
Temperature and relative humidity
Conduct the calibration procedures at an ambient temperature of 18-28°C (65-82°F) with
relative humidity of less than 60% unless otherwise noted.
Warm-up period
Allow the Model 6430 to warm up for at least one hour before performing calibration.
If the instrument has been subjected to temperature extremes (those outside the ranges stated
above), allow additional time for the instrument’s internal temperature to stabilize. Typically,
allow one extra hour to stabilize a unit that is 10°C (18°F) outside the specified temperature
range.
Also, allow the test equipment to warm up for the minimum time specified by the
manufacturer.
Line power
The Model 6430 requires a line voltage of 100 to 240V at line frequency of 50 or 60Hz. The
instrument must be calibrated while operating from a line voltage within this range.
Calibration
19-3
Calibration considerations
When performing the calibration procedures:
•
•
•
•
Make sure that the test equipment is properly warmed up and connected to the correct
Model 6430 mainframe or Remote PreAmp jacks as appropriate.
Always allow the source signal to settle before calibrating each point.
Do not connect test equipment to the Model 6430 through a scanner or other switching
equipment.
If an error occurs during calibration, the Model 6430 will generate an appropriate error
message.
WARNING
The maximum common-mode voltage (voltage between mainframe LO
and chassis ground or PreAmp IN/OUT LOW and chassis ground) is ±42V
DC. Exceeding this value may cause a breakdown in insulation, creating a
shock hazard.
CAUTION
Exceeding the following voltage values between these terminals may result
in instrument damage:
•
•
•
•
•
•
INPUT/OUTPUT HI and LO: 250V peak.
4-WIRE SENSE HI and LO: 250V peak.
INPUT/OUTPUT HI and 4-WIRE SENSE HI: 5V.
INPUT/OUTPUT LO and 4-WIRE SENSE LO: 5V.
Preamp IN/OUT HIGH or SENSE HI and GUARD: 40V peak.
Preamp GUARD and IN/OUT LOW: 250V peak.
Calibration cycle
Perform calibration at least once a year to ensure the unit meets or exceeds its specifications.
19-4
Calibration
Recommended calibration equipment
Table 19-1 lists the recommended equipment for the calibration procedures. You can use
alternate equipment as long that equipment has specifications at least as good as those listed in
the table.
NOTE
For optimum calibration accuracy, test equipment specifications should be at least
four times better than corresponding Model 6430 specifications. The Model 5156
Electrometer Calibration Standard, however, does not meet these requirements. As a
result, Model 6430 1pA-100nA and 2GΩ-200GΩ range accuracy specifications will
be relative to Model 5156 characterization accuracy.
Table 19-1
Recommended calibration equipment
Description
Manufacturer/Model
Specifications
Digital Multimeter1
Hewlett Packard
HP3458A
DC Voltage
1V:
10V:
100V:
1000V:
5.6ppm
4.3ppm
6.3ppm
6.1ppm
DC Current
1µA:
10µA:
100µA:
1mA:
10mA:
100mA:
55ppm
25ppm
23ppm
20ppm
20ppm
35ppm
Resistance
100MΩ
1GΩ
10GΩ
100GΩ
200ppm
300ppm
400ppm
500ppm
Electrometer
Calibration Standard2
Keithley 5156
Coax Cable
Shielded Cable
Triax-BNC Adapter
Triax-triax Adapter
BNC-banana Adapter
Triax Shield Cap
Low-noise
Keithley 4801
Dual banana
Keithley CA-18-1
Keithley 7078-TRX-GND Male/female
Male/male
Pomona 1269
Keithley CAP-31
190-day,
full-scale DMM accuracy specifications of ranges required for various measurement points.
accuracy specifications shown for Model 5156.
2Characterization
Calibration
19-5
Unlocking calibration
Before performing calibration, you must first unlock calibration as follows:
1.
Press the MENU key, and then choose CAL, and press ENTER. The instrument will
display the following:
CALIBRATION
UNLOCK EXECUTE VIEW-DATES
SAVE LOCK CHANGE-PASSWORD
3.
Use the up and down RANGE keys to select the letter or number, and use the left and
right arrow keys to choose the position. (Press down RANGE for letters; up RANGE
for numbers.) Enter the present password on the display. (Front panel default: 006430.)
Once the correct password is displayed, press the ENTER key. If the password was correctly entered, the following message will be displayed:
CALIBRATION UNLOCKED
Use
4.
▲
Select UNLOCK, and then press ENTER. The instrument will display the following:
PASSWORD:
, ▲, ▼,
▲
2.
, ENTER or EXIT.
Calibration can now be executed.
5.
NOTE
Press EXIT to return to normal display. Calibration will be unlocked and assume the
states summarized in Table 19-2. Attempts to change any of the settings listed below
with calibration unlocked will result in an error +510, “Not permitted with cal
unlocked.”
With calibration unlocked, the sense function and range track the source function
and range.
Table 19-2
Calibration unlocked states
Mode
State
Mode
State
Concurrent Functions
Sense Function
Sense Volts NPLC
Sense Volts Range
Sense Current NPLC
Sense Current Range
Source V Mode
Volts Autorange
OFF
Source
10
Source V
10
Source I
FIXED
OFF
Source I Mode
Current Autorange
Autozero
Trigger Arm Count
Trigger Arm Source
Trigger Count
Trigger Source
FIXED
OFF
ON
1
Immediate
1
Immediate
19-6
Calibration
Mainframe calibration
Use the procedures discussed below to calibration the mainframe without the Remote
PreAmp. See Remote PreAmp calibration later in this section for information in calibrating the
Remote PreAmp.
NOTE
The mainframe must be separately calibrated before calibrating the Remote
PreAmp.
Mainframe calibration menu
You can access the calibration menu by pressing the MENU key and then selecting CAL in
the main menu. Mainframe calibration menu selections include:
•
•
•
•
•
•
UNLOCK: Enables calibration.
EXECUTE: Allows you to execute the calibration procedure for the selected function
and range.
VIEW-DATES: Displays calibration and calibration due dates.
SAVE: Saves new calibration constants.
LOCK: Disables calibration.
CHANGE-PASSWORD: Allows you to change the calibration password.
Mainframe calibration procedure
The mainframe calibration procedure described below calibrates all ranges of both the current and voltage source and measure functions. (Resistance calibration is not required.) Note
that each range is separately calibrated by repeating the entire procedure for each range.
Step 1: Prepare the Model 6430 for calibration
3.
With the power off, disconnect the Remote PreAmp from the mainframe.
Turn on the Model 6430 and the digital multimeter, and allow them to warm up for at
least one hour before performing calibration.
Press the MENU key, then choose CAL and press ENTER. Select UNLOCK, and then
press ENTER. The instrument will display the following:
PASSWORD:
5.
, ▲, ▼,
▲
Use
4.
▲
1.
2.
, ENTER or EXIT.
Use the up and down range keys to select the letter or number, and use the left and right
arrow keys to choose the position. Enter the present password on the display. (Front
panel default: 006430.) Press ENTER to complete the process.
Press EXIT to return to normal display. Instrument operating states will be set as summarized in Table 19-2.
Calibration
19-7
Step 2: Voltage calibration
Perform the steps below for each voltage range using Table 19-3 as a guide.
1.
Connect the Model 6430 to the digital multimeter as shown in Figure 19-1. (Connect
Model 6430 INPUT/OUTPUT HI to DMM INPUT HI; INPUT/OUTPUT LO to DMM
INPUT LO.) Select the multimeter DC volts measurement function.
Figure 19-1
Mainframe voltage
calibration test
connections
Model 6430
WARNING:NO INTERNAL OPERATOR SERVICABLE PARTS,SERVICE BY QUALIFIED PERSONNEL ONLY.
250V
PEAK
HI
5V
PK
5V
PEAK
250V
PEAK
MADE IN
U.S.A.
V, Ω,
GUARD
REMOTE
PreAmp
5V
PEAK
!
GUARD
SENSE
LINE FUSE
SLOWBLOW
LO
4-WIRE
SENSE
INPUT/
OUTPUT
2.5A, 250V
42V
PEAK
LINE RATING
100-240VAC
50, 60, HZ
100VA MAX
IEEE-488
(ENTER IEEE ADDRESS
WITH FRONT PANEL MENU)
RS232
TRIGGER
LINK
INTERLOCKDIGITAL I/O
CAUTION:FOR CONTINUED PROTECTION AGAINST FIRE HAZARD,REPLACE FUSE WITH SAME TYPE AND RATING.
Input HI
Input LO
Digital Multimeter
2.
3.
4.
5.
From normal display, press the SOURCE V key.
Press the EDIT key to select the source field (cursor flashing in source display field),
and then use the down RANGE key to select the 200mV source range.
From normal display, press MENU.
Select CAL, and then press ENTER. The unit will display the following:
CALIBRATION
UNLOCK EXECUTE VIEW-DATES 4
3 SAVE LOCK CHANGE-PASSWORD
6.
Select EXECUTE, and then press ENTER. The instrument will display the following
message:
V-CAL
7.
Press ENTER. The Model 6430 will source +200mV and simultaneously display the
following:
DMM RDG: +200.0000mV
Use , ▲, ▼, , ENTER or EXIT.
▲
▲
Press ENTER to Output +200.00mV
Calibration
8.
9.
Note and record the DMM reading, and then adjust the Model 6430 display to agree
exactly with the actual DMM reading. Use the up and down arrow keys to select the
digit value, and use the left and right arrow keys to choose the digit position (or use the
number keys, 0-9, +/-). Note that the display adjustment range is within ±10% of the
present range.
After adjusting the display to agree with the DMM reading, press ENTER. The instrument will then display the following:
V-CAL
Press ENTER to Output +000.00mV
Press ENTER. The Model 6430 will source 0mV and at the same time display the
following:
DMM RDG: +000.0000mV
12.
, ▲, ▼,
▲
Use
11.
▲
10.
, ENTER or EXIT.
Note and record the DMM reading, and then adjust the Model 6430 display to agree
with the actual DMM reading. Note that the display value adjustment limits are within
±1% of the present range.
After adjusting the display value to agree with the DMM reading, press ENTER. The
unit will then display the following:
V-CAL
Press ENTER to Output -200.00mV
Press ENTER. The Model 6430 will source -200mV and display the following:
DMM RDG: -200.0000mV
15.
, ▲, ▼,
▲
Use
14.
▲
13.
, ENTER or EXIT.
Note and record the DMM reading, and then adjust the Model 6430 display to agree
with the DMM reading. Again, the maximum display adjustment is within ±10% of the
present range.
After adjusting the display value to agree with the DMM reading, press ENTER and
note that the instrument displays:
V-CAL
Press ENTER to Output +000.00mV
16.
Press ENTER The Model 6430 will source 0mV and simultaneously display the
following:
DMM RDG: +000.0000mV
18.
19.
20.
21.
, ▲, ▼,
▲
Use
17.
▲
19-8
, ENTER or EXIT.
Note and record the DMM reading, and then adjust the display to agree with the DMM
reading. Once again, the maximum adjustment is within ±1% of the present range.
After adjusting the display to agree with the DMM reading, press ENTER to complete
calibration of the present range.
Press EXIT to return to normal display, and then select the 2V source range. Repeat
steps 2 through 18 for the 2V range.
After calibrating the 2V range, repeat the entire procedure for the 20V and 200V ranges
using Table 19-3 as a guide. Be sure to select the appropriate source range with the
EDIT and RANGE keys before calibrating each range.
Press EXIT as necessary to return to normal display.
Calibration
Table 19-3
Mainframe voltage calibration summary
Source range1
Multimeter voltage reading2
+200.00mV
+000.00mV
-200.00mV
+000.00mV
___________ mV
___________ mV
___________ mV
___________ mV
002V
+2.0000V
+0.0000V
-2.0000V
+0.0000V
___________ V
___________ V
___________ V
___________ V
020V
+20.000V
+00.000V
-20.000V
+00.000V
___________ V
___________ V
___________ V
___________ V
200V
+200.00V
+000.00V
-200.00V
+000.00V
___________ V
___________ V
___________ V
___________ V
000.2V
1Use
Source voltage
EDIT and RANGE keys to select source range.
reading used in corresponding calibration step. See procedure.
2Multimeter
19-9
19-10
Calibration
Step 3: Current calibration
Perform the steps below for each current range using Table 19-4 as a guide.
1.
Connect the Model 6430 to the digital multimeter as shown in Figure 19-2. (Connect
Model 6430 INPUT/OUTPUT HI to the DMM AMPS input; INPUT/OUTPUT LO to
DMM INPUT LO.) Select the multimeter DC current measurement function.
Figure 19-2
Mainframe current
calibration
connections
Model 6430
WARNING:NO INTERNAL OPERATOR SERVICABLE PARTS,SERVICE BY QUALIFIED PERSONNEL ONLY.
250V
PEAK
HI
5V
PK
5V
PEAK
250V
PEAK
MADE IN
U.S.A.
V, Ω,
GUARD
REMOTE
PreAmp
5V
PEAK
!
GUARD
SENSE
LINE FUSE
SLOWBLOW
LO
4-WIRE
SENSE
INPUT/
OUTPUT
2.5A, 250V
42V
PEAK
LINE RATING
100-240VAC
50, 60, HZ
100VA MAX
IEEE-488
(ENTER IEEE ADDRESS
WITH FRONT PANEL MENU)
RS232
TRIGGER
LINK
INTERLOCKDIGITAL I/O
CAUTION:FOR CONTINUED PROTECTION AGAINST FIRE HAZARD,REPLACE FUSE WITH SAME TYPE AND RATING.
Input LO
Amps
Digital Multimeter
2.
3.
4.
5.
From normal display, press the SOURCE I key.
Press the EDIT key to select the source display field, and then use the down RANGE
key to select the 1µA source range.
From normal display, press MENU.
Select CAL, and then press ENTER. The unit will display the following:
CALIBRATION
▲
▲
UNLOCK EXECUTE VIEW-DATES
SAVE LOCK CHANGE-PASSWORD
6.
Select EXECUTE, and then press ENTER. The instrument will display the following
message:
I-CAL
Press ENTER to Output +1.0000µA
Press ENTER. The Model 6430 will source +1µA and simultaneously display the
following:
DMM RDG: +1.000000µA
8.
, ▲, ▼,
▲
Use
▲
7.
, ENTER or EXIT.
Note and record the DMM reading, and then adjust the Model 6430 display to agree
exactly with the actual DMM reading. Use the up and down arrow keys to select the
digit value, and use the left and right arrow keys to choose the digit position (or use the
Calibration
9.
19-11
number keys, 0-9, +/-). Note that the display adjustment range is within ±10% of the
present range.
After adjusting the display to agree with the DMM reading, press ENTER. The instrument will then display the following:
I-CAL
Press ENTER to Output +0.0000µA
Press ENTER. The Model 6430 will source 0µA and at the same time display the
following:
DMM RDG: +0.000000µA
12.
, ▲, ▼,
▲
Use
11.
▲
10.
, ENTER or EXIT.
Note and record the DMM reading, and then adjust the Model 6430 display to agree
with the actual DMM reading. Note that the display value adjustment limits are within
±1% of the present range.
After adjusting the display value to agree with the DMM reading, press ENTER. The
unit will then display the following:
I-CAL
Press ENTER to Output -1.0000µA
Press ENTER. The Model 6430 will source -1µA and display the following:
DMM RDG: -1.000000µA
14.
15.
, ▲, ▼,
▲
Use
▲
13.
, ENTER or EXIT.
Note and record the DMM reading, and then adjust the Model 6430 display to agree
with the DMM reading. Again, the maximum display adjustment is within ±10% of the
present range.
After adjusting the display value to agree with the DMM reading, press ENTER and
note that the instrument displays:
I-CAL
Press ENTER to Output +0.0000µA
Press ENTER. The Model 6430 will source 0µA and simultaneously display the
following:
DMM RDG: +0.000000µA
17.
18.
19.
20.
NOTE
, ▲, ▼,
▲
Use
▲
16.
, ENTER or EXIT.
Note and record the DMM reading, and then adjust the display to agree with the DMM
reading. Once again, the maximum adjustment is within ±1% of the present range.
After adjusting the display to agree with the DMM reading, press ENTER to complete
calibration of the present range.
Press EXIT to return to normal display, and then select the 10µA source range use the
EDIT and up RANGE keys. Repeat steps 2 through 18 for the 10µA range.
After calibrating the 10µA range, repeat the entire procedure for the 100µA through
100mA ranges using Table 19-4 as a guide. Be sure to select the appropriate source
range with the EDIT and up RANGE keys before calibrating each range.
For temporary calibration without saving new calibration constants, proceed to
“Step 5: Lock out calibration.”
Calibration
Step 4: Enter calibration dates and save calibration
1.
2.
From normal display, press MENU.
Select CAL, and then press ENTER. The Model 6430 will display the following:
CALIBRATION
▲
▲
UNLOCK EXECUTE VIEW-DATES
SAVE LOCK CHANGE-PASSWORD
3.
Select SAVE, and then press ENTER. The unit will display the following message:
SAVE CAL
Press ENTER to continue; EXIT to abort calibration sequence
Press ENTER. The unit will prompt you for the calibration date:
CAL DATE: 03/15/1999
5.
6.
, ▲, ▼,
▲
Use
▲
4.
, ENTER or EXIT.
Change the displayed date to today’s date, and then press the ENTER key. Press
ENTER again to confirm the date.
The unit will then prompt for the calibration due date:
NEXT CAL: 03/15/2000
, ▲, ▼,
▲
Use
▲
19-12
, ENTER or EXIT.
Table 19-4
Mainframe current calibration summary
Source range1
Source current
Multimeter current reading2
001µA
+1.0000µA
+0.0000µA
-1.0000µA
+0.0000µA
___________ µA
___________ µA
___________ µA
___________ µA
010µA
+10.000µA
+00.000µA
-10.000µA
+00.000µA
___________ µA
___________ µA
___________ µA
___________ µA
100µA
+100.00µA
+000.00µA
-100.00µA
+000.00µA
___________ µA
___________ µA
___________ µA
___________ µA
001mA
+1.0000mA
+0.0000mA
-1.0000mA
+0.0000mA
___________ mA
___________ mA
___________ mA
___________ mA
010mA
+10.000mA
+00.000mA
-10.000mA
+00.000mA
___________ mA
___________ mA
___________ mA
___________ mA
Calibration
19-13
Table 19-4 (cont.)
Mainframe current calibration summary
Source range1
Source current
Multimeter current reading2
100mA
+100.00mA
+000.00mA
-100.00mA
+000.00mA
___________ mA
___________ mA
___________ mA
___________ mA
1Use
EDIT and RANGE keys to select source range.
current reading used in corresponding calibration step. See procedure.
2Multimeter
7.
8.
Set the calibration due date to the desired value, and then press ENTER. Press ENTER
again to confirm the date.
Once the calibration dates are entered, calibration is complete, and the following message will be displayed:
CALIBRATION COMPLETE
Press ENTER to confirm; EXIT to abort
9.
10.
Press ENTER to save the calibration data (or press EXIT to abort without saving calibration data.) The following message will be displayed:
CALIBRATION SUCCESS
Press ENTER or EXIT to continue.
Press ENTER or EXIT to complete process.
Step 5: Lock out calibration
1.
2.
From normal display, press MENU.
Select CAL, and then press ENTER. The Model 6430 will display the following:
CALIBRATION
▲
▲
UNLOCK EXECUTE VIEW-DATES
SAVE LOCK CHANGE-PASSWORD
3.
Select LOCK, and then press ENTER to lock out calibration.
19-14
Calibration
Remote PreAmp calibration
Use the procedures discussed below to calibrate the Remote PreAmp together with the
mainframe.
NOTE
The mainframe must be separately calibrated before calibrating the Remote
PreAmp. See “Mainframe calibration” earlier in this section for information on calibrating the mainframe.
Connecting Remote PreAmp to the mainframe
WARNING
Potentially hazardous source voltage is routed from the mainframe to the
Remote PreAmp via the PreAmp cable. Adhere to the following safety precautions to prevent electric shock:
•
•
•
The SourceMeter must be turned off before connecting (or disconnecting) the Remote PreAmp to the mainframe.
When not using the Remote PreAmp, disconnect the PreAmp cable at
the PreAmp connector on the mainframe. DO NOT leave the PreAmp
cable connected to the mainframe if the other end is not connected to
the Remote PreAmp.
ALWAYS re-install the plastic safety cover onto the mainframe
PreAmp connector whenever the Remote PreAmp is not being used.
Use the supplied PreAmp cable to connect the Remote PreAmp to the mainframe as follows:
1.
2.
3.
4.
From the front panel of the SourceMeter, turn the POWER off.
Connect the PreAmp cable to the Remote PreAmp. The PreAmp connector on the
Remote PreAmp is labeled “Mainframe.”
