MALÅ Easy Locator Pro HDR Series User Manual

MALÅ Easy Locator Pro HDR Series User Manual

MALÅ Easy Locator Pro

HDR Series User Manual

MALÅ Easy Locator Pro

HDR Series User Manual

Guide for Operating the MALÅ Easy Locator Pro

HDR Ground Penetrating Radar

Our Thanks...

Thank you for choosing MALÅ Geoscience as your Ground Penetrating Radar solution provider.

The very core of our corporate philosophy is to provide our users with the very best products, support and services. Our development team is committed to providing you with the most technologically advanced and easy-to-use GPR products with the capability to meet your needs for efficiency and productivity now, and into the future.

Whether this is your first MALÅ Geoscience product, or addition to the MALÅ collection, we believe that small investment of your time to familiarize yourself with the product by reading this manual will be rewarded with a significant increase in productivity and satisfaction.

At MALÅ Geoscience, we welcome comments concerning the use and experience with our products, as well as the contents and usefulness of this manual.

MALÅ Geoscience team

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MALÅ Geoscience

Under the copyright laws, this manual may not be copied, in whole or in part, without the written consent of MALÅ Geoscience. Your rights to the software are governed by the accompanying software license agreement. The MALÅ Geoscience logo is a trademark of

MALÅ Geoscience, registered in the Sweden and other countries.

The product described in this document is subject to continuous developments and improvements. All particulars of the product and its use contained in this document are given by MALÅ Geoscience in good faith. However, all warranties implied or expressed, including but not limited to implied warranties or merchantability, or fitness for purpose, are excluded.

This document is intended only to assist the reader in the use of the product and every effort has been made to ensure that the information in this manual is accurate. MALÅ Geoscience shall not be liable for any loss or damage arising from the use of any information in this document, or any error or omission in such information, or any incorrect use of the product.

MALÅ Geoscience, the MALÅ Geoscience logo, are trademarks of MALÅ Geoscience, registered in Sweden and other countries. Other company and product names mentioned herein are trademarks of their respective companies. Mention of third-party products is for informational purposes only and constitutes neither an endorsement nor a recommendation.

MALÅ Geoscience assumes no responsibility with regard to the performance or use of these products.

MALÅ Geoscience

MALÅ Geoscience AB

Skolgatan 11

SE-920 70 Malå Sweden www.malags.com

Release Date:

Version:

3

Table of Contents

Preface

About this Manual

Additional Resources

Feedback

Safety and Compliance Notices

Get Ready. Set up. Go

MALÅ HDR Features

Accessories and Optional Features

Unpack. Inspect. Register

Repacking and Shipping

Registering MALÅ HDR

System Assembly and Set Up

Hardware Assembly

Connecting it all up

Antenna LED Indicators

Battery Maintenance and Charging

Charging the Batteries

U ser Interface

Main Display Window

Navigating the Menus and Options (Navigator)

Main Menu

Zoom Function

Main Menu Icons

Measurement Parameter Menu

Acquisition Parameters Menu

Wheels Edit and Calibration Menu

Wheels Edit Options

Display Parameters Menu

Operating Instructions

2D Project

3D Grid Project

Creating a 3D Project

3D Project Settings Menu

Object Mapper Project

Creating an Object Mapper Project

Object Mapper Measurements with Baseline

Object Mapper with GPS

Continuing an Object Mapper Measurements Project

System Menu

GPS Options and Settings

Maintenance and Troubleshooting

Troubleshooting - Frequently Answered Questions

Service and Repairs

Technical Support

Glossary

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Preface

About this Manual

This manual is written for the end user of the product and explains how to set up and configure the product, as well as providing detailed instruction on its use. Basic theory for

Ground Penetration Radar is outlined to help the operator understand the underlining technology. References for thorough discussions of this topic and applications for the technology are also presented.

Known issues and limitations, precautions, best practices and tips are also presented so that the most efficient and productive use can be achieved.

Additional Resources

GPR Training www.malags.com/Support/Training

GPR Applications www.malags.com/Resources/Applications

GPR Case Studies www.malags.com/Resources/Case-Studies

GPR White Paper www.malags.com/Resources/White-Papers

GPR FAQ www.malags.com/Support/FAQ

Feedback

Feedback regarding the contents of this manual or the product may be sent using any of the following channels.

Phone (Sweden) +46 953 34550

Phone (USA) +1 843 852 5021

Phone (China) +86 108 225 0728

Phone (Malaysia) +60 (0) 3 6250 7351

Phone (Australia) +61 438 278 902

Web www.malags.com/feedback

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Sa fety and Compliance User Notices

This GPR-device is certified according to FCC, subpart 15, IC RSS-220 and ETSI EN 302

066-1&2.

According to the regulations stated in ETSI EN 302 066-1 (European

Telecommunication Standards Institute):

The control unit should not be left ON when leaving the system unintended. It should always be turned OFF when not in use.

The antennas should point towards the ground, walls etc. during measurement and not towards the air.

The antennas should be kept in close proximity to the media under investigation.

Canadian and US regulations states that whenever GPR-antennas are in use the following notes apply:

This Ground penetrating Radar device shall be operated only when in contact with or within 1 m of the ground.

