Aircraft Handbook
AIRCRAFT HANDBOOK
CONTENTS
Introduction .................................... 3
Flight Notes ............................... 69
208B Caravan (Professional
Edition only) and 208
Caravan Amphibian .................. 74
Flight Notes ............................... 76
Beechcraft ...................................... 4
History of Beechcraft .................... 4
Beech Baron 58
(Professional Edition Only) ............ 6
Flight Notes ................................. 7
Beech King Air 350
(Professional Edition Only) ............ 9
Flight Notes ............................... 11
Extra ............................................ 79
History of Extra .......................... 79
Extra 300S ............................... 81
Flight Notes ............................... 83
Bell .............................................. 17
History of Bell ............................ 17
Bell 206B JetRanger III ............... 19
Flight Notes ............................... 21
Learjet ......................................... 86
History of Learjet ....................... 86
Learjet 45 ................................. 88
Flight Notes ............................... 90
Boeing .......................................... 32
History of Boeing ........................ 32
Boeing 737-400 ........................ 34
Flight Notes ............................... 36
Boeing 747-400 ........................ 44
Flight Notes ............................... 45
Boeing 777-300 ........................ 52
Flight Notes ............................... 54
Mooney ........................................ 96
History of Mooney ...................... 96
Mooney Bravo (Professional
Edition Only) ............................ 98
Flight Notes ............................. 100
Cessna ......................................... 60
History of Cessna ....................... 60
Cessna 172SP .......................... 62
Flight Notes ............................... 64
Cessna 182S Skylane
and Skylane RG ....................... 67
Schweizer ................................... 104
History of Schweizer ................. 104
Schweizer SGS 2-32 ................. 106
Flight Notes ............................. 108
Sopwith ...................................... 112
History of Sopwith .................... 112
Sopwith 2F.1 Camel .................. 114
Flight Notes ............................. 116
Aircraft Handbook | 2
INTRODUCTION
Welcome to your Flight Simulator 2002
Aircraft Handbook. Inside, you’ll find
detailed histories, specifications, and
flight notes for all of your Flight Simulator
2002 aircraft.
There are 12 player-flyable aircraft
available in the Standard Edition of Flight
Simulator 2002, and 16 aircraft in the
Professional Edition. In addition to the
player-flyable aircraft, you’ll find three
other aircraft sharing the Flight Simulator
skies: the Dash 8-100, the MD-83, and
the Piper Cherokee 180. Keep an eye
out for them as you take to the skies.
For more information about any of your
aircraft, see the kneeboard, or the
manufacturer Web sites of your favorite
plane, helicopter, or sailplane.
Aircraft Handbook | 3
BEECHCRAFT
History of Beechcraft
The story of Beech is a love story; one
that encompasses the union of two of
aviation’s legendary characters and their
determination to build superior aircraft.
Walter Beech met Olive Ann Mellor when
he was president and she was office
manager of the Travel Air Company. They
married in 1930, and in 1932, formed
the Beech Aircraft Company. They were
the perfect team—Walter provided the
entrepreneurial spirit, and Olive Ann
supplied the financial wizardry. After
Walter’s death in 1950, Olive Ann led the
company until her retirement decades
later, earning her universal respect in the
industry and the sobriquet of “First Lady
of Aviation.” In 1980, she was the first
woman to receive the coveted Wright
Brothers Memorial Trophy for her contributions to aviation. Both Beeches were
eventually inducted into the Aviation Hall
of Fame.
From the beginning, Beechcraft airplanes
have been distinguished by their attention
to quality and aesthetics. The D17
Staggerwing was the first model off the
line and is still considered to be one of
aviation’s most elegant designs. Though
the final models were built in the 1940s,
some of the nearly 800 Staggerwings
built are still flying and turning heads at
airshows today.
Unlike many of its competitors, Beech
has always been a profitable company.
World War II brought large contracts for
training aircraft and other defenserelated material. After the war, Beech
capitalized on the corporate and private
airplane markets, where they have been
an enduring presence. They have continued to develop and supply aircraft for
U.S. military services, and even designed
cryogenic life-support systems for NASA.
Aircraft Handbook | 4
BEECH
The most famous Beech in the light-plane
category is the Beechcraft Bonanza. This
classic, single-engine, V-tail helped establish Beech singles as the Cadillacs of their
class. In all its variants, over 3,000
Bonanzas have taken to the skies in the
past 52 years. In the light-twin market,
the Beech Baron has been popular for
both business and leisure use.
Now a division of Raytheon Aircraft
Company, Beech still has a solid position
in the corporate aircraft market. Speed,
comfort, and luxury appointments characterize the typical Beechcraft business
plane. One of the more spectacular
designs was the beautiful Beech Starship
2000A (ultimately unsuccessful in sales
volume). From the Staggerwing and the
D-18 twin through the extremely successful King Air line and the Beechjet, corporations have been using Beech airplanes
to conduct the business of business for
almost 70 years. With more than
50,000 aircraft delivered, the company
created by Walter and Olive Ann Beech
has been one of the greatest success
stories in aviation and industry. It is likely
to remain so for decades to come.
Aircraft Handbook | 5
BEECH
Beech Baron 58
(Professional Edition Only)
With the wonderful control harmony that
is the hallmark of the Bonanza line, the
Beech Baron 58 is considered a classic
light twin. The Baron 58 is a spiffed-up
version of a time-tested favorite made
modern by its new Continental Special
engines. The Baron combines the attractiveness of Beechcraft design with the
reliability of twin engines, resulting in a
gorgeous workhorse of an aircraft.
Specifications
U.S.
Metric
Cruise Speed
200 kts
370 km/hr
Engine
Teledyne Continental Motors IO-550-C 300 hp
Propeller
Three McCauley constant-speed, variable pitch
Maximum Range
1,569 nm
2,906 km
Service Ceiling
20,688 ft
6,306 km
Fuel Capacity
142 gal
514 L
Maximum Gross Weight
5,524 lbs
2,509 kg
Length
29 ft, 10 in
9.09 m
Wingspan
37 ft, 10 in
11.53 m
Height
9 ft, 9 in
2.97 m
Seating
Up to 6
Useful Load
1,634 lb
741 kg
Aircraft Handbook | 6
BEECH
When the first light twin appeared in the
1950s, aviation enthusiasts quickly
recognized it as the height of personal air
transportation. More than 50 years later,
the Baron 58 serves as an excellent
example of why that’s still true. The
Baron 58 was beautifully designed with
both comfort and safety in mind. But it’s
not just another pretty plane—with full
fuel, a Baron 58 can carry up to 931
pounds of people or cargo for 1,340
nautical miles with 45 minutes reserve.
Twin 300-hp TCM IO-550-C, six-cylinder,
fuel-injected engines provide enough
power to take off with a scant 1,400
feet ground run and climb at over 1,700
feet per minute, even fully loaded. The
Baron carries payload further and faster
than any other piston twin currently
manufactured.
Important
These instructions are intended for use with Flight
Simulator only and are no substitute for using the
actual aircraft manual for real-world flight.
Note
As with all of the Flight Simulator aircraft, the
V-speeds and checklists are located on the
Kneeboard. To access the Kneeboard while flying,
press F10, or select the Aircraft menu, and then
choose Kneeboard.
Note
All speeds given in Flight Notes are indicated
airspeeds. If you’re using these speeds as reference, be sure that you select “Display Indicated
Airspeed” in the Realism Settings dialog box.
Speeds listed in the specifications table are shown
as true airspeeds.
Flight Notes
Many factors affect flight planning and
aircraft operation, including aircraft
weight, weather, and runway surface.
The recommended flight parameters
listed below are intended to give approximations for flights at maximum takeoff or
landing weight on a day with International
Standard Atmosphere (ISA) conditions.
Required Runway Length
2,200 feet with ISA conditions. 3,800
feet with a 50-foot obstacle.
Engine Startup
The engine will be running automatically
every time you begin a flight. If you shut
Aircraft Handbook | 7
BEECH
the engine down, you can initiate an
auto-startup sequence by pressing
CTRL+E. If you want to do the startup
procedures manually, use the checklist
on the Kneeboard.
Taxiing
Set prop and mixture to full forward,
and taxi at a brisk walking pace.
Takeoff
Run through the Before Takeoff checklist
found in the Kneeboard (press F10).
Align the aircraft with the white runway
centerline, and advance the throttle to
takeoff power.
factors in your flight planning if you have
created weather systems along your
route. Optimum altitude is the altitude that
gives the best fuel economy for a given
configuration and gross weight. A complete discussion about choosing altitudes
is beyond the scope of this section.
However, as an example: At 11,500 feet,
set your airspeed for 196 KTAS (true
airspeed). Keep full power, around
2500 rpm.
Descent and Approach
Reduce airspeed to 170 kts when below
13,000 feet.
Landing
Climb
Climb at approximately 105 kts.
Cruise
Cruise altitude would normally be determined by winds, weather, and other
factors. You might want to use these
Reduce airspeed and adjust flaps as you
descend. At 152 kts, apply 15 degrees
of flaps. Extend full flaps at 122 kts.
Upon touchdown, bring the power back
to idle and lightly apply the brakes by
pressing the PERIOD key.
Aircraft Handbook | 8
BEECH
Beech King Air 350
(Professional Edition Only)
With more than 5,000 delivered, there
is no other turbine-powered business
aircraft that can match the success of
the Beech King Air. At times, nearly 90
percent of the cabin-class turboprops in
the world have been King Airs. Designed
as a turbine-powered alternative to the
Queen Air, the King Air eventually supplanted the Queen Air as the number one
choice in executive turboprops.
Specifications
U.S.
Metric
Cruise Speed
315 kts
363 mph
Engines
Pratt & Whitney
PT6A-60A
1,050 shp
Maximum Range
1,894 nm
2,180 mi
583 kph
3,508 km
Service Ceiling
35,000 ft
10,668 m
Fuel Capacity
539 U.S. gal
2,040 L
Maximum Takeoff Weight
15,000 lbs
Length
46.7 ft
14.23 m
Wingspan
57.9 ft
17.65 m
Height
14.3 ft
4.36 m
Seating
Up to 11
Useful Load
5,810 lb
6818 kg
2,635 kg
Aircraft Handbook | 9
BEECH
The King Air in all its variants is a beautiful airplane with classic styling and
graceful lines. Many of the improvements
over the years have provided better
aerodynamic efficiency, increased muscle
under the cowlings, greater speed,
upgraded avionics and electrical systems,
and increased cabin luxury. In addition to
duties as a corporate shuttle, the plane
is also available in cargo configurations.
A significant design change that would
set the tone for future models in the line
was the Model 200 Super King Air. A
swept T-tail design was adopted, allowing
the stabilizer and elevator to operate in
relatively smooth, undisturbed air, out of
the wing’s downwash. It also gave the
King Air a rakish new look. The length,
wingspan, and power were increased,
resulting in a greater useful load. The
plane carried eight passengers in a
pressurized cabin altitude of 6,740 feet
at 25,000 feet.
The latest derivative of the King Air is the
Model 350. With the most powerful
engines on a King Air to date (1,050
shaft horsepower) and a fuselage 34
inches longer than the Model 300, the
350 sits at the pinnacle of a great
lineage. It can seat up to 11 passengers
in double-club chair arrangements that
are standard in this plush airplane. A
small galley and an in-flight entertainment
system provide a level of comfort King Air
customers have come to expect. Distinctive winglets are the most obvious external feature that make the 350 easy to
distinguish from its King Air siblings on
the airport ramp.
The entire King Air line is characterized by
a great basic design that has only improved
over the decades. It is a legend that
continues to be a top pick for corporate
flight operations. The King Air is a plane
that richly deserves its regal moniker.
Along with other improvements, Beech
experimented with putting turbofan
engines on the King Air. A test bed was
flown with this modification, but the idea
was never put into production.
Aircraft Handbook | 10
BEECH
Flight Notes
The elegant King Air is a high-performance, pressurized-cabin, twin-engine,
turboprop airplane. Most often employed
as a corporate transport, it usually seats
from 9 to 11 (although it’s certified for
up to 17 people). The structure is distinguished by its efficient wing and NASAdesigned winglets. The T-tail on
the Super King Airs was designed to
provide improved aerodynamics, lighter
control forces, and a wider center-ofgravity range.
Many a young pilot has stepped up from
more lowly positions to corporate flying in
the right seat of a King Air. Piloting the
beautiful Beech is a good transition
toward the more complex world of
turbine engines and larger aircraft.
Required Runway Length
Takeoff: 4,193 ft, flaps up
Landing: 3,300 ft, approach
flaps extended
Note
As with all of the Flight Simulator aircraft, the Vspeeds and checklists are located on the
Kneeboard. To access the Kneeboard while flying,
press F10, or select the Aircraft menu, and then
choose Kneeboard.
Important
All speeds given in Flight Notes are indicated
airspeeds. If you’re using these speeds as reference, be sure that you have the Aircraft Realism
Settings set to “Display Indicated Airspeed.” Speeds
listed in the performance tables are shown as
true airspeeds.
Note
Many factors affect flight planning and aircraft
operation, including aircraft weight, weather, and
runway surface. The recommended flight parameters listed below are intended to give approximations for flights at maximum takeoff or landing
weight under ISA conditions. These instructions
are no substitute, however, for using the actual
aircraft manual.
Aircraft Handbook | 11
BEECH
The length required for both takeoff and
landing is a result of a number of factors,
such as aircraft weight, altitude,
headwind, use of flaps, and ambient
temperature. The figures here are
conservative and assume:
Weight: 15,000 lb (6,804 kg)
Altitude: sea level
Wind: no headwind
Temperature: 15° C
Runway: hard surface
Lower weights and temperatures will
result in better performance, as will
having a headwind component. Higher
altitudes and temperatures will
degrade performance.
Engine Startup
The engines are running by default when
you begin a flight. If you shut the engines
down, it is possible to initiate an autostartup sequence by pressing CTRL+E on
your keyboard. If you want to do the
startup procedures manually, follow the
checklist procedures on the Kneeboard.
The propellers on the King Air 350
will automatically feather on engine
shutdown and unfeather when the
engines are started.
The power levers on the King Air
control engine power, from idle to
takeoff power, by controlling N1.
Increasing N1 increases engine power.
The power levers have three regions:
Forward Thrust, Ground Fine, and
Reverse. When moved into the
Reverse region, the levers control
both engine power and propeller
blade angle.
The propeller levers are operated
forward and aft for setting the required
RPMs for various phases of flight. The
normal range is from 1450 to 1700
RPM. To feather a propeller manually,
move the prop lever (press CTRL+F2,
or drag the prop levers) back into the
red-and-white striped section of the
quadrant (autofeather is on by default
and will take care of feathering in the
event of an engine failure).
Aircraft Handbook | 12
BEECH
The condition levers have three
positions: Fuel Cutoff, Low Idle, and
Hi Idle. At Low Idle, the N1 range is
from a minimum of 62 percent to a
maximum of 104 percent. At Hi Idle,
the range is from 70 percent to 104
percent. Low Idle is the condition
setting for 99 percent of the King
Air’s operating range.
Taxiing
The normal power setting for taxiing is
the Ground Fine setting (press F2 on the
keyboard, or drag the power levers). For
normal operation on the ground when the
props are not in feather, the RPM should
be maintained above 1050. The prop
levers should be set to maintain RPM
above 1050 or below 400 while on the
ground to avoid propeller resonance.
Sustained operation in feather at engine
idle should be avoided. Monitor
interstage turbine temperature (ITT) to
avoid exceeding ground-operations
temperature limits of 750° C.
Flaps
Unless the runway is short, a no-flaps
takeoff is standard for the King Air. On
the King Air 350, available flap settings
are Up, Approach, or Down. The flaps
cannot be stopped at an intermediate
point between these positions. See the
Kneeboard for the flap operating speeds.
Takeoff
Run through the Before Takeoff checklist.
With the aircraft aligned with the runway
centerline, check that the propeller levers
are full forward and that the condition
levers are in Low Idle (press
CTRL+SHIFT+F2, or drag the levers).
Advance the power levers to 100
percent N1, and monitor the ITT during
the takeoff roll (it should remain at or
below 750° C).
Directional control is maintained by use
of the rudder pedals (twist the joystick,
use the rudder pedals, or press 0 [left]
or ENTER [right] on the numeric keypad).
V1, approximately 105 knots indicated
airspeed (KIAS), is decision speed.
Above this speed, it may not be
possible to stop the aircraft on
the runway in case of a rejected
takeoff (RTO).
Aircraft Handbook | 13
BEECH
At Vr, approximately 110 KIAS,
smoothly pull the stick back (use the
joystick or yoke, or press the DOWN
ARROW) to raise the nose to 10
degrees above the horizon.
At V2, approximately 117 KIAS, the
aircraft has reached its takeoff safety
speed. This is the minimum safe flying
speed should an engine fail. Hold this
speed until you get a positive rate
of climb.
As soon as the aircraft is showing a
positive rate of climb on liftoff (both
vertical speed and altitude are increasing), retract the landing gear (press G,
or drag the landing gear lever).
Sea level to 10,000
10,000 to 15,000
15,000 to 20,000
20,000 to 25,000
25,000 to 30,000
35,000 to 40,000
170
160
150
140
130
120
KIAS
KIAS
KIAS
KIAS
KIAS
KIAS
Cruise
Cruise altitude would normally be determined by winds, weather, and other
factors. You might want to use these
factors in your flight planning if you have
created weather systems along your
route. Optimum altitude is the altitude that
gives the best fuel economy for a given
configuration and gross weight. A complete discussion about choosing altitudes
is beyond the scope of this section
Climb
Set climb power to approximately 90
percent N1 (press F2, use the throttle
control on your joystick, or drag the
thrust levers). Set the prop RPM to
1600. Turn the synchrophaser on (click
the Prop Synch button). Maintain 6- or 7degrees nose-up pitch attitude to climb to
your cruising altitude. Your indicated
airspeed will vary in a climb as you hold a
constant power setting and pitch attitude. Expect it to read approximately:
Let’s say you’ve filed a flight plan for FL
300. Approaching your cruising altitude,
begin leveling off at about 50 ft (15 m)
below your target altitude.
You’ll find it’s much easier to operate the
King Air in cruise if you use the autopilot.
The autopilot can hold your specified
altitude, speed, heading, VOR course,
and more. For more information on
using the autopilot, see Using the
Autopilot in Help.
Aircraft Handbook | 14
BEECH
A typical power setting in the King Air
for the parameters chosen here is 66
percent on the torque (percent) gauge.
That will give you a fuel flow of around
575 pounds per hour (PPH) and an
indicated airspeed of 185 kts. The
propeller levers should be set to
maintain 1500 RPM.
Remember that your true airspeed is
actually much higher in the thin, cold air.
Experiment with power settings to find
the one that maintains the cruise speed
and fuel consumption you want
at the altitude you choose.
Descent
A good descent profile includes knowing
when to start down from cruise altitude
and planning ahead for the approach.
Normal descent is done using idle thrust
and clean configuration (no speed brakes).
A good rule for determining when to start
your descent is the 3-to-1 rule (three
miles distance per thousand feet in
altitude.) Take your altitude in feet, drop
the last three zeros, and multiply by 3.
For example, to descend from a cruise
altitude of 30,000 ft (9,144 m) to
sea level:
30,000 minus the last three zeros is
30. 30 x 3=90
This means you should begin your descent 90 nautical miles from your destination, maintaining a speed of 250 KIAS
(it won’t indicate this high until you descend into denser air), and a descent
rate of 1,500 ft per minute. Add two
extra miles for every 10 kts of tailwind,
if applicable.
In the King Air, adjust thrust during
descent to maintain 250 KIAS or VMO,
whichever is less (use the joystick
throttle, or press F2 to decrease thrust
and F3 to increase thrust). The propeller
levers should remain at 1500 RPM.
The King Air performance manual says
that this descent profile will take 20
minutes, 103 miles, and 245 lb of fuel.
Approach
As you near the approach phase of flight,
begin to bring the power back to around
55 percent torque or less, so that you’re
below 180 KIAS by your initial approach
fix (use the joystick throttle, or press F2).
Aircraft Handbook | 15
BEECH
At the final approach fix, bring the power
back to 30 percent torque, and your
speed will start slowing towards 140
KIAS. Verify that the autofeather is armed
(click the Autofeather switch into the
ARM position).
When you intercept the glideslope or
enter the downwind, set the flaps to
Approach (press F6, or click the flap
lever) and put the landing gear down
(press G, or click the landing gear lever).
Bring the power back to 25 percent
torque. Adjust power as you near the
threshold to reduce speed to a target
landing speed of 109 KIAS.
At around 300 ft (91 m) AGL, continue
reducing power. If you’ve broken out on
an ILS or the landing is assured on a
visual approach, set flaps to Full.
Landing
As you cross the threshold at around
50 ft (15 m) AGL, the power should be
at 10 percent torque. (You can actually
come back to idle power at this point,
but the King Air will settle rather quickly.
The best technique is to hold 10 percent
torque until the main gear are on
the pavement.)
Raise the nose slightly to flare and slow
the descent rate. Once the King Air
mains are down, bring the power back
to idle and hold some back pressure on
the controls (hold the joystick aft, or
press the DOWN ARROW.) The nose
on the King Air tends to start down
right away on touchdown, so you’ll want
to hold some back pressure to bring it
down gently.
The King Air decelerates rapidly on
landing. Once the nose gear is on the
runway, move the propeller levers into
the bottom of the Ground Fine range
(press CTRL+F2, or drag the levers).
There’s no need to use the full reverse
propeller setting on landing unless the
runway is short. If you’re performing a
short-field landing, move the propeller
levers into Reverse once the nose gear is
on the ground.
Apply the brakes (press the PERIOD key).
Move the propeller levers to Ground Fine,
exit the runway, and taxi to parking.
Aircraft Handbook | 16
BELL
History of Bell
It is fitting that the permanent collection
of the Museum of Modern Art in New
York City contains a Bell-47 helicopter, an
object whose beauty is inseparable from
its efficiency. The genius of Leonardo Da
Vinci produced the idea of vertical flight;
centuries later, it would take another
brilliant innovator, philosopher, and artist
to bring the concept to commercial
reality. His name was Arthur Young.
Young came to Larry Bell’s attention in
1941 after Young had been working on
helicopter design for over a decade. Bell
was an entrepreneur and a successful
manufacturer of military aircraft like the
Airacobra P-39. A demonstration of
Young’s working model convinced Bell of
the design’s importance. He set Young’s
research group up in their own facility in
Gardenville, New York, and let them go to
work. Thirteen days later, Pearl Harbor
was attacked, initiating United States’
official involvement in World War II.
