Summary introduction to Wireless LTE* 4G architecture and key

Summary introduction to Wireless LTE* 4G architecture and key
Summary introduction to Wireless
LTE* 4G architecture and key
business implications
*: LTE: Long term evolution
L-F Pau, Prof. Mobile business, CBS lpau@nypost.dk
€ L-F Pau, 2011 Reproduction
in whole or in parts forbidden
HISTORICAL EVOLUTION
ORIGINS OF WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS:
From electromagnetics to digitization and IP
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•
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•
•
•
•
•
•
1864: James Clark Maxwell
– Predicts existence of radio waves
1886: Heinrich Rudolph Hertz
– Demonstrates radio waves
1895-1901: Guglielmo Marconi
– Demonstrates wireless communications over increasing
distances
Also in the 1890s: Nikola Tesla, Alexander Stepanovich Popov,
Jagdish Chandra Bose and others, demonstrate forms of wireless
communications
Since early 1900’s: development of broadcast radio, and later TV
World war 2: two-way radio in closed networks (esp. defense)
1972- : NMT development to cater for telephony for nomadic
populations in Scandinavia
1982- : Use of digital coding, modulation and communications
2009: Launch of first 4G LTE commercial networks in Scandinavia
1st MOBILE RADIO TELEPHONE 1924
Courtesy of Rich Howard
WARC 2004: WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS
SPECTRUM
RADIO SPECTRUM (communications)
Frequency
Usage
1 MHz-500 MHz
Government use
450-470 MHz
NMT (disapearing) , CDMA or GSM
470-862 MHz
960 -1710 MHz
Analog TV, Govt.,Digital TV or 3G : ”DIGITAL DIVIDEND”
LTE
Mobitex USA
GSM, Mobitex EU
GSM 900 EU+Asia, CDMA,GSM 800 , TDMA US, PDC Japan,
UWB
Governement use: aircraft, GPS, satellite, radar
1710 -1880 MHz
GSM 1800 EU , Asia and Brazil
1880-1900 MHz
DECT
1900-2010 MHz
1980-2010 MHz
1710-1770 MHz
1920-1980 MHz
2110-2170 MHz
2400-2483 MHz
2480-2500 MHz
2500-3200 MHz
3200-6000 GHz
CDMA, GSM 1900 , TDMA US
Satellite
Uplink free US
Uplink EU+Asia
Short range free
Bluetooth, UWB
Global star satellite telephony
Government; 2600 MHz band for LTE ?
C band and military radar
5150-5825 MHz
60007000-38 000 MHz
WLAN
Government
Minilink microwavelinks
800 MHz
900 MHz
806-960 MHz
Remarks
CELLULAR MOBILE TELEPHONY


Antenna diversity
Cellular concept
2
● Bell Labs (1957 & 1960)

Frequency reuse
● typically every 7 cells


Handoff as caller moves
Core network
● Central Switch, HLR,
handover

Sectors improve reuse
● every 3 cells possible
5
3
1
2
1
7
2
5
1
6
4
7
5
3
2
2
3
6
4
7
3
6
1
4
7
5
WIRELESS TECHNOLOGY GENERATIONS
G
Key aspects
Data Rates
1
Analog
Typical 2.4 Kbps; max 22 Kbps
2
Digital – TDMA, CDMA
9.6 - 14.4 Kbps (circuit data)
2.5
GPRS – mux packets in
voice timeslots
15 - 40 Kbps
Improved modulation,
using CDMA variants
50 – 144 Kbps (1xRTT);
200 – 384 Kbps (UMTS);
500 Kbps – 2.4 Mbps (EVDO)
More modulation tweaks
2–14 Mbps (HSPA), then 28 Mbps
& 42/84 Mbps HSPA+ evolution
New modulation (OFDMA);
Multi-path (MIMO); All IP
LTE: >100 Mbps with adequate
spectrum (15 or 20 MHz)
3
3.5
4
WIRELESS TECHNOLOGY
MIGRATION
3G release 1999 Architecture (UMTS)
2G MS (voice only)
CN
BSS
E
Abis
PSTN
A
PSTN
B
BSC
Gb
BTS
C
MSC
Gs
GMSC
D
VLR
