Generator Basics Basic Power Generation • Generator Arrangement • Main Components • Circuit – Generator with a PMG – Generator without a PMG – Brush type – AREP • PMG Rotor • Exciter Stator • Exciter Rotor • Main Rotor • Main Stator • Laminations • VPI Generator Arrangement • Most modern, larger generators have a stationary armature (stator) with a rotating current-carrying conductor (rotor or revolving field). Revolving field coils Armature coils Main Electrical Components: Cutaway Main Electrical Components: Diagram Circuit: Generator with a PMG • As the PMG rotor rotates, it produces AC voltage in the PMG stator. • The regulator rectifies this voltage and applies DC to the exciter stator. • A three-phase AC voltage appears at the exciter rotor and is in turn rectified by the rotating rectifiers. • The DC voltage appears in the main revolving field and induces a higher AC voltage in the main stator. • This voltage is sensed by the regulator, compared to a reference level, and output voltage is adjusted accordingly. Circuit: Generator without a PMG • As the revolving field rotates, residual magnetism in it produces a small ac voltage in the main stator. • The regulator rectifies this voltage and applies dc to the exciter stator. • A three-phase AC voltage appears at the exciter rotor and is in turn rectified by the rotating rectifiers. • The magnetic field from the rotor induces a higher voltage in the main stator. • This voltage is sensed by the regulator, compared to a reference level, and output voltage is adjusted accordingly. Circuit: Brush Type (Static) • DC voltage is fed directly to the main revolving field through slip rings. • Power source for the main revolving field can be very large and expensive. • Requires brush maintenance. • Common in variable speed applications. External Source (+) Stator (armature) (-) Rotor (field) Slip rings AC out Circuit: AREP • Auxiliary winding regulation excitation principle. • Secondary winding in the main stator provides power to the voltage regulator. PMG Rotor • Is a field that induces voltage in the PMG stator. • Poles are permanent magnets. • Mounted on the shaft with the main rotor. • Optional (benefits to be discussed later). PMG Stator • Is an armature that provides power to the regulator • Induced by the PMG rotor. • Typically has random-wound coils in a laminated steel core. • Various configurations: – Wound cores in a frame – Wound cores with no frame – Combined with the exciter stator in one frame • Mounted on an end bracket (opposite side of prime mover). • Optional Exciter Stator • Is a field that induces voltage in the exciter rotor. • Typically powered by the regulator. • Typically has random-wound coils in a laminated steel core. • Various configurations: – Wound cores in a frame – Wound cores with no frame – Combined with the PMG in one frame • Mounted on an end bracket (opposite side of prime mover). Exciter Rotor • Is an armature that provides rectified power to the main rotor (revolving field). • Induced by the exciter stator. • Three-phase high frequency AC output. • Typically has random-wound coils in a laminated core. • Mounted on the shaft with the main rotor. Rectifier • Mounted on the exciter (as in previous slide) or PMG. • Has diodes that full wave rectify the three-phase (three separate voltage) exciter armature AC current to DC before it enters the main rotor. • Leads connect to the main field (rotor) Resultant DC wave Rectifier Main field Exciter armature Main Rotor • Is a field that induces voltage in the main stator. • Powered by the exciter rotor. • Connected to the (+) and (-) rotating rectifier terminals. • Coils are connected in series around a core. – Laminated core is typical – Solid core with large rotors • Current flow is directed in a clockwise and CCW rotation to + create north and south poles. • Pressed on a shaft. N S N To the rotating rectifier assembly S - Main Rotor: Types • Cylindrical • Salient Main Rotor: Layout Main rotor (field) Exciter rotor (armature) Rectifier Self excited Main rotor (field) PMG rotor (field) Exciter rotor (armature) Rectifier PMG excited Main Rotor: Frequency, RPM, Pole # Frequency = RPM × number of poles 120 If you have a prime mover that runs at 1000 RPM and you wanted 50 Hz, you would need a generator with how many poles? 50 Hz × 120 1000 RPM = 6 poles Main Rotor: Frequency, RPM, Pole # # of Poles RPM Hz 4 1800 60 4 1500 50 6 1200 60 6 1000 50 8 900 60 8 750 50 10 720 60 10 600 50 Main Rotor: Damper Cage • Also called “Amortisseur windings.” • Copper bars through the pole faces and shorted together by the end plates. • Standard for all but traction generators, solid rotors. • Has a very short time constant (effect expressed in datasheets as X”d). – Helps with parallel operation – Helps with load-induced harmonics (non-linear loads). • Helps reduce initial voltage dip during motor starting. Main Rotor: Magnetism • Magnetic flux paths (i.e. flow of magnetism) for a generator operating at 0.8 PF Main Stator • Is the main armature, the component that delivers power. • Windings (copper conductors) are either form-wound coils or random-wound coils fitted in core slots. • Core is laminated steel housed in a metal frame. • Typically has three phases (three separate windings). Main Stator: Coils and Slots • The number of turns and cross section are specific to each frame size, slot combination or design, and voltage. • Coils typically span into two slots in the core, so there are two coils per slot. • Pitch = (span -1) × the number of rotor poles / total # of slots. Main Stator: Coil Types Form wound Random wound Main Stator: Coil Types Random wound Advantages, disadvantages, applications discussed later. Form wound Main Stator: High-Voltage Coil • Use with voltages above 6000 V • Has conductive and semi-conductive tape Main Stator: Coil Connection • Series circuit - coils connected one after another. – Voltage additive for each coil. – Current capacity is that of any one coil • Parallel circuit - coils connected in parallel – Voltage across group is voltage across any one coil. – Current capacity is additive for each coil. Main Stator: Three Phase • Three windings. • For each phase, there is one group (one or more coils) for each rotor pole. – A group is interconnected – Can be considered as one large coil. • The leads are typically wye (star) connected. The neutral is usually connected to ground or brought out with singlephase loads. 2 poles 6 groups 2 coils/group (12 coils) series connected Main Stator: Three Phase (cont.) • As the rotor rotates, three separate voltages are created at the stator terminals. Main Stator: Three Phase (cont.) N S 4 poles 12 groups 4 coils/group (48 coils) S N 1-9 span 2/3 pitch Wye vs. Delta Dilbert’s Renewable Energy Idea…. Other Considerations: Laminations • Magnetic cores (stacks) used in manufacturing generators are typically made from thin steel sheets called laminations. • Reduce losses due to stray currents. Other Considerations: VPI • Vacuum pressure impregnation • A polyester or epoxy resin is applied to windings. • Provides mechanical strength, heat transfer, dielectric strength and environmental protection. • A bake cycle after VPI hardens the resin.