Stihl Chainsaw Safety Manual

Stihl Chainsaw Safety Manual Seite 0 Donnerstag, 1. Juli 2004 10:32 10
Chain Saw
Safety Manual
Safety Precautions and
Working Techniques ......................... 2
Maintenance Chart ......................... 16
Main Parts of the Saw .................... 18
This manual contains the safety
precautions and recommended cutting
techniques outlined in STIHL chainsaw
instruction manuals.
Please note, that the illustrations in the
chapter on "Main Parts of the Machine"
show the MS 210.
Other chainsaw models may have
different parts and controls.
0457 184 0121. M5. L4. Rei. Printed in Germany
Printed on chlorine-free paper.
Printing inks contain vegetable oils; paper can be recycled.
This manual contains references to
various chapters in the instruction
manuals of specific machines.
You should therefore always refer to the
instruction manual of your particular saw
Please contact your STIHL dealer if you
have any queries after reading this
Chain Saw Safety Manual
Safety Precautions and
Working Techniques
Because a chainsaw is a
high-speed wood-cutting
tool with sharp cutters,
some special safety
precautions must be
observed in addition to those that
generally apply when working with an
axe or hand saw.
It is important that you
read and understand the
instruction manual before
using your chainsaw for
the first time and keep it in
a safe place for future
reference. Non-observance of the safety
precautions may result in serious or
even fatal injury.
Always observe local safety regulations,
standards and ordinances.
If you have never used this chainsaw
model before:
Have your STIHL dealer show you how
to operate your chainsaw or attend a
special course of training in chainsaw
Minors should never be allowed to use a
chainsaw. Children, bystanders and
animals should not be allowed in the
area where a chainsaw is in use.
When the machine is not in use (work
break), shut it off so that it does not
endanger others and secure it against
unauthorized use.
The chainsaw user is responsible for
accidents or risks involving third parties
or their property.
Do not lend or rent your chainsaw
without the instruction manual. Be sure
that anyone using your saw understands
the information contained in this manual.
You must be rested, healthy and in good
physical condition to operate a power
Persons with pacemakers only:
The ignition system of your unit
produces an electromagnetic field of a
very low intensity. This field may
interfere with some pacemakers. To
reduce the risk of serious or fatal injury,
persons with pacemaker should consult
their physician and the pacemaker
manufacturer before operating this tool.
Do not operate this power tool while
under the influence of any substance
(drugs, alcohol) which might impair
vision, dexterity or judgment.
To reduce the risk of accidents or
injury, put off the work in poor weather
conditions (rain, snow, ice, wind).
Use your saw for cutting wood or
wooden objects only.
Do not use your chainsaw for any other
purpose since this may result in
accidents or damage to the machine.
Never attempt to modify your chainsaw
in any way since this can be extremely
dangerous and may also result in
accidents or damage to the machine.
Only use tools, guide bars, chains, chain
sprockets and accessories that are
explicitly approved for this chainsaw
model by STIHL or are technically
identical. If you have any questions in
this respect, consult a specialist dealer.
Use only high quality replacement parts
since there is otherwise a risk of
accidents or damage to the machine.
STIHL recommends the use of STIHL
original tools, guide bars, chains, chain
sprockets and accessories. The
characteristics of these components are
specifically designed to match your
chainsaw model and meet your
performance requirements.
Chain Saw Safety Manual
Clothing and Equipment
Wear proper protective clothing and
Clothing must be sturdy
but allow complete
freedom of movement.
Wear snug-fitting clothing
with cut retardant
inserts – a safety
combination, not a coat.
Do not wear loose-fitting garments,
scarves, jewelery or anything that could
restrict movement or become entangled
with the saw, wood or brush. Tie up and
confine long hair (e.g. with a hair net,
cap, hard hat, etc.).
Wear steel-toed safety
boots with non-slip soles.
Wear a safety hard hat
where there is a danger of
head injuries from falling
Wear safety glasses or a
face shield and hearing protection, e.g.
ear plugs or ear muffs.
Chain Saw Safety Manual
Wear heavy-duty
gloves, preferably made
of leather.
STIHL offers a comprehensive range of
safety clothing and equipment.
Gasoline is an
extremely flammable
fuel. Keep clear of naked
flames and fire. Do not
spill any fuel – do not
Stop the engine before refueling.
