Service Bulletin Cummins® Engine Oil and Oil Analysis

Service Bulletin Cummins® Engine Oil and Oil Analysis
Service Bulletin Number
3810340-06
Date
11-MAY-2007
Design Application
All
Market Application
All
Service Bulletin
Cummins® Engine Oil and Oil Analysis
Recommendations
Section 1: Diesel Engine Oil Recommendations 2
Engines with EGR and Aftertreatment 3
Engines with EGR, but without Aftertreatment 3
Engines without EGR 3
Minimum Requirements 3
Cummins Recommended SAE Oil Viscosity Grades 3
Synthetic Oils 4
Re-refined Oils 4
Friction Modifiers 4
Break-in Oils 4
Drain Intervals 4
Monograde Oils 4
Non-Classified Oils 4
Section 2: Natural Gas Engine Oil Recommendations 5
Section 3: Functions Of Engine Oil 5
Lubrication 5
Extreme Pressure Wear Control 5
Cleaning 5
Protection 6
Cooling 6
Sealing 6
Shock-Damping 6
Hydraulic Action 6
Oil Additives 6
Section 4: Viscosity 6
Oil Viscosity and Engine Performance 6
Viscosity Recommendations 7
Section 5: Oil Performance Classification 7
Cummins Engineering Standards (CES) 7
Supplemental Friction Modifiers and Other Additives 7
Section 6: Oil Contamination 7
Oil Contaminants 7
Section 7: Oil Filtration 8
Oil Filter Design, Use, and Function 8
Filter Plugging 8
Section 8: Oil Change Intervals 9
Factors Used to Determine Oil Drain Intervals 9
Centinel® Continuous Oil Change 9
Section 9: Used Oil Analysis 9
Oil Sample Collection 9
Contamination Check 10
Appendix A - Used Oil Analysis Applications 10
Contamination Checks 11
Evaluating Operating and Maintenance Intervals 11
Introduction
This Service Bulletin outlines the proper application and maintenance of engine oil for
Cummins® engines. The purpose of this Service Bulletin is to update and simplify
Cummins Inc. recommendations and guidelines for the end user.
Cummins Inc. recommends the use of a high quality, diesel engine oil such as Valvoline
Premium Blue® or Valvoline Premium Blue Extreme Life® or their equivalent, and high
quality filters such as Fleetguard® or their equivalent.
Cummins Inc. bases oil drain recommendations on oil performance classifications and
duty cycle. Maintaining the correct oil and filter change interval is a vital factor in
preserving the integrity of an engine. Consult your Operation and Maintenance manual
for detailed instructions on determining the oil change interval for your engine.
SECTION 1: DIESEL ENGINE OIL RECOMMENDATIONS
CAUTION
Use of CES 20081 oil in off-road engines operating on off-road fuel
with higher sulfur content can result in severe engine damage if the
applicable drain intervals and recommendations are not followed. See
Table 3 for compatible fuel and oil combinations.
CAUTION
Failure to follow applicable drain intervals and recommendations in
this Service Bulletin and the Operation and Maintenance Manual can
result in severe engine damage that might not be covered under
warranty.
Cummins Inc. has established a number of Cummins Engineering Standards (CES)
which describe the performance levels of engine oils that must be used in various
engines. In addition, Cummins Inc. works through the Engine Manufacturers
Association (EMA) and with the many technical and marketing organizations
responsible for lubricant quality around the world, to develop industry specifications that
meet Cummins Inc. requirements. Table 1 lists the Cummins Engineering Standards
and those North American and international performance classifications which most
closely satisfy them.
Table 1: Cummins Engineering Standards (CES) for Lubricants:
North American International
Classification
Classification²
CES
Application
20081
Heavy Duty and MidRange Engines with Exhaust
API-4 CJ-4
Aftertreatment and 15 ppm Sulfur Diesel Fuel
20078
Heavy Duty and MidRange Engines with EGR
20077
Premium Oil for Heavy Duty and High
Horsepower Engines outside North America
without EGR
20076
Premium Oil for Heavy Duty and High
Horsepower Engines without EGR in North
America
20075
Minimum quality oil for MidRange engines without
API¹ CF-4/SG
EGR in applications outside North America
20072
Standard oil for engines without EGR in all parts
API¹ CI-4
See note 7
See note 6
API¹ CH-4
ACEA³ E-2 / E3 JAMA 4 DH-1
Global DHD-1²
of the world
20071
ACEA³ E-5
Standard oil for engines without EGR in all parts
of the world
API¹ CH-4 API¹
Global DHD-1²
CH-4/SJ
Categories not recommended 5 Do NOT Use
API¹ CA CB CC
ACEA³ E-1
CD CE CG-4
1
American Petroleum Institute.
2
Developed by EMA, ACEA, JAMA.
3
ACEA = Association des Constructeurs European d' Association.
4
JAMA = Japanese Automobile Manufacturers Association.
5
Use of oils with only these designations poses an undue risk of engine damage for
engines designed to use more advanced oils, even when drastically shortened oil
change intervals are followed.
