Operation and Cummins Diesel Engines
Operation and Cummins Diesel Engines
Maintenance
Manual
Construction
Industrial
Industrial Firepump
Logging
Mining
Railway
Generator
Operation and
Maintenance
Manual
Bulletin 983711-AE, Printed 4-1973
Cummins Engine Company, Inc.
Columbus, Indiana, U.S.A., 47201
Cummins Diesel Engines
Construction
Industrial
Industrial Firepump
Logging
Mining
Railway
Generator
Foreword
Information in this publication pertains to Cummins Diesel
Engines used in construction, logging, mining, industrial,
generator, railroad, and industrial fire pump applications.
This is an engine operation and maintenance manual, not a
repair manual. The design of Cummins engines makes it
possible to replace worn or damaged parts with new or
rebuilt parts with a minimum of down time. Contact the
nearest Cummins Distributor for parts replacement as they
are equipped and have well informed, trained personnel to
perform this service. If your shop is properly equipped to
perform either maintenance, unit replacement and/or
complete engine rebuild, contact the nearest Cummins
Distributors to obtain available repair manuals and arrange
for training of personnel.
For model identification of an engine, check the data plate,
the letter and number code indicates breathing (naturally
aspirated except when letter “T" for turbocharged is
present), cubic inch displacement, application and
maximum rated horsepower,
Examples:
NTA-855-370 V903 - 320
N = 4 valve head V = Type engine
T = Turbocharged 903 = Cubic Inch
A = Aftercooled Displacement
370 = Maximum rated 320 = Maximum rated
horsepower horsepower
Table: Other Application Designations
Off-Highway (Usually less compressor)
Construction (Construction Industry)
Generator Set
Power Units (Various Components used.)
Marine
Dump or Mixer Application
Industrial Fire Pump
Locomotive
Railcar
HUS VOOD
um
Refer to Table on Pages 4, 5 and 6 for Engine Horsepower
Specifications.
Cummins Engine Company, Inc.
Columbus, Indiana, U.S.A.
Operation and Maintenance Manual
Cummins Diesel Engines
Table of Contents
Operating Instructions
Prestarting Instructions . . . . . . . . «+. ... 1-1
Starting The Engine... 111214 4 4 4 4 44 040 1-2
Engine Warm-Up .. 1.112441 44142 41440 1-4
Engine Speeds ... 22212424 441 2 4 1 4146 1-4
Maximum Horsepower Requirements . .....e.. 1-4
Engine Exhaust . . . . 2222144 1114144220 1-5
High Altitude Operation . . . . . .. . ........ 1-5
Engine Shutdown 2.124144 141 441 2 440 1-5
Cold Weather Protection . . . .. ........... 1-6
Operator's Daily Report . .... . .......... 1-7
industrial Fire Pump Engines . . . .. . e... 1-9
Maintenance Operations
Schedule . . . . . . e aaa 2-1
Check Sheet . . . . . . . .. . . ene... 2-2
A Checks . . . . . eee eee e aa 2-4
BChecks . . . . . eee aa aa e. 2-9
C Checks . .. eee aa. 2-20
D Checks .. . . eee ae. 2-31
E Checks . . ... eee eee 2-34
Seasonal Maintenance Checks . . . .. . ..... 2-35
Specifications and Torque
Lubricating Oil . . . . . ................ 3-1
Grease ... 12114 4 LL LL LL LL LL LL 110 3-3
Fuel OH 2121 2111 1 LL LL LL LL LL 110 3-3
Coolant .. . . . . 1 4 1 LL LL LL LL LL 110 3-4
Torque Specifications ©... . . . .......... 3-6
Trouble Shooting
Description . . . . . ._— .— 1 LL 111110 4-1
Chart . . . . . aaa aaa 4-2
Operating Principles
Cummins Diesel Cycle . . . . . .. .......... 5-1
Fuel System
Operation and Maintenance Manual 3
Cummins Diesel Engines
Operating Principles (Cont'd.)
Cooling System . . . . 2.112 121111112220 5-17
Air System aa 5-18
Index
IMPORTANT REFERENCE NUMBERS
CHASSIS SERIAL NO.
ENGINE MODEL
ENGINE SERIAL NO,
FUEL FILTER NO,
FULL FLOW LUBRICATING
FILTER ELEMENT NO.
BY-PASS FILTER ELEMENT NO.
WATER FILTER ELEMENT NO.
AIR CLEANER ELEMENT NO.
WATER PUMP BELT NO,
FAN BELT NO,
ALTERNATOR BELT NO.
POWER STEERING PUMP BELT NO.
Operation and Maintenance Manual
Cummins Diesel Engines
Table 1: Construction Mining, Logging and Industrial Engine Specifications
HP @ RPM HP @ RPM
Engine 60° F [16° C) 85° F [29° C] No Bore and Stroke
Model Sea Level* 500 Ft.* Aspiration Cylinders Inch [mm]
V Series Engines
V-378-C 195 @ 33001 149 @ 3300 Natural 6 4-5/8 x 3-3/4 {117 x 95]
V-504-C 210 @ 3300t 202 @ 3300 Natural 8 4-5/8 x 3-3/4 [117 x 95]
V-555-C 240 @ 33001 230 @ 3300 Natural 8 4-5/8 x 4-1/8 [117 x 105]
V-903-C 320 @ 26001 307 @ 2600 Natural 8 51/2 x 4-3/4 {140 x 121]
V-378-P 155 @ 3300 149 @ 3300 Natural! 6 4-5/8 x 3-3/4 [117 x 95]
V-504-P 210 @ 3300 202 € 3300 Natural 8 4-5/8 x 3-3/4 [117 x 95]
VT-903-C 320 @ 2600 320 @ 2600 Turbocharged 8 5-1/2 x 4-3/4 [140 x 121]
inline Engines
CT-464-C 175 @ 2500 175 @ 2500 Turbocharged 6 4-7/16 x 5 [113 x 127]
CS-464-C 195 @ 2600t 187 @ 2600 Supercharged 6 4-7/16 x 5 [113 x 127]
N-743-C 220 @ 21001 212 0 2100 Natural 6 5-1/8 x 6 [130 x 152]
NT-855-C 335 @ 21001 335 @ 2100 Turbocharged 6 5-1/2 x 6 [140 x 152]
NTA-855-C 14200 2300t 420 € 2300 Turbocharged 6 51/2 x 6 {140 x 152]
СТ-464-Р 175 @ 2500 175 @ 2500 Turbocharged 6 4-7/16 x 5 [112 x 127]
CS-464-P 180 @ 2500 173 @ 2500 Supercharged 6 4-7/16 x 5 [112 x 127]
N-743-P 220 @ 2100t 212 @ 2100 Natural 6 5-1/8 x 6 [130 x 152]
N-855-P 250 @ 2100 240 @ 2100 Natural 6 5-1/2 x 6 [140 x 152]
NT-855-P 380 @ 23001 380 @ 2300 Turbocharged 6 5-1/2 x 6 [140 x 152]
V12 Series Engines
V-1710-C 500 @ 2100 480 @ 2100 Natural 12 5-1/2 x 6 [140 x 152]
VT-1710-C 6356 21001 635 € 2100 Turbocharged 12 5-1/2 x 6 [140 x 152]
VTA-1710-C 800 @ 2100t 800 @ 2100 Turbocharged 12 5-1/2 x 6 [140 x 152]
V-1710-P 500 @ 2100 480 @ 2100 Natural 12 51/2 x 6 [140 x 152]
VT-1710-P 635 @ 2100 635 @ 2100 Turbocharged 12 5-1/2 x 6 [140 x 152]
VTA-1710-P 800 @ 21001 800 @ 2100 Turbocharged 12 51/2 x 6 [140 x 152]
+ Optional power and RPM ratings available.
Turbocharged engines deliver the horsepower shown from sea level to altitudes specified on engine performance curves.
Naturally aspirated and supercharged engines should be derated for altitude operation at the rate of 3% per 1000 feet [304 m]
above 500 feet [152 ml].
* Values shown for naturally aspirated engines are derived by adjusting the horsepower at 85 deg. F and 500 feet {29 deg. C]
[152 m] altitude by about 4% to indicate approximate performance at sea level and 60 deg. F [16 deg. C] intake air
temperature,
Operation and Maintenance Manual
Cummins Diesel Engines
Table 2: Locomotive and Railcar Engine Ratings
Locomotive —
Engine Bore and Stroke No. Horsepower @ RPM Rating
Model inch [mm] Cyl. Aspiration Yard Service Road Service
H-743-L 5-1/8 x 6 6 Natural 175 @ 1800 157 @ 1800
[130 x 152]
N-855-L 5-1/2 x 6 6 Natural 238 @ 2100 206 @ 1900 215 @ 2100
[140 x 152]
NT-855-L2t 5-1/2 x 6 6 Turbocharged 335 @ 2100 285 @ 1900 300 @ 2100
[140 x 152]
NTA-855-L 5-1/2 x 6 6 Turbocharged 370 @ 2100 318 01900 335 @ 2100
[140 x 162]
V-1710-L 5-1/2 x 6 12 Natural 475 @ 2100 410 @ 1900 43002100
[140 х 152]
VT-1710-L 5-1/2 x 6 12 Turbocharged 650 @ 2100 560 @ 1900 590 @ 2100
[140 x 152]
VTA-1710-L 5-1/2 x 6 12 Turbocharged 750 @ 2100 640 @ 1900 680 @ 2100
[140 x 152] Aftercooled
Railcar 80° Tilt Engine —
Engine Bore and Stroke No. Horsepower @ RPM Rating
Model Inch [mm] Cyl. Aspiration Suburban Service Road Service
N-855-R 5-1/2 x 6 6 Natura! 238 @ 2100 215 @ 2100
[140 x 152]
N T-855-R2t 5-1/2х 6 6 Turbocharged 335 @ 2100 300 @ 2100
[140 x 152]
NTA-855-R 5-1/2 x 6 6 Turbocharged 370 @ 2100 335 E 2100
(140 x 152] Aftercooled
tOptional power and RPM ratinas available.
Table 3: Engine And Generator Specifications — 1800 and 1500 RPM Units
Engine 1800 RPM 60 Hertz 1500 RPM 50 Hertz
Model Stand-By Prime Power Stand-By Prime Power
HR-6 GS-100KW GC-75KW GS-85 KW GC-65KW
NH-220 GS-125KW GC-100KW GS-100KW GC-85 KW
NT-270 GS-150KW GC-125KW GS-125KW GC-100KW
NT-310 GS-175KW GC-150KW GS-150KW GC-125KW
NT-335 GS-200KW GC-175KW GS-165KW GC-150KW
NT-400 GS-250KW GC-200KW GS-190KW GC-170KW
V12-500 GS-300KW GC-250KW GS-250KW GC-210KW
VT12R600 GS-350 KW GC-300KW GS-300KW GC-250KW
VT12-700 GS-400 KW GC-350KW GS-335KW GC-300KW
VT12-800 GS-450KW GC-400KW GS-370KW GC-330KW
VTA12-800 GS-500KW GC-450KW GS-400 KW GC-360KW
For single-phase operation the KW ratings are approximately 2/3 of the three phase ratings.
6 | Operation and Maintenance Manual
Cummins Diesel Engines
Table 4: Fire Pump Engine Specifications
Engine HP @ RPM HP @ RPM No. Bore and Stroke
Model U.L. Rating* Factory Mutual Ratings Aspiration Cylinder Inch [mm]
NH-220-1F 175 @ 1750 172 @ 1750 Natural 6 5-1/8 x 6 [130 x 152]
182 @ 1900 Natural 6 5-1/8 x 6 [130 x 152]
191 @ 2100 Natural 6 5-1/8 x 6 [130 x 192]
NT-280-1F 255 O 1750 255 @ 1750 Turbocharged 6 5-1/2 х 6 [140 х 152]
255 @ 1900 255 @ 1900 Turbocharged 6 5-1/2 x 6 [140 x 152]
255 @ 2100 255 @ 2100 Turbocharged 6 5-1/2 x 6 [140 x 152]
NT-380-1F 285 @ 1750 285 @ 1750 Turbocharged 6 5-1/2 x 6 [140 x 152]
303 @ 1900 303 @ 1900 Turbocharged 6 5-1/2 x 6 [140 x 152]
325 @ 2100 325 @ 2100 Turbocharged 6 5-1/2 x 6 [140 x 152]
340 @ 2300 340 @ 2300 Turbocharged 6 5-1/2 x 6 {140 x 152]
V6-125-IF 86 @ 1750 86 @ 1750 Natural 6 4-5/8 x 3-3/4 [117 x 95]
100 @ 2000 100 @ 2000 Natural 6 4-5/8 x 3-3/4 [117 x 95]
111 @ 2200 111 @ 2200 Natural 6 4-5/8 x 3-3/4 [117 x 95]
V6-155-IF 118 @ 2400 118 @ 2400 Natural 6 4-5/8 x 3-3/4 [117 x 95]
125 @ 2600 125 @ 2600 Natural 6 4-5/8 x 3-3/4 [117 x 95]
130 @ 2800 130 @ 2800 Natural 6 4-5/8 x 3-3/4 [117 x 95]
133 @ 3000 133 @ 3000 Natural 6 4-5/8 x 3-3/4 {117 x 95]
136 @ 3300 136 @ 3300 Natural 6 4-5/8 x 3-3/4 [117 x 95]
V8-168-1F 121 01750 121 @ 1750 Natural 8 4-5/8 x 3-3/4 [117 x 95]
141 @ 2000 141 @ 2000 Natural 8 4-5/8 x 3-3/4 [117 x 951
145 @ 2200 145 @ 2200 Natural 8 4-5/8 x 3-3/4 [117 x 95]
V8-210-1F 157 € 2400 157 € 2400 Natural! 8 4-5/8 x 3-3/4 [117 x 95]
168 @ 2600 168 @ 2600 Natural 8 4-5/8 x 3-3/4 [117 x 95]
174 @ 2800 174 @ 2800 Natural 8 4-5/8 x 3-3/4 [117 x 95]
182 @ 3000 182 @ 3000 Natural 8 4-5/8 x 3-3/4 [117 x 95]
185 @ 3300 185 @ 3300 Natural 8 4-5/8 x 3-3/4 [117 x 95]
* Underwriters’ Laboratories Ratings —
If permanently stationed at altitude above sea level, engines with above Underwriters’ Laboratories Ratings should be derated 5%
for each 1000 ft, [304.8 m] above sea level,
Operation and Maintenance Manual 7
Cummins Diesel Engines
To The Engine Owner
All new Cummins Engines should be made available to a Cummins Distributor or Dealer within the first 200 hours or 90 days of
operation, whichever occurs first, who are authorized to perform new engine inspection to assure proper engine performance,
When a Cummins Engine is shipped from the factory, a detachable engine inspection tag is a part of the engine data plate. This
tag is 1-1/4 inch long and has the engine model and serial number stamped on it. This tag is not to be removed from the
nameplate until the new engine inspection is performed as Cummins Engine Company, Inc. may not honor an inspection claim
uniess this tag accompanies the report of new engine inspection when submitted by the inspecting Dealer or Distributor. If this
tag is missing prior to the new engine inspection, please notify the Dealer/Distributor from which the engine was purchased.
New engine inspection check list consists of the following:
1. CHECK BEFORE STARTING ENGINE
Engine and Accessory Mountings for Fuel, Lubricating Oil, and
Coolant Leakage
Fuel System Installation
{ ubricating Oil System Installation, Lubricating Oil Level, and
Oi! Pan Drain Plug Torque
Cooling System Installation and Coolant Level
Air Cleaner
Engine Breather
All Belt Tension
2. CHECK WHILE OPERATING ENGINE
For Unusual Noises
Throttle Operation
Fuel, Lubricating Oil, Coolant Leakage
Operation of Gauges and Controls
Lubricating Oil Pressure
Engine Performance
Air Induction System
Exhaust System
3. ADJUSTMENTS
Injectors
Crossheads
Vaives
4. INSTRUCT OWNER IN
Changing Fuel and Lubricating Oil Filters
Changing Lubricating Oil
Use of Proper Fuel Oil
Operating Temperature
Starting and Stopping Procedure
Damages Caused By Over-Speeding
Use of Corrosion inhibitor and Antifreeze
Use of Cold Starting Device
Air Cleaner Maintenance
Belt Maintenance
Operation and Maintenance Manual 1-1
Cummins Diesel Engines
Operating instructions
= = The engine operator must assume responsibility of engine
0 perating Instructions care while engine is being operated. There are
comparatively few rules which the operator must observe to
get the best service. from a Cummins Diesel, such as
increased engine efficiency, less down time and lower repair
bilis,
General—All Applications
Pre-Starting Instructions — First Time
Priming The Fuel System
1. Fill fuel tanks and filter(s) with clean No. 2 diesel! fuel oil
meeting the specifications in Section 3.
a. With PT (type G) fuel pump, fill pump through plug next
to tachometer with clean fuel.
) b. With PT (type R) fuel pump, remove suction line and
wet gear pump gears with clean fuel.
2. If injector and valve or other adjustments have been
disturbed by maintenance work, be sure they have been
properly adjusted before starting engine.
Priming The Lubricating System
Note: On turbocharged engines, remove oil inlet line from
the turbocharger and fill bearing housing with clean
lubricating oil. Reconnect oil supply line.
1. Fill crankcase to “L” (low) mark on dipstick. See
Lubricating Qil Specifications, Section 3.
Note: Most V-1710 Engine dipsticks have dual markings
with high and low-level marks; static oil marks on one side
and engine running at low idle speed marks on opposite
side. Be sure to use proper scale.
2. Remove plug from head of lubricating oil filter housing
(Fig's. 1-1 and 1-2) or gear case to prime system.
Caution: Do not prime engine lubricating system from
by-pass filter.
3. Connect a hand or motor driven priming pump line from | —
source of clean lubricating oil to plug boss in housing.
Prime until a 30 psi [2.1 kg/sq cm] minimum pressure is Fig. 1-2 (V11466) Lubricating system priming point - small V-engine
) obtained.
4. Crank engine at least 15 seconds (with fuel shut-off valve maintaining external oil pressure at a minimum of 15 psi
closed or disconnected to prevent starting), while [1.1 kg/sq cm].
5, Remove external oil supply line and replace plug.
Warning: Clean area of any lubricating oil spilled while
priming or filling crankcase.
6. Finish filling crankcase to “H” (high) mark on dipstick.
Check Hydraulic Governor
Many engines used in stationary power applications are
equipped with hydraulic-governed fuel pumps which use
lubricating oil as an energy medium, same weight as used in
engine. Oil level in governor sump must be at full mark on
dipstick.
Check Air Connections
Check and make sure air connections to compressor and air
equipment, as used, and to air cleaners and air crossover are
tight.
Check Engine Coolant Supply
1. Remove the radiator or heat exchanger cap and check
engine coolant supply. Add coolant as needed.
Note: If cooling capacity is over 36 gal. [136.3 lit], add
treated make-up water. See Section 3.
2. Make visual check for leaks and open corrosion resistor
shut-off valves.
New And Rebuilt Engine Break-In
Cummins engines are run-in on dynamometers before being
shipped from the factory and are ready to be put to work
in applications such as emergency fire units and rail car
applications,
In other applications, the operator has an opportunity to
establish conditions for optimum service life during initial
100 hours of service by:
1. Operating as much as possible in half to three-quarter
throttle or load range and avoiding operation for long
periods at engine idle speeds, or at maximum horsepower
levels in excess of five minutes.
2. Operating with a power requirement that allows
acceleration to governed speed when conditions require
more power.
3. Watch engine instruments closely during operation and
reduce rpm if oil temperature reaches 250 deg. F [121 deg.
Cl] or coolant temperature exceeds 190 deg. F [88 deg. С].
Check oil level every 10 hours during the break-in period.
Operation and Maintenance Manual
Cummins Diesel Engines
Operating Instructions
Normal Starting Procedure
If fuel system is equipped with overspeed stop, push
‘Reset’ button before attempting to start engine,
Warning: Before starting, check to make sure everyone is
clear of engine and equipment, to prevent accidents.
1. On units equipped with air activated prelube device,
open air valve for 10 to 12 seconds to activate piston in
prelube device which will lubricate all moving parts in
engine,
Note: On engines equipped with an oil pressure safety
switch, hoid the fuel by-pass switch in “start” position until
engine oil pressure reaches 7 to 10 psi [0.5 to 0.7 kg/sq
cmi; then, move to “run” position.
2. Set throttle for idle speed and disengage driven unit.
Caution: Protect the turbocharger during start-up by not
opening throttle or accelerating above 1000 RPM until idle
speed oil pressure registers on gauge.
3. Open manual fuel shut-down valve, if so equipped.
Electric shut-down valves operate as switch is turned on. A
manual override knob provided on forward end of electric
shut-down valve allows valve to be opened in case of
electric power failure. To use, turn fully clockwise; return
to run position after electric repair,
4, Pull the compression release (if so equipped) and press
started button or turn switch-key to “start” position, After
three of four seconds of cranking, close compression release
(if so equipped) and continue to crank until engine fires,
5. After engine has run for a few minutes, shut it down and
wait 15 minutes for oil to drain back into pan. Check
engine oil level; add oil as necessary to bring oil level to
“H'” mark on dipstick. The drop in oil level is due to
absorption by oil filter and filling of oil cooler.
Fig, 1-3 (V21970) Using manual override knob
Cold-Weather Starting
Pre-Heater
To aid in starting engine when temperature is 50 deg. F
[10.0 deg. C] or below, an intake air preheater is available,
Preheater equipment consists of a hand-priming pump to
pump fuel into intake manifold, and a switch to turn on
glow plug which is electrically heated by battery. Fuel
burns in intake manifold and heats intake air,
Warning: Do not use ether in conjunction with preheater.
To do so could result in a fire.
To use preheater for cold starting:
1. Set throttle in idle position. Turn glow plug toggle switch
to “ON” position. Red indicator light must be on.
2. After red light has been on for 20 seconds, start cranking
engine. As soon as engine begins rotating, operate preheater
priming pump to maintain 80 to 100 psi [5.6 to 7.0 ka/sa
cm] fuel pressure. Use of primer before the 20-second
interval will wet glow plug and prevent heating.
