Bacula Installation and Configuration Guide

Bacula Installation and Configuration Guide
Bacula Installation and Configuration Guide
It comes in the night and sucks the essence from your computers.
Kern Sibbald
May 5, 2010
This manual documents Bacula version 3.0.3a (06 December 2009)
c
Copyright 1999-2009,
Free Software Foundation Europe e.V.
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of
the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 published by the Free Software
Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A
copy of the license is included in the section entitled ”GNU Free Documentation License”.
2
Contents
1 Getting Started with Bacula
5
1.1
Understanding Jobs and Schedules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5
1.2
Understanding Pools, Volumes and Labels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5
1.3
Setting Up Bacula Configuration Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6
1.3.1
Configuring the Console Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6
1.3.2
Configuring the Monitor Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7
1.3.3
Configuring the File daemon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7
1.3.4
Configuring the Director . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8
1.3.5
Configuring the Storage daemon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8
1.4
Testing your Configuration Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9
1.5
Testing Compatibility with Your Tape Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9
1.6
Get Rid of the /lib/tls Directory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9
1.7
Running Bacula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9
1.8
Log Rotation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10
1.9
Log Watch
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10
1.10 Disaster Recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10
2 Installing Bacula
11
2.1
Source Release Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11
2.2
Upgrading Bacula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12
2.3
Releases Numbering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13
2.4
Dependency Packages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14
2.5
Supported Operating Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15
2.6
Building Bacula from Source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15
2.7
What Database to Use? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18
2.8
Quick Start . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18
3
4
CONTENTS
2.9
Configure Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18
2.10 Recommended Options for Most Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24
2.11 Red Hat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25
2.12 Solaris . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25
2.13 FreeBSD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
26
2.14 Win32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
27
2.15 One File Configure Script . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
27
2.16 Installing Bacula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
27
2.17 Building a File Daemon or Client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
27
2.18 Auto Starting the Daemons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
28
2.19 Other Make Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
28
2.20 Installing Tray Monitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
29
2.20.1 GNOME
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
30
2.20.2 KDE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
30
2.20.3 Other window managers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
30
2.21 Modifying the Bacula Configuration Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
30
3 Critical Items to Implement Before Production
31
3.1
Critical Items . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
31
3.2
Recommended Items . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
32
4 Customizing the Configuration Files
33
4.1
Character Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
34
4.2
Resource Directive Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
35
4.2.1
Comments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
35
4.2.2
Upper and Lower Case and Spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
35
4.2.3
Including other Configuration Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
35
4.2.4
Recognized Primitive Data Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
36
4.3
Resource Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
37
4.4
Names, Passwords and Authorization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
37
4.5
Detailed Information for each Daemon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
38
5 Configuring the Director
39
5.1
Director Resource Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
39
5.2
The Director Resource . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
40
CONTENTS
5
5.3
The Job Resource
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
42
5.4
The JobDefs Resource . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
56
5.5
The Schedule Resource . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
56
5.6
Technical Notes on Schedules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
59
5.7
The FileSet Resource . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
59
5.8
FileSet Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
70
5.9
Backing up Raw Partitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
75
5.10 Excluding Files and Directories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
75
5.11 Windows FileSets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
75
5.12 Testing Your FileSet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
77
5.13 The Client Resource . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
78
5.14 The Storage Resource . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
79
5.15 The Pool Resource . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
81
5.15.1 The Scratch Pool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
87
5.16 The Catalog Resource . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
87
5.17 The Messages Resource . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
88
5.18 The Console Resource . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
88
5.19 The Counter Resource . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
89
5.20 Example Director Configuration File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
90
6 Client/File daemon Configuration
93
6.1
The Client Resource . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
93
6.2
The Director Resource . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
95
6.3
The Message Resource . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
96
6.4
Example Client Configuration File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
96
7 Storage Daemon Configuration
97
7.1
Storage Resource . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
97
7.2
Director Resource . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
99
7.3
Device Resource . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
99
7.4
Edit Codes for Mount and Unmount Directives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
7.5
Devices that require a mount (DVD) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
8 Autochanger Resource
8.1
109
Capabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
6
CONTENTS
8.2
Messages Resource . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
8.3
Sample Storage Daemon Configuration File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
9 Messages Resource
113
10 Console Configuration
117
10.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
10.2 The Director Resource . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
10.3 The ConsoleFont Resource . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
10.4 The Console Resource . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
10.5 Console Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
10.6 Sample Console Configuration File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
11 Monitor Configuration
121
11.1 The Monitor Resource . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
11.2 The Director Resource . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
11.3 The Client Resource . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
11.4 The Storage Resource . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
11.5 Tray Monitor Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
11.6 Sample Tray Monitor configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
11.6.1 Sample File daemon’s Director record. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
11.6.2 Sample Storage daemon’s Director record. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
11.6.3 Sample Director’s Console record. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
12 Bacula Security Issues
125
12.1 Backward Compatibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
12.2 Configuring and Testing TCP Wrappers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
12.3 Running as non-root . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
Chapter 1
Getting Started with Bacula
If you are like me, you want to get Bacula running immediately to get a feel for it, then later you want to go
back and read about all the details. This chapter attempts to accomplish just that: get you going quickly
without all the details. If you want to skip the section on Pools, Volumes and Labels, you can always come
back to it, but please read to the end of this chapter, and in particular follow the instructions for testing
your tape drive.
We assume that you have managed to build and install Bacula, if not, you might want to first look at the
System Requirements then at the Compiling and Installing Bacula chapter of this manual.
1.1
Understanding Jobs and Schedules
In order to make Bacula as flexible as possible, the directions given to Bacula are specified in several pieces.
The main instruction is the job resource, which defines a job. A backup job generally consists of a FileSet,
a Client, a Schedule for one or several levels or times of backups, a Pool, as well as additional instructions.
Another way of looking at it is the FileSet is what to backup; the Client is who to backup; the Schedule
defines when, and the Pool defines where (i.e. what Volume).
Typically one FileSet/Client combination will have one corresponding job. Most of the directives, such as
FileSets, Pools, Schedules, can be mixed and matched among the jobs. So you might have two different Job
definitions (resources) backing up different servers using the same Schedule, the same Fileset (backing up
the same directories on two machines) and maybe even the same Pools. The Schedule will define what type
of backup will run when (e.g. Full on Monday, incremental the rest of the week), and when more than one
job uses the same schedule, the job priority determines which actually runs first. If you have a lot of jobs,
you might want to use JobDefs, where you can set defaults for the jobs, which can then be changed in the
job resource, but this saves rewriting the identical parameters for each job. In addition to the FileSets you
want to back up, you should also have a job that backs up your catalog.
Finally, be aware that in addition to the backup jobs there are restore, verify, and admin jobs, which have
different requirements.
1.2
Understanding Pools, Volumes and Labels
If you have been using a program such as tar to backup your system, Pools, Volumes, and labeling may be
a bit confusing at first. A Volume is a single physical tape (or possibly a single file) on which Bacula will
write your backup data. Pools group together Volumes so that a backup is not restricted to the length of a
single Volume (tape). Consequently, rather than explicitly naming Volumes in your Job, you specify a Pool,
and Bacula will select the next appendable Volume from the Pool and request you to mount it.
Although the basic Pool options are specified in the Director’s Pool resource, the real Pool is maintained
7
8
CHAPTER 1. GETTING STARTED WITH BACULA
in the Bacula Catalog. It contains information taken from the Pool resource (bacula-dir.conf) as well as
information on all the Volumes that have been added to the Pool. Adding Volumes to a Pool is usually done
manually with the Console program using the label command.
For each Volume, Bacula maintains a fair amount of catalog information such as the first write date/time,
the last write date/time, the number of files on the Volume, the number of bytes on the Volume, the number
of Mounts, etc.
Before Bacula will read or write a Volume, the physical Volume must have a Bacula software label so that
Bacula can be sure the correct Volume is mounted. This is usually done using the label command in the
Console program.
The steps for creating a Pool, adding Volumes to it, and writing software labels to the Volumes, may seem
tedious at first, but in fact, they are quite simple to do, and they allow you to use multiple Volumes (rather
than being limited to the size of a single tape). Pools also give you significant flexibility in your backup
process. For example, you can have a ”Daily” Pool of Volumes for Incremental backups and a ”Weekly”
Pool of Volumes for Full backups. By specifying the appropriate Pool in the daily and weekly backup Jobs,
you thereby insure that no daily Job ever writes to a Volume in the Weekly Pool and vice versa, and Bacula
will tell you what tape is needed and when.
For more on Pools, see the Pool Resource section of the Director Configuration chapter, or simply read on,
and we will come back to this subject later.
1.3
Setting Up Bacula Configuration Files
After running the appropriate ./configure command and doing a make, and a make install, if this is
the first time you are running Bacula, you must create valid configuration files for the Director, the File
daemon, the Storage daemon, and the Console programs. If you have followed our recommendations, default
configuration files as well as the daemon binaries will be located in your installation directory. In any case,
the binaries are found in the directory you specified on the --sbindir option to the ./configure command,
and the configuration files are found in the directory you specified on the --sysconfdir option.
When initially setting up Bacula you will need to invest a bit of time in modifying the default configuration
files to suit your environment. This may entail starting and stopping Bacula a number of times until you get
everything right. Please do not despair. Once you have created your configuration files, you will rarely need
to change them nor will you stop and start Bacula very often. Most of the work will simply be in changing
the tape when it is full.
1.3.1
Configuring the Console Program
The Console program is used by the administrator to interact with the Director and to manually start/stop
Jobs or to obtain Job status information.
The Console configuration file is found in the directory specified on the --sysconfdir option that you
specified on the ./configure command and by default is named bconsole.conf.
If you choose to build the GNOME console with the --enable-gnome option, you also find a default
configuration file for it, named bgnome-console.conf.
The same applies to the wxWidgets console, which is build with the --enable-bwx-console option, and
the name of the default configuration file is, in this case, bwx-console.conf.
Normally, for first time users, no change is needed to these files. Reasonable defaults are set.
Further details are in the Console configuration chapter.
1.3. SETTING UP BACULA CONFIGURATION FILES
1.3.2
9
Configuring the Monitor Program
The Monitor program is typically an icon in the system tray. However, once the icon is expanded into a full
window, the administrator or user can obtain status information about the Director or the backup status on
the local workstation or any other Bacula daemon that is configured.
The image shows a tray-monitor configured for three daemons. By clicking on the radio buttons in the upper
left corner of the image, you can see the status for each of the daemons. The image shows the status for the
Storage daemon (MainSD) that is currently selected.
The Monitor configuration file is found in the directory specified on the --sysconfdir option that you
specified on the ./configure command and by default is named tray-monitor.conf. Normally, for first
time users, you just need to change the permission of this file to allow non-root users to run the Monitor, as
this application must run as the same user as the graphical environment (don’t forget to allow non-root users
to execute bacula-tray-monitor). This is not a security problem as long as you use the default settings.
More information is in the Monitor configuration chapter.
1.3.3
Configuring the File daemon
The File daemon is a program that runs on each (Client) machine. At the request of the Director, finds the
files to be backed up and sends them (their data) to the Storage daemon.
10
CHAPTER 1. GETTING STARTED WITH BACULA
The File daemon configuration file is found in the directory specified on the --sysconfdir option that you
specified on the ./configure command. By default, the File daemon’s configuration file is named baculafd.conf. Normally, for first time users, no change is needed to this file. Reasonable defaults are set. However,
if you are going to back up more than one machine, you will need to install the File daemon with a unique
configuration file on each machine to be backed up. The information about each File daemon must appear
in the Director’s configuration file.
Further details are in the File daemon configuration chapter.
1.3.4
Configuring the Director
The Director is the central control program for all the other daemons. It schedules and monitors all jobs to
be backed up.
The Director configuration file is found in the directory specified on the --sysconfdir option that you
specified on the ./configure command. Normally the Director’s configuration file is named bacula-dir.conf.
In general, the only change you must make is modify the FileSet resource so that the Include configuration
directive contains at least one line with a valid name of a directory (or file) to be saved.
If you do not have a DLT tape drive, you will probably want to edit the Storage resource to contain names
that are more representative of your actual storage device. You can always use the existing names as you are
free to arbitrarily assign them, but they must agree with the corresponding names in the Storage daemon’s
configuration file.
You may also want to change the email address for notification from the default root to your email address.
Finally, if you have multiple systems to be backed up, you will need a separate File daemon or Client
specification for each system, specifying its name, address, and password. We have found that giving your
daemons the same name as your system but post fixed with -fd helps a lot in debugging. That is, if your
system name is foobaz, you would give the File daemon the name foobaz-fd. For the Director, you should
use foobaz-dir, and for the storage daemon, you might use foobaz-sd. Each of your Bacula components
must have a unique name. If you make them all the same, aside from the fact that you will not know
what daemon is sending what message, if they share the same working directory, the daemons temporary
file names will not be unique, and you will get many strange failures.
More information is in the Director configuration chapter.
1.3.5
Configuring the Storage daemon
The Storage daemon is responsible, at the Director’s request, for accepting data from a File daemon and
placing it on Storage media, or in the case of a restore request, to find the data and send it to the File
daemon.
The Storage daemon’s configuration file is found in the directory specified on the --sysconfdir option
that you specified on the ./configure command. By default, the Storage daemon’s file is named baculasd.conf. Edit this file to contain the correct Archive device names for any tape devices that you have. If
the configuration process properly detected your system, they will already be correctly set. These Storage
resource name and Media Type must be the same as the corresponding ones in the Director’s configuration
file bacula-dir.conf. If you want to backup to a file instead of a tape, the Archive device must point to a
directory in which the Volumes will be created as files when you label the Volume.
Further information is in the Storage daemon configuration chapter.
1.4. TESTING YOUR CONFIGURATION FILES
1.4
11
Testing your Configuration Files
You can test if your configuration file is syntactically correct by running the appropriate daemon with the
-t option. The daemon will process the configuration file and print any error messages then terminate. For
example, assuming you have installed your binaries and configuration files in the same directory.
cd <installation-directory>
./bacula-dir -t -c bacula-dir.conf
./bacula-fd -t -c bacula-fd.conf
./bacula-sd -t -c bacula-sd.conf
./bconsole -t -c bconsole.conf
./bgnome-console -t -c bgnome-console.conf
./bwx-console -t -c bwx-console.conf
./bat -t -c bat.conf
su <normal user> -c "./bacula-tray-monitor -t -c tray-monitor.conf"
will test the configuration files of each of the main programs. If the configuration file is OK, the program
will terminate without printing anything. Please note that, depending on the configure options you choose,
some, or even all, of the three last commands will not be available on your system. If you have installed the
binaries in traditional Unix locations rather than a single file, you will need to modify the above commands
appropriately (no ./ in front of the command name, and a path in front of the conf file name).
1.5
Testing Compatibility with Your Tape Drive
Before spending a lot of time on Bacula only to find that it doesn’t work with your tape drive, please read
the Testing Your Tape Drive chapter of this manual. If you have a modern standard SCSI tape drive on
a Linux or Solaris, most likely it will work, but better test than be sorry. For FreeBSD (and probably other
xBSD flavors), reading the above mentioned tape testing chapter is a must. Also, for FreeBSD, please see
The FreeBSD Diary for a detailed description on how to make Bacula work on your system. In addition,
users of FreeBSD prior to 4.9-STABLE dated Mon Dec 29 15:18:01 2003 UTC who plan to use tape devices,
please see the file platforms/freebsd/pthreads-fix.txt in the main Bacula directory concerning important
information concerning compatibility of Bacula and your system.
1.6
Get Rid of the /lib/tls Directory
The new pthreads library /lib/tls installed by default on recent Red Hat systems running Linux kernel 2.4.x is defective. You must remove it or rename it, then reboot your system before running Bacula
otherwise after a week or so of running, Bacula will either block for long periods or deadlock entirely.
You may want to use the loader environment variable override rather than removing /lib/tls. Please see
Supported Operating Systems for more information on this problem.
This problem does not occur on systems running Linux 2.6.x kernels.
1.7
Running Bacula
Probably the most important part of running Bacula is being able to restore files. If you haven’t tried
recovering files at least once, when you actually have to do it, you will be under a lot more pressure, and
prone to make errors, than if you had already tried it once.
To get a good idea how to use Bacula in a short time, we strongly recommend that you follow the example
in the Running Bacula Chapter of this manual where you will get detailed instructions on how to run Bacula.
12
1.8
CHAPTER 1. GETTING STARTED WITH BACULA
Log Rotation
If you use the default bacula-dir.conf or some variation of it, you will note that it logs all the Bacula
output to a file. To avoid that this file grows without limit, we recommend that you copy the file logrotate
from the scripts/logrotate to /etc/logrotate.d/bacula. This will cause the log file to be rotated once
a month and kept for a maximum of five months. You may want to edit this file to change the default log
rotation preferences.
1.9
Log Watch
Some systems such as Red Hat and Fedora run the logwatch program every night, which does an analysis
of your log file and sends an email report. If you wish to include the output from your Bacula jobs in that
report, please look in the scripts/logwatch directory. The README file in that directory gives a brief
explanation on how to install it and what kind of output to expect.
1.10
Disaster Recovery
If you intend to use Bacula as a disaster recovery tool rather than simply a program to restore lost or
damaged files, you will want to read the Disaster Recovery Using Bacula Chapter of this manual.
In any case, you are strongly urged to carefully test restoring some files that you have saved rather than
wait until disaster strikes. This way, you will be prepared.
Chapter 2
Installing Bacula
In general, you will need the Bacula source release, and if you want to run a Windows client, you will need
the Bacula Windows binary release. However, Bacula needs certain third party packages (such as MySQL,
PostgreSQL, or SQLite to build and run properly depending on the options you specify. Normally,
MySQL and PostgreSQL are packages that can be installed on your distribution. However, if you do not
have them, to simplify your task, we have combined a number of these packages into three depkgs releases
(Dependency Packages). This can vastly simplify your life by providing you with all the necessary packages
rather than requiring you to find them on the Web, load them, and install them.
2.1
Source Release Files
Beginning with Bacula 1.38.0, the source code has been broken into four separate tar files each corresponding
to a different module in the Bacula SVN. The released files are:
bacula-2.2.8.tar.gz This is the primary source code release for Bacula. On each release the version number
(2.2.8) will be updated.
bacula-docs-2.2.8.tar.gz This file contains a copy of the docs directory with the documents prebuild.
English HTML directory, single HTML file, and pdf file. The French and German translations are in
progress, but are not built.
bacula-gui-2.2.8.tar.gz This file contains the non-core GUI programs. Currently, it contains bacula-web,
a PHP program for producing management viewing of your Bacula job status in a browser; and
bimagemgr a browser program for burning CDROM images with Bacula Volumes.
bacula-rescue-2.0.0.tar.gz This is the Bacula Rescue CDROM code. Note, the version number of this
package is not tied to the Bacula release version, so it will be different. Using this code, you can
burn a CDROM with your system configuration and containing a statically linked version of the File
daemon. This can permit you to easily repartition and reformat your hard disks and reload your system
with Bacula in the case of a hard disk failure. Unfortunately this rescue disk does not properly boot
for all Linux distributions. The problem is that the boot procedure can vary significantly between
distributions, and even within a distribution, they are a moving target.
This package evolves slower than the Bacula source code, so there may not always be a new release
of the rescue package when making minor updates to the Bacula code. For example, when releasing
Bacula version 2.2.8, the rescue package may still be at version 2.0.0 if there were no updates.
winbacula-2.2.8.exe This file is the 32 bit Windows installer for installing the Windows client (File daemon) on a Windows machine. This client will also run on 64 bit Windows machines. Beginning with
Bacula version 1.39.20, this executable will also optionally load the Win32 Director and the Win32
Storage daemon.
13
14
2.2
CHAPTER 2. INSTALLING BACULA
Upgrading Bacula
If you are upgrading from one Bacula version to another, you should first carefully read the ReleaseNotes
of all major versions between your current version and the version to which you are upgrading. In many
upgrades, especially for minor patch upgrades (e.g. between 3.0.0 and 3.0.1) there will be no database
upgrade, and hence the process is rather simple.
With version 3.0.0 and later, you must ensure that on any one machine that all components of Bacula are
running on exactly the same version. Prior to version 3.0.0, it was possible to run a lower level FD with a
newer Director and SD. This is no longer the case.
As always, we attempt to support older File daemons. This avoids the need to do a simultaneous upgrade
of many machines. For exactly what older versions of the FD are supported, please see the ReleaseNotes for
the new version. In any case, you must always upgrade both the Director and the Storage daemon at the
same time, and you must also upgrade any File daemon that is running on the same machine as a Director
or a Storage daemon (see the prior paragraph).
If the Bacula catalog database has been upgraded (as it is almost every major release), you will either need
to reinitialize your database starting from scratch (not normally a good idea), or save an ASCII copy of your
database, then proceed to upgrade it. If you are upgrading two major versions (e.g. 1.36 to 2.0) then life
will be more complicated because you must do two database upgrades. See below for more on this.
Upgrading the catalog is normally done after Bacula is build and installed by:
cd <installed-scripts-dir> (default /etc/bacula)
./update_bacula_tables
This update script can also be find in the Bacula source src/cats directory.
If there are several database upgrades between your version and the version to which you are upgrading,
you will need to apply each database upgrade script. For your convenience, you can find all the old upgrade
scripts in the upgradedb directory of the source code. You will need to edit the scripts to correspond to
your system configuration. The final upgrade script, if any, can be applied as noted above.
If you are upgrading from one major version to another, you will need to replace all your components at the
same time as generally the inter-daemon protocol will change. However, within any particular release (e.g.
version 1.32.x) unless there is an oversight or bug, the daemon protocol will not change. If this is confusing,
simply read the ReleaseNotes very carefully as they will note if all daemons must be upgraded at the same
time.
Finally, please note that in general it is not necessary or desirable to do a make uninstall before doing an
upgrade providing you are careful not to change the installation directories. In fact, if you do so, you will
most likely delete all your conf files, which could be disastrous. The normal procedure during an upgrade is
simply:
./configure (your options)
make
make install
In general none of your existing .conf or .sql files will be overwritten, and you must do both the make and
make install commands, a make install without the preceding make will not work.
For additional information on upgrading, please see the Upgrading Bacula Versions in the Tips chapter of
this manual.
2.3. RELEASES NUMBERING
2.3
15
Releases Numbering
Every Bacula release whether beta or production has a different number as well as the date of the release
build. The numbering system follows traditional Open Source conventions in that it is of the form.
major.minor.release
For example:
1.38.11
where each component (major, minor, patch) is a number. The major number is currently 1 and normally
does not change very frequently. The minor number starts at 0 and increases each for each production release
by 2 (i.e. it is always an even number for a production release), and the patch number is starts at zero each
time the minor number changes. The patch number is increased each time a bug fix (or fixes) is released to
production.
So, as of this date (10 September 2006), the current production Bacula release is version 1.38.11. If there
are bug fixes, the next release will be 1.38.12 (i.e. the patch number has increased by one).
For all patch releases where the minor version number does not change, the database and all the daemons
will be compatible. That means that you can safely run a 1.38.0 Director with a 1.38.11 Client. Of course,
in this case, the Director may have bugs that are not fixed. Generally, within a minor release (some minor
releases are not so minor), all patch numbers are officially released to production. This means that while
the current Bacula version is 1.38.11, versions 1.38.0, 1.38.1, ... 1.38.10 have all been previously released.
When the minor number is odd, it indicates that the package is under development and thus may not
be stable. For example, while the current production release of Bacula is currently 1.38.11, the current
development version is 1.39.22. All patch versions of the development code are available in the SVN (source
repository). However, not all patch versions of the development code (odd minor version) are officially
released. When they are released, they are released as beta versions (see below for a definition of what beta
means for Bacula releases).
In general when the minor number increases from one production release to the next (i.e. 1.38.x to 1.40.0),
the catalog database must be upgraded, the Director and Storage daemon must always be on the same minor
release number, and often (not always), the Clients must also be on the same minor release. As often as
possible, we attempt to make new releases that are downwards compatible with prior clients, but this is not
always possible. You must check the release notes. In general, you will have fewer problems if you always
run all the components on the same minor version number (i.e. all either 1.38.x or 1.40.x but not mixed).
Beta Releases
Towards the end of the development cycle, which typically runs one year from a major release to another,
there will be several beta releases of the development code prior to a production release. As noted above,
beta versions always have odd minor version numbers (e.g 1.37.x or 1.39.x). The purpose of the beta releases
is to allow early adopter users to test the new code. Beta releases are made with the following considerations:
• The code passes the regression testing on FreeBSD, Linux, and Solaris machines.
• There are no known major bugs, or on the rare occasion that there are, they will be documented or
already in the bugs database.
• Some of the new code/features may not yet be tested.
• Bugs are expected to be found, especially in the new code before the final production release.
• The code will have been run in production in at least one small site (mine).
16
CHAPTER 2. INSTALLING BACULA
• The Win32 client will have been run in production at least one night at that small site.
• The documentation in the manual is unlikely to be complete especially for the new features, and the
Release Notes may not be fully organized.
• Beta code is not generally recommended for everyone, but rather for early adopters.
2.4
Dependency Packages
As discussed above, we have combined a number of third party packages that Bacula might need into the
depkgs release. You can, of course, get the latest packages from the original authors or from your operating
system supplier. The locations of where we obtained the packages are in the README file in each package.
However, be aware that the packages in the depkgs files have been tested by us for compatibility with Bacula.
Typically, a dependency package will be named depkgs-ddMMMyy.tar.gz where dd is the day we release
it, MMM is the abbreviated month (e.g. Jan), and yy is the year. An actual example is: depkgs07Apr02.tar.gz. To install and build this package (if needed), you do the following:
1. Create a bacula directory, into which you will place both the Bacula source as well as the dependency
package.
2. Detar the depkgs into the bacula directory.
3. cd bacula/depkgs
4. make
Although the exact composition of the dependency packages may change from time to time, the current
makeup is the following:
3rd Party Package
SQLite
SQLite3
mtx
qt4
qwt
depkgs
X
X
X
depkgs-qt
X
X
Note, some of these packages are quite large, so that building them can be a bit time consuming. The above
instructions will build all the packages contained in the directory. However, when building Bacula, it will
take only those pieces that it actually needs.
Alternatively, you can make just the packages that are needed. For example,
cd bacula/depkgs
make sqlite
will configure and build only the SQLite package.
You should build the packages that you will require in depkgs a prior to configuring and building Bacula,
since Bacula will need them during the build process.
For more information on the depkgs-qt package, please read the INSTALL file in the main directory of that
package. If you are going to build Qt4 using depkgs-qt, you must source the qt4-paths file included in the
package prior to building Bacula. Please read the INSTALL file for more details.
Even if you do not use SQLite, you might find it worthwhile to build mtx because the tapeinfo program that
comes with it can often provide you with valuable information about your SCSI tape drive (e.g. compression,
2.5. SUPPORTED OPERATING SYSTEMS
17
min/max block sizes, ...). Note, most distros provide mtx as part of their release.
The depkgs1 package is depreciated and previously contained readline, which should be available on all
operating systems.
The depkgs-win32 package is deprecated and no longer used in Bacula version 1.39.x and later. It was
previously used to build the native Win32 client program, but this program is now built on Linux systems
using cross-compiling. All the tools and third party libraries are automatically downloaded by executing the
appropriate scripts. See src/win32/README.mingw32 for more details.
2.5
Supported Operating Systems
Please see the Supported Operating Systems section of the QuickStart chapter of this manual.
2.6
Building Bacula from Source
The basic installation is rather simple.
1. Install and build any depkgs as noted above. This should be unnecessary on most modern Operating
Systems.
2. Configure and install MySQL or PostgreSQL (if desired). Installing and Configuring MySQL Phase I
or Installing and Configuring PostgreSQL Phase I. If you are installing from rpms, and are using
MySQL, please be sure to install mysql-devel, so that the MySQL header files are available while
compiling Bacula. In addition, the MySQL client library mysqlclient requires the gzip compression
library libz.a or libz.so. If you are using rpm packages, these libraries are in the libz-devel package.
On Debian systems, you will need to load the zlib1g-dev package. If you are not using rpms or debs,
you will need to find the appropriate package for your system.
Note, if you already have a running MySQL or PostgreSQL on your system, you can skip this phase
provided that you have built the thread safe libraries. And you have already installed the additional
rpms noted above.
SQLite is not supported on Solaris. This is because it frequently fails with bus errors. However SQLite3
may work.
3. Detar the Bacula source code preferably into the bacula directory discussed above.
4. cd to the directory containing the source code.
5. ./configure (with appropriate options as described below). Any path names you specify as options on
the ./configure command line must be absolute paths and not relative.
6. Check the output of ./configure very carefully, especially the Install binaries and Install config directories. If they are not correct, please rerun ./configure until they are. The output from ./configure is
stored in config.out and can be re-displayed at any time without rerunning the ./configure by doing
cat config.out.
7. If after running ./configure once, you decide to change options and re-run it, that is perfectly fine, but
before re-running it, you should run:
make distclean
so that you are sure to start from scratch and not have a mixture of the two options. This is because
./configure caches much of the information. The make distclean is also critical if you move the source
directory from one machine to another. If the make distclean fails, just ignore it and continue on.
18
CHAPTER 2. INSTALLING BACULA
8. make If you get errors while linking in the Storage daemon directory (src/stored), it is probably because
you have not loaded the static libraries on your system. I noticed this problem on a Solaris system. To
correct it, make sure that you have not added --enable-static-tools to the ./configure command.
If you skip this step (make) and proceed immediately to the make install you are making two serious
errors: 1. your install will fail because Bacula requires a make before a make install. 2. you are
depriving yourself of the chance to make sure there are no errors before beginning to write files to your
system directories.
9. make install Please be sure you have done a make before entering this command, and that everything
has properly compiled and linked without errors.
10. If you are new to Bacula, we strongly recommend that you skip the next step and use the default
configuration files, then run the example program in the next chapter, then come back and modify
your configuration files to suit your particular needs.
11. Customize the configuration files for each of the three daemons (Directory, File, Storage) and for the
Console program. For the details of how to do this, please see Setting Up Bacula Configuration Files
in the Configuration chapter of this manual. We recommend that you start by modifying the default
configuration files supplied, making the minimum changes necessary. Complete customization can be
done after you have Bacula up and running. Please take care when modifying passwords, which were
randomly generated, and the Names as the passwords and names must agree between the configuration
files for security reasons.
12. Create
the
Bacula
MySQL
database
and
tables
(if
using
MySQL)
Installing and Configuring MySQL Phase II or create the Bacula PostgreSQL database
and tables Configuring PostgreSQL II or alternatively if you are using SQLite
Installing and Configuring SQLite Phase II.
13. Start Bacula (./bacula start) Note. the next chapter shows you how to do this in detail.
14. Interface with Bacula using the Console program
15. For the previous two items, please follow the instructions in the Running Bacula chapter of this manual,
where you will run a simple backup and do a restore. Do this before you make heavy modifications
to the configuration files so that you are sure that Bacula works and are familiar with it. After that
changing the conf files will be easier.
16. If after installing Bacula, you decide to ”move it”, that is to install it in a different set of directories,
proceed as follows:
make uninstall
make distclean
./configure (your-new-options)
make
make install
If all goes well, the ./configure will correctly determine which operating system you are running and
configure the source code appropriately. Currently, FreeBSD, Linux (Red Hat), and Solaris are supported.
The Bacula client (File daemon) is reported to work with MacOS X 10.3 is if readline support is not enabled
(default) when building the client.
If you install Bacula on more than one system, and they are identical, you can simply transfer the source
tree to that other system and do a ”make install”. However, if there are differences in the libraries or OS
versions, or you wish to install on a different OS, you should start from the original compress tar file. If you
do transfer the source tree, and you have previously done a ./configure command, you MUST do:
make distclean
prior to doing your new ./configure. This is because the GNU autoconf tools cache the configuration, and
if you re-use a configuration for a Linux machine on a Solaris, you can be sure your build will fail. To avoid
this, as mentioned above, either start from the tar file, or do a ”make distclean”.
2.6. BUILDING BACULA FROM SOURCE
19
In general, you will probably want to supply a more complicated configure statement to ensure that the
modules you want are built and that everything is placed into the correct directories.
For example, on Fedora, Red Hat, or SuSE one could use the following:
CFLAGS="-g -Wall" \
./configure \
--sbindir=$HOME/bacula/bin \
--sysconfdir=$HOME/bacula/bin \
--with-pid-dir=$HOME/bacula/bin/working \
--with-subsys-dir=$HOME/bacula/bin/working \
--with-mysql \
--with-working-dir=$HOME/bacula/bin/working \
--with-dump-email=$USER
The advantage of using the above configuration to start is that everything will be put into a single directory,
which you can later delete once you have run the examples in the next chapter and learned how Bacula
works. In addition, the above can be installed and run as non-root.
For the developer’s convenience, I have added a defaultconfig script to the examples directory. This script
contains the statements that you would normally use, and each developer/user may modify them to suit his
needs. You should find additional useful examples in this directory as well.
The --enable-conio or --enable-readline options are useful because they provide a command line history
and editing capability for the Console program. If you have included either option in the build, either the
termcap or the ncurses package will be needed to link. On most systems, including Red Hat and SuSE,
you should include the ncurses package. If Bacula’s configure process finds the ncurses libraries, it will use
those rather than the termcap library. On some systems, such as SuSE, the termcap library is not in the
standard library directory. As a consequence, the option may be disabled or you may get an error message
such as:
/usr/lib/gcc-lib/i586-suse-linux/3.3.1/.../ld:
cannot find -ltermcap
collect2: ld returned 1 exit status
while building the Bacula Console. In that case, you will need to set the LDFLAGS environment variable
prior to building.
export LDFLAGS="-L/usr/lib/termcap"
The same library requirements apply if you wish to use the readline subroutines for command line editing
and history or if you are using a MySQL library that requires encryption. If you need encryption, you can
either export the appropriate additional library options as shown above or, alternatively, you can include
them directly on the ./configure line as in:
LDFLAGS="-lssl -lcyrpto" \
./configure <your-options>
On some systems such as Mandriva, readline tends to gobble up prompts, which makes it totally useless. If
this happens to you, use the disable option, or if you are using version 1.33 and above try using --enableconio to use a built-in readline replacement. You will still need either the termcap or the ncurses library,
but it is unlikely that the conio package will gobble up prompts.
readline is no longer supported after version 1.34. The code within Bacula remains, so it should be usable,
and if users submit patches for it, we will be happy to apply them. However, due to the fact that each
version of readline seems to be incompatible with previous versions, and that there are significant differences
between systems, we can no longer afford to support it.
20
2.7
CHAPTER 2. INSTALLING BACULA
What Database to Use?
Before building Bacula you need to decide if you want to use SQLite, MySQL, or PostgreSQL. If you are
not already running MySQL or PostgreSQL, you might want to start by testing with SQLite (not supported
on Solaris). This will greatly simplify the setup for you because SQLite is compiled into Bacula an requires
no administration. It performs well and is suitable for small to medium sized installations (maximum 10-20
machines). However, we should note that a number of users have had unexplained database corruption with
SQLite. For that reason, we recommend that you install either MySQL or PostgreSQL for production work.
If you wish to use MySQL as the Bacula catalog, please see the Installing and Configuring MySQL chapter
of this manual. You will need to install MySQL prior to continuing with the configuration of Bacula. MySQL
is a high quality database that is very efficient and is suitable for any sized installation. It is slightly more
complicated than SQLite to setup and administer because it has a number of sophisticated features such as
userids and passwords. It runs as a separate process, is truly professional and can manage a database of any
size.
If you wish to use PostgreSQL as the Bacula catalog, please see the Installing and Configuring PostgreSQL
chapter of this manual. You will need to install PostgreSQL prior to continuing with the configuration of
Bacula. PostgreSQL is very similar to MySQL, though it tends to be slightly more SQL92 compliant and
has many more advanced features such as transactions, stored procedures, and the such. It requires a certain
knowledge to install and maintain.
If you wish to use SQLite as the Bacula catalog, please see Installing and Configuring SQLite chapter of this
manual. SQLite is not supported on Solaris.
2.8
Quick Start
There are a number of options and important considerations given below that you can skip for the moment
if you have not had any problems building Bacula with a simplified configuration as shown above.
If the ./configure process is unable to find specific libraries (e.g. libintl, you should ensure that the appropriate
package is installed on your system. Alternatively, if the package is installed in a non-standard location (as
far as Bacula is concerned), then there is generally an option listed below (or listed with ”./configure --help”
that will permit you to specify the directory that should be searched. In other cases, there are options that
will permit you to disable to feature (e.g. --disable-nls).
If you want to dive right into it, we recommend you skip to the next chapter, and run the example program.
It will teach you a lot about Bacula and as an example can be installed into a single directory (for easy
removal) and run as non-root. If you have any problems or when you want to do a real installation, come
back to this chapter and read the details presented below.
2.9
Configure Options
The following command line options are available for configure to customize your installation.
-prefix=<patch> This option is meant to allow you to direct where the architecture independent files
should be placed. However, we find this a somewhat vague concept, and so we have not implemented
this option other than what ./configure does by default. As a consequence, we suggest that you avoid
it. We have provided options that allow you to explicitly specify the directories for each of the major
categories of installation files.
--sbindir=<binary-path> Defines where the Bacula binary (executable) files will be placed during a
make install command.
--sysconfdir=<config-path> Defines where the Bacula configuration files should be placed during a
make install command.
2.9. CONFIGURE OPTIONS
21
--mandir=<path> Note, as of Bacula version 1.39.14, the meaning of any path specified on this option
is change from prior versions. It now specifies the top level man directory. Previously the mandir
specified the full path to where you wanted the man files installed. The man files will be installed in
gzip’ed format under mandir/man1 and mandir/man8 as appropriate. For the install to succeed you
must have gzip installed on your system.
By default, Bacula will install the Unix man pages in /usr/share/man/man1 and
/usr/share/man/man8. If you wish the man page to be installed in a different location, use
this option to specify the path. Note, the main HTML and PDF Bacula documents are in a separate
tar file that is not part of the source distribution.
--datadir=<path> If you translate Bacula or parts of Bacula into a different language you may specify
the location of the po files using the --datadir option. You must manually install any po files as
Bacula does not (yet) automatically do so.
--disable-ipv6
--enable-smartalloc This enables the inclusion of the Smartalloc orphaned buffer detection code. This
option is highly recommended. Because we never build without this option, you may experience
problems if it is not enabled. In this case, simply re-enable the option. We strongly recommend
keeping this option enabled as it helps detect memory leaks. This configuration parameter is used
while building Bacula
--enable-bat If you have Qt4 ¿= 4.3 installed on your computer including the libqt4 and libqt4-devel
(libqt4-dev on Debian) libraries, and you want to use the Bacula Administration Tool (bat) GUI
Console interface to Bacula, you must specify this option. Doing so will build everything in the
src/qt-console directory. The build with enable-bat will work only with a full Bacula build (i.e. it
will not work with a client-only build).
Qt4 is available on OpenSUSE 10.2, CentOS 5, Fedora, and Debian. If it is not available on your
system, you can download the depkgs-qt package from the Bacula Source Forge download area and
build it and the qwt package, both of which are needed to build bat. See the INSTALL file in that
package for more details. In particular to use the Qt4 built by depkgs-qt you bf must source the file
qt4-paths.
--with-qwt=<path> The qwt package is a graphics library for Qt. If it is included during the building
of bat, you will get one extra graphical function. At the current time, we recommend not including
this option when building bat. The path specified must be an absolute path and not relative.
The qwt package is available for download from the qwt project on Source Forge. If you wish, you may
build and install it on your system (by default in /usr/lib). If you have done so, you would specify:
--with-qwt=/usr/lib/qwt-5.0.2
Alternatively, you can download the Bacula depkgs-qt package (currently version 28Jul09) and build
it, then assuming that you have put it into a directory named bacula, you would specify:
--with-qwt=$HOME/bacula/depkgs-qt/qwt
Some packages such as Debian do not adhere to the standard of naming the library libqwt.a or libqwt.so,
and you will either need to manually add a soft link to the name they use or use the depkgs version,
which handles the naming correctly.
--enable-batch-insert This option enables batch inserts of the attribute records (default) in the catalog
database, which is much faster (10 times or more) than without this option for large numbers of files.
However, this option will automatically be disabled if your SQL libraries are not thread safe. If you
find that batch mode is not enabled on your Bacula installation, then your database most likely does
not support threads.
SQLite2 is not thread safe. Batch insert cannot be enabled when using SQLite2
On most systems, MySQL, PostgreSQL and SQLite3 are thread safe.
To verify that your PostgreSQL is thread safe, you can try this (change the path to point to your
particular installed libpq.a; these commands were issued on FreeBSD 6.2):
22
CHAPTER 2. INSTALLING BACULA
$ nm /usr/local/lib/libpq.a | grep PQputCopyData
00001b08 T PQputCopyData
$ nm /usr/local/lib/libpq.a | grep mutex
U pthread_mutex_lock
U pthread_mutex_unlock
U pthread_mutex_init
U pthread_mutex_lock
U pthread_mutex_unlock
The above example shows a libpq that contains the required function PQputCopyData and is thread
enabled (i.e. the pthread mutex* entries). If you do not see PQputCopyData, your version of PostgreSQL is too old to allow batch insert. If you do not see the mutex entries, then thread support
has not been enabled. Our tests indicate you usually need to change the configuration options and
recompile/reinstall the PostgreSQL client software to get thread support.
Bacula always links to the thread safe MySQL libraries.
As a default, Bacula runs SQLite3 with PRAGMA synchronous=OFF because it improves performance by more than 30 times. However, it increases the possibility of a corrupted database. If you
want more security, please modify src/version.h appropriately (it should be obvious when you look at
the file).
Running with Batch Insert turned on is recommended because it can significantly improve attribute
insertion times. However, it does put a significantly larger part of the work on your SQL engine, so you
may need to pay more attention to tuning it. In particular, Batch Insert can require large temporary
table space, and consequently, the default location (often /tmp) may run out of space causing errors.
For MySQL, the location is set in my.conf with ”tmpdir”. You may also want to increase the memory
available to your SQL engine to further improve performance during Batch Inserts.
--enable-gnome If you have GNOME installed on your computer including the GNOME development
libraries, and you want to use the GNOME GUI Console interface to Bacula, you must specify this
option. Doing so will build everything in the src/gnome2-console directory.
--enable-bwx-console If you have wxWidgets installed on your computer and you want to use the
wxWidgets GUI Console interface to Bacula, you must specify this option. Doing so will build everything in the src/wx-console directory. This could also be useful to users who want a GUI Console
and don’t want to install GNOME, as wxWidgets can work with GTK+, Motif or even X11 libraries.
