ERGONOMICS DESIGN OF BABY CARRIER NURAINI BINTI ABD

ERGONOMICS DESIGN OF BABY CARRIER NURAINI BINTI ABD
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ERGONOMICS DESIGN OF BABY CARRIER
NURAINI BINTI ABD LATIF
UNIVERSITI TEKNIKAL MALAYSIA MELAKA
ERGONOMICS DESIGN OF BABY CARRIER
NURAINI BINTI ABD LATIF
UNIVERSITI TEKNIKAL MALAYSIA MELAKA
SUPERVISOR DECLARATION
“I hereby declare that I have read this thesis and in my opinion this report is sufficient in
terms of scope and quality for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Mechanical
Engineering (Design and Innovation)”
Signature :
………………………
Supervisor : MASTURA BINTI MOHAMMAD TAHA
Date : ……………………………….
ERGONOMICS DESIGN OF BABY CARRIER
Nuraini Binti Abd Latif
This report is submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of
Bachelor Degree of Mechanical Engineering (Design and Innovation)
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka
June 2013
DECLARATION
“I hereby declare that the work in this report is my own except for summaries and
quotations which have been duly acknowledge”
Signature : ….……………….
Name : NURAINI BINTI ABD LATIF
Date : …………………
Dedicated to my lovely parents
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Alhamdulillah, finally I had done my Final Year Project. First of all, thank Allah
for giving me the chance to successfully complete this technical report after I had
followed and done the project given. This is because without the good health and
wellness, I would never complete this technical report.
I would also like to take this opportunity to give my appreciation to my
supervisor, Puan Mastura binti Mohammad Taha that had taught me so well. I am very
lucky to have her as my supervisor and very thankful to her for the encouragement,
advices and motivation. This is because without all of the thoughtful guidance,
continued support and interest from her, this report would not have been at the same as
presented here successfully.
Furthermore, I am very thankful to all my colleagues and others who had helped
me a lot and support me when completing this technical report. This is because without
their tips and views to this report, I would never finish the writing. I wish to express my
sincere appreciation to all my family members. My grateful also extends to the person
who helps me but I have not mentioned their names in this report too.
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ABSTRACT
The research is regarding the analysis about the Ergonomics Design of Baby Carrier.
The objectives, scopes and also problem statements have been identified on the current
baby carriers in the market. There are plenty of baby carriers these days on the market
such as baby slings, baby wrap and backpack baby carrier. A lot of parents tend to put
the baby in the incorrect position. An ergonomic carrier allows parents to wear baby on
the front, back and hip and ensures that the baby is placed in the anatomically correct
position for a healthy spine and hip development. Some carriers have openings where
the baby‟s thighs hang almost straight down. Then the selection of material also
important in order gives comfort to the baby and parents. This project objective is to
analyze ergonomics aspect in the current design of baby carriers. Then to study on the
standard and legal issues related to children design. In addition, the needs to improve a
design of baby carrier for safety and ergonomics. Therefore, benchmarking and
anthropometric analysis have been carried out to differentiate between three types of
baby carrier which are baby sling, baby wrap and back pack carrier in terms of
dimension and ergonomic characteristics. By using RULA Analysis, the result showed
that the current baby carrier has the ergonomic characteristics, however they are still
insufficient. This is because the result that is get is acceptable to the user but needs to
investigate further with the score 3. Therefore, it is highly recommended that further
studies for this ergonomics baby carrier should be carried out in order to improve the
design and at the same time, will make the product more useful for users.
