INSTALLATION MANUAL - Northern Lights Marine Generators

INSTALLATION MANUAL - Northern Lights Marine Generators
IM1000
INSTALLATION
MANUAL
Marine Generators | Marine Diesel Engines | Land-Based Generators
MARINE GENERATORS
— CALIFORNIA —
Proposition 65 Warning:
Diesel engine exhaust and some of its constituents are known to the State of California to cause
cancer, birth defects, and other reproductive harm.
Northern Lights
4420 14th Avenue N.W.
Seattle, WA 98107
Tel: (206) 789-3880
Fax: (206) 782-5455
Copyright © 2017 Northern Lights, Inc.
All rights reserved. Northern Lights™, and
the Northern Lights logo are trademarks of
Northern Lights, Inc.
Printed in U.S.A.
PART NO.: IM1000 02/17
MARINE GENERATORS
MARINE GENERATORS
MARINE GENERATOR
INSTALLATION MANUAL
Table of Contents
INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................................3
UNIT IDENTIFICATION
Model Designation....................................................................................................................................5
Serial Numbers..........................................................................................................................................5
WARRANTY ...............................................................................................................................................6
SAFETY RULES ........................................................................................................................................6
DO'S & DON'TS .........................................................................................................................................6
MODEL SELECTION ................................................................................................................................7
Estimating Electrical Load.........................................................................................................................7
Circuit Breakers........................................................................................................................................7
Balancing Loads........................................................................................................................................7
Motor Loads.............................................................................................................................................7
MOUNTING ................................................................................................................................................8
EXHAUST SYSTEM .................................................................................................................................9
Wet Exhaust .......................................................................................................................................... 10
Waterlift Exhaust Systems............................................................................................................... 10 - 11
Dry Exhaust .......................................................................................................................................... 11
COOLING SYSTEM
Keel Cooling or Skin Cooling ................................................................................................................. 12
Heat Exchanger Cooling......................................................................................................................... 12
FUEL SYSTEM ....................................................................................................................................... 13
VENTILATION ......................................................................................................................................... 13
NOISE CONTROL .................................................................................................................................. 14
DC ELECTRICAL SYSTEM .................................................................................................................. 14
Batteries ............................................................................................................................................... 15
AC ELECTRICAL SYSTEM .................................................................................................................. 15
Proprietary Information
This publication is the sole property of Northern Lights, Inc.
It may not be reproduced in whole or part without the expressed written permission of Northern Lights, Inc.
© Northern Lights, Inc. 2017. All rights reserved. Litho U.S.A. Publication number: IM1000 02/17.
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Introduction
Read this manual thoroughly before starting
to install your equipment.
This manual contains information you will
need to do the job correctly and safely.
MARINE GENERATORS
This manual will explain installation procedures for Northern Lights marine generator sets. The
instructions are general in nature and intended to be used only as guidelines. If you have questions, please
contact your local dealer or factory office.
The installation of a marine generator is a complex task that requires special tools and knowledge.
Northern Lights strongly recommends that this work be performed by a qualified dealer or boatyard. For
the safety of the set, the vessel and all those aboard, owner installations must be reviewed by a qualified
inspector.
Proper planning is essential for a successful installation. You will find all necessary measurements on
the dimensional drawings available from your Northern Lights dealer. Be sure to use current drawings,
since the sets are continuously being improved. Plan your installation so the inspections and service work
outlined in your owner's manual can be easily performed.
Use only quality marine grade materials throughout the installation. Follow all safety precautions.
Areas of special concern are: mounting the set, ventilation, supply and discharge of cooling water, exhaust
discharge, fuel lines, electrical wiring, system bonding and service access.
Northern Lights Generator sets, and/or any other diesel powered equipment provided by NLI is not provided with spark arresting or explosion proof components, and therefore is not intended to be installed in
the presence of combustible gasses having a flash point of 43.3 Degrees C (110 Degrees F) or lower, such
as Gasoline, Propane, Natural Gas or other similar fuel sources.
