TEMPLATE ASSISTED CRYSTALLIZATION Presented By Ryan Lessing 11/13/2014 Different Forms of Hardness in Water • Calcium and Magnesium Bicarbonate- This is what is referred to as temporary hardness. Once it is dissolved into water, heating that water can cause it to precipitate and form scale. It has a relatively low solubility. • Calcium and Magnesium Sulfate/Calcium and Magnesium Chloride- This is what is referred to as permanent hardness. Once it is dissolved into water, heating that water usually does not cause it to precipitate and form scale. It has a higher solubility than temporary hardness. This means the water can keep more of it in solution. TAC’s Affect on the Different Hardness Types • Temporary Hardness- TAC converts dissolved temporary hardness ions into microscopic nano-crystals. This prevents the hardness in the water from sticking to the plumbing components as scale inside the plumbing system. • Permanent Hardness- TAC does not react to form nanocrystals with permanent hardness however that is usually not a concern. This is because permanent hardness is: 1- Not driven to form scale when it is heated 2- Much more soluble than temporary hardness so RO membranes are not affected if concentrations are low. Scale Formation- What Causes Scale to Form • Heating the Water Causes Calcium and Magnesium Bicarbonate to Precipitate and Form Scale • Water Heater Scale • Concentrating the Mineral Content of Water to Create A Higher TDS and Higher Hardness • Reverse Osmosis System Scale • Allowing Water To Evaporate Will Leave a Mineral Residue Behind • Sink Aerators and Shower Head Scale Langlier Saturation Index (LSI) • The Langlier Saturation Index is a calculation that approximates waters ability to dissolve or deposit Calcium Carbonate scale. • It takes into account: • • • • • pH TDS PPM Alkalinity PPM Calcium Hardness Temperature After the formula is worked through a positive or negative number is calculated. + Number = Scale Forming Water - Number = Non Scale Forming Water 0 Number = Equilibrium Langlier Saturation Index (LSI) Heat Induced Scale Formation Langlier Saturation Index (LSI) Heat Induced Scale Formation Scale Formation- What Causes Scale to Form • Heating the water causes calcium and magnesium bicarbonate, the temporary hardness, to precipitate and form scale • This is why devices that heat water seem to generate scale and ultimately “scale up”. Langlier Saturation Index (LSI) Concentration Induced Scale Formation Langlier Saturation Index (LSI) Concentration Induced Scale Formation Scale Formation- What Causes Scale to Form • Concentrating minerals in the water to a point where the water can not hold that much of that mineral in solution causes scale formation. • This is why RO Membranes that that are fed hard water ultimately “scale up”. Temporary hardness is the first one to precipitate because it is the least soluble. Scale Formation- What Causes Scale to Form • When Water Evaporates from a surface any minerals that were in the water will be left behind on the surface from which the water evaporated. • This is why areas that experience wet/dry conditions over and over again ultimately “scale up” TAC- How It Works Crystal growth on the bead surface TAC- How It Works Seed Crystals release when large enough TAC- How It Works TAC media begins to attract reactive hardness ions Hardness forms nanocrystals on the media’s surface TAC- How It Works Nano-Crystals grow to a certain size Once large enough, the crystals release from the bead as deactivated NanoCrystals (scale) Nano-Crystal Stability • After 2 days the water will re-dissolve the crystal back into solution and it is now able to form scale again. This is why TAC medias is not recommended for closed loop applications. Scale Prevention Test Results Test Conditions: 180 Deg. F, Water Hardness 16-17 Grains Per Gallon As CaCO3, heating elements were purged periodically to simulate typical water heater usage patterns. Test Duration- 21 days. Treated water was processed through TAC media. TAC Media Certifications • Some TAC Medias have been certified to the following NSF/ANSI Standards: • NSF/ANSI Standard 61- Drinking Water Component Health Effects • NSF/ANSI Standard 372- Lead Free Some TAC medias have been tested by independent agencies based on the test by the German Technical and Scientific Association for Gas and Water for DVGW W-512. TAC Media The German Technical and Scientific Association for Gas and Water for DVGW W-512. A water supply is split into 4 streams: treated (X2) and untreated (X2). Each is sent across a heating element for a period of time (21 days). After the test a calculation is run to determine the effectiveness. TAC Media Systems • Consistent scale control performance • No chemicals required • Commercial