Electrical Workers Safety Handbook

Electrical Workers Safety Handbook
Electrical
Workers
Safety
Handbook
CONTRACTORS
SM
The Total Electrical Solutions Network
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
Handbook
Acknowledgment
This is to acknowledge that I have received
my copy of the Electrical Workers’ Safety
Handbook.
I agree to read and follow all safety rules
outlined in this booklet.
I agree to report all injuries to my foreman
immediately, no matter how minor the
injury.
(Print) Last Name
Signature
First Name
MI
Date
NOTICE:
Fill out, detach,
and return this
page to your
foreman before
the end of the
first day of
employment.
Please keep this
book for future
reference.
Electrical Workers’ Safety Handbook
1
SAFETY HANDBOOK
Electrical
Workers’
Safety
Handbook
Published by:
CONTRACTORS
SM
The Total Electrical Solutions Network
c 2006. All rights reserved.
Electrical Workers’ Safety Handbook
3
CONTENTS
Table of
Contents
6 About This Handbook
8 Conduct and Professionalism
OSHA Guidelines for a Safe Workplace
9 Your Employer’s Obligations
10 Your Obligations
Safety Communications
12 Signs, Meetings, and
Reporting
14 Hazardous Materials
Disclosure
Personal Protection
15 Your Face, Eyes, and Ears
16 Your Body
18 Proper Lifting Method to
Avoid Back Injuries
Climbing and Raising Equipment
20 Ladders
22 Fall Protection
24 Scaffolding
Hazardous Materials
26 Precautions
28 Lead and Asbestos
4
Electrical Workers’ Safety Handbook
CONTENTS
Tools
29 Hand Tools
30 Electric Hand Tools
32 Power-Actuated Tools
Table of
Contents
Motor Vehicles/Mechanized Equipment
33 Overview
34 Cranes, Hoists, Elevators, and
Conveyors
35 Aerial Lifts
Special Work Situations
36 Confined Spaces
37 Excavations and Trenching
38 Gas Cylinders
39 Hot Work Policy
43 Electrical Installations
47 Welding
Appendix
51 Good and Bad Rigging
Practices
53 Crane Signals
55 Know Your Fire Extinguishers
57 Hazardous Materials
Information
61 First Aid
Electrical Workers’ Safety Handbook
5
ABOUT THIS HANDBOOK
About This
Handbook
We urge everyone
involved to take to
heart the
importance of
safety by putting
into practice the
rules and guidelines
contained here.
Information
contained is current
as of the printing of
this book. This
handbook is
intended only as a
guideline for safety.
Please refer to
OSHA Standard for the
Construction Industry
(29 CFR Part 1926).
6
It is the employer’s exclusive responsibility
to insure the safety of its employees and
compliance with all safety rules and
standards.
This safety handbook has been compiled
by e-contractors to provide a uniform set
of safety rules and guidelines for all
employers and electricians in this area.
It is our belief that nothing is more
important than safety in all of our
workplaces.
This handbook is evidence of both the
e-contractors’ and the employers’ desire to
achieve the best safety results possible.
We urge everyone involved to take heart
the importance of safety by putting into
practice the rules and guidelines
contained here.
Electrical Workers’ Safety Handbook
ABOUT THIS HANDBOOK
Why Are These
Guidelines Important?
This information has been developed to
protect you and prevent accidents on the
job. If you understand and practice these
safety procedures on all job-related tasks,
you will reduce your risk of injury.
Read this handbook at least once all the
way through. Carry it with you as you
would carry any of your necessary tools, and
refer to it often.
How do I use this
handbook?
We have summarized the most important
basic safety regulations. Since we cannot
include every situation or special condition
that you might encounter, we do not intend
for you to use this handbook as the
complete electrical worker safety manual.
Also, this handbook is not a work
agreement or a contract and does not
guarantee employment for a specific period
of time.
What are the
limitations of this
handbook?
Where can I get more
Ask your foreman or supervisor to clarify
information?
any guidelines or procedures that you don’t
understand once you have read this
handbook. Refer to the OSHA Safety and
Health Standards for Construction, Part 1926,
NFPA 70E Standard for Electrical Safety in
the Workplace and The National Electrical
Code NFPA 70.
Electrical Workers’ Safety Handbook
7
CO N D U C T A N D P RO F E S S I O N A L I S M
Conduct and
Professionalism
What do we mean
by professionalism?
Professionalism means that you represent
the trade as a whole. Therefore, your
personal habits, attitude, and behavior
should reflect the skilled professional that
you are. Always demonstrate self respect
and courtesy.
What type of
conduct interferes
with professionalism?
Horseplay
Never roughhouse, run, play practical jokes,
or otherwise “fool around” on the work site.
These actions disturb co-workers and cause
accidents.
Alcohol and Illegal Drugs
Being under the influence and possession of
alcohol and illegal drugs is prohibited on all
job sites.
Prescription Medication
SAFETY TIP
If you think you
might have a drug
problem, discuss
it with someone
you trust, or tell
your doctor. Help
is available that
could save your
job and perhaps
your life.
8
Use prescription medication only as
directed. Be aware of side effects such as
drowsiness, dizziness, or slowed reflexes
which could put you at high risk for an
accident. Tell your supervisor if you
experience any symptoms which limit your
full mental and/or physical capabilities.
Always keep prescription medication in its
original container.
Electrical Workers’ Safety Handbook
OSHA GUIDELINES
Your Employer’s
Obligations
Safe Environment
OSHA obligates your employer to provide
a safe place for you to work. Notify your
foreman immediately if you feel that a
hazard exists. If your foreman does not act
promptly, contact your employer directly.
Also, your employer can be fined for
permitting dangerous conditions, even if
another contractor is responsible for
creating the hazard.
How does OSHA
protect me?
First Aid Requirements
You must be able to help quickly in case of
injuries or emergencies. Therefore, your
employer must provide you with the
following:
A first aid kit approved by a physician.
?
Do you know its location at each site?
A person trained to give first aid/CPR.
?
Do you know who that person is?
?
Telephone numbers of rescue squads,
?
paramedics, fire departments, and the
location of the nearest hospital. Are these
posted in an obvious place?
Be aware of emergency numbers other
?
than 911.
NOTICE:
Remember...
safety is your
right!
Electrical Workers’ Safety Handbook
9
OSHA GUIDELINES
Your Obligations:
Responsibilities
What are my
responsibilities?
OSHA states, “Each employee shall comply
with Occupational Safety and Health
Standards and all rules, regulations, and
orders issued pursuant to this act which are
applicable to his own actions and conduct.”
This means that you have responsibilities.
Be safety conscious at all times and
?
practice safe habits for everyone’s sake,
particularly the public and, specifically,
children. You can prevent accidents and the
expensive lawsuits that often follow.
Protect the public from dangers from
?
electrical shock, falling objects, fire, tripping,
other dangers generated by electrical work,
and blocked passageways.
Be aware of curious children who may
?
want to explore while you are working, or
after you are gone for the day.
Always use the proper tool for the job to
?
prevent an accident.
10
Electrical Workers’ Safety Handbook
Y O U R O B L I G AT I O N S
Your Obligations:
Secure Your Job Site
. Practice “good housekeeping” by
?
keeping the site clear of all obstructions,
such as debris, boxes, conduit scraps, or
other items that could cause accidents.
Make sure materials are not lying
?
around in passageways and near wall
openings.
Remove temporary ladders, and lay
?
down mobile scaffolds whenever possible.
Check the circuitry of wiring before
?
energizing a system, and make sure you are
certain what is present at the other end. If
not, you can cause irreversible injury.
Lock out electrical circuits which aren’t
?
being used.
Lock up or secure trucks and other
?
mechanized equipment, as well as tool
boxes.
Keep exposed material to a minimum
?
to prevent theft.
Electrical Workers’ Safety Handbook
How do I secure my
site?
11
S A F E T Y C O M M U N I C AT I O N S
Signs, Meetings,
and Reporting
Why should I
communicate with
my foreman?
Your foreman will advise you of any hazards
connected with your job and give you the
necessary safety instructions. However,
continue to communicate with your
supervisor, fellow employees, and employees of other trades in order to perform your
job without injury.
Why do we need
signs?
Follow and obey the directions on all signs,
for they exist for your benefit.
Why attend tool
box safety
meetings?
Attend the tool box safety meetings that
should occur once a week at your job site.
