ASTRO™ Digital SABER™ and ASTRO/R Portable Radios Detailed

ASTRO™ Digital SABER™ and ASTRO/R Portable Radios Detailed
™ Digital SABER™
and
/R
Portable Radios
Detailed Service Manual
Table of Contents
1 - Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1
Safety. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-1
Radio Frequency (RF) Operational Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-1
Portable Radio Operation and EME Exposure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-1
Electromagnetic Interference/Compatibility. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-3
Safety and General. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-4
Operational Warnings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-4
Operational Cautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-5
Intrinsically Safe Radio Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-5
Manual Revisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-8
Computer Software Copyrights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-8
Replacement Parts Ordering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-9
Parts Ordering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-9
Motorola Parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-9
Parts Identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-9
Portable Radio Model Numbering System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-10
ASTRO Digital SABER Detailed Model Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-11
Glossary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-12
2 - Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-1
Notations Used in This Manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-2
3 - General Overview of an ASTRO Digital SABER Radio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
Analog Mode of Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-2
ASTRO Mode (Digital Mode)
of Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-2
Transceiver Board Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-3
VOCON Board Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-3
4 - Radio Power. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-1
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-1
B+ Routing for VHF/UHF Transceiver Boards. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-2
B+ Routing for 800MHz Transceiver Boards. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-3
B+ Routing for VOCON Boards and Display Modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-4
5 - VHF/UHF Transceiver Board Detailed Theory of Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-1
Frequency Generation Unit (FGU) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-1
Antenna Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-3
Receiver Front End . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-3
Receiver Back End . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-4
Transmitter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-5
Harmonic Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-5
RF Power Amplifier Module. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-5
ALC Circuits. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-5
A, Motorola, ASTRO, Private-Line, and Digital Private Line are trademarks of Motorola, Inc.
© 2000, 2001 Motorola
Commercial, Government, Industrial Solutions Sector
8000 W. Sunrise Blvd., Fort Lauderdale, FL 33322
All Rights Reserved. Printed in U. S. A. 4/2001.
Detailed Service Manual
68P81076C10-A
i
6 - 800MHz Transceiver Board Detailed Theory of Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Frequency Synthesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Antenna Switch. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Receiver Front End . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Receiver Back End . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transmitter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6-1
6-1
6-1
6-2
6-3
6-4
6-5
7 - VOCON Board Detailed Theory of Operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1
Controller Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2
Vocoder Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-3
Switched Regulator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-5
RX Signal Path. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-6
TX Signal Path. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-8
Controller Bootstrap and Asynchronous Buses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-10
Vocoder Bootstrap. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-11
SPI Bus Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-12
Universal Connector and Option Selects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-12
Keypad and Display Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-13
Controls and Control Top Flex. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-14
Controller Memory Map. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-15
Vocoder Memory Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-17
MCU System Clock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-19
DSP System Clock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-19
Radio Power-Up/Power-Down Sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-19
8 - Secure Modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Circuit Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting
Secure Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Error 09/10,
Error 09/90 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Keyload. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8-1
8-1
8-2
9 - Troubleshooting Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Handling Precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Voltage Measurement and Signal Tracing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Power-Up Self-Check Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Power-Up Sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Standard Bias Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-1
9-1
9-1
9-2
9-3
9-3
9-6
8-2
8-2
8-2
10 - Troubleshooting Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-1
11 - Troubleshooting Waveforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-1
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-1
Waveforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-1
12 - Troubleshooting Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-1
Introduction to This Section. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-1
13 - Block Diagrams, Schematics, Electrical Parts Lists, and Circuit Board Details 13-1
ii
List of Figures
Figure 1 .
B+ Routing for VHF/UHF Transceiver Boards.................................................................. 4-2
Figure 2.
B+ Routing for 800MHz Transceiver Boards.................................................................... 4-3
Figure 3.
B+ Routing for Vocoder/Controller (VOCON) Boards .................................................... 4-5
Figure 4.
VOCON Board - Controller Section................................................................................. 7-2
Figure 5.
VOCON Board - Vocoder Section .................................................................................... 7-4
Figure 6.
DSP RSSI Port - RX Mode ................................................................................................. 7-6
Figure 7.
DSP RSSI Port - TX Mode ................................................................................................. 7-8
Figure 8.
Host SB9600 and RS232 Ports ........................................................................................ 7-10
Figure 9.
Universal Connector ...................................................................................................... 7-12
Figure 10. VOCON Board Connector - J201 ................................................................................... 7-12
Figure 11. Control Top Flex ............................................................................................................ 7-14
Figure 12. Controller Memory Mapping ........................................................................................ 7-16
Figure 13. Vocoder Memory Mapping............................................................................................ 7-18
Figure 14. Waveform W1 ................................................................................................................ 11-1
Figure 15. Waveform W2 ................................................................................................................ 11-2
Figure 16. Waveform W3 ................................................................................................................ 11-2
Figure 17. Waveform W4 ................................................................................................................ 11-3
Figure 18. Waveform W5 ................................................................................................................ 11-3
Figure 19. Waveform W6 ................................................................................................................ 11-4
Figure 20. Waveform W7 ................................................................................................................ 11-4
Figure 21. Waveform W8 ................................................................................................................ 11-5
Figure 22. Waveform W9 ................................................................................................................ 11-5
Figure 23. Waveform W10 .............................................................................................................. 11-6
List of Tables
Table 1.
Option Select Functions................................................................................................. 7-13
Table 2.
Standard Operating Bias .................................................................................................. 9-6
Table 3.
J201 VOCON Board to Universal Connector ................................................................ 12-1
Table 4.
J601VOCON Board to Display Board ............................................................................ 12-2
Table 5.
J701 VOCON Board to Keypad ...................................................................................... 12-2
Table 6.
J1/J401 Transceiver Board to VOCON Board................................................................. 12-2
Table 7.
J801 VOCON Board to Encryption Board ..................................................................... 12-3
Table 8.
J901 VOCON Board to Control Top Flex ...................................................................... 12-3
iii
List of Schematics, Circuit Boards,
and Parts Lists
Radio Interconnect Diagram............................................................................................................ 13-2
NLD8892R VHF Transceiver Board Schematic Diagram.................................................................. 13-3
NLD8892R VHF Transceiver Circuit Board Details and Parts List ................................................... 13-4
NLE4560K UHF Range 1 Transceiver Board Schematic Diagram .................................................... 13-6
NLE4560K UHF Range 1 Transceiver Circuit Board Details and Parts List ..................................... 13-7
NLE4244P UHF Range 2 Transceiver Board Schematic Diagram .................................................... 13-9
NLE4244P UHF Range 2 Transceiver Circuit Board Details and Parts List.................................... 13-10
NUF6411K 800 MHz Transceiver Board Schematic Diagram ........................................................ 13-12
NUF6411K 800 MHz Transceiver Circuit Board Details and Parts List ......................................... 13-13
NTN7749G VOCON (Vocoder/Controller) Board Schematic Diagram, Sheet 1 of 2.................... 13-16
NTN7749G VOCON (Vocoder/Controller) Board Schematic Diagram, Sheet 2 of 2.................... 13-17
NTN7749G VOCON (Vocoder/Controller) Circuit Board Details & Parts List.................... 13-18
Related Publications
ASTRO Digital SABER (Model I) User’s Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68P81072C75
ASTRO Digital SABER (Models II and III) User’s Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68P81072C80
ASTRO Digital SABER Portable Radios Basic Service Manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68P81076C05
iv
Foreword
Safety
1
SAFETY AND GENERAL INFORMATION
IMPORTANT INFORMATION ON SAFE AND EFFICIENT
OPERATION
READ THIS INFORMATION BEFORE USING YOUR
MOTOROLA TWO-WAY RADIO
The information provided in this document supersedes the general
safety information contained in user guides published prior to October
2000. For information regarding radio use in a hazardous atmosphere
refer to the Factory Mutual (FM) manual supplement included with
radio models that offer this capability and/or the intrinsic safety radio
information section of this user manual.
Radio Frequency (RF) Operational Characteristics
To transmit (talk) you must push the Push-To-Talk button;
to receive (listen) you must release the Push-To-Talk button.
When the radio is transmitting, it generates radio frequency (RF)
energy; when it is receiving, or when it is off, it does not generate RF
energy.
Portable Radio Operation and EME Exposure
Your Motorola radio is designed to comply with the following national
and international standards and guidelines regarding exposure of
human beings to radio frequency electromagnetic energy (EME):
• United States Federal Communications Commission, Code of
Federal
Regulations; 47 CFR part 2 sub-part J
• American National Standards Institute (ANSI) / Institute of
Electrical and
Electronic Engineers (IEEE) C95. 1-1992
• Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) C95.1-1999
Edition
• National Council on Radiation
Protection and Measurements (NCRP) of the United States, Report
86, 1986
• International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection
(ICNIRP) 1998
• Ministry of Health (Canada) Safety Code 6. Limits of Human
1-1
Exposure to Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields in the
Frequency Range from 3 kHz to 300 GHz, 1999
• Australian Communications Authority Radiocommunications
(Electromagnetic Radiation - Human Exposure) Standard 1999
(applicable to wireless phones only)
To assure optimal radio performance and make sure human
exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic energy is within the
guidelines set forth in the above standards, always adhere to the
following procedures:
Two-way Radio Operation
When using your radio, hold the radio in a
vertical position with the microphone one to
two inches (2.5 to 5 centimeters) away from the
lips.
MAN WITH RA
Body-worn Operation
To maintain compliance with FCC RF exposure guidelines, if you wear
a radio on your body when transmitting, always place the radio in a
Motorola approved clip, holder, holster, case, or body
harness for this product. Use of non-Motorola-approved
accessories may exceed FCC RF exposure guidelines. If you do not
use a Motorola approved body-worn accessory and are not
using the radio in the intended use positions along side of
the head in the phone mode or in front of the face in the
two-way radio mode, then ensure the antenna and radio is
kept the following minimum distances from the body when
transmitting:
• Phone or Two-way radio mode: one inch (2.5 centimeters)
• Data operation using any data feature with or without an
accessory cable: one inch (2.5 centimeters)
Antenna Care
Use only the supplied or an approved replacement antenna.
Unauthorized antennas, modifications, or attachments could damage
the radio and may violate FCC regulations.
DO NOT hold the antenna when the radio is “IN USE”. Holding the
antenna affects call quality and may cause the radio to operate at a
higher power level than needed.
Approved Accessories
For a list of approved Motorola accessories look in the appendix or
accessory section of your radio’s User Guide.
1-2
Electromagnetic Interference/Compatibility
NOTE: Nearly every electronic device is
susceptible to electromagnetic
interference (EMI) if inadequately
shielded, designed or otherwise
configured for electromagnetic
compatibility.
Facilities
To avoid electromagnetic interference and/or compatibility conflicts,
turn off your radio in any facility where posted notices instruct you to
do so. Hospitals or health care facilities may be using equipment that
is sensitive to external RF energy.
Aircraft
When instructed to do so, turn off your radio when on board an
aircraft. Any use of a radio must be in accordance with applicable
regulations per airline crew instructions.
Medical Devices
• Pacemakers
The Health Industry Manufacturers Association recommends that
a minimum separation of 6 inches (15 centimeters) be maintained
between a handheld wireless radio and a pacemaker.These
recommendations are consistent with those of the U.S. Food and
Drug Administration.
Persons with pacemakers should:
• ALWAYS keep the radio more than 6 inches (15 centimeters)
from their pacemaker when the radio is turned ON.
• not carry the radio in the breast pocket.
• use the ear opposite the pacemaker to minimize the potential
for interference.
• turn the radio OFF immediately if you have any reason to
suspect that interference is taking place.
• Hearing Aids
Some digital wireless radios may interfere with some hearing aids.
In the event of such interference, you may want to consult your
hearing aid manufacturer to discuss alternatives.
• Other Medical Devices
If you use any other personal medical device, consult the
manufacturer of your device to determine if it is adequately
shielded from RF energy. Your physician may be able to assist you
in obtaining this information.
1-3
SAFETY AND GENERAL
Use While Driving
Check the laws and regulations on the use of radios in the area where
you drive. Always obey them.
When using your radio while driving, please:
• Give full attention to driving and to the road.
• Use hands-free operation, if available.
• Pull off the road and park before making or answering a call if
driving conditions so require.
OPERATIONAL WARNINGS
FOR VEHICLES WITH AN AIR BAG
!
WARNING
Do not place a portable radio in the area over an air
bag or in the air bag deployment area. Air bags
inflate with great force. If a portable radio is placed
in the air bag deployment area and the air bag
inflates, the radio may be propelled with great force
and cause serious injury to occupants of the
vehicle.
POTENTIALLY EXPLOSIVE ATMOSPHERES
!
WARNING
Turn off your radio prior to entering any area with a
potentially explosive atmosphere, unless it is a radio
type especially qualified for use in such areas as
"Intrinsically Safe" (for example, Factory Mutual,
CSA, UL, or CENELEC). Do not remove, install, or
charge batteries in such areas. Sparks in a potentially
explosive atmosphere can cause an explosion or fire
resulting in bodily injury or even death.
NOTE: The areas with potentially explosive
atmospheres referred to above include fueling areas
such as below decks on boats, fuel or chemical
transfer or storage facilities, areas where the air
contains chemicals or particles, such as grain, dust
or metal powders, and any other area where you
would normally be advised to turn off your vehicle
engine. Areas with potentially explosive
atmospheres are often but not always posted.
BLASTING CAPS AND AREAS
!
WARNING
1-4
To avoid possible interference with blasting
operations, turn off your radio when you are near
electrical blasting caps, in a blasting area, or in areas
posted: "Turn off two-way radio.” Obey all signs and
instructions.
OPERATIONAL CAUTIONS
ANTENNAS
!
Caution
Do not use any portable radio that has a
damaged antenna. If a damaged antenna comes
into contact with your skin, a minor burn can
result.
BATTERIES
!
Caution
All batteries can cause property damage and/or
bodily injury such as burns if a conductive material
such as jewelry, keys, or beaded chains touch
exposed terminals. The
conductive material may complete an
electrical circuit (short circuit) and become quite
hot. Exercise care in handling any charged battery,
particularly when placing it inside a pocket, purse,
or other container with metal objects.
INTRINSICALLY SAFE RADIO INFORMATION
FMRC Approved Equipment
Anyone intending to use a radio in a location where hazardous
concentrations of flammable material exist (hazardous atmosphere) is
advised to become familiar with the subject of intrinsic safety and with
the National Electric Code NFPA 70 (National Fire Protection
Association) Article 500 (hazardous [classified] locations).
An Approval Guide, issued by Factory Mutual Research Corporation
(FMRC), lists manufacturers and the products approved by FMRC for
use in such locations. FMRC has also issued a voluntary approval
standard for repair service (“Class Number 3605”).
FMRC Approval labels are attached to the radio to identify the unit as
being FM Approved for specified hazardous atmospheres. This label
specifies the hazardous Class/Division/Group along with the part
number of the battery that must be used. Depending on the design of
the portable unit, this FM label can be found on the back or the
bottom of the radio housing. The FM Approval mark is shown below:
FM
APPROVED
1-5
WARNINGS
!
WARNING
• Do not operate radio communications equipment in
a hazardous atmosphere unless it is a type especially
qualified for such use (e.g., FMRC Approved). An
explosion or fire may result.
• Do not operate an FMRC Approved Product in a
hazardous atmosphere if it has been physically
damaged (e.g., cracked housing). An explosion or
fire may result.
• Do not replace or charge batteries in a hazardous
atmosphere. Contact sparking may occur while
installing or removing batteries and cause an
explosion or fire.
WARNINGS
!
WARNING
• Do not replace or change accessories in a hazardous
atmosphere. Contact sparking may occur while
installing or removing accessories and cause an
explosion or fire.
• Do not operate an FMRC Approved Product unit in a
hazardous location with the accessory contacts
exposed. Keep the connector cover in place when
accessories are not used.
• Turn a radio off before removing or installing a
battery or accessory.
• Do not disassemble an FMRC Approved Product unit
in any way that exposes the internal electrical
circuits of the unit.
• Radios must ship from the Motorola manufacturing
facility with the hazardous atmosphere capability
and FM Approval labeling. Radios will not be
“upgraded” to this capability and labeled in the
field.
• A modification changes the unit’s hardware from its
original design configuration. Modifications can
only be made by the original product manufacturer
at one of its
FMRC-audited manufacturing facilities.
1-6
WARNINGS
• Failure to use an FMRC Approved Product unit with an
FMRC Approved battery or FMRC Approved accessories
specifically approved for that product may result in the
W A R N I N G dangerously unsafe condition of an unapproved radio
combination being used in a hazardous location.
!
• Unauthorized or incorrect modification of an FMRC
Approved Product unit will negate the Approval rating
of the product.
Repair of FMRC Approved Products
REPAIRS FOR MOTOROLA PRODUCTS WITH FMRC APPROVAL ARE
THE RESPONSIBILITY OF THE USER.
You should not repair or relabel any Motorola- manufactured
communication equipment bearing the FMRC Approval label (“FMRC
Approved Product”) unless you are familiar with the current FMRC
Approval standard for repairs and service (“Class Number 3605”).
You may want to consider using a repair facility that operates under
3605 repair service approval.
WARNINGS
!
WARNING
• Incorrect repair or relabeling of any FMRC Approved
Product unit could adversely affect the Approval
rating of the unit.
• Use of a radio that is not intrinsically safe in a
hazardous atmosphere could result in serious injury
or death.
FMRC’s Approval Standard Class Number 3605 is subject to change at
any time without notice to you, so you may want to obtain a current
copy of 3605 from FMRC. Per the December 1994 publication of 3605,
some key definitions and service requirements are as follows:
Repair
A repair constitutes something done internally to the unit that would
bring it back to its original condition—Approved by FMRC. A repair
should be done in an FMRC Approved facility.
Items not considered as repairs are those in which an action is
performed on a unit which does not require the outer casing of the
unit to be opened in a manner which exposes the internal electrical
circuits of the unit. You do not have to be an FMRC Approved Repair
Facility to perform these actions.
1-7
Relabeling
The repair facility shall have a method by which the replacement of
FMRC Approval labels are controlled to ensure that any relabeling is
limited to units that were originally shipped from the Manufacturer
with an FM Approval label in place. FMRC Approval labels shall not be
stocked by the repair facility. An FMRC Approval label shall be ordered
from the original manufacturer, as needed, to repair a specific unit.
