Adobe InDesign CS4 Classroom in a Book

Adobe InDesign CS4 Classroom in a Book
classroom in a book
Instructor Notes
Adobe InDesign CS4 Classroom in a Book
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Writers: John Cruise and Kelly Kordes Anton
Project Editor: Susan Rimerman
Production Editor: Lisa Brazieal
Development/Copyeditor: Judy Walthers von Alten
Technical Editors: Gabriel Powell and Cathy Palmer
Compositor: Jan Martí
Indexer: Karin Arrigoni
Media Producer: Eric Geoffroy
Cover design: Eddie Yuen
Interior design: Mimi Heft
Printed and bound in the United States of America
ISBN-13: 978-0-321-57380-3
ISBN-10: 0-321-57380-3
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Instructor notes
Getting Started
The Adobe InDesign CS4 Classroom in a Book™ course presents students with
tips, techniques, and solutions for using the Adobe InDesign CS4 software. The
Instructor Notes are intended to complement the information in the Adobe
InDesign CS4 Classroom in a Book.
The information is organized to follow the sequence of instruction in each lesson.
About the workbooks
It is recommended that each student in the class have an individual copy of the
Adobe InDesign CS4 Classroom in a Book. Students will use this book as you lead
them through projects. Additionally, the book can be used as a self-paced tutorial.
Course strategy
If you’re teaching a 12-session class, you can teach approximately one chapter of
this book per class. The book contains 14 lessons, some of which may take a while
to complete. If you are teaching a 10-session class, you may want to combine some
of the lessons in a single class. For example:
• Lessons 5, 6, and 8 are focused on different aspects of working with importing
and formatting text.
• Lessons 4 and 9 are both focused on working with graphics and frames.
We recommend that, at an absolute minimum, you teach Lessons 1 through 9
along with 13 (Lessons 10 through 12 and 14 cover more special-purpose features.)
The majority of the basic Adobe InDesign features and the InDesign work environment are covered in these lessons. However, completing all the lessons makes a far
superior introduction. Before beginning a lesson, encourage students to browse
through it, and read any sidebars.
Managing student projects
One way to simplify file storage and retrieval in classroom situations is to ask
students to create a folder on their hard disks, name it [Student’s, for the student’s
name] Lessons, and then copy each project folder into the main Lessons folder.
Having students keep all their working files in their own Lessons folder makes it
easy for you to clean up files when a class is over.
Adobe InDesign CS4 Classroom in a Book 3
Additional resources
For complete and up-to-date information about using InDesign panels, tools,
and other application features, visit the Adobe website. Choose Help > InDesign
Help. You’ll be connected to the Adobe Community Help website, where you can
search InDesign Help and support documents, as well as other websites relevant to
InDesign users. You can narrow your search results to view only Adobe help and
support documents, as well.
If you plan to work in InDesign when you’re not connected to the Internet, download the most current PDF version of InDesign Help from
For additional resources, such as tips and techniques and the latest product information, check out the Adobe Community Help page at
##Note: If InDesign detects that you are not connected to the Internet when you start the
application, choosing Help > InDesign Help opens the Help HTML pages installed with
Photoshop. For more up-to-date information, view the Help files online or download the
current PDF for reference.
Adobe Design Center
The U.S. Adobe website at contains a variety of InDesign training and support resources, including the Adobe Design Center for InDesign. Many
step-by-step tutorials, galleries, and other resources are available at the Adobe
website, and the User-to-User Forums are a great place for students to learn from
more experienced users. Adobe Design Center provides hundreds of tutorials from
experts and authors in the community, as well as thoughtful articles about design
and technology.
Go to:
Adobe Certified Expert (ACE) program
This program is designed to validate an expert skill level of Adobe InDesign CS4.
Careful testing of candidates ensures that each ACE has demonstrated expert
product knowledge of the current release of Adobe InDesign, resulting in increased
marketability and an added credential. Training for the ACE program is available
through Adobe Authorized Training Center (AATC) and self-study.
For more information about this program, send an e-mail to certification@adobe.
com or visit the Adobe website at:
4 Instructor Notes
Lesson 1: Introducing the Workspace
This lesson provides an overview of the work area and basic functionality of
InDesign. By the end of the lesson, students should understand how all the basic
InDesign elements work together to create page layouts. They should also understand the overall interface of InDesign, including, how to access panels, where tools
are located, and how objects are placed inside of frames.
Tools panel
Pages 9–11: Many of the tools have popup options—so tools you need to access
may be hidden beneath other tools. All the tools and all the popups are shown on
page 10. The tool tips for each tool display its name and single-letter shortcut. The
Tools panel can be configured in various ways, including horizontal.
Application bar and Control panel
Pages 11–13: The Application bar displays across the top of the screen by default,
but can be hidden to save screen space (Mac OS only). The Control panel also
displays across the top of the screen; most users keep it open but you may wish to
move it to the bottom of the screen.
New window
Page 13–15: It is important to note that new windows are not the same as new documents. You can create multiple views of the same document, opening new windows as necessary. Each window is simply a separate view of the same document.
Panels and workspaces
Page 15-18: With the proliferation of panels in InDesign, it’s important to keep the
workspace neat and organized. Encourage students to learn to open, close, dock,
float, collapse, expand, and group panels to meet specific needs—then save that
panel configuration as a workspace.
Panel menus
Page 19: Make sure students know that panels have menus that provide additional
features and panel-customization options.
Adobe InDesign CS4 Classroom in a Book 5
Page 20: While the Zoom tool works well, you can work more efficiently by holding
down the modifier keys to temporarily activate the Zoom tools. Use Command +
Spacebar (Mac) or Ctrl + Spacebar (Windows) to temporarily activate the Zoom
tool, which allows you to quickly increase your magnification without having
to switch tools. You can find other zoom controls in the View menu and on the
Application bar.