If a customer intends to install any equipment built by NLI in a vessel with combustible gasses having
a flash point of 43.3 Degrees C (110 Degrees F) or lower the responsibility will fall upon the customer to
install said equipment in accordance of any Federal, State, Local or Other regulations to ensure complete
and thorough isolation of the installed equipment from potential combustible gasses.
Northern Lights reserves the right to make product improvements and changes at any time without notice.
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Model Numbers
Model numbers give the unit's application, block model, aspiration, and RPM:
L, M, NL
673
L - Northern Lights propulsion engine (Lugger)
M - Northern Lights marine generator set
NL - Northern Lights industrial generator set
For example:
M 673
Model number
of base engine block
Northern Lights marine generator set
with a 673 engine.
D, T, A, L, W, H
D =
T =
A =
L =
W=
Naturally Aspirated
Turbocharged
Aftercooled & Turbo
Long Stroke
Auxiliary Winding in
Gen End
H = High Output
Serial Numbers
• When referencing Northern Lights equipment by serial number, it is important to differentiate between
the engine, 2 the generator end, and 3 the generator set serial numbers.
1
• The engine serial number is either on a metal tag or stamped directly into the engine block.
• The generator END serial number is on a metal tag attached to the generator end.
• The generator SET serial number is on a separate metal tag attached to the generator end. It may be a five by one
inch tag installed directly below the generator end tag (lower left). Or, it may look like the examples on the right.
Please use the generator SET model and serial numbers in correspondence or when ordering parts.
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Warranty
A warranty registration certificate is supplied with your set. It entitles the original purchaser of our equipment
to a warranty covering material or assembly faults. The extent of coverage is described in the Limited Warranty
Statement (L581). We recommend that you study the statement carefully. If the warranty is to apply, the installation
instructions outlined in this manual must be followed. If further information is needed, please contact an authorized
dealer or the factory.
Safety Rules
Accident reports show that careless use of engines causes a high percentage of accidents. You can avoid
accidents by observing these safety rules. Study these rules carefully and follow them on the job.
• Turn the coolant tank cap slowly to relieve pressure
before removing. Add coolant only when the engine
is stopped and cool.
• Use caution in handling fuel. Never re-fuel a hot or
running engine. Do not smoke while filling fuel tank
or servicing fuel system.
• Mount fire extinguisher near engine.
• Keep your hands, feet, hair and clothing away from
power-driven parts.
• Always disconnect the battery ground strap before
making adjustments.
• Check for any loose electrical connections or faulty
wiring.
• Operate engine in properly ventilated areas.
• Keep trash and other objects away from engine.
• Engines should be operated only by knowledgeable,
qualified personnel.
• Escaping fluids under pressure can penetrate your
skin. Use a piece of cardboard or wood, not your
hands, to search for fuel leaks.
• Walk completely around engine to make sure that
everything is clear before starting it up.
• Avoid wearing loose clothing without a belt when
working around engines.
• Do not operate an engine that isn't in proper working
order. If an unsafe operating condition is noted, tag
the engine so others will also know about it.
• Do not oil or grease engine while it is running.
• Provide first aid kits.
Do's and Don'ts
DO:
• Use siphon break on sets near waterline (see page 8).
• Allow easy access to expansion tank.
• Use raw water strainer on intake.
• Install the unit so the crankshaft is parallel to the
vessel's center line.
• Mount wet muffler lower than the exhaust manifold.
• Use primary water separator fuel filter.
• Use grommets on wire openings in junction box.
DON'T:
• Use scoop type water inlet through hull fittings.
At high speeds, scoops pick up water which is forced
past the impeller in the raw water pump. Water will
fill the cylinders and ruin the engine.
• Use protective circuit breakers.
• Use good bonding system.
• Balance load on generator legs.
• Use gravity feed fuel filter wherever possible.
• Put seasonal load on one leg of generator (heaters).
Split loads between legs.
• Install so engine service side is easily accessible.