3. If engine does not start within 30 seconds, stop cranking.
Wait one or two minutes and repeat cranking operation.
4, After engine starts, pump primer slowly to keep engine
idling smoothly. In cold weather this may require 4 to 5
minutes or longer. Do not accelerate engine.
5. When the engine has warmed up so it does not falter
between primer strokes, stop pumping, Close and lock
primer. Turn off glow plug toggle switch, (Red indicator
light will go out.)
6. If engine gives no indication of starting during first three
full strokes of preheater pump, touch-check intake
manifold for heat, If no heat, check electrical wiring. If
wiring is all right, remove 1/8 inch pipe plug (1, Fig. 1-4)
Fig. 1-4 (N11949) Glow plug inspection hole plug - NT engine
Operation and Maintenance Manual 1-3
Cummins Diesel Engines
Operating Instructions
from manifold near glow plug and close glow plug manual
switch for 15 seconds and observe glow plug through 1/8
inch pipe plug hole. The glow plug should be white hot; if
not, connect wiring to a 6- or 12-volt (as used) source and
check amperage; it should be 30 to 32 (minimum). If glow
plug is all right, check manual switch and resistor (if used)
and replace if necessary.
Spray Nozzle Application Of Starting Fluid
Cold-starting fluid should never be used with any type
preheater system. Serious damage could result.
Spray nozzie assembly consists of a control knob operated
by a flexible cable and cable housing attached to container,
bracket mounted on unit (1, Fig. 1-5}. Pulling knob, in cab,
releases spray through a small plastic hose (2) into spray
nozzle (3) located in intake crossover connection or air
intake manifold. Small orifice holes in spray nozzle must be
positioned to allow fluid to spray into both left bank and
right bank intake manifolds of V type engines. Do not hold
knob any longer than 2 seconds at any one time.
Fig. 1-5 (V11469) Starting fluid spray applicator
If engine does not start after first 2 seconds of spray
application, wait 1 or 2 minutes and repeat starting
procedure. In extreme cold weather conditions, if unit will
not start with above instructions, remove starting fluid can
and warm to room temperature; check spray nozzle in
intake connection to be sure orifice holes are free of foreign
material. Install can and repeat normal starting procedure.
Use Of Ether Without Metering Equipment
1. Spray ether into air cleaner intake, Fig. 1-6, while second
man cranks engine,
Warning: Never handie ether near an open flame. Never use
1-4
E В: ии ео |
= 7 - :
T Е |
+ - О
1
20 ;
Ll
| PS | |
Fig. 1-6 (N11807) Ether spray application
it with preheater or flame thrower equipment. Do not
breathe the fumes. Use of too much ether will cause
excessively high pressures and detonation.
2. Ether fumes will be drawn into the intake air manifold
and the cold engine should start without difficulty.
Warning: Fuel oil or volatile fuel cold starting aids are not
to be used in underground mine or tunnel operations. If the
engine is so equipped check with the local U.S. Bureau of
Mines Inspector for use of starting aid.
Engine Warm-Up
The most favorable clearances between moving parts are
obtained only after all engine parts reach normal operating
temperature; bring the engine up to operating speed
gradually as it warms up. Allow the engine to run at 800 to
1000 rpm for 4 to 5 minutes or preferably until water
temperature reaches 140 deg. F (60 deg. C] before
engaging load. Operate at approximately 75% of governed
rpm until water temperature reaches 160 to 165 deg. F [71
10 74 дед. С].
Engines on emergency or stand-by service normally are
located indoors and/or are equipped with some type oil or
water heating device to maintain oil and coolant
temperatures high enough to permit full load to be applied
immediately after start up.
Engine Speeds .
In most applications engine idle speeds are 520 to 650 rpm;
however, the parasitic load may require a slightly higher
speed to smooth out operation.
Caution: Cummins Engine Company, Inc., recommends
idling turbocharged engines three (3) minutes minimum
before applying load to obtain adequate oil flow through
turbocharger.
Operation and Maintenance Manual
Cummins Diesel Engines
Operating Instructions
All Cummins engines are equipped with governors to
prevent speeds in excess of maximum or predetermined
lover speed rating.
The governor has two functions: First, it provides the fuel
needed for idling when the throttle is in idle position.
Second, it overrides the throttle and shuts off fuel if engine
rpm exceeds maximum rated speed.
Speeds listed in Table 1-1 are for engines rated at maximum
rpm and fuel rate.
Table 1-1: Engine Speeds (RPM)
Engine Maximum Normal
Model Rated Operating
All NH NT ,855-R ,855-L 2100 1900-2000
All NH-NT 2300 1950-2100
V-903, VT-903 2600 2200-2300
V-378, V-504, V-555 3000 2500-2550
V-378, V-504, V-555 3300 2800-2850
C-464 2500 2150-2250
V-1710, V-1710-L 2100 1800-1900
Note: Engines in many applications are applied at a lower
than maximum rated speed, check the nameplate,
Rated engine speed is the rpm attained at full load.
Governed engine speed is the highest rpm a properly
adjusted governor will allow the engine to turn, no load.
Governed engine speed must never be exceeded.
Operate at partial throttie in continuous-duty situations to
give required torgue with the tachometer showing rpm
approximately 15 percent below governed speed.
Maximum Horsepower Requirements
Maximum horsepower is attained only at rated engine rpm.
Whenever engine rpm is pulled down by overload,
horsepower is lost and continues to be lost as long as the
engine continues to lose rpm. When full horsepower is
needed, operate engine as near rated rpm as possible. This
rule applies to all applications.
Always operate so power requirement will allow the engine
to accelerate to governed rpm when advancing to full
throttle.
Oil Temperature
The oil temperature gauge normally should read between
180 deg. F [82 deg. C] and 225 deg. F [116 deg. C]. Under
full load conditions, an oil temperature of 265 deg. F [129
deg. C] for a short period is not cause for alarm.
Caution: Any sudden increase in oil temperature which is
not caused by load increase is a warning of possible
mechanical failure and should be investigated at once.
During warm-up period, apply load gradually until oi
temperature reaches 140 deg. F [60 deg. C]. While oil is
cold it does not do a good job of lubricating. Continuous
operation or long periods of idle with oil temperatures
below 140 deg. F [60 deg. C] may cause crankcase dilution
and acids in the lubricating oil which quickly accelerate
engine wear,
Water Temperature
À water temperature of 165 to 195 deg, F [74 to 91 deg.
C] is the best assurance that working parts of the engine
have expanded evenly to the most favorable oil clearances,
Maximum engine coolant temperatures should not exceed
200 deg. F [93 deg. C].
Keep thermostats in the engine summer and winter, avoid
long periods of idling, and take necessary steps to keep
water temperature up to a minimum of 165 deg, F [74 deg.
Cl. If necessary in cold weather, use radiator shutters or
cover a part of the radiator to prevent overcooling.
Oil Pressure
Normal engine oil pressures at 225 deg. F {107 deg. C] are:
Table 1-2: Oil Pressure PSI [kg/sq em]
Engine Idle Rated
Series Speed Speed
NH-NT,855-R,855-L 5/20 [0.4/1.7] 30/70 [2.1/4.9]
C-464 10/30 [0.7/2.1] 40/75 [2.8/5.3]
V-903,VT-903 5/25 [0.4/1.8] 40/65 [2.3/4.6]
V-378,V-504,V-555 10/25 [0.7/1.8] 45/75 [3.2/5.3]
V-1710,V-1710-L 15 [1.0] min, 50 [3.5] min.
Note: individual engines may vary from above normal
pressures, Observe and record pressure when engine is new
to serve as a guide for indication of progressive engine
condition, (High oil pressure during start-up is not cause for
alarm). For record purposes these readings are more
accurate and reliable when taken immediately after an oil
change.
Engine Exhaust
The engine exhaust is a good indicator of engine operation
and performance, A smoky exhaust may be due to a poor
grade of fuel, dirty air cleaner, overfueling, or poor
mechanical conditions,
Operation and Maintenance Manual 1-5
Cummins Diesel Engines
Operating Instructions
If engine exhaust is smoky, corrective action should be
taken.
High Altitude Operation
Engines lose horsepower when operated at high altitude
because the air is too thin to burn as much fuel as at sea
level. This loss is about 3 percent for each 1000 ft [304.8
m] of altitude above sea level for a naturally aspirated
engine. Operate using a lower power requirement at high
altitude to prevent smoke and over-fueling.
Power Take-Off Applications With SVS
Governor — PT (type G) Fuel Pump
1. The SVS governor lever is used to change governed speed
of engine from standard rated speed to an intermediate
power take-off speed. -
2. Engine will not idle if SVS lever is in power take-off
speed position and throttle is in idle position, Operate as
follows:
a. For PTO operation, bring engine to idle speed.
b. Set throttle 600 to 800 rpm above idle,
c. Hold throttle in above position and shift SVS governor
lever to low speed or power take-off position.
d. Slowly close throttle until speed of power take-off
engagement is reached; engage power take-off,
e. Open throttle to full open and control unit with SVS
governor lever,
3. To return to standard throttle control:
a. Use standard throttle and decrease engine speed until
‘power take-off may be disengaged.
b. Disengage power take-off and shift SVS governor lever to
high-speed position.
с. Return throttle to idle position and resume operation of
unit.
Caution: Never return standard throttle to idle position
while SVS governor lever is in low speed or power take-off
position or engine will fail to idle properly.
4, SVS governor should not be used with power take-off
speeds lower than 1100 rpm; for these applications use
MVS governor.
Engine Shut-Down
Idle Engine A Few Minutes Before Shut-Down
It is important to idle an engine 3 to 5 minutes before
shutting it down to allow lubricating oil and water to carry
heat away from the combustion chamber, bearings, shafts,
etc. This is especially important with turbocharged engines,
The turbocharger contains bearings and seals that are
subject to the high heat of combustion exhaust gases, While
the engine is running, this heat is carried away by oil
circulation, but if the engine is stopped suddenly, the
turbocharger temperature may rise as much as 100 deg. F
[47 дед. С].
The engine can be shut down completely by turning off the
switch key on installations equipped with an electric
shut-down valve, or by turning the manual shut-down valve
lever, Turning off the switch key which controls the electric
shut-down valve always stops the engine unless override
button on shut-down valve has been locked in open
position. Hf manual override on electric shut-down valve is
being used, turn button full couterclockwise to stop engine.
Caution: Never leave switch key or override button in valve
open or run position when engine is not running. With
overhead tanks this would allow fuel to drain into
cylinders, causing hydraulic lock.
The compression release lever, Fig. 1-7, can be used as an
aid in cranking, before starting, or while making injector
and valve adjustment, but not to stop the engine.
Stop Engine Immediately If Any Parts Fail
Practically all failures give some warning before parts fail
and ruin the engine. Many engines are saved because alert
ers
iT
у
Fig. 1-7 (N114178) Compression release lever
operators heed warning signs (sudden drop in oil pressure,
unusual noises, etc.) and immediately shut down the
engine,
Operation and Maintenance Manual
Cummins Diesel Engines
Operating Instructions
Cold-Weather Protection
1. For cold-weather operation, use of permanent-type
ethylene glycol-base antifreeze with rust inhibitor additives
is recommended. See Section 3.
2. Drain cylinder block and heads on all engines by opening
petcocks and removing drain plugs as shown in Fig's. 1-8 to
1-14, If an air compressor, heat exchanger or other ‘water
cooled” accessory is used, open petcock and drain, Failure
to properly drain engine and accessories may cause serious
damage during freezing weather.
3. Immersion-type water and oil heaters are available for
engines used in cold-weather operations.
Fig, 1-9 (N 100126) 927 C.1,D. engine coolant drain points
V Series
=. à
mL AS
Coolant drain point
Operation and Maintenance Manual 1-7
Cummins Diesel Engines
Operating Instructions
Fig. 1-13 (N20001) Coolant drain point C Series
Fig. 1-14 (V41930) Coolant drain point V-1710 Series
Operator’s Daily Report
Make A Daily Report Of Engine Operation
To The Maintenance Department
The engine must be maintained in top mechanical condition
to get utmost satisfaction from its use. The maintenance
department needs daily running reports from the operator
to make necessary adjustments in time allotted and to make
provisions for more extensive maintenance work as reports
indicate necessity,
Comparison and intelligent interpretation of the daily
report along with a practical follow-up action will eliminate
practically all failures and emergency repairs.
Report to the Maintenance Department any of the
following conditions:
(front water crossover)
1. Low lubricating oil pressure.
1-8
2. Low power,
3. Abnormal water or oil temperature.
4. Unusual engine noise.
H. Excessive smoke,
6. Excessive use of coolant, fuel or lubricating oil.
/. Any fuel or lubricating oi leaks.
Operation and Maintenance Manual
Cummins Diesel Engines
Operating Instructions
Operation and Maintenance Manual 1-9
Cummins Diesel Engines
Operating Instructions
Industrial Fire Pump Engines
Fire pump engines are built and applied under conditions
set down by agencies such as Underwriters Laboratory;
therefore, parts originally supplied must not be deviated
from without qualifying agency approval. The following
instructions are those special items necessary to this
application, and should be used in conjunction with those
previously stated.
Starting And Testing
Manual Start System (Identified by one contactor (A, Fig.
1-15) and one magnetic switch (B, Fig. 1-15).
1. Contact operating personnel responsible for fire
protection system before starting to familiarize yourself
With any special equipment or accessories.
2. Assure that pre-lubing has been completed and
pre-heaters are in operation, because engine will
immediately come to full speed and load upon starting.
3. Operate engine for sufficient period of time to reach
stabilized temperature.
4, Record speed, temperatures and pressures. Check for
leaks.
5. With approval from operating personnel, shut engine
down and perform any repairs necessary.
Note: Fuel pump must be left in full load position per
qualifying agencies.
Automatic Start System (ldentified by two contactors (A,
Fig. 1-15) and two magnetic switches (B, Fig. 1-15).
1. Contact operating personnel responsible for fire
protection system,
2. Follow operating personnel’s starting procedure.
3. Assure that prelubing has been completed and preheaters
are in operation.
4, Observe operation of automatic system:
a. Disconnect fuel solenoid lead to prevent engine from
starting.
b. Place Automatic/Manual Selector switch in manual
position. Engine should crank predetermined amount of
time on one system, pause and transfer to other system.
This can be verified by observing the emergency start
Fig. 1-15 (V12014) Magnetic switches and contactors
button (C, Fig. 1-15) on the other contactor.
c. Reconnect fuel solenoid lead.
5. Using starting procedure, start engine,
6. Operate engine for sufficient period of time to reach
stabilized temperature.
7. Record speed, temperatures and pressures. Check for
leaks.
8. With approval from operating personnel, shut down
engine and perform any repairs necessary.
Note: Fuel pump must be left in full load position per
qualifying agencies,
Overspeed Switch Adjustment
The speed switches required for overspeed protection on
fire pump engines require high speed for the overspeed
adjustment,
Caution: These speeds may be sufficient to damage the
pump. An adapter, ST-1224 with 2:1 ratio, is available to
drive the tachometer and speed switch at twice engine
speed. This tool! when installed in place of the existing
adapter permits adjustment to be made to the speed switch
at slightly over 1/2 engine and pump speed. This maintains
a pump speed well within its safe speed range while
adjustments are being made.
1-10 Operation and Maintenance Manual
Cummins Diesel Engines
Operating Instructions
Adjustment Procedure
1. Remove present tachometer drive adapter.
2. Install service tool, ST-1224, in position of standard
drive adapter. Connect tachometer and overspeed stop
switch to the ST-1224 tool.
3. Start engine and warm to operating temperature,
4, Set engine speed to desired engine shut down speed as
indicated by tachometer.
a. On inline engine models, this can be accomplished by
adjusting vernier throttle control. |
b. On smail “Vee” engines the speed adjustment must be
made by adjusting the governor idle and maximum speed
screws. The idle screw is in the front of the MVS governor.
The maximum speed screw is mounted to the MVS
governor by a bracket and is on the left hand side of the
fuel pump. Engine slow down is accomplished by turning
the idle speed screw counterclockwise and turning the
maximum speed screw in a clockwise direction. To increase
engine speed, reverse the procedure.
5, Set single element speed switch.
a. Loosen three (3) set screws. Rotate cover clockwise (this
decreases trip speed) until switch actuates and stops
engines. Secure set screws,
b. On manual reset models, reactivate the switch by pushing
the reset button on top of switch,
0. Set dual element speed switches,
a. Remove the round head dust cover screw marked 2 from
top of switch.
b. insert 1/16” Hex Allen wrench into adjusting screw
located just below surface of cover.
c. Turn clockwise to lower the engine shut down speed.
Counterclockwise to raise engine shut down speed.
Caution: Do not turn adjusting screw more than 3
revolutions in either direction from factory setting. Do not
attempt to set dual element switch in same manner as the
single element switch.
d. Replace the dust cover screw.
e. On manual reset models, reactivate the switch by pushing
the reset button on top of switch. |
/. Replace service tool, ST-1224, with original drive adapter
and reconnect cables.
Maintenance Operations
Operation and Maintenance Manual 2-1
Cummins Diesel Engines
Maintenance Operations
Maintenance is the key to lower operating costs. A diesel
engine requires regularly scheduled maintenance to keep it
running efficiently.
Maintenance Schedule
Preventive maintenance is the easiest and least expensive
type of maintenance. It permits the Maintenance
Department to do the work at a convenient time.
A Good Maintenance Schedule Depends
On Engine Application
Actual operating environment of the engine governs the
maintenance schedule. The suggested check sheet on the
following page indicates some checks have to be performed
more often under heavy dust or other special conditions.
Extending The Maintenance Schedule
Any change in the established maintenance schedule should
be preceded by a complete re-analysis of the operation. A
lubricating oil analysis should be the major factor used in
establishing the original maintenance schedule; it should be
studied before making any change in or extending the
schedule periods,
Using The Suggested Schedule Check
Sheet
The maintenance schedule check sheet is designed as a
guide until adequate experience is obtained to establish a
schedule to meet a specific operation.
A detailed list of component checks is provided through
several check periods; also a suggested schedule basis is
given for hours of operation, or calendar of time.
A maintenance schedule should be established using the
check sheet as a guide; the result will be a maintenance
program to fit a specific operation.
The check sheet shown can be reproduced by any printer.
The person making each check can then indicate directly on
the sheet that the operation has been completed. When a
complete column (under A, B, C, etc.) of checks is
indicated, the engine will be ready for additional service
until the next check 1s due.
Storage For Engines Out Of Service
If an engine remains out of service for three or four weeks
(maximum six months) and its use is not immediately
forthcoming, special precautions should be taken to prevent
rust. Contact the nearest Cummins Distributor or consult
applicable Shop Manual for information concerning engine
storage procedures.
CL
Mai Schedul EQUIPMENT NO. ENGINE SERIAL NO,
aintenance Schedule MECHANIC HOURS, CALENDAR
TIME SPENT CHECK PERFORMED
PARTS ORDER NO, DATE
CUMMINS DIESEL ENGINES
Check each operation as performed.
A—CHECK
Pages 2-4, 2-8
B—- CHECK
Pages 2-9, 2-19
C-CHECK
Pages 2-20, 2-30
D—CHECK
Pages 2-31, 2-33
E-CHECK
Pages 2-34
SEASONAL
Pages 2-35, 2-36
D) Daity
Lubrication
[J Check Engine Oil
Level
[J Check Oil Bath
Cleaner Qil Level
Fuel System
LJ] Drain Sediment from
Fuel Tanks
Air System
[) Ciean Pre-Cleaner
Dust Pan
LJ) Check Air Cleaner
Restriction
O Clean/Change Air
Cleaner Element
CJ Change Oil Bath
Cleaner Qil
Cooling System
[J Check Coolant Level
Other Maintenance
O Drain Air Tank
{J Check Leaks, Correct
(J Repeat “A”
Lubrication
[J Change Engine Oil
[J Change Engine Е ии
Flow Oil Filter
(] Change By-Pass Filter
[J Record Oil Pressure
Fuel System
EJ Check Aneroid Oil
£3 Check Hvd. Gov. Oil
[J Check Throttle Linkage
[J Adjust Injectors and
Valves 2
EJ) Change Fuel Filter
[J Clean Fuel Tank
Breather
Air System
[1] Ciean/Change
Crankcase Breather
[J Check Air Piping
LJ Clean Oil Bath Air
Cleaner Tray Screen
[J Clean/Change Air
Compressor Breather
Element
Cooling System
[J Repeat “A” and “B” J Repeat “A, B апа С”
Lubrication Lubrication
{None) (None)
Fuel System F uel System
[1 Adjust Injectors and [J Clean and Calibrate
Valves Injectors
(J Change Hyd. Governor О) Replace Fuel Pump Filter
Oil Screen and Magnet
О) Change Aneroid Oit D) Check Fuel Pump
[J Check Aneroid Adjustment Calibration
[J Replace Aneroid
Bellows and
Calibrate
Air System
J Clean Turbocharger
Compressor Wheel
and Diffuser
[J Check Turbocharger
Bearing Clearance
[J Tighten Manifold
[0 Replace Aneroid Breather
Air System
[J Check Vent Piping
[J Clean Oil Bath
Air Cleaner
Cooling System
[J Clean Radiator —
E xternal
0 Check Fan Hub
Idler and Water Pump
Other Maintenance Nuts or Capscrews
[J inspect Units Replace Cooling System
as Required {Alternator/ (None)
Generator, Starter, etc.) Other Maintenance
OO Check Air Compressor [J Steam Clean Engine
J Check Vibration J Tighten Mounting
[J Repeat “A,B, Cand О”
LJ This Maintenance Check
is often referred to as
"In-Frame Inspection”
where some key parts,
such as bearings, are
checked for wear to
determine if the engine
may be operated for
another service period.