Navigating and scrolling
Page 22–24: InDesign lets you “turn pages,” jump to a specific page, and scroll
through documents. You can also use the space bar to temporarily activate
the hand tool to scroll through a document. When entering text, using the Alt
(Windows) or Option key (Mac OS) to temporarily access this tool, rather than
needing to switch using the Tools panel. Another shortcut option is to simply use
Alt+Spacebar (Windows) or Option+Spacebar (Mac OS) any time, no matter what
Context menus
Page 24: Context menus are widely used throughout InDesign—for example, you
can modify an object’s stroke weight from a context menu or start a spell check
within text. To display context menus, Control+click (Mac OS) or right+click
(Windows) on objects, within text, on pages, and more. These helpful menus provide quick access to frequently used features.
1 How can you save a panel configuration?
2 If you are looking for a tool and it is not visible, where might it be located?
1 Panel configurations are saved as workspaces (Window > Workspace > New
2 Some tools are nested, as they are located behind other tools. You must click
and hold down on a tool to select any tools that are nested behind it.
Lesson 2: Getting to Know InDesign
This lesson provides an overview of all the key features in InDesign, from opening
files to adding text to working with graphics. The lesson focuses on “best practices,”
showing how keeping output in mind can prevent eventual problems and using
styles can streamline production.
6 Instructor Notes
Adobe Bridge window
Pages 30–31: Many Adobe Creative Suite workflows depend on Adobe Bridge for
organizing files. Point out how much more information is available about a file
when opening it through Bridge, including Metadata and Previews.
Preflight panel
Pages 33: While students are not ready for output, the Preflight panel is introduced
to show that all design decisions—even in the early stages—can impact final output.
Students should get in the habit of keeping an eye on the Preflight panel to prevent
common errors such as missing fonts, incorrect color usage, overset text, and more.
Text and threading
Pages 35–39: Point out that students use the Type tool for creating text frames,
typing text, and editing text. Any tool can be selected for importing text. The
Selection tool, however, is the only tool you can use for threading text frames.
Pages 43–48: Styles are introduced here to get users in the habit of working with
basic styles even on simple documents. For example, most documents will have
paragraph styles for Head 1, Head 2, and Body Text. Creating and applying these
will significantly streamline text formatting for the remainder of the document.
Pages 48–52: Importing, placing, repositioning, and cropping are key elements of
working with graphics.
1 What are some advantages of using styles?
2 What are the key tools you need for working with text and graphics?
1 When you use styles, you can apply multiple formats to text and objects in
one click. If you change your mind about formatting, you only need to modify
the style rather than every object. This ensures quick, consistent formatting
throughout a document.
2 To work with text, use the Type tool. To work with graphics inside frames, use
the Direct Selection tool or the Position tool. The Position tool lets you thread
text and work with frames.
Adobe InDesign CS4 Classroom in a Book 7
Lesson 3: Setting Up a Document and Working
with Pages
This lesson provides the foundation for creating new documents. This lesson is
focused on how to create custom page sizes, defining a master page, and applying
master pages to a document page.
Creating and saving custom page settings
Pages 59–60: You are not required to create a document preset before creating a
new document. You should create document presets only if you will be frequently
reusing custom page settings, such page size and margins.
Master pages
Page 61–79: Understanding of master pages is critical for anyone who will be creating longer documents. They avoid repetitive formatting tasks, and are widely used
by anyone creating longer documents.
Pages 62–64: You can place guides on either document pages or master pages. All
guides can be modified on document pages, whether they are page guides, ruler
guides, margins, or columns. It is not necessary to modify them on the master page
if they need to be modified in only one instance on a specific document page due to
a specific, unique page layout. Notice that when a guide is placed on a master page
that it is not editable (you cannot select it) on document pages based on the master
page. Students may either need to break the master link to the guide or edit it on the
master page.
Placeholder frames
Pages 69–72: It is not necessary to create placeholder frames before importing
objects. While this lesson uses a foundation of placeholder frames on master pages
to create a consistent layout, you can also create frames on document pages when
you import graphics and text.
Text linking
Pages 75–77: This is another key concept, as any document that has text running
from one page to another will need to use links. Be certain that your students understand this concept before moving into other longer documents.
8 Instructor Notes
Adding sections
Pages 80–81: Many documents, especially long documents with front matter, don’t
start with page number 1 but instead begin on page that uses a different numbering
system, for example upper case or lower case Roman numerals. The ability to specify
independently numbered sections and choose among several numbering styles
allows you to create custom numbering schemes within long documents.
Adding pages
Page 82: As an alternative, you can drag master page icons from the top of the Pages
panel to the bottom of the panel to add pages to a document. Students can also use
the menu item Layout > Pages > Insert Pages as another alternative.
Placing text and graphics
Page 83: When students attempt to place the palm tree image (03_d.psd), in step 3,
it may prove difficult. Tell students to watch the cursor (the loaded graphics icon)
to tell when to place the image. If they click too low on the graphics frame, they will
place the picture in the text frame that is on top of it on the master page. Tell them
to click on the very top portion of the graphics frame where it doesn’t overlap the
text frame. If they don’t place the graphic in the correct frame, they can choose
Edit > Undo to return to the loaded graphics icon and try again.
Eyedropper tool
Page 86: Using the Eyedropper tool can be tricky. Make sure that the students select
the correct text and select the Text Fill box in the Tools panel before selecting the
Eyedropper tool. If the Text Stroke box is selected instead of the Text Fill box, the
color of the text won’t change when they click the graphic with the Eyedropper tool.