SS7
H
2G+ MS (voice & data)
IuCS
RNS
Gr
HLR
ATM
Iub
IuPS
RNC
AuC
Gc
Gn
SGSN
Gi
IP
PSDN
GGSN
Node B
3G UE (voice & data)
BSS Base Station System
CN Core Network
SGSN Serving GPRS Support Node
BTS Base Transceiver Station
MSC Mobile-service Switching Controller
GGSN Gateway GPRS Support Node
BSC Base Station Controller
VLR Visitor Location Register
HLR Home Location Register
RNS Radio Network System
RNC Radio Network Controller
AuC Authentication Server
GMSC Gateway MSC
UMTS Universal Mobile Telecommunication System
3GPP release 5 ― IP Multimedia
UTRA
2G MS (voice only)
CN
CS-MGW
A/IuCS
Abis
Nc
Mc
BSC
Gb/IuPS
BTS
IuCS
C
VLR
GMSC server
D
SS7
H
ATM
Gr
IuPS
RNC
PSTN
B
RNS
Iub
PSTN
Mc
MSC Server
Gs
2G+ MS (voice & data)
CS-MGW
Nb
BSS
HSS
AuC
IP/ATM
Gc
Gn
Gi
SGSN
GGSN
Node B
3G UE (voice & data)
IM-MGW
IM
Gs
IM IP Multimedia sub-system
PSTN
MRF Media Resource Function
IP
CSCF Call State Control Function
Mg
MGCF Media Gateway Control Function (Mc=H248,Mg=SIP)
MRF
Mc
MGCF
IM-MGW IP Multimedia-MGW
CSCF
IP Network
SEPARATION OF SIGNALLING AND
TRANSPORT
•
•
Like circuit switched telephony networks, 2G/3G mobile networks
have one network plane for voice circuits and another network
plane for signaling
Some elements reside only in the signaling plane
– HLR, VLR, SMS Center, …
HLR
MSC
MSC
SMS-SC
VLR MSC
Signaling Plane (SS7)
Transport Plane (Voice)
MAIN 3 G LIMITATIONS
• 1. The maximum bit rates were still a factor of 10 and more behind
the simultaneous state of systems like IEEE 802.11n and 802.16e/m.
• 2. The latency of user plane traffic (UMTS: >30 ms) and of resource
assignment procedures (UMTS: >100 ms) is too big to handle traffic
with high bit rate variance efficiently.
• 3. The UE terminal complexity for WCDMA or CDMA systems is
quite high, making terminals expensive, resulting in poor
performing implementations of receivers and inhibiting the
implementation of other performance enhancements.
INITIAL LTE WORK (from 2002)
•
•
•
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LTE focus was on:
– enhancement of the Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (UTRA)
– optimisation of the UTRAN Network Architecture
With HSPA (downlink and uplink), keep UTRA highly competitive for
several years
Access and bandwidth will be commodities; services are the
differentiator
– Per-session control supports per-application quality of service
(QoS) and per-application billing
Voice should “just” be one application integrated with others
LTE ARCHITECTURE and ATTRIBUTES
SIMPLIFIED LTE ARCHITECTURE
eNodeB: Evolved node-B
AGE: Access gateway entity
EPC: Enhanced packet core
IMS: IP Multimedia system
PCRF: Policy and charging function
HSS: Home subscriber server
MME: Mobile management entity
SAE: System architecture evolution
FROM HSPA TO 3GPP LTE and System
architecture evolution (SAE)
• 3GPP (GSC 11) Work plan worked on evolving HSPA to
HSPA+ with improvements (HSDPA and HSUPA) and
connectivity to the SAE defined under LTE work.
• This preserved improvements for latency (protocol
evolution and functional split), but had constraints in terms
of support for legacy terminals and hardware changes.
3GPP Std, body (UTRA,
UTRAN)
3GPP standardises LTE
LTE Project
(SAE etc.)