These meetings provide an opportunity to:
Learn about any hazards in the work
?
area.
Discuss any changes in the work area.
?
Ask your supervisor for specific training
?
to best accompany your task.
Address any safety concerns.
?
NOTICE:
Discussion of
safety concerns,
as well as any
corrective
actions, must
always be
documented.
12
Electrical Workers’ Safety Handbook
S A F E T Y C O M M U N I C AT I O N S
Signs, Meetings,
and Reporting
Unsafe Conditions
Report any unsafe or hazardous conditions
to your foreman immediately to prevent
injury to you or your fellow employees. If,
in your opinion, the foreman does not act
promptly to rectify the situation, notify
your employer.
What do I need to
report?
Accidents and Injuries
Report all accidents/injuries to your
foreman immediately, no matter how
minor. Also, report near misses, as
remedial measures can prevent future
accidents.
Your employer must post the following
information at each site regarding accidents
and injuries:
Notice of workers’ compensation carrier.
?
Proper procedure for obtaining medical
?
care when your employer uses a panel of
doctors.
Electrical Workers’ Safety Handbook
13
S A F E T Y C O M M U N I C AT I O N S
Hazardous Materials
Disclosure
What are my rights
concerning
hazardous materials
on the job?
You have the right to know and should
?
be informed about any hazardous materials
in your work area.
Containers of hazardous materials must
?
be clearly labeled as such.
Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)
?
must be available for your reference.*
What if I need
additional help?
You must receive training in Hazardous
chemicals regulations before you begin
work. If you are uncertain about any
material, substance, or specific procedure
involving a hazardous material, talk to your
supervisor.
SAFETY TIP
Eye injuries
account for 2530% of all
construction
injuries.
14
* All General Contractors must have
MSDS sheets on site for all sub trades.
Electrical Workers’ Safety Handbook
PERSONAL PROTECTION
Your Face, Eyes
and Ears
You must wear safety glasses with fixed side
shields at all times as minimum protection
in all work areas. Use the chart below to
determine additional protection to use.
Safety Glasses
with Side
Shields
Safety
Goggles
Safety Glasses
with Full Face
Shields
Minimum
Maximum
Maximum
Impact
Hazards
Airborne
such as dust
or chemical
splashes
Airborne
such as dust
or chemical
splashes
For what type of
hazard?
Mandatory
at all times,
especially
when
grinding,
chipping,
or drilling
through
steel
Overhead
drilling
through
masonry and
steel, or dusty
or windy
conditions
Heavy
grinding, or
around acidfilled batteries
When should I wear
this protection?
Noise levels exceeding 90 decibels require
ear protection. Follow this rule of thumb:
If you must shout to be heard, then you
need hearing protection. If you are still
unsure, check with your supervisor. Hearing
problems develop gradually from continued
exposure to high noise levels. This can result
in temporary or permanent hearing loss.
When should I use
ear protection?
Electrical Workers’ Safety Handbook
For what degree of
protection?
15
PERSONAL PROTECTION
What can I do to
protect my body?
Your Body
SAFETY TIP
Make sure your
hard hat is in
good condition.
If it is not, you
cannot wear it
on the job.
SAFETY TIP
Refrain from
wearing torn or
baggy clothing,
jewelry, or rings,
which can easily
get caught in
moving
machinery.
16
Electrical Workers’ Safety Handbook
PERSONAL PROTECTION
Hard Hat
Wear your hard hat with the bill over your
forehead. Do not wear it backwards or
reverse the suspension.
Respiratory Protection
Always wear the proper type of respirator.
?
Take the required pulmonary function
?
and fit test before you wear the half-mask,
negative pressure canister type of respirator.
Wear a dust mask in dusty environments.
?
Ask your foreman if you do not know
?
whether to wear a respirator or a mask.
Full Body Harnesses and ShockAbsorbing Lanyards
Full body harnesses with shock-absorbing
lanyards will provide maximum protection
when working from surfaces which are six or
more feet above a lower level with no
guardrails or nets.
Use full body harnesses with shock?
absorbing lanyards which are secured and
rigged so that you cannot fall more than six
feet, or make contact with anything below
you.
Use full body harnesses with shock?
absorbing lanyards when operating aerial
lifts such as bucket lifts and JLGs.
Guards
Wear guards when using tampers, jack
hammers, or similar equipment.
Foot Wear
Always wear shoes or boots on all job sites.
Sneakers or other soft shoes do not provide
adequate protection.
Electrical Workers’ Safety Handbook
Shirts and
Long Pants
Always wear
shirts and long
pants,
preferably
100% cotton,
or wool, which
is less
flammable than
other materials.
Man-made
materials or
blends such as
acetate, nylon,
polyester, or
rayon should
not be worn.
Gloves
Always wear
gloves when
handling
equipment and
materials.
When handling
chemicals, use
rubber, plasticcoated, or
insulated gloves.
17
PERSONAL PROTECTION
Proper Lifting
Method to Avoid
Back Injuries
Keep your back
straight.
Center your weight
over your feet.
Pull the object close
to your body.
Lift with your legs,
not your back.
18
X
Electrical Workers’ Safety Handbook
PERSONAL PROTECTION
Follow These Steps
Whenever Lifting
Material
Protect yourself
Wear the proper gloves and supportive
?
work shoes.
What are the steps
for proper lifting?
Examine and evaluate the load
Is the load too heavy or awkward for one
?
person?
Is anything protruding from the load,
?
such as nails, splinters, sharp edges, or rough
strapping?
Is my path flat and clear of obstructions?
?
Get ready to lift
Establish solid footing.
?
Center your body weight over your feet.
?
Keep your back straight.
?
Don?t slouch.
?
Lift the object properly
Get a good grasp on the object.
?
Pull the object close to your body.
?
Lift with your legs, not your back.
?
Move your feet when turning; never
?
twist your back.
Electrical Workers’ Safety Handbook
19
CLIMBING AND RAISING EQUIPMENT
Ladders
Using The Ladder
3
feet
4
1
20
Make sure the top of
?
the ladder extends
three feet above the
ladder’s support point
when using an
extension ladder to
gain access to a higher
level.
Follow this rule:
?
Only one person is ever
permitted on a ladder
at any time.
Always face a ladder
?
when working from it.
Overlap extension
?
ladders by at least three
rungs.
Use both hands
?
while climbing up and
down a ladder.
Place the foot of the
?
ladder approximately
¼ of its length away
from the vertical plane
of its top support.
Use a hand line to
?
raise and lower tools
and materials.
Make sure the ladder
?
rests on a solid and
stable base.
Electrical Workers’ Safety Handbook
CLIMBING AND RAISING EQUIPMENT
Ladders
Maintenance
Always inspect ladders for any defects
?
before each use.
Never use a ladder with broken or
?
missing rungs or damaged side rails.
Do not paint ladders except for periodic
?
color coding for inspection, numbering, or
identification purposes.
Use ladders only according to the
?
manufacturer’s recommendations.
SAFETY TIP
Never use metal
ladders near
electrical services
or lines or in
electric welding
operations. Do
not use ladders
to support
scaffold boards,
wire spools, or as
work benches.
Stepladders
Open stepladders completely, resting all four
feet on sound, level footing with braces
locked.
Do not stand on the top step or the top
?
cap.
Never use two stepladders as supports for
?
scaffold boards.
Setting Up Safely
Always secure ladders to prevent
?
displacement.
Keep the area around the top and
?
bottom of the ladder completely clear of
any materials.
SAFETY TIP
Always take
special care
when ascending,
descending, or
working from
ladders.
Electrical Workers’ Safety Handbook
21
CLIMBING AND RAISING EQUIPMENT
Fall Protection
General Guidelines
Fall Protection shall be provided when
?
an employee can fall 6 feet (1.8m) or more.
Fall Protection System shall be provided
?
by the employer.
Protection Systems shall include but
?
not be limited to Guardrail Systems, Safety
Net Systems, or Personal Fall Arrest
Systems.
Fall Protection Area Requirements
Hoist areas
?
Floor openings (holes), including sky
?
lights
Ramps, runways, other walk ways
?
Excavations
?
Wall openings (including those with
?
chutes attached)
Unprotected sides and edges, leading
?
edges
Dangerous equipment (protection shall
?
be provided to prevent falling into or onto
the dangerous equipment regardless of
height)
Roofing work
?
