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Sun Fire™
Midframe Server Best
Practices for Administration
By James Hsieh - Customer Problem Resolution
(CPR) Engineering - Americas (formerly HES-CTE)
Sun BluePrints™ OnLine - October 2001
Sun Microsystems, Inc.
901 San Antonio Road
Palo Alto, CA 94303 USA
650 960-1300
fax 650 969-9131
Part No.: 816-2201-10
Revision 1.0, 10/01/01
Edition: October 2001
Copyright 2001 Sun Microsystems, Inc. 901 San Antonio Road, Palo Alto, California 94303 U.S.A. All rights reserved.
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Copyright 2001 Sun Microsystems, Inc., 901 San Antonio Road, Palo Alto, Californie 94303 Etats-Unis. Tous droits réservés.
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Sun Fire™ Midframe Server Best
Practices for Administration
Sun Fire™ 3800, 4800, 4810, and 6800 Midframe servers provide new functionality to
monitor, diagnose, and administer the system which can increase overall system
Reliability, Availability, and Serviceability (RAS). Much of the new functionality is
available through the Sun Fire System Controller (SC) which is a central part of the
Sun Fire Midframe server. The emphasis of this article is to introduce “Best
Practices” that take advantage of the new functionality provided by the SC and to
configure the appropriate external support resources such as a Midframe Service
Processor to prepare a Sun Fire system for mission critical service.
Specifically, this article covers the following topics:
Configuring the SC
SC administration philosophy for the Sun Fire Midframe server
Midframe Service Processor (MSP) configuration
Basic platform security
Error analysis and diagnosis
While many recommendations made here apply to the majority of cases, not all
recommendations may apply to every circumstance.
System Controller Configuration
RS-232 Port should be accessible during the initial setup
Use a 100BaseT Ethernet connection
Put the SC on a switched, private network
The first step in the administration of the Sun Fire Midframe server is to configure
the Sun Fire SC. The Sun Fire SC can be accessed two ways—through the built-in
RS-232 serial port, or through its 10/100 Ethernet port. Be sure that access to the
serial port is available during the initial setup of the SC as this is the only connection
where SC Power On Self Test (SCPOST) output can be viewed. The serial port can be
accessed using a network terminal server or the serial port on a Midframe Service
Processor (MSP). The port settings should be 9600 bps, 8 bits, no parity, 1 stop bit
Once the Ethernet port has been configured, it should be the primary access path to
the SC. A telnet session is used to connect to the Sun Fire SC from the network.
Access through the Ethernet port is faster than the serial port, and allows for
multiple simultaneous connections to the SC. A 100BaseT link is strongly
recommended for the SC Ethernet connection and required for use with Sun™
Management Center (Sun MC) software. When in service, access to the serial port
should be available to provide an alternate access path to the SC in the event of a
network problem, or if the SC is rebooted or reset. Serial port access is also required
to monitor certain SC and platform related errors as this is where these errors will be
displayed. However, if only one connection is possible, the Ethernet port should be
chosen as the primary connection path for the speed, multi-session access, and
logging capabilities it provides.
Sun Fire™ Midframe Server Best Practices for Administration • October 2001
For best performance, the SC should be configured on a switched, private network.
If configuring two SCs for the network, assign each SC a separate IP address so they
do not conflict with each other on the network. FIGURE 1 illustrates a simplified
network topology.
Sun Fire
Public Ethernet
Domain A
Domain B
Serial Connection
System Controller
Private Ethernet
Simplified Network Topology
System Controller Administration Philosophy
The Sun Fire SC has a management scheme where operations affecting the entire
system are managed through a “platform” shell and separate domain functionality is
managed by a “domain” shell.
Multiple platform shells may be accessed simultaneously, and the platform shell has
the ability to view status of any component within the system and can also control
their allocation. One example of how the platform shell is used to manage the entire
system is through the ability of the platform shell to set Access Control Lists (ACLs).
The ACLs can be set up using the setupplatform -p acl command and can be
used to restrict what resources a particular domain has access to. The domain shell
can only access resources specified in the ACL set up for it by the platform.
System Controller Configuration
While the platform shell manages and administers overall system resources,
operations such as turning on the virtual keyswitch for each domain are controlled
exclusively by the domain shell. Only one shell per domain can be active at any
time. In addition, the ACL restricts the domain shell to only be able to view
resources that the domain is currently using, resources that are allocated to the
domain, or any resources that are unassigned on the platform, which are available to
the domain according to the ACL.
