Technical Information
powerguard
Title
Technical Description
Central Battery Static Inverter Systems
for
Emergency Lighting
1 Phase: 250 VA –30 kVA
3 Phase: 3 kVA –100 kVA
POWER IS OUR BUSINESS
Published by GC/PSW
Number: 105-11 –Version: 3
Page 1
powerguard
Inverter Systems for Emergency Lighting
Table of Contents
Title ................................................................................................................................................1
Table of Contents...........................................................................................................................2
Introduction ....................................................................................................................................4
Features .........................................................................................................................................6
Mode of Operation .........................................................................................................................7
Contactors......................................................................................................................................8
Overview.................................................................................................................................8
Battery Contactor....................................................................................................................9
Changeover Contactor ...........................................................................................................9
Discharged Battery Shutdown .....................................................................................................11
Overview...............................................................................................................................11
Discharged Battery Alarm.....................................................................................................11
Battery Charge Indicator.......................................................................................................11
Cooling .........................................................................................................................................13
Fan Assisted .........................................................................................................................13
Power Supply ...............................................................................................................................14
Inverter .........................................................................................................................................15
Inverter Control .....................................................................................................................15
Power Modules .....................................................................................................................16
Transformer ..........................................................................................................................16
Overload.......................................................................................................................................17
Policy ....................................................................................................................................17
Fascia Panel ................................................................................................................................18
System OK –LED.................................................................................................................18
Float –LED...........................................................................................................................18
Mains fail –LED....................................................................................................................18
Power Supply Fail –LED......................................................................................................19
Contactor Fail –LED ............................................................................................................19
Contactor Fail –LED –Flashing...........................................................................................19
Charging –LED ....................................................................................................................19
Charger Fail –LED ...............................................................................................................19
Low Battery –LED................................................................................................................19
Temp. Out of Limits ..............................................................................................................19
Low/High Volts –LED...........................................................................................................19
Alarm Reset –Button ...........................................................................................................20
Digital Meter..........................................................................................................................20
Automatic Test......................................................................................................................20
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Inverter Systems for Emergency Lighting
Switching Off.........................................................................................................................21
Ancillary Circuits ..........................................................................................................................22
Overview...............................................................................................................................22
Link1 .....................................................................................................................................22
Link2 .....................................................................................................................................22
Volt free common alarm contacts .........................................................................................23
Remote Common Alarm Output..............................................................................................23
Full remote alarm panel..........................................................................................................23
Automatic Battery Charger.............................................................................................................24
Introduction ...........................................................................................................................24
Three Stage Charging ..........................................................................................................24
Temperature .........................................................................................................................25
Auto Check ...........................................................................................................................25
Temperature Compensation Chart .......................................................................................26
Batteries .......................................................................................................................................27
Type of battery......................................................................................................................27
Standards .............................................................................................................................27
Enclosures ...................................................................................................................................28
Type......................................................................................................................................28
Material .................................................................................................................................28
Finish ....................................................................................................................................28
UPS Systems versus Central Battery Static Inverter Systems....................................................29
Overview...............................................................................................................................29
Powering the load .................................................................................................................29
Efficiency ..............................................................................................................................30
Battery charging....................................................................................................................31
Batteries................................................................................................................................32
Inverters................................................................................................................................32
Maintenance .........................................................................................................................32
Summary ..............................................................................................................................33
Other Products and Services .......................................................................................................34
Notes............................................................................................................................................35
Notes............................................................................................................................................36
Schematic....................................................................................................................................37
General Arrangement..................................................................................................................38
Page 3
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powerguard
Inverter Systems for Emergency Lighting
Introduction
Thank you for your enquiry regarding Powerguard Standby Power Systems for essential
and critical safety equipment.
Powerguard is a registered trade name.
Powerguard is a specialist supplier of Uninterruptible Power Supplies, Standby Power
Supplies and Intelligent Static Transfer Modules with power outputs from 50 Watts to 4000
kWatts.
Powerguard is the largest OEM manufacturer of Static Inverter Central Battery Emergency
Lighting Systems in the UK. We supply both Static Inverter Systems and AC/DC and DC
Systems from 100 Watts to 100 kWatts. The Static Inverter Systems can be single or three
phase input/outputs.
Our building blocks –chargers –inverters –changeover systems –static switches –are all
designed and proven to give a very high performance with exceptional reliability and long
life
The Uninterruptible and Standby Power Systems, Inverters and Intelligent Static Transfer
Modules are state of the art using the latest technology. They are microprocessor controlled
with sophisticated software to enhance the reliability and performance.
We aim to make systems that are different. We manufacture the Standby Systems, Static
Transfer Modules, Inverters and Battery Chargers entirely in the UK. This is rare nowadays
but it is important to achieve the quality engineering and technical support that is essential to
the service we believe we should give to our customers.
You can be confident about ordering a Powerguard system because we stand behind our
products absolutely. We give a no strings –no quibble free on site warranty, within the UK
mainland, for the first three years of ownership dated from the date of the delivery. This covers
labour, parts and travelling. This does not include emergency call out but will rely on our best
efforts to attend the site as soon as possible.
The free on-site warranty applies to systems installed within the UK mainland up to a 30 mile
drive north of the centre of Glasgow. An installation where access is difficult or requires special
means such as the use of a ferry may not be fully covered.
However we are prepared to talk about the warranty cover for areas that fall outside the above
terms either in the UK or in other countries.
Page 4
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powerguard
Inverter Systems for Emergency Lighting
When you contact Powerguard you will find us very helpful with an unbeatable in depth
technical knowledge about our products that is entirely at your disposal both before and
after your order. We usually know what we are talking about and can probably help you.
If required we carry out site surveys followed by a project plan and quotation to solve your
power problems in the most effective and economical way possible. We can arrange the
supply, positioning, installation and commissioning of the equipment, followed by the most
cost effective after sales maintenance agreements in the industry, giving total project
management to solve your power problems.
We are dedicated to giving our customers the most appropriate and cost effective power
solution possible with reliability and long life a primary design objective.
The systems are manufactured and supplied according to a quality and environmental
system registered to:
BS EN ISO 9001:2000
BS EN ISO 14001:2004
Powerguard Static Inverter Central Battery Systems are compliant with EN 50171
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Inverter Systems for Emergency Lighting
Features
 Microprocessor controlled.