--enable-tray-monitor If you have GTK installed on your computer, you run a graphical environment
or a window manager compatible with the FreeDesktop system tray standard (like KDE and GNOME)
and you want to use a GUI to monitor Bacula daemons, you must specify this option. Doing so will
build everything in the src/tray-monitor directory. Note, due to restrictions on what can be linked
with GPLed code, we were forced to remove the egg code that dealt with the tray icons and replace it
by calls to the GTK+ API, and unfortunately, the tray icon API necessary was not implemented until
GTK version 2.10 or later.
--enable-static-tools This option causes the linker to link the Storage daemon utility tools (bls, bextract,
and bscan) statically. This permits using them without having the shared libraries loaded. If you
have problems linking in the src/stored directory, make sure you have not enabled this option, or
explicitly disable static linking by adding --disable-static-tools.
--enable-static-fd This option causes the make process to build a static-bacula-fd in addition to the
standard File daemon. This static version will include statically linked libraries and is required for the
Bare Metal recovery. This option is largely superseded by using make static-bacula-fd from with
in the src/filed directory. Also, the --enable-client-only option described below is useful for just
building a client so that all the other parts of the program are not compiled.
When linking a static binary, the linker needs the static versions of all the libraries that are used, so
frequently users will experience linking errors when this option is used. The first thing to do is to make
sure you have the static glibc library installed on your system. The second thing to do is the make sure
you do not specify --openssl or --with-python on your ./configure statement as these options require
additional libraries. You may be able to enable those options, but you will need to load additional
static libraries.
2.9. CONFIGURE OPTIONS
23
--enable-static-sd This option causes the make process to build a static-bacula-sd in addition to the
standard Storage daemon. This static version will include statically linked libraries and could be useful
during a Bare Metal recovery.
When linking a static binary, the linker needs the static versions of all the libraries that are used, so
frequently users will experience linking errors when this option is used. The first thing to do is to make
sure you have the static glibc library installed on your system. The second thing to do is the make sure
you do not specify --openssl or --with-python on your ./configure statement as these options require
additional libraries. You may be able to enable those options, but you will need to load additional
static libraries.
--enable-static-dir This option causes the make process to build a static-bacula-dir in addition to the
standard Director. This static version will include statically linked libraries and could be useful during
a Bare Metal recovery.
When linking a static binary, the linker needs the static versions of all the libraries that are used, so
frequently users will experience linking errors when this option is used. The first thing to do is to make
sure you have the static glibc library installed on your system. The second thing to do is the make sure
you do not specify --openssl or --with-python on your ./configure statement as these options require
additional libraries. You may be able to enable those options, but you will need to load additional
static libraries.
--enable-static-cons This option causes the make process to build a static-console and a static-gnomeconsole in addition to the standard console. This static version will include statically linked libraries
and could be useful during a Bare Metal recovery.
When linking a static binary, the linker needs the static versions of all the libraries that are used, so
frequently users will experience linking errors when this option is used. The first thing to do is to make
sure you have the static glibc library installed on your system. The second thing to do is the make sure
you do not specify --openssl or --with-python on your ./configure statement as these options require
additional libraries. You may be able to enable those options, but you will need to load additional
static libraries.
--enable-client-only This option causes the make process to build only the File daemon and the libraries
that it needs. None of the other daemons, storage tools, nor the console will be built. Likewise a make
install will then only install the File daemon. To cause all daemons to be built, you will need to do
a configuration without this option. This option greatly facilitates building a Client on a client only
machine.
When linking a static binary, the linker needs the static versions of all the libraries that are used, so
frequently users will experience linking errors when this option is used. The first thing to do is to make
sure you have the static glibc library installed on your system. The second thing to do is the make sure
you do not specify --openssl or --with-python on your ./configure statement as these options require
additional libraries. You may be able to enable those options, but you will need to load additional
static libraries.
--enable-build-dird This option causes the make process to build the Director and the Director’s tools.
By default, this option is on, but you may turn it off by using --disable-build-dird to prevent the
Director from being built.
--enable-build-stored This option causes the make process to build the Storage daemon. By default, this
option is on, but you may turn it off by using --disable-build-stored to prevent the Storage daemon
from being built.
--enable-largefile This option (default) causes Bacula to be built with 64 bit file address support if it is
available on your system. This permits Bacula to read and write files greater than 2 GBytes in size.
You may disable this feature and revert to 32 bit file addresses by using --disable-largefile.
--disable-nls By default, Bacula uses the GNU Native Language Support (NLS) libraries. On some machines, these libraries may not be present or may not function correctly (especially on non-Linux
implementations). In such cases, you may specify --disable-nls to disable use of those libraries. In
such a case, Bacula will revert to using English.
--disable-ipv6 By default, Bacula enables IPv6 protocol. On some systems, the files for IPv6 may exist,
but the functionality could be turned off in the kernel. In that case, in order to correctly build Bacula,
you will explicitly need to use this option so that Bacula does not attempt to reference OS function
calls that do not exist.
24
CHAPTER 2. INSTALLING BACULA
--with-sqlite=<sqlite-path> This enables use of the SQLite version 2.8.x database. The sqlite-path
is not normally specified as Bacula looks for the necessary components in a standard location (depkgs/sqlite). See Installing and Configuring SQLite chapter of this manual for more details. SQLite
is not supported on Solaris.
See the note below under the --with-postgresql item.
--with-sqlite3=<sqlite3-path> This enables use of the SQLite version 3.x database. The sqlite3-path
is not normally specified as Bacula looks for the necessary components in a standard location (depkgs/sqlite3). See Installing and Configuring SQLite chapter of this manual for more details. SQLite3
is not supported on Solaris.
--with-mysql=<mysql-path> This enables building of the Catalog services for Bacula. It assumes that
MySQL is running on your system, and expects it to be installed in the mysql-path that you specify.
Normally, if MySQL is installed in a standard system location, you can simply use --with-mysql
with no path specification. If you do use this option, please proceed to installing MySQL in the
Installing and Configuring MySQL chapter before proceeding with the configuration.
See the note below under the --with-postgresql item.
--with-postgresql=<path> This provides an explicit path to the PostgreSQL libraries if Bacula cannot
find it by default. Normally to build with PostgreSQL, you would simply use --with-postgresql.
Note, for Bacula to be configured properly, you must specify one of the four database options supported.
That is: --with-sqlite, --with-sqlite3, --with-mysql, or --with-postgresql, otherwise the ./configure will
fail.
--with-openssl=<path> This configuration option is necessary if you want to enable TLS (ssl), which
encrypts the communications within Bacula or if you want to use File Daemon PKI data encryption.
Normally, the path specification is not necessary since the configuration searches for the OpenSSL
libraries in standard system locations. Enabling OpenSSL in Bacula permits secure communications
between the daemons and/or data encryption in the File daemon. For more information on using
TLS, please see the Bacula TLS – Communications Encryption chapter of this manual. For more
information on using PKI data encryption, please see the Bacula PKI – Data Encryption chapter of
this manual.
--with-python=<path> This option enables Bacula support for Python. If no path is supplied, configure
will search the standard library locations for Python 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, or 2.5. If it cannot find the library,
you will need to supply a path to your Python library directory. Please see the Python chapter for the
details of using Python scripting.
--with-libintl-prefix=<DIR> This option may be used to tell Bacula to search DIR/include and DIR/lib
for the libintl headers and libraries needed for Native Language Support (NLS).
--enable-conio Tells Bacula to enable building the small, light weight readline replacement routine. It is
generally much easier to configure than readline, although, like readline, it needs either the termcap
or ncurses library.
--with-readline=<readline-path> Tells Bacula where readline is installed. Normally, Bacula will find
readline if it is in a standard library. If it is not found and no --with-readline is specified, readline
will be disabled. This option affects the Bacula build. Readline provides the Console program with a
command line history and editing capability and is no longer supported, so you are on your own if you
have problems.
--enable-readline Tells Bacula to enable readline support. It is normally disabled due to the large number
of configuration problems and the fact that the package seems to change in incompatible ways from
version to version.
--with-tcp-wrappers=<path> This specifies that you want TCP wrappers (man hosts access(5)) compiled in. The path is optional since Bacula will normally find the libraries in the standard locations.
This option affects the Bacula build. In specifying your restrictions in the /etc/hosts.allow or
/etc/hosts.deny files, do not use the twist option (hosts options(5)) or the Bacula process will be
terminated. Note, when setting up your /etc/hosts.allow or /etc/hosts.deny, you must identify
the Bacula daemon in question with the name you give it in your conf file rather than the name of the
executable.
2.9. CONFIGURE OPTIONS
For more information on configuring and testing TCP wrappers,
Configuring and Testing TCP Wrappers section in the Security Chapter.
25
please
see
the
On SuSE, the libwrappers libraries needed to link Bacula are contained in the tcpd-devel package. On
Red Hat, the package is named tcp wrappers.
--with-archivedir=<path> The directory used for disk-based backups. Default value is /tmp. This
parameter sets the default values in the bacula-dir.conf and bacula-sd.conf configuration files. For
example, it sets the Where directive for the default restore job and the Archive Device directive for
the FileStorage device.
This option is designed primarily for use in regression testing. Most users can safely ignore this option.
--with-working-dir=<working-directory-path> This option is mandatory and specifies a directory
into which Bacula may safely place files that will remain between Bacula executions. For example, if
the internal database is used, Bacula will keep those files in this directory. This option is only used
to modify the daemon configuration files. You may also accomplish the same thing by directly editing
them later. The working directory is not automatically created by the install process, so you must
ensure that it exists before using Bacula for the first time.
--with-base-port=<port=number> In order to run, Bacula needs three TCP/IP ports (one for the
Bacula Console, one for the Storage daemon, and one for the File daemon). The --with-baseport
option will automatically assign three ports beginning at the base port address specified. You may also
change the port number in the resulting configuration files. However, you need to take care that the
numbers correspond correctly in each of the three daemon configuration files. The default base port is
9101, which assigns ports 9101 through 9103. These ports (9101, 9102, and 9103) have been officially
assigned to Bacula by IANA. This option is only used to modify the daemon configuration files. You
may also accomplish the same thing by directly editing them later.
--with-dump-email=<email-address> This option specifies the email address where any core dumps
should be set. This option is normally only used by developers.
--with-pid-dir=<PATH> This specifies where Bacula should place the process id file during execution.
The default is: /var/run. This directory is not created by the install process, so you must ensure
that it exists before using Bacula the first time.
--with-subsys-dir=<PATH> This specifies where Bacula should place the subsystem lock file during
execution. The default is /var/run/subsys. Please make sure that you do not specify the same
directory for this directory and for the sbindir directory. This directory is used only within the
autostart scripts. The subsys directory is not created by the Bacula install, so you must be sure to
create it before using Bacula.
--with-dir-password=<Password> This option allows you to specify the password used to access the
Director (normally from the Console program). If it is not specified, configure will automatically create
a random password.
--with-fd-password=<Password> This option allows you to specify the password used to access the
File daemon (normally called from the Director). If it is not specified, configure will automatically
create a random password.
--with-sd-password=<Password> This option allows you to specify the password used to access the
Storage daemon (normally called from the Director). If it is not specified, configure will automatically
create a random password.
--with-dir-user=<User> This option allows you to specify the Userid used to run the Director. The
Director must be started as root, but doesn’t need to run as root, and after doing preliminary initializations, it can ”drop” to the UserId specified on this option. If you specify this option, you must
create the User prior to running make install, because the working directory owner will be set to
User.
--with-dir-group=<Group> This option allows you to specify the GroupId used to run the Director.
The Director must be started as root, but doesn’t need to run as root, and after doing preliminary
initializations, it can ”drop” to the GroupId specified on this option. If you specify this option, you
must create the Group prior to running make install, because the working directory group will be set
to Group.
26
CHAPTER 2. INSTALLING BACULA
--with-sd-user=<User> This option allows you to specify the Userid used to run the Storage daemon.
The Storage daemon must be started as root, but doesn’t need to run as root, and after doing preliminary initializations, it can ”drop” to the UserId specified on this option. If you use this option, you
will need to take care that the Storage daemon has access to all the devices (tape drives, ...) that it
needs.
--with-sd-group=<Group> This option allows you to specify the GroupId used to run the Storage
daemon. The Storage daemon must be started as root, but doesn’t need to run as root, and after
doing preliminary initializations, it can ”drop” to the GroupId specified on this option.
--with-fd-user=<User> This option allows you to specify the Userid used to run the File daemon. The
File daemon must be started as root, and in most cases, it needs to run as root, so this option is used
only in very special cases, after doing preliminary initializations, it can ”drop” to the UserId specified
on this option.
--with-fd-group=<Group> This option allows you to specify the GroupId used to run the File daemon.
The File daemon must be started as root, and in most cases, it must be run as root, however, after
doing preliminary initializations, it can ”drop” to the GroupId specified on this option.
--with-mon-dir-password=<Password> This option allows you to specify the password used to access
the Directory from the monitor. If it is not specified, configure will automatically create a random
password.
--with-mon-fd-password=<Password> This option allows you to specify the password used to access
the File daemon from the Monitor. If it is not specified, configure will automatically create a random
password.
--with-mon-sd-password=<Password> This option allows you to specify the password used to access
the Storage daemon from the Monitor. If it is not specified, configure will automatically create a
random password.
--with-db-name=<database-name> This option allows you to specify the database name to be used
in the conf files. The default is bacula.
--with-db-user=<database-user> This option allows you to specify the database user name to be used
in the conf files. The default is bacula.
Note, many other options are presented when you do a ./configure --help, but they are not implemented.
2.10
Recommended Options for Most Systems
For most systems, we recommend starting with the following options:
./configure \
--enable-smartalloc \
--sbindir=$HOME/bacula/bin \
--sysconfdir=$HOME/bacula/bin \
--with-pid-dir=$HOME/bacula/bin/working \
--with-subsys-dir=$HOME/bacula/bin/working \
--with-mysql=$HOME/mysql \
--with-working-dir=$HOME/bacula/working
If you want to install Bacula in an installation directory rather than run it out of the build directory
(as developers will do most of the time), you should also include the --sbindir and --sysconfdir options
with appropriate paths. Neither are necessary if you do not use ”make install” as is the case for most
development work. The install process will create the sbindir and sysconfdir if they do not exist, but it will
not automatically create the pid-dir, subsys-dir, or working-dir, so you must ensure that they exist before
running Bacula for the first time.
2.11. RED HAT
2.11
27
Red Hat
Using SQLite:
CFLAGS="-g -Wall" ./configure \
--sbindir=$HOME/bacula/bin \
--sysconfdir=$HOME/bacula/bin \
--enable-smartalloc \
--with-sqlite=$HOME/bacula/depkgs/sqlite \
--with-working-dir=$HOME/bacula/working \
--with-pid-dir=$HOME/bacula/bin/working \
--with-subsys-dir=$HOME/bacula/bin/working \
--enable-bat \
--with-qwt=$HOME/bacula/depkgs/qwt \
--enable-conio
or
CFLAGS="-g -Wall" ./configure \
--sbindir=$HOME/bacula/bin \
--sysconfdir=$HOME/bacula/bin \
--enable-smartalloc \
--with-mysql=$HOME/mysql \
--with-working-dir=$HOME/bacula/working
--with-pid-dir=$HOME/bacula/bin/working \
--with-subsys-dir=$HOME/bacula/bin/working
--enable-gnome \
--enable-conio
or finally, a completely traditional Red Hat Linux install:
CFLAGS="-g -Wall" ./configure \
--sbindir=/usr/sbin \
--sysconfdir=/etc/bacula \
--with-scriptdir=/etc/bacula \
--enable-smartalloc \
--enable-bat \
--with-qwt=$HOME/bacula/depkgs/qwt \
--with-mysql \
--with-working-dir=/var/bacula \
--with-pid-dir=/var/run \
--enable-conio
Note, Bacula assumes that /var/bacula, /var/run, and /var/lock/subsys exist so it will not automatically
create them during the install process.
2.12
Solaris
To build Bacula from source, you will need the following installed on your system (they are not by default):
libiconv, gcc 3.3.2, stdc++, libgcc (for stdc++ and gcc s libraries), make 3.8 or later.
You will probably also need to: Add /usr/local/bin to PATH and Add /usr/ccs/bin to PATH for ar.
It is possible to build Bacula on Solaris with the Solaris compiler, but we recommend using GNU C++ if
possible.
A typical configuration command might look like:
#!/bin/sh
28
CHAPTER 2. INSTALLING BACULA
CFLAGS="-g" ./configure \
--sbindir=$HOME/bacula/bin \
--sysconfdir=$HOME/bacula/bin \
--with-mysql=$HOME/mysql \
--enable-smartalloc \
--with-pid-dir=$HOME/bacula/bin/working \
--with-subsys-dir=$HOME/bacula/bin/working \
--with-working-dir=$HOME/bacula/working
As mentioned above, the install process will create the sbindir and sysconfdir if they do not exist, but it will
not automatically create the pid-dir, subsys-dir, or working-dir, so you must ensure that they exist before
running Bacula for the first time.
Note, you may need to install the following packages to build Bacula from source:
SUNWbinutils,
SUNWarc,
SUNWhea,
SUNWGcc,
SUNWGnutls
SUNWGnutls-devel
SUNWGmake
SUNWgccruntime
SUNWlibgcrypt
SUNWzlib
SUNWzlibs
SUNWbinutilsS
SUNWGmakeS
SUNWlibm
export
PATH=/usr/bin::/usr/ccs/bin:/etc:/usr/openwin/bin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/sfw/bin:/opt/sfw/bin:/usr/ucb:/usr/sbin
If you have installed special software not normally in the Solaris libraries, such as OpenSSL, or the packages
shown above, then you may need to add /usr/sfw/lib to the library search path. Probably the simplest
way to do so is to run:
setenv LDFLAGS "-L/usr/sfw/lib -R/usr/sfw/lib"
Prior to running the ./configure command.
Alternatively, you can set the LD LIBARY PATH and/or the LD RUN PATH environment variables appropriately.
It is also possible to use the crle program to set the library search path. However, this should be used with
caution.
2.13
FreeBSD
Please see: The FreeBSD Diary for a detailed description on how to make Bacula work on your system. In
addition, users of FreeBSD prior to 4.9-STABLE dated Mon Dec 29 15:18:01 2003 UTC who plan to use tape
devices, please see the Tape Testing Chapter of this manual for important information on how to configure
your tape drive for compatibility with Bacula.
If you are using Bacula with MySQL, you should take care to compile MySQL with FreeBSD native threads
rather than LinuxThreads, since Bacula is normally built with FreeBSD native threads rather than LinuxTreads. Mixing the two will probably not work.
2.14. WIN32
2.14
29
Win32
To install the binary Win32 version of the File daemon please see the Win32 Installation Chapter in this
document.
2.15
One File Configure Script
The following script could be used if you want to put everything in a single file:
#!/bin/sh
CFLAGS="-g -Wall" \
./configure \
--sbindir=$HOME/bacula/bin \
--sysconfdir=$HOME/bacula/bin \
--mandir=$HOME/bacula/bin \
--enable-smartalloc \
--enable-gnome \
--enable-bat \
--with-qwt=$HOME/bacula/depkgs/qwt \
--enable-bwx-console \
--enable-tray-monitor \
--with-pid-dir=$HOME/bacula/bin/working \
--with-subsys-dir=$HOME/bacula/bin/working \
--with-mysql \
--with-working-dir=$HOME/bacula/bin/working \
--with-dump-email=$USER@your-site.com \
--with-job-email=$USER@your-site.com \
--with-smtp-host=mail.your-site.com
exit 0
You may also want to put the following entries in your /etc/services file as it will make viewing the
connections made by Bacula easier to recognize (i.e. netstat -a):
bacula-dir
bacula-fd
bacula-sd
2.16
9101/tcp
9102/tcp
9103/tcp
Installing Bacula
Before setting up your configuration files, you will want to install Bacula in its final location. Simply enter:
make install
If you have previously installed Bacula, the old binaries will be overwritten, but the old configuration files
will remain unchanged, and the ”new” configuration files will be appended with a .new. Generally if you
have previously installed and run Bacula you will want to discard or ignore the configuration files with the
appended .new.
2.17
Building a File Daemon or Client
If you run the Director and the Storage daemon on one machine and you wish to back up another machine,
you must have a copy of the File daemon for that machine. If the machine and the Operating System are
identical, you can simply copy the Bacula File daemon binary file bacula-fd as well as its configuration
file bacula-fd.conf then modify the name and password in the conf file to be unique. Be sure to make
corresponding additions to the Director’s configuration file (bacula-dir.conf).
30
CHAPTER 2. INSTALLING BACULA
If the architecture or the OS level are different, you will need to build a File daemon on the Client machine.
To do so, you can use the same ./configure command as you did for your main program, starting either
from a fresh copy of the source tree, or using make distclean before the ./configure.
Since the File daemon does not access the Catalog database, you can remove the --with-mysql or --withsqlite options, then add --enable-client-only. This will compile only the necessary libraries and the client
programs and thus avoids the necessity of installing one or another of those database programs to build the
File daemon. With the above option, you simply enter make and just the client will be built.
2.18
Auto Starting the Daemons
If you wish the daemons to be automatically started and stopped when your system is booted (a good idea),
one more step is necessary. First, the ./configure process must recognize your system – that is it must be a
supported platform and not unknown, then you must install the platform dependent files by doing:
(become root)
make install-autostart
Please note, that the auto-start feature is implemented only on systems that we officially support (currently,
FreeBSD, Red Hat/Fedora Linux, and Solaris), and has only been fully tested on Fedora Linux.
The make install-autostart will cause the appropriate startup scripts to be installed with the necessary
symbolic links. On Red Hat/Fedora Linux systems, these scripts reside in /etc/rc.d/init.d/bacula-dir
/etc/rc.d/init.d/bacula-fd, and /etc/rc.d/init.d/bacula-sd. However the exact location depends on
what operating system you are using.
If you only wish to install the File daemon, you may do so with:
make install-autostart-fd
2.19
Other Make Notes
To simply build a new executable in any directory, enter:
make
To clean out all the objects and binaries (including the files named 1, 2, or 3, which are development
temporary files), enter:
make clean
To really clean out everything for distribution, enter:
make distclean
note, this cleans out the Makefiles and is normally done from the top level directory to prepare for distribution
of the source. To recover from this state, you must redo the ./configure in the top level directory, since all
the Makefiles will be deleted.
To add a new file in a subdirectory, edit the Makefile.in in that directory, then simply do a make. In most
cases, the make will rebuild the Makefile from the new Makefile.in. In some case, you may need to issue the
make a second time. In extreme cases, cd to the top level directory and enter: make Makefiles.
To add dependencies:
2.20. INSTALLING TRAY MONITOR
31
make depend
The make depend appends the header file dependencies for each of the object files to Makefile and Makefile.in. This command should be done in each directory where you change the dependencies. Normally, it
only needs to be run when you add or delete source or header files. make depend is normally automatically
invoked during the configuration process.
To install:
make install
This not normally done if you are developing Bacula, but is used if you are going to run it to backup your
system.
After doing a make install the following files will be installed on your system (more or less). The exact
files and location (directory) for each file depends on your ./configure command (e.g. bgnome-console and
bgnome-console.conf are not installed if you do not configure GNOME. Also, if you are using SQLite instead
of MySQL, some of the files will be different).
NOTE: it is quite probable that this list is out of date. But it is a starting point.
bacula
bacula-dir
bacula-dir.conf
bacula-fd
bacula-fd.conf
bacula-sd
bacula-sd.conf
bacula-tray-monitor
tray-monitor.conf
bextract
bls
bscan
btape
btraceback
btraceback.gdb
bconsole
bconsole.conf
create_mysql_database
dbcheck
delete_catalog_backup
drop_bacula_tables
drop_mysql_tables
bgnome-console
bgnome-console.conf
make_bacula_tables
make_catalog_backup
make_mysql_tables
mtx-changer
query.sql
bsmtp
startmysql
stopmysql
bwx-console
bwx-console.conf
9 man pages
2.20
Installing Tray Monitor
The Tray Monitor is already installed if you used the --enable-tray-monitor configure option and ran
make install.
32
CHAPTER 2. INSTALLING BACULA
As you don’t run your graphical environment as root (if you do, you should change that bad habit), don’t
forget to allow your user to read tray-monitor.conf, and to execute bacula-tray-monitor (this is not a
security issue).
Then log into your graphical environment (KDE, GNOME or something else), run bacula-tray-monitor as
your user, and see if a cassette icon appears somewhere on the screen, usually on the task bar. If it doesn’t,
follow the instructions below related to your environment or window manager.
2.20.1
GNOME
System tray, or notification area if you use the GNOME terminology, has been supported in GNOME since
version 2.2. To activate it, right-click on one of your panels, open the menu Add to this Panel, then
Utility and finally click on Notification Area.
2.20.2
KDE
System tray has been supported in KDE since version 3.1. To activate it, right-click on one of your panels,
open the menu Add, then Applet and finally click on System Tray.
2.20.3
Other window managers
Read the documentation to know if the Freedesktop system tray standard is supported by your window
manager, and if applicable, how to activate it.
2.21
Modifying the Bacula Configuration Files
See the chapter Configuring Bacula in this manual for instructions on how to set Bacula configuration files.
Chapter 3
Critical Items to Implement Before
Production
We recommend you take your time before implementing a production a Bacula backup system since Bacula
is a rather complex program, and if you make a mistake, you may suddenly find that you cannot restore your
files in case of a disaster. This is especially true if you have not previously used a major backup product.
If you follow the instructions in this chapter, you will have covered most of the major problems that can
occur. It goes without saying that if you ever find that we have left out an important point, please inform
us, so that we can document it to the benefit of everyone.
3.1
Critical Items
The following assumes that you have installed Bacula, you more or less understand it, you have at least
worked through the tutorial or have equivalent experience, and that you have set up a basic production
configuration. If you haven’t done the above, please do so and then come back here. The following is a sort
of checklist that points with perhaps a brief explanation of why you should do it. In most cases, you will
find the details elsewhere in the manual. The order is more or less the order you would use in setting up a
production system (if you already are in production, use the checklist anyway).
• Test your tape drive for compatibility with Bacula by using the test command in the btape program.
• Better than doing the above is to walk through the nine steps in the Tape Testing chapter of the
manual. It may take you a bit of time, but it will eliminate surprises.
• Test the end of tape handling of your tape drive by using the fill command in the btape program.
• If you are using a Linux 2.4 kernel, make sure that /lib/tls is disabled. Bacula does not work with this
library. See the second point under Supported Operating Systems.
• Do at least one restore of files. If you backup multiple OS types (Linux, Solaris, HP, MacOS, FreeBSD,
Win32, ...), restore files from each system type. The Restoring Files chapter shows you how.
• Write a bootstrap file to a separate system for each backup job. The Write Bootstrap directive is
described in the Director Configuration chapter of the manual, and more details are available in the
Bootstrap File chapter. Also, the default bacula-dir.conf comes with a Write Bootstrap directive
defined. This allows you to recover the state of your system as of the last backup.
• Backup your catalog. An example of this is found in the default bacula-dir.conf file. The backup
script is installed by default and should handle any database, though you may want to make your own
local modifications. See also Backing Up Your Bacula Database - Security Considerations for more
information.
33
34
CHAPTER 3. CRITICAL ITEMS TO IMPLEMENT BEFORE PRODUCTION
• Write a bootstrap file for the catalog. An example of this is found in the default bacula-dir.conf file.
This will allow you to quickly restore your catalog in the event it is wiped out – otherwise it is many
excruciating hours of work.
• Make a copy of the bacula-dir.conf, bacula-sd.conf, and bacula-fd.conf files that you are using on your
server. Put it in a safe place (on another machine) as these files can be difficult to reconstruct if your
server dies.
• Make a Bacula Rescue CDROM! See the Disaster Recovery Using a Bacula Rescue CDROM chapter.
It is trivial to make such a CDROM, and it can make system recovery in the event of a lost hard disk
infinitely easier.
• Bacula assumes all filenames are in UTF-8 format. This is important when saving the filenames to the
catalog. For Win32 machine, Bacula will automatically convert from Unicode to UTF-8, but on Unix,
Linux, *BSD, and MacOS X machines, you must explicitly ensure that your locale is set properly.
Typically this means that the bf LANG environment variable must end in .UTF-8. An full example
is en US.UTF-8. The exact syntax may vary a bit from OS to OS, and exactly how you define it will
also vary.
On most modern Win32 machines, you can edit the conf files with notepad and choose output encoding
UTF-8.
3.2
Recommended Items
Although these items may not be critical, they are recommended and will help you avoid problems.
• Read the Quick Start Guide to Bacula
• After installing and experimenting with Bacula, read and work carefully through the examples in the
Tutorial chapter of this manual.
• Learn what each of the Bacula Utility Programs does.
• Set up reasonable retention periods so that your catalog does not grow to be too big. See the following
three chapters:
Recycling your Volumes,
Basic Volume Management,
Using Pools to Manage Volumes.
• Perform a bare metal recovery using the Bacula
Disaster Recovery Using a Bacula Rescue CDROM chapter.
Rescue
CDROM.
See
the
If you absolutely must implement a system where you write a different tape each night and take it offsite in
the morning. We recommend that you do several things:
• Write a bootstrap file of your backed up data and a bootstrap file of your catalog backup to a floppy
disk or a CDROM, and take that with the tape. If this is not possible, try to write those files to
another computer or offsite computer, or send them as email to a friend. If none of that is possible, at
least print the bootstrap files and take that offsite with the tape. Having the bootstrap files will make
recovery much easier.
• It is better not to force Bacula to load a particular tape each day. Instead, let Bacula choose the tape.
If you need to know what tape to mount, you can print a list of recycled and appendable tapes daily,
and select any tape from that list. Bacula may propose a particular tape for use that it considers
optimal, but it will accept any valid tape from the correct pool.
Chapter 4
Customizing the Configuration Files
When each of the Bacula programs starts, it reads a configuration file specified on the command line or the
default bacula-dir.conf, bacula-fd.conf, bacula-sd.conf, or console.conf for the Director daemon, the
File daemon, the Storage daemon, and the Console program respectively.
Each service (Director, Client, Storage, Console) has its own configuration file containing a set of Resource
definitions. These resources are very similar from one service to another, but may contain different directives
(records) depending on the service. For example, in the Director’s resource file, the Director resource defines
the name of the Director, a number of global Director parameters and his password. In the File daemon
configuration file, the Director resource specifies which Directors are permitted to use the File daemon.
Before running Bacula for the first time, you must customize the configuration files for each daemon. Default
configuration files will have been created by the installation process, but you will need to modify them to
correspond to your system. An overall view of the resources can be seen in the following:
35
36
4.1
CHAPTER 4. CUSTOMIZING THE CONFIGURATION FILES
Character Sets
Bacula is designed to handle most character sets of the world, US ASCII, German, French, Chinese, ...
However, it does this by encoding everything in UTF-8, and it expects all configuration files (including those
read on Win32 machines) to be in UTF-8 format. UTF-8 is typically the default on Linux machines, but
not on all Unix machines, nor on Windows, so you must take some care to ensure that your locale is set
properly before starting Bacula.
To ensure that Bacula configuration files can be correctly read including foreign characters the bf LANG
environment variable must end in .UTF-8. An full example is en US.UTF-8. The exact syntax may vary
a bit from OS to OS, and exactly how you define it will also vary. On most newer Win32 machines, you can
use notepad to edit the conf files, then choose output encoding UTF-8.
Bacula assumes that all filenames are in UTF-8 format on Linux and Unix machines. On Win32 they are in
Unicode (UTF-16), and will be automatically converted to UTF-8 format.
4.2. RESOURCE DIRECTIVE FORMAT
4.2
37
Resource Directive Format
Although, you won’t need to know the details of all the directives a basic knowledge of Bacula resource
directives is essential. Each directive contained within the resource (within the braces) is composed of a
keyword followed by an equal sign (=) followed by one or more values. The keywords must be one of the
known Bacula resource record keywords, and it may be composed of upper or lower case characters and
spaces.
Each resource definition MUST contain a Name directive, and may optionally contain a Description directive.
The Name directive is used to uniquely identify the resource. The Description directive is (will be) used
during display of the Resource to provide easier human recognition. For example:
Director {
Name = "MyDir"
Description = "Main Bacula Director"
WorkingDirectory = "$HOME/bacula/bin/working"
}
Defines the Director resource with the name ”MyDir” and a working directory $HOME/bacula/bin/working.
In general, if you want spaces in a name to the right of the first equal sign (=), you must enclose that name
within double quotes. Otherwise quotes are not generally necessary because once defined, quoted strings
and unquoted strings are all equal.
4.2.1
Comments
When reading the configuration file, blank lines are ignored and everything after a hash sign (#) until the
end of the line is taken to be a comment. A semicolon (;) is a logical end of line, and anything after the
semicolon is considered as the next statement. If a statement appears on a line by itself, a semicolon is not
necessary to terminate it, so generally in the examples in this manual, you will not see many semicolons.
4.2.2
Upper and Lower Case and Spaces
Case (upper/lower) and spaces are totally ignored in the resource directive keywords (the part before the
equal sign).
Within the keyword (i.e. before the equal sign), spaces are not significant. Thus the keywords: name,
Name, and N a m e are all identical.
Spaces after the equal sign and before the first character of the value are ignored.
In general, spaces within a value are significant (not ignored), and if the value is a name, you must enclose the
name in double quotes for the spaces to be accepted. Names may contain up to 127 characters. Currently,
a name may contain any ASCII character. Within a quoted string, any character following a backslash (\)
is taken as itself (handy for inserting backslashes and double quotes (”)).
Please note, however, that Bacula resource names as well as certain other names (e.g. Volume names)
must contain only letters (including ISO accented letters), numbers, and a few special characters (space,
underscore, ...). All other characters and punctuation are invalid.
4.2.3
Including other Configuration Files
If you wish to break your configuration file into smaller pieces, you can do so by including other files using the
syntax @filename where filename is the full path and filename of another file. The @filename specification
can be given anywhere a primitive token would appear.
38
CHAPTER 4. CUSTOMIZING THE CONFIGURATION FILES
4.2.4
Recognized Primitive Data Types
When parsing the resource directives, Bacula classifies the data according to the types listed below. The first
time you read this, it may appear a bit overwhelming, but in reality, it is all pretty logical and straightforward.
name A keyword or name consisting of alphanumeric characters, including the hyphen, underscore, and
dollar characters. The first character of a name must be a letter. A name has a maximum length
currently set to 127 bytes. Typically keywords appear on the left side of an equal (i.e. they are Bacula
keywords – i.e. Resource names or directive names). Keywords may not be quoted.
name-string A name-string is similar to a name, except that the name may be quoted and can thus contain
additional characters including spaces. Name strings are limited to 127 characters in length. Name
strings are typically used on the right side of an equal (i.e. they are values to be associated with a
keyword).
string A quoted string containing virtually any character including spaces, or a non-quoted string. A string
may be of any length. Strings are typically values that correspond to filenames, directories, or system
command names. A backslash (\) turns the next character into itself, so to include a double quote in
a string, you precede the double quote with a backslash. Likewise to include a backslash.
directory A directory is either a quoted or non-quoted string. A directory will be passed to your standard
shell for expansion when it is scanned. Thus constructs such as $HOME are interpreted to be their
correct values.
password This is a Bacula password and it is stored internally in MD5 hashed format.
integer A 32 bit integer value. It may be positive or negative.
positive integer A 32 bit positive integer value.
long integer A 64 bit integer value. Typically these are values such as bytes that can exceed 4 billion and
thus require a 64 bit value.
yes|no Either a yes or a no.
size A size specified as bytes. Typically, this is a floating point scientific input format followed by an optional
modifier. The floating point input is stored as a 64 bit integer value. If a modifier is present, it must
immediately follow the value with no intervening spaces. The following modifiers are permitted:
k 1,024 (kilobytes)
kb 1,000 (kilobytes)
m 1,048,576 (megabytes)
mb 1,000,000 (megabytes)
g 1,073,741,824 (gigabytes)
gb 1,000,000,000 (gigabytes)
time A time or duration specified in seconds. The time is stored internally as a 64 bit integer value, but it is
specified in two parts: a number part and a modifier part. The number can be an integer or a floating
point number. If it is entered in floating point notation, it will be rounded to the nearest integer. The
modifier is mandatory and follows the number part, either with or without intervening spaces. The
following modifiers are permitted:
seconds seconds
minutes minutes (60 seconds)
hours hours (3600 seconds)
days days (3600*24 seconds)
weeks weeks (3600*24*7 seconds)
months months (3600*24*30 seconds)
quarters quarters (3600*24*91 seconds)
4.4. NAMES, PASSWORDS AND AUTHORIZATION
39
years years (3600*24*365 seconds)
Any abbreviation of these modifiers is also permitted (i.e. seconds may be specified as sec or s). A
specification of m will be taken as months.
The specification of a time may have as many number/modifier parts as you wish. For example:
1 week 2 days 3 hours 10 mins
1 month 2 days 30 sec
are valid date specifications.
4.3
Resource Types
The following table lists all current Bacula resource types. It shows what resources must be defined for each
service (daemon). The default configuration files will already contain at least one example of each permitted
resource, so you need not worry about creating all these kinds of resources from scratch.
Resource
Autochanger
Catalog
Client
Console
Device
Director
FileSet
Job
JobDefs
Message
Pool
Schedule
Storage
4.4
Director
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Client
No
No
Yes
No
No
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
No
No
No
Storage
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
No
No
Yes
Console
No
No
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
Names, Passwords and Authorization
In order for one daemon to contact another daemon, it must authorize itself with a password. In most
cases, the password corresponds to a particular name, so both the name and the password must match to
be authorized. Passwords are plain text, any text. They are not generated by any special process; just use
random text.
The default configuration files are automatically defined for correct authorization with random passwords.
If you add to or modify these files, you will need to take care to keep them consistent.
Here is sort of a picture of what names/passwords in which files/Resources must match up:
40
CHAPTER 4. CUSTOMIZING THE CONFIGURATION FILES
In the left column, you will find the Director, Storage, and Client resources, with their names and passwords
– these are all in bacula-dir.conf. In the right column are where the corresponding values should be found
in the Console, Storage daemon (SD), and File daemon (FD) configuration files.
Please note that the Address, fd-sd, that appears in the Storage resource of the Director, preceded with and
asterisk in the above example, is passed to the File daemon in symbolic form. The File daemon then resolves
it to an IP address. For this reason, you must use either an IP address or a fully qualified name. A name
such as localhost, not being a fully qualified name, will resolve in the File daemon to the localhost of the
File daemon, which is most likely not what is desired. The password used for the File daemon to authorize
with the Storage daemon is a temporary password unique to each Job created by the daemons and is not
specified in any .conf file.
4.5
Detailed Information for each Daemon
The details of each Resource and the directives permitted therein are described in the following chapters.
The following configuration files must be defined:
• Console – to define the resources for the Console program (user interface to the Director). It defines
which Directors are available so that you may interact with them.
• Director – to define the resources necessary for the Director. You define all the Clients and Storage
daemons that you use in this configuration file.
• Client – to define the resources for each client to be backed up. That is, you will have a separate Client
resource file on each machine that runs a File daemon.
• Storage – to define the resources to be used by each Storage daemon. Normally, you will have a single
Storage daemon that controls your tape drive or tape drives. However, if you have tape drives on
several machines, you will have at least one Storage daemon per machine.
Chapter 5
Configuring the Director
Of all the configuration files needed to run Bacula, the Director’s is the most complicated, and the one that
you will need to modify the most often as you add clients or modify the FileSets.
For a general discussion of configuration files and resources including the data types recognized by Bacula.
Please see the Configuration chapter of this manual.
5.1
Director Resource Types
Director resource type may be one of the following:
Job, JobDefs, Client, Storage, Catalog, Schedule, FileSet, Pool, Director, or Messages. We present them
here in the most logical order for defining them:
Note, everything revolves around a job and is tied to a job in one way or another.
• Director – to define the Director’s name and its access password used for authenticating the Console
program. Only a single Director resource definition may appear in the Director’s configuration file.
If you have either /dev/random or bc on your machine, Bacula will generate a random password
during the configuration process, otherwise it will be left blank.
• Job – to define the backup/restore Jobs and to tie together the Client, FileSet and Schedule resources
to be used for each Job. Normally, you will Jobs of different names corresponding to each client (i.e.
one Job per client, but a different one with a different name for each client).
• JobDefs – optional resource for providing defaults for Job resources.
• Schedule – to define when a Job is to be automatically run by Bacula’s internal scheduler. You may
have any number of Schedules, but each job will reference only one.
• FileSet – to define the set of files to be backed up for each Client. You may have any number of FileSets
but each Job will reference only one.
• Client – to define what Client is to be backed up. You will generally have multiple Client definitions.
Each Job will reference only a single client.
• Storage – to define on what physical device the Volumes should be mounted. You may have one or
more Storage definitions.
• Pool – to define the pool of Volumes that can be used for a particular Job. Most people use a single
default Pool. However, if you have a large number of clients or volumes, you may want to have multiple
Pools. Pools allow you to restrict a Job (or a Client) to use only a particular set of Volumes.
41
42
CHAPTER 5. CONFIGURING THE DIRECTOR
• Catalog – to define in what database to keep the list of files and the Volume names where they are
backed up. Most people only use a single catalog. However, if you want to scale the Director to many
clients, multiple catalogs can be helpful. Multiple catalogs require a bit more management because
in general you must know what catalog contains what data. Currently, all Pools are defined in each
catalog. This restriction will be removed in a later release.
• Messages – to define where error and information messages are to be sent or logged. You may define
multiple different message resources and hence direct particular classes of messages to different users
or locations (files, ...).
5.2
The Director Resource
The Director resource defines the attributes of the Directors running on the network. In the current implementation, there is only a single Director resource, but the final design will contain multiple Directors to
maintain index and media database redundancy.
Director Start of the Director resource. One and only one director resource must be supplied.
Name = <name> The director name used by the system administrator. This directive is required.
Description = <text> The text field contains a description of the Director that will be displayed in the
graphical user interface. This directive is optional.
Password = <UA-password> Specifies the password that must be supplied for the default Bacula Console to be authorized. The same password must appear in the Director resource of the Console
configuration file. For added security, the password is never passed across the network but instead
a challenge response hash code created with the password. This directive is required. If you have
either /dev/random or bc on your machine, Bacula will generate a random password during the
configuration process, otherwise it will be left blank and you must manually supply it.
The password is plain text. It is not generated through any special process but as noted above, it is
better to use random text for security reasons.
Messages = <Messages-resource-name> The messages resource specifies where to deliver Director
messages that are not associated with a specific Job. Most messages are specific to a job and will
be directed to the Messages resource specified by the job. However, there are a few messages that can
occur when no job is running. This directive is required.