Rotating spreads
Page 87: The ability to rotate spreads is new in InDesign CS4. This feature is particularly useful for laying out landscape-oriented pages in documents with portraitoriented page dimensions and vice versa. When you print a document with rotated
pages, InDesign will automatically adjust the orientation of the rotated pages so that
they print correctly, which means that you don’t have to unrotate pages before printing.
1 When are master pages most useful?
2 Where can you create guides that will appear on all pages?
3 How can you avoid repetition when creating documents that will all be the same
Adobe InDesign CS4 Classroom in a Book 9
1 When you have long documents with repetitive page formatting, such as running
headers, running footers or a consistent layout used on a number of pages.
2 You can create a master page with guides.
3 You can create a Document Preset or you can create a template document.
Lesson 4: Working with Frames
This is an important chapter, as all text (except for text that flows along a path) and
graphics are placed within frames. In this lesson students learn that building pages
in InDesign involves placing content (text and graphics) within containers (text
frames and graphics frames) and modifying the content and the containers.
Working with layers
Pages 95–98: Layers are another key concept. These pages take students through
the basics of layers and make them aware of the layer on which they are currently
working. It’s important for students to understand that layers are not appropriate
for all documents. For example, simple documents with few objects may not benefit from having layers. Also, if a document is initially set up with layers, it’s easy to
forget about them later when design or production begins.
One thing that continually trips up novice InDesign users is a locked layer. If you
encounter an object that cannot be selected, it’s possible that the object is a master
object, the object has been locked (Object > Lock Position), or the object is on a
locked layer.
Fitting frames to their content
Page 100, step 6: The ability to fit frames to content by double-clicking a frame
handle was introduced in InDesign CS3. Allow students to practice with text and
pictures and double-click different frame handles to see the results (especially with
Select tool vs. the Direct Selection tool
Page 101: It is important to understand when to use the Selection tool and when to
use the Direct Selection tool when resizing and reshaping frames. Use the Selection
tool to change the dimensions of a frame; use the Direct Selection tool to change
the shape of the frame by moving anchor points. It’s easy to forget which tool you
are currently using. If you accidently modify a frame using the wrong tool, choose
Edit > Undo and then select the correct tool.
10 Instructor Notes
Graphics frames
Page 101: In addition to placing graphics within frames created with the Rectangle
Frame tool, the Ellipse Frame tool, and the Polygon Frame tool, you can also place
graphics within frames created with the Rectangle tool, the Ellipse tool, and the
Polygon tool. Warn students that while it’s possible to place graphics within a text
frame, the result is an anchored graphic, which behaves differently (like a character
within text) than a graphic placed within a frame that’s not a text frame.
Duplicating objects
Page 107: InDesign offers several options for duplicating objects. You can hold
down the Alt (Windows) or Option (Mac OS) key while dragging an object
to duplicate it, you can choose Edit > Duplicate or use the keyboard shortcut
(Alt+Shift+Ctrl on Windows or Option+Shift+Cmd on Mac OS), or you can use the
Step and Repeat command (Edit menu) if you need to create multiple copies of an
object. Of course, Copy and Paste (Edit menu) also works.
Resizing a graphics frame (cropping)
Pages 107–108: Changing the crop of an image does not change the image itself
(that is, the original graphics file is not affected by cropping within InDesign). The
visible area is all that changes when you resize a graphics frame.
Select tool vs. the Direct Selection tool
Page 108–109: It is important to understand when to use the Selection tool and
when to use the Direct Selection tool when working with graphics and graphics
frames. Use the Selection tool to move an image and frame together; use the Direct
Selection tool to move the image but not the frame.
Changing the shape of a frame
Page 112, step 7: When students attempt to manipulate the upper-right corner of
the frame, make sure that only the upper-right point is selected. This may require
clicking off of, then on the upper-right corner point with the Direct Selection tool.
Text wrap
Pages 113–115: While this exercise has students wrap text around an irregularly
shaped polygon, you will most frequently use the second button in the Text Wrap
panel to wrap around the bounding box of an object. If you apply a text wrap
to an object, text within text frames that are either above or below the object is
affected. If you want to wrap text only around objects that are in front of text frames,
select Text Wrap Only Affects Text Beneath in the Composition section of the
Preferences dialog box (Edit > Preferences > Composition on Windows; InDesign >
Adobe InDesign CS4 Classroom in a Book 11
Preferences > Composition on Mac OS). Text wraps are applied to text regardless of
the layer on which objects are placed.
Rotating objects vs. rotating content
Pages 119–120: InDesign provides several options for rotating objects. In addition
to using the Rotation tool, you can use the Rotation Angle field in the Control panel
or the Transform panel, or you can choose Object > Transform > Rotate. Although
it’s possible to rotate a graphic within a graphics frame by selecting the graphic with
the Direct Selection tool and then using any of the aforementioned options, it’s not
possible to rotate the text within a text frame.
Selecting an object within a group
Pages 123–124: You can select an object that’s part of a group by clicking it with the
Direct Selection tool. Another method is to double-click an object within a group
using the Selection tool. This selects the object you click and switches to the Direct
Selection tool.
1 What is the difference between the Selection tool and the Direct Selection tool?
2 When might you use the Inset Spacing controls in the Text Frame Options
dialog box?
3 Name two ways to fit a frame to its contents.
1 Use the Selection Tool to manipulate an entire frame. For example, use the
Selection tool to move a frame (text or picture) and its contents or to change
the dimensions of a frame. Use the Direct Selection tool to select and move
individual anchor points, line segments, and the content of graphics frames.