Do not refuel while the engine is still hot
since fuel may overflow and catch fire.
Transporting the Chainsaw
Always engage the chain brake and fit
the chain guard (scabbard) before
carrying the saw short distances. Also
stop the engine before carrying the saw
longer distances (more than about
50 m).
Open the fuel cap carefully to allow any
pressure build-up in the tank to release
Fuel your chainsaw in a well-ventilated
area, outdoors only. If you spill fuel, wipe
the saw immediately – if fuel gets on
your clothing, change immediately.
Always carry the saw by the front handle
(handlebar) – with the hot muffler away
from your body – the guide bar must
point to the rear. To avoid serious burn
injuries, avoid touching hot parts of the
machine, especially the surface of the
Transporting by vehicle: When
transporting in a vehicle, properly secure
your saw to prevent turnover, fuel
spillage and damage.
Different models may be equipped with
different fuel caps.
After fueling, tighten down
the screw-type fuel cap as
securely as possible.
Insert the fuel cap with
hinged grip (bayonet type
cap) correctly in the
opening, turn it clockwise
as far as stop and fold the
grip down.
This reduces the risk of unit vibrations
causing the fuel cap to loosen or come
off and spill quantities of fuel.
Before Starting
Starting the Engine
Check that saw is properly assembled
and in good condition – refer to
appropriate chapters in the instruction
Start the engine at least 3 meters from
the fueling spot, outdoors only.
Check operation of chain brake,
front hand guard
Correctly mounted guide bar
Correctly tensioned chain
Smooth action of throttle trigger and
throttle trigger interlock – throttle
trigger must return automatically to
idle position
Master control/stop switch must
move easily to STOP or 0
Check that spark plug boot is secure
– a loose boot may cause arcing
that could ignite combustible fumes
and cause a fire
Never attempt to modify the controls
or safety devices
Keep the handles dry and clean –
free from oil and pitch – for safe
Your chain saw is a one-person saw. Do
not allow other persons near the running
chainsaw. Start and operate your saw
without assistance.
To reduce risk of chain rotation and
personal injury, lock the chain with the
chain brake before starting.
Do not drop start the chainsaw.
The correct starting procedure is
described in your instruction manual.
Do not attempt to start the saw when the
saw chain is in a cut.
To reduce risk of personal injury, do not
operate your saw if it is damaged or not
properly assembled.
Chain Saw Safety Manual
During Operation
In the event of impending danger or in
an emergency, switch off the engine
immediately by moving the Master
Control / stop switch to $ or d.
Never allow the chainsaw to run
When the engine is running:
Note that the chain continues to rotate
for a short period after you let go of the
throttle trigger – flywheel effect.
Take special care in slippery conditions
– damp, snow, ice, on slopes, uneven
ground and freshly debarked logs.
Avoid stumbling on stumps, roots, rocks
or in ditches.
Ensure you always have a firm and safe
Do not work alone – keep within calling
distance of others in case help is
Be particularly alert and cautious when
wearing hearing protection because
your ability to hear warnings (shouts,
alarms, etc.) is restricted.
To reduce risk of fire, keep hot exhaust
gases and hot muffler away from easily
combustible materials (e.g. wood chips,
bark, dry grass, fuel).
Mufflers with a catalytic converter can
become particularly hot.
Your chainsaw produces
toxic exhaust fumes as
soon as the engine is
running. These fumes
may be colorless and
odorless. Never run the
engine indoors or in poorly ventilated
locations, even if your model is equipped
with a catalytic converter.
To reduce the risk of serious or fatal
injury from breathing toxic fumes,
ensure proper ventilation when working
in trenches, hollows or other confined
The dusts (e.g. sawdust) produced
during cutting may be dangerous to
health. If the work area is very dusty,
wear a respirator.
To reduce risk of fire, do not smoke
while operating or standing near your
chainsaw. Note that combustible fuel
vapor may escape from the fuel system.
If your chainsaw is subjected to
unusually high loads for which it was not
designed (e.g. heavy impact or a fall),
always check that it is in good condition
before continuing cutting work – see
also “Before Starting”.
Check the fuel system for leaks and
make sure the safety devices are
working properly. Do not continue
operating your saw if it is damaged. In
case of doubt, have saw checked by
your servicing dealer.