Working Directory = <Directory> This directive is mandatory and specifies a directory in which the
Director may put its status files. This directory should be used only by Bacula but may be shared by
other Bacula daemons. However, please note, if this directory is shared with other Bacula daemons
(the File daemon and Storage daemon), you must ensure that the Name given to each daemon is
unique so that the temporary filenames used do not collide. By default the Bacula configure process
creates unique daemon names by postfixing them with -dir, -fd, and -sd. Standard shell expansion
of the Directory is done when the configuration file is read so that values such as $HOME will be
properly expanded. This directive is required. The working directory specified must already exist and
be readable and writable by the Bacula daemon referencing it.
If you have specified a Director user and/or a Director group on your ./configure line with --with-diruser and/or --with-dir-group the Working Directory owner and group will be set to those values.
Pid Directory = <Directory> This directive is mandatory and specifies a directory in which the Director
may put its process Id file. The process Id file is used to shutdown Bacula and to prevent multiple
copies of Bacula from running simultaneously. Standard shell expansion of the Directory is done
when the configuration file is read so that values such as $HOME will be properly expanded.
The PID directory specified must already exist and be readable and writable by the Bacula daemon
referencing it
Typically on Linux systems, you will set this to: /var/run. If you are not installing Bacula in the
system directories, you can use the Working Directory as defined above. This directive is required.
5.2. THE DIRECTOR RESOURCE
43
Scripts Directory = <Directory> This directive is optional and, if defined, specifies a directory in which
the Director will look for the Python startup script DirStartup.py. This directory may be shared by
other Bacula daemons. Standard shell expansion of the directory is done when the configuration file
is read so that values such as $HOME will be properly expanded.
QueryFile = <Path> This directive is mandatory and specifies a directory and file in which the Director
can find the canned SQL statements for the Query command of the Console. Standard shell expansion
of the Path is done when the configuration file is read so that values such as $HOME will be properly
expanded. This directive is required.
Heartbeat Interval = <time-interval> This directive is optional and if specified will cause the Director
to set a keepalive interval (heartbeat) in seconds on each of the sockets it opens for the Client resource.
This value will override any specified at the Director level. It is implemented only on systems (Linux,
...) that provide the setsockopt TCP KEEPIDLE function. The default value is zero, which means
no change is made to the socket.
Maximum Concurrent Jobs = <number> where <number> is the maximum number of total Director
Jobs that should run concurrently. The default is set to 1, but you may set it to a larger number.
The Volume format becomes more complicated with multiple simultaneous jobs, consequently, restores
may take longer if Bacula must sort through interleaved volume blocks from multiple simultaneous
jobs. This can be avoided by having each simultaneous job write to a different volume or by using data
spooling, which will first spool the data to disk simultaneously, then write one spool file at a time to
the volume thus avoiding excessive interleaving of the different job blocks.
FD Connect Timeout = <time> where time is the time that the Director should continue attempting
to contact the File daemon to start a job, and after which the Director will cancel the job. The default
is 30 minutes.
SD Connect Timeout = <time> where time is the time that the Director should continue attempting
to contact the Storage daemon to start a job, and after which the Director will cancel the job. The
default is 30 minutes.
DirAddresses = <IP-address-specification> Specify the ports and addresses on which the Director
daemon will listen for Bacula Console connections. Probably the simplest way to explain this is to
show an example:
DirAddresses = {
ip = { addr = 1.2.3.4; port = 1205;}
ipv4 = {
addr = 1.2.3.4; port = http;}
ipv6 = {
addr = 1.2.3.4;
port = 1205;
}
ip = {
addr = 1.2.3.4
port = 1205
}
ip = { addr = 1.2.3.4 }
ip = { addr = 201:220:222::2 }
ip = {
addr = bluedot.thun.net
}
}
where ip, ip4, ip6, addr, and port are all keywords. Note, that the address can be specified as either a
dotted quadruple, or IPv6 colon notation, or as a symbolic name (only in the ip specification). Also,
port can be specified as a number or as the mnemonic value from the /etc/services file. If a port is not
specified, the default will be used. If an ip section is specified, the resolution can be made either by
IPv4 or IPv6. If ip4 is specified, then only IPv4 resolutions will be permitted, and likewise with ip6.
Please note that if you use the DirAddresses directive, you must not use either a DirPort or a DirAddress
directive in the same resource.
DirPort = <port-number> Specify the port (a positive integer) on which the Director daemon will listen
for Bacula Console connections. This same port number must be specified in the Director resource of
the Console configuration file. The default is 9101, so normally this directive need not be specified.
This directive should not be used if you specify DirAddresses (N.B plural) directive.
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CHAPTER 5. CONFIGURING THE DIRECTOR
DirAddress = <IP-Address> This directive is optional, but if it is specified, it will cause the Director
server (for the Console program) to bind to the specified IP-Address, which is either a domain name
or an IP address specified as a dotted quadruple in string or quoted string format. If this directive is not
specified, the Director will bind to any available address (the default). Note, unlike the DirAddresses
specification noted above, this directive only permits a single address to be specified. This directive
should not be used if you specify a DirAddresses (N.B. plural) directive.
DirSourceAddress = <IP-Address> This record is optional, and if it is specified, it will cause the
Director server (when initiating connections to a storage or file daemon) to source its connections from
the specified address. Only a single IP address may be specified. If this record is not specified, the
Director server will source its outgoing connections according to the system routing table (the default).
Statistics Retention = <time> The Statistics Retention directive defines the length of time that
Bacula will keep statistics job records in the Catalog database after the Job End time. (In JobHistory
table) When this time period expires, and if user runs prune stats command, Bacula will prune
(remove) Job records that are older than the specified period.
Theses statistics records aren’t use for restore purpose, but mainly for capacity planning, billings, etc.
See Statistics chapteror additional information.
See the Configuration chapter of this manual for additional details of time specification.
The default is 5 years.
VerId = <string> where <string> is an identifier which can be used for support purpose. This string is
displayed using the version command.
MaxConsoleConnections = <number> where <number> is the maximum number of Console Connections that could run concurrently. The default is set to 20, but you may set it to a larger number.
The following is an example of a valid Director resource definition:
Director {
Name = HeadMan
WorkingDirectory = "$HOME/bacula/bin/working"
Password = UA_password
PidDirectory = "$HOME/bacula/bin/working"
QueryFile = "$HOME/bacula/bin/query.sql"
Messages = Standard
}
5.3
The Job Resource
The Job resource defines a Job (Backup, Restore, ...) that Bacula must perform. Each Job resource definition
contains the name of a Client and a FileSet to backup, the Schedule for the Job, where the data are to be
stored, and what media Pool can be used. In effect, each Job resource must specify What, Where, How,
and When or FileSet, Storage, Backup/Restore/Level, and Schedule respectively. Note, the FileSet must be
specified for a restore job for historical reasons, but it is no longer used.
Only a single type (Backup, Restore, ...) can be specified for any job. If you want to backup multiple
FileSets on the same Client or multiple Clients, you must define a Job for each one.
Note, you define only a single Job to do the Full, Differential, and Incremental backups since the different
backup levels are tied together by a unique Job name. Normally, you will have only one Job per Client, but
if a client has a really huge number of files (more than several million), you might want to split it into to
Jobs each with a different FileSet covering only part of the total files.
Multiple Storage daemons are not currently supported for Jobs, so if you do want to use multiple storage
daemons, you will need to create a different Job and ensure that for each Job that the combination of Client
and FileSet are unique. The Client and FileSet are what Bacula uses to restore a client, so if there are
multiple Jobs with the same Client and FileSet or multiple Storage daemons that are used, the restore will
not work. This problem can be resolved by defining multiple FileSet definitions (the names must be different,
but the contents of the FileSets may be the same).
5.3. THE JOB RESOURCE
45
Job Start of the Job resource. At least one Job resource is required.
Name = <name> The Job name. This name can be specified on the Run command in the console
program to start a job. If the name contains spaces, it must be specified between quotes. It is
generally a good idea to give your job the same name as the Client that it will backup. This permits
easy identification of jobs.
When the job actually runs, the unique Job Name will consist of the name you specify here followed
by the date and time the job was scheduled for execution. This directive is required.
Enabled = <yes|no> This directive allows you to enable or disable automatic execution via the scheduler
of a Job.
Type = <job-type> The Type directive specifies the Job type, which may be one of the following:
Backup, Restore, Verify, or Admin. This directive is required. Within a particular Job Type,
there are also Levels as discussed in the next item.
Backup Run a backup Job. Normally you will have at least one Backup job for each client you want
to save. Normally, unless you turn off cataloging, most all the important statistics and data
concerning files backed up will be placed in the catalog.
Restore Run a restore Job. Normally, you will specify only one Restore job which acts as a sort of
prototype that you will modify using the console program in order to perform restores. Although
certain basic information from a Restore job is saved in the catalog, it is very minimal compared
to the information stored for a Backup job – for example, no File database entries are generated
since no Files are saved.
Restore jobs cannot be automatically started by the scheduler as is the case for Backup, Verify
and Admin jobs. To restore files, you must use the restore command in the console.
Verify Run a verify Job. In general, verify jobs permit you to compare the contents of the catalog to
the file system, or to what was backed up. In addition, to verifying that a tape that was written
can be read, you can also use verify as a sort of tripwire intrusion detection.
Admin Run an admin Job. An Admin job can be used to periodically run catalog pruning, if you
do not want to do it at the end of each Backup Job. Although an Admin job is recorded in the
catalog, very little data is saved.
Level = <job-level> The Level directive specifies the default Job level to be run. Each different Job
Type (Backup, Restore, ...) has a different set of Levels that can be specified. The Level is normally
overridden by a different value that is specified in the Schedule resource. This directive is not required,
but must be specified either by a Level directive or as an override specified in the Schedule resource.
For a Backup Job, the Level may be one of the following:
Full When the Level is set to Full all files in the FileSet whether or not they have changed will be
backed up.
Incremental When the Level is set to Incremental all files specified in the FileSet that have changed
since the last successful backup of the the same Job using the same FileSet and Client, will be
backed up. If the Director cannot find a previous valid Full backup then the job will be upgraded
into a Full backup. When the Director looks for a valid backup record in the catalog database, it
looks for a previous Job with:
• The same Job name.
• The same Client name.
• The same FileSet (any change to the definition of the FileSet such as adding or deleting a file
in the Include or Exclude sections constitutes a different FileSet.
• The Job was a Full, Differential, or Incremental backup.
• The Job terminated normally (i.e. did not fail or was not canceled).
• The Job started no longer ago than Max Full Interval.
If all the above conditions do not hold, the Director will upgrade the Incremental to a Full save.
Otherwise, the Incremental backup will be performed as requested.
The File daemon (Client) decides which files to backup for an Incremental backup by comparing
start time of the prior Job (Full, Differential, or Incremental) against the time each file was last
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CHAPTER 5. CONFIGURING THE DIRECTOR
”modified” (st mtime) and the time its attributes were last ”changed”(st ctime). If the file was
modified or its attributes changed on or after this start time, it will then be backed up.
Some virus scanning software may change st ctime while doing the scan. For example, if the
virus scanning program attempts to reset the access time (st atime), which Bacula does not use,
it will cause st ctime to change and hence Bacula will backup the file during an Incremental or
Differential backup. In the case of Sophos virus scanning, you can prevent it from resetting the
access time (st atime) and hence changing st ctime by using the --no-reset-atime option. For
other software, please see their manual.
When Bacula does an Incremental backup, all modified files that are still on the system are
backed up. However, any file that has been deleted since the last Full backup remains in the
Bacula catalog, which means that if between a Full save and the time you do a restore, some files
are deleted, those deleted files will also be restored. The deleted files will no longer appear in the
catalog after doing another Full save.
In addition, if you move a directory rather than copy it, the files in it do not have their modification
time (st mtime) or their attribute change time (st ctime) changed. As a consequence, those files
will probably not be backed up by an Incremental or Differential backup which depend solely on
these time stamps. If you move a directory, and wish it to be properly backed up, it is generally
preferable to copy it, then delete the original.
However, to manage deleted files or directories changes in the catalog during an Incremental
backup you can use accurate mode. This is quite memory consuming process. See Accurate mode
for more details.
Differential When the Level is set to Differential all files specified in the FileSet that have changed
since the last successful Full backup of the same Job will be backed up. If the Director cannot find
a valid previous Full backup for the same Job, FileSet, and Client, backup, then the Differential
job will be upgraded into a Full backup. When the Director looks for a valid Full backup record
in the catalog database, it looks for a previous Job with:
• The same Job name.
• The same Client name.
• The same FileSet (any change to the definition of the FileSet such as adding or deleting a file
in the Include or Exclude sections constitutes a different FileSet.
• The Job was a FULL backup.
• The Job terminated normally (i.e. did not fail or was not canceled).
• The Job started no longer ago than Max Full Interval.
If all the above conditions do not hold, the Director will upgrade the Differential to a Full save.
Otherwise, the Differential backup will be performed as requested.
The File daemon (Client) decides which files to backup for a differential backup by comparing the
start time of the prior Full backup Job against the time each file was last ”modified” (st mtime)
and the time its attributes were last ”changed” (st ctime). If the file was modified or its attributes
were changed on or after this start time, it will then be backed up. The start time used is displayed
after the Since on the Job report. In rare cases, using the start time of the prior backup may
cause some files to be backed up twice, but it ensures that no change is missed. As with the
Incremental option, you should ensure that the clocks on your server and client are synchronized
or as close as possible to avoid the possibility of a file being skipped. Note, on versions 1.33 or
greater Bacula automatically makes the necessary adjustments to the time between the server
and the client so that the times Bacula uses are synchronized.
When Bacula does a Differential backup, all modified files that are still on the system are backed
up. However, any file that has been deleted since the last Full backup remains in the Bacula
catalog, which means that if between a Full save and the time you do a restore, some files are
deleted, those deleted files will also be restored. The deleted files will no longer appear in the
catalog after doing another Full save. However, to remove deleted files from the catalog during a
Differential backup is quite a time consuming process and not currently implemented in Bacula.
It is, however, a planned future feature.
As noted above, if you move a directory rather than copy it, the files in it do not have their
modification time (st mtime) or their attribute change time (st ctime) changed. As a consequence,
those files will probably not be backed up by an Incremental or Differential backup which depend
solely on these time stamps. If you move a directory, and wish it to be properly backed up, it is
generally preferable to copy it, then delete the original. Alternatively, you can move the directory,
then use the touch program to update the timestamps.
5.3. THE JOB RESOURCE
47
However, to manage deleted files or directories changes in the catalog during an Differential backup
you can use accurate mode. This is quite memory consuming process. See Accurate mode for
more details.
Every once and a while, someone asks why we need Differential backups as long as Incremental
backups pickup all changed files. There are possibly many answers to this question, but the
one that is the most important for me is that a Differential backup effectively merges all the
Incremental and Differential backups since the last Full backup into a single Differential backup.
This has two effects: 1. It gives some redundancy since the old backups could be used if the
merged backup cannot be read. 2. More importantly, it reduces the number of Volumes that
are needed to do a restore effectively eliminating the need to read all the volumes on which the
preceding Incremental and Differential backups since the last Full are done.
For a Restore Job, no level needs to be specified.
For a Verify Job, the Level may be one of the following:
InitCatalog does a scan of the specified FileSet and stores the file attributes in the Catalog database.
Since no file data is saved, you might ask why you would want to do this. It turns out to be a very
simple and easy way to have a Tripwire like feature using Bacula. In other words, it allows you
to save the state of a set of files defined by the FileSet and later check to see if those files have
been modified or deleted and if any new files have been added. This can be used to detect system
intrusion. Typically you would specify a FileSet that contains the set of system files that should
not change (e.g. /sbin, /boot, /lib, /bin, ...). Normally, you run the InitCatalog level verify
one time when your system is first setup, and then once again after each modification (upgrade)
to your system. Thereafter, when your want to check the state of your system files, you use a
Verify level = Catalog. This compares the results of your InitCatalog with the current state
of the files.
Catalog Compares the current state of the files against the state previously saved during an InitCatalog. Any discrepancies are reported. The items reported are determined by the verify options
specified on the Include directive in the specified FileSet (see the FileSet resource below for
more details). Typically this command will be run once a day (or night) to check for any changes
to your system files.
Please note! If you run two Verify Catalog jobs on the same client at the same time, the results
will certainly be incorrect. This is because Verify Catalog modifies the Catalog database while
running in order to track new files.
VolumeToCatalog This level causes Bacula to read the file attribute data written to the Volume from
the last Job. The file attribute data are compared to the values saved in the Catalog database and
any differences are reported. This is similar to the Catalog level except that instead of comparing
the disk file attributes to the catalog database, the attribute data written to the Volume is read
and compared to the catalog database. Although the attribute data including the signatures
(MD5 or SHA1) are compared, the actual file data is not compared (it is not in the catalog).
Please note! If you run two Verify VolumeToCatalog jobs on the same client at the same time,
the results will certainly be incorrect. This is because the Verify VolumeToCatalog modifies the
Catalog database while running.
DiskToCatalog This level causes Bacula to read the files as they currently are on disk, and to compare
the current file attributes with the attributes saved in the catalog from the last backup for the job
specified on the VerifyJob directive. This level differs from the Catalog level described above
by the fact that it doesn’t compare against a previous Verify job but against a previous backup.
When you run this level, you must supply the verify options on your Include statements. Those
options determine what attribute fields are compared.
This command can be very useful if you have disk problems because it will compare the current
state of your disk against the last successful backup, which may be several jobs.
Note, the current implementation (1.32c) does not identify files that have been deleted.
Accurate = <yes|no> In accurate mode, the File daemon knowns exactly which files were present after
the last backup. So it is able to handle deleted or renamed files.
When restoring a FileSet for a specified date (including ”most recent”), Bacula is able to restore exactly
the files and directories that existed at the time of the last backup prior to that date including ensuring
that deleted files are actually deleted, and renamed directories are restored properly.
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CHAPTER 5. CONFIGURING THE DIRECTOR
In this mode, the File daemon must keep data concerning all files in memory. So you do not have
sufficient memory, the restore may either be terribly slow or fail.
For 500.000 files (a typical desktop linux system), it will require approximately 64 Megabytes of RAM
on your File daemon to hold the required information.
Verify Job = <Job-Resource-Name> If you run a verify job without this directive, the last job run will
be compared with the catalog, which means that you must immediately follow a backup by a verify
command. If you specify a Verify Job Bacula will find the last job with that name that ran. This
permits you to run all your backups, then run Verify jobs on those that you wish to be verified (most
often a VolumeToCatalog) so that the tape just written is re-read.
JobDefs = <JobDefs-Resource-Name> If a JobDefs-Resource-Name is specified, all the values contained in the named JobDefs resource will be used as the defaults for the current Job. Any value that
you explicitly define in the current Job resource, will override any defaults specified in the JobDefs
resource. The use of this directive permits writing much more compact Job resources where the bulk of
the directives are defined in one or more JobDefs. This is particularly useful if you have many similar
Jobs but with minor variations such as different Clients. A simple example of the use of JobDefs is
provided in the default bacula-dir.conf file.
Bootstrap = <bootstrap-file> The Bootstrap directive specifies a bootstrap file that, if provided, will
be used during Restore Jobs and is ignored in other Job types. The bootstrap file contains the list of
tapes to be used in a restore Job as well as which files are to be restored. Specification of this directive
is optional, and if specified, it is used only for a restore job. In addition, when running a Restore job
from the console, this value can be changed.
If you use the Restore command in the Console program, to start a restore job, the bootstrap file
will be created automatically from the files you select to be restored.
For additional details of the bootstrap file, please see Restoring Files with the Bootstrap File chapter
of this manual.
Write Bootstrap = <bootstrap-file-specification> The writebootstrap directive specifies a file
name where Bacula will write a bootstrap file for each Backup job run. This directive applies only to
Backup Jobs. If the Backup job is a Full save, Bacula will erase any current contents of the specified
file before writing the bootstrap records. If the Job is an Incremental or Differential save, Bacula will
append the current bootstrap record to the end of the file.
Using this feature, permits you to constantly have a bootstrap file that can recover the current state
of your system. Normally, the file specified should be a mounted drive on another machine, so that
if your hard disk is lost, you will immediately have a bootstrap record available. Alternatively, you
should copy the bootstrap file to another machine after it is updated. Note, it is a good idea to write a
separate bootstrap file for each Job backed up including the job that backs up your catalog database.
If the bootstrap-file-specification begins with a vertical bar (—), Bacula will use the specification
as the name of a program to which it will pipe the bootstrap record. It could for example be a shell
script that emails you the bootstrap record.
On versions 1.39.22 or greater, before opening the file or executing the specified command, Bacula
performs character substitution like in RunScript directive. To automatically manage your bootstrap
files, you can use this in your JobDefs resources:
JobDefs {
Write Bootstrap = "%c_%n.bsr"
...
}
For more details on using this file, please see the chapter entitled The Bootstrap File of this manual.
Client = <client-resource-name> The Client directive specifies the Client (File daemon) that will be
used in the current Job. Only a single Client may be specified in any one Job. The Client runs on the
machine to be backed up, and sends the requested files to the Storage daemon for backup, or receives
them when restoring. For additional details, see the Client Resource section of this chapter. This
directive is required.
5.3. THE JOB RESOURCE
49
FileSet = <FileSet-resource-name> The FileSet directive specifies the FileSet that will be used in the
current Job. The FileSet specifies which directories (or files) are to be backed up, and what options
to use (e.g. compression, ...). Only a single FileSet resource may be specified in any one Job. For
additional details, see the FileSet Resource section of this chapter. This directive is required.
Messages = <messages-resource-name> The Messages directive defines what Messages resource
should be used for this job, and thus how and where the various messages are to be delivered. For
example, you can direct some messages to a log file, and others can be sent by email. For additional
details, see the Messages Resource Chapter of this manual. This directive is required.
Pool = <pool-resource-name> The Pool directive defines the pool of Volumes where your data can be
backed up. Many Bacula installations will use only the Default pool. However, if you want to specify
a different set of Volumes for different Clients or different Jobs, you will probably want to use Pools.
For additional details, see the Pool Resource section of this chapter. This directive is required.
Full Backup Pool = <pool-resource-name> The Full Backup Pool specifies a Pool to be used for Full
backups. It will override any Pool specification during a Full backup. This directive is optional.
Differential Backup Pool = <pool-resource-name> The Differential Backup Pool specifies a Pool to
be used for Differential backups. It will override any Pool specification during a Differential backup.
This directive is optional.
Incremental Backup Pool = <pool-resource-name> The Incremental Backup Pool specifies a Pool to
be used for Incremental backups. It will override any Pool specification during an Incremental backup.
This directive is optional.
Schedule = <schedule-name> The Schedule directive defines what schedule is to be used for the Job.
The schedule in turn determines when the Job will be automatically started and what Job level (i.e.
Full, Incremental, ...) is to be run. This directive is optional, and if left out, the Job can only be started
manually using the Console program. Although you may specify only a single Schedule resource for
any one job, the Schedule resource may contain multiple Run directives, which allow you to run the
Job at many different times, and each run directive permits overriding the default Job Level Pool,
Storage, and Messages resources. This gives considerable flexibility in what can be done with a single
Job. For additional details, see the Schedule Resource Chapter of this manual.
Storage = <storage-resource-name> The Storage directive defines the name of the storage services
where you want to backup the FileSet data. For additional details, see the Storage Resource Chapter
of this manual. The Storage resource may also be specified in the Job’s Pool resource, in which case
the value in the Pool resource overrides any value in the Job. This Storage resource definition is not
required by either the Job resource or in the Pool, but it must be specified in one or the other, if not
an error will result.
Max Start Delay = <time> The time specifies the maximum delay between the scheduled time and the
actual start time for the Job. For example, a job can be scheduled to run at 1:00am, but because
other jobs are running, it may wait to run. If the delay is set to 3600 (one hour) and the job has not
begun to run by 2:00am, the job will be canceled. This can be useful, for example, to prevent jobs
from running during day time hours. The default is 0 which indicates no limit.
Max Run Time = <time> The time specifies the maximum allowed time that a job may run, counted
from when the job starts, (not necessarily the same as when the job was scheduled).
Incremental—Differential Max Wait Time = <time> Theses directives have been deprecated in favor of Incremental|Differential Max Run Time since bacula 2.3.18.
Incremental Max Run Time = <time> The time specifies the maximum allowed time that an Incremental backup job may run, counted from when the job starts, (not necessarily the same as when the
job was scheduled).
Differential Max Wait Time = <time> The time specifies the maximum allowed time that a Differential backup job may run, counted from when the job starts, (not necessarily the same as when the job
was scheduled).
Max Run Sched Time = <time> The time specifies the maximum allowed time that a job may run,
counted from when the job was scheduled. This can be useful to prevent jobs from running during
working hours. We can see it like Max Start Delay + Max Run Time.
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CHAPTER 5. CONFIGURING THE DIRECTOR
Max Wait Time = <time> The time specifies the maximum allowed time that a job may block waiting
for a resource (such as waiting for a tape to be mounted, or waiting for the storage or file daemons to
perform their duties), counted from the when the job starts, (not necessarily the same as when the
job was scheduled). This directive works as expected since bacula 2.3.18.
Max Full Interval = <time> The time specifies the maximum allowed age (counting from start time)
of the most recent successful Full backup that is required in order to run Incremental or Differential
backup jobs. If the most recent Full backup is older than this interval, Incremental and Differential
backups will be upgraded to Full backups automatically. If this directive is not present, or specified as
0, then the age of the previous Full backup is not considered.
Prefer Mounted Volumes = <yes|no> If the Prefer Mounted Volumes directive is set to yes (default
yes), the Storage daemon is requested to select either an Autochanger or a drive with a valid Volume
already mounted in preference to a drive that is not ready. This means that all jobs will attempt to
append to the same Volume (providing the Volume is appropriate – right Pool, ... for that job), unless
you are using multiple pools. If no drive with a suitable Volume is available, it will select the first
available drive. Note, any Volume that has been requested to be mounted, will be considered valid as
a mounted volume by another job. This if multiple jobs start at the same time and they all prefer
mounted volumes, the first job will request the mount, and the other jobs will use the same volume.
5.3. THE JOB RESOURCE
51
If the directive is set to no, the Storage daemon will prefer finding an unused drive, otherwise, each job
started will append to the same Volume (assuming the Pool is the same for all jobs). Setting Prefer
Mounted Volumes to no can be useful for those sites with multiple drive autochangers that prefer to
maximize backup throughput at the expense of using additional drives and Volumes. This means that
the job will prefer to use an unused drive rather than use a drive that is already in use.
Despite the above, we recommend against setting this directive to no since it tends to add a lot of
swapping of Volumes between the different drives and can easily lead to deadlock situations in the
Storage daemon. We will accept bug reports against it, but we cannot guarantee that we will be able
to fix the problem in a reasonable time.
A better alternative for using multiple drives is to use multiple pools so that Bacula will be forced to
mount Volumes from those Pools on different drives.
Prune Jobs = <yes|no> Normally, pruning of Jobs from the Catalog is specified on a Client by Client
basis in the Client resource with the AutoPrune directive. If this directive is specified (not normally)
and the value is yes, it will override the value specified in the Client resource. The default is no.
Prune Files = <yes|no> Normally, pruning of Files from the Catalog is specified on a Client by Client
basis in the Client resource with the AutoPrune directive. If this directive is specified (not normally)
and the value is yes, it will override the value specified in the Client resource. The default is no.
Prune Volumes = <yes|no> Normally, pruning of Volumes from the Catalog is specified on a Client by
Client basis in the Client resource with the AutoPrune directive. If this directive is specified (not
normally) and the value is yes, it will override the value specified in the Client resource. The default
is no.
RunScript {<body-of-runscript>} The RunScript directive behaves like a resource in that it requires
opening and closing braces around a number of directives that make up the body of the runscript.
The specified Command (see below for details) is run as an external program prior or after the current
Job. This is optional. By default, the program is executed on the Client side like in ClientRunXXXJob.
Console options are special commands that are sent to the director instead of the OS. At this time,
console command ouputs are redirected to log with the jobid 0.
You can use following console command : delete, disable, enable, estimate, list, llist, memory,
prune, purge, reload, status, setdebug, show, time, trace, update, version, .client, .jobs,
.pool, .storage. See console chapter for more information. You need to specify needed information
on command line, nothing will be prompted. Example :
Console = "prune files client=%c"
Console = "update stats age=3"
You can specify more than one Command/Console option per RunScript.
You can use following options may be specified in the body of the runscript:
Options
Runs On Success
Runs On Failure
Runs On Client
Runs When
Fail Job On Error
Command
Console
Value
Yes/No
Yes/No
Yes/No
Before—After—Always—AfterVSS
Yes/No
Default
Yes
No
Yes
Never
Yes
Information
Run command if JobStatus is successful
Run command if JobStatus isn’t successful
Run command on client
When run commands
Fail job if script returns something different
Path to your script
Console command
Any output sent by the command to standard output will be included in the Bacula job report. The
command string must be a valid program name or name of a shell script.
In addition, the command string is parsed then fed to the OS, which means that the path will be
searched to execute your specified command, but there is no shell interpretation, as a consequence, if
you invoke complicated commands or want any shell features such as redirection or piping, you must
call a shell script and do it inside that script.
Before submitting the specified command to the operating system, Bacula performs character substitution of the following characters:
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CHAPTER 5. CONFIGURING THE DIRECTOR
%%
%c
%d
%e
%i
%j
%l
%n
%s
%t
%v
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
%
Client’s name
Director’s name
Job Exit Status
JobId
Unique Job id
Job Level
Job name
Since time
Job type (Backup, ...)
Volume name (Only on director side)
The Job Exit Status code %e edits the following values:
• OK
• Error
• Fatal Error
• Canceled
• Differences
• Unknown term code
Thus if you edit it on a command line, you will need to enclose it within some sort of quotes.
You can use these following shortcuts:
Keyword
Run Before Job
Run After Job
Run After Failed Job
Client Run Before Job
Client Run After Job
RunsOnSuccess
RunsOnFailure
Yes
No
No
Yes
Yes
No
FailJobOnError
Yes
Yes
Runs On Client
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
RunsWhen
Before
After
After
Before
After
Examples:
RunScript {
RunsWhen = Before
FailJobOnError = No
Command = "/etc/init.d/apache stop"
}
RunScript {
RunsWhen = After
RunsOnFailure = yes
Command = "/etc/init.d/apache start"
}
Notes about ClientRunBeforeJob
For compatibility reasons, with this shortcut, the command is executed directly when the client recieve
it. And if the command is in error, other remote runscripts will be discarded. To be sure that all
commands will be sent and executed, you have to use RunScript syntax.
Special Windows Considerations
You can run scripts just after snapshots initializations with AfterVSS keyword.
In addition, for a Windows client on version 1.33 and above, please take note that you must ensure a
correct path to your script. The script or program can be a .com, .exe or a .bat file. If you just put the
program name in then Bacula will search using the same rules that cmd.exe uses (current directory,
Bacula bin directory, and PATH). It will even try the different extensions in the same order as cmd.exe.
The command can be anything that cmd.exe or command.com will recognize as an executable file.
However, if you have slashes in the program name then Bacula figures you are fully specifying the
name, so you must also explicitly add the three character extension.
5.3. THE JOB RESOURCE
53
The command is run in a Win32 environment, so Unix like commands will not work unless you have
installed and properly configured Cygwin in addition to and separately from Bacula.
The System %Path% will be searched for the command. (under the environment variable dialog
you have have both System Environment and User Environment, we believe that only the System
environment will be available to bacula-fd, if it is running as a service.)
System environment variables can be referenced with %var% and used as either part of the command
name or arguments.
So if you have a script in the Bacula
bin directory then the following lines should work fine:
Client Run Before Job = systemstate
or
Client Run Before Job = systemstate.bat
or
Client Run Before Job = "systemstate"
or
Client Run Before Job = "systemstate.bat"
or
ClientRunBeforeJob = "\"C:/Program Files/Bacula/systemstate.bat\""
The outer set of quotes is removed when the configuration file is parsed. You need to escape the inner
quotes so that they are there when the code that parses the command line for execution runs so it can
tell what the program name is.
ClientRunBeforeJob = "\"C:/Program Files/Software
Vendor/Executable\" /arg1 /arg2 \"foo bar\""
The special characters
&<>()@^|
will need to be quoted, if they are part of a filename or argument.
If someone is logged in, a blank ”command” window running the commands will be present during the
execution of the command.
Some Suggestions from Phil Stracchino for running on Win32 machines with the native Win32 File
daemon:
1. You might want the ClientRunBeforeJob directive to specify a .bat file which runs the actual
client-side commands, rather than trying to run (for example) regedit /e directly.
2. The batch file should explicitly ’exit 0’ on successful completion.
3. The path to the batch file should be specified in Unix form:
ClientRunBeforeJob = ”c:/bacula/bin/systemstate.bat”
rather than DOS/Windows form:
ClientRunBeforeJob =
”c:\bacula\bin\systemstate.bat” INCORRECT
For Win32, please note that there are certain limitations:
ClientRunBeforeJob = ”C:/Program Files/Bacula/bin/pre-exec.bat”
Lines like the above do not work because there are limitations of cmd.exe that is used to execute the
command. Bacula prefixes the string you supply with cmd.exe /c . To test that your command works
you should type cmd /c ”C:/Program Files/test.exe” at a cmd prompt and see what happens.
Once the command is correct insert a backslash (\) before each double quote (”), and then put quotes
around the whole thing when putting it in the director’s .conf file. You either need to have only one
set of quotes or else use the short name and don’t put quotes around the command path.
Below is the output from cmd’s help as it relates to the command line passed to the /c option.
If /C or /K is specified, then the remainder of the command line after the switch is processed as a
command line, where the following logic is used to process quote (”) characters:
1. If all of the following conditions are met, then quote characters on the command line are preserved:
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CHAPTER 5. CONFIGURING THE DIRECTOR
• no /S switch.
• exactly two quote characters.
• no special characters between the two quote characters, where special is one of:
&<>()@^|
• there are one or more whitespace characters between the the two quote characters.
• the string between the two quote characters is the name of an executable file.
2. Otherwise, old behavior is to see if the first character is a quote character and if so, strip the
leading character and remove the last quote character on the command line, preserving any text
after the last quote character.
The following example of the use of the Client Run Before Job directive was submitted by a user:
You could write a shell script to back up a DB2 database to a FIFO. The shell script is:
#!/bin/sh
# ===== backupdb.sh
DIR=/u01/mercuryd
mkfifo $DIR/dbpipe
db2 BACKUP DATABASE mercuryd TO $DIR/dbpipe WITHOUT PROMPTING &
sleep 1
The following line in the Job resource in the bacula-dir.conf file:
Client Run Before Job = "su - mercuryd -c \"/u01/mercuryd/backupdb.sh ’%t’
’%l’\""
When the job is run, you will get messages from the output of the script stating that the backup has
started. Even though the command being run is backgrounded with &, the job will block until the
”db2 BACKUP DATABASE” command, thus the backup stalls.
To remedy this situation, the ”db2 BACKUP DATABASE” line should be changed to the following:
db2 BACKUP DATABASE mercuryd TO $DIR/dbpipe WITHOUT PROMPTING > $DIR/backup.log
2>&1 < /dev/null &
It is important to redirect the input and outputs of a backgrounded command to /dev/null to prevent
the script from blocking.
Run Before Job = <command> The specified command is run as an external program prior to running
the current Job. This directive is not required, but if it is defined, and if the exit code of the program
run is non-zero, the current Bacula job will be canceled.
Run Before Job = "echo test"
it’s equivalent to :
RunScript {
Command = "echo test"
RunsOnClient = No
RunsWhen = Before
}
Lutz Kittler has pointed out that using the RunBeforeJob directive can be a simple way to modify your
schedules during a holiday. For example, suppose that you normally do Full backups on Fridays, but
Thursday and Friday are holidays. To avoid having to change tapes between Thursday and Friday when
no one is in the office, you can create a RunBeforeJob that returns a non-zero status on Thursday and
zero on all other days. That way, the Thursday job will not run, and on Friday the tape you inserted
on Wednesday before leaving will be used.
5.3. THE JOB RESOURCE
55
Run After Job = <command> The specified command is run as an external program if the current
job terminates normally (without error or without being canceled). This directive is not required. If
the exit code of the program run is non-zero, Bacula will print a warning message. Before submitting
the specified command to the operating system, Bacula performs character substitution as described
above for the RunScript directive.
An example of the use of this directive is given in the Tips Chapter of this manual.
See the Run After Failed Job if you want to run a script after the job has terminated with any
non-normal status.
Run After Failed Job = <command> The specified command is run as an external program after
the current job terminates with any error status. This directive is not required. The command string
must be a valid program name or name of a shell script. If the exit code of the program run is nonzero, Bacula will print a warning message. Before submitting the specified command to the operating
system, Bacula performs character substitution as described above for the RunScript directive. Note,
if you wish that your script will run regardless of the exit status of the Job, you can use this :
RunScript {
Command = "echo test"
RunsWhen = After
RunsOnFailure = yes
RunsOnClient = no
RunsOnSuccess = yes
}
# default, you can drop this line
An example of the use of this directive is given in the Tips Chapter of this manual.
Client Run Before Job = <command> This directive is the same as Run Before Job except that
the program is run on the client machine. The same restrictions apply to Unix systems as noted above
for the RunScript.
Client Run After Job = <command> The specified command is run on the client machine as soon
as data spooling is complete in order to allow restarting applications on the client as soon as possible.
.
Note, please see the notes above in RunScript concerning Windows clients.
Rerun Failed Levels = <yes|no> If this directive is set to yes (default no), and Bacula detects that a
previous job at a higher level (i.e. Full or Differential) has failed, the current job level will be upgraded
to the higher level. This is particularly useful for Laptops where they may often be unreachable, and
if a prior Full save has failed, you wish the very next backup to be a Full save rather than whatever
level it is started as.
There are several points that must be taken into account when using this directive: first, a failed job
is defined as one that has not terminated normally, which includes any running job of the same name
(you need to ensure that two jobs of the same name do not run simultaneously); secondly, the Ignore
FileSet Changes directive is not considered when checking for failed levels, which means that any
FileSet change will trigger a rerun.
Spool Data = <yes|no> If this directive is set to yes (default no), the Storage daemon will be requested
to spool the data for this Job to disk rather than write it directly to tape. Once all the data arrives or
the spool files’ maximum sizes are reached, the data will be despooled and written to tape. Spooling
data prevents tape shoe-shine (start and stop) during Incremental saves. If you are writing to a disk
file using this option will probably just slow down the backup jobs.
NOTE: When this directive is set to yes, Spool Attributes is also automatically set to yes.
Spool Attributes = <yes|no> The default is set to no, which means that the File attributes are sent
by the Storage daemon to the Director as they are stored on tape. However, if you want to avoid the
possibility that database updates will slow down writing to the tape, you may want to set the value
to yes, in which case the Storage daemon will buffer the File attributes and Storage coordinates to a
temporary file in the Working Directory, then when writing the Job data to the tape is completed, the
attributes and storage coordinates will be sent to the Director.
NOTE: When Spool Data is set to yes, Spool Attributes is also automatically set to yes.
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CHAPTER 5. CONFIGURING THE DIRECTOR
Where = <directory> This directive applies only to a Restore job and specifies a prefix to the directory
name of all files being restored. This permits files to be restored in a different location from which they
were saved. If Where is not specified or is set to backslash (/), the files will be restored to their original
location. By default, we have set Where in the example configuration files to be /tmp/bacularestores. This is to prevent accidental overwriting of your files.
Add Prefix = <directory> This directive applies only to a Restore job and specifies a prefix to the
directory name of all files being restored. This will use File Relocation feature implemented in Bacula
2.1.8 or later.
Add Suffix = <extention> This directive applies only to a Restore job and specifies a suffix to all files
being restored. This will use File Relocation feature implemented in Bacula 2.1.8 or later.
Using Add Suffix=.old, /etc/passwd will be restored to /etc/passwsd.old
Strip Prefix = <directory> This directive applies only to a Restore job and specifies a prefix to remove
from the directory name of all files being restored. This will use the File Relocation feature implemented
in Bacula 2.1.8 or later.
Using Strip Prefix=/etc, /etc/passwd will be restored to /passwd
Under Windows, if you want to restore c:/files to d:/files, you can use :
Strip Prefix = c:
Add Prefix = d:
RegexWhere = <expressions> This directive applies only to a Restore job and specifies a regex filename
manipulation of all files being restored. This will use File Relocation feature implemented in Bacula
2.1.8 or later.
For more informations about how use this option, see this.
Replace = <replace-option> This directive applies only to a Restore job and specifies what happens
when Bacula wants to restore a file or directory that already exists. You have the following options for
replace-option:
always when the file to be restored already exists, it is deleted and then replaced by the copy that
was backed up. This is the default value.
ifnewer if the backed up file (on tape) is newer than the existing file, the existing file is deleted and
replaced by the back up.
ifolder if the backed up file (on tape) is older than the existing file, the existing file is deleted and
replaced by the back up.
never if the backed up file already exists, Bacula skips restoring this file.
Prefix Links=<yes|no> If a Where path prefix is specified for a recovery job, apply it to absolute links
as well. The default is No. When set to Yes then while restoring files to an alternate directory, any
absolute soft links will also be modified to point to the new alternate directory. Normally this is what
is desired – i.e. everything is self consistent. However, if you wish to later move the files to their
original locations, all files linked with absolute names will be broken.
Maximum Concurrent Jobs = <number> where <number> is the maximum number of Jobs from
the current Job resource that can run concurrently. Note, this directive limits only Jobs with the same
name as the resource in which it appears. Any other restrictions on the maximum concurrent jobs
such as in the Director, Client, or Storage resources will also apply in addition to the limit specified
here. The default is set to 1, but you may set it to a larger number. We strongly recommend that you
read the WARNING documented under Maximum Concurrent Jobs in the Director’s resource.
Reschedule On Error = <yes|no> If this directive is enabled, and the job terminates in error, the job
will be rescheduled as determined by the Reschedule Interval and Reschedule Times directives.
If you cancel the job, it will not be rescheduled. The default is no (i.e. the job will not be rescheduled).
This specification can be useful for portables, laptops, or other machines that are not always connected
to the network or switched on.
5.3. THE JOB RESOURCE
57
Reschedule Interval = <time-specification> If you have specified Reschedule On Error = yes
and the job terminates in error, it will be rescheduled after the interval of time specified by timespecification. See the time specification formats in the Configure chapter for details of time specifications. If no interval is specified, the job will not be rescheduled on error.