At the rear panel of the mainframe, remove the plastic safety cover from the PreAmp
connector. This PreAmp connector is labeled “REMOTE PreAmp.” The plastic cover is
secured to the connector with two screws. Hold on to the plastic cover and the retaining
screws. Whenever the Remote PreAmp is not being used, the plastic safety cover must
be re-installed on the mainframe PreAmp connector.
Connect the other end of the PreAmp cable to the mainframe.
Remote PreAmp calibration menu
When the Remote PreAmp is connected to the mainframe, you can access the PreAmp calibration menu by pressing the MENU key and selecting CAL. Menu choices include:
•
•
•
•
•
•
UNLOCK: Enables Remote PreAmp calibration.
V-BURDEN: Performs voltage burden calibration.
GAIN: Performs gain calibration.
OFFSET: Performs offset calibration.
LOCK: Locks out Remote PreAmp calibration.
CHANGE-PASSWORD: Allows you to change the calibration password.
Calibration
19-15
Remote PreAmp calibration procedure
Step 1: Prepare the Model 6430 for calibration
2.
3.
With the power off, connect the Remote PreAmp MAINFRAME connector to the
mainframe REMOTE PreAmp connector using the supplied cable.
Turn on the Model 6430, and allow it to warm up for at least one hour before performing calibration.
Press the MENU key, then choose CAL and press ENTER. Select UNLOCK, and then
press ENTER. The instrument will display the following:
PASSWORD:
4.
5.
, ▲, ▼,
▲
Use
▲
1.
, ENTER or EXIT.
Use the up and down range keys to select the letter or number, and use the left and right
arrow keys to choose the position. Enter the present password on the display. (Front
panel default: 006430.) Press ENTER to complete the process.
Press EXIT to return to normal display.
Step 2: Voltage burden calibration.
1.
2.
3.
Connect the Model 6430 Remote PreAmp IN/OUT HIGH jack to the digital multimeter
INPUT HI and LO jacks using the adapters and cables shown in Figure 19-3. (Use the
type of adapter that connects BNC shell to triax shell, and be sure the cable shield is
connected to DMM INPUT LO.)
Select the multimeter DC volts function, 10 PLCs, and enable auto-range.
Select V-BURDEN in the calibration menu, then press ENTER. The unit will prompt
you as follows:
PREAMP V-BURDEN CAL
▲
Connect V-Meter & press ENTER
5.
Using the RANGE keys and EDIT keys, adjust the display to agree with the DMM
reading.
Press ENTER. The instrument will prompt you for the second DMM reading:
DMM RDG: +000.0000mV
6.
, ▲, ▼,
, ▲, ▼,
, ENTER or EXIT.
▲
Use
▲
Use
▲
Press ENTER. The instrument will prompt you for the first of three DMM readings:
DMM RDG: +000.0000mV
▲
4.
, ENTER or EXIT.
Calibration
Figure 19-3
Voltage burden
calibration
connections
Model 6430
WARNING:NO INTERNAL OPERATOR SERVICABLE PARTS,SERVICE BY QUALIFIED PERSONNEL ONLY.
5V
PK
HI
250V
PEAK
250V
PEAK
5V
PEAK
MADE IN
U.S.A.
V, Ω,
GUARD
REMOTE
PreAmp
5V
PEAK
!
GUARD
SENSE
LINE FUSE
SLOWBLOW
LO
4-WIRE
SENSE
INPUT/
OUTPUT
2.5A, 250V
42V
PEAK
LINE RATING
100-240VAC
50, 60, HZ
100VA MAX
IEEE-488
(ENTER IEEE ADDRESS
WITH FRONT PANEL MENU)
RS232
INTERLOCKDIGITAL I/O
TRIGGER
LINK
CAUTION:FOR CONTINUED PROTECTION AGAINST FIRE HAZARD,REPLACE FUSE WITH SAME TYPE AND RATING.
Mainframe/PreAmp
Cable
IN/OUT
HIGH Jack
IN/OUT
HIGH
Triax-to-BNC
Adapter
SENSE
250
PEAK
40V
PEAK
WARNING: NO INTERNAL OPERATOR SERVICEABLE
PARTS SERVICE BY QUALIFIED
PERSONNEL ONLY
CAT I
!
GUARD
250
PEAK
250
PEAK
LOW
IN/OUT
42V
PEAK
MAINFRAME
40V
PEAK
Coax Cable
MADE IN
U.S.A.
Remote PreAmp
Dual
Banana-to-BNC
Adapter
Input HI
Input LO
Digital Multimeter
Again, adjust the display to agree with the DMM reading.
Press ENTER. The instrument will prompt you for the third DMM reading:
DMM RDG: +000.0000mV
9.
Adjust the display to agree with the DMM reading, then press ENTER. The unit will
return to the calibration menu.
Use
, ▲, ▼,
▲
7.
8.
▲
19-16
, ENTER or EXIT.
Calibration
19-17
Step 3: Gain calibration
1µA and 10µA ranges
1.
Connect the Model 6430 Remote PreAmp IN/OUT HIGH jack to the digital multimeter
AMPS and INPUT LO jacks using the adapters and cables shown in Figure 19-4. (Use
the type of adapter that connects BNC shell to triax shell, and be sure the cable shield is
connected to DMM INPUT LO.)
Figure 19-4
1µA and 10µA range
gain calibration
connections
Model 6430
WARNING:NO INTERNAL OPERATOR SERVICABLE PARTS,SERVICE BY QUALIFIED PERSONNEL ONLY.
250V
PEAK
HI
5V
PK
5V
PEAK
250V
PEAK
MADE IN
U.S.A.
V, Ω,
GUARD
REMOTE
PreAmp
5V
PEAK
!
GUARD
SENSE
LINE FUSE
SLOWBLOW
LO
4-WIRE
SENSE
INPUT/
OUTPUT
2.5A, 250V
42V
PEAK
LINE RATING
100-240VAC
50, 60, HZ
100VA MAX
IEEE-488
(ENTER IEEE ADDRESS
WITH FRONT PANEL MENU)
RS232
INTERLOCKDIGITAL I/O
TRIGGER
LINK
CAUTION:FOR CONTINUED PROTECTION AGAINST FIRE HAZARD,REPLACE FUSE WITH SAME TYPE AND RATING.
Mainframe/PreAmp
Cable
IN/OUT HIGH Jack
250
PEAK
WARNING: NO INTERNAL OPERATOR SERVICEABLE
PARTS SERVICE BY QUALIFIED
PERSONNEL ONLY
CAT I
40V
PEAK
40V
PEAK
!
GUARD
250
PEAK
250
PEAK
LOW
IN/OUT
42V
PEAK
MAINFRAME
SENSE
IN/OUT
HIGH
Triax-to-BNC Adapter
Coax Cable
MADE IN
U.S.A.
Remote PreAmp
Input LO
Dual
Banana-to-BNC
Adapter
Amps
Digital Multimeter
2.
3.
Select the multimeter DC amps function, 10 PLCs, and enable auto-range.
From the calibration menu, select GAIN, then press ENTER. The instrument will
prompt you for Remote PreAmp gain calibration:
PREAMP GAIN CAL
▲
▲
10mA 1mA 100nA 10nA 1nA
100pA 10pA 1pA
4.
Select 10µA, then press ENTER. The unit will prompt you as follows:
I-CAL
Press ENTER to Output +00.000µA
Calibration
6.
Note the DMM current reading, then adjust the Model 6430 display to agree with that
value, and press ENTER.
The unit will prompt you for the first 85% of full scale output value as follows:
I-CAL
Use
7.
▲
Press ENTER. The unit will prompt you for the DMM current reading:
DMM RDG: +00.00000µA
, ▲, ▼,
▲
5.
, ENTER or EXIT.
Press ENTER to Output +08.50000µA
Press ENTER. The unit will prompt you for the DMM current reading:
DMM RDG: +08.50000µA
9.
10.
, ▲, ▼,
▲
Use
▲
8.
, ENTER or EXIT.
Note the DMM current reading, then adjust the Model 6430 display to agree with that
value, and press ENTER.
The unit will once prompt you for the second 85% of full scale output value as follows:
I-CAL
Press ENTER to Output +08.50000µA
Press ENTER. The unit will prompt you for the DMM current reading:
DMM RDG: +08.50000µA
13.
, ▲, ▼,
▲
Use
12.
▲
11.
, ENTER or EXIT.
Note the DMM current reading, then adjust the Model 6430 display to agree with that
value, and press ENTER.
Repeat steps 4 through 12 for the 1µA range.
1pA to 100nA ranges
NOTE
1.
2.
3.
Because of Model 5156 characterization accuracy limitations, Model 6430
1pA-100nA range accuracy will be relative to Model 5156 characterization
accuracy.
Connect the Model 6430 mainframe and Remote PreAmp to the digital multimeter and
calibration standard as shown in Figure 19-5. (Connect mainframe INPUT/OUTPUT
HI to DMM INPUT HI and LO respectively. Connect the Remote PreAmp IN/OUT
HIGH jack directly to the Model 5156 OUTPUT jack, and connect the BNC shorting
cap to the resistance jack being used. Also be sure to remove the link between SHIELD
and CHASSIS.)
Select the multimeter DC volts function, 10 PLCs, and enable auto-range.
From the calibration menu, select GAIN, then press ENTER. The instrument will
prompt you for Remote PreAmp gain calibration:
PREAMP GAIN CAL
▲
10uA 1uA 100nA 10nA 1nA
100pA 10pA 1pA
▲
19-18
Calibration
Figure 19-5
1pA to 100nA range
gain calibration
connections
19-19
Model 6430
WARNING:NO INTERNAL OPERATOR SERVICABLE PARTS,SERVICE BY QUALIFIED PERSONNEL ONLY.
250V
PEAK
HI
5V
PK
5V
PEAK
250V
PEAK
MADE IN
U.S.A.
V, Ω,
GUARD
REMOTE
PreAmp
5V
PEAK
!
GUARD
SENSE
LINE FUSE
SLOWBLOW
LO
4-WIRE
SENSE
INPUT/
OUTPUT
2.5A, 250V
42V
PEAK
LINE RATING
100-240VAC
50, 60, HZ
100VA MAX
IEEE-488
(ENTER IEEE ADDRESS
WITH FRONT PANEL MENU)
RS232
Connect PreAmp IN/OUT HIGH Jack
Directly to 5156 OUTPUT Jack
using triax male-to-male Adapter
INTERLOCKDIGITAL I/O
TRIGGER
LINK
BNC Shorting Plug
(Connect to Resistor
Being used)
CAUTION:FOR CONTINUED PROTECTION AGAINST FIRE HAZARD,REPLACE FUSE WITH SAME TYPE AND RATING.
Mainframe/PreAmp Cable
100GΩ
1 nF
10GΩ
1GΩ
100nF
100MΩ
Model 5156 Electrometer Calibration Standard
Note: Remove Link Between
SHIELD and CHASSIS
Input HI
Input LO
Digital Multimeter
4.
From the calibration menu, select GAIN, then press ENTER. The instrument will
prompt you for Remote PreAmp gain calibration:
PREAMP GAIN CAL
▲
▲
10uA 1uA 100nA 10nA 1nA
100pA 10pA 1pA
5.
Select the 100nA range, then press ENTER. The unit will prompt you as follows:
I-CAL
Press ENTER to Output +000.00nA
Press ENTER. The unit will prompt you for calculated current:
DMM RDG: +000.0000nA
7.
8.
, ▲, ▼,
▲
Use
▲
6.
, ENTER or EXIT.
Note the DMM voltage reading, then calculate the current from the voltage reading and
the actual characterized calibration standard resistance value: I = V/R. Adjust the Model
6430 display to agree with the calculated current value, then press ENTER.
The unit will prompt you as follows:
I-CAL
Press ENTER to Output +085.00nA
Calibration
Press ENTER. The unit will prompt you for the calculated current:
DMM RDG: +085.0000nA
11.
, ▲, ▼,
▲
Use
10.
▲
9.
, ENTER or EXIT.
Calculate the current from the DMM voltage reading and resistance value, then adjust
the Model 6430 display to agree with the calculated current, and press ENTER.
The unit will once again prompt you as follows:
I-CAL
Press ENTER to Output +085.00nA
12.
Press ENTER. The unit will prompt you for the calculated current:
DMM RDG: +085.0000nA
13.
14.
, ▲, ▼,
▲
Use
▲
19-20
, ENTER or EXIT.
Calculate the current, then adjust the Model 6430 display to agree with that value, and
press ENTER.
Repeat steps 4 through 13 for the 10nA - 1pA ranges using the standard resistance values summarized in Table 19-5.
Table 19-5
Standard resistance values for 1pA-100nA gain calibration
Range
Standard resistance1
100nA
010nA
001nA
100pA
010pA
001pA
100MΩ
001GΩ
010GΩ
100GΩ
100GΩ
100GΩ
1Nominal
2Nominal
DMM reading2
008.5V
008.5V
008.5V
008.5V
850mV
008.5mV
Calibration current2
85nA
08.5nA
00.85nA
85pA
08.5pA
00.85pA
Model 5156 values. Use actual value when calculating current.
values. Use actual DMM reading and resistance to calculate current: I = V/R
Step 4: Offset calibration
1.
2.
3.
Disconnect all cables and test leads connected to the Remote PreAmp or mainframe.
However, leave the Remote PreAmp connected to the mainframe REMOTE PreAmp
connector.
Place the triax shielding cap on the Remote PreAmp FORCE jack.
Select OFFSET in the calibration menu, then press ENTER. The unit will display the
following:
PREAMP OFFSET CAL
4.
▲
ALL BYPASS 10uA 1uA 100nA
Select ALL, then press ENTER to calibrate all ranges and the bypass mode. During this
process, the instrument will display the range being calibration. For example:
PREAMP OFFSET CAL
Now calibrating 1 pA Range.…
Calibration
5.
19-21
When the instrument is finished performing offset calibration for all ranges, it will
return to the calibration menu.
Step 5: Lock out calibration
1.
2.
From the calibration menu, select LOCK, then press ENTER. The instrument will
return to the main menu.
Press EXIT to return to normal display.
Changing the password
Follow the steps below to change the password:
1.
Press the MENU key, then choose CAL and press ENTER. The instrument will display
the following:
CALIBRATION
▲
▲
UNLOCK EXECUTE VIEW-DATES
SAVE LOCK CHANGE-PASSWORD
Select UNLOCK, then enter the password. (Default: 006430.)
Select CHANGE-PASSWORD, and then press ENTER. The instrument will display
the following:
New Pwd: 006430
4.
5.
, ▲, ▼,
▲
Use
▲
2.
3.
, ENTER or EXIT.
Using the range keys, and the left and right arrow keys, enter the new password on the
display.
Once the desired password is displayed, press the ENTER key to store the new
password.
Resetting the calibration password
If you lose the calibration password, you can unlock calibration by shorting together the
CAL pads, which are located on the display board. Doing so will also reset the password to the
factory default (006430).
19-22
Calibration
Viewing calibration dates and calibration count
When calibration is locked, only the UNLOCK and VIEW-DATES selections will be accessible in the mainframe calibration menu. To view calibration dates and calibration count:
From normal display, press MENU, select CAL, and then press ENTER. The unit will
display the following:
CALIBRATION
2.
Select VIEW-DATES, and then press ENTER. The Model 6430 will display the next
and last calibration dates and the calibration count as in the following example:
NEXT CAL: 12/15/1999
UNLOCK EXECUTE VIEW-DATES
▲
1.
Last calibration: 12/15/1999 Count: 0001
20
Routine Maintenance
•
Line Fuse Replacement — Covers the procedure and recommended part numbers for
replacing the line fuse.
•
Front Panel Tests — Details methods to test the front panel display and keys.
20-2
Routine Maintenance
Introduction
The information in this section deals with routine type maintenance that can be performed
by the operator.
Line fuse replacement
WARNING
Disconnect the line cord at the rear panel, and remove all test leads connected to the instrument before replacing the line fuse.
The power line fuse is accessible from the rear panel, just above the AC power receptacle
(Figure 20-1).
Figure 20-1
Rear panel
WARNING:NO INTERNAL OPERATOR SERVICABLE PARTS,SERVICE BY QUALIFIED PERSONNEL ONLY.
5V
PK
HI
250V
PEAK
250V
PEAK
5V
PEAK
MADE IN
U.S.A.
V, Ω,
GUARD
REMOTE
PreAmp
5V
PEAK
!
GUARD
SENSE
LINE FUSE
SLOWBLOW
LO
4-WIRE
SENSE
INPUT/
OUTPUT
2.5A, 250V
42V
PEAK
LINE RATING
100-240VAC
50, 60, HZ
100VA MAX
IEEE-488
(ENTER IEEE ADDRESS
WITH FRONT PANEL MENU)
RS232
TRIGGER
LINK
CAUTION:FOR CONTINUED PROTECTION AGAINST FIRE HAZARD,REPLACE FUSE WITH SAME TYPE AND RATING.
INTERLOCKDIGITAL I/O
Routine Maintenance
20-3
Perform the following steps to replace the line fuse:
1.
2.
Carefully grasp and squeeze together the locking tabs that secure the fuse carrier to the
fuse holder.
Pull out the fuse carrier, and replace the fuse with the type specified in Table 20-1.
CAUTION
3.
NOTE
To prevent instrument damage, use only the fuse type specified in
Table 20-1.
Reinstall the fuse carrier.
If the power line fuse continues to blow, a circuit malfunction exists and must be
corrected. Refer to the troubleshooting section of this manual for additional
information.
Table 20-1
Power line fuse
Line voltage
Rating
Keithley part no.
100-240V
250V, 2.5A, Slow
Blow 5 × 20mm
FU-72
Front panel tests
There are three front panel tests: one to test the functionality of the front panel keys and two
to test the display.
KEYS test
The KEYS test lets you check the functionality of each front panel key. Perform the following steps to run the KEYS test.
1.
2.
3.
Display the MAIN MENU by pressing the MENU key.
Select TEST, and press ENTER to display the SELF-TEST MENU.
Select DISPLAY-TESTS, and press ENTER to display the following menu:
FRONT PANEL TESTS
4.
Select KEYS, and press ENTER to start the test. When a key is pressed, the label name
for that key will be displayed to indicate that it is functioning properly. When the key is
released, the message “No keys pressed” is displayed.
Pressing EXIT tests the EXIT key. However, the second consecutive press of EXIT
aborts the test and returns the instrument to the SELF-TEST MENU. Continue pressing
EXIT to back out of the menu structure.
KEYS DISPLAY-PATTERNS CHAR-SET
5.
20-4
Routine Maintenance
DISPLAY PATTERNS test
The display test lets you verify that each pixel and annunciator in the vacuum fluorescent
display is working properly. Perform the following steps to run the display test:
1.
2.
3.
Display the MAIN MENU by pressing the MENU key.
Select TEST, and press ENTER to display the SELF-TEST MENU.
Select DISPLAY-TESTS, and press ENTER to display the following menu:
FRONT PANEL TESTS
4.
Select DISPLAY-PATTERNS, and press ENTER to start the display test. There are five
parts to the display test. Each time a front panel key (except EXIT) is pressed, the next
part of the test sequence is selected. The five parts of the test sequence are as follows:
• Checkerboard pattern (alternate pixels on) and all annunciators.
• Checkerboard pattern and the annunciators that are on during normal operation.
• Horizontal lines (pixels) of the first digit are sequenced.
• Vertical lines (pixels) of the first digit are sequenced.
• Each digit (and adjacent annunciator) is sequenced. All the pixels of the selected
digit are on.
When finished, abort the display test by pressing EXIT. The instrument returns to the
FRONT PANEL TESTS MENU. Continue pressing EXIT to back out of the menu
structure.
KEYS DISPLAY-PATTERNS CHAR-SET
5.
CHAR SET test
The character set test lets you display all characters. Perform the following steps to run the
character set test:
1.
2.
3.
Display the MAIN MENU by pressing the MENU key.
Select TEST, and press ENTER to display the SELF-TEST MENU.
Select DISPLAY-TESTS, and press ENTER to display the following menu:
FRONT PANEL TESTS
4.
Select CHAR-SET, and press ENTER to start the character set test. Press any key
except EXIT to cycle through all displayable characters.
When finished, abort the character set test by pressing EXIT. The instrument returns to
the FRONT PANEL TESTS MENU. Continue pressing EXIT to back out of the menu
structure.
KEYS DISPLAY-PATTERNS CHAR-SET
5.
A
Specifications
A-2
Specifications
SOURCE SPECIFICATIONS1
Voltage Programming Accuracy (4-wire sense)2
Range
200.000 mV
2.00000
V
20.0000
V
200.000
V
Programming
Resolution
5
50
500
5
µV
µV
µV
mV
Accuracy (1 Year)
23°C ±5°C
±% rdg. + volts
0.02% + 600 µV
0.02% + 600 µV
0.02% + 2.4 mV
0.02% + 24 mV
Noise
(peak-peak)
0.1Hz – 10Hz
5 µV
50 µV
500 µV
5 mV
TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT (0°–18°C & 28°–40°C): ±(0.15 × accuracy specification)/°C.