Precast concrete erection
?
Formwork and reinforcing steel
?
22
Electrical Workers’ Safety Handbook
CLIMBING AND RAISING EQUIPMENT
Fall Protection
Personal Fall Arrest Systems
A system including but not limited to:
Full Body Harness - Harness that
?
distributes the fall-arrest forces over the
thighs, pelvis, waist, chest, and shoulders.
A Lanyard - A lanyard with a decelera?
tion device is the preferred method.
Connectors - All snap-hooks must be
?
capable of supporting at least 5,000 pounds
per person attached. All snap-hooks must
be of the locking type.
Anchorage Point - Must be capable of
?
supporting at least 5,000 pounds per person
attached.
The Personal Fall Arrest System must be
inspected prior to each use. If damaged or
defective components are found they shall
not be used and must be removed from
service immediately. Personal Fall Arrest
Systems must be rigged such that an
employee can neither free fall more than 6
feet nor contact any lower level.
NOTICE:
Refer to OSHA
Safety and Health
Standards for
Construction, Part
1926.500.
Electrical Workers’ Safety Handbook
23
CLIMBING AND RAISING EQUIPMENT
Scaffolding
General Guidelines
Do not ride on manually propelled scaffolds.
?
Remedy slippery conditions on scaffolds
?
promptly.
Wear a full-body harness while working on
?
any scaffold platform that doesn’t have a
standard guardrail or a complete deck.
Consult your foreman or supervisor if any of
?
these practices are unclear, or if you don’t know
if your scaffolding has been established safely.
Check that an access ladder or equivalent
?
safe means of access exists on all scaffolds.
Erect scaffolds on sound, rigid footings.
?
Do not use unstable objects such as loose
?
brick, concrete blocks, barrels, boxes, ladders,
etc., to support scaffold frames or planks.
Always lock all wheels on mobile scaffolds
?
before using.
Erect all scaffolds plumb and level.
?
Scaffold Platform Construction
NOTICE:
Refer to OSHA
Safety and Health
Standards for
Construction, Part
1926.451. See
Good and Bad
Rigging Practices
in the Appendix
46-47.
24
Platforms fully planked or decked.
?
Front edge of all platforms:
?
?
No more than 14” from the face of
work.
?
3” from the face for outrigger scaffolds.
?
18” from the face for plastering and
lathing operations.
Platforms 10 feet and less to extend at
?
least 6” but not more than 12” past support
unless designed and installed and/or guarded
properly.
Platforms greater than 10 feet not more
?
than 18” past support unless designed and
installed and/or properly guarded.
?
No paint on wood platforms, except
edges that may be marked for
identification.
?
Do not mix scaffold components used
unless compatible and integrity maintained.
Electrical Workers’ Safety Handbook
CLIMBING AND RAISING EQUIPMENT
Setting Up Guidelines
Be sure standard guardrails and toe-boards are installed on all open
ends and sides of scaffold platforms which are more than ten feet
above the ground or floor.
Secure scaffolds every 30 feet horizontally and every 26 feet
?
vertically.
Make sure guardrails are installed on all open sides of the
?
platform of scaffolds which are 10 feet in height or higher.
Do not extend screw to more than 12 inches.
?
Do not work from mobile and tower scaffolds at levels
?
exceeding four times the minimum base dimensions, unless
suitable outriggers are provided.
Do not use scaffold planks that extend over their end supports
?
by more than 12 inches or less than six inches, unless otherwise
secured.
Top rail height 36 inches to 45 inches high maximum.
?
Maintain clearance near power lines 10 feet minimum.
?
Falling Object Protection
Hardhats required
?
Protect employees below
?
Barricades to exclude working below
?
Toe boards at edges of platforms
?
Use panels and/or screens
?
Canopies system
?
guardrail
(when scaffold
is erected to
10ft. or more)
toeboard
access ladder
Electrical Workers’ Safety Handbook
25
H A Z A R D O U S M AT E R I A L S
Precautions
What are the first
steps in working
with hazardous
materials?
What are the
general guidelines?
Before using any hazardous materials,
follow these steps to learn about the specific
substance:
1 Locate the warning label.
2 Read the label carefully, making sure you
understand it.
3 Locate the Material Safety Data Sheets
(MSDS).
4 Consult the MSDS for specific
information such as:
Precautions to avoid exposure
?
Limits of exposure
?
Effects or dangers of overexposure
?
Emergency and spill clean-up procedures
?
First aid requirements
?
Protecting Others
Passersby and other workers must
?
observe the same safety precautions as you,
or they may not enter the workplace. Act
responsibly by informing them of the
proper procedures.
Clean Air
Never smoke or have any open flames
?
around containers indicating a flammable
substance.
Insure you have proper ventilation before
?
you use a substance with an inhalation
warning. Consult the MSDS, if necessary,
to determine whether you need respiratory
or other protective equipment.
26
Electrical Workers’ Safety Handbook
H A Z A R D O U S M AT E R I A L S
Precautions
Primary Containers
Only use substances from marked
?
containers.
Never remove, deface, alter or otherwise
?
mark any container labels.
Secondary Containers
Use appropriate containers for secondary
?
containers. For example, never use a soda
bottle.
While using a secondary container,
?
always label contents accurately.
Return contents to the original container
?
as soon as you finish your task.
Mixing Chemicals
Never mix substances or chemicals, as
?
hazardous chemical reactions can result.
Store oxidants and corrosives away from
?
each other to avoid fire or explosion.
NOTICE:
For more
information on
hazardous
materials, see the
Appendix, pages
52-55.
Electrical Workers’ Safety Handbook
27
H A Z A R D O U S M AT E R I A L S
Lead and Asbestos
What are the
regulations
concerning lead?
What are the
regulations
concerning asbestos?
Notify your supervisor immediately if you
suspect that lead exists and will be
disturbed by your task. Lead is commonly
found in the industrial paints which are
applied to structural steel. OSHA requires
that you have formal training and
protective equipment before you may work
on surfaces that contain lead.
Notify your supervisor immediately if you
suspect that asbestos exists in your work
area. OSHA requires that you have formal
training and protective equipment before
you may work in any area containing
asbestos. The employer shall ensure that
no employee is exposed to airborne
asbestos. Remember, you cannot see
asbestos fiber. They are microscopic.
Because of their minute size, they may be
airborne for many hours.
NOTICE:
For more
information on
regulations
concerning lead
and asbestos,
refer to OSHA
Safety and Health
Standards for
Construction,
Part 1926.1101
Appendix A.
28
Electrical Workers’ Safety Handbook
TOOLS
Hand Tools
Maintain all hand tools and similar
?
equipment in top-notch working condition,
whether they belong to you or the
company.
Store tools with sharp edges so that they
?
cannot cause injury or damage.
Do not carry tools with sharp edges in
?
your pocket.
Do not leave tools lying around where
?
they could create an obstruction or a
hazard, such as causing a person to trip.
Clean, oil, or adjust machinery only
?
when it is not in motion.
Keep tools and accessories clean, sharp,
?
and correctly oiled.
Keep impact tools such as drift pins,
?
wedges, and chisels free of mushroom
heads.
What is the proper
care and
maintenance of
hand tools?
Select the appropriate hand tool for each
?
specific task, and then properly use it, as it
has been designed. For example, never use
a wrench as a hammer or a screwdriver for
prying.
Only operate tools within the rate limits.
?
Never try to increase a tool’s capacity
?
with bypasses, ?cheaters,?or other
modifications.
Never attempt to bypass the
?
manufacturer’s installed safety devices.
How do I use tools
appropriately?
Electrical Workers’ Safety Handbook
29
TOOLS
Electric Hand Tools
What are the
general guidelines
for using power
tools?
Maintain all power tools and similar
?
equipment in top-notch working
condition, whether they belong to you or
the company.
Never use electrical cords for hoisting or
?
lowering tools or materials.
Keep moving parts of a power tool
?
pointed away from your body.
Never leave a running power tool
?
unattended.
Guarding
Make sure the proper safety guards and
?
shields exist and are in proper working
order before operating any power tool.
Never remove any factory-installed
?
guards.
Turning Power Off
SAFETY TIP
Always
disconnect a tool
from its power
source before
making any
adjustments.
30
Make sure that the operational switch on
any power tool or appliance is off before:
Plugging the tool or appliance into an
?
electrical outlet or extension cord. Surprise
or accidental startups can be dangerous.