Replacement labels may be obtained and applied by the repair facility,
provided there is satisfactory evidence that the unit being relabeled
was originally an FMRC Approved unit. Verification may include, but
is not limited to: a unit with a damaged Approval label, a unit with a
defective housing displaying an Approval label, or a customer invoice
indicating the serial number of the unit and purchase of an FMRC
Approved model.
Do Not Substitute Options or Accessories
The Motorola communications equipment certified by Factory Mutual
is tested as a system and consists of the FM Approved portable, FM
Approved battery, and FM Approved accessories or options, or both.
This FM Approved portable and battery combination must be strictly
observed. There must be no substitution of items, even if the substitute
has been previously Approved with a different Motorola
communications equipment unit. Approved configurations are listed
in the FM Approval Guide published by FMRC, or in the product FM
Supplement. This FM Supplement is shipped from the manufacturer
with the FM Approved radio and battery combination. The Approval
Guide, or the Approval Standard Class Number 3605 document for
repairs and service, can be ordered directly from Factory Mutual
Research Corporation located in Norwood, Massachusetts.
Manual Revisions
Changes which occur after this manual is printed are described in
“FMRs.” These FMRs provide complete information on changes
including pertinent parts listing data.
Computer Software
Copyrights
The Motorola products described in this manual may include
copyrighted Motorola computer programs stored in semiconductor
memories or other media. Laws in the United States and other
countries preserve for Motorola certain exclusive rights for
copyrighted computer programs, including the exclusive right to copy
or reproduce in any form the copyrighted computer program.
Accordingly, any copyrighted Motorola computer programs contained
in the Motorola products described in this manual may not be copied
or reproduced in any manner without the express written permission
of Motorola. Furthermore, the purchase of Motorola products shall not
be deemed to grant either directly or by implication, estoppel, or
otherwise, any license under the copyrights, patents or patent
applications of Motorola, except for the normal non-exclusive royalty
free license to use that arises by operation of law in the sale of a
product.
1-8
Replacement Parts
Ordering
When ordering replacement parts or equipment information, the
complete identification number should be included. This applies to all
components, kits, and chassis. If the component part number is not
known, the order should include the number of the chassis or kit of
which it is a part, and sufficient description of the desired component
to identify it.
Crystal and channel element orders should specify the crystal or
channel element type number, crystal and carrier frequency, and the
model number in which the part is used.
Parts Ordering
7:00 A. M. to 7:00 P. M. (Central Standard Time)
Monday through Friday (Chicago, U. S. A.)
Domestic (U. S. A.): 1-800-422-420, or 847-538-8023
1-800-826-1913, or 410-712-6200 (Federal Government)
TELEX: 280127
FAX: 1-847-538-8198
FAX: 1-410-712-4991 (Federal Government)
Domestic (U. S. A.) after hours or weekends:
1-800-925-4357
International: 1-847-538-8023
Motorola Parts
Accessories and Aftermarket Division
(United States and Canada)
Attention: Order Processing
1313 E. Algonquin Road
Schaumburg, IL 60196
Accessories and Aftermarket Division
Attention: International Order Processing
1313 E. Algonquin Road
Schaumburg, IL 60196
Parts Identification
1-847-538-0021 (Voice)
1-847-538-8194 (FAX)
1-9
Portable Radio
Model Numbering
System
Typical Model Number: H
Position: 1
0
2
4
3
U
4
C
5
P
8
W
9
7
10
A
11
N
12
S
13
P
14
0
15
1
16
Position 12 Unique Model Variations
C = Cenelec
N = Standard Package
Positions 2 & 3 - Model Series
04 = ASTRO
336 to 410MHz
403 to 437MHz
438 to 482MHz
470 to 520MHz
Product Specific
806 to 870MHz
825 to 870MHz
896 to 941MHz
1.0 to 1.6GHz
1.5 to 2.0GHz
Values given represent range only; they are
not absolute.
Position 5 - Power Level
A = 0 to 0.7 Watts
B = 0.7 to 0.9 Watts
C = 1.0 to 3.9 Watts
D = 4.0 to 5.0 Watts
E = 5.1 to 6.0 Watts
F = 6.1 to 10 Watts
Position 6 - Physical Packages
A = RF Modem Operation
B = Receiver Only
C = Standard Control; No Display
D = Standard Control; With Display
E = Limited Keypad; No Display
F = Limited Keypad; With Display
G = Full Keypad; No Display
H = Full Keypad; With Display
J = Limited Controls; No Display
K = Limited Controls; Basic Display
L = Limited Controls; Limited Display
M = Rotary Controls; Standard Display
N = Enhanced Controls; Enhanced Display
P = Low Profile; No Display
Q = Low Profile; Basic Display
R = Low Profile; Basic Display, Full Keypad
Position 7 - Channel Spacing
1 = 5kHz
5 = 15kHz
2 = 6.25kHz 6 = 20/25kHz
3 = 10kHz
7 = 30kHz
4 = 12.5kHz 9 = Variable/Programmable
1-10
9
7
Positions 13 - 16
“SP” Model Suffix
Position 1 - Type of Unit
H = Hand-Held Portable
Position 4 - Frequency Band
A = Less than 29.7MHz
P =
B = 29.7 to 35.99MHz
Q=
C = 36 to 41.99MHz
R=
D = 42 to 50MHz
S =
F = 66 to 80MHz
T =
G = 74 to 90MHz
U=
H = Product Specific
V =
J = 136 to 162MHz
W=
K = 146 to 178MHz
Y =
L = 174 to 210MHz
Z =
M = 190 to 235MHz
F
6
Position 11 - Version
Version Letter (Alpha) - Major Change
Position 10 - Feature Level
1 = Basic
6 = Standard Plus
2 = Limited Package 7 = Expanded Package
3 = Limited Plus
8 = Expanded Plus
4 = Intermediate
9 = Full Feature/
5 = Standard Package
Programmable
Position 9 - Primary System Type
A = Conventional
B = Privacy Plus®
C = Clear SMARTNET™
D = Advanced Conventional Stat-Alert™
E = Enhanced Privacy Plus®
F = Nauganet 888 Series
G = Japan Specialized Mobile Radio (JSMR)
H = Multi-Channel Access (MCA)
J = CoveragePLUS™
K = MPT1327* - Public
L = MPT1327* - Private
M = Radiocom
N = Tone Signalling
P = Binary Signalling
Q = Phonenet®
W = Programmable
X = Secure Conventional
Y = Secure SMARTNET™
* MPT = Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications
Position 8 - Primary Operation
A = Conventinal/Simplex
B = Conventional/Duplex
C = Trunked Twin Type
D = Dual Mode Trunked
E = Dual Mode Trunked/Duplex
F = Trunked Type I
G = Trunked Type II
H = FDMA* Digital Dual Mode
J = TDMA** Digital Dual Mode
K = Single Sideband
L = Global Positioning Satellite Capable
M = Amplitude Companded Sideband (ACSB)
P = Programmable
* FDMA = Frequency Division Multiple Access
** TDMA = Time Division Multiple Access
ASTRO Digital
SABER Detailed
Model Chart
Model Number
Description
H04KDC9PW5AN
VHF 1-5 Watt ASTRO Digital SABER Model I
H04KDF9PW7AN
VHF 1-5 Watt ASTRO Digital SABER Model II
H04KDH9PW7AN
VHF 1-5 Watt ASTRO Digital SABER Model III
H04RDC9PW5AN
UHF 1-4 Watt ASTRO Digital SABER Model I
H04RDF9PW7AN
UHF 1-4 Watt ASTRO Digital SABER Model II
H04RDH9PW7AN
UHF 1-4 Watt ASTRO Digital SABER Model III
H04SDC9PW5AN
UHF 1-4 Watt ASTRO Digital SABER Model I
H04SDF9PW7AN
UHF 1-4 Watt ASTRO Digital SABER Model II
H04SDH9PW7AN
UHF 1-4 Watt ASTRO Digital SABER Model III
H04UCC9PW5AN
H04UCF9PW7AN
H04UCH9PW7AN
800MHz 1-3 Watt ASTRO Digital SABER Model I
800MHz 1-3 Watt ASTRO Digital SABER Model II
800MHz 1-3 Watt ASTRO Digital SABER Model III
Item Number
X
X
X
X
X
X NHN6544_
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Description
Housing (with display and 3 x 6 keypad)
NHN6554_
Housing (with display and 3 x 2 keypad)
NHN6555_
Housing (no display and no keypad)
NLD8892_
VHF Transceiver Board (136-174MHz)
NLE4560_
UHF Transceiver Board (403-470MHz)
NLE4244_
UHF Transceiver Board (450-512MHz)
X
X
X NUF6411_
800MHz Transceiver Board (806-870MHz)
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X NTN4595_
Nickel-Cadmium, Ultra-High Capacity
(1800mAh), Large-Size Housing (Height 3.9” )
Battery
Accessory Connector Cover
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X NTN7061_
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X NTN7268_
Control Top Chassis
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X NTN7309_
Belt Clip
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X NTN7638_
Display Front Shield
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X NTN7749_
VOCON Kit
VOCON Shield Screws (qty. 4)
X
X
X
X
NTN7637_
Non-Display Front Shield
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X 0305150X01
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X 1302646J01
Control Top Escutcheon
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X 1302647J01
16-Position Select Knob Escutcheon
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X 2605403X01
VOCON Board Back Shield
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X 2605535W02
Center Transceiver Shield
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X 2605844V01
VOCON Board Top Shield
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X 2805462X01
20-Pin Mating Plug
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X 3205082E48
On/Off/Volume Control Knob O-Ring Gasket
Control Top O-Ring Gasket
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X 3205082E80
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X 3205082E83
Programmable Button O-Ring Gasket
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X 4502640J01
2-Position A/B Switch
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
8505518V01
VHF Antenna
8505241U05
UHF Antenna
X 8505241U03
800MHz Antenna
X = Indicates one of each is required.
1-11
Glossary
A/D
Analog to Digital converter; converts an instantaneous dc voltage level to a corresponding
digital value.
ABACUS IC
Custom integrated circuit providing a digital receiver IF backend.
ADSIC
ABACUS/DSP Support IC; custom integrated circuit providing peripheral functions for the
DSP.
ALC
Automatic Level Control; a circuit in the transmit RF path that controls RF power amplifier
output, provides leveling over frequency and voltage, and protects against high VSWR.
D/A
Digital to Analog converter; converts a digital value to a corresponding dc voltage value.
DTMF
Dual Tone Multi-Frequency
DPL
Digital Private-Line™
DSP
Digital Signal Processor; microcontroller specifically tailored for signal processing
computations. In this case refers specifically to Motorola DSP56001.
Firmware
Software or a software/hardware combination of computer programs and data, with a
fixed logic configuration stored in a read-only memory; information can not be altered or
reprogrammed.
FGU
Frequency Generation Unit
FLASHport™
A Motorola term that describes the ability of a radio to change memory. Every FLASHport
radio contains a FLASHport EEPROM memory chip that can be software written and
rewritten to, again and again.
Host
Motorola HC11F1 microcontrol unit U204 (see MCU).
Host Port
Parallel memory mapped interface consisting of eight registers in the DSP56001.
IC
Integrated Circuit
IMBE
A sub-band, voice encoding algorithm used in ASTRO digital voice.
ISW
Inbound Signalling Word; data transmitted on the control channel from a subscriber unit
to the central control unit.
LSH
Low Speed Handshake; 150 baud digital data sent to the radio during trunked operation
while receiving audio.
MCU
MicroControl Unit
MDC
Motorola Digital Communications
OMPAC
Over-Molded Pad-Array Carrier; a Motorola custom IC package, distinguished by the
presence of solder balls on the bottom pads.
Open Architecture
A controller configuration that utilizes a microprocessor with extended ROM, RAM, and
EEPROM.
OSW
Outbound Signalling Word; data transmitted on the control channel from the central
controller to the subscriber unit.
PC Board
Printed Circuit board
PL
Private-Line® tone squelch; a continuous sub-audible tone that is transmitted along with
the carrier.
PLL
Phase-Locked Loop; a circuit in which an oscillator is kept in phase with a reference,
usually after passing through a frequency divider.
PTT
Push-To-Talk; the switch located on the left side of the radio which, when pressed, causes
the radio to transmit.
Registers
Short-term data-storage circuits within the microcontrol unit or programmable logic IC.
1-12
Repeater
Remote transmit/receive facility that re-transmits received signals in order to improve
communications coverage.
RESET
Reset line; an input to the microcontroller that restarts execution.
RF PA
Radio Frequency Power Amplifier
RSS
Radio Service Software
RPT/TA
RePeaTer/Talk-Around
RX DATA
Recovered digital data line.
Signal Qualifier
Mode
An operating mode whereby the radio is muted but still continues to analyze receive data
to determine RX signal type.
SCI IN
Serial Communication Interface INput line
SLIC
Support-Logic IC; a custom gate array used to provide I/O and memory expansion for the
microcontroller.
Softpot
Software potentiometer; a computer-adjustable electronic attenuator.
Software
Computer programs, procedures, rules, documentation, and data pertaining to the
operation of a system.
SPI
Serial Peripheral Interface; how the microcontroller communicates to modules and ICs
through the CLOCK and DATA lines.
Squelch
Muting of audio circuits when received signal levels fall below a pre-determined value.
SRAM
Static-RAM chip used for volatile, program/data memory.
SSI
Synchronous Serial Interface on the DSP56001 consisting of six signals and used for an RX
and TX modulated data interface to the ADSIC.
Standby Mode
An operating mode whereby the radio is muted but still continues to monitor data.
System Central
Controllers
Main control unit of the trunked dispatch system; handles ISW and OSW messages to and
from subscriber units (see ISW and OSW).
System Select
The act of selecting the desired operating system with the system-select switch (also, the
name given to this switch).
TOT
Time-Out Timer; a timer that limits the length of a transmission.
TSOP
Thin Small-Outline Package
UART
Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter.
µC
Microcontrol unit (see MCU).
VCO
Voltage-Controlled Oscillator; an oscillator whereby the frequency of oscillation can be
varied by changing a control voltage.
VCOB IC
Voltage-Controlled Oscillator Buffer IC
Vocoder
VOice enCODER; the DSP-based system for digitally processing the analog signals,
includes the capabilities of performing voice compression algorithms or voice encoding.
VOCON
VOcoder/CONtroller board
VSELP
Vector Sum Excited Linear Predictive coding; a voice encoding technique used in ASTRO
digital voice.
VSWR
Voltage Standing Wave Ratio
1-13
Notes
1-14
Introduction
General
2
This manual includes all the information necessary to maintain peak
product performance and maximum working-time. This detailed-level
of service (component-level) is typical of some service centers, selfmaintained customers, and distributors.
This manual is to be used in conjunction with the ASTRO Digital
SABER Portable Radios Basic Service Manual (Motorola part number
68P81076C05), which helps troubleshooting a problem to a particular
board. Conduct the basic performance checks first. This will verify the
actual need for analyzing the radio and help pinpoint the functional
problem area. In addition, the technician will become familiar with
the radio test mode of operation, which is a helpful tool. If any basic
receive or transmitter parameters fail, then the radio should be aligned
per the radio alignment procedure.
Included in other areas of this manual are functional block diagrams,
detailed theory of operation, troubleshooting charts and waveforms,
schematics, and parts list. The technician should be very familiar with
these sections to aid in deducing the problem circuit. Also included are
component location diagrams to aid in locating individual circuit
components and some IC diagram, which point out some convenient
probe points.
The theory of operation sections of this manual contain detailed
descriptions of operations of many circuits. Once the area of the
problem is located, it would be strongly advisable to review the
operation of the circuit pertaining to the troubleshooting flow chart.
2-1
Notations Used in
This Manual
Throughout the text in this publication, you will notice the use of
warnings, cautions, and notes. These notations are used to emphasize
that safety hazards exist, and care must be taken and observed.
NOTE:
An operational procedure, practice, or
condition, etc., which is essential to
emphasize.
!
Caution
CAUTION: Indicates a potentially hazardous situation which, if not avoided, may result in
equipment damage. To properly word a caution,
first identify the gravity of the risk, then
describe the nature of the risk, then tell the user
how to avoid the risk, and finally communicate
this risk clearly to the person exposed to the
risk.
WARNING
WARNING: Indicates a potentially hazardous
situation which, if not avoided, could result in
death or injury. To properly word a caution, first
identify the gravity of the risk, then describe the
nature of the risk, then tell the user how to avoid
the risk, and finally communicate this risk
clearly to the person exposed to the risk.
DANGER
DANGER: Indicates an imminently hazardous
situation which, if not avoided, will result in
death or injury. To properly word a caution, first
identify the gravity of the risk, then describe the
nature of the risk, then tell the user how to avoid
the risk, and finally communicate this risk
clearly to the person exposed to the risk.
!
You will also find in this publication the use of the asterisk symbol (*)
to indicate a negative or NOT logic true signal.
2-2
General Overview of an
ASTRO Digital SABER Radio
3
The ASTRO Digital SABER radio is a dual mode (trunked/
conventional), microcontroller-based transceiver incorporating a
Digital Signal Processor (DSP). The microcontroller handles the
general radio control, monitors status, and processes commands input
from the keypad or other user controls. The DSP processes the typical
analog signals and generates the standard signaling digitally to
provide compatibility with existing analog systems. In addition it
provides for digital modulation techniques utilizing voice encoding
techniques with error correction schemes to provide the user with
enhanced range and audio quality all in a reduced bandwidth channel
requirement. It allows embedded signaling which can mix system
information and data with digital voice to add the capability of
supporting a multitude of system features.
The ASTRO Digital SABER radio is available in three models, which are
available in the following bands; VHF (136-174MHz), UHF (403470MHz or 450-512MHz), and 800MHz (806-870MHz).
The ASTRO Digital SABER radio consists of:
• Vocoder/Controller (VOCON) Board
• Band-Dependent Transceiver Board
• Display/Keypad Assembly
• In secure models, a hardware, encryption module is also included.