Reschedule Times = <count> This directive specifies the maximum number of times to reschedule the
job. If it is set to zero (the default) the job will be rescheduled an indefinite number of times.
Run = <job-name> The Run directive (not to be confused with the Run option in a Schedule) allows
you to start other jobs or to clone jobs. By using the cloning keywords (see below), you can backup
the same data (or almost the same data) to two or more drives at the same time. The job-name is
normally the same name as the current Job resource (thus creating a clone). However, it may be any
Job name, so one job may start other related jobs.
The part after the equal sign must be enclosed in double quotes, and can contain any string or set
of options (overrides) that you can specify when entering the Run command from the console. For
example storage=DDS-4 .... In addition, there are two special keywords that permit you to clone
the current job. They are level=%l and since=%s. The %l in the level keyword permits entering
the actual level of the current job and the %s in the since keyword permits putting the same time for
comparison as used on the current job. Note, in the case of the since keyword, the %s must be enclosed
in double quotes, and thus they must be preceded by a backslash since they are already inside quotes.
For example:
run = "Nightly-backup level=%l since=\"%s\" storage=DDS-4"
A cloned job will not start additional clones, so it is not possible to recurse.
Please note that all cloned jobs, as specified in the Run directives are submitted for running before
the original job is run (while it is being initialized). This means that any clone job will actually start
before the original job, and may even block the original job from starting until the original job finishes
unless you allow multiple simultaneous jobs. Even if you set a lower priority on the clone job, if no
other jobs are running, it will start before the original job.
If you are trying to prioritize jobs by using the clone feature (Run directive), you will find it much
easier to do using a RunScript resource, or a RunBeforeJob directive.
Priority = <number> This directive permits you to control the order in which your jobs will be run by
specifying a positive non-zero number. The higher the number, the lower the job priority. Assuming
you are not running concurrent jobs, all queued jobs of priority 1 will run before queued jobs of priority
2 and so on, regardless of the original scheduling order.
The priority only affects waiting jobs that are queued to run, not jobs that are already running. If one
or more jobs of priority 2 are already running, and a new job is scheduled with priority 1, the currently
running priority 2 jobs must complete before the priority 1 job is run, unless Allow Mixed Priority is
set.
The default priority is 10.
If you want to run concurrent jobs you should keep these points in mind:
• See Running Concurrent Jobs on how to setup concurrent jobs.
• Bacula concurrently runs jobs of only one priority at a time. It will not simultaneously run a
priority 1 and a priority 2 job.
• If Bacula is running a priority 2 job and a new priority 1 job is scheduled, it will wait until the
running priority 2 job terminates even if the Maximum Concurrent Jobs settings would otherwise
allow two jobs to run simultaneously.
• Suppose that bacula is running a priority 2 job and a new priority 1 job is scheduled and queued
waiting for the running priority 2 job to terminate. If you then start a second priority 2 job,
the waiting priority 1 job will prevent the new priority 2 job from running concurrently with the
running priority 2 job. That is: as long as there is a higher priority job waiting to run, no new
lower priority jobs will start even if the Maximum Concurrent Jobs settings would normally allow
them to run. This ensures that higher priority jobs will be run as soon as possible.
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CHAPTER 5. CONFIGURING THE DIRECTOR
If you have several jobs of different priority, it may not best to start them at exactly the same time,
because Bacula must examine them one at a time. If by Bacula starts a lower priority job first, then
it will run before your high priority jobs. If you experience this problem, you may avoid it by starting
any higher priority jobs a few seconds before lower priority ones. This insures that Bacula will examine
the jobs in the correct order, and that your priority scheme will be respected.
Allow Mixed Priority = <yes|no> This directive is only implemented in version 2.5 and later. When
set to yes (default no), this job may run even if lower priority jobs are already running. This means a
high priority job will not have to wait for other jobs to finish before starting. The scheduler will only
mix priorities when all running jobs have this set to true.
Note that only higher priority jobs will start early. Suppose the director will allow two concurrent jobs,
and that two jobs with priority 10 are running, with two more in the queue. If a job with priority 5 is
added to the queue, it will be run as soon as one of the running jobs finishes. However, new priority
10 jobs will not be run until the priority 5 job has finished.
Write Part After Job = <yes|no> This directive is only implemented in version 1.37 and later. If this
directive is set to yes (default no), a new part file will be created after the job is finished.
It should be set to yes when writing to devices that require mount (for example DVD), so you are
sure that the current part, containing this job’s data, is written to the device, and that no data is left
in the temporary file on the hard disk. However, on some media, like DVD+R and DVD-R, a lot of
space (about 10Mb) is lost every time a part is written. So, if you run several jobs each after another,
you could set this directive to no for all jobs, except the last one, to avoid wasting too much space,
but to ensure that the data is written to the medium when all jobs are finished.
This directive is ignored with tape and FIFO devices.
The following is an example of a valid Job resource definition:
Job {
Name = "Minou"
Type = Backup
Level = Incremental
Client = Minou
FileSet="Minou Full Set"
Storage = DLTDrive
Pool = Default
Schedule = "MinouWeeklyCycle"
Messages = Standard
}
5.4
# default
The JobDefs Resource
The JobDefs resource permits all the same directives that can appear in a Job resource. However, a JobDefs
resource does not create a Job, rather it can be referenced within a Job to provide defaults for that Job.
This permits you to concisely define several nearly identical Jobs, each one referencing a JobDefs resource
which contains the defaults. Only the changes from the defaults need to be mentioned in each Job.
5.5
The Schedule Resource
The Schedule resource provides a means of automatically scheduling a Job as well as the ability to override
the default Level, Pool, Storage and Messages resources. If a Schedule resource is not referenced in a Job,
the Job can only be run manually. In general, you specify an action to be taken and when.
Schedule Start of the Schedule directives. No Schedule resource is required, but you will need at least
one if you want Jobs to be automatically started.
Name = <name> The name of the schedule being defined. The Name directive is required.
5.5. THE SCHEDULE RESOURCE
59
Run = <Job-overrides> <Date-time-specification> The Run directive defines when a Job is to be
run, and what overrides if any to apply. You may specify multiple run directives within a Schedule
resource. If you do, they will all be applied (i.e. multiple schedules). If you have two Run directives
that start at the same time, two Jobs will start at the same time (well, within one second of each
other).
The Job-overrides permit overriding the Level, the Storage, the Messages, and the Pool specifications
provided in the Job resource. In addition, the FullPool, the IncrementalPool, and the DifferentialPool
specifications permit overriding the Pool specification according to what backup Job Level is in effect.
By the use of overrides, you may customize a particular Job. For example, you may specify a Messages
override for your Incremental backups that outputs messages to a log file, but for your weekly or
monthly Full backups, you may send the output by email by using a different Messages override.
Job-overrides are specified as: keyword=value where the keyword is Level, Storage, Messages,
Pool, FullPool, DifferentialPool, or IncrementalPool, and the value is as defined on the respective
directive formats for the Job resource. You may specify multiple Job-overrides on one Run directive
by separating them with one or more spaces or by separating them with a trailing comma. For example:
Level=Full is all files in the FileSet whether or not they have changed.
Level=Incremental is all files that have changed since the last backup.
Pool=Weekly specifies to use the Pool named Weekly.
Storage=DLT Drive specifies to use DLT Drive for the storage device.
Messages=Verbose specifies to use the Verbose message resource for the Job.
FullPool=Full specifies to use the Pool named Full if the job is a full backup, or is upgraded from
another type to a full backup.
DifferentialPool=Differential specifies to use the Pool named Differential if the job is a differential backup.
IncrementalPool=Incremental specifies to use the Pool named Incremental if the job is an incremental backup.
SpoolData=yes|no tells Bacula to request the Storage daemon to spool data to a disk file before
writing it to the Volume (normally a tape). Thus the data is written in large blocks to the Volume
rather than small blocks. This directive is particularly useful when running multiple simultaneous
backups to tape. It prevents interleaving of the job data and reduces or eliminates tape drive stop
and start commonly known as ”shoe-shine”.
SpoolSize=bytes where the bytes specify the maximum spool size for this job. The default is take
from Device Maximum Spool Size limit. This directive is available only in Bacula version 2.3.5
or later.
WritePartAfterJob=yes|no tells Bacula to request the Storage daemon to write the current part
file to the device when the job is finished (see Write Part After Job directive in the Job resource).
Please note, this directive is implemented only in version 1.37 and later. The default is yes. We
strongly recommend that you keep this set to yes otherwise, when the last job has finished one
part will remain in the spool file and restore may or may not work.
Date-time-specification determines when the Job is to be run. The specification is a repetition,
and as a default Bacula is set to run a job at the beginning of the hour of every hour of every day of
every week of every month of every year. This is not normally what you want, so you must specify or
limit when you want the job to run. Any specification given is assumed to be repetitive in nature and
will serve to override or limit the default repetition. This is done by specifying masks or times for the
hour, day of the month, day of the week, week of the month, week of the year, and month when you
want the job to run. By specifying one or more of the above, you can define a schedule to repeat at
almost any frequency you want.
Basically, you must supply a month, day, hour, and minute the Job is to be run. Of these four
items to be specified, day is special in that you may either specify a day of the month such as 1, 2, ...
31, or you may specify a day of the week such as Monday, Tuesday, ... Sunday. Finally, you may also
specify a week qualifier to restrict the schedule to the first, second, third, fourth, or fifth week of the
month.
For example, if you specify only a day of the week, such as Tuesday the Job will be run every hour
of every Tuesday of every Month. That is the month and hour remain set to the defaults of every
month and all hours.
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Note, by default with no other specification, your job will run at the beginning of every hour. If
you wish your job to run more than once in any given hour, you will need to specify multiple run
specifications each with a different minute.
The date/time to run the Job can be specified in the following way in pseudo-BNF:
<void-keyword>
<at-keyword>
<week-keyword>
= on
= at
= 1st | 2nd | 3rd | 4th | 5th | first |
second | third | fourth | fifth
<wday-keyword>
= sun | mon | tue | wed | thu | fri | sat |
sunday | monday | tuesday | wednesday |
thursday | friday | saturday
<week-of-year-keyword> = w00 | w01 | ... w52 | w53
<month-keyword>
= jan | feb | mar | apr | may | jun | jul |
aug | sep | oct | nov | dec | january |
february | ... | december
<daily-keyword>
= daily
<weekly-keyword> = weekly
<monthly-keyword> = monthly
<hourly-keyword> = hourly
<digit>
= 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 0
<number>
= <digit> | <digit><number>
<12hour>
= 0 | 1 | 2 | ... 12
<hour>
= 0 | 1 | 2 | ... 23
<minute>
= 0 | 1 | 2 | ... 59
<day>
= 1 | 2 | ... 31
<time>
= <hour>:<minute> |
<12hour>:<minute>am |
<12hour>:<minute>pm
<time-spec>
= <at-keyword> <time> |
<hourly-keyword>
<date-keyword>
= <void-keyword> <weekly-keyword>
<day-range>
= <day>-<day>
<month-range>
= <month-keyword>-<month-keyword>
<wday-range>
= <wday-keyword>-<wday-keyword>
<range>
= <day-range> | <month-range> |
<wday-range>
<date>
= <date-keyword> | <day> | <range>
<date-spec>
= <date> | <date-spec>
<day-spec>
= <day> | <wday-keyword> |
<day> | <wday-range> |
<week-keyword> <wday-keyword> |
<week-keyword> <wday-range> |
<daily-keyword>
<month-spec>
= <month-keyword> | <month-range> |
<monthly-keyword>
<date-time-spec> = <month-spec> <day-spec> <time-spec>
Note, the Week of Year specification wnn follows the ISO standard definition of the week of the year, where
Week 1 is the week in which the first Thursday of the year occurs, or alternatively, the week which contains
the 4th of January. Weeks are numbered w01 to w53. w00 for Bacula is the week that precedes the first ISO
week (i.e. has the first few days of the year if any occur before Thursday). w00 is not defined by the ISO
specification. A week starts with Monday and ends with Sunday.
According to the NIST (US National Institute of Standards and Technology), 12am and 12pm are ambiguous
and can be defined to anything. However, 12:01am is the same as 00:01 and 12:01pm is the same as 12:01, so
Bacula defines 12am as 00:00 (midnight) and 12pm as 12:00 (noon). You can avoid this abiguity (confusion)
by using 24 hour time specifications (i.e. no am/pm). This is the definition in Bacula version 2.0.3 and later.
An example schedule resource that is named WeeklyCycle and runs a job with level full each Sunday at
2:05am and an incremental job Monday through Saturday at 2:05am is:
Schedule {
Name = "WeeklyCycle"
Run = Level=Full sun at 2:05
Run = Level=Incremental mon-sat at 2:05
}
An example of a possible monthly cycle is as follows:
5.6. TECHNICAL NOTES ON SCHEDULES
61
Schedule {
Name = "MonthlyCycle"
Run = Level=Full Pool=Monthly 1st sun at 2:05
Run = Level=Differential 2nd-5th sun at 2:05
Run = Level=Incremental Pool=Daily mon-sat at 2:05
}
The first of every month:
Schedule {
Name = "First"
Run = Level=Full on 1 at 2:05
Run = Level=Incremental on 2-31 at 2:05
}
Every 10 minutes:
Schedule {
Name = "TenMinutes"
Run = Level=Full hourly
Run = Level=Full hourly
Run = Level=Full hourly
Run = Level=Full hourly
Run = Level=Full hourly
Run = Level=Full hourly
}
5.6
at
at
at
at
at
at
0:05
0:15
0:25
0:35
0:45
0:55
Technical Notes on Schedules
Internally Bacula keeps a schedule as a bit mask. There are six masks and a minute field to each schedule.
The masks are hour, day of the month (mday), month, day of the week (wday), week of the month (wom),
and week of the year (woy). The schedule is initialized to have the bits of each of these masks set, which
means that at the beginning of every hour, the job will run. When you specify a month for the first time,
the mask will be cleared and the bit corresponding to your selected month will be selected. If you specify
a second month, the bit corresponding to it will also be added to the mask. Thus when Bacula checks the
masks to see if the bits are set corresponding to the current time, your job will run only in the two months
you have set. Likewise, if you set a time (hour), the hour mask will be cleared, and the hour you specify will
be set in the bit mask and the minutes will be stored in the minute field.
For any schedule you have defined, you can see how these bits are set by doing a show schedules command
in the Console program. Please note that the bit mask is zero based, and Sunday is the first day of the week
(bit zero).
-
5.7
The FileSet Resource
The FileSet resource defines what files are to be included or excluded in a backup job. A FileSet resource
is required for each backup Job. It consists of a list of files or directories to be included, a list of files or
directories to be excluded and the various backup options such as compression, encryption, and signatures
that are to be applied to each file.
Any change to the list of the included files will cause Bacula to automatically create a new FileSet (defined
by the name and an MD5 checksum of the Include/Exclude contents). Each time a new FileSet is created,
Bacula will ensure that the next backup is always a Full save.
Bacula is designed to handle most character sets of the world, US ASCII, German, French, Chinese, ...
However, it does this by encoding everything in UTF-8, and it expects all configuration files (including those
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CHAPTER 5. CONFIGURING THE DIRECTOR
read on Win32 machines) to be in UTF-8 format. UTF-8 is typically the default on Linux machines, but not
on all Unix machines, nor on Windows, so you must take some care to ensure that your locale is set properly
before starting Bacula. On most modern Win32 machines, you can edit the conf files with notebook and
choose output encoding UTF-8.
To ensure that Bacula configuration files can be correctly read including foreign characters the bf LANG
environment variable must end in .UTF-8. An full example is en US.UTF-8. The exact syntax may vary
a bit from OS to OS, and exactly how you define it will also vary.
Bacula assumes that all filenames are in UTF-8 format on Linux and Unix machines. On Win32 they are in
Unicode (UTF-16), and will be automatically converted to UTF-8 format.
FileSet Start of the FileSet resource. One FileSet resource must be defined for each Backup job.
Name = <name> The name of the FileSet resource. This directive is required.
Ignore FileSet Changes = <yes|no> Normally, if you modify the FileSet Include or Exclude lists, the
next backup will be forced to a Full so that Bacula can guarantee that any additions or deletions are
properly saved.
We strongly recommend against setting this directive to yes, since doing so may cause you to have an
incomplete set of backups.
If this directive is set to yes, any changes you make to the FileSet Include or Exclude lists, will not
force a Full during subsequent backups.
The default is no, in which case, if you change the Include or Exclude, Bacula will force a Full backup
to ensure that everything is properly backed up.
Enable VSS = <yes|no> If this directive is set to yes the File daemon will be notified that the user wants
to use a Volume Shadow Copy Service (VSS) backup for this job. The default is yes. This directive
is effective only for VSS enabled Win32 File daemons. It permits a consistent copy of open files to be
made for cooperating writer applications, and for applications that are not VSS away, Bacula can at
least copy open files. For more information, please see the Windows chapter of this manual.
Include { Options {<file-options>} ...; <file-list> }
Options { <file-options> }
Exclude { <file-list> }
The Include resource must contain a list of directories and/or files to be processed in the backup job.
Normally, all files found in all subdirectories of any directory in the Include File list will be backed up.
Note, see below for the definition of <file-list>. The Include resource may also contain one or more Options
resources that specify options such as compression to be applied to all or any subset of the files found when
processing the file-list for backup. Please see below for more details concerning Options resources.
There can be any number of Include resources within the FileSet, each having its own list of directories
or files to be backed up and the backup options defined by one or more Options resources. The file-list
consists of one file or directory name per line. Directory names should be specified without a trailing slash
with Unix path notation.
Windows users, please take note to specify directories (even c:/...) in Unix path notation. If you use
Windows conventions, you will most likely not be able to restore your files due to the fact that the Windows
path separator was defined as an escape character long before Windows existed, and Bacula adheres to that
convention (i.e.
means the next character appears as itself).
You should always specify a full path for every directory and file that you list in the FileSet. In addition,
on Windows machines, you should always prefix the directory or filename with the drive specification (e.g.
c:/xxx) using Unix directory name separators (forward slash). The drive letter itself can be upper or lower
case (e.g. c:/xxx or C:/xxx).
Bacula’s default for processing directories is to recursively descend in the directory saving all files and
subdirectories. Bacula will not by default cross filesystems (or mount points in Unix parlance). This means
5.7. THE FILESET RESOURCE
63
that if you specify the root partition (e.g. /), Bacula will save only the root partition and not any of the
other mounted filesystems. Similarly on Windows systems, you must explicitly specify each of the drives you
want saved (e.g. c:/ and d:/ ...). In addition, at least for Windows systems, you will most likely want to
enclose each specification within double quotes particularly if the directory (or file) name contains spaces.
The df command on Unix systems will show you which mount points you must specify to save everything.
See below for an example.
Take special care not to include a directory twice or Bacula will backup the same files two times wasting a
lot of space on your archive device. Including a directory twice is very easy to do. For example:
Include {
File = /
File = /usr
Options { compression=GZIP }
}
on a Unix system where /usr is a subdirectory (rather than a mounted filesystem) will cause /usr to be
backed up twice. In this case, on Bacula versions prior to 1.32f-5-09Mar04 due to a bug, you will not be able
to restore hard linked files that were backed up twice.
If you have used Bacula prior to version 1.36.3, you will note three things in the new FileSet syntax:
1. There is no equal sign (=) after the Include and before the opening brace ({). The same is true for
the Exclude.
2. Each directory (or filename) to be included or excluded is preceded by a File =. Previously they were
simply listed on separate lines.
3. The options that previously appeared on the Include line now must be specified within their own
Options resource.
4. The Exclude resource does not accept Options.
5. When using wild-cards or regular expressions, directory names are always terminated with a slash (/)
and filenames have no trailing slash.
The Options resource is optional, but when specified, it will contain a list of keyword=value options to be
applied to the file-list. See below for the definition of file-list. Multiple Options resources may be specified
one after another. As the files are found in the specified directories, the Options will applied to the filenames
to determine if and how the file should be backed up. The wildcard and regular expression pattern matching
parts of the Options resources are checked in the order they are specified in the FileSet until the first one
that matches. Once one matches, the compression and other flags within the Options specification will apply
to the pattern matched.
A key point is that in the absence of an Option or no other Option is matched, every file is accepted for
backing up. This means that if you want to exclude something, you must explicitly specify an Option with
an exclude = yes and some pattern matching.
Once Bacula determines that the Options resource matches the file under consideration, that file will be
saved without looking at any other Options resources that may be present. This means that any wild cards
must appear before an Options resource without wild cards.
If for some reason, Bacula checks all the Options resources to a file under consideration for backup, but there
are no matches (generally because of wild cards that don’t match), Bacula as a default will then backup the
file. This is quite logical if you consider the case of no Options clause is specified, where you want everything
to be backed up, and it is important to keep in mind when excluding as mentioned above.
However, one additional point is that in the case that no match was found, Bacula will use the options found
in the last Options resource. As a consequence, if you want a particular set of ”default” options, you should
put them in an Options resource after any other Options.
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CHAPTER 5. CONFIGURING THE DIRECTOR
It is a good idea to put all your wild-card and regex expressions inside double quotes to prevent conf file
scanning problems.
This is perhaps a bit overwhelming, so there are a number of examples included below to illustrate how this
works.
You find yourself using a lot of Regex statements, which will cost quite a lot of CPU time, we recommend
you simplify them if you can, or better yet convert them to Wild statements which are much more efficient.
The directives within an Options resource may be one of the following:
compression=GZIP All files saved will be software compressed using the GNU ZIP compression format.
The compression is done on a file by file basis by the File daemon. If there is a problem reading
the tape in a single record of a file, it will at most affect that file and none of the other files on the
tape. Normally this option is not needed if you have a modern tape drive as the drive will do its
own compression. In fact, if you specify software compression at the same time you have hardware
compression turned on, your files may actually take more space on the volume.
Software compression is very important if you are writing your Volumes to a file, and it can also be
helpful if you have a fast computer but a slow network, otherwise it is generally better to rely your
tape drive’s hardware compression. As noted above, it is not generally a good idea to do both software
and hardware compression.
Specifying GZIP uses the default compression level 6 (i.e. GZIP is identical to GZIP6). If you want
a different compression level (1 through 9), you can specify it by appending the level number with
no intervening spaces to GZIP. Thus compression=GZIP1 would give minimum compression but
the fastest algorithm, and compression=GZIP9 would give the highest level of compression, but
requires more computation. According to the GZIP documentation, compression levels greater than
six generally give very little extra compression and are rather CPU intensive.
signature=SHA1 An SHA1 signature will be computed for all The SHA1 algorithm is purported to be some
what slower than the MD5 algorithm, but at the same time is significantly better from a cryptographic
point of view (i.e. much fewer collisions, much lower probability of being hacked.) It adds four more
bytes than the MD5 signature. We strongly recommend that either this option or MD5 be specified as
a default for all files. Note, only one of the two options MD5 or SHA1 can be computed for any file.
signature=MD5 An MD5 signature will be computed for all files saved. Adding this option generates
about 5% extra overhead for each file saved. In addition to the additional CPU time, the MD5
signature adds 16 more bytes per file to your catalog. We strongly recommend that this option or the
SHA1 option be specified as a default for all files.
basejob=<options> The options letters specified are used when running a Backup Level=Full with
BaseJobs. The options letters are the same than in the verify= option below.
accurate=<options> The options letters specified are used when running a Backup
Level=Incremental/Differential in Accurate mode. The options letters are the same than
in the verify= option below.
verify=<options> The options letters specified are used when running a Verify Level=Catalog as well
as the DiskToCatalog level job. The options letters may be any combination of the following:
i compare the inodes
p compare the permission bits
n compare the number of links
u compare the user id
g compare the group id
s compare the size
a compare the access time
m compare the modification time (st mtime)
c compare the change time (st ctime)
d report file size decreases
5.7. THE FILESET RESOURCE
65
5 compare the MD5 signature
1 compare the SHA1 signature
A useful set of general options on the Level=Catalog or Level=DiskToCatalog verify is pins5 i.e.
compare permission bits, inodes, number of links, size, and MD5 changes.
onefs=yes|no If set to yes (the default), Bacula will remain on a single file system. That is it will not
backup file systems that are mounted on a subdirectory. If you are using a *nix system, you may not
even be aware that there are several different filesystems as they are often automatically mounted by
the OS (e.g. /dev, /net, /sys, /proc, ...). With Bacula 1.38.0 or later, it will inform you when it decides
not to traverse into another filesystem. This can be very useful if you forgot to backup a particular
partition. An example of the informational message in the job report is:
rufus-fd:
rufus-fd:
rufus-fd:
rufus-fd:
rufus-fd:
rufus-fd:
rufus-fd:
/misc is a different filesystem. Will not descend from / into /misc
/net is a different filesystem. Will not descend from / into /net
/var/lib/nfs/rpc_pipefs is a different filesystem. Will not descend from /var/lib/nfs into /var/lib/nfs/rpc_
/selinux is a different filesystem. Will not descend from / into /selinux
/sys is a different filesystem. Will not descend from / into /sys
/dev is a different filesystem. Will not descend from / into /dev
/home is a different filesystem. Will not descend from / into /home
Note: in previous versions of Bacula, the above message was of the form:
Filesystem change prohibited. Will not descend into /misc
If you wish to backup multiple filesystems, you can explicitly list each filesystem you want saved.
Otherwise, if you set the onefs option to no, Bacula will backup all mounted file systems (i.e. traverse
mount points) that are found within the FileSet. Thus if you have NFS or Samba file systems
mounted on a directory listed in your FileSet, they will also be backed up. Normally, it is preferable
to set onefs=yes and to explicitly name each filesystem you want backed up. Explicitly naming the
filesystems you want backed up avoids the possibility of getting into a infinite loop recursing filesystems.
Another possibility is to use onefs=no and to set fstype=ext2, .... See the example below for more
details.
If you think that Bacula should be backing up a particular directory and it is not, and you have
onefs=no set, before you complain, please do:
stat /
stat <filesystem>
where you replace filesystem with the one in question. If the Device: number is different for / and
for your filesystem, then they are on different filesystems. E.g.
stat /
File:
Size:
Device:
Access:
Access:
Modify:
Change:
‘/’
4096
Blocks: 16
IO Block: 4096
302h/770d
Inode: 2
Links: 26
(0755/drwxr-xr-x) Uid: (
0/
root)
Gid: (
2005-11-10 12:28:01.000000000 +0100
2005-09-27 17:52:32.000000000 +0200
2005-09-27 17:52:32.000000000 +0200
stat /net
File: ‘/home’
Size: 4096
Blocks: 16
IO Block: 4096
Device: 308h/776d
Inode: 2
Links: 7
Access: (0755/drwxr-xr-x) Uid: (
0/
root)
Gid: (
Access: 2005-11-10 12:28:02.000000000 +0100
Modify: 2005-11-06 12:36:48.000000000 +0100
Change: 2005-11-06 12:36:48.000000000 +0100
directory
0/
root)
directory
0/
root)
Also be aware that even if you include /home in your list of files to backup, as you most likely should,
you will get the informational message that ”/home is a different filesystem” when Bacula is processing
the / directory. This message does not indicate an error. This message means that while examining
the File = referred to in the second part of the message, Bacula will not descend into the directory
mentioned in the first part of the message. However, it is possible that the separate filesystem will be
backed up despite the message. For example, consider the following FileSet:
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CHAPTER 5. CONFIGURING THE DIRECTOR
File = /
File = /var
where /var is a separate filesystem. In this example, you will get a message saying that Bacula will
not decend from / into /var. But it is important to realise that Bacula will descend into /var from
the second File directive shown above. In effect, the warning is bogus, but it is supplied to alert you
to possible omissions from your FileSet. In this example, /var will be backed up. If you changed the
FileSet such that it did not specify /var, then /var will not be backed up.
honor nodump flag=<yes|no> If your file system supports the nodump flag (e. g. most BSD-derived
systems) Bacula will honor the setting of the flag when this option is set to yes. Files having this flag
set will not be included in the backup and will not show up in the catalog. For directories with the
nodump flag set recursion is turned off and the directory will be listed in the catalog. If the honor
nodump flag option is not defined or set to no every file and directory will be eligible for backup.
portable=yes|no If set to yes (default is no), the Bacula File daemon will backup Win32 files in a portable
format, but not all Win32 file attributes will be saved and restored. By default, this option is set to
no, which means that on Win32 systems, the data will be backed up using Windows API calls and on
WinNT/2K/XP, all the security and ownership attributes will be properly backed up (and restored).
However this format is not portable to other systems – e.g. Unix, Win95/98/Me. When backing up
Unix systems, this option is ignored, and unless you have a specific need to have portable backups, we
recommend accept the default (no) so that the maximum information concerning your files is saved.
recurse=yes|no If set to yes (the default), Bacula will recurse (or descend) into all subdirectories found
unless the directory is explicitly excluded using an exclude definition. If you set recurse=no, Bacula
will save the subdirectory entries, but not descend into the subdirectories, and thus will not save the
files or directories contained in the subdirectories. Normally, you will want the default (yes).
sparse=yes|no Enable special code that checks for sparse files such as created by ndbm. The default is
no, so no checks are made for sparse files. You may specify sparse=yes even on files that are not
sparse file. No harm will be done, but there will be a small additional overhead to check for buffers of
all zero, and a small additional amount of space on the output archive will be used to save the seek
address of each non-zero record read.
Restrictions: Bacula reads files in 32K buffers. If the whole buffer is zero, it will be treated as a
sparse block and not written to tape. However, if any part of the buffer is non-zero, the whole buffer
will be written to tape, possibly including some disk sectors (generally 4098 bytes) that are all zero. As
a consequence, Bacula’s detection of sparse blocks is in 32K increments rather than the system block
size. If anyone considers this to be a real problem, please send in a request for change with the reason.
If you are not familiar with sparse files, an example is say a file where you wrote 512 bytes at address
zero, then 512 bytes at address 1 million. The operating system will allocate only two blocks, and the
empty space or hole will have nothing allocated. However, when you read the sparse file and read the
addresses where nothing was written, the OS will return all zeros as if the space were allocated, and
if you backup such a file, a lot of space will be used to write zeros to the volume. Worse yet, when
you restore the file, all the previously empty space will now be allocated using much more disk space.
By turning on the sparse option, Bacula will specifically look for empty space in the file, and any
empty space will not be written to the Volume, nor will it be restored. The price to pay for this is that
Bacula must search each block it reads before writing it. On a slow system, this may be important.
If you suspect you have sparse files, you should benchmark the difference or set sparse for only those
files that are really sparse.
readfifo=yes|no If enabled, tells the Client to read the data on a backup and write the data on a restore
to any FIFO (pipe) that is explicitly mentioned in the FileSet. In this case, you must have a program
already running that writes into the FIFO for a backup or reads from the FIFO on a restore. This
can be accomplished with the RunBeforeJob directive. If this is not the case, Bacula will hang
indefinitely on reading/writing the FIFO. When this is not enabled (default), the Client simply saves
the directory entry for the FIFO.
Unfortunately, when Bacula runs a RunBeforeJob, it waits until that script terminates, and if the script
accesses the FIFO to write into the it, the Bacula job will block and everything will stall. However,
Vladimir Stavrinov as supplied tip that allows this feature to work correctly. He simply adds the
following to the beginning of the RunBeforeJob script:
5.7. THE FILESET RESOURCE
67
exec > /dev/null
noatime=yes|no If enabled, and if your Operating System supports the O NOATIME file open flag, Bacula
will open all files to be backed up with this option. It makes it possible to read a file without updating
the inode atime (and also without the inode ctime update which happens if you try to set the atime
back to its previous value). It also prevents a race condition when two programs are reading the same
file, but only one does not want to change the atime. It’s most useful for backup programs and file
integrity checkers (and bacula can fit on both categories).
This option is particularly useful for sites where users are sensitive to their MailBox file access time.
It replaces both the keepatime option without the inconveniences of that option (see below).
If your Operating System does not support this option, it will be silently ignored by Bacula.
mtimeonly=yes|no If enabled, tells the Client that the selection of files during Incremental and Differential
backups should based only on the st mtime value in the stat() packet. The default is no which means
that the selection of files to be backed up will be based on both the st mtime and the st ctime values.
In general, it is not recommended to use this option.
keepatime=yes|no The default is no. When enabled, Bacula will reset the st atime (access time) field of
files that it backs up to their value prior to the backup. This option is not generally recommended as
there are very few programs that use st atime, and the backup overhead is increased because of the
additional system call necessary to reset the times. However, for some files, such as mailboxes, when
Bacula backs up the file, the user will notice that someone (Bacula) has accessed the file. In this, case
keepatime can be useful. (I’m not sure this works on Win32).
Note, if you use this feature, when Bacula resets the access time, the change time (st ctime) will
automatically be modified by the system, so on the next incremental job, the file will be backed up
even if it has not changed. As a consequence, you will probably also want to use mtimeonly = yes
as well as keepatime (thanks to Rudolf Cejka for this tip).
checkfilechanges=yes|no On versions 2.0.4 or greater, if enabled, the Client will checks size, age of each
file after their backup to see if they have changed during backup. If time or size mismatch, an error
will raise.
zog-fd: Client1.2007-03-31_09.46.21 Error: /tmp/test mtime changed during backup.
In general, it is recommended to use this option.
hardlinks=yes|no When enabled (default), this directive will cause hard links to be backed up. However,
the File daemon keeps track of hard linked files and will backup the data only once. The process of
keeping track of the hard links can be quite expensive if you have lots of them (tens of thousands or
more). This doesn’t occur on normal Unix systems, but if you use a program like BackupPC, it can
create hundreds of thousands, or even millions of hard links. Backups become very long and the File
daemon will consume a lot of CPU power checking hard links. In such a case, set hardlinks=no and
hard links will not be backed up. Note, using this option will most likely backup more data and on a
restore the file system will not be restored identically to the original.
wild=<string> Specifies a wild-card string to be applied to the filenames and directory names. Note, if
Exclude is not enabled, the wild-card will select which files are to be included. If Exclude=yes is
specified, the wild-card will select which files are to be excluded. Multiple wild-card directives may
be specified, and they will be applied in turn until the first one that matches. Note, if you exclude a
directory, no files or directories below it will be matched.
You may want to test your expressions prior to running your backup by using the bwild program.
Please see the Utilities chapter of this manual for more. You can also test your full FileSet definition
by using the estimate command in the Console chapter of this manual. It is recommended to enclose
the string in double quotes.
wilddir=<string> Specifies a wild-card string to be applied to directory names only. No filenames will be
matched by this directive. Note, if Exclude is not enabled, the wild-card will select directories to be
included. If Exclude=yes is specified, the wild-card will select which directories are to be excluded.
Multiple wild-card directives may be specified, and they will be applied in turn until the first one that
matches. Note, if you exclude a directory, no files or directories below it will be matched.
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CHAPTER 5. CONFIGURING THE DIRECTOR
It is recommended to enclose the string in double quotes.
You may want to test your expressions prior to running your backup by using the bwild program.
Please see the Utilities chapter of this manual for more. You can also test your full FileSet definition
by using the estimate command in the Console chapter of this manual. An example of excluding with
the WildDir option on Win32 machines is presented below.
wildfile=<string> Specifies a wild-card string to be applied to non-directories. That is no directory entries
will be matched by this directive. However, note that the match is done against the full path and
filename, so your wild-card string must take into account that filenames are preceded by the full path.
If Exclude is not enabled, the wild-card will select which files are to be included. If Exclude=yes is
specified, the wild-card will select which files are to be excluded. Multiple wild-card directives may be
specified, and they will be applied in turn until the first one that matches.
It is recommended to enclose the string in double quotes.
You may want to test your expressions prior to running your backup by using the bwild program.
Please see the Utilities chapter of this manual for more. You can also test your full FileSet definition
by using the estimate command in the Console chapter of this manual. An example of excluding with
the WildFile option on Win32 machines is presented below.
regex=<string> Specifies a POSIX extended regular expression to be applied to the filenames and directory names, which include the full path. If Exclude is not enabled, the regex will select which files
are to be included. If Exclude=yes is specified, the regex will select which files are to be excluded.
Multiple regex directives may be specified within an Options resource, and they will be applied in turn
until the first one that matches. Note, if you exclude a directory, no files or directories below it will be
matched.
It is recommended to enclose the string in double quotes.
The regex libraries differ from one operating system to another, and in addition, regular expressions
are complicated, so you may want to test your expressions prior to running your backup by using the
bregex program. Please see the Utilities chapter of this manual for more. You can also test your full
FileSet definition by using the estimate command in the Console chapter of this manual.
You find yourself using a lot of Regex statements, which will cost quite a lot of CPU time, we recommend
you simplify them if you can, or better yet convert them to Wild statements which are much more
efficient.
regexfile=<string> Specifies a POSIX extended regular expression to be applied to non-directories. No
directories will be matched by this directive. However, note that the match is done against the full
path and filename, so your regex string must take into account that filenames are preceded by the full
path. If Exclude is not enabled, the regex will select which files are to be included. If Exclude=yes
is specified, the regex will select which files are to be excluded. Multiple regex directives may be
specified, and they will be applied in turn until the first one that matches.
It is recommended to enclose the string in double quotes.
The regex libraries differ from one operating system to another, and in addition, regular expressions
are complicated, so you may want to test your expressions prior to running your backup by using the
bregex program. Please see the Utilities chapter of this manual for more.
regexdir=<string> Specifies a POSIX extended regular expression to be applied to directory names only.
No filenames will be matched by this directive. Note, if Exclude is not enabled, the regex will select
directories files are to be included. If Exclude=yes is specified, the regex will select which files are to
be excluded. Multiple regex directives may be specified, and they will be applied in turn until the first
one that matches. Note, if you exclude a directory, no files or directories below it will be matched.
It is recommended to enclose the string in double quotes.
The regex libraries differ from one operating system to another, and in addition, regular expressions
are complicated, so you may want to test your expressions prior to running your backup by using the
bregex program. Please see the Utilities chapter of this manual for more.
exclude=yes|no The default is no. When enabled, any files matched within the Options will be excluded
from the backup.
aclsupport=yes|no The default is no. If this option is set to yes, and you have the POSIX libacl installed
on your system, Bacula will backup the file and directory UNIX Access Control Lists (ACL) as defined
5.7. THE FILESET RESOURCE
69
in IEEE Std 1003.1e draft 17 and ”POSIX.1e” (abandoned). This feature is available on UNIX only
and depends on the ACL library. Bacula is automatically compiled with ACL support if the libacl
library is installed on your system (shown in config.out). While restoring the files Bacula will try to
restore the ACLs, if there is no ACL support available on the system, Bacula restores the files and
directories but not the ACL information. Please note, if you backup an EXT3 or XFS filesystem with
ACLs, then you restore them to a different filesystem (perhaps reiserfs) that does not have ACLs, the
ACLs will be ignored.
ignore case=yes|no The default is no. On Windows systems, you will almost surely want to set this to
yes. When this directive is set to yes all the case of character will be ignored in wild-card and regex
comparisons. That is an uppercase A will match a lowercase a.
fstype=filesystem-type This option allows you to select files and directories by the filesystem type. The
permitted filesystem-type names are:
ext2, jfs, ntfs, proc, reiserfs, xfs, usbdevfs, sysfs, smbfs, iso9660. For ext3 systems, use ext2.
You may have multiple Fstype directives, and thus permit matching of multiple filesystem types within
a single Options resource. If the type specified on the fstype directive does not match the filesystem
for a particular directive, that directory will not be backed up. This directive can be used to prevent
backing up non-local filesystems. Normally, when you use this directive, you would also set onefs=no
so that Bacula will traverse filesystems.
This option is not implemented in Win32 systems.
DriveType=Windows-drive-type This option is effective only on Windows machines and is somewhat
similar to the Unix/Linux fstype described above, except that it allows you to select what Windows
drive types you want to allow. By default all drive types are accepted.
The permitted drivetype names are:
removable, fixed, remote, cdrom, ramdisk
You may have multiple Driveype directives, and thus permit matching of multiple drive types within a
single Options resource. If the type specified on the drivetype directive does not match the filesystem
for a particular directive, that directory will not be backed up. This directive can be used to prevent
backing up non-local filesystems. Normally, when you use this directive, you would also set onefs=no
so that Bacula will traverse filesystems.
This option is not implemented in Unix/Linux systems.
hfsplussupport=yes|no This option allows you to turn on support for Mac OSX HFS plus finder information.
strippath=<integer> This option will cause integer paths to be stripped from the front of the full
path/filename being backed up. This can be useful if you are migrating data from another vendor or
if you have taken a snapshot into some subdirectory. This directive can cause your filenames to be
overlayed with regular backup data, so should be used only by experts and with great care.
<file-list> is a list of directory and/or filename names specified with a File = directive. To include names
containing spaces, enclose the name between double-quotes. Wild-cards are not interpreted in file-lists. They
can only be specified in Options resources.
There are a number of special cases when specifying directories and files in a file-list. They are:
• Any name preceded by an at-sign (@) is assumed to be the name of a file, which contains a list of files
each preceded by a ”File =”. The named file is read once when the configuration file is parsed during
the Director startup. Note, that the file is read on the Director’s machine and not on the Client’s. In
fact, the @filename can appear anywhere within the conf file where a token would be read, and the
contents of the named file will be logically inserted in the place of the @filename. What must be in
the file depends on the location the @filename is specified in the conf file. For example:
Include {
Options { compression=GZIP }
@/home/files/my-files
}
70
CHAPTER 5. CONFIGURING THE DIRECTOR
• Any name beginning with a vertical bar (|) is assumed to be the name of a program. This program
will be executed on the Director’s machine at the time the Job starts (not when the Director reads
the configuration file), and any output from that program will be assumed to be a list of files or
directories, one per line, to be included. Before submitting the specified command bacula will performe
character substitution.
This allows you to have a job that, for example, includes all the local partitions even if you change the
partitioning by adding a disk. The examples below show you how to do this. However, please note
two things:
1. if you want the local filesystems, you probably should be using the new fstype directive, which
was added in version 1.36.3 and set onefs=no.
2. the exact syntax of the command needed in the examples below is very system dependent. For
example, on recent Linux systems, you may need to add the -P option, on FreeBSD systems, the
options will be different as well.
In general, you will need to prefix your command or commands with a sh -c so that they are invoked
by a shell. This will not be the case if you are invoking a script as in the second example below. Also,
you must take care to escape (precede with a \) wild-cards, shell character, and to ensure that any
spaces in your command are escaped as well. If you use a single quotes (’) within a double quote (”),
Bacula will treat everything between the single quotes as one field so it will not be necessary to escape
the spaces. In general, getting all the quotes and escapes correct is a real pain as you can see by the
next example. As a consequence, it is often easier to put everything in a file and simply use the file
name within Bacula. In that case the sh -c will not be necessary providing the first line of the file is
#!/bin/sh.