Disconnecting the tool or appliance
?
from its power source.
Setting the tool down.
?
Attempting repairs or adjustments, such
?
as cleaning and oiling.
Changing drill bits or blades.
?
Electrical Workers’ Safety Handbook
TOOLS
Electric Hand Tools
Stand on a dry surface while operating
?
electrical tools.
Keep your hands dry at all times while
?
operating electrical tools.
Use the three-wire type of extension
?
cords for portable electric tools and
appliances.
Use electric power tools that are the
?
approved double-insulated type or
grounded type.
What are the
general guidelines
for grounding?
Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters detect
low amounts of current leaking from
electrical tools and cords. The interruption
of the ground fault should occur fast enough
to prevent electrocution of a worker
contacting the cord or tool. Therefore:
Always use GFCIs.
?
Use GFCIs with extension cords.
?
What is the
importance of GFCIs?
Electrical Workers’ Safety Handbook
31
TOOLS
Powder-Actuated
Tools
What are the
general guidelines
for using powderactuated tools?
Powder-actuated tools can be extremely
dangerous if mishandled, so approach these
tools with the same caution and respect as
you would firearms.
Wear eye protection when using powder?
actuated fastening tools.
Use the safety devices installed in the
?
tool by the manufacturer at all times.
Use only cartridges and fasteners
?
supplied by the manufacturer of the tool.
Load powder-actuated fastening tools
?
just before you intend to fire, never in
advance.
Is there any
licensing or
certification
involved?
You must have training and certification
from a manufacturer’s representative to use
powder-actuated fastening tools.
NOTICE:
For more
information and
precautions on
using powderactuated tools,
refer to OSHA
Safety and Health
Standards for
Construction, Part
1926.302(e).
32
Electrical Workers’ Safety Handbook
MOTOR VEHICLES/MECHANIZED EQUIPMENT
Overview
General Guidelines
Make sure you are properly licensed to
?
operate company vehicles.
Understand that you are responsible for
?
passenger safety and cargo stability while
driving.
Obey all speed limit and traffic signs.
?
Always wear your seat belt.
?
What are the
driver’s
responsibilities?
Maintenance
Check equipment at the beginning of
?
each shift to be sure it is free of defects.
Keep the cab area cleared of debris, such
?
as cans, bottles, or other objects which
could become lodged under the brake
pedal.
Operating Guidelines
Load properly, without overloading or
?
allowing material to protrude from the
sides of a vehicle.
Chock the wheels of a vehicle parked on
?
an incline.
Only ride or allow personnel to ride in
?
the bed of a truck that is equipped with
seats and seat belts.
Always turn off the motor before
?
refueling.
Backing Up
Make sure that back-up alarms exist and
?
operate properly on all construction
equipment with limited visibility.
Use a flagman when backing up a vehicle
?
in congested areas.
Electrical Workers’ Safety Handbook
33
MOTOR VEHICLES/MECHANIZED EQUIPMENT
Cranes, Hoists, Elevators,
and Conveyors
What are the
general guidelines
for using cranes,
hoists, elevators, and
conveyors?
Electricians do not usually provide or
operate cranes, hoists, elevators, or
conveyors. However, you will
encounter this equipment at most
construction sites, since it is used to
move you and/or your materials.
Therefore, you need to be familiar
with the basic safety guidelines.
Make sure that a knowledgeable
?
person supervises each unit to insure
safe conditions and compliance with
operational procedures.
Warn the operator immediately if
?
you notice a crane or other such
device approaching any overhead
energized electrical wires. Act as a
conscientious safety advisor.
Make sure that any part of a crane
?
is at least ten feet from any power
lines.
Protecting Yourself
NOTICE:
For more
information on
crane signals, see
Crane Signals in
the Appendix,
pages 48-49.
34
Employees shall always stand
?
firmly on the floor of the basket, and
shall not sit or climb on the edge of
the basket or use planks, ladders, or
other devices for a work position.
Stay out from under lifting areas,
?
load paths, or conveyors if they are
not properly guarded for people
working below.
Stay clear of cranes that rotate.
?
Never ride on material hoists.
?
Do not ride or use any machinery
?
without permission from the
operator.
Electrical Workers’ Safety Handbook
MOTOR VEHICLES/MECHANIZED EQUIPMENT
Aerial
Lifts
Aerial lifts are mechanical platforms
commonly known as extendible booms,
articulating booms, serial ladders, and
vertical towers. They may be vehicle
mounted, elevated, or rotating platforms.
Examples are scissors lifts, bucket trucks,
JLGs, ladder trucks, etc.
What are aerial lifts?
OSHA requires specific training for each
type of equipment.
Maintenance
Test all controls every day, before using.
?
Insure that override controls are operated
?
only when conditions warrant.
Lock the platform in stowed position
?
before moving the truck upon which it is
mounted.
What are the
general guidelines
for working with
aerial lifts?
Protecting Yourself
Attach your full body harness and lanyard system to the boom
?
or basket.
Do not belt off to adjacent structures.
?
Stand in the basket, not on it.
?
Do not wear climbing spikes.
?
Do not use a ladder in a boom or basket.
?
When working from an elevated scissors lift (ANSI A92.6
?
series), a worker need only be protected from falling by a properly
designed and maintained guardrail system. However, if the
guardrail system is less than adequate, or the worker leaves the
safety of the work platform, an additional fall protection device
would be required. The general scaffolding fall protection provision
found in 1926.451 (g)(1)(vii) reads in part, “all scaffolds not
otherwise specified in this section, each employee shall be
protected by the use of personal fall arrest systems or guardrails
systems.”
Electrical Workers’ Safety Handbook
35
S P E C I A L W O R K S I T U AT I O N S
Confined Spaces
What is dangerous
about working in a
confined space?
NOTICE:
Types of confined
spaces include
but are not
limited to:
ventilation ducts,
pipelines, exhaust
ducts, sewers,
storage tanks,
tunnels,
manholes, boilers,
bins, and
underground
utility vaults.
What are my
safeguards?
36
Confined spaces can be a part of every work
site. They are not meant to be occupied
continuously.
When work is performed in a manhole or
unvented vault:
No entry shall be permitted unless forced
?
ventilation is provided or the atmosphere is
found to be safe by testing for oxygen
deficiency and the presence of explosive
gases or fumes.
Where unsafe conditions are detected, by
?
testing or other means, the work area shall
be ventilated and otherwise made safe
before entry.
Provisions shall be made for an adequate
?
continuous supply of air.
Protecting Yourself
Never enter a confined space without
proper training and the required safety
equipment. Your employer must provide
you with a confined space program that
includes guidelines, training, and the proper
protective equipment you should wear.
Electrical Workers’ Safety Handbook
S P E C I A L W O R K S I T U AT I O N S
Excavations and
Trenching
All trenches, slopes, and shoring systems
?
must be approved by a competent person.
Keep excavations barricaded at all times.
?
Deposit spoil dirt at least two feet from
?
the edge of the excavation.
Never go deeper than 5 feet without a
?
protective system (shoring, sloping,
benching or a trench box would be
considered a protective system).
What are the
guidelines for
excavations?
If soil classification is not made,
then the sides of the excavation
must be sloped to an angle not
steeper than one and one-half
horizontal to one vertical (34°).
Securing the Site
Slope or shore excavations to the proper
?
angle when they are more than four feet
deep.
Always have available ladders or other
?
means of safe access and egress.
Inspecting
Check the air quality for oxygen
?
deficiency or excess, and other gaseous
conditions.
Check shoring daily.
?
Check more often in wet weather.
?
Inspect excavation walls after rain and
?
snow storms or after freezing and thawing.
Electrical Workers’ Safety Handbook
NOTICE:
For additional
information, refer
to OSHA Safety
and Health
Standards for
Construction,
Parts 1926.651.
37
S P E C I A L W O R K S I T U AT I O N S
Gas
Cylinders
What are the
general guidelines
for transporting gas
cylinders?
Moving and Lifting
When hoisting oxygen and acetylene
?
cylinders, secure them on a cradle, swing
board, or pallet.
Never hoist or transport gas cylinders
?
using maintenance or choker slings.
Never use the valve protection cap for
?
lifting a cylinder.
Transferring Contents
Never attempt to transfer compressed gas
from one cylinder to another, or to
compress acetylene into a cylinder.