Likewise, oil consumption
oil pressure and other
signs of wear should be
analyzed during the check,
Wear limits and other in-
formation is available
from Cummins Dis-
tributors and Dealers,
Clean Cooling System
Replace Hose as Required
Check Cold Start Aid
Check Thermal Controls
Check Heat Exchanger
Zinc Plugs
goood
Clean Electric Connections
[J Change Water Filter Damper Bolts and Nuts
[J Check/Adjust Belts (as Required)
Other Maintenance (None) [0 Check Crankshaft
End Clearance
[J Check Fan Hub
and Drive Pulley
Engine Series Interval ! B с D E Seasonal
C-464 Hours 200 1000 3000 6000
V-378,V-504 Hours 200 1000 3000 6000
V-555
V-903.VT-903 Hours 250 2000 4000 8000
N-743,N-855, Hours 250 2000 4000 8000
N-927 Hours 250 2000 4000 8000
V-1710 Hours 250 2000 4000 8000
Calendar 3 mo. 1 year 2 year 4 vears
Note: 1. Perform checks on operating basis of interval that occurs first. Normally calendar period is used only when hours are less than 1/3 that suggested during the three (3) month' period.
2. At first oil change or initial inspection, adjust injectors and valves, thereafter at “C” Check.
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Operation and Maintenance Manual 2-3
Cummins Diesel Engines
Maintenance Operations
Attention Owner
This Section sets forth the maintenance schedule which should be followed.
To prove that engine has been properly maintained retain records, such as work orders and receipts, showing that scheduled
maintenance has been performed.
The maintenance record form on this page is for your convenience.
Maintenance Performance Record
Engine Serial No. Engine Model
Owner Name . Equipment Name/Number
Interval Basis Actual Distributor /Dealer Authorized
Hours Calendar Date Hours Location/Shop Signature
Operation and Maintenance Manual
Cummins Diesel Engines
Maintenance Operations
‘A’ Maintenance Checks
Lubrication
Check Engine Oil Level
Note: Some dipsticks have dual markings, with high-and
low-level marks: static oil marks on one side, engine
running at low idle speed marks on opposite side. Be sure to
use proper scale,
1. Check oil level with dipstick oil gauge located on the
engine. For accurate readings, oil level should not be
checked for approximately 15 minutes after engine
shut-down. Keep dipstick with the oil pan with which it
was originally shipped. Keep oil level as near “H” (high)
mark as possible,
Caution: Never operate the engine with oil level below the
“L” (low) mark or above the “H” (high) mark.
2. If necessary, add oil of the same Quality and brand as
already in the engine. See Section 3.
Check Oil Bath Cleaner Oil Level
Daily check oi! level, Fig. 2-1, in oil bath air cleaner to be
sure oil level in oil cup is at indicated mark. Refill as
required.
Fig. 2-1 (N11001) Checking oil level in air cleaner
Fuel System
Drain approximately 1 pint of fuel from each tank to
remove water and sediment.
Air System
Clean Pre-Cleaner And Dust Pan
Under extremely dirty conditions an air pre-cleaner may be
used. Clean pre-cleaner jar and dry-type air cleaner dust
pans daily or oftener, as necessary, depending on operation
conditions,
Check Inlet Air Restriction Gauge
A mechanical restriction gauge is available to indicate
excessive air restriction through a dry-type air cleaner. This
gauge can be mounted in air cleaner outlet or on vehicle
instrument panel. The restriction indicator signals when to
change cartridges. The red flag (1, Fig. 2-2) in window
gradually rises as cartridge loads with dirt. Do not change
cartridge until flag reaches top and locks in position. After
changing cartridge, reset indicator by pushing reset button
(2).
Fig. 2-2 (CGS20) Air inlet restriction gauge
Note: Never remove felt washer from gauge, it is necessary
to absorb moisture,
Vacuum switches, Fig. 2-3, are available which actuate a
warning light on the instrument panel when air restriction
becomes excessive.
Fig. 2-3 (V11010) Vacuum switch to check air inlet restriction
Check Air Inlet Restriction Systems
Without Indicator Gauge
When a restriction gauge is not part of the system, check as
foliows:
1. On naturally aspirated engines, attach vacuum gauge or
water manometer in middle of intake manifold or on air
intake piping. When located in air intake piping, adapter
must be perpendicular to air flow and not more than 6
inches [152.4 mm} from air intake manifold connection.
Also, air restriction readings may be taken at air cleaner
outlet pipe, the adapter must be mounted perpendicular to
air flow.
2. On turbocharged engines, the vacuum manometer should
be connected to air intake pipe, one to two pipe diameters
upstream from turbocharger inlet, in a straight section of
pipe. Turbocharged engines should be under full load with
time provided to allow the turbocharger to reach maximum
speed when restriction is measured. (High idle, no load
readings on turbocharged engines are not satisfactory.)
3. When checking at the engine intake manifold or
turbocharger inlet, idle engine until normal operating
temperature 1s reached.
4. Operate engine at rated speed and take reading from
vacuum gauge or manometer.
a. Air restriction must not exceed 25 inches [635.0 mm] of
water or 1.8 inches [45.72 mm] of mercury at intake
manifold.
b. At the air cleaner outlet, restriction must not exceed 20
Operation and Maintenance Manual 2-b
Cummins Diesel Engines
Maintenance Operations
inches [508 mm] of water or 1.5 inches [38.1 mm] of
mercury.
5. 1f air restriction exceeds limits in Step 4 above:
a. Clean or replace dry-type cleaner element.
b. Replace damaged air piping, rain shield or housing.
C. Remove excessive bends or other source of restriction in
air piping.
Clean Air Cleaner Elements
The paper element in a dry-type air cleaner, Fig's. 2-4, 2-5
and 2-6, may be cleaned several times by using air to blow
off dirt or by washing with nonsudsing household detergent
and water at 120 to 140 deg. F [49 to 60 deg. C] , then
drying with compressed air, approximately 40 psi [2.8
kg/sq cm] . Do not hold air jet too close to paper element.
Elements that have been cieaned several times will finally
clog and air flow to engine will be restricted. After cleaning,
check restriction as previously described and replace
element if necessary.
Caution: Holes, loose end seals, dented sealing surfaces and
other forms of damage render cleaner inoperative and
require immediate element replacement.
Fig. 2-4 (N11003) Air cleaner (dry-type)
2-0 Operation and Maintenance Manual
Cummins Diesel Engines
Maintenance Operations
To change element:
1. Loosen wing nut (1, Fig. 2-4) securing bottom cover (2)
to cleaner housing (3). Remove cover.
2. Pull element (6) down from center bolt (4).
3. Remove gasket (5) from outlet end (7) of housing.
When installing the element, make sure it seats on the
gasket at the air cleaner outlet end.
Heavy Duty Dry-Type Air Cleaners
Heavy duty air cleaners (single and dual types) combine
centrifugal cleaning with element filtering, Fig's. 2-5 and
2-6, before air enters engines.
Before disassembly, wipe dirt from cover and upper portion
of air cleaner. To clean single or dual types:
1. Loosen wing bolt, remove band securing dust pan (1, Fig.
2-5), (2, Fig. 2-6).
2. Loosen wing nut (2, Fig. 2-5 and 3, Fig. 2-6), remove
dust shield (3, Fig. 2-5), (4, Fig. 2-6), from dust pan (1, Fig.
2-5), (2, Fig 2-6), clean dust pan and shield.
3. Remove wing nut (2, Fig. 2-6), (5, Fig. 2-6) securing air Fig. 2-5 (V10005) Air cleaner — heavy duty
cleaner primary element (6, Fig. 2-6) in air cleaner housing,
inspect rubber sealing washer on wing nut (4, Fig. 2-5), (5,
Fig. 2-6).
4. Blow out element from clean air side with compressed air
not exceeding 100 psi [7 kg/sg cm].
5. Wash element with non-sudsing household detergent and
water, 120 to 140 deg. F [49 to 60 deg. C}. Dry with
compressed air, 40 psi [2.8 kg/sq cm] .
6. Inspect element after cleaning.
7. Install new or cleaned primary element,
8. Be sure gasket washer is in place under wing nut before
tightening.
|
9. Reassemble dust shield and dust pan, position to air
cleaner housing and secure with band.
10. On dual element type Cycliopac cleaner:
a. Check air restriction indicator, if air restriction is
excessive, disassemble air cleaner, remove wing nut (8, Fig.
2-6), and replace safety element (9).
b. Reassembie air cleaner as described in Steps 8 and 9
above.
6
| (3)
(4)
3)
Cartridge Type Air Cleaner Element
1. Loosen wing nuts (4, Fig. 2-7 or 2-8) on air cleaner Fig. 2-6 (N11030) Air cleaner — heavy duty dual element
Fig. 2-8 (V11009) Air cleaner — cartridge type (single stage)
housing (b) to remove pre-cleaner panel with dust bin (1).
To remove pre-cleaner panel (2) equipped with exhaust
aspirator loosen “U” bolt clamp securing pre-cleaner to
aspirator tubing.
2. Remove dirty Pamic cartridge (3), by inserting fingers in
cartridge opening. Loosen all four corners of cartridge, one
at a time, by pulling straight out.
With larger cartridge, it may be necessary to break seal
along edges of cartridge. After seal has been broken, pull
the cartridge straight out and slightly up so cartridge will
clear sealing frame and edges of air cleaner housing.
Cleaning And Inspection
1. Clean pre-cleaner openings (2) of all soot, oil film and
any other objects that may have become lodged in
Operation and Maintenance Manual 2-7
Cummins Diesel Engines
Maintenance Operations
openings. Remove any dust or dirt in lower portion of
pre-cleaner and aspirator tubing. Inspect inside of air
cleaner housing for foreign material.
2. Inspect dirty cartridge for soot or oil. If there Is soot
inside Pamic tubes, check for leaks in engine exhaust
system, exhaust “blow-back” into alr intake and exhaust
from other equipment. If cartridge appears “oily”, check
for fumes escaping from crankcase breather. Excessive oil
mist shortens life of any dry-type cartridge.
Trouble-shooting at this point can appreciably lengthen
new cartridge life.
3. It is not recommended to clean and reuse cartridge.
When returned to service, life expectancy of a paper
cartridge will be only a fraction of original service life.
4. Inspect clamps and flexible hose or tubing to be sure all
fittings are air tight on cleaners with exhaust aspirators.
5. The pre-cleaner dust bin is self-cleaning.
Assembly
1. Inspect new filter cartridge for shipping damage before
installing.
2. To install a new cartridge, hold cartridge (3, Fig. 2-7 and
2-8) in same manner as when removing from housing. Insert
clean cartridge into housing; avoid hitting cartridge tubes
against sealing flange on edges of air cleaner housing.
3. The cleaner requires no separate gaskets for seals;
therefore, care must be taken inserting cartridge to insure a
proper seat within cleaner housing. Firmly press all edges
and corners of cartridge with fingers to effect a positive air
seal against sealing flange of housing. Under no
circumstances should cartridge be pounded or pressed in
center to effect a seal.
4. Replace pre-cleaner panel (2) and tighten wing nuts (4)
by hand, for final tightness turn 1-1/2 to 2 turns with a
small adjustable wrench. Do not overtighten. On pre-cleaner
with exhaust aspirator, assemble aspirator tube to
pre-cleaner panel and tighten U” bolt.
bh. Care should be taken to keep cleaner face unobstructed.
Change Oil Bath Air Cleaner Qil
Before dirt build-up reaches 1/2 inch [12.7 mm], remove
oil cup from cleaner. Discard oil and wash cup in cleaning
solvent or fuel oil.
Note: During wet weather and in winter months, changing
of oil is equally as important as during dusty weather since
the air cleaner inlet may be located in an air stream which
carries moisture into the cleaner.
Fill oil cup to level indicated by bead on side with clean,
2-8 Operation and Maintenance Manual
Cummins Diesel Engines
Maintenance Operations
fresh oil of the same grade as that in crankcase and
assemble to cleaner. In extremely cold weather a lighter
grade may be necessary. A straight mineral, non-foaming
detergent, or non-foaming additive oil may be used in oil
bath air cleaners.
Caution: Never use dirty or used oil.
Cooling System
Keep cooling system filled to operating level. Check coolant
level daily or at each fuel fill point. Investigate for causes of
coolant loss. Check coolant level only when system is cool.
Other Maintenance
Drain Air Tank(s)
Open drain cock(s) and drain all moisture and sediment
from air tank (s).
Check Leaks And Correct
1. Check for evidence of external air, coolant, fuel or oil
leakage. Correct as necessary.
2. if there are indications of air leaks on suction side of fuel
pump, check for air leaks by placing ST-998 Sight Gauge
(1, Fig. 2-9) in the line between fuel filter(s) and pump.
Bubbles or “milky”” appearance indicate an air leak. Find
and correct.
Fig. 2-9 (N11964) Checking air leaks with ST-998 Sight Gauge
Operation and Maintenance Manual 2-9
Cummins Diesel Engines
Maintenance Operations
‘B’ Maintenance Checks
At each “B’ Maintenance Check, perform all A’ Checks
in addition to the following.
Lubrication
Change Engine Oil
Factors to be checked and limits for oil analysis are listed
below. Oil change at “B” Check, as shown in maintenance
chart on Page 2-2, is for average conditions.
1. Bring engine to operating temperature, shut down
engine, remove drain plug from bottom of oil pan, and
drain oil.
2. Install drain plug in oil pan. On Inline and V-903 Engines
torque to 60 to 70 ft-lbs [8.0 to 9.7 kg m]. On V-378,
V-504 and V-555 Engines torque to 35 to 40 ft-lbs [4.8 to
5.5 kg m]. On V-1710 Engines torque to 45 to 55 ft-Ibs
[6.2 10 7.6 Ка т].
3. Fill crankcase to 'Н’ {high level) mark on dipstick.
4. Start engine and visually check for oil leaks.
5. Shut down engine; allow 15 minutes for oil to drain back
into pan; recheck oil level with dipstick. Add oil, as
required,
Lubrication Oil Analysis
The most satisfactory method for determining when to
change lubricating oil is by oil analysis using laboratory
tests. A new series of tests should be run if filters, oil
brands or grades are changed.
In the beginning, tests should be made each 100 gal. of fuel
consumed (after the first 400 gal.), or 20 hours (after the
first 100 hours) until the analysis indicates the first oil
change is necessary.
Analysis Test For Lubricating Oil
Check oil properties in the following list during analysis.
These methods are fully described in the American Society
for Testing Materials Handbook.
Oil Property Test Number
Viscosity at 100 deg. F and 210 deg. F ASTM-D445
Sediment AS TM-D893
Water ASTM-D95
Acid and Base Number ASTM-D664
General Limits For Oil Change
1. Minimum Viscosity {dilution limit): Minus one SAE
grade from oil being tested or point equal to a minimum
containing five percent by volume of fuel oil.
2. Maximum Viscosity: Plus one SAE grade from oil being
tested, or ten percent increase at 210 deg. F {99 deg. C] or
25 percent increase at 100 deg. F {38 deg. Cl .
3. Sediment Content: Normal pentane insoluble 1.0 to 1.5
percent. Benzine insoluble 0.75 to 1.0 percent.
4. Acid Number: Total number 3.5 maximum.
5. Water content: 0.2 percent maximum.
6. Additive Reduction: 25 percent maximum.
Caution: If the above tests indicate presence of any metal
particles, or if found in filters, the source should be
determined and corrective action taken before a failure
results.
Change Engine Full-Flow Filter Element
(Can Type With Center Bolt)
1. Remove drain plug from filter case and allow oil to drain.
Replace drain plug.
2. Remove filter can and filter element. See Fig's. 2-10,
2-11,2-12,and 2-13.
Fig. 2-10 (N10098) Removing lubricating oil filter, 927 C.1.D. Series
2-10 Operation and Maintenance Manual
Cummins Diesel Engines
Maintenance Operations
3. Inspect filter element.
a. Inspect for metal particles.
b. Inspect outside wrapper of element for wrinkles and
pleats for waviness or bunching. Presence of these
conditions indicates that oil contains moisture.
c. If element is relatively clean, it may be possible to
lengthen change periods.
d. If element is clogged, the change period should be
shortened. Qil pressure drop reading across filter is the best
way to determine change periods. Pressure drop from inlet
(1, Fig. 2-11) to outlet side (2) of filter should not exceed
10 psi [0.7 kg/sq em] with 140 deg. F [60 deg. C] oil
temperature and engine at high-idle speed.
e. Discard element after inspection.
4. Remove seal ring from filter head and discard.
Caution: Two or more seal rings attached to filter head will
cause leakage, permitting unfiltered oil to enter by-pass
element.
5. Clean filter case. Handle case and/or store in manner to
prevent out-of-round. «
Note: It is recommended that every second oil change to
change the small seal rings (4 and 17, Fig. 2-12) at bottom
of oil filter can to prevent oil leakage due to hardening of
rubber seals. Inspect seals each oil change for deterioration.
6. Position element end seals in place and install new
element over spring support assembly.
7. Position new seal ring on filter head or can; install new
PE ET PE EE LL ВЕ e element in filter case. Position to filter head and tighten
Fig. 2-12 (V10702) Full-F low filter assembly V-378, V-504 and center capscrew to 25 to 35 ft-Ibs [3.5 to 4.8 kg ml.
V-555 Tighten clamp-type filter capscrew securely.
8. Fill engine to “H” (high level) mark on dipstick with
lubricating oil. Run engine and check for leakage.
9. Recheck engine oil level; add oil as necessary.
: o a Е Note: Always allow 15 minutes for oil to drain back to oil
ii | pan before checking level.
Change Engine Full-Flow Filter Element
(NTA Series And Filter Mounted Atop Cooler)
1. Remove drain plug from filter housing and allow oil to
drain. Replace drain plug.
2. Remove capscrews and washers securing cover to
housing; lift off cover and discard gasket. Lift out element;
inspect, then discard.
Fig. 2-13 (V40737) Removing tubricating oil filter element(s) 3. Wipe housing clean.
4. Insert new element in filter housing seating securely on
end seal and install cover and new gasket.
Change Lubricating Oil By-Pass Filter Element
Note: By-pass filters may be mounted either vertically,
horizontally or inverted; all are serviced in like manner.
1. Remove drain plug (b, Fig. 2-14) and drain oil.
2. Remove clamping ring capscrew (1) and lift off cover.
3. Unscrew support hold-down assembly (3); lift out
element (4) and hold-down assembly. Discard element.
4. Clean housing and hold-down assembly in solvent.
5. Inspect hold-down assembly spring and seal. Replace if
damaged.
6. Inspect drain plug and connections. Replace if damaged.
7. Check orifice plug (6) inside oil outlet connection or
standpipe; blow out with air to open and clean.
8. Check filter cover “O” ring (7). Replace if necessary.
9. Install new element in housing.
Fig. 2-14 (V41908) By-Pass filter cross section
Operation and Maintenance Manual 2-11
Cummins Diesel Engines
Maintenance Operations
10. Replace support hold-down assembly in filter and
tighten down to stop.
11, Position “O” ring seal on housing flange.
12. Install cover and clamping ring; tighten capscrews until
clamping lugs are indexed,
13. Run engine check for leaks, add enough extra oil to
crankcase to fill to “H” (high) mark on dipstick.
Caution: Never use a by-pass filter in place of a full-flow
filter.
Record Oil Pressure
Start the engine and operate at 800 to 1000 rpm until
engine reaches normal operating temperature. Reduce to
idle and record oil pressure. A comparison with previous
readings will give an indication of progressive wear of
lubricating oil pump, bearings, shafts, etc. These readings
should be taken immediately after an oil change. |
Fuel System
Check Aneroid Oil
1. Remove pipe plug from hole marked “Lub Oil”.
2. Fill with engine lubricating oil to level of pipe plug hole.
Reinstall pipe plug.
Check Hydraulic Governor Oil Level
Keep level half-way up on inspection glass or to high-level
mark on dipstick. Use same grade oil as used in engine.
Check Throttle Linkage
Check throttle linkage and make sure it is in good operating
condition. Check throttle travel to make sure linkage
operates throttle from stop to full throttle and that degree
of travel is within specifications for application.
Adjust Injectors and Valves (See “C’’ Check)
At first “B” Check, check and/or adjust injectors,
crossheads and valves. Thereafter at C” Check,
Change Fuel Filter Element
Throw-Away Type Filter
1. Unscrew combination case and element, Fig. 2-15,
discard element.
2. Fill new filter with clean fuel.
Fig. 2-15 (V 11909) Changing throw-away type fuel filter
3. Install filter; tighten by hand until seal touches filter
head. Tighten an additional one-half to three-fourths turn.
Caution: Mechanical tightening will distort or crack filter
head.
Replaceable Element
1. Open drain cock {s) and drain contents.
2. Loosen nut{s) at top of fuel filter(s}. Take out dirty
element, clean filter case(s) and install new element(s). Fig.
2-16.
3. Install new gasket(s) in filter head (s) and assemble case(s)
and element(s). Tighten center bolt(s) to 20 to 25 ft-lbs
[2.8 to 3.5 kg m] with a torque wrench. Fill filter case(s)
with clean fuel to aid in faster pick-up of fuel.
2 E de
Fig. 2-16 (V11910) Installing replaceable fuel filter element
Operation and Maintenance Manual
Cummins Diesel Engines
Maintenance Operations
4. Check fittings in filter head(s) for leaks. Fittings should
be tightened to 30 to 40 ft-lbs [4.1 to 5.5 kg ml.
Clean Fuel Tank Breather
1. Remove breather, clean in solvent, and dry with
compressed air,
2. Check breather(s) for freedom of air flow. Reinstall clean
breather(s).
Air System
Clean/Change Crankcase Breather
Mesh Element Breather
1. Remove wing nut (6, Fig. 2-17), flatwasher and rubber
washer securing cover (1), to breather body (5).
2. Lift off cover and lift out breather element (2), vapor
element (3) and gasket (4).
3. Clean all metal and rubber parts in approved cleaning
solvent, Dry thoroughly with compressed air.
Fig. 2-17 {(V51909) Crankcase breather — mesh element with vapor
barrier
4. Inspect rubber gasket; replace if necessary. Inspect body
and cover for cracks, dents or breaks; discard all
unserviceable parts.
5. Install cleaned or new breather element (2, Fig. 2-17)
and cleaned vapor element (3) to breather body (5).
6. Install rubber gasket (4) in cover (1), position cover
assembly to body (5).
7. Install rubber washer, flatwasher and wing nut (6);
tighten securely.
Paper Element
1. Remove wing nut (6, Fig. 2-18), flatwasher and rubber
washer securing cover (1) and element assembly to
breather,
2. Remove cover, element (2) and gasket (4).
3. Separate cover from element. Discard element.
4. Clean and inspect parts as described under “Mesh
Element Breather’.