LTE GOALS
• Evolutionary ladder beyond HSPA, called Long Term
Evolution /System Architecture Evolution (LTE/SAE) towards
ubiquitous mobile broadband
• Make the most of scarce spectrum resources: Deployable in
paired spectrum allocations with bandwidths ranging from 1.4
MHz to 20 MHz, LTE/SAE to provide up to four times the
spectral efficiency of HSDPA Release 6
• Deliver peak user data rates ranging up to 173 Mbps and
reduce latency as low as 10 ms
• Leverage flat all-IP network architecture
• Leverage a new air interface to significantly cut per-Mbyte
costs, with later improvements: e.g. a 4x4 Multiple Input/
Multiple Output (MIMO) scheme to boost downlink rates to
326 Mbps
LTE BUSINESS GAINS
– Significantly increased peak data rates, scaled linearly according
to spectrum allocation
– Instantaneous downlink peak data rate of 100Mbit/s in a 20MHz
downlink spectrum (i.e. 5 bit/s/Hz)
– Instantaneous uplink peak data rate of 50Mbit/s in a 20MHz
uplink spectrum (i.e. 2.5 bit/s/Hz)
–
–
–
–
–
Expectations of additional 3G spectrum allocations
Greater flexibility in frequency allocations
No native support for circuit switching domain (e.g. voice)
Continued cost reduction
Keeping up with other (including unlicensed) technologies (eg.
WiMAX)
– Use the growing experience with the take-up of 3G to clarify the
likely requirements of users, operators and service providers in
the longer term
LTE vs. HSPA USER and OPERATOR BENEFITS
WiFi OFF-LOAD
•
•
Approx. 30-40 % of LTE usage will be from home / office
Thus, UE must support transparent off-load to home WiFi , or to
WiFi in neighboring sites (lightpoles on roads, etc.)
LTE Femtocells
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•
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Another off-loading is via LTE eNodeB Femtocells (compliant with
3GPP Releases 8/9 and including L2/L3 stacks)
Performances: 1 ms TTI for handover , >100 Mbps , at low power
location determination with 0,5 m accuracy
Specific functionality :automatic neighbor relations, SON, mobile
load balancing , closed subscriber group options, LIPA, hybrid
mobility and inbound mobility, network management for small cell
networks
Example suppliers: Tata Elxsi ; see Femto Forum
Business concepts: 1) off-load 2) closed groups 3) social femto
which combines location info with Twitter for check-in etc
HSPA /WiMAX /Early 4G COMPARISON
Peak Data Rate (Mbps)
Access time
(msec)
Downlink
Uplink
HSPA (today)
14 Mbps
2 Mbps
50-250 msec
HSPA (Release 7) MIMO 2x2
28 Mbps
11.6 Mbps
50-250 msec
HSPA + (MIMO, 64QAM
Downlink)
42 Mbps
11.6 Mbps
50-250 msec
WiMAX Release 1.0 TDD (2:1
UL/DL ratio), 10 MHz channel
40 Mbps
10 Mbps
40 msec
LTE (Release 8), 5+5 MHz
channel
43.2 Mbps
21.6 Mbps
30 msec
KEY TECHNOLOGIES
INITIAL KEY LTE DESIGN CHARACTERISTICS
•
•
•
Sophisticated multiple access schemes
– DL: OFDMA with Cyclic Prefix (CP)
– UL: Single Carrier FDMA (SC-FDMA) with CP
Adaptive modulation and coding
– QPSK, 16QAM, and 64QAM
– 1/3 coding rate, two 8-state constituent encoders, and a
contention-free internal inter-leaver
Advanced MIMO spatial multiplexing
– (2 or 4) x (2 or 4) downlink and uplink
MAIN LTE ARCHITECTURAL ITEMS
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Modulation, coding
System architecture (SAE and evolution)
Evolved Node-B
Multiple input-multiple output (MIMO) transceivers
Other antenna techniques
Radio links and protocols
IP Multimedia system (IMS)
Voice support
Multimedia broadcast
Transport and scheduling
1G, 2G, 3G MULTI-ACCESS TECHNOLOGIES
4G and future wireless systems optimize a
combination of frequency, time and coding
e.g. OFDMA & SC-FDMA
FDMA: frequency domain multiple access
TDMA: time domain multiple access
CDMA: code domain multiple access
OFDM: ORTHOGONAL FREQUENCY DIVISION
MULTIPLEXING
– Many closely-spaced sub-carriers, chosen to be orthogonal,
thus eliminating inter-carrier interference
– Varies bits per sub-carrier based on instantaneous received
power
LTE OFDM MULTIPLEXING
STATISTICAL MULTIPLEXING (in OFDMA)