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Model Selection
Northern Lights produces marine and land-based
generator sets that operate at 1500 and 1800 RPM with
ratings from 4.5 kW to 280 kW.
With this broad range of sets to choose from, it is often
difficult to determine which is right for your vessel. Begin
the selection process by estimating the electrical load.
After that, you can customize the chosen set to
match your vessel's needs. Modifications include single
phase or three phase, 50 cycle output, heat exchanger or
keel cooling, wet or dry exhaust and 12 or 24 volt
starting systems.
Estimating Electrical Load
It is important to match the correct Northern Lights
generator with your vessel's electrical load. The right
generator is determined by the total wattage of all the
equipment and appliances which will be operated
simultaneously. Selecting a generator that is too small
for the peak load can make it hard to start motors in air
conditioners or water makers, for example. Selecting too
large a generator causes the engine to operate in an overly
cool condition which causes injector and valve carboning,
and the pumping of raw fuel into the exhaust.
The wattage required for any given piece of
equipment is usually printed on the name plate. If only
the amp rating is listed, multiply amps x voltage to get
the equipment wattage. If there is no data plate, or if the
information is not supplied on the data plate, call your
dealer for typical wattage requirements of some motors
and appliances. Motors and other loads require several
times full load current under starting conditions. If the
motor starting load is large, a voltage dip may cause the
lights to dim or relays to chatter.
A good rule of thumb is that the continuous load
should be at least 50% of the generator capacity. It may
be advantageous to use two smaller sets.
Circuit Breakers
An AC circuit breaker should be installed on all
Northern Lights generators to protect the generator
windings in case of a short circuit or an overload due to
unbalanced load conditions.
Balancing Loads
All loads which will be used at the same time must be
divided up equally among the output legs. For example,
don't put heating loads on one leg and air conditioning
loads on the other leg. Improperly balanced loads may
cause a loss in voltage on the loaded leg and excessive
voltage on the unloaded leg as well as low output. Since
the engine is not affected by an unbalanced overload it is
possible to damage the generator.
Motor Loads
Electric motors and appliances containing electric
motors usually require up to ten times the running wattage
during starting. A good rule of thumb when working with
motor loads is to take the running wattage of the largest
motor and multiply that by ten. Then add the running
wattage of all the smaller motors, as well as the wattage
of all the other loads. This will add up to your total load.
Determine how much of the total load will be
operating at the same time. If a motor can be wired up at
several voltages (for example, 120 volts or 240 volts) it is
usually more efficient to wire it at the higher voltage.
Some devices utilizing non-linear loads (SCR
devices) may cause a distortion in the waveform of
the generator's electric output. This can lead to the
malfunction of the voltage regulator and overheating
of the generator rotor. Consult the factory for specifics
pertaining to your generator set.
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Mounting
vibration isolation mounts. A rigid mounting base must
be used to mount the set to the engine stringers, or other
strong supports. This rigid base anchors the set and
prevents noise transmission through the boat frame. The
mounting base can be either metal or wood. A thicker and
more rigid base will cut down on the drum-like tendency
of the drip pan to magnify engine noise.
It is important to use marine grade plywood or
lumber; make sure that the generator base supports the
complete underside of the drip pan. Be sure that the base
does not touch any of the bulkheads or free board, which
will amplify noise transmission from the engine. Mount the
generator away from bilge splash and low-lying vapors.
Because flexible mounts are used, the generator will
rock during engine operation in rough seas. Therefore,
you must plan for adequate clearance on all sides. Use
flexible connections on all lines and connections.
Dimensions, weights, and maximum operating
angularity vary by model and are available from
Northern Lights.
The two main elements that decide where a generator
should be located are 1 the availability of space, and
2 the adequacy of structural support. Thought should be
given to ventilation, cooling and exhaust systems as well,
and these areas will be covered later.
The generator is usually located in the engine room,
where there is already plenty of ventilation. The main
engine stringers can be used as supports. If the
generator set cannot be located in the same compartment
as the propulsion engine, it should be in a properly
ventilated compartment isolated from the living quarters.