Only law enforcement agencies, scientific research institutes, commercial mining companies, construction companies and emergency rescue or firefighting organizations shall use this

Ground Penetrating Radar Device.

This device complies with Industry Canada license-exempt RSS standards. Operation is subject to the following two conditions: (1) This device may not cause interference and (2) this device must accept any interference, including interference that may cause undesired operation of the device.

French translations:

Cet instrument de Géoradar se devra d’être opéré seulement en contact à même le sol ou en deça d’un mètre du sol.

Cet instrument de Géoradar se devra d’être utilisé seulement par les agences chargées de l’application de la loi, les instituts de recherches scientifiques, les compagnies minières à buts lucratifs, les compagnies de construction et les organisations responsables pour le sauvetage et la lutte contre les incendies.

Cet instrument répond aux exigences de la licence avec Industrie Canada- exempt des standards RSS. L ‘opération est sujette aux deux conditions suivantes : (1) Cet instrument ne peut pas causer une interférence et (2) cet instrument se doit d’accepter quelque interférence que ce soit, incluant une interférence qui pourrait causer une opération non-souhaitable de l’instrument.

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Get Ready. Set up. Go

This section walks through the steps for getting ready, setting up and basic operation of your new MALÅ GX HDR. Information is also available on what to do in case the equipment may have been damaged during shipment.

Note:

If a defect in the equipment is discovered, make sure to contact MALÅ Geoscience prior to use and follow the instructions for Repacking and Shipping in this section.

MALÅ Easy Locator Pro HDR Features

The HDR-series (High Dynamic Range) is the latest addition to MALA’s versatile product range. It is a completely new design, based on patented cutting edge technology. These new antennas are not just an upgrade of earlier designs; they represent a leap in GPRtechnology, not seen in the past 15 years.

Advantages compared to conventional GPR technology

Real-time sampling technology – HDR enabled

Significantly faster data acquisition rates

Greater signal-to-noise ratio


Increased bandwidth

Unprecedented dynamic range and resolution

32 bit data output


Greater depth penetration


Better detection capabilities

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Accessories and Optional Extras

Additional Battery and battery charger

Additional Li-ion Battery Pack 12 V (3.5 Hour) for the MALÅ Easy Locator Pro.

Shipping cases

Robust shipping cases for the MALÅ Easy locator Pro

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U npack. Inspect. Register

Great care should be taken when unpacking the equipment. Be sure to verify the contents shown on the packing list and inspect the equipment and accessories for any loose parts or other damage.

Note:

The packing list that is included with the shipment should be read careful and any discrepancy should be reported to our sales department at www.malags.com/corporate/contact

Remove the protective shipping cover on the antenna

Using the supplied Torx screwdriver, remove the 4 Torx screws.

Remove and store the black plastic cover for future use, if shipping is required at a later date.

Note:

All packing material should be kept in the event that any damage occurred during shipping.

File any claim for shipping damage with the carrier immediately after discovery of the damage and before the equipment is put into use. Any claims for missing equipment or parts should be filed with MALÅ Geoscience within fourteen (14) business days from the receipt of the equipment.

Note:

Two serial numbers are attached to the equipment, (1) on the underside of the monitor and

(2) on top of the antenna under the battery pack.

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Repacking and Shipping

The MALÅ Geoscience packing kit is specially designed for shipping MALÅ Easy Locator Pro

HDR. The packing kit should be used whenever shipping is necessary. If original packing materials are unavailable, pack the instrument in a box that is large enough to allow at least

80mm of shock absorbing material to be placed all around the instrument. This includes top, bottom and all sides.

Warning:

Never use shredded fibres, paper or wood wool, as these materials tend to pack down and permit the instrument to move inside its packing box.

Please read our shipping instructions before returning instruments to MALÅ Geoscience.

These instructions can be found on our website at: www.malags.com/Support/Service-Repairs .

Registering MALÅ Easy Locator Pro HDR

By registering your equipment, you ensure that you receive up-to-date documentation, software upgrades and product information, which all helps to optimize the utilization of the equipment and realize the maximum return on your investment.

To register your equipment, simply visit – www.malags.com/Support/Product-Registration on our website and submit the registration form.

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System Assembly and Set Up

MALÅ Easy Locator Pro is an integrated system, consisting of an Easy Locator controller and

HDR antenna, linked through a single data/power cable.

Hardware Assembly

Convenient hand recesses enable easy lifting of the Easy Locator Pro HDR

1

Using the handlebar raise the handle assembly into the upright position

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2

Move the handle assembly clamp into the locked position

3

Fasten the clasp on the rear of the handle assembly

4

Slacken the bolt on the rear of the controller, raise the controller to the desired viewing angle and re-tighten the bolt.

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Adjust the four straps to raise or lower the antenna to the required height

Note:

Under normal conditions, the antenna should be kept in contact with the ground where possible. Position the Easy Locator on the surface to be surveyed and then adjust the straps so there is a small amount of slack. This will compensate for any undulations along the survey line.

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Connecting it all up

1

Connect the data cable to the Easy Locator Pro controller

Note:

Look for the countersink in the power cable and place it towards the mark on the connection. Push lightly. If you have it in the correct position it will go in its position smoothly. To disconnect, pull out holding the metal part of the connection.