2 Use the Inset Spacing controls to move the text within a frame away from the
edge of the frame when you’ve applied a stroke and/or a fill to the frame. The
resulting space between the edge of the frame and the text makes the text easier
to read.
3 You can fit a frame to its content by double-clicking a frame handle or by
choosing Object > Fitting > Fit Frame To Content.
Lesson 5: Importing and Editing Text
Because most InDesign documents include text created using other programs, you
should become familiar with the process of importing text and flowing it through
the pages of a document.
12 Instructor Notes
Missing fonts
Page 130-132: Make sure students know that fonts are separate files that may or
may not be active on their systems. A “missing font” is not active—and possibly not
present on the system. To resolve missing fonts, users can locate and activate the
font or replace the font with a different font. InDesign indicates missing fonts as
• Missing fonts are listed in an alert when you open a document.
• The Font menu in the Character panel lists missing fonts in brackets.
• Missing fonts are highlighted in pink in the layout (except in Preview mode).
When you pass a document to another user or prepare it for output, using the
Package feature helps prevent missing fonts by collecting copies of the fonts.
Remember that fonts are software, and they should only be installed within the
rules outlined in the licensing agreements.
Threading text frames
Pages 134–147: InDesign provides many methods for flowing text through a document, from simply importing text into one frame to threading frames manually to
automatically adding new pages to contain text. To decide on a method, it can be
helpful to look at the word-processing file to see how much text is being imported
and how it’s organized. Remind students that if they misplace or replace text when
placing or threading that Edit > Undo will work wonders.
Pages 136–137: This section provides a quick overview of the benefits of using
styles to apply multiple formats to type in a single step. Lesson 8 covers styles in
greater depth.
“Continued on” lines
Pages 140: Creating “continued on” lines, also known as jump lines, requires
precision. Make sure text wrap is not applied to any objects that the jump line text
frame is near. Also, make sure that the two text frames fully touch to get the Next
Page Number to work.
Page 143–144: You can also use the Number of Columns command in the Control
panel to divide a frame into columns. Using a single frame divided into columns
can be easier than creating and threading two text frames because you only have
one frame to move, resize, format, etc.
Adobe InDesign CS4 Classroom in a Book 13
Page 148: The Find/Change capabilities can be overwhelming. Point out to students that they can click Fewer Options when performing simple text searches. If it
seems like Find/Change is not working, check the state of all the buttons (such as
Case Sensitive) and make sure nothing extra is specified in the Find Format area.
Checking Spelling Dynamically
Page 153: Tell students that they can turn this feature on whenever they need it,
and turn it off whenever it’s distracting.
Using the Story Editor
Page 156: The Story Editor may be useful for students producing documents that
include a great deal of linked text. The Story Editor makes it much easier to work
with longer sections of text.
1 How can you spell check all the text in a document?
2 Name two ways that you can turn a single column text frame into a multiple
column text frame?
3 What is the difference between a character style and a paragraph style?
1 You can choose the Document option in the Check Spelling dialog box
(accessed from the Edit menu).
2 Either by choosing Object > Text Frame Options or by accessing the Number of
Columns box in the Control panel.
3 Paragraph styles apply to an entire paragraph, while Character styles apply only
to text that is selected.
Lesson 6: Working with Typography
This chapter provides an introduction to many of InDesign’s more refined typographical features such as baseline grids, kerning, tracking, OpenType fonts, drop
caps, hanging punctuation, and paragraph composers.
Baseline grids
Pages 163–165: Because both the baseline grid and leading control the amount of
space between lines, you need to work with both options when using the baseline
grid. You can set leading values to be equal to or less than the baseline grid option,
14 Instructor Notes
otherwise type may skip to the next grid line, which may provide too much space
between the lines.
Space between paragraphs
Pages 165–166: New students frequently use extra paragraph returns to add spaces
between lines, or try unusual techniques to increase line spacing. The Space Before
and Space After options are the most consistent methods for adding space between
two paragraphs. You can also use the Leading options for adjusting line spacing.
Additionally, you can use the baseline grid to set the line spacing. All of these can
be used with paragraph styles, making it easy to make changes to multiple paragraphs in a single step.
Fonts and styles
Pages 166–171: When working with type styles and glyphs, it’s important that
students understand that these features are built into fonts. Since all fonts are not
created equal, these features are not always available.
Hanging punctuation
Page 172: The feature, called Optical Margin Alignment, is a story attribute—it
applies to all the text in a series of threaded text frames. It can, however, be turned
off for selected paragraphs through the Optical Margin Alignment panel menu.
Drop caps
Pages 173–175: Many users do not realize that Drop Caps are a paragraph format,
and therefore do not require you to select the characters to format as drop caps.
Because of this, you can also specify them in paragraph styles.
Letter and word spacing
Pages 175–176: Changing the kerning and tracking of headlines and larger type
is often necessary. Make certain that your students understand the difference
between kerning, which controls the space between character pairs, and tracking,
which controls the space between multiple characters.
Pages 176–178: Explain the benefits of the Adobe Paragraph Composer—that it
considers line breaks in the entire paragraph when hyphenating and justifying
text. The Adobe Single-line Composer considers only one line at a time and may
produce less desirable spacing.
Adobe InDesign CS4 Classroom in a Book 15
Working with Tabs
Pages 178–180: Emphasize the importance of showing Hidden Characters while
working with tabs.
Paragraph rules
Page 182: You can add rules (lines) above or below paragraphs through paragraph
formats and paragraph styles. This is much quicker than drawing lines and anchoring them in text—or worse, drawing lines and moving them each time text reflows.
1 How can you easily apply a drop cap to all of the first characters used in
multiple stories across a document?
2 If type is ignoring the baseline grid, how can you correct this situation?
1 You can create a paragraph style and apply it to the first paragraphs where you
want the drop cap to appear.
