MOTOR CONTROLLER - Curtis Instruments

MOTOR CONTROLLER - Curtis Instruments
MODEL
12 1 0
MultiMode™
MOTOR CONTROLLER
© 2011 CURTIS INSTRUMENTS, INC.
1210 Manual, p/n 37278
Rev. B: February 2011
CURTIS INSTRUMENTS, INC.
200 Kisco Avenue
Mt. Kisco, New York 10549 USA
Tel. 914.666.2971
Fax 914.666.2188
www.curtisinstruments.com
CONTENTS
CONTENTS
1. OVERVIEW ...............................................................................1
2. INSTALLATION AND WIRING .............................................4
Mounting the Controller .....................................................4
Connections: High Current ................................................5
Connections: Low Current .................................................5
Wiring: Applications without Seat Lift ...............................6
Wiring: Applications with Seat Lift ....................................8
Throttle Wiring .................................................................10
5kΩ, 3-wire potentiometer throttle ............................10
5V throttle .................................................................10
Curtis ET-XXX electronic throttle .............................11
Speed limit pot...........................................................12
Switches and Other Hardware ...........................................12
Keyswitch ...................................................................12
Push switch ................................................................12
Brake release switch ....................................................13
Inhibit ........................................................................13
Status LED ................................................................13
Battery discharge indicator .........................................14
Horn ..........................................................................14
Circuitry protection devices .......................................14
Seat lift switch ............................................................14
3. PROGRAMMABLE PARAMETERS .......................................15
Motor Parameters ..............................................................17
Main Current Limit ...................................................17
Motor Resistance........................................................17
Acceleration Parameters .....................................................17
Maximum-Speed Forward Acceleration Rate..............17
Minimum-Speed Forward Acceleration Rate ..............17
Maximum-Speed Reverse Acceleration Rate ...............18
Minimum-Speed Reverse Acceleration Rate ...............18
Gear Soften ................................................................18
Soft Start ....................................................................18
Braking Parameters ............................................................19
Maximum-Speed Forward Deceleration Rate .............19
Minimum-Speed Forward Deceleration Rate .............19
Emergency Stop Deceleration Rate ............................19
Maximum-Speed Reverse Deceleration Rate ..............19
Minimum-Speed Reverse Deceleration Rate ..............20
Curtis 1210 Manual, Rev. B
iii
CONTENTS
Key-Off Deceleration Rate .........................................20
Brake Delay................................................................20
Speed Parameters ...............................................................20
Maximum Speed, M1/M2 .........................................20
Minimum Speed, M1/M2..........................................21
Maximum Reverse Speed, M1/M2.............................21
Minimum Reverse Speed ...........................................21
Creep Speed ...............................................................21
Push Speed .................................................................21
IR Compensation .......................................................22
Speed Scaler ...............................................................22
Throttle Parameters ...........................................................22
Throttle Input Signal Type .........................................22
Throttle Autocalibration ............................................23
Throttle Deadband ....................................................23
Throttle Gain .............................................................25
Ramp Shape (Static Throttle Map) ............................26
Fault Parameters ................................................................27
High Pedal Disable (HPD) ........................................27
Brake Faults ...............................................................28
Seat Lift Brake Faults .................................................28
Fault Beep ..................................................................28
Other Parameters ...............................................................28
Seat Lift .....................................................................28
Virtual Seat Lift .........................................................29
Beeper Solid ...............................................................29
BDI Full Voltage ........................................................29
BDI Empty Voltage....................................................29
BDI Reset Voltage ......................................................29
Sleep Delay ................................................................30
Tremor Compensation ...............................................30
4. INITIAL SETUP ......................................................................31
Beginning the Setup Procedures ........................................31
Throttle .............................................................................31
Basic Vehicle Checkout ......................................................33
Determining Motor Resistance ..........................................33
5. VEHICLE PERFORMANCE ADJUSTMENT .......................34
Setting the Maximum Speeds ............................................34
Setting the Acceleration and Deceleration Rates ................34
Adjusting Load Compensation ..........................................37
Fine-Tuning the Vehicle’s Response Smoothness ................38
iv
Curtis 1228 Manual, Rev. B
CONTENTS
6. PROGRAMMER MENUS ......................................................40
1210 Parameters Menu ......................................................40
1210 Monitor Menu .........................................................42
1210 Faults and Fault History ...........................................42
7. DIAGNOSTICS AND TROUBLESHOOTING ....................43
Programmer Diagnostics ....................................................43
LED Diagnostics ...............................................................43
Troubleshooting Chart ......................................................45
8. MAINTENANCE ....................................................................46
Curtis 1210 Manual, Rev. B
APPENDIX A
Vehicle Design Considerations Regarding
Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC)
and Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) .....................A-1
APPENDIX B
Curtis WEEE & RoHS Statement .....................B-1
APPENDIX C
Programming Devices ....................................... C-1
APPENDIX D
Index to Programmable Parameters ................... D-1
APPENDIX E
Specifications......................................................E-1
v
FIGURES / TABLES
FIGURES
FIG.
1:
Curtis 1210 electronic motor controller ....................................1
FIG.
2:
Mounting dimensions, Curtis 1210 controller .........................4
FIG.
3a:
Standard wiring configuration, without seat lift .........................6
FIG.
3b:
Low-power wiring configuration, without seat lift .....................7
FIG.
4a:
Standard wiring configuration, with seat lift ..............................8
FIG.
4b:
Low-power wiring configuration, with seat lift ..........................9
FIG.
5:
Wiring for 5kΩ, 3-wire potentiometer ...................................10
FIG.
6:
Wiring for 5V throttle .............................................................11
FIG.
7:
Wiring for Curtis ET-XXX electronic throttle ........................11
FIG.
8:
Wiring to inhibit operation during battery charging ..............13
FIG.
9:
Effect of adjusting the neutral deadband parameter .................24
FIG.
10:
Effect of adjusting the throttle gain parameter .........................25
FIG.
11:
Ramp shape (throttle map) for controller
with maximum speed set at 100% ...........................................26
FIG.
12:
Ramp shape (throttle map) for controller
with maximum speed set at 60% .............................................27
TABLES
vi
TABLE
1:
Programmable throttle input signal types ...........................22
TABLE
2:
Status LED fault codes .......................................................45
TABLE
3:
Troubleshooting chart ........................................................46
TABLE
D-1: Parameter index ............................................................... C-1
TABLE
E-1:
Specifications, 1210 controller ....................................... D-1
Curtis 1228 Manual, Rev. B
1 — OVERVIEW
1
OVERVIEW
The Curtis 1210 MultiMode™ controller is a permanent magnet motor speed
controller designed for use in mobility aid scooters and other small electric
vehicles, such as sweeper/scrubbers. It offers smooth, silent, cost effective
control of motor speed and torque. A four quadrant, full bridge power output
stage provides for solid state motor reversing and full braking power without
additional relays or contactors.
The 1210 controller is fully programmable by means of a Curtis programming device. Use of the programmer offers diagnostic and test capability
as well as configuration flexibility.
Fig. 1 Curtis 1210
MultiMode™ electronic
motor controller.
Like all Curtis motor controllers, the 1210 offers superior operator control
of the vehicle’s motor drive speed. In addition, the 1210 controls the seat lift
motor if one is used. Key features include:
Smooth and Secure Control
✓ Advanced closed-loop speed regulation maintains precise speed over
varied terrain, obstacles, curbs, and ramps
✓ Linear cutback of current ensures smooth control, even with low batteries or on hot days, with no abrupt loss of power
✓ Speed Limit potentiometer input provides control over maximum vehicle speed
✓ Proprietary algorithms help prevent gearbox wear, while providing
smooth starts and reversals
More Features ☞
Curtis 1210 Manual, Rev. B
1
1 — OVERVIEW
✓ The vehicle is brought to a complete stop before the electromagnetic
brakes are applied, to prevent harsh jarring
✓ Inhibit line prevents driving while battery charging
✓ Key-Off Decel function ensures smooth braking to a stop when the
key is turned off while driving
✓ Anti Rollback/Roll-forward function improves vehicle control on hills
and ramps
✓ Internal main contactor provides secure power-off and reverse battery
polarity protection
Easy Installation and Setup
✓ Over 40 parameters can be easily adjusted with a Curtis programming
device
✓ Interfaces to several throttle types, including wigwag (center-off )
throttles
✓ Simplified troubleshooting and diagnostics
✓ Standard 18-pin Molex and Fast-on terminals provide proven robust
connection
Additional Features
✓ Push Switch input releases the brake and allows the motor to freewheel
✓ Push-Too-Fast software restricts vehicle top speed,
even with the key off
✓ Built-in functions simplify the wiring needed to add a seat lift
✓ MultiMode™ provides for two distinct and programmable control
modes (typically used for indoor/outdoor operation)
✓ Power Saver function deactivates the main contactor after a period
of non-use, to reduce battery drain
✓ Battery Discharge Indicator output option provides an accurate signal
of the battery charge
Regulatory Compliance
✓ FDA documentation filed
✓ TÜV approved
✓ Unique power design produces low RF emissions to meet stringent
medical limits
✓ High RF immunity prevents speed variation and shutdowns in noisy
RF environments
2
Curtis 1210 Manual, Rev. B
1 — OVERVIEW
✓ Controller’s power circuits and microprocessor software are continuously monitored for proper operation
✓ System start-up checks will disable drive if a defective throttle, brake,
or associated wiring is detected
✓ Reverse Beeper function alerts bystanders
✓ Optional power and signal wiring boots provide improved sealing for
operation in harsh environments (IP54 with boots, IP40 without).
Familiarity with your Curtis controller will help you install and operate it
properly. We encourage you to read this manual carefully. If you have questions, please contact the Curtis office nearest you.
☞
C AU T I O N
Working on electric vehicles is potentially dangerous. You should protect yourself against runaways, high current arcs, and outgassing from lead
acid batteries:
RUNAWAYS — Some conditions could cause the vehicle
to run out of control.
Disconnect the motor or jack up the vehicle and get the drive wheels off the
ground before attempting any work on the motor control circuitry. Note:
If the wrong combination of throttle and switch styles is selected with the
programming device, the vehicle may suddenly begin to move.
— Electric vehicle batteries can supply very high power,
and arcs can occur if they are short circuited. Always open the battery circuit
before working on the motor control circuit. Wear safety glasses, and use
properly insulated tools to prevent shorts.
HIGH CURRENT ARCS
— Charging or discharging generates hydrogen gas,
which can build up in and around the batteries. Follow the battery manufacturer’s safety recommendations. Wear safety glasses.
LEAD ACID BATTERIES
Curtis 1210 Manual, Rev. B
3
2 — INSTALLATION & WIRING
2
INSTALLATION AND WIRING
MOUNTING THE CONTROLLER
The 1210 controller can be oriented in any position, but the location should
be carefully chosen to keep the controller clean and dry. If a clean, dry
mounting location cannot be found, a cover must be used to shield the
controller from water and contaminants.
The outline and mounting hole dimensions are shown in Figure 2. The
controller should be mounted by means of the two mounting holes at the opposing corners of the heatsink, using M4 × 20 mm (#8 × 0.75") screws.
This will give 6 mm (0.25") of exposed screw, which can be increased according to the thickness of the mounting site.
Fig. 2 Mounting
4.8 (0.19) dia., 2 plcs
dimensions, Curtis 1210
controller.
94
(3.70)
B+
B- M2 M1
POWER
CONNECTIONS
J1
LOGIC
CONNECTOR
J2
PROGRAMMER
CONNECTOR
6.8
(0.27)
147 (5.79)
43
(1.71)
Dimensions in millimeters and (inches)
✭
4
You will need to take steps during the design and development of your
end product to ensure that its EMC performance complies with applicable
regulations; suggestions are presented in Appendix A.
The 1210 controller contains ESD-sensitive components. Use appropriate precautions in connecting, disconnecting, and handling the controller.
See installation suggestions in Appendix A for protecting the controller from
ESD damage.
Curtis 1210 Manual, Rev. B
2 — INSTALLATION & WIRING
CONNECTIONS: High Current
Four 1/4” quick-connect terminals are provided for the high current connections.
The motor connections (M1, M2) and the battery
connections (B+, B-) have one terminal each.
B+
B-
M2
M1
CONNECTIONS: Low Current
Molex Type 5556 Pins
Brass / Tin
AWG
16
18–24
22–28
P/N
39-00-0078
39-00-0039
39-00-0047
The low current logic control connections are provided by an 18-pin connector
(see pin list below). The Molex Mini-Fit Jr. p/n 39-01-2185 with type 5556
pins is the mating connector; see chart at left for pin part numbers.
Two identical sets of B+/B- pins are provided; they are electrically connected to the controller’s B+, B- terminals and are rated at 9 amps. If these pins
are used, they should be fused appropriately to protect the controller.
J1
Phosphor Bronze / Tin
AWG
P/N
16
18–24
22–28
39-00-0080
39-00-0060
39-00-0066
NOTE:
16 AWG wire and
pins are recommended for
the battery charger circuit.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
J1 Pin 1
J1 Pin 2
J1 Pin 3
J1 Pin 4
J1 Pin 5
J1 Pin 6
J1 Pin 7
J1 Pin 8
J1 Pin 9
J1 Pin 10
J1 Pin 11
J1 Pin 12
J1 Pin 13
J1 Pin 14
J1 Pin 15
J2 Pin 1 receive data (+5V)
J1 Pin 16
J2 Pin 2 ground (B-)
J1 Pin 17
J2 Pin 3 transmit data (+5V)
J1 Pin 18
B- (for logic circuit or battery charger)
B- (for logic circuit or battery charger)
pot high output
pot wiper input; 5V throttle input
keyswitch input (KSI)
electromagnetic brake input (brake -)
push switch input
mode switch input—M1 (open), M2 (closed)
status LED output
B+ (for logic circuit or battery charger)
B+ (for logic circuit or battery charger)
inhibit input
pot low input
electromagnetic brake output (brake +)
BDI output
horn input
reverse switch input
speed limit pot wiper input
J2 Pin 4 +15V supply (100mA)
J2
1
2
3
4
Curtis 1210 Manual, Rev. B
A 4-pin low power connector is provided for the programmer. For applications
with the seat lift feature, this connector is also used for the seat lift connector.