6
CES 20076 adds the requirement of a 300 hour Cummins M11 test to API CH-4.
7
CES 20077 Adds the requirement of a 300 hour test to ACEA E-5.
Engines with EGR and Aftertreatment
Engines using Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) and Exhaust Aftertreatment must
operate on Ultra-low Sulfur Diesel (15 ppm Sulfur). Use of oils meeting the requirements
of CES-20081 will provide the longest maintenance intervals for the aftertreatment
system. For drain interval and maintenance interval recommendations, consult the
Operation and Maintenance Manual for the particular engine model and duty cycle.
Engines with EGR, but without Aftertreatment
Engines with Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) can use lubricants meeting CES 20078
(API CI-4). For drain interval recommendations, consult the Operation and Maintenance
Manual for the particular engine model and duty cycle. CES 20081 (API Cj-4) can be
used when 15 ppm sulfur fuel is also used.
If oils meeting CES 20078 are not available, CES 20071, 20072, 20076 or 20077 can
be used in EGR equipped engines at reduced drain intervals. Consult the Operation and
Maintenance Manual for the particular engine model and duty cycle for the detailed
recommendations.
Engines without EGR
Oils meeting CES 20078 (API CI-4) are compatible with CES 20071, 20072, 20075,
20076, or 20077, and can be used where those oils are recommended. Where they are
available, oils meeting CES 20071, 20072, 20075, 20076 or 20077 can continue to be
used in engines without EGR, as described in Table 1 above.
Outside North America, where oils meeting CES 20076 or CES 20077 might not be
available, Cummins Inc. primary recommendation is for an oil meeting Global DHD-1,
as jointly developed by EMA, ACEA, and JAMA.
The oil suppliers are responsible for the quality and performance of their products.
Cummins Inc. recommends engine oil with a normal ash content of 0.8 to 1.5 percent
mass. Oils with higher ash contents, up to 1.85 percent mass, can be used in areas
where the sulfur content of the fuel is over 0.5 percent mass. Limiting ash content is
critical to prevention of valve and piston deposit formation. See to Fuels for Cummins®
Engines, Bulletin Number 3379001, for more information regarding fuel sulfur content.
The values listed in the table below are guidelines only. The absolute value of these
numbers will vary with the situation.
CES 20078 and CES 20081 Oil Compatibility with 500 PPM and 15 PPM Sulfur Fuel
Fuel Type
Oil Type
CES 20078 (CI-4)
CES 20081 (CJ-4)
350 to 500 PPM Sulfur
Fuel
Yes
No or reduced oil drain internal
15 PPM Sulfur Fuel
Yes
Yes
Minimum Requirements
For Heavy Duty engines (L, M, N, ISX and Signature) and high horsepower engines
(QSK, QST series), API CF-4 oils can be used, but the drain interval must be reduced
to 250 hours / 15,000 km (10,000 miles).
For mid range engines (B, ISB, C, and ISC series) oil meeting CES 20075 can be used,
but the drain interval must be reduced to 250 hours / 15,000 km (10,000 miles).
Cummins Inc. Recommended SAE Oil Viscosity Grades
Cummins Inc. primary recommendation is for the use of 15W40 multigrade for normal
operation at ambient temperatures above -15°C [5°F]. The use of multigrade oil reduces
deposit formation, improves engine cranking in low temperature conditions, and
increases engine durability by maintaining lubrication during high temperature operating
conditions. Since multigrade oils have been shown to provide approximately 30 percent
lower oil consumption, compared with monograde oils, it is important to use multigrade
oils to be certain your engine will meet applicable emissions requirements. While the
preferred viscosity grade is 15W-40, lower viscosity multigrades can be used in colder
climates. See Figure 1: Recommended SAE Oil Viscosity Grades at Ambient
Temperatures.
Oils meeting API CI-4 and CJ-4 and a 10W30 viscosity grade, must meet a minimum
High Temperature / High Shear viscosity of 3.5 cSt., and ring wear / liner wear
requirements of Cummins Inc. and Mack tests. Thus, they can by be used over a wider
temperature range than 10W30 oils meeting older API performance classifications. As
these oils will have directionally thinner oil films than 15W40 oils, top quality
Fleetguard® filters must be used above 20°C [70°F]. Some oil suppliers might claim
better fuel economy for these oils. Cummins Inc. can neither approve nor disapprove
any product not manufactured by Cummins Inc. These claims are between the
customer and the oil supplier. Obtain the oil supplier's commitment that the oil will give
satisfactory performance in Cummins® engines, or do not use the oil.
WARNING
An SAE 10W30 designation on a product is a viscosity designation
only. This designation alone does not imply that the product meets
Cummins Inc. requirements. Only 10W30 oils with diesel performance
credentials listed in table 1 can be used in Cummins® Engines if the
reduced ambient temperature indicated in Figure 1 is observed. Only
10W30 oils meeting CES 20078 (API CI-4) and CES 20081 (API CJ4) can be used in the ambient temperature range similar to 15W40
oils.