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Connect the data cable to the antenna

3

Raise the battery hatch and connect the batteries

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4

Connect the encoder cable from the wheel to the antenna.

Note:

The precision of the encoder wheel depends on several factors, such as; the condition of measurement surface, the pressure applied on the wheel and possible wear.

Warning:

When using MALÅ Easy Locator, the wheel calibration must be changed to the appropriate wheel, enter the

Settings Menu on the Easy Locator Controller and change the Acquisition Parameters to the correct wheel.

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Power up

Start the Easy Locator Pro by pressing the power button on both the HDR antenna and the Easy

Locator Controller.

To turn the antenna and monitor off, first select QUIT from the Main Menu, confirm the action by selecting YES then push the power button on the monitor and release quickly.

Note:

The antenna will automatically turn off when the monitor is powered down.

Note:

If a power cable is accidentally pulled out, the Easy Locator Pro components will start automatically when reconnected.

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Antenna LED Indicators

Three LED-indicators are mounted beneath the antenna product label.

DATA: Continuous flashing light indicates the unit is working properly and ready for data collection.

Irregular flashing on this LED means erroneous antenna configuration or possible software version issue. The LED switches to continuous illumination when the unit enters data collection.

GPS: Flashing light mean that the GPS option is installed and that the internal computers are successfully communicating with the GPS-unit. This LED switches to continuous light whenever there’s 4 or more satellites available.

INFO: This LED indicates a serious system Error, whenever active. Please contact your local MALÅ representative.

Battery Maintenance and Charging

Easy Locator Pro Battery

A 12V/8.7Ah Li-ion battery pack is shipped with the MALÅ Easy Locator Pro HDR Antenna and is the recommended power source for the antenna. Under normal operating and handling conditions, this battery is capable of up to 3.5 hours of continuous operation. MALÅ Easy Locator Pro HDR antenna will automatically turn itself off when the battery voltage drops below 10V. A meter showing the remaining battery capacity is displayed on the Controller.

Tip:

If storing the battery for long periods of time, discharge the battery to approximately 50%, this will maximise the life of the battery. Use the battery level indicator on the Controller to estimate 50%, wait until the indicator enters the yellow section, power down and remove the battery. This also applies to the internal battery in the Controller.

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Charging the Easy Locator Pro Battery

With the use of the correct adaptor, connect the supplied battery charger to the battery pack.

The LED light on the charger indicates the following:

Red = Charged < 80%

Yell ow = Charged 80-100%

Green = Mai ntenance charging

When re-mounting the battery, gently attach the d-sub connector on front of the battery with the d-sub on the mounting tower. Then pull the battery release pin and press down on the battery until the release pin slots into place.

Tip:

Though recharging up to 80% of the full capacity is typically very fast, it is recommended to keep the battery charging until it is fully charged to help extend the battery life.

Note:

The battery charger can be left on after the battery has been fully charged where it will then automatically enter a maintenance-charging mode.

Charging time for the 8.7Ah batteries is approximately 3-5 hours (80%-100%).

The temperature when charging should be within Zero to +45 o

C / 32 to 110 o

F. Do not charge the batteries in direct sunlight or when surrounding temperatures is below freezing point.

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User Interface

The following sections contain a detailed description of the user interface and give tips and warning designed to help the user achieve the highest possible level of productivity and safety while operating the MALÅ Easy Locator Pro HDR.

Main Display Window

Navigating the Menus and Options (Navigator)

Main Menu

Zoom Function

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Main Menu Icons

Measurement Parameter Menu

Acquisition Parameters Menu

Wheels Edit and Calibration Menu

Wheels Edit Options

Display Parameters Menu

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Main Display Window

The MALÅ Easy Locator Pro Controller uses dedicated software designed specifically for the display and collection of GPR data.

Note:

The Controller utilizes a sunlight readable LCD display for maximum visibility in sunlight.

Navigating the Menus and Options

The Easy Locator Pro Controller is operated with a dual function

Navigator for selecting options and functions. Menu items are selected by rotating the Navigator clockwise or anticlockwise. The selected item is then executed by pushing the button.

The Navigator control fitted to Easy Locator Pro Controller works in a similar way to a computer mouse allowing the user to navigate menus and update data. Rotating the knob either allows sequential scrolling through menu options to make a menu selection or changes selected parameter values. Pressing the knob either executes the currently selected menu option or sets the value of the selected parameter.

Note:

The controller

Main Display Window appears about 20 seconds after turning on the controller and

HDR antenna.

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Main Menu

The items available under the

Main Menu vary depending whether the system is in

Stopped mode or Started mode.

Stopped mode:

Started mode:

Tip:

The Easy Locator Pro Controller is equipped with a

Zoom Function for enlarging areas of interest in the

GPR Profile.

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Zoom Function

Use the

Navigator to select the Vertical scrollbar. The vertical scrollbar turns yellow when selected. Push the

Navigator once to activate scrolling. The Vertical scrollbar will turn blue indicating that it has been activated. Push, hold and turn the

Navigator to zoom in and out, the vertical scroll bar will be blue with arrows.