2 You may simply need to apply the baseline grid to the type from the Paragraph
panel. But if the type has been told to align to the grid and it is working
inconsistently, there is probably a leading value, a space before or a space after
that is causing the text to not use the grid for alignment. Reduce or remove
these values to have the grid work appropriately.
Lesson 7: Working with Color
This lesson provides a more detailed look at the methods for creating, saving and
applying colors. Students may note that colors on screen are not necessarily consistent between computer monitors and printed output, which is addressed in the
color management portion of this chapter.
Preflight profiles
Page 189–190: Explain to users that their output providers (commercial printers)
can provide Preflight profiles that help ensure that their documents use the appropriate colors, fonts, stroke widths, and more.
Color swatches
Page 191–192: Creating color swatches is similar whether you are mixing CMYK
colors or choosing spot colors (such as a PANTONE color). Encourage students
16 Instructor Notes
to work primarily in the Swatches panel, as it provides one central location for
creating, saving, applying, and modifying colors.
Dashed strokes
Pages 194–195: While InDesign provides a great many stroke choices, you can also
create customized stroke types by choosing Stroke Styles from the Stroke panel
menu. These styles then become available in the Type drop-down menu in the
Stroke panel.
Gradient swatches
Pages 196–197: More advanced students might experiment with creating gradients with more than one color. You can click on the bottom of a gradient ramp,
between the two stop colors to add an additional stop color. You can then change
the additional color to meet your needs.
Type color
Page 201–202: Since color can be applied to the stroke or fill of selected text or the
background of a text frame, students need to follow the steps in this section closely.
Color management
Page 207–209: Before performing the steps in this section, students should read the
background on color management to see why it’s necessary and how it works.
Page 212–213: You may have students choose different working spaces if they are
using different computers or if they are using different printers for proofing.
Page 213: Not all image file format support embedded profiles. Some that do support profiles include .psd, .ai, .tif, and .jpg.
1 How can you edit the name or attributes of a color swatch?
2 How do you create a new color swatch?
3 How can you change a spot color to a process color?
4 What is the difference between color management and color correction?
5 What is a profile?
1 You can double-click on a color swatch to edit its name and attributes. Be
careful that you do not have an object selected when you do this, as you may
apply the color to the object at the time you click the swatch to edit it.
Adobe InDesign CS4 Classroom in a Book 17
2 You can click the New Color Swatch button or choose New Color Swatch from
the Swatches panel menu.
3 You can edit the swatch and change it to a Process color and change its Color
Mode to CMYK and its Color Type to Process.
4 Color management helps you to achieve more consistent color, while color
correction is used to fix color related problems.
5 A profile is used to identify the characteristics of a device—such as a scanner,
a monitor or an output device. The profiles are used by InDesign to render
an image so that when it is viewed on screen or on a proof it more closely
resembles the final product.
Lesson 8: Working with Styles
Styles are a critical feature for any document that uses repetitive formatting,
especially longer documents. Too often styles are under utilized by students—they
don’t want to be bothered with creating them. You should encourage your students
to gain a firm grasp of the concepts and features for character, paragraph, object,
table, and cell styles. Also, it is important to distinguish early on between paragraph and character styles.
Paragraph styles
Page 231–233: Emphasize to students that you only need to click in a paragraph
to apply a paragraph style—you don’t have to select the whole paragraph. All the
formats apply to all the text in the paragraph.
Character styles
Page 234–236: Character styles apply to selected text within a paragraph. Generally,
users create character styles to quickly apply multiple formats (such as font, size,
and style) in one click. You can also create a character style to easily apply a single
format—such as Bold or Italic. When creating a character style, any formatting not
explicitly identified in the New Character Style dialog will remain as-is after the
application of the style. So a single style that applies the Bold format can be used to
create Minion Pro Bold and also Adobe Garamond Pro Bold (providing that both
of these fonts are installed).
Nested styles
Pages 238–244: If you have paragraphs that always start with a certain formatting
pattern, you can combine character and paragraph styles together to build a nested
style. Nested styles allow you to automatically style the first several words or characters of a paragraph using a character style, then format the remaining portion of
a paragraph using a paragraph style. The formatting occurs in a single click. If your
18 Instructor Notes
students are advanced, you may want to have them add multiple character styles as
a nested style or experiment with line styles.
Object styles
Pages 244–247: Object styles allow users to save formatting applied to frames—
including formatting applied to text and graphics inside of a frame.
Table and cell styles
Page 248–253: Table and cell styles allow users to save formatting applied to tables
and cells—including formatting applied to text inside of a cell.
Updates to styles
Page 253–255: You can update character, paragraph, object, table, and cell styles to
match new formatting using the same technique. Updates to styles automatically
affect all instances where the style is used.
Loading styles
Page 255–257: If you’ve already created styles in another document, you can import
them into another InDesign file using the Load command from the panel menu.
1 How do character styles differ from paragraph styles?
2 When applying a character style, what steps are necessary, and how does this
differ from applying a paragraph style?
3 What types of styles are involved in creating a nested style?
1 Character styles include only character formats (font, size, color, scaling,
kerning, etc.)—the formats that are located in the Character panel and not
those located in the Paragraph panel.
2 When applying a character style you must first highlight the text to be
formatted. Only the highlighted text is styled when applying a character style.
Alternatively, paragraph styles apply formatting to an entire paragraph, even
if the cursor is only inserted in the paragraph. No text needs to be highlighted
when applying a paragraph style.
