981-0524C Onan MDKAL MDKAA MDKAB Marine Diese Genset

981-0524C Onan MDKAL MDKAA MDKAB Marine Diese Genset
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Service Manual
MDKAL, MDKAA, MDKAB
Printed in U.S.A.
981−0524C
California
Proposition 65 Warning
Diesel engine exhaust and some of its constituents are known
to the State of California to cause cancer, birth defects, and
other reproductive harm.
Redistribution or publication of this document,
by any means, is strictly prohibited.
Table of Contents
SAFETY PRECAUTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
SPECIFICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
About this Manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Model Identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Fuel Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Engine Oil Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Batteries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Service Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Removing Genset from Vessel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Pre-Start Checks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Starting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Stopping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Powering Appliances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Shore Power Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Resetting Line Circuit Breakers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Engine Break-In . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
No-Load Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Genset Exercise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Genset Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Returning Genset to Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
PERIODIC MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
General Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Changing Oil and Oil Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Engine Cooling System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Fuel System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
ENGINE (DC) CONTROL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Control Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Sequence of Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
1
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AUTOMATIC VOLTAGE REGULATOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adjusting Voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Flashing the Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Testing AVR vs Generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
GENERATOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Voltage Regulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Disassembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reassembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ADJUSTING THE FUEL STOP AND FREQUENCY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fuel Stop (Except MDKAL Spec A) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Frequency (Except MDKAL Spec A) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fuel Stop (MDKAL Spec A) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Frequency (MDKAL Spec A) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TROUBLESHOOTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Engine Does Not Stop Running . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Engine Does Not Crank from Remote Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Engine Does Not Crank from Genset Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Engine Cranks But Does Not Start . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Engine Starts But Does Not Run . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
“Check Engine” Fault Shutdown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Engine Unstable or Lacks Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
No Output Voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Faulty Generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Output Voltage too High Or too Low . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unstable Output Voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unbalanced Phase Currents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DC CONTROL SCHEMATIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
WIRING HARNESS DIAGRAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
GENERATOR RECONNECTION DIAGRAMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2
28
28
28
28
30
30
30
31
35
35
36
37
37
37
38
38
39
39
40
40
43
45
46
47
48
48
49
49
50
51
52
53
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by any means, is strictly prohibited.
Safety Precautions
Thoroughly read the OPERATOR’S MANUAL
before operating the genset. Safe operation and
top performance can be obtained only by proper operation and maintenance.
• Used engine oil has been identified by some
state and federal agencies as causing cancer
or reproductive toxicity. Do not ingest, inhale,
or contact used oil or its vapors.
The following symbols in this Manual alert you to
potential hazards to the operator, service personnel
and equipment.
• Do not work on the genset when mentally or
physically fatigued or after consuming alcohol
or drugs.
alerts you to an immediate hazard
which will result in severe personal injury or
death.
• Carefully follow all applicable local, state and
federal codes.
• Do not step on the genset, as when entering or
leaving the engine room. The stress can break
genset parts leading to possible fuel or exhaust
leaks or electricution.
WARNING
alerts you to a hazard or unsafe
practice which can result in severe personal injury or death.
CAUTION alerts you to a hazard or unsafe
practice which can result in personal injury or
equipment damage.
GENERATOR VOLTAGE IS DEADLY!
• Generator output connections must be made
by a qualified electrician in accordance with applicable codes.
Electricity, fuel, exhaust, moving parts and batteries
present hazards which can result in severe personal injury or death.
• Make sure all fasteners are secure and torqued
properly.
• The genset must not be connected to the public
utility or any other source of electrical power.
Connection could lead to electrocution of utility
workers, damage to equipment and fire. An approved switching device must be used to prevent interconnections.
• Keep the genset and its compartment clean.
Excess oil and oily rags can catch fire. Dirt and
gear stowed in the compartment can restrict
cooling air.
• Use caution when working on live electrical
equipment. Remove jewelry, make sure clothing and shoes are dry and stand on a dry wooden platform on the ground or floor.
GENERAL PRECAUTIONS
• Keep ABC fire extinguishers handy.
• Let the engine cool down before removing the
coolant pressure cap or opening the coolant
drain. Hot coolant under pressure can spray
out and cause severe burns.
FUEL IS FLAMMABLE AND EXPLOSIVE
• Keep flames, cigarettes, sparks, pilot lights,
electrical arc-producing equipment and
switches and all other sources of ignition well
away from areas where fuel fumes are present
and areas sharing ventilation.
• Before working on the genset, disconnect the
negative (- ) battery cable at the battery to prevent starting.
• Fuel lines must be secured, free of leaks and
separated or shielded from electrical wiring.
• Use caution when making adjustments while
the genset is running—hot, moving or electrically live parts can cause severe personal injury or death.
• Use approved non-conductive flexible fuel
hose for fuel connections at the genset.
3
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by any means, is strictly prohibited.
ENGINE EXHAUST IS DEADLY!
BATTERY GAS IS EXPLOSIVE
• Learn the symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning in this manual.
• Wear safety glasses and do not smoke while
servicing batteries.
• Never sleep in the vessel with the genset running unless the vessel is equipped with a working carbon monoxide detector.
• When disconnecting or reconnecting battery
cables, always disconnect the negative (- ) battery cable first and reconnect it last to reduce
arcing.
• The exhaust system must be installed in accordance with the genset Installation Manual and
be free of leaks.
DO NOT OPERATE IN FLAMMABLE AND
EXPLOSIVE ENVIRONMENTS
Flammable vapor can cause a diesel engine to
overspeed and become difficult to stop, resulting in
possible fire, explosion, severe personal injury and
death. Do not operate a diesel-powered genset
where a flammable vapor environment can be
created by fuel spill, leak, etc., unless the genset is equipped with an automatic safety device
to block the air intake and stop the engine. The
owners and operators of the genset are solely responsible for operating the genset safely. Contact
your authorized Onan/Cummins dealer or distributor for more information.
• Make sure the bilge is adequately ventilated
with a power exhauster.
MOVING PARTS CAN CAUSE SEVERE
PERSONAL INJURY OR DEATH
• Do not wear loose clothing or jewelry near moving parts such as PTO shafts, fans, belts and
pulleys.
• Keep hands away from moving parts.
• Keep guards in place over fans, belts, pulleys,
etc.
POST THESE SUGGESTIONS IN POTENTIAL HAZARD AREAS OF THE VESSEL
m-9
4
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Specifications
MDKAL (Spec A)
MDKAL (Spec B)
GENERATOR: Single-Bearing, 4-Pole Rotating Field, Brushless, Electronically Regulated. See Genset Namplate for Rating.
FUEL CONSUMPTION:
60 Hz: Full Load
Half Load
0.8 gph (3.0 liter/hr)
0.5 gph (1.8 liter/hr)
0.8 gph (3.0 liter/hr)
0.5 gph (1.9 liter/hr)
50 Hz: Full Load
Half Load
0.7 gph (2.6 liter/hr)
0.4 gph (1.4 liter/hr)
0.7 gph (2.6 liter/hr)
0.4 gph (1.5 liter/hr)
ENGINE: Kubota 4-Stroke Cycle, Indirect Injection Diesel, Water Cooled, Mechanically Governed (5% droop)
Model
D1005
D1105
Number of Cylinders
3
3
Bore / Stroke
2.99 inch (76 mm) / 2.90 inch (73.6 mm)
2.99 inch (76 mm) / 3.09 inch (78.4 mm)
Displacement
61 inch3 (1001 cm3)
68 inch3 (1124 cm3)
Compression Ratio
22:1
22:1
Firing Order (Clockwise Rotation)
1-2-3
1-2-3
Fuel Injection Timing
15.5° - 17.5° BTDC
15.5° - 17.5° BTDC
0.0071 - 0.0087 inch
0.0071 - 0.0087 inch
Valve Lash (cold)
(0.18 - 0.22 mm)
(0.18 - 0.22 mm)
Engine Oil Capacity
Engine Oil Drain Connection
Coolant Capacity
Coolant Flow Rate:
60 Hz
50 Hz
4.5 quart (4.3 liter)
3/8 NPT
4.2 quart (4.0 liter)
5.0 gpm (19 liter/min)
4.2 gpm (16 liter/min)
4.2 quart (4.0 liter)
3/8 NPT
4.2 quart (4.0 liter)
5.0 gpm (19 liter/min)
4.2 gpm (16 liter/min)
Sea Water Flow Rate: 60 Hz
50 Hz
6.0 gpm (23 liter/min)
5.0 gpm (19 liter/min)
6.0 gpm (23 liter/min)
5.0 gpm (19 liter/min)
4 feet (1.2 m)
1.0 inch (25.4 mm) ID Hose
4 feet (1.2 m)
1/4 NPT female
1/4 NPT female
3 inch (76 mm) Hg
2.0 inch (50.8 mm) ID Hose
1-1/4 NPT
4 feet (1.2 m)
1.0 inch (25.4 mm) ID Hose
4 feet (1.2 m)
1/4 NPT female
1/4 NPT female
3 inch (76 mm) Hg
2.0 inch (50.8 mm) ID Hose
1-1/4 NPT
12 volts*
360 amps
35 amps
12 volts*, #
360 amps
10 amps
540 lbs (245 kg)
32.5x18.9x22.1 inch (826x479x562 mm)
540 lbs (245 kg)
32.5x18.9x22.1 inch (826x479x562 mm)
625 lbs (284 kg)
36.0x22.4x23.5 inch (915x568x596 mm)
625 lbs (284 kg)
36.0x22.4x23.5 inch (915x568x596 mm)
Maximum Sea Water Pump Lift
Sea Water Inlet Connection
Maximum Fuel Pump Lift
Fuel Supply Connection
Fuel Return Connection
Maximum Exhaust Back Pressure
Wet Exhaust Outlet Connection
Dry Exhaust Outlet Connection
BATTERIES:
Nominal Battery Voltage
Minimum CCA Rating
Charging Alternator Output
APPROXIMATE WEIGHTS AND DIMENSIONS:
Without Sound Shield
Wet Weight
Dimensions: L x W x H
With Sound Shield
Wet Weight
Dimensions: L x W x H
* - Isolated battery ground available as option.
# - 24 volt battery system available as option.
5
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MDKAA
MDKAB
GENERATOR: Single-Bearing, 4-Pole Rotating Field, Brushless, Electronically Regulated. See Genset Nameplate for Rating.
FUEL CONSUMPTION:
60 Hz: Full Load
Half Load
1.0 gph (3.8 liter/hr)
0.6 gph (2.3 liter/hr)
1.2 gph (4.5 liter/hr)
0.7 gph (2.6 liter/hr)
50 Hz: Full Load
Half Load
0.8 gph (3.0 liter/hr)
0.5 gph (1.9 liter/hr)
0.9 gph (3.4 liter/hr)
0.5 gph (1.9 liter/hr)
ENGINE: Kubota 4-Stroke Cycle, Indirect Injection Diesel, Water Cooled, Mechanically Governed (5% droop)
Model
V1305
V1505
Number of Cylinders
4
4
Bore / Stroke
2.99 inch (76 mm) / 2.90 inch (73.6 mm)
3.07 inch (78 mm) / 3.09 inch (78.4 mm)
Displacement
81.5 inch3 (1335 cm3)
91.4 inch3 (1498 cm3)
Compression Ratio
22:1
22:1
Firing Order (Clockwise Rotation)
1-2-4-3
1-2-4-3
Fuel Injection Timing
15.5° - 17.5° BTDC
15.5° - 17.5° BTDC
0.0071 - 0.0087 inch
0.0071 - 0.0087 inch
Valve Lash (cold)
(0.18 - 0.22 mm)
(0.18 - 0.22 mm)
Engine Oil Capacity
Engine Oil Drain Connection
Coolant Capacity
Coolant Flow Rate:
60 Hz
50 Hz
4.5 quart (4.3 liter)
3/8 NPT
5.3 quart (5.0 liter)
5.0 gpm (19 liter/min)
4.2 gpm (16 liter/min)
4.5 quart (4.3 liter)
3/8 NPT
5.3 quart (5.0 liter)
5.0 gpm (19 liter/min)
4.2 gpm (16 liter/min)
Sea Water Flow Rate: 60 Hz
50 Hz
6.0 gpm (23 liter/min)
5.0 gpm (19 liter/min)
6.0 gpm (23 liter/min)
5.0 gpm (19 liter/min)
4 feet (1.2 m)
1.0 inch (25.4 mm) ID Hose
4 feet (1.2 m)
1/4 NPT female
1/4 NPT female
3 inch (76 mm) Hg
2.0 inch (50.8 mm) ID Hose
1-1/4 NPT
4 feet (1.2 m)
1.0 inch (25.4 mm) ID Hose
4 feet (1.2 m)
1/4 NPT female
1/4 NPT female
3 inch (76 mm) Hg
2.0 inch (50.8 mm) ID Hose
1-1/4 NPT
12 volts*, #
500 amps
10 amps
12 volts*, #
500 amps
10 amps
625 lbs (284 kg)
37.3x18.9x22.1 inch (946x479x562 mm)
625 lbs (284 kg)
37.3x18.9x22.1 inch (946x479x562 mm)
710 lbs (322 kg)
40.8x22.4x23.5 inch (1037x568x596 mm)
710 lbs (322 kg)
40.8x22.4x23.5 inch (1037x568x596 mm)
Maximum Sea Water Pump Lift
Sea Water Inlet Connection
Maximum Fuel Pump Lift
Fuel Supply Connection
Fuel Return Connection
Maximum Exhaust Back Pressure
Wet Exhaust Outlet Connection
Dry Exhaust Outlet Connection
BATTERIES:
Nominal Battery Voltage
Minimum CCA Rating
Charging Alternator Output
APPROXIMATE WEIGHTS AND DIMENSIONS:
Without Sound Shield
Wet Weight
Dimensions: L x W x H
With Sound Shield
Wet Weight
Dimensions: L x W x H
* - Isolated battery ground available as option.