Main Menu Icons

Quit and shutdown the system after completing the radar measurements

Note:

If the QUIT option is executed but the Controller is not turned off immediately, the unit has to be put through a power cycling sequence before it can be restarted. This is achieved by pressing the power switch on the Controller and then waiting for 5-10 seconds before pressing the power switch again. If this procedure is not followed, the unit will fail to turn on.

Select the New button to start scanning. The GPR data will begin to appear on the black screen as the unit is moved forward.

Select the Continue button to resume the last stopped measurement.

Press the Measurement Parameters button to access the measurement parameters menu. See the Measurement

Parameters

section for more information on the use of this option.

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The Full screen button toggles the display to full-screen mode where the menu and status information is hidden and the entire display is used to display the GPR profile

Note:

Pressing the

Navigator

again returns the display to the default with the menu included.

The Background removal filter button is used to remove horizontal lines/reflections caused by noise from the GPR profile. By rotating the Navigator, various levels of background removal can be applied. The effect of the filtering can be seen when the button is deactivated, the level can be gradually adj usted to create the clearest and most interpretable image possible.

The Contrast button is used to set the contrast of the GPR profile. Rotating the Navigator increases and decreases the contrast level.

The Time gain button is used to adjust the time gain for the GPR profile. The Navigator is rotated to increase or decrease the applied time gain

Note:

When the Auto Gain option in the System Menu is selected, the manual Time gain is deactivated and removed from the main screen.

Tip:

Gain is very useful for making targets appear brighter in the GPR profile, this is especially important when searching for deeper targets

.

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Measurement Parameters Menu

Depth defines the length of the radargram vertical scale. This is sometimes refered to as the time window length. In this case, the velocity measuremt is used to calculate the depth window.

Note:

This measurement will vary if the velocity measurement parameter is changed.

Set to manual or auto (Automatic Gain Control).

Note:

Manual gain activates the Time Gain button on the main screen and allows the user to manually adjust the gain. Selecting

Auto deactivates the Time Gain button on the main screen and the

Controller will apply the highest gain level for the signal to noise ratio.

Set the velocity based on soil type. Setting the velocity allows the adjustment of the depth scale for differing soil conditions.

Warning:

This is a critical setting if accurate depth information is required. Soil conditions can vary rapidly with location and all depth information must be used with caution.

Tip:

The velocity can be set during the post processing stage; it is not critical that this measurement is established during the data collection stages, unless marking the depth on site

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Set the type of trigger to be used for initiating a measurement.

Three triggering options are available:

Wheel, Time, or Keyboard Triggering.

Note:

Changing the three different trigger options will change the options listed below the Acquisition Mode icon

Note:

When measuring by time, make sure that the time interval is appropriate.

Selecting the Wheel type icon can choose a selection of predefined wheels from the drop down list.

Tip:

Additional wheels and individual calibration can be added to the list by accessing the Acquisition Parameters menu

Note:

The precision of the encoder wheel is not infinite and depending on several factors as; the measurement surface, the pressure applied on the wheel and possible wear. If you are unsure of the encoder wheel precision a re-calibration should be made

Point interval sets the distance between the measured points/traces in the radargram.

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Acquisition Parameters Menu

Choose Forward or Backward depending on the direction of the scan whilst utilising the Measuring Wheel or Cart.

Note:

This option will not be available when Time or

Keyboard Triggering is selected on the Measurement

Parameters Menu

Select the Wheels Edit and Calibration to enter the wheels calibration menu.

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Wheels Edit and Calibration Menu

Choose the Select Wheel to highlight the wheel to be edited or deleted from the list.

The Create New Wheel option allows the user to select a new type of wheel in addition to the standard list. This maybe useful if the encoder is attached to a non-standard wheel.

Select Edit Current Wheel calibrate the wheel, see Wheel Edit Options for further details.

Note:

First use the Select Wheel option to highlight the wheel to be edited.

Choose the Delete Current Wheel option to remove a selected wheel from the list.

Note:

First use the Select Wheel option to highlight the wheel to be deleted.

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Wheels Edit Options

Select Wheel Name to create a name for the new wheel.

Select Forward or Reverse depending on the direction of the wheel during the calibration process.

Measure a distance on the ground using a measuring wheel or tape. Enter this distance after selecting Distance for Calibration.

Tip:

For a higher level of accuracy

, m

easure a length over the surface where the GPR is being used. A longer distance will average out any surface variations.

Select Start Calibration once the correct details are entered into the above options and when the GPR is positioned over the beginning of the measured length. Move the GPR towards the end of the measured length, when this process is complete, select Stop Calibration.

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Display Parameters Menu

The palette refers to the display of the radargram, there are 3 options; grey scale or 2 color options.

If Trace view is ON, a small window will appear during measurements, showing the actual measured trace.

The intensity of the screen light can be changed with the backlighter option.

Tip:

Reducing the backlight will extend the battery life between charges.

Saves changes and exits to previous screen

Closes the Menu without applying changes.

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O perating Instructions

The following sections walk you through more advanced modes of operation of the equipment.

2D Project

3D Grid Project

Creating a 3D Project

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3D Project Settings Menu

Object Mapper Project

Creating an Object Mapper Project

Object Mapper Measurements with Baseline

Object Mapper with GPS

Continuing an Object Mapper Measurements Project

System Menu

GPS Options and Settings

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2D Project

Select 2D Project from the main screen options to conduct a simple

2D profile

Select New to begin the measurement.