•
•
•
Dynamically allocates user data to sub-carriers based on
instantaneous data rates and varying sub-carrier capacities
Highly efficient use of spectrum
Robust against fading, e.g. for mobile operation
OFDMA (ORTHOGONAL FREQUENCY
DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESS )
•
•
•
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access
– Supercedes CDMA used in all 3G variants
OFDMA = Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM)
plus statistical multiplexing
– Optimization of time, frequency & code multiplexing
OFDMA already deployed in 802.11a & 802.11g
– Took Wi-Fi from 11 Mbps to 54 Mbps & beyond
FREQUENCY DOMAIN FDMA vs. ORTHOGONAL
FREQUENCY DOMAIN OFDMA MULTIPLE ACCESS
•
•
OFDMA more frequency efficient
OFDMA Dynamically maps traffic to
frequencies based on their instantaneous
throughput
Guard
band
Channel
FDMA
OFDMA
SC-FDMA: SINGLE CARRIER FREQUENCY
DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESS
•
•
•
Single carrier multiple access
– Used for LTE uplinks
– Being considered for 802.16m uplink
Similar structure and performance to OFDMA
– Single carrier modulation with DFT-spread orthogonal
frequency multiplexing and FD equalization
Lower Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR)
– Improves cell-edge performance
– Transmit efficiency conserves handset battery life
UPLINK PARAMETERS (incl. TD SCDMA
framing)
Uplink Parameters
Transmission BW
1.25
MHz
2.5 MHz
5 MHz
10 MHz
Timeslot duration
0.675 ms
Sub-carrier spacing
15 kHz
Sampling frequency
1.92
MHz
3.84 MHz
7.68 MHz
(2  3.84 MHz)
(1/2  3.84
MHz)
15 MHz
20 MHz
15.36
MHz
23.04
MHz
30.72
MHz
(4  3.84
MHz)
(6  3.84
MHz)
(8  3.84
MHz)
FFT size
128
256
512
1024
1536
2048
Number of occupied
sub-carriers†, ††
76
151
301
601
901
1201
Number of
OFDM symbols
per Timeslot
(Short/Long CP)
CP length (μs/samples)
Timeslot Interval (samples)
9/8
Short
7.29/14
7.29/28
7.29/56
7.29/112
7.29/168
7.29/224
Long
16.67/32
16.67/64
16.67/128
16.67/25
6
16.67/38
4
16.67/51
2
Short
18
36
72
144
216
288
Long
16
32
64
128
192
256
DOWNLINK OFDMA PARAMETERS
OFDMA
1.25 MHz
2.5 MHz
5 MHz
10 MHz
15 MHz
20 MHz
Transmission BW
Sub-frame duration
0.5 ms
Sub-carrier spacing
15 kHz
Sampling frequency
1.92 MHz
3.84 MHz
(1/2  3.84 MHz)
7.68 MHz
15.36 MHz
23.04 MHz
30.72 MHz
(2  3.84 MHz)
(4  3.84 MHz)
(6  3.84 MHz)
(8  3.84 MHz)
FFT size
128
256
512
1024
1536
2048
Number of occupied
sub-carriers†, ††
76
151
301
601
901
1201
Number of
OFDM symbols
per sub frame
(Short/Long CP)
CP
length
7/6
Short
(4.69/9)  6,
(5.21/10)  1*
(4.69/18)  6,
(5.21/20)  1
(4.69/36)  6,
(5.21/40)  1
(4.69/72)  6,
(5.21/80)  1
(4.69/108)  6,
(5.21/120)  1
(4.69/144)  6,
(5.21/160) 1
Long
(16.67/32)
(16.67/64)
(16.67/128)
(16.67/256)
(16.67/384)
(16.67/512)
(μs/samples)
SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE EVOLUTION (SAE)
and CORE NETWORKS (EPC Evolved packet
core)
DESIGN ARCHITECTURAL TECHNIQUES
Date
INITIAL System architecture evolution (SAE)
SAE focus was on:
– enhancement of Packet Switched technology to cope with rapid
growth in IP traffic
• higher data rates
• lower latency
• packet optimised system
– through
• fully IP based network
• simplified network architecture
• distributed control
LTE / SAE CORE NETWORK ARCHITECTURE (EPC)
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•
•
•
•
•
LTE/SAE architecture is driven by the goal to optimize the system for
packet data transfer supported by a packet core network
No circuit switched components in IMS/PDN; if circuit switched
applications are required, they must be implemented via IP
New approach in the inter-connection between radio access network and
core network
The core network provides access networks and performs a number of
core network related functions (e.g. QoS, security, mobility and terminal
context management) for idle (camped) and active LTE-UE terminals
The Radio access network (RAN) performs all radio interface related
functions
Non‐3GPP access : the EPC will be prepared also to be used by non‐3GPP