and residential applications • Water chemistry is not changed • Small space requirements • Zero waste or consumables TAC Systems- Tank and Cartridge Style TAC Systems are currently present in the market as Cartridge Based Systems up to 6 GPM and Tank Based systems 10-75 GPM. System Cutaway Idle Service service service Fluidized Bed of TAC Media TAC Media feed feed TAC Systems- Tank and Cartridge Style TAC Medias are generally rated for 4 gallons per minute per liter of media. .25 Liter cartridge = 1 GPM 4 Liter Tank System = 16 GPM Cartridge Type-POU Cartridges TAC Cartridge: 2.5x10 1 2.5x20 2 4.5x10 3 4.5x20 4 4.5x20 6 GPM GPM GPM GPM GPM Tank Type POE Residential Systems TANK SIZE (IN.) LITERS OF MEDIA SERVICE FLOW RATE GPM 8x35 2 10 9x35 3 12 10x54 4 15 12x52 5 20 13x54 7.5 25 8X35-13X54 14X65-16X65 Tank Type POE Commercial Systems TANK SIZE (IN.) LITERS OF MEDIA SERVICE FLOW RATE GPM 7x44 2.5 10 8x44 3 12 9x48 4 16 10x54 5 20 12x52 7.5 30 14x65 12.5 50 16x65 19 75 7X44-12X52 14X65-16X65 High Flow POE Commercial Systems Model Service Flow 2x 1465 100 GPM 2x 1665 150 GPM 3x 1665 225 GPM 5x 1465 250 GPM 4x 1665 300 GPM 5x 1665 375 GPM 6x 1665 450 GPM Follow the sizing charts and do not oversize Food Service Applications • Convection Steamers and Combi-ovens • Water Heaters • Ice Machines • Proofer Ovens • Coffee Brewers • Espresso / Coffee Equipment • Post Mix • Dishwashers Commercial, Hospitality and Agricultural POE Water Treatment Applications • Water Heaters • Tankless Water Heaters • Boilers (Hot Water Boilers not Steam Boilers) • Solar Heating Systems • Piping Systems • Mixing Valves • Humidifiers / Evaporators • Irrigation System Spray Heads • Misting Systems Reverse Osmosis Pretreatment • There has been a number of successful commercial reverse osmosis installations using TAC media as scale prevention. GuidelineUse city water as make up because it is regulated by the EPA and run at 50% recovery maximum. A Pilot is recommended on any municipal water supply that qualifies as a first time application. Guidelines- Feed Water • Minimum pressure 15 PSI (1.03 bar) • Maximum pressure 125 PSI (8.75 bar) • Minimum operating temperature 34°F (1.1°C) • Maximum operating temperature 120°F (60°C) • Water pH range 6.0 to 9.0 • Maximum feed water hardness is 25 grains per gallon for residential and 75 grains per gallon for commercial • Maximum chlorine < 2 ppm, de-chlorination recommended Maximum copper- None Allowed TAC Guidelines- Feed Water • Maximum iron .3 ppm • Maximum manganese .05 ppm • Maximum silica 10 ppm • Hydrogen Sulfide and phosphates should not be present • Oil and grease should not be present TAC Guidelines • TAC is a physical water treatment devise. It does not soften water and it is not a “salt free” water softener. It does not change the hardness of the water. • It does not prevent water spotting or mineral residue build up on areas that are repetitively wet and dry. That is a product of evaporation. • Adding chemicals to water that has been treated by TAC may counter its treatment effects. • Systems installed on or above a second story should also have a vacuum breaker. • If installed in new construction, new copper lines should be allowed to passivate for a period of 4 weeks prior to placing the TAC system into service • Do not install after copper/zinc redox alloy media TAC Guidelines • It should not be used on a closed loop system. • TAC should not be used on steam boilers • Multiple tank systems should be installed in parallel with a PVC or CPVC manifold system designed to meet the peak flow requirements. • Flex connectors should be put on the inlet and outlet of systems where the hard field piping is rigid and not allowed to flex. • Do not oversize the system. It needs to be sized according to flow rate to achieve bed lift. • Incoming water should be tested to meet the influent water chemistry requirements • Water containing heavy loads of dirt should be prefiltered prior to the system. Media Life Span • Residential media life is 3 years • Commercial media life is 3 years • Cartridge filter life is 1 year • Tankless water heater cartridge products life is 2 years TAC Systems- Installation Recommendations Flex connectors for 2” systems should be used on commercial 14” and 16” installations where the installation will not allow for piping to flex. TAC Systems- Installation Recommendations Anytime TAC systems are installed above the ground floor of a building it is recommended that a vacuum breaker also be installed, to protect against tank collapse, in the event the plumbing system is drained. If a vacuum breaker is not used then the system should be placed in bypass anytime the plumbing system is drained. Thank You QUESTIONS???
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