To use the programmer in these applications, simply unplug the seat lift connector and plug in the programmer.
5
2 — INSTALLATION & WIRING
WIRING: STANDARD INSTALLATION
Applications without Seat Lift Feature
The wiring diagram presented in Figure 3a shows a typical installation for applications such as sweeper/scrubbers, which do not include a seat lift feature.
This installation includes a single-ended, 3-wire 5kΩ potentiometer throttle,
which is used with a reverse switch. With a wigwag throttle, a reverse switch
is not used and Pin 17 is left unconnected.
In this example, one set of B+/B- pins is left unused because the logic
circuit is wired directly to the vehicle’s battery pack.
Note: When using the B+ pins (10, 11) an appropriately sized fuse must
be added to the circuit to avoid damage to the controller.
CONTROL
FUSE
KEY
SWITCH
PUSH
MODE
(M1, M2)
STATUS
LED
GROUND
2
4
+15V
Rx DATA
1
3
Tx DATA
REVERSE
H
R
9
18
SPEED POT
8
17
REVERSE
PUSH
7
16
HORN
BRAKE -
6
15
BDI
KSI
5
14
BRAKE +
POT WIPER
4
13
POT LOW
POT HIGH
3
12
INHIBIT
B-
2
11
B+
B-
1
10
B+
J1
INHIBIT
BDI
STATUS
MODE (M1, M2)
HORN
5 kΩ POT
THROTTLE
J2
Connector detail:
SPEED
LIMIT
POT
(100 kΩ)
MOTOR
optional switch
operated by
mechanical
brake release
POWER
FUSE
B+
M
B+
BRAKE
BATTERY
CHARGER
CONNECTOR
BBATTERIES
R 2.4 kΩ, 0.5 W
Fig. 3a Standard wiring configuration, Curtis 1210 controller.
6
Curtis 1210 Manual, Rev. B
2 — INSTALLATION & WIRING
The wiring diagram presented in Figure 3b illustrates an alternative wiring
that can be used in applications with low keyswitch current. Here the control
circuit is connected to the B+ and B- pins (in this example, Pins 1 and 10)
instead of to the battery pack. All four of the B+ and B- pins (Pins 1, 2, 10,
11) are connected internally to the controller’s B+, B- terminals. The pins are
rated at 9 amps, so this configuration is appropriate only for applications where
accessory power drawn from these pins will never exceed 9 amps.
Note: When using the B+ pins (10, 11) an appropriately sized fuse must
be added to the circuit to avoid damage to the controller.
CONTROL
FUSE
KEY
SWITCH
PUSH
MODE
(M1, M2)
STATUS
LED
GROUND
2
4
+15V
Rx DATA
1
3
Tx DATA
STATUS
9
18
SPEED POT
MODE (M1, M2)
8
17
REVERSE
PUSH
7
16
HORN
BRAKE -
6
15
BDI
REVERSE
H
R
5
14
BRAKE +
4
13
POT LOW
POT HIGH
3
12
INHIBIT
B-
2
11
B+
B-
1
10
B+
J1
INHIBIT
BDI
KSI
POT WIPER
HORN
5 kΩ POT
THROTTLE
J2
Connector detail:
SPEED
LIMIT
POT
(100 kΩ)
MOTOR
optional switch
operated by
mechanical
brake release
POWER
FUSE
B+
M
B+
BRAKE
BATTERY
CHARGER
CONNECTOR
BBATTERIES
R 2.4 kΩ, 0.5 W
Fig. 3b Alternative wiring configuration, for low keyswitch current (≤ 9 A) applications.
Curtis 1210 Manual, Rev. B
7
2 — INSTALLATION & WIRING
Applications with Seat Lift
The wiring presented in Figures 4a and 4b is for applications such as DME
scooters, which include the seat lift function. The wiring is the same as that
shown in Figures 3a and 3b, except for the addition of the components and
wiring used to implement the seat lift feature.
This installation includes a single-ended, 3-wire 5kΩ potentiometer
throttle, which is used with a reverse switch. With a wigwag throttle, a reverse
switch is not used and Pin 17 is left unconnected.
In Figure 4a, one set of B+/B- pins is left unused because the logic circuit
is wired directly to the vehicle’s battery pack.
Note: When using the B+ pins (10, 11) an appropriately sized fuse must
be added to the circuit to avoid damage to the controller.
J2
Connector detail:
GROUND
2
4
+15V
Rx DATA
1
3
Tx DATA
STATUS
9
18
SPEED POT
MODE (M1, M2)
8
17
REVERSE
PUSH
7
16
HORN
BRAKE -
6
15
BDI
KSI
5
14
BRAKE +
POT WIPER
4
13
POT LOW
POT HIGH
3
12
INHIBIT
B-
2
11
B+
B-
1
10
B+
5 kΩ POT
THROTTLE
SPEED
LIMIT
POT
(100 kΩ)
CONTROL
FUSE
KEY
SWITCH
PUSH
MODE STATUS
REVERSE
LED
(M1, M2)
H
HORN
R
J1
SEAT LIFT
SWITCH
BDI
INHIBIT
BRAKE
A
SEAT LIFT
MOTOR
A
TRACTION
MOTOR
BATTERY
CHARGER
CONNECTOR
R 2.4 kΩ, 0.5 W
B+
POWER
FUSE
B+
N.C.
optional switch
operated by
mechanical
brake release
B-
BATTERIES
SEAT LIFT
RELAY
Fig. 4a Wiring configuration, Curtis 1210 controller in applications with seat lift.
8
Curtis 1210 Manual, Rev. B
2 — INSTALLATION & WIRING
The wiring diagram presented in Figure 4b illustrates an alternative wiring
that can be used in applications with low keyswitch current. Here the control
circuit is connected to the B+ and B- pins (in this example, Pins 1 and 10)
instead of to the battery pack. All four of the B+ and B- pins (Pins 1, 2, 10,
11) are connected internally to the controller’s B+ and B- terminals. The pins
are rated at 9 amps, so this configuration is appropriate only for applications
where accessory power drawn from these pins will never exceed 9 amps.
Note: When using the B+ pins (10, 11) an appropriately sized fuse must
be added to the circuit to avoid damage to the controller.
J2
Connector detail:
GROUND
2
4
+15V
Rx DATA
1
3
Tx DATA
STATUS
9
18
SPEED POT
MODE (M1, M2)
8
17
REVERSE
PUSH
7
16
HORN
BRAKE -
6
15
BDI
KSI
5
14
BRAKE +
POT WIPER
4
13
POT LOW
POT HIGH
3
12
INHIBIT
B-
2
11
B+
B-
1
10
B+
5 kΩ POT
THROTTLE
SPEED
LIMIT
POT
(100 kΩ)
CONTROL
FUSE
KEY
SWITCH
PUSH
MODE STATUS
REVERSE
LED
(M1, M2)
H
HORN
R
J1
SEAT LIFT
SWITCH
BDI
INHIBIT
BRAKE
A
SEAT LIFT
MOTOR
A
TRACTION
MOTOR
BATTERY
CHARGER
CONNECTOR
R 2.4 kΩ, 0.5 W
B+
POWER
FUSE
B+
N.C.
BATTERIES
optional switch
operated by
mechanical
brake release
BSEAT LIFT
RELAY
Fig. 4b Alternative wiring configuration, for low keyswitch current (≤ 9 A) applications with seat lift.
Curtis 1210 Manual, Rev. B
9
2 — INSTALLATION & WIRING: Throttle
THROTTLE WIRING
A 3-wire potentiometer throttle or a voltage throttle can be used. The 1210
controller can accept a single-ended, inverse single-ended, wigwag, or inverse
wigwag input signal from the throttle, depending on how the Throttle Type
parameter is programmed; see page 22.
Wiring for the 3-wire pot, voltage throttle, and Curtis ET-XXX electronic
throttle is described in the following text. If the throttle you are planning to
use is not covered, contact the Curtis office nearest you.
5kΩ, 3-Wire Potentiometer
A 5kΩ, 3-wire potentiometer is the standard throttle, and is shown in the
overall wiring diagrams (Figures 3a/3b and 4a/4b) as well as in Figure 5. With
this throttle, the controller can be programmed for a Type 0, 1, 2, or 3 input
signal; see page 22.
Fig. 5 Wiring for 3-wire,
Pot High output (Pin 3)
5kΩ potentiometer throttle.
3-WIRE
5kΩ
POT
Wiper input (Pin 4)
Pot Low input (Pin 13)
For wigwag and inverted wigwag applications, the pot can be correctly
centered within the controller’s neutral band by using the throttle autocalibration
feature (see page 23). Pots with less than 5 kΩ total resistance change over the
throttle’s full stroke can be accommodated by programming the controller for
reduced-range throttle inputs, via the throttle gain parameter (see page 25).
The controller provides full pot fault protection against open or shorted
wires anywhere in the throttle assembly. The overall pot resistance can range
from 4.5 kΩ to 7 kΩ. Values outside this range will trigger a fault condition.
If a pot fault occurs while the vehicle is moving, the controller will decelerate the vehicle to neutral through its normal deceleration curve. If the fault
is corrected while the throttle is still applied, the vehicle will accelerate to the
requested speed.
5V Throttle
A 5V throttle can be used instead of a pot, as shown in Figure 6. With this
throttle, the controller can be programmed for a Type 0, 1, 4, or 5 input signal;
see page 22.
With a wigwag or inverted wigwag input, the throttle output voltage
must be 2.5 V (± deadband) in neutral and a 4.7kΩ, 0.25W resistor must be
added between the pot high and pot low pins. A resistor is not required with
a single-ended input.
10
Curtis 1210 Manual, Rev. B
2 — INSTALLATION & WIRING: Throttle
Fig. 6 Wiring for 5V
5V input (Pin 4)
throttle.
+
5V
THROTTLE
Pot high output (Pin 3)
-
4.7kΩ,
0.25W
B-
Pot low input (Pin 13)
resistor required with wigwag throttles
Voltage throttles with less than 5 V total voltage change over the full
stroke can be accommodated by programming the controller for reduced-range
throttle inputs, via the throttle gain parameter (see page 25).
Because the throttle input voltage is referenced to B- and no throttle connections are made to the pot high and pot low pins, throttle fault protection is
lost with 5V throttles. The controller will not recognize out-of-range throttle
inputs as faults, and applying excessive voltages to the throttle wiper input may
damage the controller. It is the responsibility of the vehicle manufacturer
to provide throttle fault detection for 5V throttles.
Curtis ET-XXX Electronic Throttle
The recommended wiring for the Curtis ET-XXX electronic throttle is shown
in Figure 7. The ET-XXX throttle provides a single-ended 0–5V throttle signal
and a signal indicating whether it is in forward or reverse. The controller must
be programmed as a Type 4 throttle for use with the ET-XXX (see page 22).
As with any voltage throttle, there is no fault detection built into the
ET-XXX. It is the responsibility of the vehicle manufacturer to provide
throttle fault detection when using the ET-XXX.
Fig. 7 Wiring for Curtis
ET-XXX electronic throttle.
ET-XXX
ELECTRONIC
THROTTLE
B+
KEYSWITCH
WHT/GRN
KSI input
(Pin 5)
WHT/BRN
GREEN
B-
ORANGE
BLACK
B-
5V input (Pin 4)
BLACK/WHITE
WHITE
Reverse input (Pin 17)
connector
Curtis 1210 Manual, Rev. B
11
2 — INSTALLATION & WIRING: Switches, etc.
Speed Limit Pot
A speed limit pot allows the operator to adjust the speed of the vehicle at full
throttle. The speed limit pot should be sized so that it does not affect throttle
input resistance and thus the throttle response; a 100kΩ pot is recommended.
Wiring is shown in the basic wiring diagrams (Figures 3a/3b and 4a/4b).
The speed limit pot is at its maximum speed setting when its wiper is
shorted to the throttle pot’s pot high connection (Pin 3). When the speed
limit pot is in its maximum speed position, the vehicle’s speed at full throttle
corresponds to the programmed maximum speed setting.
The speed limit pot is at its minimum speed setting when its wiper is
shorted to the throttle pot’s pot low connection (Pin 13). When the speed
limit pot is in its minimum speed position, the vehicle’s speed at full throttle
corresponds to the programmed minimum speed setting. For information on
the programmable speed parameters, see Section 3.
The speed limit pot varies the vehicle’s speed linearly over the range between the minimum and maximum speed settings in each mode.
The speed limit pot also limits the vehicle’s reverse speed. Reverse speed
is linearly proportional to the speed limit pot setting and is adjustable from
the programmed maximum reverse speed (maximum reverse speed with speed
limit pot in its maximum speed position) to the programmed minimum reverse
speed (maximum reverse speed with speed limit pot in its minimum speed
position).
If a speed limit pot is not used, the speed limit input (Pin 18) should
be jumpered to the pot high output (Pin 3). In this configuration, the vehicle
speed at full throttle is defined by the programmed maximum speed. If no jumper
is used, the vehicle speed at full throttle will be limited to the programmed
minimum speed, and the controller will register a speed limit pot fault.
SWITCHES AND OTHER HARDWARE
Keyswitch
The vehicle should have an OEM-supplied master on/off switch to turn the
system off when not in use. The keyswitch provides logic power for the controller and for the other control input switches. It must be sized to carry the 150
mA quiescent logic current plus the current necessary to drive the precharge
function (1.5 A for 0.5 seconds) and the status LED, horn, and any other accessories powered from the keyswitch circuit.
Push Switch
A push switch can be used to electrically release the electromagnetic brake, so
that the vehicle can be pushed. Activating the push input inhibits the controller’s
drive functions until the push switch is turned off.
The push switch must go from off to on while the vehicle is stopped; if
the push switch is turned on while the vehicle is moving, the electromagnetic
12
Curtis 1210 Manual, Rev. B
2 — INSTALLATION & WIRING: Switches, etc.
brake will not release when the vehicle stops. Also, the controller must be connected to the batteries and the keyswitch must be turned on in order for the
push feature to be used.