Make sure the chain does not rotate
while the engine is idling. If necessary,
adjust idle speed properly. If the chain
still rotates, have the saw checked by
your servicing dealer.
To reduce the risk of accidents, take a
break in good time to avoid tiredness or
Chain Saw Safety Manual
Reactive Forces
To reduce the risk of kickback:
Kickback occurs, e.g.
The most common reactive forces that
occur during cutting are: kickback,
pushback and pull-in.
Work cautiously and avoid
situations which could cause
Dangers of kickback
Hold the chainsaw firmly with both
hands and maintain a secure grip.
Always cut at full throttle.
Be aware of the location of the guide
bar nose at all times.
001BA093 LÄ
Kickback can result
in serious or fatal
when the upper quadrant of the bar
nose unintentionally contacts wood
or another solid object, e.g. when
another limb is touched accidentally
during limbing
when the chain at the nose of the
guide bar is pinched in the cut.
001BA036 KN
Quickstop chain brake:
Kickback occurs when the saw is
suddenly thrown up and back in an
uncontrolled arc towards the operator.
This device reduces the risk of injury in
certain situations - it cannot prevent
kickback. If activated, the brake stops
the saw chain within a fraction of a
second – for a description of this device
refer to chapter on "Chain brake" in this
Do not cut with the bar nose.
Take special care with small, tough
limbs, they may catch the chain.
Never cut several limbs at once.
Do not overreach.
Never cut above shoulder height.
Use extreme caution when reentering a previous cut.
Do not attempt plunge cuts if you
are not experience in this cutting
Be alert for shifting of the log or
other forces that may cause the cut
to close and pinch the chain.
Always cut with a correctly
sharpened, properly tensioned
chain – the depth gauge setting
must not be too large.
Use a low kickback chain and a
narrow radius guide bar.
Chain Saw Safety Manual
A = Pull-in
Pull-in occurs when the chain on the
bottom of the bar is suddenly pinched,
caught or encounters a foreign object in
the wood. The reaction of the chain pulls
the saw forward.
Always hold the spiked bumper
securely against the tree or limb.
Chain Saw Safety Manual
Exercise extreme caution:
001BA038 KN
001BA037 KN
B = Pushback
Pushback occurs when the chain on the
top of the bar is suddenly pinched,
caught or encounters a foreign object in
the wood. The reaction of the chain
drives the saw straight back toward the
To avoid pushback:
Be alert to situations that may cause
the top of the guide bar to be
Do not twist the guide bar in the cut.
with leaners
with trees that have fallen
unfavorably between other trees
and are under strain
when working in blowdown areas.
Do not work with the chainsaw in such
circumstances. Use block and tackle,
cable winch or tractor.
Pull out exposed and cleared logs.
Select clear area for cutting.
Deadwood (dry, decayed or rotted
wood) represents a considerable risk
that is difficult to assess. Identifying the
extent of the dangers is complicated, if
not impossible. Use aids such as a cable
winch or tractor in such cases.
When felling in the vicinity of roads,
railways, power lines, etc., take extra
precautions. If necessary, inform the
police, utility company or railway
001BA082 KN
001BA087 LÄ
Holding and Controlling the Saw
Always hold your saw firmly with both
hands – right hand on the rear handle,
even if you are left-handed. To ensure
safe control, wrap your fingers tightly
around the front handle and control
Position the saw so that your body is
clear of the cutting attachment.
Do not underbuck freely hanging limbs.
Do not operate your chainsaw with the
starting throttle lock engaged. Engine
speed cannot be controlled with the
throttle trigger in this position.
To reduce the risk of injury, take special
care when cutting shattered wood –
sharp slivers of wood may be caught
and flung in your direction.
Work calmly and carefully – in daylight
conditions and only when visibility is
good – ensure you do not endanger
others – stay alert at all times.
Make sure your saw does not touch any
foreign materials:
Stones, nails, etc. may be flung off,
damage the saw chain or cause the saw
to kick back unexpectedly.
Use the shortest possible guide bar: The
chain, guide bar and chain sprocket
must match each other and your saw.
001BA033 KN
Always pull the saw out of the cut with
the chain running.
Use your chainsaw for cutting only. It is
not designed for prying or shoveling
away limbs, roots or other objects.
If on a slope, stand on the uphill side of
the log. Watch out for rolling logs.