During the war, Young’s small team
worked hard on developing the helicopter
while the rest of the company constructed war machines. Two dramatic,
unplanned mercy flights in 1945 presaged the helicopter’s future role as a
medical evacuation (“medevac”) vehicle.
On March 8, 1946, the Bell Model 47
was awarded the world’s first commercial
helicopter license, and the U.S. Army
took delivery of production models the
same year. Model 47s saw medevac
service in the Korean conflict. The
Bell-47 had a long production life,
and hundreds are still in service
around the world.
Textron Corporation acquired Bell in
1960, and by 1976, it was Textron’s
largest division. Among its most successful developments was the UH-1 “Huey,”
the workhorse of the Vietnam War.
Variants of the Huey were used as troop
transports, gun ships, and air ambulances. They also see service today as
Aircraft Handbook | 17
BELL
corporate shuttles and medical transports. The AH-1 Cobra attack helicopter,
H-40 Iroquois, OH-58D Kiowa Warrior,
TH-67 Creek trainer, and CH-146 Griffon
also join the ranks that make Bell the
largest supplier of helicopters to the U.S.
armed forces. Bell also teamed with
Boeing to produce the V-22 Osprey
tilt-rotor aircraft for the United States
Marine Corps.
With more than 35,000 aircraft delivered in more than 120 countries, Bell
notes that their helicopters around the
world accumulate fleet flight time at more
than 10 hours per minute. That gives a
whole new meaning to the old adage,
“Helicopters don’t fly; they beat the air
into submission.”
Perhaps the most recognizable Bell is the
206B JetRanger. The highly regarded
206 is employed around the world in
military service, as a corporate transport,
as a rescue service/medevac vehicle, as
a police unit, and in television reporting.
Aircraft Handbook | 18
BELL
Bell 206B JetRanger III
The Bell 206 series has accumulated
an astounding array of impressive statistics. More than 6,000 JetRangers are
flying worldwide in roles as diverse as
corporate transportation, police surveillance, and United States Army aviation
training. The series has flown over 26
million flight hours, and a few JetRangers
are flying with more than 30,000 hours
on their airframes.
Specifications
U.S.
Metric
Cruise Speed
115 kts
Engine
Allison 250-C20J 420 shp
Maximum Range
435 nm
Service Ceiling
20,000 ft
6,096 m
Hovering Ceiling
19,600 ft
5,974 m
Fuel Capacity
91 U.S. gal
344 L
Empty Weight
1,640 Ibs
744 kg
Maximum Gross Weight
3,200 lbs
1,451 kg
Maximum Gross Weight
(External Loading)
3,350 lbs
1,519 kg
132 mph
500 m
213 kph
805 km
Length
31.2 ft
9.51 m
Rotor Span
33.3 ft
10.15 m
Height
11.7 ft
3.51 m
Seating
Up to 5
Useful Load
1,498 lbs
679 kg
Aircraft Handbook | 19
BELL
The JetRanger design was derived from
a Light Observation Helicopter (LOH)
proposal Bell submitted to the United
States Army in the 1960s. Though it lost
out to a Hughes Aircraft Company design, Bell decided to develop the model
as the 206 for the civilian market.
Despite Bell’s best efforts, the original
LOH design was found unsuitable for
conversion to civilian use, primarily
because of its limited carrying capacity.
Engineers started over with an entirely
new fuselage, resulting in an elegant
teardrop-shaped aircraft that would seat
five and carry their baggage, too.
Due to rising costs of the Hughes helicopter, the LOH competition was reopened in 1967, and Bell’s 206 won this
round. The 206 was purchased by the
Army and put to work under the designation OH-58A. JetRangers are still serving
in the armed forces. The newest model
in uniform is the TH-67 Creek primary
trainer. The United States Army credits
a rise in student grades and a drop in
course failures to the use of the Creek in
training programs.
It’s as a civilian aircraft, however, that the
JetRanger has seen its biggest success.
The original 206 has evolved into the
JetRanger II and the JetRanger III, both
incorporating major upgrades to more
powerful engines.
Although helicopters are inherently
unstable and difficult to fly, testimony to
the JetRanger’s ease of handling is the
fact that it can be certified for single-pilot
IFR operation. In 1994, Texas businessman Ron Bower flew a Bell 206B
JetRanger III solo around the world.
Bower navigated across 21 countries
and 24 time zones in 24 days. By the
end of the journey, he’d flown over
23,000 miles and had broken the previous around-the-world helicopter speed
record by nearly five days.
The JetRanger III costs less to operate
and maintain than any other craft in its
class and has the highest resale value
of any light helicopter. A winning formula
for safety and value has made the
JetRanger the world’s most popular
helicopter series.
Aircraft Handbook | 20
BELL
Flight Notes
If you’ve seen a helicopter in the role of
police chopper, rescue helicopter, or
news reporter—either in movies or in
real life—chances are you’ve seen a Bell
JetRanger. It’s one of the most popular
and successful helicopters ever built,
and they’re flying all over the world.
Flying rotary-wing aircraft is quite different from flying fixed-wing aircraft. Mastering helicopter flight will not only challenge
you but will present some of the best
flying experiences Flight Simulator has to
offer. There’s nothing like threading your
way through the skyscrapers of downtown Chicago or New York, and with
practice, you’ll be able to make rooftop
landings. For more information about the
fundamentals of rotary-wing flight, see
Basic Helicopter Flying in Help.
Note
As with all of the Flight Simulator aircraft, the
V-speeds and checklists are located on the
Kneeboard. To access the Kneeboard while
flying, press F10, or select the Aircraft menu,
and then choose Kneeboard.
Important
All speeds given in Flight Notes are indicated
airspeeds. If you’re using these speeds as reference, be sure that you have the Aircraft Realism
Settings set to “Display Indicated Airspeed.” Speeds
listed in the performance tables are shown as
true airspeeds.
Note
Many factors affect flight planning and aircraft
operation, including aircraft weight, weather,
and runway surface. The recommended flight
parameters listed below are intended to give
approximations for flights at maximum takeoff
or landing weight under ISA conditions. These
instructions are no substitute, however, for
using the actual aircraft manual.
Aircraft Handbook | 21
BELL
Controlling the Helicopter
using a Joystick
You can use a joystick to operate the
basic flight and power controls for the
Bell 206B JetRanger III helicopter.
The stick part of the joystick controls the
cyclic, which controls the helicopter’s
pitch attitude in flight and movement over
the ground while in a hover.
If you have a joystick like the Microsoft®
SideWinder 3-D Pro, you can twist the
stick to apply left or right anti-torque
pedal inputs. Anti-torque pedals are used
to yaw the nose of a helicopter side to
side by adjusting the pitch of the blades
on the tail rotor. Push the left pedal, and
the helicopter’s nose will rotate to the
left. Pushing the right pedal has the
opposite effect.
The lever, or wheel, on the joystick, which
you use as a throttle in airplanes, is the
collective when flying a helicopter. This
controls pitch in the main rotor blades
collectively. Its primary function is to
control altitude.
Computerized mechanisms control the
power necessary to maintain rotor RPM
appropriate to the collective setting
chosen by the pilot. This is essentially how
the collective works in Flight Simulator.
The fuel control unit automatically adjusts
the throttle (engine speed) as you move
the collective.
To control the throttle manually, press
CTRL+F2 to decrease power and
CTRL+F3 to increase power. (This
procedure is not recommended unless
you’re familiar with helicopter operation.)
Monitor the power turbine gauge to set
engine power as a percentage of power
turbine RPM.
Required Runway Length
Practically speaking, the required runway
length for the JetRanger is the length of
its skids (the long bars that contact the
ground to support the fuselage). You can
land this aircraft on buildings, boats, or
anywhere except on water (in real life,
JetRangers can be equipped with floats
in order to land on water).
In recent years, sophisticated turbineengine helicopters have all but eliminated
the throttle from the collective lever.
Aircraft Handbook | 22
BELL
Engine Startup
The engines are running by default when
you begin a flight. If you shut the engines
down by clicking the Fuel Valve Switch,
you can return to engine ON by clicking
the Fuel Valve Switch again or by pressing CTRL+SHIFT+F4.
Remember that the cyclic controls the
direction in which the helicopter moves.
Use small, smooth adjustments of the
collective to maintain the proper altitude.
To keep the nose straight, apply pressure
to the left or right anti-torque pedal.
Hovering and Taxiing
Flaps
Taxiing in a helicopter is often called
hover taxiing. This means that you
will hover just a few feet off the ground
with a forward motion. Generally, you
would use this technique when taxiing
from one area to another on the airport
or if you needed to move the helicopter
a short distance.
Helicopters don’t have flaps.
Under typical weather conditions and
operating weights, you’ll need 70 to 75
percent torque to hover or hover taxi.
If you lift the skids more than about 3 ft
(1 m) above the ground, the helicopter
effectively flies out of ground effect, and
you’ll need about 10 percent more power
to maintain a hover.
Wind blowing through the main rotor
disk has the same effect as forward
airspeed. For example, if the helicopter
is facing into a 10- to 15-knot wind, the
rotor experiences effective translational
lift (ETL) even when the aircraft is on
the surface.
Keep in mind that under certain conditions, such as in tall grass, over steep
or rough terrain, or at high altitudes,
the helicopter may not be able to hover
out of ground effect.
Takeoff
Note the wind direction and speed. If
possible, plan to take off directly into the
wind to minimize sideways drift and to
increase the helicopter’s performance
during takeoff and climb.
When you’re ready to make a vertical
takeoff, use scenery objects as a guide.
Note a point in the distance (such as a
building, tower, or gas pump). Use that
Aircraft Handbook | 23
BELL
point and the outside horizon as references to help you maintain the helicopter’s
alignment and attitude as you lift off.
Set the cyclic (joystick handle) in an
approximately neutral position. Set the
collective in the full down position (use
the joystick throttle, or press F2).
Smoothly and slowly raise the collective
(press F3, or push forward on the
joystick throttle). The helicopter should
become light on the skids as you reach
40 to 60 percent torque. Ease into this
range smoothly and slowly.
As the helicopter’s weight comes off the
skids, it will start to drift and turn to the
right. Hold the collective steady at this
point, and use slight left cyclic pressure
to hold the helicopter in position.
Apply left pedal pressure (twist the
joystick to the left, press the left rudder
pedal, or press 0 on the numeric keypad)
to compensate for the torque from the
main rotor.
Keep your attention outside the helicopter, and focus on the horizon and other
visual clues. To continue the liftoff,
smoothly increase the collective.
Anticipate the need to add left pedal as
you lift off and make small, smooth
corrections with the cyclic (move the
joystick, or press the UP ARROW or
DOWN ARROW) and pedals (twist the
joystick, or press 0 [left] or ENTER [right]
on the numeric keypad) to maintain
heading and position.
Hold the helicopter skids about 3 ft (1 m)
above the ground. You want to stay low in
case the engine fails and to keep the
helicopter in ground effect. You’ll probably
need 70 to 75 percent torque to maintain the hover.
Raise or lower the collective to maintain
altitude. Maintain the correct attitude
using light, small cyclic pressures, and
use the anti-torque pedals to keep the
helicopter’s nose from rotating.
Anticipate corrections to compensate for
wind. You’ll need slight forward cyclic
pressure if you take off into a headwind,
left pressure with a left crosswind, and
so forth.
When you’re ready to continue the
takeoff, gently apply a small amount of
forward cyclic (push the joystick forward,
Aircraft Handbook | 24
BELL
or press the UP ARROW) to lower the
nose and begin moving forward along the
departure path. The helicopter may tend
to settle as you start forward. Compensate by adding slight up collective (increase the joystick throttle setting,
or press F3).
As airspeed reaches 10 to 15 kts, the
helicopter enters effective translational
lift. The nose tends to yaw left and pitch
up slightly. Apply some forward cyclic to
prevent the nose from rising.
Add some left lateral cyclic (push the
joystick left, or press the LEFT ARROW)
to prevent the helicopter from drifting
right, and apply right pedal pressure
(twist the joystick to the right, use the
right rudder pedal, or press ENTER
on the numeric keypad) to maintain
heading. The helicopter will continue
climbing and accelerating.
If you feel like you’re juggling a lot at this
point, you are. Helicopter flying is not
easy, and it’s been described as an
activity similar to trying to balance one
ball on top of another.
Continue the takeoff by flying a modified
traffic pattern. Climb straight ahead at
60 kts to 300 ft (90 m). The helicopter
should be in a nearly nose-level attitude.
Turn 90 degrees left (standard traffic
pattern) or right to the crosswind leg.
Maintain 60 kts indicated airspeed (KIAS)
and continue the climb to 500 ft (150 m).
To accelerate and maintain rate of climb,
increase collective and add slight forward
cyclic. On the crosswind leg, depart the
traffic pattern or return for another
landing by turning 90 degrees again to
join the downwind leg.
Climb
The Bell 206B JetRanger III can achieve
a maximum rate of climb of about 1,300
feet per minute at sea level under standard weather conditions. The aircraft’s
best rate-of-climb airspeed is 52 kts.
However, 60 kts is a good climb speed
because it’s also the speed to use for
autorotation if the engine fails.
For a normal climb, adjust the collective
(use the joystick throttle, or press F3)
for a torque setting about 10 percent
Aircraft Handbook | 25
BELL
above that required to maintain a hover
in ground effect.
Under standard conditions and at typical
operating weights, you’ll need 80 to 85
percent torque for a normal climb. Use
the cyclic (the joystick or the ARROW
keys) to set a pitch attitude that maintains an airspeed of about 60 kts.
Note that as you climb, the engine
produces less power. As a rule of thumb,
expect torque to drop 3 percent per
1,000 ft (305 m) of altitude gained.
Monitor the engine instruments and
smoothly add collective to maintain climb
power as your altitude increases.
Keep the following considerations in mind
as you climb:
Use the collective to control power
and the rate of the climb.
Monitor engine instruments closely
to ensure that you stay within
operating limits.
Maintain attitude (thus airspeed) by
looking out to the horizon. Focusing
on a point too close to the nose
makes it difficult to maintain the
proper aircraft attitude.
Use the cyclic to control airspeed (and
the helicopter’s attitude) and the antitorque pedals to maintain heading or
to establish a crab angle as necessary
to fly a constant ground track.
Use the anti-torque pedals to maintain
trim (coordinated flight). A slip or skid
severely degrades climb performance.
To level off from a climb, start decreasing collective about 50 ft (15 m) below
the altitude at which you want to level off.
Add right anti-torque pedal as you decrease torque to the cruise setting
(about 80 percent torque). Use the cyclic
to maintain cruising airspeed. Apply
forward cyclic to increase speed and aft
cyclic to slow down.
Cruise
Under typical conditions, you should set
the collective to 80 percent torque for
efficient cruising flight. At this power
setting, 5 percent below the maximumallowed continuous power setting, the
Bell 206B JetRanger III typically cruises
at about 105 kts while burning 25 to 28
gallons of fuel per hour (94 to 106 liters
per hour.)
Aircraft Handbook | 26
BELL
To maintain the desired track over the
ground, use the anti-torque pedals to
turn the helicopter into the wind and
establish the correct crab angle.
To turn, use the cyclic to bank
the helicopter.
Use the anti-torque pedals to keep the
helicopter in trim—that is, in coordinated
flight. If the inclinometer in the turn
coordinator shows a slip or a skid, apply
left or right pedal pressure as necessary
to center the ball.
Descent
To descend at a comfortable rate
without building too much speed, you
must decrease main rotor pitch by
lowering the collective (use the joystick
throttle, or press F2). Anticipate the
need for the right anti-torque pedal as
you decrease torque.
The nose drops as you lower collective,
so remember that you’ll need to add a
little aft cyclic (pull the joystick aft, or
press the DOWN ARROW) to maintain
the correct pitch attitude and airspeed.
Don’t add too much aft cyclic, however:
the aircraft will climb.
Note that as you descend, the engine
produces more power. As a rule of
thumb, expect torque to increase 3
percent per 1,000 ft (305 m) of descent. Monitor the engine instruments
and smoothly reduce collective to
continue your descent.
To level off from a descent, start increasing collective about 50 ft (15 m) above
the altitude at which you want to level off.
Add left anti-torque pedal as you increase
torque to the cruise setting (about 80
percent torque). Use the cyclic to maintain cruising airspeed. Apply forward
cyclic to increase speed and aft cyclic
to slow down.
Approach
Approaches in a helicopter have more
to do with local traffic and terrain than
a need to be at a target speed and
configuration. Enter the airport traffic
area in a safe manner that avoids
obstacles, and follow the landing
procedures as described.
Landing
To land the JetRanger III, reverse the
procedure for a normal takeoff. That is,
fly an approach from a 500-ft (150 m)
Aircraft Handbook | 27
BELL
traffic pattern, enter a hover at about
3 ft (1 m) above the ground, and then
slowly and smoothly lower the aircraft
to the ground.
Following this procedure helps you
establish good habits and makes it easier
to achieve smooth, consistent landings.
Review the Landing checklist on
the Kneeboard.
Fly a modified traffic pattern that avoids
the flow of fixed-wing traffic.
During the first half of the approach,
decrease power by lowering the collective
(use the joystick throttle, or press F2).
During the second half of the approach,
you must smoothly increase power to
arrive at the 3-foot (1 m) hover just as
you set hover power, usually 70 to 75
percent torque.
Fly the downwind leg at 500 ft
(150 m) at 100 kts.
Turn to the base leg, decelerate to
70 kts, and then descend to 300 ft
(90 m).
Turn final at 300 ft (90 m), and
decelerate to 52 to 60 kts.
A descent angle of 10 to 12 degrees
provides good obstacle clearance and
helps you keep the landing area in sight.
Adjust the collective to control rate of
descent. Increase collective (use the
joystick throttle, or press F3) to reduce
the rate of descent; decrease collective
(use the joystick throttle or press F2)
slightly to increase rate of descent.
Use the cyclic (the joystick or ARROW
keys) to adjust the rate of closure with
your landing spot. Apply slight aft cyclic to
reduce the rate of closure; forward
pressure increases the rate of closure.
The ideal forward rate of travel is that of
a normal walk.
Continue the approach until the rate of
closure with the landing spot accelerates.
Begin dissipating forward speed by
applying smooth, slight back pressure
on the cyclic. As you decelerate, anticipate the need to decrease collective to
maintain altitude.
As airspeed drops to 10 to 15 kts, the
aircraft will lose effective translational lift.
You must add up collective to compensate for the loss of lift. You’ll also need to
add left anti-torque pedal pressure as you
increase collective pitch.
Aircraft Handbook | 28
BELL
Transition to the hover over the landing
spot. Enter a 3-foot (1 m) hover over the
spot where you want to land. Slowly lower
the collective and allow the helicopter to
settle onto the landing spot. Once the
aircraft is down, lower the collective all
the way (move the joystick throttle full aft,
or press F1).
cyclic (the joystick or ARROW keys) to
adjust pitch to maintain best glide.
Autorotation
Here are some tips to help you fly the
JetRanger III in an autorotation:
Autorotation in a helicopter is the equivalent of a power-off glide in an airplane.
The following procedures will help you
land the Bell 206B JetRanger III after
a simulated engine failure.
During autorotation, it’s important to
maintain rotor RPM so you have lift
available to cushion the landing. You must
also maintain the correct forward speed
so that you can reach a suitable landing
area and flare to reduce the rate of
descent before ground contact.
In the Bell 206B JetRanger III, the best
glide ratio is about 4 to 1. That is, the
helicopter can fly forward 4 feet for
every foot of altitude lost.
To achieve this glide ratio and travel the
greatest distance, maintain 69 KIAS, the
maximum-distance glide speed. Use the
To descend at the minimum-sink rate, fly
at 52 KIAS. You won’t cover as much
distance, but you’ll stay in the air for a
longer time. You may want to use the
minimum-sink airspeed if you’re directly
over a landing area.
If the engine fails, you must decrease
collective smoothly and immediately to
preserve and maintain rotor RPM (use
the joystick throttle, or press F1).
Remember—smoothly. If you abruptly
lower the collective, the helicopter will
develop a high sink rate. Establish a
glide at 52 to 69 KIAS, depending on
your selected landing area.
Stabilized rotor RPM in autorotation at
1,000 ft (305 m) should be 93 to 95
percent under ISA conditions.
As the helicopter descends to 75 to
50 ft, (23 to 15 m) apply gentle aft
cyclic (pull the joystick aft, or press
the DOWN ARROW) to establish
about a 10-degree nose-up attitude
Aircraft Handbook | 29
BELL
until approximately 15 ft (5 m) above
the ground. After ground speed is
reduced, apply forward cyclic to level
the helicopter.
Cushion the landing by adding some
collective (move the joystick throttle
forward, or press F3) as required.
To maintain heading, you’ll need to add
right pedal (twist the joystick, use the
right rudder pedal, or press ENTER
on the numeric keypad) as you apply
collective pitch because mechanical
drag in the transmission yaws the
nose left. (If you are practicing
autorotations and recovering with
power, you must add left pedal as
you increase power.)
Make sure you land with the helicopter
level and with little or no forward
speed or drift.
After ground contact, center the cyclic
and gently lower the collective.
Remember this sequence: Flare,
pitch, level, and cushion.
Straight-in Autorotation
To practice a straight-in autorotation,
use the following procedure:
Enter the traffic pattern at 500 ft (152
m) and 70 to 105 KIAS.
Close the throttle to flight idle (press
CTRL+F2).
Smoothly but quickly, lower the collective
to the full-down position. Apply a slight
amount of aft cyclic pressure to keep
the nose from dropping and to decelerate
to 52 to 69 KIAS. Be careful not to
jerk the cyclic back and forth, chasing
the airspeed.
Keep the helicopter in trim using pedal
pressure (use rudder pedals, or press
0 [left] or ENTER [right] on the numeric
keypad). Control drift using the cyclic.
Make sure the skids are straight before
entering the flare.
At about 75 ft (23 m), keep your eyes on
the landing spot so you can judge the
rate of closure. Begin the final deceleration and flare by smoothly increasing aft
cyclic pressure. You should be 10 to 15
ft (3 to 4 m) above the ground as the
helicopter starts to settle.
Aircraft Handbook | 30
BELL
As the helicopter settles toward the
ground, make sure you establish a
level pitch attitude. Smoothly apply
up collective to reduce sink rate and
cushion the touchdown.
Apply right pedal to keep the nose
absolutely straight.
Use cyclic pressure as necessary during
this transition to keep the aircraft level
and compensate for drift.