Brake Release Switch (Brake Coil Disable Switch)
If a brake release lever is used to release the electromagnetic brake mechanically,
a brake coil disable switch is recommended. This switch opens the electromagnetic brake coil circuit when the mechanical brake release lever releases the
brake from the motor shaft. The open brake coil circuit will register as a fault,
inhibiting controller operation if an operator attempts to drive the vehicle with
the brake mechanically released. This safety feature ensures that the vehicle
cannot be driven when the brake cannot be engaged.
Inhibit
The inhibit input can be used to inhibit operation during battery charging.
The inhibit input overrides all other controller inputs and is active when low
(i.e., when shorted to B-). The input can be left floating when not engaged; it
does not need to be pulled high. Typically, battery chargers have a dedicated
third terminal that automatically provides inhibit. If your battery charger does
not have this third terminal, inhibit can be wired as shown in Figure 8.
The battery charger should only be connected after the vehicle has come
to a complete stop.
Fig. 8 Wiring to inhibit
operation during battery
charging (for battery
chargers without a
dedicated inhibit
terminal).
B+ (Pin 10 or 11)
B- (Pin 1 or 2)
CONTROL
FUSE
Inhibit input (Pin 12)
+
-
BATTERY
CHARGER
Status LED
The 1210 controller has the capability to drive a panel indicator LED, which
can be used to tell the operator, at a glance, the controller’s status. This LED
always indicates whether the controller is powered on or off. The status LED
will also provide diagnostics information via flash codes (see Section 7).
If a status LED is used, it should be installed with the proper resistor
in series. The controller’s LED driver is capable of a maximum current of 15
mA. The recommended resistor—designed to limit driver current to 15 mA
when active—is 2.4 kΩ, 0.5 W. Alternatively, an LED with a built-in resistor
can be used; it should be rated for 24V or 36V operation, depending on the
controller model.
Curtis 1210 Manual, Rev. B
13
2 — INSTALLATION & WIRING: Switches, etc.
Battery Discharge Indicator (BDI)
The 1210 controller can drive a 0–5V panel meter to show the battery pack’s
state of charge as a percentage of the amp-hour capacity of the batteries. The
BDI resets to full charge when the battery voltage rises above the programmed
threshold value (see page 31). The batteries must be put through a full charge
cycle with the controller installed before the BDI will begin operation.
The controller must be powered on for the BDI to monitor battery
charging. One way to do this is by turning on the keyswitch. Alternatively,
the controller can be factory-configured with the BDI output “stuffed” to
automatically power up the controller during charging. With this option, you
don’t run the risk of forgetting to turn on the keyswitch and thus not getting
accurate information from the BDI. Note: In order for the stuffed BDI output to power up the controller, the charger must be connected to the inhibit
input; see page 13.
Horn
The controller’s horn driver—Pin 16—is designed to drive a low current dc
horn at 1 Hz. The horn sounds a warning when the reverse direction is selected
(a series of beep tones) and when the throttle autocalibration feature is being
used (a constant tone). The horn driver sinks a maximum current of 15 mA.
Using a horn with a higher current requirement will damage and disable the
driver.
Circuitry Protection Devices
To protect the control wiring from accidental shorts, a low current fuse (appropriately sized for the maximum control circuit current draw) should be connected in series with the B+ logic supply. A fuse is also recommended for use
in the high power connection from the battery to the controller’s B+ terminal.
This fuse will protect the power system from external shorts and should be
sized appropriately for the maximum rated current of the controller.
Seat Lift Switch
A seat lift switch can be used to short Pins 1 and 3 of the 4-pin connector (J2),
thus activating the throttle-controlled seat lift function. The mating connector
for J2 is a 4-pin Molex Mini-Fit Jr., p/n 39-01-2045.
Seat lift should not be turned on while the vehicle is moving.
14
Curtis 1210 Manual, Rev. B
3 — PROGRAMMABLE PARAMETERS
3
PROGRAMMABLE PARAMETERS
The 1210 controller has a number of parameters that can be programmed
by means of a handheld programmer or the PC Programming Station. These
programmable parameters allow the vehicle’s performance characteristics to be
customized to best fit the needs of individual vehicle operators. For information
on programmer operation, see Appendix C.
The MultiMode™ feature of the 1210 controller allows operation in two
distinct modes: “Mode 1” and “Mode 2.” These modes can be programmed to
provide two different sets of operating characteristics, which can be useful for
operation in different conditions. For example, Mode 1 could be programmed
such that the vehicle moves slowly for precise, indoor maneuvering and Mode 2
programmed for higher speed, long distance travel outdoors. Three parameters
can be configured independently in the two modes:
M1 maximum speed
M2 maximum speed
M1 minimum speed
M2 minimum speed
M1 maximum reverse speed
M2 maximum reverse speed.
The controller is in Mode 2 when the mode switch is in the On position (input
connected to B+). Leaving the mode input floating or actively switching it Off
(pulling it to B-) puts the controller in Mode 1.
Curtis 1210 Manual, Rev. B
15
3 — PROGRAMMABLE PARAMETERS
Motor Parameters .............................. p. 17
Main Current Limit
Motor Resistance
Acceleration Parameters .................. p. 17
Max-Speed Forward Accel Rate
Min-Speed Forward Accel Rate
Max-Speed Reverse Accel Rate
Min-Speed Reverse Accel Rate
Gear Soften
Soft Start
Braking Parameters .......................... p. 19
Max-Speed Forward Decel Rate
Min-Speed Forward Decel Rate
Emergency Stop Decel Rate
Max-Speed Reverse Decel Rate
Min-Speed Reverse Decel Rate
Key-Off Decel Rate
Brake Delay
Speed Parameters ............................... p. 20
Max Speed, M1/M2
Min Speed, M1/M2
Max Reverse Speed, M1/M2
Min Reverse Speed
Creep Speed
Push Speed
IR Compensation
Speed Scaler
Throttle Parameters .......................... p. 22
Throttle Input Signal Type
Throttle Autocalibration
Throttle Deadband
Throttle Gain
Ramp Shape (Static Throttle Map)
Fault Parameters ................................ p. 27
High Pedal Disable (HPD)
Brake Faults
Seat Lift Brake Faults
Fault Beep
Other Parameters ............................... p. 28
Seat Lift
Virtual Seat Lift
Beeper Solid
BDI Full Voltage
BDI Empty Voltage
BDI Reset Voltage
Sleep Delay
Tremor Compensation
16
☞
Individual parameters are described in the
following text in the order they are listed on
this page. They are listed by the abbreviated
names that are displayed in the programmer’s
Program Menu. Not all of these parameters
are displayed on all controllers; the list
for any given controller depends on its
specifications.
The programmer displays the parameters in
a different order. For a list of the individual
parameters in the order in which they appear
in the Program Menu, see Section 6: Programmer Menus.
Curtis 1210 Manual, Rev. B
3 — PROGRAMMABLE PARAMETERS: Motor and Acceleration Parameters
Motor Parameters
MAIN C/L
The main current limit parameter allows adjustment of the maximum current the controller will supply to the motor during both drive and regenerative
braking operation. This parameter can be limited to protect the motor from
excessive (potentially damaging) currents or to reduce the maximum torque
applied to the drive system by the motor. It is adjustable from 30 amps to
100% of the controller’s full rated current. (The full rated current depends on
the controller model; see 15-second ratings in Table D-1.)
MOTOR R
The motor resistance parameter is crucial to proper vehicle operation. The
control system performance depends on this value being set correctly. The motor resistance parameter is adjustable between 0 and 985 milliohms. It must
be set to the actual cold motor resistance. For instructions, see initial setup
procedure 4, on page 33.
Acceleration Parameters
ACCEL MAX SPD
The maximum-speed forward acceleration rate defines the time it takes the
controller to accelerate from zero to 100% output during forward travel at full
throttle with the speed limit pot in its maximum speed position. Larger values
represent a longer acceleration time and gentler starts, while smaller values
represent faster acceleration. The maximum-speed forward acceleration rate is
adjustable from 0.2 to 4.0 seconds. Acceleration rates under 0.5 second provide
abrupt acceleration and should only be used under special circumstances.
The maximum-speed and minimum-speed forward acceleration rates
are scaled linearly to provide appropriate response throughout the speed limit
pot’s range.
ACCEL MIN SPD
The minimum-speed forward acceleration rate defines the time it takes the
controller to accelerate from zero to 100% output during forward travel at full
throttle with the speed limit pot in its minimum speed position. Larger values
represent a longer acceleration time and gentler starts, while smaller values
represent faster acceleration. The minimum-speed forward acceleration rate is
adjustable from 0.2 to 8.0 seconds. Acceleration rates under 0.5 second provide
abrupt acceleration and should only be used under special circumstances.
Curtis 1210 Manual, Rev. B
17
3 — PROGRAMMABLE PARAMETERS: Acceleration Parameters
REV ACCEL MAX
The maximum-speed reverse acceleration rate defines the time it takes the
controller to accelerate from zero to 100% output while traveling in reverse at
full throttle with the speed limit pot in its maximum speed position. Larger
values represent a longer acceleration time and gentler starts, while smaller values
represent faster acceleration. The maximum-speed reverse acceleration rate is
adjustable from 0.2 to 8.0 seconds. Acceleration rates under 0.5 second provide
abrupt acceleration and should only be used under special circumstances.
The maximum-speed and minimum-speed reverse acceleration rates are
scaled linearly to provide appropriate response throughout the speed limit
pot’s range.
REV ACCEL MIN
The minimum-speed reverse acceleration rate defines the time it takes the
controller to accelerate from zero to 100% output while traveling in reverse at
full throttle with the speed limit pot in its minimum speed position. Larger
values represent a longer acceleration time and gentler starts, while smaller values
represent faster acceleration. The minimum-speed reverse acceleration rate is
adjustable from 0.2 to 8.0 seconds. Acceleration rates under 0.5 second provide
abrupt acceleration and should only be used under special circumstances.
GEAR SOFTEN
The gear soften feature allows smooth pickup of gear slack in the transmission
when torque is reversed; it affects all accelerations except those from zero speed.
The effect of this feature is most noticeable when reapplying the throttle from
neutral after decelerating from high speed but before coming to a stop. (See
soft start parameter, below, for softening torque endpoints for accelerations
from a complete stop.)
The gear soften parameter is adjustable from 0% to 100%, with 100%
providing a great deal of softening and 0% eliminating the feature. The trade-off
in increasing the gear soften value is that acceleration response may be slowed
somewhat, especially at higher values.
SOFT START
The soft start feature allows softened torque endpoints for forward/reverse
accelerations from a complete stop. When accelerating from a stop, some users prefer the softened gear slack transitions this parameter can provide, while
others prefer the vehicle to respond instantly.
The soft start parameter is adjustable from 0% to 100%, with 100%
providing a great deal of softening and 0% eliminating the feature. The trade-
18
Curtis 1210 Manual, Rev. B
3 — PROGRAMMABLE PARAMETERS: Braking Parameters
off in increasing the soft start value is that acceleration response may be slowed
somewhat, especially at higher values.
Braking Parameters
DECEL MAX SPD
The maximum-speed forward deceleration rate determines the time it takes
the controller to decelerate from its present output to zero when the throttle is
released to neutral during forward travel with the speed limit pot in its maximum speed position. Larger values represent a longer deceleration time and
gentler stops. Smaller values will reduce the stopping distance required. The
maximum-speed deceleration rate should be set at a value that will ensure the
vehicle stops within a safe distance when traveling at full speed. The maximumspeed deceleration rate is adjustable from 0.2 to 4.0 seconds. Deceleration rates
under 0.5 second provide abrupt stops and should only be used under special
circumstances.
DECEL MIN SPD
The minimum-speed forward deceleration rate defines the time it takes
the controller to decelerate from its present output to zero when the throttle
is released to neutral during forward travel with the speed limit pot in its
minimum speed position. Larger values represent a longer deceleration time
and gentler stops. Smaller values will reduce the stopping distance required.
The minimum-speed deceleration rate is adjustable from 0.2 to 8.0 seconds.
Deceleration rates under 0.5 second provide abrupt stops and should only be
used under special circumstances.
E STOP
The emergency stop deceleration rate defines the time it takes the vehicle
to stop when a reverse throttle command >80% is given while the vehicle is
moving forward. This gives the operator a way to stop more quickly when
unexpected conditions arise.
When the E Stop feature is invoked the E Stop deceleration rate becomes
the new forward deceleration rate. Therefore it makes sense to set it to a value
lower (faster stop) than the fastest forward deceleration rate (DECEL MAX SPEED).
The E Stop deceleration rate is adjustable from 0.2 to 4.0 seconds.
REV DECEL MAX
The maximum-speed reverse deceleration rate defines the time it takes the
controller to decelerate from its present output to zero when the throttle is
released to neutral during reverse travel with the speed limit pot in its maximum speed position. Larger values represent a longer deceleration time and
Curtis 1210 Manual, Rev. B
19
3 — PROGRAMMABLE PARAMETERS: Speed Parameters
gentler stops. Smaller values will reduce the stopping distance required. The
maximum-speed reverse deceleration rate should be set at a value that will ensure
the vehicle stops within a safe distance when traveling in reverse at full speed.
The maximum-speed deceleration rate is adjustable from 0.2 to 4.0 seconds.
Deceleration rates under 0.5 second provide abrupt stops and should only be
used under special circumstances.
REV DECEL MIN
The minimum-speed reverse deceleration rate defines the time it takes the
controller to decelerate from its present output to zero when the throttle is
released to neutral during reverse travel with the speed limit pot in its minimum speed position. Larger values represent a longer deceleration time and
gentler stops. Smaller values will reduce the stopping distance required. The
minimum-speed reverse deceleration rate is adjustable from 0.2 to 8.0 seconds.
Deceleration rates under 0.5 second provide abrupt stops and should only be
used under special circumstances.
KEY OFF DECEL
The key-off deceleration rate defines the time it takes the vehicle to stop after
the keyswitch has been turned off while the vehicle is in motion. The key-off
deceleration rate is independent of the normal programmed deceleration rate,
the selected mode, and the speed and direction of travel when KSI is switched
off. It is adjustable from 0.2 to 4.0 seconds.