What are the
general guidelines
for storing gas
cylinders?
Close outlet valves tightly and replace the
?
valve caps when not using compressed gas
cylinders, even though they might be
considered empty.
Store compressed gas cylinders in an
?
upright position with the valve end up.
Do not store compressed gas cylinders in
?
“gang boxes.”
Location
Store cylinders in a safe, dry, and wellventilated place, where they will not be
exposed to the heat from stoves, radiators,
furnaces, and direct sunlight.
Oxygen and Acetylene
Separate oxygen and acetylene cylinders
which are not in use by:
A distance of 20 feet, or
?
A five foot high, half-hour fire-rated wall.
?
38
Electrical Workers’ Safety Handbook
S P E C I A L W O R K S I T U AT I O N S
Hot Work Policy
Introduction
NFPA 70 (N.E.C.) is the standard on “how you build it safely”
in the electrical construction industry.
NFPA 70E (Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace) is
the “how you work on it safely” in the maintenance and
construction industry.
In the spirit of protecting our membership, this policy was
created to help inform our members of the risk and hazards
encountered while working hot (energized) and the necessary
safety standards/protocols that must be followed, in order to
save lives and protect families from the trauma caused by
electrical shock and electrical burn injuries.
OSHA Fact
The OSHA Act of 1970, requires employers to provide
employees with a workplace that is free from recognized
hazards that could cause death or serious harm. OSHA states
that no work is to be performed while energized. Proper lockout, tag-out rules, voltage testing (confirm circuits are dead),
stored energy sources released (electrical and mechanical),
must be performed by a qualified person.
Energized Work
Every journeyman and apprentice involved in electrical
“hot work” must learn the requirements of NFPA 70E, because
OSHA and the NEC require its use. OSHA has adopted the
NFPA 70E standard as an acceptable means of compliance to
work energized.
When conditions require exposure to circuits (i.e. 24 VDC and
above, 120 VAC, 208 VAC, 240 VAC, 277 VAC, 480 VAC), the
qualified person, journeyman, must contact management
(foreman, superintendent, shop owner, etc.) to review the
electrical safety program and identify the procedures for
working on or near live parts, operating at 50 VAC or more.
An example of a typical electrical safety program is on page 106
of NFPA 70E Annex E.
Electrical Workers’ Safety Handbook
39
S P E C I A L W O R K S I T U AT I O N S
Hot Work Policy
Key Points
A. Flash hazard analysis (NFPA 70E 130-3A)
B. Shock hazard analysis (NFPA 70E 130-2A)
C. The necessary PPE (personal protective equipment) to
safely perform the assigned task.
D. Energize work approval (authorizing or responsible
management, safety officer, or owner, etc.) signatures are
required on energized work permit.
The Hazard/Risk Category Classification, in NFPA 70E, on
Table 130-7 C9 (page 29) can be used to determine the type of
clothing needed, if insulated tools should be used, and if rubber
gloves are required. This table can be used in lieu of the detailed
flash hazard analysis approach described in NFPA 70E 130-3A.
It is very easy to use and understand.
Note: This table assumes short-circuit current capacities and
fault clearing times for various tasks. They are listed in the
notes to the tables, both larger and smaller available currents
could result in larger arc flash energies.
Protective Clothing
NFPA 70E has created five different Hazard/Risk categories,
based on the type of work, voltage involved, potential arc flash,
and arc blast. See table below.
Clothing Description
Required Minimum
Hazard/Risk
(Typical number of clothing
Arc Rating of PPE
Category
layers is given in parentheses)
(cal/cm squared)
0
Non-melting, flammable materials (i.e. untreated cotton,
N/A
wool, rayon, or silk, or blends of these materials) with a
fabric weight of at least 4.5 oz./yards squared (1)
1
FR shirt and FR pants or FR coveralls (1)
(4)
2 Cotton underwear – conventional short sleeve and brief/shorts,
(8)
plus FR shirts and FR pants (1 or 2)
3
Cotton underwear plus FR shirt and FR pants plus FR coveralls,
(25)
or cotton underwear plus two FR coveralls (2 or 3)
4
Cotton underwear plus FR shirt and FR pants
(40)
plus multi-layered flash suite (3 or more)
Note: FR = Flame Resistant
This table is from NFPA 70E, page 34, 130.7C11
40
Electrical Workers’ Safety Handbook
S P E C I A L W O R K S I T U AT I O N S
Hot Work Policy
85% of all arc-flash hazards fall below category 2 levels, or 8
calories per centimeter squared. Therefore, at a bare minimum,
any “hot work” being performed, the journeyman should be
outfitted with category 2 level PPE.
?
All hand tools shall be double insulated to 1000 Volts
minimum.
?
Rubber gloves properly rated and tested to 500 Volts
minimum must be used and must have leather protectors.
?
Hard hats with full face shields with an arc rating suitable for
the arc flash exposure shall be worn.
?
Eye protection (safety glasses) shall always be worn under
the face shield.
?
Hearing protection.
Exemptions to Work Permit
Work performed by qualified persons near live parts, such as
voltage measuring, troubleshooting and testing shall be
permitted to be performed without an energized electrical
work permit—provided appropriate PPE is used and
Management is contacted.
Melting
Clothing made from flammable synthetic materials that melt at
temperatures below 600 degrees F (315 degrees C) such as
acetate, nylon, polyester, polypropylene, and spandex, either
alone or in blends, shall not be used.
These materials melt, as a result of arc flash exposure and can
aggravate the burn injury. It is the responsibility of the Journeyman to supply their own plain, 100% cotton underwear —
conventional short sleeve shirt and brief/shorts, which must be
worn under FR shirts and pants.
Care of Equipment
Protection equipment shall be maintained in a safe, reliable
condition. The protective equipment shall be visually inspected
before each use. Rubber gloves must be dielectrically retested at
least once every six months, sleeves at least once every twelve
months.
Electrical Workers’ Safety Handbook
41
S P E C I A L W O R K S I T U AT I O N S
Hot Work Policy
Qualified Person
A qualified person shall be trained and knowledgeable of the
construction and operation of equipment or a specific work
method and be trained to recognize and avoid electrical
hazards that might be present with respect to that equipment or
work method.
Energized Work/Qualified Person
A qualified person must be familiar with and trained in
1. An understanding of NFPA 70E and the ability to interpret
the intent of the code.
2. The ability to implement a lockout/tagout procedure –
NFPA 70E, page 108, Annex G
3. The ability to prepare a job briefing and planning checklist
– NFPA 70E, page 112, Annex I
4. The ability to prepare an energized work permit –
NFPA 70E, page 113, Annex J
5. The ability to prepare a hazard/risk evaluation procedure –
NFPA 70E, page 107, Annex F
Overhead Power Lines
The approach distance for unqualified persons, 50 KV and
below, is 10 feet, from the ground or elevated positions, as
stated in NPFA 70E 130-5D.
Note: Qualified workers must observe and comply with the
approach boundaries in table 130-2C; they must be insulated or
guarded from live parts operating at 50 Volts or more.
Emergency Procedures
?
A job specific emergency procedure must be developed to
notify available EMS.
?
A 911 call may not be the fastest response path for your
emergency condition. As an example: The Cleveland Clinic
main campus, one must call 211 for an emergency.
42
Electrical Workers’ Safety Handbook
S P E C I A L W O R K S I T U AT I O N S
Electrical
Installations
Protecting Yourself
Protect yourself in areas where the exact
location of underground electrical power
lines is unknown by wearing insulated
gloves when using jack hammers, bars, or
other hand tools that could contact the
lines.
Ohio Revised Code (ORC) states that you
are responsible for calling a utilities
protection service 48 hours, but no more
than 10 days, before digging.
Ohio Utilities Protection Service (OUPS)
1-800-362-2764.
Securing the Site
Suitable barriers with conspicuous
?
warning signs or other means of guarding
shall be provided to insure that workspace
for electrical equipment will not be used as
a passageway during periods when energized
parts of electrical equipment are exposed.
Sufficient space shall be provided and
?
maintained in the area of electrical
equipment to permit ready and safe
maintenance and operation of such
equipment.
Attached locks and tags may only be
?
removed by the Electrician that placed
them.
Working spaces, walkways, and similar
?
locations shall be kept clear of cords so as
not to create a hazard to employees.