The advantages to this setup are that access to the platform (and administration of
overall system resources) can be restricted to a group of administrators separate
from the domains. Access to platform and domain shells can be controlled using
passwords which can be set and changed using the password command on the SC.
From the platform shell, one has the ability to set or change the platform and
domain shell passwords. From a domain shell, one can only change the password of
the particular domain. Since the platform has additional privileges, its password
should be different from those selected for the domains.
Monitoring Through Serial Port, syslog, and
Keep serial and Ethernet ports available
Use the Ethernet interface for routine tasks
Monitor the platform and all domain consoles
Set up syslog
Set up SNMP for Sun MC software
Administration of a Sun Fire server is designed to be performed primarily through
the Sun Fire SC, and can be accessed in two ways—through the built-in RS-232 serial
port or through its 10/100 Ethernet interface. While the Ethernet interface is the
preferred means of accessing the SC, the serial port performs important roles in the
administration of the Sun Fire server after the initial platform setup. First, the serial
port is a second point of accessibility to the system in the event of a network outage.
Second, it is also where the system will output platform and SC error messages.
While output is buffered (up to 4K) and can also be directed to a syslog host if a
network is configured, it is best to continuously monitor the serial port output either
with a logging terminal server, or by connecting the serial port to an MSP which can
capture the terminal output with a mechanism such as “script” under the Solaris™
Operating Environment (Solaris OE). This provides additional error detection and
information in the event of a failure.
Sun Fire™ Midframe Server Best Practices for Administration • October 2001
The Ethernet interface of the SC, in addition to providing multiple high speed shell
connections, also allows for syslog and SNMP messages to be sent to a designated
administration platform. The Ethernet interface is also required for performing
firmware updates on the system, and for saving and restoring SC configuration
information. Both syslog and SNMP facilities should be enabled and configured;
however, system consoles should also be recorded using a mechanism such as
“script” because not all messages can be logged with syslog or SNMP.
The setup of information recording and logging should be done during the initial
platform setup, although it is also possible to make these changes at other times. At
an absolute minimum, syslog should be set up to log to a central location because
messages will be permanently lost if the SC message buffer fills and buffer contents
are overwritten. In addition, because the SC message buffer is in volatile memory,
messages can also be lost if the SC loses power. The SC maintains a 4K ring buffer
for messages from each domain and the platform. A centralized mechanism for
analyzing log information is also important in order to quickly locate the desired
When setting up the platform or domain (using setupplatform or setupdomain
respectively), you will be prompted for a syslog log host. You can supply a syslog
log host (using an IP address or hostname) as well as a facility level. The syntax for
this is hostname:facility (for example, mysysloghost:local0). A typical
setup may look as follows:
heslab-16:A> setupdomain -p loghost
-------Loghost []:
Corresponding changes need to be made to the /etc/syslog.conf file on the
syslog log host or MSP. Further information on the configuration of syslog can be
found in the Solaris Systems Administration Guides.
Based on the number of systems and syslog devices that a single syslog log host
will be monitoring, establish a convention to maximize use of the limited number of
syslog facilities available. There are only eight syslog facilities available for user
use in the Solaris OE, so it is likely that an administrator will quickly run out of
unique syslog facilities. Organization of message logging is important to allow the
administrator to quickly find the desired information. A good way to organize
syslog logging is to assign local0 to all platform messages, and then assign
local1-4 to domains A-D, respectively. syslog under the Solaris 8 OE identifies
each syslog entry with the originating host name and syslog facility used. This
makes it easy to quickly separate messages coming from different hosts.