BRAKE DELAY
The brake delay parameter specifies when the controller engages the electromagnetic brake after the vehicle’s speed command has reached zero. This time
delay is adjustable from 0.0 to 1.0 seconds. It should be set low enough to
minimize rolling downhill when stopping on ramps, yet long enough to allow
for a smooth stop on flat surfaces.
The brake delay does not apply in situations where an incline causes the
vehicle to change direction after the throttle command has been zeroed. In this
case, the controller will detect the “rollback” and engage the electromagnetic
brake immediately.
Speed Parameters
M1/M2 MAX SPD
The maximum speed parameter defines the maximum allowed speed at full
forward throttle with the speed limit pot in its maximum speed position. For
example, if Mode 1 Maximum Speed is set at 60% and the speed limit pot is
in its maximum speed position, the controller will adjust its output to achieve
20
Curtis 1210 Manual, Rev. B
3 — PROGRAMMABLE PARAMETERS: Speed Parameters
60% speed at full throttle in Mode 1. Note: If a speed limit pot is not used in
your application, see page 12.
M1/M2 MIN SPD
The minimum speed parameter defines the maximum allowed speed at full
forward throttle with the speed limit pot in its minimum speed position. For
example, if Mode 1 Minimum Speed is set at 20% and the speed limit pot is
in its minimum speed position, the controller will adjust its output to achieve
20% speed at full throttle in Mode 1. The minimum speed cannot be set higher
than the programmed maximum speed. Note: If a speed limit pot is not used
in your application, see page 12.
M1/M2 REV MAX SPD
The maximum reverse speed parameter defines the maximum allowed speed
in reverse at full throttle with the speed limit pot in its maximum speed position. For example, if Mode 1 Maximum Reverse Speed is set at 40% and the
speed limit pot is in its maximum speed position, the controller will adjust
its output to achieve 40% reverse speed at full throttle in Mode 1. Note: If a
speed limit pot is not used in your application, see page 12.
REV MIN SPD
The minimum reverse speed parameter defines the maximum allowed speed in
reverse at full throttle with the speed limit pot in its minimum speed position.
Reverse speed is not affected by which mode (Mode 1, Mode 2) is selected.
Note: If a speed limit pot is not used in your application, see page 12.
CREEP SPD
Creep speed helps to prevent vehicle rollback on inclines when the brake is
released with very little throttle applied. It is activated when the throttle request
exceeds the throttle’s deadband threshold. The throttle response is rescaled so
that the controller’s output is adjustable over the full throttle range, but starting at the programmed creep speed value. Creep speed is programmable from
0% to 10.0% of the maximum available speed.
PUSH SPD
When the push switch is switched to the On position, the push feature releases
the electromagnetic brake and allows the vehicle to be manually pushed. The
maximum speed at which the vehicle can be pushed is defined by the push
speed parameter. It is programmable from 25% to 50% of the maximum
available speed. This parameter also sets the “push-too-fast” speed, which is
the maximum speed at which the vehicle can be pushed when it is unpowered
and the brake is mechanically released. Note: the vehicle must be manually
Curtis 1210 Manual, Rev. B
21
3 — PROGRAMMABLE PARAMETERS: Throttle Parameters
pushed fast enough so that the motor voltage reaches approximately 15 V in
order for the push feature to be activated.
IR COMP COEFF
IR compensation is a method by which the controller maintains a constant vehicle speed despite changes in motor loading. The IR compensation parameter
adjusts how aggressively the controller tries to maintain constant speed under
changing load conditions. The parameter is scaled 0–100%, and defines the
percentage of compensation applied.
SPD SCALER
The speed scaler parameter sets the maximum voltage that can be applied to
the motor. It can be used to eliminate variations in maximum speed that would
otherwise result when driving with a fully charged battery vs. a partially discharged battery. If the speed scaler is set at 23 volts, for example, the maximum
vehicle speed will be the same whether the actual battery voltage is 28 volts or
23 volts or any value in between.
The speed scaler parameter is programmable between 20.0 V and 28.0 V.
Throttle Parameters
THRTL TYPE
The controller can be programmed to accept single-ended, wigwag, or inverted
wigwag signals from a 5kΩ, 3-wire pot or from a 5V throttle.
The throttle input signal type options—Types “0” through “5” in the
Throttle Type programming menu—are listed in Table 1.
Table 1
THROTTLE
TYPE
PROGRAMMABLE THROTTLE INPUT SIGNAL TYPES
APPLICABILITY
5kΩ
5V
3-wire Pot
Throttle
DESCRIPTION
0
✓
✓*
wigwag pot or voltage throttle
1
✓
✓*
inverted wigwag pot or voltage throttle
2
✓
single-ended pot; maximum speed = 5kΩ
3
✓
inverted single-ended pot; maximum speed = 0
4
✓
single-ended voltage throttle;
maximum speed = 5V
5
✓
inverted single-ended voltage throttle;
maximum speed = 0
* Requires resistor; see Figure 6, page 11.
22
Curtis 1210 Manual, Rev. B
3 — PROGRAMMABLE PARAMETERS: Throttle Parameters
THRTL AUTOCAL
The throttle autocalibration parameter provides a means of easily and reliably
centering wigwag throttle pots. To use this method, a horn must be connected
to the horn driver. The controller inhibits driving while in autocalibration
mode, enabling the throttle potentiometer to be adjusted safely.
Throttle centering is accomplished as follows:
1. Jack the vehicle drive wheels off the ground or disconnect the motor leads.
2. Completely assemble the throttle mechanism but do not tighten
the clamping mechanism that secures the potentiometer shaft to
the throttle lever.
3. Plug the programmer into the controller, and turn on the keyswitch.
4. Select the program mode and scroll down to the throttle autocalibration parameter.
5. Set the throttle autocalibration to On. At this point, the horn will
probably sound, indicating that the throttle pot is out of adjustment. If the horn does not sound, the pot is already centered and
further adjustment is not necessary.
6. With the throttle lever at the neutral position, adjust the potentiometer in one direction until the horn turns off. Note this position.
Adjust the pot in the other direction until the horn turns off. Note
this position. Set the pot halfway between the two noted positions.
The pot is now adjusted to the proper value for neutral.
7. Tighten the clamping mechanism that secures the throttle lever to
the potentiometer shaft. Depress and release the throttle to verify
the mechanical return to neutral; the horn should turn off with the
same amount of motion in both directions.
8. Set the throttle autocalibration parameter to Off, or cycle the
keyswitch to reset it to Off. (If you are performing the reset by
cycling the keyswitch, note that KSI must remain off for at least
4 seconds.) The vehicle will not drive if the throttle autocalibration
parameter is left On.
THRTL DEADBAND
The throttle deadband parameter defines the throttle pot wiper voltage range
that the controller interprets as neutral. Increasing the throttle deadband setting
increases the neutral range. This parameter is especially useful with throttle assemblies that do not reliably return to a well-defined neutral point, because it
allows the deadband to be defined wide enough to ensure that the controller
goes into neutral when the throttle mechanism is released.
Curtis 1210 Manual, Rev. B
23
3 — PROGRAMMABLE PARAMETERS: Throttle Parameters
Examples of two deadband settings (25%, 10%) are shown in Figure
9, along with the equations used to determine the wiper voltage range (with
respect to B-) that the controller will interpret as neutral.
Single-Ended Throttle
Wigwag Throttle
0 0.4V
5V
0
2.5V
5V
100%
25%
100%
25%
Deadband = 25%
4.6V
1.5V
0.4V
2.0V
4.6V
3.0V
10%
10%
Deadband = 10%
0.8V
4.6V
0.4V
VDB = Pot Low + (DB%) (active pot range)
KEY:
Neutral
Deadband
0%
output
100%
output
2.3V
4.6V
2.7V
VDB = 2.5V ± (0.5) (DB%) (active pot range)
Notes: Voltages shown are at the pot wiper relative to B-.
Voltages are relative to a 5kΩ pot.
Throttle gain = 1.
Fig. 9 Effect of adjusting the throttle deadband parameter.
The programmer displays the throttle deadband parameter as a percentage
of the wiper voltage range and is adjustable from 6.0% to 25.0%. The default
deadband setting is 10.0%.
The throttle wiper voltage range is approximately 4 volts, measured relative to B-. This is true regardless of whether a single-ended or wigwag throttle
is used. When a single-ended throttle is used, the deadband parameter sets a
single threshold wiper voltage—that is, a wiper voltage (relative to B-) at which
the controller will begin to modulate. When a wigwag throttle is used, the
deadband parameter sets two threshold wiper voltages, one on either side of
the 2.5 V centerpoint, for forward and reverse.
Depending on the individual pot, the values for Pot Low and Pot High
(and hence for the deadband, which is a percentage of the range defined by
Pot Low and Pot High) vary. The values listed below can be used with the
equations provided in Figure 9 to calculate the actual deadband threshold(s)
for any given deadband setting:
POT
POT LOW
POT HIGH
POT RANGE
4 kΩ
0.5 V
4.5 V
4.0 V
5 kΩ
0.4 V
4.6 V
4.2 V
7 kΩ
0.3 V
4.7 V
4.4 V
Detailed guidelines for adjusting the throttle deadband parameter are
presented in Section 4.
24
Curtis 1210 Manual, Rev. B
3 — PROGRAMMABLE PARAMETERS: Throttle Parameters
THRTL GAIN
The throttle gain parameter sets the wiper voltage required to produce 100%
controller output. Increasing the throttle gain setting reduces the wiper voltage required, and therefore the full stroke necessary to produce full output is
reduced. This feature allows reduced-range throttle assemblies to be used.
Examples are shown in Figure 10 to illustrate the effect of three different
throttle gain settings (1, 1.5, and 2) on full-stroke wiper voltage. Adjusting the
throttle gain also affects the neutral deadband, which is a percentage of the
throttle’s active range. Note: The deadband values shown in the bottom two
examples are the same due to rounding; the actual deadband in the bottom
example is somewhat narrower than in the example above it.
Single-Ended Throttle
Wigwag Throttle
0 0.4V
5V
0
2.5V
5V
100%
25%
100%
25%
Throttle Gain = 1
Deadband = 25%
4.6V
1.5V
0.4V
2.0V
25%
4.6V
3.0V
100%
100%
25%
Throttle Gain = 1.5
Deadband = 25%
3.2V
1.1V
1.1V
2.2V
10%
3.9V
2.8V
10%
Throttle Gain = 1.5
Deadband = 10%
3.2V
0.7V
1.1V
2.4V 2.6V
10%
3.9V
10%
Throttle Gain = 2
Deadband = 10%
0.6V
2.5V
1.4V
Neutral
Deadband
0%
output
100%
output
3.6V
V100% = 2.5V ± (0.5) (pot range / throttle gain)
V100% = Pot Low + (pot range / throttle gain)
KEY:
2.4V 2.6V
Notes: Voltages shown are at the pot wiper relative to B-.
Voltages are relative to a 5kΩ pot.
Fig. 10 Effect of adjusting the throttle gain parameter.
When a single-ended throttle is used, the throttle gain parameter sets
the maximum pot wiper voltage required to produce 100% output. When a
wigwag throttle is used, the throttle gain parameter sets the pot wiper resistance
required to produce 100% output in both forward and reverse: the wiper voltage
required for full forward output is decreased, and the wiper voltage required
for full reverse output is increased.
The throttle gain parameter can be set with values from 1.0 to 10.0.
The throttle gain value is the ratio of the pot’s full 5kΩ to the resistance of
the throttle’s range of travel (G = Rpot / Rtravel). A setting of 1.0 thus represents
Curtis 1210 Manual, Rev. B
25
3 — PROGRAMMABLE PARAMETERS: Throttle Parameters
a one-to-one ratio—in other words, no throttle gain adjustment. A setting of
10.0 would allow use of a pot with a range of only 1/10th of 5kΩ, i.e., 500
ohms. For most applications, throttle gain settings between 1.0 and 2.0 will
work best.
Note: The throttle characteristics are defined in terms of wiper voltage
rather than throttle pot resistance because of the range of pot values that can
be used and the variation between pots of the same value.
Detailed guidelines for adjusting the throttle gain parameter are presented
in Section 4.
RAMP SHAPE
The ramp shape parameter determines the static throttle map of the controller. This parameter modifies the throttle input to the controller, and hence the
vehicle’s response. Setting the ramp shape parameter at 50% provides a linear
response to throttle position. Values below 50% reduce the throttle command at
low throttle positions, providing enhanced slow speed maneuverability. Values
above 50% give the vehicle a faster, jumpier feel at low throttle positions.
The ramp shape can be programmed to values between 20.0% and 70.0%.
The ramp shape number refers to the throttle command at half throttle. For
example, if maximum speed is set at 100%, a ramp shape of 40% will result
in a 40% throttle command at half throttle. The 50% ramp shape corresponds
to a linear response. Six ramp shapes (20, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70%) are shown
as examples in Figure 11.
Fig. 11 Ramp shape
100
(throttle map) with maximum speed set at 100%.
THROTTLE COMMAND (percent)
RAMP SHAPE
MAX. SPEED (100%)
90
70%
60%
80
50%
40%
70
30%
60
20%
50
40
30
20
10
0
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
THROTTLE POSITION (percent)
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3 — PROGRAMMABLE PARAMETERS: Fault Parameters
Changing the maximum speed setting changes the throttle command
range, and hence the ramp shape. Ramp shapes with the maximum speed setting dropped from 100% to 60% are shown in Figure 12.
Fig. 12 Ramp shape
100
(throttle map) with maximum speed set at 60%.
RAMP SHAPE
THROTTLE COMMAND (percent)
90
70%
60%
80
50%
70
40%
MAX. SPEED (60%)
30%
60
20%
50
40
30
20
10
0
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
THROTTLE POSITION (percent)
In all cases, the ramp shape number is the throttle command at half
throttle. In Figure 12, for example, the 50% ramp shape results in a 30%
throttle command at half throttle (i.e., a command that is halfway between 0%
and 60%). The 20% ramp shape results in a 12% command at half throttle
(20% of the range from 0% to 60%).
Fault Parameters
HIGH PEDAL DIS
The primary function of the high pedal disable (HPD) feature is to prevent
the vehicle from moving if the controller is turned on with the throttle already
applied. HPD also serves as the interlock to prevent the vehicle from starting
up with the push or inhibit feature active, and to prevent driving if Inhibit is
activated during operation.