 Phase controlled rectifier for reliability, ease of use and scalability.
 Constant current/voltage charger.
 Slow charger walk in to eliminate high currents caused by overshoot.
 Temperature compensated float charge voltage.
 Sophisticated operation with battery life and reliability one of the main
design objectives.
 Equalises the voltage across the battery contactor before closing.
 Battery sensing mode when the charger stops charging every 4 hours
for 20 seconds to check the battery connection.
 Low battery disconnect using a magnetically latched contactor.
 Timed operation of the contactors to virtually eliminate arcing.
 Control of changeover contactor to eliminate chatter.
 Volt free changeover contacts to signal BMS.
 Remote common alarm output.
 Two button operation for system shutdown.
 Sophisticated high-speed mains failure detection.
 Comprehensive monitoring and display.
 Audible alarm with manual reset.
 Dual independent power supplies with monitoring.
 System OK –green LED.
 Two-button operation for test, initiated from the front panel.
 Rugged and reliable inverter.
 Inverter is independent from the rest of the system.
 Inverter incorporates MustStarttechnology.
 PowerFlowensures start up into any lighting load.
 Available single or three phase.
 Links 1 and 2 available for easy interface to lighting systems.
 Changeover contactor operation monitored by the control.
 Cooling fans have different supplies and have redundancy.
Page 6
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Inverter Systems for Emergency Lighting
Mode of Operation
The machines use three 8/16-bit micro-controllers that monitor all of the system parameters
and control the system to give high reliability and performance. Many years experience of
the operation of emergency lighting systems, by the design team, has resulted in a
sophisticated control that enhances the reliability of the system and in particular the electro
mechanical components. For example it does this by reducing wear and tear on the
contactors by virtually eliminating arcing and on the fans by ensuring that they only function
when required and during emergency operation.
Automatic transfer
switching device
Input AC
Output AC
Charger
Battery
Inverter
Sketch showing a typical
Central Battery Static Inverter System
The above sketch shows a typical Static Inverter Central Battery System operating in
changeover mode.
During normal operation the incoming mains supply is fed through the system to the
automatic transfer-switching device (ATSD). The normally open contacts are closed during
normal operation feeding the mains supply to the load. At the same time the mains supply is
fed to the charger keeping the batteries in a fully charged state ready for emergency
operation.
When the mains supply fails or goes out of specification the ATSD switches to its normally
closed contacts. The inverter starts up and supplies the load using power from the battery.
The inverter will power the load until the mains supply is restored or the battery becomes
discharged.
When the mains supply is restored the ATSD transfers the load back again and the charger
charges the battery.
A micro-controller monitors all of the parameters within the system and will directly drive 10
LED indicators and a re-settable audible alarm, to indicate the system status.
Page 7
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Inverter Systems for Emergency Lighting
Contactors
Overview
Wear and tear
caused by
making and
breaking power
circuits.
Electro mechanical devices such as contactors have to withstand the
arduous task of making and breaking the power circuits. This causes
ongoing wear and tear until the contactor eventually fails. Some
contactors have a particular weakness closing the connection under
load and others a weakness opening the contacts under load. One
Eventual failure.
Contact bounce.
thing is sure that every time a contactor operates the contacts are
damaged eventually leading to failure.
When a contactor closes the contacts can bounce causing arcing, this
can weld them together. When it opens again the welds are broken
damaging the contacts. Sometimes it will weld so effectively that it will
not open when required causing a system failure.
Arcing.
Conversely when a contactor opens whilst supplying a load an arc is
produced which is extinguished as the gap between the contacts is
increased or the current reverses. This causes heat and in some cases
will burn the contacts and cause failure.
Have to use
contactors.
Unfortunately contactors are the best way of switching power in a lot of
circumstances with five main advantages over the semiconductor
Easily switched. alternative: 1) They are easily switched by energising or de-energising the
coil.
Isolated coil.
Very little heat.
Isolates input
and output.
2) The coil is isolated from the supply and the load.
3) When they are conducting they are nearly 100% efficient and
do not require additional cooling.
4) When the contactor is open the load is isolated from the supply.
Lower cost.
Overcoming
weakness.
5) The cost of implementation is considerably lower.
Our design engineers have spent a lot of time mitigating the
weaknesses inherent in contactors sometimes eliminating the
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Inverter Systems for Emergency Lighting
weakness completely. They have achieved this by sophisticated
programming of the control micro-controllers.
Sophisticated
software.
Battery Contactor
The battery contactor is required to protect the battery from damage Protects the
due to deep discharge. When it is open the system does not drain the battery from
battery at all. Unfortunately this introduces a normally open contactor
deep discharge.
into what must be a fail-safe system. To virtually eliminate the
possibility of contactor failure shutting down the system Powerguard
use a specially designed contactor that is latched shut with a Magnetically
permanent magnet and only requires a pulse to open or close it.
latched contactor
for reliability.
When the system first powers up the charger slowly increases the
charger voltage until it is approximately equal to the battery voltage.
Equalises the
Then the battery contactor coil is pulsed closing the contacts and voltage across
connecting the battery. After the battery contactor is closed the charger the contactor
starts the controlled walk in again this time bringing up the battery before closing.
charge current and voltage.
Before the battery contactor opens to isolate the battery the inverter is Load removed
shut down and the load removed.
before opening.
This virtually eliminates arcing and minimises wear and tear on the Increases life
contactor increasing the life and reliability.
and reliability.
Changeover Contactor
The control protects the changeover contactor in a similar manner. The Changeover
inverter is not energised until the contacts are closed and is shut down contactor
before changing back to the normal supply. It is impossible to eliminate
protected.
arcing on the changeover contactor but by careful control it is Controls arcing.
minimised increasing the life and enhancing reliability.
When the mains supply fails and the changeover contactor
operates to its normally closed position there is no supply to break
because it has failed or is much reduced. So there is no arcing on
those contacts.
The system is controlled so that the inverter does not start until the
Supply has
failed so no
arcing.
Inverter off
before closing
normally closed contacts are already closed eliminating arcing.
Page 9
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Inverter Systems for Emergency Lighting
When the mains supply is restored the inverter is shut down before
Inverter off
before opening.
the contactor changes back eliminating arcing on the opening
contacts.
Arcing reduced
3 out 4
operations.