Generator set location should provide easy access for
regular maintenance and fuel system adjustment. Bear
in mind that the generator set will require replacement
of worn parts and eventual overhaul. The control panel
should be located so it can be easily monitored during
generator operation. For ease of servicing, make sure that
the sea cock and the inlet water strainer are completely
accessible.
Northern Lights generators are supported on a frame
that incorporates a drip pan and is equipped with
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Exhaust System
Figure 2:
Exhaust
Manifold
ABOVE
Load
Water
Line
Figure 3:
Exhaust
Manifold
AT
Load
Water
Line
Figure 4:
Exhaust
Manifold
BELOW
Load
Water
Line
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Exhaust System
GENERAL
There are two basic types of exhaust systems used in
marine generator set installations:
The water should be injected into the exhaust system
as close to the exhaust manifold as is possible. All
Northern Lights generators can be supplied with water
injection elbows which attach directly to the wet exhaust
manifold. Rubber hose designed and approved for marine
exhaust line use can be used for the point of water
injection. Any piping before the point of water injection
must be water jacketed or insulated to minimize heat
rejection and fire risk.
A) Wet Exhaust - the exhaust gases are cooled by the
addition of water from the engine cooling system at some
point along the exhaust system. The exact point at which
the water joins the exhaust gases depends on whether the
engine is mounted above or below the water line.
B) Dry Exhaust - the exhaust gases are not mixed with
the water. The exhaust system is completely dry, and also
very hot. All pipe work must be insulated.
Flexible rubber exhaust hose allows for easy
installation and flexibility. The exhaust line should be at
least as large as the engine exhaust outlet. The line should
be increased one pipe size for each ten feet (3.048 m) in
length. The waterlift muffler should be mounted below
the exhaust manifold. The exhaust line should pitch
downward at least one-half inch per foot (or 42 mm/m) of
line from the point of water injection to the muffler. Do
not connect the muffler directly to the exhaust manifold
(see Figure 2).
WET EXHAUST
Advantages: less fire risk; the amount of heat given
off in the vessel is less; it is very quiet.
WARNING: Extreme care must be taken during
installation to prevent backflow of water into
the engine under any conditions. Water flowing
back to the engine will damage it and possibly
flood the boat. The exhaust outlet must be above
the load water line.
On sailboats, provisions must be made to prevent
the exhaust exit from being below the water line in
any running angle, especially during tacking or
heeling maneuvers. A transom location is best.
On heat exchanger cooled units, the raw water flow
can be injected into the exhaust system. On keel cooled
units, a separate raw water pump will be required to inject
water into the exhaust.
The outlet line from the waterlift muffler should loop
at least 12" (30 cm) above the water line. Avoid any low
spots or belly in the hose where water can be trapped and
flow back into the engine when the boat pitches and rolls.
The highest point of the loop should be no more than four
feet (1.23 m) measured from the bottom of the muffler.
WATERLIFT EXHAUST SYSTEMS
The waterlift exhaust system is a simple, inexpensive
method of exhausting engine exhaust in raw water from
the cooling system. The waterlift muffler is a canister
with an inlet and an outlet, the outlet pipe extends inside
the canister almost to its bottom.
WARNING: If the point of water injection cannot be
located at least 12" (30 cm) above the water line, a
SIPHON BREAK will be required to prevent
siphoning the exhaust water back into the exhaust
system.
The engine cooling water is injected into the
exhaust line near the exhaust manifold. Water from the
wet exhaust fills the canister above the bottom line of
the outlet pipe, effectively blocking the outlet. When
sufficient pressure builds up, the water and exhaust gases
are literally “blown” out of the submerged outlet pipe,
and the cycle begins again. Boats equipped with waterlift systems are easily identified by the bursts of cooling
water from their exhaust pipe.
If a siphon break is used, it should be located between
the raw water pump and the inlet to the heat exchanger.
This will allow positive closure of the valve in the siphon
break during engine operation. The siphon break should
be located at least 12" (30 cm) above the water line (see
Figure 3). DO NOT use a drip tube on the siphon break as
it will negate the function of the valve.