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ABSTRAK
Kajian ini adalah mengenai reka bentuk yang ergonomik untuk pembawa bayi. Objektif,
skop dan juga pernyataan masalah telah dikenalpasti pada pengangkut bayi yang telah
sedia ada dipasaran. Terdapat pelbagai jenis pengangkut bayi yang berada dipasaran
seperti beg silang bayi, pembalut bayi dan beg sandang. Kebanyakkan ibu bapa lebih
cenderung untuk meletakkan bayi dalam kedudukan yang salah. Sebuah pembawa bayi
yang ergonomik membolehkan ibu bapa untuk memakai bayi di depan, belakang dan
pinggul dan memastikan bahawa bayi itu diletakkan di dalam kedudukan anatomi yang
betul untuk tulang belakang yang sihat dan pembangunan pinggul. Sesetengah
pengangkut bayi mempunyai bukaan di mana paha bayi tergantung hampir lurus ke
bawah. Pemilihan bahan sangat penting bagi memberi keselesaan kepada bayi dan ibu
bapa. Objektif projek adalah untuk menganalisis aspek-aspek ergonomik dalam reka
bentuk yang terdapat pada pembawa bayi sedia ada. Kemudian untuk mengkaji isu-isu
piawai dan peraturan yang berkaitan dengan reka bentuk kanak-kanak. Disamping itu,
perlu untuk memperbaiki reka bentuk pembawa bayi sedia ada supaya lebih ergonomik
dan selamat untuk dipakai. Oleh itu, analisis penanda aras dan antropometrik telah
dibuat untuk membezakan tiga jenis pembawa bayi dari segi ukuran dan ciri-ciri
ergonomik. Dengan RULA analisis ia menunjukkan bahawa pembawa bayi ini
mempunyai ciri-ciri ergonomik tetapi masih tidak mencukupi. Hal ini kerana keputusan
yang didapati selepas melakukan analisis menunjukkan bahawa reka bentuk ini boleh di
terima pakai dalam kalangan pengguna tetapi perlu di selidik dengan lebih terperinci
dengan skor 3. Oleh itu, pada masa akan datang dapat menambahbaikkan dalam reka
bentuk untuk menjadikan produk lebih bermutu untuk pengguna.
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TABLE OF CONTENT
CHAPTER
CHAPTER 1
CHAPTER 2
TITLE
PAGE
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
i
ABSTRACT
ii
TABLE OF CONTENT
iv
LIST OF TABLE
vii
LIST OF FIGURE
viii
LIST OF ABBREVIATION
ix
LIST OF APPENDIX
x
INTRODUCTION
1
1.1
Background
1
1.2
Problem statement
3
1.3
Objective
4
1.4
Scope
4
1.5
Synopsis
5
1.6
Summary
6
LITERATURE REVIEW
7
2.1
Introduction
7
2.2
Background product of baby carrier
7
2.3
Ergonomics
11
2.4
Position of baby
13
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2.5
Health effect
16
2.6
Selection of material
17
2.7
Anthropometric Data
18
2.8
Engineering Design Process
20
2.8.1
Define the problem
20
2.8.1.1 Benchmarking
20
2.8.1.2 QFD and HOQ
21
2.8.1.3 PDS
25
2.8.2
Gather information
27
2.8.3
Concept generation
28
2.8.3.1 Morphological chart
28
Evaluation of concepts
30
2.8.4.1 Concept selection
30
2.8.4.2 Detail design
31
2.8.4.3 Design analysis
32
2.8.4
2.9
CHAPTER 3
Summary
33
METHODOLOGY
34
3.1
Introduction
34
3.2
Benchmarking Analysis and Load Analysis
35
3.3
Design Process
35
3.3.1
House Of Quality(HOQ)
36
3.3.2
Morphological Chart
38
3.3.3
Concept Generation
41
3.3.4
Concept Selection
43
3.3.5
Detail Design
44
3.4
Selection of Material
47
3.5
Anthropometric Data Analysis
48
3.6
RULA Analysis
48
3.7
Summary
49
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CHAPTER 4
CHAPTER 5
RESULT AND DISCUSSION
51
4.1
Introduction
51
4.2
Benchmarking Analysis
51
4.3
Load Analysis
54
4.4
Material Analysis
56
4.5
Anthropometric Data Analysis
56
4.6
RULA Analysis
61
4.7
Summary
64
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
66
5.1
Conclusion
66
5.2
Recommendation
67
REFERENCES
70
APPENDICES
74
vii
LIST OF TABLE
NO
TITLE
PAGE
2.1
Comparison of baby carrier
2.2
Characteristics for some fabrics
18
2.3
A typical morphological chart
29
3.1
House of Quality (HOQ)
38
3.2
Morphological Chart
40
3.3
Concept Generation
42
3.4
Weighted decision matrix
44
3.5
Bill of material (BOM)
47
3.6
Selection of material
48
4.1
Benchmarking analysis
53
4.2
Load analysis
55
4.3
Mechanical properties of cotton
56
4.4
Stature
57
4.5
Suprasternal height
57
4.6
Chest circumferences
57
4.7
Crotch height
58
4.8
Waist circumferences
58
4.9
Body measurement for standard size baby
58
5.1
Length for human specification
61
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viii
LIST OF FIGURE
NO
TITLE
PAGE
2.1
Position that are recommended by using baby sling
14
2.2
Position that are not recommended by using backpack baby carrier
14
2.3
Position that are recommended by using backpack baby carrier
15
2.4
Comfort posture of child
15
2.5
The closeness of the position
16
2.6
The normal and abnormal of hip sockets regarding to Hip Dysplasia effect
17
2.7
Recommended combinations of types of benchmarking
20
2.8
The house of quality is the basic matrix structure used to define the voice
24
of the customer.