Three out of the four operating situations are controlled with the
Potential
damage.
applied to the normally open contacts and therefore when the
Heavy duty
contactor.
problem Powerguard use a high quality contactor and rate it
arcing virtually eliminated. However when the mains supply is
restored and the system returns to normal mode it is already
contacts close the load will be applied instantly. To counter this
conservatively.
When the system is normal and the changeover contactor is energised
closing the normally open contacts the mains supply is powering the
Coil failure.
load. If the changeover contactor coil failed the contactor would open
Contactor would
open .
and connect the inverter to the load. Unfortunately on most systems
available in the market place this results in the lights going out causing
Lights would go
out.
a major problem. This is because the system does not switch the
Sophisticated
programming.
Powerguard has overcome this problem by sophisticated programming
Monitors and
analyses the
system.
Starts inverter
and avoids
catastrophic
failure.
inverter on because the mains supply has not failed.
in the control system. The control monitors the system all the time and
when something odd happens, such as the changeover contactor
operating because of coil failure, it analyses the system and takes
corrective action.
In this case it would start the inverter to restore the lights and give a
visual and audible alarm. This would avoid what could have been a
catastrophic failure.
Page 10
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Inverter Systems for Emergency Lighting
Discharged Battery Shutdown
Overview
It is the policy of Powerguard to disconnect the battery using a The battery is
disconnected
using a
the battery due to deep discharge during prolonged mains supply contactor.
contactor when it is discharged. This is to prevent damage caused to
failures. A prolonged mains supply failure does not happen very often
but when it does we should try and avoid buying a new battery.
Discharged Battery Alarm
Avoid buying a
new battery.
System
To do this and still comply with EN 50171 we have programmed the remembers that
micro controller to write a code into non-volatile memory just prior to the battery was
shutting down the system and disconnecting the battery. When the discharged.
mains supply is restored the control remembers that the system has
Gives a
discharged the batteries and gives an alarm. The alarm must be reset manually reset
manually to make sure that it is accepted that the batteries have been alarm.
fully discharged.
Battery Charge Indicator
However the mains supply may have been restored for some time by Mains supply
the time the alarm is noticed and the system will have proportionately may have been
recharged the batteries. So that the battery capacity can be identified
Powerguard have developed a unique indicator that measures the time
on for some
time.
the charger has been on and gives an approximate indication of battery Battery capacity
indicator.
capacity.
The following sketch of the front indicator panel shows the LEDs that
indicate the battery capacity.
Page 11
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Inverter Systems for Emergency Lighting
Showing front
panel.
Up to 5 LEDs
flash to indicate
restored battery
capacity.
Battery
discharged
alarm mode.
Alarm reset
button.
Battery capacity
indicator mode
by pressing reset
button.
Normal after 15
seconds.
In the battery capacity indicator mode a number of the lower five LEDs
are flashed to give an approximate indication of battery capacity as a
percentage.
The display is in battery capacity indicator mode during the batterydischarged alarm
The battery discharged alarm and the display are reset by pressing the
alarm-reset button.
The display can be put into battery capacity indicator mode at any time
by pressing and holding the alarm reset button for 5 seconds.
It will automatically return to the normal display mode after 15 seconds.
Page 12
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powerguard
Inverter Systems for Emergency Lighting
Cooling
Fan Assisted
Fan life about
Fans are electro mechanical devices and wear out. Powerguard only 50,000 hours.
use high quality fans with roller or ball bearings. Even so the expected
Not long
life is only about 50,000 hrs. at 25°C which is 5 years of continuous enough.
operation. This does not fit into the Powerguard design philosophy of a
Systems are
naturally cooled
Most Powerguard systems below 10kVA are designed to be naturally except in
convection cooled during normal operation. The fans only come on emergency
operation.
25-year life with minimum maintenance.
dur
i
ngemer
genc
yoper
at
i
on.Thi
smeanst
hef
an’
sl
i
f
ewi
t
hout incurring
maintenance is greatly prolonged beyond our target.
Fan life is long
Another major advantage with using natural cooling is that the amount enough.
Less dirt and
of dirt and debris pulled into the cabinet is much reduced and there are
debris.
no fan filters to block up.
10kVA and
above have
systems and use fan assisted cooling during emergency operation additional
when the power module heat sink fans and the enclosure fans will be cooling
Powerguard systems of 10kVA and above are similar to the smaller
on.
When the chargers on the bigger systems are supplying heavy current Controlled fans
after a discharge some fan assisted cooling may be required.
on the enclosure.
The fans fitted to the enclosures are switched on when the charger is
providing a high current and will be switched off when the charger goes Fan run time a
into float mode. The high current part of the charger’
s life is less than
2.5% even in a system that is regularly tested every month.
small proportion
of run time.
By careful control the fans runtime is reduced so it is a small proportion
Fans are
redundant with
dual supplies.
The fans are supplied from dual supplies and have redundancy built in
oft
hes
y
s
t
em “
on”t
i
meex
t
endi
ngt
hel
i
f
eoft
hef
ans
.
giving a very reliable cooling system.
Page 13
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Inverter Systems for Emergency Lighting
Power Supply
Battery voltage
In systems that have a battery voltage over 24 VDC a DC-to-DC power
to 24 VDC
supply is fitted to provide 24 VDC to power the control circuits from the
converter to
provide power for battery. This is to enable the control board to keep operating in the
control circuits.
event of a mains failure. This allows the control to monitor the battery
voltage and give a warning when the battery is nearly discharged and
to operate the battery contactor to prevent over discharge of the
battery.
Two independent
switch mode
converters in
parallel
redundancy.
Very reliable
system.
The DC-to-DC power supply has two independent switch mode
converters operating in parallel redundancy each one feeding through
diodes. Each of the converters is monitored by the control and if one
fails a visual and audible alarm is given.
This gives a very reliable system where failure of both supplies during
emergency operation is extremely unlikely.
Page 14
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Inverter Systems for Emergency Lighting
Inverter
The inverter is the latest generation of a line going back 20 years and is 20 year pedigree
specifically designed for emergency lighting. It is controlled by an 8/16bit micro-controller and is very reliable and efficient.
It incorporates MustStart technology and is guaranteed to start any
lighting load within its rating from cold.
The inverter also incorporates PowerFlowtechnology. This allows the
developed for
emergency
lighting.
MustStart
Technology.