System Controller Configuration
When setting up the platform, one can configure the Sun Fire SC to interface with
the latest versions of Sun MC software through SNMP. To increase the monitoring
capability of the platform, users should enable SNMP with Sun MC software. It is
strongly recommended that the default community strings be changed during
installation for security reasons. The following values for platform and domain
Public and Private Community Strings are, however, set by default:
Platform Public: P-public
Platform Private: P-private
Domain A Public: A-public
Domain A Private: A-private
Domain B Public: B-public
Domain B Private: B-private
Domain C Public: C-public
Domain C Private: C-private
Domain D Public: D-public
Domain D Private: D-private
Sun Fire™ Midframe Server Best Practices for Administration • October 2001
SNMP must be enabled on the platform (with setupplatform) before SNMP can
be enabled on any of the domains. The session may look similar to the following:
heslab-16:SC> setupplatform -p snmp
---Platform Description [Sun Fire 3800]:
Platform Contact [[email protected]]:
Platform Location [Lab]:
Enable SNMP Agent? [no]: yes
Trap Hosts [ ]:
Public Community String []: P-public
Private Community String []: P-private
heslab-16:SC> console a
Connected to Domain A
Domain Shell for Domain A
heslab-16:A> setupdomain -p snmp
---Domain Description [test]:
Domain Contact [[email protected]]:
Trap Hosts [ ]:
Public Community String [ ]: A-public
Private Community String [ ]: A-private
To find additional information on configuring Sun MC software, please refer to the
Sun MC section on Sun Fire documentation and the main Sun MC documentation.
In addition to setting up syslog and SNMP, domain console sessions should be
monitored in a manner similar to that described for the platform and the serial port
connection. While the SC has a buffer for each domain’s messages, the SC will not
send domain console messages or error messages generated by the Solaris OE (such
as panic strings) to an external log host. Therefore, if a domain console is not
constantly monitored, critical messages and valuable diagnostic information could
be lost in the event of a failure. Since there are multiple domains to monitor, domain
shells should be accessed through the Ethernet port because it allows multiple
connections. (The user should be aware, however, that the number of simultaneous
connections via telnet is not unlimited.)
System Controller Configuration
POST levels and Other Settings
Set domain post values to maximum (default)
Set other parameters for system recovery
To provide thorough testing of all components, the POST level for both the SC and
domains should be set to maximum. (Maximum is the “default” level for all
domains.) If it is not always possible to run maximum POST levels at all times, it is
advisable that on initial setup, maximum level POST be used to identify any
components which may have failed during transit. Maximum level POST should
also be used in other circumstances such as hardware being replaced or moved, after
an unexpected system or power failure, or when hardware is suspected of causing
system problems.
For the SC, confirm SCPOST values using the showplatform -p sc command as
heslab-12:SC> showplatform -p sc
SC POST diag level: max
For each domain, confirm POST values using the showdomain -p bootparams
command as follows:
heslab-12:B> showdomain -p bootparams
diag-level = max
verbosity-level = off
error-level = max
interleave-scope = within-board
interleave-mode = optimal
reboot-on-error = true
OBP.use-nvramrc? = true = true
OBP.error-reset-recovery = sync
Note – “default” is also equal to “max” in the case of domain diag-level.
Sun Fire™ Midframe Server Best Practices for Administration • October 2001
In addition, on each domain, other recommended Domain Boot Parameters are as
heslab-12:B> showdomain -p bootparams
diag-level = max
verbosity-level = off
error-level = max
interleave-scope = within-board
interleave-mode = optimal
reboot-on-error = true
OBP.use-nvramrc? = true = true
OBP.error-reset-recovery = sync
Maintenance Functions
Perform regular backups of the SC(s)
Perform firmware updates as new firmware is released
In the event of an SC failure, it may become necessary to manually restore the SC’s
configuration information. Once the configuration of the platform has been
completed, (this includes setting up domains and segments), create a backup of your
SC configuration so that in the event of an SC failure, a quick restoration will be
possible. To do this, use the dumpconfig command as follows from the SC platform
heslab-12:B> dumpconfig -f ftp://me:[email protected]/dumps
To restore an SC configuration, use the restoreconfig command as follows from
the SC platform shell:
heslab-12:B> restoreconfig -f ftp://me:[email protected]/dumps
Perform a dumpconfig of the Sun Fire SC on a routine basis to ensure the dump file
is up to date. To help with a quick recovery in the event of a primary SC failure,
make sure that the second SC has the same configuration information as the primary
SC after all domain configuration has been completed.
System Controller Configuration
Periodically, updates to the SC firmware and Real Time Operating System (RTOS)
will be made available. These updates often contain critical bug fixes and
functionality enhancements to the SC and should be applied as part of a regular
patch maintenance routine. Before applying a firmware update using the
flashupdate command, carefully read any README files which may be contained
in the patch package before proceeding with the update. Backing up the SC
configuration before updating is also recommended. The firmware updates can be
retrieved from SunSolveSM Web site ( For Sun Fire
systems which have two SCs, remember to update the firmware on both SCs.