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revised 2-25-13
Emission-Related Installation & Instructions
Failing to follow these instructions when installing
a certified engine in a vessel violates federal law (40
CFR 1068.105(b)), subject to fines or other penalties as
described in the Clean Air Act.
The exhaust water piping should be isolated and not
connected to the exhaust piping of any other engine.
The installed exhaust system should not create exhaust
back pressure greater than 30" (760 mm) of water
for a turbocharged engine and 48" (1200 mm) for a
non-turbocharged unit, measured at the engine exhaust
elbow. The exhaust outlet must be located as close to the
outboard side of the transom to minimize exhaust gases
being drawn onboard the vessel. The exhaust outlet
should not be located near hatches or portholes and must
be above the water line.
If the exhaust manifold is significantly below the
water line, causing a rise of greater than 4 feet (1.23 m),
an insulated dry stack arrangement can be used to raise
the waterlift muffler above the exhaust manifold (see
Figure 4). The uncooled portion of the exhaust piping
must be insulated.
The distance from the top of the loop to the thru-hull
fitting should be a drop of 12" (30 cm) minimum, sloping
at least one-half inch per foot (42 mm/m) of distance. This
will prevent backflow of water into the exhaust manifold
due to pitching of the vessel. Remember, four feet is the
maximum allowable vertical lift between the muffler and
the top of the exhaust loop. Pipe hangers should be used
to support the tubing and prevent dips or pockets which
allow water to build up in low sections of the line. This
causes back pressure and increases the noise level.
High exhaust temperature shutdown or alarm
switches are available options and are required on wet
exhaust systems used with keel cooled engines.
DRY EXHAUST
Because of the high temperatures involved in a dry
exhaust system, each part of the system must be well
insulated from any combustible surface and equipped
with guards to prevent burns.
Dry exhaust shall not come in direct contact with
bulkheads or other combustible materials. A clearance of
9" (23 cm) must be maintained between the exhaust and
any combustible material, unless protected by suitable
insulation.
The insulating material must be suitable for the
temperatures involved, and thick enough to prevent the
surface of the insulation from reaching a temperature
above 71° C (160° F). The exhaust system must be piped
so that air circulates freely around it.
WARNING: Scoop type water inlet fittings must
not be used. They allow water to push up past
the raw water pump when the generator is not
in operation while cruising, and this allows water
to fill up the muffler. With no exhaust pressure
to force the water out of the muffler, the water
backs up into the exhaust manifold and into the
cylinders.
Water must be prevented from entering the engine
through the exhaust. Provision must be made for
drawing off rain water entering the silencer, or putting a
tee connection in the exhaust pipe.
WARNING: If the engine is cranked for a considerable period of time without firing, raw water can
fill up the muffler and back up into the exhaust
manifolds due to lack of exhaust pressure to
evacuate the muffler.
If the engine must be cranked for more than
one minute at a time without starting (for example,
to bleed the fuel system), close the seacock and
remove the raw water pump impeller until the
engine can be started. Then stop the engine
immediately, replace the impeller and open the
seacock.
The exhaust pipe between the manifold and the
silencer should be water jacketed but may be dry if
adequately shielded or covered to prevent burns.
A flexible connection must be used between the engine
and the exhaust piping. Exhaust piping, silencers and
other parts of the system must be supported through
the length of the system. It is important that the engine
exhaust elbow does not support any weight of the
exhaust system.
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Cooling Systems
KEEL COOLING OR SKIN COOLING
Keel cooling or skin cooling is a closed circuit
method of cooling that uses only fresh water. Engine
heat is dissipated by passing coolant through tubes fitted
to the outside of the hull (keel cooling), or incorporated
as part of the hull (skin cooling). Keel coolers protrude
from the bottom of the boat. The engine circulating
water pump is the only pump necessary.