PowerFlow
inverter to be short circuited on the output for a minimum of 5 seconds Technology.
and when the short is removed it will power up the load as normal.
Regulated low
The output is regulated and is a low distortion sine wave suitable for distortion sine
wave.
powering any load designed to run on the normal mains supply.
Transformer
Battery
24Vdc
Output
AC
Inverter
control
Showing a
typical inverter.
Capacitor
Power
Modules
0Vdc
Sketch showing a typical inverter
Inverter Control
8/16 bit micro
The inverter uses an 8/16-bit micro-controller to provide all of the controller.
control and display functions. It generates the special waveforms to
drive the power modules and transformer.
The current through the modules is monitored and provides an ultra
high-speed dynamic current limit. This protects the power modules from
damage due to short circuits and over current.
Special
waveforms.
Ultra fast
dynamic
current limit.
Page 15
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Inverter Systems for Emergency Lighting
Housekeeping
functions.
The inverter control also looks after the housekeeping functions to keep
everything running efficiently. At the same time it monitors the battery
voltage and switches off the inverter when it goes too low.
Power Modules
Power modules
switch Dc
current.
The power modules switch the DC current through the transformer
primary winding to give a 50 Hz AC drive.
The modules are unique and have been developed by our designers to
Efficient and
reliable.
switch heavy DC currents efficiently and very reliably. Each one has
two channels and is fitted with power Field Effect Transistors (FET) as
required. Each channel can take up to five 100 Amp FETs giving a
600 Amps per
channel.
notional 500 Amp switching capability. The modules can be paralleled if
Very
conservatively
rated
However we rate the FETs at 50% of the 75°C rating so each one is
required to increase the current capability.
rated at 45 Amps instead of 100 Amps giving a very high surge
capability. This is in line with our policy of high reliability and efficiency.
Ultra fast
transient spike
suppressor.
Unique
transformer
developed for
emergency
lighting.
Each power module incorporates a dual channel ultra high-speed
transient spike suppressor to prevent damage to the FETs caused by
voltage spikes. This further enhances reliability.
Transformer
The transformer is a unique ferro-resonant type developed over 20
years to power lighting loads efficiently and very reliably. The
characteristics inherent in this type of transformer have been developed
to enhance the performance for lighting applications.
Can be shortcircuited.
The output of the transformer is inherently protected against overloads.
It can be short circuited for 30 seconds without damage. Approximately
twice full load current will flow in the secondary winding.
Inherent soft
start.
Will start a full
lighting load
from cold.
The output is regulated and is a low distortion sine wave.
The transformer has an inherent soft start capability, which will start into
any lighting load from cold.
Page 16
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Inverter Systems for Emergency Lighting
Overload
Policy
Powerguard has developed a policy on overload situations based on our long experience in
the emergency power market. As a matter of course we do not shut the machine down
when an overload occurs because in an emergency situation we think it is a mistake to save
the machine from damage and as a result, inadvertently put lives at risk.
You are sometimes not too happy about the fact that our machines are bigger and weigh
more than some of our competitors. This is because we design the machines with a higher
thermal mass. If a severe overload is applied the temperature rise is slow and will not cause
a catastrophic failure for some time.
If a short circuit is applied to the output approximately twice full load current will flow. We
have sustained this condition at the factory for 5 minutes without any damage. We have to
use this information to choose the output and distribution breakers to the lighting circuits.
Powerguard can provide an output breaker on the machine to suit a particular application
within the limits of safe operation. It is sometimes a good idea to have more than one circuit
on the output of the machine so that a fault does not affect all of the emergency lights.
Powerguard will advise on the external distribution breakers if required.
Page 17
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Inverter Systems for Emergency Lighting
Fascia Panel
BATTERY
CURRENT VOLTAGE
122.04
MAINS SUPPLY
ON
CHARGER
ON
TO SWITCH OFF OUTPUT
SWITCH OFF MAINS SUPPLY THEN PRESS ARROWED BUTTONS
SIMULTANEOUSLY FOR 2 SECONDS
SYSTEM OK
O
OFF
FLOAT
MAINS FAIL
O
OFF
CHARGING
OFF
OFF
100%
POWER
CONTACTOR
SUPPLY FAIL
FAIL
CHARGER
LOW
TEMP. OUT
LOW/HIGH
FAIL
BATTERY
80%
60%
OF LIMITS
40%
VOLTS
20%
ALARM
RESET
System OK –LED
The green System OK LED is on when the system is operating in its normal operating
mode.
The battery charger maintains the batteries at their optimum voltage.
The System OK LED is off when the output is sourced from the batteries, or when any fault
condition exists.
Float –LED
For the green Float LED to be on the system must be within temperature limits. The battery
charger will automatically shut down if the ambient temperature goes outside the normal
operating range of: 0°C –40°C. When the ambient temperature returns to the normal
operating range the charger will automatically restart.
When the LED is on it shows that the charging system is OK.
The float LED is off when the mains supply is not present, when the system is out of
temperature limits, when the charger has failed or the Charging LED is on.
Mains fail –LED
The red Supply Fail LED is on when the incoming mains supply fails or goes outside a
preset specification.
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Inverter Systems for Emergency Lighting
The red LED remains on until one of the following occurs: the mains power supply is
reinstated or the battery voltage falls below a preset minimum causing the system to shut
down.
Power Supply Fail –LED
The system is fitted with a dual power supply with two independent outputs. If one of the
power supplies fails the Red LED is on.
24 VDC systems do not have an internal power supply board.
Contactor Fail –LED
The red Contactor Fail LED is on when a failure has been detected on the changeover
contactor.
Contactor Fail –LED –Flashing
The red Contactor Fail LED flashes to indicate that the battery voltage sense circuit is faulty
and the charger has been shut down.
Charging –LED
The amber Charging LED is on to indicate charging is taking place prior to the system
switching to float mode.
Charger Fail –LED
The Red LED is on when the battery charging system has a fault and is not charging.
The LED is off when the system is running from the batteries.
Low Battery –LED
The Red LED is on when the battery voltage falls to a predetermined level to warn of
impending low battery shutdown.
Temp. Out of Limits
The red Temp Out of Limits LED is on when the ambient temperature is less than 0°C or
more than 40°C. The charger shuts down.
Low/High Volts –LED
The red High Voltage LED is on when the charger output is too low or too high in the float
mode.