As an example:
Include {
Options { signature = SHA1 }
File = "|sh -c ’df -l | grep \"^/dev/hd[ab]\" | grep -v \".*/tmp\" \
| awk \"{print \\$6}\"’"
}
will produce a list of all the local partitions on a Red Hat Linux system. Note, the above line was
split, but should normally be written on one line. Quoting is a real problem because you must quote
for Bacula which consists of preceding every \ and every ” with a \, and you must also quote for the
shell command. In the end, it is probably easier just to execute a small file with:
Include {
Options {
signature=MD5
}
File = "|my_partitions"
}
where my partitions has:
#!/bin/sh
df -l | grep "^/dev/hd[ab]" | grep -v ".*/tmp" \
| awk "{print \$6}"
If the vertical bar (—) in front of my partitions is preceded by a backslash as in \—, the program
will be executed on the Client’s machine instead of on the Director’s machine. Please note that if
the filename is given within quotes, you will need to use two slashes. An example, provided by John
Donagher, that backs up all the local UFS partitions on a remote system is:
FileSet {
Name = "All local partitions"
Include {
Options { signature=SHA1; onefs=yes; }
File = "\\|bash -c \"df -klF ufs | tail +2 | awk ’{print \$6}’\""
}
}
5.7. THE FILESET RESOURCE
71
The above requires two backslash characters after the double quote (one preserves the next one). If
you are a Linux user, just change the ufs to ext3 (or your preferred filesystem type), and you will be
in business.
If you know what filesystems you have mounted on your system, e.g. for Red Hat Linux normally only
ext2 and ext3, you can backup all local filesystems using something like:
Include {
Options { signature = SHA1; onfs=no; fstype=ext2 }
File = /
}
• Any file-list item preceded by a less-than sign (<) will be taken to be a file. This file will be read on
the Director’s machine (see below for doing it on the Client machine) at the time the Job starts, and
the data will be assumed to be a list of directories or files, one per line, to be included. The names
should start in column 1 and should not be quoted even if they contain spaces. This feature allows
you to modify the external file and change what will be saved without stopping and restarting Bacula
as would be necessary if using the @ modifier noted above. For example:
Include {
Options { signature = SHA1 }
File = "</home/files/local-filelist"
}
If you precede the less-than sign (<) with a backslash as in \<, the file-list will be read on the Client
machine instead of on the Director’s machine. Please note that if the filename is given within quotes,
you will need to use two slashes.
Include {
Options { signature = SHA1 }
File = "\\</home/xxx/filelist-on-client"
}
• If you explicitly specify a block device such as /dev/hda1, then Bacula (starting with version 1.28)
will assume that this is a raw partition to be backed up. In this case, you are strongly urged to specify
a sparse=yes include option, otherwise, you will save the whole partition rather than just the actual
data that the partition contains. For example:
Include {
Options { signature=MD5; sparse=yes }
File = /dev/hd6
}
will backup the data in device /dev/hd6. Note, the bf /dev/hd6 must be the raw partition itself.
Bacula will not back it up as a raw device if you specify a symbolic link to a raw device such as my be
created by the LVM Snapshot utilities.
Ludovic Strappazon has pointed out that this feature can be used to backup a full Microsoft Windows
disk. Simply boot into the system using a Linux Rescue disk, then load a statically linked Bacula as
described in the Disaster Recovery Using Bacula chapter of this manual. Then save the whole disk
partition. In the case of a disaster, you can then restore the desired partition by again booting with
the rescue disk and doing a restore of the partition.
• If you explicitly specify a FIFO device name (created with mkfifo), and you add the option readfifo=yes as an option, Bacula will read the FIFO and back its data up to the Volume. For example:
Include {
Options {
signature=SHA1
readfifo=yes
}
File = /home/abc/fifo
}
72
CHAPTER 5. CONFIGURING THE DIRECTOR
if /home/abc/fifo is a fifo device, Bacula will open the fifo, read it, and store all data thus obtained
on the Volume. Please note, you must have a process on the system that is writing into the fifo, or
Bacula will hang, and after one minute of waiting, Bacula will give up and go on to the next file. The
data read can be anything since Bacula treats it as a stream.
This feature can be an excellent way to do a ”hot” backup of a very large database. You can use the
RunBeforeJob to create the fifo and to start a program that dynamically reads your database and
writes it to the fifo. Bacula will then write it to the Volume. Be sure to read the readfifo section that
gives a tip to ensure that the RunBeforeJob does not block Bacula.
During the restore operation, the inverse is true, after Bacula creates the fifo if there was any data
stored with it (no need to explicitly list it or add any options), that data will be written back to the
fifo. As a consequence, if any such FIFOs exist in the fileset to be restored, you must ensure that there
is a reader program or Bacula will block, and after one minute, Bacula will time out the write to the
fifo and move on to the next file.
• A file-list may not contain wild-cards. Use directives in the Options resource if you wish to specify
wild-cards or regular expression matching.
• The ExcludeDirContaining = <filename> is a directive that can be added to the Include section
of the FileSet resource. If the specified filename (filename-string) is found on the Client in any
directory to be backed up, the whole directory will be ignored (not backed up). For example:
# List of files to be backed up
FileSet {
Name = "MyFileSet"
Include {
Options {
signature = MD5
}
File = /home
Exclude Dir Containing = .excludeme
}
}
But in /home, there may be hundreds of directories of users and some people want to indicate that
they don’t want to have certain directories backed up. For example, with the above FileSet, if the user
or sysadmin creates a file named .excludeme in specific directories, such as
/home/user/www/cache/.excludeme
/home/user/temp/.excludeme
then Bacula will not backup the two directories named:
/home/user/www/cache
/home/user/temp
NOTE: subdirectories will not be backed up. That is, the directive applies to the two directories in
question and any children (be they files, directories, etc).
5.8
FileSet Examples
The following is an example of a valid FileSet resource definition. Note, the first Include pulls in the contents
of the file /etc/backup.list when Bacula is started (i.e. the @), and that file must have each filename to
be backed up preceded by a File = and on a separate line.
FileSet {
Name = "Full Set"
Include {
5.8. FILESET EXAMPLES
73
Options {
Compression=GZIP
signature=SHA1
Sparse = yes
}
@/etc/backup.list
}
Include {
Options {
wildfile = "*.o"
wildfile = "*.exe"
Exclude = yes
}
File = /root/myfile
File = /usr/lib/another_file
}
}
In the above example, all the files contained in /etc/backup.list will be compressed with GZIP compression,
an SHA1 signature will be computed on the file’s contents (its data), and sparse file handling will apply.
The two directories /root/myfile and /usr/lib/another file will also be saved without any options, but all
files in those directories with the extensions .o and .exe will be excluded.
Let’s say that you now want to exclude the directory /tmp. The simplest way to do so is to add an exclude
directive that lists /tmp. The example above would then become:
FileSet {
Name = "Full Set"
Include {
Options {
Compression=GZIP
signature=SHA1
Sparse = yes
}
@/etc/backup.list
}
Include {
Options {
wildfile = "*.o"
wildfile = "*.exe"
Exclude = yes
}
File = /root/myfile
File = /usr/lib/another_file
}
Exclude {
File = /tmp
}
}
You can add wild-cards to the File directives listed in the Exclude directory, but you need to take care
because if you exclude a directory, it and all files and directories below it will also be excluded.
Now lets take a slight variation on the above and suppose you want to save all your whole filesystem except
/tmp. The problem that comes up is that Bacula will not normally cross from one filesystem to another.
Doing a df command, you get the following output:
[kern@rufus k]$ df
Filesystem
1k-blocks
/dev/hda5
5044156
/dev/hda1
62193
/dev/hda9
20161172
/dev/hda2
62217
/dev/hda8
5044156
/dev/hda6
5044156
none
127708
//minimatou/c$
14099200
lmatou:/
1554264
Used Available Use% Mounted on
439232
4348692 10% /
4935
54047
9% /boot
5524660 13612372 29% /home
6843
52161 12% /rescue
42548
4745376
1% /tmp
2613132
2174792 55% /usr
0
127708
0% /dev/shm
9895424
4203776 71% /mnt/mmatou
215884
1258056 15% /mnt/matou
74
CHAPTER 5. CONFIGURING THE DIRECTOR
lmatou:/home
lmatou:/usr
lpmatou:/
lpmatou:/home
lpmatou:/usr
deuter:/
deuter:/home
deuter:/files
2478140
1981000
995116
19222656
2478140
4806936
4806904
44133352
1589952
1199960
484112
2787880
2038764
97684
280100
27652876
760072
678628
459596
15458228
311260
4465064
4282620
14238608
68%
64%
52%
16%
87%
3%
7%
67%
/mnt/matou/home
/mnt/matou/usr
/mnt/pmatou
/mnt/pmatou/home
/mnt/pmatou/usr
/mnt/deuter
/mnt/deuter/home
/mnt/deuter/files
And we see that there are a number of separate filesystems (/ /boot /home /rescue /tmp and /usr not to
mention mounted systems). If you specify only / in your Include list, Bacula will only save the Filesystem
/dev/hda5. To save all filesystems except /tmp with out including any of the Samba or NFS mounted
systems, and explicitly excluding a /tmp, /proc, .journal, and .autofsck, which you will not want to be saved
and restored, you can use the following:
FileSet {
Name = Include_example
Include {
Options {
wilddir = /proc
wilddir = /tmp
wildfile = "/.journal"
wildfile = "/.autofsck"
exclude = yes
}
File = /
File = /boot
File = /home
File = /rescue
File = /usr
}
}
Since /tmp is on its own filesystem and it was not explicitly named in the Include list, it is not really needed
in the exclude list. It is better to list it in the Exclude list for clarity, and in case the disks are changed so
that it is no longer in its own partition.
Now, lets assume you only want to backup .Z and .gz files and nothing else. This is a bit trickier because
Bacula by default will select everything to backup, so we must exclude everything but .Z and .gz files. If
we take the first example above and make the obvious modifications to it, we might come up with a FileSet
that looks like this:
FileSet {
Name = "Full Set"
Include {
Options {
wildfile = "*.Z"
wildfile = "*.gz"
}
File = /myfile
!!!!!!!!!!!!
This
example
doesn’t
work
!!!!!!!!!!!!
}
}
The *.Z and *.gz files will indeed be backed up, but all other files that are not matched by the Options
directives will automatically be backed up too (i.e. that is the default rule).
To accomplish what we want, we must explicitly exclude all other files. We do this with the following:
FileSet {
Name = "Full Set"
Include {
Options {
wildfile = "*.Z"
wildfile = "*.gz"
}
5.8. FILESET EXAMPLES
75
Options {
Exclude = yes
RegexFile = ".*"
}
File = /myfile
}
}
The ”trick” here was to add a RegexFile expression that matches all files. It does not match directory names,
so all directories in /myfile will be backed up (the directory entry) and any *.Z and *.gz files contained in
them. If you know that certain directories do not contain any *.Z or *.gz files and you do not want the
directory entries backed up, you will need to explicitly exclude those directories. Backing up a directory
entries is not very expensive.
Bacula uses the system regex library and some of them are different on different OSes. The above has
been reported not to work on FreeBSD. This can be tested by using the estimate job=job-name listing
command in the console and adapting the RegexFile expression appropriately. In a future version of Bacula,
we will supply our own Regex code to avoid such system dependencies.
Please be aware that allowing Bacula to traverse or change file systems can be very dangerous. For example,
with the following:
FileSet {
Name = "Bad example"
Include {
Options { onefs=no }
File = /mnt/matou
}
}
you will be backing up an NFS mounted partition (/mnt/matou), and since onefs is set to no, Bacula will
traverse file systems. Now if /mnt/matou has the current machine’s file systems mounted, as is often the
case, you will get yourself into a recursive loop and the backup will never end.
As a final example, let’s say that you have only one or two subdirectories of /home that you want to backup.
For example, you want to backup only subdirectories beginning with the letter a and the letter b – i.e.
/home/a* and /home/b*. Now, you might first try:
FileSet {
Name = "Full Set"
Include {
Options {
wilddir = "/home/a*"
wilddir = "/home/b*"
}
File = /home
}
}
The problem is that the above will include everything in /home. To get things to work correctly, you need
to start with the idea of exclusion instead of inclusion. So, you could simply exclude all directories except
the two you want to use:
FileSet {
Name = "Full Set"
Include {
Options {
RegexDir = "^/home/[c-z]"
exclude = yes
}
File = /home
}
}
And assuming that all subdirectories start with a lowercase letter, this would work.
An alternative would be to include the two subdirectories desired and exclude everything else:
76
CHAPTER 5. CONFIGURING THE DIRECTOR
FileSet {
Name = "Full Set"
Include {
Options {
wilddir = "/home/a*"
wilddir = "/home/b*"
}
Options {
RegexDir = ".*"
exclude = yes
}
File = /home
}
}
The following example shows how to back up only the My Pictures directory inside the My Documents
directory for all users in C:/Documents and Settings, i.e. everything matching the pattern:
C:/Documents and Settings/*/My Documents/My Pictures/*
To understand how this can be achieved, there are two important points to remember:
Firstly, Bacula walks over the filesystem depth-first starting from the File = lines. It stops descending when
a directory is excluded, so you must include all ancestor directories of each directory containing files to be
included.
Secondly, each directory and file is compared to the Options clauses in the order they appear in the FileSet.
When a match is found, no further clauses are compared and the directory or file is either included or
excluded.
The FileSet resource definition below implements this by including specifc directories and files and excluding
everything else.
FileSet {
Name = "AllPictures"
Include {
File
= "C:/Documents and Settings"
Options {
signature = SHA1
verify = s1
IgnoreCase = yes
# Include all users’ directories so we reach the inner ones. Unlike a
# WildDir pattern ending in *, this RegExDir only matches the top-level
# directories and not any inner ones.
RegExDir = "^C:/Documents and Settings/[^/]+$"
# Ditto all users’ My Documents directories.
WildDir = "C:/Documents and Settings/*/My Documents"
# Ditto all users’ My Documents/My Pictures directories.
WildDir = "C:/Documents and Settings/*/My Documents/My Pictures"
# Include the contents of the My Documents/My Pictures directories and
# any subdirectories.
Wild = "C:/Documents and Settings/*/My Documents/My Pictures/*"
}
Options {
Exclude = yes
IgnoreCase = yes
# Exclude everything else, in particular any files at the top level and
# any other directories or files in the users’ directories.
Wild = "C:/Documents and Settings/*"
}
}
}
5.9. BACKING UP RAW PARTITIONS
5.9
77
Backing up Raw Partitions
The following FileSet definition will backup a raw partition:
FileSet {
Name = "RawPartition"
Include {
Options { sparse=yes }
File = /dev/hda2
}
}
While backing up and restoring a raw partition, you should ensure that no other process including the system
is writing to that partition. As a precaution, you are strongly urged to ensure that the raw partition is not
mounted or is mounted read-only. If necessary, this can be done using the RunBeforeJob directive.
5.10
Excluding Files and Directories
You may also include full filenames or directory names in addition to using wild-cards and Exclude=yes in
the Options resource as specified above by simply including the files to be excluded in an Exclude resource
within the FileSet. For example:
FileSet {
Name = Exclusion_example
Include {
Options {
Signature = SHA1
}
File = /
File = /boot
File = /home
File = /rescue
File = /usr
}
Exclude {
File = /proc
File = /tmp
File = .journal
File = .autofsck
}
}
5.11
Windows FileSets
If you are entering Windows file names, the directory path may be preceded by the drive and a colon (as in
c:). However, the path separators must be specified in Unix convention (i.e. forward slash (/)). If you wish
to include a quote in a file name, precede the quote with a backslash (\). For example you might use the
following for a Windows machine to backup the ”My Documents” directory:
FileSet {
Name = "Windows Set"
Include {
Options {
WildFile = "*.obj"
WildFile = "*.exe"
exclude = yes
}
File = "c:/My Documents"
}
}
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CHAPTER 5. CONFIGURING THE DIRECTOR
For exclude lists to work correctly on Windows, you must observe the following rules:
• Filenames are case sensitive, so you must use the correct case.
• To exclude a directory, you must not have a trailing slash on the directory name.
• If you have spaces in your filename, you must enclose the entire name in double-quote characters (”).
Trying to use a backslash before the space will not work.
• If you are using the old Exclude syntax (noted below), you may not specify a drive letter in the exclude.
The new syntax noted above should work fine including driver letters.
Thanks to Thiago Lima for summarizing the above items for us. If you are having difficulties getting includes
or excludes to work, you might want to try using the estimate job=xxx listing command documented in
the Console chapter of this manual.
On Win32 systems, if you move a directory or file or rename a file into the set of files being backed up,
and a Full backup has already been made, Bacula will not know there are new files to be saved during an
Incremental or Differential backup (blame Microsoft, not me). To avoid this problem, please copy any new
directory or files into the backup area. If you do not have enough disk to copy the directory or files, move
them, but then initiate a Full backup.
A Windows Example FileSet The following example was contributed by Russell Howe. Please note
that for presentation purposes, the lines beginning with Data and Internet have been wrapped and should
included on the previous line with one space.
This is my Windows 2000 fileset:
FileSet {
Name = "Windows 2000"
Include {
Options {
signature = MD5
Exclude = yes
IgnoreCase = yes
# Exclude Mozilla-based programs’ file caches
WildDir = "[A-Z]:/Documents and Settings/*/Application
Data/*/Profiles/*/*/Cache"
WildDir = "[A-Z]:/Documents and Settings/*/Application
Data/*/Profiles/*/*/Cache.Trash"
WildDir = "[A-Z]:/Documents and Settings/*/Application
Data/*/Profiles/*/*/ImapMail"
# Exclude user’s registry files - they’re always in use anyway.
WildFile = "[A-Z]:/Documents and Settings/*/Local Settings/Application
Data/Microsoft/Windows/usrclass.*"
WildFile = "[A-Z]:/Documents and Settings/*/ntuser.*"
# Exclude directories full of lots and lots of useless little files
WildDir = "[A-Z]:/Documents and Settings/*/Cookies"
WildDir = "[A-Z]:/Documents and Settings/*/Recent"
WildDir = "[A-Z]:/Documents and Settings/*/Local Settings/History"
WildDir = "[A-Z]:/Documents and Settings/*/Local Settings/Temp"
WildDir = "[A-Z]:/Documents and Settings/*/Local Settings/Temporary
Internet Files"
# These are always open and unable to be backed up
WildFile = "[A-Z]:/Documents and Settings/All Users/Application
Data/Microsoft/Network/Downloader/qmgr[01].dat"
# Some random bits of Windows we want to ignore
WildFile = "[A-Z]:/WINNT/security/logs/scepol.log"
WildDir = "[A-Z]:/WINNT/system32/config"
WildDir = "[A-Z]:/WINNT/msdownld.tmp"
WildDir = "[A-Z]:/WINNT/Internet Logs"
WildDir = "[A-Z]:/WINNT/$Nt*Uninstall*"
WildDir = "[A-Z]:/WINNT/sysvol"
WildFile = "[A-Z]:/WINNT/cluster/CLUSDB"
5.12. TESTING YOUR FILESET
WildFile
WildFile
WildFile
WildFile
WildFile
WildFile
WildFile
WildFile
WildFile
WildFile
WildFile
WildFile
WildFile
WildFile
WildFile
WildFile
WildFile
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
79
"[A-Z]:/WINNT/cluster/CLUSDB.LOG"
"[A-Z]:/WINNT/NTDS/edb.log"
"[A-Z]:/WINNT/NTDS/ntds.dit"
"[A-Z]:/WINNT/NTDS/temp.edb"
"[A-Z]:/WINNT/ntfrs/jet/log/edb.log"
"[A-Z]:/WINNT/ntfrs/jet/ntfrs.jdb"
"[A-Z]:/WINNT/ntfrs/jet/temp/tmp.edb"
"[A-Z]:/WINNT/system32/CPL.CFG"
"[A-Z]:/WINNT/system32/dhcp/dhcp.mdb"
"[A-Z]:/WINNT/system32/dhcp/j50.log"
"[A-Z]:/WINNT/system32/dhcp/tmp.edb"
"[A-Z]:/WINNT/system32/LServer/edb.log"
"[A-Z]:/WINNT/system32/LServer/TLSLic.edb"
"[A-Z]:/WINNT/system32/LServer/tmp.edb"
"[A-Z]:/WINNT/system32/wins/j50.log"
"[A-Z]:/WINNT/system32/wins/wins.mdb"
"[A-Z]:/WINNT/system32/wins/winstmp.mdb"
# Temporary directories & files
WildDir = "[A-Z]:/WINNT/Temp"
WildDir = "[A-Z]:/temp"
WildFile = "*.tmp"
WildDir = "[A-Z]:/tmp"
WildDir = "[A-Z]:/var/tmp"
# Recycle bins
WildDir = "[A-Z]:/RECYCLER"
# Swap files
WildFile = "[A-Z]:/pagefile.sys"
# These are programs and are easier to reinstall than restore from
# backup
WildDir = "[A-Z]:/cygwin"
WildDir = "[A-Z]:/Program Files/Grisoft"
WildDir = "[A-Z]:/Program Files/Java"
WildDir = "[A-Z]:/Program Files/Java Web Start"
WildDir = "[A-Z]:/Program Files/JavaSoft"
WildDir = "[A-Z]:/Program Files/Microsoft Office"
WildDir = "[A-Z]:/Program Files/Mozilla Firefox"
WildDir = "[A-Z]:/Program Files/Mozilla Thunderbird"
WildDir = "[A-Z]:/Program Files/mozilla.org"
WildDir = "[A-Z]:/Program Files/OpenOffice*"
}
# Our Win2k boxen all have C: and D: as the main hard drives.
File = "C:/"
File = "D:/"
}
}
Note, the three line of the above Exclude were split to fit on the document page, they should be written on
a single line in real use.
Windows NTFS Naming Considerations
be supported as of version 1.37.30 or later.
5.12
NTFS filenames containing Unicode characters should now
Testing Your FileSet
If you wish to get an idea of what your FileSet will really backup or if your exclusion rules will work correctly,
you can test it by using the estimate command in the Console program. See the estimate in the Console
chapter of this manual.
As an example, suppose you add the following test FileSet:
FileSet {
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CHAPTER 5. CONFIGURING THE DIRECTOR
Name = Test
Include {
File = /home/xxx/test
Options {
regex = ".*\.c$"
}
}
}
You could then add some test files to the directory /home/xxx/test and use the following command in
the console:
estimate job=<any-job-name> listing client=<desired-client> fileset=Test
to give you a listing of all files that match.
5.13
The Client Resource
The Client resource defines the attributes of the Clients that are served by this Director; that is the machines
that are to be backed up. You will need one Client resource definition for each machine to be backed up.
Client (or FileDaemon) Start of the Client directives.
Name = <name> The client name which will be used in the Job resource directive or in the console run
command. This directive is required.
Address = <address> Where the address is a host name, a fully qualified domain name, or a network
address in dotted quad notation for a Bacula File server daemon. This directive is required.
FD Port = <port-number> Where the port is a port number at which the Bacula File server daemon
can be contacted. The default is 9102.
Catalog = <Catalog-resource-name> This specifies the name of the catalog resource to be used for
this Client. This directive is required.
Password = <password> This is the password to be used when establishing a connection with the File
services, so the Client configuration file on the machine to be backed up must have the same password
defined for this Director. This directive is required. If you have either /dev/random bc on your
machine, Bacula will generate a random password during the configuration process, otherwise it will
be left blank.
The password is plain text. It is not generated through any special process, but it is preferable for
security reasons to make the text random.
File Retention = <time-period-specification> The File Retention directive defines the length of time
that Bacula will keep File records in the Catalog database after the End time of the Job corresponding
to the File records. When this time period expires, and if AutoPrune is set to yes Bacula will prune
(remove) File records that are older than the specified File Retention period. Note, this affects only
records in the catalog database. It does not affect your archive backups.
File records may actually be retained for a shorter period than you specify on this directive if you specify
either a shorter Job Retention or a shorter Volume Retention period. The shortest retention period
of the three takes precedence. The time may be expressed in seconds, minutes, hours, days, weeks,
months, quarters, or years. See the Configuration chapter of this manual for additional details of time
specification.
The default is 60 days.
Job Retention = <time-period-specification> The Job Retention directive defines the length of time
that Bacula will keep Job records in the Catalog database after the Job End time. When this time
period expires, and if AutoPrune is set to yes Bacula will prune (remove) Job records that are older
5.14. THE STORAGE RESOURCE
81
than the specified File Retention period. As with the other retention periods, this affects only records
in the catalog and not data in your archive backup.
If a Job record is selected for pruning, all associated File and JobMedia records will also be pruned
regardless of the File Retention period set. As a consequence, you normally will set the File retention
period to be less than the Job retention period. The Job retention period can actually be less than the
value you specify here if you set the Volume Retention directive in the Pool resource to a smaller
duration. This is because the Job retention period and the Volume retention period are independently
applied, so the smaller of the two takes precedence.
The Job retention period is specified as seconds, minutes, hours, days, weeks, months, quarters, or
years. See the Configuration chapter of this manual for additional details of time specification.
The default is 180 days.
AutoPrune = <yes|no> If AutoPrune is set to yes (default), Bacula (version 1.20 or greater) will automatically apply the File retention period and the Job retention period for the Client at the end of the
Job. If you set AutoPrune = no, pruning will not be done, and your Catalog will grow in size each
time you run a Job. Pruning affects only information in the catalog and not data stored in the backup
archives (on Volumes).
Maximum Concurrent Jobs = <number> where <number> is the maximum number of Jobs with the
current Client that can run concurrently. Note, this directive limits only Jobs for Clients with the same
name as the resource in which it appears. Any other restrictions on the maximum concurrent jobs
such as in the Director, Job, or Storage resources will also apply in addition to any limit specified here.
The default is set to 1, but you may set it to a larger number.
Priority = <number> The number specifies the priority of this client relative to other clients that the
Director is processing simultaneously. The priority can range from 1 to 1000. The clients are ordered
such that the smaller number priorities are performed first (not currently implemented).
The following is an example of a valid Client resource definition:
Client {
Name = Minimatou
FDAddress = minimatou
Catalog = MySQL
Password = very_good
}
5.14
The Storage Resource
The Storage resource defines which Storage daemons are available for use by the Director.
Storage Start of the Storage resources. At least one storage resource must be specified.
Name = <name> The name of the storage resource. This name appears on the Storage directive specified
in the Job resource and is required.
Address = <address> Where the address is a host name, a fully qualified domain name, or an IP
address. Please note that the <address> as specified here will be transmitted to the File daemon
who will then use it to contact the Storage daemon. Hence, it is not, a good idea to use localhost as
the name but rather a fully qualified machine name or an IP address. This directive is required.
SD Port = <port> Where port is the port to use to contact the storage daemon for information and
to start jobs. This same port number must appear in the Storage resource of the Storage daemon’s
configuration file. The default is 9103.
Password = <password> This is the password to be used when establishing a connection with the Storage
services. This same password also must appear in the Director resource of the Storage daemon’s
configuration file. This directive is required. If you have either /dev/random bc on your machine,
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CHAPTER 5. CONFIGURING THE DIRECTOR
Bacula will generate a random password during the configuration process, otherwise it will be left
blank.
The password is plain text. It is not generated through any special process, but it is preferable for
security reasons to use random text.
Device = <device-name> This directive specifies the Storage daemon’s name of the device resource to
be used for the storage. If you are using an Autochanger, the name specified here should be the name of
the Storage daemon’s Autochanger resource rather than the name of an individual device. This name is
not the physical device name, but the logical device name as defined on the Name directive contained
in the Device or the Autochanger resource definition of the Storage daemon configuration file.
You can specify any name you would like (even the device name if you prefer) up to a maximum of 127
characters in length. The physical device name associated with this device is specified in the Storage
daemon configuration file (as Archive Device). Please take care not to define two different Storage
resource directives in the Director that point to the same Device in the Storage daemon. Doing so
may cause the Storage daemon to block (or hang) attempting to open the same device that is already
open. This directive is required.
Media Type = <MediaType> This directive specifies the Media Type to be used to store the data. This
is an arbitrary string of characters up to 127 maximum that you define. It can be anything you want.
However, it is best to make it descriptive of the storage media (e.g. File, DAT, ”HP DLT8000”, 8mm,
...). In addition, it is essential that you make the Media Type specification unique for each storage
media type. If you have two DDS-4 drives that have incompatible formats, or if you have a DDS-4
drive and a DDS-4 autochanger, you almost certainly should specify different Media Types. During
a restore, assuming a DDS-4 Media Type is associated with the Job, Bacula can decide to use any
Storage daemon that supports Media Type DDS-4 and on any drive that supports it.
If you are writing to disk Volumes, you must make doubly sure that each Device resource defined in
the Storage daemon (and hence in the Director’s conf file) has a unique media type. Otherwise for
Bacula versions 1.38 and older, your restores may not work because Bacula will assume that you can
mount any Media Type with the same name on any Device associated with that Media Type. This is
possible with tape drives, but with disk drives, unless you are very clever you cannot mount a Volume
in any directory – this can be done by creating an appropriate soft link.
Currently Bacula permits only a single Media Type per Storage and Device definition. Consequently,
if you have a drive that supports more than one Media Type, you can give a unique string to Volumes
with different intrinsic Media Type (Media Type = DDS-3-4 for DDS-3 and DDS-4 types), but then
those volumes will only be mounted on drives indicated with the dual type (DDS-3-4).
If you want to tie Bacula to using a single Storage daemon or drive, you must specify a unique Media
Type for that drive. This is an important point that should be carefully understood. Note, this applies
equally to Disk Volumes. If you define more than one disk Device resource in your Storage daemon’s
conf file, the Volumes on those two devices are in fact incompatible because one can not be mounted
on the other device since they are found in different directories. For this reason, you probably should
use two different Media Types for your two disk Devices (even though you might think of them as both
being File types). You can find more on this subject in the Basic Volume Management chapter of this
manual.
The MediaType specified in the Director’s Storage resource, must correspond to the Media Type
specified in the Device resource of the Storage daemon configuration file. This directive is required,
and it is used by the Director and the Storage daemon to ensure that a Volume automatically selected
from the Pool corresponds to the physical device. If a Storage daemon handles multiple devices (e.g.
will write to various file Volumes on different partitions), this directive allows you to specify exactly
which device.
As mentioned above, the value specified in the Director’s Storage resource must agree with the value
specified in the Device resource in the Storage daemon’s configuration file. It is also an additional
check so that you don’t try to write data for a DLT onto an 8mm device.
Autochanger = <yes|no> If you specify yes for this command (the default is no), when you use the label
command or the add command to create a new Volume, Bacula will also request the Autochanger
Slot number. This simplifies creating database entries for Volumes in an autochanger. If you forget
to specify the Slot, the autochanger will not be used. However, you may modify the Slot associated
with a Volume at any time by using the update volume or update slots command in the console
program. When autochanger is enabled, the algorithm used by Bacula to search for available volumes
5.15. THE POOL RESOURCE
83
will be modified to consider only Volumes that are known to be in the autochanger’s magazine. If no
in changer volume is found, Bacula will attempt recycling, pruning, ..., and if still no volume is found,
Bacula will search for any volume whether or not in the magazine. By privileging in changer volumes,
this procedure minimizes operator intervention. The default is no.
For the autochanger to be used, you must also specify Autochanger = yes in the Device Resource
in the Storage daemon’s configuration file as well as other important Storage daemon configuration
information. Please consult the Using Autochangers manual of this chapter for the details of using
autochangers.
Maximum Concurrent Jobs = <number> where <number> is the maximum number of Jobs with
the current Storage resource that can run concurrently. Note, this directive limits only Jobs for Jobs
using this Storage daemon. Any other restrictions on the maximum concurrent jobs such as in the
Director, Job, or Client resources will also apply in addition to any limit specified here. The default
is set to 1, but you may set it to a larger number. However, if you set the Storage daemon’s number
of concurrent jobs greater than one, we recommend that you read the waring documented under
Maximum Concurrent Jobs in the Director’s resource or simply turn data spooling on as documented
in the Data Spooling chapter of this manual.
Heartbeat Interval = <time-interval> This directive is optional and if specified will cause the Director
to set a keepalive interval (heartbeat) in seconds on each of the sockets it opens for the Storage resource.
This value will override any specified at the Director level. It is implemented only on systems (Linux,
...) that provide the setsockopt TCP KEEPIDLE function. The default value is zero, which means
no change is made to the socket.
The following is an example of a valid Storage resource definition:
# Definition of tape storage device
Storage {
Name = DLTDrive
Address = lpmatou
Password = storage_password # password for Storage daemon
Device = "HP DLT 80"
# same as Device in Storage daemon
Media Type = DLT8000
# same as MediaType in Storage daemon
}
5.15
The Pool Resource
The Pool resource defines the set of storage Volumes (tapes or files) to be used by Bacula to write the data.
By configuring different Pools, you can determine which set of Volumes (media) receives the backup data.
This permits, for example, to store all full backup data on one set of Volumes and all incremental backups
on another set of Volumes. Alternatively, you could assign a different set of Volumes to each machine that
you backup. This is most easily done by defining multiple Pools.
Another important aspect of a Pool is that it contains the default attributes (Maximum Jobs, Retention
Period, Recycle flag, ...) that will be given to a Volume when it is created. This avoids the need for you
to answer a large number of questions when labeling a new Volume. Each of these attributes can later be
changed on a Volume by Volume basis using the update command in the console program. Note that you
must explicitly specify which Pool Bacula is to use with each Job. Bacula will not automatically search for
the correct Pool.
Most often in Bacula installations all backups for all machines (Clients) go to a single set of Volumes. In
this case, you will probably only use the Default Pool. If your backup strategy calls for you to mount a
different tape each day, you will probably want to define a separate Pool for each day. For more information
on this subject, please see the Backup Strategies chapter of this manual.
To use a Pool, there are three distinct steps. First the Pool must be defined in the Director’s configuration
file. Then the Pool must be written to the Catalog database. This is done automatically by the Director
each time that it starts, or alternatively can be done using the create command in the console program.
Finally, if you change the Pool definition in the Director’s configuration file and restart Bacula, the pool will
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CHAPTER 5. CONFIGURING THE DIRECTOR
be updated alternatively you can use the update pool console command to refresh the database image. It is
this database image rather than the Director’s resource image that is used for the default Volume attributes.
Note, for the pool to be automatically created or updated, it must be explicitly referenced by a Job resource.
Next the physical media must be labeled. The labeling can either be done with the label command in the
console program or using the btape program. The preferred method is to use the label command in the
console program.
Finally, you must add Volume names (and their attributes) to the Pool. For Volumes to be used by Bacula
they must be of the same Media Type as the archive device specified for the job (i.e. if you are going to
back up to a DLT device, the Pool must have DLT volumes defined since 8mm volumes cannot be mounted
on a DLT drive). The Media Type has particular importance if you are backing up to files. When running
a Job, you must explicitly specify which Pool to use. Bacula will then automatically select the next Volume
to use from the Pool, but it will ensure that the Media Type of any Volume selected from the Pool is
identical to that required by the Storage resource you have specified for the Job.
If you use the label command in the console program to label the Volumes, they will automatically be added
to the Pool, so this last step is not normally required.
It is also possible to add Volumes to the database without explicitly labeling the physical volume. This is
done with the add console command.
As previously mentioned, each time Bacula starts, it scans all the Pools associated with each Catalog, and
if the database record does not already exist, it will be created from the Pool Resource definition. Bacula
probably should do an update pool if you change the Pool definition, but currently, you must do this
manually using the update pool command in the Console program.
The Pool Resource defined in the Director’s configuration file (bacula-dir.conf) may contain the following
directives:
Pool Start of the Pool resource. There must be at least one Pool resource defined.
Name = <name> The name of the pool. For most applications, you will use the default pool name
Default. This directive is required.
Maximum Volumes = <number> This directive specifies the maximum number of volumes (tapes or
files) contained in the pool. This directive is optional, if omitted or set to zero, any number of volumes
will be permitted. In general, this directive is useful for Autochangers where there is a fixed number
of Volumes, or for File storage where you wish to ensure that the backups made to disk files do not
become too numerous or consume too much space.
Pool Type = <type> This directive defines the pool type, which corresponds to the type of Job being
run. It is required and may be one of the following:
Backup
*Archive
*Cloned
*Migration
*Copy
*Save
Note, only Backup is current implemented.
Storage = <storage-resource-name> The Storage directive defines the name of the storage services
where you want to backup the FileSet data. For additional details, see the Storage Resource Chapter
of this manual. The Storage resource may also be specified in the Job resource, but the value, if any,
in the Pool resource overrides any value in the Job. This Storage resource definition is not required by
either the Job resource or in the Pool, but it must be specified in one or the other. If not configuration
error will result.
5.15. THE POOL RESOURCE
85
Use Volume Once = <yes|no> This directive if set to yes specifies that each volume is to be used only
once. This is most useful when the Media is a file and you want a new file for each backup that is done.
The default is no (i.e. use volume any number of times). This directive will most likely be phased out
(deprecated), so you are recommended to use Maximum Volume Jobs = 1 instead.
The value defined by this directive in the bacula-dir.conf file is the default value used when a Volume
is created. Once the volume is created, changing the value in the bacula-dir.conf file will not change
what is stored for the Volume. To change the value for an existing Volume you must use the update
command in the Console.
Please see the notes below under Maximum Volume Jobs concerning using this directive with
multiple simultaneous jobs.
Maximum Volume Jobs = <positive-integer> This directive specifies the maximum number of Jobs
that can be written to the Volume. If you specify zero (the default), there is no limit. Otherwise,
when the number of Jobs backed up to the Volume equals positive-integer the Volume will be
marked Used. When the Volume is marked Used it can no longer be used for appending Jobs, much
like the Full status but it can be recycled if recycling is enabled, and thus used again. By setting
MaximumVolumeJobs to one, you get the same effect as setting UseVolumeOnce = yes.
The value defined by this directive in the bacula-dir.conf file is the default value used when a Volume
is created. Once the volume is created, changing the value in the bacula-dir.conf file will not change
what is stored for the Volume. To change the value for an existing Volume you must use the update
command in the Console.
If you are running multiple simultaneous jobs, this directive may not work correctly because when a
drive is reserved for a job, this directive is not taken into account, so multiple jobs may try to start
writing to the Volume. At some point, when the Media record is updated, multiple simultaneous jobs
may fail since the Volume can no longer be written.
Maximum Volume Files = <positive-integer> This directive specifies the maximum number of files
that can be written to the Volume. If you specify zero (the default), there is no limit. Otherwise, when
the number of files written to the Volume equals positive-integer the Volume will be marked Used.
When the Volume is marked Used it can no longer be used for appending Jobs, much like the Full
status but it can be recycled if recycling is enabled and thus used again. This value is checked and the
Used status is set only at the end of a job that writes to the particular volume.
The value defined by this directive in the bacula-dir.conf file is the default value used when a Volume
is created. Once the volume is created, changing the value in the bacula-dir.conf file will not change
what is stored for the Volume. To change the value for an existing Volume you must use the update
command in the Console.
Maximum Volume Bytes = <size> This directive specifies the maximum number of bytes that can be
written to the Volume. If you specify zero (the default), there is no limit except the physical size of
the Volume. Otherwise, when the number of bytes written to the Volume equals size the Volume will
be marked Used. When the Volume is marked Used it can no longer be used for appending Jobs,
much like the Full status but it can be recycled if recycling is enabled, and thus the Volume can be
re-used after recycling. This value is checked and the Used status set while the job is writing to the
particular volume.
This directive is particularly useful for restricting the size of disk volumes, and will work correctly even
in the case of multiple simultaneous jobs writing to the volume.
The value defined by this directive in the bacula-dir.conf file is the default value used when a Volume
is created. Once the volume is created, changing the value in the bacula-dir.conf file will not change
what is stored for the Volume. To change the value for an existing Volume you must use the update
command in the Console.
Volume Use Duration = <time-period-specification> The Volume Use Duration directive defines
the time period that the Volume can be written beginning from the time of first data write to the
Volume. If the time-period specified is zero (the default), the Volume can be written indefinitely. Otherwise, the next time a job runs that wants to access this Volume, and the time period from the first
write to the volume (the first Job written) exceeds the time-period-specification, the Volume will be
marked Used, which means that no more Jobs can be appended to the Volume, but it may be recycled
if recycling is enabled. Using the command status dir applies algorithms similar to running jobs, so
during such a command, the Volume status may also be changed. Once the Volume is recycled, it will
be available for use again.
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CHAPTER 5. CONFIGURING THE DIRECTOR
You might use this directive, for example, if you have a Volume used for Incremental backups, and
Volumes used for Weekly Full backups. Once the Full backup is done, you will want to use a different
Incremental Volume. This can be accomplished by setting the Volume Use Duration for the Incremental
Volume to six days. I.e. it will be used for the 6 days following a Full save, then a different Incremental
volume will be used. Be careful about setting the duration to short periods such as 23 hours, or you
might experience problems of Bacula waiting for a tape over the weekend only to complete the backups
Monday morning when an operator mounts a new tape.
The use duration is checked and the Used status is set only at the end of a job that writes to the
particular volume, which means that even though the use duration may have expired, the catalog entry
will not be updated until the next job that uses this volume is run. This directive is not intended to
be used to limit volume sizes and will not work correctly (i.e. will fail jobs) if the use duration expires
while multiple simultaneous jobs are writing to the volume.
Please note that the value defined by this directive in the bacula-dir.conf file is the default value used
when a Volume is created. Once the volume is created, changing the value in the bacula-dir.conf file
will not change what is stored for the Volume. To change the value for an existing Volume you must
use the update volume command in the Console.
Catalog Files = <yes|no> This directive defines whether or not you want the names of the files that were
saved to be put into the catalog. The default is yes. The advantage of specifying Catalog Files =
No is that you will have a significantly smaller Catalog database. The disadvantage is that you will not
be able to produce a Catalog listing of the files backed up for each Job (this is often called Browsing).
Also, without the File entries in the catalog, you will not be able to use the Console restore command
nor any other command that references File entries.
AutoPrune = <yes|no> If AutoPrune is set to yes (default), Bacula (version 1.20 or greater) will automatically apply the Volume Retention period when new Volume is needed and no appendable Volumes
exist in the Pool. Volume pruning causes expired Jobs (older than the Volume Retention period)
to be deleted from the Catalog and permits possible recycling of the Volume.