Electrical Workers’ Safety Handbook
43
S P E C I A L W O R K S I T U AT I O N S
Electrical
Installations
Electrical installations made according to
the 2005 National Electric Code comply
with OSHA’s electrical standards for
construction. In addition, the following
conditions must be met for all electrical
installations.
Grounding Program
Since all construction sites must follow an
acceptable program to protect employees
from ground fault hazards, the employer
must use ground-fault circuit-interrupters.
Ground-Fault Circuit Interrupters
All 125 volt, single phase, 15-, 20-, and
?
30-ampere receptacle used by personnel
shall have ground-fault circuit interrupter
protection.
If a receptacle(s) is installed or exists as
?
part of the permanent wiring of the building
or structure and is used for temporary
electric power, GFCI protection for
personnel shall be provided. The uses of
cord sets or devices incorporating listed
Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter protection
must be used to accomplish this.
44
Electrical Workers’ Safety Handbook
S P E C I A L W O R K S I T U AT I O N S
Electrical
Installations
Assured Equipment Grounding
Conductor Program
The employer shall use ground-fault circuit
?
interrupters; Assured Equipment Grounding
Conductor Program may only be used in
industrial establishments, the employers shall
establish and implement the program. The
program shall cover all cord sets, receptacles
which are not part of the building or structure,
and equipment connected by cord and plug
which are available for use or used by
employees.
A competent person must be assigned to
?
implement the program.
A written description of the program must
?
be posted at the job site.
The following tests shall be performed on all
?
cord sets, receptacles that are not part of the
permanent wiring of the building or structure,
and cord-and-plug-connected equipment
required to be grounded.
1.All equipment grounding conductors shall
be tested for continuity and shall be electrically
continuous.
2.Each receptacle and attachment plug shall
be tested for correct attachment of the
equipment grounding conductor. The
equipment grounding conductor shall be
connected to its proper terminal.
3.All required tests shall be performed
a.Before first use on site.
b. When there is evidence of damage.
c. Before equipment is returned to service
following any repairs.
d. At intervals not exceeding 3 months.
The tests required shall be recorded and
?
made available to authority having jurisdiction
and the OSHA compliance officer.
Electrical Workers’ Safety Handbook
What is needed to
comply with OSHA
and the NEC?
45
S P E C I A L W O R K S I T U AT I O N S
Electrical
Installations
Lighting
Lamps for general illumination must be
?
protected from breakage.
Metal shell sockets must be grounded.
?
Portable lighting in wet or conductive
?
locations, like tanks or boilers, must be
within 12 volts or protected by GFCIs.
Temporary lights must not be suspended
?
by their cords, unless they are designed
that way.
Extension Cords
Extension cords must be of the three-wire,
?
heavy duty type (S, ST, and SO).
Visual inspections of extension cords and
?
cord-plug connected equipment for defects
must be performed daily.
Never use worn or frayed electrical
?
cords or cables.
46
Electrical Workers’ Safety Handbook
S P E C I A L W O R K S I T U AT I O N S
Welding
Your responsibilities include not only
welding and cutting, but also performing
repairs and maintenance work on welding
machines.
What are my
responsibilities?
Protecting Yourself
When welding and cutting, you must have
proper training and wear appropriate
protection such as:
Goggles, helmets, aprons, and gloves.
?
Hard hats that will accommodate
?
welding shields.
It is essential that your eyes are protected
?
from radiation exposure. Brief exposure to
ultraviolet (UV) radiation can cause eye
burn known as “welder’s flash.” Review the
table on the following page for suggested
protective shade number.
NOTICE:
For additional
information on
Gas Welding and
Cutting refer to
OSHA Safety and
Health Standards
for Construction
1926.350.
Electrical Workers’ Safety Handbook
47
S P E C I A L W O R K S I T U AT I O N S
Guide For Shade Numbers
Minimum Suggested (1)
Electrode
Arc
Protective Shade No.
Operatio n
Size 1 /32 ”(mm) Current(A)
Shade
(C omfo rt)
Shielded metal less than 3(2.5) less than 60
7
—
arc welding
3-5(2.5-4)
60-160
8
10
5-8(4-6.4)
160-250
10
12
more than 8(8.4)
250-550
11
14
Gas metal arc
less than 60
7
—
welding and
60-160
10
11
flux cored arc
160-250
10
12
welding
250-500
10
14
Gas tungsten
less than 50
8
10
arc welding
50-150
8
12
150-500
10
14
Air carbon arc
(light)
less than 500
10
12
cutting
(heavy)
500-1000
11
14
Plasma arc
less than 20
6
6-8
welding
20-100
8
10
100-400
10
12
400-800
10
14
Plasma arc
(light)(2)
less than 300
8
9
cutting
(medium)(2)
300-400
9
12
(2)
(heavy)
400-800
10
14
Torch brazing
—
—
3 or 4
Torch soldering
—
—
2
Carbon arc
—
—
14
welding
Plate Thickness
in
mm
Gas welding
light
under 1/8
under 3.2
4 or 5
1
medium
/4 to 1/2
3.2 to 12.7
5 or 6
heavy
over 1/2
over 12.7
6 or 8
Oxygen cutting
light
under 1
under 25
3 or 4
medium
1 to 6
25 to 150
4 or 5
heavy
over 6
over 150
5 or 6
(1)
As a rule of thumb, start with a shade that is too dark to see the weld zone.
Then go to a lighter shade which gives sufficient view of the weld zone without
going below the minimum. In oxyfuel gas welding or cutting where the torch
produces a high yellow light, it is desirable to use a filter lens that absorbs the
yellow or sodium line in the visible light of the (spectrum) operation.
(2)
These values apply where the actual arc is clearly seen. Experience has
shown that lighter filters may be used when the arc is hidden by the workpiece.
Data from ANSI/ASC Z49.1-88
48
Electrical Workers’ Safety Handbook
S P E C I A L W O R K S I T U AT I O N S
Welding
Securing the Site
Screen welding operations to protect
?
workers and passersby from flashes.
Post someone to keep people away in the
?
event that you are unable to screen or rope
off the area properly.
Contain sparks and slag created by
?
welding or burning operations.
Remove combustible materials.
?
Leads and Hoses
Never run welding leads or burning hoses
?
through doorways.
Protect welding leads and burning hoses
?
by suspending or covering.
Be sure that an adequate fire extinguisher
?
is near all welding, burning, and open flame
operations.
Secure connections, couplings, and
?
fittings.
Inspect all gauges, hoses, leads, grounds,
?
clamps, welding machines, torches, and
solderers daily before using.
Turn off welding machines at the end of
?
each shift.
Electrical Workers’ Safety Handbook
NOTICE:
See OSHA Safety
and Health
Standards for
Construction, Part
1926.350-354,
for specific
regulations and
welding safety.
See Know Your
Fire Extinguishers
in the Appendix,
pages 50-51.
What are the
operational
safeguards to
consider when
welding?
49
S P E C I A L W O R K S I T U AT I O N S
Welding
Proper eye
protective
equipment to
prevent exposure
of personnel shall
be provided.
Grounding
Make sure that all arc welding operations
?
are adequately grounded.
Never perform welding operations from
?
metal ladders.
Stand on a dry surface while welding.
?
Electrode Holders
Check that the electrode holders and
?
connecting cable are fully insulated.
Do not use a light holder for heavy work.
?
Always remove welding rods from
?
electrodes.
Fire Prevention
Proper precautions (isolating welding and
cutting, removing fire hazards from the
vicinity, providing a fire watch, etc.) for fire
prevention shall be taken in areas where
welding or other “hot work” is being done.
No welding, cutting, or heating shall be done
where the application of flammable paints, or
the presence of other flammable compounds,
or heavy dust concentrations creates a fire
hazard.
Ventilation
SAFETY TIP
Never use less
than #10 filter
lenses when
welding.
50
Mechanical ventilation or air line respirators
shall be provided when welding, cutting or
heating:
zinc-, lead-, calcium-, mercury-, or
?
beryllium-bearing, based or coated materials
in enclosed spaces.
stainless steel with inert-gas equipment.
?
in confined spaces.
?
where an unusual condition can cause an
?
unsafe accumulation of contaminants.
Electrical Workers’ Safety Handbook
APPENDIX
Good and Bad
Rigging Practices
Double Slings
Double slings must be used when hoisting
2 or more pieces of material over 12 feet
long.