Page 19
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Inverter Systems for Emergency Lighting
Alarm Reset –Button
Pressing the blue reset alarm button silences the audible alarm.
Digital Meter
Over 1 kVA
digital meter is
fitted.
The digital meter is fitted as standard to all of the machines unless it is
removed to comply with the requested specification.
The digital meter is controlled by an 8/16 micro-controller giving 10-bit
8/16 bit micro
controller.
10-bit accuracy.
4 digit display
battery voltage
and current
accuracy. The value is displayed on a 4 digit LED display so it can be
easily seen even in poorly lit areas.
The digital meter indicates the battery voltage and current both charge
and discharge. The reading is toggled between voltage and current by
the adjacent push button. Two amber LEDs indicate the status of the
displayed reading. A minus sign is displayed before the value if the
battery is discharging.
Automatic Test
Automatic test
sequence.
The system has an automatic test sequence programmed into it. When
activated the machine goes into emergency mode and supplies the
load from the batteries. The emergency condition is timed to last fifteen
Lasts 15
minutes.
minutes. This will give time to check for lamp failure. The standard
requires that the batteries are not run down more than 25% on a test.
25% of one hour.
This is to ensure that the battery is not depleted too much in case of an
emergency and that regular cycling does not shorten the life of the
battery. The fifteen-minute duration was chosen because it is 25% of a
Three times if
the system is
three hour.
one-hour autonomy system. The test sequence can be operated up to
three times consecutively if the system has a three-hour autonomy
battery.
Initiate from the
front panel.
The two arrowed red buttons on the facia panel are used to initiate a
test.
Page 20
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powerguard
Inverter Systems for Emergency Lighting
Switching Off
The two arrowed red buttons on the fascia panel are used to initiate a System
test sequence are also used to shut the system down. This operation is
shutdown from
the front panel.
described on the front panel.
Page 21
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powerguard
Inverter Systems for Emergency Lighting
Ancillary Circuits
Overview
Systems easily
interface with
the outside
world.
All Powerguard Central Battery Static Inverter systems are fitted with
circuits to allow the machine to interface easily with applications
requiring remote control. These include sub-circuit monitors, fire alarms
andni
ghtwat
c
hmen’
ss
wi
t
c
hes
.
The interface circuits are: - Link1, Link2, Volt Free Contacts and
Remote Common Alarm.
Link1 is used to
put machine
into emergency
mode.
Link1
Link1 is installed on the same rail as the input and output terminals and
is two screw terminals. These are fitted with a link when the machine
leaves the factory. If the link is removed or switched a mains failure is
simulated and the machine goes into the emergency mode.
The most common uses for Link1 are: -
Fire alarm
panel.
1) To bring the machine into the emergency mode via the fire
alarm panel.
2)
Sub circuit
monitors.
To interface with sub-circuit monitors to bring the machine on
in the emergency mode if a sub circuit fails somewhere in the
building.
Link2 is used to
turn off the
maintained
lights but still
have emergency
cover.
Link2
Link2 is installed adjacent to Link1 in the enclosure and is two screw
terminals. In machines below 2 kVA the link is carrying the load current.
If the link is removed or switched the maintained lights will be off but
they would come back on in an emergency.
In machines of 2 kVA and above the link is interfaced with a contactor
inside the machine and it needs to be linked or switched to operate and
switch the maintained lights off. The lights will still come on in an
emergency.
Page 22
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powerguard
Inverter Systems for Emergency Lighting
The most common use for Link2 is to switch off the maintained lights to
save power but to make sure that the system will power up in an
emergency.
Volt free common alarm contacts
Volt free
A set of volt free alarm changeover contacts are wired to three orange common alarm
contacts.
screw terminals adjacent to the input and output terminals.
These allow an interface to either a remote common alarm unit or the
buildings control circuits or both.
Normally Open (NO), normally Closed (NC) and Common (C) contacts
are available.
If any of the systems alarms is triggered the contacts will give an alarm.
Remote Common Alarm Output
Remote common
alarm output.
The Remote Common Alarm contacts are wired to two orange screw
terminals adjacent to the volt free alarm contacts. When a common
alarm is active 24VDC is applied to the output. This can be used to
power a remote alarm panel.
Full remote alarm panel
Full remote
alarm panel.
If a full alarm panel is required remote from the machine an interface
can be fitted. A six core signal cable would be required from the
machine to the remote alarm panel.
Page 23
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powerguard
Inverter Systems for Emergency Lighting
Automatic Battery Charger
Introduction
Total charging
system.
The Powerguard thyristor controlled battery charger is conceived as a
total charging system and is designed to ensure maximum life and
reliability from the battery.
Maximum
battery life.
The charger is microprocessor controlled and has many standard
functions.
The charger uses a micro-controller that alters the phase angle of the
Regulates the
voltage and the
current.
gate firing point of the thyristor to regulate the voltage and limit the
Choke filter
the interference sent back into the mains supply.
current. The output of the thyristor controlled bridge rectifier is fed into a
critical inductance choke filter to minimize the ripple on the battery and
The charger is a three-stage design.
Fuse
Transformer
Choke
To Battery
Fuse
Showing a
typical charger.
Diodes
Input AC
Thyristors
Capacitor
Charger
control
Fuse
0Vdc
Sketch showing a typical charger
Three stage
design.
Quicker charge.
Exceeds the
minimum
requirement.
Three Stage Charging
This method will restore full capacity to the battery quicker than with a
standard float charge type and is the standard method used in our
inverter systems. Powerguard systems easily exceed the minimum
requirement to recharge the battery within 12 hours to a capacity that
will enable the system to operate for at least 80% of its rated autonomy
at rated load after a full discharge.
Page 24
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powerguard
Inverter Systems for Emergency Lighting
When the charger is powered up into a discharged battery the current
is constant at a pre-set level. The voltage control is set at a higher level Constant
during this stage, ensuring that the current is maintained for a longer
current.
period which charges the battery quicker. As the battery becomes Higher voltage
charged the voltage rises and the current reduces. The current is to maintain
monitored and when it falls to a predetermined level the voltage on the current.
battery is reduced to the float charge value keeping the battery charged
without causing damage by excessive charging.