Figure 1: Recommended SAE Oil Viscosity Grades vs. Ambient Temperatures
Synthetic Oils
Use of “synthetic engine oils” (those made with API group 3 or group 4 base stocks) is
permitted subject to the same performance and viscosity limitations of petroleum
(mineral) based engine oils. The same oil change intervals must be applied to synthetic
oils that are applied to petroleum (mineral) based engine oils.
Re-refined Oils
Re-refined lubricating oils can be used in Cummins® engines, if they have an API
license signifying they have been tested and meet the minimum standards for that
quality level. It is important to be certain these oils are actually re-refined and not just
reclaimed. Re-refined oils have been treated to remove additives and wear debris,
distilled, and refortified with additives.
Friction Modifiers
Do not use oils containing supplemental friction modifiers in Cummins® diesel engines
unless the oil supplier can provide evidence of satisfactory performance in Cummins®
engines. Obtain the oil supplier's commitment that they will make sure the oil is
satisfactory, or do not use the product.
Break-in Oils
Special “break-in” oils are not recommended for use in new or rebuilt Cummins®
engines. Use the same lubricating oil that will be used during normal engine operation.
Drain Intervals
Correct oil and filter change intervals must be maintained for each specific Cummins®
engine model. A sharp increase in component wear and damage can occur if excessive
drain intervals are followed. See the appropriate Operation and Maintenance manual to
determine the appropriate drain interval for your engine and application.
Monograde Oils
Use of monograde oils can affect engine oil control. Shortened drain intervals might be
required with monograde oils, as determined by close monitoring of the oil condition
with scheduled oil sampling.
Non-Classified Oils
In some parts of the world, oils meeting current Global DHD-1 or API, ACEA, or JAMA
classifications might not be available. Advice can be required when using non-classified
oils. Oil suitability and service intervals can be determined by close monitoring of the oil
condition with scheduled oil sampling.
SECTION 2: NATURAL GAS ENGINE OIL RECOMMENDATIONS
The use of quality engine oils combined with appropriate oil and filter change intervals
are critical factors in maintaining engine performance and durability.
Cummins Inc. recommends the use of a high quality SAE 15W40 and SAE 40 engine oil
for natural gas and propane engines. The specific performance category of oil
recommended is a function of the design of the natural gas engine as outlined below.
Requirement for natural gas engines using High Pressure Direct Injection:
CES 20078 or CES 20076 (API CI-4 or API CH-4) in North America
CES 20077 (Global DHD-1 or ACEA E-5) outside North America
SAE 15W40 oil Viscosity.
Requirements for L10G* and QSK19G, K19G, G19, G38, G50, G28, G855, and G14
Series natural gas engines:
SAE 15W40 Viscosity
Less than 0.6 percent Sulfated Ash
TBN (ASTM D4739) -5.0 min
250 / 350 PPM Phosphorous
250 / 350 PPM Zinc
1200 PPM Calcium.
Requirements for B*, C*, G5.9, G8.3, L Gas Plus and ISL G Series natural gas engines:
CES 20074
SAE 15W40 Viscosity
Less than 0.6 percent Sulfated Ash
TBN (ASTM D4739) -5.0 min
600/800 PPM Phosphorous
600/850 PPM Zinc
1200 PPM Calcium.
Requirements for QSK45G, QSK60G, QSV81G, and QSV91G Series natural gas
engines:
Use high quality SAE40 CNG engine oil such as Valvoline® GEO LA..
For a list of approved oils, contact Cummins Energy Solutions Business.
For oil analysis and oil change intervals, see the engine Operations and Maintenance
Manual or contact your local distributor.
*A sulfated ash limit of 0.6 percent mass has been placed on all engine lubricating oils
recommended for use in Cummins® B, C, and L10, natural gas engines. Higher ash oils
can cause valve and/or piston damage, spark plug fouling, and lead to excessive oil
consumption and degradation of the catalyst.
SECTION 3: FUNCTIONS OF ENGINE OIL
The following sections are provided for general information. If engine oil is to perform
adequately, it must perform the following functions:
Lubrication
The primary function of the engine oil is to lubricate moving parts. The oil forms a
hydrodynamic film between metal surfaces, preventing metal-to-metal contact and
reducing friction. When the oil film is not sufficient to prevent metal-to-metal contact, the
following occurs:
Heat is generated through friction
Local welding occurs
Metal transfer results in scuffing or seizing.
Extreme Pressure Wear Control
Modern lubricants contain Extreme Pressure (EP) anti-wear additives. These additives
form a chemically bonded molecular film on the metal surfaces at high pressures to
prevent direct contact and wear when the load on the parts is high enough to eliminate
the hydrodynamic oil film.
Cleaning
Oil acts as a cleaning agent in the engine by flushing contaminants from critical
components. Sludge, varnish, and oxidation buildup on the pistons, rings, valve stems,
and seals will lead to severe engine damage if not controlled by the oil. Oil formulated
with the optimal additives will hold these contaminants in suspension until they are
removed by the oil filtration system or during the course of an oil change.