The size and length of the tubes is determined by the
horsepower and water flow of the engine. When sizing
keel coolers for generator sets, they must be larger than
those for an equivalent propulsion unit because the
generator set normally sees maximum load while the
boat is at rest when no water flows past the coolers. Do
not combine the keel cooler for the generator set with
the keel cooler for any other engine on the vessel.
If a wet exhaust is desired on a keel cooled or a skin
cooled unit, a separate pump is required to draw raw
water from a thru-hull fitting into the exhaust. A high
exhaust temperature switch is also required.
HEAT EXCHANGER COOLING
In a cooling system with a heat exchanger, and
with thermostats closed, a fixed amount of fresh water
circulates through the engine's cooling loop. When the
thermostats are open, the coolant is directed through the
heat exchanger. It is cooled by raw water that is pumped
in by way of a thru-hull fitting, sea cock and strainer,
then through the heat exchanger, and directed overboard
through a wet exhaust or another thru-hull fitting.
Scoop type inlet fittings must not be used because
they can cause water to be forced up into the raw water
system when the generator is not in operation if the
vessel is underway. The waterlift muffler will flood and
fill up the exhaust manifold with water.
The sizing of the thru-hull fitting, the sea cock and
the strainer should be no smaller than the inlet to the raw
water pump. For raw water pump inlet sizing, please see
the appropriate installation drawing or call your dealer.
The raw water pump is a neoprene impeller type
pump, which provides a positive suction lift of up to 39"
(1 m). The thru-hull inlet fitting should be a flush type,
located beneath the water level during operation. The
inlet water strainer keeps most debris from reaching the
raw water pump where it could break the impeller or
clog the heat exchanger.
Figure 5: Keel Cooling
Closing the sea cock enables the owner to clean
the sea strainer. The raw water pump impeller is a maintenance item and easy access must be provided. Make
sure to provide easy access to the zinc(s) located in the
heat exchanger. If the fresh water pump is belt driven,
access must be available for belt replacement.
Figure 6: Heat Exchanger Cooling
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Fuel System
Extreme care is required in the design and installation
of fuel systems. Fuel leakage presents a fire and explosion
hazard. Follow U.S.C.G. codes and use only components
that are specified for marine applications.
Each Northern Lights generator has a fuel manifold
with connections for supply and returned fuel. The lines
should be no smaller than these pipe sizes. Pipe sizes can
be found on the installation drawing.
Fuel lines must have as few connections as possible.
The line should be routed where they are protected from
damage and vibration. They should be clamped securely
about every 15" (58 cm). Metal fuel lines should be
bonded to the common bonding conductor. Fuel lines
must be kept away from hot engine or exhaust areas.
If the engine and fuel tank are separated by more than
12 feet (3.7 m), a Coast Guard approved shutoff valve
must be installed at the engine. This valve makes it easy
to change the filters without draining the entire fuel line
and allows for easier engine servicing. If the fuel tank is
located above the engine, provision should be made to
shut off the fuel when the engine is not running and for
servicing of the filters.
If the fuel tank is located below the engine, there is a
maximum lift of 39 inches (1 m) on the suction side of the
lift pump. Long runs of piping with multiple
connections and vertical looping create many points at
which air can be trapped or sucked into the system. Air
can hamper engine performance and create starting
problems. The fuel lines should not be teed into the fuel
lines of any other engine. The supply pump on the
generator does not have the power nor the capacity to
overcome the draw of the propulsion engines.
When lines are teed or joined at a common manifold,
air will be drawn into the fuel system if there is a leak at
any point, including at the propulsion engine. Air will be
drawn into the fuel system, which causes low power, hard
starting or generator engine shut down.
Due to the high return fuel rate of many propulsion
engines, it is common for air problems to show up in the
generator before it shows up in the propulsion engine.
Every effort must be made to prevent air from being
drawn into the system at any point.
If a lift of more than 39 inches (1 m) is required, a
pump and float tank arrangement can be employed. The pump should be energized only when the generator
control switch is in the run position.
Fuel should be drawn from the top of the tank and
run at tank level as close to the engine as possible. If a
line breaks, this will reduce the danger of fuel siphoning.