Temperature
As the temperature rises from the median point of 20°C the
Current falls
indicating
battery is
charged switches
to float.
electrochemical activity in the battery increases and, conversely,
decreases as the temperature falls. To prevent damage due to the over
or under charging of the battery the charge voltage is compensated. Float voltage is
The charger measures the ambient temperature and for every °C
change will adjust the voltage on the battery by a pre-set amount. The
temperature
compensated
charger will turn off if the ambient temperature goes over 40°C or below
0°C. These limits can be factory set at different levels to suit special
Charger will
turn off at
be adjusted to ensure that the battery is charged in cooler periods such temperature
below 0°C and
as overnight
above 40°C.
applications. For example the upper and lower temperature limits could
Please see the following temperature compensation chart
Temperature
compensation
The charger shuts down every four hours for twenty seconds to check
chart follows.
Auto Check
that it is properly connected to the battery. If there was a bad
connection, the contactor was open or a fuse blown it would give a Charger shuts
visual and audible alarm.
down every 4
hours to check
connections.
Page 25
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powerguard
Inverter Systems for Emergency Lighting
Temperature Compensation Chart
Temperature
°C
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
Tolerance +/-
24 VDC
27.84
27.8
27.77
27.73
27.70
27.66
27.62
27.59
27.55
27.52
27.48
27.44
27.41
27.37
27.34
27.30
27.26
27.23
27.19
27.16
27.12
27.08
27.05
27.01
26.98
26.94
26.90
26.87
26.83
26.80
26.76
26.72
26.69
26.65
26.62
26.58
26.54
26.51
26.47
26.44
26.40
0.03
Float Voltage
48 VDC
108 VDC
55.68
125.28
55.61
125.12
55.54
124.96
55.46
124.79
55.39
124.63
55.32
124.47
55.25
124.31
55.18
124.15
55.10
123.98
55.03
123.82
54.96
123.66
54.89
123.50
54.82
123.34
54.74
123.17
54.67
123.01
54.60
122.85
54.53
122.69
54.46
122.53
54.38
122.36
54.31
122.20
54.24
122.04
54.17
121.88
54.10
121.72
54.02
121.55
53.95
121.39
53.88
121.23
53.81
121.07
53.74
120.91
53.66
120.74
53.59
120.58
53.52
120.42
53.45
120.26
53.38
120.10
53.30
119.93
53.23
119.77
53.16
119.61
53.09
119.45
53.02
119.29
52.94
119.12
52.87
118.96
52.80
118.80
0.06
0.13
216 VDC
250.56
250.24
249.91
249.59
249.26
248.94
248.62
248.29
247.97
247.64
247.32
247.00
246.67
246.35
246.02
245.70
245.38
245.05
244.73
244.40
244.08
243.76
243.43
243.11
242.78
242.46
242.14
241.81
241.49
241.16
240.84
240.52
240.19
239.87
239.54
239.22
238.90
238.57
238.25
237.92
237.60
0.26
Additional Information
To check the float voltage
you
will
require
a
thermometer
with
a
minimum resolution of 1°C
and a good quality DVM.
When
a
system
is
commissioned or visited
on site the float voltage
should be checked against
the table on the left. If it is
outside
tolerance
the
charger
float
voltage
should be adjusted.
To adjust the float voltage
the preset variable resistor
R24 on the control board
should be adjusted. The
resistor
is
turned
clockwise to lower the
voltage.
Alternatively the PCB
mounted
DIL
switch
SW2&3 on the control
board can be switched
onto a fixed resistor and
the voltage adjusted to the
20°C value. The switch is
then returned to the
thermistor position.
There will be inaccuracies
in the system but it is
important that the float
voltage is as accurate as
possible.
Volts
Page 26
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powerguard
Inverter Systems for Emergency Lighting
Batteries
Type of battery
Normally uses
The type of battery normally used in Central Power Systems (CPS) for valve regulated
emergency lighting is a valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) – gas sealed lead acid
recombination –sealed type. These are very convenient and as long as batteries.
the charger is high quality and temperature compensated virtually no
No need for a
gassing will take place. This allows them to be sited without preparing a special room.
special ventilated room. Powerguard has high quality VRLA batteries
available with a 10-year and 20 year design life.
Other types of battery such as the high performance Planté positive Other types of
type, lead acid pasted positive plate type and vented nickel-cadmium flooded cell
batteries will
need special
These batteries are often specified because of their longer expected life consideration on
of at least 20 years. They can also be serviced making it more likely siting.
type will require to be installed in a room with adequate ventilation.
that they will achieve their stated design life. However with the
introduction of our 20-year design life VRLA batteries the extra cost is
20 year sealed
batteries.
not justified.
Standards
10 & 20 year
design life and
particular installation but normally it will be the valve regulated lead acid compliant to
sealed type. They will be of a 10-year or 20 year design life and be fully BS6290 Pt 4.
Powerguard supply the type of battery that our customers require for a
compliant with the standard: BS6290 Pt.4
We can state from experience that the batteries we supply and
recommend will give a long and reliable life usually in excess of the Long life.
stated design life when used with our systems.
Please ask for the data sheet on our range of batteries.
Page 27
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powerguard
Inverter Systems for Emergency Lighting
Enclosures
Type
The enclosures for all machines are manufactured in a fully welded
Fully welded
construction.
construction with a single hinged front door up to 1000mm wide and
double doors for the 1200mm wide. The cable entry is in the top of the
enclosure through an undrilled gland plate.
Three point
locking
mechanism.
The doors are locked using a key that is provided with the system. This
IP21
The ingress rating is IP21
Strong base.
The base is a strong construction using 150mm x 75mm channel
operates a three-point mechanism locking the doors evenly and
securely.
section and facilitates the use of a forklift for ease of handling.
Material
Sheet steel.
The enclosures are manufactured from 1.5mm sheet steel and are an
all welded construction.
The door is manufactured from 2mm sheet steel with stiffening tubular
rails.
The mounting plate with four folded edges is manufactured from 2.5mm
sheet steel.
Finish
The enclosure and doors are pre-prepared and then finished with
Colour
RAL7035
textured.
thermosetting epoxy polyester powder coating.
The colour is RAL7035 with a textured finish.
Mounting plate
zintec or
equivalent.
The mounting plate is manufactured from zintec and is not given any
further treatment.
Page 28
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powerguard
Inverter Systems for Emergency Lighting
UPS Systems versus Central Battery
Static Inverter Systems
Overview
We sell UPS
We sell and install many Uninterruptible Power Supplies (UPS) and systems.