Protection
Oil provides a protective barrier, isolating non-like metals to prevent corrosion.
Corrosion, like wear, results in the removal of metal from engine parts. Corrosion works
like a slow acting wear mechanism.
Cooling
Engines require the cooling of internal components that the primary cooling system can
not provide. The lubricating oil provides an excellent heat transfer medium. Heat is
transferred to the oil through contact with various components, which is then transferred
to the primary cooling system at the oil cooler.
Sealing
Oil acts as a combustion seal filling the uneven surfaces of the cylinder liner, piston,
valve stem, and other internal engine components.
Shock-Damping
The oil film between contacting surfaces provides cushioning and shock-damping. The
damping effect is essential to highly loaded areas such as the bearings, pistons,
connecting rods, and the gear train.
Hydraulic Action
Oil acts as a working hydraulic media within the engine. Examples of this are the use of
oil to operate engine brakes and STC injector tappets.
Oil Additives
Lubricating oil is formulated with additives designed to combat specific contaminants
(listed in Section 6) throughout its usable life. The additives used are more important to
overall engine performance than the oil itself. Without additives, even the highest quality
oil will not be able to satisfy engine requirements. Additives include:
1. Detergents or dispersants, which keep insoluble matter in suspension until the oil
is changed. These suspended materials are not removed by the oil filtration
system. Excessively long oil drain intervals result in deposit formation in the
engine.
2. Inhibitors that maintain the stability of the oil, prevent acids from attacking metal
surfaces, and prevent rust formation when the engine is not in operation.
3. Other lubricating oil additives assist the oil in lubricating highly loaded areas of
the engine (such as valves and the injector train), prevent scuffing and seizing,
control foaming, and prevent air retention in the oil.
Engine oil must be formulated in such a manner that it does not foam as a result of the
mechanical agitation process associated with its many functions. Foamed oil results in
engine damage similar to oil starvation, because of insufficient oil film protection.
SECTION 4: VISCOSITY
Viscosity is a measure of the resistance to flow offered when one layer of oil molecules
move relative to an adjacent layer. This resistance comes from the friction generated by
the oil molecules as they move past each other. This shearing action occurs constantly
in the oil films lubricating all moving parts of an engine.
The viscosity characteristics of all fluids are affected by temperature. Multigrade oil
viscosities tend to be less sensitive to temperature changes because of the addition of
viscosity improvers in their formulation. The viscosity of multigrade oils is also a function
of their rate of shear, or the relative speed of moving parts. The lower the relative
speed, the greater the apparent viscosity of most multigrade oils.
Most of the wear an engine ordinarily experiences occurs at initial startup in some
applications before oil has time to fully circulate. The correctly formulated multigrade oil
is the ideal engine lubricant for a Cummins® engine. Relatively thin oil is available for
rapid lubrication and easy cranking while starting.
Oil Viscosity and Engine Performance
The selection of oil of the correct viscosity is extremely important for optimum
performance and for maximum engine life. If the oil is too viscous, engine drag is
increased with the following effects:
Engine is difficult to start
Engine power output is reduced
Engine cooling is reduced
Internal wear is increased
Engine parts run hotter
Fuel consumption is increased.
If the oil viscosity is too low, the engine experiences:
Increased wear from metal-to-metal contact
Increased oil consumption and leakage
Increased engine noise.
Some oil suppliers might claim better fuel economy for the lower viscosity oils. Lower
viscosity results in lower oil film thickness. Therefore, Cummins Inc. has required that all
multi-viscosity 30 weight (xW30) oils registered under CES 20078 (API CI-4) must meet
the minimum High Temperature / High Shear viscosity of 3.5 cSt. These can be used
over a wider temperature range than other 10W30 or 5W30 oils. As these oils will have
directionally thinner oil films than 15W40 oils, top quality Fleetguard® filters must be
used above 20°C [70°F]. See Figure 1 for viscosity recommendations.
As Cummins Inc. can neither approve nor disapprove any product not manufactured by
Cummins Inc., these claims are between the customer and the oil supplier. Obtain the
oil supplier's commitment that the oil will give satisfactory performance in Cummins®
engines, or do not use the oil.
Viscosity Recommendations
Cummins Inc. recommends the use of multigrade lubricating oils with viscosity grades
shown in Figure 1 for the ambient temperatures indicated. Only the preferred oil grades
are shown in the figure.
If monograde oils are substituted for multigrade oils in the areas where multigrades are
not currently available, shortened drain intervals might be required, as determined by
close monitoring of the oil condition with scheduled oil sampling. Use of monograde oils
can affect engine oil control.
Section 5: Oil Performance Classification
Cummins Engineering Standards (CES)
Cummins Inc. has established a number of Cummins Engineering Standards (CES)
which describe the performance levels that must be used in various engines. The CES
documents are the primary definition of lubricant performance for Cummins® Engines.