access networks (e.g. LAN, WLAN, WiMAX, etc.); this will provide true
convergence of different packet radio access system
SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE EVOLUTION (SAE)
– Achieving mobility within the Evolved Access System
– Implications of using the evolved access system on existing and
new frequency bands
– Adding support for non-3GPP access systems
– Inter-system Mobility with the Evolved Access System
– Roaming issues, including identifying the roaming interfaces
– Inter-access-system mobility
– Policy Control & Charging
– User Equipment (Terminal) discovers Access Systems and
corresponding radio cells; implications of various solutions on
User Equipment, e.g. on battery life
– Implications for seamless coverage with diverse Access
Systems
– Migration scenarios
LTE’s System Architecture Evolution (SAE)
RAN (Radio access network)
SGSN (Serving GPRS Support Node)
PCRF (Policy and charging function)
HSS (Home Subscriber Server)
MME (Mobility Management Entity)
SAE (System Architecture Evolution)
Diagram by Huawei
CORE NETWORK EVOLUTION
– In addition to IP Multimedia system (IMS) available in 3G,
equivalent Circuit switching Services may be provided in LTE
by IMS core, since Circuit switching domain is not supported in
LTE
– Mobility Management Entity and User Plan Entity might be
collocated in the Access Gateway entity
– Reduced number of nodes in the evolved packet core may be
achieved compared to 3G to provide connectivity to IMS
PHYSICAL LAYER
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It provides the basic bit transmission functionality over air.
The physical layer is driven by OFDMA in the downlink and SC‐FDMA in the
uplink.
Physical channels are dynamically mapped to the available resources
(ph physical resource blocks and antenna ports).
To higher layers the physical layer offers its data transmission functionality
via transport channels.
Like in UMTS, a transport channel is a block oriented transmission service
with certain characteristics regarding bit rates, delay, collision risk and
reliability.
In contrast to 3G WCDMA or even 2G GSM there are no dedicated
transport or physical channels anymore, as all resource mapping is
dynamically driven by the scheduler
EVOLVED Node-B (eNodeB)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
.
No Radio Network controller (RNC) is needed anymore: eNodeB is the only network
element defined as part of the radio access network UTRAN ; it is a Node-B/RNC combination
(from 3G)
eNodeB-B’s take over all radio management functionality; this will make radio management
faster and hopefully the network architecture simpler
It terminates the complete radio interface incl. the physical layer, and: Access Layer Security:
ciphering , integrity protection on the radio interface , Mobile management entity (MME)
Selection at Attach of the UE
It includes old Node-B functions such as: Measurements Collection and evaluation , Dynamic
Resource Allocation (Scheduler) , IP Header Compression/ de-compression
It can carry out the management for cells not attached to the same eNode-B via an intereNodeB interface X2; this makes possible to coordinate inter-eNode-B handovers without
direct involvement of the EPC
An eNode-B can handle several cells.
It enables efficient inter-cell radio : User Data Routing to the SAE GW, Transmission of Paging
Message coming from MME , Transmission of Broadcast Info(System info, MBMS)
MULTIPLE INPUT-MULTIPLE OUTPUT (MIMO)


Multiple Input Multiple Output smart antenna technology
Multiple paths improve link reliability and increase spectral
efficiency (bps per Hz), range and directionality
MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) RADIO
TRANSCEIVER
•
•
•
LTE supports MIMO as the base option, with multiple transmitter and
receiver antennas in a same eNode-B.
Up to four antennas can be used by a single LTE cell (gain: spatial
multiplexing)
MIMO is considered to be the core technology to increase spectral
efficiency.