The fuel pick-up tube should not draw fuel directly from
the bottom of the tank but should be located 1 to 2 inches
from the bottom and cut off diagonally. The tank must be
suitably vented. Metal tanks must be properly bonded.
The bonding strap should be connected from the fuel fill
to the fuel tank if a rubber connection is used. A water
separator type filter should be used between the tank and
the generator set and located as close to the generator as
possible.
To comply with U.S.C.G. regulations for boats for
hire, a shut-off valve must be installed at the tank
connection to stop fuel flow. An electric or manual valve
can be used. Electric valves should be energized only
when the engine control switch is in the run position.
Valves must have a manual override. If a manual valve is
used, provisions must be made to operate it from outside
the compartment where the tanks are located, preferably
from above the deck.
Ventilation
in a separate compartment, it is important that adequate
ventilation is provided while the vessel is both underway
and not moving.
Vents must be located so moisture is not ducted into
the generators. The vents should be protected so that
water is not drawn into the generator during washdown.
Make sure that no moisture or contamination from
the bilge can be drawn up into the generator itself.
Besides providing adequate air for engine
combustion, the generator end requires cooling
ventilation. The ventilation requirements for each
generator set is available from Northern Lights.
Normally, the generator set is located in the same
compartment as the main engine. Because the
generator is usually small in relation to the main engine,
the ventilation is adequate. If the generator set is located
IM1000 02/17
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Noise Control
In a boat, noise is transmitted two ways, through the
air or through the hull. Proper installation can control
noise from both sources. Northern Lights generators
have rubber isolation mounts which connect the unit to
a rigid base frame. The frame contains an integral drip
pan.
By using a solid piece of plywood under the whole
base frame, the drum effect of vibration on the drip
pan can be eliminated. The thicker and more rigid the
mounting base, the lower the transmission of noise.
Mount the generator on as rigid a base as possible.
Avoid using light stringers or bulkheads that can vibrate
and amplify noise. Be sure the generator does not touch
bulkheads, the hull or other structures. Be sure that all
fuel lines connected to the generator are secured and
contain flexible connections to the generator.
Some of the units larger than 20 kW can be fitted
with isolation mounts, which increase the isolation of
the unit and cut down the transmission of vibration.
Noise transmission through the air can be caused by
intake air noise, exhaust noise and noise radiated from
the generator and engine.
Intake noise is controlled in Northern Lights
generators by using special air intake housings. Many
competitive generators use only intake screens which
offer no silencing. Be sure to service the air filter
properly and replace it with the correct type.
Exhaust noise can be limited by use of water lift
type mufflers and flexible exhaust hose. Be sure that any
sections of hard exhaust tubing are not rigidly mounted
to bulkheads or the hull. Use a flexible connection to the
transom.
Many Northern Lights sets can be mounted in an
optional sound shield to reduce noise. It provides easy
access for service and can be quickly disassembled
for repairs. A separate installation booklet is supplied
with the sound shield. The engine room itself can be
lined with insulating material which reduces noise
transmission to other parts of the vessel.
DC Electrical System
Optional Series 4 panels include all items listed for
the Series 3 as well as an AC volt meter, AC ammeter,
amp meter selector switch and a frequency meter. The
DC control and meter connections are the same as the
Series 3 panel. A terminal strip is provided in the Series
4 control panel and in the junction box of the generator
for the installer to hardwire the AC connections.
Current transformers must also be installed on the generator output leads.
Series 1, Series 3 and Series 4 panels can be used
together in multi-panel systems. Some combinations
can be made without modification by using “Y”
connectors. Others require dual senders or other
modifications. See your dealer for information on
the panel combination you want to use.
The DC electrical drawings in the operator's manual
show the required wire sizes. Panels can be installed up
to 40' (12 m) from the generator. For runs longer than
40', contact your dealer or factory office for information.