5. Assemble parts using new paper eiement, see assembly
under “Mesh Element Breather”.
Fig. 2-18 (N20311) Crankcase breather — combination type
Operation and Maintenance Manual 2-13
Cummins Diesel Engines
Maintenance Operations
Screen Element Breather — Cleaning And
Inspection
1. Remove vent tube if not previously removed.
2. Remove capscrews, washers, cover, screens and baffle if
used, from breather body, Fig. 2-19.
3. Clean vent tube, screens and baffle in an approved
cleaning solvent, Dry with compressed air. Wipe out
breather housing.
4. Assemble baffle and screens, if used, and new gasket in
body.
56, Replace cover with cover boss resting securely on point
of screen, if used; secure with washers and capscrews.
6. Replace vent tube.
Fig. 2-19 (N21928) Crankcase breather
screen type
Check Air Piping, Turbocharger
Connections And Manifolds
Check air intake piping from air cleaner to turbocharger or
intake manifold, Fig. 2-20. Replace or tighten parts as
necessary to insure an air-tight intake system.
Clean Tray Screen
Clean tray screen in kerosene or cleaning solvent. Dry with
compressed air, reassemble to cleaner.
Note: If tray screen is extremely dirty, it may be necessary
to singe the screen with a flame. Do not melt tin plate on
screen,
in these coolants; therefore, a separate test is performed
when antifreeze is used. This kit oniy measures one of the
many chemicals present in D C A to give an indication of
concentration and should not be used in place of a regular
maintenance and service program.
Checking Coolant Without Antifreeze
1. Rinse the mixing bottle (Part No. 259027} several times
with a part of the coolant sample to be tested, then fill to
the 10 ml. mark.
2. Add one (1) dropperful of Bromothymo! Blue indicator
Solution (Part No, 259026) and swirl to mix. A blue to
purple color will develop.
3. Add a single drop at a time of the Sulfuric Acid Standard
Solution, 0.500 N (Part No. 259028), until the color
changes from blue or purple to yellow, swirling to mix after
the addition of each drop.
Note: Most accurate results for drop-count can be obtained
by holding the dropper vertical and dispensing drops at the
rate of about one (1) drop per second. Count the number
of drops required for the color change and compare to
Table 2-1 for corrective maintenance requirements.
Caution: Use extreme care in handling of the Sulfuric Acid
Solution, it can cause acid burn.
Table 2-1: Coolant Condition and Corrective Action
No. Drops Coolant Maintenance
Added Condition Required
О — 7 Dangerous Pre-charge System
8— 11 Border line Replace Service Filter
12 — over Acceptable None
Operation and Maintenance Manual
Cummins Diesel Engines
Maintenance Operations
Checking Coolant With Antifreeze
1. Rinse the mixing bottle several times with a part of the
sample coolant to be tested, then fill to the 10 ml. mark.
2. Add one (1) dropperful of Bromothymo! Blue Indicator
Solution and swirl to mix. A blue to purple color will
develop.
3. Add 05 mi. increments of Sulfuric Acid Standard
Solution, 0.500 N to the sample, using the 0.5 mill.
calibrated dropper (markings on side of dropper} and swirl
to mix after the addition of each 0.5 ml. Continue until the
color changes.
Note: Since most antifreezes contain dyes, it may be
helpful to first test a sample containing only the antifreeze
used and water (without D C A inhibitors) to more clearly
determine the correct endpoint color change for the
coolant.
Caution: Use extreme care in handling of the Sulfuric Acid
Solution, it can cause acid burn.
4. Accurate results can only be obtained by determining the
contribution of the antifreeze to the reserve alkalinity
reading. A solution must be made up of the antifreeze and
water mixture being used plus enough D C À chemical to
make the DC A concentration equal to 1.5 dry ounces
(42.5 gms.) per gallon of solution. This will be checked in
the same manner as coolant samples to give the value to be
used for “Adequate Coolant Condition’, Table 2-2.
Adjusting Coolant To Specifications
If above tests indicate coolant is outside specifications,
make an adjustment immediately to prevent corrosion,
Change to a pre-charge element, and run engine until next
“B” Check. However, make sure the coolant system is not
larger than the water filter was designed to treat; see
Section 3.
Table 2-2: Coolant With Antifreeze Condition And Type Antifreeze Record
DCA Concentration Coolant Maintenance
Evaluation Condition Required
О — 66% “adequate ml,” Dangerous Pre-charge
6/ — 99% “adequate ml.” Border line Replace Service Filter
100% — over “adequate mi,” Adequate None
Antifreeze Used
Concentration — %
Adequate — ml.
Make-Up Coolant Specifications
Where possible, it is recommended that a supply of
make-up coolant be prepared using one package О С А
dri-charge, Part No. 299050, to each four gallons soft water
{where possible) and/or antifreeze as required.
Note: Continue to use Fieetguard D CA Water Filters
with pre-treated water.
Check And Adjust Belt Tension
All driven assemblies must be secured in operating position
before reading or judging belt tension.
1. Always shorten distance between pulley centers so belt
can be installed without force. Never roll belt over the
pulley and never pry it on with a tool such as a screwdriver.
Either will damage belts and cause early failure.
2. Replace belts in complete sets. Belt riding depth should
not vary over 1/16 inch [1.69 mm] on matched belt sets.
3. Pulley misalignment must not exceed 1/16 inch [1.6
mm] for each foot [0.3 m] of distance between pulley
centers.
4. Belts should not bottom on pulley grooves nor should
they protrude over 3/32 inch [2.38 mm] above top edge of
groove.
b. Do not allow belts to rub any adjacent parts.
Beit Tension
1. Using appropriate gauge, Fig. 2-26, check and/or adjust
belts to tension as indicated in Table 2-3.
2. If belt tension gauge is not available, tighten belts so
Fig. 2-26 (N11977) Checking belt tension with ST-1138
Operation and Maintenance Manual 2-17
Cummins Diesel Engines
Maintenance Operations
Table 2-3: Belt Tension (Pounds)
Belt New Belt Reset Tension Belt
Width Installation Running After Tension
(Inches) Tension Tension Run-In Gauge
3/8 110 7010 90 70 57-1274
3/8 110 80to 9b 80 ST-968
1/2 110 80 to 100 80 ST-1274 or
ST-968
11/16 110 80 to 100 80 ST-1138
3/4 110 80 to 100 80 ST-1138
7/8 120 30to 110 90 ST-1138
1 130 100 to 120 100 ST-1138
15/32 120to140 70to90 70 ST-1274 or
(FFC Idler Pulley) ST-968
Note: When installing or checking alternator or generator
drive belts, subtract 20 pounds tension from above gauge
readings.
pressure of finger wilt depress belt amount of defelction in
Table 2-4. The finger should be extended straight down
from hand; in this manner, force will be approximately 13
Ibs. [5.9 kg} deflection (1, Fig. 2-27) per foot [0.3 m] of
span (2).
Fig. 2-27 (N11471) Checking belt tension manually
Table 2-4: Belt Tension — Inch [mm]
Belt Deflection Per Ft. {0.3 m]
Width of Span
1/2 [12.70] 13/32 [10.32]
11/16 [17.46] 13/32 [10.32]
3/4 [19.05] 7/16 [11.11]
7/8 [22.22] 1/2 [12.70]
1 [25.40] 9/16 [14.29]
3. Deflection (1, Fig. 2-27) should equal amount indicated
in Table 2-4 for each foot of belt span (2).
Inline Engine Water Pump Belts
(No Idler)
1. Eccentric water pump adjustment.
a. Loosen water pump clamp ring to allow pump body to
turn.
b. Loosen pump body by pulling up on belts. A sharp jerk
may be required.
c. Insert bar in water pump body slots and rotate pump
body counterclockwise to tighten belts.
Note: Do not adjust to final tension at this time.
d. Snug clamp ring capscrew farthest from belts, on exhaust
side to 5 ft-lbs [0.7 kgm] .
e. Snug two capscrews above and below the first one to 5
ft-Ibs (0.7 kg ml.
f. Finish tightening by alternating from side to side in 5
ft-lbs [0.7 kg m] increments to a final torque of 12 to 15
ft-lbs [1.7 to 2.1 kgm].
g. Check belt tension.
Final belt tension was not obtained by adjustment alone.
The water pump body was putled straight by snugging the
capscrews in the order described, thus increasing belt
tension to final value.
2. Adjustable (split) pulley water pumps.
a Remove capscrews joining the sheave(s) of the puliey.
V-1710 Series Engines have a sheave on each side of hub.
Note: Ciean capscrew threads and holes in sheaves
thoroughly to avoid capscrew breakage during reassembly.
b. The outer half of the pulley is screwed onto the hub
extension of the inner half. Some puileys are provided with
flats, and some with lugs for barring.
c. Bar the engine over to roll the belt outward on the pulley
as the outer half is turned in.
d. Adjust belt(s) to tension indicated in Table 2-3 or 2-4.
e. Turn outer sheave(s) in enough to align the capscrew
holes.
ft. Start capscrews and tighten alternately and evenly. Final
tension Is:
5/16-18 capscrew, 10 to 12 ft-ibs [1.4 to 1.7 kg m]
3/8-16 capscrew, 17 to 19 ft-lbs [2.4 to 2.6 kg m]
Operation and Maintenance Manual
Cummins Diesel Engines
Maintenance Operations
Fig. 2-28 (N11973) Water pump — no idler
g. Bar engine over one or two revolutions to seat belt.
h. Recheck belt tension,
Inline Engine Water Pump Belts
(With Idler)
1. Loosen capscrews and lockwashers or locknut securing
idler pulley to bracket or water pump.
2. Using a pry bar (NTA) or adjusting screw (FFC Series)
adjust idler pulley until proper beit tension is indicated on
gauge. See Table 2-3.
3. Secure idler pulley or bracket in position by tightening
locknut or capscrews and lockwashers to 45 to 5b ft-lbs
[6.2 to 7.6 kg m] torque.
Fig. 2-29 (N11974) Water pump — with idier
Fan Drive Belts
1. Loosen large locking nut on fan hub shaft or capscrews
securing fan hub shaft to mounting bracket. The fan hub
will fall out of line when this is done.
2. Turn the adjusting screw to increase belt tension.
3. Tighten the locknut or capscrews until the fan hub is
straight. Snug the nut to maintain hub in proper alignment
with the fan hub bracket.
Caution: Do not adjust to full tension with the adjusting
screw, this would result in overtightening.
4, Belt tension should read as indicated in Table 2-3 on
applicable gauge. If a gauge is not available, the belt should
be checked with finger pressure at the center of the longest
span. Deflection should be one thickness per foot [0.3 m]
of pulley center distance.
5. Tighten N-743, 855 and V-1710 Series engines locknut
to 400 to 450 ft-lbs [55.3 to 62.2 kg m}; then back off 1/2
turn. Tighten capscrews 75 to 85 ft-lbs [10.4 to 11.8 kg
m}.
a. On V-903 engines tighten capscrews to 75 ft-lbs [10.4 kg
m] or single nut to 450 ft-lbs [62.2 kg m] .
b. On V-37/8, V-504 and V-bbb engines, tighten fan hub
capscrews to 78 to 85 ft-lbs [10.8 to 11.8 kg m] or large
nut to 300 ft-lbs [41.5 kgm].
c. On C engines, if fan hub is adjusted with adjusting screw,
adjust belt tension by turning adjusting screw; then tighten
shaft nut (behind bracket) to 400 to 500 ft-lbs [65.3 to
69.2 kg m] with ST-832 Fan Hub Nut Wrench. If fan hub is
adjusted with an eccentric shaft, turn shaft with ST-891
Wrench until proper tension of belts is reached; using
ST-892 Wrench, tighten shaft tocknut to 300 ft-ibs [41.5 kg
mi.
6. Recheck belt tension.
7. Back out adjusting screw one-half turn to prevent
breakage.
Generator/Alternator Belts
Belt tension should be as indicated in Table 2-3 when
measured with the applicable gauge. When no gauge is
available, finger pressure should not deflect belt more than
indicated in Table 2-4. |
Readjusting New Belts
All new belts will loosen after running a short period of
time and must be readjusted to installation tension. After
initial installation and retensioning, belts should then be set
at running tension. Ref, Table 2-3.
Operation and Maintenance Manual
Cummins Diesel Engines
Maintenance Operations
2-19
2-20
Operation and Maintenance Manual
Cummins Diesel Engines
Maintenance Operations
‘C’ Maintenance Checks
At each “C” Maintenance Check, first perform all “A”, and
“B" Checks in addition to those following.
Fuel System
Adjust Injectors And Valves
It is essential that injectors and valves be in correct
adjustment at all times for the engine to operate properly.
Temperature Settings
The following temperature conditions provide the necessary
stabilization of engine components to assure accurate
settings.
Cold Setting
Engine must have reached a stabilized temperature (oil
temperature to be within 10 deg. F of ambient air
temperature}. Up to 4 hours may be required to reach this
condition on engines which have operated at a high load
immediately prior to shutdown.
Hot Setting
1. Set injectors and valves immediately after the engine has
reached normal stabilized operating oil temperature.
2. If oil temperature gauge is unavailable, set injectors and
valves immediately after engine has operated at rated speed
and load or at high idle for a period of 20 minutes.
Valve Set Mark Alignment (V-903 Series)
Bar crankshaft in direction of rotation until No. 1 "VS"
mark appears on the vibration damper crankshaft pulley or
accessory drive pulley as used. See Fig. 2-30 for location of
valve set marks. In this position, both intake and exhaust
valves must be closed for cylinder No. 1; if not, advance
crankshaft one revolution. See Fig. 2-31 and Table 2-5.
Note: Once familiar with injector and valve adjustment,
start at any cylinder and follow firing order to make
adjustments,
Before adjusting injector, tighten hold-down capscrew to 30
to 35 ft-lbs [4.1 to 4.8 kg m] torque.
lt EN
Fig. 2-30 (V514115) Valve set marks V-903
Table 2-5: Engine “V” Series Firing Order
1-5-4-8-6-3-7-2
1-4-2-5-3-6
Right Hand v8
Right Hand V6
Note: Do not use fan to rotate engine, use barring
arrangement. Fig. 2-32. Remove key, insert hex drive and
press inward until barring gear engages drive gear; then
advance. After completion of adjustment, be sure drive
retracts and install key into safety lock groove.
Operation and Maintenance Manual 2-21
Cummins Diesel Engines
Maintenance Operations
»
Fig. 2-32 (V51486) Engine barring arrangement (V-903)
V-903 Series Injector Adjustment —
Dial Indicator Method
This method involves adjusting injector plunger travel with
an accurate dial indicator rather than tightening the
adjusting screw to a specified torque.
Note: Values listed in Table 2-6 are to be used for either
“Cold Set” or “Hot Set”. “Cold Set” is the preferred
temperature.
A check can be made of the adjustment without disturbing
the locknut or screw setting. The valves can also be checked
or set while adjusting the injectors by this method. See
Table 2-6 for specifications.
Table 2-6: Adjustment Limits (V-903 Series) (Indicator
Method of Adjustment) — Inch [mm]
Injector Plunger Travel Valve Clearance
Adjustment Value Reset Limit Intake Exhaust
0.180 to 0.181
[4.57 to 4.60]
0.179 to 0.182 0.012 0.025
[4.55 to 4.62] [0.30] [0.64]
Caution: These values apply only when setting valves in
conjunction with injector dial indicator method of
adjustment.
The ‘VS’ (Valve set) marks on the vibration damper or
rear accessory drive pulley are used when setting injectors
by the indicator method, but a new indicator mark location
is used on the front cover or on the accessory drive support.
See Fig's 2-33 and 2-34.
When using the indicator method, the “VS” (valve set)
“Torque Method” injector
timing mark
New “Dial Indicator’
injector timing mark
Fig. 2-33 (V51922) Relative location of timing marks on front cover
6
x
И
F
Ш ИЛ
“Torque Method" Injector
| timing mark
Fro ae OT = New “Dial Indicator”
" i injector timing mark à
Fig. 2-34 (V514103) Relative location of timing marks on accessory
drive support
mark on the damper is aligned with the front cover
capscrew 135 deg. counterclockwise from the timing mark,
see Fig. 2-33. Newer engines are equipped with a pointer at
the capscrew. The valve set mark on the accessory drive
pulley is aligned with the accessory drive support capscrew
135 deg. clockwise from the current timing mark. See Fig.
2-34. Alignment in both cases, should be held to one-half
inch [12.7 mm] of the capscrew.
Using engine barring device (Fig. 2-32), rotate engine in
direction of rotation until “VS” mark for cylinder 2-8 1$
aligned with appropriate capscrew or pointer. In this
position both the intake and exhaust valve rocker levers for
No. 2 cylinder should be free and can be moved up and
down, If not, bar engine another 360 deg. in direction of
rotation and realign the 2-8 “VS” mark with the capscrew
or pointer,
Note: No. 2 cylinder is selected for purpose of illustration
only. Any other cylinder could be used.
2-22
1. Set up ST-1170 Indicator Support with the indicator
extension atop injector plunger flange at No. 2 cylinder.
Fig. 2-35.
2. Make sure indicator extension is not contacting rocker
lever.
3. Using ST-1251 rocker lever actuator, Fig. 2-36, bar
injector rocker lever forward until plunger 1$ bottomed in
cup to squeeze all oil film from cup.
4. Allow the injector plunger to rise and then bottom again
and set indicator at zero (0); release and bottom again and
set indicator at zero (0); release and bottom plunger again
to check setting.
5. Release the lever completely, indicator should show a
total reading as indicated in Table 2-6. (Use adjustment
EE
Fig. 2-35 (V514114) Dial indicator in place - extension in contact
with plunger, V-903 Series
—
Fig. 2-36 (V514128) Bottoming injector plunger in cup, V-903 series
Operation and Maintenance Manual
Cummins Diesel Engines
Maintenance Operations
value or reset limit.) Adjust to correct tolerance as
necessary.
6. Tighten the adjusting screw locknut to 30 to 40 ft-Ibs
[4.1 to 5.5 kgm] or 25 to 35 ft-Ibs [3.5 to 4.8 kg m] when
using ST-669 Adapter on torque wrench and actuate the
injector plunger several times as a check of the adjustment.
7. Loosen crosshead adjusting screw, push down at rocker
lever contact surface to hold crosshead in contact with
valve stem; turn down adjusting screw until it touches valve
stem and torque each nut to 25 to 30 ft-lbs [3.5 to 4.1 kg
m] . Check clearance with a wire gauge; minimum clearance
is 0.025 inch [0.64 mm].
Injector Plunger Adjustment Using Torque Method,
V-378, V-504, V-555 C.1.D. Series Engines
Valve Set Mark Alignment
Turn crankshaft in direction of rotation until a “VS” mark
appears on the vibration damper, crankshaft pulley or
accessory drive pulley. See Fig. 2-37 for location of valve
set marks. In this position both intake and exhaust valves
must be closed for that cylinder; if not, advance crankshaft
one revolution, See Fig. 2-38, Fig. 2-31 and Table 2-5 for
firing order.
Before adjusting injector, tighten injector hold-down
capscrew to 30 to 35 ft-lbs {4.1 to 4.8 kg m] torque.
The tnjector plungers of all engines must be adjusted with
an inch-pound torque wrench to a definite torque setting.
Snap-On Model TE-12 or equivalent torque wrench and a
screwdriver adapter can be used for this adjustment. Fig.
2-30.
1. Turn adjusting screw down until plunger contacts cup.
Advance an additional 15 degrees to squeeze oil from cup.
Fig. 2-37 (V11913) Valve set marks, V-378
Fig. 2-39 (V51488) Adjusting injector plunger V-378
2. Loosen adjusting screw one turn, then, using a torque
wrench calibrated in inch-pound and a screwdriver adapter,
tighten the adjusting screw to 60 inch-lbs [0.7 kg m].
3. Hold injector adjusting screw and tighten injector
locknut, Fig. 2-40, to values indicated in Table 2-7.
Note: If cylinder head gasket has been replaced, engine
must be started and brought to operating temperature, then
allowed to cool thoroughly. Cylinder head capscrews must
be retorqued. See Engine Shop Manual. Injector plungers
should then be reset to values listed above.
Crosshead Adjustment
1. Loosen valve crosshead adjusting screw locknut and back
off screw one turn.
Operation and Maintenance Manual 2-23
Cummins Diesel Engines
Maintenance Operations
FY
Fig. 2-40 (V51489) Tightening injector adjusting screw lock nut
2. Use light finger pressure at rocker lever contact surface
to hold crosshead in contact with valve stem (without
adjusting screw).
3. Turn down crosshead adjusting screw until it touches
valve stem. Fig. 2-41.
4. Hold adjusting screw in this position and torque locknut
to 25 to 30 ft-ibs [3.5 to 4.1 kg ml.
Note: Insure that crosshead retainers on exhaust valves (if
used) are positioned equally on both sides of spring over
crossheads and valve springs.
Fig. 2-41 (V51490) Adjusting crossheads
5. Check clearance between crosshead and valve spring
retainer with wire gauge. There must be a minimum of
0.025 inch [0.64 mm] clearance at this point.
2-24
Table 2-7: Injector And Valve Locknut Torque
(All Models)
With ST-669 Without ST-669
30 to 40 ft-Ibs
[4.1 to 5.5 kg m]
25 to 35 ft-lbs
[3.5 to 4.8 kg m]
Valve Adjustment
The same engine position used in adjusting injectors is used
for setting intake and exhaust valves.
1. Loosen locknut and back off adjusting screw. Insert
feeler gauge between rocker lever and top of crosshead.
Valve clearances are; Intake 0.012 inch [0.30 mm],
Exhaust 0.022 inch. (0.56 mm]. Turn screw down until
lever just touches gauge and lock adjusting screw in this
position with locknut. Fig. 2-42. Torque locknut to values
indicated in Table 2-7.
Note: If cylinder head gasket has been replaced, engine
must be started and brought to operating temperature, then
allowed to cool thoroughly. Cylinder head capscrews must
be retorqued. See Engine Shop Manual. Vaives should then
be reset to values listed above.
2. Always make final valve adjustment after injectors are
adjusted.