ADVANCED ANTENNA TECHNIQUES
•
•
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•
Single data stream / user
Beam‐forming for coverage, longer battery life
Spatial Division Multiple Access (SDMA): Multiple users in same radio
resource
Multiple data stream / user Diversity : link robustness
Spatial multiplexing : spectral efficiency, high data rate support
MIMO BEAMFORMING
•
•
•
•
•
•
Enhances signal reception through directional array gain, while individual
antenna has omni‐directional gain
Extends cell coverage
Suppresses interference in space domain
Enhances system capacity
Prolongs battery life
Provides angular information for user tracking
SPATIAL DIVISION MULTIPLEXING (SDMA)
Smart Antenna Technologies
•
•
•
Beamforming
– Use multiple antennas to
spatially shape the beam
Spatial Multiplexing a.k.a.
Collaborative MIMO
– Multiple streams transmitted
– Multi-antenna receivers
separate the streams to
achieve higher throughput
– On uplink, multiple singleantenna stations can
transmit simultaneously
Space-Time Codes
– Transmit diversity such as
Alamouti code, reduces
fading
2x2 Collaborative MIMO
give 2x peak data rate by
transmitting two data
streams
MULTIPATH ENVIRONMENTS
LTE RADIO PROTOCOLS
•
They are quite similar to the WCDMA protocol stack of UMTS.
•
The protocol stack defines three layers: the physical layer (layer 1), data
link and access layer (layer 2) , layer 3 (hosting the AS, the NAS control
protocols as well and the application level)
LAYER 3 RADIO PROTOCOLS
•
PDCP (Packet Data Convergence Protocol)
– Each radio bearer also uses one PDCP instance.
– PDCP is responsible for header compression (ROHC: RObust Header Compression; RFC
3095) and ciphering/deciphering.
– Obviously header compression makes sense for IP datagram's, but not for signaling. Thus the
PDCP entities for signaling radio bearers will usually do ciphering/deciphering only.
•
RRC (Radio Resource Control)
– RRC is the access stratum specific control protocol for EUTRAN.
– It provides the required messages for channel management, measurement control and reporting
•
NAS Protocols
– The NAS protocol is running between UE and MME and thus must be transparently transferred via
Evolved UTRAN (EUTRAN). 73
– It sits on top of RRC, which provides the required carrier messages for Network attached storage
(NAS) transfer
RADIO LINK CONTROL (RLC)
•
•
•
There is a one to one relationship between each Radio Bearer and each
RLC instance
RLC can enhance the radio bearer with ARQ (Automatic Retransmission on
reQuest) using sequence numbered data frames and status reports to
trigger retransmission.
The second functionality of RLC is the segmentation and reassembly that
divides higher layer data or concatenates higher layer data into data
chunks suitable for transport over transport channels which allow only a
certain set of transport block sizes.
LTE’s IP MULTIMEDIA SYSTEM (IMS) / Value
Proposition
•
•
•
Generate new revenue from new services
– Per-session control allows IMS to guarantee QoS for each IP session,
and enables differential billing for applications & content
Reduce capital spending
– Converge all services on common infrastructure
– Focus limited resources on core competencies
To date, mobile operators have had no incentive to deploy IMS for voice
services
PROTOCOLS
In the OSI model, each layer communicates only with the
adjacent layer above and the adjacent layer below by Protocols
LTE services rely on mostly ISO/ITU approved IP protocols from
IETF and/or other fora; TCP supported but still causing problems
The traditional approach has been to treat the layers as different
entities
Example: TCP/IP protocols
NB: the drawing gives protocols BETWEEN layers
Date
LTE VOICE by Circuit Switched fallback
•
•
•
•
Circuit Switched Fallback (CSFB) enables mobile operators to provide voice
services alongside their LTE network in the absence of IMS.
LTE registered mobile devices ‘fall back’ to a 2G/3G domain to
send/receive voice calls. CSFB saves time & CAPEX so operators can focus
on meeting data requirements with their LTE deployments.
VOIP interworking necessary
Note: CSFB standard TS 23.272 allows network operators to carry voice traffic over existing GERAN/UTRAN networks from multi-mode
LTE UE devices. This very practical goal is realized by a clever innovation: network awareness in the MME. Where overlapping networks
exist, the MME may carry maps of UTRAN TAs (Tracking Areas) to LTE LAs (Location Areas) that allow the UE to utilize circuit switched
services all managed from the MME in conjunction with the Mobile switching center. If no VoIP services are available, the UE is
instructed to access the alternate network for voice calls.