3 A paragraph style and a character style.
Adobe InDesign CS4 Classroom in a Book 19
Lesson 9: Importing and Linking Graphics
By default InDesign saves the location (that is, the pathname) of graphic files
that are placed in an InDesign layout; it does not save placed graphics within the
document file because this could result in enormous and unwieldy files. (Note: It is
possible for users to choose to embed graphic files within an InDesign file, though
this is generally not recommended.) This lesson provides a foundation for managing imported graphics using the Links panel and for using an InDesign library file
for saving frequently used objects.
Missing and modified images
Pages 264–268: The Links panel displays a list of all graphic files that have been
imported into a document. When you print an InDesign document, the original
graphic files are sent to the printer along with the InDesign document. Remind
students that they should watch for yellow triangles, which indicate images that may
have changed since the time they were imported, and red stop signs, which indicate
that InDesign cannot locate the original graphic file. Although it’s possible to print
and export InDesign documents that contains missing or modified graphics, this
is generally not advisable because low resolution versions of the modified/missing
graphics are used instead of the original files.
Note that you can also maintain links to imported text files, and placed text files are
listed in the Links panel along with placed graphics. However, this is not a common
workflow and is not covered in this training.
Adjusting view quality
Page 269: The Typical Display view setting is the default option for imported
graphics and uses a low-resolution image that’s appropriate for identifying and
positioning graphics. If you have a need to see the original, high-quality artwork,
you can change the view setting for a particular graphic by selecting its frame with
the Selection tool and then choosing Object > Display Performance > High Quality
Display. You can change the default view setting by choosing High Quality from the
Default View menu in the Display Performance section of the Preferences dialog
box. Caution students that working in High Quality display mode all of the time can
slow down performance.
Working with clipping paths
Pages 270–272: You can use work paths, clipping paths, and alpha channels—all
of which can be included in a graphic­—to specify the visible portion of an image.
Caution students against using the Detect Edges option in the Clipping Path dialog
box for every image that requires a clipping path as this can add significant size and
20 Instructor Notes
complexity to a document. Photoshop is still the best option for most objects that
require a clipping path.
Working with alpha channels
Pages 272–276: This lesson requires the use of Photoshop. If you are teaching a class
that is focused on typography, you may want designate this lesson as optional. The
features covered in this lesson help InDesign users understand that the preparation
of an image in Photoshop impacts the ability to display a silhouette of the image in
File formats
Page 277, 281–282: Although students work with .psd, .ai, and .pdf files in this
lesson, you can use virtually any file format. InDesign supports formats such as .tif,
.eps, and .jpg, to name a few. Native file formats (.psd and .ai) offer some advantages,
such as the ability to work with a Photoshop file that includes clipping paths, alpha
channels, and layers.
Creating a library
Page 285–286: As stated in the book, caution students about image linking in a
library. If you add an imported graphic to a library and then copy the library item
into a document, InDesign must still access the original graphic file when printing
or exporting the document. If you embed a placed graphic (by selecting the graphic
in the Links panel and then choosing Embed Link from the Links panel menu) and
then drag the graphic frame into a Library panel, the graphic will be embedded in
any document you later drag it into from the library.
1 Why is it important for links to graphic files to be maintained?
2 What is the benefit of a clipping path or alpha channel?
1 Because InDesign relies on the original source file for printing, most graphics
will not print at the highest-possible resolution (nor will they export to PDF
using the best-possible resolution) if the original graphic file can not be located.
2 Creating a clipping path or an alpha channel lets you control which portions
of an image will print without deleting parts of the image. Clipping paths and
alpha channels are most-often created using an image-editing program, such
as Photoshop. If you import images with clipping paths or alpha channels into
InDesign, you can print the image using any path or channel or you can ignore
them and print the entire image.
Adobe InDesign CS4 Classroom in a Book 21
Lesson 10: Creating Tables
Tables make it easier to present large amounts of data. Tables are created within
text frames, and can be easily controlled through the Tables panel and the Table
menu. You can also use the Control panel to manipulate tables. You can import
tables from Excel and Microsoft Word, copy and paste a table into a layout, or convert existing text to a table.
Imported tables
Page 294–295: While importing tables created in Microsoft Word or Excel, you
can specify which Excel sheet to import or choose a cell range or from a Microsoft
Word document. You can maintain a link to these imported tables, but if you
update them in the document, any formatting applied in InDesign will be lost.
Table formats
Page 296–298: You can format an entire table, including specifying formatting for
alternating patters of rows, and you can format individual or selected cells.
Table headers
Page 299–301: Tables can be linked across multiple text frames, and table headers appear at the top of each frame containing the table. You can have your more
advanced students experiment with creating tables that span multiple text frames,
and add table headers that appear in each frame.
Table panel
Page 302–303: While the Table panel provides a comprehensive set of options for
creating and manipulating tables, you can also use the Control panel for many, but
not all, of the options covered in this section. You may want to have your students
learn the concepts with the Table panel and then let them experiment with the
Control panel.
Graphics in table cells
Page 303–306: The only way to place graphics in tables is as inline (anchored)
graphics. They need to be copied and pasted or imported into a cell when you have
a text insertion point (blinking cursor).
Column width
Page 311–312: When dragging columns and row with the Type tool, holding down
the Shift key will resize just the columns or rows affected, not the overall width or
height of the table.
22 Instructor Notes
1 How are graphics imported into a table?
2 How do you easily select an entire row, a column or the entire table?
3 How do you add or delete rows and columns?
1 You can choose the Place command when the cursor is inserted in a table cell,
or you can choose the Paste command after copying a graphic.
2 You can move your mouse to the outside portion of a row or column and click
when the black arrow appears. You can also move your cursor to the upper left
corner of a table and click when the arrow appears to select the entire table.