# - 24 volt battery system available as option.
6
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by any means, is strictly prohibited.
Introduction
ABOUT THIS MANUAL
This is the Service Manual for the model MDKAL,
MDKAA and MDKAB generator sets (gensets). Observe carefully all of the instructions and precautions in this manual.
10.5MDKAA/92989A
A980123456
Operation, Periodic Maintenance Schedule and
Maintenance Procedures in the Operator’s Manual
have been duplicated here for your convenience.
The DC control schematic (Figure 25), the wiring
harness diagram (Figure 26) and the generator reconnection diagrams (Figure 27) are in the back of
this manual for quick reference. If there is a conflict,
the schematic printed on the genset control box
cover takes precedence over the schematic in this
manual.
THIS ENGINE MEETS 1995-1998 CALIFORNIA
EMISSIONS REGULATIONS FOR ULGE ENGINES
SKB1.3U6D2RA
See the Installation Manual for important recommendations and for a list of the installation codes
and standards for safety which may be applicable.
See the Parts Catalog for service part numbers.
See the Engine Workshop Manual for engine service procedures. See Specifications in this manual
to determine the engine model.
WARNING Improper service or replacement of
parts can lead to severe personal injury or death
and damage to equipment and property. Service personnel must be qualified to perform
electrical and mechanical service.
FIGURE 1. TYPICAL NAMEPLATE
CAUTION Unauthorized modifications or replacement of fuel, exhaust, air intake or speed
control system components that affect engine
emissions are prohibited by law in the State of
California.
MODEL IDENTIFICATION
When contacting Onan for parts, service or product
information, be ready to provide the model number
and the serial number on the genset nameplate.
See Figure 1.
7
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FUEL RECOMMENDATIONS
High quality fuel is necessary for good performance
and long engine life. Use No. 2 diesel fuel
(ASTM 2-D) with a Cetane number of not less than
45 and sulfur content of not more than 0.5 percent
(by weight). Where fuel is exposed to cold ambient
temperatures, use fuel that has a cloud point (temperature at which wax crystals begin to form) at
least 10 degrees below the lowest expected fuel
temperature.
FIGURE 2. SAE VISCOSITY GRADE vs. AMBIENT
TEMPERATURE
WARNING
Diesel fuel is combustible and can
cause severe personal injury or death. Do not
smoke near fuel tanks or fuel-burning equipment or in areas sharing ventilation with such
equipment. Keep flames, sparks, pilot flames,
electrical arcs and switches and all other
sources of ignition well away. Keep a type ABC
fire extinguisher handy.
ENGINE OIL RECOMMENDATIONS
Use premium quality motor oil. Look for the API
(American Petroleum Institute) classification and
use Class CG-4, CF-4, CF or better oil. Also look for
the SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) viscosity grade. Referring to Figure 2, choose the viscosity grade appropriate for the range of ambient temperatures expected before the next scheduled oil
change. Multi-grade oils such as SAE 15W-40 are
recommended for year-round use.
BATTERIES
The genset requires either a 12 volt or 24 volt battery to power its control and starting circuits. Reliable genset starting and starter service life depend
upon adequate battery system capacity and maintenance. See Specifications for battery requirements.
8
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TABLE 1. HAZARDS AND THEIR SOURCES
SAFETY
There are hazards in servicing gensets. Study
Safety Precautions and become familiar with the
hazards listed in Table 1. Note the following safeguards and ways of avoiding hazards:
Fire and
Explosion
• Use personal protection: Wear protective
safety equipment, such as safety shoes and
safety glasses.
Do not wear rings or jewelry and do not wear
loose or damp clothing that might get caught in
equipment or conduct electricity.
• Reduce the hazard: A safe, orderly workshop
area and well-maintained equipment reduce
the hazard potential. Keep guards and shields
in place on machinery and maintain equipment
in good working condition. Store flammable liquids in approved containers; away from fire,
flame, spark, pilot light, switches, arc-producing equipment and other ignition sources. Keep
the workshop clean and well lighted and provide adequate ventilation.
Leaking or spilled fuel
Hydrogen gas from battery
Oily rags improperly stored
Flammable liquids improperly
stored
Burns
• Hot exhaust pipes
• Hot engine and generator surfaces
• Electrical shorts
Poisonous
Gas
• Operating genset where exhaust gases can accumulate
Electrical
Shock (AC)
• Improper generator connections
• Faulty wiring
• Working in damp conditions
• Jewelry touching electrical
components
Rotating
Machinery
• Develop safe work habits: Unsafe actions
cause accidents with tools and machines. Be
familiar with the equipment and know how to
use it safely. Use the correct tool for the job and
check its condition before starting. Comply with
the warnings in this manual and take special
precautions when working around electrical
equipment. Do not work alone, if possible, and
do not take risks.
•
•
•
•
• Fan guards not in place
Slippery
Surfaces
• Leaking or spilled oil
Heavy
Objects
• Removing genset from vessel
• Removing heavy components
• Be prepared for an accident: Keep fire extinguishers and safety equipment nearby. Agencies such as the Red Cross and public safety
departments offer courses in first aid, CPR and
fire control. Take advantage of this information
to be ready to respond to an accident. Learn to
be safety-conscious and make safety procedures part of the work routine.
9
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1. Battery cables (negative [- ] cables first).
SERVICE TOOLS
WARNING Arcing at battery terminals or in
a light switch or other equipment, flames
and sparks can ignite battery gas causing
severe personal injury. Ventilate the battery
compartment before connecting or disconnecting battery cables—Disconnect the
negative (-) cable first and reconnect it
last—Wear
safety
glasses—Do
not
smoke—Switch lights ON and Off away
from the battery.
The following special tools are necessary:
• Torque wrench: 0-75 lbs-ft (0-100 N-m)
• Tachometer or frequency meter
• Digital multi-meter: AC and DC Volts, Ohms
• Load test panel, leads and ammeter
• 500 VDC Megger for winding insulation resistance measurements
• 0.01 ohm precision digital ohmmeter or Wheatstone bridge for winding resistance measurements
2. Fuel lines. First close all fuel shutoff valves.
WARNING Diesel fuel is combustible and
can cause severe personal injury or death.
Do not smoke near fuel tanks or fuel-burning equipment or in areas sharing ventilation with such equipment. Keep flames,
sparks, pilot flames, electrical arcs and
switches and all other sources of ignition
well away. Keep a type ABC fire extinguisher handy.
• AVR/Generator test adapter (p. 29)
REMOVING GENSET FROM VESSEL
Contact the manufacturer of the vessel or the installer if a good way to remove the genset is not obvious. There are four bolt holes for securing the
genset to the floor or supporting structure of the
vessel. A lifting eye is accessible through the access opening in the top panel of the sound shield.
3. Remote control wiring.
WARNING
Gensets are heavy and can cause
severe personal injury or death if dropped. Use
adequate lifting devices and keep hands and
feet clear while lifting.
4. AC output wiring.
5. Exhaust hose.
6. Sea water supply hose (first close sea cock).
The following disconnections will have to be made
to remove the genset from the vessel:
7. Coolant hoses to a keel cooler (if provided).
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Operation
EXHAUST GAS IS DEADLY!
Engine exhaust contains carbon monoxide, a poisonous, odorless and colorless gas that can
cause unconsciousness and death. Symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning include:
• Dizziness
• Throbbing in Temples
• Nausea
• Muscular Twitching
• Headache
• Vomiting
• Weakness
• Trouble Thinking Clearly
• Sleepiness
GET EVERYONE OUT INTO FRESH AIR IMMEDIATELY IF ANYONE EXPERIENCES ANY OF
THESE SYMPTOMS. Seek medical attention if symptoms persist.
Never sleep in the vessel when the genset is running unless the cabins have operating carbon
monoxide detectors.
Look and listen for leaks along the entire run of the exhaust system every time you start up the
genset and every eight hours if the genset is being run continuously. Shut down the genset
immediately if there is a leak and do not run it until the leak has been repaired.
The installation of the exhaust system must be in accordance with the genset Installation
Manual.
Troubleshooting if the engine does not start on
the second try.
PRE-START CHECKS
Perform the GENERAL INSPECTION (p. 16).
Check for fuel, exhaust, oil and coolant leaks
every eight hours if the genset is being run continuously.
CAUTION Excessive cranking can overheat and damage the starter. Do not crank
for more than 20 seconds at a time and wait
two minutes before trying again.
Check the maintenance record and perform any
maintenance due (Periodic Maintenance Schedule). Also see GENSET BREAK-IN in this section if
the genset is new and RETURNING THE GENSET
TO SERVICE if the vessel has been in storage.
4. Connect the electrical loads after the genset
has warmed up for a few minutes.
5. Check for fuel, exhaust, oil and coolant leaks
and complete the GENERAL INSPECTION
(p. 16). Check the engine gauges regularly (if
provided).
STARTING
1. Disconnect all loads from the genset.
• Oil Pressure Gauge: Normal engine oil
pressure is 28 - 64 psi (194 - 442 kPa) at
normal operating temperature.
2. Preheat - Hold the control switch in the PREHEAT position for 5 to 20 seconds.
CAUTION Preheat times longer than 20
seconds can damage the glow plugs.
• DC Voltmeter: Normal DC system voltage
is 12.5 - 15 volts (12 volt system) or
24 - 27 volts (24 volt system) depending
on battery condition and state-of-charge.
3. Start - Immediately after PREHEAT push the
control switch to START and hold it there until
the engine starts. The starter will automatically
disconnect as the engine starts up.
• Coolant Temperature Gauge: Normal
engine
coolant
temperature
is
160 -195° F (71 - 91° C) depending on
sea water* temperature and load.
Do not crank for more than 20 seconds at a
time. Wait two minutes before trying again. See
* In this manual, “sea water” refers to floatation water.
11
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TABLE 2. TYPICAL APPLIANCE LOADS
STOPPING
Appliance
Before stopping let the genset cool down by running at no-load for three to five minutes. Then touch
the control switch momentarily to STOP.
Load (watt)
Air Conditioner
1400-2000
Battery Charger
Up to 800
DC Converter
300-1500
Refrigerator
600-1000
Microwave Oven
1000-1500
POWERING APPLIANCES
Electric Frying Pan/Wok
1000-1500
The genset can power AC motors, air conditioners,
AC/DC converters and other appliances. How
much appliance load* can be serviced depends
upon the genset power rating. The genset will shut
down or its circuit breakers will trip if the total load
exceeds genset rating.
Electric Stove Element
350-1000
Electric Water Heater
1000-1500
Electric Iron
500-1200
Electric Hair Dryer
800-1500
Coffee Percolator
550-750
To avoid overloading the genset and causing shutdowns, compare the sum of the loads of the appliances that are likely to be used at the same time
(total load) to the power rating of the genset. Use
Table 2 or the ratings on the appliances themselves
(if so marked) to obtain the individual appliance
loads. It may be necessary to run fewer appliances at the same time so that the total load is
not greater than genset rating.