Northern Lights generators 20 kW and below are
provided with a Series 1-B control panel as standard
equipment. The panel consists of an hour meter, a
double pole double throw start/stop switch and a single
pole momentary contact preheat/bypass switch. The
preheat/bypass switch operates any preheaters and
bypasses the safety shutdown system for starting.
There is a light in the start/stop switch which indicates
that the generator is operating. The panel is designed
for remote mounting and is connected to the generator
by a plug-type connector. The unit comes standard
with a 20 ft. (6 m) harness. 10, 20, and 40 foot
(3, 6, and 12 m) harness extensions are optional.
Units larger than 20 kW come standard with the
Series 3 panel. The panel is provided with a plug-in or,
on some models, a terminal strip that must be hardwired
by the installer to the terminal strip on the generator.
This panel includes the stop/start switch, preheat/bypass
switch, hour meter, DC volt meter, oil pressure gauge
and water temperature gauge.
IM1000 02/17
14
Batteries
Northern Lights generators utilize negative ground
electrical systems. The negative (-) terminal of the
battery should be connected to the cap screw on the
bell housing near the starter. In the case of a “floating ground”, however, do not connect the negative (-)
terminal to the engine block. Instead, connect it to the
grounding post provided. The positive (+) terminal
should always be connected to the starter solenoid
terminal marked “positive”.
Always use batteries at least as large as those listed
in the specification section at the end of this manual.
The specifications also list recommended wire sizes
and maximum distances that the batteries can be
located from the engine.
The generator should not be operated off the
propulsion engine's starting batteries. Dedicated
generator batteries should be used. This prevents
unintended discharge of the propulsion engine batteries
as well as providing an extra set of batteries onboard
should the need arise. When providing a separate set of
batteries, be sure to include a shore powered charging
system for the generator batteries.
Secure the batteries in an acid resistant container on
a platform above the floor. Use a nonmetallic cover to
prevent damage or sparks. Generator batteries should be
installed as close to the unit as possible but not directly
under the generator.
WARNING: Be sure to allow plenty of ventilation
to prevent the accumulation of explosive hydrogen
gas generated during battery charging.
United States Coast Guard regulation 33 CFR-183
requires that the generator be grounded and that a common
conductor be connected between the generator set grounded
starter motor circuit and the vessel's main propulsion engine
grounded starter motor circuit. This conductor or common
ground prevents the accidental passage of cranking
current through the fuel system and small electrical
conductors common to both engines. This conductor should
be the same size as the largest battery cable.
AC Electrical System
Due to the possibility of fire and shock hazards, it is
important that a qualified electrician installs and inspects
the boat wiring. All wiring must meet Coast Guard,
NFPA and any other applicable codes.
A circuit breaker should be installed as close to
the generator as possible. Flexible wiring should be
used between the generator connections and the circuit
breaker. Most builders use flexible multi-strand wire
throughout the boat to minimize breakage due to
vibration.
The electrical distribution system must be designed
in such a way that individual circuits cannot be energized
by more than one source of electrical power at a time.
Each shore power connection or generator is a separate
source of electrical power and transfer between sources
should be made with a switch that has arc-over protection
between the contacts.
There is no consensus of opinion on whether the
neutral conductor should be connected to the bonding
system (grounded) or not (floating ground). Grounding the neutral may increase electrolytic corrosion. Not
grounding the neutral creates a potential shock hazard.
The American Boat and Yacht Council recommends
grounding the neutral at the generator for safety reasons,
though this may shorten the life of heat exchangers and
other components. Northern Lights heartily recommends
grounding the neutral since personal safety takes priority
over all other considerations.
For additional electrical information, consult the AC
wiring diagrams in the Generator Manual for the
generator end installed on your set.
IM1000 02/17
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Notes
IM1000 02/17
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Notes
IM1000 02/17
4420 14th Ave. NW., Seattle WA 98107
Tel: (206) 789-3880 • 1-800-762-0165 • www.northern-lights.com
Northern Lights and Lugger are registered trademarks of Northern Lights, Inc.
© 2017 All rights reserved. Litho USA.
MARINE GENERATORS
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