It is advantageous to think of the vocoder/controller (VOCON) board
as two separate functional units; a vocoder and a controller. The
vocoder section consists of a Digital Signal Processor (DSP), Static-RAM
(SRAM), FLASH program memory, audio power amplifier (audio PA),
and a custom ABACUS/DSP support integrated circuit (ADSIC). This
section handles all the analog and signaling functions previously
accomplished with analog integrated circuits (ICs) by processing the
signals digitally. In addition, it provides advanced digital signal
processing functions which include digital modulation and voice
encoding techniques while still maintaining compatibility with
today’s analog radio systems. The controller section consists of a
microcontroller with FLASH program memory, EEPROM, SRAM, and a
custom IC; the SLIC. This section handles general radio control and
ergonomics through the various user buttons, and rotary knobs.
The transceiver is frequency dependent, and one transceiver exists for
each of the bands; VHF, UHF (range 1 and 2), and 800MHz. The
distinction with these transceivers is the incorporation of the ABACUS
IC. The ABACUS is a digital IF/Discriminator which provides a true
digital interface to the digital circuitry of the vocoder.
3-1
The display module is a two-line, liquid crystal display with associated
circuitry. The display module is an integral part of the front cover
keypad. This module utilizes chip-on-board technology and is not
considered field repairable.
The available encryption module connects directly to the VOCON
board and interfaces directly to the vocoder digital circuitry. It
contains an independent microcontroller, and two custom ICs to
perform digital, numerical, encryption algorithms.
Analog
Mode of Operation
When the radio is receiving, the signal comes from the antenna/
antenna-switch connector to the transceiver board, passes through the
RX/TX switch and the receiver front end. The signal is then filtered,
amplified, and mixed with the first local-oscillator signal generated by
the voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO). The resulting intermediate
frequency (IF) signal is fed to the IF circuitry, where it is again filtered
and amplified. This amplified signal is passed to the digital back-end
IC, where it is mixed with the second local oscillator to create the
second IF at 450kHz. It is then converted to a digital bit stream and
mixed a third time to produce a baseband signal. This signal is passed
to the VOCON board through a current-driven differential output. On
the VOCON board, the ADSIC (ABACUS DSP Support IC) digitally
filters and discriminates the signal, and passes it to the digital-signal
processor (DSP). The DSP decodes the information in the signal and
identifies the appropriate destination for it. For a voice signal, the DSP
will route the digital voice data to the ADSIC for conversion to an
analog signal. The ADSIC will then present the signal to the audio
power amplifier, which drives the speaker. For signalling information,
the DSP will decode the message and pass it to the microcontrol unit.
When the radio is transmitting, microphone audio is passed from the
audio power amplifier (PA) to the ADSIC, where the signal is digitized.
The ADSIC passes digital data to the DSP, where pre-emphasis and lowpass (splatter) filtering are done. The DSP returns this signal to the
ADSIC, where it is reconverted into an analog signal and scaled for
application to the voltage-controlled oscillator as a modulation signal.
Transmitted signalling information is accepted by the DSP from the
microcontrol unit, coded appropriately, and passed to the ADSIC,
which handles it the same as a voice signal. Analog modulation
information is passed to the synthesizer along the modulation line. A
modulated carrier is provided to the RF PA, which transmits the signal
under dynamic power control.
ASTRO Mode
(Digital Mode)
of Operation
3-2
In the ASTRO mode (digital mode) of operation, the transmitted or
received signal is limited to a discrete set of four deviation levels. The
receiver handles an ASTRO-mode signal identically to an analog-mode
signal up to the point where the DSP decodes the received data. In the
ASTRO receive mode, the DSP uses a specifically defined algorithm to
recover information. In the ASTRO transmit mode, microphone audio
is processed identically to an analog mode with the exception of the
algorithm the DSP uses to encode the information. This algorithm will
result in deviation levels that are limited to four discrete levels.
Transceiver Board
Overview
The receiver front end consists of a preselector, an RF amplifier, a
second preselector, and a mixer. Both preselectors in the VHF and UHF
radios are varactor-tuned, two-pole filters controlled by the
microcontrol unit through the digital/analog (D/A) IC. On the
800MHz receiver front end, these filters are fixed-tuned. The RF
amplifier is a dual-gate, gallium- arsenide based IC. The mixer is a
double-balanced, active mixer coupled by transformers. Injection is
provided by the VCO through an injection filter. See Table 14 for local
oscillator (LO) and first IF information.
The frequency generation function is performed by three ICs and
associated circuitry. The reference oscillator provides a frequency
standard to the synthesizer/prescaler IC, which controls the VCO IC.
The VCO IC actually generates the first LO and transmit-injection
signals and buffers them to the required power level. The synthesizer/
prescaler circuit module incorporates frequency-division and
comparison circuitry to keep the VCO signals stable. The synthesizer/
prescaler IC is controlled by the microcontrol unit through a serial bus.
Most of the synthesizer circuitry is enclosed in rigid metal cans on the
transceiver board to reduce microphonic effects.
The receiver back end consists of a two-pole crystal filter, an IF
amplifier, a second two-pole crystal filter, and the digital back-end IC
(ABACUS). The two-pole filters are wide enough to accommodate
5kHz modulation. Final IF filtering is done digitally in the ADSIC.
The digital back-end IC (ABACUS) consists of an amplifier, the second
mixer, an IF analog-to-digital converter, a baseband down-converter,
and a 2.4MHz synthesis circuit to provide a clock to the ADSIC on the
VOCON board. The second LO is generated by discrete components
external to the IC. The output of the ABACUS IC is a digital bit stream
that is current driven on a differential pair for a reduction in noise
generation.
The transmitter consists of an RF PA IC that gets an injection signal
from the VCO. Transmit power is controlled by two custom ICs that
monitor the output of a directional coupler and adjust PA control
voltages correspondingly. The signal passes through a RX/TX switch
that uses PIN diodes to automatically provide an appropriate interface
to transmit or receive signals. Antenna selection is done mechanically
in the control top.
VOCON Board
Overview
The VOCON board contains the radio’s microcontrol unit with its
memory and support circuits, voltage regulators, audio, DSP, ADSIC,
and power control circuits. Connected to the VOCON board are the
display board, transceiver board, and control top.
The microcontrol unit (MCU) controls receive/transmit frequencies,
power levels, display, and other radio functions, using either direct
logic control or serial communications paths to the devices.The
microcontrol unit executes a stored program located in the FLASH
ROM. Data is transferred to and from memory by the microcontrol
unit data bus. The memory location from which data is read, or to
which data is written, is selected by the address lines.
3-3
The SLIC acts as an extension of the microcontrol unit by providing
logic functions such as lower address latch, reset, memory address
decoding, and additional control lines for the radio. The microcontrol
unit controls the crystal-pull circuit to adjust the crystal oscillator’s
frequency on the microcontrol unit, so that the E-clock’ s harmonics
do not cause interference with the radio’s receive channel.
Switched +5V is used for all circuits on the VOCON board except the
audio PA, which is sourced from 7.5V. The regulator automatically
provides 5V when the radio is turned on. The regulator’s power-down
mode is controlled by the microcontrol unit, which senses the
position of the on/off/volume control knob.
The DSP performs all signalling and voice encoding and decoding as
well as audio filtering and volume control. This includes PrivateLine®/Digital Private Line™ (PL/DPL) encode and alert-tone
generation. The IC transmits pre-emphasis on analog signals and
applies a low-pass (splatter) filter to all transmitted signals. It is
programmed using parallel programming from the microcontrol unit
and the ADSIC.
The ADSIC performs analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog
conversions on audio signals. It contains attenuators for volume,
squelch, deviation, and compensation, and it executes receiver
filtering and discrimination. The IC requires a 2.4MHz clock to
function (generated by the ABACUS IC) and is programmed by the
microcontrol unit SPI bus.
3-4
4
Radio Power
Introduction
This section of the manual provides a detailed circuit description of
the power distribution for an ASTRO Digital SABER radio.
General
In the ASTRO radio, power is distributed to three boards:
• transceiver
• VOCON
• display
In the case of a secure model radio, the encryption module is supplied
also.
Power for the radio is provided through a battery supplying a nominal
7.5Vdc directly to the transceiver. The battery is available in the
following forms:
• Nickel-Cadmium, High-Capacity (1100mAh),
Medium-Size Housing
• Nickel-Cadmium, High-Capacity (1100mAh),
Medium-Size Housing (FM Approved, Submersible)
• Nickel-Cadmium, Ultra-High Capacity (1800mAh),
Large-Size Housing
• Nickel-Cadmium, Ultra-High Capacity (1800mAh),
Large-Size Housing (FM Approved)
• Nickel-Cadmium, Ultra-High Capacity (1800mAh),
Large-Size Housing (FM Approved, Submersible)
• Nickel-Metal-Hydride, Medium-Capacity (950mAh),
Small-Size Housing
• Nickel-Metal-Hydride, Ultra-High Capacity (1650mAh),
Medium-Size Housing (FM Approved, Submersible)
B+ from the battery is electrically switched to most of the radio, rather
than routed through the on/off/volume control knob, S901/R901. The
electrical switching of B+ supports a “keep-alive” mode. Under
software control, even when the on/off/volume control knob has been
turned to the “off” position, power remains on until the MCU
completes its power-down, at which time the radio is physically
powered-down.
4-1
B+ Routing for
VHF/UHF
Transceiver Boards
Refer to Figure 1 and your specific schematic diagram.
Raw B+ (7.5V) from the battery (Batt B+) enters the radio on the
transceiver board through a 3-contact spring pin arrangement (J3) as
B+, where it is routed through two ferrite beads on the VHF (E1, E101)
and three ferrite beads on the UHF (E1, E101, E106) to the RF power
amplifier module (U105) and ALC IC (U101, pin 13). Battery B+ is
fused, and then routed through the connector J1, pins 19 and 20 to the
VOCON board (J401, pins 19 and 20). The B+ supply is routed through
the VOCON board to the on/off/volume control knob (S901/R901) on
the control top/PTT flex at jack J901, pin 1. With the mechanical on/
off switch (S901) placed in the “on” position, switched B+ (B+ SENSE)
is routed from the control top flex at connector plug P901, pin 10 and
applied to the VOCON board at connector jack J901, pin 10. This
signal is also fed to a resistive divider R222, R223 on the VOCON board
so that the microcontrol unit (U204) can monitor the battery voltage.
To/From VOCON Board
Raw B+
SW B+
VHF/UHF Transceiver Board
Fuse
UNSW B+
L105
T5
CR109 CR108
ALC U101
RX
RF Amp
U1
SB+
L121
L122
Vcc VCOB IC
U201
+
Battery
7.5V
RF PA Module
U105
5V Regulator
U202
5V
T5
Mixer
U2
Q107
RX/TX
R5
5V Regulator
U106
S
Out
Synth
U204
Ref Osc
U203
ABACUS
U401
D/A IC
U102
IF Amp
Q601
MAEPF-24700-O
Figure 1 . B+ Routing for VHF/UHF Transceiver Boards
The switched B+ voltage supplies power to circuits on the transceiver
board. The 5-volt regulator (U202), is applied this voltage through
decoupling component C125 to produce a stable 5.0 volt output. Raw
B+ (7.5V), which is connected to the ALC IC (U101), is switched
through the output (CATH1) to another 5-volt regulator (U106).
Regulator U202 supplies those circuits which need to remain on at all
times, such as the reference oscillator (U203), fractional-N-synthesizer
(U204), D/A IC (U102), and the ABACUS IC (U401). The D/A IC
controls dc switching of the transceiver board. The SC1 signal at U102
pin 12 controls transistors Q107, Q111, and the transmit 5 volts (T5).
4-2
The SC3 signal at U102 pin 14 controls the Rx 5V switch U106, and
the receive 5 volts (R5). A voltage on the synthesizer SOUT line at
U204 pin 19 supplies power (Vcc) to the VCO buffer at U201 pin 3.
During the receive mode, regulator U106 supplies regulated 5V (R5) to
the receiver front end. In the battery-saver mode, R5 can be switched
on and off by controlling pin 3 of U106. Module U106 is not used
during the transmit mode. During the transmit mode, transmit 5 volts
(T5) for the ALC IC and other TX circuitry is obtained from U202 via
switching transistor Q111.
B+ Routing for
800MHz
Transceiver Boards
Refer to Figure 2 and your specific schematic diagram.
Raw B+ (7.5V) from the battery (Batt B+) enters the radio on the
transceiver board through a 3-contact spring pin arrangement (J3) as
B+, where it is routed through four ferrite beads (E1, E2, E3, E4) and
applied to the RF power amplifier (U502) and the ALC IC (U504 pin
13). Battery B+ is fused and then routed to the VOCON board, where
it enters on connector J1 pins 19 and 20. On secure radios, Raw B+ is
also routed to the encryption board so that it can perform key
management and other functions independently of SW B+.
To/From VOCON Board
SW B+
Raw B+
800MHz Transceiver Board
Rx
Fuse
CR104
L101
UNSW B+
+
CR102
VCO
U307
ALC
U504
VCOB IC
U303
Battery
7.5V
RF PA
Module
U502
5V Regulator
U505
5V
Q503
RF Amp
U202
Mixer
U205
Synth
U302
Ref Osc
U304
ABACUS
U401
D/A IC
U503
IF Amp
Q601
MAEPF-24336-O
Figure 2 . B+ Routing for 800MHz Transceiver Boards
The SW B+ is applied to the 5V regulator (U505) to produce a stable
5.0 volt output. Regulator U505 supplies those circuits which need to
remain on at all times, such as the reference oscillator (U304),
fractional-n-synthesizer (U302), D/A IC (U503), and the ABACUS IC
(U401). The D/A IC controls dc switching of the transceiver board. The
SCI signal at U503 pin 12 controls Q503 and transmit 5 volts (T5). The
SC3 signal at U503 pin 14 controls the RX 5V switch in Q503 and the
4-3
receive 5 volts (R5). During the receive mode, switch Q503 supplies
regulated 5volts (R5) to the receiver front end.
B+ Routing for
VOCON Boards and
Display Modules
Refer to Figure 3 and your specific schematic diagram.
Power for the radio is derived from a 7.5 volt battery, which is applied
to the transceiver board through J3. This Raw B+, or unswitched B+
(UNSW B+), is routed to J1 on the transceiver board and then on to
J401 on the VOCON board. Here the UNSW B+ is forwarded to the
radio’s control top on/off/volume knob through J901 and a flex
circuit. The on/off/volume knob controls B+_SENSE to Q206, which in
turn controls Q207. Transistor Q207 is a solid-state power switch,
which provides SW B+ to the VOCON board’s analog and transceiver
5V regulators, the audio PA, the display module, and back to the
transceiver board. In addition, UNSW B+ is routed to the main digital
5V regulator (U409); B+ SENSE provides for enabling or disabling this
regulator.
In the case of a secure radio model, SW B+ and UNSW B+ are also
supplied to the encryption module through J801.
Q207 is also under the control of the microcontrol unit (MCU - U204])
through a port on the SLIC IC (U206). This allows the MCU to follow
an orderly power-down sequence when it senses the SW B+ is off. This
sense is provided through the resistor network of R222 and R223,
which provides an input to the A/D port on the MCU.
The VOCON board contains two 5V regulators partitioned between
the digital logic circuitry and the analog circuitry. The 5V regulator for
the digital circuitry is comprised of U409, CR403, L402, C470, and
associated components. This circuit is a switched mode regulator.
Switched mode regulators use a switched storage device (L402) to
supply just enough energy to the output to maintain regulation. This
allows for much greater efficiency and lower power dissipation.
The analog circuitry of the ADSIC (U406) and the audio PA (U401) is
powered through a separate 5V linear regulator (U410).
It should also be noted that a system reset is provided by U407. This
device brings the system out of reset on power-up. It provides a system
reset to the microcomputer on power-down or if the digital 5V
regulator falls out of regulation.
4-4
Display Module
8Kx24
SRAM
U402
DSP56001
U405
8Kx24
SRAM
U403
256Kx8
FLASH
U404
8Kx24
SRAM
U414
SRAM
U202
ADSIC
U406
Audio
PA
U401
5V Analog
SW_B+
Switch
Q207
5V Regulator
U410
On
B+_Sense
256Kx8
FLASH
U205
EEPROM
U201
5V Digital
256Kx8
FLASH
U210
HC11F1
MCU
U204
SLIC IV
U206
Off
Controls
Flex
5V Regulator
U409
B+_CNTL
Vocoder/Controller
SW_B+
Universal Connector
Opt_B+
UNSW_B+
J201
J401
MAEPF-24335-O
Figure 3 . B+ Routing for Vocoder/Controller (VOCON) Boards
4-5
Notes
4-6
VHF/UHF Transceiver Board
Detailed Theory of Operation
5
Introduction
This section of the manual provides a detailed circuit description of an
ASTRO Digital SABER VHF and UHF Transceiver Board. When reading
the theory of operation, refer to your appropriate schematic and
component location diagrams located in the back section of this
manual. This detailed theory of operation will help isolate the
problem to a particular component. However, first use the ASTRO
Digital SABER Portable Radios Basic Service Manual to troubleshoot
the problem to a particular board.
Frequency
Generation Unit
(FGU)
The frequency generation unit (FGU) consists of three major sections:
the high stability reference oscillator (U203), the fractional-N
synthesizer (U204,) and the VCO buffer (U201). A 5V regulator (U202),
supplies power to the FGU. The synthesizer receives the 5V REG at
U204, and applies it to a filtering circuit within the module and
capacitor C253. The well-filtered 5-volt output at U204 pin 19 is
distributed to the TX and RX VCOs and the VCO buffer IC. The mixer
LO injection signal and transmit frequency are generated by the RX
VCO and TX VCO respectively. The RX VCO uses an external active
device (Q202), whereas the VHF TX VCO active device is a transistor
inside the VCO buffer. The UHF TX VCO uses two active devices, one
external (Q203) and the other internal to the VCO buffer. The base and
emitter connections of this internal transistor are pins 11 and 12 of
U201.