Television
200-600
Radio
50-200
Electric Drill
250-750
Electric Broom
200-500
Electric Blanket
50-200
CAUTION Failure to let the engine cool down
before stopping can lead to engine damage. Let
the genset run three to five minutes at no-load
before stopping.
Note that the genset may shut down due to overload, even though the total load is less than genset
rating, when a large motor or air conditioner is
started last or cycles off and then on again. The reason for this is that motor startup load is much larger
than running load. It may be necessary to run fewer appliances when large motors and air conditioners are cycling on and off.
SHORE POWER CONNECTIONS
A vessel that has provisions for connection to shore
power must be equipped with an approved transfer
switch to keep the genset and shore power from being interconnected.
WARNING Backfeed to shore power can cause
electrocution and damage to equipment. Use an
approved device to prevent the genset from being interconnected with shore power.
* Appliance load and genset power are measured in terms of watt (W) or kilowatt (kW), where 1 kilowatt (kW) = 1000 watt (W).
12
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RESETTING LINE CIRCUIT BREAKERS
CIRCUIT BREAKERS
If a circuit breaker in the main power distribution
panel in the vessel or on the genset (Figure 3) trips,
there is either a short circuit or too much load. Note
that the genset will continue to run after a circuit
breaker trips.
If a circuit breaker trips, disconnect or turn off as
many appliances as possible and reset the circuit
breaker. (Push the circuit breaker OFF to reset it
and then ON to reconnect the circuit.) If the circuit
breaker trips right away, either the electrical distribution system has a short or the circuit breaker is
faulty. Call a qualified electrician.
If the circuit breaker does not trip, reconnect a combination of appliances that does not overload the
genset or cause the circuit breaker to trip. An appliance that causes a circuit breaker to trip right
away probably has a short.
Electrical appliances must be properly grounded
and in good working condition.
WARNING Electrical shock can cause severe
personal injury or death. Read and follow the
appliance manufacturer’s instructions and
warnings.
FIGURE 3. GENSET MOUNTED LINE CIRCUIT
BREAKERS
ENGINE BREAK-IN
Change the oil and oil filter after the first 35 hours of
operation. See Maintenance Procedures.
NO-LOAD OPERATION
Keep no-load operation to a minimum. During
no-load operation combustion chamber temperatures drop to the point where fuel does not burn
completely, causing slobbering and white smoke.
Always have some load connected when the genset is run for long periods.
13
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dance with the manufacturer’s recommendations.
GENSET EXERCISE
If use is infrequent, run the genset at approximately
1/2 rated power for an hour every week. Exercising
the genset results in better starting, longer engine
life and increased genset reliability by driving off
moisture, re-lubricating the engine, using up fuel
before it becomes stale and removing oxides from
electrical contacts. One longer period during which
the engine and generator warm up thoroughly is
better than several shorter periods.
WARNING Hot coolant is under pressure
and can cause severe burns when loosening the pressure cap. Let the engine cool
before loosening the pressure cap.
4. Check the coolant level and add coolant as
necessary. Test the coolant mixture if freezing
temperatures are possible and change if necessary. See ENGINE COOLING SYSTEM in
Maintenance Procedures.
GENSET STORAGE
5. If freezing temperatures are possible, drain the
heat exchanger of sea water by removing the
drain plug in the bottom of the heat exchanger
(Figure 5). Replace the plug when the water
has drained.
If the genset will be inactive for more than 30 days
and it is impractical to have someone exercise it,
prepare it for storage as follows:
1. Run the genset until it has thoroughly warmed
up and shut it down.
6. Clean the genset and lightly oil parts that can
rust.
WARNING
Crankcase pressure can blow
out hot oil and cause severe burns. Stop the
engine before checking the oil level or
opening the fill cap.
RETURNING GENSET TO SERVICE
1. Check the tag on the dipstick and change the
oil if the viscosity is not suitable for present and
anticipated ambient temperatures.
2. Change the oil and oil filter while still warm and
attach a tag to the dip stick indicating the oil viscosity grade. See CHANGING OIL AND OIL
FILTER in Maintenance Procedures.
2. Reconnect the battery(ies) (negative [- ] cables
last) and service as necessary in accordance
with the manufacturer’s instructions.
WARNING Arcing at battery terminals or in
a light switch or other equipment, flames
and sparks can ignite battery gas causing
severe personal injury. Ventilate the battery
compartment before connecting or disconnecting battery cables—Disconnect the
negative (-) cable first and reconnect it
last—Wear
safety
glasses—Do
not
smoke—Switch lights ON and Off away
from the battery.
3. Prime the fuel system (p. 24).
4. Replace the sea water pump impeller if it was
installed more than a year ago. If less, remove
the impeller cover and wet the internal surfaces
of the pump with water to establish initial lubrication and pump suction. See Replacing the
Sea Water Pump Impeller (p. 22).
5. Perform PRE-START CHECKS and start and
run the genset according to STARTING. Perform maintenance or service as required before placing the genset in service.
3. Disconnect the battery cables (negative [- ]
cables first) and store the battery(ies) in accor-
14
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Periodic Maintenance Schedule
WARNING Accidental starting can cause severe personal injury or death. Disconnect the
negative (-) cable(s) at the battery(ies) to prevent starting while working on the genset.
Periodic maintenance is essential for top genset
performance and long service life. Use Table 3 as a
guide and follow the Maintenance Procedures.
TABLE 3. PERIODIC MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE
FREQUENCY
PROCEDURE
After
first
35 Hrs
Every
Day/
8 Hrs
Every
Month/
100 Hrs
Every 6
Months/
200 Hrs
Every
Year/
500 Hrs
Every
800 Hrs
Every
2 years
Every
5 years
P
a
g
e
Inspect Genset
x1
16
Check Oil Level
x
16
Check Coolant Level
x
16
Check Fuel Level
x
16
Check Exhaust System
x
16
Check Battery
x2
-
Check V-Belt Tension
x3
20
Drain Water in Fuel
x
23
Check Siphon Break
x
21
Clean Genset
Change Oil & Oil Filter
x
Change Fuel Filter
x
16
x
17
x
23
Change Zinc Anode
x
21
Replace Sea Water Impeller
x
22
Check Generator Bearing
x4
x4
Adjust Valve Lash
Change Coolant, Pressure Cap, Thermostat,
Hoses, V-belt
x
Replace Generator
Bearing
18
x4
-
1 - Check for oil, fuel, coolant and exhaust system leaks.
2 - See battery manufacturer’s recommendations.
3 - Check for slippage.
4 - Must be performed by an authorized Onan dealer. Check every year for evidence of outer race rotation.
15
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Maintenance Procedures
GENERAL INSPECTION
Exhaust System Inspection
Wet Exhaust System: Inspect the exhaust system
for leaks and loose hose clamps at the exhaust
manifold, exhaust elbow, muffler, water separator
and hull fittings. Replace damaged sections of exhaust hose.
Perform these checks and inspections every time
the genset is started or every eight hours if the genset is being run continuously.
Oil Level Check
Dry Exhaust System: Inspect the exhaust system
for leaks at all joints, welds and gaskets. Replace
rusted sections of exhaust pipe.
WARNING
Crankcase pressure can blow out
hot oil and cause severe burns. Stop the engine
before checking the oil level or opening the fill
cap.
WARNING
EXHAUST GAS IS DEADLY! Do not
operate the genset until all exhaust leaks have
been repaired.
Shut down the genset to check engine oil level and
wait a few minutes for the oil to drain down to the
crankcase to get an accurate indication of oil level.
Fuel System Inspection
Check for leaks at all fuel line fittings and gaskets.
Replace fuel hose that has been abraded or cut and
install new hose in such a way that it will not become
kinked, rub against other parts or come in contact
with sharp edges, hot surfaces or wiring.
Keep the oil level between FULL and ADD on the
dipstick (Figure 4). See ENGINE OIL RECOMMENDATIONS in Introduction for the type of oil
to add.
CAUTION Too little oil can lead to severe engine damage and too much oil to high oil consumption and foaming, which can cause engine
shutdown. Keep the oil level between FULL and
ADD.
WARNING Fuel leaks can lead to fire. Repair
leaks immediately. Do not run the genset if there
is a fuel leak.
Prime the fuel system if the genset ran out of fuel or
a fuel filter was replaced. See FUEL SYSTEM.
Coolant Level Check
Battery Inspection
Replenish the normal loss of coolant by keeping the
level in the coolant recovery tank between COLD
and HOT. See COOLING SYSTEM for the recommended mixture of antifreeze.
Check for clean, tight battery connections. Looseness and corrosion cause high electrical resistance, which makes for hard starting.
WARNING Arcing at battery terminals or in a
light switch or other equipment, flames and
sparks can ignite battery gas causing severe
personal injury. Ventilate the battery compartment before connecting or disconnecting battery cables—Disconnect the negative (-) cable
first and reconnect it last—Wear safety
glasses—Do not smoke—Switch lights ON and
Off away from the battery.
Sea Water Pump, Strainer and Sea Cocks
Clean out the sea water strainer if necessary and
make sure the sea cock is open. When a water separator is part of the exhaust installation make sure
the exhaust water sea cock is open.
If the sea water pump is located higher than the load
waterline and it has been a week or more since the
genset has been run, it is recommended that the impeller cover be removed and the internal surfaces of
the the pump be wetted with water to establish initial
lubrication and pump suction. See Replacing the
Sea Water Pump Impeller (p. 22).
Mechanical Inspection
Check for unusual noises and vibrations, loose genset mounts and signs of mechanical damage.
Check the engine gauges regularly (if provided).
See Operation for normal gauge readings.
CAUTION Wet the internal surfaces of the
pump as often as necessary to prevent dry
startups, which severely shorten impeller life.
Keep the genset clean. Do not clean the genset
while it is running. Protect the generator, control
16
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storage position. Two wrenches are necessary to
keep from twisting the hose when removing and
tightening the plug.
panel, and electrical connections from cleaning solvents.
CHANGING OIL AND OIL FILTER
Changing Oil Filter: To change the oil filter, place a
container under the oil filter (Figure 4) to catch oil
that drips out and then spin off the oil filter. Clean the
filter mounting surface, apply oil to the new filter
gasket and spin the filter on until the gasket just
touches the mounting pad. Then tighten an additional 3/4 turn.
WARNING
State and federal agencies have determined that contact with used engine oil can
cause cancer or reproductive toxicity. Take care
to limit skin contact and breathing of vapors.
Use protective gloves and wash exposed skin.
Table 3 specifies the maximum intervals for oil and
oil filter change. See ENGINE OIL RECOMMENDATIONS in Introduction for the oil to use and Specifications for the amount.
Refilling Engine Oil: Refill with the proper amount
of oil, start the engine and check for leakage around
the filter gasket. Tighten the filter only enough to
stop leakage. Shut off the genset, recheck the oil
level and add oil as necessary.
WARNING Crankcase pressure can blow out
hot oil and cause severe burns. Stop the engine
before checking the oil level or opening the fill
cap.
CAUTION Too little oil can lead to severe engine damage and too much oil to high oil consumption and foaming, which can cause engine
shutdown. Keep the oil level between FULL and
ADD.
Draining Engine Oil: To drain the engine oil, run
the engine until thoroughly warm and then stop it. If
an oil pump-out system is installed, follow the instructions provided. If not, unscrew the plug on the
end of the drain hose (Figure 4) and drain the oil into
a suitable container. When the oil is completely
drained, reinstall the plug and return the hose to its
Disposing of Used Oil and Oil Filter: Dispose of
the used oil and oil filter according to local environmental regulations.
OIL DIPSTICK
OIL FILL
OIL FILTER
OIL DRAIN HOSE
FIGURE 4. OIL CHECK, FILL, DRAIN AND FILTER
17
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ENGINE COOLING SYSTEM
Changing Coolant
WARNING Hot coolant is under pressure and
can cause severe burns when loosening the
pressure cap. Let the engine cool before loosening the pressure cap.
Table 3 specifies the maximum intervals for replacing coolant, hoses, pressure cap, thermostat, V-belt
and zinc anode.
Cooling System Overview
WARNING Accidental starting can cause severe personal injury or death. Disconnect the
negative (-) cable(s) from the battery(ies) to prevent the engine from starting.
The engine is cooled by a pressurized, closed-loop
liquid cooling system. Coolant is pumped through
passages in the engine block, head and exhaust
manifold and is cooled in a genset-mounted heat
exchanger or keel cooler. The V-belt drives the engine coolant pump.