VOICE OVER LTE
•
•
•
•
•
VoLTE 3GPP standard may be added to IMS (with EPC / Policy
control / Multimedia telephony) , along with enriched multimedia
services
MSF / GSMA VoLTE interoperability event, Vodafone, D‹sseldorf,
Sept 2011
Question is whether operators can generate incremental revenues
with high-definition branded voice services
This would require the Evolved packet system (EPC) to expose
network QoS to third parties via standardized API’s , to allow
applications to move from best effort on default bearers to
guaranteed QoS class
Competitive approaches to VoLTE: Circuit switched fall-back
(CSFB), GAN , VoLGA
MULTIMEDIA BROADCAST MULTICAST SERVICES
(MBMS)
•
•
•
•
•
MBMS (Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Services) is an essential part of
LTE. The so‐called e‐MBMS is therefore an integral part of LTE.
In LTE, MBMS transmissions may be performed as single‐cell transmission
or as multi‐cell transmission. In case of multi‐cell transmission, the cells
and content are synchronized to enable for the terminal to soft‐combine
the energy from multiple transmissions.
The superimposed signal looks like multipath to the terminal. This concept
is also known as Single Frequency Network (SFN).
The E‐UTRAN can configure which cells are part of an SFN for transmission
of an MBMS service. The MBMS traffic can share the same carrier with the
unicast traffic or be sent on a separate carrier.
For MBMS traffic, an extended cyclic prefix is provided. In case of subframes carrying MBMS SFN data, specific reference signals are used.
MBMS data is carried on the MBMS traffic channel (MTCH) as logical
channel.
QoS AND CONFIGURATION
• QoS awareness
– The scheduler must handle and distinguish different quality of service
classes; otherwise real time services would not be possible via EUTRAN
– The system provides the possibility for differentiated service
• Self configuration
– Currently under investigation
– Possibility to let eNodeB ‘s configure themselves
•
It will not completely substitute the manual configuration and
optimization.
TRANSPORT AND SCHEDULING
• IP transport layer
– Enhanced UTRAN (EUTRAN) exclusively uses IP as transport layer
• UL/DL resource scheduling
– In UMTS physical resources are either shared or dedicated
– eNode B handles all physical resource via a scheduler and assigns them
dynamically to users and channels; this provides greater flexibility than the
older system
--Frequency domain scheduling uses those resource blocks that are not
faded; not possible in CDMA based system
BACKHAUL TRANSPORT NETWORKS
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Backhaul traffic load from/to an eNode B goes up an order of
magnitude (x 10); typical number : 100-200 Mbps/eNode-B
eNode B spatial density may have to go up x 1,5- 2,5 to deliver
expected user experience
TDM radio systems cannot handle this traffic
ROADM Fiber links are therefore preferred, if available in eNodeB
If not, improved microwave with >1 Gbps packet microwave (also
for aggregation), with narrow 7-14 MHz backhaul channel
allocations
Operators must secure eventually backhaul microwave spectrum,
with associated costs (about 50 % of LTE microwave backhaul)
Improved ring and mesh topologies connecting eNode-B’s with one
another , with multiplexing, increases effective network capacity by x
4
LTE OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE
LTE PERFORMANCE
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Radio performance, coverage and effect of frequency band
Data rates and peak data rates
Spectral efficiency
Network latency
VoIP capacity
LTE RADIO PERFORMANCE (I)
• Data Rates:
– Instantaneous downlink peak data p rate of 100Mbit/s in a 20MHz
downlink spectrum (i.e. 5 bit/s/Hz)
– Instantaneous uplink peak data rate of 50Mbit/s in a 20MHz uplink
spectrum (i.e. 2.5 bit/s/Hz)
• Cell size:
– 5 km ‐ optimal size
– 30km sizes with reasonable performance
– up to 100 km cell sizes supported with acceptable performance
• Cell capacity
– up to 200 active users per cell(5 MHz) (i.e., 200 active data clients)
LTE RADIO PERFORMANCE (II)
• Mobility
– Optimized for low mobility (0‐15km/h) but supports high speed
• Latency
– user plane < 5ms
– control plane < 50 ms