Volume Retention = <time-period-specification> The Volume Retention directive defines the length
of time that Bacula will keep records associated with the Volume in the Catalog database after the
End time of each Job written to the Volume. When this time period expires, and if AutoPrune is
set to yes Bacula may prune (remove) Job records that are older than the specified Volume Retention
period if it is necessary to free up a Volume. Recycling will not occur until it is absolutely necessary
to free up a volume (i.e. no other writable volume exists). All File records associated with pruned
Jobs are also pruned. The time may be specified as seconds, minutes, hours, days, weeks, months,
quarters, or years. The Volume Retention is applied independently of the Job Retention and the
File Retention periods defined in the Client resource. This means that all the retentions periods are
applied in turn and that the shorter period is the one that effectively takes precedence. Note, that
when the Volume Retention period has been reached, and it is necessary to obtain a new volume,
Bacula will prune both the Job and the File records. This pruning could also occur during a status
dir command because it uses similar algorithms for finding the next available Volume.
It is important to know that when the Volume Retention period expires, Bacula does not automatically
recycle a Volume. It attempts to keep the Volume data intact as long as possible before over writing
the Volume.
By defining multiple Pools with different Volume Retention periods, you may effectively have a set of
tapes that is recycled weekly, another Pool of tapes that is recycled monthly and so on. However, one
must keep in mind that if your Volume Retention period is too short, it may prune the last valid
Full backup, and hence until the next Full backup is done, you will not have a complete backup of
your system, and in addition, the next Incremental or Differential backup will be promoted to a Full
backup. As a consequence, the minimum Volume Retention period should be at twice the interval
of your Full backups. This means that if you do a Full backup once a month, the minimum Volume
retention period should be two months.
The default Volume retention period is 365 days, and either the default or the value defined by this
directive in the bacula-dir.conf file is the default value used when a Volume is created. Once the volume
is created, changing the value in the bacula-dir.conf file will not change what is stored for the Volume.
To change the value for an existing Volume you must use the update command in the Console.
ScratchPool = <pool-resource-name> This directive permits to specify a dedicate Scratch for the current pool. This pool will replace the special pool named Scrach for volume selection. For more
5.15. THE POOL RESOURCE
87
information about Scratch see Scratch Pool section of this manual. This is useful when using multiple
storage sharing the same mediatype or when you want to dedicate volumes to a particular set of pool.
RecyclePool = <pool-resource-name> This directive defines to which pool the Volume will be placed
(moved) when it is recycled. Without this directive, a Volume will remain in the same pool when it is
recycled. With this directive, it can be moved automatically to any existing pool during a recycle. This
directive is probably most useful when defined in the Scratch pool, so that volumes will be recycled
back into the Scratch pool. For more on the see the Scratch Pool section of this manual.
Although this directive is called RecyclePool, the Volume in question is actually moved from its current
pool to the one you specify on this directive when Bacula prunes the Volume and discovers that there
are no records left in the catalog and hence marks it as Purged.
Recycle = <yes|no> This directive specifies whether or not Purged Volumes may be recycled. If it is set
to yes (default) and Bacula needs a volume but finds none that are appendable, it will search for and
recycle (reuse) Purged Volumes (i.e. volumes with all the Jobs and Files expired and thus deleted from
the Catalog). If the Volume is recycled, all previous data written to that Volume will be overwritten.
If Recycle is set to no, the Volume will not be recycled, and hence, the data will remain valid. If you
want to reuse (re-write) the Volume, and the recycle flag is no (0 in the catalog), you may manually
set the recycle flag (update command) for a Volume to be reused.
Please note that the value defined by this directive in the bacula-dir.conf file is the default value used
when a Volume is created. Once the volume is created, changing the value in the bacula-dir.conf file
will not change what is stored for the Volume. To change the value for an existing Volume you must
use the update command in the Console.
When all Job and File records have been pruned or purged from the catalog for a particular Volume,
if that Volume is marked as Append, Full, Used, or Error, it will then be marked as Purged. Only
Volumes marked as Purged will be considered to be converted to the Recycled state if the Recycle
directive is set to yes.
Recycle Oldest Volume = <yes|no> This directive instructs the Director to search for the oldest used
Volume in the Pool when another Volume is requested by the Storage daemon and none are available.
The catalog is then pruned respecting the retention periods of all Files and Jobs written to this
Volume. If all Jobs are pruned (i.e. the volume is Purged), then the Volume is recycled and will be
used as the next Volume to be written. This directive respects any Job, File, or Volume retention
periods that you may have specified, and as such it is much better to use this directive than the Purge
Oldest Volume.
This directive can be useful if you have a fixed number of Volumes in the Pool and you want to cycle
through them and you have specified the correct retention periods.
However, if you use this directive and have only one Volume in the Pool, you will immediately recycle
your Volume if you fill it and Bacula needs another one. Thus your backup will be totally invalid.
Please use this directive with care. The default is no.
Recycle Current Volume = <yes|no> If Bacula needs a new Volume, this directive instructs Bacula
to Prune the volume respecting the Job and File retention periods. If all Jobs are pruned (i.e. the
volume is Purged), then the Volume is recycled and will be used as the next Volume to be written.
This directive respects any Job, File, or Volume retention periods that you may have specified, and
thus it is much better to use it rather than the Purge Oldest Volume directive.
This directive can be useful if you have: a fixed number of Volumes in the Pool, you want to cycle
through them, and you have specified retention periods that prune Volumes before you have cycled
through the Volume in the Pool.
However, if you use this directive and have only one Volume in the Pool, you will immediately recycle
your Volume if you fill it and Bacula needs another one. Thus your backup will be totally invalid.
Please use this directive with care. The default is no.
Purge Oldest Volume = <yes|no> This directive instructs the Director to search for the oldest used
Volume in the Pool when another Volume is requested by the Storage daemon and none are available.
The catalog is then purged irrespective of retention periods of all Files and Jobs written to this
Volume. The Volume is then recycled and will be used as the next Volume to be written. This
directive overrides any Job, File, or Volume retention periods that you may have specified.
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This directive can be useful if you have a fixed number of Volumes in the Pool and you want to cycle
through them and reusing the oldest one when all Volumes are full, but you don’t want to worry about
setting proper retention periods. However, by using this option you risk losing valuable data.
Please be aware that Purge Oldest Volume disregards all retention periods. If you have only a single
Volume defined and you turn this variable on, that Volume will always be immediately overwritten
when it fills! So at a minimum, ensure that you have a decent number of Volumes in your Pool before
running any jobs. If you want retention periods to apply do not use this directive. To specify a
retention period, use the Volume Retention directive (see above).
We highly recommend against using this directive, because it is sure that some day, Bacula will recycle
a Volume that contains current data. The default is no.
Cleaning Prefix = <string> This directive defines a prefix string, which if it matches the beginning
of a Volume name during labeling of a Volume, the Volume will be defined with the VolStatus set
to Cleaning and thus Bacula will never attempt to use this tape. This is primarily for use with
autochangers that accept barcodes where the convention is that barcodes beginning with CLN are
treated as cleaning tapes.
Label Format = <format> This directive specifies the format of the labels contained in this pool. The
format directive is used as a sort of template to create new Volume names during automatic Volume
labeling.
The format should be specified in double quotes, and consists of letters, numbers and the special
characters hyphen (-), underscore ( ), colon (:), and period (.), which are the legal characters for a
Volume name. The format should be enclosed in double quotes (”).
In addition, the format may contain a number of variable expansion characters which will be expanded
by a complex algorithm allowing you to create Volume names of many different formats. In all cases,
the expansion process must resolve to the set of characters noted above that are legal Volume names.
Generally, these variable expansion characters begin with a dollar sign ($) or a left bracket ([). If
you specify variable expansion characters, you should always enclose the format with double quote
characters (”). For more details on variable expansion, please see the Variable Expansion Chapter of
this manual.
If no variable expansion characters are found in the string, the Volume name will be formed from the
format string appended with the a unique number that increases. If you do not remove volumes from
the pool, this number should be the number of volumes plus one, but this is not guaranteed. The
unique number will be edited as four digits with leading zeros. For example, with a Label Format =
”File-”, the first volumes will be named File-0001, File-0002, ...
With the exception of Job specific variables, you can test your LabelFormat by using the
var command the Console Chapter of this manual.
In almost all cases, you should enclose the format specification (part after the equal sign) in double
quotes. Please note that this directive is deprecated and is replaced in version 1.37 and greater with a
Python script for creating volume names.
In order for a Pool to be used during a Backup Job, the Pool must have at least one Volume associated with
it. Volumes are created for a Pool using the label or the add commands in the Bacula Console, program.
In addition to adding Volumes to the Pool (i.e. putting the Volume names in the Catalog database), the
physical Volume must be labeled with a valid Bacula software volume label before Bacula will accept the
Volume. This will be automatically done if you use the label command. Bacula can automatically label
Volumes if instructed to do so, but this feature is not yet fully implemented.
The following is an example of a valid Pool resource definition:
Pool {
Name = Default
Pool Type = Backup
}
5.16. THE CATALOG RESOURCE
5.15.1
89
The Scratch Pool
In general, you can give your Pools any name you wish, but there is one important restriction: the Pool
named Scratch, if it exists behaves like a scratch pool of Volumes in that when Bacula needs a new Volume
for writing and it cannot find one, it will look in the Scratch pool, and if it finds an available Volume, it will
move it out of the Scratch pool into the Pool currently being used by the job.
5.16
The Catalog Resource
The Catalog Resource defines what catalog to use for the current job. Currently, Bacula can only handle a
single database server (SQLite, MySQL, PostgreSQL) that is defined when configuring Bacula. However,
there may be as many Catalogs (databases) defined as you wish. For example, you may want each Client to
have its own Catalog database, or you may want backup jobs to use one database and verify or restore jobs
to use another database.
Since SQLite is compiled in, it always runs on the same machine as the Director and the database must
be directly accessible (mounted) from the Director. However, since both MySQL and PostgreSQL are
networked databases, they may reside either on the same machine as the Director or on a different machine
on the network. See below for more details.
Catalog Start of the Catalog resource. At least one Catalog resource must be defined.
Name = <name> The name of the Catalog. No necessary relation to the database server name. This
name will be specified in the Client resource directive indicating that all catalog data for that Client
is maintained in this Catalog. This directive is required.
password = <password> This specifies the password to use when logging into the database. This directive is required.
DB Name = <name> This specifies the name of the database. If you use multiple catalogs (databases),
you specify which one here. If you are using an external database server rather than the internal one,
you must specify a name that is known to the server (i.e. you explicitly created the Bacula tables using
this name. This directive is required.
user = <user> This specifies what user name to use to log into the database. This directive is required.
DB Socket = <socket-name> This is the name of a socket to use on the local host to connect to the
database. This directive is used only by MySQL and is ignored by SQLite. Normally, if neither DB
Socket or DB Address are specified, MySQL will use the default socket. If the DB Socket is specified,
the MySQL server must reside on the same machine as the Director.
DB Address = <address> This is the host address of the database server. Normally, you would specify
this instead of DB Socket if the database server is on another machine. In that case, you will also
specify DB Port. This directive is used only by MySQL and PostgreSQL and is ignored by SQLite if
provided. This directive is optional.
DB Port = <port> This defines the port to be used in conjunction with DB Address to access the
database if it is on another machine. This directive is used only by MySQL and PostgreSQL and is
ignored by SQLite if provided. This directive is optional.
the different
The following is an example of a valid Catalog resource definition:
Catalog
{
Name = SQLite
dbname = bacula;
user = bacula;
password = ""
}
# no password = no security
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CHAPTER 5. CONFIGURING THE DIRECTOR
or for a Catalog on another machine:
Catalog
{
Name = MySQL
dbname = bacula
user = bacula
password = ""
DB Address = remote.acme.com
DB Port = 1234
}
5.17
The Messages Resource
For the details of the Messages Resource, please see the Messages Resource Chapter of this manual.
5.18
The Console Resource
As of Bacula version 1.33 and higher, there are three different kinds of consoles, which the administrator or
user can use to interact with the Director. These three kinds of consoles comprise three different security
levels.
• The first console type is an anonymous or default console, which has full privileges. There is no
console resource necessary for this type since the password is specified in the Director’s resource and
consequently such consoles do not have a name as defined on a Name = directive. This is the kind
of console that was initially implemented in versions prior to 1.33 and remains valid. Typically you
would use it only for administrators.
• The second type of console, and new to version 1.33 and higher is a ”named” console defined within a
Console resource in both the Director’s configuration file and in the Console’s configuration file. Both
the names and the passwords in these two entries must match much as is the case for Client programs.
This second type of console begins with absolutely no privileges except those explicitly specified in the
Director’s Console resource. Thus you can have multiple Consoles with different names and passwords,
sort of like multiple users, each with different privileges. As a default, these consoles can do absolutely
nothing – no commands whatsoever. You give them privileges or rather access to commands and
resources by specifying access control lists in the Director’s Console resource. The ACLs are specified
by a directive followed by a list of access names. Examples of this are shown below.
• The third type of console is similar to the above mentioned one in that it requires a Console resource
definition in both the Director and the Console. In addition, if the console name, provided on the
Name = directive, is the same as a Client name, that console is permitted to use the SetIP command
to change the Address directive in the Director’s client resource to the IP address of the Console. This
permits portables or other machines using DHCP (non-fixed IP addresses) to ”notify” the Director of
their current IP address.
The Console resource is optional and need not be specified. The following directives are permitted within
the Director’s configuration resource:
Name = <name> The name of the console. This name must match the name specified in the Console’s
configuration resource (much as is the case with Client definitions).
Password = <password> Specifies the password that must be supplied for a named Bacula Console to
be authorized. The same password must appear in the Console resource of the Console configuration file. For added security, the password is never actually passed across the network but rather a
challenge response hash code created with the password. This directive is required. If you have either
5.19. THE COUNTER RESOURCE
91
/dev/random bc on your machine, Bacula will generate a random password during the configuration
process, otherwise it will be left blank.
The password is plain text. It is not generated through any special process. However, it is preferable
for security reasons to choose random text.
JobACL = <name-list> This directive is used to specify a list of Job resource names that can be accessed
by the console. Without this directive, the console cannot access any of the Director’s Job resources.
Multiple Job resource names may be specified by separating them with commas, and/or by specifying
multiple JobACL directives. For example, the directive may be specified as:
JobACL = kernsave, "Backup client 1", "Backup client 2"
JobACL = "RestoreFiles"
With the above specification, the console can access the Director’s resources for the four jobs named
on the JobACL directives, but for no others.
ClientACL = <name-list> This directive is used to specify a list of Client resource names that can be
accessed by the console.
StorageACL = <name-list> This directive is used to specify a list of Storage resource names that can
be accessed by the console.
ScheduleACL = <name-list> This directive is used to specify a list of Schedule resource names that can
be accessed by the console.
PoolACL = <name-list> This directive is used to specify a list of Pool resource names that can be
accessed by the console.
FileSetACL = <name-list> This directive is used to specify a list of FileSet resource names that can be
accessed by the console.
CatalogACL = <name-list> This directive is used to specify a list of Catalog resource names that can
be accessed by the console.
CommandACL = <name-list> This directive is used to specify a list of of console commands that can
be executed by the console.
WhereACL = <string> This directive permits you to specify where a restricted console can restore files.
If this directive is not specified, only the default restore location is permitted (normally /tmp/bacularestores. If *all* is specified any path the user enters will be accepted (not very secure), any other
value specified (there may be multiple WhereACL directives) will restrict the user to use that path.
For example, on a Unix system, if you specify ”/”, the file will be restored to the original location.
This directive is untested.
Aside from Director resource names and console command names, the special keyword *all* can be specified
in any of the above access control lists. When this keyword is present, any resource or command name (which
ever is appropriate) will be accepted. For an example configuration file, please see the Console Configuration
chapter of this manual.
5.19
The Counter Resource
The Counter Resource defines a counter variable that can be accessed by variable expansion used for creating
Volume labels with the LabelFormat directive. See the LabelFormat directive in this chapter for more
details.
Counter Start of the Counter resource. Counter directives are optional.
Name = <name> The name of the Counter. This is the name you will use in the variable expansion to
reference the counter value.
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CHAPTER 5. CONFIGURING THE DIRECTOR
Minimum = <integer> This specifies the minimum value that the counter can have. It also becomes the
default. If not supplied, zero is assumed.
Maximum = <integer> This is the maximum value value that the counter can have. If not specified or
set to zero, the counter can have a maximum value of 2,147,483,648 (2 to the 31 power). When the
counter is incremented past this value, it is reset to the Minimum.
*WrapCounter = <counter-name> If this value is specified, when the counter is incremented past the
maximum and thus reset to the minimum, the counter specified on the WrapCounter is incremented.
(This is not currently implemented).
Catalog = <catalog-name> If this directive is specified, the counter and its values will be saved in the
specified catalog. If this directive is not present, the counter will be redefined each time that Bacula
is started.
5.20
Example Director Configuration File
An example Director configuration file might be the following:
#
# Default Bacula Director Configuration file
#
# The only thing that MUST be changed is to add one or more
#
file or directory names in the Include directive of the
#
FileSet resource.
#
# For Bacula release 1.15 (5 March 2002) -- redhat
#
# You might also want to change the default email address
#
from root to your address. See the "mail" and "operator"
#
directives in the Messages resource.
#
Director {
# define myself
Name = rufus-dir
QueryFile = "/home/kern/bacula/bin/query.sql"
WorkingDirectory = "/home/kern/bacula/bin/working"
PidDirectory = "/home/kern/bacula/bin/working"
Password = "XkSfzu/Cf/wX4L8Zh4G4/yhCbpLcz3YVdmVoQvU3EyF/"
}
# Define the backup Job
Job {
Name = "NightlySave"
Type = Backup
Level = Incremental
# default
Client=rufus-fd
FileSet="Full Set"
Schedule = "WeeklyCycle"
Storage = DLTDrive
Messages = Standard
Pool = Default
}
Job {
Name = "Restore"
Type = Restore
Client=rufus-fd
FileSet="Full Set"
Where = /tmp/bacula-restores
Storage = DLTDrive
Messages = Standard
Pool = Default
}
# List of files to be backed up
FileSet {
Name = "Full Set"
Include {
Options { signature=SHA1}
#
# Put your list of files here, one per line or include an
5.20. EXAMPLE DIRECTOR CONFIGURATION FILE
#
#
#
#
#
external list with:
@file-name
Note: / backs up everything
File = /
}
Exclude {}
}
# When to do the backups
Schedule {
Name = "WeeklyCycle"
Run = level=Full sun at 2:05
Run = level=Incremental mon-sat at 2:05
}
# Client (File Services) to backup
Client {
Name = rufus-fd
Address = rufus
Catalog = MyCatalog
Password = "MQk6lVinz4GG2hdIZk1dsKE/LxMZGo6znMHiD7t7vzF+"
File Retention = 60d
# sixty day file retention
Job Retention = 1y
# 1 year Job retention
AutoPrune = yes
# Auto apply retention periods
}
# Definition of DLT tape storage device
Storage {
Name = DLTDrive
Address = rufus
Password = "jMeWZvfikUHvt3kzKVVPpQ0ccmV6emPnF2cPYFdhLApQ"
Device = "HP DLT 80"
# same as Device in Storage daemon
Media Type = DLT8000
# same as MediaType in Storage daemon
}
# Definition for a DLT autochanger device
Storage {
Name = Autochanger
Address = rufus
Password = "jMeWZvfikUHvt3kzKVVPpQ0ccmV6emPnF2cPYFdhLApQ"
Device = "Autochanger"
# same as Device in Storage daemon
Media Type = DLT-8000
# Different from DLTDrive
Autochanger = yes
}
# Definition of DDS tape storage device
Storage {
Name = SDT-10000
Address = rufus
Password = "jMeWZvfikUHvt3kzKVVPpQ0ccmV6emPnF2cPYFdhLApQ"
Device = SDT-10000
# same as Device in Storage daemon
Media Type = DDS-4
# same as MediaType in Storage daemon
}
# Definition of 8mm tape storage device
Storage {
Name = "8mmDrive"
Address = rufus
Password = "jMeWZvfikUHvt3kzKVVPpQ0ccmV6emPnF2cPYFdhLApQ"
Device = "Exabyte 8mm"
MediaType = "8mm"
}
# Definition of file storage device
Storage {
Name = File
Address = rufus
Password = "jMeWZvfikUHvt3kzKVVPpQ0ccmV6emPnF2cPYFdhLApQ"
Device = FileStorage
Media Type = File
}
# Generic catalog service
Catalog {
Name = MyCatalog
dbname = bacula; user = bacula; password = ""
}
# Reasonable message delivery -- send most everything to
#
the email address and to the console
Messages {
Name = Standard
mail = root@localhost = all, !skipped, !terminate
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CHAPTER 5. CONFIGURING THE DIRECTOR
operator = root@localhost = mount
console = all, !skipped, !saved
}
# Default pool definition
Pool {
Name = Default
Pool Type = Backup
AutoPrune = yes
Recycle = yes
}
#
# Restricted console used by tray-monitor to get the status of the director
#
Console {
Name = Monitor
Password = "GN0uRo7PTUmlMbqrJ2Gr1p0fk0HQJTxwnFyE4WSST3MWZseR"
CommandACL = status, .status
}
Chapter 6
Client/File daemon Configuration
The Client (or File Daemon) Configuration is one of the simpler ones to specify. Generally, other than
changing the Client name so that error messages are easily identified, you will not need to modify the default
Client configuration file.
For a general discussion of configuration file and resources including the data types recognized by Bacula,
please see the Configuration chapter of this manual. The following Client Resource definitions must be
defined:
• Client – to define what Clients are to be backed up.
• Director – to define the Director’s name and its access password.
• Messages – to define where error and information messages are to be sent.
6.1
The Client Resource
The Client Resource (or FileDaemon) resource defines the name of the Client (as used by the Director) as
well as the port on which the Client listens for Director connections.
Client (or FileDaemon) Start of the Client records. There must be one and only one Client resource in
the configuration file, since it defines the properties of the current client program.
Name = <name> The client name that must be used by the Director when connecting. Generally, it is a
good idea to use a name related to the machine so that error messages can be easily identified if you
have multiple Clients. This directive is required.
Working Directory = <Directory> This directive is mandatory and specifies a directory in which the
File daemon may put its status files. This directory should be used only by Bacula, but may be
shared by other Bacula daemons provided the daemon names on the Name definition are unique for
each daemon. This directive is required.
On Win32 systems, in some circumstances you may need to specify a drive letter in the specified
working directory path. Also, please be sure that this directory is writable by the SYSTEM user
otherwise restores may fail (the bootstrap file that is transferred to the File daemon from the Director
is temporarily put in this directory before being passed to the Storage daemon).
Pid Directory = <Directory> This directive is mandatory and specifies a directory in which the Director
may put its process Id file files. The process Id file is used to shutdown Bacula and to prevent multiple
copies of Bacula from running simultaneously. This record is required. Standard shell expansion of the
Directory is done when the configuration file is read so that values such as $HOME will be properly
expanded.
Typically on Linux systems, you will set this to: /var/run. If you are not installing Bacula in the
system directories, you can use the Working Directory as defined above.
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CHAPTER 6. CLIENT/FILE DAEMON CONFIGURATION
Heartbeat Interval = <time-interval> This record defines an interval of time in seconds. For each
heartbeat that the File daemon receives from the Storage daemon, it will forward it to the Director.
In addition, if no heartbeat has been received from the Storage daemon and thus forwarded the File
daemon will send a heartbeat signal to the Director and to the Storage daemon to keep the channels
active. The default interval is zero which disables the heartbeat. This feature is particularly useful
if you have a router such as 3Com that does not follow Internet standards and times out a valid
connection after a short duration despite the fact that keepalive is set. This usually results in a broken
pipe error message.
If you continue getting broken pipe error messages despite using the Heartbeat Interval, and you are
using Windows, you should consider upgrading your ethernet driver. This is a known problem with
NVidia NForce 3 drivers (4.4.2 17/05/2004), or try the following workaround suggested by Thomas
Simmons for Win32 machines:
Browse to: Start > Control Panel > Network Connections
Right click the connection for the nvidia adapter and select properties. Under the General tab, click
”Configure...”. Under the Advanced tab set ”Checksum Offload” to disabled and click OK to save the
change.
Lack of communications, or communications that get interrupted can also be caused by Linux firewalls
where you have a rule that throttles connections or traffic.
Maximum Concurrent Jobs = <number> where <number> is the maximum number of Jobs that
should run concurrently. The default is set to 2, but you may set it to a larger number. Each contact
from the Director (e.g. status request, job start request) is considered as a Job, so if you want to be
able to do a status request in the console at the same time as a Job is running, you will need to set
this value greater than 1.
FDAddresses = <IP-address-specification> Specify the ports and addresses on which the File daemon
listens for Director connections. Probably the simplest way to explain is to show an example:
FDAddresses = {
ip = { addr = 1.2.3.4; port = 1205; }
ipv4 = {
addr = 1.2.3.4; port = http; }
ipv6 = {
addr = 1.2.3.4;
port = 1205;
}
ip = {
addr = 1.2.3.4
port = 1205
}
ip = { addr = 1.2.3.4 }
ip = {
addr = 201:220:222::2
}
ip = {
addr = bluedot.thun.net
}
}
where ip, ip4, ip6, addr, and port are all keywords. Note, that the address can be specified as either a
dotted quadruple, or IPv6 colon notation, or as a symbolic name (only in the ip specification). Also,
port can be specified as a number or as the mnemonic value from the /etc/services file. If a port is not
specified, the default will be used. If an ip section is specified, the resolution can be made either by
IPv4 or IPv6. If ip4 is specified, then only IPv4 resolutions will be permitted, and likewise with ip6.
FDPort = <port-number> This specifies the port number on which the Client listens for Director connections. It must agree with the FDPort specified in the Client resource of the Director’s configuration
file. The default is 9102.
FDAddress = <IP-Address> This record is optional, and if it is specified, it will cause the File daemon
server (for Director connections) to bind to the specified IP-Address, which is either a domain name
or an IP address specified as a dotted quadruple. If this record is not specified, the File daemon will
bind to any available address (the default).
6.2. THE DIRECTOR RESOURCE
97
FDSourceAddress = <IP-Address> This record is optional, and if it is specified, it will cause the File
daemon server (for Storage connections) to bind to the specified IP-Address, which is either a domain
name or an IP address specified as a dotted quadruple. If this record is not specified, the kernel will
choose the best address according to the routing table (the default).
SDConnectTimeout = <time-interval> This record defines an interval of time that the File daemon
will try to connect to the Storage daemon. The default is 30 minutes. If no connection is made in the
specified time interval, the File daemon cancels the Job.
Maximum Network Buffer Size = <bytes> where <bytes> specifies the initial network buffer size to
use with the File daemon. This size will be adjusted down if it is too large until it is accepted by the
OS. Please use care in setting this value since if it is too large, it will be trimmed by 512 bytes until
the OS is happy, which may require a large number of system calls. The default value is 65,536 bytes.
Note, on certain Windows machines, there are reports that the transfer rates are very slow and this
seems to be related to the default 65,536 size. On systems where the transfer rates seem abnormally
slow compared to other systems, you might try setting the Maximum Network Buffer Size to 32,768 in
both the File daemon and in the Storage daemon.
Heartbeat Interval = <time-interval> This directive is optional and if specified will cause the File
daemon to set a keepalive interval (heartbeat) in seconds on each of the sockets to communicate with
the Storage daemon. It is implemented only on systems (Linux, ...) that provide the setsockopt
TCP KEEPIDLE function. The default value is zero, which means no change is made to the socket.
PKI Encryption See the Data Encryption chapter of this manual.
PKI Signatures See the Data Encryption chapter of this manual.
PKI Keypair See the Data Encryption chapter of this manual.
PKI Master Key See the Data Encryption chapter of this manual.
The following is an example of a valid Client resource definition:
Client {
# this is me
Name = rufus-fd
WorkingDirectory = $HOME/bacula/bin/working
Pid Directory = $HOME/bacula/bin/working
}
6.2
The Director Resource
The Director resource defines the name and password of the Directors that are permitted to contact this
Client.
Director Start of the Director records. There may be any number of Director resources in the Client
configuration file. Each one specifies a Director that is allowed to connect to this Client.
Name = <name> The name of the Director that may contact this Client. This name must be the same
as the name specified on the Director resource in the Director’s configuration file. Note, the case
(upper/lower) of the characters in the name are significant (i.e. S is not the same as s). This directive
is required.
Password = <password> Specifies the password that must be supplied for a Director to be authorized.
This password must be the same as the password specified in the Client resource in the Director’s
configuration file. This directive is required.
Monitor = <yes|no> If Monitor is set to no (default), this director will have full access to this Client. If
Monitor is set to yes, this director will only be able to fetch the current status of this Client.
Please note that if this director is being used by a Monitor, we highly recommend to set this directive
to yes to avoid serious security problems.
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CHAPTER 6. CLIENT/FILE DAEMON CONFIGURATION
Thus multiple Directors may be authorized to use this Client’s services. Each Director will have a different
name, and normally a different password as well.
The following is an example of a valid Director resource definition:
#
# List Directors who are permitted to contact the File daemon
#
Director {
Name = HeadMan
Password = very_good
# password HeadMan must supply
}
Director {
Name = Worker
Password = not_as_good
Monitor = Yes
}
6.3
The Message Resource
Please see the Messages Resource Chapter of this manual for the details of the Messages Resource.
There must be at least one Message resource in the Client configuration file.
6.4
Example Client Configuration File
An example File Daemon configuration file might be the following:
#
# Default Bacula File Daemon Configuration file
#
# For Bacula release 1.35.2 (16 August 2004) -- gentoo 1.4.16
#
# There is not much to change here except perhaps to
#
set the Director’s name and File daemon’s name
#
to something more appropriate for your site.
#
#
# List Directors who are permitted to contact this File daemon
#
Director {
Name = rufus-dir
Password = "/LqPRkX++saVyQE7w7mmiFg/qxYc1kufww6FEyY/47jU"
}
#
# Restricted Director, used by tray-monitor to get the
#
status of the file daemon
#
Director {
Name = rufus-mon
Password = "FYpq4yyI1y562EMS35bA0J0QC0M2L3t5cZObxT3XQxgxppTn"
Monitor = yes
}
#
# "Global" File daemon configuration specifications
#
FileDaemon {
# this is me
Name = rufus-fd
WorkingDirectory = $HOME/bacula/bin/working
Pid Directory = $HOME/bacula/bin/working
}
# Send all messages except skipped files back to Director
Messages {
Name = Standard
director = rufus-dir = all, !skipped
}
Chapter 7
Storage Daemon Configuration
The Storage Daemon configuration file has relatively few resource definitions. However, due to the great
variation in backup media and system capabilities, the storage daemon must be highly configurable. As a
consequence, there are quite a large number of directives in the Device Resource definition that allow you
to define all the characteristics of your Storage device (normally a tape drive). Fortunately, with modern
storage devices, the defaults are sufficient, and very few directives are actually needed.
Examples of Device resource directives that are known to work for a number of common tape drives can
be found in the <bacula-src>/examples/devices directory, and most will also be listed here.
For a general discussion of configuration file and resources including the data types recognized by Bacula,
please see the Configuration chapter of this manual. The following Storage Resource definitions must be
defined:
• Storage – to define the name of the Storage daemon.
• Director – to define the Director’s name and his access password.
• Device – to define the characteristics of your storage device (tape drive).
• Messages – to define where error and information messages are to be sent.
7.1
Storage Resource
In general, the properties specified under the Storage resource define global properties of the Storage daemon.
Each Storage daemon configuration file must have one and only one Storage resource definition.
Name = <Storage-Daemon-Name> Specifies the Name of the Storage daemon. This directive is required.
Working Directory = <Directory> This directive is mandatory and specifies a directory in which the
Storage daemon may put its status files. This directory should be used only by Bacula, but may be
shared by other Bacula daemons provided the names given to each daemon are unique. This directive
is required
Pid Directory = <Directory> This directive is mandatory and specifies a directory in which the Director
may put its process Id file files. The process Id file is used to shutdown Bacula and to prevent multiple
copies of Bacula from running simultaneously. This directive is required. Standard shell expansion
of the Directory is done when the configuration file is read so that values such as $HOME will be
properly expanded.
Typically on Linux systems, you will set this to: /var/run. If you are not installing Bacula in the
system directories, you can use the Working Directory as defined above.
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CHAPTER 7. STORAGE DAEMON CONFIGURATION
Heartbeat Interval = <time-interval> This directive defines an interval of time in seconds. When the
Storage daemon is waiting for the operator to mount a tape, each time interval, it will send a heartbeat
signal to the File daemon. The default interval is zero which disables the heartbeat. This feature is
particularly useful if you have a router such as 3Com that does not follow Internet standards and times
out an valid connection after a short duration despite the fact that keepalive is set. This usually results
in a broken pipe error message.
Client Connect Wait = <time-interval> This directive defines an interval of time in seconds that the
Storage daemon will wait for a Client (the File daemon) to connect. The default is 30 minutes. Be
aware that the longer the Storage daemon waits for a Client, the more resources will be tied up.
Maximum Concurrent Jobs = <number> where <number> is the maximum number of Jobs that
may run concurrently. The default is set to 10, but you may set it to a larger number. Each contact
from the Director (e.g. status request, job start request) is considered as a Job, so if you want to
be able to do a status request in the console at the same time as a Job is running, you will need
to set this value greater than 1. To run simultaneous Jobs, you will need to set a number of other
directives in the Director’s configuration file. Which ones you set depend on what you want, but you
will almost certainly need to set the Maximum Concurrent Jobs in the Storage resource in the
Director’s configuration file and possibly those in the Job and Client resources.
SDAddresses = <IP-address-specification> Specify the ports and addresses on which the Storage daemon will listen for Director connections. Normally, the default is sufficient and you do not need to
specify this directive. Probably the simplest way to explain how this directive works is to show an
example:
SDAddresses
addr
ipv4 = {
addr
ipv6 = {
addr
port
}
ip = {
addr
port
}
ip = {
addr
}
ip = {
addr
}
ip = {
addr
}
= { ip = {
= 1.2.3.4; port = 1205; }
= 1.2.3.4; port = http; }
= 1.2.3.4;
= 1205;
= 1.2.3.4
= 1205
= 1.2.3.4
= 201:220:222::2
= bluedot.thun.net
}
where ip, ip4, ip6, addr, and port are all keywords. Note, that the address can be specified as either a
dotted quadruple, or IPv6 colon notation, or as a symbolic name (only in the ip specification). Also,
port can be specified as a number or as the mnemonic value from the /etc/services file. If a port is not
specified, the default will be used. If an ip section is specified, the resolution can be made either by
IPv4 or IPv6. If ip4 is specified, then only IPv4 resolutions will be permitted, and likewise with ip6.
Using this directive, you can replace both the SDPort and SDAddress directives shown below.
SDPort = <port-number> Specifies port number on which the Storage daemon listens for Director connections. The default is 9103.
SDAddress = <IP-Address> This directive is optional, and if it is specified, it will cause the Storage
daemon server (for Director and File daemon connections) to bind to the specified IP-Address, which
is either a domain name or an IP address specified as a dotted quadruple. If this directive is not
specified, the Storage daemon will bind to any available address (the default).
The following is a typical Storage daemon Storage definition.
7.2. DIRECTOR RESOURCE
101
#
# "Global" Storage daemon configuration specifications appear
# under the Storage resource.
#
Storage {
Name = "Storage daemon"
Address = localhost
WorkingDirectory = "~/bacula/working"
Pid
Directory = "~/bacula/working"
}
7.2
Director Resource
The Director resource specifies the Name of the Director which is permitted to use the services of the
Storage daemon. There may be multiple Director resources. The Director Name and Password must match
the corresponding values in the Director’s configuration file.
Name = <Director-Name> Specifies the Name of the Director allowed to connect to the Storage daemon.
This directive is required.
Password = <Director-password> Specifies the password that must be supplied by the above named
Director. This directive is required.
Monitor = <yes|no> If Monitor is set to no (default), this director will have full access to this Storage
daemon. If Monitor is set to yes, this director will only be able to fetch the current status of this
Storage daemon.
Please note that if this director is being used by a Monitor, we highly recommend to set this directive
to yes to avoid serious security problems.
The following is an example of a valid Director resource definition:
Director {
Name = MainDirector
Password = my_secret_password
}
7.3
Device Resource
The Device Resource specifies the details of each device (normally a tape drive) that can be used by the
Storage daemon. There may be multiple Device resources for a single Storage daemon. In general, the
properties specified within the Device resource are specific to the Device.
Name = Device-Name Specifies the Name that the Director will use when asking to backup or restore to
or from to this device. This is the logical Device name, and may be any string up to 127 characters
in length. It is generally a good idea to make it correspond to the English name of the backup device.
The physical name of the device is specified on the Archive Device directive described below. The
name you specify here is also used in your Director’s conf file on the Device directive in its Storage
resource.
Archive Device = name-string The specified name-string gives the system file name of the storage device
managed by this storage daemon. This will usually be the device file name of a removable storage
device (tape drive), for example ”/dev/nst0” or ”/dev/rmt/0mbn”. For a DVD-writer, it will be
for example /dev/hdc. It may also be a directory name if you are archiving to disk storage. In this
case, you must supply the full absolute path to the directory. When specifying a tape device, it is
preferable that the ”non-rewind” variant of the device file name be given. In addition, on systems
such as Sun, which have multiple tape access methods, you must be sure to specify to use Berkeley
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I/O conventions with the device. The b in the Solaris (Sun) archive specification /dev/rmt/0mbn
is what is needed in this case. Bacula does not support SysV tape drive behavior.
As noted above, normally the Archive Device is the name of a tape drive, but you may also specify an
absolute path to an existing directory. If the Device is a directory Bacula will write to file storage in
the specified directory, and the filename used will be the Volume name as specified in the Catalog. If
you want to write into more than one directory (i.e. to spread the load to different disk drives), you
will need to define two Device resources, each containing an Archive Device with a different directory.
In addition to a tape device name or a directory name, Bacula will accept the name of a FIFO. A FIFO
is a special kind of file that connects two programs via kernel memory. If a FIFO device is specified for
a backup operation, you must have a program that reads what Bacula writes into the FIFO. When the
Storage daemon starts the job, it will wait for MaximumOpenWait seconds for the read program
to start reading, and then time it out and terminate the job. As a consequence, it is best to start the
read program at the beginning of the job perhaps with the RunBeforeJob directive. For this kind of
device, you never want to specify AlwaysOpen, because you want the Storage daemon to open it only
when a job starts, so you must explicitly set it to No. Since a FIFO is a one way device, Bacula will
not attempt to read a label of a FIFO device, but will simply write on it. To create a FIFO Volume
in the catalog, use the add command rather than the label command to avoid attempting to write a
label.
Device {
Name = FifoStorage
Media Type = Fifo
Device Type = Fifo
Archive Device = /tmp/fifo
LabelMedia = yes
Random Access = no
AutomaticMount = no
RemovableMedia = no
MaximumOpenWait = 60
AlwaysOpen = no
}
During a restore operation, if the Archive Device is a FIFO, Bacula will attempt to read from the
FIFO, so you must have an external program that writes into the FIFO. Bacula will wait MaximumOpenWait seconds for the program to begin writing and will then time it out and terminate the
job. As noted above, you may use the RunBeforeJob to start the writer program at the beginning
of the job.
The Archive Device directive is required.
Device Type = type-specification The Device Type specification allows you to explicitly tell Bacula what
kind of device you are defining. It the type-specification may be one of the following:
File Tells Bacula that the device is a file. It may either be a file defined on fixed medium or a removable
filesystem such as USB. All files must be random access devices.
Tape The device is a tape device and thus is sequential access. Tape devices are controlled using
ioctl() calls.
Fifo The device is a first-in-first out sequential access read-only or write-only device.
DVD The device is a DVD. DVDs are sequential access for writing, but random access for reading.
The Device Type directive is not required, and if not specified, Bacula will attempt to guess what
kind of device has been specified using the Archive Device specification supplied. There are several
advantages to explicitly specifying the Device Type. First, on some systems, block and character
devices have the same type, which means that on those systems, Bacula is unlikely to be able to
correctly guess that a device is a DVD. Secondly, if you explicitly specify the Device Type, the mount
point need not be defined until the device is opened. This is the case with most removable devices such
as USB that are mounted by the HAL daemon. If the Device Type is not explicitly specified, then the
mount point must exist when the Storage daemon starts.
This directive was implemented in Bacula version 1.38.6.
Media Type = name-string The specified name-string names the type of media supported by this device,
for example, ”DLT7000”. Media type names are arbitrary in that you set them to anything you want,
but they must be known to the volume database to keep track of which storage daemons can read
7.3. DEVICE RESOURCE
103
which volumes. In general, each different storage type should have a unique Media Type associated
with it. The same name-string must appear in the appropriate Storage resource definition in the
Director’s configuration file.
Even though the names you assign are arbitrary (i.e. you choose the name you want), you should take
care in specifying them because the Media Type is used to determine which storage device Bacula will
select during restore. Thus you should probably use the same Media Type specification for all drives
where the Media can be freely interchanged. This is not generally an issue if you have a single Storage
daemon, but it is with multiple Storage daemons, especially if they have incompatible media.
For example, if you specify a Media Type of ”DDS-4” then during the restore, Bacula will be able to
choose any Storage Daemon that handles ”DDS-4”. If you have an autochanger, you might want to
name the Media Type in a way that is unique to the autochanger, unless you wish to possibly use the
Volumes in other drives. You should also ensure to have unique Media Type names if the Media is not
compatible between drives. This specification is required for all devices.
In addition, if you are using disk storage, each Device resource will generally have a different mount
point or directory. In order for Bacula to select the correct Device resource, each one must have a
unique Media Type.
Autochanger = yes|no If Yes, this device belongs to an automatic tape changer, and you must specify
an Autochanger resource that points to the Device resources. You must also specify a Changer
Device. If the Autochanger directive is set to No (default), the volume must be manually changed.
You should also have an identical directive to the Storage resource in the Director’s configuration file
so that when labeling tapes you are prompted for the slot.
Changer Device = name-string The specified name-string must be the generic SCSI device name of
the autochanger that corresponds to the normal read/write Archive Device specified in the Device
resource. This generic SCSI device name should be specified if you have an autochanger or if you have
a standard tape drive and want to use the Alert Command (see below). For example, on Linux
systems, for an Archive Device name of /dev/nst0, you would specify /dev/sg0 for the Changer
Device name. Depending on your exact configuration, and the number of autochangers or the type of
autochanger, what you specify here can vary. This directive is optional. See the Using Autochangers
chapter of this manual for more details of using this and the following autochanger directives.