In addition, Cummins Inc. works through the Engine Manufacturer's Association (EMA)
and with the many technical and marketing organizations responsible for lubricant
quality around the world. Heavy Duty Engine Oil Recommended Guidelines in Global
DHD-1 provide international users guidance in choosing oils in all parts of the world.
Table 1 in Section 1 lists the Cummins Engineering Standards that are applicable to all
Cummins® engines and those North American and international performance
classifications, which most closely satisfy them.
Supplemental Friction Modifiers and Other Additives
Addition of supplemental additives can alter the balance that the original formulator
established in the fluid.
Cummins Inc. neither approves nor disapproves of any additives not manufactured or
sold by Cummins Inc. or its subsidiaries. Engine failure or performance problems, which
result from the use of such additives, are not warrantable by Cummins Inc.
Section 6: OIL CONTAMINATION
The engine oil must be changed just before it can no longer adequately perform its
intended functions within an engine. Technically, oil does not wear out, but it does
become contaminated. Additives deplete to the point that the oil and additive
combination can no longer satisfactorily protect the engine. Progressive contamination
of the oil between drain intervals is normal, and can vary as a function of engine
operation and load factor.
Oil Contaminants
In normal diesel engine operation a wide variety of contaminants are introduced to the
lubricating oil.
1. Combustion by-products:
Exhaust gases (blowby gases) that leak past the piston rings, valve guides and
turbocharger seals into the crankcase. These gases contain particles of carbon,
water, acids, partially burned fuels, varnish, and lacquers. All of these particles
contaminate the oil.
2. Acids, varnish, and sludge:
As the lubricating oil comes in contact with hot engine components, or when
heated oil comes in contact with entrapped air, oxidation and decomposition
occur, creating contaminants such as acids, varnish, and sludge.
3. Abrasives or foreign material:
These contaminants can enter the engine through the combustion air, fuel, worn
engine parts, and inadequate service practices. They find their way to the
crankcase with the combustion by-products.
4. Fuel or coolant:
These contaminants are generally associated with engine malfunction. Fuel
dilution, however, can also be caused by excessive engine idling or stop-and-go
operation.
5. Soot:
This contaminant is caused by retarded injection timing and burning fuel mixing
with oil on the cylinder liner(s). Excessive soot causes abnormal valve and
injector train wear.
6. Environmental:
The specific operating environment introduces other contaminants. Examples are
dust and abrasives such as grit and road salt.
Section 7: OIL FILTRATION
Oil Filter Design, Use and Function
Maximum engine life is dependent on the correct use and maintenance of full flow,
bypass, or combination lubricating oil filters that protect vital engine components from
the abrasive contaminant, which are held in suspension in the lubricating oil. Cummins
Inc. requires the use of full flow filters on all of its engine models. In addition, except for
the B Series model, all turbocharged Cummins® engines must use bypass filtration,
bypass filtration is strongly recommended for use on all naturally aspirated engines.
The full flow filter will remove contaminant particles of 30 microns and larger that are
suspended in the engine oil. Particles of this size can cause immediate bearing
damage.
The bypass filter (or filter section if using a combination filter) receives approximately
ten percent of the total pump output and filters it to remove smaller particles, down to 10
microns, which the full flow filter does not capture. This maintains the oil contaminant
concentration at a level low enough to prevent engine wear.
Cummins® engines are fitted at the factory with a quality Fleetguard® combination
lubricating oil filter, which contains both a full flow and bypass filter in one filter can.
Many of them are a Venturi® design which directs all of the oil flow to vital engine parts,
instead or returning a portion of it to the pan. These filters provide the optimum balance
of fine filtration for protection and rugged construction designed for long filter life.
Some Cummins® engines are being supplied with a Fleetguard Centriguard™
centrifugal filter using ConeStaC™ technology. These are the only centrifugal filters
demonstrated in laboratory testing to surpass Fleetguard's stacked disk bypass filters.
Any add-on filtration system must meet all applicable application guidelines.
Oil Filter Plugging
During normal engine operation, the engine oil becomes contaminated from
combustion, as well as from wear debris and oxidation products. Engine oil filters do not
plug during the normal oil drain interval as long as the engine oil remains suitable for
use in an engine. A filter that plugs is performing its intended function of removing
particulate matter and sludge from the oil. Filter plugging is the result, not the cause, of
an engine or lubricating oil problem.
Causes of filter plugging must be investigated, as a plugged filter can indicate a serious
engine problem that must be corrected. The most frequently observed causes of filter
plugging are outlined below:
Excessive Oil Contamination
This occurs when the oil's limit for handling combustion contaminants is
exceeded. Filters plugged in this way have a heavy buildup of organic sludge.
This kind of contamination is caused by fuel soot, oxidation products, and
products of combustion which have accumulated in the oil to the point that the
filter is no longer able to function. Causes of this kind of plugging include
excessive oil change intervals, poor maintenance practices, and high blow-by.