Wrong
Right
Eye Bolts
Lifting on eye bolts from an angle reduces
safe load limits as much as 90%.
Vertical lift on
eye bolt
Bad Practice
Electrical Workers’ Safety Handbook
Good Practice
51
APPENDIX
Good and Bad
Rigging Practices
Suspending Needle
Beams or Scaffolds
Bad Practice
Good Practice
This can bend
flanges and cut
rope.
Use space blocks
and pad corners.
Bad Practice
Good Practice
Steel can cut rope.
Sharp corners are
padded.
Hoisting Structural
Steel
52
Electrical Workers’ Safety Handbook
APPENDIX
Crane Signals
Basic Movements
Hoist
Load
Lower
Load
Boom
Up
Boom
Down
Swing
Clam Bucket Signals
Open
Close
Telescoping Boom
Shorten
Boom
Extend
Boom
Lock the crawler on
the side indicated
by raised fist…
Travel opposite
crawler belt in
direction indicated
by revolving fist
Crawler or Track
Signals
Travel both crawler
belts in direction
indicated by
revolving fists
Electrical Workers’ Safety Handbook
53
APPENDIX
Crane Signals
Stop Signals
Stop
Emergency
Stop
Dog
Everything
Slow Signals
Make
Movements
Slowly
Raise
Load Slowly
Lower
Load Slowly
Lower
Boom Slowly
Raise
Boom Slowly
Selecting Single or
Multiple Reeved
Lines
54
Lower
Boom and
Raise Load
Raise
Boom and
Lower Load
Multiple
or main
load by
tapping head
before direction
Single line
or light
load by
holding elbow
before signaling
direction
Electrical Workers’ Safety Handbook
APPENDIX
Fire Extinguishers
Use this to extinguish this class
of fire
Do not use this to extinguish this class
of fire, but to control small surface
fires
Do not use this to extinguish this
class of fire
Special extinguishing agents approved
by recognized testing laboratories
are required
Type of Extinguishers
Class A
Class B
Class C
Ordinary
Combustible
Flammable
Liquids
Electrical
Equipment
Class D
Combustible
Metals
Water Type
Stored Pressure
Cartridge Operated
Water Pump Tank
Soda Acid
Foam
Carbon Dioxide
Dry Chemical/Sodium or
Potassium Bicarbonate
Cartridge Operated
Stored Pressure
Dry Chemical/
Multipurpose ABC
Cartridge Operated
Stored Pressure
Electrical Workers’ Safety Handbook
55
APPENDIX
Fire Extinguishers
Method of
Operation
Range
Upkeep
30’ – 40’
Check Air Pressure
Gauge Monthly
Stored Pressure
Pull Pin,
Squeeze
Handle
30’ – 40’
Weigh Gas Cartridge,
Add Water Annually
Cartridge Operated
Turn Upside
Down &
Pump
Type of Extinguishers
Water Type
Pump
Handle
30’ – 40’
Water Pump Tank
Discharge and Fill
with Water Annually
if Required
Turn
Upside
Down
30’ – 40’
Discharge and Fill
with Water Annually
Foam
Turn
Upside
Down
30’ – 40’
Discharge and Recharge
Annually
Carbon Dioxide
Pull Pin,
Squeeze
Lever
3’ – 8’
Dry Chemical/Sodium or
Potassium Bicarbonate
5’ – 20’
Cartridge Operated
Rupture
Cartridge,
Squeeze Lever
Pull Pin,
Squeeze
Handle
5’ – 20’
Check Pressure and
Dry Chemical Annually
Stored Pressure
5’ – 20’
Check Pressure
Dry Chemical Annually
Cartridge Operated
Pull Pin,
Squeeze
Handle
5’ – 20’
Stored Pressure
Rupture
Cartridge,
Squeeze Lever
Soda Acid
Dry Chemical/
Multipurpose ABC
56
Weigh Semi-Annually
Weigh Gas Cartridge
Check Dry Chemical
Annually
Weigh Gas Cartridge,
Check Dry Chemical
Annually
Electrical Workers’ Safety Handbook
APPENDIX
Hazardous Materials
Information
Examples of
Container Labeling
HMIS
Hazardous Materials Identification System
4
3
2
1
0
HEALTH
3
FLAMMABILITY
2
REACTIVITY
1
PERSONAL PROTECTION
B
Severe Hazard
Serious Hazard
Moderate Hazard
Slight Hazard
Minimal Hazard
The letter to the right of the personal
protection category refers to the combination of safety equipment you should wear.
Refer to the Personal Protection Index on
the following page for examples of safety
equipment and the combinations in which
you should wear them.
Electrical Workers’ Safety Handbook
57
APPENDIX
Personal Protection
Index
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
X
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
Ask your supervisor for specialized handling instructions
Key
Safety Glasses
Dust Air Purifying Respirator
Splash Goggles
Vapor Air Purifying Respirator
Face Shiled
Chemical Resistant Apron
Supplied Air Respirator
Full Chemical Resistant Suit
Chemical Resistant Boots
Chemical Resistant Gloves
Combination Vapor/Dust
Air Purifying Respirator
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Electrical Workers’ Safety Handbook
APPENDIX
Hazardous Materials
Information
NFPA
Examples of
Container Labeling
National Fire Protection Association Label
Fire Hazard
Flash Points
Health Hazard
4
3
2
1
0
Deadly
Extreme Danger
Hazardous
Slightly Hazardous
Normal Material
4
3
2
1
0
4
3
Below 73° F
Below 100° F
Below 200° F
Above 200° F
Will not burn
2
W
Reactivity
Specific Hazard
Oxidizer
Acid
Alkali
Corrosive
Use no water
Radiation Hazard
OXY
ACID
ALK
COR
W
Electrical Workers’ Safety Handbook
4
3
2
1
0
May detonate
Shock and heat may detonate
Violent chemical change
Unstable if heated
Stable
59
APPENDIX
Hazardous Materials
Information
Examples of
Container Labeling
ANSI
American National Standards Institute Label
Name of product
Precautionary
measures
Signal Word
Statement of hazards
Instructions in case
of contact or
exposure
4
1
0
Precautionary
measures
NFPA label
Recommended fire
extinguishing
method
60
Electrical Workers’ Safety Handbook
APPENDIX
First Aid
General Direction for First Aid
Urgent Care
While help is being summoned, do the
following:
1. Minimize injury - move victim only if
necessary for safety reasons.
2. Control severe bleeding.
3. Maintain an open airway and give Rescue
Breathing or CPR if necessary.
4. Treat for shock.
Bleeding
Urgent Care
First Aid:
1. Direct pressure and elevation:
Place dressing and apply direct pressure
?
directly over the wound, then elevate above
the level of the heart, unless there is
evidence of a fracture.
2. Apply pressure bandage:
Wrap bandage snugly over the dressing.
?
3. Pressure points
If bleeding doesn’t stop after direct
?
pressure, elevation, and the pressure
bandage, compress the pressure point.
Arm: Use the brachial artery - pushing
?
the artery against the upper arm bone.
Leg: Apply pressure on femoral artery,
?
pushing it against the pelvic bone.
Nosebleed:
To control a nosebleed, have the victim
?
lean forward and pinch the nostrils together
until bleeding stops.
Electrical Workers’ Safety Handbook
61
APPENDIX
First Aid
Urgent Care
Poisoning
Signals: Vomiting, heavy labored breathing,
sudden onset of pain or illness, burns or
odor around the tips of the mouth, unusual
behavior.
First Aid:
If you think someone has been poisoned,
call your poison control center or local
emergency number and follow their
directions.
If conscious:
Call Poison Control and try to identify
?
the poison.
Be prepared to inform poison center of
?
the type of poison, when incident occurred,
victim’s age, symptoms, and how much
poison may have been ingested, inhaled,
absorbed or injected.
If unconscious or nauseous:
1. Position victim on side and monitor vital
signs (i.e. pulse and breathing).
2. Call Poison Control and identify poison.
3. DO NOT give anything by mouth.
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Electrical Workers’ Safety Handbook
APPENDIX
First Aid
Shock
Urgent Care
Signals: Cool, moist, pale, bluish skin, weak
rapid pulse (over 100), nausea, rate of
breathing increased, apathetic.
First Aid:
1. Maintain open airway, have victim lie
down.
2. Maintain normal body temperature
(98.6), if too hot, cool down, and if too
cold, use blankets, over and under, to warm
the victim.
Burns
Urgent Care
Signals: Small, thin (surface) burns or large,
thin burns: redness, pain, and swelling.
Deep burns: blisters, deep tissue destruction, charred appearance.
First Aid:
1. Stop the burning - put out flames or
remove the victim from the source of the
burn.
2. Cool the burn - run or pour cool water
on burn, immerse if possible. Cool until
pain is reduced.
3. Cover the burn - Use dry, sterile dressing
and bandage.
4. Keep victim as comfortable as possible
from being chilled or overheated.
Electrical Workers’ Safety Handbook
63
APPENDIX
First Aid
Urgent Care
Burns
Chemical burn - must be flushed with large
amounts of water until EMS arrives.
Electrical burn - make sure power is turned
off before touching the victim.
Urgent Care
Electrical Shock
Signals: Unconsciousness, absence of
breathing and pulse.
First Aid:
1. TURN OFF THE POWER SOURCE Call EMS. (DO NOT approach victim
until power has been turned off.)
2. DO NOT move a victim of electrical
injury unless there is immediate danger.
3. Administer rescue breathing or CPR if
necessary.
4. Treat for shock.
Check for other injuries and monitor victim
until medical help arrives.
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Electrical Workers’ Safety Handbook
APPENDIX
First Aid
Frostbite
Urgent Care
Signals: Flushed, white, or gray skin. Pain.
The nose, cheeks, ears, fingers, and toes are
most likely to be affected. Pain may be felt
early and then subside. Blisters may appear
later.
First Aid:
1. Cover the frozen part. Loosen restrictive
clothing or boots.
2. Bring victim indoors ASAP.
3. Give the victim a warm drink. (DO NOT
give alcoholic beverages, tea or coffee.)
4. Immerse frozen part in warm water
(102°-105°), or wrap in a sheet and warm
blankets. DO NOT rewarm if there is a
possibility of refreezing.
5. Remove from water and discontinue
warming once part becomes flushed.
6. After thawing, the victim should try to
move the injured area a little.
7. Elevate the injured area and protect from
further injury.
8. DO NOT rub the frozen part. DO NOT
break the blisters. DO NOT use extreme or
dry heat to rewarm the part.
9. If fingers or toes are involved, place dry,
sterile gauze between them when
bandaging.
Electrical Workers’ Safety Handbook
65
APPENDIX
First Aid
Urgent Care
Hypothermia
Signals: Lowered body core temperature.
Persistent shivering, lips may be blue, slow
slurred speech, memory lapses. Most cases
occur when air temperatures range from
30°-50° or water temperature is below 70°F.
First Aid:
1. Move victim to shelter and remove wet
clothing if necessary.
2. Rewarm victim with blankets or body-tobody contact in sleeping bag.
3. If victim is conscious and able to swallow,
give warm liquids.
4. Keep victim warm and quiet.
5. DO NOT give alcoholic beverages, or
beverages containing caffeine.
Constantly monitor victim and give Rescue
Breathing and CPR if necessary.
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Electrical Workers’ Safety Handbook
APPENDIX
First Aid
Heat Exhaustion/Heat Stoke
Urgent Care
Signals:
Heat Exhaustion: Pale, clammy skin,
?
profuse perspiration, weakness, nausea,
headache.
Heat Stroke: Hot, dry, red skin, no
?
perspiration, rapid and strong pulse, high
body temperature (105°). This is an
immediate life threatening emergency.
First Aid:
1. Get the victim out of the heat.
2. Loosen tight clothing or restrictive
clothing.
3. Remove perspiration soaked clothing.
4. Apply cool, wet cloths to the skin.
5. Fan the victim.
6. If victim is conscious, give cool water to
drink.
7. Call for an ambulance if victim refuses
water, vomits, or starts to lose consciousness.
Electrical Workers’ Safety Handbook
67
APPENDIX
First Aid
Urgent Care
Rescue Breathing
1. Check the victim.
Tap and shout - “Are you okay?”, to see if
?
the person responds.
?
If no response:
2. Call EMS.
3. Care for the victim.
Step 1: Look, listen and feel for breathing
for about 5 seconds. If the person is not
breathing or you can’t tell Step 2: Position victim on back, while
supporting head and neck.
Step 3: Tilt head back and lift chin.
Step 4: Look, listen, and feel for breathing
for about 5 seconds.
If not breathing …
?
Step 5: Give two slow gentle breaths.
Step 6: Check pulse for 5 to 10 seconds.
Step 7: Check for severe bleeding.
4. Give rescue breathing.
If pulse is present but person is still not
?
breathing …
Step 1: Give one slow breath about every 5
seconds. Do this for about 1 minute
(12 breaths).
Step 2: Recheck pulse and breathing about
every minute.
Continue rescue breathing as long as
?
pulse is present but person is not breathing.
If there is no pulse and no breathing…
?
5. Begin Cardiopulmonary
Resuscitation (CPR).
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Electrical Workers’ Safety Handbook
APPENDIX
First Aid
Choking
Urgent Care
1. Check the victim.
When an adult is choking:
Step 1: Ask, “Are you choking?” If victim
cannot cough, speak, or breathe, is coughing
weakly or is making high-pitched noises…
Step 2: Shout, “HELP!”
Step 3: Phone EMS for help. Send
someone to call for an ambulance.
Step 4: Do abdominal thrusts:
A. Wrap your arms around the victim’s
waist. Make a fist. Place thumbside of fist
against middle of abdomen just above the
naval. Grasp fist with other hand.
B. Give quick, upward thrusts. Repeat until
object is coughed up or person becomes
unconscious.
Electrical Workers’ Safety Handbook
69
APPENDIX
First Aid
Urgent Care
Choking
If victim becomes unconscious, lower
victim to the floor.
Step 5: Do a finger sweep - Lift jaw and
tongue, do a finger sweep to remove
obstruction.
Step 6: Open airway - Tilt head back and
lift chin.
Step 7: Attempt to give breaths. With
head tilted back and chin lifted, pinch nose
shut. Give two slow breaths for 1½ - 2
seconds each.
If air won’t go in …
Step 8: Give 15 chest compressions.
Find hand position on the breastbone.
?
Position your shoulders over the hands.
?
Compress the chest about 2 inches deep.
?
70
Electrical Workers’ Safety Handbook
APPENDIX
First Aid
Choking
Urgent Care
Step 9: Look for an object.
Lift the jaw and tongue and look inside
?
mouth.
If you see an object, sweep it out with
?
a finger.
Step 10: Give two rescue breaths.
Step 11: If the breaths still do not go in
continue steps 7 thru 10
or
If the breaths go in …
Check for signs of circulation.
Find the Adam’s apple and slide your
?
fingers toward you and down into the
groove at the side of the neck.
Check for sign of circulation and
?
breathing for no more than 10 seconds.
Step 12: If there are signs of circulation
but no breathing, give rescue breathing.
or
If there are no signs of circulation or
breathing, give CPR.
Electrical Workers’ Safety Handbook
71
APPENDIX
Important Job Site
Information
Job site
___________________________
Telephone number
___________________________
Location
___________________________
___________________________
Foreman’s name
___________________________
Foreman’s home number ___________________________
Company phone number ___________________________
Location of first aid kit
___________________________
___________________________
___________________________
Location of fire
___________________________
extinguisher
___________________________
___________________________
___________________________
Name(s) of first aid trained ___________________________
personnel
___________________________
___________________________
___________________________
Location of resuscitation
___________________________
equipment
___________________________
___________________________
72
Electrical Workers’ Safety Handbook
APPENDIX
Important Job Site
Information
___________________________
Hospital
___________________________
Ambulance
___________________________
Fire Department
___________________________
Other
___________________________
___________________________
___________________________
___________________________
___________________________
___________________________
___________________________
___________________________
___________________________
___________________________
___________________________
___________________________
___________________________
___________________________
___________________________
___________________________
___________________________
Electrical Workers’ Safety Handbook
73
APPENDIX
Notes
_____________________________
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_____________________________
_____________________________
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_____________________________
_____________________________
_____________________________
_____________________________
_____________________________
_____________________________
_____________________________
_____________________________
_____________________________
_____________________________
_____________________________
_____________________________
_____________________________
_____________________________
_____________________________
_____________________________
_____________________________
74
Electrical Workers’ Safety Handbook
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