Changer Command = name-string The name-string specifies an external program to be called that will
automatically change volumes as required by Bacula. Normally, this directive will be specified only
in the AutoChanger resource, which is then used for all devices. However, you may also specify the
different Changer Command in each Device resource. Most frequently, you will specify the Bacula
supplied mtx-changer script as follows:
Changer Command = "/path/mtx-changer %c %o %S %a %d"
and you will install the mtx on your system (found in the depkgs release). An example of this
command is in the default bacula-sd.conf file. For more details on the substitution characters that may
be specified to configure your autochanger please see the Autochangers chapter of this manual. For
FreeBSD users, you might want to see one of the several chio scripts in examples/autochangers.
Alert Command = name-string The name-string specifies an external program to be called at the completion of each Job after the device is released. The purpose of this command is to check for Tape
Alerts, which are present when something is wrong with your tape drive (at least for most modern
tape drives). The same substitution characters that may be specified in the Changer Command may
also be used in this string. For more information, please see the Autochangers chapter of this manual.
Note, it is not necessary to have an autochanger to use this command. The example below uses the
tapeinfo program that comes with the mtx package, but it can be used on any tape drive. However,
you will need to specify a Changer Device directive in your Device resource (see above) so that the
generic SCSI device name can be edited into the command (with the %c).
An example of the use of this command to print Tape Alerts in the Job report is:
Alert Command = "sh -c ’tapeinfo -f %c | grep TapeAlert’"
and an example output when there is a problem could be:
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CHAPTER 7. STORAGE DAEMON CONFIGURATION
bacula-sd
Alert: TapeAlert[32]: Interface: Problem with SCSI interface
between tape drive and initiator.
Drive Index = number The Drive Index that you specify is passed to the mtx-changer script and is
thus passed to the mtx program. By default, the Drive Index is zero, so if you have only one drive
in your autochanger, everything will work normally. However, if you have multiple drives, you must
specify multiple Bacula Device resources (one for each drive). The first Device should have the Drive
Index set to 0, and the second Device Resource should contain a Drive Index set to 1, and so on. This
will then permit you to use two or more drives in your autochanger. As of Bacula version 1.38.0, using
the Autochanger resource, Bacula will automatically ensure that only one drive at a time uses the
autochanger script, so you no longer need locking scripts as in the past – the default mtx-changer script
works for any number of drives.
Autoselect = yes|no If this directive is set to yes (default), and the Device belongs to an autochanger,
then when the Autochanger is referenced by the Director, this device can automatically be selected. If
this directive is set to no, then the Device can only be referenced by directly using the Device name in
the Director. This is useful for reserving a drive for something special such as a high priority backup
or restore operations.
Maximum Changer Wait = time This directive specifies the maximum time in seconds for Bacula to
wait for an autochanger to change the volume. If this time is exceeded, Bacula will invalidate the
Volume slot number stored in the catalog and try again. If no additional changer volumes exist,
Bacula will ask the operator to intervene. The default is 5 minutes.
Maximum Rewind Wait = time This directive specifies the maximum time in seconds for Bacula to wait
for a rewind before timing out. If this time is exceeded, Bacula will cancel the job. The default is 5
minutes.
Maximum Open Wait = time This directive specifies the maximum time in seconds for Bacula to wait
for a open before timing out. If this time is exceeded, Bacula will cancel the job. The default is 5
minutes.
Always Open = yes|no If Yes (default), Bacula will always keep the device open unless specifically unmounted by the Console program. This permits Bacula to ensure that the tape drive is always
available, and properly positioned. If you set AlwaysOpen to no Bacula will only open the drive
when necessary, and at the end of the Job if no other Jobs are using the drive, it will be freed. The
next time Bacula wants to append to a tape on a drive that was freed, Bacula will rewind the tape and
position it to the end. To avoid unnecessary tape positioning and to minimize unnecessary operator
intervention, it is highly recommended that Always Open = yes. This also ensures that the drive is
available when Bacula needs it.
If you have Always Open = yes (recommended) and you want to use the drive for something else,
simply use the unmount command in the Console program to release the drive. However, don’t forget
to remount the drive with mount when the drive is available or the next Bacula job will block.
For File storage, this directive is ignored. For a FIFO storage device, you must set this to No.
Please note that if you set this directive to No Bacula will release the tape drive between each job, and
thus the next job will rewind the tape and position it to the end of the data. This can be a very time
consuming operation. In addition, with this directive set to no, certain multiple drive autochanger
operations will fail. We strongly recommend to keep Always Open set to Yes
Volume Poll Interval = time If the time specified on this directive is non-zero, after asking the operator
to mount a new volume Bacula will periodically poll (or read) the drive at the specified interval to
see if a new volume has been mounted. If the time interval is zero (the default), no polling will occur.
This directive can be useful if you want to avoid operator intervention via the console. Instead, the
operator can simply remove the old volume and insert the requested one, and Bacula on the next poll
will recognize the new tape and continue. Please be aware that if you set this interval too small, you
may excessively wear your tape drive if the old tape remains in the drive, since Bacula will read it on
each poll. This can be avoided by ejecting the tape using the Offline On Unmount and the Close
on Poll directives. However, if you are using a Linux 2.6 kernel or other OSes such as FreeBSD or
Solaris, the Offline On Unmount will leave the drive with no tape, and Bacula will not be able to
properly open the drive and may fail the job. For more information on this problem, please see the
description of Offline On Unmount in the Tape Testing chapter.
7.3. DEVICE RESOURCE
105
Close on Poll= yes|no If Yes, Bacula close the device (equivalent to an unmount except no mount is
required) and reopen it at each poll. Normally this is not too useful unless you have the Offline on
Unmount directive set, in which case the drive will be taken offline preventing wear on the tape during
any future polling. Once the operator inserts a new tape, Bacula will recognize the drive on the next
poll and automatically continue with the backup. Please see above more more details.
Maximum Open Wait = time This directive specifies the maximum amount of time in seconds that
Bacula will wait for a device that is busy. The default is 5 minutes. If the device cannot be obtained,
the current Job will be terminated in error. Bacula will re-attempt to open the drive the next time a
Job starts that needs the the drive.
Removable media = yes|no If Yes, this device supports removable media (for example, tapes or CDs).
If No, media cannot be removed (for example, an intermediate backup area on a hard disk). If
Removable media is enabled on a File device (as opposed to a tape) the Storage daemon will assume
that device may be something like a USB device that can be removed or a simply a removable harddisk.
When attempting to open such a device, if the Volume is not found (for File devices, the Volume name
is the same as the Filename), then the Storage daemon will search the entire device looking for likely
Volume names, and for each one found, it will ask the Director if the Volume can be used. If so, the
Storage daemon will use the first such Volume found. Thus it acts somewhat like a tape drive – if the
correct Volume is not found, it looks at what actually is found, and if it is an appendable Volume, it
will use it.
If the removable medium is not automatically mounted (e.g. udev), then you might consider using additional Storage daemon device directives such as Requires Mount, Mount Point, Mount
Command, and Unmount Command, all of which can be used in conjunction with Removable
Media.
Random access = yes|no If Yes, the archive device is assumed to be a random access medium which
supports the lseek (or lseek64 if Largefile is enabled during configuration) facility. This should be set
to Yes for all file systems such as DVD, USB, and fixed files. It should be set to No for non-random
access devices such as tapes and named pipes.
Requires Mount = yes|no When this directive is enabled, the Storage daemon will submit a Mount
Command before attempting to open the device. You must set this directive to yes for DVD-writers
and removable file systems such as USB devices that are not automatically mounted by the operating
system when plugged in or opened by Bacula. It should be set to no for all other devices such as
tapes and fixed filesystems. It should also be set to no for any removable device that is automatically
mounted by the operating system when opened (e.g. USB devices mounted by udev or hotplug). This
directive indicates if the device requires to be mounted using the Mount Command. To be able
to write a DVD, the following directives must also be defined: Mount Point, Mount Command,
Unmount Command and Write Part Command.
Mount Point = directory Directory where the device can be mounted. This directive is used only for
devices that have Requires Mount enabled such as DVD or USB file devices.
Mount Command = name-string This directive specifies the command that must be executed to mount
devices such as DVDs and many USB devices. For DVDs, the device is written directly, but the mount
command is necessary in order to determine the free space left on the DVD. Before the command is
executed, %a is replaced with the Archive Device, and %m with the Mount Point.
Most frequently, for a DVD, you will define it as follows:
Mount Command = "/bin/mount -t iso9660 -o ro %a %m"
However, if you have defined a mount point in /etc/fstab, you might be able to use a mount command
such as:
Mount Command = "/bin/mount /media/dvd"
See the Edit Codes section below for more details of the editing codes that can be used in this directive.
If you need to specify multiple commands, create a shell script.
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CHAPTER 7. STORAGE DAEMON CONFIGURATION
Unmount Command = name-string This directive specifies the command that must be executed to unmount devices such as DVDs and many USB devices. Before the command is executed, %a is replaced
with the Archive Device, and %m with the Mount Point.
Most frequently, you will define it as follows:
Unmount Command = "/bin/umount %m"
See the Edit Codes section below for more details of the editing codes that can be used in this directive.
If you need to specify multiple commands, create a shell script.
Minimum block size = size-in-bytes On most modern tape drives, you will not need or want to specify
this directive, and if you do so, it will be to make Bacula use fixed block sizes. This statement applies
only to non-random access devices (e.g. tape drives). Blocks written by the storage daemon to a
non-random archive device will never be smaller than the given size-in-bytes. The Storage daemon
will attempt to efficiently fill blocks with data received from active sessions but will, if necessary, add
padding to a block to achieve the required minimum size.
To force the block size to be fixed, as is the case for some non-random access devices (tape drives), set
the Minimum block size and the Maximum block size to the same value (zero included). The
default is that both the minimum and maximum block size are zero and the default block size is 64,512
bytes.
For example, suppose you want a fixed block size of 100K bytes, then you would specify:
Minimum block size = 100K
Maximum block size = 100K
Please note that if you specify a fixed block size as shown above, the tape drive must either be in
variable block size mode, or if it is in fixed block size mode, the block size (generally defined by mt)
must be identical to the size specified in Bacula – otherwise when you attempt to re-read your Volumes,
you will get an error.
If you want the block size to be variable but with a 64K minimum and 200K maximum (and default
as well), you would specify:
Minimum block size = 64K
Maximum blocksize = 200K
Maximum block size = size-in-bytes On most modern tape drives, you will not need to specify this directive. If you do so, it will most likely be to use fixed block sizes (see Minimum block size above).
The Storage daemon will always attempt to write blocks of the specified size-in-bytes to the archive
device. As a consequence, this statement specifies both the default block size and the maximum block
size. The size written never exceed the given size-in-bytes. If adding data to a block would cause it
to exceed the given maximum size, the block will be written to the archive device, and the new data
will begin a new block.
If no value is specified or zero is specified, the Storage daemon will use a default block size of 64,512
bytes (126 * 512).
The maximum size-in-bytes possible is 2,000,000.
Hardware End of Medium = yes|no If No, the archive device is not required to support end of medium
ioctl request, and the storage daemon will use the forward space file function to find the end of the
recorded data. If Yes, the archive device must support the ioctl MTEOM call, which will position the
tape to the end of the recorded data. In addition, your SCSI driver must keep track of the file number
on the tape and report it back correctly by the MTIOCGET ioctl. Note, some SCSI drivers will
correctly forward space to the end of the recorded data, but they do not keep track of the file number.
On Linux machines, the SCSI driver has a fast-eod option, which if set will cause the driver to lose
track of the file number. You should ensure that this option is always turned off using the mt program.
Default setting for Hardware End of Medium is Yes. This function is used before appending to a tape
to ensure that no previously written data is lost. We recommend if you have a non-standard or unusual
tape drive that you use the btape program to test your drive to see whether or not it supports this
function. All modern (after 1998) tape drives support this feature.
7.3. DEVICE RESOURCE
107
Fast Forward Space File = yes|no If No, the archive device is not required to support keeping track
of the file number (MTIOCGET ioctl) during forward space file. If Yes, the archive device must
support the ioctl MTFSF call, which virtually all drivers support, but in addition, your SCSI driver
must keep track of the file number on the tape and report it back correctly by the MTIOCGET ioctl.
Note, some SCSI drivers will correctly forward space, but they do not keep track of the file number or
more seriously, they do not report end of medium.
Default setting for Fast Forward Space File is Yes.
Use MTIOCGET = yes|no If No, the operating system is not required to support keeping track of the
file number and reporting it in the (MTIOCGET ioctl). The default is Yes. If you must set this to
No, Bacula will do the proper file position determination, but it is very unfortunate because it means
that tape movement is very inefficient. Fortunately, this operation system deficiency seems to be the
case only on a few *BSD systems. Operating systems known to work correctly are Solaris, Linux and
FreeBSD.
BSF at EOM = yes|no If No, the default, no special action is taken by Bacula with the End of Medium
(end of tape) is reached because the tape will be positioned after the last EOF tape mark, and Bacula
can append to the tape as desired. However, on some systems, such as FreeBSD, when Bacula reads
the End of Medium (end of tape), the tape will be positioned after the second EOF tape mark (two
successive EOF marks indicated End of Medium). If Bacula appends from that point, all the appended
data will be lost. The solution for such systems is to specify BSF at EOM which causes Bacula to
backspace over the second EOF mark. Determination of whether or not you need this directive is done
using the test command in the btape program.
TWO EOF = yes|no If Yes, Bacula will write two end of file marks when terminating a tape – i.e. after
the last job or at the end of the medium. If No, the default, Bacula will only write one end of file to
terminate the tape.
Backward Space Record = yes|no If Yes, the archive device supports the MTBSR ioctl to backspace
records. If No, this call is not used and the device must be rewound and advanced forward to the
desired position. Default is Yes for non random-access devices. This function if enabled is used at
the end of a Volume after writing the end of file and any ANSI/IBM labels to determine whether or
not the last block was written correctly. If you turn this function off, the test will not be done. This
causes no harm as the re-read process is precautionary rather than required.
Backward Space File = yes|no If Yes, the archive device supports the MTBSF and MTBSF ioctls
to backspace over an end of file mark and to the start of a file. If No, these calls are not used and
the device must be rewound and advanced forward to the desired position. Default is Yes for non
random-access devices.
Forward Space Record = yes|no If Yes, the archive device must support the MTFSR ioctl to forward
space over records. If No, data must be read in order to advance the position on the device. Default
is Yes for non random-access devices.
Forward Space File = yes|no If Yes, the archive device must support the MTFSF ioctl to forward space
by file marks. If No, data must be read to advance the position on the device. Default is Yes for non
random-access devices.
Offline On Unmount = yes|no The default for this directive is No. If Yes the archive device must
support the MTOFFL ioctl to rewind and take the volume offline. In this case, Bacula will issue the
offline (eject) request before closing the device during the unmount command. If No Bacula will
not attempt to offline the device before unmounting it. After an offline is issued, the cassette will be
ejected thus requiring operator intervention to continue, and on some systems require an explicit
load command to be issued (mt -f /dev/xxx load) before the system will recognize the tape. If you
are using an autochanger, some devices require an offline to be issued prior to changing the volume.
However, most devices do not and may get very confused.
If you are using a Linux 2.6 kernel or other OSes such as FreeBSD or Solaris, the Offline On Unmount
will leave the drive with no tape, and Bacula will not be able to properly open the drive and may fail
the job. For more information on this problem, please see the description of Offline On Unmount in
the Tape Testing chapter.
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Maximum Concurrent Jobs = <number> where <number> is the maximum number of Jobs that can
run concurrently on a specified Device. Using this directive, it is possible to have different Jobs using
multiple drives, because when the Maximum Concurrent Jobs limit is reached, the Storage Daemon
will start new Jobs on any other available compatible drive. This facilitates writing to multiple drives
with multiple Jobs that all use the same Pool.
Maximum Volume Size = size No more than size bytes will be written onto a given volume on the
archive device. This directive is used mainly in testing Bacula to simulate a small Volume. It can also
be useful if you wish to limit the size of a File Volume to say less than 2GB of data. In some rare cases
of really antiquated tape drives that do not properly indicate when the end of a tape is reached during
writing (though I have read about such drives, I have never personally encountered one). Please note,
this directive is deprecated (being phased out) in favor of the Maximum Volume Bytes defined in
the Director’s configuration file.
Maximum File Size = size No more than size bytes will be written into a given logical file on the volume.
Once this size is reached, an end of file mark is written on the volume and subsequent data are written
into the next file. Breaking long sequences of data blocks with file marks permits quicker positioning
to the start of a given stream of data and can improve recovery from read errors on the volume. The
default is one Gigabyte. This directive creates EOF marks only on tape media. However, regardless of
the medium type (tape, disk, DVD, ...) each time a the Maximum File Size is exceeded, a record is put
into the catalog database that permits seeking to that position on the medium for restore operations.
If you set this to a small value (e.g. 1MB), you will generate lots of database records (JobMedia) and
may significantly increase CPU/disk overhead.
If you are configuring an LTO-3 or LTO-4 tape, you probably will want to set the Maximum File
Size to 2GB to avoid making the drive stop to write an EOF mark.
Note, this directive does not limit the size of Volumes that Bacula will create regardless of whether
they are tape or disk volumes. It changes only the number of EOF marks on a tape and the number of
block positioning records (see below) that are generated. If you want to limit the size of all Volumes
for a particular device, use the Maximum Volume Size directive (above), or use the Maximum
Volume Bytes directive in the Director’s Pool resource, which does the same thing but on a Pool
(Volume) basis.
Block Positioning = yes|no This directive tells Bacula not to use block positioning when doing restores.
Turning this directive off can cause Bacula to be extremely slow when restoring files. You might use
this directive if you wrote your tapes with Bacula in variable block mode (the default), but your drive
was in fixed block mode. The default is yes.
Maximum Network Buffer Size = bytes where bytes specifies the initial network buffer size to use with
the File daemon. This size will be adjusted down if it is too large until it is accepted by the OS. Please
use care in setting this value since if it is too large, it will be trimmed by 512 bytes until the OS is
happy, which may require a large number of system calls. The default value is 32,768 bytes.
The default size was chosen to be relatively large but not too big in the case that you are transmitting
data over Internet. It is clear that on a high speed local network, you can increase this number and
improve performance. For example, some users have found that if you use a value of 65,536 bytes they
get five to ten times the throughput. Larger values for most users don’t seem to improve performance.
If you are interested in improving your backup speeds, this is definitely a place to experiment. You
will probably also want to make the corresponding change in each of your File daemons conf files.
Maximum Spool Size = bytes where the bytes specify the maximum spool size for all jobs that are running. The default is no limit.
Maximum Job Spool Size = bytes where the bytes specify the maximum spool size for any one job that
is running. The default is no limit. This directive is implemented only in version 1.37 and later.
Spool Directory = directory specifies the name of the directory to be used to store the spool files for this
device. This directory is also used to store temporary part files when writing to a device that requires
mount (DVD). The default is to use the working directory.
Maximum Part Size = bytes This is the maximum size of a volume part file. The default is no limit.
This directive is implemented only in version 1.37 and later.
If the device requires mount, it is transferred to the device when this size is reached. In this case, you
must take care to have enough disk space left in the spool directory.
7.4. EDIT CODES FOR MOUNT AND UNMOUNT DIRECTIVES
109
Otherwise, it is left on the hard disk.
It is ignored for tape and FIFO devices.
7.4
Edit Codes for Mount and Unmount Directives
Before submitting the Mount Command, Unmount Command, Write Part Command, or Free
Space Command directives to the operating system, Bacula performs character substitution of the following
characters:
%%
%a
%e
%n
%m
%v
7.5
=
=
=
=
=
=
%
Archive device name
erase (set if cannot mount and first part)
part number
mount point
last part name (i.e. filename)
Devices that require a mount (DVD)
All the directives in this section are implemented only in Bacula version 1.37 and later and hence are available
in version 1.38.6.
As of version 1.39.5, the directives ”Requires Mount”, ”Mount Point”, ”Mount Command”, and ”Unmount
Command” apply to removable filesystems such as USB in addition to DVD.
Requires Mount = yes|no You must set this directive to yes for DVD-writers, and to no for all other
devices (tapes/files). This directive indicates if the device requires to be mounted to be read, and if it
must be written in a special way. If it set, Mount Point, Mount Command, Unmount Command
and Write Part Command directives must also be defined.
Mount Point = directory Directory where the device can be mounted.
Mount Command = name-string Command that must be executed to mount the device. Before the
command is executed, %a is replaced with the Archive Device, and %m with the Mount Point.
Most frequently, you will define it as follows:
Mount Command = "/bin/mount -t iso9660 -o ro %a %m"
For some media, you may need multiple commands. If so, it is recommended that you use a shell script
instead of putting them all into the Mount Command. For example, instead of this:
Mount Command = "/usr/local/bin/mymount"
Where that script contains:
#!/bin/sh
ndasadmin enable -s 1 -o w
sleep 2
mount /dev/ndas-00323794-0p1 /backup
Similar consideration should be given to all other Command parameters.
Unmount Command = name-string Command that must be executed to unmount the device. Before
the command is executed, %a is replaced with the Archive Device, and %m with the Mount Point.
Most frequently, you will define it as follows:
Unmount Command = "/bin/umount %m"
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If you need to specify multiple commands, create a shell script.
Write Part Command = name-string Command that must be executed to write a part to the device.
Before the command is executed, %a is replaced with the Archive Device, %m with the Mount Point,
%e is replaced with 1 if we are writing the first part, and with 0 otherwise, and %v with the current
part filename.
For a DVD, you will most frequently specify the Bacula supplied dvd-handler script as follows:
Write Part Command = "/path/dvd-handler %a write %e %v"
Where /path is the path to your scripts install directory, and dvd-handler is the Bacula supplied script
file. This command will already be present, but commented out, in the default bacula-sd.conf file. To
use it, simply remove the comment (#) symbol.
If you need to specify multiple commands, create a shell script.
Free Space Command = name-string Command that must be executed to check how much free space is
left on the device. Before the command is executed,%a is replaced with the Archive Device, %m with
the Mount Point, %e is replaced with 1 if we are writing the first part, and with 0 otherwise, and %v
with the current part filename.
For a DVD, you will most frequently specify the Bacula supplied dvd-handler script as follows:
Free Space Command = "/path/dvd-handler %a free"
Where /path is the path to your scripts install directory, and dvd-handler is the Bacula supplied script
file. If you want to specify your own command, please look at the code of dvd-handler to see what
output Bacula expects from this command. This command will already be present, but commented
out, in the default bacula-sd.conf file. To use it, simply remove the comment (#) symbol.
If you do not set it, Bacula will expect there is always free space on the device.
If you need to specify multiple commands, create a shell script.
Chapter 8
Autochanger Resource
The Autochanger resource supports single or multiple drive autochangers by grouping one or more Device
resources into one unit called an autochanger in Bacula (often referred to as a ”tape library” by autochanger
manufacturers).
If you have an Autochanger, and you want it to function correctly, you must have an Autochanger resource
in your Storage conf file, and your Director’s Storage directives that want to use an Autochanger must refer
to the Autochanger resource name. In previous versions of Bacula, the Director’s Storage directives referred
directly to Device resources that were autochangers. In version 1.38.0 and later, referring directly to Device
resources will not work for Autochangers.
Name = <Autochanger-Name> Specifies the Name of the Autochanger. This name is used in the
Director’s Storage definition to refer to the autochanger. This directive is required.
Device = <Device-name1, device-name2, ...> Specifies the names of the Device resource or resources
that correspond to the autochanger drive. If you have a multiple drive autochanger, you must specify
multiple Device names, each one referring to a separate Device resource that contains a Drive Index
specification that corresponds to the drive number base zero. You may specify multiple device names
on a single line separated by commas, and/or you may specify multiple Device directives. This directive
is required.
Changer Device = name-string The specified name-string gives the system file name of the autochanger
device name. If specified in this resource, the Changer Device name is not needed in the Device resource.
If it is specified in the Device resource (see above), it will take precedence over one specified in the
Autochanger resource.
Changer Command = name-string The name-string specifies an external program to be called that will
automatically change volumes as required by Bacula. Most frequently, you will specify the Bacula
supplied mtx-changer script as follows. If it is specified here, it need not be specified in the Device
resource. If it is also specified in the Device resource, it will take precedence over the one specified in
the Autochanger resource.
The following is an example of a valid Autochanger resource definition:
Autochanger {
Name = "DDS-4-changer"
Device = DDS-4-1, DDS-4-2, DDS-4-3
Changer Device = /dev/sg0
Changer Command = "/etc/bacula/mtx-changer %c %o %S %a %d"
}
Device {
Name = "DDS-4-1"
Drive Index = 0
Autochanger = yes
...
}
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CHAPTER 8. AUTOCHANGER RESOURCE
Device {
Name = "DDS-4-2"
Drive Index = 1
Autochanger = yes
...
Device {
Name = "DDS-4-3"
Drive Index = 2
Autochanger = yes
Autoselect = no
...
}
Please note that it is important to include the Autochanger = yes directive in each Device definition that
belongs to an Autochanger. A device definition should not belong to more than one Autochanger resource.
Also, your Device directive in the Storage resource of the Director’s conf file should have the Autochanger’s
resource name rather than a name of one of the Devices.
If you have a drive that physically belongs to an Autochanger but you don’t want to have it automatically
used when Bacula references the Autochanger for backups, for example, you want to reserve it for restores,
you can add the directive:
Autoselect = no
to the Device resource for that drive. In that case, Bacula will not automatically select that drive when
accessing the Autochanger. You can, still use the drive by referencing it by the Device name directly rather
than the Autochanger name. An example of such a definition is shown above for the Device DDS-4-3, which
will not be selected when the name DDS-4-changer is used in a Storage definition, but will be used if DDS-4-3
is used.
8.1
Capabilities
Label media = yes|no If Yes, permits this device to automatically label blank media without an explicit
operator command. It does so by using an internal algorithm as defined on the Label Format record
in each Pool resource. If this is No as by default, Bacula will label tapes only by specific operator
command (label in the Console) or when the tape has been recycled. The automatic labeling feature
is most useful when writing to disk rather than tape volumes.
Automatic mount = yes|no If Yes (the default), permits the daemon to examine the device to determine
if it contains a Bacula labeled volume. This is done initially when the daemon is started, and then
at the beginning of each job. This directive is particularly important if you have set Always Open
= no because it permits Bacula to attempt to read the device before asking the system operator to
mount a tape. However, please note that the tape must be mounted before the job begins.
8.2
Messages Resource
For a description of the Messages Resource, please see the Messages Resource Chapter of this manual.
8.3
Sample Storage Daemon Configuration File
A example Storage Daemon configuration file might be the following:
#
# Default Bacula Storage Daemon Configuration file
8.3. SAMPLE STORAGE DAEMON CONFIGURATION FILE
#
# For Bacula release 1.37.2 (07 July 2005) -- gentoo 1.4.16
#
# You may need to change the name of your tape drive
#
on the "Archive Device" directive in the Device
#
resource. If you change the Name and/or the
#
"Media Type" in the Device resource, please ensure
#
that bacula-dir.conf has corresponding changes.
#
Storage {
# definition of myself
Name = rufus-sd
Address = rufus
WorkingDirectory = "$HOME/bacula/bin/working"
Pid Directory = "$HOME/bacula/bin/working"
Maximum Concurrent Jobs = 20
}
#
# List Directors who are permitted to contact Storage daemon
#
Director {
Name = rufus-dir
Password = "ZF9Ctf5PQoWCPkmR3s4atCB0usUPg+vWWyIo2VS5ti6k"
}
#
# Restricted Director, used by tray-monitor to get the
#
status of the storage daemon
#
Director {
Name = rufus-mon
Password = "9usxgc307dMbe7jbD16v0PXlhD64UVasIDD0DH2WAujcDsc6"
Monitor = yes
}
#
# Devices supported by this Storage daemon
# To connect, the Director’s bacula-dir.conf must have the
# same Name and MediaType.
#
Autochanger {
Name = Autochanger
Device = Drive-1
Device = Drive-2
Changer Command = "/home/kern/bacula/bin/mtx-changer %c %o %S %a %d"
Changer Device = /dev/sg0
}
Device {
Name = Drive-1
#
Drive Index = 0
Media Type = DLT-8000
Archive Device = /dev/nst0
AutomaticMount = yes;
# when device opened, read it
AlwaysOpen = yes;
RemovableMedia = yes;
RandomAccess = no;
AutoChanger = yes
Alert Command = "sh -c ’tapeinfo -f %c |grep TapeAlert|cat’"
}
Device {
Name = Drive-2
#
Drive Index = 1
Media Type = DLT-8000
Archive Device = /dev/nst1
AutomaticMount = yes;
# when device opened, read it
AlwaysOpen = yes;
RemovableMedia = yes;
RandomAccess = no;
AutoChanger = yes
Alert Command = "sh -c ’tapeinfo -f %c |grep TapeAlert|cat’"
}
Device {
Name = "HP DLT 80"
Media Type = DLT8000
Archive Device = /dev/nst0
AutomaticMount = yes;
# when device opened, read it
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CHAPTER 8. AUTOCHANGER RESOURCE
AlwaysOpen = yes;
RemovableMedia = yes;
}
#Device {
# Name = SDT-7000
#
# Media Type = DDS-2
# Archive Device = /dev/nst0
# AutomaticMount = yes;
# when device opened, read it
# AlwaysOpen = yes;
# RemovableMedia = yes;
#}
#Device {
# Name = Floppy
# Media Type = Floppy
# Archive Device = /mnt/floppy
# RemovableMedia = yes;
# Random Access = Yes;
# AutomaticMount = yes;
# when device opened, read it
# AlwaysOpen = no;
#}
#Device {
# Name = FileStorage
# Media Type = File
# Archive Device = /tmp
# LabelMedia = yes;
# lets Bacula label unlabeled media
# Random Access = Yes;
# AutomaticMount = yes;
# when device opened, read it
# RemovableMedia = no;
# AlwaysOpen = no;
#}
#Device {
# Name = "NEC ND-1300A"
# Media Type = DVD
# Archive Device = /dev/hda
# LabelMedia = yes;
# lets Bacula label unlabeled media
# Random Access = Yes;
# AutomaticMount = yes;
# when device opened, read it
# RemovableMedia = yes;
# AlwaysOpen = no;
# MaximumPartSize = 800M;
# RequiresMount = yes;
# MountPoint = /mnt/cdrom;
# MountCommand = "/bin/mount -t iso9660 -o ro %a %m";
# UnmountCommand = "/bin/umount %m";
# SpoolDirectory = /tmp/backup;
# WritePartCommand = "/etc/bacula/dvd-handler %a write %e %v"
# FreeSpaceCommand = "/etc/bacula/dvd-handler %a free"
#}
#
# A very old Exabyte with no end of media detection
#
#Device {
# Name = "Exabyte 8mm"
# Media Type = "8mm"
# Archive Device = /dev/nst0
# Hardware end of medium = No;
# AutomaticMount = yes;
# when device opened, read it
# AlwaysOpen = Yes;
# RemovableMedia = yes;
#}
#
# Send all messages to the Director,
# mount messages also are sent to the email address
#
Messages {
Name = Standard
director = rufus-dir = all
operator = root = mount
}
Chapter 9
Messages Resource
The Messages resource defines how messages are to be handled and destinations to which they should be
sent.
Even though each daemon has a full message handler, within the File daemon and the Storage daemon,
you will normally choose to send all the appropriate messages back to the Director. This permits all the
messages associated with a single Job to be combined in the Director and sent as a single email message to
the user, or logged together in a single file.
Each message that Bacula generates (i.e. that each daemon generates) has an associated type such as INFO,
WARNING, ERROR, FATAL, etc. Using the message resource, you can specify which message types you
wish to see and where they should be sent. In addition, a message may be sent to multiple destinations.
For example, you may want all error messages both logged as well as sent to you in an email. By defining
multiple messages resources, you can have different message handling for each type of Job (e.g. Full backups
versus Incremental backups).
In general, messages are attached to a Job and are included in the Job report. There are some rare cases,
where this is not possible, e.g. when no job is running, or if a communications error occurs between a daemon
and the director. In those cases, the message may remain in the system, and should be flushed at the end of
the next Job. However, since such messages are not attached to a Job, any that are mailed will be sent to
/usr/lib/sendmail. On some systems, such as FreeBSD, if your sendmail is in a different place, you may
want to link it to the the above location.
The records contained in a Messages resource consist of a destination specification followed by a list of
message-types in the format:
destination = message-type1, message-type2, message-type3, ...
or for those destinations that need and address specification (e.g. email):
destination = address = message-type1, message-type2, message-type3, ... Where
destination is one of a predefined set of keywords that define where the message is to be sent (stdout, file,
...), message-type is one of a predefined set of keywords that define the type of message generated
by Bacula (ERROR, WARNING, FATAL, ...), and address varies according to the destination
keyword, but is typically an email address or a filename.
The following are the list of the possible record definitions that can be used in a message resource.
Messages Start of the Messages records.
Name = <name> The name of the Messages resource. The name you specify here will be used to tie this
Messages resource to a Job and/or to the daemon.
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MailCommand = <command> In the absence of this resource, Bacula will send all mail using the
following command:
mail -s ”Bacula Message” <recipients>
In many cases, depending on your machine, this command may not work. Using the MailCommand,
you can specify exactly how to send the mail. During the processing of the command part, normally
specified as a quoted string, the following substitutions will be used:
• %% = %
• %c = Client’s name
• %d = Director’s name
• %e = Job Exit code (OK, Error, ...)
• %i = Job Id
• %j = Unique Job name
• %l = Job level
• %n = Job name
• %r = Recipients
• %t = Job type (e.g. Backup, ...)
Please note: any MailCommand directive must be specified in the Messages resource before the
desired Mail, MailOnSuccess, or MailOnError directive. In fact, each of those directives may be
preceded by a different MailCommand.
The following is the command I (Kern) use. Note, the whole command should appear on a single line
in the configuration file rather than split as is done here for presentation:
mailcommand = ”/home/kern/bacula/bin/bsmtp -h mail.example.com -f \”\(Bacula\)
%r\” -s \”Bacula: %t %e of %c %l\” %r”
The bsmtp program is provided as part of Bacula. For additional details, please see the
bsmtp – Customizing Your Email Messages section of the Bacula Utility Programs chapter of this
manual. Please test any mailcommand that you use to ensure that your bsmtp gateway accepts the
addressing form that you use. Certain programs such as Exim can be very selective as to what forms
are permitted particularly in the from part.
OperatorCommand = <command> This resource specification is similar to the MailCommand except that it is used for Operator messages. The substitutions performed for the MailCommand are
also done for this command. Normally, you will set this command to the same value as specified for the
MailCommand. The OperatorCommand directive must appear in the Messages resource before
the Operator directive.
<destination> = <message-type1>, <message-type2>, ... Where destination may be one of the
following:
stdout Send the message to standard output.
stderr Send the message to standard error.
console Send the message to the console (Bacula Console). These messages are held until the console
program connects to the Director.
<destination> = <address> = <message-type1>, <message-type2>, ...
Where address depends on the destination.
The destination may be one of the following:
director Send the message to the Director whose name is given in the address field. Note, in the
current implementation, the Director Name is ignored, and the message is sent to the Director
that started the Job.
file Send the message to the filename given in the address field. If the file already exists, it will be
overwritten.
append Append the message to the filename given in the address field. If the file already exists, it
will be appended to. If the file does not exist, it will be created.
117
syslog Send the message to the system log (syslog) using the facility specified in the address field.
Note, for the moment, the address field is ignored and the message is always sent to the
LOG DAEMON facility with level LOG ERR. See man 3 syslog for more details. Example:
syslog = all, !skipped
mail Send the message to the email addresses that are given as a comma separated list in the address
field. Mail messages are grouped together during a job and then sent as a single email message
when the job terminates. The advantage of this destination is that you are notified about every
Job that runs. However, if you backup five or ten machines every night, the volume of email
messages can be important. Some users use filter programs such as procmail to automatically
file this email based on the Job termination code (see mailcommand).
mail on error Send the message to the email addresses that are given as a comma separated list in the
address field if the Job terminates with an error condition. MailOnError messages are grouped
together during a job and then sent as a single email message when the job terminates. This
destination differs from the mail destination in that if the Job terminates normally, the message
is totally discarded (for this destination). If the Job terminates in error, it is emailed. By using
other destinations such as append you can ensure that even if the Job terminates normally, the
output information is saved.
mail on success Send the message to the email addresses that are given as a comma separated list in
the address field if the Job terminates normally (no error condition). MailOnSuccess messages
are grouped together during a job and then sent as a single email message when the job terminates.
This destination differs from the mail destination in that if the Job terminates abnormally, the
message is totally discarded (for this destination). If the Job terminates normally, it is emailed.
operator Send the message to the email addresses that are specified as a comma separated list in the
address field. This is similar to mail above, except that each message is sent as received. Thus
there is one email per message. This is most useful for mount messages (see below).
console Send the message to the Bacula console.
stdout Send the message to the standard output (normally not used).
stderr Send the message to the standard error output (normally not used).
catalog Send the message to the Catalog database. The message will be written to the table named
Log and a timestamp field will also be added. This permits Job Reports and other messages to
be recorded in the Catalog so that they can be accessed by reporting software. Bacula will prune
the Log records associated with a Job when the Job records are pruned. Otherwise, Bacula never
uses these records internally, so this destination is only used for special purpose programs (e.g.
bweb).
For any destination, the message-type field is a comma separated list of the following types or classes
of messages:
info General information messages.
warning Warning messages. Generally this is some unusual condition but not expected to be serious.
error Non-fatal error messages. The job continues running. Any error message should be investigated
as it means that something went wrong.
fatal Fatal error messages. Fatal errors cause the job to terminate.
terminate Message generated when the daemon shuts down.
notsaved Files not saved because of some error. Usually because the file cannot be accessed (i.e. it
does not exist or is not mounted).
skipped Files that were skipped because of a user supplied option such as an incremental backup or
a file that matches an exclusion pattern. This is not considered an error condition such as the
files listed for the notsaved type because the configuration file explicitly requests these types
of files to be skipped. For example, any unchanged file during an incremental backup, or any
subdirectory if the no recursion option is specified.
mount Volume mount or intervention requests from the Storage daemon. These requests require a
specific operator intervention for the job to continue.
restored The ls style listing generated for each file restored is sent to this message class.
all All message types.
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CHAPTER 9. MESSAGES RESOURCE
security Security info/warning messages principally from unauthorized connection attempts.
alert Alert messages. These are messages generated by tape alerts.
volmgmt Volume management messages. Currently there are no volume mangement messages generated.
The following is an example of a valid Messages resource definition, where all messages except files explicitly
skipped or daemon termination messages are sent by email to enforcement@sec.com. In addition all mount
messages are sent to the operator (i.e. emailed to enforcement@sec.com). Finally all messages other than
explicitly skipped files and files saved are sent to the console:
Messages {
Name = Standard
mail = enforcement@sec.com = all, !skipped, !terminate
operator = enforcement@sec.com = mount
console = all, !skipped, !saved
}
With the exception of the email address (changed to avoid junk mail from robot’s), an example Director’s
Messages resource is as follows. Note, the mailcommand and operatorcommand are on a single line –
they had to be split for this manual:
Messages {
Name = Standard
mailcommand = "bacula/bin/bsmtp -h mail.example.com \
-f \"\(Bacula\) %r\" -s \"Bacula: %t %e of %c %l\" %r"
operatorcommand = "bacula/bin/bsmtp -h mail.example.com \
-f \"\(Bacula\) %r\" -s \"Bacula: Intervention needed \
for %j\" %r"
MailOnError = security@example.com = all, !skipped, \
!terminate
append = "bacula/bin/log" = all, !skipped, !terminate
operator = security@example.com = mount
console = all, !skipped, !saved
}
Chapter 10
Console Configuration
10.1
General
The Console configuration file is the simplest of all the configuration files, and in general, you should not need
to change it except for the password. It simply contains the information necessary to contact the Director
or Directors.
For a general discussion of the syntax of configuration files and their resources including the data types
recognized by Bacula, please see the Configuration chapter of this manual.
The following Console Resource definition must be defined:
10.2
The Director Resource
The Director resource defines the attributes of the Director running on the network. You may have multiple
Director resource specifications in a single Console configuration file. If you have more than one, you will be
prompted to choose one when you start the Console program.
Director Start of the Director directives.
Name = <name> The director name used to select among different Directors, otherwise, this name is not
used.
DIRPort = <port-number> Specify the port to use to connect to the Director. This value will most
likely already be set to the value you specified on the --with-base-port option of the ./configure
command. This port must be identical to the DIRport specified in the Director resource of the
Director’s configuration file. The default is 9101 so this directive is not normally specified.
Address = <address> Where the address is a host name, a fully qualified domain name, or a network
address used to connect to the Director.
Password = <password> Where the password is the password needed for the Director to accept the
Console connection. This password must be identical to the Password specified in the Director
resource of the Director’s configuration file. This directive is required.
An actual example might be:
Director {
Name = HeadMan
address = rufus.cats.com
password = xyz1erploit
}
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CHAPTER 10. CONSOLE CONFIGURATION
10.3
The ConsoleFont Resource
The ConsoleFont resource is available only in the GNOME version of the console. It permits you to define
the font that you want used to display in the main listing window.
ConsoleFont Start of the ConsoleFont directives.
Name = <name> The name of the font.
Font = <Pango Font Name> The string value given here defines the desired font. It is specified in the
Pango format. For example, the default specification is:
Font = "LucidaTypewriter 9"
Thanks to Phil Stracchino for providing the code for this feature.
An different example might be:
ConsoleFont {
Name = Default
Font = "Monospace 10"
}
10.4
The Console Resource
As of Bacula version 1.33 and higher, there are three different kinds of consoles, which the administrator or
user can use to interact with the Director. These three kinds of consoles comprise three different security
levels.
• The first console type is an anonymous or default console, which has full privileges. There is no
console resource necessary for this type since the password is specified in the Director resource. This is
the kind of console that was initially implemented in versions prior to 1.33 and remains valid. Typically
you would use it only for administrators.
• The second type of console, and new to version 1.33 and higher is a ”named” or ”restricted” console
defined within a Console resource in both the Director’s configuration file and in the Console’s configuration file. Both the names and the passwords in these two entries must match much as is the case
for Client programs.
This second type of console begins with absolutely no privileges except those explicitly specified in the
Director’s Console resource. Note, the definition of what these restricted consoles can do is determined
by the Director’s conf file.
Thus you may define within the Director’s conf file multiple Consoles with different names and passwords, sort of like multiple users, each with different privileges. As a default, these consoles can do
absolutely nothing – no commands what so ever. You give them privileges or rather access to commands and resources by specifying access control lists in the Director’s Console resource. This gives
the administrator fine grained control over what particular consoles (or users) can do.