Impaired Dispersancy
This is caused by coolant leaks into the crankcase or a buildup of condensed
moisture. This moisture impairs the operation of the oil's dispersant, so fuel soot
and carbon cling together and dropout takes place. Coolant or moisture in the
crankcase can also cause part of the oil's additive package to precipitate from the
oil and plug the filter.
Gel or Emulsion Formation
This is a form of plugging caused when water or coolant contaminates oil. It often
occurs when oil in a bulk storage tank contains a small amount of water, less
than 0.5 percent. Filter plugging can take place rapidly after such oil has been
added to the engine.
Cummins Inc developed engine tests, which are a part of the oil performance categories
in Europe and North America, to measure an oil's ability to resist filter plugging. In
addition, stacked-disk, multi-media filtration is specifically designed to control the
organic sludge contamination and provide maximum filter life.
Section 8: OIL CHANGE INTERVALS
Factors Used to Determine Oil Drain Intervals
Cummins Inc. bases its oil drain specifications on duty cycle and oil contamination. This
contamination occurs in all engines at varying rates, regardless of design.
Maintaining the correct oil and filter change interval is a vital factor in preserving the
integrity of an engine. Filters must be changed when the oil is changed.
Oil contamination is the direct result of normal engine operation. The load factor, fuel
used, and the environmental conditions all influence the rate of oil contamination.
Laboratory and field tests confirm that a positive relationship occurs between the total
amount of fuel consumed by an engine and the level of contamination it can absorb and
still function as designed. Oil has limitations on the amount of contamination it can
absorb and still function as designed. The relationship between fuel consumption and oil
contamination forms a basis of establishing the oil change interval.
Acceptable methods for determining lubricating oil and filter change intervals include:
Fixed Method (Mileage/Hours)
Duty Cycle Method (Operating Conditions)
The appropriate Operation and Maintenance manual must be consulted for detailed
instructions and specific tables or charts on oil and filter change intervals.
Centinel™ Continuous Oil Change
Cummins Inc. has developed the Centinel™ system for continuously replacing the used
oil in the engine with fresh oil. This system uses a computer to monitor the engine's
operation and maintains the condition of oil in the engine well within the acceptable
range. Because this system keeps the oil so clean, filter change and oil drain intervals
are greatly extended. Fleetguard™ ES oil filters are specifically designed with improved
media and seals for this longer service and must be used with Centinel™. Contact a
Cummins Inc. distributor to determine which Centinel™ system is best for your
application.
NOTE: The use of Centinel™ or any type of oil blending is prohibited for engines
with aftertreatment.
Section 9: USED OIL ANALYSIS
Oil Sample Collection
Oil sample collection intervals must be set in such a manner that trend comparisons
can be made. Background data is required if oil analysis is to be utilized correctly. Such
data must include:
Engine model/serial number
Miles/hours of oil use
Miles/hours on engine since new or since rebuild
Oil used (brand name, performance category and viscosity grade)
Date sample was collected
Engine application
Amount of new oil added since previous oil change
Any recent engine maintenance
Analysis of new (unused) oil.
It is important to conduct oil analysis on new (unused) oil to establish a baseline. New
(unused) oil analysis samples should be taken twice a year or each time the oil type is
changed at a minimum. Samples should be taken from the bulk supply tanks to
determine the makeup of the oil and also to confirm that no contaminants are being
introduced by the storage system.
The sample to be used for analysis must be representative of the oil in the engine. Use
the following guidelines when collecting oil samples:
Bring the engine to operating temperature prior to sampling. This will make sure
representative contaminant levels are in the sampled increment.
Successive samples must be taken in the same manner and from the same
location.
Take the oil sample before adding any new oil to the engine.
Always collect the oil in a clean, dry container.
Collect a minimum of 118 ml [4-oz] of oil.
Two methods can be used to collect oil samples:
The recommended method for collecting an oil sample is to take the sample from a
pressurized port while the engine is iding and warm. This method makes sure the oil
sample is not stagnant and represents the actual homogeneous oil mixture that is
flowing through the engine.
1. Clean the outside of the valve by wiping with a clean, dry cloth.
2. Idle the engine and bring to warm temperature.
3. Purge the sample fitting by allowing a small amount of oil to flow through the
valve.
4. Collect the sample into a clean dry bottle from the oil stream being pumped by
the engine.
NOTE: A recommended location for sampling is a port that allows pre-filtered oil
to be collected. See the Operation and Maintenance Manual for component
locations.
In cases where the engine is not operational an alternative method can be used. This
method uses a vacuum to draw the sample out of the oil sump. The sample should be
obtained as soon after stopping the engine as possible so the oil is still warm and
stratification has not occurred.
1. Use the dipstick to determine the oil level in the pan.
2. Hold a new, clean piece of tubing against the dipstick and mark on the tube the
location where the dipstick seats.
3. Cut the tubing so it reaches 25 to 50 mm (1 to 2 inches) below the oil level in the
pan.
4. Insert the tubing into the dipstick tube so that the mark previously made on the
tubing is aligned with the top of the opening for the dipstick tube.