When the HPD parameter is programmed On, HPD is active and controller output is inhibited (1) if a throttle input greater than the throttle deadband
exists when the controller is turned on, (2) if the push switch is On when the
controller is turned on, (3) after the vehicle reaches a stop if the push switch is
activated while the vehicle is being driven, or (4) if the inhibit switch is activated
while the vehicle is being driven. If HPD is programmed Off, this protection
feature is disabled. Note: All DME scooter applications must have the HPD
feature programmed On to satisfy the industry’s safety requirements.
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27
3 — PROGRAMMABLE PARAMETERS: Other Parameters
BRAKE FLTS
The brake faults parameter enables (“On”) or disables (“Off ”) all the electromagnetic brake driver and wiring fault detection. All DME scooter applications must have this parameter programmed On to satisfy the industry’s safety
requirements.
In non-DME applications such as sweeper/scrubbers, where there is no
electromagnetic brake, the brake faults parameter can be programmed Off, thus
eliminating the need for the 200Ω, 5W bias resistor on the controller’s brake
driver output that would otherwise be necessary.
SL BRAKE FLTS
The seat lift brake faults parameter enables (“On”) or disables (“Off ”) the
brake coil open and shorted brake driver fault detection in seat lift mode.
The seat lift brake faults parameter is only active when the standard brake
faults parameter is also programmed On. If the standard brake faults parameter
is programmed Off, there will be no fault detection in seat lift mode even if
the seat lift brake faults parameter is programmed On.
FAULT BEEP
The fault beep parameter enables the horn during controller faults, in order to
make the fault codes audible. It beeps only the fault codes; it does not precede
the fault code with a level-of-seriousness code (as does the status LED, with its
slow/fast flash preceding the fault code). If this audible alarm is not wanted,
the fault beep parameter should be programmed Off.
Other Parameters
SEAT LIFT
DME scooter systems typically use the 1210 controller to drive the seat lift
motor as well as the traction motor. The power path is determined by a relay
that routes motor drive power from the controller to either the traction motor or the seat lift motor depending on whether the seat lift switch is open or
closed; see Figures 4a/4b. When the seat lift feature is active, the controller
disables the electromagnetic brake driver (i.e., sets the brake), and operates in
Mode 1, regardless of mode switch position.
The seat lift switch connector plugs into J2 (the 4-pin connector). The
controller transitions from traction mode to seat lift mode when the seat lift
switch is closed.
To use the programmer, you must remove the seat lift switch connector
from J2 in order to plug in the programmer; both connectors use J2. When
you have finished using the programmer, the seat lift switch connector can be
plugged back into J2.
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Curtis 1210 Manual, Rev. B
3 — PROGRAMMABLE PARAMETERS: Other Parameters
The seat lift parameter enables (“On”) or disables (“Off”) seat lift mode.
Programming the seat lift parameter On enables the controller to recognize seat
lift switch inputs at J2. If the seat lift parameter is programmed Off, the controller
will not respond to the seat lift switch, even when it is plugged into J2.
VSL
The programming device and the seat lift switch input share the same 4-pin
connector (J2) on the controller—see Figures 4a/4b. The virtual seat lift
parameter allows the controller to be put into seat lift mode when the programmer—rather than the seat lift switch input—is plugged in. Setting this
parameter On transitions the controller from traction mode to seat lift mode,
and sets the brake (i.e., disables the electromagnetic brake driver). This can be
convenient when the programmer is being used during vehicle checkout. VSL
automatically resets to Off when the keyswitch is cycled.
For controllers without the VSL parameter, seat lift operation can be
tested only when the programmer is not plugged in.
BEEPER SOLID
The beeper solid parameter, when programmed On, provides a continuous
24V+ signal to the horn driver (Pin 16) when throttle is requested in reverse;
this signal can be used to drive a logic function—such as a watering solenoid
for a sweeper/scrubber.
When a horn is connected to Pin 16, the Beeper Solid parameter is typically programmed Off. With Beeper Solid programmed Off, the horn sounds
a series of beep tones when throttle is requested in reverse.
BDI FULL VLTS
The BDI full voltage parameter sets the battery voltage considered to be a
100% state-of-charge. It should be set to the voltage level of the fully-charged
battery pack.
BDI EMPTY VLTS
The BDI empty voltage parameter sets the battery voltage considered to be a
0% state-of-charge; when the battery pack remains under this voltage consistently, the BDI will read 0% state of charge. It is typically set to about 85%
of BDI full voltage.
BDI RESET
The BDI reset voltage parameter sets the no-load threshold at which the
controller’s battery-state-of-charge calculator will reset to 100%. When this
voltage is present for 2 minutes the battery discharge indicator (BDI) is reset
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29
3 — PROGRAMMABLE PARAMETERS: Other Parameters
to 100%. Because this is the charging voltage, it is set 2 to 3 volts higher than
the actual battery voltage (e.g., 27 V for a 24V system).
SLEEP DLY
The controller powers down completely if the throttle request remains at neutral
beyond the time specified by the sleep delay parameter; to resume operation,
the keyswitch must be cycled. The sleep delay can be set from 0 to 60 minutes.
Setting this parameter to zero disables the sleep delay.
TREMOR COMP
The tremor compensation parameter allows adjustment to limit the controller’s
response to sharp throttle movements, such as movements resulting from hand
tremors. The tremor compensation parameter can be set to values of 1 through
5, with 1 providing no compensation, and 5 providing the most. Although larger
values provide steadier response, they also result in more sluggish response to
throttle requests. There is thus a trade-off between crispness of response (low
tremor compensation settings) and steady speed in the presence of tremors
(high tremor compensation settings).
The effect of tremor compensation is most noticeable when the throttle
is moved quickly from full to very low requests. Note: this function is bypassed
if the throttle moves into the neutral deadband.
Although designed primarily to help end users with hand tremor problems, this parameter can be used more generally to smooth out overall vehicle
responsiveness for steadier driving.
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4 — INITIAL SETUP
4
INITIAL SETUP
Before operating the vehicle, carefully complete the following initial setup
procedures. If you find a problem during the checkout, refer to the diagnostics
and troubleshooting section (Section 7) for further information.
Before starting the setup procedures, jack the vehicle drive wheels up
off the ground so that they spin freely. Doublecheck all wiring to ensure
that it is consistent with the wiring guidelines presented in Section 2. Make
sure all connections are tight.
1 Begin the setup procedures
1-a. Put the throttle in neutral, and make sure the forward/reverse
switches are open.
1-b. Turn on the controller and plug in the 1311 programmer. The
programmer should power up with an initial display, and the status LED should
light steadily. If neither happens, check for continuity in the keyswitch circuit
and controller ground.
2 Throttle
Put the programmer into Program mode, and set the Throttle Type parameter
to match the throttle you are using (Type 0–5); see page 22.
It is important to ensure that the controller output is operating over its
full range. The following tuning procedures will establish the throttle deadband
and throttle gain parameter values that correspond to the absolute full range
of your particular throttle mechanism.* It is advisable to include some buffer
around the absolute full range of the throttle mechanism to allow for throttle
resistance variations over time and temperature as well as variations in the tolerance of potentiometer values between individual throttle mechanisms.
Tuning the Throttle Deadband
2-a. Select the Test Menu. The Throttle % field should be visible in the
display. You will need to reference the value displayed here..
2-b. Slowly apply the throttle until you hear the electromagnetic brake
disengage. Use care with this step as it is important to identify the threshold
throttle position at which the brake is disengaged.
2-c. Without moving the throttle, read the value shown in the Throttle
% field. This value should be zero. If the Throttle % value is zero, proceed to
Step 2-d. If it is greater than zero, the throttle deadband parameter must be
increased. Select the Program Menu, scroll down to display the THRTL DEADBAND
field, and enter a larger THRTL DEADBAND value. Select the Test Menu and repeat
* If you are using a wigwag throttle, you should center it before proceeding with
the throttle tuning procedures. Instructions for wigwag throttle centering (using
the Throttle Autocalibration parameter) are presented on page 23.
Curtis 1210 Manual, Rev. B
31
4 — INITIAL SETUP
the procedure from Step 2-b until the Throttle % is zero at the electromagnetic
brake disengagement point.
2-d. While observing the Throttle % value displayed in the programmer’s
Test Menu, continue to increase the throttle past the electromagnetic brake
disengagement point. Note where the Throttle % value begins to increase,
indicating that the controller has begun to supply drive power to the motor. If
the throttle had to be moved further than desired before the Throttle % value
began to increase, the throttle deadband parameter must be decreased. In the
Program Menu, scroll down to the THRTL DEADBAND field, and enter a smaller
THRTL DEADBAND value. Select the Test Menu and repeat the procedure from Step
2-b. When the amount of travel between the point at which the brake is disengaged and the Throttle % value begins to increase is acceptable, the throttle
deadband is properly tuned.
2-e. If a bidirectional (wigwag) throttle assembly is being used, the procedure should be repeated for the reverse direction. The THRTL DEADBAND value
should be selected such that the throttle operates correctly in both forward
and reverse.
Tuning the Throttle Gain
2-f. Apply full throttle and observe the Throttle % value. This value
should be 100%. If it is less than 100%, the throttle gain must be increased
to attain full controller output at the maximum throttle position. Select the
Program Menu, scroll down to the THROTTLE GAIN field, and enter a larger THROTTLE
GAIN value. Select the Test Menu and repeat this step until the Throttle % value
is 100%.
2-g. Now that the full throttle position results in a 100% value for
Throttle %, slowly reduce throttle until the Throttle % value drops below 100%
and note the throttle position. This represents the extra range of motion allowed
by the throttle mechanism. If this range is large, you may wish to decrease it by
decreasing the throttle gain. This will provide a larger active throttle range and
more vehicle control. Select the Program Menu, scroll down to the THROTTLE GAIN
field, and enter a smaller THROTTLE GAIN value. Select the Test Menu and repeat
this step until an appropriate amount of extra range is attained.
2-h. If a wigwag throttle is being used, repeat the procedure for the
reverse direction. The THROTTLE GAIN value should be selected such that the
throttle operates correctly in both forward and reverse.
Confirming proper throttle operation
Select a direction and operate the throttle. The motor should begin to
turn in the selected direction. If it does not, verify the wiring to the throttle
and motor. The motor should run proportionally faster with increasing throttle.
If not, refer to Section 7.
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Curtis 1210 Manual, Rev. B
4 — INITIAL SETUP
3 Basic vehicle checkout
Put the programmer in Test mode, and scroll down the menu to observe the
status of the switches: mode, reverse, and push. Plug in the battery charger to
verify the Inhibit input status. Cycle each input in turn, observing the programmer. The programmer should display the correct status for each input.
Similarly, check the throttle and speed limit pot inputs. The programmer
should display the correct value for each input.
Verify that all options, such as high pedal disable (HPD) and seat lift,
are as desired. To verify operation of the seat lift function, put the programmer
into Program mode and set the VSL parameter On; if VSL is not an option,
you will need to unplug the programmer and plug in the seat lift connector in
order to verify seat lift operation.
4 Determining motor resistance
If the cold resistance of the traction motor in your application is known, you
can enter this value, in milliohms, for the motor resistance (MOTOR R) parameter,
and proceed to Step 3. However, we strongly recommend that instead of using
the theoretical value provided by the motor manufacturer you use the actual
value as determined in the following procedure. It is very important that the
motor resistance parameter be set accurately. The correct value for MOTOR R is
determined as follows.
4-a. Position the vehicle up against a wall, high curb, or some other
immovable object.
4-b. Plug the programmer into the controller and turn on the keyswitch.
4-c. In the programmer’s Program Menu, set the MAIN C/L parameter to
“30” (30 amps).
4-d. In the Test Menu, scroll down to display the Motor R field.
4-e. With the speed limit pot set at maximum, apply the throttle full
forward, driving the vehicle against the immovable object.
4-f. Observe the Motor R value displayed in the Test Menu.
4-g. Select the Program Menu, where MOTOR R will appear near the top
of the display. Program the MOTOR R parameter to the Motor R value that was
displayed in the Test Menu.
4-h. Before moving on to Section 5, Vehicle Performance Adjustment,
be sure to set the MAIN C/L back to its default setting.
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33
5 — VEHICLE PERFORMANCE ADJUSTMENT
5
VEHICLE PERFORMANCE ADJUSTMENT
The 1210 controller is a very powerful vehicle control system. Its wide variety of adjustable parameters allow many aspects of vehicle performance to be
optimized. Once a vehicle/motor/controller combination has been tuned, the
parameter values can be made standard for that system or vehicle model. Any
changes in the motor, the vehicle drive system, or the controller will require
that the system be tuned again to provide optimum performance.
The tuning procedures should be conducted in the sequence given, because
successive steps build upon the ones before. It is important that the effect of
these programmable parameters be understood in order to take full advantage
of the 1210 controller’s powerful features. Please refer to the descriptions of
the applicable parameters in Section 3 if there is any question about what any
of them do.
Instructions are provided for the following four tuning steps.
5 Setting the maximum speeds
6 Setting the acceleration and deceleration rates
7 Adjusting load compensation
8 Fine-tuning the vehicle’s response smoothness.
5 Setting the maximum speeds
The four maximum speeds with the speed limit pot in its maximum speed
position are set by the speed parameters containing the words MAX SPD:
M1 MAX SPD
M2 MAX SPD
M1 REV MAX SPD
M2 REV MAX SPD
The three maximum speeds with the speed limit pot in its minimum speed
position are set by the speed parameters containing the words MIN SPD:
M1 MIN SPD
M2 MIN SPD
REV MIN SPD
Each of the maximum speeds is programmed as a percentage of the maximum
possible speed. Set each of the seven maximum speed parameters to give the
desired performance.
6 Setting the acceleration and deceleration rates
The acceleration and deceleration functions have been designed to provide
smooth throttle response when maneuvering at low speeds and snappy throttle
response when traveling at high speeds. This is accomplished by defining acceleration/deceleration rates at each end of the speed limit pot’s range. The
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Curtis 1210 Manual, Rev. B
5 — VEHICLE PERFORMANCE ADJUSTMENT
rates are scaled linearly between these two endpoints. Four pairs of parameters
define the endpoints of the acceleration/deceleration curves:
Forward acceleration:
Forward deceleration:
ACCEL MIN SPD
and ACCEL MAX SPD
DECEL MIN SPD and DECEL MAX SPD
Reverse acceleration:
Reverse deceleration:
REV ACCEL MIN
REV DECEL MIN
and REV ACCEL MAX
and REV DECEL MAX.