Autorotation with 180-Degree Turn
Practicing an autorotation with a 180degree turn develops your ability to plan
ahead and control the helicopter
smoothly and precisely.
Begin this maneuver at 500 ft (152 m)
and 70 to 105 KIAS.
Abeam your intended landing spot, enter
the autorotation by moving the collective
to the full down position (move the
joystick throttle full aft, or press F1).
Turn to the base leg as you stabilize in
the autorotation. Remember to use the
cyclic, not the pedals, to turn. Use the
pedals to maintain coordinated flight.
A slip or a skid causes a drop in
airspeed, increases sink rate, and
shortens the glide.
Use the cyclic to maintain the proper
descent attitude and airspeed at about
60 KIAS. Look out toward the horizon to
help you maintain the proper attitude.
Roll out on final with the cyclic, and
complete the deceleration, flare, and
touchdown as in a straight-in autorotation.
Establish a downwind leg 150 to 250 ft
(46 to 76 m) from the landing area.
Aircraft Handbook | 31
BOEING
History of Boeing
In 1903, the same year that the Wright
brothers made their revolutionary flight, a
young man named William Boeing left
Yale’s College of Engineering for the West
Coast. He made his fortune trading
timberlands, moved to Seattle, Washington, and soon became interested in the
new field of aviation.
After learning to fly with aviation legend
Glenn Martin in 1915, Boeing and a
partner decided they could build a better
flying machine. On the morning of the
first test flight of their B&W floatplane,
Boeing became impatient waiting for his
pilot and took the controls himself, thus
piloting the first flight of a Boeing aircraft.
World War I inaugurated the first production orders for Boeing aircraft. By the
end of 1918, 337 people were on the
Boeing payroll (a number that would one
day swell into the tens of thousands).
Fighter pursuit planes were built for the
Army Air Service, and the Navy bought
71 NB trainers during this time. With
the Model 15 and the P-12/F4B series,
Boeing became the leading producer of
fighters for the next decade.
Bill Boeing and pilot Eddie Hubbard flew a
Boeing C-700 to make the first international airmail delivery in 1919. By 1929,
the three-engine, 12-passenger Model
80, Boeing’s first model built specifically
for passenger transport, was in the air.
Boeing was now one of the largest
aircraft manufacturers in the country.
Fueled by further expansion, the
company’s interests soon included
several airlines, among them the
future United Airlines.
An anti-trust breakup of the company in
1934 left Bill Boeing disheartened, and
he left the aviation business to raise
horses. The company leadership kept
the company name and the Boeing vision
for the future: a focus on large airliners
and bombers.
Boeing’s contribution to the war effort
during World War II included the construction of thousands of the legendary
B--17 Flying Fortress and B--29
Superfortress bombers. Once the war
was over, the company turned its attention back to civilian aircraft as well as
military development and production.
Along with the Stratocruiser (the last
propeller-driven plane Boeing would
Aircraft Handbook | 32
BOEING
build), the company produced America’s
first swept-wing jet bomber, the B-47,
and the giant B-52 bomber (still on the
front lines today, though production
ceased more than three decades ago).
The demands of the flying public in the
post-war world made it clear that jet
transports were necessary to haul more
people longer distances at faster speeds.
Boeing was able to make significant
inroads into this market by putting the
707 jetliner into service before Douglas
Aircraft Company (later McDonnell
Douglas and now part of Boeing)
launched their DC-8. Using about
one-tenth the fuel of an ocean liner,
the $5-million 707 could carry as many
transatlantic passengers a year as the
$30-million Queen Mary.
Boeing has continued as a leader in
airliner innovation and military/aerospace technology. The company ushered
in the jumbo era in the early 1970s with
the 747 and continued to develop shorthaul airliners—including the world’s most
successful jetliner, the Boeing 737.
Military and aerospace projects have
included work on NASA space programs,
the cruise missile, and the B-2 bomber.
In addition, Boeing aircraft have been the
choice for Air Force One for 40 years.
More than 80 percent of the world’s
jetliners are Boeing aircraft. The
company’s commercial, military, space,
and communications businesses combine
to make it the world’s largest aerospace
manufacturer and the leading exporter of
goods from the United States.
Aircraft Handbook | 33
BOEING
Boeing 737-400
One should hardly be surprised that the
world’s most prolific manufacturer of
commercial aircraft is also the producer
of the world’s most popular jetliner. The
737 became the best-selling commercial
jetliner worldwide when orders for it hit
1,831 in June 1987 (surpassing
Boeing’s own 727 as the previous
champ). However, it wasn’t always that
way; in the first few years of production,
there were so few orders that Boeing
737-400 Specifications
U.S.
Cruise Speed
477 kts
Metric
550 mph
885 kph
Engines
CFM56-3C1
Maximum Range
2,059 nm
Service Ceiling
36,089 ft
11,000 m
Fuel Capacity
5,311 U.S. gal
20,104 L
Empty Weight-Standard
76,180 lbs
34,550 kg
Maximum Takeoff Weight
138,500 lbs
62,800 kg
Length
120 ft
36.45 m
Wingspan
94 ft, 9 in
25.9 m
Height
36.5 ft
11.13 m
Seating
Seats 147 to 168
Cargo Capacity
1,373 ft3
2,370 mi
3,810 km
38.9 m3
Aircraft Handbook | 34
BOEING
considered canceling the program.
They didn’t, and the airplane has more
than proven itself in over three decades
of service.
The reason for the 737’s great success
is its design flexibility. It lends itself well to
modifications that fit the market needs of
its customers, and currently, seven
different variants are available. The ability
to order different versions of the same
plane allows an airline to fit the airplane
to a particular route and passenger load
while maintaining a smaller inventory of
support and service equipment for its
fleet. And, like all of the planes in this
family, the 737-400 has crew commonality with its siblings—a pilot qualified to fly
one is qualified to fly all of them.
The short-haul 737s have ranges from
2,600 mi (4,180 km) to 3,800 mi
(6,110 km). And, speaking of short, the
first model’s length was only eight inches
greater than its wingspan, giving the
airplane a compact look that led to its
nickname: Fat Albert.
Derivative models of this line were on
the drawing boards before the first
737-100 ever flew. The -200 grew in
length over the -100 and was fitted with
progressively more powerful engines,
eventually allowing the maximum takeoff
weight to increase by nearly 32,000
pounds (14,515 kg). The most important
advancement with the next size, the
-300, was the use of a new type of
engine. The General Electric/Snecma
CFM56 produces more power than the
old JT8Ds of earlier models while producing far less noise and providing better
fuel economy.
Though known as a classic, the -400 is
no longer currently produced. It has been
replaced on the production line by the
-600, -700, -800, and -900, known as
the “Next-Generation Boeing 737s.”
These newer versions of the 737 maintain the stability and reliability of the
traditional 737s, like the -400, but have
been updated and enhanced for even
better performance.
All variants of the 737 will continue to fly
for many years to come. From its short
and stubby origins to its more elegant
stretched versions, the 737 has always
been beautiful in the eyes of airline bean
counters. Its position in the travel marketplace and in aviation history is assured.
Aircraft Handbook | 35
BOEING
Flight Notes
The Boeing 737-400 is but one variant
of the most successful line of jetliners
ever built. In all its variants, more than
3,000 737s are flying around the world.
The popular twinjet is largely used for
short- to medium-range routes. This is a
good transition airplane for you to move
from corporate-level flying (as in the
Learjet) to airline transport flying.
Though you won’t find it difficult to get the
plane off the ground and fly it, this is not
a Cessna. It takes considerable planning
to execute a successful, professionally
flown flight from takeoff, to cruise, to
stable approach and landing.
Required Runway Length
Takeoff: 5,500 ft (1,676 m), flaps 5
Landing: 5,500 ft (1,676 m),
flaps 30
Note
As with all of the Flight Simulator aircraft, the Vspeeds and checklists are located on the
Kneeboard. To access the Kneeboard while flying,
press F10, or select the Aircraft menu, and
then choose Kneeboard.
Important
All speeds given in Flight Notes are indicated
airspeeds. If you’re using these speeds as
reference, be sure that you have the Aircraft
Realism Settings set to “Display Indicated Airspeed.”
Speeds listed in the performance tables
are shown as true airspeeds.
Note
Many factors affect flight planning and aircraft
operation, including aircraft weight, weather, and
runway surface. The recommended flight parameters listed below are intended to give approximations for flights at maximum takeoff or landing
weight under ISA conditions. These instructions
are no substitute, however, for using the actual
aircraft manual.
Aircraft Handbook | 36
BOEING
The length required for both takeoff and
landing is a result of a number of
factors, such as aircraft weight, altitude, headwind, use of flaps, and ambient temperature. The figures here are
conservative and assume:
Weight: 138,500 lb (62,823 kg)
Altitude: sea level
Wind: no headwind
Temperature: 15° C. Lower weights
and temperatures will result in better
performance, as will having a
headwind component. Higher
altitudes and temperatures will
degrade performance.
Engine Startup
The engines are running by default when
you begin a flight. If you shut the engines
down, it is possible to initiate an autostartup sequence by pressing CTRL+E
on your keyboard.
Taxiing
Reverse thrust is not recommended for
backing the 737-400 out of parking or at
any time during taxiing.
The -400’s response to thrust change
is slow, particularly at high gross
weights. Idle thrust is adequate for
taxiing under most conditions, but
you’ll need a slightly higher thrust
setting to get the aircraft rolling. Allow
time for a response after each thrust
change before changing the thrust
setting again.
The -400 has a ground speed
indication on the HSI. Normal straight
taxi speed should not exceed 20 kts.
For turns, 8 to 12 kts indicated
airspeed (KIAS) speeds are good
for dry surfaces.
In Flight Simulator, rudder pedals (twist
the joystick, use the rudder pedals, or
press 0 [left] or ENTER [right] on the
numeric keypad) are used for directional
control during taxiing. Avoid stopping the
737 during turns, as excessive thrust is
required to get moving again.
Aircraft Handbook | 37
BOEING
Flaps
The following table lists recommended
maneuvering speeds for various flap
settings. The minimum flap-retraction
altitude is 400 feet, but 1,000 feet
complies with most noise abatement
procedures. When extending or retracting the flaps, use the next appropriate
flap setting depending on whether you’re
slowing down or speeding up.
Flap Position
<½ fuel
> ½ fuel
Flaps
Flaps
Flaps
Flaps
Flaps
Flaps
210
190
170
160
150
140
220
220
180
170
160
150
Up
1
5
10
15
25
Remember: These are minimum speeds
for flap operation. Flying slower than this
at bank angles of 40 degrees would
initiate the stick shaker. For VFE speeds,
see the Kneeboard. Adding 15 to 20 kts
to these speeds is recommended if
maneuvering with large bank angles,
and, in general, provides a good safety
margin. On climbout, lowering the nose
to give an additional 15 to 20 kts will
also give you better forward vision from
the cockpit.
In adverse weather conditions, taxi with
the wing flaps up and then set takeoff
flaps during your Before Takeoff checklist
procedure. Likewise, retract the flaps as
soon as practicable upon landing.
Flaps are generally not used on the
737-400 for the purpose of increasing
the descent rate during the descent
or approach phases of flight. Normal
descents are made in the clean configuration to pattern or Initial Approach
Point (IAP) altitude.
Takeoff
All of the following occurs quite rapidly.
Read through the procedure several
times before attempting it in the plane so
you know what to expect.
Run through the Before Takeoff checklist
and set flaps to 5 (press F7, or click the
flap lever on the panel).
With the aircraft aligned with the runway
centerline, advance the throttles (press
F3, or drag the throttle levers) to approximately 40 percent N1. This allows
the engines to spool up to a point where
uniform acceleration to takeoff thrust will
Aircraft Handbook | 38
BOEING
occur on both engines. The exact amount
of initial setting is not as important as
setting symmetrical thrust.
As the engines stabilize (this occurs
quickly), advance the thrust levers to
takeoff thrust—less than or equal to 100
percent N1. Final takeoff thrust should be
set by the time the aircraft reaches 60
KIAS. Directional control is maintained by
use of the rudder pedals (twist the joystick, use the rudder pedals, or press
0 [left] or ENTER [right] on the numeric
keypad).
Below about 80 KIAS, the momentum
developed by the moving aircraft is not
sufficient to cause difficulty in stopping
the aircraft on the runway.
V1, approximately 141 KIAS, is
decision speed. Above this speed, it
may not be possible to stop the
aircraft on the runway in case of a
rejected takeoff (RTO).
At Vr, approximately 143 KIAS,
smoothly pull the stick (or yoke) back
to raise the nose to 10 degrees above
the horizon. Hold this pitch attitude
and be careful not to over-rotate
(doing so before liftoff could cause
a tail strike).
At V2, approximately 150 to 155
KIAS, the aircraft has reached its
takeoff safety speed. This is the
minimum safe flying speed if an engine
fails. Hold this speed until you get a
positive rate of climb.
As soon as the aircraft is showing a
positive rate of climb on liftoff (both
vertical speed and altitude are increasing), retract the landing gear (press G,
or drag the landing gear lever). The
aircraft will quickly accelerate to V2+15.
At 1,000 ft (305 m), reduce flaps from
5 to 1 (press F6, or drag the flaps
lever). Continue accelerating to 200
KIAS, at which point you may go to flaps
up (press F6 again).
Climb
As you retract the flaps, set climb power
of approximately 90 percent N1 (press
F2, use the throttle control on your
joystick, or drag the thrust levers).
Maintain 6- or 7-degrees nose-up pitch
attitude to climb at 250 kts until reaching 10,000 ft (3,048 m), and then
maintain 280 KIAS to your cruising
altitude.
Aircraft Handbook | 39
BOEING
Cruise
Cruise altitude is normally determined by
winds, weather, and other factors. You
might want to use these factors in your
flight planning if you have created
weather systems along your route.
Optimum altitude is the altitude that gives
the best fuel economy for a given configuration and gross weight. A complete
discussion about choosing altitudes is
beyond the scope of this section.
When climbing or descending, take 10
percent of your rate of climb or descent
and use that number as your target for
the transition. For example, if you’re
climbing at 1500 FPM, start the transition 150 feet below the target altitude.
You’ll find it’s much easier to operate the
Boeing 737-400 in climb, cruise, and
descent if you use the autopilot. The
autopilot can hold the altitude, speed,
heading, or navaid course you specify. For
more information on using the autopilot,
see Using the Autopilot in Help.
Normal cruise speed is Mach 0.74. You
can set .74 in the autopilot Mach hold
window and engage the Hold button (click
the Mach button). Set the A/T Arm (click
the switch to engage the autothrottles),
and the autothrottles will set power at
the proper percent to maintain this
cruise speed. The changeover from
indicated airspeed to Mach number
typically occurs as you climb to altitudes
of 20,000 to 30,000 ft (6,000 to
9,000 m).
Remember that your true airspeed is
actually much higher in the thin, cold air.
You’ll have to experiment with power
settings to find the setting that maintains
the cruise speed you want at the altitude
you choose.
Descent
A good descent profile includes knowing
where to start down from cruise altitude
and planning ahead for the approach.
Normal descent is done with idle thrust
and clean configuration (no speed
brakes). A good rule for determining
when to start your descent is the 3-to-1
rule (three miles distance per thousand
feet in altitude.) Take your altitude in
feet, drop the last three zeros, and
multiply by 3.
For example, to descend from a cruise
altitude of 35,000 ft (10,668 m) to
sea level:
Aircraft Handbook | 40
BOEING
35,000 minus the last three zeros is 35.
35 x 3=105
This means you should begin your descent 105 nautical miles from your
destination, maintaining a speed of 250
KIAS (about 45 percent N1) and a descent rate of 1,500 to 2,000 ft per
minute, with thrust set at idle. Add two
extra miles for every 10 kts of tailwind,
if applicable.
To descend, disengage the autopilot if
you turned it on during cruise, or set the
airspeed or vertical speed into the
autopilot and let it do the flying for you.
Reduce power to idle, and lower the nose
slightly. The 737-400 is sensitive to
pitch, so ease the nose down just a
degree or two. Remember not to exceed
the regulation speed limit of 250 KIAS
below 10,000 ft (3,048 m). Continue
this profile down to the beginning of the
approach phase of flight.
Deviations from this procedure can
result in arriving too high at the destination (requiring circling to descend) or
arriving too low and far out (requiring
expenditure of extra time and fuel). Plan
to have an initial approach fix regardless
of whether or not you’re flying an instrument approach.
It takes about 35 seconds and three
miles (5.5 km) to decelerate from 290
KIAS to 250 KIAS in level flight without
speed brakes. It takes another 35
seconds to slow to 210 KIAS. Plan to
arrive at traffic-pattern altitude at the
flaps-up maneuvering speed about 12
miles out when landing straight-in, or
about eight miles out when entering a
downwind approach. A good crosscheck
is to be at 10,000 ft AGL (3,048 m),
30 miles (55.5 km) from the airport at
250 KIAS.
Approach
With the venerable Boeing 727, pilots
used to say that if you could see the
runway, you could land on it. You could
come in fast and high and still make the
landing by dropping the slats, flaps, and
landing gear. Don’t try that in this plane!
The key to a successful approach and
landing in the -400 is “you gotta slow
down to get down.” In other words, this
airplane doesn’t slow down quickly just
Aircraft Handbook | 41
BOEING
because you throw the gear and flaps
down. You want to have your aircraft
configuration (flaps and landing gear) set
and your target speed hit well ahead.
Excess speed in the -400 will require a
level flight segment to slow down.
If you’re high coming into the approach,
you can use the speed brakes to increase
descent. If possible, avoid using the
speed brakes to increase descent when
wing flaps are extended. Do not use
speed brakes below 1,000 ft AGL.
On an instrument approach, you want to
be configured for landing and have your
speed nailed by the final approach fix
(where you intercept the glideslope),
usually about five miles from touchdown.
Set flaps to 1 (press F7, or drag the
flaps indicator or lever) when airspeed is
reduced below the minimum flaps-up
maneuvering speed. Normally, this would
be when entering the downwind leg or at
the initial approach fix, so you should be
at the desired airspeed by this point. You
can then continue adding flaps as you get
down to the speed limits for each setting.
Flaps 30 is the setting for normal landings. At flaps 40, which is used for short
runways, the aircraft settles rapidly once
you chop the power.
Intercept the glideslope from below, and
extend the landing gear (press G, or drag
the landing gear lever) when the glideslope needle is less than or equal to
one dot high.
The proper final approach speed varies
with weight, but a good target at typical
operating weight is 135 to 140 KIAS.
With landing gear down and flaps at 30
degrees, set the power at 55 to 60
percent N1. This configuration should
hold airspeed with a good descent angle
toward the runway. Use small power
adjustments and pitch changes to stay on
the glidepath. You’re looking for a descent
rate of about 700 FPM.
Prior to landing, make sure the speed
brake handle is in the ARM position.
Landing
Select a point about 1,000 ft (305 m)
past the runway threshold, and aim for
it. Adjust your pitch so that the point
Aircraft Handbook | 42
BOEING
remains stationary in your view out
the windscreen.
As the threshold goes out of sight beneath you, shift the visual sighting point
to about 3/4 down the runway. When the
aircraft’s main wheels are about 15 ft
(4.5 m) above the runway, initiate a flare
by raising the nose about 3 degrees.
Move the thrust levers to idle, and fly the
airplane onto the runway.
To assure adequate aft fuselage clearance on landing, fly the airplane onto the
runway at the desired touchdown point.
DO NOT hold the airplane off the runway
for a soft landing.
If you armed the spoilers, they will deploy
automatically. If not, move the brake lever
into the UP position now. Add reverse
thrust (press F2, or drag the thrust
levers into reverse). Make sure you come
out of reverse thrust when airspeed
drops below 60 kts.
Once you’re clear of the runway and as
you taxi to the terminal, retract the flaps
(press F6, or drag the flaps lever) and
lower the spoilers (press the SLASH
[ / ], or click the brake lever).
When the main gear touch, apply the
brakes smoothly (press the PERIOD key,
or press Button 1—typically the trigger—
on the joystick).
Aircraft Handbook | 43
BOEING
Boeing 747-400
More than 30 years ago, the 747 made
its first trip from New York to London.
Since then, it’s become the standard by
which other large passenger jets are
judged. Its size, range, speed, and
capacity were then, and are now, the
best in its class.
The 747-400 model was first introduced
in 1985. The first -400 was delivered to
Northwest Airlines four years later. It
was designed to extend the already
Specifications
U.S.
Metric
Cruise Speed
0.85 Mach 565 mph
910 km/h
Engines
Pratt & Whitney PW4062 63,300 lb
Rolls Royce RB211-524H 59,500 lb
General Electric CF6-80C2B5F 62,100 lb
28,710 kg
26,990 kg
27,945 kg
Maximum Range
7,325 nm (13,570 km) Maximum Certified
Operating Altitude
45,100 ft
13747 m
Fuel Capacity
57,285 gal
216,840 L Basic Operating
Weight
403,486 lb
182,020 kg
Length
231 ft, 10 in
70.6 m
Wingspan
211 ft, 5 in
64.4 m
Height
63 ft, 8 in
19.4 m
Seating
Typical 3-class configuration – Up to 416
Typical 2-class configuration – Up to 524
Typical 1-class configuration – N/A
Aircraft Handbook | 44
BOEING
excellent capacity and range of the
original 747, and, using lighter aluminum
alloys and hardware adapted from the
757 and 767, it met its goal. Beginning
in May 1990, the 747-400 became the
only 747 currently in production, which
has been an ongoing testament
to its success.
capacity, makes it the lowest cost per
seat-mile of any twin-aisle airplane offered. It has a dispatch reliability rate
of 98.8 percent.
The 747 has also captured a number of
records. Thanks in part to use of advanced materials, like graphite, to replace heavy metals, and aluminum alloys
used in wing skins, stringers, and lowerspar chords, the 747 realized considerable weight savings over the -300. As a
result, on June 27, 1988, Northwest
Airlines set a new official weight record
by reaching an altitude of 2,000 meters
at a gross weight of 892,450 lb.
The length required for both takeoff and
landing is a result of a number of factors,
such as aircraft weight, altitude,
headwind, use of flaps, and ambient
temperature.
Shortly afterwards, Qantas Airways
set the world distance record for commercial airliners by flying a 747-400
from London to Sydney nonstop, a
distance of 11,156 miles (18,000 km)
in 20 hours, 9 minutes.
The 747-400 can travel 8,430 statute
miles (13,570 km) without refueling.
That, in addition to its large seating
Flight Notes
Required Runway Length
Lower weights and temperatures will
result in better performance, as will
having a headwind component. Higher
altitudes and temperatures will
degrade performance.