NH-743, N-855, N-927 C.1.D. Series Engines,
Injector And Valve Adjustment
(Dial Indicator Method)
Temperature conditions described as “Hot Set” or “Cold
Operation and Maintenance Manual
Cummins Diesel Engines
Maintenance Operations
Set” must be observed when recheck is being performed, If
travel exceeds recheck values, adjust to proper value shown
in “Adjustment Value” column. Check and/or adjust valves
as necessary,
Note: Before adjusting injectors and valves be sure to
determine if rocker housings are Cast Iron or Aluminum
and use appropriate setting.
Before adjusting injectors, torque cylindrical injector,
hold-down capscrews in alternate steps to 10 to 12 ft-Ibs
[1.4 to 1.7 kg m]. With flange injectors torque hold-down
capscrews in alternate steps to 12 to 14 ft-lbs [1.7 to 1.9 kg
m]. Tighten fuel inlet and drain connections to 20 to 25
ft-lbs [2.8 to 3.5 kg m| in flange injectors.
Check Plunger Free Travel (For Engines Without
Injector Adjustment Procedure Decal)
1. Back injector adjusting screw out 1-1/2 full turns from
normal operating position, tighten locknut.
2. With ST- 1270 Dial Indicator Extension on injector
plunger top, bar engine and record total amount of travel at
each plunger. This is called “Plunger Free Travel’ and
MUST NOT exceed 0.206 inch [6.23 mm] on any one {1)
cylinder of engine on which dial indicator method of
adjustment is to be used. |
Note: On engines with Plunger Free Travel exceeding 0.206
inch [6.23 mm] the Torque Method of adjustment must be
used unless component changes (rocker levers and/or cam
followers) are made which will allow 0.206 inch [5.23 mm]
limit of Free Travel to be obtained.
Maintenance Adjustment
The appropriate check values in Table 2-8 are applicable to
engines which have operated long enough to warrant
checking of injector setting and valve clearance.
Injector And Valve Adjustment
Note: If used, Jacobs Brakes must be removed from
engines, for adjustment of injectors and valves.
1. Bar engine until “A” or 1-6 “VS” mark on pulley, Fig.
243, 1s aligned with pointer on gear case cover. In this
position, both valve rocker levers for cylinder No. 5 must
be free (valves closed). Injector plunger for cylinder No. 3
must be at top of travel; if not, bar engine 360 deg., realign
mark with pointer.
2. Set up ST-1170 Indicator Support with indicator
extension on injector plunger top at No. 3 cylinder, Fig.
2-44, Make sure indicator extension is secure in indicator
stem and not against rocker lever.
Note: Cylinder No. 3 for injector setting and cylinder No. 5
for valve setting are selected for illustration purposes only.
Any cylinder combination may be used as a starting point,
see Table 2-9.
Table 2-8: Uniform Plunger Travel Adjustment Limits
Stabilized Injector Plunger Travel
Valve Clearance
Temp. Inch [mm] Inch [mm]
Adjustment Recheck
Valve Limit Intake Exhaust
Aluminum Rocker Housing
Cold 0.170 0,169 to 0,171 0.011 0.023
[4.32] [4.29 to 4,34] [0.28] [0.58]
Hot 0.170 0.169 to 0,171 0,008 0.023
[4.32] [4.29 to 4.34] [0.20] [0.58]
Cast tron Rocker Housing
Cold 0,175 0.174 t0 0.176 0.011 0.023
[4.45] [4,42 to 4,47] [0.28] {0.58}
Hot 0.175 0.174 to 0,176 0.008 0.023
[4.45] [4.42 to 4.47] [0.20] [0.58]
Table 2-9: Injector And Valve Set Position
Bar in Pulley Set Cylinder
Direction Position Injector Valve
Start À or 1-6VS 3 5
Adv, To B or 2-bVS 6 3
Adv. To C or 3-4VS 2 6
Adv. To Aor 1-6VS 4 2
Adv. To B or 2-5VS 1 4
Adv. To Cor 34VS 5 1
Fig. 2.43 (N114230) Accessory drive pulley marking
Operation and Maintenance Manual 2-25
Cummins Diesel Engines
Maintenance Operations
Fig. 2-44 (N1 14231) Diat indicator in place - extension in contact
with plunger, N-Sertes
3. Using ST-1193 Rocker Lever Actuator, Fig. 2-45, or
equivalent, bar lever toward injector until plunger is
bottomed to squeeze oil film from cup. Allow injector
plunger to rise, bottom again, set indicator at zero (0).
Check extension contact with plunger top.
4. Bottom plunger again, release lever; indicator must show
travel as indicated in Table 2-8. Adjust as necessary.
Note: Make recheck at same stabilized temperature as
adjustments. All travel and clearance values are with
locknuts property torqued. “Cold Set” is the preferred
stabilized temperature,
5. |f toosened, tighten locknut to 30 to 40 ft-Ibs [4.1 to 5.5
kg m] and actuate injector plunger several times as a check
of adjustment. Tighten to 25 to 35 ft-lbs [3.5 t0 4.8 kg m]
when using ST-669 Adapter.
Fig. 2-45 (N114232) Bottoming injector plunger in cup, N-Series
2-26
Caution: Before checking or setting valves, be sure
crossheads are adjusted.
6. Adjust valves on cylinder No. 5 to values in Table 2-8.
Torque locknuts to same value as injectors. Move to next
cylinder as indicated in Table 2-9 and repeat adjustment.
7. Apply Injector Adjustment Decal to frontmost plain
rocker housing cover if not previously installed.
Adjustment Of Engine On Which Head Gasket
And/Or Rocker Housing Gasket Has Been Replaced
Adjust injectors and valves using appropriate values in the
“Cold Set” column, See Table 2-8. The engine must operate
for approximately 1 hour at rated speed to allow stability
of structural components as affected by the gasket
replacement. Recheck injectors and valves.
Note: Readjustment after 1 hour operation is necessary to
assure lowest smoke potential and avoid excessive injector
train loads.
Adjust Injectors And Valves (Torque Method)
V-1710, NH-743, N-855, N-927 and C-464, C.I.D.
Series Engines
Timing Mark Alignment
1. If used, pull compression release lever back and block in
open position only while barring engine.
2. Loosen injector rocker lever adjusting nut on all
cylinders. This will aid in distinguishing between cylinders
adjusted and not adjusted.
Note: Before adjusting injectors and valves be sure to
determine if rocker housings are Cast Iron or Aluminum
and use appropriate setting.
3. Bar engine in direction of rotation until a valve set mark
(Fig's. 2-46, 2-47 and 2-48) aligns with the mark or pointer
on the gear case cover. Example: A or 1-6 “VS” on inline
engines or 1-6R “VS” on V-1710 engines.
4. Check the valve rocker levers on the two cylinders
aligned as indicated on pulley. On one cylinder of the pair,
both rocker levers will be free and valves closed, this is
cylinder to be adjusted.
5. Adjust injector plunger first, then crossheads and valves
to clearances indicated in the following paragraphs.
6. For firing order see Table 2-10 for inline engines and
Table 2-11 and Fig. 2-49 for V-1710 Series Engines.
7. Continue to bar engine to next “VS” mark and adjust
each cylinder in firing order.
Note: Oniy one cylinder is aligned at each mark. Two
Operation and Maintenance Manual
Cummins Diesel En
gines
Maintenance Operations
|
Fig. 2-48 (N21459) V
7 -
i
|
alve set marks » C Series
complete revolutions of the crankshaft are required to
adjust all cylinders.
Injector Plunger Adjustment
The injector plungers must be adjusted with an inch-pound
torque wrench to a definite torque setting. Snap-On Model
TE-12 or equivalent torque wrench and a screwdriver
adapter can be used for this adjustment. See Fig's. 2-50 and
2-51.
1. Turn adjusting screw down until plunger contacts cup
and advance an additional 15 degrees to squeeze oil from
cup.
Note: Number one L and one R cylinders on V-1710
engines are at gear case end of engine.
2. Loosen adjusting screw one turn; then, using a torque
wrench calibrated in inch-pounds and a screwdriver adapter
tighten the adjusting screw to values shown in Table 2-12
and tighten locknut to 30 to 40 ft-lbs {4.1 to 5.5 kg m]
torque. If ST-669 Torque Wrench Adapter is used, torque
to 25 to 35 ft-lbs [3.5 t0 4.8 kgm].
Crosshead Adjustment
Crossheads are used to operate two valves with one rocker
lever. The crosshead adjustment is provided to assure equal
operation of each pair of valves and prevent strain from
misalignment.
The crosshead adjustment changes as a result of valve seat
wear during engine operation. Make sure crossheads are
adjusted before adjusting valve rocker levers.
1. Loosen valve crosshead adjusting screw locknut and back
off screw (4, Fig. 2-52) one turn.
«NOSODDO
Fig, 2-49 (V414231) V-1710 firing order
Operation and Maintenance Manual 2-27
Cummins Diesel Engines
Maintenance Operations
Table 2-10: Engine Firing Order — Inline
Right Hand Left Hand
Rotation Rotation
1-5-3-6-2-4 1-4-2-6-3-5
Table 2-11: V-1710 Engine Firing Order
Right Hand—
1 L-OR-2L-5R-4L-3R-6L-1R-5L-2R-3L-4R
Left Hand—
i L-4AR-3L-2R-5L-1R-6L-3R-41-5R-2L-6R
Table 2-12: Injector Plunger Adjustment — Inch Ibs [kg m]
Cold Set Hot Set
V-1710 Series
50 {0.6]
NH-NT-743, 855, 927 C.1.D, Series
Cast Iron Rocker Housing
48 [0.6] 72 [0.8]
Aluminum Rocker Housing
72 [0.8] 72 [0.8]
C-464 C.1.D. Series
48 [0.6] 60 [0.7]
Fig. 2-50 (V414190) Adjusting injector plungers - Va1710 Series
2-28
= “4 . ee ; € ‘ | 0 ts
Fig. 2-51 (N11466) Adjusting injector plungers - N Series
2.52 (N21461) Adjusting valve crossheads
2. Use light finger pressure at rocker lever contact surface
(1) to hold crosshead in contact with valve stem (2).
3. Turn down crosshead adjusting screw until it touches
valve stem (3).
4. With new crossheads and guides, advance setscrew an
additional one-third of one hex (20 deg.) to straighten stem
on its guide (5) and compensate for slack in threads. With
worn crossheads and guides, it may be necessary to advance
screw as much as 30 deg. to straighten stem on its guide.
©. Using ST-669 Torque Wrench Adapter, tighten locknut
to 22 to 26 ft-Ibs [3.0 to 3.6 kg m]. If ST-669 is not
available, hold screws with screwdriver and tighten locknuts
to 25 to 30 ft-lbs [3.56 to 4.1 kg m].
6. Check clearance between crosshead and valve spring
retainer with wire gauge. There must be a minimum of
Operation and Maintenance Manual
Cummins Diesel Engines
Maintenance Operations
0.020 inch [0.51 mm] clearance at this point.
Valve Adjustment
The same engine position used in adjusting injectors is used
for setting intake and exhaust valves.
1. While adjusting valves, make sure that the compression
release, on those engines so equipped, is in running
position.
2. Loosen locknut and back off the adjusting screw. Insert
feeler gauge between rocker lever and crosshead. Turn the
screw down until the lever just touches the gauge and lock
the adjusting screw in this position with the locknut. Fig.
242. Tighten locknut to 30 to 40 ft-Ibs [4.1 to 5.5 kg ml
torque. When using ST-669 torque to 25 to 35 ft-Ibs [3.5 to
4.8 kgm].
3. Always make final valve adjustment at stabilized engine
lubricating oil temperature, See Table 2-13 for appropriate
valve clearances.
Table 2-13: Valve Clearance — Inch [mm]
Intake Valves Exhaust Valves
Cold Set Hot Set Cold Set Hot Set
V-1710 Series
0.016 [0.41] 0.029 [0.74]
NH-NT-743, 855, 927 C.1.D, Series
Cast tron Rocker Housing
0.016 [0.41] 0.014 [0.36] 0.029 [0.74] 0.027 [0.69]
Aluminum Rocker Housing
0.014 [0.36] 0.014 [0.36] 0.027 [0.69] 0.027 [0.69]
C-464 C.1.D. Series
0.017 [0.43] 0.015 [0.381 0.027 [0.69] 0.025 [0.64]
Change Hydraulic Governor Oil
Change oil in the hydraulic governor sump at each “C”
Check.
Use the same grade of oil as used in the engine. See
“Lubricating Oil Specifications”.
Note: When temperature is extremely low, it may be
necessary to dilute the lubricating oil with enough fuel oil
or other special fluid to insure free flow for satisfactory
governor action,
Change Aneroid Oil
1. Remove fill plug (1, Fig. 2-53) from hole marked "Lub
Oil".
2. Remove drain plug (2) from bottom of aneroid.
3. Replace pipe plug (2), fill aneroid with clean engine
lubricating oil. Replace fill plug (1).
Check Aneroid Adjustment And
Check Bellows
Normally, no adjustment of the aneroid is required;
however, if smoke is evident and all other engine
adjustments have been checked, back out adjusting screw
(4, Fig. 2-53). If screw must be backed out until
acceleration is slow, have unit checked by a Cummins
Distributor.
2. "Lub. Oil’ drain point.
3. Breather assembly
A. Adjusting screw
Fig. 2-53 (N10503) Aneroid
Note: |f smoke Is excessive after 15 seconds of full throttle
operation, aneroid is not at fault, have fuel system and
turbocharger checked.
Replace Aneroid Breather
Remove and replace aneroid breather (3, Fig. 2-53).
Air System
Check Air And Vapor Line Connections
Check all air and vapor lines and connections for leaks,
breaks, stripped threads, etc.; correct as needed.
Operation and Maintenance Manual 2-29
Cummins Diesel Engines
Maintenance Operations
Clean Complete Oil Bath Air Cleaner
Steam
Steam clean the oil bath cleaner main body screens. Direct
the steam jet from the air outlet side of the cleaner to wash
dirt out in the opposite direction of air flow.
Solvent-Air Cleaning
1. Steam clean exterior of cleaner.
2. Remove air cleaner oil cup.
3. Clamp hose with air line adapter to air cleaner outlet,
4. Submerge air cleaner in solvent,
5. Introduce air into unit at 3 to 5 psi [0.2 to 0.4 kg/sq
cm] and leave in washer 10 to 20 minutes.
6. Remove cleaner from solvent and steam clean thoroughly
to remove all traces of solvent. Dry with compressed air,
Caution: Failure to remove solvent may cause engine to
overspeed until all solvent is sucked from cleaner.
7. 1f air cleaner is to be stored, dip in lubricating oil 10
prevent rusting of screens.
Note: If screens cannot be thoroughly cleaned by either
method, or if body is pierced or otherwise damaged, replace
with new air cleaner.
Cooling System
Clean (Externally) Radiator Core
Blow out all insects, dust, dirt and debris (leaves, bits of
paper, etc.) that may be on front of radiator or lodged
between radiator core fins and tubes,
Inspect Water Pump, Idler Pulley
And Fan Hub
Inspect water pump, idler pulley and fan hub for wobble
and evidence of grease or coolant leakage. Replace with
rebuilt prelubricated units as necessary.
Other Maintenance
Check Alternator/Generator And Cranking Motor
Brushes And Commutators
1. Inspect terminals for corrosion and loose connections,
and wiring for frayed insulation. Check mounting bolts for
tightness and check belt for alignment, proper tension and
wear.
2-30 Operation and Maintenance Manual
Cummins Diesel Engines
Maintenance Operations
2. Slip rings and brushes can be inspected through
alternator end frame assembly. If slip rings are dirty, they
should be cleaned with 400-grain or finer polishing cloth.
Note: Never use emery cloth to clean slip rings. Hold
polishing cloth against slip rings with alternator in
operation and blow away all dust after cleaning operation.
3. Check alternator bearings for wear. Shaft will be
excessively loose if bearings are worn.
4. |f brushes are worn close to the holder, the alternator
must be removed and sent to manufacturer's rebuild
station.
Air Compressor
Inspect air compressor, check for evidence of oil or coolant
leakage. Replace with rebuilt unit as necessary.
Check Vibration Damper
Rubber Damper
Damper hub (1, Fig. 2-54) and inertia member (2) are
stamped with an index mark (3) to permit detection of
movement between the two components.
There should be no relative rotation between hub and
inertia member resulting from engine operation.
Check for extrusion or rubber particles between hub and
inertia member.
; . A. |
Fig, 2-54 (V41932) Vibration damper alignment marks
Viscous Dampers
Check damper for evidence of fluid loss, dents and wobble.
Replace as required.
Operation and Maintenance Manual 2-31
Cummins Diesel Engines
Maintenance Operations
‘D’ Maintenance Checks
At each “D” Maintenance Check, perform all “A”, “B” and
“C” Checks in addition to those following. Most of these
checks should be performed by a Cummins Distributor or
Dealer and where Cummins Shop Manuals are available for
complete instructions.
Fuel System
Clean And Calibrate Injectors
Clean and calibrate injectors regularly to prevent restriction
of fuel delivery to combustion chambers. Because of the
special tools required for calibration, most owners and
fleets find it more economical to let a Cummins Distributor
do the cleaning and calibration operations.
To clean and calibrate injectors, refer to Bulletin No.
983536 and revisions thereto.
Replace Fuel Pump Screen And Magnet
PT (type G) Fuel Pump
1. Loosen and remove cap, remove “O” ring and spring.
2. Lift out filter screen assembly. Discard screen assembly.
3. Install new filter screen assembly in fuel pump with hole
down, position spring on top of filter screen assembly.
4. Replace cap and “O” ring; tighten to 20 to 25 ft-Ibs [2.8
to 3.5 kg m] torque.
PT (type G) VS Fuel Pump
1. Remove snap ring (1, Fig. 2-55) securing filter cap (2)
from bottom rear of fuel pump housing.
2. Using a screwdriver or small pry bar remove cap with
"0" ring (3), spring (4) and filter screen assembly (5) from
housing. Discard “O” ring and screen assembly.
3. Lubricate new “O” ring (3) and position in groove of
filter cap (2).
4. Position new screen assembly (5) on spring (4) and cap
(2) install in bore of fuel pump housing.
D. Secure with snap ring (1).
Fig. 2-55 (K11931) VS Fuel pump screen
Check Fuel Pump Calibration
Check fuel pump calibration on engine if required. See the
nearest Cummins Distributor or Dealer for values.
Replace Bellows And Calibrate Aneroid
At each “D” Check replace aneroid bellows. This can be
accomplished without changing aneroid settings’ if
precautions are taken to assure that same spring and shims
are reinstalled.
1. Remove flexible hose or tube from aneroid cover to
Intake manifold.
2. Remove lead seal or file away end of rivet type seal (if
used).
3. Remove screws and aneroid cover.
4. Remove self-locking nut and retaining washer securing
bellows (7, Fig. 5-10) to shaft (6) and piston (8).
bh. Clean bellows sealing area on body and cover.
O. Install new bellows, align holes in bellows with
corresponding holes in aneroid body. Position retaining
washer over bellows and secure with self-locking nut. Install
cover on body
7. install new seal. Refer to Bulletin No. 983725 for sealing
and calibration procedure. Calibration must be performed
by a Cummins Distributor.
8. Reinstall flexible hose or tube from aneroid cover to
intake manifold.
Air System
Clean Turbocharger Compressor Wheel
And Diffuser
Keep the compressor wheel and diffuser clean for best
turbocharger performance. Any buildup of dirt on the
compressor wheel will choke off air flow and cause rotor
imbalance.
At every ‘D’ Check, clean the compressor wheel and
diffuser. Refer to pertinent Turbocharger Manual for
specific instructions.
Check Turbocharger Bearing Clearance
Check bearing clearances every “D” Check. This can be
done without removing the turbocharger from the engine,
by using a dial indicator to indicate end-play of the rotor
shaft and a feeler gauge to indicate radial clearance. Fig.
2-50.
Checking Procedure
1. Remove exhaust and intake piping from the turbocharger
to expose ends of rotor assembly.
2. Remove one capscrew from the front plate (compressor
wheel end) and replace with a long capscrew. Attach an
indicator to the long capscrew and register indicator point
on the end of rotor shaft. Push the shaft from end-to-end,
making note of total indicator reading.
$
Fig. 2-56 (N11956) Checking turbocharger bearing end clearance
Operation and Maintenance Manual
Cummins Diesel Engines
Maintenance Operations
3. Check radial clearance on compressor wheel only.
4. |f end clearance exceeds limits shown in Specific
Bulletin, remove turbocharger from engine and replace with
a new or rebuilt unit.
Tighten Manifold Nuts Or Capscrews
Check exhaust and intake manifolds mounting hardware for
tightness; correct deficiencies as required.
Other Maintenance
Steam Clean Engine
Dirt from the outside will find its way into fuel and
lubricating oil filter cases and into rocker housings when
covers are removed unless dirt is removed first.
Steam is the most satisfactory method of cleaning a dirty
engine or piece of equipment. If steam is not available, use
mineral spirits or some other solvent to wash the engine.
All electrical components and wiring should be protected
from the full force of the steam jet.
Tighten Mounting Bolts And Nuts (As Required)
Tighten all mounting bolts or nuts and replace broken or
lost bolts or capscrews.
Check Crankshaft End Clearance
(At Clutch Adjustment)
The crankshaft of a new or newly rebuilt engine must have
end clearance as listed in Table 2-14. A worn engine must
not be operated with more than the worn limit end
clearance shown in the same table. When engine is
disassembled for repair, install new thrust rings if end
clearance is in excess of value under "Worn Limit",
Table 2-14: Crankshaft End Clearance — inch [mm]
Engine New New Worn
Series Minimum Maximum Limit
H, NH, 0.007 0.017 0.022
NT [0.18] [0.43] [0.56]
V-903, 0.005 0.015 0.022
VT-903 [0.13] [0.38] [0.56]
V-378, V-504, 0,004 0,014 0.022
V-555 [0.10] [0.36] [0.56]
C-464 0,004 0.015 0,022
[0.10] [0.38] [0.56]
V-1710 0.006 0.013 0.026
[0.15] [0.33] [0.66]
The check can be made by attaching an indicator to rest
against the damper or pulley, Fig. 2-567, while prying against
the front cover and inner part of pulley or damper. End
clearance must be present with engine mounted in the unit
- and assembled to transmission or converter.