Refer to the Sun Fire 6800/4810/4800/3800 SC Commands Reference Manual for more
information on the commands discussed here and also for other SC commands.
Midframe Service Processor
Change syslog.conf, set up log files, and test logging
Set up Sun MC proxy and server agents on separate systems
Set up ftp and/or http servers to provide firmware updates
By this time, it should be apparent that there is a need for an external administration
system to help with the administration of Sun Fire servers because a number of
features of the Sun Fire SC attempt to log messages to an external host (SNMP,
syslog), or require monitoring on a regular basis (console outputs, SC platform
messages). The Midframe Service Processor (MSP) provides a centralized and
secured access point for logging these messages and provides support services that
the SC cannot provide.
While the Sun Fire platform is theoretically self-contained, for ease of problem
diagnosis, accessibility to platform information, and performing system firmware
and software updates, an MSP is strongly recommended to provide a centralized
location for these functions.
This article does not recommend any particular type of MSP, because each
individual site’s needs (number of systems to monitor, requirement for Sun MC
software, etc.), generally differ greatly. In addition, many individual sites’
requirements may conflict. For example, syslog does not require as much system
resource as Sun MC software to monitor hosts, but because of the limited number of
syslog logging facilities available per host, it may not be possible to monitor as
many systems as a single, larger Sun MC server is capable of, without generating
large, unmanageable log files.
Sun Fire™ Midframe Server Best Practices for Administration • October 2001
To be able to the log messages sent with syslog from a Sun Fire SC, additions to the
default /etc/syslog.conf file need to be made on the syslog log host, which
correspond to the settings made on the Sun Fire platform. Examples of the changes
to the syslog.conf file are as follows:
(The above entries should be separated by tabs, syslogd fails otherwise.)
After making these changes to the syslog.conf file, create the log files before
restarting syslog, by entering the following commands. Be sure the files have
appropriate permissions.
After restarting syslog or rebooting the MSP, verify that syslog is working
correctly. Do this using the logger command as follows:
"Domain A
"Domain B
"Domain C
"Domain D
Verify that the “test message” is logged in the appropriate log file. Then, verify that
the SC is logging properly by entering the setkeyswitch off and
setkeyswitch on commands, and verifying that POST results are sent to the log
Periodically, the log files will need to be rotated to prevent them from growing too
large in size. This can be done by setting up additional scripts such as
/usr/lib/newsyslog to run on a regular basis, which modifies the contents of the
additional scripts to rotate the specified log files. Rotate the files on at least a
monthly basis, and keep archived copies of the information for at least two months.
As mentioned previously, syslog facilities available for use are limited, so plan
ahead and organize how the limited number of resources are used to effectively
enable the administrator to quickly locate data. In addition, it is also useful to set up
Midframe Service Processor Configuration
scripts to parse and sort the incoming information on a regular basis and notify the
administrator with an email of the changes. Further information on the
configuration of syslog can be found in the Solaris Systems Administration Guides.
A Sun MC server normally requires a higher level of system resources, such as a
correctly configured dual processor system capable of having 1 GB of RAM or more.
However, a Sun MC server has a greater capability to monitor and administer a large
number of systems. Whether or not the Sun MC proxy agent is running on the same
host as the server agent, may influence a Sun MC server configuration. Sun MC
software should be implemented with two systems, where one small system acts as
a proxy agent for one or more Sun Fire platforms, and the second system is the
larger Sun MC server tasked with monitoring an entire network. This configuration
provides additional monitoring capabilities in case the system containing the Sun
MC server becomes unavailable, and provides flexibility in MSP and security
To be able to monitor SNMP traps generated by the Sun Fire SC, the Sun MC 3.0
Platform Update 1 (available with the Solaris 8 OE 04/01 software release) must be
installed. Currently, Sun MC software is the only package that can understand the
SNMP traps generated by the Sun Fire SC—no MIBS are publicly available. Refer to
the Sun MC 3.0 Software Supplement for Sun Fire 6800/4810/4800/3800 systems
documents for additional installation and setup information.