Engine Startup
The engines are running by default when
you begin a flight. If you shut the engines
down, it is possible to initiate an autostartup sequence by pressing CTRL+E on
your keyboard.
Taxiing
Maximum taxi weight is 853,000 lbs
(386,913 kg).
Aircraft Handbook | 45
BOEING
Reverse thrust is forbidden for backing
the 747-400 out of parking or at any
time during taxiing.
The -400’s response to thrust change
is slow, particularly at high gross
weights. Idle thrust is adequate for
taxiing under most conditions, but
you’ll need a slightly higher thrust
setting to get the aircraft rolling.
Allow time for a response after each
thrust change before changing the
thrust setting again.
The -400 has a ground speed
indication on the HSI. Normal straight
taxi speed should not exceed 20
knots. For turns, 8 to 12 knots are
good for dry surfaces.
In Flight Simulator, rudder pedals (twist
the joystick, use the rudder pedals, or
press 0 [left] or ENTER [right] on the
numeric keypad) are used for directional
control during taxiing. Avoid stopping the
747 during turns, as excessive thrust is
required to get moving again.
Flaps
The following table lists recommended
maneuvering speeds for various flap
settings. The minimum flap-retraction
altitude is 400 feet, but 1,000 feet
complies with most noise abatement
procedures. When extending or retracting the flaps, use the next appropriate
flap setting depending on whether you’re
slowing down or speeding up.
Flap Position
< ½ fuel
> ½ fuel
Flaps
Flaps
Flaps
Flaps
Flaps
Flaps
210
190
170
160
150
140
220
220
180
170
160
150
Up
1
5
10
15
25
Remember, these are minimum speeds
for flap operation. Flying slower than this
at bank angles of 40 degrees would
initiate the stick shaker. For VFE speeds,
see the Kneeboard. Adding 15 to 20
knots to these speeds is recommended if
maneuvering with large bank angles, and
in general, provides a good safety margin.
On climbout, lowering the nose to give an
additional 15 to 20 knots will also give you
better forward vision from the cockpit.
In adverse weather conditions, taxi with
the wing flaps up, and then set takeoff
flaps during your Before Takeoff checklist
procedure. Likewise, retract the flaps as
soon as practicable upon landing.
Aircraft Handbook | 46
BOEING
Flaps are generally not used on the 747400 to increase the descent rate during
the descent from en route altitude.
Normal descents are made in the clean
configuration to pattern or Initial Approach Point (IAP) altitude.
should be set by the time the aircraft
reaches 60 KIAS. Directional control is
maintained by use of the rudder pedals
(twist the joystick, use the rudder pedals,
or press 0 [left] or ENTER [right] on the
numeric keypad).
Takeoff
Below about 80 KIAS, it’s easy to stop
the airplane on the runway using
the brakes only.
All of the following occurs quite rapidly.
Read through the procedure several
times before attempting it in the plane
so you know what to expect.
Run through the Before Takeoff checklist,
and set flaps to 5 (press F7, or click the
flap lever on the panel).
With the aircraft aligned with the runway
centerline, advance the throttles (press
F3, or drag the throttle levers) to approximately 40 percent N1. This allows
the engines to spool up to a point where
uniform acceleration to takeoff thrust will
occur on both engines. The exact amount
of initial setting is not as important as
setting symmetrical thrust.
As the engines stabilize (this occurs
quickly), advance the thrust levers to
takeoff thrust—less than or equal to
100 percent N1. Final takeoff thrust
V1, approximately 159 KIAS, is
decision speed. Above V1, you
probably won’t be able to stop the
airplane on the runway after an
engine failure or other problem.
At Vr, approximately 177 KIAS,
smoothly pull the stick (or yoke) back
to raise the nose to 10 degrees above
the horizon. Hold this pitch attitude
and be careful not to over-rotate
(doing so before liftoff could cause a
tail strike).
At V2, approximately 188 KIAS, the
aircraft has reached its takeoff safety
speed. This is the minimum safe flying
speed if an engine fails. Hold this
speed until you get a positive rate
of climb.
Aircraft Handbook | 47
BOEING
As soon as the aircraft is showing a
positive rate of climb on liftoff (both
vertical speed and altitude are increasing), retract the landing gear (press G,
or drag the landing gear lever). The
aircraft will quickly accelerate to V2+15.
At 1,000 ft (305 m), reduce flaps from
5 to 1 (press F6, or drag the flaps
lever). Continue accelerating to 200
KIAS, at which point you may go to flaps
up (press F6 again).
Climb
As you retract the flaps, set climb power
to approximately 90 percent N1 (press
F2, use the throttle control on your
joystick, or drag the thrust levers).
Maintain 6- or 7-degrees nose-up pitch
attitude to climb at 250 KIAS to 10,000
feet, then 340 knots to 25,000 feet,
then 0.84 Mach to cruise altitude.
Cruise
Cruise altitude is normally determined by
winds, weather, and other factors. You
might want to use these factors in your
flight planning if you have created
weather systems along your route.
Optimum altitude is the altitude that gives
the best fuel economy for a given configu-
ration and gross weight. A complete
discussion about choosing altitudes is
beyond the scope of this section.
Let’s say you’ve filed a flight plan for
FL350. Approaching your cruising
altitude, take 10 percent of the rate of
climb or descent, and convert that
number to feet. For example, if you’re
climbing or descending at 1000 FPM,
start leveling off 100 ft before you
reach the target altitude.
You’ll find it’s much easier to operate the
Boeing 747-400 in climb, cruise, and
descent if you use the autopilot. The
autopilot can hold the altitude, speed,
vertical speed, heading, or navaid course
you specify.
Normal cruise speed is Mach 0.85. You
can set .85 in the autopilot Mach hold
window and engage the Hold button (click
the Mach button). Set the A/T Arm
(click the switch to engage the
autothrottles), and the autothrottles
will set power at the proper percent to
maintain this cruise speed. The
changeover from indicated airspeed to
Mach number typically occurs as you
climb to altitudes of 20,000 to 30,000 ft
(6,000 to 9,000 m).
Aircraft Handbook | 48
BOEING
Remember that your true airspeed is
actually much higher than your indicated
airspeed in the thin, cold air. You’ll have
to experiment with power settings to
find the setting that maintains the
cruise speed you want at the altitude
you choose.
Descent
A good descent profile includes knowing
where to start down from cruise altitude
and planning ahead for the approach.
Normal descent is done using idle thrust
and clean configuration (no speed brakes).
A good rule for determining when to start
your descent is the 3-to-1 rule (three
miles distance per thousand feet in
altitude.) Take your altitude in feet, drop
the last three zeros, and multiply by 3.
For example, to descend from a cruise
altitude of 35,000 ft (10,668 m) to
sea level:
35,000 minus the last three zeros is 35.
35 x 3=105.
This means you should begin your descent 105 nautical miles from your
destination, maintaining a speed of 250
KIAS (about 45 percent N1) and a descent rate of 1,500 to 2,000 ft per
minute, with thrust set at idle. Add two
extra miles for every 10 knots of tailwind,
if applicable.
To descend, disengage the autopilot if
you turned it on during cruise, or set the
airspeed or vertical speed into the
autopilot and let it do the flying for you.
Reduce power to idle, and lower the nose
slightly. The 747-400 is sensitive to
pitch, so ease the nose down just a
degree or two. Remember not to exceed
the regulation speed limit of 250 KIAS
below 10,000 ft (3,048 m). Continue
this profile down to the beginning of the
approach phase of flight.
Deviations from the above can result
in arriving too high at the destination
(requiring circling to descend) or arriving
too low and far out (requiring expenditure
of extra time and fuel). Plan to have an
initial approach fix regardless of whether
or not you’re flying an instrument approach.
It takes about 35 seconds and three
miles (5.5 km) to decelerate from 290
KIAS to 250 KIAS in level flight without
speed brakes. It takes another 35
seconds to slow to 210 KIAS. Plan to
arrive at traffic-pattern altitude at the
Aircraft Handbook | 49
BOEING
flaps-up maneuvering speed about 12
miles out when landing straight-in, or
about eight miles out when entering a
downwind approach. A good crosscheck
is to be at 10,000 ft AGL (3,048 m)
30 miles (55.5 km) from the airport at
250 KIAS.
reduced below the minimum flaps-up
maneuvering speed. Normally, this would
be when entering the downwind leg or at
the initial approach fix, so you should be
at the desired airspeed by this point. You
can then continue adding flaps as you get
down to the speed limits for each setting.
Approach
Flaps 30 is the setting for normal landings. At flaps 40, which is used for short
runways, the aircraft settles rapidly once
you chop the power.
The 747-400 won’t slow down quickly
just because you throw the gear and
flaps down. Have your aircraft configuration (flaps and landing gear) set and your
target speed hit well in advance. Excess
speed in the -400 will require a level
flight segment to slow down.
If you’re high coming into the approach,
you can use the speed brakes to increase
descent. If possible, avoid using the
speed brakes to increase descent when
wing flaps are extended. Do not use
speed brakes below 1,000 ft AGL.
When the glideslope comes alive, extend
the landing gear (press G, or drag the
landing gear lever.)
The proper final approach speed varies
with weight, but a good target speed
at typical operating weight is 135 to
140 KIAS.
On an instrument approach, be configured for landing and have your speed
nailed by the final approach fix (where you
intercept the glideslope), usually about
five miles from touchdown.
With landing gear down and flaps at 30
degrees, set the power at 55 to 60
percent N1. This configuration should
hold airspeed with a good descent angle
toward the runway. Use small power
adjustments and pitch changes to stay
on the glidepath. You’re looking for a
descent rate of about 700 FPM.
Set flaps to 1 (press F7, or drag the
flaps indicator or lever) when airspeed is
Prior to landing, make sure the speed
brake handle is in the ARM position.
Aircraft Handbook | 50
BOEING
Landing
Maximum landing weight is 630,000 lbs.
Select a point about 1,000 ft (305 m)
past the runway threshold, and aim for
it. Adjust your pitch so that the point
remains stationary in your view out
the windscreen.
As the threshold goes out of sight beneath you, shift the visual sighting point
to about ¾ down the runway. When the
aircraft’s main wheels are about 15 ft
(4.5 m) above the runway, initiate a flare
by raising the nose about 3 degrees.
Move the thrust levers to idle, and fly the
airplane onto the runway.
To assure adequate aft fuselage clearance on landing, fly the airplane onto the
runway at the desired touchdown point.
DO NOT hold the airplane off the runway
for a soft landing.
Set the autobrakes before landing. When
the main gear touch down, apply brakes
smoothly (press the PERIOD key or
Button 1—typically the trigger—on
the joystick).
If you armed the spoilers, they will deploy
automatically. If not, move the brake lever
into the UP position now. Add reverse
thrust (press F2, or drag the thrust
levers into reverse). Make sure you
come out of reverse thrust when airspeed drops below 60 knots.
Retract the flaps (press F6, or drag the
flaps lever), and lower the spoilers (press
SLASH [ / ], or click the brake lever) as
you taxi to the terminal.
Aircraft Handbook | 51
BOEING
Boeing 777-300
On the outside, it may resemble the
jetliners you’ve seen for years. Inside,
however, it’s a whole new bird. The newest plane in the long and proud Boeing
family line is the 777, commonly referred
to as the “Triple Seven.” This long-range,
fuel-efficient twinjet was first delivered in
May 1995 to fill a gap in the market
between the 747 and 767. It is capable
of seating 386 to 550 passengers.
Specifications
U.S.
Metric
Cruise Speed
Mach 0.84
Engines (three options)
P&W 4000 | RR Trent 800 | GE 90 series
Maximum Range
5,960 nm
Maximum Operating Altitude
43,100 ft
Typical Cruising Altitude
35,000 ft
555 mph
6,859 sm
893 kmh
11,038 km
13,137 m
Fuel Capacity
45,200 U.S. gal
171,160 L
Maximum Takeoff Weight-Basic
660,000 lb
299,370 kg
Length
242 ft, 4 in
73.9 m
Wingspan
199 ft, 11 in
60.9 m
Height
60 ft, 8 in
18.5 m
Seating
Seats 386 to 550
Configurations
Seating ranges from 6- to
10-abreast with two aisles
Cargo Capacity
7,552 cu ft
213.8 cu m
Aircraft Handbook | 52
BOEING
The genesis of the 777 is unique in
Boeing history. From the outset, it was
designed with cooperation and input from
its future customers. Boeing actually had
engineering staff from the airlines working with Boeing engineers at the factory.
And the 777 is the first airliner ever to
be completely designed on computers.
Using Computer Aided Three-Dimensional
Interactive Applications (CATIA), every
system and piece of the plane was
created and fitted together on computers
before production began. It worked so
well that Boeing didn’t need to create a
full-scale physical mock-up of the airplane.
The result was that after laser-aligning
the major sections and wings of the real
airplane, the port wingtip was a mere
0.001 inch out of alignment. The fuselage
was out of alignment by only 0.023 inch.
One of the distinguishing features of the
777 is its perfectly round fuselage crosssection, as opposed to the more ovoid
shape of previous Boeing planes. This
gives structural strength and simplicity to
the fuselage, making it less prone to
fatigue. The plane has an enormous
below-deck cargo capacity, even greater
than the 747-400 (by weight, not volume).
A striking external feature of this widebody is the main gear. Larger than that
of any other airliner, each main gear of
the 777 has six wheels—giving the same
pavement loading as a jumbo DC10-30
but with half the parts and less complexity. The left axle of each main can actually
be steered up to 8 degrees to aid in
nose-gear steering.
The in-flight entertainment system is like
nothing any airliner has ever had before.
It’s the most complex system of its kind
ever developed, and with an estimated
250,000 lines of dedicated software
code, it’s as sophisticated as some
airplanes’ avionics systems. Each passenger has a choice of up to 12 video
channels and 48 audio channels. Each
seat has a phone that doubles as a game
controller, credit card reader, and modem link. At 9,000 pounds (1,745 kg)
for a typical installation, this is some
heavyweight entertainment!
Key to the present and future success of
the 777 is its flexibility. Designed to be
stretched, shortened, and modified in
many ways to suit its customers’ needs, it
can even be ordered with folding wingtips
to allow parking at gates designed for
Aircraft Handbook | 53
BOEING
smaller planes. From the extremely
powerful new engines to the all-glass
cockpit, this airplane has the technology
to carry it far into the 21st century.
Flight Notes
The 777, or Triple Seven, is the newest
long-range twinjet from Boeing. With a
state-of-the-art glass cockpit and fly-bywire flight controls, this airplane is at the
forefront of current transportation
technology. While its engines are 40
percent more powerful than those on the
767, they are just as quiet. Flying the
777 will give you a taste of what it’s like
to handle a large, wide-body airliner.
The 777 is approved for Extended Range
Twin-Engine Operations (ETOPS), and
you’ll want to try some transoceanic
flights. On May 30, 1995, the 777
became the first airplane in aviation
history to earn Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) approval to fly ETOPS at the
same time it entered regular commercial
service. On May 4, 1998, the 777-300
achieved another historic milestone by
becoming the first commercial airplane to
receive type certification and ETOPS
approval on the same day.
Note
As with all of the Flight Simulator aircraft, the
V-speeds and checklists are located on the
Kneeboard. To access the Kneeboard while
flying, press F10, or select the Aircraft menu,
and then choose Kneeboard.
Important
All speeds given in Flight Notes are indicated
airspeeds. If you’re using these speeds as reference, be sure that you have the Aircraft Realism
Settings set to “Display Indicated Airspeed.” Speeds
listed in the performance tables are shown as
true airspeeds.
Note
Many factors affect flight planning and aircraft
operation, including aircraft weight, weather, and
runway surface. The recommended flight parameters listed below are intended to give approximations for flights at maximum takeoff or landing
weight under ISA conditions. These instructions
are no substitute, however, for using the actual
aircraft manual.
Aircraft Handbook | 54
BOEING
Required Runway Length
Takeoff: 11,000 ft (3,353 m), flaps 5
Landing: 11,000 ft (3,353 m),
flaps 30
The length required for both takeoff and
landing is a result of a number of factors,
such as aircraft weight, altitude,
headwind, use of flaps, and ambient
temperature. The figures here are
conservative and assume:
Weight: 550,000 lb (249,476 kg)
Altitude: sea level
Wind: no headwind
Temperature: 15° C
Lower weights and temperatures will
result in better performance, as will
having a headwind component. Higher
altitudes and temperatures will
degrade performance.
Engine Startup
The engines are running by default when
you begin a flight. If you shut the engines
down, it is possible to initiate an autostartup sequence by pressing CTRL+E on
your keyboard.
Taxiing
Reverse thrust is not recommended at
any time during taxiing of the 777-300.
The taxiing technique in the 777 is to
allow the airplane to accelerate itself at
idle. In other words, unless the aircraft is
heavily loaded, idle power will move the
plane from a stop into taxi speed. If you
need a little power to get it rolling, be
conservative. Then bring the thrust levers
back to idle. Airplane response to thrust
lever movement is slow, particularly at
high gross weights.
Avoid taxi speeds greater than 30 kts at
idle thrust. Brake to approximately 10
kts, and then release the brakes. The
airplane appears to be moving slower
than it actually is due to its
height above the ground.
The Triple Seven is a long airplane (in
fact, the stretch 777 is currently the
longest commercial airplane in the
world), and the wheels are a long way
behind the pilot’s seat. One real-world
pilot’s technique for taxiing onto a runway
with the 777 is to taxi towards the
opposite side of the runway until his seat
Aircraft Handbook | 55
BOEING
is over the grass on the far side. Then he
turns the tiller (nose gear steering) hard
so that the nose comes around to the
runway centerline.
In Flight Simulator, rudder pedals (twist
the joystick, use the rudder pedals, or
press 0 [left] or ENTER [right] on the
numeric keypad) are used for directional
control during taxiing. Avoid stopping the
777 during turns, as excessive thrust is
required to get moving again.
Takeoff
Run through the Before Takeoff checklist,
and set flaps to 5 (press F7, or drag the
flaps lever).
With the aircraft aligned with the runway
centerline, advance the thrust levers
(press F3, or drag the thrust levers) to
approximately 1.85 on the engine pressure ratio gauge (EPR). This allows the
engines to spool up to a point where
uniform acceleration to takeoff thrust will
occur on both engines. The exact amount
of initial setting is not as important as
setting symmetrical thrust.
As the engines stabilize (this occurs
quickly), advance the thrust levers to
maximum thrust (98 to 100 percent N1).
V1, approximately 149 kts indicated
airspeed (KIAS), is decision speed.
Above this speed, it may not be
possible to stop the aircraft on
the runway in case of a rejected
takeoff (RTO).
At Vr, approximately 153 KIAS,
smoothly pull the stick (or yoke) back to
raise the nose to 10 degrees above
the horizon at approximately 2 degrees
per second. Hold this pitch attitude.
At V2, approximately 160 KIAS, the
aircraft has reached its takeoff safety
speed. This is the minimum safe flying
speed if an engine fails. Hold this
speed until you get a positive rate
of climb.
As soon as the aircraft is showing a
positive rate of climb on liftoff (both
vertical speed and altitude are increasing), retract the landing gear (press G, or
drag the landing gear lever). The aircraft
will accelerate to 175 to 180 KIAS.
At 1,000 ft (305 m), go from flaps 5 to
flaps 1 (press F6, or drag the flaps
lever). Continue accelerating to 210
KIAS, at which point you go to flaps up
(press F6 again).
Aircraft Handbook | 56
BOEING
Climb
For the climb to cruise altitude, pull the
power back to 95 percent N1. Climb at
250 KIAS to 10,000 ft (3,048 m).
Above 10,000 ft, lower the nose as
required to accelerate to 320 KIAS until
reaching 0.76 Mach.
Cruise
Cruise altitude is normally determined by
winds, weather, and other factors. You
might want to use these factors in your
flight planning if you have created
weather systems along your route.
Optimum altitude is the altitude that gives
the best fuel economy for a given configuration and gross weight. A complete
discussion about choosing altitudes is
beyond the scope of this section.
When climbing or descending, take 10
percent of your rate of climb or descent
and use that number as your target for
the transition. For example, if you’re
climbing at 1500 FPM, start the transition 150 feet below the target altitude.
You’ll find it’s much easier to operate the
Boeing 777-300 in climb, cruise, and
descent if you use the autopilot. The
autopilot can hold the altitude, speed,
heading, or navaid course you specify. For
more information on using the autopilot,
see Using the Autopilot in Help.
Normal cruise speed is Mach 0.843.
(The changeover from indicated airspeed
to Mach number typically occurs as you
climb to altitudes of 20,000 to 30,000 ft
[6,000 to 9,000 m].) Remember that
your true airspeed is actually much
higher in the thin, cold air.
With a typical power setting of 92.6
percent N1, speed will be around 313
KIAS. The fuel flow will be around 4,476
pounds per hour (2,030 kilograms
per hour).
Descent
A good descent profile includes knowing
when to start down from cruise altitude
and planning ahead for the approach.
Normal descent is done with idle thrust
and clean configuration (no speed
brakes). A good rule for determining
when to start your descent is the 3-to-1
rule (three miles distance per thousand
feet in altitude.) Take your altitude in
feet, drop the last three zeros, and
multiply by 3.
Aircraft Handbook | 57
BOEING
For example, to descend from a cruise
altitude of 31,000 ft (9,449 m) to
sea level:
31,000 minus the last three zeros is 31.
31 x 3=93.
This means you should begin your
descent 93 nautical miles from your
destination. Add two extra miles for
every 10 kts of tailwind, if applicable.
To descend, disengage the autopilot if
you turned it on during cruise (or you can
set airspeed or flight path angle into the
autopilot and let it do the flying for you).
Bring the thrust levers back to flight idle
(use the joystick throttle, press F1, or
drag the thrust levers), and lower the
nose to maintain a speed of 0.84 Mach
until you see 310 KIAS.
Then, maintain 270 KIAS during your
descent (use pitch to adjust airspeed).
This will provide a descent rate of about
1,800 to 2,000 ft per minute.
Approach
Plan to be at 10,000 ft (3,048 m)
about 20 miles (32 km) from the airport.
You must be at or below 250 KIAS by
this point.
At 15 miles, reduce your speed to below
220 KIAS, and go to flaps 1 (press F7,
or drag the flap lever). Remember: The
power is at flight idle, so airspeed adjustment will be done using pitch.
At around 10 miles from touchdown, go
to flaps 15 and a speed of 165 KIAS.