2.9
Example element in PDS
27
3.1
A morphological chart for a vegetable collection system
30
3.2
Detail design for baby carrier
45
3.3
Close-up for detail drawing design of baby carrier
45
3.4
Isometric view of baby carrier
46
4.1
Baby measurement size
59
4.2
Human body analysis
60
4.3
Human body specification
60
4.4
RULA analysis box
62
4.5
RULA analysis score board
62
4.6
RULA analysis of baby carrier
63
4.7
RULA analysis result
64
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LIST OF ABBREVIATION
QFD
Quantity Function Development
HOQ
House of Quality
VOC
Voice of Customer
PDS
Product Design Specification
CATIA
Computer Aided Three-dimensional Interactive Application
CAD
Computer-Aided Design
SWOT
Strength Weakness Opportunities Threat
BOM
Bill of Material
RULA
Rapid Upper Limb Assessment
x
LIST OF APPENDIX
NO
TITLE
PAGE
A(1)
Flow chart PSM I
74
A(2)
Flow chart PSM II
75
B(1)
Gantt chart PSM I
76
B(2)
Gantt chart PSM II
77
C(1)
Anthropometric data
78
D(1)
Drafting drawing
83
D(2)
Drawing of BOM for baby carrier
84
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CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1
BACKGROUND
“Making your life easier and simpler” is one of the common tagline that has ever
been heard in every product that were made. This classical tagline is what people are
looking forward to because people nowadays desire to have a simple yet convenient life
in order to save time, money and energy. In addition, with more people having affluent
lifestyles, creativity has become the main important thing in designing a product.
Products that are valued in the market are easy and simple, yet efficient for the users.
Therefore, take a look around, money is not a matter of problem because people have
money, what people do not have is something that can make life easier and most
importantly, satisfaction is essential to the human being. Ergonomic is one of the most
important things when designing a product. Ergonomics is defined as human
engineering, meaning that it is the relationship between human and machine. Then
ergonomics can be known as a science focused on the study of human fit, and decreased
fatigue also discomfort through product design. Therefore, when a product were design
fit the user, the result will be more comfortable, less stress and higher productivity.
(Taylor, 2006) As the title suggested, this project focuses on the design of the baby
carrier which includes the ergonomics in the design itself.
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Thus, in this context, the aim of this project is to analyze the ergonomics
interaction between the baby carrier designed and human being especially baby with
their parents. Child bearers have been around for many years. It is before the early
1900s, parents from worldwide utilized mixtures of long shawls, scarves, fabric and even
a mattress sheets to cuddle up their toddlers and additionally run the errands. Indeed,
today numerous conventional sorts of toddler transporter are still utilized as a part of the
advancing nations, in spite of the fact that as we know this is for the most part confined
to indigenous groups where child wearing is completely typical with a need and a
lifestyle. Every nations of the planet has a conventional toddler transporter outlined to
meet their desire and particular needs such as hot or cold climate, type of work parents
do and also cultural wearing positions. Over the time, toddler wearing becomes
increasingly recognized as an important parenting tool. This is because, people in the
medical and bay worlds are beginning to understand the quality of a toddler wearing as a
method of close holding with the infant and supporting growth.
In addition, infant wearing was not like something extraordinary and it is
different as a perceived today. Moreover, mothers had to work hard and didn‟t have
much time to stop for entertaining their babies. It is a common sense for parents to use a
baby carrier to make their life easier. The key question in designing a product includes
who is the target market? Who is willing to buy it once it has been brought into the
market? What are the points of interest in this item that will make individuals purchase
it? These inquiries will lead to the research on one product before it is designed. For
baby carrier, the disadvantages will be examined, thus by eliminating the disadvantages
and substitute it with some advantages. Therefore, a redesign for the new baby carrier
for human comfort, safety and thus their satisfaction is one of the most important
purposes in this project.
It is important to focus on the problem that is created by the baby carrier
nowadays. Current baby carrier is already suitable for users but somehow it has
problems in the design of baby carrier. Many parents tend to put the baby in the incorrect
position. Not like a kid hanging in the poor design carrier and a few carriers have
openings where the infant's thighs hang generally straight down. This design does not
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provide sufficient and adequate support. That is the weakness that has to overcome by
redesigning the baby carrier as a product for safety and ergonomics.
1.2
PROBLEM STATEMENT
Nowadays, many young mothers like to travel and go shopping. Most of them
have a baby so it is difficult for them to bring the baby in the stroller as the stroller size
is large and difficult to carry especially when shopping. Because of that problem many
young mothers prefer to use a baby carrier. According to Lawrence Robinson, use of
baby carrier will make baby close to their mothers. The relationship between mother and
child is stronger with the use of baby carrier. There are a lot of baby carriers but many
parents do not know which one is suitable and comfortable to use. For them, as long as
comfortable and pleasant to use are adequate but they never emphasize in the structure
and safety of the baby and themselves. They do not know whether the baby carrier is
ergonomic or not.
There are plenty of baby carries these days on the market such as baby slings or
backpack carriers. Many parents tend to put the baby in the incorrect position. This will
cause the baby and the parents in an uncomfortable situation. An ergonomic carrier
allows parents to wear baby on the front, back and hip and ensures that the baby is
placed in the anatomically correct position for a healthy spine and hip development. This
will avoid baby from hip dysplasia and a long term effect. Many of them does not
concerned and know about this problem (hip dysplasia).
In addition, safety ergonomic carriers also important in order to ensure that baby
and the caregiver comfortable in their position. Not like a child hanging in the poor
designed carrier like the one we can see very often on the streets or maybe our relatives
doing so too. Generally baby carriers do not guarantee the right positioning. A few
carriers have openings where the baby's thighs hang essentially straight down. This
design does not give sufficient support. In a few cases, a squatting leg position is not just
unrealistic, however in the face-to-face orientation, the thighs and knees of the child are
pressed up against the adult person. With each step of the baby wearer, the child's knees
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are pushed backward. The point when this happens, the extra force from the child's
thighs builds the measure of extending on baby hip joints. In addition, people like to
follow in the traditional ways like swaddling and never concerned regarding to the
science healthy. On the other hand, the selection of material is also important in order to
provide comfort to the baby and parents. This is because if the materials being used were
poor in quality and condition or have a low strength, it will cause uncomfortable for the
baby especially.
1.3
OBJECTIVES
The objectives of this project are:
i.
To analyze ergonomics aspect in the current design of baby carrier
ii.
To study on standards and legal issues related with children in design
iii.
To improve or redesign the existing design of baby carrier
1.4
SCOPE
The scope of this project is to study on the anthropometric data of children and
the caregiver for ergonomics analysis of baby carrier, includes with the legal standards
considerations on design product. Some example of data anthropometric are height of
baby and parents, width of waist, chest breadth and others length. Moreover, this project
includes analysis and redesign of the baby carrier for safety and ergonomics. After
design it, an analysis of RULA analysis are used in order to analyze its ergonomics. In
conjunction with this, the project will analyze ergonomics relationships between the
baby carrier and human.
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1.5
SYNOPSIS
This project is about „Ergonomics Design of Baby Carrier‟. The objective of this
project is to analyze ergonomics aspect in current design of baby carrier. Then need to
improve the design of baby carrier for safety and ergonomics. Nowadays, many young
mothers like to travel and go for shopping. Most of them have babies and do not know
which one is suitable and comfortable to use. In addition, many parents like to put baby
in incorrect position. An ergonomics carrier allow parents to wear baby on the front,
back and hip to ensure that the baby is placed in the anatomically correct position for
healthy spine and hip development. Not like a child hanging in the poor designed carrier
like people can see very often on the streets. Some carriers have openings where the
baby‟s thighs hang almost straight down not 90 degrees position of thigh. Therefore, this
design does not provide an adequate support. In other hand, the selection of material also
important, in order to gives comfortable to both baby and parents. Therefore, from this
problem, need to redesign and do RULA analysis instead of to get the result whether it is
ergonomics or not. After that, benchmarking and anthropometric analysis have been
carried out to differentiate between three types of baby carrier which are baby sling,
baby wrap and back pack carrier in terms of dimension and ergonomic characteristics.
By using RULA Analysis, the result showed in terms of score because each score have
its own definition. The product will be result as ergonomic and acceptable to user are
with score 1 to 2. But if the result show score between 3 and 4 is define as it is
acceptable to the user but needs further investigation. For score 5 to 8 is not safety and
ergonomics enough to user.
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1.6
SUMMARY
Ergonomic is one of the most important things when designing a product.
Ergonomics is defined as human engineering, meaning that it is the relationship between
human and machine. Then ergonomics can be known as a science focused on the study
of human fit, and decreased fatigue also discomfort through product design. Many
parents tend to put the baby in the incorrect position. An ergonomic carrier allows
parents to wear baby on the front, back and hip and ensures that the baby is placed in the
anatomically correct position for a healthy spine and hip development. This will avoid
baby from hip dysplasia and a long term effect. But most of them does not concerned
about this problem. Generally baby carriers do not guarantee the right positioning. A few
carriers have openings where the baby's thighs hang essentially straight down. This
design does not give sufficient support. On the other hand, the selection of material is
also important in order to provide comfort to the baby and parents. The objective that
must achieve is to analyze ergonomics aspect and to improve the existing design of baby
carrier. In order to do this, anthropometric data of children and parent need to study.
After that, an analysis of RULA analysis is used in order to analyze its ergonomics.
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CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1
INTRODUCTION
A literature review is a grouping of content that means to review the critical
purposes of current learning including substantive findings as well as theoretical and
methodological contributions to a particular topic. Literature reviews are optional
sources, and as being what is indicated, do not report any new or original exploratory
function. Likewise, a literature review could be interpreted as a review of an abstract
fulfillment. This chapter will explain about the basic concept of ergonomics product
design. The introduction of the product and the ergonomics will also be introduced. In
addition, this chapter also gives information about the parameter and analysis technique
involved in this ergonomics design of baby carrier product.
2.2
BACKGROUND PRODUCT OF BABY CARRIER
There are three types of baby carriers which are baby slings, baby wrap and
backpack baby carrier. Baby sling is a piece of fabric that goes over parents shoulder to
form a pouch to hold the baby. In addition, a baby wraps is known as a simple piece of
long fabric that is wrapped around parent body and also the baby. In this way, wrap baby
carriers can offer in numerous diverse positions for holding the baby at different ages.
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Then for a baby carrier, these carriers are more likely like a backpack and it is generally
designed for older babies and toddlers that to be worn on parent body‟s front, back or
hip. According to Kirkilionis, D. 2000 the back of baby carrier should be wrapped
tightly around the baby and parents. This will prevent the child from slouching while
sleeping and this will make sure that the baby should be held by the parent in upright
position. In order to support the head, the back of the baby carrier must reach above the
baby‟s head. This is because, if the carrier is snug. This will provide a stability to both
sides of the head and it will prevent the head from falling backwards or sideways.
Each baby carrier has their own specifications, such as recommended weight
limit, age limit based on average child size, carrying position and also its special carrier
features. Furthermore, by carrying a heavy or older toddler can put a strain on a wearer
or parent‟s back. Therefore, selection of baby carrier that promotes the well-being of
both parent and baby will become the most important factor (Tai Lee, 2007).
The comparison of these three types of baby carrier is shown in the Table 2.1
(Boba Family 2012; Ireland, K. 1998). This comparison is about the advantages and
disadvantages of this product which are baby slings, backpack carrier and baby wrap.
Advantages of baby slings are easy to on and off and it is perfect for a fast errand on the
grounds that it can additionally be worn in horizontal or upright position. But its
disadvantages are only head over one shoulder, can give you disproportionate feeling. In
addition, for backpack carrier the advantages are have a back and hip support. It will
support legs in flexed abducted (froglike) position with naturally aligns with hips, pelvis
and spine. But weight distribution mainly on waist and shoulders of carrier, so this will
cause pain especially on parent‟s shoulder. Lastly, for baby wrap the advantage are have
an optimal head or neck help and likewise fundamental for when the child falls asleep.
Other than that, with correct leg help, fabric could be extended to the back of the knees
to guarantee proper sitting position. But back wearing is not safe and it is not prescribed
with stretchy wrap. Then, woven wraps have different holds position; however fabric
may dig and not be as accommodating as stretchy wraps.
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