For purposes of firmware updates to the Sun Fire SC, it is necessary to set up an ftp
or http service on the MSP. An anonymous ftp server can be set up by following
the instructions in the ftpd man page under the Solaris OE, or it is possible to use
normal ftp by specifying a user and password in the ftp URL. If the MSP uses the
Solaris 8 OE, a version of the Apache Web server is provided with the Solaris 8 OE
software and may be used to provide http services. Because the http service is
more configurable than the ftp service and may be restricted to listen only on
certain network interfaces, http can have less of a security impact than ftp. Refer
to the Sun BluePrints™ OnLine article published September 2001, “Securing the Sun
Fire™ Midframe System Controller” (available from for
additional configuration information.
The operating system for Sun Fire server domains can be installed either with an
attached DVD-ROM drive or over the network from a Solaris JumpStart™ server.
The function of a JumpStart server may also be well suited for an MSP. Detailed
instructions for setting up a Solaris 8 OE JumpStart™ server can be found in the
Solaris Systems Administration Guides.
When choosing a proper MSP (or MSPs), some additional capabilities need to be
considered, such as accessing the serial ports on multiple Sun Fire SCs, and how
many devices need to be monitored on the same system. For example, the Sun
StorEdge™ T3 array may also need to be monitored by the same MSP.
Sun Fire™ Midframe Server Best Practices for Administration • October 2001
General System Administration and Management
Set up and run Explorer Version 3.5 or higher
Set up Explorer to run periodically
After completing the initial installation of a Sun Fire server, the Explorer utility
should be installed on both the server and MSP, and set up to run periodically to
collect system configuration information and error messages. If possible, the output
from Explorer should be automatically emailed to the Explorer database at the email
address specified when setting up Explorer. Version 3.5 or higher of Explorer should
be used because it has the capability to gather data from the Sun Fire SC.
The following command gathers information from the SC, and should be executed
on the MSP. In addition, the following command assumes that Explorer has already
been installed on the system in the default /opt/SUNWexplo location.
nerm# /opt/SUNWexplo/bin/explorer -w scextended,default
If the previous command is executed from a Sun Fire domain, Explorer will collect
data from both the SC and the domain.
Explorer is available from
If security considerations prevent the automatic emailing of Explorer results to the
Explorer database, the Explorer utility should still be installed so it is available to
collect information in the event that service is required on the system and
information needs to be collected.
The initial installation is also a good time to record and check the system serial
number, hostid information, and MAC address information provided with the
system and to become familiar with how these values are reported by the SC
showplatform -v command. This information should be kept where it can be
easily accessed should an SC replacement be required.
Midframe Service Processor Configuration
Basic platform Security
General Solaris OE security practices always apply
Choose “good” passwords for your system
Control and restrict access to the SC serial port
Only access the SC from the MSP
Secure the MSP
System security is important for any computing system, and the Sun Fire server is
no exception. Since the Sun Fire server runs the same Solaris OE as other Sun
systems, basic security practices that apply to any Solaris OE system also apply to
the Sun Fire servers. This includes basic suggestions such as regular patch
maintenance, stopping unnecessary network services, and choosing good passwords
to prevent account abuse. However, the architecture of the Sun Fire server with the
SC, results in additional security considerations. In addition, because the SC is key
to the administration and operation of a Sun Fire server, the security capabilities of
the Sun Fire SC are more limited.
Great care should be taken in the setup of the system to ensure that access is
restricted only to authorized personnel. Failure to properly secure access to the SC
can adversely affect the operation of the Sun Fire server. Refer to the Sun BluePrints
OnLine article, “Securing the Sun Fire™ Midframe System Controller” for a more
detailed discussion of this topic. Some general recommendations of user
authorization are presented in this section.
To help deter unauthorized access, passwords should be set on the Sun Fire SC
platform and domain shells. These can all be set using the password command
from either the SC platform or domain shells. The password command, issued
from the platform shell, can be used to change the platform shell password, or any
domain shell password through the use of the -d <domain> option. The
password command issued from a domain shell, can only be used to change the
password for the particular domain. The SC does not enforce any password
standards and the SC also maintains no records of failed login attempts or the source
of the login attempts. Given the importance of these passwords in terms of
restricting access to critical system resources, good passwords should be chosen that
cannot be easily guessed or discovered using a brute-force attack. Passwords for the
SC can and should be longer than eight characters. It is strongly recommended that
passwords for platform access and root user access on the domains be different.
It is extremely important to carefully control access to the Sun Fire SC serial port.