The programmed acceleration and deceleration rates are independent of
mode. However, it makes sense to adjust the low speed rates under the slowest
speed conditions (Mode 1) and the high speed rates under the fastest speed
conditions (Mode 2). Tuning the rates under the most extreme (slowest, fastest)
conditions will most likely result in good performance throughout the entire
driving range.
Forward acceleration and deceleration rates
6-a. First, set the ACCEL MIN SPD. Select Mode 1 and set the speed limit pot to its
minimum speed position. For low speed testing, we suggest that you drive
in a confined area such as an office, where low speed maneuverability is
crucial. Depending on how you liked the forward acceleration you experienced, increase or decrease the ACCEL MIN SPD value from its default setting.
Smaller values provide faster response. Continue testing and adjusting this
value until you are satisfied with the vehicle’s low speed forward acceleration
behavior.
6-b. Now adjust DECEL MIN SPD, the low speed forward deceleration characteristic.
Driving at full throttle with the speed limit pot still in its minimum speed
position, release the throttle to neutral. Depending on how you liked the
deceleration you experienced, increase or decrease the DECEL MIN SPD value
from its default setting. Smaller values provide faster response. Continue
testing and adjusting this value until you are satisfied with the vehicle’s low
speed forward deceleration behavior.
6-c. Next, set the ACCEL MAX SPD. Select Mode 2 and set the speed limit pot to
its maximum speed position. Apply full throttle. Depending on how you
liked the forward acceleration you experienced, increase or decrease the
ACCEL MAX SPD value from its default setting. Smaller values provide faster
response. Continue testing and adjusting this value until you are satisfied
with the vehicle’s high speed forward acceleration.
6-d. Driving at full throttle with the speed limit pot still in its maximum speed
position, release the throttle to neutral. Depending on how you liked the
deceleration you experienced, increase or decrease the DECEL MAX SPD value
from its default setting. Smaller values provide faster response. Continue
testing and adjusting this value until you are satisfied with the vehicle’s high
speed forward deceleration behavior.
Reverse acceleration and deceleration rates
6-e. First, set the REV ACCEL MIN. Select Mode 1 and set the speed limit pot to
its minimum speed position. For low speed testing, we suggest that you
Curtis 1210 Manual, Rev. B
35
5 — VEHICLE PERFORMANCE ADJUSTMENT
drive in a confined area such as an office, where low speed maneuverability
is crucial. Depending on how you liked the acceleration you experienced
while driving in reverse, increase or decrease the REV ACCEL MIN value from
its default setting. Smaller values provide faster response. Continue testing
and adjusting this value until you are satisfied with the vehicle’s low speed
reverse acceleration behavior.
6-f. Now adjust REV DECEL MIN, the low speed reverse deceleration characteristic. Leaving the speed limit pot in its minimum speed position, drive in
reverse at full throttle and then release the throttle to neutral. Depending
on how you liked the deceleration you experienced, increase or decrease the
REV DECEL MIN value from its default setting. Smaller values provide faster
response. Continue testing and adjusting this value until you are satisfied
with the vehicle’s low speed reverse deceleration behavior.
6-g. Next, set the REV ACCEL MAX. Select Mode 2 and set the speed limit pot to its
maximum speed position. Driving in reverse, apply full throttle. Depending on how you liked the reverse acceleration you experienced, increase or
decrease the REV ACCEL MAX value from its default setting. Smaller values
provide faster response. Continue testing and adjusting this value until you
are satisfied with the vehicle’s high speed reverse acceleration.
6-h. Leaving the speed limit pot in its maximum speed position, drive in reverse at full throttle and then release the throttle to neutral. Depending on
how you liked the deceleration you experienced, increase or decrease the
REV DECEL MAX value from its default setting. Smaller values provide faster
response. Continue testing and adjusting this value until you are satisfied
with the vehicle’s high speed reverse deceleration behavior.
Fine tuning the acceleration and deceleration rates
6-i. Drive around in both Mode 1 and Mode 2, while varying the position of
the throttle and the speed limit pot. In most cases, setting the acceleration
and deceleration rates as described in Steps 6-a through 6-h will provide
good performance throughout. However, you may want to make further
adjustments to them.
6-j. In rare cases, it may be desirable to adjust the RAMP SHAPE parameter. This
parameter can be used, for example, to extend the throttle’s gentle acceleration range to further enhance maneuverability in confined areas. See page
26 for a detailed description of the ramp shape options.
Emergency stop deceleration rate
The E STOP function is invoked when the vehicle is moving forward and the
throttle makes a fast transition through neutral to a >80% reverse throttle request. This provides a way to stop more quickly when unexpected conditions
arise. When the E STOP function engages, its programmed value becomes the new
forward deceleration rate, replacing the regular forward deceleration rate.
6-k. Drive fast and suddenly release the throttle. You will experience the deceleration behavior determined by the forward deceleration rate.
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Curtis 1210 Manual, Rev. B
5 — VEHICLE PERFORMANCE ADJUSTMENT
6-l. Return to fast speed operation, and this time throw the throttle into >80%
reverse. Now you are experiencing the deceleration behavior determined by
the E STOP rate.
6-m. Adjust the E STOP value to produce the desirable “feel” for emergency stops:
typically as fast as possible without making the vehicle unstable.
6-n. Note that the E STOP rate should always be faster than (or equal to) the
fastest forward deceleration rate, DECEL MAX SPD.
7 Adjusting load compensation
The IR COMP COEFF parameter is used to set the percentage of the maximum motor
resistance that will be applied, i.e., (IR COMP COEFF) × (MOTOR R), to compensate
for increased load caused by uneven terrain.
The trade-off in setting this parameter is that as ability to overcome load
disturbances increases, operating smoothness decreases. A high IR COMP COEFF
value will allow the vehicle to continue creeping at a low speed, even though it
has just contacted a bump in the threshold of a doorway. But if IR COMP COEFF
is set too high, it may make the vehicle “jumpy” during normal driving. Small
throttle movements in this case may no longer provide gentle linear acceleration, but instead initiate accelerations with a sharp jerk. Therefore, the tuning
goal is a balance between adequate load disturbance response and normal acceleration/deceleration response.
The normal range for IR COMP COEFF is approximately 50–80%. Larger
numbers provide stiffer, stronger response. If the value needs to be much larger
or smaller than this range to achieve acceptable performance, the MOTOR R has
probably not been set up correctly and should be checked. Note: Largely different settings for IR COMP COEFF will affect the maximum speeds that were set
in Step 5. Therefore, if you make large changes to IR COMP COEFF, you should
repeat Step 5.
Assuming that MOTOR R is set correctly (within 10–20%), some general
rules of thumb apply:
7-a. If the vehicle rolls the other direction near the end of a stop on flat ground,
IR COMP COEFF is set too high.
7-b. If the vehicle seems to decelerate to a stop in a nonlinear fashion, IR COMP COEFF could be set too high.
7-c. If the vehicle is extremely “jumpy” (i.e., responds abruptly to small throttle
changes, IR COMP COEFF could be set too high.
7-d. If the vehicle is still moving on a modest ramp when the brake gets set,
IR COMP COEFF is set too low.
7-e. If the vehicle speed varies dramatically when cresting a hill, IR COMP COEFF
is most likely set too low.
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5 — VEHICLE PERFORMANCE ADJUSTMENT
8 Fine-tuning the vehicle’s response smoothness
Three additional functions—gear soften, soft start, and tremor compensation—are available for softening and smoothing vehicle response. In most cases,
these functions can be used to maintain a high degree of responsiveness, while
still providing smooth vehicle operation.
Gear soften and soft start
These two parameters can be set from 0–100%, with 100% providing a
great deal of softening and 0% eliminating the function. They have by far
the most noticeable effect on older, worn transaxles.
8-a. Make sure the GEAR SOFTEN and SOFT START parameters are set to 0%.
8-b. While driving at both high and low speeds, release the throttle to neutral
and then reapply it before coming to a complete stop. Notice how the
transaxle gears bump as you reapply the throttle.
8-c. Change the GEAR SOFTEN parameter from 0% to 100% and repeat the same
exercise. Notice how the slop transition is softened, at the expense of a small
bit of nonlinearity in the acceleration rate.
8-d. Adjust the GEAR SOFTEN parameter until you find a setting you like, noting
that you probably won’t notice much of a difference if you’re using a brand
new, tight transaxle. Some users prefer a softened feel, while others prefer
this parameter set to zero because they want complete linearity in response.
In setting this parameter, you also may want to take into consideration that
softened slack take-up is easier on the transaxle gears and may extend the
transaxle operating life.
8-e. The soft start function is the same as gear soften, except that it applies to
accelerations from zero speed. Note that you’ll feel a transaxle bump only
if the gears are meshed in the opposite direction when torque is applied,
so you may need to nudge the vehicle backwards against the brake when
experimenting with this parameter. We recommend relatively small values
for the SOFT START parameter (typically < 40%) to avoid excessive delay from
a stop. Having separate parameters for the soft start and gear soften functions allows you to set the SOFT START parameter lower than the GEAR SOFTEN
parameter. Setting the two parameters the same in effect collapses them into
a single parameter.
Tremor compensation
The TREMOR COMP parameter controls vehicle response to sharp throttle
movements, such as those resulting inadvertently from hand tremors.
This parameter can be set from 1–5, with larger values providing steadier
response. The tremor compensation function somewhat overlaps the gear
softening functions. However, the tremor compensation function is active
all the time, while the two gear softening functions are active only during
a gear slack transition, i.e., a torque direction reversal.
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5 — VEHICLE PERFORMANCE ADJUSTMENT
Generally, we recommend that you do all your tuning with the
parameter set to 4 and then either leave it at 4 or adjust it
down to 3 or up to 5 as the final piece of tuning. Tremor compensation is
most noticeable when the throttle is moved quickly from full to small (but
non-neutral) values. The function is bypassed in the neutral state to ensure
responsive linear deceleration when the driver commands a stop.
TREMOR COMP
Curtis 1210 Manual, Rev. B
39
6 — PROGRAMMER MENUS: Program Menu
6
PROGRAMMER MENUS
The universal Curtis programming devices allow you to program, test, and
diagnose Curtis programmable controllers. For information about the programmers, see Appendix C.
The 1210’s programmable parameters are listed here in the order in which
they are displayed by the programming device.
1210 PARAMETERS MENU (not all items available on all controllers)
MAIN C/L
M2 MIN SPD
Main current limit for drive and regen braking, in amps
Cold resistance of motor, in milliohms
IR compensation factor: 0–100%
Deceleration rate when keyswitch is turned off, in seconds
Tremor compensation: 1–5
Acceleration rate at maximum throttle requests, in seconds
Acceleration rate at minimum throttle requests, in seconds
Deceleration rate at maximum throttle requests, in seconds
Deceleration rate at minimum throttle requests, in seconds
Emergency deceleration rate, in seconds
Reverse accel rate at maximum throttle requests, in seconds
Reverse accel rate at minimum throttle requests, in seconds
Reverse decel rate at maximum throttle requests, in seconds
Reverse decel rate at minimum throttle requests, in seconds
Mode 1 max. speed with speed pot at max, as % available
Mode 2 max. speed with speed pot at max, as % available
Mode 1 max. speed with speed pot at min, as % available
Mode 2 max. speed with speed pot at min, as % available
M1 REV MAX SPD
Mode 1 max. reverse speed with speed pot at max, as % available
M2 REV MAX SPD
Mode 2 max. reverse speed with speed pot at max, as % available
REV MIN SPD
Maximum reverse speed with speed pot at min, as % available
GEAR SOFTEN
Softened torque reversals for accel/decel while moving: 0–100%
SOFT START
Softened torque endpoints for accel from zero speed: 0–100%
RAMP SHAPE
Throttle map: 20–70%
Voltage considered 100% state-of-charge, in volts
Voltage considered 0% state-of-charge, in volts
Voltage at which state-of-charge resets to 100%, in volts
Delay before sleep mode, in minutes
Delay before engaging electromagnetic brake, in seconds
Creep speed, as % available speed
MOTOR R
IR COMP COEFF
KEY OFF DECEL
TREMOR COMP
ACCEL MAX SPD
ACCEL MIN SPD
DECEL MAX SPD
DECEL MIN SPD
E STOP
REV ACCEL MAX
REV ACCEL MIN
REV DECEL MAX
REV DECEL MIN
M1 MAX SPD
M2 MAX SPD
M1 MIN SPD
BDI FULL VLTS
BDI EMPTY VLTS
BDI RESET
SLEEP DLY
BRAKE DLY
CREEP SPD
40
Curtis 1210 Manual, Rev. B
6 — PROGRAMMER MENUS: Program Menu
Program Menu, cont’d
THRTL TYPE
THRTL DEADBAND
THRTL GAIN
THRTL AUTOCAL
SPD SCALER
HIGH PEDAL DIS
FAULT BEEP
BEEPER SOLID
SEAT LIFT
BRAKE FLTS
SL BRAKE FLTS
VSL
PUSH SPD
Throttle type 1
Neutral deadband adjustment, as % of active range
Restricted range throttle adjustment: 1–10
Wigwag throttle centering utility: On/Off
Maximum voltage that can be applied to motor, in volts
High pedal disable (HPD): On/Off
Horn if HPD or brake fault: On/Off
Pin 16 output continuous rather than pulsed: On/Off
Seat lift enable: On/Off
Electromagnetic brake driver/wiring fault check: On/Off
Electromagnetic brake fault check in seat lift mode: On/Off
Virtual seat lift enable: On/Off
Push speed, as % available speed
Program Menu Notes
1
Curtis 1210 Manual, Rev. B
Throttle types (see Throttle Wiring in Section 2)
Type 0: wigwag (5kΩ pots or 5V throttles)
Type 1: inverted wigwag (5kΩ pots or 5V throttles)
Type 2: single-ended pots (0–5kΩ)
Type 3: inverted single-ended pots (5kΩ–0)
Type 4: single-ended voltage throttles (0–5V)
Type 5: inverted single-ended voltage throttles (5V–0).