See Main Menu section for a full description of the icons.

Note:

Check Settings before commencing a measurement

Various markers can be inserted into the radargram by selecting the

Markers icon

A dropdown box containing the marker options will appear when the Markers icon is selected

Surface Marker allows a marker to be placed at zero depth level on the radargram. This is useful for marking a feature that is visible on the surface. It can be marked as you pass the feature or reverse the Easy Locator Pro HDR antenna over the feature and then select Surface.

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Object Marker allows a similar marker to the surface marker to be placed at a selected depth within the radargram. Reverse the Easy Locator antenna over the feature and select Object, a crosshair will appear on the vertical curser which can be positioned at the correct depth by using the Navigator control.

Hide removes the markers from the display. This is not permanent; the markers can be made visible again by selecting Show, which is indicated after Hide is selected.

Select Cancel to exit the Marker Menu

Select Tools to enter the Tools Menu.

A dropdown menu appears when the Tools Icon is selected.

Set Soil velocity. If the soil velocity has been determined, enter the value by selecting Set Soil

Velocity icon and then use the Navigator to set the correct figure.

Depth Calibration. If the true depth of an item is known, place the antenna so the curser is positioned over the feature in the radargram, select Depth Calibration to activate the vertical curser/cross hair and use the Navigator to position vertical curser to the top of the reflector of the known depth. Press the Navigator and enter the value for the true depth. Finally, press the Navigator again to accept the value and the Easy Locator Controller will automatically calculate the velocity based on the entered value.

Hyperbola fitting. If there is a clear hyperbolic response in the radargram, utilise the Hyperbola

fitting feature to calculate the velocity of the soil. Position the antenna so the vertical curser is over the hyperbola, press the Navigator to activate the horizontal crosshair and rotate the Navigator to place the cross hair on the top of the hyperbola. Press the Navigator reveal the simulated hyperbola, now rotate the Navigator to increase or decrease the simulated hyperbola so it “fits” the true hyperbola in the radargram. Press the Navigator to complete the process; the calculated velocity will be saved.

Migration this options applies migration to the dataset, which will have the effect of removing the hyperbola to leave a point in the radargram. First, complete any of the above velocity calculations to determine the soil velocity and then select Migration to apply the process to the radargram.

Tip:

Accurate calculation of the soil velocity is required for the migration to work effectively. Depth Calibration is often the most accurate and this should be the first option if available.

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3D Grid Project

Grid Project is a tool that makes the visualization of radar data measured in two perpendicular directions easier.

A typical Grid project can be used to map a larger area where the direction and location of utilities for instance is unknown. It enables the use of the plan view to visualise the utilities. The Grid Project option in the Easy Locator Controller will guide you through all steps involved in the data collection to the final processed 3D view of the investigated area.

Creating a 3D Project

Select 3D Grid Project from the Start

Menu

The New Grid Project screen appears, the user has the opportunity to select the relevant parameters before data collection begins. The parameters are: size of the grid, spacing between lines (profiles) and point interval (trace interval). These parameters are not changeable afterwards.

Tip:

The text fields with information on site, customer, name etc. can be changed afterwards.

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First enter the size of your grid.

Using the Navigator, select and edit the X-

size and Y-size.

Then select and enter the Point Interval for the measurement between the traces.

Next select and enter the Line Spacing for the measurement between each profile.

Customer, Operator and Site details can be enter along with any additional comments

Finally, select Start the Project

Before the project commences, a summary screen indicating the chosen settings can be reviewed.

A plan view of the grid and its size is also shown.

Select Start to move onto the next screen or

Cancel to move to the previous screen.

Position the Easy Locator HDR antenna in the X=0 & Y=O position, pointing the antenna in the direction of the Y axis, as indicated by the small red triangle and dashed red line.

Select Start Line

Move the antenna to the end of the line

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As the antenna is moved forward, a black line indicates the progressing along the grid line

If a mistake is made during the measurement or the line is not completed, select Stop and then Next

Line, an option will appear to restart the line.

When the line is completed, the Easy

Locator Controller will indicate the completed line by changing the screen ready for the next line.

Move the antenna over to the next grid line and select Next Line.

Repeat these steps until the X-axis is completed.

Move the antenna to the start of the Yaxis and continue the measurements along the Y-axis until the grid is completed. Next, select Stop and

Process to complete the initial processing stage.

Once the processing is complete, the

Grid Project screen shows the plan view and one cross sectional (side) view in the X or Y-axis.

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Select the Settings Icon to proceed to the next step.

Select Background Removal option to On if removal of horizontal lines in the dataset is required.

Next, select Migration Wizard, this enables the correct velocity setting to obtain the best possible top view.

Select the Velocity button, Increase or decrease the velocity value until the hyperbola becomes a point.

Tip:

Too high a velocity value will cause the hyperbola to invert, reduce the value until the desired response/reflector is achieved. The reflector should be inbetween the inverted hyperbola and the standard hyperbola.

Next, choose an X or Y cross-section with a well-defined hyperbola.