• Improved spectrum efficiency
• Improved broadcasting
• IP‐optimized
• Scalable bandwidth of 20, 15, 10, 5, 3 and 1.4MHz
• Coexistence with legacy standards
INDOOR and SMALL CELL USE OF LTE
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Need to use low frequency 700-800 MHz LTE bands, as 2,6 GHz
LTE would not work well
Need for users to be able to mark traffic as low priority, so it gets
shifted to off-peak delivery in return for reduced charges (due to
decaying mobile data margins and excess peak data demand)
Indoor femtocell networks and WiFi to offload macro networks, as
well as signalling functions
Exploit indoor the MIMO and beam forming capabilities
LTE PEAK DATA RATE EVOLUTION
LTE SPECTRAL EFFICIENCY bps/ Hz / cell and
CELL THROUGHPUT Mbps / cell (5MHz)
LTE LATENCY ISSUE
– Control-plane
• Significant reductions in transition times from idle or dormant
states to active state
Less than 50msec
Dormant
(Cell_PCH)
Active
(Cell_DCH)
Less than 100msec
Camped-state
(idle)
– User-plane
• Radio access network latency below less than 5 ms
in unloaded condition (i.e. single user with single data
stream) for small IP packet
Latency also being addressed in SAE
BANDWIDTH vs. NETWORK LATENCY
HSPA / LTE LATENCY
LTE VoIP CAPACITY (calls / MHz / cell (5MHz))
COMPLIANCE of TERMINALS
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Operators need to ensure LTE terminals can meet their own network
requirements in an efficient manner
GCF (Global certification forum) and PTCRB (PCS Type certification
review board) tests
TTCN scripts mandated for ETSI conformance tests
MIGRATION PATHS TOWARDS LTE R8
MIGRATION PATHS TOWARDS LTE R8 (II)
COMMON FEATURES of WiMAX and LTE
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OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access) and MIMO
Users are allocated a slice in time and frequency
Flexible, dynamic per user resource allocation
Base station scheduler for uplink and downlink resource allocation
– Resource allocation information conveyed on a frame‐by frame basis
Support for TDD (time division duplex) and FDD (frequency division
duplex)
TDD: single frequency channel for uplink and downlink
DL
UL
DL
UL
FDD
Paired channels
Differences
Carriers are able to set requirements for LTE through organizations like NGMN
and ETSI, but cannot do this as easily at the IEEE-based 802.16
LTE backhaul is, at least partially, designed to support legacy services while
WiMAX assumes greenfield deployments
LATER LTE and SAE EVOLUTION
– No more macro-diversity
• No soft handover required
– Security
• Control Plane
– Ciphering and Integrity provided by eNode B (BTS)
– RLC and MAC provided directly in the eNode B
• User plane
– Ciphering and integrity in the eAccess Gateway
functionality
ABBREVIATIONS
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3GPP Third Generation Partnership Project
AMC Advanced mezzanine card
ATCA Advanced TCA
ATL Application transport layer
AUM Auxiliary unit module
BB Baseband
CBU Cello basic unit
CP-OFDM Cyclic-prefix orthogonal frequency-division
multiplexing
CPP Cello processor platform
DPD Digital pre-distortion
DSP Digital signal processor
eNB Evolved Node-B
FDMA Frequency-division multiple access
FFT Fast Fourier Transform
FTP File transfer protocol
FU Filter unit
GPS Global positioning system
I2C Intelligent interface controller
IFFT Inverse FFT
IO Input-output
IP Internet protocol
L1, L2 Layer-1, layer-2
LTE Long-term evolution of third-generation cellular
systems
LTU Local timing unit
MAC Media access control
MCPA Multicarrier power amplifier
MIMO Multiple input, multiple output
MP Main processor
MTU Main timing unit
OAM Operation, administration and maintenance
PA Power amplifier
PEC Processor element cluster
RAS Radio and antenna subsystem
RBS Radio base station
RF Radio frequency
RLC Radio link controller
RUIF Radio unit interface
RX Receiver
RXIF Receiver interface
RXRF1 Receiver RF1
RXRF2 Receiver RF2
SIMO Single input, multiple output
SISO Single input, single output
TCA Telecom computing architecture
TCP Transport control protocol
TOR Transmit observation receiver
TRX Transceiver
TX Transmitter
UE User equipment
VoIP Voice over IP
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