The RX VCO is a Colpitts-type oscillator, with capacitors C235 and
C236 providing feedback. The RX VCO transistor (Q202) is turned on
when pin 38 of U204 switches from high to low. The RX VCO signal is
received by the VCO buffer at U201 pin 9, where it is amplified by a
buffer inside the IC. The amplified signal at pin 2 is routed through a
low-pass filter (L201 and associated capacitors) and injected as the first
LO signal into the mixer (U2 pin 8). In the VCO buffer, the RX VCO
signal (or the TX VCO signal during transmit) is also routed to an
internal prescaler buffer. The buffered output at U201 pin 16 is applied
to a low-pass filter (L205 and associated capacitors). After filtering, the
signal is routed to a prescaler divider in the synthesizer at U204 pin 21.
The divide ratios for the prescaler circuits are determined from
information stored in a codeplug, which is part of the microcontrol
unit (U204 on the VOCON board). The microprocessor extracts data
for the division ratio as determined by the position of the channelselect switch (S902), and busses the signal to a comparator in the
synthesizer. A 16.8MHz reference oscillator, U203, applies the
16.8MHz signal to the synthesizer at U204 pin 14. The oscillator signal
5-1
is divided into one of three pre-determined frequencies. A time-based
algorithm is used to generate the fractional-N ratio.
If the two frequencies in the synthesizer’s comparator differ, a control
(error) voltage is produced. The phase detector error voltage (V
control) at pin 31 and 33 of U204, is applied to the loop filter
consisting of resistors R211, R212, and R213, and capacitors C244,
C246, C247 and C275. The filtered voltage alters the VCO frequency
until the correct frequency is synthesized. The phase detector gain is
set by components connected to U204 pins 28 and 29.
In the TX mode, U204 pin 38 goes high and U201 pin 14 goes low,
which turns off transistor Q202 and turns on the internal TX VCO
transistor in U204 and the external TX VCO buffer Q203 on the UHF
circuit. The TX VCO feedback capacitors are C219 and C220. Varactor
diode CR203 sets the TX frequency while varactor CR202 is the TX
modulation varactor. The modulation of the carrier is achieved by
using a 2-port modulation technique. The modulation of low
frequency tones such as DPL/TPL is achieved by injecting the tones
into the A/D section of the fractional-N synthesizer. The digitized
signal is modulated by the fractional-N divider, generating the
required deviation. Modulation of the high frequency audio signals is
achieved by modulating the varactor (CR203) through a frequency
compensation network. Resistors R207 and R208 form a potential
divider for the higher frequency audio signals.
In order to cover the very wide bandwidths, positive and negative Vcontrol voltages are used. High control voltages are achieved using
positive and negative multipliers. The positive voltage multiplier
circuit consists of components CR204, C256, C257 and reservoir
capacitor C258.The negative multiplier circuit consists of components
CR205, CR206, C266, C267 and reservoir capacitor C254 in VHF and
UHF radios. Out-of-phase clocks for the positive multiplier appear at
U204 pins 9 and 10. Out-of-phase clocks for the negative multiplier
appear at U204 pins 7 and 8, and only when the negative V-control is
required (i.e., when the VCO frequency exceeds the crossover
frequency). When the negative V-control is not required, transistor
Q201 is turned on, and capacitor C259 discharges. The 13V supply
generated by the positive multiplier is used to power-up the phase
detector circuitry. The negative V-control is applied to the anodes of
the VCO varactors.
The TX VCO signal is amplified by an internal buffer in U201, routed
through a low pass filter and routed to the TX PA module, U105 pin 1.
The TX and RX VCOs and buffers are activated via a control signal
from U204 pin 38.
The reference oscillator supplies a 16.8MHz clock to the synthesizer
where it is divided down to a 2.1MHz clock. This divided-down clock
is fed to the ABACUS IC (U401), where it is further processed for
internal use.
5-2
Antenna Switch
Two antenna switches are part of the radio circuitry. One of the
switches which is located in the radio casting is mechanical. It
switches between the radio antenna and a remote antenna. Switching
is accomplished by a plunger located on the accessory connector. With
a remote antenna installed, continuity between the radio antenna and
the RF input line is broken; continuity is made from the remote
antenna to the radio RF line. The second switch is a current device. It
is a pair of diodes (CR108/CR109) that electronically steer RF between
the receiver and the transmitter. In the transmit mode, RF is routed
through transmit switching diode CR108, and sent to the antenna. In
the receive mode, RF is received from the antenna, routed through
receive switching diode CR109, and applied to the RF amplifier, U1
(UHF), Q1 (VHF). In transmit, bias current, sourced from U101 pin 21,
is routed through L105, U104, CR108, and L122 in VHF and L105,
CR108, and L122 in UHF. Sinking of the bias current is through the
transmit ALC module, U101 pin 19. In the receive mode, bias current,
sourced from SB+, is routed through Q107 (pin 3 to pin 2), L123 (UHF),
L121, CR109, and L122. Sinking of the bias current is through the 5volt regulator, U106 pin 8.
Receiver Front End
The RF signal is received by the antenna and coupled through the
external RF switch. The UHF board applies the RF signal to a low-pass
filter comprised of: L126, L127, L128, C149, C150, and C151. The VHF
board bypasses the lowpass filter. The filtered RF signal is passed
through the antenna switch (CR109) and applied to a bandpass filter
comprised of: VHF; L11 through L14, CR1 through CR9, C4, C2, and
C3, or UHF; L30, L31, L32, L34, L35, CR6 through CR9, C1, C2, and
C3. The bandpass filter is tuned by applying a control voltage to the
varactor diodes in the filter. (CR1-CR9 in VHF and CR6-CR9 in UHF.)
The bandpass filter is electronically tuned by the D/A IC (U102) which
is controlled by the microcomputer.The D/A output range is extended
through the use of a current mirror, transistor Q108 and associated
resistors R115 and R116. When Q108 is turned on via R115, the D/A
output is reduced due to the voltage drop across R116. Depending on
the carrier frequency the microcomputer will turn on or off Q108.
Wideband operation of the filter is achieved by retuning the bandpass
filter across the band.
The output of the bandpass filter is applied to a wideband GaAs RF
amplifier IC, U1 (RF AMP) on the UHF transceiver board. The VHF
board uses an active device for RF amplification (Q1). After being
amplified by the RF AMP, the RF signal is further filtered by a
second broad-band, fixed-tuned, bandpass filter consisting of C6, C7,
C8, C80, C86, C87, C88, C97, C99, L3, L4, L5, and L30 (VHF); or C4
through C7, C88 through C94, C99, and L11 through L15 (UHF) to
improve the spurious rejection.
Via a broadband 50-ohm transformer, T1, the filtered RF signal is
routed to the input of a broadband mixer/buffer (U2). Mixer U2 uses
GaAs FETs, in a double-balanced Gilbert Cell configuration. The RF
signal is applied to the mixer at U2 pins 1 and 15. An injection signal
(1st LO) of about -10dBm, supplied by the FGU, is applied to U2 pin 8.
Mixing of the RF and the 1st LO results in an output signal which is
5-3
the first IF frequency. The first IF frequency of VHF and UHF bands are
45.15MHz and 73.35MHz respectively. The 1st LO signal for VHF is
45.15MHz higher than the carrier frequency while that for the UHF is
73.35MHz lower than the carrier frequency. The 1st IF signal output,
at U2 pins 4 and 6, is routed through transformer T2 and impedance
matching components, and applied to a 2-pole crystal filter (FL1),
which is the final stage of the receiver front end. The 2-pole crystal
filter removes unwanted mixer products. Impedance matching
between the output of the transformer (T2) and the input of the filter
(FL1) is accomplished by capacitor C605 and inductor L605 (VHF); or
C611, C614 and L605 (UHF).
Receiver Back End
The output of crystal filter FL1 is matched to the input of IF buffer
amplifier transistor Q601 by components C610 and L604 (VHF) and
C609, C610, and L600 (UHF). Transistor Q601 is biased by the 5V
regulator (U202). The IF frequency on the collector of Q601 is applied
to a second crystal filter through a matching circuit. The second crystal
filter (FL2) input is matched by C604, C603, and L601 (VHF); or C604,
L601, and L602 (UHF). The filter supplies further attenuation at the IF
sidebands to increase the radios selectivity. The output of FL2 routed
to pin 32 of U401 through a matching circuit which consists of L603,
L606, and C608 (VHF); or L603, C606, and C605 (UHF).
In the ABACUS IC, (U401) the first IF frequency is amplified and then
down converted to 450kHz, the second IF frequency. At this point, the
analog signal is converted into two digital bit streams via a sigma-delta
A/D converter. The bit streams are then digitally filtered and mixed
down to baseband and filtered again. The differential output data
stream is then sent to the ADSIC (U406) on the VOCON board where
it is decoded to produce the recovered audio.
The ABACUS IC (U401) is electronically programmable, and the
amount of filtering which is dependent on the radio channel spacing
and signal type is controlled by the microcomputer. Additional
filtering, which used to be provided externally by a conventional
ceramic filter, is replaced by internal digital filters in the ABACUS IC.
The ABACUS IC contains a feedback AGC circuit to expand the
dynamic range of the sigma-delta converter. The differential output
data contains the quadrature (I and Q) information in 16-bit words,
the AGC information in a 9-bit word, imbedded word sync
information and fill bits dependent on sampling speed. A fractional-n
synthesizer is also incorporated on the ABACUS IC for 2nd LO
generation.
The 2nd LO/VCO is a Colpitts oscillator built around transistor Q401
(VHF) and Q1 (UHF). The VCO has a varactor diode, VR401 (VHF) and
CR5 (UHF), to adjust the VCO frequency. The control signal for the
varactor is derived from a loop filter consisting of C426, C428, and
R413.
5-4
Transmitter
The transmitter consists of three major sections:
• Harmonic Filter
• RF Power Amplifier Module
• ALC Circuits
Harmonic Filter
RF from the power amplifier (PA) module (U105) is routed through the
coupler (U104), passed through the transmit antenna switch (CR108),
and applied to a harmonic filtering network in UHF. In the case of a
VHF transceiver board, RF from the PA module (U105) is routed also
through the coupler (U104), then through the harmonic filtering
network, and on to the antenna switch (CR108). The harmonic
filtering circuit is comprised of the following components: L126, L127,
L128, C149, C150, and C151 (for VHF models); or L126, L127, L128,
C149, C150, and C151 (for UHF models). Resistor R128 (UHF) or R117
(VHF) provides a current limited 5V to J2 for mobile ASTRO vehicular
adapter (AVA) applications.
RF Power Amplifier
Module
The RF power amplifier module (U105) is a wide-band multi-stage
amplifier (3 stages for the VHF models and 4 stages for the UHF
models). Nominal input and output impedance of U105 is 50 ohms.
The dc bias for U105 is on pins 2, 4, 5. In the transmit mode, the
voltage on U105 pins 2 and 4 (close to the B+ level) is obtained via
switching transistor Q101. Transistor Q101 receives its control base
signal as follows:
• the microcomputer keys the D/A IC to produce a ready signal at
U102 pin 3
• the ready signal at U102 pin 3 is applied to the TX ALC IC at U101
pin 14 (5V)
• the synthesizer sends a LOC signal to the TX ALC IC (U204 pin 40
to U101 pin 16)
When the LOC signal and the ready signal are both received, the TX
ALC IC (pin 13) sends a control signal to turn on transistor Q101.
ALC Circuits
Coupler module U104 samples the forward power and the reverse
power of the PA output voltage. Reverse power is present when there
is other than 50 ohms impedance at the antenna port. Sampling is
achieved by coupling some of the forward and/or reverse power, and
apply it to CR102(VHF) or CR101(UHF) and CR103 for rectification
and summing. The resultant dc signal is then applied to the TX ALC
IC (U101 pin 2) as RFDET to be used as an RF strength indicator.
The transmit ALC circuit, built around U101, is the heart of the power
control loop. Circuits in the TX ALC module compare the signals at
U101 pins 2 and 7. The resultant signal, C BIAS, at U101 pin 4 is
applied to the base of transistor Q110. In response to the base drive,
transistor Q110 varies the dc control voltages applied to the RF PA at
U105 pin 3, thus controlling the RF power of module (U105).
Thermistor RT101 senses the temperature of the TX ALC IC. If an
abnormal operating condition exists, which causes the PA slab
temperature to rise to an unacceptable level, the thermistor forces the
ALC to reduce the set power.
5-5
Notes
5-6
800MHz Transceiver Board
Detailed Theory of Operation
6
Introduction
This section of the manual provides a detailed circuit description of an
ASTRO Digital SABER 800MHz Transceiver Board. When reading the
theory of operation, refer to your appropriate schematic and
component location diagrams located in the back section of this
manual. This detailed theory of operation will help isolate the
problem to a particular component. However, first use the ASTRO
Digital SABER Portable Radios Basic Service Manual to troubleshooting
the problem to a particular board.
Frequency Synthesis
The complete synthesizer subsystem consists of the reference oscillator
(U304), the voltage controlled oscillator (VCO), U307, a buffer IC
(U303), and the synthesizer (U302).
The reference oscillator contains a temperature-compensated
16.8MHz crystal. This oscillator is digitally tuned and contains a
temperature-referenced 5-bit analog-to-digital (A/D) converter. The
output of the oscillator (pin 10 on U304) is applied to pin 14 (XTAL1)
on U302 via capacitor C309 and resistor R306.
Module U307 is the voltage controlled oscillator, which is varactor
tuned. That is, as the voltage (2-11V) being applied to pins 1 and 7 of
the VCO varies, so does the varactor’s capacitance, thereby changing
the VCO’s output frequency. The 800MHz VCO is a dual-range
oscillator that covers the 806-825MHz and the 851-870MHz frequency
bands. The low-band VCO (777-825MHz) provides the first LO
injection frequencies (777-797MHz) that will be 73.35MHz below the
carrier frequency. In addition, when the radio is operated through a
repeater, the low-band VCO will generate the transmit frequencies
(806-825MHz) that will be 45MHz below the receiver frequencies. The
low-band VCO is selected by pulling pin 3 high and pin 8 low on
U307. When radio-to-radio or talk-around operation is necessary, the
high band VCO (851-870MHz) is selected. This is accomplished by
pulling pin 3 low and pin 8 high on U307.
The buffer IC (U303) includes a TX, RX, and prescaler buffer whose
main purpose is to individually maintain a constant output and
provide isolation.The TX buffer is chosen by setting pin 7 of U303
high; the RX buffer is chosen by setting pin 7 of U303 low. The
prescaler buffer will always be on. In order to select the proper
combination of VCO and buffer, the following conditions must be true
at pin 6 of U303 (or pin 38 of U302) and pin 7 of U303 (or pin 39 of
U302). For the first LO injection frequencies 777-797MHz, pins 6 and
7 must both be low; for the TX repeater frequencies 806-825MHz pins
6-1
6 and 7 must both be high. For talkaround TX frequencies 851870MHz, pin 6 must be low while pin 7 must be high.
The synthesizer IC (U303) consists of a prescaler, a programmable loop
divider, a divider control logic, a phase detector, a charge pump, an
A/D converter for low-frequency digital modulation, a balance
attenuator to balance the high frequency analog modulation to the
low frequency digital modulation, a 13V positive-voltage multiplier, a
serial interface for control, and finally a filter for the regulated five
volts. This filtered five volts is present at pin 19 of U302, pin 9 of U307,
and pins 2, 3, 4, and 15 of U303. It is also applied directly to resistors
R309, R315, and R311. Additionally, the 13V, being generated by the
positive voltage multiplier circuitry, should be present at pin 35 of
U302. The serial interface (SRL) is connected to the microprocessor via
the data line (pin 2 of U302), clock line (pin 3 of U302), and chip
enable line (pin 4 of U302).
The complete synthesizer subsystem works as follows. The output of
the VCO, pin 4 on U307, is fed into the RF input port (pin 9) of U303.
In the TX mode, the RF signal will be present at pin 4 of U303. On the
other hand, in the RX mode, the RF signal will be present at pin 3 of
U303. The output of the prescaler buffer, pin 15 on U303, is applied to
the PREIN port (pin 21) of U302. The prescaler in U302 is a dualmodulus type with selectable divider ratios. This divider ratio is
controlled by the loop divider, which in turn receives its inputs via the
SRL. The loop divider adds or subtracts phase to the prescaler divider
by changing the divide ratio via the modulus control line. The output
of the prescaler is then applied to the loop divider. The output of the
loop divider is then applied to the phase detector. The phase detector
will then compare the loop divider’s output signal with the signal from
U304 (that is divided down after it is applied to pin 14 of U302). The
result of the signal comparison is a pulsed dc signal which is applied
to the charge pump. The charge pump outputs a current that will be
present at pin 32 of U302. The loop filter (which consists of capacitors
C322, C317, C318, C329, C324, and C315, and resistors R307, R305,
and R314) will transform this current into a voltage that will be
applied to pins 1 and 7 of U307, and alter the VCO’s output frequency.
In order to modulate the PLL, the two-port modulation method is
utilized. The analog modulating signal is applied to the A/D converter
as well as the balance attenuator, via U302 pin 5. The A/D converter
converts the low-frequency analog modulating signal into a digital
code that is applied to the loop divider, thereby causing the carrier to
deviate. The balance attenuator is used to adjust the VCO’s deviation
sensitivity to high-frequency modulating signals.
Antenna Switch
Switching between the standard and external antenna ports is
accomplished with the external mechanical switch which is actuated
by a plunger located on the accessory connector.
An electronic PIN diode switch steers RF between the receiver and
transmitter. The common node of the switch is at capacitor C101. In
the transmit mode, RF is routed to the anode of diode CR104. In
receive mode, RF is routed to pin 1 of U201. In transmit, bias current
sourced from U504 pin 21, is routed through PIN diodes CR104 and
6-2
CR102, biasing them to a low-impedance state. Bias current returns to
ground through U504 pin 20. In receive, U504 pin 21 is pulled down
to ground and pin 20 is pulled up to B+, reverse biasing diodes CR104
and CR102 to a high impedance.
Receiver Front End
For the purposes of this discussion, the receiver front end is defined to
be the circuitry from the antenna switch to the output of the IF crystal
filter. The 800MHz front end is designed to convert the received RF
signal to the 1st IF frequency of 73.35MHz, while at the same time
providing for spurious immunity and adjacent channel selectivity. A
review of the interstage components of the front end will now be
presented with emphasis on troubleshooting considerations.