Caution: Do not pry against outer damper ring.
Fig. 2-57 (V51918} Checking crankshaft end clearance
Check Fan Hub And Drive Pulley
Check fan hub and drive pulley to be sure they are securely
mounted.
Tighten fan capscrews and check drive pulley for looseness
or wobble. Tighten shaft nut if necessary.
Operation and Maintenance Manual
Cummins Diesel Engines
Maintenance Operations
2-33
2-34
Operation and Maintenance Manual
Cummins Diesel Engines
Maintenance Operations
E Maintenance Checks
The E” Maintenance Check is often referred to as a chassis
overhaul, where engine is not removed from the unit but
some assemblies are rebuilt. In addition, a major inspection
should be performed to determine whether engine may be
operated for another service period, or whether it should be
completely overhauled. Oil consumption, no oil pressure at
idling, oil dilution and other signs of wear such as
“blow-by”' should be analyzed as part of the inspection.
Since major inspection requires partial disassembly of the
engine, it should be done only in a well-equipped shop by
mechanics thoroughly familiar with worn repiacement
limits and disassembly and assembly procedures. This
information is available in all Cummins Shop Manuals
which can be purchased from any Cummins Distributor.
At this period, perform all previous checks and:
Inspect Bearings
Rebuild Cylinder Head
Inspect Cylinder Liners
Replace Cylinder Liner Seals
Inspect Pistons
Inspect Connecting Rods
Replace Piston Rings
Inspect Crankshaft Journals
Inspect Camshaft
Inspect Cam Followers
Replace Front And Rear Crankshaft Seals
Replace Vibration Damper
Clean Oil Cooler
Parts which are worn beyond replacement limits at this
inspection should be replaced with new or rebuilt parts or
units,
If, during major inspection, it is determined that crankshaft
journals or any other engine parts are worn beyond worn
replacement limits, engine should be removed and
completely rebuilt,
Operation and Maintenance Manual 2-35
Cummins Diesel Engines
Maintenance Operations
Seasonal Maintenance Checks (Spring and Fall)
Clean Cooling System
The cooling system must be clean to do its work properly.
Scale in the system slows down heat absorption from water
jackets and heat rejection from radiator. Use clean water
that will not clog any of the hundreds of small passages in
radiator or water passages in block. Clean radiator cores,
heater cores, oil cooler and block passages that have
become clogged with scale and sediment by chemical
cleaning, neutralizing and flushing.
Chemical Cleaning
If rust and scale have collected, the system must be
chemically cleaned. Use a good cooling system cleaner such
as sodium pisulphate or oxalic acid foliowed by neutralizer
and flushing.
Pressure Flushing
Flush radiator and block before filling with antifreeze, or
installing a corrosion resistor on a used or rebuilt engine
when cooling system.
When pressure flushing radiator, open upper and lower hose
connections and screw radiator cap on tight. Use hose
connection on both upper and lower connections to make
the operation easier. Attach flushing gun nozzle to lower
hose connection and let water run until radiator is full.
When full, apply air pressure gradually to avoid damage to
core. Shut off air and allow radiator to refill; then apply air
pressure. Repeat until water coming from radiator is clean.
Caution: Do not use excessive air pressure while starting
water flow. This could split or damage radiator core.
Sediment and dirt settle into pockets in block as well as
radiator core. Remove thermostats from housing and flush
block with water. Partially restrict lower opening until
block fills. Apply air pressure and force water from lower
opening. Repeat process until stream of water coming from
block is clean.
Replace Hose (As Required)
Inspect oil filter and cooling system hose and hose
connections for leaks and/or deterioration. Particles of
deteriorated hose can be carried through cooling system or
lubricating system and restrict or clog small passages,
especially radiator core, and lubricating oil cooler, and slow
or partially stop circulation. Replace as necessary.
Clean Electric Connections
1. Hard starting is often traceable to loose or corroded
battery connections. A loose connection will overwork
alternator and regulator and shorten their lives. Keep
connections clean and tight. Prevent wires and lugs from
touching each other or any metal except screw terminals to
which they are attached.
2. Add water (distilled) to battery cells as required. Check
solution level every 15 days during hot weather, every 30
days during cold weather; keep solution filled to 3/8 inch
[9.52 mm} above separator plates.
3. Remove corrosion from around terminals; then coat with
petroleum jelly or a non-corrosive inhibitor.
4. Replace broken or worn wires and their terminals.
b. Have battery tested periodically. Follow battery
manufacturer's instructions for maintenance.
Check Preheater Cold-Starting Aid
(Fall)
Remove 1/8 inch pipe plug from manifold, near glow plug,
and check operation of preheater as described in Section 1.
Cheek Shutterstats And Thermatic Fans
al
Shutterstats and thermatic fans must be set to operate in
same range as thermostat with which they are used. Table
2-15 gives settings for shutterstats and thermatic fans as
normally used. The 180 to 195 deg. F {82 to 91 deg. С]
thermostats are used only with shutterstats that are set to
close at 187 deg. F [86 deg. C] and open at 195 deg. F [91
deg. C].
Check Thermostats And Seals (Fall)
Remove thermostats from thermostat housings and check
for proper opening and closing temperature.
Most Cummins Engines are equipped with either medium
170 to 185 deg. F [77 to 85 deg. C] or low 160 to 175 dec.
F [71 to 79 deg. Ci and in a few cases high-range 180 to
195 deg. F [82 to 91 deg. C] thermostats, depending on
engine application.
2-36 Operation and Maintenance Manual
Cummins Diesel Engines
Maintenance Operations
Table 2-15: Thermal Control Settings
Setting With Setting With Setting With
160 deg. to 175 deg. F 170 deg. to 185 deg. F 180 deg. to 195 deg. F
Control [71 deg. to 79 deg. C] [77 deg. to 85 deg. C] [82 deg. to 91 deg. С]
Used Thermostat Thermostat Thermostat
Open Close Open Close Open Close
Thermatic Fan 185 deg. F 170 deg. F 190 dea, F 182 deg. F Not Used
[85 дед. С] [77 deg. С] [88 deg. C] [83 дед. С]
Shutterstat 180 deg. F 172 deg. F 185 deg. F 177 deg, F 195 deg. F 187 deg, F
[82 deg. C] [78 дед. С] [85 deg. C} [81 deg. C] [91 deg. С] [86 deg. C]
Modulating 175 дед. Е 185 deg. F. 195 deg. F
Shutters Open [79 deg. C] [85 дед. С] [91 deg. C]
Check Heat Exchanger Zinc Plugs
Check zinc plugs in heat exchanger and change if badly
erroded. Frequency of change depends upon chemical
reaction of raw water circulated through heat exchanger.
Specifications
and Torque
Operation and Maintenance Manual 31
Cummins Diesel Engines
Specifications and Torque
Providing and maintaining an adequate supply of clean,
high-quality fuel, lubricating oil, grease and coolant in an
engine is one way of insuring long life and satisfactory
performance.
Lubricant, Fuel and Coolant
Lubricating Oil
Lubricating oif is used in Cummins engines to lubricate
moving parts, provide internal cooling and keep the engine
clean by suspending contaminants until removed by the oil
filters. Lubricating oil also acts as a combustion seal and
protects internal parts from rust and corrosion.
The use of quality lubricating oil, combined with
appropriate lubricating oil, drain and filter change intervals,
is an important factor in extending engine life. Cummins
Engine Company, Inc. does not recommend any specific
brand of lubricating oil. The responsibility for meeting the
specifications, quality and performance of lubricating oils
must necessarily rest with the oil supplier.
Oil Performance Specifications
The majority of lubricating oils marketed in North America
(and many oils marketed world-wide) are designed to meet
otl performance specifications which have been established
by the U.S. Department of Defense and the Automobile
Manufacturers Association. A booklet entitled Lubricating
Oils for Heavy Duty Automotive and Industrial Engines”
listing commercially available brand name lubricants and
the performance classification for which they are designed
is available from Engine Manufacturing Association, 111
East Wacker Drive, Chicago, Illinois 60601.
Following are brief descriptions of the specifications most
commonly used for commercial lubricating oils.
API classification CC is the current American Petroleum
Institute classification for lubricating oils for heavy duty
gasoline and diesel service. Lubricating oils meeting this
specification and designed to protect the engine from
sludge deposits and rusting (aggravated by stop-and-go
operation) and to provide protection from high
temperature operation, ring sticking and piston deposits.
Table 3-1: Oil Recommendations
Turbocharged
Light Service Only Naturally Ali Natural
(Stop-and-Go) Aspirated Diesel Gas Models
Ali Diesel Models Diesel Models Models All Service
API Class CC/SC 2/5 API Class CC ! API Class CC/CD ? API Class CC
1.85% Maximum 1.85% Maximum 1.85% Maximum .03 to .85%
3
Sulfated Ash Content Sulfated Ash Content 3
1
Sulfated Ash Content
Sulfated Ash Content *
API classification CC and CD quality oils as used in turbocharged engines and API classification CC/SC quality oils as used for
stop-and-go service are satisfactory for use In naturally aspirated engines.
API classification CC/SC and CC/CD indicate that the oil must be blended to the quality level required by both specifications.
The range of oil quality permitted by the CC classification is so broad that some oils that meet the classification will not
provide adequate protection {varnish and ring sticking) for engines operated in certain applications. For example,
turbocharged engines’ require the additional protection provided by the CD classification. Engines operated in stop and go
service require the additional protection provided by the SC classification.
A sulfated ash limit has been placed on all lubricating oils for Cummins engines because past experience has shown that high
ash oils may produce harmful deposits on valves that can progress to guttering and valve burning.
specified.
5 SD or SE may be substituted for SC.
Completely ashless oils or high ash content oils, are not recommended for use in gas engines; a range of ash content is
API classification CD is the current American Petroleum
Institute classification for severe duty lubricating oils to be
used in highly rated diesel engines operating with high
loads. Lubricating oils which meet this specification have a
high detergent content and will provide added protection
against piston deposits and ring sticking during high
temperature operation.
API classification SC, SD and SE were established for the
Automobile Manufacturers Association. They require a
sequence of tests for approval. The primary advantage of
lubricating oils in these categories is low temperature
operation protection against sludge, rust, combustion
chamber deposits and bearing corrosion. The test procedure
for these specifications are published by the American
Society for Testing and Materials as STP-31b.
Break In Oils
Special “Break-In” lubricating oils are not recommended
for new or rebuilt Cummins Engines. Use the same
lubricating oil as will be used for the normal engine
operation.
Viscosity Recommendations
1. Multigraded lubricating oils may be used in applications
with wide variations in ambient temperatures if they meet
the appropriate performance specifications and ash content
limits shown in Table 3-1. Multigraded oils are generally
produced by adding viscosity index improver additives to a
low viscosity base stock to retard thinning effects at
operating temperatures. Poor quality multigraded oils use a
viscosity index improver additive which has a tendency to
lose its effectiveness after a short period of use in a high
speed engine. These oils should be avoided.
2. Oils which meet the low temperature SAE viscosity
standard (0 deg F [— 18 deg C] carry a suffix ’W’’. Otis
that meet the high temperature viscosity SAE standard
210 deg F (99 deg C]) as well as the low temperature
carry both viscosity ratings — example 20-20W. See Table
3-2.
Operation and Maintenance Manual
Cummins Diesel Engines
Specifications and Torque
lubricating oil should meet the requirements in Table 33.
Due to extreme operating conditions, oil change intervals
should be carefuily evaluated paying particular attention to
viscosity changes and total base number decrease. Oil
designed to meet MIL-L-10295-A, which is void, and SAE
SW oils should not be used.
Table 3-3: Arctic Oil Recommendations
Parameter
{Test Method) Specifications
Performance API class CC/SC
Quality Level API class CC/CD
SAE Viscosity Grade 10W-20, 10W-30, 10W-40
Viscosity @ —30 deg. F 10,000 Centistokes
(ASTM D-445) Maximum
Pour Point At least 10 deg. F [6 deg. C]
(ASTM D-97) below lowest expected
ambient temperature
Ash, sulfated
(ASTM D-874)
1.85 wt. % Maximum
Table 3-2: Operating Temperatures Vs Viscosity
Ambient Temperatures Viscosity
—10 deg. F [23 deg. C} and below See Table 3-3.
—10 to 30 deg. F [+23 to —1 deg. C] 10W
20 to 60 deg. F [-7 to 16 deg. C] 20 - 20W
40 deg. F [4 deg. C] and above 30
Arctic Operations
For operation in areas where the ambient temperature is
consistently below —10 deg F [— 23 deg C] and there is no
provision for keeping engines warm during shutdowns, the
Grease
Cummins Engine Company, Inc., recommends use of grease
meeting the specifications of MIL-G-3545, excluding those
of sodium or soda soap thickeners. Contact lubricant
supplier for grease meeting these specifications.
TEST TEST PROCEDURE
High-Temperature Performance
ASTM D 2265
350 min.
Bearing life, hoursat 300 deg. F. *FTM 331
Dropping point, deg. F.
10,000 rpm 600 min.
Low-Temperature Properties
Torque, GCM ASTM D 1478
Start at O deg. F. 15,000 max.
Run at O deg. +. 5,000 max.
Rust Protection and Water Resistance
Rust test ASTM D 1743
Pass
Water resistance, % ASTM D 1264
20 max.
Stability
Oil separation, %
30 Hours @ 212 deg. F. *FTM 321
5 max.
Penetration
Worked ASTM D 217
250-300
Bomb Test, PSI Drop ASTM D 942
100 Hours 10 max.
500 Hours 25 max.
Copper, Corrosion *FTM 5309
Pass
Dirt Count, Particles/cc *FTM 3005
25 Micron + 5,000 max.
75 Micron + 1,000 max.
125 Micron + | None
Rubber Swell *FTM 3603
10 max.
* Federal Test Method Standard No. 791a.
Caution: Do not mix brands of grease as damage to bearings
may result. Excessive lubrication is as harmful as
inadequate lubrication. After lubricating fan hub, replace
both pipe plugs. Use of fittings will allow lubricant to be
thrown out, due to rotative speed.
Operation and Maintenance Manual 33
Cummins Diesel Engines
Specifications and Torque
Fuel Oil
Cummins Diese! Engines have been developed to take
advantage of the high energy content and generally lower
cost of No. 2 Diesel Fuels. Experience has shown that a
Cummins Diesel Engine will also operate satisfactorily on
No. 1 fuels or other
specifications.
fuels within the following
Recommended Fuel Oil Properties:
Viscosity
(ASTM D-445)
Cetane Number
(ASTM D-613)
Sulfur Content
(ASTM D-129 or 1552)
Water and Sediment
(ASTM D-1796)
Carbon Residue
(Ransbottom ASTM
D-524 or D-189)
Flash Point
(ASTM D-93)
Gravity
(ASTM D-287)
Pour Point
(ASTM D-97)
Active Sulfur-Copper
Strip Corrosion
(ASTM D-130)
Ash
(ASTM D-482)
Distillation
(ASTM D-86)
Centistokes 1.4 to 5.8 @ 100
deg. F. (30 to 45 SUS)
40 minimum except in cold
weather or in service with
prolonged ¡dle, a higher
cetane number is desirable.
Not to exceed 1% by welght.
Not to exceed 0.1% by
weight,
Not to exceed 0.256% by
weight on 10% residue.
At least 125 deg. for legal
temperature if higher than
125 deg. F.
30 to 42 deg. A.P.1|. at 60 deg.
F. (0.815 to 0.875 sp. gr.)
Below lowest temperature
expected.
Not to exceed No. 2 rating
after 3 hours at 122 deg. F.
Not to exceed 0.02% by
weight,
The distillation curve should
be smooth and continuous.
At least 90% of the fuel
should evaporate at less than
675 deg. F. All of the fuel
should evaporate at less than
725 dea. Е.
34
Coolant
Water should be clean and free of any corrosive chemicals
such as chloride, sulphates and acids. It should be kept
slightly alkaline with pH value in range of 8.0 to 9.5. Any
water which is suitable for drinking can be treated as
described in the following paragraphs for use in an engine.
Maintain the Fleetguard D CA Water Filter on the
engine. The filter by-passes a small amount of coolant
from the system via a filtering and treating element which
must be replaced periodically.
1. In summer, with no antifreeze, fill system with water.
2. In winter, select an antifreeze, all except Dowtherm 209
are compatible with D C À , use with water as required by
temperature.
3. Install or replace DC A Water Filter as follows and
as recommended in Section 2.
New Engines Going Into Service Equipped With
D C A Water Filters
1. New engines shipped from the Factory are equipped with
water filters containing a “D CA pre-charge” element.
See Table 3-4. This element is compatible with plain water
or all permanent-type antifreezes except Dowtherm 209.
2. At the first “B” Check (oil change period) change the
DCA Pre-charge element should be changed to DCA
Service Element. See Table 3-4.
3. Replace the DC A Service Element at each “B” Check
except under the fallowing conditions.
a. If make up coolant must be added between element
changes, use coolant from a pre-treated supply, see
"Make-Up Coolant Specifications’’, Section 2.
b. Each time system is drained revert back to pre-charge
element for one oil change period.
4. To insure adequate corrosion protection have the coolant
checked at each third element change or oftener. See
“Check Engine Coolant’, Section 2.
Engines Now In Service With Spin-On Type
Chromate Corrosion Resistor Element
1. Remove chromate element.
2. Flush cooling system.
3. Install pre-charge D C A element and operate engine to
next oil change. See Table 3-4.
4. Install DC A service element, replacing regularly at each
engine oil change thereafter except under the following
Operation and Maintenance Manual
Cummins Diesel Engines
Specifications and Torque
Table 3-4: Spin-On Type Water Filter
Corresponding
Cooling DCA DCA Obsolete
System Pre-charge Service Chromate
U.S. Gal. Element Element Element
Oto 8 299082 299080 209604
8to 15 299083 299080 209604
15 to 30 299084 299080 209605
30to 60 (2) 299084 (2) 299080 (2) 209605
* (2) 299084 (2) 299086 12) 209605
* V-1710 Series Engines
conditions.
a. If make-up coolant must be added between element
changes use coolant from a pre-treated supply,
see ‘Make-Up Coolant Specifications”, Section 2.
b. Each time system is drained revert back to pre-charge
element for one oil change period.
Engines Now In Service With Package (Bag) Or
Cannister Type Chromate Corrosion Resistor
Elements
1. Remove chromate package or cannister, discard package
element and plates or cannister, retain spring for use
with D C A service element.
2. Flush cooling system.
3. Pre-charge system with coolant and dri-charge, Part No.
299050, (DCA 4), according to Table 3-5, using
applicable service cannister.
4. At next “B” Check install service cannister, replacing
regularly at each engine oil change thereafter, except under
following conditions:
a. If make up coolant must be added between cannister
changes use coolant from a pre-treated supply, see
“Make-Up Coolant Specifications’, Section 2.
b. Each time system is drained revert back to Step 3
instructions for one oil change period.
Table 3-5: Package or Cannister Type
Corresponding
DCA DCA Obsolete
Pre-Charge Service Chromate
Cannister Cannister Cannister or Bag
None * 299071 132732
None * 299074 171645
None * (2) 299091 (2) 132732
* 299050 (DCA-4) Pre-Charge To Be Used With Service
Elements
Cooling
System
U.S. Gal.
Service
Element
299074
Service
Element
299071
Service
Element
Service
Element
299091 (2)299091
0-5
5-9
9-13
13-17
79-81
COOOOOOOOODODOOOOOOOUN—
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10
Operation and Maintenance Manual
Cummins Diesel Engines
Specifications and Torque
3-5
3-6 Operation and Maintenance Manual
Cummins Diesel Engines
Specifications and Torque
Capscrew Markings and Torque Values
Usage Much Used Much Used Used at Times Used at Times
Minimum Tensile To 1/2-69,000 [4850] To 3/4—120,000 [8435] To 5/8—140,000 [9840] 150,000
Strength PS! To 3/4-64,000 [4500] . To 1-115,000 [8085] To 3/4-133,000 [9350] [10545]
[Kg/Sq Cm] To 1—55,000 [3865]
Quality of Material Indeterminate Minimum Commercial Medium Commercial Best Commercial
SAE Grade Number Tor2 5 6 or 7 8
Capscrew Head Markings A
Manufacturer's marks may vary, 6
These are all SAE Grade 5 —
(3-line). GO
\ ) | с
PE :
Capscrew Body Size Torque Torque Torque Torque
(Inches) — (Thread) Ft-Lb [kg m] Ft-Lb [kg m] Ft-Lb [kg m] Ft-Lb [kg m]
1/4 — 20 5 [0.69] 8 [1.11] 10 [1.38] 12 [1.66]
— 28 6 [0.83] 10 [1.38] | 14 [1.94]
5/16 — 18 11 [1.52] 17 [2.35] 19 [2.63] 24 [3.32]
— 24 13 [1.80] 19 [2.63] 27 [3.73]
3/8 — 16 18 [2.49] 31 [4.29] 34 [4.70] 44 [6.09]
— 24 20 [2.77] 35 [4.84] 49 [6.78]
7/16 — 14 28 [3.81] 49 [6.78] 55 [7.61] 70 [9.68]
— 20 30 [4.15] 55 [7.61] 78 [10.79]
12 - 13 39 [5.39] 75 [10.37] 85 [11.76] 105 [14.52]
— 20 41 [5.67] 85 [11.76] 120 [16.60]
9/16 — 12 51 [7.05] 110 [15.21] 120 [16.60] 155 [21.44]
— 18 55 [7.60] 120 [16.60] 170 [23.51]
5/8 — 11 83 [11.48] 150 [20.75] 167 [23.10] 210 [29.04]
— 18 95 [13.14] 170 [23.51] 240 [33.19]
3/4 — 10 105 [14,52] 270 [37.34] 280 [38.72] 375 [51.86]
— 16 115 [15.90] 295 [40.80] 420 [58.09]
78 — 9 160 [22.13] 395 [54.63] 440 [60.85] 605 [83.67]
— 14 175 [24.20] 435 [60.16] 675 [93.35]
1 — 8 235 [32.50] 590 [81.60] 660 [91.28] 910 [125.85]
— 14 250 [34.58] 660 [91.28] 990 [136.92]
Notes:
1. Always use the torque values listed above when specific torque values are not available.
2. Do not use above values in place of those specified in other sections of this manual; special attention should be
observed when using SAE Grade 6, 7 and 8 capscrews.