Once the glideslope comes alive, extend
the landing gear (press G, or drag the
landing gear lever), then go to flaps 20,
arm the speed brakes (press the SLASH
[ / ], or drag the speed brake lever),
and set the autobrakes (click the
autobrakes switch).
As you start down the glideslope, go to
flaps 30 and adjust power to maintain a
final approach speed of 140 KIAS.
Aircraft Handbook | 58
BOEING
Landing
The proper final approach speed varies
with weight, but a good target at typical
operating weight is 135 to 140 KIAS. As
you cross the threshold at around 50 ft
(15 m), bring the power back to idle.
Just above the runway, flare slightly (no
more than 3-degrees nose-up), and fly
the airplane onto the runway. Remember:
The landing gear on the 777 are a long
way behind you and you’re a long way
up in the air even when the aircraft is
on the ground.
Once the main gear are down, pull the
thrust levers into reverse. The spoilers
will deploy automatically if you armed
them during approach.
The nose will start down immediately.
Don’t hold the nose off the runway in
the 777. By the time the nose gear
contacts the pavement, the reverse
thrust will begin to kick in. If you’ve
armed the autobrakes, autobraking
will begin automatically.
On the rollout, go to idle reverse at 60
kts. By the time you reach taxi speed,
come out of reverse into forward idle.
Retract the flaps (press F6, or click the
flaps lever), and lower the spoilers (press
the SLASH [ / ], or click the brake lever)
as you taxi to the terminal.
Aircraft Handbook | 59
CESSNA
History of Cessna
His name is synonymous with light aircraft. Clyde Cessna, one of aviation’s
adventurous pioneers, started flying in
1911 and began building planes soon
after. The first was a tiny monoplane that
he named “Silver Wings.” Throughout the
early teens, he built and crashed a
number of aircraft that were either
modifications of other designs or designs
of his own. He had minor success during
this time as a manufacturer and as a
pilot, putting on demonstrations at public
gatherings for 50 cents a head.
Cessna went back to farming for several
years, but in the mid-twenties was enticed to join in an aviation venture with
Walter Beech and others. Soon he struck
out on his own again, determined to build
the first airship with a full-cantilever
wing—the Cessna Phantom. The Cessna
Aircraft Company was soon building
the A-series planes, which were
successfully employed in commercial
and racing ventures.
Success led to expanded production
facilities and development of the DC
series. The DC-6A and DC-6B were
officially certified on October 29, 1929—
the day of the stock market crash, harbinger of the Great Depression. Despite
valiant attempts to keep the company
alive, the plant doors were closed. Cessna
privately continued developing and racing
planes with his son until his dear friend
Roy Liggett was killed in a plane designed
and built by Clyde during a race at which
he was a spectator.
Though Clyde’s enthusiasm for flying was
dampened, that of his nephews was not.
After assisting in the resurrection of the
company, Clyde relinquished the company
helm to his nephew Dwayne Wallace,
who would lead Cessna Aircraft Corporation for nearly 40 years. Throughout his
tenure, Wallace was a popular figure at
Cessna who, in the early days, wasn’t
above sweeping floors, living on nickel
hamburgers, and flying races to win
payroll money.
Aircraft Handbook | 60
CESSNA
The company served during World War II
by producing Bobcat trainers and parts
for B-29 bombers, and was a pioneer in
the employment of women in factory jobs.
Postwar prosperity and demand for
private planes launched Cessna into the
role for which it is best known today—as
a producer of personal and business
aircraft. In addition to creating the Air
Force’s first jet trainer (the T-37) and
business-class twins, Cessna began
production of the single-engine line,
which to most people defines “Cessna.”
Starting with the Cessna 120 and
moving up through successive models,
the Cessna singles are the world’s
best-selling airplanes.
Although downturns during the 1980s
halted the production of piston-powered
Cessnas, the company is back to building
a new generation of its famous singles.
Cessna also builds six business jet
models, including the world’s fastest,
the Citation X. After many decades of
success, it seems Cessna will continue
its eminent role in general aviation well
into the future.
Aircraft Handbook | 61
CESSNA
Cessna 172SP
This isn’t the aviation equivalent of some
cheap date you’ll be taking out for one
wild, adventurous weekend. The Cessna
172 is more like the love of your life—a
steady, constant companion to fly with for
a long time to come. A stable and trustworthy plane, most pilots have logged at
least a few hours in a Cessna 172, since
it’s the most widely available aircraft in
the rental fleet and is used by most flight
schools. Since the first prototype was
Specifications
U.S.
Metric
Maximum Speed
126 kts
203 km/hr
Cruise Speed
124 kts
200 km/hr
Engine
Textron Lycoming IO-360-L2A 180 bhp
Propeller
Macauley Fixed Pitch Two Blade
Maximum Range
638 nm
Service Ceiling
14,000 ft
4,267 m
Fuel Capacity
56 gal
212 L
Empty Weight
1,665 lb
1,002 kg
Maximum Gross Weight
2,550 lb
1,157 kg
Length
27 ft, 2 in
8.2 m
Wingspan
36 ft, 1 in
11 m
Height
8 ft, 11 in
2.72 m
Seating
Up to 4
Useful Load
893 lb
423 kg
Aircraft Handbook | 62
CESSNA
completed in 1955, more than 35,000
C172s have been produced, making it
the world’s most popular single-engine
plane. One of Cessna’s first tricycle-gear
airplanes, the 172 quickly became the
favorite of a growing class of business
pilots. Its reliability and easy handling
(along with thoughtful engineering and
structural updates) have ensured its
continued popularity for more than
35 years.
The differences between an original
1956 172 and today’s version are many,
but there are a few similarities. The wing
has the same NACA 2412 airfoil that
Cessna’s been using since production of
its 170, and the plane continues to use
the same flat-plate ailerons that 172s
and 152s have always been known for,
making it a steady handler, if not exactly
an exciting one.
Updates to the 172 have been carefully
chosen and consistently well made. The
172 received its distinctive swept-back
tail in 1960 and its helpful wraparound
rear window in 1962. In 1964, Cessna
began using a 150-hp Lycoming engine
rather than the old six-cylinder, air-cooled
Continental engines of the original 172s.
With the SP comes a further engine
update providing an even higher maxi-
mum takeoff weight. With its fuel-injected, 180-hp Textron-Lycoming IO-360,
the SP has 20 hp more than even a
172R and a maximum takeoff weight of
2,550 lbs—250 lbs more than the
172R.
172s are famed for their stability. In the
1960s and ‘70s, Cessna vied for attention and respectability by attempting to
build a hardworking airplane that could be
easily flown by nearly anyone. With the
172, they undoubtedly succeeded. When
properly trimmed, this airplane will fly
itself for hours at a time, needing little to
no physical guidance from the pilot. And
like other Cessnas, 172s don’t like
stalling, either.
Cessna temporarily stopped manufacturing the 172 in 1986, when market
forces and high product-liability premiums
forced the company to implement serious
cutbacks. Pilots around the world
breathed a sigh of relief when, 10 years
later, President Bill Clinton enacted the
General Aviation Revitalization Act.
Cessna celebrated the good news with
the completion of a new plant in Independence, Kansas and immediately began
production on a new version of the 172.
If the new 172SP is any indication, things
have only gotten better since then.
Aircraft Handbook | 63
CESSNA
Flight Notes
Many factors affect flight planning and
aircraft operation, including aircraft
weight, weather, and runway surface. The
recommended flight parameters listed
below are intended to give approximations for flights at maximum takeoff or
landing weight on a day with International
Standard Atmosphere (ISA) conditions.
Required Runway Length
960 ft at sea level with ISA conditions.
Important
These instructions are intended for use with Flight
Simulator only and are no substitute for using the
actual aircraft manual for real-world flight.
Note
As with all of the Flight Simulator aircraft, the
V-speeds and checklists are located on the
Kneeboard. To access the Kneeboard while flying,
press F10, or select the Aircraft menu, and then
choose Kneeboard.
Engine Startup
The engine will be running automatically
every time you begin a flight. If you shut
the engine down, you can initiate an autostartup sequence by pressing CTRL+E. If
you want to do the startup procedures
manually, use the checklist on the
Kneeboard.
Note
All speeds given in Flight Notes are indicated
airspeeds. If you’re using these speeds as reference, be sure that you select “Display Indicated
Airspeed” in the Realism Settings dialog box.
Speeds listed in the specifications table are shown
as true airspeeds.
Taxiing
While taxiing, the power should be set at
approximately 1000 RPM. (Mixture should
be full forward.) As you move down the
taxiway, use the rudder to turn the nose
right and left for directional control. (Twist
the joystick; use the rudder pedals; or
press 0 or ENTER on the numeric keyboard to turn left or right, respectively.)
Note
The length required for both takeoff and landing is
a result of a number of factors, including aircraft
weight, altitude, headwind, use of flaps, and
ambient temperature. Lower weights and temperatures will result in better performance, as will
having a headwind component. Higher altitudes
and temperatures with degrade performance.
Aircraft Handbook | 64
CESSNA
Flaps
Cruise
For a normal takeoff, Cessna recommends 0-10 degrees of flaps (at the
pilot’s discretion). Using 10 degrees of
flaps reduces the takeoff roll by approximately 10 percent.
Climb
Cruise altitude would normally be determined by winds, weather, and other
factors. You might want to use these
factors in your flight planning if you have
created weather systems along your
route. Optimum altitude is the altitude
that gives the best fuel economy for a
given configuration and gross weight.
A complete discussion about choosing
altitudes is beyond the scope of this
section. However, a good rule to bear
in mind is that an airplane with a normally
aspirated engine is most efficient between 6,000–8,000 feet. That altitude
range gives the best tradeoff between
available power, fuel economy, and
true airspeed.
Climb with full throttle, no flaps, and a
fully rich mixture—approximately 75-85
kts—when below 3,000 ft. Above 3,000
feet, lean the mixture for smooth operation and for maximum RPM.
Ideal cruise settings for the 172SP are
between 45 and 75 percent power.
When above 3,000 feet, lean the mixture approximately 1/3 of full rich for
optimum performance.
Takeoff
Run through the Before Takeoff checklist,
and set flaps at either 0 or 10 degrees
(press F7, or click the flaps lever),
depending on the runway situation.
Align the aircraft with the white runway
centerline, and advance the throttle
control to full power (use the joystick
throttle, or press F4).
Aircraft Handbook | 65
CESSNA
Descent and Approach
Reduce power to 2100 RPM, and set
the airplane up for a descent rate of
approximately 450 feet per minute.
Landing
On final approach, plan for a landing
speed of 65 knots with full flaps. Select a
point just past the runway threshold, and
aim for it. Adjust your pitch so that the
point remains stationary in your view out
the windscreen. Leave the power at
approximately 1500 RPM, and fly the
airplane down to the runway. Keep the
nose off the ground, and slowly bring
back the throttle completely while you
flare just above the runway. Touch down
with the back wheels first. With less than
full flaps, expect a bit of float in the flare.
Upon touchdown, apply brakes by pressing the PERIOD key. Exit the runway, and
retract the wing flaps.
Aircraft Handbook | 66
CESSNA
Cessna 182S Skylane
and Skylane RG
When Cessna saw how well their Model
180 was selling, they looked for a way to
make it an even bigger success; the
answer was the Model 182. The 182 first
flew in 1956, and its big advancement
was the patented Land-O-Matic tricyclelanding gear (weren’t the fifties grand?),
which make landing and ground handling
easier, attracting would-be pilots who
didn’t want to fly taildraggers. During the
Cessna 182S Specifications
U.S.
Metric
Maximum Speed
145 kts
167 mph
269 kmh
Cruise Speed
140 kts
161 mph
259 kmh
Engine
Textron Lycoming IO-540-AB1A5
Propeller
McCauley 3-bladed constant speed
Maximum Range
968 nm
Service Ceiling
18,100 ft
5,517 m
Fuel Capacity
92 U.S. gal
333 L
Empty Weight
1,910 lb
854 kg
944 sm
230 hp
1,519 km
Maximum Gross Weight
3,110 lb
1,411 kg
Length
29 ft
8.84 m
Wingspan
36 ft
11 m
Height
9 ft
2.77 m
Seating
Up to 4
Useful Load
1,200 lbs
557 kg
Aircraft Handbook | 67
CESSNA
model’s lifespan, it has been beefed up,
modified, and released in retractable-gear
(RG) and turbo-charged (T) versions. Like
all the Cessna piston aircraft, production
of the 182 was halted in 1986 due to
market forces and the high price of
product liability insurance premiums. Now
the 182 is back in a new incarnation.
The Cessna 182 Skylane feels and acts
like a heavier, more powerful version
of its sibling, the 172 Skyhawk. While
there is nothing tricky about flying the
Cessna 182RG Specifications
U.S.
Metric
Maximum Speed
160 kts
Cruise Speed
156 kts
Engine
Textron Lycoming O-540-J3C5D
Propeller
McCauley 2-bladed constant speed
Maximum Range
1,135 nm
Service Ceiling
14,300 ft
4,359 m
Fuel Capacity
92 U.S. gal
333 L
Empty Weight
1,910 lb
868 kg
Maximum Gross Weight
3,110 lb
1,411 kg
Length
29 ft
8.84 m
Wingspan
36 ft
11 m
Height
9 ft
2.77 m
Seating
Up to 4
Useful Load
1,200 lbs
184 mph
296 kmh
180 mph
1,306 sm
289 kmh
235 hp
2,102 km
545 kg
Aircraft Handbook | 68
CESSNA
182, pilots shouldn’t underestimate it;
the Skylane doesn’t tolerate indifferent
pilot technique.
The airplane is a workhorse and a stable
platform for flying on instruments. Even
with a full tank, the 182 carries a familysize useful load and performs admirably
as an aerial sport utility vehicle.
One of the improvements with the new
182 is that it now has a wet wing (the
fuel is stored directly inside the wing).
Older models had a rubber fuel bladder in
the wing that could wrinkle as it aged,
creating nice little pockets in which water
could accumulate. Water and avgas don’t
make for a good fuel mix.
Also new is the choice of the Textron
Lycoming IO-540 AB1A5 engine (Textron
owns Cessna) producing 230 hp at 2400
RPM. This makes the Skylane a fuelinjected airplane for the first time, eliminating the threat of carburetor icing. The
three-bladed McCauley prop helps complete the grown-up appearance of the new
Skylane. This is not your father’s 182.
What isn’t new for the Skylane is a
retractable-gear version. The RG included
in Microsoft® Flight Simulator is based on
earlier models, since Cessna is currently
producing only the fixed-gear Skylane. The
RG makes a nice transition for pilots
desiring a more complex airplane that will
get you where you’re going 15 kts (25
kmh) faster than the fixed-gear model
at top speed.
Over the years, the empty weight of the
Skylane has increased, while the useful
load has decreased in successive models. Since it has retained the same
powerplant output, it has slightly higher
maximum and cruise speeds. Range has
been extended in all models with larger
fuel capacity.
It’s easy to see why Microsoft has offered
the versatile and time-tested 182 in
every version of Flight Simulator since its
introduction. It’s an aviation legend, both
in the world of flight simulation and in the
real world.
Flight Notes
As of this writing, Cessna does not make
a retractable-gear model of the 182. The
182 RG in Flight Simulator is based on
the older R model. The 182 RG is a
great airplane for transitioning into more
complex aircraft operation. With the
Aircraft Handbook | 69
CESSNA
familiar stability and load-hauling capabilities of its fixed-gear sibling, it offers
transitioning pilots more complexity and
higher cruise speeds.
Required Runway Length
Takeoff: 1,570 ft (479 m), flaps 20
Note
As with all of the Flight Simulator aircraft, the
V-speeds and checklists are located on the
Kneeboard. To access the Kneeboard while
flying, press F10, or select the Aircraft menu,
and then choose Kneeboard.
Landing: 1,320 ft (402 m), flaps Full
The length required for both takeoff and
landing is a result of a number of factors,
such as aircraft weight, altitude,
headwind, use of flaps, and ambient
temperature. The figures here are
conservative and assume:
Important
All speeds given in Flight Notes are indicated
airspeeds. If you’re using these speeds as reference, be sure that you have the Aircraft Realism
Settings set to “Display Indicated Airspeed.” Speeds
listed in the performance tables are shown as
true airspeeds.
Weight: 3,000 lb (1,361 kg)
Altitude: sea level
Wind: no headwind
Temperature: 15 °C
Runway: hard surface
Lower weights and temperatures
will result in better performance, as
will having a headwind component.
Higher altitudes and temperatures
will degrade performance.
Note
Many factors affect flight planning and aircraft
operation, including aircraft weight, weather, and
runway surface. The recommended flight parameters listed below are intended to give approximations for flights at maximum takeoff or landing
weight under ISA conditions. These instructions
are no substitute, however, for using the actual
aircraft manual.
Aircraft Handbook | 70
CESSNA
Engine Startup
The engine is running by default when you
begin a flight. If you shut the engine down,
you can initiate an auto-startup sequence
by pressing CTRL+E. If you want to do the
startup procedures manually, use the
checklist on the Kneeboard.
Taxiing
While taxiing, the power should be set at
around 1000 RPM (prop and mixture are
full forward). As you move down the
taxiway, turn the nose right and left for
directional control by using the rudder
(twist the joystick, use the rudder pedals,
or press 0 [left] or ENTER [right] on the
numeric keypad).
With the aircraft aligned with the runway
centerline, advance the throttle control to
full power.
At 50 kts indicated airspeed (KIAS),
smoothly pull the stick back (using the
joystick or yoke, or press the DOWN
ARROW) to raise the nose to 10 degrees above the horizon. Climb out at
70 to 80 KIAS.
As soon as you have a positive rate of
climb on liftoff (both vertical speed and
altitude are increasing), retract the
landing gear (press G, or drag the
landing gear lever). Then raise the
flaps (press F6, or drag the flaps lever).
Accelerate to 90 KIAS.
Takeoff
Climb
Run through the Before Takeoff checklist,
and set flaps at 0, 10, or 20 degrees
(press F7, or drag the flaps lever),
depending on the runway situation. You’ll
want to use 20 degrees with a short
runway; 10 degrees works well for
takeoffs on normal runway lengths.
For the climb to cruise altitude, the
recommended parameters are 23 inches
manifold pressure or full throttle, whichever is less (press F2, or drag the
throttle control) and 2400 RPM (press
CTRL+F2, or drag the prop control). The
cowl flaps should remain open. Your
climb speed should be 90 to 100 KIAS.
Cowl flaps should be OPEN for takeoff
and climb (click the Cowl Flaps lever).
Aircraft Handbook | 71
CESSNA
The mixture should stay at full rich (full
forward) until above 3,000 ft (914 m).
Above 3,000 ft, the mixture should be
leaned for maximum efficiency. Use the
exhaust gas temperature (EGT) gauge to
determine the best mixture of air to fuel.
Lean the mixture (press CTRL+SHIFT+F2,
or drag the mixture control) until the EGT
gauge reaches its peak setting. Lower
power settings will result in better fuel
flow and range. For better range and fuel
economy, lean the mixture to 125° F rich
of peak EGT.
Cruise
Cruise altitude is normally determined
by winds, weather, and other factors.
You might want to use these factors in
your flight planning if you have created
weather systems in place along your
route. Optimum altitude is the altitude
that gives the best fuel economy for
a given configuration and gross weight.
A complete discussion about choosing
altitudes is beyond the scope of
this section.
Normal cruise in the 182RG is performed at 55 to 75 percent power.
Best power settings (the highest allowable cruise settings) will result in both
high cruise speeds and high fuel flow.
Set the manifold pressure at 23 inches
(press F2, or drag the throttle control)
and the propeller RPM at 2400 (press
CTRL+F2, or drag the prop control).
Cowl flaps should be CLOSED for cruise
and descent (click the Cowl Flaps lever).
Descent
A typical descent in the 182RG involves
lowering the nose and reducing power.
Two or three degrees nose-down is fine.
Set power at about 18 inches of manifold
pressure (use the joystick throttle, press
F2, or drag the throttle control). This will
give you a descent rate of about 700 feet
per minute (FPM).
Approach
Below 140 KIAS, you can begin extending
the flaps, which are good at reducing
airspeed. You can also extend the
landing gear to reduce speed (140
KIAS or below).
Plan to slow to around 80 KIAS when
entering the downwind leg or at your initial
approach fix on an instrument approach.
Aircraft Handbook | 72
CESSNA
Landing
Final approach with full flaps deployed
should be flown at around 65 KIAS. The
propeller and mixture controls should be
full forward. Carburetor heat should be
full ON (drag the Carburetor Heat control
aft). On final approach, verify that the
landing gear is down.
Upon touchdown, bring the power back
to idle, apply brakes (press the PERIOD
key), and exit the runway. Retract the
wing flaps (press F6), and set the carburetor heat to OFF (full forward).
Select a point past the runway threshold,
and aim for it. Adjust your pitch so that
the point remains stationary in your view
out the windscreen. Leave the power at
your final approach setting, and fly the
airplane down to the runway. Smoothly
reduce power to idle as you flare slightly
just before touchdown.
Aircraft Handbook | 73
CESSNA
208B Caravan (Professional
Edition only) and 208
Caravan Amphibian
Wherever you want to go, the Cessna
Caravan can get you there. First introduced by Cessna in 1985, the Caravan
was designed to land nearly anywhere,
on land or water. Undoubtedly, it has lived
up to its creators’ intentions. Whether
supplies need to be brought to a flooded
village in the mountains of Peru, an
injured person needs to be flown out
from a remote lake in Alaska, or an
208B Caravan
Specifications
Maximum Speed
Cruise Speed
Engine
Propeller
Maximum Range
Service Ceiling
Fuel Capacity
Empty Weight
Maximum Gross Weight
Length
Wingspan
Height
Seating
Useful Load
U.S.
Metric
175 kts
164 kts
Pratt & Whitney Canada, Inc., Free Turbine.
Flat Rated at 675 Shaft hp PT6A-114A
Three-Bladed, Constant Speed, Full Feathering,
Reversible McCauley, 106-inch diameter
5.1 hours with maximum cruise at 10,000 feet
6.6 hours with maximum cruise at 18,000 feet
6.4 hours with maximum range at 10,000 feet
7.2 hours with maximum range at 20,000 feet
22,800 ft
335 gal
4,040 lb
8,785 lb
41 ft, 7 in
52 ft, 1 in
15 ft, 5-½ in
Up to 14
4,745 lb
324 km/hr
305 km/hr at 20,000 feet
1,830 kg
3,980 kg
2,150 kg
Aircraft Handbook | 74
CESSNA
archaeologist wants access to a tiny site
in the African desert, the Caravan has
what’s needed to do the job.