The received RF signal is passed through the antenna switch input
matching components C101, L105, and C114 tank components C106
and L103 (which are anti-resonant at the radios transmitter
frequencies), and output matching components C103 and L104. Both
pin diodes CR102 and CR104 must be back biased to properly route
the received signal.
The stage following the antenna switch is a 50-ohm, inter-digitated, 3pole, stripline preselector (U201). The preselector is positioned after
the antenna switch to provide the receiver preamp some protection to
strong signal, out-of-band signals.
After the preselector (U201), the received signal is processed through
the receiver preamp, U202. The preamp is a dual-gate GaAs MESFET
transistor which has been internally biased for optimum IM, NF, and
gain performance. Components L201 and L202 match the input (gate
1) of the amp to the first preselector, while at the same time
connecting gate 1 to ground potential. The output (drain) of the amp
is pin 3 and is matched to the subsequent receiver stage via
components L204, C205 and C222. A supply voltage of 5Vdc is
provided to pin 3 via an RF choke L203 and bypass C204. The 5 volt
supply is also present at pin 4 which connects to a voltage divider
network that biases gate 2 (pin 5) to a predefined quiescent voltage of
1.2Vdc. Resistor R202 and capacitor C203 are connected to pin 5 to
provide amp stability. The FET source (pin 7) is internally biased at
0.55 to 0.7Vdc for proper operation with bypass capacitors C201 and
C202 connected to the same node.
The output of the amp is matched to a second 3-pole preselector
(U203) of the type previously discussed. The subsequent stage in the
receiver chain is the 1st mixer U205, which uses low-side injection to
convert the RF carrier to an intermediate frequency (IF) of 73.35MHz.
Since low-side injection is used, the LO frequency is offset below the
RF carrier by 73.35MHz, or Flo = Frf - 73.35MHz. The mixer utilizes
GaAs FETs in a double balanced Gilbert Cell configuration. The LO
port (pin 8) incorporates an internal buffer and a phase shift network
to eliminate the need for a LO transformer. The LO buffer bypass
capacitors (C208, C221, and C216) are connected to pin 10 of U205,
and should exhibit a nominal dc voltage of 1.2 to 1.4Vdc. Pin 11 of
U205 is LO buffer Vdd (5Vdc) with associated bypass capacitors C226
and C209 connected to the same node. An internal voltage divider
network within the LO buffer is bypassed to virtual ground at pin 12
6-3
of U205 via bypass C213. The mixer’s LO port is matched to the radio’s
PLL by a capacitive tap, C207 and C206. A balun transformer (T202) is
used to couple the RF signal into the mixer. The primary of T202 is
matched to the preceding stage by capacitor C223, with C227
providing a dc block to ground. The secondary of T202 provides a
differential output, with a 180° phase differential being achieved by
setting the secondary center tap to virtual ground using bypass
capacitors C210, C211 and C212. The secondary of transformer T202
is connected to pins 1 and 15 of the mixer IC, which drives the source
leg of dual FETs used to toggle the paralleled differential amplifier
configuration within the Gilbert Cell.
The final stage in the receiver front end is a 2-pole crystal filter (FL1).
The crystal filter provides some of the receiver’s adjacent channel
selectivity. The input to the crystal filter is matched to the 1st mixer
using components L605, C611 and C614. The output of the crystal
filter is matched to the input of IF buffer amplifier transistor Q601 by
components L600, C609, and C610.
Receiver Back End
The IF frequency on the collector of Q601 is applied to a second crystal
filter (FL2) through a matching circuit consisting of L601, L602, C604,
and C612. The filter supplies further attenuation at the IF sidebands to
increase the radio’s selectivity. The output of FL2 is routed to pin 32 of
U401 through a matching circuit which consists of L603, C605, and
C606 and dc block capacitor C613.
In the ABACUS IC, (U401) the first IF frequency is amplified and then
down converted to 450kHz, the second IF frequency. At this point, the
analog signal is converted into two digital bit streams via a sigma-delta
A/D converter. The bit streams are then digitally filtered and mixed
down to baseband and filtered again. The differential output data
stream is then sent to the ADSIC (U406) on the VOCON board where
it is decoded to produce the recovered audio.
The ABACUS IC (U401) is electronically programmable, and the
amount of filtering which is dependent on the radio channel spacing
and signal type is controlled by the microcomputer. Additional
filtering, which used to be provided externally by a conventional
ceramic filter, is replaced by internal digital filters in the ABACUS IC.
The ABACUS IC contains a feedback AGC circuit to expand the
dynamic range of the sigma-delta converter. The differential output
data contains the quadrature (I and Q) information in 16-bit words,
the AGC information in a 9-bit word, imbedded word sync
information and fill bits dependent on sampling speed. A fractional-n
synthesizer is also incorporated on the ABACUS IC for 2nd LO
generation.
The second LO/VCO is a Colpitts oscillator built around transistor Q1.
The VCO has a varactor diode (VR401), which is used to the adjust the
VCO frequency. The control signal for the varactor is derived from a
loop filter consisting of C426, C428, and R413.
6-4
Transmitter
The 800MHz RF power amplifier (PA) is a 5-stage amplifier (U502). The
RF power amplifier has a nominal input and output impedance of 50
ohms.
An RF input drive level of approximately +3dBm, supplied from the
VCO buffer IC (U303), is applied to pin 1 of U502. The dc bias for the
internal stages of U502 is applied to pins 2, 5, and 6 of the module.
Pins 2 and 5 being switched through Q502 and pin 6 being
unswitched B+ to the final amplifier stage. Power control is achieved
through the varying of the dc bias to pins 3 and 4, the third and fourth
amplifier stages of the module. The amplified RF signal leaves the PA
module via pin 7 and is applied to the directional coupler (U501).
The purpose of U501 is to sample both the forward power and the
reverse power. The reverse power will be present when there is other
than a 50-ohm load at the antenna port. The sampling will be
achieved by coupling some of the reflected power, forward and/or
reverse, to a coupled leg on the coupler. The sampled RF signals are
applied to diode CR501 for rectification and summing. The resultant
dc signal is applied to the ALC IC (U504 pin 2) as RFDET to be used as
an strength indicator of the RF signal being passed through the
directional coupler (U501).
The transmit ALC IC (U504) is the heart of the power control loop. The
REF V line (U504 pin 7), a dc signal supplied from the D/A IC (U503),
and the RF DET signal described earlier, are compared internally in the
ALC IC to determine the amount of C BIAS, pin 4, to be applied to the
base of transistor Q501. Transistor Q501 responds to the base drive
level by varying the dc control voltages applied to pin 3 and 4 of the
RF PA, controlling the RF power level of module, U502. The ALC IC
also controls the base switching to transistor Q502 via pin 12, BIAS.
The D/A IC (U503) controls the dc switching of the transceiver board.
Its outputs, SC1 and SC3, pins 12 and 14 respectively, control
transistor Q503, which then supplies TX 5V and RX 5V to the
transceiver board. The D/A also supplies the dc bias to the detector
diode (CR501) via pin 7, and the REF V signal to the ALC IC (U504).
6-5
Notes
6-6
VOCON Board
Detailed Theory of Operation
7
Introduction
This section of the manual provides a detailed circuit description of an
ASTRO Digital SABER VOCON (Vocoder/Controller) Board. When
reading the theory of operation, refer to your appropriate schematic
and component location diagrams located in the back section of this
manual. This detailed theory of operation will help isolate the
problem to a particular component. However, first use the ASTRO
Digital SABER Portable Radios Basic Service Manual to troubleshooting
the problem to a particular board.
General
The VOCON board consists of two subsystems:
• vocoder
• controller
Although these two subsystems share the same printed circuit board
and work closely together, it helps to keep their individual
functionality separate in describing the operation of the radio.
The controller section is the central interface between the various
subsystems of the radio. It is very similar to the digital logic portion of
the controllers on many existing Motorola radios. Its main task is to
interpret user input, provide user feedback, and schedule events in the
radio operation, which includes programming ICs, steering the
activities of the DSP and driving the display.
The vocoder section performs the functions which previously were
performed by analog circuitry. This includes all tone signaling,
trunking signalling, and conventional analog voice, etc. All analog
signal processing is done digitally utilizing a DSP56001. In addition it
provides a digital voice plus data capability utilizing VSELP or IMBE
voice compression algorithms. Vocoder is a general term used to refer
to these DSP based systems and is short for voice encoder.
In addition, the VOCON board provides the interconnect between the
microcontrol unit (MCU), DSP, and the encryption board on secureequipped radios.
7-1
Controller Section
Refer to Figure 4 and your specific schematic diagram.
The controller section of the VOCON board consists entirely of digital
logic comprised of a microcontrol unit (MCU-U204), a custom support
logic IC (SLIC-U206), and memory consisting of: SRAM (U202),
EEPROM (U201), and FLASH memory (U205, U210).
The MCU (U204) memory system is comprised of a 32k x 8 SRAM
(U202), 32k x 8 EEPROM (U201), and 512k x 8 FLASH ROM
(U205,U210). The MCU also contains 1024 bytes of internal SRAM and
512 bytes of internal EEPROM. The EEPROM memory is used to store
customer specific information and radio personality features. The
FLASH ROM contains the programs which the HC11F1 executes. The
FLASH ROM allows the controller firmware to be reprogrammed for
future software upgrades or feature enhancements. The SRAM is used
for scratchpad memory during program execution.
The SLIC (U206) performs many functions as a companion IC for the
MCU. Among these are expanded input/output (I/O), memory
decoding and management, and interrupt control. It also contains the
universal asynchronous receiver transmitter (UART) used for the
RS232 data communications. The SLIC control registers are mapped
into the MCU (U204) memory space.
U201
32Kx8
EEPROM
1024 Bytes
SRAM
512 Bytes
EEPROM
SCI
Universal Connector
Transceiver/Display
SPI
ADSIC
U202
32Kx8
SRAM
U205
256Kx8
FLASH
U210
256Kx8
FLASH
HC11/DSP
Interface
Address/Data/
Control
U204
MC68HC11F1
General
Purpose I/O
Clocks
A/D
Clocks
Resets
U206
SLIC IV
Address/Data/
Control
Chip Selects/
Bank Control
Controls
General
Purpose I/O
RS232
Universal Connector
MAEPF-24337-O
Figure 4 . VOCON Board - Controller Section
7-2
The controller performs the programming of all peripheral ICs. This is
done through a serial peripheral interface (SPI) bus. ICs programmed
through this bus include the synthesizer, DAIC, reference oscillator,
display, and ADSIC. On secure-equipped model, the encryption board
is also controlled through the SPI bus.
In addition to the SPI bus, the controller also maintains two
asynchronous serial busses; the SB9600 bus and an RS232 serial bus.
The SB9600 bus is for interfacing the controller section to different
hardware option boards, some of which may be external to the radio.
The RS232 is used for the function of a common data interface for
external devices.
User input is handled by the controller through top rotary controls
and side buttons. On models with a display, an additional 3 x 2 or 3 x
6 keypad are also read. User feedback is provided by a single bicolor
LED on the top and a two-line, fourteen-character display if equipped.
The controller schedules the activities of the DSP through the host
port interface. This includes setting the operational modes and
parameters of the DSP. The controlling of the DSP is analogous to
programming analog signaling ICs on standard analog radios.
Vocoder Section
Refer to Figure 5 and your specific schematic diagram.
The vocoder section of the VOCON board is made up of a digital signal
processor (DSP-U405), 24k x24 static-RAM (SRAMs-U414, U403, and
U402), 256kB FLASH ROM (U404), ABACUS/DSP support IC (ADSICU406), and an audio PA (U401).
The FLASH ROM (U404) contains the program code executed by the
DSP. As with the FLASH ROM used in the controller section, the FLASH
ROM is reprogrammable so new features and algorithms can be
updated in the field as they become available. Depending on the mode
and operation of the DSP, corresponding program code is moved from
the FLASH ROM into the faster SRAM, where it is executed at full bus
rate.
The ADSIC (U406) is basically a support IC for the DSP. It provides
among other things, the interface from the digital world of the DSP to
the analog world. The ADSIC also provides some memory
management and provides interrupt control for the DSP processing
algorithms. The configuration programming of the ADSIC is
performed by the MCU. However some components of the ADSIC are
controlled through a parallel memory mapped register bank by the
DSP.
In the receive mode, The ADSIC (U406) acts as an interface to the
ABACUS IC, which can provide IF data samples directly to the DSP for
processing. Or the IF data can be filtered and discriminated by the
ADSIC and data provided to the DSP as raw discriminator sample data.
The latter mode, with the ADSIC performing the IF filtering and
discrimination, is the typical mode of operation.
7-3
In the transmit mode, the ADSIC (U406) provides a serial digital-toanalog (D/A) converter. The data generated by the DSP is filtered and
reconstructed as an analog signal to present to the VCO as a
modulation signal. Both the transmit and receive data paths between
the DSP and ADSIC are through the DSP SSI port.
The only analog device in the vocoder section is the audio PA (U401).
This IC is an audio amplifier for the microphone analog input and
speaker analog output. The audio PA allows steering between the
internal and external microphone and internal and external speaker.
Steering is accomplished through four control lines provided by the
ADSIC and controlled by the DSP through the ADSIC parallel registers.
The amplified microphone signal is provided to the ADSIC, which
incorporates an analog-to-digital (A/D) converter to translate the
analog waveform to a series of data. The data is available to the DSP
through the ADSIC parallel registers. In the converse way, the DSP
writes speaker data samples to a D/A in the ADSIC, which provides an
analog speaker audio signal to the audio PA.
U402
8Kx24
SRAM
A0-A15
U403
8Kx24
SRAM
D0-D23
U414
8Kx24
SRAM
U405
DSP56001
EXTAL
MODA
MODB
BUS
CONTROL
U404
256Kx8
FLASH
HC11/DSP
Interface
Host
Port
SCI
SERIAL
Encryption
Interface
SSI
SERIAL
Gata Array
Logic
System
Clock
Tx D/A
General
Purpose I/O
U406
ADSIC
ABACUS Rx
Interface
Speaker
D/A
Microphone
A/D
Serial
Config.
Modulation
Out
ABACUS
Interface
HC11
SPI
External
Microphone
Internal
Microphone
U401
Audio PA
External
Speaker
Internal
Speaker
MAEPF-24338-O
Figure 5 . VOCON Board - Vocoder Section
7-4
Switched Regulator
All of the digital circuitry on the VOCON is supplied 5 volt regulated
dc by a switched mode regulator (refer to Figure 3 on page 5 of Chapter
4). The fundamental parts of the regulator are U409, L402, C470,
CR403, C463, and U407. Module U409 is a pulse width modulating
(PWM) switched regulator controller. Coil L402 is an energy storage
element, C470 is an output ripple filter, and CR403 is a Schottky diode
switch. Capacitor C463 is added for UNSW_B+ ripple filter and is
necessary for stability of the regulator. Module U407 is a supply
supervisory IC, which provides a system reset function when the
output of the regulator falls out of regulation, typically around 4.6Vdc.
This switched mode regulator works by supplying just sufficient
energy to the storage element to maintain the output power of the
regulator at 5Vdc. It can be related to a flywheel in the sense that just
enough energy can be added to a spinning flywheel to keep it spinning
at a constant speed. In contrast to a typical linear type regulator, which
basically shunts unused current to ground through an active resistive
divider. The switched mode regulator is much more energy efficient. It
can be noted that input current to the regulator is less than the load
current. In fact, as input voltage to the regulator goes up, current
supplied to the regulator actually goes down for a constant load.
Module U409 works off of a clock with a nominal operating frequency
of 160kHz (kit number NTN7749E), or 260kHz (kit numbers
NTN7749F and NTN7749G). This may vary a little based on the load
and input voltage. It maintains regulation by varying the duty cycle of
a clock output driving L402. This signal is referred to as Lx on U409
(refer to Waveform W1). As long as the clock output is high, current
flows from the supply into L402 allowing energy to be stored. When
the clock output goes low, the diode CR403 conducts, allowing current
to continue to flow from ground through L402. A pulse width on the
Lx signal can be obtained, which provides the correct amount of
energy to keep the output in regulation. Capacitor C470 is an output
filter to reduce ripple on the output from the clock transitions.
Module U409 is supplied directly from the unswitched battery supply.
It is turned on and off through the control line connected to SHDN*/
ON/OFF. This is the same control line from the MCU, which controls
the series pass element Q207, which switches SW_B+. A voltage level
of approximately 2Vdc is required to turn the regulator on.
7-5
RX Signal Path
The vocoder processes all received signals digitally. This requires a
unique back end from a standard analog radio. This unique
functionality is provided by the ABACUS IC with the ADSIC (U406)
acting as the interface to the DSP. The ABACUS IC located on the
transceiver board provides a digital back end for the receiver section.
It provides a digital output of I (In phase) and Q (Quadrature) data
words which represent the IF (Intermediate Frequency) signal at the
receiver back end (refer to appropriate transceiver section for more
details on ABACUS operation). This data is passed to the DSP through
an interface with the ADSIC (U406) for appropriate processing.
The ADSIC interface to the ABACUS is comprised of the four signals
SBI, DIN, DIN*, and ODC (refer to Figure 6).
IRQB
8KHz
IRQB
D8-D23
DSP56001
U405
SC0
SC1
SSI
SERIAL
SC2
SCK
SRD
STD
SDO
ADSIC
U406
To
Audio PA
GCB0-GCB3
U401
A0-A2,A13-A15,RD*,WR*
2.4 MHz Receive Data Clock
20 KHz RX Data Interrupt
48KHz TX Data Interrupt
Serial Receive Data
Serial Transmit Data
RFS
TFS
1.2 MHz Tx Data Serial Clock
ABACUS II
Interface
SCKR
SBI
DIN
SCKT
RXD
TXD
DINIDC
SBI
J401-4
Data In
Data In*
ODC
J401-2
J401-1
J401-8
MAEPF-24339-O
Figure 6 . DSP RSSI Port - RX Mode
NOTE:
An asterisk symbol (*) next to a signal
name indicates a negative or NOT logic
true signal.