3 You can add or delete rows by entering a larger or smaller number in the rows
or columns section of the Table panel. You can also choose the Insert or Delete
commands from the Table panel menu.
Lesson 11: Working with Transparency
InDesign supports several see-through effects—referred to collectively as transparency. You can import Photoshop and Illustrator graphics that include transparency
and add transparency to InDesign objects. This lesson shows some of the ways in
which you can modify InDesign objects using the program’s built-in transparency
Colorizing grayscale images
Page 319–321: Note that you can apply color to black-and-white and grayscale
images, and you can also colorize the background color (that is, the fill color) of
graphics frames.
Opacity vs. tint
Pages 323-324: Specifying an opacity value and specifying a tint value are similar but
different in one important way. When you apply a tint to an object’s fill or stroke,
the fill or stroke gets lighter as the tint value gets lower. (A tint value of 0 makes the
fill or stroke opaque white.) When you apply opacity to an object, the object gets
lighter and translucent (that is, objects below are visible).
Students are instructed to turn layers on and off throughout this lesson. Make sure
to have students follow the instructions closely. If they discover that they cannot
Adobe InDesign CS4 Classroom in a Book 23
access something in the lesson because a layer is locked or hidden, instruct them go
to the Layers panel and correct the problem.
Applying a gradient feather
Page 333: A gradient feather can be applied to objects in several ways. One of the
easiest ways is to select an object, then select the Gradient Feather tool and drag
across the object. You can then edit the effect in the Effects panel. Have students
experiment with some of the other text and graphic objects on the page.
Applying effects to other objects
Page 337, step 11: Students may miss the mark when dragging the FX icon onto the
other green semicircle. If they miss, it’s easy to undo and try again.
Editing and removing effects
Page 338: Make sure that students realize that by using the Clear Effects button, all
effects are removed, including transparency, blending modes, and opacity.
1 What is the advantage of applying effects using InDesign?
2 Why is it important for a page-layout program to support transparency?
1 You can avoid returning to Illustrator or Photoshop if you create transparency
effects in InDesign. You can also create fully editable type, such as headlines,
using drop shadows within InDesign. While you can achieve similar results in
both Photoshop and Illustrator, this involves making the element and importing
the graphic file into InDesign. If you need to change a transparency effect in
a placed graphic, you must open the original file in the application used to
create it, make changes, and then resave the file—considerably more work than
creating and modifying the effect within InDesign.
2 Because transparent elements can be created using Photoshop and Illustrator, it
is important that page layout programs understand how to handle these items.
Images with feathered edges or pictures with transparent elements (such as
a glass) can be successfully used only in a page layout program that supports
transparency in placed graphics.
Lesson 12: Working with Long Documents
Long document features let you manage publications that consist of multiple
documents, including updating page numbers and generating a table of contents
24 Instructor Notes
and index for the entire publication. In addition, InDesign can help you insert and
format cross-references, footnotes, and cross-references.
Book panels
Pages 344–346: Explain that Book panels are somewhat like libraries—users create
them as needed and add the content. In the case of Books, they add the InDesign
documents that make up the publication.
Page numbering
Pages 346–347: Whether a book uses automatic, consecutive page numbering from
start to finish or sophisticated sets of page numbers, the Book panel can ensure upto-date page numbers as documents in the book are updated.
Text variables
Pages 348–351: In this lesson, a text variable is used to create a running footer on
the pages. Variables, however, can be used for many purposes, including adding
chapter numbers, running headers, and dates.
Pages 351–354: Tell students that they can import footnotes from Word files and
that they have control over every aspect of formatting the footnote marker, the
footnote placement, and the text.
Cross references
Pages 354–356: When referencing other pages in a publication, using automatic
cross references ensure that the page numbers stay up to date as documents are
edited and text reflows.
Synchronize formats
Page 356–359: Synchronize makes it easy to make global changes across all the
documents in a book—for example, you can change a color swatch definition or a
line width on a master page. You can select which documents to synchronize and
what aspects to synchronize. Make students aware that once the synchronize takes
place, it’s difficult to undo.
Table of contents
Page 359–362: A table of contents is generated from text formatted with specific
paragraph styles. As a result, the accuracy of the table of contents depends on the
Adobe InDesign CS4 Classroom in a Book 25
proper application of styles. In addition, if documents are edited or text reflows
after the table of contents is created, you will need to create it again.
Page 363–368: This lesson introduces only the basics of creating index entries and
generating a formatted index. In general, skilled indexers should tag text for an
1 Are index entries automatically updated?
2 How do you specify that a table of contents (TOC) and index will include all
chapters in a book?
3 Why create a book?
1 Index entries are not automatically updated. You must add individual entries or
use the add all option to have them added.
2 You must check the box in the Index panel for it to include book chapters. For
you to include all book chapters in a TOC, use the checkbox in the TOC dialog
3 Books make it easy to work with longer documents and to make certain that
styles and colors are defines consistently across multiple files.
Lesson 13: Output and Exporting
The primary destination for most InDesign files will be a printed publication.
Whether this is a brochure, package design, or newsletter, you need to know how
to print effectively and check the file for potential printing problems. A large and
ever-growing number of print service providers accept InDesign files, and this
chapter covers the tools for successfully printing with InDesign. You can also
create PDF files for a variety of purposes—including distribution online and for
press printing.
Using the Preflight panel
Pages 373–375: Preflighting a document is essential before handing-off a file for
final output. In previous versions of InDesign, preflighting was performed at the
end of the production cycle before a document was printed. The new Preflight panel
in InDesign CS4 lets you perform live preflight throughout the production process,
which allows you to identify and correct potential printing issues as soon as they
occur. Whether you are delivering the file to a commercial printer or a colleague,
26 Instructor Notes
preflighting confirms that all assets necessary for printing or editing the document
are available.