41
6 — PROGRAMMER MENUS: Test and Diagnostics Menus
1210 MONITOR MENU (not all items available on all controllers)
INTERNAL TEMP
THROTTLE %
SPD LIMIT POT
BATT VOLTAGE
BDI
MODE INPUT A
REVERSE INPUT
INHIBIT IN
EM BRAKE DRVR
MAIN CONT
MOTOR R
PUSH ENABLE IN
Heatsink temperature, in °C
Throttle request: 0–100% of range
Speed limit pot rotation: 0–100%
Battery voltage across the capacitors
Battery discharge indicator: % of battery charge
On = Mode 1; Off = Mode 2
On = reverse is selected
On = operation is inhibited
On = electromagnetic brake is mechanically released
On = voltage is applied to main relay coil
Cold motor resistance, in mΩ
On = push enable switch is closed
1210 FAULTS AND FAULT HISTORY
This is a list of the possible messages you may see displayed when the programmer is operating in either of the diagnostics modes. The messages are listed
here in alphabetical order for easy reference.
BRAKE ON FAULT
POWER SECTION FAULT
Electromagnetic brake coil open or driver short
Electromagnetic brake coil short or driver open
A/D current sense voltage out of range
Error in reading EEPROM locations
High pedal disable (HPD) fault
Motor voltage fault
Battery voltage too low
Main contactor did not close or did not open
Main contactor driver failed short
Main contactor driver failed open
No known faults
Battery voltage too high
MOSFET driver fault, or shorted motor wiring
PRECHARGE FAULT
Capacitor bank voltage < minimum operating voltage
PROC/WIRING FAULT
HPD fault present >10 seconds
Speed limit pot input voltage out of range
Cutback, due to over-/under-temperature
Throttle input voltage out of range
BRAKE OFF FAULT
CURRENT SENSE FAULT
EEPROM FAULT
HPD
HW FAILSAFE
LOW BATTERY VOLTAGE
MAIN CONT FLTS
MAIN ON FAULT
MAIN OFF FAULT
NO KNOWN FAULTS
OVERVOLTAGE
SPD LIMIT POT FAULT
THERMAL CUTBACK
THROTTLE FAULT 1
42
Curtis 1210 Manual, Rev. B
7 — DIAGNOSTICS & TROUBLESHOOTING
7
DIAGNOSTICS AND TROUBLESHOOTING
The 1210 controller provides diagnostics information to assist technicians in
troubleshooting drive system problems. The diagnostics information can be
obtained in two ways: by reading the appropriate display on the programmer
or by observing the fault codes issued by the status LED.
PROGRAMMER DIAGNOSTICS
The programmer presents complete diagnostic information in plain language.
Faults are displayed in the Faults Menu, and the status of the controller inputs/outputs is displayed in the Monitor Menu.
Additionally, the Faults History Menu provides a list of the faults that
have occurred since the history file was last cleared. Checking (and clearing)
the history file is recommended each time the vehicle is brought in for maintenance.
Refer to the troubleshooting chart (Table 3) for suggestions about possible causes of the various faults.
LED DIAGNOSTICS
During normal operation, with no faults present, the status LED is steadily on.
If the controller detects a fault, the status LED provides two types of information. First, it displays a slow flash (2 Hz) or a fast flash (4 Hz) to indicate the
severity of the fault. Slow-flash faults are self-clearing; as soon as the fault is
corrected, the vehicle will operate normally. Fast-flash faults (“❊” in Table 2)
are considered to be more serious in nature and require that the keyswitch be
cycled to resume operation after the fault is corrected.
After the severity indication has been active for 10 seconds, the status
LED flashes a 2-digit fault identification code continuously until the fault is
corrected. For example, code “1,4”—low battery voltage—appears as:
¤
¤ ¤ ¤ ¤
(1,4)
¤
¤ ¤ ¤ ¤
(1,4)
¤
¤ ¤ ¤ ¤
(1,4)
The codes are listed in Table 2. Refer to the troubleshooting chart (Table 3)
for suggestions about possible causes of the various faults.
Curtis 1210 Manual, Rev. B
43
7 — DIAGNOSTICS & TROUBLESHOOTING
Table 2
LED CODES
STATUS LED FAULT CODES
EXPLANATION
LED off
solid on
no power or defective controller
controller operational; no faults
1,1
1,2
1,3
1,4
1,5
¤
¤
¤
¤
¤
2,1
2,3
2,4
¤¤ ¤
¤¤ ¤¤¤
¤¤ ¤¤¤¤
main contactor driver Off fault
main contactor fault
main contactor driver On fault
❊
3,1
3,2
3,3
3,4
3,5
¤¤¤
¤¤¤
¤¤¤
¤¤¤
¤¤¤
¤
¤¤
¤¤¤
¤¤¤¤
¤¤¤¤¤
HPD fault present for >10 seconds
brake On fault
precharge fault
brake Off fault
HPD (High Pedal Disable) fault
❊
❊
❊†
❊
4,1
4,2
4,3
4,4
¤¤¤¤
¤¤¤¤
¤¤¤¤
¤¤¤¤
¤
¤¤
¤¤¤
¤¤¤¤
¤
¤¤
¤¤¤
¤¤¤¤
¤¤¤¤¤
thermal cutback fault
throttle fault
speed limit pot fault
undervoltage fault
overvoltage fault
current sense fault
motor voltage fault (hardware failsafe)
EEPROM fault
power section fault
❊ = Must cycle keyswitch to clear.
† = Must use programmer to clear, as follows: select Program Menu, alter data value
of any parameter, cycle keyswitch.
NOTE:
44
Only one fault is indicated at a time, and faults are not queued up.
Curtis 1210 Manual, Rev. B
7 — DIAGNOSTICS & TROUBLESHOOTING
Table 3 TROUBLESHOOTING CHART
LED
CODE
PROGRAMMER
LCD DISPLAY
EXPLANATION
POSSIBLE CAUSE
1,1
THERMAL CUTBACK
over-/under-temperature cutback
1.
2.
3.
4.
1,2
THROTTLE FAULT 1
throttle fault
1. Throttle input wire open or shorted.
2. Throttle pot defective.
3. Wrong throttle type selected.
1,3
SPD LIMIT POT FAULT
speed limit pot fault
1. Speed limit pot wire(s) broken or shorted.
2. Broken speed limit pot.
1,4
LOW BATTERY VOLTAGE
battery voltage too low
1. Battery voltage <17 volts.
2. Bad connection at battery or controller.
1,5
OVERVOLTAGE
battery voltage too high
1. Battery voltage >36 volts.
2. Vehicle operating with charger attached.
3. Intermittent battery connection.
2,1
MAIN OFF FAULT
main contactor driver Off fault
1. Main contactor driver failed open.
2,3
MAIN CONT FLTS
main contactor fault
1. Main contactor welded or stuck open.
2. Main contactor driver fault.
3. Brake coil resistance too high.
2,4
MAIN ON FAULT
main contactor driver On fault
1. Main contactor driver failed closed.
3,1
PROC/WIRING FAULT
HPD fault present for >10 sec.
1. Misadjusted throttle.
2. Broken throttle pot or throttle mechanism.
3,2
BRAKE ON FAULT
brake On fault
1. Electromagnetic brake driver shorted.
2. Electromagnetic brake coil open.
3,3
PRECHARGE FAULT
precharge fault
1. Low battery voltage.
2. KSI and throttle turned on at same time.
3,4
BRAKE OFF FAULT
brake Off fault
1. Electromagnetic brake driver open.
2. Electromagnetic brake coil shorted.
3,5
HPD
HPD (High Pedal Disable) fault
1. Improper sequence of throttle and KSI,
push, or inhibit inputs.
2. Misadjusted throttle pot.
4,1
CURRENT SENSE FAULT
current sense fault
1. Short in motor or in motor wiring.
2. Controller failure. *
4,2
HW FAILSAFE
motor voltage fault (hardware
failsafe)
1. Motor voltage does not correspond to
throttle request.
2. Short in motor or in motor wiring.
3. Controller failure. *
4,3
EEPROM FAULT
EEPROM fault
1. EEPROM failure or fault.
4,4
POWER SECTION FAULT
power section fault
1. EEPROM failure or fault.
2. Short in motor or in motor wiring.
3. Controller failure. *
Temperature >92°C or < -25°C.
Excessive load on vehicle.
Operation in extreme environments.
Electromagnetic brake not releasing.
* Jack up vehicle and retest to confirm diagnosis. Clean connections, inspect system wiring, and retest.
Curtis 1210 Manual, Rev. B
45
8 — MAINTENANCE
8
MAINTENANCE
There are no user serviceable parts in the Curtis 1210 controller. No attempt
should be made to open, repair, or otherwise modify the controller. Doing so may damage the controller and will void the warranty. However, it is
recommended that the controller’s fault history file be checked and cleared
periodically, as part of routine vehicle maintenance.
FAULT HISTORY
The programmer can be used to access the controller’s fault history file. The
programmer will read out all the faults that the controller has experienced
since the last time the history file was cleared. The faults may be intermittent
faults, faults caused by loose wires, or faults caused by operator errors. Faults
such as HPD or overtemperature may be caused by operator habits or by
overloading.
After a problem has been diagnosed and corrected, clearing the history
file is advisable. This allows the controller to accumulate a new file of faults. By
checking the new history file at a later date, you can readily determine whether
the problem was indeed completely fixed.
46
Curtis 1210 Manual, Rev. B
APPENDIX A: EMC & ESD DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
APPENDIX A
VEHICLE DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
REGARDING ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY (EMC)
AND ELECTROSTATIC DISCHARGE (ESD)
ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY (EMC)
Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) encompasses two areas: emissions and
immunity. Emissions are radio frequency (RF) energy generated by a product.
This energy has the potential to interfere with communications systems such
as radio, television, cellular phones, dispatching, aircraft, etc. Immunity is the
ability of a product to operate normally in the presence of RF energy.
EMC is ultimately a system design issue. Part of the EMC performance
is designed into or inherent in each component; another part is designed into
or inherent in end product characteristics such as shielding, wiring, and layout;
and, finally, a portion is a function of the interactions between all these parts.
The design techniques presented below can enhance EMC performance in
products that use Curtis motor controllers.
Emissions
Signals with high frequency content can produce significant emissions if connected to a large enough radiating area (created by long wires spaced far apart).
Contactor drivers and the motor drive output from Curtis controllers can
contribute to RF emissions. Both types of output are pulse width modulated
square waves with fast rise and fall times that are rich in harmonics. (Note:
contactor drivers that are not modulated will not contribute to emissions.)
The impact of these switching waveforms can be minimized by making the
wires from the controller to the contactor or motor as short as possible and by
placing the wires near each other (bundle contactor wires with Coil Return;
bundle motor wires separately).
For applications requiring very low emissions, the solution may involve
enclosing the controller, interconnect wires, contactors, and motor together in
one shielded box. Emissions can also couple to battery supply leads and throttle
circuit wires outside the box, so ferrite beads near the controller may also be
required on these unshielded wires in some applications. It is best to keep the
noisy signals as far as possible from sensitive wires.
Immunity
Immunity to radiated electric fields can be improved either by reducing overall
circuit sensitivity or by keeping undesired signals away from this circuitry. The
controller circuitry itself cannot be made less sensitive, since it must accurately
detect and process low level signals from sensors such as the throttle potentiometer. Thus immunity is generally achieved by preventing the external RF
energy from coupling into sensitive circuitry. This RF energy can get into the
controller circuitry via conducted paths and radiated paths.
Curtis 1210 Manual, Rev. B
A-1
APPENDIX A: EMC & ESD DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
Conducted paths are created by the wires connected to the controller.
These wires act as antennas and the amount of RF energy coupled into them
is generally proportional to their length. The RF voltages and currents induced
in each wire are applied to the controller pin to which the wire is connected.
Curtis controllers include bypass capacitors on the printed circuit board’s
throttle wires to reduce the impact of this RF energy on the internal circuitry.
In some applications, additional filtering in the form of ferrite beads may also
be required on various wires to achieve desired performance levels.
Radiated paths are created when the controller circuitry is immersed in
an external field. This coupling can be reduced by placing the controller as far
as possible from the noise source or by enclosing the controller in a metal box.
Some Curtis controllers are enclosed by a heatsink that also provides shielding
around the controller circuitry, while others are partially shielded or unshielded.
In some applications, the vehicle designer will need to mount the controller
within a shielded box on the end product. The box can be constructed of just
about any metal, although steel and aluminum are most commonly used.
Most coated plastics do not provide good shielding because the coatings
are not true metals, but rather a mixture of small metal particles in a nonconductive binder. These relatively isolated particles may appear to be good
based on a dc resistance measurement but do not provide adequate electron
mobility to yield good shielding effectiveness. Electroless plating of plastic will
yield a true metal and can thus be effective as an RF shield, but it is usually
more expensive than the coatings.
A contiguous metal enclosure without any holes or seams, known as a
Faraday cage, provides the best shielding for the given material and frequency.
When a hole or holes are added, RF currents flowing on the outside surface of
the shield must take a longer path to get around the hole than if the surface
was contiguous. As more “bending” is required of these currents, more energy
is coupled to the inside surface, and thus the shielding effectiveness is reduced.
The reduction in shielding is a function of the longest linear dimension of a
hole rather than the area. This concept is often applied where ventilation is
necessary, in which case many small holes are preferable to a few larger ones.
Applying this same concept to seams or joints between adjacent pieces or
segments of a shielded enclosure, it is important to minimize the open length
of these seams. Seam length is the distance between points where good ohmic
contact is made. This contact can be provided by solder, welds, or pressure
contact. If pressure contact is used, attention must be paid to the corrosion
characteristics of the shield material and any corrosion-resistant processes applied to the base material. If the ohmic contact itself is not continuous, the
shielding effectiveness can be maximized by making the joints between adjacent
pieces overlapping rather than abutted.