ODC is a clock ABACUS provides to the ADSIC. Most internal ADSIC
functions are clocked by this ODC signal at a rate of 2.4MHz and is
available as soon as power is supplied to the circuitry. This signal may
initially be 2.4 or 4.8MHz after power-up. It is programmed by the
ADSIC through the SBI signal to 2.4MHz when the ADSIC is initialized
by the MCU through the SPI bus. For any functionality of the ADSIC
to exist, including initial programming, this reference clock must be
present. SBI is a programming data line for the ABACUS. This line is
used to configure the operation of the ABACUS and is driven by the
ADSIC. The MCU programs many of the ADSIC operational features
through the SPI interface. There are 36 configuration registers in the
ADSIC of which four contain configuration data for the ABACUS.
When these particular registers are programmed by the MCU, the
ADSIC in turn sends this data to the ABACUS through the SBI.
7-6
DIN and DIN* are the data lines in which the I and Q data words are
transferred from the ABACUS. These signals make up a deferentially
encoded current loop. Instead of sending TTL type voltage signals, the
data is transferred by flowing current one way or the other through the
loop. This helps reduce internally generated spurious emissions on the
transceiver board. The ADSIC contains an internal current loop
decoder which translates these signals back to TTL logic and stores the
data in internal registers.
In the fundamental mode of operation, the ADSIC transfers raw IF data
to the DSP. The DSP can perform IF filtering and discriminator
functions on this data to obtain a baseband demodulated signal.
However, the ADSIC contains a digital IF and discriminator function
and can provide this baseband demodulated signal directly to the DSP,
this being the typical mode of operation. The internal digital IF filter
is programmable up to 24 taps. These taps are programmed by the
MCU through the SPI interface.
The DSP accesses this data through its SSI serial port. This is a 6 port
synchronous serial bus. It is actually used by the DSP for both transmit
and receive data transferal, but only the receive functions will be
discussed here. The ADSIC transfers the data to the DSP on the SRD
line at a rate of 2.4MHz. This is clocked synchronously by the ADSIC
which provides a 2.4MHz clock on SC0. In addition, a 20kHz interrupt
is provided on SC1 signaling the arrival of a data packet. This means a
new I and Q sample data packet is available to the DSP at a 20kHz rate
which represents the sampling rate of the received data. The DSP then
processes this data to extract audio, signaling, etc. based on the 20kHz
interrupt.
In addition to the SPI programming bus, the ADSIC also contains a
parallel configuration bus consisting of D8-D23, A0-A2, A13-A15, RD*,
and WR*, This bus is used to access registers mapped into the DSP
memory starting at Y:FFF0. Some of these registers are used for
additional ADSIC configuration controlled directly by the DSP. Some
of the registers are data registers for the speaker D/A. Analog speaker
audio is processed through this parallel bus where the DSP outputs the
speaker audio digital data words to this speaker D/A and an analog
waveform is generated which is output on SDO (Speaker Data Out). In
conjunction with the speaker D/A, the ADSIC contains a
programmable attenuator to set the rough signal attenuation.
However, the fine levels and differences between signal types is
adjusted through the DSP software algorithms. The speaker D/A
attenuator setting is programmed by the MCU through the SPI bus.
The ADSIC provides an 8kHz interrupt to the DSP on IRQB for
processing the speaker data samples. IRQB is also one of the DSP mode
configuration pins at start up. This 8kHz signal must be enabled
through the SPI programming bus by the MCU and is necessary for
any audio processing to occur.
For secure messages, the analog signal data may be passed to the secure
module prior to processing speaker data for decryption. The DSP
transfers the data to and from the secure module through it's SCI port
consisting of TXD and RXD. The SCI port is a two wire duplex
asynchronous serial port. Configuration and mode control of the
secure module is performed by the MCU through the SPI bus.
7-7
The ADSIC contains four general purpose I/O labeled GCB0 -GCB3.
These are connected to the AUDIO PA and are used for enabling the
speaker and microphone amplifiers in the IC and for steering the
speaker and microphone audio paths from internal to external. These
I/O are controlled by the DSP through the ADSIC parallel
configuration bus. The DSP then writes speaker data samples to the
speaker D/A register through the parallel bus at an 8kHz rate and
configures the AUDIO PA enable lines by writing the same bus to the
register controlling the I/O.
The audio PA provides about 20dB of gain and a dual ended
differential output; SPKR_COMMON, and EXT_SPKR or INT_SPKR.
Internal or external speaker drive is achieved by changing the phase of
the outputs on INT_SPKR and EXT_SPKR to be either in phase or out
of phase with SPKR_COMMON. The signal which is out of phase with
SPKR_COMMON will be driven.
Since all of the audio and signaling is processed in DSP software
algorithms, all types of audio and signaling follow this same path.
TX Signal Path
IRQB
The transmit signal path follows some of the same design structure as
the receive signal path described above in section D (refer to Figure 7).
It is advisable to read through the section on RX Signal Path prior to
this section.
8KHz
IRQB
D8-D23
DSP56001
U405
SC0
SC1
SSI
SERIAL
SC2
SCK
SRD
STD
MAI
ADSIC
U406
A0-A2,A13-A15,RD*,WR*
2.4 MHz Receive Data Clock
20 KHz RX Data Interrupt
48KHz TX Data Interrupt
1.2 MHz Tx Data Serial Clock
Serial Receive Data
Serial Transmit Data
VVO
To
Audio PA
GCB0-GCB3
U401
MODIN
J401-15
ABACUS II
Interface
SCKR
RFS
TFS
SBI
DIN
SCKT
RXD
TXD
DINIDC
SBI
J401-4
Data In
J401-2
Data In*
ODC
J401-1
J401-8
MAEPF-24340-O
Figure 7 . DSP RSSI Port - TX Mode
The ADSIC contains a microphone A/D with a programmable
attenuator for coarse level adjustment. As with the speaker D/A
attenuator, the microphone attenuator value is programmed by the
MCU through the SPI bus. The analog microphone signal from the
Audio PA (U401) is input to the A/D on MAI (Mic Audio In). The
microphone A/D converts the analog signal to a series of data words
and stores them in internal registers. The DSP accesses this data
through the parallel data bus parallel configuration bus consisting of
D8-D23, A0-A2, A13-A15, RD*, and WR*. As with the speaker data
7-8
samples, the DSP reads the microphone samples from registers
mapped into it's memory space starting at Y:FFF0. The ADSIC provides
an 8kHz interrupt to the DSP on IRQB for processing these
microphone data samples.
As with the received trunking low speed data, low speed data is
processed by the MCU and returned to the DSP at the DSP SCLK port
connected to the MCU port PA0.
For secure messages, the analog signal may be passed to the secure
module for encryption prior to further processing. The DSP transfers
the data to and from the secure module through it's SCI port
consisting of TXD and RXD. Configuration and mode control of the
secure module is performed by the MCU through the SPI bus.
The DSP processes these microphone samples and generates and mixes
the appropriate signaling and filters the resultant data. This data is
then transferred to the ADSIC IC on the DSP SSI port. The transmit
side of the SSI port consists of SC2, SCK, and STD. The DSP SSI port is
a synchronous serial port. SCK is the 1.2MHz clock input derived from
the ADSIC which makes it synchronous. The data is clocked over to
the ADSIC on STD at a 1.2MHz rate. The ADSIC generates a 48kHz
interrupt on SC2 so that a new sample data packet is transferred at a
48kHz rate and sets the transmit data sampling rate at 48Ksp. These
samples are then input to a transmit D/A which converts the data to
an analog waveform. This waveform is actually the modulation out
signal from the ADSIC port VVO and is connected directly to the VCO.
The transmit side of the transceiver is virtually identical to a standard
analog FM radio.
Also required is the 2.4MHz ODC signal from the ABACUS IC.
Although the ABACUS IC provides receiver functions it is important to
note that this 2.4MHz reference is required for all of the ADSIC
operations.
7-9
Controller
Bootstrap and
Asynchronous Buses
The SB9600 bus is an asynchronous serial communications bus
utilizing a Motorola proprietary protocol. Its purpose is a means for
the MCU to communicate with other hardware devices. In the ASTRO
Digital SABER radio, it communicates with hardware accessories
connected to the universal connector.
The SB9600 bus utilizes the UART internal to the MCU operating at
9600 baud. The SB9600 bus consists of a LH_DATA (J201-4) and
SB9600_BUSY (J201-6) signals. LH_DATA is actually the SCI TXD and
RXD ports (U204 - PD0 and PD1) tied together through the MUX U208
(see Figure 8). This makes the bus a simplex single-wire system.
SB9600_BUSY (U204 - PA3) is an active low signal, which is pulled low
when a device wants control of the bus.
J201-15
SB9600_BUSY
PA3
HC11F1
U204
BOOT_DATA_OUT
J201-4
LH_DATA/BOOT_DATA_OUT
PD1 (TXD)
U208
BOOT_DATA_IN
PD0 (RXD)
SLIC IV
U206
J201-15
RS232_DATA_OUT/BOOT_DATA_IN
SLIC IV
U206
J201-8
RS232_DATA_IN
RXDIN
J201-14
CTSOUT*
PJ3
J201-10
RTS_IN*
RTSBIN
MAEPF-24341-O
Figure 8 . Host SB9600 and RS232 Ports
The same UART internal to the MCU is used in the controller bootstrap
mode of operation. This mode is used primarily in downloading new
program code to the FLASH ROMs on the VOCON board. In this mode,
the MCU accepts special code downloaded at 7200 baud through the
SCI bus instead of operating from program code resident in its ROMs.
It however must operate in a two wire duplex configuration.
A voltage applied to J201-13 (Vpp) of greater than 10 Vdc will trip the
circuit consisting of Q203, Q204, and VR207. This circuit sets the
MODA and MODB pins of the MCU to bootstrap mode (logic 0,0) and
configures the MUX, U208 to separate the RXD and TXD signals of the
7-10
MCU SCI port. Now if the Vpp voltage is raised to 12Vdc required on
the FLASH devices for programming; the circuit comprised of VR208,
Q211, and Q208 will trip supplying Vpp to the FLASH devices U205,
U210, and U404. One more complication exists in that the
BOOT_DATA_IN signal, RXD is multiplexed with the RS232 data out
signal RS232_DATA_OUT. This multiplex occurs in the SLIC IV U206,
which must also be properly configured.
The ASTRO Digital SABER radio has an additional asynchronous serial
bus which utilizes RS232 bus protocol. This bus utilizes the UART in
the SLIC IC (U206). It is comprised of RS232_DATA_OUT (15),
RS232_DATA_IN (J201-8), CTSOUT* (J201-14), and RTSIN* (J201-10).
It is a two wire duplex bus used to connect to external data devices.
Vocoder Bootstrap
The DSP has two modes of bootstrap; from program code stored in the
FLASH ROM U404 or retrieving code from the host port.
During normal modes of operation, the DSP executes program code
stored in the FLASH ROM U404. Unlike the MCU, however, the DSP
moves the code from the FLASH ROM into the three SRAMs U402,
U403, and U414 where it is executed from. Since at initial start-up, the
DSP must execute this process before it can begin to execute system
code, it is considered a bootstrap process. In this process, the DSP
fetches 512 words, 1536 bytes, of code from the FLASH ROM starting
at physical address $C000 and moves it into internal P memory. This
code contains the system vectors including the reset vector. It then
executes this piece of bootstrap code which basically in turn moves
additional code into the external SRAMs.
A second mode of bootstrap allows the DSP to load this initial 512
words of data from the host port, being supplied by the MCU. This
mode is used for FLASH programming the DSP ROM when the ROM
may initially be blank. In addition, this mode may be used for
downloading some diagnostic software for evaluating that portion of
the board.
The bootstrap mode for the DSP is controlled by three signals; MODA/
IRQA*, MODB/IRQB*, and D23 (kit number NTN8250D), or MODC
(kit numbers NTN8250E and NTN8250F). All three of these signals are
on the DSP (U405). MODA and MODB configure the memory map of
the DSP when the DSP reset become active. These two signals are
controlled by the ADSIC (U406) during power-up, which sets MODA
low and MODB high for proper configuration. Later these lines
become interrupts for analog signal processing. D23/MODC controls
whether the DSP will look for code from the MCU or will retrieve code
from the FLASH ROM. D23 high, or MODC low out of reset, will cause
the DSP to seek code from the FLASH ROM (U404). For the second
mode of bootstrap, the MCU drives BOOTMODE low, causing D23 to
go low and MODC to go high.
7-11
SPI Bus Interface
This bus is a synchronous serial bus made up of a data, a clock, and an
individual IC unique select line. It's primary purpose is to configure
the operating state of each IC. ICs programmed by this include;
display module, ADSIC, Fractional N Synthesizer, Pendulum Reference
Oscillator, DAIC, and if equipped, the secure module.
The MCU (U204) is configured as the master of the bus. It provides the
synchronous clock (SPI_SCK), a select line, and data (MOSI [Master
Out Slave In]). In general the appropriate select line is pulled low to
enable the target IC and the data is clocked in. Actually the SPI bus is
a duplex bus with the return data being clocked in on MISO (Master In
Slave Out). The only place this is used is when communicating with
the secure module. In this case, the return data is clocked back to the
MCU on MISO (master in slave out).
Universal Connector
and Option Selects
The universal connector is located on the back of the radio. It is the
external port or interface to the outside and is used for programming
and interfacing to external accessories. The signals are outlined in the
following diagram. The universal connector connects to the VOCON
board at J201 through a flex circuit routed down the back of the
external housing. Connections to the universal connector and J201 on
the VOCON board are shown in Figure 9 and Figure 10.
SIGNAL NAMES
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
Speaker Common
External Speaker
LH data/ Boot data out
External MIC
CTSOUT*
SB9600 Busy
Option Select 1
Opt B+/ Boot Sel/ Vpp
RTSIN*/ Keyfail
Opt sel2 (Keyload)
RS232 data out/ Boot data in
RS232 data in
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
VIEW FROM BACK OF
RADIO
MAEPF-24343-O
Figure 9 . Universal Connector
VOCON BOARD CONNECTOR
J201-1
J201-2
J201-3
J201-4
J201-5
J201-6
J201-7
J201-8
J201-9
J201-10
J201-11
J201-12
J201-13
J201-14
J201-15
N.C
N.C.
N.C.
LH_DATA/BOOT_DATA_OUT
Ext Mic
SB9600_BUSY
Option Select 1
RS232_DATA_IN
Option Sel 2 (Keyload*)
RTSIN*/KEYFAIL*
Speaker Common
External Speaker
OPTB+/Boot Sel/Vpp
CTSOUT*
RS232 Data Out/ Boot Data In
14
2
15
1
MAEPF-24344-O
Figure 10 . VOCON Board Connector - J201
7-12
Most of the signals are extensions of circuits described in other areas
of this manual. However there are two option select pins used to
configure special modes; Option Select 1 and Option Select 2. These
pins are controlled by accessories connected to the universal
connector. The following table outlines their functions as defined at
the universal connector:
Table 1 . Option Select Functions
Keypad and Display
Module
Opt Sel 1
Opt Sel 2
Keyload
1
0
No Function
1
1
External PTT
0
1
The front cover assembly contains the internal speaker, and internal
microphone. An optional integral 2 line by 14 character LCD display
is available with either a 3 x 2 keypad or 3 x 6 keypad. This unit is not
considered field repairable.
The internal speaker and microphone are connected to the VOCON
connector J701 through a flex circuit. This flex circuit along with J701
also contain the keypad control lines. The keypad is read though a row
and column matrix made up of ROW1, ROW2, ROW3, ROW4, ROW5,
ROW6, and COL1, COL2, and COL3. These signals are input to I/O
ports on the SLIC (U206) and individually pulled to a high state
through resistors. When a key is pressed the respective signals for a
single row and a single column are set to logic zero. The MCU reads
these ports through the SLIC parallel registers, provides for key
debounce, and determines which key has been pressed.
The display is controlled by the MCU which programs the display
through the SPI bus, DISP_EN* (select) and DISP_RST*. In addition
display backlighting is provided by two white LEDs controlled by the
BL_EN signal. SW_B+ routed to the display is used to power these
LEDs. All other circuitry on the display is powered by 5Vdc provided
by the VOCON board. The display is connected to the VOCON board
at J601 through a separate flex circuit.
7-13
Controls and
Control Top Flex
The control top controls include an on/off switch, volume, 16 position
mode select switch with two position toggle, and ergo code/clear mode
switch with additional emergency switch. The side controls include
three momentary push button switches (monitor, RAT1, RAT2) and
PTT. These components are connected through a flex circuit to the
controller at J901, see Figure 11.
S901
ON/OFF
To Controller
J901
5
R901
4
3
S903 TOP BUTTON
VOL
2
1
3
1
2
UNSW_B+ (1)
+5V (5)
PROG_SWITCH (2)
VOL (3)
EMERG (4)
CR902
GREEN
B+_SENSE (10)
GREEN_LED (8)
RED_LED (12)
CR901
RED
INT_PTT* (6)
RTA0 (11)
RTA1 (13)
RTA2 (15)
RTA3 (7)
A/B SWITCH (9)
1
S902
2
Zone/Channel
4
Select
8
B
C C A
R902
91K
SB1
(MON)
R903
68K
SB2
R904
150K
SB3
PTT
DGND (14)
MAEPF-24345-O
Figure 11 . Control Top Flex
UNSW_B+ is routed through S901 to provide the B+_SENSE signal
which provides radio power control. Refer to the power distribution
section for further details.
Volume control is provides by R901 which is a potentiometer biased
between +5Vdc and ground. The VOL signal is a voltage level between
+5Vdc and 0Vdc dependent on the position of the rotary knob. VOL
is an input to an A/D port on the MCU (U204). The MCU sends the
appropriate message to the DSP to adjust speaker volume based on this
setting.
Switch S903 is the two-position programmable switch typically used
for code or clear mode selection. It is an input to a control I/O with a
pull up resistor so the logic defaults high. Selecting clear mode pulls
this signal to a logic low. Appropriate operation is configured by the
MCU. In addition, this switch contains an additional momentary
button typically used for emergency. This button is connected along
with the PTT, and programmable side buttons on a resistor divider
network biased between +5Vdc and ground. This network made up of
R902, R903, and R904 provides a voltage level to an A/D port on the
MCU dependent on which button is pressed. The MCU determines
which button is pressed based on the value at the A/D port.
7-14
S902 is a binary coded switch. The output pins from this switch are
connected to I/O ports on the controller. It provides a 4 bit binary
word to the MCU indicating which of the 16 positions the rotary is set
to. This switch provides an additional output, A/B_SWITCH, which
effectively doubles its range by providing decoding for two sets of 16
positions. A/B_SWITCH is also read by the MCU on an I/O port.