Draining the System: Let the engine cool down,
disconnect the negative (- ) cable(s) at the battery(ies) to prevent the engine from starting, remove the system pressure cap and open the block
and heat exchanger drain cocks (Figure 5). See the
manufacturer’s instructions regarding a keel cooler.
Collect used coolant in containers for proper disposal.
If the genset has a heat exchanger and/or a wet exhaust elbow, the engine is equipped with a sea water* pump driven by a power takeoff on the engine.
The sea water cools the heat exchanger and/or exhaust gases and exits the vessel through the exhaust system. (There is no sea water pump if the
genset is equipped for keel cooling and dry exhaust.) Figure 5 illustrates a typical installation of a
genset equipped with a heat exchanger, wet exhaust elbow and sea water pump.
WARNING Ethylene glycol antifreeze is toxic.
Keep away from children and animals and dispose of according to the local regulations for
hazardous substances.
Cleaning and Flushing the System: Use radiator
cleaning chemicals to clean and flush the cooling
system before new coolant is added. Follow the
manufacturer’s instructions.
Recommended Coolant Mixture
Use the best quality ethylene or propylene glycol
antifreeze solution available. It should be fully formulated with rust inhibitors and coolant stabilizers
but not with stop-leak additives. Use fresh water
that is low in minerals and corrosive chemicals. Distilled water is best. Unless prohibited by shipping
regulations, gensets with heat exchangers are
shipped with the recommended 50/50 mixture of
water and ethylene glycol, which is good for -34° F
(-37° C).
CAUTION Filling a hot engine with cold water
can cause cracks in the manifold, head and
block. Follow the manufacturer’s instructions
for cleaning and flushing.
Filling the System: Close all drain cocks and secure all hose clamps and fill the system through the
fill opening. The system will fill only as fast as the air
can escape. Fill to the bottom of the fill neck. Start
and run the engine until it warms up (thermostat
opens) to dislodge air pockets and shut it down. Add
as much coolant as necessary and secure the pressure cap.
See Specifications for coolant system fill capacity if
the genset is equipped with a heat exchanger. If the
genset is keel cooled, system capacity also depends on the capacity of the keel cooler.
CAUTION
Low coolant level can cause severe
engine damage. Make sure the system is full.
Coolant Recovery Tank
Pressure Cap
Replenish the normal loss of coolant by keeping the
level in the recovery tank between COLD and HOT.
Use the recommended mixture of antifreeze. See
Changing Coolant if it is necessary to fill the system.
Replace the pressure cap periodically (Table 3) to
maintain optimal engine cooling and minimal coolant loss.
* In this manual, “sea water” refers to floatation water.
18
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COOLANT RECOVERY TANK
(REFILL NORMAL COOLANT LOSS HERE)
COOLANT PRESSURE CAP
(REFILL SYSTEM HERE)
HIGH EXHAUST TEMPERATURE CUT
OFF SWITCH ON EXHAUST ELBOW
DRAIN TUBE
(ROUTE TO DRIP PAN)
SEA WATER
HOSE
SEA WATER COOLED
HEAT EXCHANGER
COOLANT
HOSES
CLEANOUT
COVER
COOLANT
SEA WATER
COOLANT DRAIN
(TO CLOSE)
SEA WATER
COOLANT
CLEANOUT
COVER
COOLANT DRAIN
(TO CLOSE)
ZINC
ANODE
SEA WATER
DRAIN
TO HEAT
EXCHANGER
THERMOSTAT
HOUSING
V−BELT
GUARD
SEA WATER
STRAINER
SEA COCK
SEA WATER HULL
STRAINER
(SLOTS PARALLEL
TO KEEL)
SEA WATER
PUMP
FIGURE 5. TYPICAL HEAT EXCHANGER-TYPE COOLING SYSTEM
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Adjusting V-Belt Tension
ADJUSTING
BRACKET
BOLT
The V-belt (Figure 6) drives the coolant pump and
battery charging alternator.
WARNING Accidental starting can cause severe personal injury or death. Disconnect the
negative (-) cable(s) at the battery(ies) to prevent the engine from starting.
PIVOT
BOLT
1. Disconnect the negative (- ) cable(s) at the battery(ies) to prevent the engine from starting
and remove the belt guard or sound shield
door.
2. Loosen the alternator pivot bolt first and then
the adjusting bracket bolt on top.
3. Tighten belt tension by pivoting the alternator
outwards. Hold tension by tightening the adjusting bracket bolt. Apply 20 pounds (10 kg) as
shown to the middle of the pulley span and
measure belt deflection, which should be 0.4
inch (10 mm). Tighten the alternator bolts
when tension is correct.
0.4 INCH (10 MM)
DEFLECTION AT
20 LBS (10 KG)
4. Secure the belt guard or sound shield door and
reconnect the battery cables (negative [- ]
last).
FIGURE 6. ADJUSTING V-BELT TENSION
Replacing Thermostat
Replace the thermostat periodically (Table 3) to
maintain optimal engine cooling.
WARNING Accidental starting can cause severe personal injury or death. Disconnect the
negative (-) cable(s) at the battery(ies) to prevent the engine from starting.
WARNING Hot coolant is under pressure and
can cause severe burns when loosening the
pressure cap. Let the engine cool before loosening the pressure cap.
THERMOSTAT
1. Let the engine cool, loosen the pressure cap
and disconnect the negative (- ) cable(s) at the
battery(ies) to prevent the engine from starting.
2. Remove the two thermostat housing bolts (Figure 7) and pull off the housing, thermostat and
gasket. The hose does not need to come off.
3. Clean off the gasket area and reassemble as
shown with the new thermostat and gasket. Apply Three Bond 1215 liquid sealant or equivalent to the top side of the gasket.
FIGURE 7. REPLACING THERMOSTAT
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If of the spring-loaded valve design, check for free
movement of the plunger. Replace the device if the
plunger does not move freely or the body is encrusted with deposits from leakage past the valve
seat.
Heat Exchanger and Zinc Anode
The heat exchanger has cleanout covers on both
ends to clean the sea water tubes. Remove the covers to clean out seaweed and pump debris. If necessary, take the heat exchanger to a radiator shop
for chemical cleaning of hard deposits.
If of the bleed-vent type (Figure 8), check that the
vent hose is properly connected on both ends. If the
vent is connected to a hull fitting, check for normal
water flow whenever the engine is running.
Siphon Break
A siphon break is installed when the exhaust elbow
is below, or less than 6 inches (152 mm) above, the
load waterline (Figure 8) to prevent flooding when
the engine is not running.
12 INCH (305 MM) MINIMUM HEIGHT OF
SIPHON BREAK ABOVE LOAD WATERLINE
WARNING Bypassing a siphon break or failing
to maintain it can lead to engine flooding and
damage to the engine not covered under Warranty.
SIPHON BREAK VENT LINE CONNECTED TO THIS REGION OF EXHAUST TUBE OR TO HULL FITTING.
VENTED
SIPHON
BREAK
LOAD WATERLINE
A SIPHON BREAK IS REQUIRED WHEN
THE EXHAUST ELBOW OUTLET IS BELOW
OR LESS THAN 6 INCHES (152 MM)
ABOVE THE LOAD WATERLINE
MUFFLER
FIGURE 8. TYPICAL INSTALLATION OF A VENT-TYPE SIPHON BREAK AND WET EXHAUST SYSTEM
21
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Replacing the Sea Water Pump Impeller
The sea water pump (Figure 9) is driven off a power
takeoff on the engine. To replace the impeller:
COVER
O-RING
1. Disconnect the negative (- ) cable(s) at the battery(ies) to prevent the engine from starting.
WARNING Accidental starting can cause
severe personal injury or death. Disconnect the negative (-) cable(s) at the battery(ies) to prevent the engine from starting.
FLEXIBLE
IMPELLER
2. Close the sea cock and remove the impeller
cover and O-ring.
3. Using two pairs of pliers to grip vanes on opposite sides, pull out the old impeller. Check for
and cleanout pieces of the impeller from the
heat exchanger and exhaust elbow if vanes
have broken off.
TO HEAT EXCHANGER
OR EXHAUST
ELBOW
4. Install the new impeller. It helps to twist the impeller clockwise while squeezing it into the
housing. Push it in all the way when the keyway
lines up with the key in the shaft. The vanes
should all incline backwards, that is, counterclockwise; the impeller turns clockwise.
FROM
SOURCE
IMPELLER ROTATION
AND VANE INCLINATION
5. To provide initial lubrication and better pump
suction before water reaches the pump, wet
the inside of the pump and impeller with water,
soap solution or a silicone lubricant and secure
the O-ring and cover.
CAUTION Do not lubricate with petroleum
products like grease and oil which chemically attack impeller materials.
6. If the sea water strainer is above the waterline,
remove the strainer element cover, fill it with
water (which also fills the hose to the pump)
and reinstall the cover.
FIGURE 9. REPLACING SEA WATER PUMP IMPELLER
7. Open the sea cock, reconnect the battery
cables (negative [- ] last) and start the genset.
Shut down the genset within 30 seconds if
there is no water flow from the exhaust hull fitting. (Flow will not be visible if an exhaust water
separator has been installed. In that case, feel
the pump cover and shut down the genset if the
pump gets hot.) If there is no flow, find and remove the blockage before the genset is started
again.
WARNING The pump gets hot quickly if
there is no flow and can burn your fingers.
Be cautious when touching the pump.
22
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tion cannot be avoided. To drain the filter, remove
the plug (Figure 10), collect the water and sediment
(about 1/2 cup [120 ml]) in a suitable container and
dispose of properly. Reinstall the plug securely.
FUEL SYSTEM
Fuel Handling Precautions
Keep dirt, water and other contaminants from entering the fuel system and damaging, corroding or
clogging fuel injection components. The genset has
a water-separator type of fuel filter but the fuel supply system should have a filter and water separator
installed ahead of connections at the genset.
Replacing the Filter Element: See Table 3 for the
regular frequency of fuel filter change. Replace the
filter sooner if the engine lacks power or surges.
1. Drain the filter as explained above and spin off
the element.
A primary source of water in fuel, which can clog fuel
passages by freezing and cause corrosion by forming sulfuric acid with the sulfur in the fuel, is the condensation of humid air on the walls of the fuel tank.
Keeping fuel tanks as full as possible reduces condensation by reducing the area on which condensation can take place.
2. Clean the contact surface of the base.
3. Lubricate the new element and its gasket, and
fill the element with clean diesel fuel.
4. Spin the new element onto the base and hand
tighten.
Fuel Filter
5. Start and run the genset and check for fuel
leakage. Tighten the filter only enough to stop
leakage. See Priming the Fuel System if the
genset does not start.
Draining Water and Sediment: See Table 3 for the
regular frequency of draining water and sediment.
Drain more often if fuel quality is poor or condensa-
FUEL STOP SOLENOID
FUEL CONNECTIONS
FUEL INJECTION PUMP
FUEL PUMP
FUEL FILTER DRAIN PLUG
FUEL FILTER
FIGURE 10. FUEL SYSTEM
23
Redistribution or publication of this document,
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Priming the High-Pressure Side: This procedure
should only be performed by a diesel mechanic.
Priming the Fuel System
Priming the Low-Pressure Side: The fuel lift
pump (Figure 10) primes during preheat when the
control switch is held in the stop position. Priming
purges air from the low-pressure side of the fuel injection system.
WARNING The high pressure oil spray from an
injector line fitting can penetrate the skin, leading to possible blood poisoning. Wear safety
glasses and keep your hands away from the
spray. Do not delay getting proper medical
attention if oil spray penetrates your skin.
CAUTION Preheating for more than 20 seconds at a time reduces the life of the glow plugs.
Let the glow plugs cool for at least one minute
before trying again.
1. Loosen the high pressure fittings at the
nozzles. Use two wrenches to keep from twisting the return fittings. Use flare-nut wrenches
to keep from rounding the shoulders.
If priming for 20 seconds at a time is not enough,
open the bleed screw and disconnect the engine
harness lead from the glow plugs (Figure 11) and
make sure it cannot ground on the block. Then
press STOP until fuel just starts to appear at the
bleed opening. Tighten the bleed screw and reconnect the lead to the glow plugs.
2. Crank the genset until fuel appears at the loosened fittings and then snug up each fitting. The
engine should start and run when the first fitting
is snugged.
3. Shut down the engine and torque the fittings to
19 - 25 lb-ft (25 - 34 N-m).