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Finally, select the Quit button to exit and apply the migration to the entire data set.

Select the X-Section button to view the X-axis data in the side view. When activated, use the Navigator to scroll across the data set.

Select the Y-Section button to view the Y axis data in the side view

Select the Depth button and use the Navigator to scroll through the time slices in the top view window

Select the Full Screen option. This enables access the screen capture options

3D Project Full Screen menu

Select the JPEG button to access the screen capture options

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3D Project Settings Menu

Change the color scheme for the GPR profiles. Three options are available, a grey scale and two different color schemes.

Set the velocity based on soil type. Setting the velocity allows the adjustment of the depth scale for differing soil conditions.

Warning:

This is a critical setting if accurate depth information is required.

Soil conditions can vary rapidly with location and all depth information must be used with caution.

Set to manual or automatic gain control.

Note:

Manual gain activates the Time Gain button on the main screen and allows the user to manually adjust the gain. Selecting Auto deactivates the

Time Gain button on the main screen and the Easy Locator Controller will apply the highest gain level for the conditions.

Select Migration to On, this applies migration to the 3D Project.

Run the Migration Wizard to ensure the correct velocity value is applied to the radar dataset.

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Select the correct level of backlight for the ambient light levels. This setting can be adjusted within the range of 0–100%.

Tip:

Reducing the backlight will extend the battery life between charges.

The Background removal filter button is used to remove horizontal lines/reflections from the GPR profile.

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Ob jectMapper Project

An Object Mapper Project is a tool to easily handle and interpret radar profiles acquired with the Easy Locator

Controller, where a number of radar profiles are linked to a common baseline or positioned with GPS. See the examples below. or or

Once an ObjectMapper Project is created within the Easy Locator Controller, it can be directly opened in the

ObjectMapper program, a Windows based interpretation software for quick mapping of underground features.

For further information, see the ObjectMapper Operating Manual.

Creating an Object Mapper Project

Start working with Object Mapper Projects by selecting ObjectMapper Project on the Start Screen.

ObjectMapper Project start screen

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Select Settings to apply correct measurement values. See Measurement

Parameters Menu for full details

Select New Project to start the project and move onto the following screen

Select Project Name to tag a name to the project. Use the Navigator to enter the name, one character at a time.

To activate the GPS positioning, select the GPS Positioning to On

Note:

If the GPS option is ON, no baseline is needed and the X-Y coordinates are deactivated

The location of the baseline is given by setting the X and Y-coordinates of the start and stop positions of the line. If no coordinates are available, the baseline is defined as 0 m for X and Y start position and then the length of the line for X or Y stop position.

Tip:

The coordinates for the baseline can be edited later in the

ObjectMapper program.

When the baseline is defined or GPS Positioning is ON press Start the Project to collect the Object Mapper files.

Tip:

In this screen, before pressing Start the Project, the Easy Locator System measuring wheel can also be used as a measuring tape, showing the travelled distance at the bottom of the screen. To set the measuring tape function to zero, select the Current Distance option and press the Navigator once.

39

Object Mapper Measurements with Baseline

When the Start the project button is pressed, the Start Profile screen appears

Once Start Profile is pressed, the user returns to the ordinary measurement screen. The additional Baseline Crossing icon will be active on this screen.

When passing the baseline, select the menu option BL Crossing to place a marker on the GPR profile. This marker will be used to connect the current profile to the defined baseline.

Note:

The baseline can be created anywhere along the GPR profiles e.g. at the beginning, middle or end and the baseline must cross through all the profiles. If starting the profile directly on the baseline, press BL Crossing immediately after pressing Start, in other words, before moving the antenna.

After pressing BL Crossing the screen to the left is seen. Here the current profile is defined, in terms of distance from the baseline start point and the direction of the profile in relation to the baseline. See the picture illustration below.

40

Key:

1: Orientation to baseline start point. In this case it is 270 degrees.

2: Distance from the start of the current profile to the baseline

3

: Distance from baseline start to the current profile

4: Previous distance

First set the distance from the baseline start point to the current profile. The select the angle of the profile to the baseline start point. Finally, select Create the crossing, the screen reverts back to the measurement screen and a blue marker dot is seen on the GPR profile. Continue the measurement along the current profile.

Once a profile is completed, select Stop, the Start Profile screen will be seen and a new profile can be started as usual, again applying the BL Crossing option when passing the baseline.

Note:

The Easy Locator Controller and the Object Mapper project will automatically suggest the distance and the angle to the baseline start after 3 passes of the baseline.

Tip:

Moving in the opposite direction after each profile is finished can optimise Data collection. If measuring every second profile in the opposite direction and at a right angle to the baseline the angle from the profile direction to the baseline start will be 270, 90, 270, 90 and so on.

When all the Object Mapper profiles are measured, select Stop

ObjectMapper Project on the Start Profile screen to close and save the Object Mapper Project.

This project is then easily uploaded to a computer; see the Transferring Data section, where it can be opened in the Object Mapper PC software, for simple interpretation of underground features. For further information, see the Object Mapper Operating Manual.

Tip:

Separate files can be opened or uploaded from the project, enabling the user to view individual profiles if required.