Controller Memory
Map
Figure 12 depicts the controller section memory map for the parallel
data bus as used in normal modes of operation. There are three maps
available for normal operation, but map 2 is the only one used. In
bootstrap mode, the mapping is slightly different and will be
addressed later.
The external bus for the host controller (U204)) consists of one 32Kx8
SRAM (U202), one 32Kx8 EEPROM (U201), two 256Kx8 FLASH ROMs
(U205, U210), and SLIC (U206) configuration registers. In addition the
DSP host port is mapped into this bus through the SLIC address space.
The purpose of this bus is to interface the MCU (U204) to these
devices.
The MCU executes program code stored in the FLASH ROMs. On a
power-up reset, it fetches a vector from $FFFE, $FFFF in the ROMs and
begins to execute code stored at this location. The external SRAM
along with the internal 1Kx8 SRAM is used for temporary variable
storage and stack space. The internal 512 bytes of EEPROM along with
the external EEPROM are used for non volatile storage of customer
specific information. More specifically the internal EEPROM space
contains transceiver board tuning information and on power-down
some radio state information is stored in the external EEPROM.
The SLIC is controlled through sixteen registers mapped into the MCU
memory at $1400 - $14FF. This mapping is achieved by the following
signals from the MCU: R/W*, CSIO1*, HA0-HA4,HA8, HA9. Upon
power-up, the MCU configures the SLIC including the memory map
by writing to these registers.
The SLIC memory management functions in conjunction with the
chip selects provided by the MCU provide the decoding logic for the
memory map which is dependent upon the “map” selected in the
SLIC. The MCU provides a chip select, CSGEN*, which decodes the
valid range for the external SRAM. In addition CSI01* and CSPROG*
are provide to the SLIC decoding logic for the external EEPROM and
FLASH ROM respectively. The SLIC provides a chip select and banking
scheme for the EEPROM and FLASH ROM. The FLASH ROM is banked
into the map in 16KB blocks with one 32KB common ROM block. The
external EEPROM may be swapped into one of the banked ROM areas.
This is all controlled by EE1CS*, ROM1CS*, ROM2CS*, HA14_OUT,
HA15_OUT, HA16, and HA17 from the SLIC (U206) and D0-D8 and
A0-16 from the MCU (U204).
The SLIC provides three peripheral chip selects; XTSC1B, XTCS2B, and
XTCS3B. These can be configure to drive an external chip select when
it's range of memory is addressed. XTSC1B is used to address the host
port interface to the DSP. XTSC2B is used to address a small portion of
7-15
external SRAM through the gate U211. XTSCB3 is used as general
purpose I/O for interrupting the secure module.
In bootstrap mode the memory map is slightly different. Internal
EEPROM is mapped at $FE00-$FFFF and F1 internal SRAM starts at
$0000-$03FF. In addition a special bootstrap ROM appears in the ROM
space from $B600-$BFFF. For additional information on bootstrap
mode refer to the section Controller Bootstrap and Asynchronous
Buses.
MAP 2
$0000
NON-MUX 32K COMMON
$0000
External
RAM
$1000
$2000
Int EE
F1 REGS
$1060
$3000
$4000
$5000
*
F1
INT RAM
SLIC REG
HOST PORT
*
$6000
$0E00
$1000
Ext RAM
$1400
$1500
$1600
$1800
$7000
$8000
External
RAM
$9000
$A000
$B000
$C000
$3fff
$D000
$E000
$F000
$FFFF
SLIC III REGISTER
$1400 - $14FF
F1 REGISTERS
AND MEMORY:
*
*
COMMON ROM
RAM
BANKED ROM/EEPROM
CONTROLLED BY SLIC
EXTERNAL EEPROM
CONTROLLED BY F1
INT RAM: $1060-$13FF
INT EE: $0E00-$0FFF
REGISTERS: $1000-$105F
MAEPF-24346-O
Figure 12 . Controller Memory Mapping
7-16
The SLIC is controlled through sixteen registers mapped into the MCU
memory at $1400 - $14FF. This mapping is achieved by the following
signals from the MCU: R/W*, CSIO1*, HA0-HA4,HA8, HA9. Upon
power-up, the MCU configures the SLIC including the memory map
by writing to these registers.
The SLIC memory management functions in conjunction with the
chip selects provided by the MCU provide the decoding logic for the
memory map which is dependent upon the “map” selected in the
SLIC. The MCU provides a chip select, CSGEN*, which decodes the
valid range for the external SRAM. In addition CSI01* and CSPROG*
are provide to the SLIC decoding logic for the external EEPROM and
FLASH ROM respectively. The SLIC provides a chip select and banking
scheme for the EEPROM and FLASH ROM. The FLASH ROM is banked
into the map in 16KB blocks with one 32KB common ROM block. The
external EEPROM may be swapped into one of the banked ROM areas.
This is all controlled by EE1CS*, ROM1CS*, ROM2CS*, HA14_OUT,
HA15_OUT, HA16, and HA17 from the SLIC (U206) and D0-D8 and
A0-16 from the MCU (U204).
The SLIC provides three peripheral chip selects; XTSC1B, XTCS2B, and
XTCS3B. These can be configure to drive an external chip select when
it's range of memory is addressed. XTSC1B is used to address the host
port interface to the DSP. XTSC2B is used to address a small portion of
external SRAM through the gate U211. XTSCB3 is used as general
purpose I/O for interrupting the secure module.
In bootstrap mode the memory map is slightly different. Internal
EEPROM is mapped at $Fe00-$FFFF and F1 internal SRAM starts at
$0000-$03fff. In addition a special bootstrap ROM appears in the ROM
space from $B600-$BFFF. For additional information on bootstrap
mode refer to the section Controller Bootstrap and Asynchronous
Buses.
Vocoder Memory
Map
The vocoder (DSP) external bus consists of three 8k x 24 SRAMs (U402,
U403, U414), one 256k x 8 FLASH ROM (U404), and ADSIC (U406)
configuration registers.
The DSP56001 (U405) has a 24 bit wide data bus (D0-D23) and a 16 bit
wide address bus (A0 - A15). The DSP can address three 64k x 24
memory spaces: P (Program), Dx (Data X), and Dy (Data Y). These
additional RAM spaces are decoded using PS* (Program Strobe), DS*
(Data Strobe), and X/Y*. RD* and WR* are separate read and write
strobes.
The ADSIC provides additional memory decoding logic for the RAMs
in the form of RSEL* used in decoding U403. RSEL* provides the logic
A13 x A14. U415 provides logic in the form of A13 + A14 for decoding
U414. RSEL* logic is programmed by the MCU through the SPI bus
interface.
The ADSIC also provides memory decoding for the FLASH ROM
(U404). EPS* provides the logic A15 x (A14 ≈ A13) and is use as a select
for the ROM. The ADSIC provide three bank lines for selecting 16k
byte banks from the ROM. This provides decoding for 128K bytes from
7-17
P
Dx
Dy
$FFFF
ADSIC
Registers
$E000
$DFFF
ADS Vectors
External ROM
16KB Physical
Banks
$00000-1FFFF
External ROM
16KB Physical
Banks
$20000-3FFFF
$A000
$9FFF
$8000
$7FFF
External
RAM
External
RAM
External
RAM
U402
U403
U414
ADS P Ram
Internal P Ram
ADS Dx Ram
Internal X Rom
Internal Dx Ram
ADS Dy Ram
Internal Y Rom
Internal Dy Ram
$2000
$1FFF
$1000
$0FFF
$0200
$01FF
$0000
Figure 13 . Vocoder Memory Mapping
the ROM in the P: memory space. PS* is used to select A17 to provide
an additional 128k bytes of space in Dx: memory space for the ROM.
The ADSIC internal registers are decoded internally and start at $E000
in Dy:. These registers are decoded using A0-A2, A13-15, and PS* from
the DSP. The ADSIC internal registers are 16 bit wide so only D8-D23
are used.
The DSP program code is stored in the FLASH ROM U404. During
normal modes of operation, the DSP moves the appropriate program
code into the three SRAMs U402, U403, and U414 and internal RAM
for execution. The DSP never executes program code from the FLASH
ROM itself. At power-up after reset, the DSP downloads 512 words
(1536 bytes) from the ROM starting at $C000 and puts it into the
internal RAM starting at $0000 where it is executed. This segment of
7-18
program code contains the interrupt vectors and the reset vector and
is basically an expanded bootstrap code. When the MCU messages the
DSP that the ADSIC has been configured, the DSP overlays more code
from the ROM into external SRAM and begins to execute it. Overlays
occur at different times when the DSP moves code from the ROM into
external SRAM depending on immediate mode of operation, such as
changing from transmit to receive.
MCU System Clock
The MCU (U204) system clock is provided by circuitry internal to the
MCU and is based on the crystal reference, Y201. The nominal
operating frequency is 7.3728MHz. This signal is available as a clock at
4XECLK on U204 and is provided to the SLIC (U206) for internal clock
timing. The MCU actually operates at a clock rate of 1/4 the crystal
reference frequency or 1.8432MHz. This clock is available at ECLK on
U204.
The MCU clock contains a crystal warp circuit comprised of L201,
Q205, and C228. This circuit is controlled by an I/O port (PA6) on the
MCU. This circuit moves the operating frequency of the oscillator
about 250ppM on certain receive channels to prevent interference
from the MCU bus noise.
DSP System Clock
The DSP (U405) system clock, DCLK, is provided by the ADSIC (U406).
It is based off the crystal reference, Y401, with a nominal operating
frequency of 33.0000MHz. ADSIC contains an internal clock divider
circuit which can divide the system clock from 33MHz to 16.5 or
8.25MHz operation. The DSP controls this divider by writing to the
ADSIC parallel registers. This frequency is determined by the processes
the DSP is running and is generally configured to the slowest operating
speed possible to reduce system power consumption.
The additional circuitry of CR402, L403, C459, C467, C491, and C490
make up a crystal warp circuit. This circuit is controlled by the OSCw
signal from ADSIC which is configured by the host through the SPI
bus. This circuit moves the operating frequency of the oscillator about
400ppM on certain receive channels to prevent interference from the
DSP bus noise.
Radio
Power-Up/
Power-Down
Sequence
Radio power-up begins when the user closes the radio on/off switch on
the control top. This enables 7.5Vdc on the B+_SENSE signal. This
signal enables the pass element Q207 through Q206 enabling SW_B+
to the VOCON board and transceiver board. B+_SENSE also enables
the +5Vdc regulator U409. When +5Vdc has been established, it is
sensed by the supervisory IC U407. U407 disables the system reset
through the delay circuit R481 and C482.
When the MCU comes out of reset, it fetches the reset vector in ROM
at $FFFE, $FFFF and begins to execute the code this vector points to. It
configures the SLIC through the parallel bus registers. Among other
things it enables the correct memory map for the MCU. It configures
all the transceiver devices on the SPI bus. The MCU then pulls the
ADSIC out of reset and after a minimal delay the DSP also. It then
configures the ADSIC through the SPI bus configuring among other
7-19
things, the DSP memory map. While this is happening, the DSP is
fetching code from the ROM U404 into internal RAM and beginning
to execute it. It then waits for a message from the MCU that the ADSIC
has been configured, before going on.
During this process, the MCU does power diagnostics. These
diagnostics include verifying the MCU system RAM and verifying the
data stored in the internal EEPROM, external EEPROM, and FLASH
ROMs. The MCU queries the DSP for proper status and the results of
DSP self tests. The DSP self tests include testing the system RAM,
verifying the program code in ROM U404, and returning the ADSIC
configuration register checksum. Any failures cause the appropriate
error codes to be sent to the display. If everything is OK, the
appropriate radio state is configured and the unit waits for user input.
On power-down, the user opens the radio on/off switch removing the
B+_SENSE signal from the VOCON board. This does not immediately
remove power as the MCU holds this line active through B+_CNTL.
The MCU then saves pertinent radio status data to the external
EEPROM. Once this is done, B+_CNTL is released shutting off SW_B+
at Q207 and shutting down the 5Vdc regulator U409. When the
regulator slumps to about 4.6Vdc, the supervisory IC U407 activates a
system reset to the SLIC which in turn resets the MCU.
7-20
8
Secure Modules
Introduction
The secure modules are designed to digitally encrypt and decrypt voice
and ASTRO data in ASTRO SABER™ radios. This section covers the
following secure modules:
• NTN7770
• NTN1152
• NTN7771
• NTN1153
• NTN7772
• NTN1158
• NTN7773
• NTN1147
• NTN7774
• NTN1367
• NTN7329
• NTN1368
• NTN7332
• NTN1369
• NTN7331
• NTN1370
• NTN3330
• NTN1371
• NTN7370
• NTN8967
• NTN1146
NOTE:
The secure modules are NOT serviceable. The
information contained in this chapter is only
meant to help determine whether a problem is due
to a secure module or the radio itself.
The secure module uses a custom encryption integrated circuit (IC)
and an encryption key variable to perform its encode/decode function.
The encryption key variable is loaded into the secure module, via the
radio’s universal (side) connector, from a hand-held, key variable
loader (KVL). The encryption IC corresponds to the particular
encryption algorithm purchased. The encryption algorithms and their
corresponding kit numbers are:
TANAPAS:
KITS:
DVP
NTN7770
DVP
NTN1146
DES
NTN7771
DES
NTN1152
DES-XL
NTN7772
DES-XL
NTN1153
DVI-XL
NTN7773
DVI-XL
NTN1158
DVP-XL
NTN7774
DVP-XL
NTN1147
DVI-XL & DVP
NTN7329
DVI-XL & DVP
NTN1367
DES-XL & DVP
NTN7332
DES-XL & DVP
NTN1368
DES-XL & DVP-XL
NTN7731
DES-XL & DVP-XL
NTN1369
DVP & DVP-XL
NTN7330
DVP & DVP-XL
NTN1370
DVP-XL & DVI-XL
NTN7370
DVP-XL & DVI-XL
NTN1371
All, except DVP
NTN8967
8-1
Circuit Description
The secure module operates from three power supplies (UNSW_B+,
SW_B+, and +5V). The +5V and the SW_B+ are turned on and off by
the radio’s on/off switch. The UNSW_B+ provides power to the secure
module as long as the radio battery is in place.
Key variables are loaded into the secure module through connector
J601, pin 15. Up to 16 keys (depending on the type of encryption
module) can be stored in the module at a time. The key can be infinite
key retention or 30-seconds key retention, depending on how the code
plug is setup.
The radio’ s host processor communicates with the Secure Module on
the Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) bus. The host processor is the
master on this bus, while the secure module is a slave on the bus. The
SPI bus consists of five signal lines. Refer to Table 1 for signal
information. A communications failure between the host processor
ERROR 09/10” message
and the secure module will be indicated as an “E
on the radio display.
Troubleshooting
Secure Operations
Refer to the Basic Service Manual, Motorola publication number
68P81076C05 for disassembly and reassembly information. A key
variable loader (KVL) and oscilloscope are needed to troubleshoot the
secure module.
NOTE:
Error 09/10,
Error 09/90
The secure module itself is not serviceable. If the
secure module is found to be defective, it must be
replaced.
The ASTRO Digital XTS 3000 radio automatically performs a self test
on every power-up. Should the radio fail the self tests, the display will
ERROR 09/10” or “E
ERROR 09/90” accompanied by a short beep.
show “E
ERROR 09/10” or “E
ERROR 09/90,” the radio failed
If the display shows “E
the secure power-up tests and the host microcontroller was unable to
communicate with the secure module via the SPI bus. Turn the radio
off and back on. If the radio still does not pass the self tests, then a
problem exists with the secure operations of the radio.
ERROR 09/10” is found in
Troubleshooting information for “E
Troubleshooting Charts.
Keyload
When the keyloading cable is attached to the ASTRO Digital XTS 3000
KEYLOADING” is not displayed on the radio’s display, then
radio and “K
the radio has not gone into KEYLOAD mode. For troubleshooting
“KEYLOAD” failure, refer to Troubleshooting Chart, “Key Load Fail.”
NOTE:
8-2
ASTRO Digital SABER radios need a keyloader
that has the ability to keyload an ASTRO Digital
SABER radio. The keyloader must be either a “T - - - CX” or a “T - - - - DX” keyloader.
9
Troubleshooting
Procedures
Introduction
The purpose of this section is to aid in troubleshooting a malfunctioning
ASTRO Digital SABER radio. It is intended to be detailed enough to localize the
malfunctioning circuit and isolate the defective component.
!
Caution
Handling
Precautions
Most of the ICs are static sensitive
devices. Do not attempt to troubleshoot
or disassemble a board without first
referring to the following Handling
Precautions section.
Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) devices, and other hightechnology devices, are used in this family of radios. While the attributes of
these devices are many, their characteristics make them susceptible to damage
by electrostatic discharge (ESD) or high-voltage charges. Damage can be latent,
resulting in failures occurring weeks or months later. Therefore, special
precautions must be taken to prevent device damage during disassembly,
troubleshooting, and repair. Handling precautions are mandatory for this
radio, and are especially important in low-humidity conditions. DO NOT
attempt to disassemble the radio without observing the following handling
precautions.
1.
Eliminate static generators (plastics, Styrofoam, etc.) in the work area.
2.
Remove nylon or double-knit polyester jackets, roll up long sleeves, and
remove or tie back loose hanging neckties.
3.
Store and transport all static-sensitive devices in ESD-protective
containers.
4.
Disconnect all power from the unit before ESD- sensitive components
are removed or inserted unless otherwise noted.
5.
Use a static-safeguarded workstation, which can be accomplished
through the use of an anti-static kit (Motorola part number 0180386A82). This kit includes a wrist strap, two ground cords, a staticcontrol table mat and a static-control floor mat. For additional
information, refer to Service and Repair Note SRN-F1052, “Static Control
9-1
Equipment for Servicing ESD Sensitive Products,” available from
Literature Distribution.
Motorola
Literature Distribution
2290 Hammond Drive
Schaumburg, IL 60173
(708) 576-2826
6.
Voltage
Measurement and
Signal Tracing
Always wear a conductive wrist strap when servicing this
equipment. The Motorola part number for a replacement wrist
strap that connects to the table mat is 42-80385A59.