TO PRIME MORE THAN 20 SECONDS DISCONNECT ENGINE
HARNESS FROM THIS GLOW PLUG TERMINAL AND
INSULATE END
USE TWO FLARE−NUT WRENCHES TO
LOOSEN THESE FITTINGS TO BLEED HIGH
PRESSURE INJECTOR LINES
WEAR SAFETY GLASSES AND KEEP
FINGERS OUT OF SPRAY
AVOID LOOSENING
THESE FITTINGS
OPEN LOW−PRESSURE BLEED
USE TWO WRENCHES SO AS NOT TO
LOOSEN FUEL FITTING
FIGURE 11. PRIMING THE FUEL SYSTEM
24
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Engine (DC) Control
See Figures 12 and 13 to locate the control components on the control panel and inside the control
box. See Figure 14 to locate the control components mounted on the engine, such as the fuel stop
solenoid, gauge senders and shutdown switches.
Figures 25 and 26 at the back are the control schematic and connection diagrams.
S6
OIL
PRESS
M2
CONTROL PANEL
CB1
Start-Stop-Prime/Preheat Switch (S1): Starts the
genset when held at Start and stops the genset
when momentarily touched to Stop. Holding the
switch at Stop causes the glow plugs to preheat the
combustions chambers and the fuel lift pump to
prime the fuel system.
DC
VOLTAGE
M4
COOLANT
TEMP
M3
CB5
CB2
M1
S1
CB4
FIGURE 12. CONTROL PANEL
Hour Meter (M1): Indicates the number of hours
the genset has run. It cannot be reset.
Engine Gauges (M2, M3, M4): Optional—indicate
engine oil pressure, coolant temperature and control system DC voltage. If remote gauges have been
installed, push gauge switch (S6) in to read M2 and
M3 at the genset.
Gauge Switch (S6): Momentary contact switch
used only when remote gauges have been
installed. Push the button to read M2 and M3 at the
genset.
“Check Engine” Fault Breaker (CB2): Shuts
down the genset when one of the following fault
conditions causes it to trip: over/undervoltage, over/
underspeed, low oil pressure, high exhaust temperature, high coolant temperature and low coolant
level (optional). Push the reset button to reset.
“Check Generator” Fault Breaker (CB5): Shuts
down the genset when high generator quadrature
winding current causes it to trip. Push the reset button to reset.
FIGURE 13. CONTROL BOX
DC Circuit Breaker (CB1): Protects the high-current (DC) glow plug circuits from shorts to ground.
The genset will stop if tripped. Reset with handle.
Emergency Stop Breaker (CB4): A rocker switch
type of circuit breaker that protects the genset control circuits (DC) from shorts to ground. The genset
will stop if the circuit breaker trips or the rocker is
pushed to Stop. Push the rocker On to reset.
25
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by any means, is strictly prohibited.
CONTROL
PANEL
FUEL STOP
SOLENOID
K7
GLOW PLUGS
(BEHIND INJECTORS)
HR1,2,3,4
OIL PRESSURE
SWITCH
S4
COOLANT
GAUGE SENDER
E2
OIL GAUGE
SENDER
E1
OIL FILL
COMBUSTION
AIR INLET
SEA
WATER
OIL
FILTER
FUEL
CONNECTIONS
BATTERY
CHARGING
ALTERNATOR
G1
OIL DRAIN
TUBE
OIL
DIPSTICK
HIGH COOLANT
TEMP SWITCH
S2
FUEL PUMP
E5
COOLANT
PRESSURE CAP
FUEL
FILTER
LOW COOLANT
LEVEL SWITCH
S3
SEA WATER
INLET
HIGH EXHAUST
TEMP SWITCH
S5
BLOCK
DRAIN
AC OUTPUT BOX
AND LINE CIRCUIT
BREAKERS
COOLANT
SEA
WATER
HEAT EX−
CHANGER
STARTER MOTOR
AND SOLENOID
B1
BATTERY NEG (−)
M10
RELAY K9 LOCATION
(ISOLATED GROUND)
BATTERY POS (+)
M8
FIGURE 14. TYPICAL GENSET CONFIGURATION
26
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by any means, is strictly prohibited.
Start Disconnect: As the genset runs up to rated
speed and voltage and the output signal from the
AVR crosses a threshold of approximately 70 VDC,
start disconnect relay K4 opens contacts 9-10 and
closes contacts 1-2 and 3-4.
SEQUENCE OF OPERATION
Refer to Figure 25 while working through the following sequences of operation.
Start Sequence
• Closing contacts 1-2 keeps run relay K3 energized and the genset running when control
switch S1 is released. The genset will not continue to run if the generator fails to develop the
threshold voltage necessary to energize
relay K4.
Prime/Preheat: Holding switch S1 in its Stop/Preheat position energizes relays K5 (glow plugs) and
K11 (fuel prime).
• When relay K5 contacts 87-30 close, glow
plugs HR1-HR3(4) are energized to preheat
the engine combustion chambers.
• Opening contacts 9-10 deenergizes starter
relay K1 and glow plug relay K5, stopping
cranking and preheating. This will occur even
before control switch S1 is released.
• When relay K11 contacts 30-87 close, fuel lift
pump E5 is energized to lift fuel to the fuel injection pump.
Start: Holding switch S1 in its Start position energizes start relay K2. Start relay K2 contacts 87-30
close to energize run relay K3. Relay K3 closes
contacts 30-87 to energize:
• Closing contacts 3-4 arms the fault shutdown
circuits. See Fault Shutdown Sequence.
Run: The genset runs up to rated speed and voltage in a few seconds. As the load varies, the AVR
maintains rated voltage by varying generator field
strength (see Automatic Voltage Regulator) and the
internal mechanical governor maintains nominal
frequency by moving the fuel rack.
• Meter M1, and meters M2-M4 when provided.
• Low coolant level switch S3 and relay K6, when
provided.
• Field windings of battery charging alternator G1.
Fault Shutdown Sequence
• Fuel pump E5.
“Check Engine” Faults: The following fault
switches shut down the genset by grounding terminal 2 on fault breaker CB2, causing it to trip:
• AVR start disconnect and over-speed fault circuits.
• Fueling relay K8. Relay K8 closes contacts
87-30 to energize fuel stop solenoid K7, which
pulls in to move the fuel rack to its maximum
fuel position and open its internal “AUX” contacts. When the contacts open, starter relay K1
and relay K10 are energized. (Opening the
contacts removes B+ from the ground side of
the relay K1 and K10 coils, which are grounded
through pull-in coil P.)
• High engine temperature switch S2
• Low coolant level switch S3, via relay K6
• Low oil pressure switch S4
• High exhaust temperature switch S5
• AVR overspeed circuit
“Check Generator” Faults: Fault breaker CB5
trips if generator quadrature winding current is too
high.
• When relay K1 contacts 87-30 close, starter motor B1 is energized via its solenoid to
crank the engine.
Stop Sequence
• When relay K10 contacts 30-87 close,
glow plug relay K5, fuel prime relay K11
and isolated ground relay K9 will continue
to be energized during cranking.
One touch of switch S1 to its Stop position connects
B+ to the ground side of run relay K3, deenergizing
it and stopping the genset by deenergizing fuel stop
solenoid K7, shutting off fuel.
27
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Automatic Voltage Regulator
The automatic voltage regulator (AVR) is mounted
as shown in Figure 15 on the floor of the control box
and is connected as shown in Figure 16.
WARNING HAZARDOUS VOLTAGE Touching
uninsulated live parts inside the control box can
result in severe personal injury or death. For
your protection, stand on a dry wooden platform or rubber insulating mat, make sure your
clothing and shoes are dry, remove jewelry and
use tools with insulated handles.
ADJUSTING VOLTAGE
The AVR has a voltage adjustment pot and
50/60 Hz selector switch. Do not readjust the
sealed V/HZ break point pot. To adjust voltage:
1. Disconnect all generator loads.
2. Check the position of the 50/60 Hz selector
switch and change it if necessary.
3. Start the genset and turn the voltage adjusting
pot to obtain rated output voltage.
TERMINAL K4-5
Ground to keep genset
running while testing
generator
4. Check and readjust frequency (p. 37 or 38).
5. Readjust voltage if frequency was changed.
FLASHING THE FIELD
Disconnect P1/J1 inside the control box and connect the test adapter and 6 volt dry cell battery (Figure 16) for a few seconds: B+ to F1 (P1-8) and Bto F2 (P1-1). Reconnect P1/J1. See Troubleshooting if flashing the field does not restore voltage.
FIGURE 15. VOLTAGE REGULATOR (AVR)
TESTING AVR vs GENERATOR
To find out whether the AVR or the generator is
faulty:
1. Disconnect all generator loads.
2. Disconnect P1/J1 inside the control box and
connect the test adapter and 6 volt dry cell battery (Figure 16).
3. Start the genset and close terminal K4-5 (Figure 15) to ground to disengage the starter and
keep the genset running.
4. Measure voltage across the test terminals. If
the AVR connections are good and generator
output is 100-140 VAC across Q1-S2 and
130-150 VAC across Q1-Q2, replace the
AVR. See Troubleshooting (p. 48) if there is no
voltage.
28
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by any means, is strictly prohibited.
AVR CONNECTIONS
EXCITER
F1
F2
G21
Q2
Q1
S2
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 T9 T10 T11 T12
SEE RECONNECTION DIAGRAMS—FIG. 27
REAR VIEW OF P2
4
VR21 (AVR)
1
5
6
P2
3
7
8
2
1
P1
2
4
3
REAR VIEW OF P1
612-6673
K4−5(START−DISC)
CB2−2(OVERSPEED)
B+
SUGGESTED CONSTRUCTION OF ADAPTER FOR GENERATOR/AVR TESTING AND FIELD FLASHING
100-140V AC
130-150V AC
RED
+
BLACK
-
6 VOLT
DRY CELL
BATTERY
F2 F1 Q2 Q1 S2
VIEW B-B
Connect Terminal F2 to PIN 8, F1 to PIN 1, Q2 to PIN 5, Q1 to PIN3 and S2 to PIN4
Use DEUTSCH connector jack 0T04-08P (ONAN PN 324-1542 jack, 324-1491 pins and 323-1544 wedge) to
mate connector P1. Use 18 AWG leads.
FIGURE 16. AVR CONNECTIONS AND ADAPTER FOR GENERATOR/AVR TESTING AND FIELD FLASHING
29
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by any means, is strictly prohibited.
Generator
These are 4-pole, rotating-field, brushless, singlebearing, electronically regulated generators (Figure 17). See BASICS at the end of this section for a
description of generator operation.
movement and vibration. For connections, use the
terminals on the terminal blocks and line circuit
breakers in the output box. Make sure the generator
is connected for the required voltage output (Figure 27) and that properly sized line circuit breakers
have been installed.
VOLTAGE REGULATION
See Automatic Voltage Regulator.
WARNING
HAZARDOUS VOLTAGE Touching
uninsulated live parts inside the output box can
result in severe personal injury or death. For
your protection, stand on a dry wooden platform or rubber insulating mat, make sure your
clothing and shoes are dry, remove jewelry from
your hands and use tools with insulated handles.
CONNECTIONS
Wiring connections should be made by a licensed
electrician and be inspected and approved before
operation. All wiring methods, connections, wire
ampacities, equipment grounding, materials, etc.
must comply with the applicable codes.
WARNING
Improper wiring can cause fire or
electrocution resulting in severe personal injury or death and property damage.
WARNING Accidental starting can cause severe personal injury or death. Disconnect the
negative (-) cable(s) at the battery(ies) to prevent the engine from starting.
Use flexible conduit and stranded conductors to
make connections at the generator to take up
THROUGH BOLT (4)
TORQUE DRY TO
38-43 N-M
(28-32 FT-LB)
EXCITER
STATOR
STATOR, QUADRATURE, FIELD,
& VOLTAGE SENSING LEADS
MAIN STATOR
DRIVE DISC BOLT (6)
TORQUE DRY TO
27-31 N-M (20-23 FTLB)
SMOOTH, ROUNDED
SIDES OF WASHERS
TOWARD DISC
END
COVER
END BELL
ASSEMBLY
ROTOR
BEARING
DISC HUB BOLT(6)
TORQUE DRY TO
50-57 N-M (37-42 FTLB) SMOOTH,
ROUNDED SIDES OF
WASHERS TOWARD
DISC
EXCITER ROTOR
MAIN ROTOR
FIGURE 17. GENERATOR ASSEMBLY
30
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set has been in standby for a long time in high humidity conditions and repeat the test.