In the initial design of the Caravan, Cessna
took the fuselage of a Model 207
Stationair and enlarged it. However, it
didn’t take Cessna long to realize that in
order to create a plane that provided
enough cargo and fuel-carrying space,
they’d have to start from close to scratch.
They used sections of the 207 in the first
prototype, but the ultimate design of the
Caravan had no real predecessor.
208 Caravan Amphibian
Specifications
U.S.
Maximum Speed
Cruise Speed
Engine
Propeller
Maximum Range
Service Ceiling
Fuel Capacity
Empty Weight
Maximum Gross Weight
Length
Wingspan
Height
Seating
175 KIAS
143 KIAS (8,000 lbs), 130 KIAS (6,400 lbs)
117 KIAS (5,200 lbs)
Pratt & Whitney Canada, Inc., Free Turbine
Flat Rated at 675 Shaft hp PT6A-114A
Three-Bladed, Constant Speed, Full Feathering,
Reversible McCauley, 106-inch diameter
4.6 hours with maximum cruise at 10,000 feet
5.7 hours with maximum cruise at 20,000 feet
6.8 hours with maximum range at 10,000 feet
8.0 hours with maximum range at 20,000 feet
13,500 ft
335 gal
4,895 lb
8,035 lb
41 ft, 7 in
52 ft, 1 in
15 ft, 5-½ in
Up to 14
Metric
324 km/hr
4.115 m
Aircraft Handbook | 75
CESSNA
Caravans have large fuel tanks and
tough, sturdy landing gear to ensure the
aircraft’s reliability on rough, unpaved
airstrips. (And that landing gear can
easily be replaced with floats in order to
handle water landings.) Caravans also
sport large wings for quick liftoffs on
short, rough runways. One hundred and
seventy-four square feet of wing area
provide 335 gallons of fuel capacity. The
oil-only strut in the nose gear acts as a
shock absorber, cushioning the engine
from large loads placed onto it by the
engine mounts as the airplane rolls over
rocks and potholes.
The first amphibious Caravan was certified in March 1986 and was officially
rolled out two months later. In the Amphibians, two large floats replace the
landing gear. However, each float contains retractable landing gear, making the
airplane truly amphibious. Each float can
carry 200 pounds of gear inside watertight bulkhead compartments. The
Amphibian also has retractable water
rudders that provide maneuverability on
the water and vertical fins on its horizontal stabilizer that balance the large float
surface and provide more control.
The first Caravans were made-to-order
for Federal Express, a company that
logged a total of one million Caravan
hours back in 1996. FedEx has continued
to depend on the Caravans’ reliability,
flexibility, and strength to provide hundreds of small communities around the
world with access to overnight delivery
service. As for the Amphibians, one of
the earliest customers of the floating
flyers was the Royal Canadian Mounted
Police. These amphibious planes gave the
RCMP access to miles of rivers and lakes
throughout the provinces for both law
enforcement and rescue missions.
Flight Notes
Many factors affect flight planning and
aircraft operation, including aircraft
weight, weather, and runway surface. The
recommended flight parameters listed
below are intended to give approximations for flights at maximum takeoff or
landing weight on a day with International
Standard Atmosphere (ISA) conditions.
Aircraft Handbook | 76
CESSNA
Required Runway Length
2,500 ft (765 m), with ISA conditions.
Engine Startup
The engine will be running automatically
every time you begin a flight. If you shut
the engine down, you can initiate an
auto-startup sequence by pressing
CTRL+E. If you want to do the startup
procedures manually, use the checklist
on the Kneeboard.
Important
These instructions are intended for use with Flight
Simulator only and are no substitute for using the
actual aircraft manual for real-world flight.
Note
As with all of the Flight Simulator aircraft, the Vspeeds and checklists are located on the
Kneeboard. To access the Kneeboard while flying,
press F10, or select the Aircraft menu, and then
choose Kneeboard.
Taxiing
Set prop and mixture should be full forward for taxiing. As you move down the
taxiway, use the rudder to turn the nose
right and left for directional control. (Twist
the joystick; use the rudder pedals; or
press 0 and ENTER on the numeric
keyboard to turn left or right, respectively.)
Note
All speeds given in Flight Notes are indicated
airspeeds. If you’re using these speeds as reference, be sure that you select “Display Indicated
Airspeed” in the Realism Settings dialog box.
Speeds listed in the specifications table are
shown as true airspeeds.
Takeoff
Run through the Before Takeoff checklist
found in the Kneeboard (F10). Set flaps
(press F7, or click the flaps lever) between 0 and 20 degrees, depending on
the runway situation.
Note
The length required for both takeoff and landing is
a result of a number of factors, including aircraft
weight, altitude, headwind, use of flaps, and
ambient temperature. Lower weights and temperatures will result in better performance, as will
having a headwind component. Higher altitudes
and temperatures will degrade performance.
Aircraft Handbook | 77
CESSNA
Align the aircraft with the white runway
centerline, and advance the throttle to
takeoff power (1900 torque).
Descent and Approach
Set climb speed for between 110 and
120 KIAS.
Reduce airspeed to 75-85 KIAS with
flaps fully down. Adjust flaps slowly in
increments as follows: At 175 KIAS,
lower to 10 degrees. At 150 KIAS, lower
to 20 degrees. Finally, lower to 30
degrees at 125 KIAS.
Cruise
Landing
Cruise altitude would normally be determined by winds, weather, and other
factors. You might want to use these
factors in your flight planning if you have
created weather systems along your
route. Optimum altitude is the altitude
that gives the best fuel economy for a
given configuration and gross weight.
A complete discussion about choosing
altitudes is beyond the scope of
this section.
On final approach, plan for a landing
speed of 75-85 KIAS with full flaps. Plan
to land slightly tail-low.
Climb
Set your airspeed for 155 KIAS. Set your
propeller for 1600–1900 RPM by pressing CTRL+F2 or CTRL+F3.
Amphibian: Hold the control wheel aft as
the aircraft slows to taxi speed.
208B: Ease the control wheel forward
to lower the bow wheels gently to
the runway.
Upon touchdown, bring the power back
to idle and lightly apply the brakes by
pressing the PERIOD key.
Aircraft Handbook | 78
EXTRA 300S
History of Extra
Walter Extra is well on his way toward
being added to the long list of legends
that populate German design and engineering circles. A mechanical engineer
whose avocation was aerobatic competition, he won several German National
Championships and competed internationally. After flying a modified Pitts Special in
the 1982 World Aerobatic Championship, Extra decided to design his own
high-performance monoplane. His Extra
230 was in the air the next year.
In 1984, Walter flew the 230 in the
World Aerobatic Championship, which
focused attention on the new design and
sparked orders from other pilots: Extra
Flugzeugbau (Aircraft Construction) was
born. Aerobatic champion Clint McHenry
purchased an Extra 230 and flew it to
win the U.S. National Aerobatic Championship in 1986 and 1987. Pete Anderson won the 1990 Championship in his
230. A total of 19 Extra 230s were
built, and a number of U.S. Aerobatic
Team members flew them at World
Aerobatic Championships.
The Extra 260 prototype flew in 1987
with a larger engine than the 230 and a
new three-bladed prop. This model
incorporated a larger wood wing in
addition to carbon-fiber composite tail
surfaces and landing gear. Patty
Wagstaff won the World Aerobatic
Championship flying her 260 three years
in a row (’91, ’92, ‘93). Her Extra 260
now resides in the National Air and
Space Museum in Washington, D.C.
The prototype 300 model was completed
in 1988, and 300s were flown by three
different competitors at the World
Aerobatic Championship that year. The
300-horsepower Extra was taken through
full German and U.S. certification. The
FAA certified the 300 with an unprecedented +/- 10 G rating—more Gs than
most humans can withstand and remain
conscious. More improvements to the
Unlimited class 300 were introduced with
the single-seat 300S.
Walter Extra builds his planes to be flown
by recreational as well as competitive
pilots, and all of the Extras have been
designed with that vision in mind. With
the introduction of the 300L in 1993,
Extra took a further step in that direction
Aircraft Handbook | 79
EXTRA 300S
with a two-place version of the 300 that
is often equipped with full IFR panels and
autopilots. To date, this is Extra
Flugzeugbau’s best-seller. And it’s still a
stellar aerobatic performer, even with two
souls on board.
The slightly smaller and lower-powered
Extra 200 is designed for the introductory aerobatic market. It has lower initial
acquisition costs and lower operating
costs and is a perfect choice for the
fixed-base operator (FBO) who wants to
offer basic aerobatic courses.
Extra Flugzeugbau entered a new market
in 1999 with the Extra 400. The model
400 is a six-place, pressurized, cabinclass plane built to fill a niche between
the recreational and corporate lightbusiness aircraft markets. Over 90
percent of the 400 is constructed
of carbon-fiber composites, giving it
exceptional strength and light weight.
The Extra experience can be summed
up in the following words: light weight,
high thrust, and performance, performance, performance. While broadening
the base of their product line, Extra
Flugzeugbau will remain one of the top
competitors in the construction of
world-class aerobatic aircraft.
Aircraft Handbook | 80
EXTRA 300S
Extra 300S
If airplanes were horses, the Extra 300S
would be a champion thoroughbred. It is,
in fact, designed to be a champion in
Unlimited class aerobatic competitions.
The 300S combines light weight, a 300horsepower engine, and exquisite control
harmony in an aircraft that has won
several World Aerobatic Championships.
A derivative of the two-place model 300,
the wing of the single-place 300S was
lowered eight inches to provide better
Specifications
U.S.
Metric
Maximum Speed
200 kts
230 mph
Cruise Speed
178 kts
205 mph
Engine
Textron Lycoming AEIO-540 L1B5
Propeller
Three-bladed constant speed
Maximum Range
415 nm
Service Ceiling
16,000 ft
4,877 m
Fuel Capacity
42.3 U.S. gal
160 L
Empty Weight
1,470 lb
667.8 kg
Maximum Gross Weight
2,095 lb
950 kg
Length
23.36 ft
7.12 m
Wingspan
26.25 ft
8m
Height
8.6 ft
2.62 m
FAA Certified Load Factor
+/- 10 G
Seating
1
Useful Load
625 lb
478 sm
370 kmh
330 kmh
300 hp
769 km
283.5 kg
Aircraft Handbook | 81
EXTRA 300S
ground visibility and improve the general
appearance of the aircraft. After this
anxiously awaited model was introduced
in March 1992, three of the four existing
production aircraft were flown in the
World Championship that July.
The Extra 300S has an incredible rollrate: 400 degrees per second. Just as
impressive is how precisely maneuvers
can be executed in the hands of an
expert pilot like Patty Wagstaff. Attend
one of her airshows, and you’ll see a
300S carve paths through the sky like it’s
on a rail. Most aircraft require the pilot
to drive downhill a bit to gather enough
inertia for a loop. With the Extra 300S,
just pull the stick back in level flight at
high cruise power, and it leaps through
the vertical, headed for the opposite
horizon. This airplane is at home in a roll,
loop, tail slide, hammerhead, Cuban
Eight, or any other extreme attitude you
want to put it into.
A hint of the control sensitivity of the
300S comes with the first movement of
the stick. There is no slack or resistance
in the control circuit. When you move the
controls, the airplane follows instantly.
Long ailerons provide the aerial equivalent of power-assisted rack-and-pinion
steering, and fingertip control is all that’s
needed. Even at steep bank angles, the
controls are surprisingly light. Electrically
adjustable rudder pedals customize the
plane’s fit to any pilot, and the bubble
canopy provides a roomy, panoramic view
of the world whether right-side up or
upside down.
As with many taildragger aircraft, visibility
over the nose of the 300S is not terrific
when on the ground. The standard
technique while taxiing is to perform Sturns to see where you’re going. When
you apply the power for the takeoff run,
the tail comes up quickly, followed by the
rest of the plane shortly thereafter.
Most 300Ss are purchased by pilots who
just want a fast, sporty plane that they
can turn upside down on occasion. The
rest go to buyers who employ them in
competition or for entertaining the
crowds at airshows. Whatever motivates
them to buy it, owners of the Extra 300S
love this high-spirited and well-mannered
stallion for its legendary performance.
Aircraft Handbook | 82
EXTRA 300S
Flight Notes
The Extra 300S is a single-seat,
high-performance aerobatic aircraft
manufactured in Dinkslaken, Germany.
The aircraft can withstand G loads
of ±10 G, and its large ailerons deliver
a roll rate exceeding 400 degrees per
second. Think of it as a sports car, not
a station wagon.
Remember that this airplane is a
taildragger. Because it has a tailwheel,
the center of gravity is behind the main
wheels. Controlling the Extra on the
ground can be like driving a car on
icy roads.
Strong, fast, and highly maneuverable,
the Extra 300S is your ticket to Flight
Simulator aerobatic excitement.
Required Runway Length
Takeoff: 813 ft (248 m)
Landing: 1,798 ft (548 m)
The length required for both takeoff and
landing is a result of a number of factors,
such as aircraft weight, altitude,
headwind, use of flaps, and ambient
temperature. The figures here are
conservative and assume:
Note
As with all of the Flight Simulator aircraft, the
V-speeds and checklists are located on the
Kneeboard. To access the Kneeboard while flying,
press F10, or select the Aircraft menu, and
then choose Kneeboard.
Important
All speeds given in Flight Notes are indicated
airspeeds. If you’re using these speeds as reference, be sure that you have the Aircraft Realism
Settings set to “Display Indicated Airspeed.” Speeds
listed in the performance tables are shown as
true airspeeds.
Note
Many factors affect flight planning and aircraft
operation, including aircraft weight, weather, and
runway surface. The recommended flight parameters listed below are intended to give approximations for flights at maximum takeoff or landing
weight under ISA conditions. These instructions
are no substitute, however, for using the actual
aircraft manual.
Aircraft Handbook | 83
EXTRA 300S
Weight: 2,095 lb (950 kg)
Altitude: sea level
Wind: no headwind
Temperature: 15° C
Runway: hard surface
Lower weights and temperatures will
result in better performance, as will
having a headwind component. Higher
altitudes and temperatures will
degrade performance.
Engine Startup
The engine is running by default when you
begin a flight. If you shut the engine down,
you can initiate an auto-startup sequence
by pressing CTRL+E. If you want to do the
startup procedures manually, use the
checklist on the Kneeboard.
Taxiing
While taxiing, the power should be set at
around 1000 RPM (prop and mixture are
full forward). As you move down the
taxiway, turn the nose right and left for
directional control by using the rudder
(twist the joystick, use the rudder pedals,
or press 0 [left] or ENTER [right] on the
numeric keypad).
Flaps
The 300S doesn’t have flaps.
Takeoff
Run through the Before Takeoff checklist.
With the aircraft aligned with the runway
centerline, advance the throttle control
to full power. Keep a slight forward
pressure on the stick (use the joystick
or yoke, or press the UP ARROW), and
the tail will come up fairly soon at around
40 kts indicated airspeed (KIAS). Then,
rotate slightly nose-up (use the joystick
or yoke, or press the DOWN ARROW),
and the plane will become airborne at
around 70 KIAS.
Climb
Here’s where the fun starts with the
300S. After takeoff, level out and let the
speed build to around 120 KIAS, which
will happen quite quickly. Then, check out
the performance of this amazing airplane. You can pull up and through the
vertical into an Immelmann right over
the runway.
Experiment with throttle settings. You’ll
find the Extra is extremely responsive to
throttle changes; this will aid you as you
learn to maneuver this little sport plane.
Aircraft Handbook | 84
EXTRA 300S
If you’re using the Extra to cruise crosscountry, reduce power after takeoff to 25
inches of manifold pressure (use the
joystick throttle, press F2, or drag the
throttle control). Raise the nose, and
climb out at around 100 KIAS.
Cruise
Cruise altitude would normally be determined by winds, weather, and other
factors. You might want to use these
factors in your flight planning if you have
created weather systems along your
route. Optimum altitude is the altitude that
gives the best fuel economy for a given
configuration and gross weight. A complete discussion about choosing altitudes
is beyond the scope of this section.
The Extra isn’t designed for long crosscountry flights, but it will get you there
at about 150 kts at typical cruisepower settings.
Try using 24 inches of manifold pressure
(use the joystick throttle, press F2, or
drag the throttle control) and 2400 RPM
(press CTRL+F2, or drag the prop
control). You can fly for about two hours
under most conditions and still have a
safe fuel reserve.
Landing
Precise speed control is essential for
smooth landings in the 300S. Plan to fly
your final approach at 80 kts, keeping
some power on. If you get much slower,
the Extra will start to descend rapidly. Try
to land any faster, and you’ll float down
the runway.
As you enter the traffic pattern, bring the
power back to about 15 inches of manifold pressure (use the joystick throttle,
press F2, or drag the throttle control).
Adjust the pitch attitude of the nose to
hold airspeed at 70 kts. If you get a little
low, add an inch or two of manifold
pressure. If you think you’re too high,
reduce power by an inch or two.
As you cross over the runway threshold,
smoothly reduce power to idle, and hold
the nose slightly above the horizon. Let
the airplane settle gently onto the runway. Look outside using your peripheral
vision to stay lined up until you exit the
runway.
Upon touchdown, bring the power back to
idle, hold full back pressure on the stick
(use the joystick or yoke, or press the
DOWN ARROW), apply brakes (press
the PERIOD key), and exit the runway.
Aircraft Handbook | 85
LEARJET 45
History of Learjet
When most people think of business jets,
they think Learjet. For more than three
decades and through a number of corporate changes, Learjet has produced
some of the finest aircraft in the world.
William Powell Lear was a 61-year-old
millionaire entrepreneur when he began
work on development of the Learjet.
Dissatisfied with the speed of the propeller-driven craft available to business
travelers in the 1950s, he decided to
build a corporate-class jet. He wasn’t the
first to develop a “biz-jet,” but he may
have been the most audacious.
The first designs were influenced by a
Swiss fighter, the P16. Lear hired the
Swiss design team, but soon discovered
that the pace of life and business in
Switzerland wasn’t up to his traditional
rapid-fire way of getting things done. He
moved the project to Wichita, Kansas,
and with a new American design team,
set about attempting the impossible.
Pundits in the aviation business estimated it would take 10 years and $100
million dollars to accomplish what Lear
wanted. He would prove them wrong.
Lear did realize, however, that with the
financial resources he had at hand,
traditional development processes would
not work. They decided not to build a
prototype, and the first Learjet was built
with the production tooling—a risky
method that could not tolerate a major
design error. But it worked. On September 15, 1963, only nine months after
the move to Wichita, Learjet 001 was
rolled out. Just 10 months later, the
Learjet was granted a Type Certificate
by the FAA.
Learjets have always been designed with
performance in mind. Every effort was
expended to squeeze more speed and
less drag out of the airframe. It sprinted
past the competition at 0.82 Mach with
a 41,000-ft service ceiling and 1,500nm range for five to seven passengers,
and did it with a smaller price tag.
After selling the company in 1967, Bill
Lear went on to other pursuits, including
the unfinished Learliner and Learfan
aircraft projects. With over 100 inventions to his credit (including the eighttrack stereo), he left a rich legacy and
an enduring mark on aviation.
Aircraft Handbook | 86
LEARJET 45
The next milestone, with the company
now under the Gates Learjet banner, was
the introduction of the 30 series. For the
United States Bicentennial, the company
repeated the 1966 round-the-world flight
of a Learjet 24 with a Learjet 36. The
new, efficient, turbofan model bested the
old time by 1.5 hours and used nearly
3,000 gallons less fuel. Learjet got a jet
certified to fly at 51,000 feet, an altitude
that would allow later models to take
advantage of weather, wind, and fuel
efficiency up high. The Concorde was
the only other civil aircraft certified to
such heights.
Today, as a division of Bombardier Aerospace, the company’s stars are the
Learjet 31A, Learjet 45, and Learjet 60.
They are still among the most popular
aircraft in their class, and their beautiful,
sleek lines are instantly recognizable.
Want testimony to the enduring quality of
the Learjet name? Point to any business
jet and ask the average person what it is.
They’ll likely say, “It’s a Learjet.”
Aircraft Handbook | 87
LEARJET 45
Learjet 45
The Model 45 is Learjet’s first all-new
aircraft since Bill Lear’s first Model 23.
Although it looks like a Learjet, it has only
half the parts of a Model 35, reflecting a
significant design progression. The parameters set down for the 45 called for it to
have the performance of the Learjet 35,
the handling of the Learjet 31A, and
greater cabin space than the competition.
Specifications
U.S.
Metric
Cruise Speed
Mach 0.81
Engines
Allied Signal TFE731-20 3,500 lb thrust
464 kts
Maximum Range
2,200 nm
2,532 sm
Service Ceiling
51,000 ft
15,545 m
Fuel Capacity
6,062 lb
904.8 U.S. gal
859 kmh
4,074 km
2,722 kg
Maximum Gross Weight
20,450 lb
9,276 kg
Maximum Takeoff Weight - HGW
20,200 lb
9,163 kg
Length
58.4 ft
17.7 m
Wingspan
47.8 ft
14.6 m
Height
14.3 ft
4.3 m
Seating
Up to 9
Useful Load
2,650 lb
3,341 L
1,202 kg
Aircraft Handbook | 88
LEARJET 45
This is Learjet’s first paperless airplane,
designed entirely on a computer screen.
In some cases, the computer design files
are loaded directly into production milling
machines, which allows for an exceptional
degree of precision in manufacturing
(especially important when major parts
that have to fit together are made on
different continents!). This reduces not
only time in construction but also the rate
of rejection of parts (inherent in any
manufacturing process).
Like so many ventures today, building
Learjets is a cooperative arrangement of
various entities. Learjet is responsible for
systems and final assembly in the United
States; the fuselage is built by Shorts in
Ireland; and the wing design and construction is handled by de Havilland in
Canada (all Bombardier subsidiaries).
Ease of operation was a key design goal
with the new Learjet. In addition to fewer
parts, the craft has a built-in maintenance tracking system. A technician can
plug a laptop computer into a panel and
download a fault list from all of the
avionics, engines, and other systems.
The 45’s glass cockpit makes for simplified in-flight system management. The
Primus 1000 integrated avionics system
and engine instrument/crew advisory
system (EICAS) has a page for monitoring
every major system as well as for displaying primary flight instruments.
Power management usually creates a
high workload when flying jets, thus
requiring new power settings with
changes in weight and ambient conditions. The Learjet 45 takes much of the
power management off the pilots’ hands
by computing it for them. For takeoff, for
example, advance the thrust levers three
clicks to the takeoff position, feet off the
brakes, and you’re out of here. During
the climb, ease the levers back a notch
to the max continuous thrust (MCT)
position, and let the digital electronic
engine computer (DEEC) worry about
the rest.