Since the serial port is the lowest level of access to the SC, an unprotected serial port
could have serious consequences to the operation of the Sun Fire system. Access to
the serial port could result in the compromise of the application that runs on the SC.
Since that application controls the entire Sun Fire system, improper access could
Sun Fire™ Midframe Server Best Practices for Administration • October 2001
result in undesired changes to critical settings or system outages. Attach the serial
port connection of the Sun Fire SC to a password controlled terminal server or
directly to the MSP where access can be monitored and logged.
There is no current capability for session encryption between a host and the SC
through the Ethernet interface. Since telnet sessions are used to make connections
to the SC, maintaining a secure network is of the utmost importance. It is strongly
recommended that the MSP and the Sun Fire SCs be placed on a private, switched,
non-routed network. The MSP should be the only way to access the Sun Fire SCs,
and access to the MSP should be carefully secured, monitored, and encrypted if
possible. This includes the use of a terminal server which supports encryption (i.e.
SSH) if possible. If the terminal server does not support encryption, be sure to place
the terminal server on the private network and not on the public network.
In cases where corporate security policy dictates the use of encrypted sessions on all
networks, one suggestion is to connect the Ethernet interface on the SC directly to a
secured workstation with an Ethernet cross-over cable, and then require encrypted
sessions between other hosts and the secured workstation. To further enhance the
security of the MSP, a tool such as the Solaris™ Security Toolkit software, formerly
known as JASS (, should be used to
install and improve the security profile of the MSP. Due diligence should also be
exercised to keep the MSP and SC up to date in terms of patches.
While it is advantageous to set up a Web (httpd) server and/or an anonymous ftp
server on the MSP to facilitate firmware updates to the Sun Fire SC, both of these
network services have traditionally been common sources for security issues. Since a
compromised MSP could also compromise the SC and the entire Sun Fire platform,
it is important to pay close attention to the setup of these services, security patches
applied for these services, and access to the MSP be carefully configured.
Error Analysis and Diagnosis
Use Explorer to gather data
Carefully analyze any errors
Isolate failure through software reconfiguration before swapping boards
Sun Fire servers have been designed with significantly enhanced diagnostics
capabilities. In the event of a system fault, the system should provide data for both
software and hardware failures which can be used to help determine the source of
the fault. Errors can be generated and logged to several places, depending on the
type of error. A utility such as Explorer is recommended to gather data from the
system so that all error messages can be collected in a central location for analysis.
Midframe Service Processor Configuration
After the appropriate error messages have been located, use the Sun Fire 6800/4810/
4800/3800 Systems Troubleshooting Manual and the flow charts contained within to
isolate the source of the error as far as possible. Based on the results, attempt to
verify the failure using component blacklisting, segmenting, or other reconfiguration
before attempting to remove or replace components (in the case of a suspected
hardware problem).
This article has described the configuration and setup of the various parts of the Sun
Fire Midframe to take advantage of many of the new features available to help
administer and service the system. Proper configuration of the Sun Fire Midframe
server provides increased RAS through the availability of additional monitoring and
logging functionality while maintaining security over the system’s resources.
Sun Fire 6800/4810/4800/3800 System Controller Command Reference Manual (Sun
Document # 805-7372)
Sun Fire 6800/4810/4800/3800 Systems Service Manual (Sun Document #805-7363)
Sun Management Center 3.0 Software Installation Guide (Sun Document #806-5943)
Sun Management Center 3.0 Software Supplement For Sun Fire 6800/4810/4800/3800
Systems (Sun Document #806-5948)
Securing the Sun Fire™ Midframe System Controller (Sun Blueprints OnLine
September 2001)
Sun Field Engineer Handbook
Global Knowledge Engineering Explorer Tool at
Solaris Security Toolkit (formerly known as JASS) available at
Sun Fire™ Midframe Server Best Practices for Administration • October 2001
Author's Bio: James Hsieh
James Hsieh is a member of the Sun CPR Engineering Americas (formerly HES-CTE) group and is part
of the team responsible for providing engineering support of Sun’s midrange server line. Prior to his
current role with CPR Engineering, James worked for Sun Enterprise Services supporting Mission
Critical customers.
Prior to Sun, James worked for over ten years with UNIX® and Sun systems as a software engineer
and as a systems administrator for large groups of UNIX systems.
Author's Bio: James Hsieh
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