TESTING
Testing Winding Insulation Resistance
Testing Winding Resistance
A 500 VAC megger is recommended for the winding
insulation resistance tests prescribed below. A test
consists of applying the test potential between the
winding and ground (winding laminations) for a period of 10 minutes and recording resistance at 1 minute and again at 10 minutes.
Use a digital ohmmeter or Wheatstone bridge to
measure winding resistance. The device should
have a precision of at least 0.01 ohm.
Exciter Stator
Winding Insulation Resistance: Disconnect AVR
connector P1/J1 inside the control box. Using the
test adapter (p. 29), connect pin P1-1 or P1-8 to the
megger and conduct the test as instructed under
Testing Winding Insulation Resistance.
Resistance values of at least 5 megohms should be
obtained for a new generator with dry windings. The
polarization index should also be at least 2 (the ratio
of the resistance reading at ten minutes to the reading at one minute). For a set that has been in service, the resistance reading should not be less than
1 megohm nor the polarization index less than 2.
Winding Resistance: Using the test adapter
(p. 29), measure winding resistance between pins
P1-1 and P1-8. Replace the exciter stator if the resistance is not as specified in Table 4.
Dry the windings if low readings are obtained or the
END BELL CASTING
ORIENT SO THAT FIELD COIL
WHERE LEADS ATTACHED IS UP
EXCITER STATOR LEADS
F1 (PIN P1-8) & F2 (PIN P1-1)
STATOR MOUNTING SCREWS
8 LB-FT (11 N-M) TORQUE
BEARING
BORE O-RING
FIGURE 18. EXCITER STATOR AND END BELL
31
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by any means, is strictly prohibited.
Each assembly has a field terminal (F1+ or F2- ) for
connecting the leads from the main rotor (generator
field).
Exciter Rotor
Winding Insulation Resistance: Disconnect all
six exciter rotor leads from diode terminals CR1
through CR6 and isolate them from ground. Connect any lead to the megger and conduct the test as
instructed under Testing Winding Insulation Resistance.
Diode Resistance: Measure electrical resistance
between diode terminals CR1, CR2 and CR3 and
field terminal F1+ on the positive diode assembly
and between diode terminals CR4, CR5 and CR6
and field terminal F2- on the negative diode assembly. Reverse the meter test probes and repeat the
tests. The electrical resistance across each diode
should be high in one direction and low in the other.
If the resistance is high or low in both directions, replace the whole diode assembly.
Winding Resistance: Measure electrical resistance across each pair of rotor windings: T11-T12,
T21-T22, T12-T13, T22-T23, T13-T11 and
T23-T21. See the connection schematic. Replace
the exciter rotor if the resistance of any winding is
not as specified in Table 4.
Rotating Rectifiers
Replacing Diode Assembly: Make sure the replacement diode assembly is of the correct polarity,
positive (+) or negative (- ). Then disconnect all
leads from the defective diode assembly and remove the two mounting screws. Mount the new
diode assembly, reconnect all leads and torque the
terminal screws to 24 lb-in (2.6 N-m).
The rotating rectifier assembly is mounted on the
back face of the exciter rotor. It consists of one positive (+) and one negative (- ) diode assembly. Each
assembly carries three diodes in an epoxy potting.
Each diode has a terminal for connecting the appropriate lead from the exciter rotor (CR1-CR6).
DIODE TERMINAL (6) FOR EXCITER WINDING
LEAD. TORQUE TO 24 LB-IN (2.6 N-M). USE FLAT
WASHER TO PROTECT LEAD CONNECTOR
POSITIVE (+)
DIODE ASSEMBLY
LEFT-HAND SIDE,
SHAFT KEY UP
NEGATIVE (-)
DIODE ASSEMBLY
RIGHT-HAND SIDE,
SHAFT KEY UP
DIODE ASSEMBLY
MOUNTING SCREW (2)
CONNECTION SCHEMATIC
TERMINALS F1+ AND F2- FOR
MAIN ROTOR LEADS
TORQUE TO 24 LB-IN (2.6 N-M)
FIGURE 19. ROTATING RECTIFIER ASSEMBLY
32
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by any means, is strictly prohibited.
Connect either or both leads to the megger and conduct the test as instructed under Testing Winding Insulation Resistance.
Main Rotor
Winding Insulation Resistance: Disconnect the
main rotor leads from terminals F1+ and F2+ on the
rotating rectifier assemblies and isolate them from
ground. Tag and mark each lead with its terminal
number (F1+ or F2+).
Winding Resistance: Disconnect the main rotor
leads from terminals F1+ and F2+ on the rotating
rectifier assemblies and measure electrical resistance between them. Replace the rotor if the resistance is not as specified in Table 4.
CAUTION Because of the opposing residual
magnetism of the rotor, it might be difficult to reestablish self excitation if the polarity of the
main rotor leads is reversed upon reassembly.
DRIVE DISC
CHAMFERED EDGE
TOWARDS FLYWHEEL
FAN
BLADES
Reconnect the rotor leads and torque the terminals
to 24 lb-in (2.7 N-m) when reassembling.
MAIN
FIELD
MAIN ROTOR LEADS PASS THROUGH EXCITER ROTOR TO F1+ AND F2- ON ROTATING RECTIFIERS. DISCONNECT
LEADS WHEN TESTING MAIN ROTOR.
TORQUE NUTS TO 24 LB-IN (2.6 N-M)
EXCITER ROTOR
PRESS ON TO SHOULDER
DO NOT LUBRICATE SHAFT
ROTOR BEARING
PRESS ON TO SHOULDER
DO NOT LUBRICATE SHAFT
FIGURE 20. ROTOR ASSEMBLY
33
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from its grounded neutral connection and isolate it.
Leave the other windings grounded. Connect either
or both winding leads to the megger and conduct
the test as instructed under Testing Winding Insulation Resistance.
Main Stator
Quadrature Winding Insulation Resistance: Disconnect AVR connector P1/J1 inside the control
box. Using the test adapter (p. 29), connect pin
P1-4 or P1-5 to the megger and conduct the test as
instructed under Testing Winding Insulation Resistance.
Main Winding Resistance: Disconnect all main
stator leads from the terminals to which they are
connected and measure resistance across the following lead pairs:
Quadrature Winding Resistance: Using the test
adapter (p. 29), measure winding resistance between pins P1-4 and P1-5 with a Wheatstone
bridge. Replace the stator assembly if the resistance is not as specified in Table 4.
• 4-Lead Generators—T1-T2 and T3-T4 .
• 12-Lead Generators—T1-T4 , T2-T5 , T3-T6 ,
T7-T10 , T8-T1 1, T9-T12 .
Replace the stator assembly if the resistance of any
winding is not as specified in Table 4.
Main Winding Insulation Resistance: Test each
winding separately. Disconnect the winding lead
TABLE 4. GENERATOR STATOR AND ROTOR WINDING RESISTANCES
REFERENCE
LENGTH
MILLIMETERS
(INCHES)1
MAIN
WINDING
RESISTANCE
OHMS2, 3
QUADRATURE
WINDING
RESISTANCE
OHMS2
MAIN ROTOR
WINDING RESISTANCE
OHMS2
EXCITER ROTOR
WINDING RESISTANCE
OHMS2
EXCITER STATOR
WINDING RESISTANCE
OHMS2
4-Lead Generators (Single-Phase)
341 (13.4)
0.17-0.22
1.33-1.63
2.60-3.20
0.58-0.71
13-16
378 (14.9)
0.09-0.12
0.79-0.97
2.17-2.65
0.58-0.71
13-16
12-Lead Generators (Three-Phase)
341 (13.4)
0.36-0.44
2.32-2.83
2.60-3.20
0.58-0.71
13-16
378 (14.9)
0.15-0.19
1.83-2.23
2.17-2.65
0.58-0.71
13-16
REFERENCE LENGTH
1. Measure this length to identify the generator. The corresponding rotor stack lengths are slightly greater.
2. If high, recheck winding resistance after the windings have cooled to room temperature.
3. The main windings are probably good if some of the resistances fall outside the range but are all within 10 percent of each other.
34
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DISASSEMBLY
REASSEMBLY
The generator is heavy. You will need an assistant
and hoist of sufficient capacity.
Reassembly is the reverse of disassembly. Note the
following when reassembling the generator:
WARNING Accidentally dropping the generator can damage it and cause severe personal injury or death. Use a hoist and straps of sufficient capacity and attach them so that the load
cannot shift.
1. Press a new exciter rotor or rotor shaft bearing
on up to its locating shoulder on the shaft. Do
not lubricate the shaft (Figure 20).
2. Torque the six disc-to-hub bolts (Figure 17) to
50-57 N-m (37-42 lb-ft). Make sure that:
Disconnect the negative (- ) cable(s) at the battery(ies) to prevent the genset from starting.
A. The chamfered edge on the drive disc
perimeter faces out to make assembly
with the flywheel easier.
WARNING
Accidental starting can cause severe personal injury or death. Disconnect the
negative (-) cable(s) at the battery(ies) to prevent the genset from starting.
B. The rounded edges of the washers are
on the disc side.
1. Disconnect all power output and remote control
connections and conduit at the generator. For
easier reconnections later, make sure each
lead is clearly marked.
3. Torque the six disc-to-flywheel bolts (Figure 17) to 27-31 N-m (20-23 lb-ft). Make sure
the rounded edges of the washers are on the
disc side.
2. Disconnect engine harness connector P5/J5,
AVR connectors P1/J1 and P2/J2, the connector P1 lead secured to the grounding stud inside the control box and the control box
grounding strap secured to the generator. Remove the control box, output box and saddle as
an assembly.
4. Use the four throughbolts to help guide the stator on. Thread the ends with less thread into the
flywheel housing and make sure the threads
bottom.
5. Make sure the scribed stator-flywheel index
lines (Step 5, Disassembly) register.
3. Hook the genset lifting eye with a hoist, remove
the throughbolts in the two generator mounts,
tip the generator end up slightly with the hoist
and block the flywheel housing to support the
engine while the generator is being serviced.
6. Torque the two exciter stator screws (Figure 18) to 11 N-m (8 lb-ft). The pole to which
the leads are tied must be up.
4. Cinch a strap around the middle of the generator stator and take up slack with the hoist.
7. Wipe the bearing bore in the end bell lightly with
molybdenum disulfide grease and make sure
the rubber O-ring (Figure 18) is in place.
5. Scribe lines before separating the end bell from
the stator and the stator from the flywheel
housing to register the parts for reassembly.
8. Assemble the end bell to the stator, making
sure the scribed index lines (Step 5, Disassembly) register and the rotor bearing seats fully in
the bore. Pull the field leads out the same opening as the stator leads. Torque the nuts on the
generator
throughbolts
to 38-43 N-m
(28-32 lb-ft).
6. Remove the four nuts on the throughbolts and
tap the end bell free of the stator.
7. Tap the stator free of the flywheel housing,
carefully draw the stator straight back until it
clears the ends of the throughbolts and remove
the throughbolts.
9. Secure the end bell cover plate and torque the
four screws to 3.8 N-m (8 lb-in).
8. Cinch a strap around the rotor and remove the
six disc-to-flywheel bolts (Figure 17). When removed, cradle the rotor horizontally in wooden
blocks to prevent damage to windings, laminations and drive disc.
10. Reassemble all the remaining components.
Make sure to resecure the ring terminals of
grounding straps and leads with two star washers, one on each side, for good electrical continuity.
9. Use a gear puller to remove the rotor bearing
or exciter rotor (Figure 20).
35
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wave rectifier bridge which converts exciter
output (3-phase AC) to DC. The rectifier bridge
(rotating rectifiers) is mounted on the rotor.
BASICS
Refer to Figure 21 while working through the following explanation.
4. Exciter rotor output is proportional to exciter
field (stator) strength, which, in turn, is proportional to exciter field current.
1. The generator field (main rotor) is rotated by
the engine to induce output current (AC) in the
main stator windings.
5. The AVR regulates exciter field current by
comparing generator output voltage and frequency with reference values. Power for exciter field current is supplied by quadrature windings in the main stator assembly.
2. Generator output is proportional to field
strength, which is varied to match the load.
Nominal output voltage and frequency are
maintained by the AVR and engine governor,
respectively.
6. Residual field magnetism and a permanent
magnet in one of the exciter stator poles initiates “self-excitation” during startups.