Central Battery Static Inverter Systems. So we believe that we are one
of the few companies that can make a comparison as to the use of Our comparison
UPSs for emergency lighting applications completely objectively.
is objective.
UPS systems are designed primarily to supply good quality power to UPS drive
computer systems. Computers control many critical applications from
your desktop to large communication centres. Lives and millions of
critical
applications.
pounds can be at risk if they do not perform effectively. The UPSs we Lives and
sell are of the highest quality available and they do the job efficiently millions of
pounds at risk.
and reliably.
However we do not recommend the use of UPSs or their derivatives for We do not
emergency lighting except in exceptional applications where the
different performance can be accounted for.
recommend UPS
for lighting
applications.
Generally speaking the designers know the characteristics of the
normal load applied to UPS systems and the machine is optimised very UPS loads are
effectively to power that load at an economic cost. Virtually all UPSs normally stable
are designed to power loads that are relatively stable that do not without heavy
demand surges during normal operation.
surges.
Powering the load
All online UPSs and that includes almost all machines with a power UPS static
greater than a few kilowatt, are fitted with a static switch bypass which
switch.
serves two purposes: 1) It will bypass the incoming mains supply to the load in event of Bypass the
incoming
supply on some
2) It will bypass the incoming mains supply to the load to supply a failures or
overload.
the UPS inverter failing.
surge of power.
Page 29
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powerguard
Inverter Systems for Emergency Lighting
The first bypass mode is of benefit to the user because it gives an
The bypass is of
benefit to the
user.
added security to the load in event of some failures.
The second bypass mode is also of benefit to most users with
computer-based loads. It allows the inverter to be smaller because it
does not have to provide large surges. This reduces size, weight and
cost.
Cannot bypass a
The bypass cannot transfer the mains supply to the load when it has
failed mains
failed so any surges caused by emergency lights coming on will have to
supply.
be handled by the UPS inverter. To make this reliable the UPS will
UPS will have to have to be considerably oversized and probably fitted with a soft start
be oversized.
capability.
Crest - 325 Vac
Showing a sine
wave.
RMS - 230 Vac
Zero crossover - 0 Vac
Sketch showing the crest of a sinewave
Crest factor
shutdown is a
risk.
Even then sophisticated measuring equipment should be used to
measure the crest factor of the load to make sure it is well within the
UPS rating. Otherwise spurious unexplained failures can occur which
may not be noticed when the machine can bypass to the mains supply
but could have serious consequences if the mains supply has failed.
Most UPSs have a crest factor rating of 3 to 1. This is the ratio of
current that passes at the peak of the voltage in the cycle to the normal.
Some lighting loads have a crest factor greater than 3 to 1.
Efficiency is an
important
consideration.
Efficiency
If a UPS is used in a lighting application where the emergency lights
are powered all the time so that any surges are already taken care of
before an emergency can arise then the question of efficiency has to be
considered. In these days of rising power costs and taxes levied on fuel
Page 30
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powerguard
Inverter Systems for Emergency Lighting
not to mention our concerns for the environment efficiency is becoming
more and more important. A state of the art UPS system will operate at Best UPS 90%
around 90% efficiency in ideal conditions. This can deteriorate
efficient.
considerably during normal operation.
Powerguard
Inverter System
efficiency of a Powerguard Central Battery Static Inverter system of 99% efficient
Even if we take the figure of 90% efficiency compared with the
>98% it represents a considerable waste of energy.
At 10 kW one
A 10 kW UPS system will consume an extra unit of electricity per hour unit of
compared with the Static Inverter.
electricity per
hour is wasted.
Battery charging
EN 50171
6.2.3
The charger shall be capable of automatically charging the Charger must
recover the
battery capacity
least 80% of the specified duration with the rated load applied, within 12 at least 80% in
12 hours.
hours on charge at a room temperature of (20 5)°C
associated battery that has been discharged so that it can perform at
6.2.3 Battery chargers shall be capable of automatically recharging the 100% in 24
discharged battery so that it can perform 100% of its specified hours.
emergency duration within 24 hours on charge.
UPS must be
6.2.3 In the case of parallel standby mode (UPS) where the load is able to give 110%
supplied from the charger, the nominal output current of the charger of the sum of
full load and
full charge
and battery recharge current required to enable the requirements of 1) current.
shall be equivalent to at least 110% of the sum of the specified load
and 2) to be achieved.
Temperature
6.2.5 Automatic temperature compensation of battery charge voltage compensation
shall be provided if the battery is of the lead acid type or is a for long battery
requirement of the battery manufacturer.
life.
Most emergency lighting systems are specified for 3 hours battery UPS will
autonomy with some working in conjunction with a generator specified struggle with
at 1 hour. This means that a large capacity battery is required. It is our
experience that very few if any standard UPS systems have chargers
large capacity
batteries.
rated to comply with the requirement.
Page 31
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powerguard
Inverter Systems for Emergency Lighting
UPSs are fitted
with 5-year life
batteries
Batteries
UPS systems are usually fitted with 5-year batteries
EN 50171
6.12.1 Batteries for central power systems (CPS) shall be fully
Batteries must
be compliant.
compliant with all appropriate standards from the following publications:
BS 6290 Pt. 4 Lead acid stationary cells and batteries –Specification
for lead acid valve regulated sealed type.
10 year design
life.
6.12.2 Batteries for central power systems (CPS) shall be a type having
a declared design life expectancy of at least 10 years at 20°C ambient
temperature.
Inverters must
handle 120% of
load for rated
duration.
Inverters
EN.50171
6.5.3 Inverters shall be capable of permanently handling 120% of the
Inverters must
be able to cold
start the load.
load requirement for the rated duration. Inverters shall also be able to
Inverters must
be able to clear
faults and then
power up as
normal
6.5.8 The inverter shall be capable of clearing any associated final
A UPS will
struggle.
In our experience few UPS inverters will meet the above requirement
start the full load of a previously unpowered system within the response
time of EN1838 in the mains failed mode.
circuit or distribution circuit fused without shutting down or rupturing its
output fuse. Inverters shall recover to normal output automatically
within 5 s of the fuse being cleared.
and have to be drastically oversized to come close.
Maintenance
UPS are
designed for a
shorter working
life and
maintenance
will become
harder and more
expensive.