3. The above is based on use of clean, dry threads.
4. Reduce torque by 10% when engine oil is used as a lubricant.
b. Reduce torque by 20% if new plated capscrews are used.
6. Capscrews threaded into aluminum may require reductions in torque of 30% or more, unless inserts are used.
Trouble Shooting
Operation and Maintenance Manual 4-1
Cummins Diesel Engines
Trouble Shooting
Trouble shooting is an organized study of the problem and
a planned method of procedure for investigation and
correction of the difficulty. The chart on the following
page includes some of the problems that an operator may
encounter during the service life of a Cummins Diesel
Engine.
Cummins Diesel Engines
The chart does not give all the answers for correction of
problems listed, but it is meant to stimulate a train of
thought and indicate a work procedure directed toward the
source of trouble. To use the trouble-shooting chart, find
the complaint at top of chart; then follow down that
column to a black dot. Refer to left of dot for the possible
cause,
Think Before Acting
Study the problem thoroughly. Ask these questions:
1. What were the warning signs preceding the trouble?
2. What previous repair and maintenance work has been
done?
3. Has similar trouble occurred before?
4. If the engine still runs, is it safe to continue running it to
make further checks?
Do Easiest Things First
Most troubles are simple and easily corrected; examples are
“low-power” complaints caused by loose throttle tinkage or
dirty fuel filters, "excessive lubricating oi! consumption”
caused by leaking gaskets or connections, etc.
Always check the easiest and obvious things first; following
this simple rule will save time and trouble.
Double-Check Before Beginning Disassembly
Operations
The source of most engine troubles can be traced not to
one part alone but to the relationship of one part with
another. For instance, excessive fuel consumption may not
be due to an incorrectly adjusted fuel pump, but instead, to
a clogged air cleaner or possibly a restricted exhaust
passage, causing excessive back pressure. Too often, engines
are completely disassembled in search of the cause of a
certain complaint and all evidence is destroyed during
disassembly operations. Check again to be sure an easy
solution to the problem has not been overlooked.
Find And Correct Basic Cause
Of Trouble
After a mechanical failure has been corrected, be sure to
locate and correct the cause of the trouble so the same
fallure will not be repeated. A complaint of “sticking
injector plungers” is corrected by replacing the faulty
injectors, but something caused the plungers to stick. The
cause may be improper injector adjustment, or more often,
water in the fuel.
Trouble
Shooting
COMPLAINTS
CAUSES
Engine Misses
Excessive Smoking at Idling
Excessive Smoke Under Load
Low Power or Loss of Power
Cannot Reach Governed RPM
Low Air Output
Excessive Fuel Consumption
Poor Deceleration
Erratic Idle Speeds
Engine Dies
Surging at Governed RPM
Excessive Lube Oil Consumption
Crankcase Sludge
Dilution
Low Lubricating Oil Pressure
Coolant Temperature too Low
Coolant Temperature too High
Lube Oil too Hot
Piston, Liner and Ring Wear
Wear of Bearings and Journals
Worn Valves and Guides
Mechanical Knocks
Gear Train Whine
Excessive Engine Vibration
AIR
SYSTEM
Restricted Air Intake
+— Hard Starting or Failure to Start
High Exhaust Back Pressure:
Thin Air In Hot Weather or High Ait.
Air Leaks Between Cleaner and Engine
Dirty Turbocharger Compressor
improper Use of Starter Ald/Air Temp.
|
+
FUEL
SYSTEM
Out of Fuel or Fuel Shut-Off Closed
Poor Quality Fuel
Air Leaks in Suction Lines
Restricted Fuel Lines: Stuck Drain Valve
External or internal Fuel Leaks
Plugged Injector Spray Holes
Broken Fuel Pump Drive Shaft
Scored Gear Pump or Worn Gears
Loose Injector Inlet or Drain Connection
Wrong Injector Cups —
Cracked Injector Body or Cup
Mutilated Injector Cup “O” Ring
Throttle Linkage or Adjustment
Incorrectly Assembled Idle Springs
Governor Weights Assembled incorrectly
High-Speed Governor Set Too Low
Water in Fuel ??
Aneroid Check Vaive Stuck Open
Aneroid Set improperly
——d e —e —— —- Fuel Knocks
LUBRICATING
SYSTEM
External and Internal Oil Leaks
Diriy Oil Filter
Faulty Cylinder Oil Control
Clogged Oil Drillings
ОН Suction Line Restriction
Faulty Oil Pressure Regulator
Crankcase Low or Out of Oil
Wrong Grade Oil for Weather Conditions —
Oil Level Too High
COOLING
SYSTEM
Insufficient Coolant
Worn Water Pump
Faulty Thermostats
Damaged Water Hose
Loose Fan Belts
Radiator Shutters Stuck Open
Cloyged Water Passages
Internal Water Leaks
Clogged Oil Cooler
Radiator Core Openings Dirty
Air in Cooling System
Exterior Water Leaks
Insufficient Coolant Capacity
Coolant Temperature Low
OPERATION
AND
MAINTENANCE
PRACTICES
Dirty Filters and Screens
Long idle Periods
Engine Overloaded
Oil Needs Changing
Engine Exterior Caked with Dirt
MECHANICAL
ADJUSTMENTS
OR
REPAIR
Gasket Blow-by or Leakage -
Faulty Vibration Damper
Unbalanced or Loose Flywheel
Valve Leakage .
Broken or Worn Piston Rings
Incorrect Bearing Clearances .
Excessive Crankshaft End Clearance,
Main Bearing Bore Out of Alignment
Engine Due for Overhaul
Damaged Main or Rod Bearings
Broken Tooth in Gear Train
Excessive Gear Back Lash
Misalignment Engine to Driven Unit
Loose Mounting Bolts
Incorrect Valve and Injection Timing — .. g
Worn or Scored Liners or Pistons
Injectors Need Adjustment —
Operating Principles
Operation and Maintenance Manual 5-1
Cummins Diesel Engines
Operating Principles
Dependable service can be expected from a Cummins Diesel
Engine when the operating procedures are based upon a
clear understanding of the engine working principles. Each
part of the engine affects the operation of every other
working part and of the engine as a whole. Cummins Diesel
Engines treated in this manual are four-stroke-cycle,
high-speed, fuli-diesel engines.
The Cummins Diesel Engine
Cummins Diesel Cycle
Cummins Diesel Engines differ from spark-ignited engines
in a number of ways. Compression ratios are higher, the
charge taken into combustion chamber during the intake
stroke consists of air only — with no fuel mixture.
Cummins injectors receive low-pressure fuel from the fuel
pump and deliver it into individual combustion chambers at
the proper time, in equal quantity and atomized condition
for burning. Ignition of fuel is caused by heat of
compressed air in the combustion chamber.
The four strokes and order in which they occur are: Intake
Stroke, Compression Stroke, Power Stroke and Exhaust
Stroke.
In order for the four strokes to function properly, valves
and injectors must act in direct relation to each of the four
strokes of the piston. The intake valves, exhaust valves and
injectors are camshaft actuated, linked by tappets or cam
followers, push rods, rocker levers and valve crossheads.
The camshaft is gear driven by the crankshaft gear, thus
rotation of the crankshaft directs the action of the
camshaft which in turn controls the opening and closing
sequence of the valves and the injection timing (fuel
delivery).
Intake Stroke
During intake stroke, the piston travels downward, intake
valves are open, and exhaust valves are closed. The
downward travel of the piston allows air from the
atmosphere to enter the cylinder. On turbocharged and
supercharged engines the intake manifold is pressurized as
the turbocharger or supercharger forces more air into the
cylinder through the intake manifold. The intake charge
consists of air only with no fuel mixture.
Compression Stroke
At the end of the intake stroke, intake valves close and
piston starts upward on compression stroke. The exhaust
valves remain closed.
At end of compression stroke, air in combustion chamber
has been forced by the piston to occupy a smaller space
(depending upon engine model about one-fourteenth to
one-sixteenth as great in volume) than it occupied at
beginning of stroke. Thus, compression ratio 1s the direct
proportion in the amount of air in the combustion chamber
before and after being compressed.
Compressing air into a small space causes temperature of air
to rise to a point high enough for ignition of fuel.
During last part of compression stroke and early part of
power stroke, a small metered charge of fuel is injected Into
combustion chamber,
Almost immediately after fuel charge is injected into
combustion chamber, fuel is ignited by the existing hot
compressed air.
Power Stroke
During the beginning of the power stroke, the piston Is
pushed downward by the burning and expanding gases;
both intake and exhaust valves are closed. As more fuel is
added and burns, gases get hotter and expand more to
further force piston downward and thus adds driving force
to crankshaft rotation.
Exhaust Stroke
During exhaust stroke, intake valves are closed, exhaust
valves are open, and piston is on upstroke.
Upward travel of piston forces burned gases out of
combustion chamber through open exhaust valve ports and
into the exhaust manifold.
Proper engine operation depends upon two things — first,
compression for ignition; and second, that fuel be measured
and injected into cylinders in proper quantity at proper
time.
5-2
Operation and Maintenance Manual
Cummins Diesel Engines
Operating Principles
Fuel System
The PT fuel system is used exclusively on Cummins Diesel.
The identifying letters, “PT,” are an abbreviation for
““pressure-time.”
The operation of the Cummins PT Fuel System is based on
the principle that the volume of liquid flow is
proportionate to the fluid pressure, the time allowed to
flow and the passage size through which the liquid flows.
To apply this simple principle to the Cummins PT Fuel
System, it is necessary to provide:
1. A fuel pump to draw fuel from the supply tank and
deliver it to individual injectors for each cylinder.
2. A means of controlling pressure of the fuel being
delivered by the fuel pump to the injectors so individual
cylinders will receive the right amount of fuel for the power
required of the engine.
3. Fuel passages of the proper size and type so fuel will be
distributed to all injectors and cylinders with equal pressure
under all speed and load conditions.
(1) PT (TYPE 6] FUEL PUMP (5) INJECTOR RETURN
(5) FROM TANK
(7) FUEL FILTER
(2) SHUT-DOWN VALVE
(3) FUEL CONNECTOR
® INJECTOR
Fig. 5-1, (FWC-13), Fuel flow diagram — PT (type G) pump and
Cylindrical Injectors — Inline Engine
4. Injectors 10 receive low-pressure from the fuel pump and
deliver it into the individual combustion chambers at the
right time, in equal quantities and proper condition to
burn,
The PT fuel system consists of the fuel pump, supply lines,
drain lines, fuel passages and injectors. Fig's. 5-1, b-2 and
5-3. There are two types of PT fuel pumps. The first type,
commonly called PT (type G), is shown in Fig. 5-4. The
second type, called PT (type R), is shown in Fig. 5-5.
The designations PT (type G) and PT (type R) stand for
““Governor-Controlled”” and “ Pressure-Regulated”
respectively. Hereafter, these designations will be used to
describe both the fuel system and the fuel pump.
Fuel Pump
The fuel pump is coupled to the air compressor, vacuum
pump or fuel pump drive which is driven from the engine
gear train. Fuel pump main shaft in turn drives the gear
pump.
FUEL TANK
FUEL FILTER
FUEL PUMP
INJECTOR SUPPLY
INJECTOR
INJECTOR DRAIN
@OOOOO
Fig. 5-2, (FWC-30). PT fuel system flow schematic — V Engine
Fig. 5-3 (FWC-15A). Fuel flow schematic - V-1710 Engine
governor and tachometer shaft assemblies.
The location of fuel pump components is indicated in Fig's.
5-4 and 5-5.
PT (type G) Fuel Pump
The PT {type G) fuel pump can be identified by the
absence of the return line at the top of the fuel pump. The
pump assembly is made up of three main units:
1. The gear pump, which draws fuel from the supply tank
and forces it through the pump filter screen to the
governor.
2. The governor, which controls the flow of fuel from the
gear pump, as well as maximum and idle engine speeds.
3. The throttle, which provides a manual control of fuel
flow to the injectors under all conditions in the operating
range.
PT (type R) Fuel Pump
The PT (type R) fuel pump can be identified easily by the
presence of a fuel return line from the top of the fuel pump
housing to the supply tank. The pump assembly is made up
Operation and Maintenance Manual 5-3
Cummins Diesel Engines
Operating Principles
( INJECTOR
@ FUEL PUMP
© FUEL FILTERS
(® TO SUPPLY TANK
© FROM SUPPLY TANK
of four main units:
1. The gear pump, which draws fuel from the supply tank,
forcing it through the pump filter screen into the pressure
regulator valve.
2. A pressure regulator, which limits the pressure of the fuel
to the injectors.
3. The throttle, which provides a manual control of fuel
flow to the injectors under all conditions in the operating
range.
4. The governor assembly, which controls the flow of fuel
at idle and maximum governed speed.
Gear Pump And Pulsation Damper
The gear pump and pulsation damper located at the rear of
the fuel pump perform the same function on both PT (type
G) and PT (type R) fuel pumps.
The gear pump is driven by the pump main shaft and
contains a single set of gears to pick up and deliver fuel
throughout the fuel system. Inlet to the gear pump on small
V-type engines may be through the fuel pump main
housing. On other engines it's at the rear of the gear pump.
5-4
Fig. 5-4, (FWC-31). PT (type G) fuel pump and fuel fiow
A pulsation damper mounted to the gear pump contains a
steel diaphragm which absorbs pulsations and smooths fuel
flow through the fuel system. From the gear pump, fuel
flows through the filter screen and:
1. In the PT (type G) fuel pump to the governor assembly
as shown in Fig. 5-4.
2. In the PT (type R) fuel pump to the pressure regulator
assembly as shown in Fig. 5-5.
Pressure Regulator
Used in the PT (type R) functions as a by-pass valve to
regulate fuel pressure to the injectors, By-passed fuel flows
back to the suction side of the gear pump. See Fig. 5-5.
To control the manifold pressure, the pressure regulator:
1. Provides for an adjustment of manifold pressure.
2. Compensates for changes in fuel oil temperature.
3. Provides for engine torque characteristics.
4, Prevents excessive gear pump pressures.
The pressure regulator controls and limits gear pump fuel
Operation and Maintenance Manual
Cummins Diesel Engines
Operating Prinicples
() TACHOMETER SHAFT
(2) FILTER SCREEN
(3) FUEL TO INJECTORS
(SHUT-DOWN VALVE
(5) GEAR PUMP
(5) CHECK VALVE ELBOW
(7)FUEL FROM TANK
(®)PULSATION DAMPER
(THROTTLE SHAFT
(IDLE ADJUSTING SCREW
(HIGH SPEED SPRING
GDIDLE SPRING
(1) GEAR PUMP PRESSURE
(WFUEL MANIFOLD PRESSURE
(15) IDLE PRESSURE
(15) GOVERNOR PLUNGER
(i) GOVERNOR WEIGHTS
(18) TORQUE SPRING
(19) GOVERNOR ASSIST PLUNGER
(2) GOVERNOR ASSIST SPRING
(2) MAIN SHAFT
pressure through a by-pass system. The fuel pressure
by-pass system by-passes part of the total gear pump fuel
delivery to the suction side of the gear pump and fuel pump
body. This limits fuel delivery to only the required amount.
The pressure regulator assembly controls and timits gear
pump fuel delivery by the valve action of the by-pass valve
sleeve and by-pass valve plunger.
There are three types of by-pass holes located in most
plungers: (a) fue! adjustment holes to regulate fuel
manifold pressure, (b) torque holes for engine torgue
characteristics, (c) dump holes to prevent excessive gear
PUMP Pressures.
The fuel adjusting holes are first to appear and are evenly
spaced around the plunger immediately next to lts
shoulder. The dump holes appear last and are the large
holes near the end of the plunger. The torque holes depend
upon the engine application and cannot be described by
number, size, or location except they are located between
the fuel adjustment and dump holes.
The torque holes, in the by-pass valve plunger, control the
fuel manifold pressure curve. This fuel manifold pressure
control gives the engine desired torque rise.
(1) GOVERNOR WEIGHTS (7) GEAR PUMP
<) МАМ ЗНАЕТ (D PULSATION DAMPER
(3) PRESSURE REGULATOR © 1DLE SPEED SCREW
(© TACHOMETER CONNECTION (w) IDLE SPRINGS
(5) FILTER SCREEN () MAXIMUM SPEED SPRING
(©) SHUT-DOWN VALVE (2) THROTTLE SHAFT
Fig. 5-5, (FWC-4). PT (type R) fuel pump and fue! flow
Throttle
In both fuel pumps, the throttle provides a means for the
operator to manually control engine speed above idle as
required by varying operating conditions of speed and load.
In the PT (type G} fuel pump, fuel flows through the
governor to the throttle shaft. At idle speed, fuel flows
through the idle port in the governor barrel, past the
throttie shaft. To operate above idle speed, fuel flows
through the main governor barrel port to the throttling hole
in the shaft.
tn the PT (type R) fuel pump, fuel flows past the pressure
regulator to the throttle shaft. Under idling conditions, fuel
passes around the shaft to the idle port in the governor
barrel, For operation above ¡die speed, fuel passes through
the throttling hole in the shaft and enters the governor
barrel through the main fuel port.
Governors
fdling and High-Speed Mechanical Governor: The
mechanical governor, on both PT (type G) and PT (type R)
fuel pumps, is actuated by a system of springs and weights,
and has two functions. First, the governor maintains
sufficient fuel far idling with the throttle control in idle
position; second, it cuts off fuel to the injectors above
maximum rated rpm. The idle springs in the governor spring
Operation and Maintenance Manual 5-5
Cummins Diesel Engines
Operating Principles
7 SHUT-DOWN VALVE
1 GOVERNOR WEIGRTS
2 GOVERNOR PLUNGER 8 TO INJECTORS
3 PRESSURE REGULATOR 9 IDLE
4 GEAR PUMP 10 FULL
5 PULSATION DAMPER 11 FILTER SCREEN
6 FROM TANK 12 THROTTLE SHAFT
pack, position the governor plunger so the idle fuel port is
opened enough 10 permit passage of fuel to maintain engine
idle speed.
During operation between idle and maximum speeds, fuel
flows through the governor to the injectors. This fuel is
controlled by the throttle and limited by the size of the idle
spring plunger counterbore on PT (type G) fuel pumps and
pressure regulator of PT (type R) fuel pumps. When the
engine reaches governed speed, the governor weights move
the governor plunger, and fuel passages to the injectors are
shut off. At the same time another passage opens and
dumps the fuel back into the main pump body. In this
manner, engine speed is controlled and limited by the
governor regardless of throttle position. Fuel leaving the
governor flows through the shut-down valve, inlet supply
lines and on into the injectors.
PT (type G) Variable-Speed Governors
There are two mechanical variable-speed governors used
with the PT (type G) fuel pump. The “Mechanical
Variable-Speed (MVS)’ governor which is mounted directly
on top of the fuel pump or remotely near the fuel pump;
and the “Special Variable-Speed (SVS)” governor which is a
special spring pack assembly and is mounted at the lower
rear of the fuel pump. See Fig's 5-5 and 5-7.
(2) (1) ОДО
(DGOVERNDR WEIGHTS (1) GEAR PUMP
(OD GOVERNOR ASSIST (1) PULSATION DAMPER
(3) SHIMS (3) THROTTLE SHAFT
(© GOVERNOR ASSIST SPRING. (DIDLE ADJUSTING SCREW
(3) MAIN SHAFT ® Ю1Е SPRING
(©) FILTER SCREENS (9 GOVERNOR PLUNGER
CG SHUT-DOWN VALVE (CS) GEAR PUMP PRESSURE
(D MAXIMUM SPEED SCREW FUEL MANIFOLD PRESSURE
@ IGLE SPEED SCREW (® IDLE PRESSURE
Fig. 5-6, (FWC-9). PT (type G) fuel pump with MVS governor
1 GOVERNOR WEIGHTS
8 THROTTLE SHAFT
2 MAIN SHAFT
9 GOVERNOR SPRING
3 TACHOMETER CONNECTION
10 IBLE SPEED ADJUSTING SCREW
4 FILTER SCREEN
11 MAXIMUM SPEED ADJUSTING
5 SHUT-DOWN VALVE SCREW
6 GEAR PUMP 12 IDLE SPRING
7 PULSATION DAMPER 13 GOVERNOR PLUNGER
Fig. 5-7, (FWC-10). PT (type G) fuel pump with SVS governor
Operation and Maintenance Manual
Cummins Diesel! Engines
Operating Principles
Mechanical Variable-Speed (MVS) Governor
This governor suppiements the standard (Mechanical)
governor to meet the requirements of applications when the
engine must operate at a constant speed, but where
extremely close regulation is not necessary.
Adjustment for different rpm can be made by means of a
lever control or adjusting screw. At full-rated speed, this
governor has a speed droop between full-load and no-load
of approximately eight percent. A cross section of this
governor is shown in Fig. 5-6.
As a variable-speed governor, this unit is suited to the
varying speed requirements of power take-off, etc., in
which the same engine is used for propelling the unit and
driving a pump or other fixed-speed machine.
The MVS governor assembly mounts atop the fuel pump,
and the fuel solenoid is mounted to the governor housing.
The governor may also be remote mounted.
Fuel from the fuel pump body enters the variable-speed
governor housing and flows to the governor barrel and
plunger. Fuel flows past plunger to the shut-down valve and
on Into the injector according to governor lever position, as
determined by the operator.
The variable-speed governor cannot produce engine speeds
in excess of the standard mechanical governor setting. The
governor can produce idle speeds below the standard
mechanical pump idle speed setting, but should not be
adjusted below the standard mechanical fuel pump speed
setting when operating as a combination standard
mechanical and variable-speed governor.
Special Variable-Speed (SVS) Governor
The SVS governor provides much of the same operational
features of the MVS governor but is limited in application.
An overspeed stop should be used with SVS governors in
unattended applications, and in attended installations a
positive shut-down throttle arrangement should be used if
no other overspeed stop is used. Fig. 5-7.
Power take-off applications use the SVS governor lever to
change governed speed of the engine from full rated speed
to an intermediate power take-off speed. During operation
as a standard mechanical unit, the SVS governor is in
high-speed position. See operation instructions for further
information.