• The third type of console is similar to the above mentioned restricted console in that it requires a
Console resource definition in both the Director and the Console. In addition, if the console name,
provided on the Name = directive, is the same as a Client name, the user of that console is permitted
to use the SetIP command to change the Address directive in the Director’s client resource to the IP
address of the Console. This permits portables or other machines using DHCP (non-fixed IP addresses)
to ”notify” the Director of their current IP address.
The Console resource is optional and need not be specified. However, if it is specified, you can use ACLs
(Access Control Lists) in the Director’s configuration file to restrict the particular console (or user) to see
only information pertaining to his jobs or client machine.
10.4. THE CONSOLE RESOURCE
121
You may specify as many Console resources in the console’s conf file. If you do so, generally the first Console
resource will be used. However, if you have multiple Director resources (i.e. you want to connect to different
directors), you can bind one of your Console resources to a particular Director resource, and thus when you
choose a particular Director, the appropriate Console configuration resource will be used. See the ”Director”
directive in the Console resource described below for more information.
Note, the Console resource is optional, but can be useful for restricted consoles as noted above.
Console Start of the Console resource.
Name = <name> The Console name used to allow a restricted console to change its IP address using the
SetIP command. The SetIP command must also be defined in the Director’s conf CommandACL list.
Password = <password> If this password is supplied, then the password specified in the Director resource
of you Console conf will be ignored. See below for more details.
Director = <director-resource-name> If this directive is specified, this Console resource will be used
by bconsole when that particular director is selected when first starting bconsole. I.e. it binds a
particular console resource with its name and password to a particular director.
Heartbeat Interval = <time-interval> This directive is optional and if specified will cause the Console
to set a keepalive interval (heartbeat) in seconds on each of the sockets to communicate with the
Director. It is implemented only on systems (Linux, ...) that provide the setsockopt TCP KEEPIDLE
function. The default value is zero, which means no change is made to the socket.
The following configuration files were supplied by Phil Stracchino. For example, if we define the following
in the user’s bconsole.conf file (or perhaps the bwx-console.conf file):
Director {
Name = MyDirector
DIRport = 9101
Address = myserver
Password = "XXXXXXXXXXX"
}
# no, really.
this is not obfuscation.
Console {
Name = restricted-user
Password = "UntrustedUser"
}
Where the Password in the Director section is deliberately incorrect, and the Console resource is given a
name, in this case restricted-user. Then in the Director’s bacula-dir.conf file (not directly accessible by
the user), we define:
Console {
Name = restricted-user
Password = "UntrustedUser"
JobACL = "Restricted Client Save"
ClientACL = restricted-client
StorageACL = main-storage
ScheduleACL = *all*
PoolACL = *all*
FileSetACL = "Restricted Client’s FileSet"
CatalogACL = DefaultCatalog
CommandACL = run
}
the user logging into the Director from his Console will get logged in as restricted-user, and he will only be
able to see or access a Job with the name Restricted Client Save a Client with the name restricted-client,
a Storage device main-storage, any Schedule or Pool, a FileSet named Restricted Client’s FileSet, a
Catalog named DefaultCatalog, and the only command he can use in the Console is the run command.
In other words, this user is rather limited in what he can see and do with Bacula.
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The following is an example of a bconsole conf file that can access several Directors and has different Consoles
depending on the director:
Director {
Name = MyDirector
DIRport = 9101
Address = myserver
Password = "XXXXXXXXXXX"
}
Director {
Name = SecondDirector
DIRport = 9101
Address = secondserver
Password = "XXXXXXXXXXX"
}
# no, really.
this is not obfuscation.
# no, really.
this is not obfuscation.
Console {
Name = restricted-user
Password = "UntrustedUser"
Director = MyDirector
}
Console {
Name = restricted-user
Password = "A different UntrustedUser"
Director = SecondDirector
}
The second Director referenced at ”secondserver” might look like the following:
Console {
Name = restricted-user
Password = "A different UntrustedUser"
JobACL = "Restricted Client Save"
ClientACL = restricted-client
StorageACL = second-storage
ScheduleACL = *all*
PoolACL = *all*
FileSetACL = "Restricted Client’s FileSet"
CatalogACL = RestrictedCatalog
CommandACL = run, restore
WhereACL = "/"
}
10.5
Console Commands
For more details on running the console and its commands, please see the Bacula Console chapter of this
manual.
10.6
Sample Console Configuration File
An example Console configuration file might be the following:
#
# Bacula Console Configuration File
#
Director {
Name = HeadMan
address = "my_machine.my_domain.com"
Password = Console_password
}
Chapter 11
Monitor Configuration
The Monitor configuration file is a stripped down version of the Director configuration file, mixed with a
Console configuration file. It simply contains the information necessary to contact Directors, Clients, and
Storage daemons you want to monitor.
For a general discussion of configuration file and resources including the data types recognized by Bacula,
please see the Configuration chapter of this manual.
The following Monitor Resource definition must be defined:
• Monitor – to define the Monitor’s name used to connect to all the daemons and the password used to
connect to the Directors. Note, you must not define more than one Monitor resource in the Monitor
configuration file.
• At least one Client, Storage or Director resource, to define the daemons to monitor.
11.1
The Monitor Resource
The Monitor resource defines the attributes of the Monitor running on the network. The parameters you
define here must be configured as a Director resource in Clients and Storages configuration files, and as a
Console resource in Directors configuration files.
Monitor Start of the Monitor records.
Name = <name> Specify the Director name used to connect to Client and Storage, and the Console name
used to connect to Director. This record is required.
Password = <password> Where the password is the password needed for Directors to accept the Console
connection. This password must be identical to the Password specified in the Console resource of
the Director’s configuration file. This record is required if you wish to monitor Directors.
Refresh Interval = <time> Specifies the time to wait between status requests to each daemon. It can’t
be set to less than 1 second, or more than 10 minutes, and the default value is 5 seconds.
11.2
The Director Resource
The Director resource defines the attributes of the Directors that are monitored by this Monitor.
As you are not permitted to define a Password in this resource, to avoid obtaining full Director privileges, you
must create a Console resource in the Director’s configuration file, using the Console Name and Password
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CHAPTER 11. MONITOR CONFIGURATION
defined in the Monitor resource. To avoid security problems, you should configure this Console resource to
allow access to no other daemons, and permit the use of only two commands: status and .status (see below
for an example).
You may have multiple Director resource specifications in a single Monitor configuration file.
Director Start of the Director records.
Name = <name> The Director name used to identify the Director in the list of monitored daemons. It
is not required to be the same as the one defined in the Director’s configuration file. This record is
required.
DIRPort = <port-number> Specify the port to use to connect to the Director. This value will most
likely already be set to the value you specified on the --with-base-port option of the ./configure
command. This port must be identical to the DIRport specified in the Director resource of the
Director’s configuration file. The default is 9101 so this record is not normally specified.
Address = <address> Where the address is a host name, a fully qualified domain name, or a network
address used to connect to the Director. This record is required.
11.3
The Client Resource
The Client resource defines the attributes of the Clients that are monitored by this Monitor.
You must create a Director resource in the Client’s configuration file, using the Director Name defined in the
Monitor resource. To avoid security problems, you should set the Monitor directive to Yes in this Director
resource.
You may have multiple Director resource specifications in a single Monitor configuration file.
Client (or FileDaemon) Start of the Client records.
Name = <name> The Client name used to identify the Director in the list of monitored daemons. It is
not required to be the same as the one defined in the Client’s configuration file. This record is required.
Address = <address> Where the address is a host name, a fully qualified domain name, or a network
address in dotted quad notation for a Bacula File daemon. This record is required.
FD Port = <port-number> Where the port is a port number at which the Bacula File daemon can be
contacted. The default is 9102.
Password = <password> This is the password to be used when establishing a connection with the File
services, so the Client configuration file on the machine to be backed up must have the same password
defined for this Director. This record is required.
11.4
The Storage Resource
The Storage resource defines the attributes of the Storages that are monitored by this Monitor.
You must create a Director resource in the Storage’s configuration file, using the Director Name defined in
the Monitor resource. To avoid security problems, you should set the Monitor directive to Yes in this
Director resource.
You may have multiple Director resource specifications in a single Monitor configuration file.
Storage Start of the Storage records.
11.5. TRAY MONITOR SECURITY
125
Name = <name> The Storage name used to identify the Director in the list of monitored daemons. It
is not required to be the same as the one defined in the Storage’s configuration file. This record is
required.
Address = <address> Where the address is a host name, a fully qualified domain name, or a network
address in dotted quad notation for a Bacula Storage daemon. This record is required.
SD Port = <port> Where port is the port to use to contact the storage daemon for information and
to start jobs. This same port number must appear in the Storage resource of the Storage daemon’s
configuration file. The default is 9103.
Password = <password> This is the password to be used when establishing a connection with the Storage
services. This same password also must appear in the Director resource of the Storage daemon’s
configuration file. This record is required.
11.5
Tray Monitor Security
There is no security problem in relaxing the permissions on tray-monitor.conf as long as FD, SD and DIR
are configured properly, so the passwords contained in this file only gives access to the status of the daemons.
It could be a security problem if you consider the status information as potentially dangerous (I don’t think
it is the case).
Concerning Director’s configuration:
In tray-monitor.conf, the password in the Monitor resource must point to a restricted console in baculadir.conf (see the documentation). So, if you use this password with bconsole, you’ll only have access to the
status of the director (commands status and .status). It could be a security problem if there is a bug in the
ACL code of the director.
Concerning File and Storage Daemons’ configuration:
In tray-monitor.conf, the Name in the Monitor resource must point to a Director resource in baculafd/sd.conf, with the Monitor directive set to Yes (once again, see the documentation). It could be a security
problem if there is a bug in the code which check if a command is valid for a Monitor (this is very unlikely
as the code is pretty simple).
11.6
Sample Tray Monitor configuration
An example Tray Monitor configuration file might be the following:
#
# Bacula Tray Monitor Configuration File
#
Monitor {
Name = rufus-mon
# password for Directors
Password = "GN0uRo7PTUmlMbqrJ2Gr1p0fk0HQJTxwnFyE4WSST3MWZseR"
RefreshInterval = 10 seconds
}
Client {
Name = rufus-fd
Address = rufus
FDPort = 9102
# password for FileDaemon
Password = "FYpq4yyI1y562EMS35bA0J0QC0M2L3t5cZObxT3XQxgxppTn"
}
Storage {
Name = rufus-sd
Address = rufus
SDPort = 9103
# password for StorageDaemon
Password = "9usxgc307dMbe7jbD16v0PXlhD64UVasIDD0DH2WAujcDsc6"
}
Director {
Name = rufus-dir
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CHAPTER 11. MONITOR CONFIGURATION
DIRport = 9101
address = rufus
}
11.6.1
Sample File daemon’s Director record.
Click here to see the full example.
#
# Restricted Director, used by tray-monitor to get the
#
status of the file daemon
#
Director {
Name = rufus-mon
Password = "FYpq4yyI1y562EMS35bA0J0QC0M2L3t5cZObxT3XQxgxppTn"
Monitor = yes
}
11.6.2
Sample Storage daemon’s Director record.
Click here to see the full example.
#
# Restricted Director, used by tray-monitor to get the
#
status of the storage daemon
#
Director {
Name = rufus-mon
Password = "9usxgc307dMbe7jbD16v0PXlhD64UVasIDD0DH2WAujcDsc6"
Monitor = yes
}
11.6.3
Sample Director’s Console record.
Click here to see the full example.
#
# Restricted console used by tray-monitor to get the status of the director
#
Console {
Name = Monitor
Password = "GN0uRo7PTUmlMbqrJ2Gr1p0fk0HQJTxwnFyE4WSST3MWZseR"
CommandACL = status, .status
}
Chapter 12
Bacula Security Issues
• Security means being able to restore your files, so read the Critical Items Chapter of this manual.
• The Clients (bacula-fd) must run as root to be able to access all the system files.
• It is not necessary to run the Director as root.
• It is not necessary to run the Storage daemon as root, but you must ensure that it can open the tape
drives, which are often restricted to root access by default. In addition, if you do not run the Storage
daemon as root, it will not be able to automatically set your tape drive parameters on most OSes since
these functions, unfortunately require root access.
• You should restrict access to the Bacula configuration files, so that the passwords are not worldreadable. The Bacula daemons are password protected using CRAM-MD5 (i.e. the password is not
sent across the network). This will ensure that not everyone can access the daemons. It is a reasonably
good protection, but can be cracked by experts.
• If you are using the recommended ports 9101, 9102, and 9103, you will probably want to protect these
ports from external access using a firewall and/or using tcp wrappers (etc/hosts.allow).
• By default, all data that is sent across the network is unencrypted. However, Bacula does
support TLS (transport layer security) and can encrypt transmitted data.
Please read the
TLS (SSL) Communications Encryption section of this manual.
• You should ensure that the Bacula working directories are readable and writable only by the Bacula
daemons.
• If you are using MySQL it is not necessary for it to run with root permission.
• The default Bacula grant-mysql-permissions script grants all permissions to use the MySQL
database without a password. If you want security, please tighten this up!
• Don’t forget that Bacula is a network program, so anyone anywhere on the network with the console
program and the Director’s password can access Bacula and the backed up data.
• You can restrict what IP addresses Bacula will bind to by using the appropriate DirAddress, FDAddress, or SDAddress records in the respective daemon configuration files.
• Be aware that if you are backing up your database using the default script, if you have a password on
your database, it will be passed as a command line option to that script, and any user will be able to
see this information. If you want it to be secure, you will need to pass it by an environment variable
or a secure file.
See also Backing Up Your Bacula Database - Security Considerations for more information.
127
128
12.1
CHAPTER 12. BACULA SECURITY ISSUES
Backward Compatibility
One of the major goals of Bacula is to ensure that you can restore tapes (I’ll use the word tape to include
disk Volumes) that you wrote years ago. This means that each new version of Bacula should be able to read
old format tapes. The first problem you will have is to ensure that the hardware is still working some years
down the road, and the second problem will be to ensure that the media will still be good, then your OS
must be able to interface to the device, and finally Bacula must be able to recognize old formats. All the
problems except the last are ones that we cannot solve, but by careful planning you can.
Since the very beginning of Bacula (January 2000) until today (December 2005), there have been two major
Bacula tape formats. The second format was introduced in version 1.27 in November of 2002, and it has
not changed since then. In principle, Bacula can still read the original format, but I haven’t tried it lately
so who knows ...
Though the tape format is fixed, the kinds of data that we can put on the tapes are extensible, and that
is how we added new features such as ACLs, Win32 data, encrypted data, ... Obviously, an older version
of Bacula would not know how to read these newer data streams, but each newer version of Bacula should
know how to read all the older streams.
If you want to be 100should:
1. Try reading old tapes from time to time – e.g. at least once a year.
2. Keep statically linked copies of every version of Bacula that you use in production then if for some reason,
we botch up old tape compatibility, you can always pull out an old copy of Bacula ...
The second point is probably overkill but if you want to be sure, it may save you someday.
12.2
Configuring and Testing TCP Wrappers
TCP Wrappers are implemented if you turn them on when configuring (./configure --with-tcpwrappers). With this code enabled, you may control who may access your daemons. This control is
done by modifying the file: /etc/hosts.allow. The program name that Bacula uses when applying these
access restrictions is the name you specify in the daemon configuration file (see below for examples). You
must not use the twist option in your /etc/hosts.allow or it will terminate the Bacula daemon when a
connection is refused.
The exact name of the package you need loaded to build with TCP wrappers depends on the system. For
example, on SuSE, the TCP wrappers libraries needed to link Bacula are contained in the tcpd-devel package.
On Red Hat, the package is named tcp wrappers.
Dan Langille has provided the following information on configuring and testing TCP wrappers with Bacula.
If you read hosts options(5), you will see an option called twist. This option replaces the current process by
an instance of the specified shell command. Typically, something like this is used:
ALL : ALL \
: severity auth.info \
: twist /bin/echo "You are not welcome to use %d from %h."
The libwrap code tries to avoid twist if it runs in a resident process, but that test will not protect the first
hosts access() call. This will result in the process (e.g. bacula-fd, bacula-sd, bacula-dir) being terminated
if the first connection to their port results in the twist option being invoked. The potential, and I stress
potential, exists for an attacker to prevent the daemons from running. This situation is eliminated if your
/etc/hosts.allow file contains an appropriate rule set. The following example is sufficient:
undef-fd : localhost : allow
undef-sd : localhost : allow
12.2. CONFIGURING AND TESTING TCP WRAPPERS
129
undef-dir : localhost : allow
undef-fd : ALL : deny
undef-sd : ALL : deny
undef-dir : ALL : deny
You must adjust the names to be the same as the Name directives found in each of the daemon configuration
files. They are, in general, not the same as the binary daemon names. It is not possible to use the daemon
names because multiple daemons may be running on the same machine but with different configurations.
In these examples, the Director is undef-dir, the Storage Daemon is undef-sd, and the File Daemon is undeffd. Adjust to suit your situation. The above example rules assume that the SD, FD, and DIR all reside on
the same box. If you have a remote FD client, then the following rule set on the remote client will suffice:
undef-fd : director.example.org : allow
undef-fd : ALL : deny
where director.example.org is the host which will be contacting the client (ie. the box on which the Bacula
Director daemon runs). The use of ”ALL : deny” ensures that the twist option (if present) is not invoked.
To properly test your configuration, start the daemon(s), then attempt to connect from an IP address which
should be able to connect. You should see something like this:
$ telnet undef 9103
Trying 192.168.0.56...
Connected to undef.example.org.
Escape character is ’^]’.
Connection closed by foreign host.
$
This is the correct response. If you see this:
$ telnet undef 9103
Trying 192.168.0.56...
Connected to undef.example.org.
Escape character is ’^]’.
You are not welcome to use undef-sd from xeon.example.org.
Connection closed by foreign host.
$
then twist has been invoked and your configuration is not correct and you need to add the deny statement.
It is important to note that your testing must include restarting the daemons after each connection attempt.
You can also tcpdchk(8) and tcpdmatch(8) to validate your /etc/hosts.allow rules. Here is a simple test
using tcpdmatch:
$ tcpdmatch undef-dir xeon.example.org
warning: undef-dir: no such process name in /etc/inetd.conf
client: hostname xeon.example.org
client: address 192.168.0.18
server: process undef-dir
matched: /etc/hosts.allow line 40
option: allow
access: granted
If you are running Bacula as a standalone daemon, the warning above can be safely ignored. Here is an
example which indicates that your rules are missing a deny statement and the twist option has been invoked.
$ tcpdmatch undef-dir 10.0.0.1
warning: undef-dir: no such process name in /etc/inetd.conf
client: address 10.0.0.1
server: process undef-dir
matched: /etc/hosts.allow line 91
option: severity auth.info
option: twist /bin/echo "You are not welcome to use
undef-dir from 10.0.0.1."
access: delegated
130
12.3
CHAPTER 12. BACULA SECURITY ISSUES
Running as non-root
Security advice from Dan Langille:
It is a good idea to run daemons with the lowest possible privileges. In other words, if you can, don’t run
applications as root which do not have to be root. The Storage Daemon and the Director Daemon do not
need to be root. The File Daemon needs to be root in order to access all files on your system. In order to
run as non-root, you need to create a user and a group. Choosing bacula as both the user name and the
group name sounds like a good idea to me.
The FreeBSD port creates this user and group for you. Here is what those entries looked like on my FreeBSD
laptop:
bacula:*:1002:1002::0:0:Bacula Daemon:/var/db/bacula:/sbin/nologin
I used vipw to create this entry. I selected a User ID and Group ID of 1002 as they were unused on my
system.
I also created a group in /etc/group:
bacula:*:1002:
The bacula user (as opposed to the Bacula daemon) will have a home directory of /var/db/bacula which
is the default location for the Bacula database.
Now that you have both a bacula user and a bacula group, you can secure the bacula home directory by
issuing this command:
chown -R bacula:bacula /var/db/bacula/
This ensures that only the bacula user can access this directory. It also means that if we run the Director
and the Storage daemon as bacula, those daemons also have restricted access. This would not be the case if
they were running as root.
It is important to note that the storage daemon actually needs to be in the operator group for normal access
to tape drives etc (at least on a FreeBSD system, that’s how things are set up by default) Such devices are
normally chown root:operator. It is easier and less error prone to make Bacula a member of that group than
it is to play around with system permissions.
Starting the Bacula daemons
To start the bacula daemons on a FreeBSD system, issue the following command:
/usr/local/etc/rc.d/bacula-dir start
/usr/local/etc/rc.d/bacula-sd start
/usr/local/etc/rc.d/bacula-fd start
To confirm they are all running:
$ ps auwx | grep bacula
root
63418 0.0 0.3 1856 1036 ?? Ss 4:09PM 0:00.00
/usr/local/sbin/bacula-fd -v -c /usr/local/etc/bacula-fd.conf
bacula 63416 0.0 0.3 2040 1172 ?? Ss 4:09PM 0:00.01
/usr/local/sbin/bacula-sd -v -c /usr/local/etc/bacula-sd.conf
bacula 63422 0.0 0.4 2360 1440 ?? Ss 4:09PM 0:00.00
/usr/local/sbin/bacula-dir -v -c /usr/local/etc/bacula-dir.conf
General Index
-prefix, 18
--datadir, 19
--disable-ipv6, 19, 21
--disable-nls, 21
--enable-bat, 19
--enable-batch-insert, 19
--enable-build-dird, 21
--enable-build-stored, 21
--enable-bwx-console, 20
--enable-client-only, 21
--enable-conio, 22
--enable-gnome, 20
--enable-largefile, 21
--enable-readline, 22
--enable-smartalloc, 19
--enable-static-cons, 21
--enable-static-dir, 21
--enable-static-fd, 20
--enable-static-sd, 21
--enable-static-tools, 20
--enable-tray-monitor, 20
--mandir, 19
--sbindir, 18
--sysconfdir, 18
--with-archivedir, 23
--with-base-port, 23
--with-db-name, 24
--with-db-user, 24
--with-dir-group, 23
--with-dir-password, 23
--with-dir-user, 23
--with-dump-email, 23
--with-fd-group, 24
--with-fd-password, 23
--with-fd-user, 24
--with-libintl-prefix, 22
--with-mon-dir-password, 24
--with-mon-fd-password, 24
--with-mon-sd-password, 24
--with-mysql, 22
--with-pid-dir, 23
--with-postgresql, 22
--with-python, 22
--with-qwt, 19
--with-readline, 22
--with-sd-group, 24
--with-sd-password, 23
--with-sd-user, 24
--with-sqlite, 22
--with-sqlite3, 22
--with-subsys-dir, 23
--with-tcp-wrappers, 22
--with-working-dir, 23
Address, 41
alert, 116
all, 115
append, 114
Authorization
Names Passwords and , 37
Auto Starting the Daemons, 28
Backing up
Partitions , 75
Backing up Raw Partitions , 75
Backups
slow, 53, 94
Backward Compatibility, 126
Bacula
Installing, 11, 27
Running , 9
Upgrading, 12
Bacula Security Issues, 125
Beta Releases, 13
Broken pipe, 94, 98
Building a File Daemon or Client, 27
Building Bacula from Source, 15
Capabilities, 110
catalog, 115
Catalog Resource, 87
Character Sets, 34
Client
Building a File Daemon or, 27
Client Connect Wait, 98
Client Resource, 78
Client Resource , 93, 122
Client/File daemon Configuration , 93
Commands
Console, 120
Comments, 35
Concurrent Jobs, 41
Configuration
Client/File daemon , 93
Console, 117
Monitor , 121
Storage Daemon, 97
Configure Options, 18
Configuring and Testing TCP Wrappers, 126
Configuring the Console Program , 6
Configuring the Director, 39
131
132
Configuring the Director , 8
Configuring the File daemon , 7
Configuring the Monitor Program , 7
Configuring the Storage daemon , 8
Considerations
Windows NTFS Naming , 77
console, 115
Console Commands, 120
Console Configuration, 117
Console Resource, 88, 118
ConsoleFont Resource, 118
Counter Resource, 89
Critical Items , 31
Critical Items to Implement Before Production ,
31
Customizing the Configuration Files , 33
Daemon
Configuring the File , 7
Configuring the Storage , 8
Detailed Information for each , 38
Daemons
Auto Starting the, 28
Dependency Packages, 14
Detailed Information for each Daemon , 38
Device Resource, 99
Devices that require a mount (DVD), 107
Directives
Edit Codes, 107
Director
Configuring the, 39
Configuring the , 8
director, 114
Director Resource, 40, 99, 117
Director Resource , 95, 121
Director Resource Types, 39
Directories
Excluding Files and , 75
Directory
Get Rid of the /lib/tls , 9
Disaster Recovery , 10
Drive
Testing Bacula Compatibility with Your
Tape, 9
DVD
Devices that require a mount, 107
Edit Codes for Mount and Unmount Directives ,
107
error, 115
Example Client Configuration File , 96
Example Director Configuration File, 90
Examples
FileSet , 70
Excluding Files and Directories , 75
fatal, 115
File
Example Client Configuration , 96
Example Director Configuration, 90
Sample Console Configuration, 120
GENERAL INDEX
Sample Storage Daemon Configuration, 110
file, 114
Files
Customizing the Configuration , 33
Including other Configuration , 35
Modifying the Bacula Configuration, 30
Setting Up Bacula Configuration , 6
Testing your Configuration , 9
FileSet
Testing Your , 77
Windows Example , 76
FileSet Examples, 70
FileSet Resource, 59
FileSets
Windows , 75
Format
Resource Directive , 35
FreeBSD, 26
General, 117
Get Rid of the /lib/tls Directory , 9
Getting Started with Bacula , 5
GNOME, 30
Heartbeat Interval, 94, 98
IgnoreDir, 70
Including other Configuration Files , 35
info, 115
Installing Bacula, 11, 27
Installing Tray Monitor, 29
Issues
Bacula Security, 125
Items
Critical , 31
Recommended , 32
Job Resource, 42
JobDefs Resource, 56
Jobs
Understanding, 5
KDE, 30
Labels
Understanding Pools Volumes and , 5
libwrappers, 22, 126
Log Rotation , 10
Log Watch, 10
mail, 115
mail on error, 115
mail on success, 115
Managers
Other window, 30
Message Resource, 96
Messages Resource, 88, 110, 113
Modifying the Bacula Configuration Files, 30
Monitor
Installing Tray, 29
Monitor Configuration , 121
GENERAL INDEX
Monitor Resource , 121
mount, 115
Names, Passwords and Authorization , 37
Notes
Other Make, 28
notsaved, 115
One Files Configure Script, 27
operator, 115
Options
Configure, 18
Other Make Notes, 28
Other window managers, 30
Packages
Dependency, 14
Passwords, 37
Pool Resource, 81
Production
Critical Items to Implement Before , 31
Program
Configuring the Console , 6
Configuring the Monitor , 7
Quick Start, 18
Recognized Primitive Data Types , 36
Recommended Items , 32
Recommended Options for Most Systems, 24
Record
Sample Director’s Console , 124
Sample File daemon’s Director , 124
Sample Storage daemon’s Director , 124
Recovery
Disaster , 10
Red Hat, 25
Release Files, 11
Release Numbering, 13
Resource
Catalog, 87
Client, 78
Client , 93, 122
Console, 88, 118
ConsoleFont, 118
Counter, 89
Device, 99
Director, 40, 99, 117
Director , 95, 121
FileSet, 59
Job, 42
JobDefs, 56
Message , 96
Messages, 88, 110, 113
Monitor , 121
Pool, 81
Schedule, 56
Storage, 79, 97
Storage , 122
Resource Directive Format , 35
Resource Types , 37
133
restored, 115
Rotation
Log , 10
Running as non-root , 128
Running Bacula , 9
Sample Console Configuration File, 120
Sample Director’s Console record. , 124
Sample File daemon’s Director record. , 124
Sample Storage Daemon Configuration File, 110
Sample Storage daemon’s Director record. , 124
Sample Tray Monitor configuration, 123
Schedule Resource, 56
Schedules
Technical Notes on, 59
Understanding, 5
Scratch Pool, 87
Script
One File Configure, 27
Security, 125
security, 116
Setting Up Bacula Configuration Files , 6
Simultaneous Jobs, 41
skipped, 115
slow, 53, 94
Solaris, 25
Source
Building Bacula from, 15
Source Files, 11
Spaces
Upper/Lower Case, 35
Start
Quick, 18
stderr, 115
stdout, 115
Storage Daemon Configuration, 97
Storage Resource, 79, 97
Storage Resource , 122
Supported Operating Systems, 15
syslog, 115
Systems
Recommended Options for Most, 24
Supported Operating, 15
TCP Wrappers, 22, 126
Technical Notes on Schedules, 59
terminate, 115
Testing Bacula Compatibility with Your Tape
Drive, 9
Testing your Configuration Files , 9
Testing Your FileSet , 77
Tray Monitor Security, 123
Types
Director Resource, 39
Recognized Primitive Data , 36
Resource , 37
Understanding Pools, Volumes and Labels , 5
Upgrading, 12
Upgrading Bacula, 12
Upper and Lower Case and Spaces, 35
134
Use
What Database to, 18
to include other files, 35
Version Numbering, 13
volmgmt, 116
warning, 115
Watch
Log, 10
What Database to Use?, 18
Win32, 27
Windows Example FileSet , 76
Windows FileSets , 75
Windows NTFS Naming Considerations , 77
Wrappers
TCP, 22, 126
GENERAL INDEX
Director Index
DirAddress, 42
DirAddresses, 41
Directive
*WrapCounter, 90
accurate, 62
aclsupport, 66
AddPrefix, 54
AddSuffix, 54
Autochanger, 80
AutoPrune, 79, 84
basejob, 62
Bootstrap, 46
Catalog, 78, 87, 90
Catalog Files, 84
CatalogACL, 89
checkfilechanges, 65
Cleaning Prefix, 86
Client, 46
Client (or FileDaemon), 78
Client Run After Job, 53
Client Run Before Job, 53
ClientACL, 89
CommandACL, 89
compression, 62
Counter, 89
DB Address, 87
DB Name, 87
DB Port, 87
DB Socket, 87
Description, 40
Device, 80
Differential Backup Pool, 47
Differential Max Run Time, 47
Differential Max Wait Time, 47
DifferentialPool, 57
DirAddress, 42
DirAddresses, 41
DirPort, 41
DriveType, 67
Enable, 43
Enable VSS, 60
Exclude, 60
exclude, 66
FD Address, 78
FD Connect Timeout, 41
FD Port, 78
File Retention, 78
FileSet, 60
FileSetACL, 89
fstype, 67
*WrapCounter, 90
Accurate, 45
accurate, 62
aclsupport, 66
AddPrefix, 54
Address, 41, 78, 79, 117
AddSuffix, 54
Admin, 43
Allow Mixed Priority, 56
always, 54
append, 114
Autochanger, 80
AutoPrune, 79, 84
Backup, 43
Backups
slow, 53
basejob, 62
Bootstrap, 46
Catalog, 45, 78, 87, 90
Catalog Files, 84
CatalogACL, 89
checkfilechanges, 65
Cleaning Prefix, 86
Client, 46
Client (or FileDaemon), 78
Client Address, 78
Client Run After Job, 53
Client Run Before Job, 53
ClientACL, 89
Clone a Job, 55
CommandACL, 89
compression, 62
Console, 42
Counter, 89
days, 36
DB Address, 87
DB Name, 87
DB Port, 87
DB Socket, 87
Description, 40
destination, 113
Device, 80
Differential, 44
Differential Backup Pool, 47
Differential Max Run Time, 47
Differential Wait Run Time, 47
DifferentialPool, 57
135
136
DIRECTOR INDEX
Full Backup Pool, 47
FullPool, 57
hardlinks, 65
Heartbeat, 41, 81
hfsplussupport, 67
honornodumpflag, 64
ignore case, 67
Ignore FileSet Changes, 60
Include, 60
Incremental Backup Pool, 47
Incremental Max Run Time, 47
IncrementalPool, 57
Job, 43
Job Retention, 78
JobACL, 89
JobDefs, 46
keepatime, 65
Label Format, 86
Level, 43, 57
Max Full Interval, 48
Max Run Sched Time, 47
Max Run Time, 47
Max Start Delay, 47
Max Wait Time, 48
MaxConsoleConnections, 42
Maximum, 90
Maximum Concurrent Jobs, 41, 54, 79, 81
Maximum Volume Bytes, 83
Maximum Volume Files, 83
Maximum Volume Jobs, 83
Maximum Volumes, 82
Media Type, 80
Messages, 40, 47, 57
Minimum, 90
mtimeonly, 65
Name, 40, 43, 56, 60, 78, 79, 82, 87–89
noatime, 65
onefs, 63
Password, 40, 78, 79, 88
password, 87
Pid Directory, 40
Pool, 47, 57, 82
Pool Type, 82
PoolACL, 89
portable, 64
Prefer Mounted Volumes, 48
Prefix Links, 54
Priority, 55, 79
Prune Files, 49
Prune Jobs, 49
Prune Volumes, 49
Purge Oldest Volume, 85
QueryFile, 41
readfifo, 64
recurse, 64
Recycle, 85
Recycle Current Volume, 85
Recycle Oldest Volume, 85
RecyclePool, 85
regex, 66
regexdir, 66
regexfile, 66
RegexWhere, 54
Replace, 54
Rerun Failed Levels, 53
Reschedule Interval, 55
Reschedule On Error, 54
Reschedule Times, 55
Run, 55, 57
Run After Job, 53
Run Before Job, 52
Run Script, 49
Schedule, 47, 56
ScheduleACL, 89
ScrachPool, 84
Scripts Directory, 41
SD Address, 79
SD Connect Timeout, 41
SD Port, 79
signature, 62
sparse, 64
Spool Attributes, 53
Spool Data, 53
SpoolData, 57
SpoolSize, 57
StatisticsRetention, 42
Storage, 47, 57, 79, 82
StorageACL, 89
strippath, 67
StripPrefix, 54
Type, 43
Use Volume Once, 83
user, 87
VerId, 42
verify, 62
Verify Job, 46
Volume Retention, 84
Volume Use Duration, 83
Where, 54
WhereACL, 89
wild, 65
wilddir, 65
wildfile, 66
Working Directory, 40
Write Bootstrap, 46
Write Part After Job, 56
WritePartAfterJob, 57
Director, 40
director, 114
directory, 36
DIRPort, 117
DirPort, 41
DiskToCatalog, 45
DriveType, 67
Enable, 43
Enable VSS, 60
exclude, 66
Exclude { <file-list> } , 60
Exit Status, 50
DIRECTOR INDEX
137
FD Connect Timeout, 41
FD Port, 78
file, 114
File Daemon Address, 78
File Retention, 78
FileSet, 47, 60
FileSetACL, 89
fstype, 67
Full, 43
Full Backup Pool, 47
FullPool, 57
minutes, 36
months , 36
mount, 115
mtimeonly, 65
hardlinks, 65
Heartbeat Interval, 41, 81
hfsplussupport, 67
honornodumpflag, 64
hours , 36
Password, 40, 78, 79, 88, 117
password, 36, 87
Pid Directory, 40
Pool, 47, 57, 82
Pool Type, 82
PoolACL, 89
portable, 64
positive integer , 36
Prefer Mounted Volumes, 48
Prefix Links, 54
Priority, 55, 79
Prune Files, 49
Prune Jobs, 49
Prune Volumes, 49
Purge Oldest Volume, 85
ifnewer, 54
ifolder, 54
ignore case, 67
Ignore FileSet Changes, 60
Include { [ Options {<file-options>} ...] <filelist> } , 60
Incremental, 43
Incremental Backup Pool, 47
Incremental Max Run Time, 47
Incremental Wait Run Time, 47
IncrementalPool, 57
InitCatalog, 45
integer, 36
Job, 43
Job Retention, 78
JobACL, 89
JobDefs, 46
keepatime, 65
Label Format, 86
Level, 43, 57
long integer, 36
MailCommand, 114
Max Full Interval, 48
Max Run Sched Time, 47
Max Run Time, 47
Max Start Delay, 47
Max Wait Time, 48
MaxConsoleConnections, 42
Maximum, 90
Maximum Concurrent Jobs, 41, 54, 79, 81
Maximum Volume Bytes, 83
Maximum Volume Files, 83
Maximum Volume Jobs, 83
Maximum Volumes, 82
MaximumConsoleConnections, 42
MD5, 62
Media Type, 80
Messages, 40, 47, 57, 113
Minimum, 90
Name, 40, 43, 56, 60, 78, 79, 82, 87–89, 113
never, 54
noatime, 65
onefs, 63
Options { <file-options> } , 60
quarters , 36
QueryFile, 41
readfifo, 64
recurse, 64
Recycle, 85
Recycle Current Volume, 85
Recycle Oldest Volume, 85
RecyclePool, 85
regex, 66
regexdir, 66
regexfile, 66
RegexWhere, 54
Replace, 54
Rerun Failed Levels, 53
Reschedule Interval, 55
Reschedule On Error, 54
Reschedule Times, 55
Restore, 43
Run, 55, 57
Run After Job, 53
Run Before Job, 52
RunScript, 49
Schedule, 47, 56
ScheduleACL, 89
ScrachPool, 84
Scripts Directory, 41
SD Connect Timeout, 41
SD Port, 79
seconds, 36
SHA1, 62
signature, 62
138
size, 36
slow, 53
sparse, 64
Spool Attributes, 53
Spool Data, 53
SpoolData, 57
SpoolSize, 57
StatisticsRetention, 42
Storage, 47, 57, 79, 82
Storage daemon Address, 79
StorageACL, 89
strippath, 67
StripPrefix, 54
time, 36
Type, 43
Use Volume Once, 83
user, 87
Verify, 43
verify, 62
Verify Job, 46
Volume Retention, 84
Volume Use Duration, 83
VolumeToCatalog, 45
weeks, 36
Where, 54
WhereACL, 89
wild, 65
wilddir, 65
wildfile, 66
Working Directory, 40
Write Bootstrap, 46
Write Part After Job, 56
WritePartAfterJob, 57
years , 37
yes or no , 36
DIRECTOR INDEX
File Daemon Index
<destination>, 114
Pid Directory, 93
Address , 122, 123
Refresh Interval , 121
restored, 115
Client (or FileDaemon), 93
Client (or FileDaemon) , 122
SD Port , 123
SDConnectTimeout, 95
skipped, 115
stderr, 114
stdout, 114
Storage , 122
string, 36
Directive
Client (or FileDaemon), 93
Director, 95
DirSourceAddress, 42
FDAddress, 94
FDAddresses, 94
FDPort, 94
FDSourceAddress, 95
Heartbeat Interval, 94
Maximum Concurrent Jobs, 94
Maximum Network Buffer Size, 95
Monitor, 95
Name, 93, 95
Password, 95
Pid Directory, 93
SDConnectTimeout, 95
Working Directory, 93
Director, 95
Director , 122
DIRPort , 122
DirSourceAddress, 42
Working Directory, 93
FD Port , 122
FDAddress, 94
FDAddresses, 94
FDPort, 94
FDSourceAddress, 95
Heartbeat Interval, 94
Maximum Concurrent Jobs, 94
Maximum Network Buffer Size, 95
Monitor, 95
Monitor , 121
Name, 93, 95
name, 36
Name , 121–123
name-string, 36
notsaved, 115
OperatorCommand, 114
Password, 95
Password , 121, 122
139
Storage Daemon Index
Alert Command, 101
Always Open, 102
Archive Device, 99
Autochanger, 101
Autochanger Resource, 109
Automatic mount, 110
Autoselect, 102
Maximum Network Buffer Size, 106
Maximum Open Wait, 102, 103
Maximum Part Size, 106
Maximum Rewind Wait, 102
Maximum Spool Size, 106
Maximum Volume Size, 106
Media Type, 100
Minimum block size, 104
Monitor, 99
Mount Command, 107
Mount Point, 107
Name, 97, 99
New in 3.0.3, 106
Offline On Unmount, 105
Password, 99
Pid Directory, 97
Random access, 103
Removable media, 103
Requires Mount, 107
SDAddress, 98
SDAddresses, 98
SDPort, 98
Spool Directory, 106
TWO EOF, 105
Unmount Command, 107
Use MTIOCGET, 105
Volume Poll Interval, 102
Working Directory, 97
Write Part Command, 108
Drive Index, 102
Backward Space File, 105
Backward Space Record, 105
Block Positioning, 106
BSF at EOM, 105
Changer Command, 101
Changer Command , 109
Changer Device, 101, 109
Close on Poll, 103
Connect Wait, 98
Device Maximum Concurrent Jobs, 106
Device Type, 100
Directive
Always Open, 102
Archive Device, 99
Autochanger, 101
Automatic mount, 110
Autoselect, 102
Backward Space File, 105
Backward Space Record, 105
Block Positioning, 106
BSF at EOM, 105
Changer Command, 101
Changer Device, 101
Close on Poll, 103
Connect Wait, 98
Device Maximum Concurrent Jobs, 106
Device Type, 100
Drive Index, 102
Fast Forward Space File, 105
Forward Space File, 105
Forward Space Record, 105
Free Space Command, 108
Hardware End of Medium, 104
Heartbeat Interval, 98
Label media, 110
Maximum block size, 104
Maximum Changer Wait, 102
Maximum Concurrent Jobs, 98
Maximum File Size, 106
Maximum Job Spool Size, 106
Fast Forward Space File, 105
Forward Space File, 105
Forward Space Record, 105
Free Space Command, 108
Hardware End of Medium, 104
Heartbeat Interval, 98
Label media, 110
Maximum
Maximum
Maximum
Maximum
Maximum
Maximum
Maximum
Maximum
Maximum
Maximum
140
block size, 104
Changer Wait, 102
Concurrent Jobs, 98
File Size, 106
Job Spool Size, 106
Network Buffer Size, 106
Open Wait, 102, 103
Part Size, 106
Rewind Wait, 102
Spool Size, 106
STORAGE DAEMON INDEX
Maximum Volume Size, 106
Media Type, 100
Minimum block size, 104
Monitor, 99
Mount Command, 103, 107
Mount Point, 103, 107
Name, 97, 99, 109
Offline On Unmount, 105
Password, 99
Password , 123
Pid Directory, 97
Random access, 103
Removable media, 103
Requires Mount, 107
Requires Mount , 103
Resource
Autochanger, 109
SDAddress, 98
SDAddresses, 98
SDPort, 98
Spool Directory, 106
TWO EOF, 105
Unmount Command, 104, 107
Use MTIOCGET, 105
Volume Poll Interval, 102
Working Directory, 97
Write Part Command, 108
141
Console Index
<destination>, 114
Console, 119
console, 114
ConsoleFont, 118
Directive
Heartbeat, 95, 119
Director, 117
Font, 118
Heartbeat Interval, 95, 119
Name, 117–119
Password, 119
142
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