The shielding effectiveness of an enclosure is further reduced when a wire
passes through a hole in the enclosure; RF energy on the wire from an external
field is re-radiated into the interior of the enclosure. This coupling mechanism
can be reduced by filtering the wire where it passes through the shield boundary.
A-2
Curtis 1210 Manual, Rev. B
APPENDIX A: EMC & ESD DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
Given the safety considerations involved in connecting electrical components
to the chassis or frame in battery powered vehicles, such filtering will usually
consist of a series inductor (or ferrite bead) rather than a shunt capacitor. If a
capacitor is used, it must have a voltage rating and leakage characteristics that
will allow the end product to meet applicable safety regulations.
The B+ (and B-, if applicable) wires that supply power to a control panel
should be bundled with the other control wires to the panel so that all these
wires are routed together. If the wires to the control panel are routed separately,
a larger loop area is formed. Larger loop areas produce more efficient antennas
which will result in decreased immunity performance.
Keep all low power I/O separate from the motor and battery leads. When
this is not possible, cross them at right angles.
ELECTROSTATIC DISCHARGE (ESD)
Curtis PMC motor controllers contain ESD-sensitive components, and it is
therefore necessary to protect them from ESD (electrostatic discharge) damage.
Most of these control lines have protection for moderate ESD events, but must
be protected from damage if higher levels exist in a particular application.
ESD immunity is achieved either by providing sufficient distance between conductors and the ESD source so that a discharge will not occur, or
by providing an intentional path for the discharge current such that the circuit
is isolated from the electric and magnetic fields produced by the discharge. In
general the guidelines presented above for increasing radiated immunity will
also provide increased ESD immunity.
It is usually easier to prevent the discharge from occurring than to divert
the current path. A fundamental technique for ESD prevention is to provide
adequately thick insulation between all metal conductors and the outside environment so that the voltage gradient does not exceed the threshold required for
a discharge to occur. If the current diversion approach is used, all exposed metal
components must be grounded. The shielded enclosure, if properly grounded,
can be used to divert the discharge current; it should be noted that the location
of holes and seams can have a significant impact on ESD suppression. If the
enclosure is not grounded, the path of the discharge current becomes more
complex and less predictable, especially if holes and seams are involved. Some
experimentation may be required to optimize the selection and placement of
holes, wires, and grounding paths. Careful attention must be paid to the control
panel design so that it can tolerate a static discharge.
MOV, transorbs, or other devices can be placed between B- and offending
wires, plates, and touch points if ESD shock cannot be otherwise avoided.
Curtis 1210 Manual, Rev. B
A-3
APPENDIX B:
A: WEEE
EMC &
/ RoHS
ESD DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
APPENDIX B
CURTIS WEEE / RoHS STATEMENT, MARCH 2009
WEEE
The Directive 2002/96/EC on Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE)
was adopted by the European Council and Parliament and the Council of the European Union on January 27, 2003. The aim of the directive was to improve the
collection and recycling of WEEE throughout the EU, and to reduce the level of
non-recycled waste. The directive was implemented into law by many EU member
states during 2005 and 2006. This document provides a general description of
Curtis’s approach to meeting the requirements of the WEEE legislation.
Note that the directive gave some flexibility to the member states in implementing their individual WEEE regulations, leading to the definition of varying
implementation requirements by country. These requirements may involve considerations beyond those reflected in this document. This statement is not intended
and shall not be interpreted or construed to be legal advice or to be legally binding
on Curtis or any third party.
Commitment
Curtis is committed to a safe and healthy environment and has been working
diligently to ensure its compliance with WEEE legislation. Curtis will comply
with WEEE legislation by:
• Designing its equipment with consideration to future dismantling,
recovery and recycling requirements;
• Marking its products that fall within the scope of the directive with
the required symbol and informing users of their obligation;
• To separate WEEE from general waste and dispose of it through the
provided recycling systems;
• Reporting information as required by each member state;
• Facilitating the collection, recycling and disposal of WEEE from private
households and other than private households (businesses) as defined
by the applicable member state regulation;
• Providing information to treatment centres according to the requirements defined in the local regulation.
WEEE symbol on Curtis products
The requirement to mark equipment with the WEEE symbol (the crossed-out
wheeled bin) went into effect as of August 13, 2005. As of this date, Curtis Instruments began the process of marking all products that fall within scope of this
directive with the WEEE symbol, as shown opposite.
Obligations for buyers of electrical and electronic equipment
As of 13 August 2005, in each EU member state where the WEEE directive has
been implemented, disposal of EEE waste other than in accordance with the scheme
A-4
B-1
Curtis 1210 Manual, Rev. B
APPENDIX A: EMC & ESDAPPENDIX
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
B: WEEE / RoHS
is prohibited. Generally, the schemes require collection and recycling of a broad
range of EEE products. Certain Curtis products fall within the scope of the directive and the implemented member state regulations. Affected Curtis products that
have reached end-of-life must not be disposed as general waste, but instead, put
into the collection and recycling system provided in the relevant jurisdiction.
RoHS
For several years now, Curtis has been implementing a rigorous program with the
aim of achieving full compliance with the Restrictions on the use of Hazardous
Substances (RoHS) Directive, 2002/95/EC.
Curtis has taken all available steps to eliminate the use of the six restricted
hazardous substances listed in the directive wherever possible. As a result of the
Curtis RoHS program, many of our instrumentation product lines are now fully
RoHS compliant.
However, Curtis’s electronic motor speed controller products are safety-critical
devices, switching very large currents and designed for use in extreme environmental
conditions. For these product lines, we have successfully eliminated five out of the
six restricted hazardous substances. The single remaining issue preventing full RoHS
compliance is the unsuitability of the lead-free solders available to date, due to
the well-documented issues such as tin whiskers, and premature failure (compared
with leaded solder) due to shock, vibration, and thermal cycling.
Curtis is closely monitoring all RoHS developments globally, and in particular is following the automotive industry’s attempts to introduce lead-free solder
as a result of the End of Life Vehicle (ELV) Directive, 2003/53/EC. To date, the
automotive industry has rejected all lead-free solder pastes due to a significant
reduction in reliability compared to leaded soldering.
Curtis firmly believes that the operating environments, safety requirements,
and reliability levels required of automotive electronics are directly analogous to
that of our speed controller products. As such, Curtis will not be switching to a
lead-free solder process until lead-free solder pastes and techniques are available
that meet the requirements of the RoHS study groups and ELV Automotive Industry bodies. That is, when all known issues, including that of tin whiskers, are
satisfactorily resolved.
At this moment in time, all Curtis motor speed controllers used on industrial vehicle applications are also regarded as exempt under EEE category 9 of the RoHS
directive 2002/95/EC. This means there is no requirement at this time for Curtis
control systems used on such equipment to comply with the directive. Curtis will
work closely with all key customers to ensure that whenever possible, we are in a
position to continue the supply of products should these exemptions expire.
Curtis 1210 Manual, Rev. B
A-5
B-2
APPENDIX C:
A: EMC
PROGRAMMING
& ESD DESIGN
DEVICES
CONSIDERATIONS
APPENDIX C
PROGRAMMING DEVICES
Curtis programmers provide programming, diagnostic, and test capabilities for
the 1210 controller. The power for operating the programmer is supplied by
the host controller via a 4-pin connector. When the programmer powers up,
it gathers information from the controller.
Two types of programming devices are available: the 1314 PC Programming Station and the 1313 handheld programmer. The Programming Station
has the advantage of a large, easily read screen; on the other hand, the handheld programmer (with its 45×60mm screen) has the advantage of being more
portable and hence convenient for making adjustments in the field.
Both programmers are available in User, Service, Dealer, and OEM versions. Each programmer can perform the actions available at its own level and
the levels below that—a User-access programmer can operate at only the User
level, whereas an OEM programmer has full access.
PC PROGRAMMING STATION (1314)
The Programming Station is an MS-Windows 32-bit application that runs on
a standard Windows PC. Instructions for using the Programming Station are
included with the software.
HANDHELD PROGRAMMER (1313)
The 1313 handheld programmer is functionally equivalent to the PC Programming Station; operating instructions are provided in the 1313 manual. This
programmer replaces the 1307 and 1311, earlier models with fewer functions.
PROGRAMMER FUNCTIONS
Programmer functions include:
Parameter adjustment — provides access to the individual programmable pa-
rameters.
Monitoring — presents real-time values during vehicle operation; these include
all inputs and outputs.
Diagnostics and troubleshooting — presents diagnostic information, and also a
means to clear the fault history file.
Programming — allows you to save/restore custom parameter settings files and
also to update the system software (not available on the 1307 or 1311).
Favorites — allows you to create shortcuts to your frequently-used adjustable
parameters and monitor variables (not available on the 1307 or 1311).
A-6
C-1
Curtis 1210 Manual, Rev. B
APPENDIX A: EMC APPENDIX
& ESD DESIGN
D: PARAMETER
CONSIDERATIONS
INDEX
APPENDIX D
INDEX TO PROGRAMMABLE PARAMETERS
The 1210’s programmable parameters are listed alphabetically in Table D-1, along with cross references to the
main entry in the manual. (Note: These parameters are listed in Program Menu order in Section 6, page 40.)
Table D-1
PARAMETER
ACCEL MAX SPD
ACCEL MIN SPD
BDI EMPTY VLTS
BDI FULL VLTS
BDI RESET
BEEPER SOLID
BRAKE DLY
BRAKE FLTS
CREEP SPD
DECEL MAX SPD
DECEL MIN SPD
E STOP
FAULT BEEP
GEAR SOFTEN
HIGH PEDAL DIS
IR COMP COEFF
KEY OFF DECEL
MAIN C/L
MAX SPD, M1
MAX SPD, M2
MIN SPD, M1
MIN SPD, M2
MOTOR R
PUSH SPD
RAMP SHAPE
REV ACCEL MAX
REV ACCEL MIN
REV DECEL MAX
REV DECEL MIN
REV MAX SPD, M1
REV MAX SPD, M2
REV MIN SPD
SEAT LIFT
SL BRAKE FLTS
SLEEP DLY
SOFT START
SPD SCALER
THRTL AUTOCAL
THRTL DEADBAND
THRTL GAIN
THRTL TYPE (*)
TREMOR COMP
VSL
*
PARAMETER INDEX
MIN
VALUE
MAX
VALUE
0.2
0.2
19.0
23.4
0.0
4.0
8.0
24.0
25.0
40.0
OFF/ON
0.0
1.0
OFF/ON
0.0
0.2
0.2
0.2
10.0
4.0
8.0
4.0
OFF/ON
0
100
OFF/ON
0
0.2
30
30
30
0
0
0
25
20.0
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
30
30
0
100
4.0
70, 110
100
100
80
100
985
50
70.0
8.0
8.0
4.0
8.0
100
100
40
OFF/ON
OFF/ON
0
60
0
100
20.0
28.0
OFF/ON
6.0
25.0
1.0
10.0
0
5
1
5
OFF/ON
UNITS
DESCRIPTION
IN MANUAL
seconds
seconds
volts
volts
volts
—
seconds
—
percent
seconds
seconds
seconds
—
percent
—
percent
seconds
amps
percent
percent
percent
percent
milliohms
percent
percent
seconds
seconds
seconds
seconds
percent
percent
percent
—
—
minutes
percent
volts
—
percent
—
—
—
—
page
page
page
page
page
page
page
page
page
page
page
page
page
page
page
page
page
page
page
page
page
page
page
page
page
page
page
page
page
page
page
page
page
page
page
page
page
page
page
page
page
page
page
17
17
29
29
29
29
20
28
21
19
19
19
28
18
27
22
20
17
20
20
21
21
17
21
26
18
18
19
20
21
21
21
28
28
30
18
22
23
23
25
22
30
29
Throttle types: 0=wigwag, 1=inverted wigwag, 2=0–5kΩ, 3=5kΩ–0, 4=0–5V, 5=5V–0.
Curtis 1210 Manual, Rev. B
D-1
A-7
APPENDIX E:
A: SPECIFICATIONS
EMC & ESD DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
APPENDIX E
SPECIFICATIONS
Table E-1
SPECIFICATIONS: 1210 CONTROLLER
Nominal input voltage
PWM operating frequency
Electrical isolation to heatsink
Minimum motor resistance
24 V
15 kHz
500 V (minimum)
160 mΩ (45 amp models); 120 mΩ (70 amp models)
B+, B- logic pin current (max.)
KSI input current (typical)
KSI input current (peak)
Logic input current (typical)
9 A (pins 1, 2 and 10, 11 on 18-pin connector)
50 mA without programmer; 150 mA with programmer
1.5 A
1 mA
Horn output current (max.)
BDI output voltage and current (max.)
LED output current (max.)
15 mA
0–5 V, 2 mA
15 mA
Electromagnetic brake coil resistance
Electromagnetic brake current (max.)
32–200 Ω
1A
Control input switch type
Speed control signal
Speed control type
on/off
3-wire, 5kΩ; or 0–5V
single-ended,inverted single-ended, wigwag, or inverted wigwag
Operating ambient temperature range
Storage ambient temperature range
-25°C to 45°C (-13°F to 113°F)
-40°C to 75°C (-40°F to 167°F)
Internal overtemperature cutback
Internal undertemperature cutback
linear cutback starts at 80°C (176°F); complete cutoff at 134°C (273°F)
50% armature current at -25°C (-13°F)
Package environmental rating
Weight
Dimensions (L ×W×H)
IP54 with boots; IP40 without boots
0.6 kg (1.3 lb)
147 × 94 × 43 mm (5.79" × 3.70" × 1.71")
Regulatory compliance
Designed to ANSI RESNA WC 14/21, ISO 7176-14,
ISO 7176-21, and EN 12184.
Documentation available to support 510K FDA filings.
TÜV approved.
MODEL
NUMBER
NOMINAL
BATTERY
VOLTAGE
(volts)
30 SEC
RATING
(amps)
1 HOUR
RATING
(amps)
VOLTAGE
DROP
@ 20 AMPS
(volts)
UNDERVOLTAGE
CUTBACK
(volts)
OVERVOLTAGE
CUTOFF
(volts)
1210-22XX
1210-24XX
24
24
45
70
15
20
0.45
0.20
17
17
36
36
E-1
A-8
Curtis 1210 Manual, Rev. B
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