Using the Package command
Pages 376–377: In addition to collecting all of the files required to print an InDesign
document, packaging a file is a great way to create an archived version of a document. Make sure that students understand that every time they package a file, they
create copies of all of the imported graphic files, fonts, as well as the InDesign file.
Once they’ve sent a package folder to the printer, they may want to delete the folder
to avoid redundancy and save disk space, or they can make a copy of the folder on a
different hard disk or CD before deleting the package folder from their hard disk.
PDF quality options
Pages 377–378: Note that there are a variety of settings that control the quality of
the final PDF document. It is important to select a setting that matches your needs
for the final PDF. A high quality PDF might be suitable for sending to a printer, but
might be impractically large to post on-line If students have questions on the PDF/X
file options and you are unsure about how to answer them, you can find detailed
information on the Adobe website. Go to and search for PDF/X.
Separations Preview panel
Page 379–380: You can preview individual color separations, ink coverage limits,
and overprinting using the Separations Preview panel, however, you cannot preview
trapping, halftone screens, and resolution. You should work with your printer to
verify these settings using integral or overlay proofs.
Printing a laser or inkjet proof
Pages 382–388: When working through this section, it is important to inform students who are not connected to a printer that they should choose either PostScript
file from the Printer menu in the Print dialog box and a PPD other than Device
Independent or choose an installed print driver to see all of the options.
1 How do you save your print settings?
2 How can you confirm what ink separations will print?
3 What are some of the advantages of InDesign’s integrated PDF export?
4 Are all PDF files the same quality?
Adobe InDesign CS4 Classroom in a Book 27
1 You can create a Print Preset by choosing Save Preset in the Print dialog box.
2 You can use the Separation Preview or use the Ink Manager.
3 Because you do not need to generate PostScript files and use Acrobat Distiller,
the task of creating PDF files is simpler and faster. The integrated PDF export
also provides for enhanced PDF options, such as the inclusion of multimedia
elements (sounds and movies) and buttons that would otherwise not be possible.
4 You can choose from a number of preset options that determine the quality (and
file size) of the resulting PDF file. There are high quality and low quality PDF
options that are available, so all PDF files are not the same. In fact, you may need
to export a PDF file multiple times if you intend to distribute the file online and
also for high resolution printing.
Lesson 14: Creating Rich Interactive Documents
The option to export Adobe PDF files that include movies, sounds, and interactivity
was available in previous versions of InDesign, and the features that support mediarich PDFs have changed little in InDesign CS4. However, the ability to export
rich interactive documents as SWF files is new in InDesign CS4 and significantly
expands the program’s functionality.
Creating online documents
Pages 395–401. Make sure that students understand the difference between creating
a media-rich document that is intended only for online use and creating a print document and exporting it as a PDF or SWF file as an alternative to the print version.
Documents intended for online viewing only should take advantage of the medium
by including multimedia objects (movies and sounds) and interactivity (buttons
and hyperlinks). Documents designed for print won’t include movies, sounds, and
interactive elements.
An InDesign document that’s intended to be viewed only online—whether it will be
exported as PDF or SWF—will be different from a print document in several fundamental ways. For example, the size of an online document should be appropriate
for a monitor. However, because monitors come in many different sizes, there are
no dimensions that will produce optimal results on all monitors. Many designers of
online documents design to the smallest standard monitor size (currently, the smallest standard monitor has a 15" diagonal and is 1024 x 768 pixels, which corresponds
to a document size of 1024 x 768 points).
28 Instructor Notes
Exporting as Flash
Pages 401–402. Make sure that students understand that video and audio files
placed into a document are not included in an SWF file exported from InDesign
CS4. If you wish to include this kind of content in what will ultimately be a Flash
(SWF) file, Adobe recommends using the export to Adobe Flash CS4 (XFL) workflow described in the following paragraph.
Inform students that in addition to exporting InDesign documents as SWF files,
they can also choose the XFL file format when exporting. This new file format
enables you to lay out content with InDesign and then import the XFL file into
Adobe Flash CS4, where you can add video, audio, animation, and complex
By default, when you export an SWF file, InDesign also creates an HTML file that
includes an embedded copy of the SWF file. This HTML file can be viewed using
any browser. However, the viewing experience is better when the exported SWF file
is opened with Adobe Flash Player or Adobe Flash CS4. If Adobe Flash CS4 is not
available on students’ computers, you should download and install the free Adobe
Flash Player application and use it to open and view the exported SWF file.
PDF export options
Pages 401–402. The Export Adobe PDF dialog box provides many options for controlling the size and functionality of an exported PDF file. The settings you specify
for documents that contain movies, sounds, and buttons are different than the settings you would use for documents that do not contain multimedia and interactivity.
Note that if you select any of the built-in Adobe PDF presets, interactive elements
are not automatically included. You must select these options from the Include
section of the General panel of the Export Adobe PDF dialog box. If you intend to
create media-rich documents frequently, you should save your PDF export settings
as a PDF preset by selecting Save Preset in the Export Adobe PDF dialog box.
1 What transparency blend space should you choose (Edit > Transparency Blend
Space) for documents that are intended for online viewing only?
2 What panel do you use to specify the functionality of a button?
3 When you export an SWF file from InDesign CS4, a point (1/72 of an inch) in
the InDesign file is equal to what in the SWF file?
4 What programs can you use to open an SWF file?
Adobe InDesign CS4 Classroom in a Book 29
1 Document RGB.
2 The Buttons panel (Window > Buttons).
3 A pixel.
4 Adobe Flash Player or Adobe Flash CS4 Professional.
30 Instructor Notes
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