3. Field strength is proportional to field current,
which is supplied by the exciter through a full-
VOLTAGE
REGULATOR
(AVR)
VOLTAGE SENSING
(S2)
AC POWER OUTPUT
(T1-T12)
EXCITER POWER
(Q1-Q2)
EXCITER FIELD
CURRENT (F1-F2)
EXCITER
FIELD
ROTATING
RECTIFIERS
EXCITER
ROTOR
MAIN STATOR
MAIN FIELD
CURRENT
MAIN ROTOR
ROTATING
MECHANICAL
POWER
INPUT
FIGURE 21. GENERATOR BASICS
36
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Adjusting the Fuel Stop and Frequency
FUEL STOP (EXCEPT MDKAL SPEC A)
FUEL STOP
SOLENOID
1. Make sure the fuel stop solenoid is secure.
SPRING
CLIP
ADJUSTABLE
LINK
2. If the seal on the lever stop screw is broken:
A. Back out the stop screw so that it does
not touch the governor stop lever when
turned clockwise as far as it will go.
B. Turn the screw back in one half turn past
the point where it just touches the lever.
C. Set the locknut and seal the adjustment.
3. Push the solenoid in until it seats, rotate the
stop lever towards the solenoid and adjust the
length of the link so that its end lines up with the
hole in the lever. Then increase the length one
turn (counterclockwise) to make sure the solenoid will seat and open its AUX contacts when
energized.
LEVER STOP
SCREW
GOVERNOR
STOP LEVER
FIGURE 22. FUEL STOP ADJUSTMENT
(EXCEPT MDKAL SPEC A)
4. Set the locknut and secure the link and lever
with the spring clip.
FREQUENCY (EXCEPT MDKAL SPEC A)
50 Hz Frequency Adjustment
1. Make sure the AVR frequency selector switch
(p. 28) is set at 50 Hz.
B
2. Back off screw A (Figure 23) to free the front
(60 Hz) lever and prevent overspeed shutdown, snug screw D and set the locknuts.
C
3. Disconnect all loads and start the genset.
D
4. Back off screw C, turn screw B to obtain a noload frequency of 52.5 Hz, snug screw C and
set the locknuts. There is no droop adjustment.
A
5. Readjust frequency and voltage (p. 28) as necessary.
FIGURE 23. FREQUENCY ADJUSTMENT
(EXCEPT MDKAL SPEC A)
60 Hz Frequency Adjustment
1. First adjust genset frequency to 50 Hz if the adjustment seal on screw B (Figure 23) is broken.
Snug screw C if necessary.
2. Stop the genset, reset the AVR frequency selector switch (p. 28) to 60 Hz and restart.
3. Back off screw D, turn screw A to obtain a noload frequency of 63 Hz, snug screw D and set
the locknuts. There is no droop adjustment.
4. Readjust frequency and voltage (p. 28) as necessary.
37
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FUEL STOP (MDKAL SPEC A)
1. Make sure the fuel stop solenoid is securely
mounted.
ADJUSTABLE
LINK
SPEED STOP
SCREW
SPRING
CLIP
LEVER STOP
SCREW
GOVERNOR
STOP LEVER
2. If the seal on the lever stop screw is broken:
A. Back out the stop screw so that it does
not touch the governor stop lever when
turned clockwise as far as it will go.
B. Turn the screw back in one half turn past
the point where it just touches the lever.
C. Set the locknut and seal the adjustment.
3. Push the solenoid in until it seats, rotate the
stop lever towards the solenoid and adjust the
length of the link so that its end lines up with the
hole in the lever. Then increase the length one
turn (counterclockwise) to make sure the solenoid will seat and open its AUX contacts when
energized.
FUEL STOP
SOLENOID
SPEED
SCREW
4. Set the locknut and secure the link and lever
with the spring clip.
FREQUENCY (MDKAL SPEC A)
FIGURE 24. FUEL STOP AND FREQUENCY ADJUSTMENTS (MDKAL SPEC A)
1. Check the position of the AVR frequency selector switch (p. 28) and set as required for 50 Hz
or 60 Hz.
2. Make sure that the internal governor spring is
right for 50 Hz or 60 Hz. Change the spring if
necessary in accordance with the Engine
Workshop Manual.
3. Disconnect all loads from the generator and
start the genset.
4. Back out the speed stop screw (Figure 24) and
turn the speed screw to obtain the required noload frequency of 52.5 Hz or 63 Hz. Snug the
speed stop screw and locknuts. There is no
droop adjustment.
5. Readjust frequency and voltage (p. 28) as necessary.
38
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Troubleshooting
ings were noted before shutdown; that is, whether
shutdown was due to low oil pressure or to high engine temperature. Shutdown occurs when oil pressure falls below 14 psi (97 kPa) or engine temperature reaches 222° F (106° C).
Fault Circuits
“Check Generator” Fault: If the “Check Generator” fault breaker trips, as indicated by the extended
reset button, the genset may have been overloaded. Push the reset button.
“Check Engine” Fault: The “Check Engine” faults
are: low engine oil pressure, high coolant temperature, low coolant level (optional), high exhaust temperature, over/underspeed and over/undervoltage.
The “Check Engine” fault breaker will trip, as indicated by the extended reset button. Push the reset
button.
Troubleshooting Tables
The following troubleshooting tables are designed
to help you think through genset problems. The
problem could be as simple as an empty fuel tank,
closed fuel shutoff valve or tripped circuit breaker.
CAUTION
A replacement AVR can be damaged
if troubleshooting does not uncover generator
repairs that may be required.
Engine Gauges
Time can be saved if abnormal engine gauge read-
ENGINE DOES NOT STOP RUNNING
WARNING There are hazards present in troubleshooting that can cause equipment damage, severe personal injury or death. Troubleshooting must be performed by qualified persons who
know about the hazards of fuel, electricity and machinery. Read Safety Precautions and observe
all instructions and precautions in this manual.
Possible Cause
1. Faulty stop solenoid or governor
Corrective Action
a. Push the governor stop lever to the right and hold it there until
the engine stops (see figure).
b. Make sure that the fuel stop solenoid is mounted securely.
c. Disconnect the linkage at the governor stop lever and check
for internal binding in the fuel stop solenoid. Replace the solenoid if the armature binds or the internal spring does not
positively and smoothly push the armature out to its fully extended position.
d. Readjust the fuel stop link (p. 37 or 38).
e. Repair the internal governor mechanism according to the
Engine Workshop Manual.
STOP
39
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ENGINE DOES NOT CRANK FROM REMOTE PANEL
WARNING There are hazards present in troubleshooting that can cause equipment damage, severe personal injury or death. Troubleshooting must be performed by qualified persons who
know about the hazards of fuel, electricity and machinery. Read Safety Precautions and observe
all instructions and precautions in this manual.
Possible Cause
Corrective Action
1. Tripped DC Circuit Breaker CB1
a. Push ON to reset (p. 25).
b. If the breaker trips again, reconnect the glow plug lead if
loose and touching ground (p. 24).
2. OFF or tripped Emergency Stop
Breaker CB4
a. Push ON to reset (p. 25).
b. If the breaker trips again, open the control box (p. 25) and reconnect any loose wiring that may be touching ground.
3. “Check Engine” fault
See “CHECK ENGINE” FAULT SHUTDOWN.
4. Fault in remote circuit
If the genset starts at the genset panel, repair the remote circuit as necessary.
ENGINE DOES NOT CRANK FROM GENSET PANEL
WARNING There are hazards present in troubleshooting that can cause equipment damage, severe personal injury or death. Troubleshooting must be performed by qualified persons who
know about the hazards of fuel, electricity and machinery. Read Safety Precautions and observe
all instructions and precautions in this manual.
Possible Cause
Corrective Action
1. Tripped DC Circuit Breaker CB1
a. Push ON to reset (p. 25).
b. If the breaker trips again, reconnect the glow plug lead if
loose and touching ground (p. 24).
2. OFF or tripped Emergency Stop
Breaker CB4
a. Push ON to reset (p. 25).
b. If the breaker trips again, open the control box (p. 25) and reconnect any loose wiring that may be touching ground.
3. “Check Engine” fault
See “CHECK ENGINE” FAULT SHUTDOWN.
40
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ENGINE DOES NOT CRANK FROM GENSET PANEL (CONT.)
WARNING There are hazards present in troubleshooting that can cause equipment damage, severe personal injury or death. Troubleshooting must be performed by qualified persons who
know about the hazards of fuel, electricity and machinery. Read Safety Precautions and observe
all instructions and precautions in this manual.
Possible Cause
4. Low cranking voltage
Corrective Action
a. Clean and tighten or replace the positive (+) and negative (- )
battery cable connectors and cables.
b. Recharge or replace the battery. Specific gravity for a fully
charged battery is approximately 1.260 at 80° F (27° C).
c. Readjust or replace the V-belt if loose or worn (p. 20).
d. Repair or replace the battery charging alternator (G1) if normal battery charging voltage is not 12.5-15 volts for a 12 volt
battery system or 24-27 volts for a 24 volt battery system.
5. Disconnected engine harness
connector J5/P5
Reconnect J5/P5.
6. Faulty starter motor/solenoid
Check for B+ at terminal SW on the starter solenoid while
holding control switch S1 at Start:
• B+ present: Repair or replace the starter/solenoid.
• B+ absent: Go to Step 7.
7. Faulty stop solenoid or link adjustment (AUX contacts must
open to energize relay K1) or
governor
Hold control switch S1 at Start and check for solenoid action.
If none, disconnect the red lead (solenoid + POS terminal)
and check for B+ at the end of the lead:
• B+ absent: Go to Step 8.
• B+ present: Reconnect the red lead, disconnect the link
and hold S1 at Start:
• Solenoid pulls in and engine cranks:
• Readjust the fuel stop link (p. 37 or 38).
• Check for internal binding of the governor
mechanism and repair as necessary according
to the Engine Shop Manual.
• Solenoid pulls in but engine does not crank:
Disconnect the white wire (AUX) and replace the
solenoid if there is B+ at the AUX terminal.
• Solenoid does not pull in: Replace the solenoid.
41
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ENGINE DOES NOT CRANK FROM GENSET PANEL (CONT.)
WARNING There are hazards present in troubleshooting that can cause equipment damage, severe personal injury or death. Troubleshooting must be performed by qualified persons who
know about the hazards of fuel, electricity and machinery. Read Safety Precautions and observe
all instructions and precautions in this manual.
Possible Cause
8. Faulty start/run control circuit
Corrective Action
a. Open the control box (p. 25) and check for B+ at:
• The load terminal on CB1
• Terminal 2 on CB4
• Terminal 3 on CB2
• Terminal 2 on switch S1.
Repair or reconnect wiring and components as necessary.
b. Disconnect the leads from control switch S1. Replace switch
S1 if contacts 2-3 are open when the switch is held at Start.
c. Disconnect the leads from terminals 9 and 10 on start disconnect relay K4. Replace relay K4 if 9-10 (NC) is open.
d. Remove starter relay K1 from its socket. Apply battery voltage across coil terminals 85-86. Replace relay K1 if contacts
87-30 (NO) do not close.
e. Remove start relay K2 from its socket. Apply battery voltage
across coil terminals 85-86. Replace relay K2 if contacts
87-30 (NO) do not close.
f. Remove run relay K3 from its socket. Apply battery voltage
across coil terminals 85-86. Replace relay K3 if contacts
87-30 (NO) do not close.
g. Remove fueling relay K8 from its socket. Apply battery voltage across coil terminals 85-86. Replace relay K8 if contacts
87-30 (NO) do not close.
h. If the relays and switch are good, reconnect or repair wiring
as necessary.
42
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ENGINE CRANKS BUT DOES NOT START
WARNING There are hazards present in troubleshooting that can cause equipment damage, severe personal injury or death. Troubleshooting must be performed by qualified persons who
know about the hazards of fuel, electricity and machinery. Read Safety Precautions and observe
all instructions and precautions in this manual.
Possible Cause
1. Blocked or restricted fuel supply
Corrective Action
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
2. Blocked air inlet
3. Low engine temperature
Open any closed shutoff valve.
Check fuel level and refill as necessary.
Prime the fuel system (p. 24).
Check for fuel (air) leaks at all fittings and tighten as necessary.
Replace the fuel filter (p. 23) and any other filter in the fuel
supply system.
Disconnect the two leads to the fuel pump (p. 26) and check
for B+ at the red lead while cranking and for ground continuity
at the black lead.