5. Use a hand operated vacuum pump, to pump the sample into a clean dry bottle.
NOTE: Do not allow the tube to draw oil from the bottom of the oil pan because
excess debris will be included and will cause an incorrect oil analysis. Do not
reuse the sampling tube.
Contamination Check
Used oil analysis can be employed to monitor engine contaminant levels, which can
provide evidence of system weakness or malfunction such as faulty air filtration, coolant
leaks, fuel dilution, and wear metals that can suggest engine damage.
This technique requires the comparison of the used oil analysis data to that obtained
from the oil in its new condition. The extent of the used oil degradation from the new
condition provides the indicators needed to monitor the system. The primary oil
characteristics that will function as warning signals are the level of contamination (fuel,
soot, silicon, boron, sodium, potassium) and the oil's viscosity and flash point. General
contamination check guidelines are listed in Table 2.
Table 2: Oil Contamination Guidelines
Property
Guideline
Viscosity change at
100°C (ASTM-D445)
±1 SAE Viscosity grade or 5 cSt from the new oil
Fuel Dilution
5 percent
Total base number
(TBN) (ASTM D-4739)
2.5 number minimum or half new oil value or
equal to total acid number (TAN)
Water content ASTM
(D-95)
0.5 percent maximum
Potential Contaminants:
Silicone (SI)
15 ppm increase over new oil
Sodium (Na)
20 ppm increase over new oil
Boron (B)
25 ppm increase over new oil
Potassium (K)
20 ppm increase over new oil
Soot (weight/percent)
MidRange B and C
All Other
Engines
CES 20078 and 20081
3.0 percent
7.5
percent
CES 20076
3.0 percent
6.3
percent
CES 20072
3.0 percent
5.0
percent
CES 20075
1.5 percent
1.5
percent
The contamination guidelines presented above are guidelines only. This does not
mean values that fall on the acceptable side of these guidelines can be
interpreted as indicating the oil is suitable for further service.
The ASTM publishes testing methods in their `Annual Book of Standards'.
Elemental analysis can be made using several different techniques such as Atomic
Emission Spectroscopy (AES), Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS), and Ion
Coupled Plasma (ICP). These are not standard ASTM methods; however, most
used oil analysis laboratories are capable of determining additive metal
concentration by one of these methods. Sample results determined by the same
laboratory using the same technique can be safely compared.
The guideline numbers presented above are representative of those which will be
considered sufficient to justify investigation of the engine, maintenance practices, or
operating procedure to identify the reason for the contaminant or oil property change.
However, an engine must not be disassembled solely on the basis of oil analysis
results. Along with further investigation, an oil change is also usually justified. The
absolute values of the above items vary with miles or hours on the engine, engine oil
capacity, and the engine oil consumption rate.
If there are any additional questions, which can not be answered from material in this
bulletin, please contact your Cummins Inc. distributor or call 1-800-DIESELS.
APPENDIX A - Used Oil Analysis Applications
For the diesel engine operator, used oil analysis has two distinctly different applications:
1. Contamination Checks
Used oil analysis can monitor engine oil contaminant levels and provides evidence of
dirt ingress, excessive fuel contamination (dilution), coolant leaks, excessive soot
accumulation, and abnormal wear. General contamination check guidelines are listed in
Table 2. These are only guidelines. This does not mean values that fall on the
acceptable side of these guidelines can be interpreted as an indication that the oil is
suitable for further use. Used oil analysis is not a sole criteria in determining oil and
filter change intervals.
Elevated levels of silicon in the used oil indicate dirt contamination of the oil, usually
caused by faulty intake filtration. At times, dirt contamination occurs through the oil side
of the engine from contaminated engine oil. The used oil can also contain abnormal
levels of copper and lead from bearing material wear, without extremely elevated levels
of chromium and iron.
The percent fuel in the used engine oil determines excessive fuel contamination
(dilution). This can also be reflected in a viscosity decrease of more than a SAE grade
and significantly lowered flash point compared to new oil properties. The poor thermal
stability of fuel results in oxidation of the fuel at oil pan temperatures. Subsequent
accumulation of elevated levels of lead in the used oil can occur from the interaction of
the deteriorated fuel with bearing and bushing material.
Coolant contamination is identified from abnormal levels of the corrosion inhibitor in the
coolant leaking into the oil. This results in elevated levels of sodium, potassium, boron,
and silicon in the used oil. Sodium and potassium contents will depend on which is used
for the corrosion inhibitor. Additionally, glycol components from antifreeze can be
present in the oil. Elevated levels of glycol components are not always present with
coolant leaks because these components can react with certain additive components in
the oil, become volatile, and boil off at sump temperatures. Deteriorated glycol, which
forms at oil sump temperatures, reacts with bearing and bushing materials to form
elevated levels of lead in the oil.
Excessive soot contamination of engine oil is identified as weight percent soot, and is
measured by thermogravimetric or infrared analysis. Soot is captured in the oil and
harmlessly suspended until active additive components become depleted. It then
agglomerates into larger particles. Valve and injector train wear occurs at an
accelerated rate, resulting in an increased soot generation rate and further accelerated
wear. Valve and injector train wear result in elevated levels of iron in the used oil.