When working at heights:
Always use a lift bucket
Never work on a ladder
Never work in a tree
Never work on any other insecure
Do not work above shoulder height
Never operate the saw with one
Chain Saw Safety Manual
Never work without the spiked bumper
because the saw may pull you forwards
and off balance. Always hold the
spiked bumper securely against the
tree or limb.
Note when reaching the end of a cut that
the saw is no longer supported in the
kerf. You have to take the full weight of
the saw since it might otherwise go out
of control.
Felling and Limbing
Determine direction of fall and
escape paths
To reduce the risk of accidents and
injury, do not attempt felling or limbing
unless you have been trained in the
necessary techniques.
Select gap in stand into which you want
the tree to fall.
Observe all country-specific regulations
on felling techniques.
Pay special attention to the following
The natural lean of the tree
Check that there are no other persons in
the felling area – other than helpers.
Any unusually heavy limb structure,
Make sure no-one is endangered by
falling tree – the noise of your engine
may drown any warning calls.
The wind direction and speed – do
not fell in high winds
Sloping ground
Neighboring trees
Snow load
Soundness of tree – take special
care if trunk is damaged or in case
of deadwood (dry, decayed or rotted
1/ 2
001BA088 LÄ
Begin cutting with the saw at full throttle
and engage the spiked bumper firmly in
the wood, and then continue cutting.
Maintain a distance of at least 21/2 tree
lengths from next felling site.
Chain Saw Safety Manual
On steep slopes, plan escape
routes parallel to the slope.
When walking away along the
escape path, watch out for falling
limbs and watch the top of the tree.
Felling notch
001BA153 KN
Preparing work area at base of tree
First clear the tree base and work
area from interfering limbs and
brush to provide a secure footing.
Clean lower portion of tree base
with an axe. Sand, stones and other
foreign objects will dull the saw
001BA040 KN
B = Escape paths
Remove all obstacles from escape
Place all tools and equipment a safe
distance away from the tree, but not
on the escape paths.
Always keep to the side of the falling
tree and only walk away along the
preplanned escape path.
001BA146 KN
Establish paths of escape for
everyone concerned – opposite to
direction of fall at about 45°.
Position your saw so that the gunning
sight points in exactly in the direction
you want the tree to fall.
There are several approved methods for
making the felling notch – observe
country-specific regulations on felling
A = Direction of fall
When making the felling notch, make
use of the gunning sight on the shroud
and housing to check the planned
direction of fall.
STIHL recommends the following
Remove large buttress roots: Make
vertical cut first, then horizontal –
but only if wood is sound.
Chain Saw Safety Manual
The felling notch (C) determines the
direction of fall.
Make the horizontal cut – check the
direction of fall with the gunning
Make angle cut at about 45°.
Check the felling notch and correct it
if necessary.
Felling notch at a right angle to the
planned direction of fall.
As close to ground as possible.
Cut to a depth of about 1/5 to 1/3 of
the trunk diameter.
Chain Saw Safety Manual
001BA144 KN
001BA150 KN
001BA143 KN
Sapwood cuts
Sapwood cuts in long-fibered softwood
help prevent sapwood splintering when
the tree falls. Make cuts at both sides of
the trunk at same height as bottom of
felling notch to a depth of about 1/10 of
trunk diameter. On large diameter trees,
cut to no more than width of guide bar.
Shout a warning before starting the
felling cut.
Do not make sapwood cuts if wood is
Make the felling cut (D) slightly
higher than bottom of felling notch.
Cut horizontally.
Leave approx. 1/10 of tree diameter
uncut between felling cut and felling
notch. This is the hinge.
Drive wedges into the felling cut in
good time. Use only wooden,
aluminum or plastic wedges. Never
steel, which can damage the chain
and cause kickback.
The hinge (E) helps control the
falling tree.
Do not cut through the hinge – you
could lose control of the direction of
fall – this could result in an accident.
Leave a broader hinge on rotten
Shout a second warning immediately
before the tree falls.
Small diameter trees:
simple fan cut
Apply the spiked bumper behind the
hinge – pivot the saw around this point only as far as the hinge. The spiked
bumper rolls against the trunk.
001BA148 KN
001BA145 KN
001BA147 KN
Large diameter trees:
sectioning method
If the diameter of the tree is greater than
the length of the guide bar, use the
sectioning method.