It is always a good idea to check the battery voltage under load. This
can be done by measuring the OPT_B+ pin at the universal connector
on the back of the radio, with the radio keyed. The battery voltage
should remain at or above 7.0Vdc. The battery should be recharged or
replaced as necessary prior to analyzing the radio.
In most situations, the problem circuit may be identified using a dc
voltmeter, RF millivoltmeter, and oscilloscope (preferably with
100MHz bandwidth or more). The “Recommended Test Equipment,
Service Aids, and Tools” section in the ASTRO Digital SABER Portable
Radios Basic Service Manual outlines the recommended tools and
service aids which would be useful. Of special note is the REX-4200A
Housing Eliminator, which allows the technician to open the radio to
probe points while in operation.
In some cases dc voltages at probe points are shown in red on the
schematics. In other areas diagrams are included to show time varying
signals which should be present under the indicated circumstances. It
is recommended that a thorough check be made prior to replacement
of any IC or part. If the probe point does not have a signal reasonably
close to the indicated one, a check of the surrounding components
should be made prior to replacing any parts.
!
Caution
9-2
When checking a transistor or module,
either in or out of circuit, do not use an
ohmmeter having more than 1.5 volts
dc appearing across test leads or use an
ohms scale of less than x100.
Power-Up
Self-Check
Errors
Each time the radio is turned on the MCU and DSP perform some
internal diagnostics. These diagnostics consist of checking the
programmable devices such as the FLASH ROMs, internal and external
EEPROMs, SRAM devices, and ADSIC configuration bus checksum. At
the end of the power-up self-check routines, if an error exists, the
appropriate error code is displayed on the display. For non-display
radios, the error codes may be read using the Radio Service Software
(RSS) from the SB9600 bus on the universal connector. The following
lists valid checksums, the related failure, and a reference section for
investigating the cause of the failure.
Error
Code
01/81
01/82
Description
Chart 6.
Chart 7.
01/84
01/88
Chart 8.
Chart 9.
01/92
Chart 10.
02/A0
02/81
02/88
02/84
02/82
02/90
09/10
09/90
001
Chart 11.
Chart 12.
Chart 13.
Chart 14.
Chart 15.
Chart 16.
Chart 17.
Chart 18.
Chart 31.
001
Chart 32.
002
Chart 7.
Page
01/81 Host ROM Checksum Failure . . . . 10-5
01/82 or 002, External EEPROM
Checksum Failure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-6
01/84 SLIC Initialization Failure . . . . . . . 10-6
01/88 MCU (Host µC)
External SRAM Failure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-7
01/92, Internal EEPROM
Checksum Failure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-7
02/A0, ADSIC Checksum Faiure . . . . . . . 10-8
02/81, DSP ROM Checksum Failure . . . . 10-8
02/88, DSP External SRAM Failure U414 . 10-9
02/84, DSP External SRAM Failure U403 . 10-9
02/82, DSP External SRAM Failure U402 10-10
02/90, General DSP Hardware Failure . . 10-10
09/10, Secure Hardware Failure . . . . . . . 10-11
09/90, Secure Hardware Failure . . . . . . . 10-11
VHF/UHF Frequency
Generation Unit (FGU) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-19
800MHz Frequency
Generation Unit (FGU) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-20
01/82 or 002, External EEPROM
Checksum Failure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-6
In the case of multiple errors, the codes are logically OR’d and the
results displayed. As an example, in the case of an ADSIC checksum
failure and a DSP ROM checksum failure, the resultant code would be
02/A1. Following is a series of troubleshooting flowcharts which relate
to each of these failure codes.
Power-Up Sequence
Upon RESET* going active, the MCU begins to execute code which is
pointed to by the vector stored at $FFFE, $FFFF in the FLASH ROM. The
execution of this code is as follows:
1. Initialize the MCU (U204). Green LED on.
2.
Initialize the SLIC (U206).
3.
CONFIG register check. If the CONFIG register is not correct, the
MCU will repair it and loop.
4.
Start ADSIC/DSP:
-
Bring the ADSIC reset line high.
-
Wait 2ms.
-
Bring the DSP reset line high.
9-3
5.
Start EMC:
-
Set the EMC wake-up line low (emc irq line).
-
Wait 5ms.
-
Set the EMC wake-up line high.
-
Wait 10ms.
-
Set the EMC wake-up line low (emc irq line).
-
Wait 5ms.
-
Set the EMC wake-up line high.
6.
Begin power-up self-tests.
7.
Begin RAM tests:
-
External RAM ($1800-3FFF).
-
Internal RAM ($1060-$1300).
-
External RAM ($0000-$0DFF).
-
Display 01/88 if failure.
The radio will get stuck here if the internal RAM is defective. The radio
uses the internal RAM for stack. The RAM routines use subroutines.
Thus, if the internal RAM is defective, the radio will get lost testing the
external RAM.
8.
Display “Self Test” (these routines use subroutines too). It is
almost impossible to display an error message if the internal
RAM is defective.
9.
Begin MCU (host µC) ROM checksum test.
-
Fail 01/81 if this routine fails.
10. Begin DSP power-up tests. The MCU will try this five times
before it fails the DSP test.
-
Check for HF2.
Fail 02/90 if 100ms.
-
Program the ADSIC.
-
Wait for the DSP power-up message.
- Fail 02/90 if 300ms.
- Fail 02/90 if wrong message from the DSP.
-
Wait for the DSP status information.
- Fail 02/90 if 100ms.
- Fail 02/88 if DSP RAM (U414) fails.
- Fail 02/84 if DSP RAM U403 fails.
- Fail 02/82 if DSP RAM U402 fails.
9-4
- Fail 02/81 if DSP RAM fails.
-
Wait for the ADSIC checksum.
- Fail 02/90 if 100ms.
- Fail 02/90 if failure.
-
Wait for the first part of the DSP version number.
- Fail 02/90 if 100ms.
-
Wait for the second part of the DSP version number.
- Fail 02/90 if 100ms.
11. Display errors if a fatal error exists at this point.
12. Checksum the codeplug.
-
Test internal codeplug checksums.
- Fail 01/92 if failure.
-
Test external codeplug checksums.
- Error 01/82 if non-fatal error; fail 01/82 if fatal error.
13. Power-up the EMC (if it is enabled in the codeplug).
14. Turn off the green LED.
15. Start up operating system.
9-5
Standard Bias
Table
Table 3, below, outlines some standard supply voltages and system clocks
which should be present under normal operation. These should be checked as
a first step to any troubleshooting procedure.
Table 2 . Standard Operating Bias
Signal Name
Nominal Value
Tolerance
Source
UNSW_B+
7.5Vdc
6.0-9.0Vdc
J401
SW_B+
7.5Vdc
6.0-9.0Vdc
Q207
+5V
5.0Vdc
±10%
U409
+5VA
5.0Vdc
±10%
U410
RESET
5.0Vdc
+0.7, - 1.0Vdc
U407
POR*
5.0Vdc
+0.7, - 1.0Vdc
U206
DSP_RST*
5.0Vdc
+0.7, -1.0Vdc
U204
ADSIC_RST*
5.0Vdc
+0.7, -1.0Vdc
U204
a
DCLK
33.0000MHz
±500ppM
U406
ODC
2.4MHz
±30ppM
ABACUS
ECLK
1.8432MHz
±500ppM
U204
b
IRQB*
8kHz
±500ppM
U406
+5V
5.0Vdc
±10%
U202
RX_5Vc
5.0Vdc
±10%
U106
a. This is number may vary due to the operating mode of the radio when
it is measured. The ADSIC contains a divider which may divide the
clock by a modulus of 2. Therefore the actual frequency measured
may be clock/2n. The most common frequency will be 16.5000MHz
nominal.
b. This 8kHz clock will be present only after the MCU has successfully programmed the ADSIC after power-up. This is a good indication that the
ADSIC is at least marginally operational.
c. Receive mode only.
9-6
11
Troubleshooting
Waveforms
Introduction
This section contains images of waveforms which may be useful in
verifying operation of certain parts of the circuitry. These waveforms
are for reference only; the actual data depicted will vary depending
upon operating conditions.
Waveforms
Tek stopped:
103 Acquisitions
T
T
1
Ch1
2.00V
M 200us Ch1
-680mV
MAEPF-24376-O
W1: Switched Regulator Clock Out
Trace 1 - (U409)LX measured with radio in
standby mode with UNSW_B+ at 7.5VDC.
Figure 14 . Waveform W1
11-1
Tek stopped:
2893 Acquisitions
T
Ch1 Freq
19.991kHz
Low signal
amplitude
1
2
T
3
5.00V
5.00V
Ch1
Ch3
Ch2
M 20.0us Ch1
5.00V
2.2 V
MAEPF-24377-A
W2: DSP SSI Port RX mode.
Receiving
1KHz tone @ 3KHz deviation, -60dBm.
Trace 1 - RFS
Trace 2 - RXD 1
Trace 3 - SCKR (2.4/0.600MHz)
Note 1: Typically SCKR is a 2.4 MHz clock. In low power
modes, as shown here, SCKR is 600KHz.
Figure 15 . Waveform W2
Tek stopped:
2836 Acquisitions
T
1
Ch1 Freq
47.856kHz
Low signal
amplitude
T
T
2
3
Ch1
Ch3
5.00V
5.00V
Ch2
5.00V
M 5.00us Ch1
MAEPF-24378-A
W3: DSP SSI Port TX mode CSQ.
Trace 1 - SC2
Trace 2 - STD
Trace 3 - SCK (1.2MHz)
Figure 16 . Waveform W3
11-2
2.2 V
13 Acquisitions
T
Tek stopped:
Ch1 Freq
74.610kHz
T
1
2.00V
Ch1
M 10.0us Ch1
W4: ABACUS programming
captured during mode change.
Trace 1 - (ADSIC) SBI
2.2 V
MAEPF-24379-O
Figure 17 . Waveform W4
Tek stopped:
34513 Acquisitions
T
T
Ch1 Freq
2.251920 MHz
Low resolution
1
2
3
Ch1
Ch3
2.00V Ch2 500mV
500mV
M 5.00us Ch1
W5: ABACUS/ADSIC Interface.
Receiving 1KHz tone @ 3KHz deviation,
-60dbm.
Trace 1 -IDC (2.4MHz)
Trace 2 - DOUT 2
TRACE 3 - DOUT*
2.2 V
MAEPF-24380-A
Note 2: Since these signals are a differential
current loop these voltages are very low.
Figure 18 . Waveform W5
11-3
18 Acquisitions
T
Tek stopped:
T
Ch1 Freq
= Hz
No period
found
T
1
T
21
T
T
31
Ch1
Ch3
5.00V
5.00V
Ch2 5.00V
Ch1
M 50ns Ch1
2.2 V
MAEPF-24381-A
W6: SPI Bus Programming ADSIC.
Trace 1 - ADSIC_SEL*
Trace 2 - SPI_SCK
Trace 3 - MOSI
Note: These waveforms are typical to
any device on the SPI bus.
Figure 19 . Waveform W6
Tek stopped:
103 Acquisitions
T
T
1
Ch1 Freq
7.9118kHz
Low signal
amplitude
2
T
3
4
T
Ch1
Ch3
5.00V
2.00V
Ch2 200mV
Ch4 2.00V
M 200us Ch1
2.20 V
MAEPF-24382-A
W7: Receive audio: Receiving
1KHz tone @ 3KHz deviation, -60dBm.
Trace 1 - IRQB @ DSP (8KHz)
Trace 2 - SD0 @ C404
Trace 3 - SPKR_COMMON
Trace 4 - INT_SPKR 3
Note 3: Actual level is dependent upon volume setting.
Figure 20 . Waveform W7
11-4
Tek stopped:
507 Acquisitions
T
T
1
Ch1 Freq
7.9872kHz
Low signal
amplitude
T
2
3
4
T
Ch1
Ch3
Ch2 500mV
5.00V
20.0mV Ch4 500mV
M 200us Ch1
1.5 V
MAEPF-24383-A
W8: Transmit Audio. 1KHz Tone
which provides 3KHz deviation.
Trace 1 - IRQB @ DSP (8KHz)
Trace 2 - MODIN
Trace 3 - EXT MIC @ node C484/R408
Trace 4 - MAI @ node R492/U401
MICAMPOUT
Figure 21 . Waveform W8
Tek stopped:
1 Acquisitions
T
T
1
T
2
Ch1
2.00V
Ch2
2.00V
M1.00ms Ch1
W9: Power Down Reset.
Trace 1 - +5V @ U407 (VDD)
Trace 2 - Reset @ U407 (OUT)
4.52 V
MAEPF-24384-O
Figure 22 . Waveform W9
11-5
493 Acquisitions
Tek stopped:
T
Ch1 Freq
2.4038MHz
T
1
Ch1
2.00V
M 200ns
Ch1
1.64 V
W10 ADSIC 2.4 MHz Reference
Trace 1 - IDC @ U406
MAEPF-24385-O
Figure 23 . Waveform W10
11-6
12
Troubleshooting
Diagrams
Introduction to
This Section
This section contains troubleshooting diagrams necessary to isolate a problem to the component level.
Use these diagrams in conjunction with the theory of operation, troubleshooting procedures, charts, and
waveforms.
Table 3 . J201
VOCON Board to Universal Connector
J201
Pin #
1
2
3
Description
To/From
UC
Pin #
Removed
n/c
n/c
LH DATA/BOOT DATA OUT
EXT MIC
U208-1
U411-6
3
4
7
SB9600 BUSY
OPT SEL 1
U204-J3
U206-G3
(EXT PTT)
Q210
6
7
8
RS232 DATA IN
U206-B2
12
9
10
OPT SEL2 (KEYLOAD*)
KEYFAIL*/RTSIN*
U206-C6
U206-J8
J801-15
10
9
11
SPKR COMMON
U401-A3
U204-B3
J701-14
1
12
EXT SPKR
U401-A5
U204-C4
2
13
OPTB+/BOOT SEL/VPP*
CTSOUT*
RS232 DATA OUT/BOOT DATA IN
CR201/Q21
U206-B6
U206-A5
8
5
11
4
5
6
14
15
12-1
Table 4 . J601
VOCON Board to Display Board
J601 Pin #
Description
Table 6 . J1/J401
Transceiver Board to VOCON Board
To/
From
1
MOSI
U204-J6
J801-8
J401-9
2
SPI SCK
U204-G5
J801-9
J401-10
3
SW B+
J401-17
4
DISP EN*/
LATCH SEL*
U206-G8
5
DISP RST*
U204-F5
6
BL EN
U206-E7
7
+5V
U409-12
8
n/c
9
+5V
J1/
J401
Pin
#
Description
DOUT*
U401-4
U406-H3
2
DOUT
U401-5
U406-K3
3
GROUND
4
SBI
U401-6
U406-J3
5
GROUND
6
POR*RSSI
U305-5
U503-19
U407-1
7
DA SEL* DA
CE
U503-16
U204-H5
U406-F3
8
ODC 2.4MHz
U401-7
9
MOSI DATA
U503-18
U302-2
U304-25
10
SPI SCK*
U503-17
U302-3
U304-22
(CLOCK)
U204-G5
11
ROSC/PSC CE*
U304-24
(REF OSC
EN)
U204-F6
U709-9
Description
To/From
1
ROW 5/5V-EN*
2
GROUND/MIC
RETURN
3
ROW 2/SPK EN
U206-G4
4
INT MIC
U411-2
5
COL2
U206-D5
6
COL3/MOB IRQ*
U206-B4
7
GROUND
8
n/c
U206-F8
9
ROW4/TXPA EN*
U206-G9
10
COL1
U206-A7
VOCON
Board
1
Table 5 . J701
VOCON Board to Keypad
J701 Pin #
Transceievr
Board
12
GROUND
13
LOCK DET*
U302-41
CR502
U206-K2
14
SYN SEL*
U302-4
(SYN CE)
U204-H7
15
MOD IN
U302-5
U406-B2
U305-8
U409,
J801-1,
Q206
16
GROUND
17
SW B+
11
ROW3/BUSY OUT
U206-K8
18
GROUND
12
ROW6/MIC EN
U206-G7
19
UNSW B+
ROW1
U206-J3
14
SPKR COMMON
U401-A3
J201-11
U401-A3
U204-B3
J3-1
U105-5
U502-6
(RAW B+)
U409-1
13
20
UNSW B+
J3-1
U105-5
U502-6
(RAW B+)
J801-20
U409-1
Q207
15
12-2
INT SPKR
U401-B2
Table 7 . J801
VOCON Board to Encryption Board
J801 Pin #
Description
To/From
1
SW B+
J401-17
2
SW B+
J401-17
3
EMC RXO
U405-B7
4
EMC TXO
U405-A7
5
n/c
Table 8 . J901
VOCON Board to Control Top Flex
J901 Pin #
Description
To/From
1
UNSW B+
2
TG1/PROG SWITCH
J401-19
U204-D3
3
VOL
U204-C3
4
EMERG
U204-A3
5
+5V
U409-12
6
INT PTT*
U204-H2
6
GROUND
7
MISO
U204-H6
8
MOSI
U204-J6
J601-1
7
RTA3
U206-H1
8
GRN LED DRIVER
U206-E8
9
SPI SCK
U204-G5
J601-2
9
TG2 A/B SWITCH*
U204-A2
10
B+ SENSE
RTA0
10
EMC EN*
U206-D6
11
U206-F3
11
EMC REQ*
U206-H3
12
RED LED DRIVER
U206-H9
12
EMC MAKEUP*
U206-K7
13
RTA1
U206-F4
13
n/c
14
GROUND
14
n/c
15
RTA2*
16
n/c
n/c
15
KEYFAIL*/RTSIN*
16
n/c
U206-J8
17
17
n/c
18
n/c
18
n/c
19
n/c
19
n/c
20
UNSW B+
21
20
UNSW B+
21
GROUND
GROUND
22
GROUND
22
GROUND
23
n/c
23
n/c
24
n/c
24
n/c
25
n/c
25
n/c
J401-19
U206-F2
J401-19
12-3
Notes
12-4
*6881076C10*
68P81076C10-A
Motorola
8000 West Sunrise Boulevard
Fort Lauderdale, Florida 33322
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