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Object Mapper measurements with GPS

To create a project with GPS positioning, start a new project and select the GPS Positioning to On and select Start the Project

Next, select start profile and the screen will return to the main measurement screen.

Tip:

With GPS positioning activated, the user can complete one long profile in a zig-zag formation around the area to be surveyed, or stop and start profiles to create a number of parallel profiles.

When the project is complete, select Stop ObjectMapper

Project

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Continuing an Object Mapper measurements Project

To continue a previously started ObjectMapper

Project select Continue OM Project in the

Project Main screen. Use the Navigator to choose between the Object Mapper Projects and press the button to continue the selected Project.

System Menu

To enter the System Menu, select Shut Down from the Start Menu to enter the Quit screen. When on the Quit Screen, rotate the Navigator 3 “clicks” clockwise, then 3 “clicks” counter-clockwise and finally, 3 “clicks” clockwise.

The Easy Locator Controller will now enter the

System Menu.

Select Time and Date to modify the internal clock settings.

Select Battery max level to set the battery level indicator. Enter 12 (Volts) if a generic external 12Volt battery is being used; select 11 for the MALÅ battery packs.

Battery Save Mode allows the user to activate or deactivate the backlight dimming option.

Select Imperial or SI for the appropriate localised requirements.

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Select the Hardware Tests icon to enter the hardware test screen. Select

Start Test or Start Ethernet Test to start the self-test procedure. Each item of hardware will be tested sequentially with the results of each tested displayed on the screen and written to a file. Once the test is completed, select Upload “test_results.jpeg” to save the results to USB memory device.

Used to reformat the SSD radar data storage device in the

Easy Locator Controller.

Select the Data Disk Format option and press the Navigator to initiate reformatting.

A confirmation dialog is displayed before commencing the operation.

Tip:

It is recommended that reformatting is performed periodically to maintain peak performance for data management.

Note:

Reformatting does not affect the operating system or the Easy Locator Controller software.

The Easy Locator Controller software can be upgraded by downloading the latest software from the MALÅ website downloads page and installing onto a USB data storage device.

Copy the file ram10img.gz (and parameter files: eeprom_1, eeprom_2 if they exists) to the root of a

USB data storage device.

Insert the USB data storage device into the Easy Locator Controller USB port and select Software

Upgrade. If a confirmation request is displayed, accept the request by selecting YES.

The upgrade can take several minutes to install and the Easy Locator Controller will re-boot after installation.

Warning:

Make sure the batteries are fully charged before starting the software upgrade and DO NOT turn off the Easy Locator Controller while the upgrade is in progress.

Rotate the Navigator to select the Restore Predefined Settings option and press to perform a reset when experiencing problems or if you would like to reset the settings to a predefined state. A confirmation dialog is displayed before reset operation is performed.

Note:

This restore is a low-level reset and should be performed as the first option before executing the

Restore Factory Settings option

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Select the Restore Factory Settings option and press to perform a reset when experiencing problems, or if you would like to reset the settings to the default factory settings. A confirmation dialog is displayed before reset operation is performed.

Select Next Screen to access additional System Menu options.

Default Start Depth value determines the depth widow at start of a scan. The entered value has no effect on the total depth of the time widow.

Select GPS ON/OFF to toggle the GPS function on or off depending on requirements.

GPS options and settings

Select GPS Parameters to enter the settings screen for the GPS options.

There are 3 options for the GPS

Interface/Unit setting.

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1. Built-in, this option selects the built-in DGPS module. Select the correct SBAS Region for your area. Currently available options are listed below

2. COM Port, this option is selected for a RTK GPS input via the COM port. An external RTK

GPS antenna can be mounted on the

Easy Locator

antenna. Once this option is activated, various parameters will be activated, see below.

3. USB, select this option if a simple GPS antenna is attached to the USB port.

SBAS DGPS Differential correction service areas

COM Port settings for external RTK

GPS.

The Select accuracy for green option allows the user to set the tolerance for the

GPS precision indicator that is displayed at the top right of the monitor's screen while in Started mode. Use the High setting if utilising a RTK GPS.

Select the correct values for the COM

Port Baud Rate and CheckSum

Validation to match the external RTK

GPS output.

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Troubleshooting - Frequently Answered Questions

MALÅ Easy Locator Pro HDR has been design to be robust and reliable under adverse conditions.

If you encounter a mechanical failure that cannot be fixed on site, please contract MALÅ

Geoscience or your MALÅ Geoscience representative for advice.

System Malfunctions

Most malfunctions are power/data communications or user settings related. Before contacting your local MALÅ Geoscience office or authorized dealer please follow these simple steps.

C heck user settings

Enter the Measurement Parameters menu and check the settings for Acquisition Mode,

Wheel Type, Point interval etc.

C heck battery capacity

Connect the battery to the charger and switch on the charger at the electrical outlet. The light on the battery charger should be either yellow or green indicating an operative charge. If the indicator light is red, continue charging until the charging cycle is complete, i.e. indicator light turns green.

C heck connectors

Disconnect and reconnect the battery pack on the Easy Locator HDR antenna

If using the external battery bag, disconnect and reconnect the battery connector in the battery bag.

Disconnect and reconnect both ends of the data cable between the antenna and the

MALÅ Easy Locator Controller.