Use the spiked bumper as a pivot –
avoid repositioning the saw more than
First cut (1):
Nose of guide bar should enter wood
just behind the hinge – hold the saw
horizontally and swing it as far as
Chain Saw Safety Manual
Plunge cutting
Heartwood cut
Do not attempt plunge cuts if you are not
experience in this cutting technique.
Enlarge the plunge cut to both sides as
Use a low kickback chain and
exercise particular caution
if tree diameter is more than twice
the length of the guide bar.
For heartwood cut
For felling leaners
if a large portion of heartwood
remains uncut on large diameter
on trees that are difficult to fell (oak,
beech), to prevent heartwood
splintering and maintain planned
direction of fall.
on soft deciduous trees to relieve
tension in lying log and prevent
slivers in the center of the hinge
being torn out of the log.
For relieving cuts during bucking
For DIY projects
When repositioning for the next cut (2),
keep the guide bar fully engaged in the
kerf to keep the felling cut straight –
apply the spiked bumper again.
Insert a wedge (3) in the cut.
Last cut (4):
Apply the spiked bumper as for the
simple fan cut – do not cut through the
Begin cut (4) by applying lower portion of
the guide bar nose – do not use upper
portion because of risk of kickback. Cut
until depth of kerf is twice the width of the
guide bar.
Swing saw slowly (5) into plunge-cutting
position. Take care because of the risk of
kickback or pushback.
Make the plunge cut (6) very carefully.
Danger of pushback.
Chain Saw Safety Manual
Carefully make the plunge cut in the
center of the felling notch – there is
a danger of pushback at this
point – then swing the bar in the
direction of the arrow.
Use a low kickback chain.
Work with the saw supported
wherever possible.
Do not work with the bar nose.
Watch for limbs which are under
Never attempt to cut several limbs
at once.
Lying or standing logs under tension:
Risk of pinching!
When cutting small logs
Use a sturdy and stable support –
Never hold the log with your leg or
Never allow another person to hold
the log or help in any other way.
Prolonged use of the unit may result in
vibration-induced circulation problems in
the hands (whitefinger disease).
The period of usage is prolonged by:
Hand protection (wearing warm
The period of usage is shortened by:
001BA152 KN
No general recommendation can be
given for the length of usage because it
depends on several factors.
001BA151 KN
Always start relieving cut at the
compression side (1).
Make relieving cut and then perform
bucking cut at the tension side (2) –
the saw will otherwise pinch or kick
Any personal tendency to suffer
from poor circulation (symptoms:
frequently cold fingers, itching).
Low outside temperatures.
Gripping force (a tight grip hinders
Continual and regular users should
monitor closely the condition of their
hands and fingers. If any of the above
symptoms appear, seek medical advice.
If not otherwise possible, make the
bucking cut from the bottom upwards
(underbuck) – be wary of pushback.
Do not cut a lying log at a point where it
is touching the ground because the saw
chain will otherwise be damaged.
Chain Saw Safety Manual
Maintenance and Repairs
Service the machine regularly. Do not
attempt any maintenance or repair work
not described in the instruction manual.
Have all other work performed by a
specialist dealer.
STIHL recommends that you have
servicing and repair work carried out
exclusively by an authorized STIHL
servicing dealer. STIHL dealers are
regularly given the opportunity to attend
training courses and receive technical
information bulletins on engineering
Use only high quality replacement parts
since there is otherwise a risk of
accidents or damage to the machine. If
you have any questions in this respect,
consult a specialist dealer.
STIHL recommends you use only
original STlHL replacement parts. The
characteristics of these parts are
specifically designed to match your
chainsaw model and meet your
performance requirements.
To reduce the risk of injury from
unintentional engine startup and chain
rotation, always shut off the engine
and disconnect the spark plug boot
before performing any repairs,
maintenance or cleaning work. –
Exception: Carburetor and idle speed
Chain Saw Safety Manual
To reduce the risk of fire, do not service
or store your machine near open flames.
Check the chain catcher –
and replace it if damaged.
Check the fuel filler cap for leaks at
regular intervals.
Shut off the engine
before checking chain tension.
Use only a spark plug of the type
approved by STIHL and make sure it is
in good condition – see "Specifications".
before retensioning the chain.
before replacing the chain.
before rectifying problems.