Unresolved, excessive soot accumulation and wear create sludge in the engine. Newer
oil formulations meeting CES-20081, CES 20078, and CES 20076 (API CJ-4 , CI—4
and CH-4+) have been formulated to safely suspend more soot than older oil
formulations. Therefore, the guideline for soot has been increased to 5.0 weight
percent.
Abnormal wear causes abnormal accumulation of wear metals in the used oil.
Condemnation limits are not possible except for engines in an application operating at
one site on a single engine oil. The wear metal content of an oil sample depends on the
engine, the load factor, the capacity of the lubricating system, the miles or hours on the
oil, the engine oil consumption rate and so on. Engines with large oil capacities result in
lower wear metal levels than engines with smaller oil capacities because the particles
are suspended in a larger volume of oil. Low oil consumption engines exhibit higher
wear metal levels than high oil consumption engines because of the absence of dilution
by new oil between oil changes. Engine oil consumption rate can change the wear
metal content of the used oil by a factor of two and mask doubling wear rates which can
indicate engine damage. Wear rates are unknown unless the engine oil consumption is
known. Wear metal levels vary nearly linearly with the miles or hours on an oil sample.
Doubling the miles or hours on an oil sample nearly doubles the wear metal content of a
used oil sample. Wear metal content of a used oil sample is almost meaningless
information without the engine oil consumption rate, the miles or hours on the oil
sample, and a new oil analysis.
Abnormal wear, which can indicate a problem, usually only involves elevated levels of
one or two metals. Detection of elevated levels of a wear metal is best performed by
comparing the levels in the used oil sample to the levels in previous oil samples from
the same engine. Engine components containing copper and lead can become
chemically active with a change in the additive chemicals in the oil that is often
accompanied by switching to a different brand of oil. This often results in dramatically
increased levels, often ten times, of copper or lead in used oil. Increased levels from
this source is not reason for excessive concern. These components will become
passive after a few oil changes with different oil. Wear metal levels will then slowly
decline back into the normal range for the engine.
Never disassemble an engine based solely on used oil analysis. Perform additional
troubleshooting to determine if a problem exists. If a problem is suspected based on oil
analysis, cut open the full flow oil filter and look for wear metal particles that are trapped
by the filter and easily visible.
2. Evaluating Operating and Maintenance Intervals
Cummins Inc. does not recommend that oil analysis be used to determine maintenance
intervals. Oil analysis only permits maintenance intervals to be estimated. Engines
must be operated at the estimated interval for 800,000 to 1,100,000 km [500,00 to
700,000 mi] or 10,000 to 15,000 hours to determine if the estimated maintenance
interval based on oil analysis was correct. If the interval is estimated correctly, the
engine will remain in an acceptable condition for its operating environment. If an
extended maintenance interval is guessed incorrectly, up to 50 percent of the potential
engine life to rebuild can be sacrificed for the longer maintenance interval.
The use of oil analysis to estimate maintenance intervals is complicated, time
consuming, and expensive. It can cost up to several hundred dollars an engine to create
baseline data from which maintenance intervals are derived. This is because of the
need to analyze samples by more detailed and expensive analytical procedures than
that required for contamination monitoring. Record keeping on oil consumption is
required during the baseline period because oil consumption data is necessary to
convert the ppm of metals in the used oil into wear rates. Often oil consumption rates
increase by two to four times toward the end of a long maintenance interval.
For example, an engine with 3220 km [2,000 mi] per quart oil consumption during the
first 8050 km [5,000 mi] of an interval can consume oil at 805 km [500 mi] per quart with
32,200 km [20,000 mi] on the oil. Slow accumulation of wear metals can reflect
increased oil consumption, not low wear rates because of dilution by more new oil. Low
wear rates on engines operating toward the end of the maintenance interval are
required to prevent a large loss in engine life to overhaul.
Many used oil testing procedures have been developed from quality control tests for
new engine oil. In new engine oil, these tests reflect chemically active additives in the
oil. They make sure that each time the oil is blended it contains the correct amount of
additives. When these test procedures are applied to contaminated and deteriorated
used oil, the data will not be meaningful. Additives take a different chemical form in
used oil.
Commercially available oil testing techniques do not measure depletion of all the
chemical additives in the oil, or determine when these additives stop protecting engine
parts from wear and deposits. Low wear metal levels in used oil samples can reflect
high oil consumption rates and dilution with new oil added to replace that consumed.
Low wear metal levels in used oil samples can also reflect additional contamination and
wear debris. Engine oil operated beyond this saturation point often drops contamination
and wear debris out as sludge. This results in declining wear metal levels at increasing
kilometers [miles] or hours on the oil. This does not mean that wear rates are
decreasing and oil condition is improving. It means that oil analysis becomes
meaningless after the engine oil is excessively contaminated.
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement