TEMPLATE ASSISTED CRYSTALLIZATION
TEMPLATE ASSISTED
CRYSTALLIZATION
Presented By Ryan Lessing 11/13/2014
Different Forms of Hardness in Water
• Calcium and Magnesium Bicarbonate- This is what is referred
to as temporary hardness. Once it is dissolved into water,
heating that water can cause it to precipitate and form
scale. It has a relatively low solubility.
• Calcium and Magnesium Sulfate/Calcium and Magnesium
Chloride- This is what is referred to as permanent hardness.
Once it is dissolved into water, heating that water usually
does not cause it to precipitate and form scale. It has a
higher solubility than temporary hardness. This means the
water can keep more of it in solution.
TAC’s Affect on the Different Hardness Types
• Temporary Hardness- TAC converts dissolved temporary
hardness ions into microscopic nano-crystals. This prevents
the hardness in the water from sticking to the plumbing
components as scale inside the plumbing system.
• Permanent Hardness- TAC does not react to form nanocrystals with permanent hardness however that is usually not
a concern. This is because permanent hardness is:
1- Not driven to form scale when it is heated
2- Much more soluble than temporary hardness so RO membranes
are not affected if concentrations are low.
Scale Formation- What Causes Scale to Form
• Heating the Water Causes Calcium and Magnesium Bicarbonate to
Precipitate and Form Scale
• Water Heater Scale
• Concentrating the Mineral Content of Water to Create A Higher
TDS and Higher Hardness
• Reverse Osmosis System Scale
• Allowing Water To Evaporate Will Leave a Mineral Residue
Behind
• Sink Aerators and Shower Head Scale
Langlier Saturation Index (LSI)
• The Langlier Saturation Index is a calculation that approximates waters
ability to dissolve or deposit Calcium Carbonate scale.
• It takes into account:
•
•
•
•
•
pH
TDS PPM
Alkalinity PPM
Calcium Hardness
Temperature
After the formula is worked through a positive or negative number is calculated.
+ Number = Scale Forming Water
- Number = Non Scale Forming Water
0 Number = Equilibrium
Langlier Saturation Index (LSI) Heat Induced
Scale Formation
Langlier Saturation Index (LSI) Heat Induced
Scale Formation
Scale Formation- What Causes Scale to Form
• Heating the water causes calcium and magnesium
bicarbonate, the temporary hardness, to precipitate and form
scale
• This is why devices that heat water seem to generate scale and
ultimately “scale up”.
Langlier Saturation Index (LSI) Concentration
Induced Scale Formation
Langlier Saturation Index (LSI) Concentration
Induced Scale Formation
Scale Formation- What Causes Scale to Form
• Concentrating minerals in the water to a point where the
water can not hold that much of that mineral in solution
causes scale formation.
• This is why RO Membranes that that are fed hard water ultimately
“scale up”. Temporary hardness is the first one to precipitate
because it is the least soluble.
Scale Formation- What Causes Scale to Form
• When Water Evaporates from a surface any minerals that
were in the water will be left behind on the surface from
which the water evaporated.
• This is why areas that experience wet/dry conditions over and over
again ultimately “scale up”
TAC- How It Works
Crystal growth on the bead surface
TAC- How It Works
Seed Crystals release when large enough
TAC- How It Works
TAC media begins to
attract reactive
hardness ions
Hardness forms nanocrystals on the media’s
surface
TAC- How It Works
Nano-Crystals grow to a
certain size
Once large enough,
the crystals release
from the bead as deactivated NanoCrystals (scale)
Nano-Crystal Stability
• After 2 days the water will re-dissolve the crystal back into
solution and it is now able to form scale again. This is why
TAC medias is not recommended for closed loop applications.
Scale Prevention Test Results
Test Conditions: 180 Deg. F, Water Hardness 16-17 Grains Per Gallon As CaCO3, heating
elements were purged periodically to simulate typical water heater usage patterns.
Test Duration- 21 days. Treated water was processed through TAC media.
TAC Media Certifications
• Some TAC Medias have been certified to the following NSF/ANSI
Standards:
• NSF/ANSI Standard 61- Drinking Water Component Health Effects
• NSF/ANSI Standard 372- Lead Free
Some TAC medias have been tested by independent agencies based on
the test by the German Technical and Scientific Association for Gas
and Water for DVGW W-512.
TAC Media
The German Technical and Scientific Association for Gas and
Water for DVGW W-512.
A water supply is split into 4 streams: treated (X2) and
untreated (X2). Each is sent across a heating element for a
period of time (21 days). After the test a calculation is run to
determine the effectiveness.
TAC Media Systems
• Consistent scale control performance
• No chemicals required
• Commercial and residential applications
• Water chemistry is not changed
• Small space requirements
• Zero waste or consumables
TAC Systems- Tank and Cartridge
Style
TAC Systems are currently present in
the market as Cartridge Based
Systems up to 6 GPM and Tank Based
systems 10-75 GPM.
System Cutaway
Idle
Service
service
service
Fluidized Bed of
TAC
Media
TAC Media
feed
feed
TAC Systems- Tank and Cartridge
Style
TAC Medias are generally rated for 4
gallons per minute per liter of media.
.25 Liter cartridge = 1 GPM
4 Liter Tank System = 16 GPM
Cartridge Type-POU Cartridges
TAC Cartridge:
2.5x10
1
2.5x20
2
4.5x10
3
4.5x20
4
4.5x20
6
GPM
GPM
GPM
GPM
GPM
Tank Type POE Residential Systems
TANK SIZE (IN.) LITERS OF MEDIA
SERVICE FLOW
RATE GPM
8x35
2
10
9x35
3
12
10x54
4
15
12x52
5
20
13x54
7.5
25
8X35-13X54
14X65-16X65
Tank Type POE Commercial Systems
TANK SIZE
(IN.)
LITERS OF MEDIA
SERVICE FLOW
RATE GPM
7x44
2.5
10
8x44
3
12
9x48
4
16
10x54
5
20
12x52
7.5
30
14x65
12.5
50
16x65
19
75
7X44-12X52
14X65-16X65
High Flow POE Commercial Systems
Model
Service Flow
2x 1465
100 GPM
2x 1665
150 GPM
3x 1665
225 GPM
5x 1465
250 GPM
4x 1665
300 GPM
5x 1665
375 GPM
6x 1665
450 GPM
Follow the sizing
charts and do not
oversize
Food Service Applications
• Convection Steamers and Combi-ovens
• Water Heaters
• Ice Machines
• Proofer Ovens
• Coffee Brewers
• Espresso / Coffee Equipment
• Post Mix
• Dishwashers
Commercial, Hospitality and Agricultural POE
Water Treatment Applications
• Water Heaters
• Tankless Water Heaters
• Boilers (Hot Water Boilers not Steam Boilers)
• Solar Heating Systems
• Piping Systems
• Mixing Valves
• Humidifiers / Evaporators
• Irrigation System Spray Heads
• Misting Systems
Reverse Osmosis Pretreatment
• There has been a number of successful commercial
reverse osmosis installations using TAC media as
scale prevention.
GuidelineUse city water as make up because it is regulated by the EPA and
run at 50% recovery maximum. A Pilot is recommended on any
municipal water supply that qualifies as a first time application.
Guidelines- Feed Water
• Minimum pressure 15 PSI (1.03 bar)
• Maximum pressure 125 PSI (8.75 bar)
• Minimum operating temperature 34°F (1.1°C)
• Maximum operating temperature 120°F (60°C)
• Water pH range 6.0 to 9.0
• Maximum feed water hardness is 25 grains per gallon for
residential and 75 grains per gallon for commercial
• Maximum chlorine < 2 ppm, de-chlorination recommended
Maximum copper- None Allowed
TAC Guidelines- Feed Water
• Maximum iron .3 ppm
• Maximum manganese .05 ppm
• Maximum silica 10 ppm
• Hydrogen Sulfide and phosphates should not be present
• Oil and grease should not be present
TAC Guidelines
• TAC is a physical water treatment devise. It does not soften water and
it is not a “salt free” water softener. It does not change the hardness of
the water.
• It does not prevent water spotting or mineral residue build up on areas
that are repetitively wet and dry. That is a product of evaporation.
• Adding chemicals to water that has been treated by TAC may counter
its treatment effects.
• Systems installed on or above a second story should also have a
vacuum breaker.
• If installed in new construction, new copper lines should be allowed to
passivate for a period of 4 weeks prior to placing the TAC system into
service
• Do not install after copper/zinc redox alloy media
TAC Guidelines
• It should not be used on a closed loop system.
• TAC should not be used on steam boilers
• Multiple tank systems should be installed in parallel with a PVC or CPVC
manifold system designed to meet the peak flow requirements.
• Flex connectors should be put on the inlet and outlet of systems where
the hard field piping is rigid and not allowed to flex.
• Do not oversize the system. It needs to be sized according to flow rate
to achieve bed lift.
• Incoming water should be tested to meet the influent water chemistry
requirements
• Water containing heavy loads of dirt should be prefiltered prior to the
system.
Media Life Span
• Residential media life is 3 years
• Commercial media life is 3 years
• Cartridge filter life is 1 year
• Tankless water heater cartridge products life is 2 years
TAC Systems- Installation
Recommendations
Flex connectors for 2” systems should
be used on commercial 14” and 16”
installations where the installation will
not allow for piping to flex.
TAC Systems- Installation
Recommendations
Anytime TAC systems are installed above the ground floor of a
building it is recommended that a vacuum breaker also be
installed, to protect against tank collapse, in the event the
plumbing system is drained. If a vacuum breaker is not used
then the system should be placed in bypass anytime the
plumbing system is drained.
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