UPS systems are designed to give service for 4 to 5 years with minimal
maintenance after that the batteries and fans would need replacing.
The UPS should then run for another 4 to 5 years with maintenance.
Spare parts become increasingly difficult to get as the machines age
beyond the first 5 years and nearly impossible after 10 years.
However a Powerguard Static Inverter Central Battery System is
designed to give a life of 25 years with minimum maintenance.
Page 32
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powerguard
Inverter Systems for Emergency Lighting
Summary
We are aware that some manufacturers can upgrade their UPS or
UPSs can be
derivatives to comply with the published standards and best practice. upgraded but
However if a UPS is upgraded in this way it becomes very uneconomic become
compared to the Central Battery Static Inverter System.
expensive.
There are also facilities on Powerguard Static Inverter Central Battery
Systems that are used in emergency lighting installations such as Link Standard
features reduce
cost of
circuit monitors, fire alarms and night watchmen in a straightforward installation.
1 and Link 2. These allow the unit to be controlled remotely by sub-
and traditional way. Without these facilities the installation will be more
complex, expensive and unreliable.
Page 33
Powerguard Telephone: 01507 600 688 Facsimile: 01507 600 621
powerguard
Inverter Systems for Emergency Lighting
Other Products and Services
Powerguard supply a wide range of power equipment and services including: -
Uninterruptible Power Supplies
Engine Driven Generators
Central Battery Emergency Lighting Systems
5 Year Design Life Batteries
10 Year Design Life Batteries
20 Year Design Life Batteries
Deep Discharge Batteries
Battery Chargers
Inverters
Rectifier Systems for 24 VDC or 48 VDC
Static Switches
Site Surveys
Full Installation, Commissioning and Maintenance
Page 34
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powerguard
Inverter Systems for Emergency Lighting
Notes
Page 35
Powerguard Telephone: 01507 600 688 Facsimile: 01507 600 621
powerguard
Inverter Systems for Emergency Lighting
Notes
Page 36
Powerguard Telephone: 01507 600 688 Facsimile: 01507 600 621
0VDC
Remote common alarm
24VDC
Link1
Earth
Neutral
230 Vac
1Ø + N
Mains
input
Relay1
E
EN
MCB2
MCB1
F3 F1
F2
5476
Diode
module1
Thyristor
module1
PL3/2
PL3/4
PL2/1
PL2/3
PL1/3
PL1/1
PL2/5
PL1/5
PL8/8
PL8/9
PL8/10
F13
PL4/8
20
F5
PL3/1
PL8/3
PL8/1
PL10/1
Tw
PL1/7
F6
ely
os
R1
F7
F12
Converter
01-1031
Display/Meter board
01-1054-01
lo
ist
PL7/1
PL3/5 PL7/2
PL4/10
PL5 PL4/7
PL6 PL7/5 PL4/6
Control board
01-1037-2
Thermistor1
Installed low down on the chassis so
that is unaffected by warm components.
Transformer1
Snubber
01-1043
PL3 PL2 PL1
PL4/9
PL8/6
PL8/7
PL9/1
PL9/2
Live
Choke1
PL10/2
F4
PL3/7
Switched
Link2
PL3/6
PL4/4
PL4/1
PL3/3
PL3/5
PL2/1
PL2/3
PL1/3
PL2/5
PL1/2
PL3/4
Contactor3
PL1/5
PL3/3
Com
Volt free common alarm
F8
PL3/2
Page 37
F14
BR2 Power BR1
Module
01-1003-4 BR3
BR4
BR2 Power BR1
Module
BR4 01-1003-4 BR3
Transformer2
Contactor2
PL2
PL3
The circled connection must
be made at the point shown
on the schematic
PL5/10
PL5/1
Inverter
Control
01-1092-02
PL5/8
Shunt1
F15
Battery input
R2 C1
EN
PL2/7
PL2/6
PL2/3
PL2/2
PL4/9
PL4/10
PL4/6
PL4/5
NC
PL3/8
Contactor
1
se
ly
loo
Powerguard Telephone: 01507 600 688 Facsimile: 01507 600 621
Tw
ist
PL2/7
PL2/6
PL2/3
PL2/2
PL4/3
PL4/4
PL4/8
PL4/7
NO
C2 - C12
F9
Fans2 & 3
enclosure
Fan1
heatsink
Earth
Neutral
Live
Output
powerguard
F11
F10
E
MCB3
powerguard
Inverter Systems for Emergency Lighting
Page 38
Powerguard Telephone: 01507 600 688 Facsimile: 01507 600 621
Battery enclosures - shelf 1 (bottom)
Battery enclosures - shelf 4 (top)
Machine enclosure
Battery enclosures - shelf 2
Battery enclosures - shelf 3
Battery enclosure
1550.00mm
Battery enclosure
171.00mm
171.00mm
2 off battery negative to battery negative links
1 off battery negative to machine negative links
2 off battery positive to battery positive links
1 off battery positive to machine positive links
3 off inter row links
12 off Inter block links - long
9 off inter block links - short
3 strings of 9 off 6FM100HX
27 off battery blocks
54 Cells in series
108 VDC Nominal
All supplied with the system
These fuses can be fitted to
provide protection for each battery
string and to make it easy to split
the battery into sectiond less than
60VDC nom. These are not
supplied with the system and must
be ordered separately.
Machine enclosure
400.00mm
700.00mm
Side view
330.00mm
powerguard
Dimensions of Vision battery - 6FM100HXFR
Weight - 32 kgs
Connections - 6 mm bolt
End view
Plan view
330.00mm
222.00mm
1750.00mm
This information is given for guidance only and it is up to the installer to make sure that the installation conforms to best practice and any applicable safety and technical standards that apply. Battery shapes and wire colours shown are indicative only.
When the battery pack has been assembled use a voltmeter to check that the voltage is compatible to the rating plate on the machine.
To the machine negative input
fuse from the battery negative
The battery isolator can be
fitted to make it easy to
isolate the battery. The
battery isolator is not supplied
with the system and must be
ordered separately
Battery Isolator
To the machine positive input
fuse from the battery positive
Battery cables through a
brass gland into the
machine enclosure cable
space. The hole is not pre
drilled and the gland is not
supplied.
700.00mm
222.00mm
Cable entry in through an
undrilled gland plate at the
top of the enclosure
800.00mm
powerguard
Inverter Systems for Emergency Lighting
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