Inspect ignition lead (insulation in good
condition, secure connection).
Do not turn the engine over on the
starter with the spark plug boot or spark
plug removed unless the slide control /
stop switch is on STOP or 0 since there
is otherwise a risk of fire from
uncontained sparking.
Check condition of the muffler at regular
intervals to reduce the risk of fires and
damage to hearing. Do not operate your
machine if the muffler is damaged or
Do not touch a hot muffler since burn
injury will result.
Vibration behavior is influenced by the
condition of the AV elements – check
the AV elements at regular intervals.
Observe sharpening instructions
for safe and correct handling of saw
chain and guide bar.
Keep the chain in good condition at all
times. It must be properly sharpened,
tensioned and well lubricated.
Always change the chain, guide bar and
sprocket in good time.
Check condition of clutch drum
Store fuel and chain lubricant in properly
labelled, safety-type canisters only. Take
care when handling gasoline. Avoid
direct contact with the skin and avoid
inhaling fuel vapour.
To reduce the risk of injury, stop using
your saw immediately if the chain brake
does not function properly.
Take your saw to your local dealer. Do
not use the chainsaw until the problem
has been rectified (see chapter on
"Chain Brake").
Complete machine
Throttle trigger, trigger interlock, Master
Chain brake
Pickup body/filter in fuel tank
Visual inspection (condition, leaks)
Check operation
Check operation
Have checked by servicing dealer1)2)
Clean, replace filter element
Chain oil tank
Chain lubrication
Inspect, also check sharpness
Check chain tension
Check (wear, damage)
Clean and turn over
Chain sprocket
Air filter
AV elements (rubber buffers, springs)
Have replaced by servicing
Fuel tank
Guide bar
as required
if damaged
if problem
Replace pickup body
Saw chain
every 12 months
after each
refueling stop
after finishing
work or daily
Please note that the following maintenance intervals apply for normal
operating conditions only. If your daily working time is longer than normal or
cutting conditions are difficult (very dusty work area, resin-rich wood,
tropical wood etc.), shorten the specified intervals accordingly. If you only
use the saw occasionally, extend the intervals accordingly.
starting work
Maintenance Chart
Cooling inlets
Cylinder fins
1) STIHL recommends that this work
be done by a STIHL servicing dealer
2) see "Chain brake"
Chain Saw Safety Manual
Spark plug
All accessible screws and nuts
(not adjusting screws) 2)
Spark arresting screen* in muffler
Chain catcher
Safety label
Check idle adjustment – chain must not rotate
as required
if damaged
if problem
every 12 months
after each
refueling stop
after finishing
work or daily
Please note that the following maintenance intervals apply for normal
operating conditions only. If your daily working time is longer than normal or
cutting conditions are difficult (very dusty work area, resin-rich wood,
tropical wood etc.), shorten the specified intervals accordingly. If you only
use the saw occasionally, extend the intervals accordingly.
starting work
Readjust idle
Readjust electrode gap
Replace after about 100 operating hours
Clean or replace
1) STIHL recommends that this work
be done by a STIHL servicing dealer
2) Firmly tighten cylinder base screws
of professional saws (3.4 kW or
more) after 10 to 20 hours of
see “Guide to Using this Manual“
Chain Saw Safety Manual
Main Parts of the Saw
1 Twist lock
2 Carburetor adjusting screws
3 Fuel pump (easy start*)
4 Decompression valve*
5 Chain brake
6 Muffler
7 Chain sprocket
8 Chain sprocket cover
9 Chain catcher
10 Chain tensioner (side)
11 Chain tensioner (front)
12 Guide bar
208BA003 KN
13 Oilomatic saw chain
14 Adjusting wheel of quick
15 Handle of wingnut*
(quick chain tensioner)
see "Guide to Using this Manual"
Chain Saw Safety Manual
16 Oil filler cap
17 Bumper spike
18 Front hand guard
19 Front handle (handlebar)
20 Starter grip
21 Spark plug boot
22 Master Control lever
23 Fuel filler cap
25 Throttle trigger interlock
26 Rear handle
27 Rear hand guard
Chain Saw Safety Manual
24 Throttle trigger
208BA004 KN
# Serial number
Chain Saw Safety Manual Seite 1 Donnerstag, 1. Juli 2004 10:32 10
0457 184 0121
englisch / English
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