• If there is no B+ at the red lead, check for and reconnect
or repair wiring between run relay K3 terminal 87 and
engine harness connector pin J5-3.
• Repair or replace the black lead if there is no ground
continuity.
• If there is B+ and ground continuity, go to Step g.
Check for fuel pump operation by priming with the low pressure bleed open (p. 24). Replace the fuel pump (p. 26) if it
does not pump.
Check fuel pump (p. 26) static pressure by connecting a
0-15 psi (0-100 kPa) gauge at the outlet. Replace the pump
if fuel pressure does not stabilize at 3.5-6 psi (24-41 kPa).
Service as necessary.
a. Plug in, repair or install heaters for the engine coolant and oil.
b. Replace the engine oil if it is not of the recommended viscosity for the ambient temperature.
43
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ENGINE CRANKS BUT DOES NOT START (CONT.)
WARNING There are hazards present in troubleshooting that can cause equipment damage, severe personal injury or death. Troubleshooting must be performed by qualified persons who
know about the hazards of fuel, electricity and machinery. Read Safety Precautions and observe
all instructions and precautions in this manual.
Possible Cause
Corrective Action
4. Low cranking voltage
a. Clean and tighten or replace the positive (+) and negative (- )
battery cable connectors and cables.
b. Recharge or replace the battery. Specific gravity for a fully
charged battery is approximately 1.260 at 80° F (27° C).
c. Readjust or replace the V-belt if loose or worn (p. 20).
d. Repair or replace the battery charging alternator (G1) if normal battery charging voltage is not 12.5-15 volts for a 12 volt
battery system or 24-27 volts for a 24 volt battery system.
5. Faulty glow plugs
a. Reconnect the glow plug lead (p. 24) if loose.
b. Check for B+ at the glow plug bus bar while cranking.
• B+ absent:
• Open the control box (p. 25) and remove relay K10
from its socket. Apply battery voltage across coil
terminals 85-86. Replace relay K10 if contacts
87-30 (NO) do not close.
• Remove relay K5 from its socket. Apply battery voltage across coil terminals 85-86. Replace relay K5
if contacts 87-30 (NO) do not close.
• If the relays are good, reconnect or repair wiring as
necessary.
• B+ present: Remove the glow plug bus bar and check
for ground continuity across each glow plug. Replace all
three (four) glow plugs if any glow plug is open.
Note: If a glow plug does not come out after unscrewing it, or the end has broken off, it will be necessary to remove the engine head to remove the
glow plug and/or debris from the cylinder. (Glow
plugs can swell if preheat voltage is greater than 14
volts, such as when a battery booster is used for
starting.)
44
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ENGINE STARTS BUT DOES NOT RUN
WARNING There are hazards present in troubleshooting that can cause equipment damage, severe personal injury or death. Troubleshooting must be performed by qualified persons who
know about the hazards of fuel, electricity and machinery. Read Safety Precautions and observe
all instructions and precautions in this manual.
Possible Cause
Corrective Action
1. “Check Generator” fault
a. Reset “Check Generator” fault breaker CB5 (p. 25).
b. Run with fewer loads, especially when low power factor
loads are connected or large motor loads are cycling on and
off.
2. Faulty start disconnect circuit
a. Open the control box (p. 25) and check for B+ at terminal 6
on start disconnect relay K4. Reconnect wiring as necessary.
b. If loose, reconnect wiring at terminals 1 and 2 on start disconnect relay K4 and terminals 1 and 2 on “Check Generator”
fault breaker CB5.
c. Ground terminal 5 on start disconnect relay K4 (p. 28) when
the engine starts up:
• Engine stops: Replace relay K4.
• Engine runs: Check generator output voltage:
• Normal output: Disconnect AVR connector P2/J2.
Check for ground continuity at pin P2-4 and continuity between pin P2-1 and K4-5. Reconnect or repair wiring as necessary. If that does not help, replace the AVR.
• No output:
• Check electrical continuity across fault breaker
CB5 and replace if necessary.
• Flash the field (p. 28).
• If there is still no output voltage, conduct the
AVR/GENERATOR TEST (p. 28). Based on
the results, replace the AVR or go to FAULTY
GENERATOR.
45
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“CHECK ENGINE” FAULT SHUTDOWN
WARNING There are hazards present in troubleshooting that can cause equipment damage, severe personal injury or death. Troubleshooting must be performed by qualified persons who
know about the hazards of fuel, electricity and machinery. Read Safety Precautions and observe
all instructions and precautions in this manual.
Possible Cause
Corrective Action
1. High
exhaust
temperature
(check whether exhaust hose
feels hotter than usual)
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
2. Low engine oil pressure
a. Check oil level, repair leaks and fill to proper level (p. 17).
b. Service the engine lubrication system in accordance with the
Engine Workshop Manual.
c. Replace switch S4 if it closes above 14 psi (97 kPa).
3. High engine temperature or low
coolant level
a. Check coolant level, repair leaks and fill to proper level
(p. 18).
b. Check V-belt tension and adjust as necessary (p. 20).
c. Clean and service the cooling system as required to restore
full cooling capacity (p. 18).
d. Replace switch S2 if it closes below 222° F (106° C).
4. Improper AVR selector position
(60 Hz gensets)
Check whether the 50/60 Hz selector switch (p. 28) is at
50 Hz and set it to 60 Hz. Readjust frequency (p. 37 or 38).
(Overspeed cutout when the AVR is set at 50 Hz is approximately 64 Hz.)
5. Over/Underspeed
Open the sea cock.
Remove blockage in the sea water strainer.
Prime the sea water pump (p. 22).
Replace the sea water pump impeller (p. 22).
Clean the heat exchanger (p. 22).
Remove blockage covering the sea water hull strainer.
a. Readjust frequency (p. 37 or 38).
b. Check for internal binding of the governor mechanism and
repair as necessary according to the Engine Shop Manual.
c. Run with fewer loads, especially when low power factor
loads are connected or large motor loads are cycling on and
off.
46
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ENGINE UNSTABLE OR LACKS POWER
WARNING There are hazards present in troubleshooting that can cause equipment damage, severe personal injury or death. Troubleshooting must be performed by qualified persons who
know about the hazards of fuel, electricity and machinery. Read Safety Precautions and observe
all instructions and precautions in this manual.
Possible Cause
1. Air leaks or fuel restriction
Corrective Action
a. Check for fuel (air) leaks at all fittings and tighten as necessary.
b. Replace the fuel filter (p. 23) and any other filter in the fuel
supply system.
c. Check fuel pump (p. 26) static pressure by connecting a
0-15 psi (0-100 kPa) gauge at the outlet. Replace the pump
if fuel pressure does not stabilize at 3.5-6 psi (24-41 kPa).
2. Improper 50/60 Hz selector
switch position on AVR
Set the 50/60 Hz selector switch in the proper position for the
application (p. 28).
3. Misadjusted frequency or fuel
stop linkage or faulty governor
a. Readjust frequency (p. 37 or 38).
b. Readjust the fuel stop link (p. 37 or 38).
c. Check for internal binding of the governor mechanism and
repair as necessary in accordance with the Engine Shop
Manual.
4. Air trapped in water separator
a. Reconnect the fuel lines to any alternative fittings on the water separator.
b. Install a different model of water separator.
c. Relocate the genset fuel pickup tube to reduce pickup of aerated fuel returned from the propulsion engines.
5. Contaminated fuel
Connect the engine to a container of known fuel quality. Replace the fuel in the supply tank if performance improves.
6. Worn engine or fuel injection system or improper injection timing
Service in accordance with the Engine Workshop Manual.
47
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NO OUTPUT VOLTAGE
WARNING There are hazards present in troubleshooting that can cause equipment damage, severe personal injury or death. Troubleshooting must be performed by qualified persons who
know about the hazards of fuel, electricity and machinery. Read Safety Precautions and observe
all instructions and precautions in this manual.
Possible Cause
Corrective Action
1. Line circuit breakers OFF
Find out why the breaker was turned OFF, make sure it is
safe to reconnect power and then throw ON the breaker.
2. Line circuit breakers tripped
Clear the short circuit or ground fault that caused tripping and
then RESET the breaker.
3. Line circuit breakers faulty
Shut down the genset, disconnect all other sources of power,
RESET the breaker and then check for electrical continuity
across each pole. Replace a breaker if there is measurable
resistance across any pole.
FAULTY GENERATOR (PAGE 28)
WARNING There are hazards present in troubleshooting that can cause equipment damage, severe personal injury or death. Troubleshooting must be performed by qualified persons who
know about the hazards of fuel, electricity and machinery. Read Safety Precautions and observe
all instructions and precautions in this manual.
Possible Cause
Corrective Action
1. Open exciter field windings
Check and replace as necessary (p. 31)
2. Open exciter rotor windings
Check and replace as necessary (p. 32)
3. Faulty rotating rectifier assembly
Check and replace as necessary (p. 32)
4. Open main rotor windings
Check and replace as necessary (p. 33)
5. Open stator windings (main or
quadrature)
Check and replace as necessary (p. 34)
48
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OUTPUT VOLTAGE TOO HIGH OR TOO LOW
WARNING There are hazards present in troubleshooting that can cause equipment damage, severe personal injury or death. Troubleshooting must be performed by qualified persons who
know about the hazards of fuel, electricity and machinery. Read Safety Precautions and observe
all instructions and precautions in this manual.
Possible Cause
Corrective Action
1. Improper voltage adjustment
Readjust voltage (p. 28).
2. Improper frequency adjustment
Readjust frequency (p. 37 or 38).
3. Improper generator connections
Reconnect according to Figure 27 (p. 53).
4. Faulty rotating rectifier assembly
Check and replace as necessary (p. 32).
5. Shorted quadrature winding
Check and replace as necessary (p. 34).
6. Faulty voltage regulator
Replace the voltage regulator (p. 28).
UNSTABLE OUTPUT VOLTAGE
WARNING There are hazards present in troubleshooting that can cause equipment damage, severe personal injury or death. Troubleshooting must be performed by qualified persons who
know about the hazards of fuel, electricity and machinery. Read Safety Precautions and observe
all instructions and precautions in this manual.
Possible Cause
Corrective Action
1. Improper AVR selector position
(50 Hz gensets)
Check whether the 50/60 Hz selector switch (p. 28) is at
60 Hz and set it to 50 Hz. Readjust frequency (p. 37 or 38).
(Because frequency is below 60 Hz, the AVR will attempt to
“unload” the engine by reducing voltage.)
2. Improper frequency adjustment
Readjust frequency (p. 37 or 38).
3. Improper voltage adjustment
Readjust output voltage (p. 28).
4. Unstable engine speed
See ENGINE UNSTABLE OR LACKS POWER.
49
Redistribution or publication of this document,
by any means, is strictly prohibited.
UNSTABLE OUTPUT VOLTAGE (CONT.)
WARNING There are hazards present in troubleshooting that can cause equipment damage, severe personal injury or death. Troubleshooting must be performed by qualified persons who
know about the hazards of fuel, electricity and machinery. Read Safety Precautions and observe
all instructions and precautions in this manual.
Possible Cause
Corrective Action
5. Unevenly distributed loads
Measure output current in each phase (leg) and redistribute
the loads as necessary.
6. Faulty voltage regulator
Replace the voltage regulator (p. 28).
UNBALANCED PHASE CURRENTS
WARNING There are hazards present in troubleshooting that can cause equipment damage, severe personal injury or death. Troubleshooting must be performed by qualified persons who
know about the hazards of fuel, electricity and machinery. Read Safety Precautions and observe
all instructions and precautions in this manual.
Possible Cause
Corrective Action
1. Unevenly distributed loads
Measure output current in each phase (leg) and redistribute
the loads as necessary.
2. Improper generator connections
Reconnect according to Figure 27 (p. 53).
3. Faulty stator windings
Check stator winding resistances (p. 34).
4. Ground or short in load circuit
Service the faulty equipment as necessary.
50
Redistribution or publication of this document,
by any means, is strictly prohibited.
51
FIGURE 25. DC CONTROL SCHEMATIC
52
FIGURE 26. WIRING HARNESS DIAGRAM
3-PHASE GENERATORS
1-PHASE GENERATORS
53
FIGURE 27. GENERATOR RECONNECTION DIAGRAMS
Cummins Power Generation
1400 73rd Avenue N.E.
Minneapolis, MN 55432
763-574-5000
Fax: 763-528-7229
Cummins and Onan are registered trademarks of Cummins Inc.
Redistribution or publication of this document,
by any means, is strictly prohibited.
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