At 45,000 feet and a weight of 17,000
pounds, the high-speed cruise number is
445 KIAS with a fuel flow of about 1,062
pounds per hour (pph). Back the power
down to a long-range cruise setting, and
the speed decreases to 408 kts, while
Aircraft Handbook | 89
LEARJET 45
fuel burn slows to 987 pph. The 45 has
a maximum IFR range of about 1,800
nm. With a maximum operating altitude
of 51,000 feet, the 45 easily reaches
and cruises at 45,000 feet, unlike some
lighter jets that are certified to 45,000
feet, but are rarely used at that altitude.
Learjet has shown once again its ability to
adapt to the market and produce what
the customer wants. In the Model 45,
they have crafted a machine that gets the
customer there on time and in comfort
while keeping the pilots and the corporate
flight office happy.
Note
As with all of the Flight Simulator aircraft, the Vspeeds and checklists are located on the
Kneeboard. To access the Kneeboard while flying,
press F10, or select the Aircraft menu, and then
choose Kneeboard.
Important
All speeds given in Flight Notes are indicated
airspeeds. If you’re using these speeds as reference, be sure that you have the Aircraft Realism
Settings set to “Display Indicated Airspeed.” Speeds
listed in the performance tables are shown as
true airspeeds.
Flight Notes
The Learjet 45 is one of aviation’s best
answers to the needs of business transportation. Capable of airliner speeds and
high-altitude flight, this airplane will get
you there fast and in comfort.
After transitioning in Flight Simulator
from the complex single-engine airplanes
to the King Air, the Learjet makes a
logical next step before moving up to
the 737, 777, and 747.
Note
Many factors affect flight planning and aircraft
operation, including aircraft weight, weather, and
runway surface. The recommended flight parameters listed below are intended to give approximations for flights at maximum takeoff or landing
weight under ISA conditions. These instructions
are no substitute, however, for using the actual
aircraft manual.
Aircraft Handbook | 90
LEARJET 45
Required Runway Length
Takeoff: 4,700 ft (1,432 m), flaps 8
Landing: 3,200 ft (975 m), flaps 20
The length required for both takeoff and
landing is a result of a number of factors,
such as aircraft weight, altitude,
headwind, use of flaps, and ambient
temperature. The figures here are
conservative and assume:
Weight: 20,000 lb (9,072 kg)
Altitude: sea level
Wind: no headwind
Temperature: 15° C
Lower weights and temperatures will
result in better performance, as will
having a headwind component. Higher
altitudes and temperatures will
degrade performance.
Engine Startup
The engines are running by default when
you begin a flight. If you shut the engines
down, it is possible to initiate an autostartup sequence by pressing CTRL+E on
your keyboard. If you want to do the
startup procedures manually, follow the
checklist procedures on the Kneeboard.
Taxiing
To taxi the Learjet, use just enough
power to get it rolling, and then bring the
thrust levers back to idle. Idle thrust will
work fine for keeping you moving.
Takeoff
All of the following occurs quite rapidly.
Read through the procedure several
times before attempting it in the plane so
you know what to expect.
Run through the Before Takeoff checklist,
and set flaps to 8 or 20 as desired
(press F7, or drag the flaps lever). With
the aircraft aligned with the runway
centerline, advance the throttles (press
F3, or drag the levers) to approximately
40 percent N1. This allows the engines
to spool up to a point where uniform
acceleration to takeoff thrust will occur
on both engines. The exact amount of
initial setting is not as important as
setting symmetrical thrust.
After the engines are stabilized, advance
the thrust levers to takeoff thrust—
generally 93 to 96 percent N1 (less with
high outside air temperatures).
Aircraft Handbook | 91
LEARJET 45
Directional control is maintained by use
of the rudder pedals (twist the joystick,
use the rudder pedals, or press 0 [left]
or ENTER [right] on the numeric keypad).
tion speed. This number is V2+ 30, or
about 176 kts. Retract the flaps (press
F6, or drag the flaps lever).
Climb
At V1, approximately 136 kts indicated
airspeed (KIAS), is decision speed.
Above this speed, it may not be
possible to stop the aircraft on
the runway in case of a rejected
takeoff (RTO).
At Vr, approximately 143 KIAS,
smoothly pull the stick back (use the
joystick or yoke, or press the DOWN
ARROW) to raise the nose to 10
degrees above the horizon. Hold
this pitch attitude and be careful
not to over-rotate.
At V2, approximately 146 KIAS, the
aircraft has reached its takeoff safety
speed. This is the minimum safe flying
speed should an engine fail. Hold this
speed until you get a positive rate
of climb.
As soon as the aircraft is showing a
positive rate of climb (both vertical speed
and altitude are increasing), retract the
landing gear (press G on the keyboard, or
drag the landing gear lever). The aircraft
will quickly accelerate to the flap-retrac-
After retracting the gear and flaps, you
don’t need to reduce power unless you
level off below 10,000 ft (3,048 m) and
you need to remain below FAA speed
limits. To remain level at 200 KIAS at
2,000 ft (610 m), for example, pull the
power back to 53 to 55 percent N1.
A power setting of 60 to 63 percent
will get you 250 KIAS while level at
this altitude.
If you continue your climb above 10,000
ft, leave the power up as long as it
remains below the “max continuous
temperature” on the interstage turbine
temperature gauge (ITT). You should be
climbing at 1,800 to 2,000 feet per
minute. Learjet drivers run their engines
at maximum a good deal of the time.
Increase the pitch attitude to maintain
250 kts until reaching 0.7 Mach. Then,
maintain 0.7 Mach for the rest of the
climb. The changeover from indicated
airspeed to Mach number typically occurs
as you climb to altitudes in the high 20s
or low 30s.)
Aircraft Handbook | 92
LEARJET 45
You’ll have to increase power as you
climb to maintain the profile just described. Like piston engines, turbine
powerplants slowly lose power as the
air gets thinner.
Cruise
Cruise altitude is normally determined by
winds, weather, and other factors. You
might want to use these factors in your
flight planning if you have created
weather systems along your route.
Optimum altitude is the altitude that gives
the best fuel economy for a given configuration and gross weight. A complete
discussion about choosing altitudes is
beyond the scope of this section.
The Learjet is designed to fly high. You
can cruise as high as FL450 (the airplane is certified to 51,000 ft), but the
only payoffs for burning the fuel it takes
to get there would be getting above a
weather system or taking advantage of
especially favorable winds.
Let’s say you’ve filed a flight plan for
FL350. When you approach your cruising
altitude, begin leveling off at about 50 ft
(15 m) below your target altitude.
You’ll find it’s much easier to operate the
Learjet in cruise if you use the autopilot.
The autopilot can hold the altitude,
speed, heading, or navaid course you
specify. For more information about
using the autopilot, see Using the
Autopilot in Help.
Normal cruise speed is 0.77 Mach. Set
power at around 90 percent N1. If you’re
showing indicated airspeed on the airspeed gauge, the needle will settle down
at about 280 KIAS.
Remember that your true airspeed is
actually much higher in the thin, cold air.
At FL370, you can count on a speed over
the ground of about 429 kts (794 km/h,
or 494 mph).
In cruise, the Learjet 45 gives its best
maximum-weight speed performance at
33,000 ft (10,058 m), where it zips
along at 444 KIAS, burning around
1,715 pounds of fuel per hour.
Descent
A good descent profile includes knowing
when to start down from cruise altitude
and planning ahead for the approach.
Normal descent is done with idle thrust
and clean configuration (no speed
brakes). A good rule for determining
Aircraft Handbook | 93
LEARJET 45
when to start your descent is the 3-to-1
rule (three miles distance per thousand
feet in altitude.) Take your altitude in
feet, drop the last three zeros, and
multiply by 3.
For example, to descend from a cruise
altitude of 35,000 ft (10,668 m) to
sea level:
35,000 minus the last three zeros is 35.
35 x 3=105
This means you should begin your descent 105 nautical miles from your
destination, maintaining a speed of 250
KIAS and a descent rate of 1,500 to
2,000 ft per minute, with thrust set at
flight idle to 53 percent N1. Add two
extra miles for every 10 kts of tailwind,
if applicable.
To descend, disengage the autopilot if you
turned it on during cruise (or use the
autopilot hold features and let it fly for
you). Reduce power to idle, and lower the
nose slightly. Remember not to exceed
the regulation speed limit of 250 KIAS
below 10,000 ft (3,048 m). You may
have to adjust power to maintain your
speed and rate of descent. Continue this
profile down to the beginning of the
approach phase of flight.
Deviations from the above can result in
arriving too high at the destination (requiring circling to descend) or arriving too low
and far out (requiring expenditure of extra
time and fuel). Plan to have an initial
approach fix regardless of whether or not
you’re flying an instrument approach.
Approach
A good target speed as you enter the
downwind for VFR flight or at your initial
approach fix for IFR flight is 200 KIAS. As
you begin the approach but before you
turn toward the runway, bring the power
back, and hold altitude to reduce speed.
Extend 8 degrees of flaps. Let the airplane stabilize at 180 kts.
During the first turn toward the runway
(either on the base leg or when turning
inbound on an ILS), extend 20 degrees
of flaps.
Landing
When you’re approaching the normal
descent point on a visual approach, or
one dot below the glideslope approaching
the final approach fix on an ILS approach,
extend the landing gear.
Aircraft Handbook | 94
LEARJET 45
Smoothly increase power to maintain
140 kts, your final approach speed. As
you intercept the glideslope, set 40
degrees of flaps. This configuration
should hold airspeed at 140 kts with a
good descent angle toward the runway.
approach. Don’t try to raise or lower the
nose. When you touch down, deploy the
spoilers (press the SLASH [ / ]), and add
reverse thrust (press F2, or drag the
thrust levers into the reverse position),
and apply brakes.
Hold 140 kts all the way down on final
approach. Use small power adjustments
to stay on the glidepath. Look for a
descent rate of about 700 FPM.
Make sure you come out of reverse
thrust (press F1, or drag the thrust
levers), and lower the spoilers as airspeed drops below 60 kts. Exit the
runway, and taxi to parking.
At about 50 ft above the runway and
past the runway threshold, bring the
thrust levers to idle. Hold the pitch
attitude you’ve used during final
Aircraft Handbook | 95
MOONEY BRAVO
History of Mooney
Like many young men with a passionate
interest in aviation in its early days, Al
Mooney was something of a gypsy. He
worked for a number of aircraft companies before starting his own at the age of
23. And like many young aviation companies, his did not survive the 1929 stock
market crash. Mooney later got backing
to develop the Culver Cadet, a small,
sporty design also modified for use as a
drone during World War II. After the war,
he was once again leading a company
with his name on it. Mooney Aircraft
Corporation’s first product was a tiny
single-place (one seat) plane called the
Mooney Mite (M18).
However, the company was haunted by
cash and management problems for
decades. Al Mooney left in 1953, and
successive owners and managers never
seemed to find the right formula to
create sustained success. Although
there were some winners, great faith
was placed in models that would never
make money, such as the Mooney
Mustang and an association with
Mitsubishi’s MU-2 turbine twin. Mergers,
buyouts, and bankruptcies dogged the
manufacturer until its purchase by
Republic Steel in 1973.
It’s hard to overstate the impact that
Republic’s acquisition had on both
company stability and the Mooney aircraft. In addition to catching an upswing
in general aviation sales, Republic staffed
Mooney with the right people for the right
time. Roy Lopresti, in particular, guided
engineering in a relentless quest for
speed and quality.
Flush-mounted access panels, new
landing gear doors, a more efficient
propeller, and aerodynamic seals were
only a few of the improvements. By the
time Lopresti’s team had finished redesigning the Mooney 201, it was 22 mph
faster than its predecessor. The cleaner
design also gave the planes more range,
faster climb, and better glide capabilities.
In 1977, the 201 was named “Airplane
of the Year” by Air Progress magazine.
Aircraft Handbook | 96
MOONEY BRAVO
What they didn’t change was the
Mooney’s sex appeal. Al Mooney had
felt that the variable-incidence tailplane
with its forward-swept vertical stabilizer
(the backwards tail, as some wags call it)
was more efficient in a stall, although
other designers might disagree. Be that
as it may, the Mooney’s tail and clean
lines are what make them instantly
recognizable, and the basic design
has remained constant.
Mooney has flirted unsuccessfully with
pressurized single-engine and turbine
single-engine designs. There was even
some success pairing a Mooney with a
modified Porsche auto engine. The Eagle,
Ovation, and Bravo single-engine models,
however, continue to bring the company
both accolades and a solid bottom line.
Mooney has proven itself capable of
quality and success in recent years. With
more than a third of its revenue base
coming from aerospace contracting, and
a reputation for designing and building
excellent planes, you can expect this
company to continue to be a major player
in the civil aircraft market.
Aircraft Handbook | 97
MOONEY BRAVO
Mooney Bravo (Professional
Edition Only)
Mooneys are built to go fast. A focus on
speed seems natural for a company that
at one time offered a plane powered by a
Porsche engine. Although the partnership
with the Germans didn’t last, Mooney’s
commitment to speed certainly has. In
keeping with this idea, Mooney has
experimented with a number of “big
engine” models. The Bravo is Mooney’s
fastest; with 270 hp all the way to
Specifications
U.S.
Metric
Maximum Speed
220 kts
253 mph
Cruise Speed
195 kts
224 mph
Engine
Textron Lycoming TIO-540-AF1B
Propeller
McCauley three-bladed constant speed
1,204 sm
407 kmh
361 kmh
270 hp
Maximum Range
1,050 nm
Service Ceiling
25,000 ft
7,620 m
1,945 km
Fuel Capacity
89 U.S. gal
337 L
Empty Weight
2,268 lb
1,029 kg
Maximum Gross Weight
3,368 lb
1,528 kg
Length
26.75 ft
8.15 m
Wingspan
36 ft
11 m
Height
8.33 ft
2.5 m
Seating
Up to 4
Useful Load
1,100 lb
500 kg
Aircraft Handbook | 98
MOONEY BRAVO
25,000 ft, the Bravo can attain speeds
up to 220 KTAS, making it
the fastest single-engine airplane
currently produced.
In 1989, the M-20M TLS (Turbocharged
Lycoming Sabre) was introduced. It
married the fuselage of the Porschepowered Mooney PFM to a turbocharged
and intercooled Textron Lycoming TIO540-AF1A six-cylinder engine. Capable of
producing 350 horsepower (hp), Mooney
limited the M-20M to 270 hp to provide
a quieter cabin and longer time between
engine overhauls. It also had a threebladed prop, which added ground clearance. (Besides, pilots find three-bladed
props sexy).
Electronically operated Precise Flight
speed brakes became standard equipment on the TLS. With its high cruise
speeds and high-altitude performance,
the speed brakes were a welcome
addition. Coming down from altitude, the
pilot can leave the power at higher
settings to avoid shock-cooling the engine
and use the speed brakes to stay at the
desired airspeed. Electric rudder trim
was also added to compensate for the
high torque forces with the big engine.
Only minor engineering changes were
incorporated into the plane from 1989 to
1996—testament to a solid initial design.
In mid-1996, Mooney introduced a new
version of the TLS. The most significant
change in this model was an engine
upgrade. Engineers decided that additional cooling lubrication was needed,
so the airplane was fitted with the
Lycoming TIO-540-AF1B. The engine’s
“B” designation gave the new Mooney
its name: Bravo.
Although turbocharging an engine adds
cost and complexity, it gives the airplane
more flexibility as a vehicle. You can get
higher and go faster when the turbocharger is feeding the engine denser air
than it would normally find at higher
altitudes. And this is what the Bravo is
all about; the ability to get above the bulk
of the nasty weather and still achieve
220-knot cruise speeds. At low to medium altitudes, the only thing that will
outrun the Bravo is Mooney’s own Ovation. Above 10,000 feet, the Bravo will
outrun virtually any new production piston
single or twin, even challenging such
accepted twin-engine speed demons
as the out-of-production Baron 58P and
Aerostar 601P.
Aircraft Handbook | 99
MOONEY BRAVO
That’s what defines this aircraft’s appeal:
it’s about getting there fast. And in that
department, the Bravo stands alone.
Flight Notes
The Bravo is the newest of Mooney’s bigengine aircraft. The Bravo is built for
speed and looks like it’s going fast even
when it’s standing still. After transitioning
to complex aircraft in the 182 RG, the
four-place, single-engine Bravo will challenge you with more power, speed, and
altitude capability.
Required Runway Length
Temperature: 15° C
Runway: hard surface
Lower weights and temperatures will
result in better performance, as will
having a headwind component. Higher
altitudes and temperatures will
degrade performance.
Note
As with all of the Flight Simulator aircraft, the
V-speeds and checklists are located on the
Kneeboard. To access the Kneeboard while flying,
press F10, or select the Aircraft menu, and then
choose Kneeboard.
Takeoff: 2,000 ft (610 m), flaps 10
Landing: 2,500 ft (762 m), flaps full
The length required for both takeoff and
landing is a result of a number of factors,
such as aircraft weight, altitude,
headwind, use of flaps, and ambient
temperature. The figures here are
conservative and assume:
Important
All speeds given in Flight Notes are indicated
airspeeds. If you’re using these speeds as reference, be sure that you have the Aircraft Realism
Settings set to “Display Indicated Airspeed.” Speeds
listed in the performance tables are shown as
true airspeeds.
Weight: 3,200 lb (975 kg)
Altitude: sea level
Wind: no headwind
Aircraft Handbook | 100
MOONEY BRAVO
Engine Startup
The engine is running by default when you
begin a flight. If you shut the engine down,
you can initiate an auto-startup sequence
by pressing CTRL+E. If you want to do the
startup procedures manually, use the
checklist on the Kneeboard.
Taxiing
While taxiing, the power should be set at
around 1000 RPM (prop and mixture are
full forward.) As you move down the
taxiway, turn the nose right and left for
directional control by using the rudder
(twist the joystick, use the rudder pedals,
or press 0 [left] or ENTER [right] on the
numeric keypad).
Takeoff
Run through the Before Takeoff checklist,
and set flaps to 10 degrees (press F7,
or click the flaps lever on the panel).
Cowl flaps should be OPEN for takeoff
and climb (click the Cowl Flaps switch).
With the aircraft aligned with the runway
centerline, advance the throttle control to
full power and monitor the manifold
pressure during the initial stage of the
Note
Many factors affect flight planning and aircraft
operation, including aircraft weight, weather, and
runway surface. The recommended flight parameters listed below are intended to give approximations for flights at maximum takeoff or landing
weight under ISA conditions. These instructions
are no substitute, however, for using the actual
aircraft manual.
takeoff roll (it should remain at or below
38 inches of mercury). Fuel pressure
should read a minimum of 24 PSI.
At around 60 kts indicated airspeed
(KIAS), smoothly pull the stick back (using
the joystick or yoke, or press the DOWN
ARROW) to raise the nose to 10
degrees above the horizon. Climb
out at 85 KIAS.
As soon as you have a positive rate of
climb on liftoff (both vertical speed and
altitude are increasing), retract the
landing gear (press G on the keyboard, or
click the landing gear lever on the panel).
Then, raise the flaps (press F6, or drag
the flaps lever). Accelerate to 105 KIAS.
Aircraft Handbook | 101
MOONEY BRAVO
Climb
For the climb to cruise altitude, the
recommended parameters are 2400
RPM (press CTRL+F2, or drag the prop
control) and 34 inches manifold pressure
(press F2, or drag the throttle control).
The cowl flaps should remain open. Your
climb speed should be around 120 KIAS.
For best fuel efficiency, adjust the mixture
(press CTRL+SHIFT+F2, or drag the
mixture control) until the turbine inlet
temperature (TIT) gauge reads peak value
for the chosen power setting. Changes in
altitude or power may require adjustments of TIT. Operation at a TIT in excess
of 1,750° F (954° C) is prohibited.
If fluctuations appear on the fuel pressure gauge during prolonged climbs or
when you reduce power upon reaching
cruise altitude, turn the fuel boost pump
on (click the Fuel Boost switch) until the
fluctuations cease.
Cruise
Cruise altitude would normally be determined by winds, weather, and other
factors. You might want to use these
factors in your flight planning if you have
created weather systems along your
route. Optimum altitude is the altitude that
gives the best fuel economy for a given
configuration and gross weight. A complete discussion about choosing altitudes
is beyond the scope of this section.
Best power settings will result in both
high cruise speeds and high fuel flow.
Set the propeller RPM at 2400 and the
manifold pressure at 34 inches. Set the
mixture at peak TIT. Lower power settings
will result in better fuel flow and range.
For best fuel efficiency, adjust the mixture
(press CTRL+SHIFT+F2, or drag the
mixture control) until TIT reads peak value
for the chosen power setting. Changes in
altitude or power may require adjustments of TIT. Operation at a TIT in excess
of 1,750° F is prohibited.
At altitudes above 22,000 ft (6,706 m)
and at manifold pressures above 32
inches, only best power (1,650 degrees
TIT) or richer mixture is permitted.
Cowl flaps should be CLOSED for cruise
and descent (click the Cowl Flaps lever).
Aircraft Handbook | 102
MOONEY BRAVO
Descent
Avoid extended descents at manifold
pressure settings below 15 inches, as
the engine may cool excessively.
Using a descent from 18,000 ft (5,486
m) as an example, set the propeller at
2000 RPM and the manifold pressure as
required to maintain a rate of descent of
500 to 750 feet per minute (fpm). A
typical descent is done at around 150
KIAS. Keep the engine leaned to peak TIT
during your descent.
In the example above, the descent would
take approximately 24 minutes to reach
sea level and cover nearly 69 miles (111
km). If necessary, you can leave the
power up and deploy the speed brakes
to increase your rate of descent.
Approach
Below 110 KIAS, you can begin extending
the flaps. The flaps are good at reducing
airspeed. They will cause a slightly nosedown pitch attitude when deployed.
Extending the landing gear can also
reduce speed (140 KIAS or below).
Plan to slow to around 110 KIAS entering the downwind or at your initial approach fix on an instrument approach.
Landing
Final approach with full flaps deployed
should be flown at around 75 KIAS. The
propeller and mixture controls should be
full forward. On final approach, verify that
the landing gear is down.
Select a point past the runway threshold,
and aim for it. Adjust your pitch so that
the point remains stationary in your view
out the windscreen. Leave the power at
your final approach setting, and fly the
airplane down to the runway. Reduce
power to idle just before flaring and
touch down.