Check the pulse encoder connector on the rear of the antenna.

Restart MALÅ Easy Locator Pro HDR Controller and Antenna

Turn off the MALÅ Easy Locator HDR antenna and controller, by first selecting QUIT from the on-screen menu options on the Controller, confirm the action by selecting YES then push the power button on the Controller and release quickly. The red light will then stop blinking and the unit will also emit a click when turning off. Wait 10 seconds before switching on the Controller and antenna.

Note:

If the Controller is not responding, turn the unit off by pushing the power switch

.

Service and Repairs

To maintain maximum performance, the MALÅ Easy locator Pro HDR should be regularly serviced.

Contact MALÅ Geoscience or your local MALÅ Geoscience representative for more information on how to service your MALÅ Easy locator Pro HDR.

Technical Support

MALÅ Geoscience is committed to providing exceptional product support. Our technical support representatives are available online to help you find answers to even the most challenging technical support issues. Our experienced support team works very closely with the development teams to ensure that every client receives the best possible support.

Technical support requests can be made directly from our website: www.malags.com/support

47

G lossary

A

B

Auto-Gain

Similar to Time-Gain except the software decides the coefficients to be applied to give a response across the depth range without over amplifying the trace.

Background removal

Background removal is used to remove horizontal and nearly horizontal features in the radargram by subtracting a calculated mean trace from all traces, sample by sample. It can be useful for removing the direct airwave (first arrival) or ringing (due to poor ground conditions) from the data. Care must be taken in this process not to remove real linear features from the data.

D

Differential GPS (DGPS)

Differential GPS, uses satellites and a correction from a reference station/satellite, accuracy around ± 0.5-2 m. The available systems for the Easy Locator Controller are currently EGNOS

(Europe), WAAS (USA), GAGAN (India) and MSAS (Japan).

G

GPR profile

Individual line of GPR data represented in a cross-sectional (profile) view of the sub-

H

surface.

Ground Penetrating Radar

Geophysical method that uses radar pulses to image the subsurface

Hyperbola

The type of reflection often associated with a round object or a utility, especially when the angle (profile) of the radar is at 90 degrees to the utility. It is a distinctive “n” shaped reflection.

N

Noise

Typical GPR reflection profiles contain noise and unwanted reflections that are produced by antenna "ringing", differences in the coupling of energy with the ground, multiple reflections that occur between the antenna and the ground surface and system and background

"noise".

48

Navigator

The push-turn knob fitted to the MALÅ Monitors & Easy locator Controller that acts in a similar way to a computer mouse allowing the user to navigate menus and update data.

Rotating the knob either allows sequential scrolling through menu options to make a menu selection or changes selected parameter values. Pressing the knob either executes the currently selected menu option or sets the value of the selected parameter.

P

Planar reflections

Reflections that appear as horizontal or sub-horizontal lines in GPR profiles. They are generated from any linear boundary between materials, such as buried stratigraphic and soil horizons, the water table, and horizontal archaeological features, such as house floors, as well as pipelines that are parallel to the GPR scan.

R

Point source reflections

Reflections which often appear as hyperbolas in GPR profiles. They are commonly gen- erated from distinct, spatially-restricted, non-planar features (‘point targets’), such as rocks, metal objects, walls, tunnels, voids, and pipes crossed at right angles to the GPR scan.

Real Time Kinematic GPS (RTK GPS)

Real Time Kinematic GPS is a highly accurate instrument for positioning, it uses two GPS receivers (one stationary base and one rover) and a correction signal from the base antenna.

The accuracy is around ± 1-2 cm. Network RTK also available in many locations, where the correction factor is received via a GSM mobile.

S

Signature

A representation of the reflected radar signal in a GPR profile. Reflected signals are caused by changes in the dielectric properties of the target medium. These dielectric differences are usual caused by differences in materials, e.g., a buried object or reinforcing in concrete. Objects of a discrete length are generally characterized by a hyperbolic reflection in the GPR profile, and are referred to as point source reflections. A linear object, such as a pipe, will also display the characteristics of a discrete-length object if the GPR scan is performed perpendicular to its longitudinal alignment, and are referred to as planar reflections. As the scan is moved towards the longitudinal alignment of the linear object, the hyperbolic refection flattens until it approaches a horizontal line in the GPR profile. The shape of the signature is also affected by many other factors, including the size of the object, the signal velocity, and the object material.

SSD

SSD is an abbreviation for Solid State Drive, which the memory device used for the operating system and to store data.

Standard GPS

Relatively inexpensive GPS that only uses satellites for positioning, These systems generally have an accuracy around ± 4 m and are suitable for large scale layer mapping projects

49

T

Time-Gain

Time-Gain applies a time-varying gain to compensate for amplitude loss due to spreading and attenuation. The trace is multiplied by a gain function combining linear and an exponential gain, with coefficients set by the user.

Trace

A "trace" is a single, vertical column of GPR data, representing the signal "traced" by a radar pulse as it travels from the instrument into the subsurface. Each trace is com- posed of individual "samples," the smallest measurement unit in the vertical dimension. Because of geometrical "spreading," the radar signal decreases in strength with depth as 1/r2, where r is depth.

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