MAX. OUTPUT POWER: 2.2W (four quadrant source or sink operation).
SOURCE/SINK LIMITS: ±21V @ ±105mA, ±210V @ ±10.5mA.
VOLTAGE REGULATION: Line: 0.01% of range. Load: 0.01% of range + 100µV.
NOISE 10Hz–1MHz (p-p): 10mV.
OVER VOLTAGE PROTECTION: User selectable values, 5% tolerance. Factory default = None.
CURRENT LIMIT: Bipolar current limit (compliance) set with single value. Min. 0.1% of range.
Current Programming Accuracy (with remote preamp)
Range
1.00000 pA
10.0000 pA
100.000 pA
1.00000 nA
10.0000 nA
100.000 nA
1.00000 µA
10.0000 µA
100.000 µA
1.00000 mA
10.0000 mA
100.000 mA
Programming
Resolution
50 aA
500 aA
5 fA
50 fA
500 fA
5 pA
50 pA
500 pA
5 nA
50 nA
500 nA
5 µA
Accuracy (1 Year)1
23°C ±5°C
±% rdg. +amps
1.0
0.50
0.15
0.050
0.050
0.050
0.050
0.050
0.031
0.034
0.045
0.066
% + 10 fA
% + 30 fA
% + 40 fA
% + 200 f A
%+
2 pA
% + 20 pA
% + 300 pA
%+
2 nA
% + 20 nA
% + 200 nA
%+
2 µA
% + 20 µA
Noise
(peak-peak)
0.1Hz – 10Hz
5 fA
10 fA
20 fA
50 fA
500 fA
3 pA
20 pA
200 pA
500 pA
5 nA
50 nA
500 nA
Current Programming Accuracy (without remote preamp)
Range
1.00000 µA
10.0000 µA
100.000 µA
1.00000 mA
10.0000 mA
100.000 mA
Programming
Resolution
50 pA
500 pA
5 nA
50 nA
500 nA
5 µA
Accuracy (1 Year)1
23°C ±5°C
±% rdg. +amps
0.035
0.033
0.031
0.034
0.045
0.066
% + 600 pA
%+
2 nA
% + 20 nA
% + 200 nA
%+
2 µA
% + 20 µA
Noise
(peak-peak)
0.1Hz – 10Hz
20 pA
200 pA
500 pA
5 nA
50 nA
50 nA
TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT (0°–18°C & 28°–40°C): ±(0.15 × accuracy specification)/°C.
MAX. OUTPUT POWER: 2.2W (four quadrant source or sink operation).
SOURCE/SINK LIMITS: ±10.5mA @ 210V, ±105mA @ 21V.
CURRENT REGULATION: Line: 0.01% of range. Load: 0.01% of range + 1fA.
VOLTAGE LIMIT: Bipolar voltage limit (compliance) set with single value. Min. 0.1% of range.
1
2
For sink mode, 1pA to 100mA range, accuracy is ±(0.15% + offset*4).
Voltage source accuracies are not affected by the remote preamp.
Specifications
A-3
ADDITIONAL SOURCE SPECIFICATIONS
COMMAND PROCESSING TIME: Maximum time required for the output to begin to change following the receipt of :SOURce:VOLTage|CURRent
<nrf> command.Autorange On: 10ms. Autorange Off: 7ms.
OUTPUT SETTLING TIME (typical to 10% of final value): <2s, 1pA and 10pA ranges; <50ms, 100pA through 10nA ranges; <5ms, 100nA through
100mA ranges.
OUTPUT SLEW RATE: 30V/ms, any V range, 10mA compliance.
COMMON MODE VOLTAGE: ±42VDC maximum.
4-WIRE SENSE: Up to 1V drop per load lead, 10Ω maximum per sense lead, 100µA range and up. For details on using 4-wire sense with the 10µA
range and below, refer to the User’s Manual.
OVER TEMPERATURE PROTECTION: Internally sensed temperature overload puts unit in standby mode.
RANGE CHANGE OVERSHOOT: Overshoot into a fully resistive 100kΩ load, 10Hz to 1MHz BW, adjacent ranges, 100mV typical, except 20V/200V
range boundary.
MINIMUM COMPLIANCE VALUE: 0.1% of range.
MEASURE SPECIFICATIONS 1
Voltage Measurement Accuracy (4-wire sense)3
Range
200.000 mV
2.00000 V
20.0000 V
200.000 V
Max.
Resolution
1 µV
10 µV
100 µV
1mV
Input2
Resistance
Accuracy (23°C ± 5°C)
1 Year, ±(%rdg + volts)
>1016 Ω
>1016 Ω
>1016 Ω
>1016 Ω
0.012% + 350 µV
0.012% + 350 µV
0.015% + 1.5 mV
0.015% + 10 mV
TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT (0°–18°C & 28°–40°C): ±(0.15 × accuracy specification)/°C.
Current Measurement Accuracy (2- or 4-wire sense)4
Range
1.00000
10.0000
100.000
1.00000
10.0000
100.000
1.00000
10.0000
100.000
1.00000
10.0000
100.000
pA
pA
pA
nA
nA
nA
µA
µA
µA
mA
mA
mA
Max.
Resolution
10 aA
100 aA
1 fA
10 fA
100 fA
1 pA
10 pA
100 pA
1 nA
10 nA
100 nA
1 µA
Voltage
*Burden5
< 1mV
< 1mV
< 1mV
< 1mV
< 1mV
< 1mV
< 1mV
< 1mV
< 1mV
< 1mV
< 1mV
< 1mV
Accuracy (23°C ± 5°C)
1 Year
±(%rdg + amps)
1.0 % +
0.50 % +
0.15 % +
0.050 % +
0.050 % +
0.050 % +
0.050 % +
0.050 % +
0.025 % +
0.027 % +
0.035 % +
0.055 % +
7 fA
7 fA
30 fA
200 fA
2 pA
20 pA
300 pA
2 nA
6 nA
60 nA
600 nA
6 µA
TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT (0°–18°C & 28°–40°C): ±[(0.15 × accuracy specification) + 1fA]/°C.
INPUT CURRENT: <3fA at 23°C, <40% RH; typically ±0.5fA/°C around 23°C, <40% RH.
ADDITIONAL MEASURE SPECIFICATIONS
OUTPUT SETTLING TIME (typical to 10% of final value): <2s, 1pA and 10pA ranges; <50ms, 100pA through 10nA ranges; <5ms, 100nA through
100mA ranges.
CURRENT NOISE: When observed over 1 minute intervals, peak to peak noise will be within 400aA during 90% of the intervals using Autofilter
(5s 10% to 90% rise time), with triax connectors capped, Autozero OFF, Source Delay = 0, on the 1pA range for at least 3 minutes.
A-4
Specifications
Resistance Measurement Accuracy (4-wire sense with remote preamp)
Source I Mode, Auto Ohms
Range
<2.00000
20.0000
200.000
2.00000
20.0000
200.000
2.00000
20.0000
200.000
2.00000
20.0000
200.000
2.00000
20.0000
>20.0000
Ω6
Ω
Ω
kΩ
kΩ
kΩ
MΩ
MΩ
MΩ
GΩ
GΩ
GΩ
TΩ
TΩ
TΩ 6
Max.
Resolution
1
100
1
10
100
1
10
100
1
10
100
1
10
100
µΩ
µΩ
mΩ
mΩ
mΩ
Ω
Ω
Ω
kΩ
kΩ
kΩ
MΩ
MΩ
MΩ
—
Default
Test Current
—
100
10
1
100
10
1
1
100
10
1
100
10
1
mA
mA
mA
µA
µA
µA
µA
nA
nA
nA
pA
pA
pA
—
Normal Accuracy (23°C ± 5°C)
1 Year, ±(%rdg + ohms)
Source IACC + Measure VACC
0.098% + 0.003 Ω
0.077% + 0.03 Ω
0.066% +
0.3 Ω
0.063% +
3 Ω
0.082% +
30 Ω
0.082% + 300 Ω
0.085% +
1 kΩ
0.085% +
10 kΩ
0.085% + 100 kΩ
0.085% +
1 MΩ
0.205% +
10 MΩ
0.822% + 100 MΩ
2.06% +
1 GΩ
Source IACC + Measure VACC
Enhanced Accuracy (23°C ± 5°C) 7
1 Year, ±(%rdg + ohms)
Measure IACC + Measure VACC
0.068% + 0.001 Ω
0.048% + 0.01 Ω
0.040% +
0.1 Ω
0.038% +
1 Ω
0.064% +
10 Ω
0.064% + 100 Ω
0.067% + 500 Ω
0.068% +
5 kΩ
0.070% +
50 kΩ
0.070% + 500 kΩ
0.185% +
5 MΩ
0.619% +
50 MΩ
1.54% + 500 MΩ
Measure IACC + Measure VACC
Resistance Measurement Accuracy (4-wire sense without remote preamp)
Source I Mode, Auto Ohms
Range
<2.00000
20.0000
200.000
2.00000
20.0000
200.000
2.00000
20.0000
200.000
Ω6
Ω
Ω
kΩ
kΩ
kΩ
MΩ
MΩ
MΩ
Max.
Resolution
1
100
1
10
100
1
10
100
1
µΩ
µΩ
mΩ
mΩ
mΩ
Ω
Ω
Ω
kΩ
Default
Test Current
—
100
10
1
100
10
1
1
100
mA
mA
mA
µA
µA
µA
µA
nA
Normal Accuracy (23°C ± 5°C)
1 Year, ±(%rdg + ohms)
Source IACC + Measure VACC
0.098% + 0.003 Ω
0.077% + 0.03 Ω
0.066% +
0.3 Ω
0.063% +
3 Ω
0.082% +
30 Ω
0.082% + 300 Ω
0.085% +
1 kΩ
0.085% +
10 kΩ
Enhanced Accuracy (23°C ± 5°C) 7
1 Year, ±(%rdg + ohms)
Measure IACC + Measure VACC
0.068% + 0.001 Ω
0.048% + 0.01 Ω
0.040% +
0.1 Ω
0.038% +
1 Ω
0.040% +
10 Ω
0.042% + 100 Ω
0.045% + 500 Ω
0.349% +
5 kΩ
TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT (0°–18°C & 28°–40°C): ±(0.15 × accuracy specification)/°C.
SOURCE I MODE, MANUAL OHMS: Total uncertainty = I source accuracy + V measure accuracy (4-wire sense).
SOURCE V MODE: Total uncertainty = V source accuracy + I measure accuracy (4-wire sense).
6-WIRE OHMS MODE: Available using active ohms guard and guard sense (mainframe rear panel ONLY). Max. Guard Output Current: 50 mA.
Accuracy is load dependent. Refer to manual for calculation formula.
MAINFRAME GUARD OUTPUT RESISTANCE: 0.1Ω in ohms mode.
1 Speed = 10 PLC, Autofilter ON, properly zeroed and settled.
2 Source I mode, I = 0.
3 Voltage measurement accuracy is not affected by the remote preamp.
4 Current measurement accuracy is not affected by the remote preamp; however, the 1pA through 100nA ranges are available only when using a
preamp.
5 4-wire mode.
6 Manual ohms mode only.
7 Source readback enabled, offset compensation ON. Source delay must be programmed such that the source is fully settled for each reading.
Specifications
A-5
SYSTEM SPEEDS
MEASUREMENT1
MAXIMUM RANGE CHANGE RATE: 75/second.
SWEEP OPERATION2 READING RATES (rdg/second) FOR 60Hz (50Hz):
Speed
Fast
Medium
Normal
NPLC/
Trigger Origin
0.01 / internal
0.01 / external
0.10 / internal
0.10 / external
1.00 / internal
1.00 / external
Measure
To Mem.
To GPIB
2080
1250
505
435
59
57
(2030)
(1200)
(433)
(380)
(49)
(48)
1210 (1210)
1090 (1050)
505 (433)
435 (380)
59 (49)
57 (48)
Source-Measure
To Mem. To GPIB
1550(1515)
1030 (990)
465 (405)
405 (360)
58 (48)
57 (48)
1010(1010)
920 (920)
465 (405)
405 (360)
58 (48)
57 (48)
Source-Measure
Pass/Fail Test 3
To Mem. To GPIB
Source-Memory 3
To Mem. To GPIB
930 (900)
860 (830)
390 (343)
375 (333)
57 (47)
56 (47)
163(162)
161(160)
132(126)
130(125)
44 (38)
44 (38)
SINGLE READING OPERATION READING RATES (rdg/second) FOR 60Hz (50Hz):
Measure
Source-Measure4
Speed
NPLC/Trigger Origin
To GPIB
To GPIB
Fast
Medium
Normal
0.01 / internal
0.10 / internal
1.00 / internal
256
181
49
(256)
(166)
(42)
COMPONENT HANDLER INTERFACE TIME: 3, 5
Speed
NPLC/Trigger Origin
Measure Pass/Fail Test
Fast
Medium
Normal
1
2
3
4
5
6
0.01 / external
0.10 / external
1.00 / external
1.01 ms (1.08 ms)
2.5 ms (2.9 ms)
17.5 ms (20.9 ms)
840 (840)
780 (780)
390 (343)
375 (333)
57 (47)
56 (47)
163 (162)
161 (160)
132 (126)
130 (125)
44 (38)
44 (38)
Source-Measure Pass/Fail Test3, 4
To GPIB
83 (83)
73 (70)
35 (31)
83 (83)
73 (70)
34 (30)
Source Pass/Fail Test
Source-Measure Pass/Fail Test6
0.5 ms (0.5 ms)
0.5 ms (0.5 ms)
0.5 ms (0.5 ms)
5.3 ms (5.3 ms)
6.7 ms (7.1 ms)
21.7 ms (25.0 ms)
Reading rates applicable for voltage or current measurements. Auto zero off, autorange off, filter off, display off, trigger delay = 0,
source auto clear off, and binary reading format.
1000 point sweep was characterized with the source on a fixed range.
Pass/Fail test performed using one high limit and one low math limit.
Includes time to re-program source to a new level before making measurement.
Time from falling edge of START OF TEST signal to falling edge of END OF TEST signal.
Command processing time of :SOURce:VOLTage|CURRent:TRIGgered <nrf> command not included.
GENERAL
NOISE REJECTION:
Fast
Medium
Normal
NPLC
NMRR
CMRR
0.01
0.1
1
—
—
60 dB
80 dB
80 dB
90 dB
LOAD IMPEDANCE: Stable into 20,000pF on the 100mA through 100µA ranges, 470pF on the 10µA and 1µA ranges, and 100pF on the nA and pA
ranges. Refer to the User’s Manual for details on measuring large capacitive loads.
COMMON MODE VOLTAGE: ±42VDC maximum.
COMMON MODE ISOLATION: >109Ω, <1000pF.
OVERRANGE: 105% of range, source and measure.
MAX. VOLTAGE DROP BETWEEN INPUT/OUTPUT AND SENSE TERMINALS: 5V. (To meet specified accuracy with 4-wire sense, refer to the
User’s Manual.)
MAX. SENSE LEAD RESISTANCE: 10Ω for rated accuracy.
SENSE INPUT RESISTANCE: 1MΩ.
MAINFRAME GUARD OFFSET VOLTAGE: 300µV, typical.
PREAMP GUARD OFFSET VOLTAGE: 1mV, typical.
A-6
Specifications
PREAMP GUARD OUTPUT RESISTANCE: 110kΩ.
SOURCE OUTPUT MODES:
Fixed DC level
Memory List (mixed function)
Stair (linear and log)
SOURCE MEMORY LIST: 100 points max.
MEMORY BUFFER: 5,000 readings @ 5½ digits (two 2,500 point buffers). Includes selected measured value(s) and time stamp. Lithium battery backup (3 yr+ battery life).
PROGRAMMABILITY: IEEE-488 (SCPI-1995.0), RS-232, 5 user-definable power-up states plus factory default and *RST.
DIGITAL INTERFACE:
Safety Interlock: Active low input.
Handler Interface: Start of test, end of test, 3 category bits. +5V @ 300mA supply.
Digital I/O: 1 trigger input, 4 TTL/Relay Drive outputs (33V @ 500mA sink, diode clamped).
POWER SUPPLY: 100V–240V rms, 50–60Hz (automatically detected at power up), 100VA max.
WARRANTY: 1 year.
EMC: Conforms with European Union Directive 89/336/EEC EN 55011, EN 50082-1, EN 61000-3-2 and 61000-3-3, FCC part 15 class B.
SAFETY: Conforms with European Union Directive 73/23/EEC EN 61010-1.
VIBRATION: MIL-PRF-28800F, Class 3.
WARM-UP: 1 hour to rated accuracies.
DIMENSIONS: 89mm high × 213mm wide × 370mm deep (31⁄2 in × 83⁄8 in × 149⁄16 in). Bench Configuration (with handle & feet): 104mm high ×
238mm wide × 370mm deep (41⁄8 in × 93⁄8 in × 149⁄16 in).
Amplifier: 20mm high × 57mm wide × 97mm deep (0.783 in × 2.225 in × 3.75 in).
WEIGHT: 3.45kg (7.61 lbs).
ENVIRONMENT:
Operating: 0°–40°C, 60% R.H. (non-condensing) up to 35°C. Derate 5% R.H./°C, 35°–40°C.
Storage: –25°C to 65°C. Non-condensing humidity.
ACCESSORIES SUPPLIED:
Model 6430-322-1 Low Noise Triax Cable, 3-slot triax to alligator clips, 20cm (8 in)
Model 8607
Safety High Voltage Dual Test Leads
Model CA-186-1 Banana Lead to Screw Terminal Adapter
Specifications subject to change without notice.
Specifications
A-7
Accuracy calculations
The following information discusses how to calculate accuracy for both sense and source
functions.
Measure accuracy
Measurement accuracy is calculated as follows:
Accuracy = ±(% of reading + offset)
As an example of how to calculate the actual reading limits, assume that you are measuring
10V on the 20V range. You can compute the reading limit range from one-year measure voltage
accuracy specifications as follows:
Accuracy =
=
=
=
±(% of reading + offset)
±[(0.015% × 10V) + 1.5mV]
±(1.5mV + 1.5mV)
±3mV
Thus, the actual reading range is 10V ±3mV or from 9.997 to 10.003V.
DC current measurement calculations are performed in exactly the same manner using the
pertinent specifications, ranges, and input signal values.
Source accuracy
Source accuracy is calculated similarly, except source specifications are used. As an example of how to calculate the actual source output limits, assume that you are sourcing 0.7mA on
the 1mA source range. You can compute the reading limit range from source current one-year
accuracy specifications as follows:
Accuracy =
=
=
=
±(0.034% of output + 200nA offset)
±[(0.034% × 0.7µΑ) + 200νΑ)]
±(238nA + 200nA)
±438nA
In this case, the actual current output range is 0.7mA ±438nA or from 0.69956mA to
0.70044mA.
A-8
Specifications
Source-Delay-Measure (SDM) cycle timing
The following timing information assumes that the SourceMeter is being triggered externally via the Trigger Link.
For Cases I through IV, it is assumed that the Output Auto-Off feature is enabled
(:SOURce1:CLEar:AUTO ON), and the source setting changes for each triggered SDM cycle.
The discussion is applicable for linear, log, and custom sweeps. It is also applicable to applications that use the “triggered source” feature (:SOURce1:VOLTage:TRIGger or
SOURce1:CURRent:TRIGger). The discussion is not applicable for memory sweeps
(:SOURce1:MEMory).
For Cases V and VI, it is assumed that the Output Auto-Off feature is disabled
(:SOURce1:CLEar:AUTO OFF), and the source setting remains the same for each triggered
SDM cycle. In this configuration, the static source remains on during all SDM cycles.
Definitions
Trigger latency
Trigger latency is the time from when an external trigger event occurs to when the SourceMeter takes the appropriate action. It is from when an external trigger is detected in the Trigger
Layer of the trigger model to when the trigger delay begins.
Trigger delay
Trigger delay is the time from when the external event is detected to when the source configuration begins. This is a user-programmable delay that can be set from 0000.0000 seconds to
999.99990 seconds.
Source configuration
This is the time it takes to configure the source DAC. For the following discussion, it is
assumed that the range and polarity do not change when the source value is changed.
Source delay
This is the time between the source configuration and the start of the first A/D conversion.
This programmable delay is typically used to allow the source to settle before starting the measurement. With Auto-Delay enabled, 100µsec is added to the user-programmed source delay.
The user-programmed delay can be set from 0000.0000 seconds to 9999.99900 seconds.
A/D conversion
This is the time it takes to measure the specified A/D converter phase. In general, there are
three A/D phases required to generate a voltage or current reading. These phases are often
referred to as the “signal,” “reference,” and “reference zero” phases. The “signal” phase
Specifications
A-9
measures the input signal. The “reference” and “reference zero” phases are associated with a
precision voltage reference inside the SourceMeter. By measuring all three phases, zero drift
for the reading is reduced. A/D conversion time is programmable with 0.01 power line cycle
resolution.
When Auto-Zero is enabled, all three phases are measured each time the SourceMeter is
triggered. With Auto-Zero disabled, only the “signal” is measured. Hence, speed is increased at
the expense of long term drift.
Firmware overhead
This is the time associated with A/D communication, reading calibration, and other operations necessary to perform the SDM cycle. This time is not illustrated in the following timing
diagrams.
Timing diagrams
Case I: Auto-Zero enabled and measuring a single function
Figure A-1
Case I timing
diagram
Trigger
Latency
Trigger
Delay
Source
Configuration
Source
Delay
A/D
Conversion
(current signal
phase)
A/D
Conversion
(ref phase)
A/D
Conversion
(ref zero phase)
Source On Time
Trigger
Event
Source
On
Trigger Latency:
Source Configuration:
A/D Conversion:
Firmware Overhead:
Source
Off
225µsec max
50µsec max
[NPLC Setting × (1/power line frequency)] + 185
1.8msec for Source V
2.15msec for Source I
Source On Time ≅ Source Configuration + Source Delay + (3 × A/D Conversion) + Firmware Overhead
Example:
Source Delay = 0µsec
NPLC Setting = 0.01 PLC
Power Line Frequency = 60Hz
Source On Time ≅ 50µsec + 0 + [(3 × 0.01 × 1/60) + 185µsec] + 1.6msec
≅ 2.9msec for Source V
≅ 3.25msec for Source I
A-10
Specifications
Case II: Auto-Zero enabled and measuring two functions
Figure A-2
Case II
timing
diagram
Trigger
Latency
Trigger
Delay
Source
Configuration
Source
Delay
A/D
Conversion
(voltage signal
phase)
A/D
Conversion
(current signal
phase)
A/D
Conversion
(ref phase)
A/D
Conversion
(ref zero phase)
Source On Time
Trigger
Event
Source
On
Source
Off
Trigger Latency:
Source Configuration:
A/D Conversion:
Firmware Overhead:
225µsec max
50µsec max
[NPLC Setting × (1 / power line frequency)] + 185µsec
2.3msec for Source V
2.65msec for Source I
Source On Time ≅ Source Configuration + Source Delay + (4 × A/D Conversion) + Firmware Overhead
Example:
Source Delay = 0µsec
NPLC Setting = 0.06 PLC
Power Line Frequency = 60Hz
Source On Time ≅ 50µsec + 0 + [(4 × 0.06 × 1/60) + 185µsec] + 2.6msec
≅ 7.1msec for Source V
≅ 7.45msec for Source I
Case III: Auto-Zero disabled and measuring one function
Figure A-3
Case III timing
diagram
Trigger
Latency
Trigger
Delay
Source
Configuration
Source
Delay
A/D
Conversion
(current signal
phase)
Source On Time
Trigger
Event
Trigger Latency:
Source Configuration:
A/D Conversion:
Firmware Overhead:
Source
On
Source
Off
225µsec max
50µsec max
[NPLC Setting × (1 / power line frequency)] + 185µsec
300µsec for Source V
640µsec for Source I
Specifications
A-11
Source On Time ≅ Source Configuration + Source Delay + A/D Conversion + Firmware
Overhead
Example:
Source Delay = 0
NPLC Setting = 0.08 PLC
Power Line Frequency = 60Hz
Source On Time ≅ 50µsec + 0 + [(0.08 × 1/60) + 185µsec] + 40µsec
≅ 1.85msec for Source V
≅ 2.2msec for Source I
Case IV: Auto-Zero disabled and all measurements disabled
Figure A-4
Case IV timing
diagram
Trigger
Latency
Trigger
Delay
Source
Configuration
Source
Delay
Source On Time
Trigger
Event
Trigger Latency:
Source Configuration:
Firmware Overhead:
Source
On
Source
Off
225µsec max
50µsec max
310µsec for Source V
590µsec for Source I
Source On Time ≅ Source Configuration + Source Delay + Firmware Overhead
Example:
Source Delay = 0
Source On Time ≅ 50µsec + 0 + 125µsec
≅ 360µsec for Source V
≅ 640µsec for Source I
A-12
Specifications
Cases V and VI: Measure one function, Output Auto-Off disabled, and no
source setting changes.
Figure A-5
Case V timing
diagram
Trigger
Latency
Trigger
Delay
A/D
Conversion
(signal phase)
A/D
Conversion
(ref phase)
A/D
Conversion
(ref zero phase)
Source On
Trigger
Event
Auto-Zero:
Trigger Latency:
Figure A-6
Case VI timing
diagram
Enabled
500µsec max
Trigger
Latency
Trigger
Delay
A/D
Conversion
(signal phase)
Source On
Trigger
Event
Auto Zero:
Trigger Latency:
Disabled
100µsec max
The source turns on as soon as the output is turned on and remains on until the source is
turned off. As shown in the two timing diagrams, the static source remains on for every measurement cycle. The Source-Delay portion of the SDM cycle is omitted. With Trigger Delay set
to zero, Trigger Latency is the time from when the trigger event occurs to when the SourceMeter begins an A/D conversion.
B
Status and Error Messages
B-2
Status and Error Messages
Introduction
This Appendix contains a summary of status and error messages, which status register bits
are set when messages occur, and methods to avoid or eliminate most common SCPI errors.
Status and error messages
Table B-1 summarizes status and error messages, which are stored in the Error Queue. Each
message is preceded by a code number. Negative (-) numbers are used for SCPI-defined
messages, and positive (+) numbers are used for Keithley-defined messages. Note that error
and status conditions will also set specific bits in various status registers, as summarized in
Table B-1.
Section 14 has detailed information on registers and queues. Briefly, you can use the following queries to obtain error and status information:
•
•
•
•
•
NOTE
:SYST:ERR? — reads Error Queue.
*ESR? — reads Standard Event Status Register.
:STAT:OPER? — reads Operation Event Register.
:STAT:MEAS? — reads Measurement Event Register.
:STAT:QUES? — reads Questionable Event Register.
SCPI-confirmed messages are described in volume 2: Command Reference of the
Standard Commands for Programmable Instruments. Refer to the :SYSTem:ERRor?
command.
Status and Error Messages
B-3
Table B-1
Status and error messages
Number
Error message
Event1
Status register2
Bit
-440
EE
Standard Event
2
-430
-420
-410
-363
-362
-361
-360
-350
Query UNTERMINATED after
indefinite response
Query DEADLOCKED
Query UNTERMINATED
Query INTERRUPTED
Input buffer overrun
Framing error in program message
Parity error in program message
Communications error
Queue overflow
EE
EE
EE
EE
EE
EE
EE
SYS
Standard Event
Standard Event
Standard Event
Standard Event
Standard Event
Standard Event
Standard Event
Standard Event
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
-330
-314
-315
-285
-284
-282
-281
-260
-241
-230
Self-test failed
Save/recall memory lost
Configuration memory lost
Program syntax error
Program currently running
Illegal program name
Cannot create program
Expression error
Hardware missing
Data corrupt or stale
EE
EE
EE
EE
EE
EE
EE
EE
EE
EE
Standard Event
Standard Event
Standard Event
Standard Event
Standard Event
Standard Event
Standard Event
Standard Event
Standard Event
Standard Event
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
-225
-224
-223
-222
-221
-220
Out of memory
Illegal parameter value
Too much data
Parameter data out of range
Settings conflict
Parameter error
EE
EE
EE
EE
EE
EE
Standard Event
Standard Event
Standard Event
Standard Event
Standard Event
Standard Event
4
4
4
4
4
4
-215
-214
-213
-212
-211
-210
Arm deadlock
Trigger deadlock
Init ignored
Arm ignored
Trigger ignored
Trigger error
EE
EE
EE
EE
EE
EE
Standard Event
Standard Event
Standard Event
Standard Event
Standard Event
Standard Event
4
4
4
4
4
4
1EE
= Error Event
SE = Status Event
SYS = System Error Event
2Use following queries to read status registers:
Standard Event: *ESR?
Operation Event: STAT:OPER?
Measurement Event: STAT:MEAS?
Questionable Event: STAT:QUES?
B-4
Status and Error Messages
Table B-1 (cont.)
Status and error messages
Number
Error message
Event1
Status register2
Bit
-202
-201
-200
Settings lost due to rtl
Invalid while in local
Execution error
EE
EE
EE
Standard Event
Standard Event
Standard Event
4
4
4
-178
-171
-170
-168
-161
-160
-158
-154
-151
-150
-148
Expression data not allowed
Invalid expression
Expression error
Block data not allowed
Invalid block data
Block data error
String data not allowed
String too long
Invalid string data
String data error
Character data not allowed
EE
EE
EE
EE
EE
EE
EE
EE
EE
EE
EE
Standard Event
Standard Event
Standard Event
Standard Event
Standard Event
Standard Event
Standard Event
Standard Event
Standard Event
Standard Event
Standard Event
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
-144
-141
-140
-128
-124
Character data too long
Invalid character data
Character data error
Numeric data not allowed
Too many digits
EE
EE
EE
EE
EE
Standard Event
Standard Event
Standard Event
Standard Event
Standard Event
5
5
5
5
5
-123
-121
-120
-114
-113
Exponent too large
Invalid character in number
Numeric data error
Header suffix out of range
Undefined header
EE
EE
EE
EE
EE
Standard Event
Standard Event
Standard Event
Standard Event
Standard Event
5
5
5
5
5
-112
-111
-110
-109
-108
Program mnemonic too long
Header separator error
Command header error
Missing parameter
Parameter not allowed
EE
EE
EE
EE
EE
Standard Event
Standard Event
Standard Event
Standard Event
Standard Event
5
5
5
5
5
1EE
= Error Event
SE = Status Event
SYS = System Error Event
2Use following queries to read status registers:
Standard Event: *ESR?
Operation Event: STAT:OPER?
Measurement Event: STAT:MEAS?
Questionable Event: STAT:QUES?
Status and Error Messages
B-5
Table B-1 (cont.)
Status and error messages
Number
Error message
Event1
Status register2
Bit
-105
-104
-103
-102
-101
GET not allowed
Data type error
Invalid separator
Syntax error
Invalid character
EE
EE
EE
EE
EE
Standard Event
Standard Event
Standard Event
Standard Event
Standard Event
5
5
5
5
5
-100
Command error
EE
Standard Event
5
+000
No error
SE
+100
+101
+102
+103
+104
+105
+106
+107
+108
+109
+111
+112
+113
+114
Measurement events:
Limit 1 failed
Low limit 2 failed
High limit 2 failed
Low limit 3 failed
High limit 3 failed
Active limit tests passed
Reading available
Reading overflow
Buffer available
Buffer full
OUTPUT interlock asserted
Temperature limit exceeded
Voltage limit exceeded
Source in compliance
SE
SE
SE
SE
SE
SE
SE
SE
SE
SE
SE
SE
SE
SE
Measurement Event
Measurement Event
Measurement Event
Measurement Event
Measurement Event
Measurement Event
Measurement Event
Measurement Event
Measurement Event
Measurement Event
Measurement Event
Measurement Event
Measurement Event
Measurement Event
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
11
12
13
14
+200
Standard events:
Operation complete
SE
Standard Event
0
+300
+303
Operation events:
Device calibrating
Device sweeping
SE
SE
Operation Event
Operation Event
0
3
1EE
= Error Event
SE = Status Event
SYS = System Error Event
2Use following queries to read status registers:
Standard Event: *ESR?
Operation Event: STAT:OPER?
Measurement Event: STAT:MEAS?
Questionable Event: STAT:QUES?
B-6
Status and Error Messages
Table B-1 (cont.)
Status and error messages
Number
Error message
Event1
Status register2
Bit
+305
+306
+310
Waiting in trigger layer
Waiting in arm layer
Entering idle layer
SE
SE
SE
Operation Event
Operation Event
Operation Event
5
6
10
+408
+414
Questionable events:
Questionable Calibration
Command Warning
SE
SE
Questionable Event
Questionable Event
8
14
+500
+501
+502
+503
+504
+505
+506
+507
+508
+509
+510
Calibration errors:
Date of calibration not set
Next date of calibration not set
Calibration data invalid
DAC calibration overflow
DAC calibration underflow
Source offset data invalid
Source gain data invalid
Measurement offset data invalid
Measurement gain data invalid
Not permitted with cal locked
Not permitted with cal un-locked
EE
EE
EE
EE
EE
EE
EE
EE
EE
EE
EE
Standard Event
Standard Event
Standard Event
Standard Event
Standard Event
Standard Event
Standard Event
Standard Event
Standard Event
Standard Event
Standard Event
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
+601
+602
+603
+604
+605
+606
Lost data errors:
Reading buffer data lost
GPIB address lost
Power-on state lost
DC calibration data lost
Calibration dates lost
GPIB communication language lost
EE
EE
EE
EE
EE
EE
Standard Event
Standard Event
Standard Event
Standard Event
Standard Event
Standard Event
3
3
3
3
3
3
+700
+701
+702
Communication errors:
Invalid system communication
ASCII only with RS-232
Preamp Timeout
EE
EE
EE
Standard Event
Standard Event
Standard Event
3
3
3
1EE
= Error Event
SE = Status Event
SYS = System Error Event
2Use following queries to read status registers:
Standard Event: *ESR?
Operation Event: STAT:OPER?
Measurement Event: STAT:MEAS?
Questionable Event: STAT:QUES?
Status and Error Messages
B-7
Table B-1 (cont.)
Status and error messages
Number
Error message
Event1
Status register2
Bit
+800
+801
+802
+803
+804
+805
+806
+807
+808
+809
+810
+811
+812
+813
+814
+815
+816
+817
+818
+819
+820
+821
+822
+823
+824
+825
+826
+827
+830
+900
Additional command execution errors:
Illegal with storage active
Insufficient vector data
OUTPUT blocked by interlock
Not permitted with OUTPUT off
Expression list full
Undefined expression exists
Expression not found
Definition not allowed
Expression cannot be deleted
Source memory location revised
OUTPUT blocked by Over Temp
Not an operator or number
Mismatched parenthesis
Not a number of data handle
Mismatched brackets
Too many parenthesis
Entire expression not parsed
Unknown token
Error parsing mantissa
Error parsing exponent
Error parsing value
Invalid data handle index
Too small for sense range
Invalid with source read-back on
Cannot exceed compliance range
Invalid with auto-ohms on
Attempt to exceed power limit
Invalid with ohms guard on
Invalid with INF ARM:COUNT
Internal System Error
EE
EE
EE
EE
EE
EE
EE
EE
EE
EE
EE
EE
EE
EE
EE
EE
EE
EE
EE
EE
EE
EE
EE
EE
EE
EE
EE
EE
EE
EE
Standard Event
Standard Event
Standard Event
Standard Event
Standard Event
Standard Event
Standard Event
Standard Event
Standard Event
Standard Event
Standard Event
Standard Event
Standard Event
Standard Event
Standard Event
Standard Event
Standard Event
Standard Event
Standard Event
Standard Event
Standard Event
Standard Event
Standard Event
Standard Event
Standard Event
Standard Event
Standard Event
Standard Event
Standard Event
Standard Event
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
3
1EE
= Error Event
SE = Status Event
SYS = System Error Event
2Use following queries to read status registers:
Standard Event: *ESR?
Operation Event: STAT:OPER?
Measurement Event: STAT:MEAS?
Questionable Event: STAT:QUES?
B-8
Status and Error Messages
Eliminating common SCPI errors
There are three SCPI errors that occur more often than any others:
•
•
•
-113, “Undefined header”
-410, “Query INTERRUPTED”
-420, “Query UNTERMINATED”
The following paragraphs discuss the most likely causes for these errors and methods for
avoiding them.
-113, “Undefined header”
This error indicates that the command you sent to the instrument did not contain a recognizable command name. The most likely causes for this error are:
•
Missing space between the command and its parameter. There must be one or more
spaces (blanks) between the command and its parameter. For example:
:SENS:VOLT:DC:RANGl00
:SENS:VOLT:DC:RANG 100
•
•
Incorrect (no space between command and parameter)
Correct
Improper short or long form. Check the command list in Section 17 for the correct
command name.
Blanks (spaces) within the command name. For example:
:SYST :ERR?
:SYST:ERR?
Incorrect (space between :SYST and :ERR?)
Correct
-410, “Query INTERRUPTED”
This error occurs when you have sent a valid query to the instrument, and then send it
another command or query, or a Group Execute Trigger (GET) before it has had a chance to
send the entire response message (including the line-feed/EOI terminator). The most likely
causes are:
•
•
Sending a query to the instrument and then sending another command or query before
reading the response to the first query. For example, the following sequence of commands will cause an error -410:
:SYST:ERR?
*OPC?
This sequence generates an error because you must read the response to :SYST:ERR?
before sending the *OPC? query.
Incorrectly configured IEEE-488 driver. The driver must bc configured so that when
talking on the bus it sends line-feed with EOI as the terminator, and when listening on
the bus it expects line-feed with EOI as the terminator. See the reference manual for
your particular IEEE-488 interface.
Status and Error Messages
B-9
-420, “Query UNTERMINATED”
This error occurs when you address the instrument to talk, and there is no response message
to send. The most likely causes are:
•
•
•
Not sending a query. You must send a valid query to the instrument before addressing it
to talk.
Sending an invalid query. If you have sent a query and still get this error, make sure that
the instrument is processing the query without error. For example, sending an illformed query that generates an error -113, “Undefined header” and then addressing the
instrument to talk will generate an error -420, “Query UNTERMINATED” as well.
Valid query following an invalid command. This situation can occur when you send
multiple commands or queries (program message units) within one command string
(program message). When the Model 6430 detects an error in a program message unit,
it discards all further program message units until the end of the string; for example:
:SENS:DATE?; :SENS:FUNC?
In the above program message, the program message unit :SENS:DATE? will generate
error -113, “Undefined header,” and the Model 6430 wi|| discard the second program
message unit :SENS:FUNC? even though it is a valid query.
B-10
Status and Error Messages
C
Data Flow
C-2
Data Flow
Introduction
Data flow for remote operation is summarized by the block diagram shown in Figure C-1.
Refer to this block diagram for the following discussion.
The SENSE block represents the basic measured readings of voltage, current and resistance.
If Filter is enabled, the readings will be filtered. The SENSE block also measures time for the
timestamp.
When the INITiate command is sent, the programmed number of source-measure operations
are performed and the respective data is temporarily stored in the Sample Buffer. For example,
if 20 source-measure operations were performed, then 20 sets of data will be stored in the Sample Buffer. Data from this buffer is then routed to other enabled data flow blocks.
Figure C-1
Data flow block
diagram
SENSE
(Measurements)
Volts, Amps, Ohms,
Timestamp, Filter
Sample
Buffer
CALC1
Math
Expression
CALC2
Limit Tests
NULL (Rel)
Trace
(Data Store)
CALC3
Min, Max, Sdev
Mean, Pk-Pk
FETCh?
CALC2:DATA?
CALC3:DATA?
READ?
CALC1:DATA?
TRACe:DATA?
MEAS?
Data Flow
C-3
Assuming that all functions are enabled, the data that is output by the read commands
(FETCh?, CALC1:DATA?, CALC2:DATA?, TRACe:DATA?, and CALC3:DATA?) depend on
which data elements are selected. With all elements selected, available data will include voltage, current and resistance readings as well as the timestamp and status information. Note that
if a measurement function is not enabled, then either the NAN (not a number) value or the
source reading will be used instead. See Section 17, FORMat Subsystem for details.
After all source-measure operations are completed the SourceMeter returns to the idle state.
The data stored in the Sample Buffer will remain there until data from another source-measure
cycle overwrites the buffer. Data in the Sample Buffer is lost if the SourceMeter goes to the
local state (REM annunciator off).
NOTE
With no data in the Sample Buffer, the FETCh?, CALCulate1:DATA? and
CALCulate2:DATA? commands to read data will display the message “Data corrupt
or stale.”
FETCh?
This command is used to read data stored in the Sample Buffer. If, for example, there are 20
data arrays stored in the Sample Buffer, then all 20 data arrays will be sent to the computer
when FETCh? is executed. Note that FETCh? does not affect data in the Sample Buffer. Thus,
subsequent executions of FETCh? acquire the same data.
The READ? command performs an INITiate and then a FETCh? The INITiate triggers a
new source-measure cycle which puts new data in the Sample Buffer. FETCh? reads that new
data. The MEASure? command places the SourceMeter in a “one-shot” source-measure mode
and then performs a READ?. See Section 16 for more information on READ? and MEASure?.
CALCulate[1]:DATA?
If CALCulate1 is enabled, Sample Buffer data is fed to the CALC1 block where the results
for the selected math expression are calculated. The CALC1:DATA? command will read the
results of the math expression. If, for example, 20 data arrays in the Sample Buffer yield 10
math expression results, then CALC1:DATA? will acquire 10 readings (results).
CALCulate2:DATA?
If CALCulate2 is enabled, Sample Buffer data and CALC1 math expression results become
available to the CALC2 block for limit testing. Depending on the selected feed, limit testing
can be performed on the voltage, current, resistance, or timestamp readings of Sample Buffer
data, or it can be performed on the CALC1 math expression results. If NULL (rel) is enabled,
the readings used for limit testing will be the results of the null operation.
The CALCulate2:DATA? command acquires the readings used for limit testing.
C-4
Data Flow
TRACe:DATA?
If the data store is enabled, Sample Buffer data, CALC1 results, and CALC2 readings
become available to the TRACE block for storage. The selected feed determines which group
of readings are stored.
The TRACe:DATA? command reads the entire contents of the data store.
CALCulate3:DATA?
Statistical information (minimum, maximum, mean, standard deviation, and peak-to-peak)
is available for measure readings stored in the buffer. If the readings in the data store came
directly from the Sample Buffer, then the selected statistic calculation will be performed on all
enabled measurement functions. The calculation results are returned in the following fixed
order:
VOLTage result, CURRent result, RESistance result
When the TRACE buffer is feeding off CALC1 or CALC2, the selected statistic calculation
is performed on the selected feed. Thus, a single statistic result is acquired for each reading
stored in the data store.
The CALCulate3:DATA? command acquires the results of the selected calculation.
D
IEEE-488 Bus Overview
D-2
IEEE-488 Bus Overview
Introduction
Basically, the IEEE-488 bus is a communication system between two or more electronic
devices. A device can be either an instrument or a computer. When a computer is used on the
bus, it serves to supervise the communication exchange between all the devices and is known
as the controller. Supervision by the controller consists of determining which device will talk
and which device will listen. As a talker, a device will output information and as a listener, a
device will receive information. To simplify the task of keeping track of the devices, a unique
address number is assigned to each one.
On the bus, only one device can talk at a time and is addressed to talk by the controller. The
device that is talking is known as the active talker. The devices that need to listen to the talker
are addressed to listen by the controller. Each listener is then referred to as an active listener.
Devices that do not need to listen are instructed to unlisten. The reason for the unlisten instruction is to optimize the speed of bus information transfer since the task of listening takes up bus
time.
Through the use of control lines, a handshake sequence takes place in the transfer process of
information from a talker to a listener. This handshake sequence helps ensure the credibility of
the information transfer. The basic handshake sequence between an active controller (talker)
and a listener is as follows:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
The listener indicates that it is ready to listen.
The talker places the byte of data on the bus and indicates that the data is available to
the listener.
The listener, aware that the data is available, accepts the data and then indicates that the
data has been accepted.
The talker, aware that the data has been accepted, stops sending data and indicates that
data is not being sent.
The listener, aware that there is no data on the bus, indicates that it is ready for the next
byte of data.
Bus description
The IEEE-488 bus, which is also frequently referred to as the GPIB (General Purpose Interface Bus), was designed as a parallel transfer medium to optimize data transfer without using
an excessive number of bus lines. In keeping with this goal, the bus has only eight data lines
that are used for both data and with most commands. Five bus management lines and three
handshake lines round out the complement of bus signal lines.
A typical set up for controlled operation is shown in Figure D-1. Generally, a system will
contain one controller and a number of other instruments to which the commands are given.
Device operation is categorized into three operators: controller, talker, and listener. The controller does what its name implies; it controls the instruments on the bus. The talker sends data
while a listener receives data. Depending on the type of instrument, any particular device can
be a talker only, a listener only, or both a talker and listener.
IEEE-488 Bus Overview
D-3
There are two categories of controllers: system controller and basic controller. Both are able
to control other instruments, but only the system controller has the absolute authority in the
system. In a system with more than one controller, only one controller may be active at any
given time. Certain protocol is used to pass control from one controller to another.
The IEEE-488 bus is limited to 15 devices, including the controller. Thus, any number of
talkers and listeners up to that limit may be present on the bus at one time. Although several
devices may be commanded to listen simultaneously, the bus can have only one active talker, or
communications would be scrambled.
Figure D-1
IEEE-488 bus
configuration
TO OTHER DEVICES
DEVICE 1
ABLE TO
TALK, LISTEN
AND CONTROL
(COMPUTER)
DATA BUS
DEVICE 2
ABLE TO
TALK AND
LISTEN
(6430)
DEVICE 3
ONLY ABLE
TO LISTEN
(PRINTER)
DATA BYTE
TRANSFER
CONTROL
GENERAL
INTERFACE
MANAGEMENT
DEVICE 4
ONLY ABLE
TO TALK
DIO 1–8 DATA
(8 LINES)
DAV
NRFD
NDAC
IFC
ATN
SRQ
REN
EOI
HANDSHAKE
BUS
MANAGEMENT
D-4
IEEE-488 Bus Overview
A device is placed in the talk or listen state by sending an appropriate talk or listen command. These talk and listen commands are derived from an instrument’s primary address. The
primary address may have any value between 0 and 31, and is generally set by rear panel DIP
switches or programmed from the front panel of the instrument. The actual listen address value
sent out over the bus is obtained by ORing the primary address with #H20. For example, if the
primary address is #H16, the actual listen address is #H36 (#H36 = #H16 + #H20). In a similar
manner, the talk address is obtained by ORing the primary address with #H40. With the present
example, the talk address derived from a primary address of 16 decimal would be #H56
(#H56 = #H16 + #H40).
The IEEE-488 standards also include another addressing mode called secondary addressing.
Secondary addresses lie in the range of #H60-#H7F. Note, however, that many devices, including the SourceMeter, do not use secondary addressing.
Once a device is addressed to talk or listen, the appropriate bus transactions take place. For
example: if the instrument is addressed to talk, it places its data string on the bus one byte at a
time. The controller reads the information and the appropriate software can be used to direct
the information to the desired location.
Bus lines
The signal lines on the IEEE-488 bus are grouped into three different categories: data lines,
management lines, and handshake lines. The data lines handle bus data and commands, while
the management and handshake lines ensure that proper data transfer and operation takes place.
Each bus line is active low, with approximately zero volts representing a logic 1 (true). The following paragraphs describe the operation of these lines.
Data lines
The IEEE-488 bus uses eight data lines that transfer data one byte at a time. DIO1 (Data
Input/Output) through DIO8 (Data Input/Output) are the eight data lines used to transmit both
data and multiline commands and are bidirectional. The data lines operate with low true logic.
IEEE-488 Bus Overview
D-5
Bus management lines
The five bus management lines help to ensure proper interface control and management.
These lines are used to send the uniline commands.
ATN (Attention) — The ATN line is one of the more important management lines. The
state of this line determines how information on the data bus is to be interpreted.
IFC (Interface Clear) — As the name implies, the IFC line controls clearing of instruments
from the bus.
REN (Remote Enable) — The REN line is used to place the instrument on the bus in the
remote mode.
EOI (End or Identify) — The EOI is usually used to mark the end of a multi-byte data
transfer sequence.
SRQ (Service Request) — This line is used by devices when they require service from the
controller.
Handshake lines
The bus handshake lines operate in an interlocked sequence. This method ensures reliable
data transmission regardless of the transfer rate. Generally, data transfer will occur at a rate
determined by the slowest active device on the bus.
One of the three handshake lines is controlled by the source (the talker sending information),
while the remaining two lines are controlled by accepting devices (the listener or listeners
receiving the information). The three handshake lines are:
DAV (DATA VALID) — The source controls the state of the DAV line to indicate to any
listening devices whether or not data bus information is valid.
NRFD (Not Ready For Data) — The acceptor controls the state of NRFD. It is used to signal to the transmitting device to hold off the byte transfer sequence until the accepting device is
ready.
NDAC (Not Data Accepted) — NDAC is also controlled by the accepting device. The
state of NDAC tells the source whether or not the device has accepted the data byte.
The complete handshake sequence for one data byte is shown in Figure D-2. Once data is
placed on the data lines, the source checks to see that NRFD is high, indicating that all active
devices are ready. At the same time, NDAC should be low from the previous byte transfer. If
these conditions are not met, the source must wait until NDAC and NRFD have the correct status. If the source is a controller, NRFD and NDAC must be stable for at least 100nsec after
ATN is set true. Because of the possibility of a bus hang up, many controllers have time-out
routines that display messages in case the transfer sequence stops for any reason.
D-6
IEEE-488 Bus Overview
Once all NDAC and NRFD are properly set, the source sets DAV low, indicating to accepting devices that the byte on the data lines is now valid. NRFD will then go low, and NDAC will
go high once all devices have accepted the data. Each device will release NDAC at its own rate,
but NDAC will not be released to go high until all devices have accepted the data byte.
The sequence just described is used to transfer both data, talk and listen addresses, as well as
multiline commands. The state of the ATN line determines whether the data bus contains data,
addresses or commands as described in the following paragraph.
Figure D-2
IEEE-488 handshake
sequence
DATA
SOURCE
DAV
SOURCE
VALID
ALL READY
ACCEPTOR
NRFD
ALL ACCEPTED
NDAC
ACCEPTOR
Bus commands
The instrument may be given a number of special bus commands through the IEEE-488
interface. This section briefly describes the purpose of the bus commands which are grouped
into the following four categories.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Uniline commands — Sent by setting the associated bus lines true. For example, to
assert REN (Remote Enable), the REN line would be set low (true).
Multiline commands — General bus commands which are sent over the data lines with
the ATN line true (low).
Common commands — Commands that are common to all devices on the bus; sent
with ATN high (false).
SCPI commands — Commands that are particular to each device on the bus; sent with
ATN (false).
These bus commands and their general purpose are summarized in Table D-1.
IEEE-488 Bus Overview
D-7
Table D-1
IEEE-488 bus command summary
Command type Command
State of
ATN line
Comments
Uniline
REN (Remote Enable)
EOI (End Or Identify)
IFC (Interface Clear)
ATN (Attention)
SRQ (Service Request)
X
X
X
Low
X
Set up devices for remote operation.
Marks end of transmission.
Clears interface.
Defines data bus contents.
Controlled by external device.
Multiline
Universal
LLO (Local Lockout)
DCL (Device Clear)
SPE (Serial Poll Enable)
SPD (Serial Poll Disable)
Low
Low
Low
Low
Locks out local operation.
Returns device to default conditions.
Enables serial polling.
Disables serial polling.
Addressed
SDC (Selective Device Clear)
GTL (Go To Local)
Low
Low
Returns unit to default conditions.
Returns device to local.
Unaddressed
UNL (Unlisten)
UNT (Untalk)
Low
Low
Removes all listeners from the bus.
Removes any talkers from the bus.
Common
–
High
SCPI
–
High
Programs IEEE-488.2 compatible
instruments for common operations.
Programs SCPI compatible instruments for
particular operations.
Uniline commands
ATN, IFC and REN are asserted only by the controller. SRQ is asserted by an external
device. EOI may be asserted either by the controller or other devices depending on the direction of data transfer. The following is a description of each command. Each command is sent
by setting the corresponding bus line true.
REN (Remote Enable) — REN is sent to set up instruments on the bus for remote operation. When REN is true, devices will be removed from the local mode. Depending on device
configuration, all front panel controls except the LOCAL key (if the device is so equipped) may
be locked out when REN is true. Generally, REN should be sent before attempting to program
instruments over the bus.
EOI (End or Identify) — EOI is used to positively identify the last byte in a multi-byte
transfer sequence, thus allowing data words of various lengths to be transmitted easily.
D-8
IEEE-488 Bus Overview
IFC (Interface Clear) — IFC is used to clear the interface and return all devices to the
talker and listener idle states.
ATN (Attention) — The controller sends ATN while transmitting addresses or multiline
commands.
SRQ (Service Request) — SRQ is asserted by a device when it requires service from a
controller.
Universal multiline commands
Universal commands are those multiline commands that require no addressing. All devices
equipped to implement such commands will do so simultaneously when the commands are
transmitted. As with all multiline commands, these commands are transmitted with ATN true.
LLO (Local Lockout) — LLO is sent to the instrument to lock out the LOCAL key and thus
all the front panel controls.
DCL (Device Clear) — DCL is used to return instruments to some default state. Usually,
instruments return to the power-up conditions.
SPE (Serial Poll Enable) — SPE is the first step in the serial polling sequences, which is
used to determine which device has requested service.
SPD (Serial Poll Disable) — SPD is used by the controller to remove all devices on the bus
from the serial poll mode and is generally the last command in the serial polling sequence.
Addressed multiline commands
Addressed commands are multiline commands that must be preceded by the device listen
address before that instrument will respond to the command in question. Note that only the
addressed device will respond to these commands. Both the commands and the address preceding it are sent with ATN true.
SDC (Selective Device Clear) — The SDC command performs essentially the same function as the DCL command except that only the addressed device responds. Generally, instruments return to their power-up default conditions when responding to the SDC command.
GTL (Go To Local) — The GTL command is used to remove instruments from the remote
mode. With some instruments, GTL also unlocks front panel controls if they were previously
locked out with the LLO command.
GET (Group Execute Trigger) — The GET command is used to trigger devices to perform
a specific action that depends on device configuration (for example, take a reading). Although
GET is an addressed command, many devices respond to GET without addressing.
IEEE-488 Bus Overview
D-9
Address commands
Addressed commands include two primary command groups and a secondary address
group. ATN is true when these commands are asserted. The commands include:
LAG (Listen Address Group) — These listen commands are derived from an instrument’s
primary address and are used to address devices to listen. The actual command byte is obtained
by ORing the primary address with #H20.
TAG (Talk Address Group) — The talk commands are derived from the primary address
by ORing the address with #H40. Talk commands are used to address devices to talk.
SCG (Secondary Command Group) — Commands in this group provide additional
addressing capabilities. Many devices (including the SourceMeter) do not use these commands.
Unaddress commands
The two unaddress commands are used by the controller to remove any talkers or listeners
from the bus. ATN is true when these commands are asserted.
UNL (Unlisten) — Listeners are placed in the listener idle state by the UNL command.
UNT (Untalk) — Any previously commanded talkers will be placed in the talker idle state
by the UNT command.
Common commands
Common commands are commands that are common to all devices on the bus. These commands are designated and defined by the IEEE-488.2 standard.
Generally, these commands are sent as one or more ASCII characters that tell the device to
perform a common operation, such as reset. The IEEE-488 bus treats these commands as data
in that ATN is false when the commands are transmitted.
SCPI commands
SCPI commands are commands that are particular to each device on the bus. These commands are designated by the instrument manufacturer, and are based on the instrument model
defined by the Standard Commands for Programmable Instruments (SCPI) Consortium’s SCPI
standard.
Generally, these commands are sent as one or more ASCII characters that tell the device to
perform a particular operation, such as setting a range or closing a relay. The IEEE-488 bus
treats these commands as data in that ATN is false when the commands are transmitted.
D-10
IEEE-488 Bus Overview
Command codes
Command codes for the various commands that use the data lines are summarized in
Figure D-3. Hexadecimal and the decimal values for the various commands are listed in
Table D-2.
Table D-2
Hexadecimal and decimal command codes
Command
Hex value
Decimal value
GTL
SDC
GET
LLO
DCL
SPE
SPD
LAG
TAG
SCG
UNL
UNT
01
04
08
11
14
18
19
20-3F
40-5F
60-7F
3F
5F
1
4
8
17
20
24
25
32-63
64-95
96-127
63
95
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
D1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
D0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
Column
Row
GET
TCT*
SDC
PPC*
GTL
0 (B)
Command
ADDRESSED
COMMAND
GROUP
(ACG)
NUL
SOH
STX
ETX
EOT
ENQ
ACK
BEL
BS
HT
LF
VT
FF
CR
SO
SI
0 (A)
SPE
SPD
DCL
PPU*
LLO
1 (B)
UNIVERSAL
COMMAND
GROUP
(UCG)
DLE
DC1
DC2
DC3
DC4
NAK
SYN
ETB
CAN
EM
SUB
ESC
FS
GS
RS
US
1 (A)
X
0
0
1
Command
Primary
Address
SP
!
"
#
$
%
&
'
(
)
•
+
,
_
.
/
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
:
;
<
=
>
?
3 (A)
X
0
1
1
PRIMARY
COMMAND
GROUP
(PCG)
LISTEN
ADDRESS
GROUP
(LAG)
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
2 (A) 2 (B)
X
0
1
0
*PPC (PARALLEL POLL CONFIGURE) PPU (PARALLEL POLL UNCONFIGURE),
and TCT (TAKE CONTROL) not implemented by Model 6430.
Note: D0 = D101 ...D7 = D108; X = Don't Care.
D2
D3
X
0
0
0
Primary
Address
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
UNL
3 (B)
@
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
4 (A)
X
1
0
0
Primary
Address
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
[
\
]
5 (A)
TALK
ADDRESS
GROUP
(TAG)
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
4 (B)
X
1
0
1
Primary
Address
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
UNT
5 (B)
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i
j
k
l
m
n
o
6 (A)
X
1
1
0
~
=
DEL
:
p
q
r
s
t
u
v
w
x
y
z
7 (A)
SECONDARY
COMMAND
GROUP
(SDC)
6 (B)
X
1
1
1
7 (B)
Figure D-3
Command codes
Bits
D7
D6
D5
D4
IEEE-488 Bus Overview
D-11
D-12
IEEE-488 Bus Overview
Typical command sequences
For the various multiline commands, a specific bus sequence must take place to properly
send the command. In particular, the correct listen address must be sent to the instrument
before it will respond to addressed commands. Table D-3 lists a typical bus sequence for sending the addressed multiline commands. In this instance, the SDC command is being sent to the
instrument. UNL is generally sent as part of the sequence to ensure that no other active listeners
are present. Note that ATN is true for both the listen command and the SDC command byte
itself.
Table D-3
Typical addressed multiline command sequence
Data bus
Step
1
2
3
4
Command
ATN state
UNL
LAG*
SDC
Set low
Stays low
Stays low
Returns high
ASCII
Hex
Decimal
?
8
EOT
3F
38
04
63
56
4
*Assumes primary address = 24.
Table D-4 gives a typical common command sequence. In this instance, ATN is true while
the instrument is being addressed, but it is set high while sending the common command string.
Table D-4
Typical addressed common command sequence
Data bus
Step
1
2
3
4
5
6
Command
ATN state
ASCII
Hex
Decimal
UNL
LAG*
Data
Data
Data
Data
Set low
Stays low
Set high
Stays high
Stays high
Stays high
?
8
*
R
S
T
3F
38
2A
52
53
54
63
56
42
82
83
84
*Assumes primary address = 24.
IEEE-488 Bus Overview
D-13
IEEE command groups
Command groups supported by the SourceMeter are listed in Table D-5. Common commands and SCPI commands are not included in this list.
Table D-5
IEEE command groups
HANDSHAKE COMMAND GROUP
NDAC = NOT DATA ACCEPTED
NRFD = NOT READY FOR DATA
DAV = DATA VALID
UNIVERSAL COMMAND GROUP
ATN = ATTENTION
DCL = DEVICE CLEAR
IFC = INTERFACE CLEAR
REN = REMOTE ENABLE
SPD = SERIAL POLL DISABLE
SPE = SERIAL POLL ENABLE
ADDRESS COMMAND GROUP
LISTEN
TALK
LAG = LISTEN ADDRESS GROUP
MLA = MY LISTEN ADDRESS
UNL = UNLISTEN
TAG = TALK ADDRESS GROUP
MTA = MY TALK ADDRESS
UNT = UNTALK
OTA = OTHER TALK ADDRESS
ADDRESSED COMMAND GROUP
ACG = ADDRESSED COMMAND GROUP
GTL = GO TO LOCAL
SDC = SELECTIVE DEVICE CLEAR
STATUS COMMAND GROUP
RQS = REQUEST SERVICE
SRQ = SERIAL POLL REQUEST
STB = STATUS BYTE
EOI = END
D-14
IEEE-488 Bus Overview
Interface function codes
The interface function codes, which are part of the IEEE-488 standards, define an instrument's ability to support various interface functions and should not be confused with programming commands found elsewhere in this manual. The interface function codes for the
SourceMeter are listed in Table D-6. The codes define SourceMeter capabilities as follows:
Table D-6
SourceMeter interface function codes
Code
Interface function
SH1
AH1
T5
L4
SR1
RL1
PP0
DC1
DT1
C0
E1
TE0
LE0
Source Handshake capability
Acceptor Handshake capability
Talker (basic talker, serial poll, unaddressed to talk on LAG)
Listener (basic listener, unaddressed to listen on TAG)
Service Request capability
Remote/Local capability
No Parallel Poll capability
Device Clear capability
Device Trigger capability
No Controller capability
Open collector bus drivers
No Extended Talker capability
No Extended Listener capability
SH (Source Handshake Function) — SH1 defines the ability of the instrument to initiate
the transfer of message/data over the data bus.
AH (Acceptor Handshake Function) — AH1 defines the ability of the instrument to guarantee proper reception of message/data transmitted over the data bus.
T (Talker Function) — The ability of the instrument to send data over the bus to other
devices is provided by the T function. Instrument talker capabilities (T5) exist only after the
instrument has been addressed to talk.
L (Listener Function) — The ability for the instrument to receive device-dependent data
over the bus from other devices is provided by the L function. Listener capabilities (L4) of the
instrument exist only after it has been addressed to listen.
SR (Service Request Function) — SR1 defines the ability of the instrument to request service from the controller.
RL (Remote-Local Function) — RL1 defines the ability of the instrument to be placed in
the remote or local modes.
PP (Parallel Poll Function) — The instrument does not have parallel polling capabilities
(PP0).
IEEE-488 Bus Overview
D-15
DC (Device Clear Function) — DC1 defines the ability of the instrument to be cleared
(initialized).
DT (Device Trigger Function) — DT1 defines the ability of the SourceMeter to have readings triggered.
C (Controller Function) — The instrument does not have controller capabilities (C0).
TE (Extended Talker Function) — The instrument does not have extended talker capabilities (TE0).
LE (Extended Listener Function) — The instrument does not have extended listener capabilities (LE0).
E (Bus Driver Type) — The instrument has open-collector bus drivers (E1).
D-16
IEEE-488 Bus Overview
E
IEEE-488 and SCPI
Conformance Information
E-2
IEEE-488 and SCPI Conformance Information
Introduction
The IEEE-488.2 standard requires specific information about how the SourceMeter implements the standard. Paragraph 4.9 of the IEEE-488.2 standard (Std 488.2-1987) lists the documentation requirements. Table E-1 provides a summary of the requirements, and provides the
information or references the manual for that information. Table E-2 lists the coupled commands used by the SourceMeter.
The SourceMeter complies with SCPI version 1996.0. Tables 17-1 through 17-10 list the
SCPI confirmed commands and the non-SCPI commands implemented by the SourceMeter.
IEEE-488 and SCPI Conformance Information
E-3
Table E-1
IEEE-488 documentation requirements
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(6)
(7)
(8)
(9)
(10)
(11)
(12)
(13)
(14)
(15)
(16)
(17)
(18)
(19)
(20)
(21)
(22)
(23)
Requirements
Description or reference
IEEE-488 Interface Function Codes.
Behavior of SourceMeter when the address is set outside the
range 0-30.
Behavior of SourceMeter when valid address is entered.
Power-On Setup Conditions.
See Appendix D.
Cannot enter an invalid address.
Address changes and bus resets.
Determine by :SYSTem:POSetup. See
Section 17.
Message Exchange Options:
Input buffer size.
2048 bytes.
Queries that return more than one response message unit. None.
Queries that generate a response when parsed.
All queries (Common Commands and
SCPI).
Queries that generate a response when read.
None.
See Table E-2.
Coupled commands.
Functional elements required for SCPI commands.
Contained in SCPI command subsystems
tables (see Tables 17-1 through 17-10).
Block display messages: 32 characters
Buffer size limitations for block data.
max.
See Section 13, Programming syntax.
Syntax restrictions.
See Section 13, Programming syntax.
Response syntax for every query command.
Device-to-device message transfer that does not follow rules None.
of the standard.
See Section 17, FORMat subsystem.
Block data response size.
See Section 15, Common commands.
Common Commands implemented by SourceMeter.
See Service Manual.
Calibration query information.
Not applicable.
Trigger macro for *DDT.
Not applicable.
Macro information.
See Section 15, Common commands.
Response to *IDN (identification).
Not applicable.
Storage area for *PUD and *PUD?.
Not applicable.
Resource description for *RDT and *RDT?.
See Section 15, Common commands.
Effects of *RST, *RCL and *SAV.
See Section 15, Common commands.
*TST information.
See Section 14, Status structure.
Status register structure.
All are sequential except :INIT.
Sequential or overlapped commands.
*OPC, *OPC? and *WAI; see Section 15,
Operation complete messages.
Common commands.
E-4
IEEE-488 and SCPI Conformance Information
Table E-2
Coupled commands
Command
Also changes
:SENSe...:RANGe:UPPER
:SENSe...:NPLC
:SOURce...:RANGe
:SOURce...:STARt
:SENSe...:RANGe:AUTO
:NPLC for all other functions
:SOURce...:RANGe:AUTO
:SOURce...:STEP
:SOURce...:CENTer
:SOURce...:SPAN
:SOURce...:STEP
:SOURce...:CENTer
:SOURce...:SPAN
:SOURce...:POINts
:SOURce...:STEP
:SOURce...:STARt
:SOURce...:STOP
:SOURce...:STEP
:SOURce...:STARt
:SOURce...:STOP
:SOURce...:STEP
See local and remote transition in Section 13,
Differences: remote vs. local operation.
See command description in Section 17, SYSTem
subsystem.
:SOURce...:STOP
:SOURce...:STEP
:SOURce...:POINts
:SOURce...:CENTer
:SOURce...:SPAN
REN, GTL
:SYSTem:MEMory:INITialize
F
Measurement Considerations
F-2
Measurement Considerations
NOTE
This appendix summarizes considerations to make safe, accurate measurements
using the Model 6430. For comprehensive information on these and additional measurement considerations, refer to the Low Level Measurements handbook, which is
available from Keithley.
Floating measurement safety concerns
The Model 6430 can perform floating measurements up to 42V above chassis ground. Even
though 42V is not considered a lethal level, it is high enough to cause a shock.
Figure F-1 shows two examples where the Model 6430 floats at 40V above chassis ground.
Keep in mind the outer shells of the triax connectors on the Remote PreAmp are connected to
input/output LO. Therefore, 40V is present on those shells as well as the outer casings of the
triax cable(s). If meter LO is connected to a noise shield, then 40V will also be present on that
shield. Typically, a test circuit is enclosed in a test fixture that is connected to a safety earth
ground. The test connection drawings in Section 2 show how a test fixture should be used.
WARNING
To prevent a shock hazard and possible damage to the Model 6430, never
exceed 42V peak between input/output LO and chassis ground.
WARNING
To prevent injury from electric shock, DO NOT touch the triax cables (or
connectors) of the Remote PreAmp while the SourceMeter is turned on or
any external source is turned on.
Figure F-1
Floating measurements
HI
+
80V
-
V
R1
6430
Voltmeter
LO
(R1 = R2)
R2
40V
A. Voltage measurement
+
A
R1
R3
40V
R2
B. Current measurement
40V
6430
Ammeter
Measurement Considerations
F-3
Low current measurements
Low current measurements are subject to a number of error sources that can have a serious
impact on measurement accuracy. First, the Remote PreAmp may cause measurement errors if
not connected properly. Making proper shielded connections is discussed in Section 2. The
voltage burden and input offset current of the ammeter may also affect the measurements. The
source impedance of the device under test will affect the noise performance of the Remote
PreAmp. Possible external error sources include leakage current from cables and fixtures, as
well as currents generated by effects such as triboelectric or piezoelectric.
Leakage currents and guarding
Leakage currents are generated by high resistance paths between the measurement circuit
and nearby voltage sources. These currents can considerably degrade the accuracy of low current measurements. Some ways to reduce leakage currents are to use good quality insulators,
reduce humidity, and use guarding. Guarding can also be used to reduce the effect of shunt
capacitance in the measurement circuit.
One way to reduce leakage currents is to use good quality insulators when building the test
circuit. Some good quality insulators include Teflon, polyethylene, and sapphire. Avoid materials such as phenolics and nylon.
Humidity may also degrade low current measurements. The amount of water an insulator
absorbs will vary depending upon the insulator. It is best to choose an insulator on which water
vapor does not readily form a continuous film. Sometimes this is unavoidable if the material
being measured absorbs water easily, so it is best to make the measurements in an environmentally controlled room. In some cases, an insulator may have ionic contaminants and, especially
in high humidity, a spurious current may be generated.
Another way to reduce leakage currents is to use guarding. A guard is a conductor connected
to a low impedance point in the circuit that is nearly at the same potential as the high impedance lead being guarded. Guarding can isolate the high-impedance input lead of the Remote
PreAmp from leakage current due to voltage sources. The concepts of guarding are covered in
Section 5.
F-4
Measurement Considerations
An example of guarding as applied to an ionization chamber is shown in Figure F-2. An
unguarded ionization chamber and the corresponding equivalent circuit are shown in
Figure F-2A. The equivalent circuit shows that the full bias voltage appears across the insulator
leakage resistance (RL) and thus, a leakage current (IL) will be added to the measured ion current (IM = IC + IL). The leakage resistance is primarily due to the insulator of the ionization
chamber.
In Figure F-2B, a metal guard ring is added to the ionization chamber. This guard ring is
connected to the driven guard of the Remote PreAmp. This circuit splits the leakage resistance
into two parts; RL1 and RL2. The driven guard is at almost the same voltage potential as output
HI. The voltage difference is <1mV, and is known as the voltage burden of the Remote
PreAmp. Since the top and bottom of RL1 are at nearly the same potential, no significant current will flow through it.
In a similar manner, guarding may also be necessary to prevent leakage current in test fixtures. See Cable guard and Figure 5-11 in Section 5 for details.
Figure F-2
Guarding an
ionization
chamber
In/Out
HI
Remote
PreAmp
Equivalent Circuit
IM
IM
IC
RL
IL
VS
VS
In/Out
LO
A. Unguarded ionization chamber
Remote
PreAmp
Equivalent Circuit
In/Out
HI
IM
Guard
B. Guarded ionization chamber
IM
<100µV
x1
x1
VS
In/Out
LO
RL1
RL2
VS
Measurement Considerations
F-5
Noise and source impedance
Noise can seriously affect sensitive current measurements. This section discusses how DUT
(device under test) resistance and capacitance affect noise performance.
DUT resistance
The resistance of the DUT will affect the noise performance of the ammeter. As the DUT
resistance is reduced, the noise gain of the ammeter will increase. Noise gain can be given by
the following equation:
Output VNOISE = Input VNOISE (1 + RF/RDUT)
where;
•
•
•
•
Output VNOISE is noise seen at the output of the ammeter.
Input VNOISE is the noise seen at the input of the ammeter.
RF is the internal feedback resistance for the ammeter.
RDUT is the resistance of the DUT.
Note that as RDUT decreases in value, the output noise increases. For example, when
RF = RDUT, the input noise is multiplied by a factor of two. Since decreasing the source resistance can have a detrimental effect on noise performance, there are usually minimum recommended source resistance values based on measurement range. Table F-1 summarizes
minimum recommended source resistance values for various measurement ranges for the
ammeter. Note that the recommended source resistance varies by measurement range because
the RF value also depends on the measurement range.
Table F-1
Minimum recommended source resistance values
I-measure range
Minimum recommended
source resistance
1pA – 100pA
1nA – 100nA
1µA – 100µA
1mA – 100mA
1GΩ to 100GΩ
1MΩ to 100MΩ
1kΩ to 100kΩ
1Ω to 100Ω
F-6
Measurement Considerations
Source capacitance
DUT source capacitance will also affect the noise performance of the ammeter. In general,
as source capacitance increases, the noise gain also increases.
The elements of interest for this discussion are the capacitance (CDUT) of the DUT and the
internal feedback capacitance (CF) for the ammeter. Taking into account the capacitive reactance of these two elements, our previous noise gain formula must be modified as follows:
Output VNOISE = Input VNOISE (1 + ZF/ZDUT)
where;
•
•
•
•
Output VNOISE is the noise seen at the output of the ammeter.
Input VNOISE is the noise seen at the input of the ammeter.
ZF is the internal feedback impedance for the ammeter that is formed by CF and RF.
ZDUT is the internal impedance of the DUT that is formed by CDUT and RDUT.
Furthermore,
RF
Z F = ------------------------------------------( 2πfR F C F ) 2 + 1
and
RS
Z DUT = ------------------------------------------( 2πfR S C S ) 2 + 1
Note that as CS increases in value, ZDUT decreases in value, thereby increasing the noise
gain. Again, at the point where ZDUT = ZF, the input noise is amplified by a factor of two.
The maximum values of DUT capacitance (CDUT) for the ammeter are listed in Table 3-3
(see Basic source-measure procedure, current measurements and capacitive loads in Section 3.
You can, however, usually measure at higher load capacitance values by inserting a resistor in
series with the ammeter input. Remember that any series resistance will increase the voltage
burden by a factor of IIN x RSERIES. For example, the range of resistance listed in Table F-1
will result in voltage burden values in range of l mV to 1V. A useful alternative to a series resistor is a series diode, or two diodes in parallel back-to-back. The diodes can be small-signal
types and should be in a light-tight enclosure.
Generated currents
Any extraneous generated currents in the test system will add to the desired current, causing
errors. Currents can be internally generated, as in the case of instrument input offset current, or
they can come from external sources such as insulators and cables.
Offset currents
Internal offset current — The ideal ammeter should read zero when its input terminals are
left open. Practical ammeters, however, do have some small current that flows when the input is
Measurement Considerations
F-7
open. This current is known as the input offset current, and it is caused by bias currents of
active devices as well as by leakage currents through insulators within the instrument.
The internal input offset current adds to the source current so that the meter measures the
sum of the two currents:
IM = IS + II0
where; IM is the measured current.
IS is the source current.
II0 is the internal input offset current.
Internal current noise — Peak-to-peak noise over any one minute interval will be within
400aA during 90% of the interval for following conditions:
•
•
•
•
The triax input connectors of the Remote PreAmp capped, and on the 1pA range for at
least three minutes.
Auto filter on.
Auto zero off.
Source delay set to 0 sec.
External offset current — Offset currents can also be generated from external effects, such
as electrochemical effect (discussed below). The external offset current also adds to the source
current, and the ammeter again measures the sum of the currents:
IM = IS + II0 + IEO
where; IEO is the external offset current.
As long as the internal and external offsets remain stable for a reasonable period of time, the
Relative feature of the SourceMeter can be used to zero out offset current. With the source current (IS) set to zero, the ammeter will only measure and display the offset current reading.
When REL is enabled, the display will zero. What happens is that the offset current reading is
acquired as the rel value and is subtracted from present and future readings. When the source
current is applied, the displayed reading will not include the offset:
IM = IS + II0 + IEO - rel
IM = IS
where; rel is the rel value (II0 + IEO).
As long as the rel value equals the sum of the offsets, only the source current will be displayed. See Section 7 for details on Relative.
Offset current drift is a function of time and/or temperature. Therefore, when offset current
drifts significantly, you will have to re-zero the ammeter.
F-8
Measurement Considerations
Electrochemical effects
Error currents also arise from electrochemical effects when ionic chemicals create weak batteries on a circuit board. These batteries could generate a few nanoamps of current between
conductors. Ionic contamination may be the result of body oils, salts or solder flux. The problem is further enhanced by high humidity (moisture) that decreases insulation resistance.
When building test fixtures, select insulators that resist water absorption, and use the fixture
in a moderate humidity environment. Also, be sure that all insulators are kept clean and free of
contamination.
Humidity
Excess humidity can reduce insulation resistance on PC boards and in test connection insulators. Reduction in insulation resistance can, of course, seriously affect high-impedance measurements. Also, humidity (moisture) can combine with contaminants to produce offset
currents caused by electrochemical effects (see Electrochemical effects). To minimize the
effects or moisture, keep humidity to a minimum (ideally <50%), and keep components and
connectors in the test system clean.
Triboelectric effects
Triboelectric currents are generated by charges created between a conductor and an insulator
due to friction. Here, free electrons rub off the conductor and create a charge imbalance that
causes the current flow. For example, bending a triaxial cable causes friction between the center
conductor (HI) and its surrounding insulator resulting in triboelectric currents.
Triboelectric currents can be minimized as follows:
•
•
Use “low noise” cables. These cables are specially designed to minimize charge generation and use graphite to reduce friction. The triax cable supplied with the Model 6430
is low noise.
Use the shortest cables possible, and secure them (i.e., taping or tying) to a nonvibrating surface to keep them from moving.
Piezoelectric and stored charge effects
Piezoelectric currents are generated when mechanical stress is applied to certain insulating
materials (i.e., crystalline). In some plastics, pockets of stored charge cause the material to
behave in a similar manner.
When building test fixtures, choose good insulating materials and make connecting structures as rigid as possible. Make sure there are no mechanical stresses on the insulators.
Dielectric absorption
Dielectric absorption in an insulator can occur when a voltage across that insulator causes
positive and negative charges within the insulator to polarize because various polar molecules
relax at different rates. When the voltage is removed, the separated charges generate a decaying
current through circuits connected to the insulator as they recombine.
Measurement Considerations
F-9
To minimize the effects of dielectric absorption on current measurements, avoid applying
voltages greater than a few volts to insulators being used for sensitive current measurements. In
cases where this practice is unavoidable, it may take minutes or even hours in some cases for
the current caused by dielectric absorption to dissipate.
Voltage burden
The input resistance of the ammeter causes a small voltage drop across the input terminals.
This voltage is known as the voltage burden. If the voltage burden is large in relation to the
voltage of the measured circuit, then significant measurement errors will occur.
Refer to Figure F-3 to see how voltage burden affects current measurements. Assume VS is
set to output 5mV and RL is 5kΩ. An ideal ammeter with zero voltage burden would measure
the current source as follows:
IM = VS/RS
= 5mV/5kΩ
= 1
In practice however, every ammeter has a voltage burden. If the voltage burden (VB) is lmV,
the current will be measured as follows:
IM = (VS + VB) / RS
= (5mV + 1mV) / 5kΩ
= 1.2
The lmV voltage burden caused a 20% measurement error. The voltage burden of Model
6430 is <1mV.
Figure F-3
Voltage burden
6430
IM
RL
IL
VS
IM=
VS – VB
RL
V B = <1mV
F-10
Measurement Considerations
Overload protection
The Model 6430 may be damaged if more than 200V is applied to the input. In some applications, this maximum voltage may be unavoidably exceeded. In these cases, additional overload protection is required to avoid damaging the input circuitry of the instrument.
Figure F-4 shows a protection circuit consisting of a resistor and two diodes (IN3595). The
leakage of the 1N3595 diode is generally less than 1pA even with 1mV of forward bias, so the
circuit will not interfere with measurements of 10pA or more. This diode is rated to carry
225mA (450mA repeated surge). Since the voltage burden of the ammeter is less than 1mV, the
diodes will not conduct. With two diodes in parallel back to back, the circuit will provide protection regardless of the input polarity.
The resistor (R,) must be large enough to limit the current through the diodes to prevent
damage to the diodes. It also must be large enough to withstand the output voltage. A good rule
of thumb is to use a large enough resistor to cause a one volt drop at the maximum current to be
measured.
The protection circuit should be enclosed in a light-tight shield that is connected to input/
output low.
Figure F-4
Overload protection
for ammeter input
R
HI
To Ammeter
LO
High impedance voltage measurements
Loading effects
Circuit loading can be detrimental to high-impedance voltage measurements. Fortunately,
the input resistance of the Model 6430 voltmeter is very high (>1016Ω), therefore, it would take
a very large load resistance to cause voltmeter loading.
To see how meter loading can affect accuracy, refer to Figure F-5 where the SourceMeter is
configured to measure voltage only. RS represents the resistance component of the source,
while RIN represents the input resistance of the voltmeter. The percent error due to loading can
be calculated using the formula in the illustration. To keep the error under 0.1%, the input resistance (RIN) must be about 1000 times the value of the source resistance (RS). The input resistance of Model 6430 is >1016Ω. Therefore, to keep the error under 0.1%, the source resistance
of the measured voltage must be <1013Ω.
Measurement Considerations
Figure F-5
Meter loading
Source
F-11
SourceMeter
Rs
RIN
Es
% Error =
V
100RS
RS + RIN
Cable leakage resistance
For a voltage measurement, leakage resistance in a triax cable (from HI to LO) shunts the
voltage source to be measured. If the voltage source has a very high-impedance, the resultant
leakage current could be high enough to corrupt the measurement.
The Remote PreAmp uses guarded triax connectors to, for the most part, eliminate the problem of leakage current in triax cables. The center conductor (HI) is surrounded by the inner
shield, which is cable guard. Ideally, guard is at the same potential as the HI terminal, and
therefore, no leakage current will flow through the insulation. However, in reality, there is a
small voltage differential between HI and guard (<1mV). Therefore, there will be a small leakage current through the cable. If the insulation resistance is 2GΩ, then the leakage current will
be <0.5pA (<1mV / 2GΩ = 0.5pA).
For voltmeters that do not use guarding, the leakage current would be dependent on the voltage seen at input HI. For example, with input HI at 10V, the leakage current would be 5nA
(10V / 2GΩ = 5nA). This leakage is 10,000 times higher than the Model 6430 Remote
PreAmp.
Input capacitance (settling time)
The settling time of the circuit is particularly important when making volts measurements of
a source that has high internal resistance (Figure F-6).
The shunt capacitance (C) has to fully charge before an accurate voltage measurement can
be made by VM of Model 6430. The time period for charging the capacitor is determined by
the RC time constant (one time constant, τ = RC), and the familiar exponential curve of
Figure F-7 results. Therefore, it becomes necessary to wait four or five time constants to
achieve an accurate reading. For example, if R = 100GΩ and C = 10pF, RC time constant
would be 1 second. If 1% accuracy is required, a single measurement would require at least five
seconds.
F-12
Measurement Considerations
For voltmeters that do not use guarding, the triax input cable is a primary source of capacitance. Inside the cable, the insulation between the HI and LO terminals form a capacitor that
shunts the input of the voltmeter. The longer the cable, the larger the capacitance.
The guarded triax connectors of the Remote PreAmp minimize the problem of capacitance
in cables. The center conductor (HI) is surrounded by the inner shield, which is cable guard.
Ideally, guard is at the same potential as the HI terminal. With HI and guard at the same voltage, there is no charge-discharge capacitive action to slow down the measurement. However, in
reality, there is a small voltage differential between HI and guard (<1mV). Therefore, there will
be a little capacitive action due to the cables. The best way to minimize this capacitance is to
use short triax cables.
Figure F-6
Effects of input
capacitance
HI
R
V
C
M
E
LO
6430
Voltmeter
Measured
Source
τ = RC
Figure F-7
Settling time
100
Percent
of Final
Value
63
Time
0
0
1.0
2.0
RC
3.0
4.0
5.0
Measurement Considerations
F-13
High resistance measurements
Ohms measurement methods
The SourceMeter can make ohms measurements by either sourcing current, measuring voltage (constant-current method), or sourcing voltage, measuring current (constant-voltage
method). After the appropriate voltage and current readings are acquired, the resistance reading
is calculated using Ohms Law (R = V/I).
When using the constant-current method, the SourceMeter outputs a precise current and
then measures the voltage across the DUT. For high-impedance DUT, the considerations for
“High-impedance voltage measurements” apply.
When using the constant-voltage method, the SourceMeter outputs a precise voltage and
then measures the current through the DUT. For high-impedance DUT, the considerations and
techniques for “Low current measurements” apply.
Characteristics of high-valued resistors
Resistors with values of 1GΩ or more are often referred to as megohm resistors. Because of
their high resistances, these components are very unusual devices; accordingly, there are a
number considerations to take into account when measuring these devices: voltage and temperature coefficients, the effects of mechanical shock, and contamination.
Two types of high-megohm resistors are widely used: carbon-film and metal-oxide.
Although other types are available, experience has shown that these two are the most useful.
Compared to conventional resistors, carbon-film high-megohm resistors are noisy, unstable,
have high temperature coefficients, display high voltage coefficients, and are very fragile.
Recent developments in metal-oxide types have resulted in resistors with much lower voltage
coefficients, as well as improved temperature and time stability. Modern devices exhibit voltage coefficients less than 5ppm/V and no significant drift after five years of tests. Temperature
coefficients are on the order of 0.01%/˚C at 100MΩ, 0.025%/˚C at 100GΩ.
Such delicate devices require extreme care in handling. Mechanical shock may significantly
alter the resistance by dislodging particles of the conductive material. It is also important that
the resistance element or the glass envelope that surrounds it not be touched; doing so could
change its resistance due to the creation of new current paths or small electrochemically generated currents.
The resistors are coated to prevent water films from forming on the surface. Therefore, if it is
suspected that the resistor has acquired surface films from careless handling or deposits from
air contaminants, it should be cleaned with a cotton swab and methanol. After cleaning, the
resistor should be dried in a low-humidity atmosphere for several hours to allow any static
charges to dissipate.
F-14
Measurement Considerations
General measurement considerations
The following measurement considerations apply to all precision measurements.
Ground loops
Ground loops that occur in multiple-instrument test setups can create error signals that cause
erratic or erroneous measurements. The configuration shown in Figure F-8 introduces errors in
two ways. Large ground currents flowing in one of the wires will encounter small resistances,
either in the wires, or at the connecting points. This small resistance results in voltage drops
that can affect the measurement. Even if the ground loop currents are small, magnetic flux cutting across the large loops formed by the ground leads can induce sufficient voltages to disturb
sensitive measurements.
Figure F-8
Power line ground loops
Instrument 1
Signal Leads
Instrument 2
Instrument 3
Ground
Loop
Current
Power Line Ground
To prevent ground loops, instruments should be connected to ground at only a single point,
as shown in Figure F-9. Note that only a single instrument is connected directly to power line
ground. Experimentation is the best way to determine an acceptable arrangement. For this purpose, measuring instruments should be placed on their lowest ranges. The configuration that
results in the lowest noise signal is the one that should be used.
Figure F-9
Eliminating
ground loops
Instrument 1
Instrument 2
Instrument 3
Power Line Ground
Measurement Considerations
F-15
Light
Some components, such as semiconductor junctions and MOS capacitors on semiconductor
wafers, are excellent light detectors. Consequently, these components must be tested in a lightfree environment. While many test fixtures provide adequate light protection, others may allow
sufficient light penetration to affect the test results. Areas to check for light leaks include doors
and door hinges, tubing entry points, and connectors or connector panels.
Electrostatic interference
Electrostatic interference occurs when an electrically charged object is brought near an
uncharged object, thus inducing a charge on the previously uncharged object. Usually, effects
of such electrostatic action are not noticeable because low impedance levels allow the induced
charge to dissipate quickly. However, the high impedance levels of many measurements do not
allow these charges to decay rapidly, and erroneous or unstable readings may result. These
erroneous or unstable readings may be caused in the following ways:
•
•
DC electrostatic field can cause undetected errors or noise in the reading.
AC electrostatic fields can cause errors by driving the input preamplifier into saturation,
or through rectification that produces DC errors.
Electrostatic interference is first recognizable when hand or body movements near the
experiment cause fluctuations in the reading. Means of minimizing electrostatic interference
include:
1.
2.
Shielding. Possibilities include: a shielded room, a shielded booth, shielding the sensitive circuit, and using shielded cable. The shield should always be connected to a solid
connector that is connected to signal low. If circuit low is floated above ground, observe
safety precautions, and avoid touching the shield. Meshed screen or loosely braided
cable could be inadequate for high impedances, or in strong fields. Note, however, that
shielding can increase capacitance in the measuring circuit, possibly slowing down
response time.
Reduction of electrostatic fields. Moving power lines or other sources away from the
experiment reduces the amount of electrostatic interference seen in the measurement.
Magnetic fields
A magnetic field passing through a loop in a test circuit will generate a magnetic EMF (voltage) that is proportional to the strength of the field, the loop area, and the rate at which these
factors are changing. Magnetic fields can be minimized by following these guidelines:
•
•
•
Locate the test circuit as far away as possible from such magnetic field sources as
motors, transformers and magnets.
Avoid moving any part of the test circuit within the magnetic field.
Minimize the loop area by keeping leads as short as possible and twisting them
together.
F-16
Measurement Considerations
Electromagnetic Interference (EMI)
The electromagnetic interference characteristics of the Model 6430 comply with the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) requirements of the European Union as denoted by the CE
mark. However, it is still possible for sensitive measurements to be affected by external
sources. In these instances, special precautions may be required in the measurement setup.
Sources of EMI include:
•
•
•
•
Radio and TV broadcast transmitters.
Communications transmitters, including cellular phones and handheld radios.
Devices incorporating microprocessors and high-speed digital circuits.
Impulse sources as in the case of arcing in high-voltage environments.
The effect on instrument performance can be considerable if enough of the unwanted signal
is present. The effects of EMI can be seen as an unusually large offset, or, in the case of
impulse sources, erratic variations in the displayed reading.
The instrument and experiment should be kept as far away as possible from any EMI
sources. Additional shielding of the instrument, experiment and test leads will often reduce
EMI to an acceptable level. In extreme cases, a specially constructed screen room may be
required to sufficiently attenuate the troublesome signal.
External filtering of the input signal path may be required. In some cases, a simple one-pole
filter may be sufficient. In more difficult situations, multiple notch or band-stop filters, tuned to
the offending frequency range, may be required. Connecting multiple capacitors of widely different values in parallel will maintain a low impedance across a wide frequency range. Keep in
mind, however, that such filtering may have detrimental effects (such as increased response
time) on the measurement.
G
GPIB 488.1 Protocol
G-2
GPIB 488.1 Protocol
Introduction
The Model 6430 supports two GPIB protocols: SCPI and 488.1. The 488.1 protocol is
included to significantly increase speed over the GPIB.
When using the 488.1 protocol, throughput is enhanced up to 10 times for data sent to the
Model 6430 (command messages) and up to 20 times for data returned by the Model 6430
(response messages). The speed of readings sent over the GPIB is also increased; see GPIB
reading speed comparisons at the end of this Appendix for details.
NOTE
With the 488.1 protocol selected, you will still use SCPI commands to program the
Model 6430. Operation differences between the two protocols are discussed in this
appendix.
Selecting the 488.1 protocol
Perform the following steps to select the 488.1 protocol:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Press MENU to display the MAIN MENU.
Place the cursor on COMMUNICATION, and press ENTER to display the
COMMUNICATIONS SETUP menu.
Place the cursor on GPIB, and press ENTER to display the present GPIB address.
Press ENTER to display the GPIB PROTOCOL menu.
Place the cursor on 488.1, and press ENTER.
Use the EXIT key to back out of the menu structure.
When switching between the SCPI protocol and 488.1 protocol, the instrument does not
reset. The GPIB protocol setting is saved in EEPROM, and the unit will power up with that
selected protocol.
The GPIB protocol cannot be changed over the bus. However, there is a query command to
determine the presently selected protocol. When the 488.1 protocol is selected, the message
exchange protocol (MEP) disables. Therefore, if you use the following query to request the
state of MEP, you will know which protocol is enabled:
:SYSTem:MEP[:STATe]?
If a “1” is returned, MEP is enabled, and the SCPI protocol is selected. A “0” indicates that
MEP is disabled, and the 488.1 protocol is enabled. To summarize:
1 = SCPI protocol
0 = 488.1 protocol
GPIB 488.1 Protocol
G-3
Protocol differences
The following information covers the differences between the 488.1 protocol and the SCPI
protocol.
Message exchange protocol (MEP)
When the 488.1 protocol is selected, the MEP is disabled to speed up GPIB operation.
The following guidelines/limitations must be followed when using the 488.1 protocol:
•
•
•
•
•
If a query is sent, it must be the only command on the line (this limitation also means
no multiple queries can be sent). Otherwise, full SCPI command syntax is still supported including long-form and short form commands, multiple commands, and MIN/
MAX/DEF parameter definitions.
For example, the following command strings are invalid:
:VOLT:RANG 10;*OPC?
:RES:RANG?;:READ?
:READ?;:READ?
The following command strings are valid:
:SOUR1:VOLTage:STARt 1;STOP 10;step 1
:volt:nplc 1.0;:curr:rang min
:RES:RANG? MAX
:READ?
When a query is sent, either the data must be read back or a Device Clear (DCL) or
Interface Clear (IFC) must be performed to reset the query.
When sending a command or query, do not attempt to read data from the Model 6430
until the terminator has been sent (usually Line Feed with EOI). Otherwise, a DCL or
IFC must be sent to reset the input parser.
When receiving data, all data, up to and including the terminator (LF with EOI), must
be accepted. Otherwise, a DCL or IFC must be sent to reset the output task.
Empty command strings (terminator only) should not be sent.
Using SCPI-based programs
In general, an existing SCPI-based program will run properly and faster in the 488.1 protocol as long as it meets the above guidelines and limitations.
G-4
GPIB 488.1 Protocol
NRFD hold-off
*OPC, *OPC?, and *WAI are still functional but are not needed for the 488.1 protocol.
When sending commands, the GPIB is automatically held off when it detects a terminator. The
hold-off is released when all the commands have finished executing, or if there is some parser
or command error. An exception is an initiate command, which releases the hold-off immediately and does not wait for all of the readings to be acquired. This immediate release of bus
hold-off is done to support GET, SDC, IFC, *TRG, *RCL, *RST, SYSTem:PRESet and
ABORt during data acquisition.
NDAC hold-off
NDAC is included with the GPIB 488.1 protocol mode to allow a single instrument to hold
off all others on the bus until it is finished executing a command. The following command controls NDAC hold-off:
SYSTem:MEP:HOLDoff ON | OFF
The default is OFF, but NRFD hold-off will still be enabled and will prevent an instrument
from accepting further commands. See Figure G-1 for the complete IEEE-488 handshake
sequence.
Figure G-1
IEEE-488 handshake
sequence
DATA
SOURCE
DAV
SOURCE
VALID
ALL READY
ACCEPTOR
NRFD
ALL ACCEPTED
NDAC
ACCEPTOR
GPIB 488.1 Protocol
G-5
Trigger-on-talk
Trigger-on-talk functionality has been added for the 488.1 protocol. If a query has not been
received by the instrument, the Model 6430 will automatically assume a READ? command has
been sent when it is addressed to talk. This technique increases GPIB speed by decreasing the
transmission and parser times for the command.
Trigger-on-talk is extremely useful in the single-shot reading mode (*RST default) and is
the main reason for a >2x speed improvement over the SCPI protocol. Remember that the output must be on (:OUTput:STATe ON) before you can take readings.
The ARM:SOUR BUS and ARM:COUN INF commands are not supported by READ? with
the 488.1 protocol selected. If you send one of these commands, a DCL or IFC may be required
to reset the GPIB.
Message available
The MAV (message available) bit in the Serial Poll byte will be set when the query is finished being processed, not when there is data available in the output buffer (as with the SCPI
protocol). For the 488.1 protocol, output data will not be formatted until the first request for
data is received. This delay may cause unexpected time-outs when using SRQ on MAV for queries that take a long time to execute.
General operation notes
•
•
•
•
The TALK, LSTN, and SRQ annunciators are not functional in the 488.1 protocol. This
speeds up data through-put greatly. The REM annunciator still operates since it is critical to fundamental GPIB operation.
If the unit is in REMote, the GTL command may not put the Model 6430 into the local
mode. Only the front panel LOCAL key is guaranteed to operate, if not in local lockout
(LLO). GTL will still disable LLO.
IEEE-488 bus commands and features (GET, IFC, SDC, DCL, LLO, Serial Poll, and
SRQ) are still fully supported.
Multiple TALKs on the same query are supported as in the SCPI protocol. This feature
is useful when reading back long ASCII strings.
G-6
GPIB 488.1 Protocol
GPIB reading speed comparisons
The tables that follow compare the differences in reading speed for the SCPI and 488.1 protocols. Included in all tables is the percentage improvement achieved with the 488.1 protocol
compared to the SCPI protocol. The most significant speed improvements are shown in the
shaded areas of the tables.
Sweep operation
Tables G-1 through G-4 show bus reading rates for measure-only, source-measure, sourcemeasure-limit test, and source-memory sweep operation respectively. Note that the reading rate
for sweep operation can be increased by almost 50%.
Table G-1
SCPI/488.1 reading speed comparisons for measure-only sweep operation (rdgs/sec)
Speed
Fast
Medium
Normal
NPLC/Trig. origin
SCPI
488.1
0.01/internal
0.01/external
0.10/internal
0.10/external
1.00/internal
1.00/external
1198.7
1079.3
0509.6
0438.4
0059.0
0057.9
1759.6
1254.7
0511.5
0440.2
0059.0
0057.9
Improvement
46.78%
16.25%
00.37%
00.41%
00.00%
00.00%
Table G-2
SCPI/488.1 reading speed comparisons for source-measure sweep operation (rdgs/sec)
Speed
Fast
Medium
Normal
NPLC/Trig. origin
0.01/internal
0.01/external
0.10/internal
0.10/external
1.00/internal
1.00/external
SCPI
999.9
916.0
470.2
409.3
058.4
057.3
488.1
Improvement
1369.3
1035.2
0471.6
0409.8
0058.4
0057.3
36.94%
13.02%
00.29%
00.12%
00.00%
00.00%
GPIB 488.1 Protocol
G-7
Table G-3
SCPI/488.1 reading speed comparisons for source-measure-limit test
sweep operation (rdgs/sec)
Speed
Fast
Medium
Normal
NPLC/Trig. origin
SCPI
488.1
Improvement
0.01/internal
0.01/external
0.10/internal
0.10/external
1.00/internal
1.00/external
809.5
756.2
388.9
374.6
056.9
056.6
981.1
886.9
398.0
383.9
057.1
056.9
21.19%
17.28%
02.35%
02.47%
00.41%
00.48%
Note: Pass/Fail test performed using one high limit and one low math limit.
Table G-4
SCPI/488.1 reading speed comparisons for source-memory sweep operation (rdgs/sec)
Speed
Fast
Medium
Normal
NPLC/Trig. origin
SCPI
488.1
Improvement
0.01/internal
0.01/external
0.10/internal
0.10/external
1.00/internal
1.00/external
164.8
162.6
132.8
131.4
044.4
044.2
165.2
163.0
133.0
131.4
044.4
044.2
0.23%
0.23%
0.15%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
Note: Pass/Fail test performed using one high limit and one low math limit.
Single-shot operation
Tables G-5 through G-7 show reading rates for measure-only, source-measure, and sourcemeasure-limit test single-shot operation respectively. Note that the reading rate can be
increased by >100%.
Table G-5
SCPI/488.1 reading speed comparisons for measure-only single-shot operation (rdgs/sec)
Speed
Fast
Medium
Normal
NPLC/Trig. origin
SCPI
488.1
Improvement
0.01/internal
0.10/internal
1.00/internal
256.0
167.3
049.2
537.8
294.3
053.9
110.08%
75.86%
9.47%
G-8
GPIB 488.1 Protocol
Table G-6
SCPI/488.1 reading speed comparisons for source-measure single-shot operation (rdgs/sec)
Speed
Fast
Medium
Normal
NPLC/Trig. origin
SCPI
488.1
Improvement
0.01/internal
0.10/internal
1.00/internal
79.5
72.9
34.9
140.0
116.9
42.3
76.15%
60.27%
21.20%
Note: Includes time to re-program source to a new level before making measurement.
Table G-7
SCPI/488.1 reading speed comparisons for source-measure-limit test
single-shot operation (rdgs/sec)
Speed
Fast
Medium
Normal
NPLC/Trig. origin
SCPI
488.1
Improvement
0.01/internal
0.10/internal
1.00/internal
79.3
69.9
35.0
135.9
113.9
41.7
71.44%
62.81%
19.33%
Notes:
1. Pass/Fail test performed using one high limit and one low math limit.
2. Includes time to re-program source to a new level before making measurement.
Index
B
Basic circuit configuration 3-6
Basic circuit configurations 5-18
Measure only (V or I) 5-21
Source I 5-18
Source V 5-20
Basic Source-Measure Operation 3-1
Basic source-measure procedure 3-10
Baud rate 13-17
Binning 11-4, 11-6, 11-8
Buffer
Configure and control 17-99
considerations 5-28, 8-5
location number 8-2
Read and clear 17-99
statistics 8-3
BUS (Arm layer event detection) 10-18
Bus management lines D-5
Byte order 17-51
:CALCulate 17-22, C-3
:DATA? C-3
:DISPlay subsystem 17-41
:SOURce 17-64
:SYSTem subsystem 17-89
:TRACe subsystem 17-99
*CLS 15-2
*ESE, *ESE?, *ESR? 15-2
*IDN? 15-2, 15-3
*OPC and *OPC? 15-2, 15-3
*RCL 15-2, 15-4
*RST 15-2, 15-5
*SAV 15-2, 15-4
*SAV, *RCL 15-5
*SRE 15-2
*SRE? 15-2
*STB? 15-2
*TRG 15-2, 15-5
*TST? 15-2, 15-6
*WAI 15-2, 15-6
A
A/D conversion A-8
Abort source/measure cycle 17-103
Accuracy calculations A-7
Acquire statistic 17-40
Acquiring readings 16-3
AH (Acceptor Handshake Function) D-14
Ambient temperature 3-2
Annunciators 1-8
Arm layer 10-4, 10-13, 10-18
Output Triggers 10-6
Assign unit suffix 17-27
ATN (Attention) D-5, D-8
Auto
filter 6-13
range change mode 6-4, 17-98
range limits 6-5
ranging 6-4
zero 3-6
AUTO OFF 12-7
Auto zero
Disable/enable 3-7
Auto-clear timing 11-14
Available ranges 6-2
Average 8-4
C
C (Controller Function) D-15
Cable guard 2-9, 5-22
Cable leakage resistance F-11
Cables and adapters 1-5
CALC data elements 17-50
Calculate subsystems 17-22
CALCulate2 17-31
DATA? C-3
CALCulate3 17-40
DATA? C-4
Calibration 19-1
cycle 19-3
Unlocking 19-5
Capabilities
Source-measure 3-3
Carrying case 1-5
Case sensitivity 13-12
Category pulse component handler 11-11
Category register component handler 11-12
Changing
MATH function 5-29
REL or LIMITS 5-29
the password 19-21
V, I, or Ω measurement function 5-28
CHAR SET test 20-4
Characteristics of high-valued resistors F-13
Clear input triggers 17-102
Clear test results 17-39
Clearing digital output 17-84
Clearing registers and queues 14-4
Command
codes D-10, D-11
execution rules 13-15
path rules 13-14
reference 15-3
summary 15-2
words 13-10
Commands
address D-9
Addressed multiline D-8
and command parameters 13-10
Basic source-measure 3-15
Bus D-6
Common D-9
Condition register 14-17
Coupled E-4
Data store 8-6
Error queue 14-20
Event enable registers 14-18
Event register 14-17
Filter 6-16
Limit 11-19
Range and digits 6-6
Rel 7-3
SCPI D-9
Speed 6-8
Sweep 9-18
Unaddress D-9
Uniline D-7
Universal multiline D-8
Commands and command parameters 13-10
Common and SCPI commands to reset registers
and clear queues 14-4
Common Commands 15-1
Compliance limit 3-4, 5-2, 18-8
Composite testing 17-37
Condition registers 14-16
Configuration
Basic circuit 3-6, 5-18
Filter 6-15
Front panel output 12-7
list 17-76
measurement function 16-2
memory sweep 17-77
Ohms 4-2
Output 12-3
triggering 10-13
voltage and current sweeps 17-71
Configure and control limit tests 17-33
Configuring a sweep 9-11
Configuring and running a sweep 9-11
Connection
1µA and 10µA range gain
calibration 19-17
1µA-100mA range current verification
tests 18-21
1pA to 100nA range gain
calibration 19-19
1pA-100nA range current verification
tests 18-22
20Ω-200MΩ range verification 18-27
2GΩ-200GΩ range verification 18-29
2TΩ and 20TΩ range verification 18-30
chassis ground 2-5
diode I-V tests 9-19
DUT 2-6
GPIB 13-4
Input/output LO 2-5
Mainframe current calibration 19-10
mainframe current verification tests 18-13
mainframe resistance accuracy
verification 18-15
Mainframe voltage calibration test 19-7
mainframe voltage verification tests 18-11
overview 2-2
Remote PreAmp 2-2
Remote PreAmp voltage
verification tests 18-18
Voltage burden calibration 19-16
Connections 2-1
Considerations
Calibration 19-3
Compliance 18-8
Operation 3-6
Verification test 18-7
Contact information 1-2
Control
auto zero 17-92
beeper 17-91
display 17-41
Filter 6-16
source output-off 17-64
Controlling digital output lines 12-4
Counters 10-6, 10-21
D
Data
bits and parity 13-17
elements 17-46
flow 5-26, 11-3, C-1
format 17-44
lines D-4
Data Store 8-1
DAV (DATA VALID) D-5
DC (Device Clear Function) D-15
DCL (Device Clear) D-8
DCL (device clear) 13-8
Default
conditions 17-89
settings 1-17
Defaults
bench 10-7
Restoring factory 18-6
Define
:TEXT messages 17-43
math expression 17-27
Definitions A-8
DELAY Action 10-5, 10-20
Determining compliance limit 5-4, 18-10
Dielectric absorption F-8
Digital I/O port 12-2
Digital I/O Port, Interlock, and Output
Configuration 12-1
Digital output
Sink operation 12-3
Source operation 12-4
Digital output clear pattern 11-14
Digital output control
front panel 12-4
Remote 12-5
Digits 6-5
Diode I-V curve 9-19
Diode test
example 9-9
Forward Voltage Test 9-9
Leakage Current Tes 9-9
Reverse Breakdown Test 9-9
Test results 9-11
Testing process 9-10
Display
format 1-15
resolution 6-5
DISPLAY PATTERNS test 20-4
Displaying other buffer readings 8-3
DT (Device Trigger Function) D-15
DUT resistance F-5
E
E (Bus Driver Type) D-15
EDIT key 1-15
EEE-488 and SCPI Conformance
Information E-1
Electrochemical effects F-8
Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) F-16
Electrostatic interference F-15
Eliminating common SCPI errors B-8
Environmental conditions 18-2
EOI (End or Identify) D-5, D-7
Error
and status messages 13-9
queue 14-19, 17-87, 17-94
Event
detection 10-4, 10-18
Detector Bypass 10-4, 10-5, 10-18,
10-19
registers 14-17
EventLenable registers 14-17
examples, Compliance 5-3, 5-5
External triggering example 10-9
F
Fail condition 11-7
FETCh? C-3
Filter
3-stage filtering 6-9
Auto 6-13
commands 6-16
control 6-16
Median 6-10, 6-11
Moving 6-12
programming example 6-17
Remote programming 6-16
Repeat 6-10
stages 6-9
Filters 6-9
Configure and control 17-60
Firmware overhead A-9
Floating measurement F-2
safety concerns F-2
Flow control (signal handshaking) 13-18
FORMat subsystem 17-44
Front panel 1-7
auto zero 3-7
compliance limit 3-5
control 1-17
Data flow 5-27
data store 8-2
digital output control 12-4
Disabling display 1-16
GPIB operation 13-9
guard selection 2-13
line frequency 1-13
output configuration 12-7
rel 7-2
Remote display programming 1-16
source delay 3-10
source-measure procedure 3-12
sweep operation 9-11
tests 1-16, 20-3
Trigger model 10-2
V-source protection 3-9
I
Fuse
Line, replacement 20-2
replacement 1-14
G
General
bus commands 13-6
information 1-2
measurement considerations F-14
purpose probes 1-4
General operation notes G-5
Generated currents F-6
GET (Group Execute Trigger) D-8
GET (group execute trigger) 13-8
Getting Started 1-1
GPIB 10-4
488.1 Protocol G-1
connections 13-4
defaults 10-22
Front panel operation 13-9
operation 13-4
reading speed comparisons G-6
standards 13-4
status indicators 13-9
Grading mode 11-4
limit testing 11-5
Ground loops F-14
GTL (Go To Local) D-8
GTL (go to local) 13-7
GUARD 12-7
Guard 5-22, 12-9
selection 2-13
sense 5-24
Guarding an ionization chamber F-4
K
Key press
simulate 17-95
Key-press
codes 17-96
KEYS test 20-3
H
HALT 10-15
Handle 1-8
Handler interface 11-10
Handshake lines D-5
heat sink 3-2
Humidity F-8
Idle 10-2, 10-16
IEEE command groups D-13
IEEE-488
Bus description D-2
Bus lines D-4
Bus Overview D-1
connector 13-4
IEEE-488 documentation requirements E-3
IFC (Interface Clear) D-5, D-8
IFC (interface clear) 13-7
IMMEDIATE 10-4, 10-5
IMMediate 10-18, 10-19
Initialize memory 17-90
Initiate source/measure cycle 17-102
Input capacitance (settling time) F-11
Input trigger requirements 10-8
Inspection 1-3
Interface
function codes D-14
Selecting an 13-3
INTERLOCK 12-7
Interlock
control 17-52
Safety 12-6
Test fixture 2-5
Introduction
Calibration 19-2
Data flow C-2
GPIB 488.1 Protocol G-2
IEEE-488 and SCPI Conformance
Information E-2
IEEE-488 Bus Overview D-2
Performance Verification 18-2
Routine Maintenance 20-2
I-Source
boundaries 5-11
L
L (Listener Function) D-14
LAG (Listen Address Group) D-9
LE (Extended Listener Function) D-15
Leakage currents and guarding F-3
Light F-15
Limit 1 test 11-3
Limit 2, limit 3, and limit 5-12 tests 11-3
Limit test modes 11-4
Limit Testing 11-1
Configuring and performing 11-15
Operation overview 11-4
Limit testing 11-2
Limitations
Range 6-3
Limits calculation
example 18-5
Resistance 18-6
with test equipment uncertainty 18-6
Line frequency
remote commands 1-14
setting 1-13
Line fuse replacement 20-2
Line power 18-3, 19-2
connection 1-12
LLO (Local Lockout) D-8
LLO (local lockout) 13-7
Loading effects F-10
LOCAL key 13-10
Local-to-remote transition 13-2
Long-form and short-form versions 13-12
Low thermal probes 1-4
LSTN 13-9
M
Magnetic fields F-15
Mainframe
and Remote PreAmp familiarization 1-7
calibration 19-6
calibration menu 19-6
calibration procedure 19-6
current measurement accuracy 18-14
front panel 1-7
output current accuracy 18-12
output voltage accuracy 18-10
rear panel 1-9
resistance measurement accuracy 18-15
verification 18-10
voltage measurement accuracy 18-12
Maintenance
Routine 20-1
MANUAL 10-4, 10-18
Manual addenda 1-2
Manual ranging 6-3
Math
commands 7-8
Enable and read expression result 17-30
expression, Define 17-27
expressions 13-2
Front panel operations 7-7
functions 7-4
Offset-compensated Ω 7-4
operations 7-4
Power 7-4
programming example 7-8
Remote operations 7-8
User-defined functions 7-10
Maximum
compliance values 5-3, 18-9
readings 6-3
Measure
(V or I) 5-21
accuracy A-7
Action 10-6, 10-20
only 3-17
Measure only
Front panel 3-17
Remote command 3-18
Measurement
(MEAS) function keys 1-7
6-wire ohms 4-9
Auto ohms 4-4
Considerations F-1
Event Register 14-14
High resistance 4-7
High-impedance 5-23
In-circuit ohms 5-24
In-circuit ohms using guard sense 5-25
Low current F-3
Manual ohms 4-5
Selecting ohms method 4-4
Measurements
Concurrent 13-2
High impedance voltage F-10
High resistance F-13
Measuring high resistance devices 4-7, 7-5
Median filter commands 17-61
Menu
Configuration 1-21, 1-26
Configure OUTPUT 12-7
CONFIGURE TRIGGER 10-13
Main 1-21
Mainframe calibration 19-6
navigate 1-24
Remote PreAmp calibration 19-14
overview 3-3, 11-4
summary 10-7, 10-22
Operation keys 1-8
Options and accessories 1-3
Output
configuration commands 12-9
control 3-10
queue 14-19
trigger specifications 10-9
triggers 10-6, 10-21
Output off states and inductive loads 12-9
OUTPut subsystem 17-52
Output-off states 12-8, 17-53
Overheating protection 5-5
Overload protection F-10
Overview
Data store 8-2
Operation 3-3
Status Structure 14-2
Message available G-5
Message exchange protocol 13-16
Message exchange protocol (MEP) G-3
Method
Guarding 2-9
Ohms measurement 4-3
Minimum and maximum (buffer statistics) 8-3
Moving filter commands 17-62
Multiple
command messages 13-14
response messages 13-16
Multiple-element device binning 11-13
N
Navigate menus 1-24
NDAC (Not Data Accepted) D-5
NDAC hold-off G-4
Noise and source impedance F-5
NORMAL 12-7, 12-8
NPLC
cache setup 3-8
caching 3-7
NRFD (Not Ready For Data) D-5
NRFD hold-off G-4
NSTest 10-19
Null feed reading 17-31
O
OFF STATE 12-7
Offset currents F-6
Offset-compensated 7-4
Enabling/disabling 4-8
ohms 4-7
procedure 4-8
Ohms
configuration menu 4-2
guard 2-10, 5-24
measurement methods 4-3, F-13
programming example 4-10
sensing 4-6
source readback 4-9
Ohms Measurements 4-1
Operating
boundaries 5-9
I -Source boundaries 5-10
I-Source boundaries 5-13
V-Source boundaries 5-14
Operation
enhancements 13-2
Event Register 14-12
P
Pass condition 11-7
Pass/fail information 11-2
Peak-to-peak 8-3
Percent deviation 7-6
Performance Verification 18-1
Piezoelectric and stored charge effects F-8
Port configuration 12-2
Power-on configuration 1-18
Power-up 1-12
sequence 1-13
PP (Parallel Poll Function) D-14
Primary address 13-6
Procedure
Basic source-measure 3-10
Front panel source-measure 3-12
Remote command source-measure 3-15
Product overview 1-6
Program
event enable registers 17-86
message terminator (PMT) 13-15
trigger model 17-103
Program example
Sweep and list 17-80
Program messages 13-13
Programming and reading registers 14-5
Programming enable registers 14-5
Programming example
*OPC 15-4
*TRG 15-6
Data store 8-7
Filter 6-17
Limit test 11-20
Math 7-8
Output configuration 12-10
program and read register set 14-18
Range and digits 6-7
read error queue 14-20
Rel 7-3
set MSS (B6) when error occurs 14-10
sink 3-19
Source-measure 3-16
Speed 6-8
Staircase sweep 9-19
Staircase sweep (diode test) 9-20
Sweep 9-21
Sweep (diode test) 9-20
Voltage coefficient 7-9
Programming syntax 13-10
Protocol differences G-3
PSTest 10-19
Q
Query
commands 13-12
timestamp 17-97
Questionable Event Register 14-16
Queues 14-2, 14-19
R
Rack mount kits 1-5
Range and digits 6-2
RANGE keys 1-8
Range, Digits, Speed, and Filters 6-1
Read
CALC2 17-32
condition registers 17-87
display 17-43
event registers 17-86
version of SCPI standard 17-96
Readback accuracy 5-18
Reading registers 14-6
Rear panel 1-9, 20-2
Recalling readings 8-2
Recommended
calibration equipment 19-4
test equipment 18-3
verification equipment 18-4
Reference tables 17-2
Register bit descriptions 14-11
Registers
Programming and reading 14-5
Reading 14-6
Rel
commands 7-3
Defining a value 7-2
Enabling and disabling 7-2
Front panel 7-2
programming example 7-3
Relative 7-1, 7-2
Relative and Math 7-1
REM 13-9
Remote
compliance limit 3-5
digital output control 12-5
display programming 1-16
filter programming 6-16
limit testing 11-19
ohms commands 4-10
ohms programming 4-10
output configuration 12-9
range and digits programming 6-6
rel programming 7-3
setups 1-20
sweep operation 9-18
trigger commands 10-23
trigger example 10-24
Trigger model 10-16
triggering 10-16
vs. local operation 13-2
Remote command
auto zero 3-7
data store 8-6
for basic ohms measurements 4-10
guard selection 2-13
line frequency 1-14
programming 1-17
source delay 3-10
V-source protection 3-9
Remote Operations 13-1
Remote PreAmp 1-10
calibration 19-14
calibration menu 19-14
calibration procedure 19-15
Connections to the mainframe 2-2,
18-17, 19-14
current measurement accuracy 18-24
output current accuracy 18-20
output voltage accuracy 18-18
resistance measurement accuracy 18-26
triax connectors 2-4
verification 18-17
voltage measurement accuracy 18-19
Remote-to-local transition 13-3
REN (Remote Enable) D-5, D-7
REN (remote enable) 13-7
Repeat filter commands 17-61
Resetting the calibration password 19-21
Response message terminator (RMT) 13-16
Response messages 13-15
RL (Remote-Local Function) D-14
Routine Maintenance 20-1
RS-232
connections 13-18
interface (SCPI commands) 17-97
interface operation 13-16
Programming example 13-20
S
Safety
See also "Interlock"
symbols and terms 1-2
Safety interlock 12-6
Saving and restoring source memory setups 9-6
Saving and restoring user setups 1-17
Saving setups 9-6
SCG (Secondary Command Group) D-9
SCPI Command Reference 17-1
SCPI Command summary
CALCulate 17-3
DISPlay 17-8
FORMat 17-9
OUTPut 17-9
SENSe 17-10
SOURce 17-13
STATus 17-17
SYSTem 17-18
TRACe 17-19
TRIGger 17-20
SCPI Signal-Oriented Measurement
Commands 16-1
SDC (Selective Device Clear) D-8
SDC (selective device clear) 13-8
Select
(create) math expression name 17-22
auto range 17-58
default conditions 17-87
function mode 17-65
guard mode 17-90
input path 17-31
measurement functions 17-54
measurement range 17-57
power line frequency setting 17-93
range 17-66
sourcing mode 17-65
statistic 17-40
the 488.1 protocol G-2
timestamp format 17-101
Selecting an interface 13-3
Sending
a response message 13-15
and receiving data 13-16
SENSe1 subsystem 17-54
Sensing
2-wire 2-8
4-wire 2-8
methods 2-6
Ohms 4-6
Serial polling and SRQ 14-9
Service Request Enable Register 14-9
Set
amplitude for fixed source 17-67
compliance limit 17-59
delay 17-70
measurement speed 17-60
scaling factor 17-79
voltage limit 17-69
Setting auto range limits 6-5
Setting digital output 17-82
Setting display resolution 6-5
Setting the compliance limit 3-5
Setting the measurement range 18-8
Setting the source range and output value 18-8
Settings, Factory default 1-18
SH (Source Handshake Function) D-14
Short-form rules 13-13
Single command messages 13-14
Single-element device binning 11-12
Single-shot operation G-7
Sink operation 3-19
Soak time 17-82
Sorting mode 11-8
limit testing 11-9
Source
accuracy A-7
Action 10-5, 10-20
capacitance F-6
delay 3-9
memory sweep 9-6
Source configuration A-8
Source control 1-8
Source delay A-8
SOURCE function keys 1-7
Source I measure I and source V
measure V 5-18
Source memory
saved configurations 9-7
saving setups 9-6
sweep 9-6
Sweep configuration 9-6, 9-12
Source Memory Locations
SML 001 — Compliance Test 9-10
SML 002 — Forward Voltage Test 9-10
SML 003 — Reverse Breakdown
Test 9-10
SML 004 — Leakage Current Test 9-10
SML 005 — Forward Voltage Test 9-10
SML 006 — Reverse Breakdown
Test 9-10
SML 007 — Leakage Current Test 9-11
Source or sink 5-9
SOURce subsystem 17-64
Source, delay, and measure actions 10-5, 10-20
SOURce2 17-82
Source-Delay-Measure (SDM) cycle
timing A-8
Source-delay-measure cycle 5-6, 5-7
Source-measure
connectors 1-9
Source-measure capabilities 3-3
Source-Measure Concepts 5-1
Source-measure terminals 2-3
SPD (Serial Poll Disable) D-8
SPE (Serial Poll Enable) D-8
SPE, SPD (serial polling) 13-8, 14-9
Specifications A-1
Speed 6-7
programming example 6-8
Remote programming 6-8
Setting 6-7
SR (Service Request Function) D-14
SRQ (Service Request) 13-9, D-5, D-8
Standard
deviation 8-4
Event Register 14-11
Status and Error Messages B-1
Status and error messages 1-16, B-2
Status byte
and service request (SRQ) 14-7
and service request commands 14-10
and SRQ 14-2
programming example 14-10
register 14-8
Status register
format 17-51
sets 14-2, 14-11
structure 14-3
Status Structure 14-1
STATus subsystem 17-86
Storing readings 8-2
Sweep
branching 9-8
configuration 9-5
Configuring and running 9-11
Custom 9-4
Linear staircase 9-2
Logarithmic staircase 9-3
Performing 9-13
programming example 9-21
Source memory 9-5
types 9-2
waveforms 5-8
Sweep Operation 9-1
Sweep operation G-6
System identification 1-13
T
T (Talker Function) D-14
TAG (Talk Address Group) D-9
Taking the unit out of compliance 18-10
TALK 13-9
TE (Extended Talker Function) D-15
Temperature and relative humidity 19-2
Terminator 13-17
Test fixture interlock 2-5
Test resistor construction 18-5
TIMer 10-4, 10-18
Timestamp 8-3
accuracy 8-4
Auto reset 17-98
format 8-4
Reset 17-98
Timing diagrams A-9
TLINk 10-4, 10-18, 10-19
TOGGLE key 1-15
TRACe
DATA? C-4
Triboelectric effects F-8
TRIG LAYER 10-14
Trigger delay 10-5, 10-20, A-8
Trigger latency A-8
Trigger Layer
Output Triggers 10-6
Trigger layer 10-5, 10-19
TRIGGER LINK 10-5, 10-8
connections 10-10
Trigger models
Simplified 5-7
Trigger subsystem 17-102
Triggering 10-1
Trigger-on-talk G-5
Turn source on or off 17-52
Viewing calibration dates and calibration
count 19-22
Voltage
burden F-9
coefficient 7-5
programming example 7-9
V-Source
boundaries 5-15
operating examples 5-17
protection 3-8
Types
of compliance 5-2, 18-8
of limits 11-2
Typical command sequences D-12
U
UNL (Unlisten) D-9
UNT (Untalk) D-9
User setups 1-17
Using common and SCPI commands in the
same message 13-15
Using SCPI-based programs G-3
W
Warm-up 3-6
period 18-3, 19-2
Warranty information 1-2
Waveform types 5-8
V
Varistor alpha 7-5
Verification
limits 18-5
Mainframe 18-10
Performing test procedures 18-6
Test considerations 18-7
test requirements 18-2
Test summary 18-7
Z
ZERO 12-7, 12-8
Specifications are subject to change without notice.
All Keithley trademarks and trade names are the property of Keithley Instruments, Inc. All other trademarks and
trade names are the property of their respective companies.
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© Copyright 2000 Keithley Instruments, Inc.
Printed in the U.S.A.
No. 2193
4/2001
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