Upon touchdown, bring the power back
to idle, apply the brakes (press the
PERIOD key), and exit the runway.
Retract the wing flaps (press F6).
Aircraft Handbook | 103
SCHWEIZER 2-32
History of Schweizer
The love of soaring: that’s the motivation
that kept the Schweizer brothers building
sailplanes through many years of lessthan-soaring sales volume. Although
the company’s success was largely from
manufacturing other products, they
maintained a tradition of building some
of the world’s best sailplanes, even
when it didn’t always make the best
business sense.
As teenaged boys, Ernest, Paul, and
William assembled their first glider at
home in a barn in 1930. The model 1-1
was launched by manpower (unlike
modern gliders, which are towed aloft by
powered aircraft, winches, or automobiles), and flown successfully by all
members of the local soaring club. It was
an auspicious beginning.
It wasn’t long before the brothers formed
the Schweizer Aircraft Company (SAC).
Though they became widely respected for
their designs and manufacturing acumen,
it would be many years before a substantial enough market emerged to support
large-scale production of sailplanes for
private individuals. However, even during
the lean years, soaring records were
set and soaring events were won by
pilots flying Schweizer sailplanes.
Schweizer aircraft soon became the
standard by which sailplane performance
was measured.
With the advent of World War II, nearly
every company having anything to do
with aviation got into defense work. The
Schweizer Aircraft Company built parts
for many famous aircraft, including the
P-40 and P-47 fighters and the C-46
transport, and they built gliders for
the Army Air Corps to use in pilot
training programs.
After the war, there were thousands of
surplus gliders to be had cheaply, which
dampened the commercial sailplane
market. SAC, based in Elmira, New York,
won a lucrative contract to build the
welded fuselage for a neighboring
company’s new machine: the Bell 47
helicopter. SAC eventually built more than
1,000 Bell 47 bodies. The company
continued to be called upon by the government and other aircraft manufacturers as an important subcontractor of
defense and civilian aircraft projects.
Aircraft Handbook | 104
SCHWEIZER 2-32
The first truly successful Schweizer glider
(in terms of numbers built) was the SGS
1-26. It could be factory assembled or
purchased as a kit for assembly by the
owner. Over a 25-year production run,
700 of these planes were built. In 1962,
SAC introduced the classic SGS 2-32,
still considered to be one of the finest
sailplanes ever designed.
For nearly 40 years, the company built
the Ag Cat, a radial-engine biplane used
for spraying crops. They also went into
the helicopter business, and today build
three models in that line: the 300C,
300CB, and the 330SP. Still an active
defense contractor, their products include
the Schweizer SA 2-37A and RU-38
surveillance planes.
Sons of the three Schweizer brothers
now run the company. With the passing
of the company’s command to the next
generation, Schweizer Aircraft Corporation is one of the few remaining familyowned aircraft manufacturers in the
United States.
Aircraft Handbook | 105
SCHWEIZER 2-32
Schweizer SGS 2-32
Through the late 1960s and much of the
1970s, one aircraft stood apart as the
world’s highest performance multiseat
sailplane: the Schweizer SGS 2-32. Many
world soaring records were set in 2-32s
in both men’s and women’s categories,
including a distance run of 505 miles.
In the early 1960s, it was apparent that
European manufacturers were beginning
to cut into SAC’s position as the premier
builder of high-performance sailplanes.
Specifications
U.S.
Maximum Speed
137 kts
Engine
none
Metric
158 mph
254 kmh
Glide Ratio
36 to 1
Empty Weight
850 lb
386 kg
Length
26.75 ft
8.78 m
Wingspan
57 ft
18.7 m
Wing Area
180 sq ft
19.37 m2
Aspect Ratio
18.05
Maximum L/D (Calculated)
~57 kts
~66 mph
~106 kmh
Minimum Sink (Calculated)
~47 kts
~54 mph
~87 kmh
Seating
Up to 2
Useful Load
580 lb
264 kg
Aircraft Handbook | 106
SCHWEIZER 2-32
The European companies could build
quality aircraft at 50 percent of the labor
costs of the U.S. manufacturer and
deliver them to U.S. shores at a price
that Schweizer couldn’t match. In order
to compete, Schweizer had to produce a
superior aircraft.
In 1962, SAC began development of the
2-32. This aircraft took twice as many
hours to design, tool, and build as previous Schweizer sailplanes. Initially priced
at $8,000, the production and development costs of the meticulously designed
aircraft eventually pushed the price tag
up considerably.
The 2-32’s 57-foot wingspan provided a
glide ratio of 36 to 1, which meant that
at an altitude of 1 mile, the plane could
glide a distance of 36 miles. The interior
was luxurious and comfortable for a
sailplane. It had dual flight controls, and
though technically a two-seater, it could
actually carry two people in the rear in
addition to a pilot in the front. A large
bubble canopy provided excellent visibility.
The highly efficient wing and aerodynamically clean fuselage of the 2-32 made it a
candidate for an early attempt at nonstop
flight around the world. Although that
record was not set for many years (in
1986 by the Burt Rutan-designed Voyager), a modified 2-32, sporting a small
engine, did set a nonstop distance record
of 8,974 miles (14,442 km) in 1969.
When the 1,000th Schweizer sailplane (a
2-32) was built, SAC held 57 percent of
the sailplane business in the United
States. But this was not to last. The allmetal SAC planes last indefinitely, and by
the mid 1970s, they had nearly saturated the market. Sleek new European
fiberglass sailplanes had lower prices and
carried a certain cachet that domestic
sailplanes did not. SAC eventually ceased
production of their sailplane line.
When manufacture of the model ended in
1976, a total of only 87 had been delivered. Nevertheless, the 2-32 had already
earned a permanent place in soaring
history, and remarkably, a 2-32 in good
condition today can fetch as much as
$50,000. The model is still a popular
choice for commercial soaring rides, and
if you go to a local soaring center to take
a ride, you may find yourself in a
Schweizer 2-32.
Aircraft Handbook | 107
SCHWEIZER 2-32
Flight Notes
The Schweizer 2-32 is an all-metal
aerobatic sailplane. Though its short
production run ended in the mid-seventies, it’s still a popular airplane for use
in instruction and for scenic rides.
Soaring is a good test of your piloting
skills. Your ability to control your airspeed, find rising air, and plan your
descent and landing is key to a good
flight in this plane.
Required Runway Length
Takeoff: Use the Slew feature
Note
As with all of the Flight Simulator aircraft, the
V-speeds and checklists are located on the
Kneeboard. To access the Kneeboard while flying,
press F10, or select the Aircraft menu, and then
choose Kneeboard.
Important
All speeds given in Flight Notes are indicated
airspeeds. If you’re using these speeds as reference, be sure that you have the Aircraft Realism
Settings set to “Display Indicated Airspeed.” Speeds
listed in the performance tables are shown as
true airspeeds.
Landing: 1,000 ft (305 m)
The length required for landing is a result
of a number of factors, such as aircraft
weight, ambient temperature, and altitude. The figures here assume:
Weight: maximum gross weight
Altitude: sea level
Wind: no headwind
Temperature: 15° C
Runway: hard surface
Lower altitudes, weights, and temperatures will result in better performance,
as would a headwind component.
Engine Startup
The Schweizer 2-32 is a sailplane and
has no engine, so it descends unless you
fly into an area of rising air. By finding air
that is rising as fast as (or faster than)
the sailplane is descending, you can
maintain (or gain) altitude. Finding rising
air is challenging, and the duration of
your flights depends on your skill.
Flight Simulator has three good soaring
areas. You’ll find ridge lift in the Munich,
San Francisco, and Seattle scenery
areas, where air is forced upward near
Aircraft Handbook | 108
SCHWEIZER 2-32
mountains. You’ll also find thermals—
warm, rising air—near the San Francisco
coast and near Lake Chelan on the opposite side of the Cascade Mountains (east
side) from Seattle. Choose from several
soaring flights designed for the
sailplane in the Select Flight dialog
box (choose Select Flight on the
Flights menu).
Then, enter the altitude and airspeed in
the appropriate boxes. Because you
entered an airspeed, the aircraft won’t
pitch down when you turn off Slew mode
and you won’t need to use the spoilers.
Taxiing
Lower the spoilers once you level off
(press the SLASH [ / ] key, or drag
the spoiler lever). Keep in mind that
the Schweizer is sensitive to pitch, so
use a light touch on the stick.
There is no taxiing in the 2-32.
Climb
Flaps
The 2-32 does not have wing flaps.
Takeoff
Use the Slew feature to raise the aircraft
to altitude. Press Y to activate slewing,
and press F4 to gain altitude. When you
reach 3,000 to 4,000 ft, press Y to
deactivate slewing. The aircraft will pitch
down to gain flying speed. Use the
spoilers (press the SLASH [ / ] key, or
drag the spoiler lever) to control speed
while recovering to soaring flight.
Alternatively, you can set your altitude
and airspeed in the Map View dialog box.
On the World menu, select Map View.
Climbing in the 2-32 requires that you fly
in an area of rising air. You must fly the
sailplane near a ridge or in an area
where the ground surface, heated by the
sun, creates thermals. This can be one
of the most enjoyable aspects of flying
the sailplane—learning how to take
advantage of currents of air to remain
aloft or to climb. Pay attention to your
variometer and altimeter when searching
for areas of rising air.
When soaring in rising air, if you’re trying
to go for distance, fly at maximum L/D,
which is approximately 66 mph indicated
airspeed (IAS). The Schweizer airspeed
Aircraft Handbook | 109
SCHWEIZER 2-32
indicator reads in miles per hour). If
you’re trying to stay in the lift and just
increase altitude, fly at minimum sink,
which is approximately 54 mph.
If you lose the lift, you’ll want to increase
your speed by lowering the nose and then
finding rising air again. The amount of
increase in airspeed should be about half
of your headwind component. If you have
a 10-kt headwind, for example, increase
your speed by 6 mph.
One of the most challenging sources of
lift for the sailplane pilot is a “thermal”—a
rising current of warm air that is created
in an area where the sun’s rays generate
more heat than in surrounding areas.
For example, desert areas or brown
fields generate more heat than forests
and green fields. These heated areas
release heat into the atmosphere and
create columns of rising air. These
columns—thermals—can rise for thousands of feet and produce cumulus
clouds if there is sufficient moisture
in the air.
Cruise
Cruise is aided by finding areas of rising
air. Without an engine, rising air is the
only thing that will keep you from
heading earthward.
When you can’t find rising air, you have
to keep in mind the glide ratio of the
aircraft. The numbers to remember for
the Schweizer are “34 to 1.” For every
one mile (1,609 m) of altitude, the
sailplane can travel 34 miles (54.7 km)
in distance.
That’s if you have ideal conditions.
You need to include a safety margin for
unfavorable winds and other factors; realworld soaring pilots use a safety margin
of one-half or two-thirds of the aircraft’s
actual performance capability.
With that in mind, use “20 to 1” as a
good measure for safety. If you slew the
2-32 up to one mile in altitude, you can
glide about 20 miles of distance to soar
before gravity returns you to terra firma.
Aircraft Handbook | 110
SCHWEIZER 2-32
Descent
Landing
You only get one shot at landing in a
sailplane (except in Flight Simulator,
where you can use the Slew feature to
gain altitude). Therefore, you must plan
your descent so that you arrive over the
airport at pattern altitude. It will take
some experimentation to learn how far
from the airport you can fly and still make
a safe landing.
Remember that if you carry excess speed
on final, the sailplane will want to keep
flying longer than you want it to. If necessary, deploy the spoilers on final to allow
you to slow the aircraft and increase your
rate of descent.
Try using the formula discussed in the
“Cruise” section. Use the Slew feature to
gain one mile in altitude, and then slew
20 miles away from the airport (you can
use the Global Positioning System [GPS]
to be precise). See how well you do at
getting back to the airport without having
to slew again. You want to arrive back at
the airport at around 1,000 ft (304.8 m)
above the airport elevation.
Approach
If you arrive in the airport vicinity with
excess altitude, you can use the spoilers
to increase your rate of descent (press
the SLASH [ / ] key, or drag the spoiler
handle). Fly a normal pattern at around
65 to 70 mph.
As you cross the runway threshold, raise
the nose slightly to slow to around 50
mph for landing. If you haven’t already
deployed the spoilers, do so just before
touchdown. That will spoil any lift that
threatens to keep the sailplane off the
ground. Hold a level attitude close to the
ground, and let the sailplane settle to a
smooth, level touchdown. Do not flare, or
you will jam the tailwheel onto the
ground, resulting in a rough landing.
Once on the ground, use the rudder for
directional control as you roll out (twist
the joystick, press the right or left rudder
pedal, or press 0 [left] or ENTER [right]
on the numeric keypad).
Aircraft Handbook | 111
SOPWITH F.1 CAMEL
History of Sopwith
Born to privilege, Thomas Octave
Murdoch Sopwith could have spent his
life playing polo and sailing his 166-ton
schooner Neva—interests that preceded
his passion for aviation. But his intelligence, energy, and curiosity combined
well with his engineering education to
steer him into pursuits that matched a
bounding ambition. In 1910, Sopwith
earned British Pilot Certificate no. 31,
and before the year was out, he was
competing for and setting British aviation
records. Shortly after the New Year, he
landed a Howard Wright biplane on the
grounds of Windsor Castle at the invitation of King George V.
Within two years of earning his pilot
certificate, Sopwith was designing his
own aircraft and ascending rapidly in the
ranks of British aviation. In early 1914,
the First Lord of the Admiralty, Winston
Churchill, took his first ride in a Sopwith
airplane. By then, Sopwith aircraft were
already entering into the service of the
Royal Flying Corps, which was fortunate:
on August 14 of that year, Britain declared war on Germany.
Among the thousands of airplanes built
by Sopwith Aviation Company, Ltd. during
World War I were such models as the
Tabloid, the Strutter, and the Schneider
and Baby floatplanes. More famous were
the Pup, the Sopwith Triplane, and the
most successful fighter of the war, the
Sopwith F.1 Camel.
The rugged design and construction of
the planes was frequently demonstrated
in combat. One pilot had his Strutter set
ablaze by anti-aircraft fire. He was able to
put the flames out by ripping strips of
burning fabric off the plane. He was then
attacked by enemy planes, and a severed
fuel line forced a landing. The plane was
up and flying again the next morning.
After the war, military order cancellations
led to the dissolution of the Sopwith
Aviation Company. Tom Sopwith became
chairman of Hawker Engineering, which
absorbed the Sopwith patents. Following
a 1935 merger with Siddeley Armstrong,
the company became known as Hawker
Siddeley Aircraft Company.
Aircraft Handbook | 112
SOPWITH F.1 CAMEL
With war clouds gathering once again,
Hawker Siddeley joined in the defense of
the realm during the Second World War
with the Hawker Hurricane (which can be
flown in Microsoft™ Combat Flight Simulator), the Typhoon, and the Tempest. From
1939 to 1941, the Hurricane was
Britain’s front-line fighter. Though the
Supermarine Spitfire won more acclaim
in the history books, the Hurricane shot
down more enemy planes in the Battle of
Britain. More than 14,000 were built.
In 1953, Tom Sopwith became Sir
Thomas Sopwith, in recognition of his
contributions to aviation. In more recent
years, Hawker has produced business,
military, and transport aircraft. They
developed the widely respected Hawker
125 business jet, which today is owned
and built by Raytheon Aircraft. Among
the most famous Hawkers is the
AV8-B Harrier “jump jet,” the world’s
first vertical takeoff and landing
attack aircraft.
In 1977, Hawker Siddeley merged with
the British Aircraft Corporation to form
British Aerospace (BAE). Employing over
43,000 people, BAE is one of the largest
aerospace and defense contractors in
Europe and is part of the combined effort
to develop the future Eurofighter aircraft.
Aircraft Handbook | 113
SOPWITH F.1 CAMEL
Sopwith 2F.1 Camel
In July 1917, the Sopwith Camel entered
the fray of World War I aerial combat.
Developed by the British as a replacement for the Sopwith Pup, the Camel
was an extremely agile and maneuverable
airplane. With its two Vickers machine
guns, it outgunned the Pup and provided
a measure of insurance against losing a
fight due to a jammed gun. The humped
fairing that covered the machine guns
Specifications
U.S.
Metric
Maximum Speed
99 kts
Engine (two options)
110 hp Le Rhone | 130 hp Clerget 9b rotary
114 mph
183 kmh
Maximum Range
300 m
483 km
Service Ceiling
19,000 ft
5,790.9 m
Empty Weight
956 lb
433 kg
Gross Weight
1,523 lb
690 kg
Length
18.5 ft
5.64 m
Wingspan
26.9 ft
8.20 m
Height
9.083 ft
2.77 m
Seating
1
Aircraft Handbook | 114
SOPWITH F.1 CAMEL
gave the Camel its name. In less than
two years’ service, the Camel finished
the war with 1,294 victories on its
tally sheet.
The Camel was the deadliest Allied
airplane of World War I for enemy and
Allied pilots alike. Four hundred and
thirteen Allied pilots suffered combatrelated deaths, and 385 died from noncombat-related causes in the Camel.
Aces loved it, but it was not a plane for
beginners. British Major W. G. Moore
explained that “being totally unstable in all
directions and very sensitive fore and aft,
and much influenced by engine torque, [it]
was a deathtrap for the inexperienced
pilot. A skilled pilot could not wish for a
better mount.”
What made the Camel tricky to handle is
that much of its mass was concentrated
in the front seven feet of the airplane.
Although the Camel had incredible turn
performance, the airplane’s forward
center of gravity and the high torque
forces from its big rotary engine meant
that the plane could easily outmaneuver
its unwary pilot. Sudden forward stick
movements (which pitch the aircraft’s
nose down) could actually catapult the
pilot out of his seat if he wasn’t strapped
in. The plane was also prone to deadly
spins, which were little understood at the
time (proper Camel spin-recovery techniques not yet having been developed).
Though capable of flying higher, the
Camel was most effective at around
12,000 ft (3,658 m), where its maneuverability gave it an advantage over
German fighters. In his open cockpit at
those altitudes, the pilot was exposed to
bitter cold. A pilot remembered, “I flew in
a wool-lined leather coat, a red knitted
scarf—important to keep out the
draught—mask, goggles and mittens,
plus long sheepskin thigh boots.”
The names of a number of World War I
aces are inseparably linked to the Camel.
Tradition holds that Canadian Sopwith
Camel ace Roy Brown shot down the
dreaded German flyer, Manfred von
Richtofen (the Red Baron), although it is
now generally agreed that von Richtofen
was downed by ground fire. Canadian
Donald MacLaren scored 54 victories in
the Camel. And, when famed cartoonist
Charles Schulz chose to send his hero
Snoopy up against the Red Baron,
Snoopy’s steed of choice was, of course,
the Sopwith Camel.
Aircraft Handbook | 115
SOPWITH F.1 CAMEL
Flight Notes
The Sopwith Camel was the deadliest
fighter of World War I. A single-engine
biplane made largely of wood and fabric,
it could be tricky for the uninitiated to fly,
but was a favorite for veteran pilots.
Highly maneuverable, the Camel is a
great plane for aerobatic flying. Test your
skills at mock air-combat maneuvering.
Required Runway Length
The Camel is capable of taking off and
landing on any runway in Flight Simulator.
Engine Startup
The engine is running by default when you
begin a flight. If you shut the engine
down, you can initiate an auto-startup
sequence by pressing CTRL+E.
Note
As with all of the Flight Simulator aircraft, the Vspeeds and checklists are located on the
Kneeboard. To access the Kneeboard while flying,
press F10, or select the Aircraft menu, and then
choose Kneeboard.
Important
All speeds given in Flight Notes are indicated
airspeeds. If you’re using these speeds as reference, be sure that you have the Aircraft Realism
Settings set to “Display Indicated Airspeed.” Speeds
listed in the performance tables are shown as
true airspeeds.
Flaps
The Sopwith Camel doesn’t have flaps.
Takeoff
Taxiing
Taxiing in the Camel requires you to make
S-turns in order to see where you’re
going. As you move down the taxiway,
turn the nose right and left to see ahead
of you while taxiing by using the rudder
(twist the joystick, use the rudder pedals,
or press 0 [left] or ENTER [right] on the
numeric keypad).
Once aligned with the runway centerline,
apply power smoothly (press F3 for
incremental increase, F4 for full throttle
on the keyboard, or move the throttle on
your joystick). As the airplane begins
moving down the runway, push forward
on the stick until the tail comes up. This
will occur at around 35 to 40 mph
indicated airspeed.
Aircraft Handbook | 116
SOPWITH F.1 CAMEL
You’ll notice the tail coming up because
your forward view will suddenly improve
as the aircraft changes from a nose-high
attitude to a level attitude. Be careful not
to give too much forward pressure on
the stick at this point, as you can nose
the plane over onto the prop.
At about 55 mph, ease the stick back
and allow the plane to fly off the runway.
Climb out at around 60 to 70 mph.
If you do make flights with the Sopwith to
the extent of its range, keep in mind that
its cruise speed is rather slow. You won’t
get there fast.
Descent
Descents in the Camel are uncomplicated. You can easily descend at cruise
speeds and slow down near the airport
in time to set up your landing.
Approach
Climb
Climb to cruise altitudes at 70 mph or
above. You don’t have an attitude indicator in the Camel, so airspeed is your
indicator for climb attitude.
Cruise
The Camel is not an airplane you would
use for a long cross-country flight. Its fuel
capacity is not large enough for extended
flight because it was built as a fighter.
Because the Camel doesn’t have an
autopilot, long flights would be fatiguing,
requiring constant attention to straightand-level flight.
The approach phase in the Camel can be
initiated fairly close to your destination.
Even entering the pattern at 90 mph is
not a problem, as you can slow the
Camel quite quickly. However, it’s always a
good plan to enter the downwind leg
close to your target landing speed.
Aircraft Handbook | 117
SOPWITH F.1 CAMEL
Landing
Normal final approach and landing in the
Camel should be made at around 60
mph. The trick here is to remember that
you’re in a taildragger. Your best technique will be to make a “wheel landing.”
This means you have to fly the airplane
onto the main wheels, instead of flaring,
as you do in a tricycle-gear airplane.
This will require practice, just as it does
for taildragger pilots in the real world.
You might find that you bounce quite a bit
at first. Try to hit the approach speed
precisely, remaining stable at that speed.
If possible, make the final approach
somewhat flat, rather than steep.
Once on the ground, hold full back pressure on the stick (pull the joystick aft, or
press the DOWN ARROW key).
Aircraft Handbook | 118
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