PT (type R) Mechanical Variable-Speed Governor
On some applications this governor replaces the standard
mechanical governor to meet the requirements of
applications on which the engine must operate at a constant
speed, but where extremely close regulation is not
necessary.
Adjustment for different rpm can be made by means of a
lever control or adjusting screw. At full-rated speed this
governor has a speed droop between full-load and no-load
of approximately eight percent. A cross section of this
governor is shown in Fig. b-8.
As a variable-speed governor, this unit is suited to the
varying speed requirements of power take-off, etc., in
which the same engine is used for propelling the unit and
driving a pump or other fixed-speed machine.
PT (type R) Torque Converter Governor
A PT (type R) fuel pump is usually supplied when a torque
converter is used to connect the engine with its driven unit.
An auxiliary governor may be driven by torque converter
output shaft to exercise control over engine governor and
to limit converter output shaft speed. The engine governor
and converter governor must be adjusted to work together.
The PT torque-converter governor consists of two
mechanical variable-speed governors in series — one driven
by engine and the other by converter. Fig. 5-9.
The engine governor, in addition to giving a variable engine
speed, acts as an over-speed and idle-speed governor while
the converter driven governor is controlling the engine.
Each governor has its own control lever and speed adjusting
screws.
(D GOVERNOR WEIGHTS
(© MAIN SHAFT (© PULSATION DAMPER
© PRESSURE RESULATOR D GOVERNOR SPRINGS
© TACHOMETER CONNECTION IDLE SPEED SCREW
(D FILTER SCREEN © MAXIMUM SPEED SCREW
{© SHUT-DOWN VALVE @ IDLE SPRING
© GEAR PUMP @ THROTTLE SHAFT
Fig. 5-8, (FWC-7). PT (type A) fuel pump with MVS governor
Operation and Maintenance Manual 5-7
Cummins Diesel Engines
Operating Principles
(D SOYERNOR WEIEHTS
© MAIN SHAFT
© PRESSURE REGULATOR
(© TACHOMETER CONNECTION
© FILTER SCREEN
(© SHUT-DOWN VALVE
©) GEAR PUMP
(D PULSATION DANPER
(1) ENGINE PRIMARY EOVERNOR
(9) ENGINE IDLE SPEED SCREW
(O) ENGINE MAXIMUM SPEED SCREW
(9) AUXILIARY UNIT DRIVE CABLE CONNECTION
@ AUXILIARY GOVERNOR WEIGHTS
@ AUXILIARY GOVERNOR SPRING
09 AUXILIARY GOVERNOR SPEED-ADIISTING
SCREWS
Fig. 5-9, (FWC-8). PT (type R) fuel pump with torque converter
governor
The converter-driven governor works on same principle as
standard engine governor except it cannot cut off fuel to
idle jet in engine-driven governor, This insures that if
converter tailshaft overspeeds, it will not stop engine,
Aneroid
The aneroid control, Fig. 5-10, provides a fuel by-pass
system that responds to air manifold pressure and is used
on turbocharged engines for close control of exhaust
smoke.
The aneroid limits fuel pressure to the injectors when
accelerating the engine from speeds below normal operating
range, and while air intake manifold air pressure is not
sufficient for complete combustion. Air intake manifold
pressure rises with the turbocharger speed which is powered
by exhaust gas energy and is therefore low at low engine
speed and exhaust gas output.
During acceleration or rapid engine load changes,
turbocharger speed (intake manifold pressure) change
inherently lags behind the power or fuel demand exercised
by opening of the throttle. This lag does not exist in the
fuel system; therefore, an overrich or high fuel to air ratio,
usually accompanied by smoke, occurs until the
turbocharger “catches up.”
The function of the aneroid is to create a lag in fuel system
5-8
Fig. 5-10, (F-5244). Aneroid cutaway
so response is equivalent to the turbocharger, thus
controlling engine smoke level.
Caution: Aneroids must not be removed, disconnected or
otherwise rendered ineffective, nor should settings be
altered to exceed specifications as set at the factory, see
“Maintenance Schedule.”
Fuel Flow
1. Fuel from the fuel pump enters the aneroid and is
directed to starting check valve area (5, Fig. 5-10).
2. The starting check valve {3} prevents aneroid from
by-passing fuel at engine cranking speeds. For speeds above
cranking, fuel pressure forces the check valve open,
allowing fuel to flow to valve port (4) of shaft (9).
3. Shaft (9) and its bore form a fuel by-pass valve. This
shaft and bore allows passage or restricts fuel flow in a
similar manner as throttle shaft and sleeve in PT fuel pump.
4. The shaft and sleeve are by-passing fuel when arm (10) of
lever is resting against adjusting screw {1}. The amount of
fuel by-passed is adjusted by this screw, which protrudes
from bottom of aneroid.
5. The lever arm connected to piston (8) by actuating shaft
(6), rotates shaft; closing valve port. The lever is rotated by
action of air intake manifold pressure (11) against piston
and diaphragm (7), moving actuating shaft downward
against resisting spring force. Fig. 5-10.
6. Anytime engine intake manifold air pressure is above
preset “‘air actuation pressure,” aneroid is “out of system.”
7. The aneroid begins dumping when intake manifold
pressure drops below preset value.
8. The aneroid does not by-pass fuel under full throttle lug
Operation and Maintenance Manual
Cummins Diesel Engines
Operating Principles
down conditions until speed is low enough to reduce intake
manifold air pressure to aneroid operating range (usually
below engine stall-out speed).
9. Fuel allowed to pass through by-pass valve is returned (2)
to suction side (inlet fitting) of PT gear pump. The
by-passed fuel reduces fuel pump out-put to engine and
reduces fuel manifold pressure in proportion to the by-pass
rate.
PT (type D) Injectors
The injector provides a means of introducing fuel into each
combustion chamber. It combines the acts of metering,
timing and injection. Principles of operation are the same
for inline and V-engines but injector size and internal design
differs slightly. Fig's. 5-11 and 5-12.
Fuel supply and drain flow are accomplished through
internal drillings in the cylinder heads. Fig's. 5-1, 5-2 and
5-3. A radial groove around each injector mates with the
drilled passages in the cylinder head and admits fuel
through an adjustable (adjustable by burnishing to size at
test stand) orifice plug in the injector body. A fine mesh
screen at each inlet provides final fuel filtration.
The fuel grooves around the injectors are separated by “0”
rings which seal against the cylinder head injector bore.
This forms a leak-proof passage between the injectors and
the cylinder head injector bore surface.
Fuel flows from a connection atop the fuel pump
shut-down valve through a supply line into the lower drilled
passage in the cylinder head. A second drilling in the head is
aligned with the upper injector radial groove to drain away
excess fuel. A fuel drain allows return of the unused fuel to
the fuel tank.
The injector contains a ball check valve. As the injector
plunger moves downward to cover the feed opening, an
impulse pressure wave seats the ball and at the same time
traps a positive amount of fuel in the injector cup for
injection. As the continuing downward plunger movement
injects fuel into the combustion chamber, it also uncovers
the drain opening and the ball rises from its seat. This
allows free flow through the injector and out the drain for
cooling purposes and purging gases from the cup.
Flanged Injector
Fuel is supplied to and drained from flanged injectors
through external fuel lines and connections. From the inlet
connection, fuel fiows down the inlet passage of the
injector, around the injector plunger between the body and
cup, up the drain passage to the drain connections and lines
where It returns to the supply tank.
As the plunger rises, the metering orifice is uncovered and
part of the fuel is metered into the cup. At the same time,
the rest of the fuel flows out of the drain orifice. The
5-9
Operation and Maintenance Manual
Cummins Diesel Engines
Operating Principles
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PT (type D} injector 3/8 inch diameter ptunger
28). Fuel injection cycle
Fig. 5-11, (FWC-
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@ cup
INJECTION ENDS
(2) CUP RETAINER
(3) BARREL
BY-PASS BEGINS
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Fig. 5-12, (FWC-29). Fuel injector cycle, PT (type D) injector 5/16 inch diameter plunger
5-10
amount of fuel passing through the metering orifice and
into the cup is controlled by fuel pressure and timing. Fig.
5-13.
During injection, the plunger is forced downward until the
metering orifice is closed and fuel in the cup is injected into
the cylinder. While the plunger is seated, all fuel flow
through the injector stops.
Injectors, contain an adjustable orifice or selected inside
diameter orifice plug in the inlet passage which regulates
fuel flow into the injector.
Fuel Lines, Connections And Valves
Supply And Drain Lines
Fuel is supplied through tines to cylinder heads. A common
drain line returns fuel not injected, to supply tank.
Q TT
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(2) GASKET
(3) SEAL
(4) INJECTOR BODY
(5) INLET
(6) ORIFICE PLUG
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(3) (3) DRAIN ORIFICE
(7) METERING ORIFICE
Fig. 5-13, (FWC-11A}. Flanged PT injector
On engines using flanged injectors, fuel is supplied through
a single tube to the fuel supply manifold. The drain
manifold returns fuel not injected to the supply tank
through a drain line.
The PT (type R) fuel pump has a drain line returning from
the top of the pump to the supply tank. This line is not
necessary with the PT (type G) pump.
Operation and Maintenance Manual
Cummins Diese! Engines
Operating Principles
Connections
Fuel connectors are used between the inline engine cylinder
heads to bridge the gap between each supply and drain
passage (3, Fig. 5-1).
Flanged injectors are connected to the supply and drain
manifolds through connections. The inlet connection
contains a fine mesh screen which acts as the final filter
before fuel enters the combustion chamber,
Shut-Down Valve
Either a manual or an electric shut-down valve is used on
Cummins fuel pumps.
With a manual valve, the control lever must be fully
clockwise or open to permit fuel flow through the valve.
With the electric valve, the manual control knob must be
fully counterclockwise to permit the solenoid to open the
valve when the “switch key” is turned on. For emergency
operation in case of electrical failure, turn manual knob
clockwise to permit fuel to flow through the valve.
Operation and Maintenance Manual 5-11
Cummins Diesel Engines
Operating Principles
Lubricating System
Cummins engines are pressure lubricated, pressure 1$
supplied by a gear-type lubricating oil pump located in oil
pan or on side of the engine.
A pressure regulator is mounted in the lubricating oil pump
to control lubricating oil pressure.
Filters and screens are provided in lubricating oil system to
remove foreign material from circulation and prevent
damage to bearings or mating surfaces. A by-pass valve is
provided in full-flow oil filter head as insurance against
interruption of oil flow by a dirty or clogged element.
Maximum cleansing and filtration is achieved through use
of both by-pass and full-flow lubricating oil filters. Full-
flow filters are standard on all engines, by-pass filters
are used on all turbocharged models and optionally on all
other engines.
О
Fig. 5-14, (LWC-18). Lubricating oil and coolant flow - Inline Engine
Some engines are equipped with special oil pans and filters
for some applications, and others with auxiliary oil coolers
to maintain closer oil temperature regulation.
Air compressors and turbochargers are lubricated from
engine oil system. Turbocharger is also cooled by same
lubricating oil used for lubrication.
Fuel pumps and injectors are lubricated by fuel oil.
Inline Engines
NH And NT Series
Oil is drawn into the pump through an external oil line
connected to the oil pan sump. A screen in the sump filters
the oil. On NH and NT engines (Fig. 5-14) oil is drawn from
WATER TO RADIATOR
THERMOSTAT HOUSING
WATER BY-PASS
FAN HUB
WATER FROM COOLER TO
THERMOSTAT HOUSING
LUBRICATING OIL COOLER
WATER FROM RADIATOR
LUBRICATING OIL FILTER
WATER FILTER
LUBRICATING OIL HEADER
PISTON COOLING OIL
WATER HEADER
WATER TO COOLER FROM BLOCK
WATER JACKET
WATER MANIFOLD
TURBOCHARGER OIL DRAIN
TURBOCHARGER OIL SUPPLY
LOL dd
90900099990090 O99O00
LUBRICATING OIL FLOW
COGLANT FO
(7)
9-12
the pan by the pump out through a full-flow filter and
circulates back into the block. The filter may be mounted
- directly to the rear of pump, vertically mounted on exhaust
side of engine or remote mounted. External lines are used
for remote mounting arrangements.
On remote and pump mounted filters oil flows from the
pump to the oil cooler then flows to oil headers through
internal drillings in the gear case. On NTA engines oil flow
Is from pan to pump, to filter, to oil cooler, to block.
An oil header drilled full length of block, fuel pump side,
delivers oil to moving parts within the engine. Oil pipes
carry oil from the camshaft to upper rocker housings and
drillings through the block, crankshaft, connecting rods,
and rocker levers complete the oil circulating passages.
On engines equipped with oil cooled pistons, an oil header
drilled the length of the block, exhaust manifold side,
supplies oil to six spray nozzles used for piston cooling.
A piston cooling oil pump, as a second section of engine
lubricating oil pump or a larger capacity oil pump, pumps
this oil to the oil header.
NTC Series (Full Flow Oil Cooling)
The NTC (FFC) engine is pressure lubricated by a gear-type
lubricating oil pump located on the intake manifold side of
the engine. Oil pressure to the main rifle is controlled by a
regulator located in the cooler support on the exhaust side
of the engine.
Lubricating oil is drawn from the pan, through a suction
tube, by the lubricating oil pump, Fig’s. 5-15 and 5-16,
then transferred from the suction cavity by the pump gears
Into the pressure cavity.
FFC OIL FLOW CIRCUIT
MAIN RIFLE
MAIN & ROD BEARINGS
CAMSHAFT BUSHINGS
CAM FOLLOWER BUSHINGS
: VALVE TRAIN
OIL a
FILTER 1
TURBOCHARGER §
ESE! UNCOOLED & UNFILTERED
* PRESSURE
REGULATOR
OIL VALVE
COOLER
PISTON COOLING
BE cooceo « unFiLTEREO
НН COOLED & FILTERED
AIR COMPRESSOR
ACCESSORY DRIVE
Fig. 5-15, (N10740). Full flow oil cooling (NTC Series)
Operation and Maintenance Manual
Cummins Diesel Engines
Operating Principles
Lubricating oil passes from the pump into the block, then
across the front of the block by means of an internal oil
passage and enters the cooler support. Oil is routed out of
the cooler support and into the cooler housing, passing
through the cooler housing. (The oil cooler is a counterflow
tube-and-shell type heat exchanger, with oil passing from
front to rear through the shell and coolant water passing
from rear to front through the tubes). Oil exits the cooler
housing and passes nto the cooler cover, then enters the
“rifle drilling” at the bottom rear of the cooler housing and
flows forward into the filter head.
Lubricating oil flowing into the filter shell from the filter
head enters outside the filter element and passes through
the element from outside to inside. Filtered lubricating oil
then re-enters the filter head and flows through rifle driiting
in the bottom of the cooler housing, then flows forward
out of the cooler housing and into the cooler support where
the flow divides.
Filtered and cooled lubricating oil from the cooler support
iS routed to the turbocharger through the supply hose.
Turbocharger return oil is then routed by the drain hose
back to the crankcase.
Filtered and cooled lubricating oil re-enters the block from
the cooler support and is transferred internally back across
the front of the block through a drilled oil transfer passage
to the head of the main rifle drilling. Accessory drive
lubrication 1$ supplied from the transfer passage leading to
the head of the main rifle drilling. An intersection drilling
routes lubricating oil from the transfer passage out the
front of the block and into the gear cover on the exhaust
side of the engine, then across the front of the engine
through a tube in the gear cover. The flow path then splits,
part being routed to the accessory drive bushing in the gear
cover and the rest being routed to the air compressor.
Piston-cooling is supplied from the transfer passage leading
to the head of the main rifle drilling. An intersecting
driffing allows flow to the piston-cooling rifle from the oil
transfer passage. The piston-cooling rifle extends from the
front to the rear of the block on the exhaust side of the
engine. Six piston-cooling nozzles inserted from the outside
of the block direct a spray of lubricating oil from the
piston-cooling rifle to the bottom of each piston.
Lubricating oil entering the main rifle is routed by means of
drilled passages and pipes to the main bearings, rod
bearings, piston pin bushings, camshaft bushings, cam
followers shafts and levers, rocker box shafts and rocker
arms, etc., then returns to the oil pan. *
C Series
The C Series engines are pressure lubricated by a gear-type
lubricating oil pump. Lubricating oil pump is mounted on
bottom of block, enclosed in oil pan and driven by an idler
gear off the crankshaft gear.
Lubricating oil, drawn from the pan sump through a slotted
suction line or a screen, is delivered to the engine working
u) © © ©
Operation and Maintenance Manual 5-13
Cummins Diesel Engines
Operating Principles
|
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COGLANT FLOW
LUBRICATING OIL FLOW
Fig. 5-16, (LWC-25). Lubricating oil and coolant flow — FFC (NTC Series)
Fig. 5-17, (LWC-10) .
O (3)
Lubricating oil flow — С Series
THERMOSTAT
AIR COMPRESSOR
INTAKE AIR CROSSOVER
ROCKER LEVERS
PUSH TUBES
AFTERCOOLER
INJECTOR
PISTON
CONNECTING ROD
CAM FOLLOWERS
CRANKSHAFT OH SEAL
MAIN OIL PASSAGE
CRANKSHAFT
OIL PAN
OfL SUPPLY TUBE
LUBRICATING OIL PUMP
OIL TO ACCESSORY DRIVE
VIBRATION DAMPER
OIL FROM COOLER
OIL TO COOLER
WATER PUMP
IDLER PULLEY
(1) INLET TO PUMP
TO MAIN AND
ROD BEARINGS
(3) TO CAMSHAFT
(4) OIL COOLER
(5) ROCKER SHAFT
AND LEVERS
(6) OIL GALLERY
(7) LUBRICATING
OIL PUMP
OIL FILTER
(9) PRESSURE-RELIEVED
OIL TO SUMP
5-14 : | Operation and Maintenance Manual
Cummins Diesel Engines
Operating Principles
LUBRICATING OIL
>
Fig. 5-18, (LWC-16). Lubricating oil and coolant flow — V-903
Ea
BEN LUBRICATING OIL
Fig. 5-19, (LWC-4), Lubricating oil and coolant flow — V-378, V-504 and V-555
(© SEAL WEAR SLEEVE
@ CRANKSHAFT PULLEY
ADAPTER
(2) CRANKSHAFT PULLEY
(» VIBRATION DAMPER
(5) WATER PUMP
(9) ACCESSORY DRIVE GEAR
(© CAMSHAFT GEAR
(® CAMSHAFT THRUST RING
(9) CRANKSHAFT GEAR
CRANKSHAFT THRUST
RINGS
(D FLYWHEEL ADAPTER
( LUBRICATING Oil PUMP
DRIVE GEAR
GD LUBRICATING OIL PUMP
(® LUBRICATING OIL
SUCTION TUBE
@ LUBRICATING OIL
BY-PASS TUBE
(D) FULL-FLOW LUBRICATING
OIL FILTER
@ OIL COOLER
© PISTON RINGS
© FUEL IN
© FUEL OUT
© INJECTOR
© INJECTOR ROCKER LEVER
CRANKCASE BREATHER
© AIR INTAKE MANIFOLD
FUEL SUCTION INLET TO PUMP!
(D) FUEL PUMP
@ OIL FILLER CAP
(D VALVE ROCKER LEVER
@ VALVE CROSSHEAD
(© EXHAUST MANIFOLD
CYLINDER LINER
(D CREVICE SEAL
PACKING RING
CRANKING MOTOR
LUBRICATING OiL PUMP
components through a pressure regulator, full-flow filter,
transfer connection, lubricating oil cooler, into an oil
header which is drilled the length of the block. Drillings in
the block, cylinder head, crankshaft, connecting rods and
rocker levers complete the oil circulating passages. Fig.
5-17.
Connecting rod and main bearings are lubricated by oil
drillings through the crankshaft,
Lubricating oil pressure is controlled by a pressure regulator
located in lubricating oil filter head or on side of block.
Filters and screens are provided throughout the lubricating
oil system to keep foreign material from entering engine
and damaging bearings or mating surfaces.
Maximum cleansing and filtration is achieved through the
use of both by-pass and full-flow lubricating oil filters.
Fuli-flow filters are standard on all engines; by-pass filters
are used on all turbocharged models.
V Series Engines
V6 and V8 Series engines are pressure lubricated by a gear
type lubricating oil pump mounted on bottom of block,
enclosed in oil pan, and gear driven from crankshaft gear.
Oil drawn from pan sump through a screen is delivered to
engine working components through oil lines and oil
headers which are drilled the length of block. Drillings in
block, cylinder head, crankshaft and rocker lever shafts
complete oil circulation passages. Fig. 5-18 and 5-19.
Oil flows through a suction tube to the lubricating oil pump
up a passage in rear of block to the cooler (if used) and
filter,
V-903 Series Engines
1. Oil flows from cooler and filter to right bank of oil
drilling at front of engine to front center of block. Oil flows
through crossover at front of block to left bank and right
bank main oil drillings (drilled length of block). Fig. 5-18.
2. Oil flows through left bank drilling toward rear of engine
to left bank tappets, accessory drive, to numbers 2, 3, 4 and
5 cam bushings, main bearings and connecting rods.
3. At the same time oil flows to a right bank drilling toward
rear of engine to oil right bank tappets.
4. Right bank rocker levers are oiled intermittently from
rear cam bushing location. Left bank rocker levers are oiled
intermittently from front cam bushing.
) V-378, V-504 And V-555 Series Engines
1. Oil flows from filter to right bank oi! drilling at rear of
Operation and Maintenance Manual 5-15
Cummins Diesel Engines
Operating Principles
engine to accessory drive gear, rear cam bushing and rear
main bearing which in turn supplies the two rear connecting
rods. Fig. b-19.
2. Right bank rocker levers are oiled intermittently from
rear cam bushing location.
3. Oil flows through the right bank drilling toward front of
engine to right bank injector tappets, to center cam
bushings, main bearings and connecting rods.
4. Oil flows through a crossover at front of block to left
bank.
5. Left bank rocker levers are oiled intermittently through
front cam bushing.
6. Oil then flows to a left bank drilling toward rear of
engine to oil left bank injector tappets.
V-1710 Series Engines
Cummins V-1710 Series engines are pressure lubricated,
pressure being supplied by a gear-type lubricating oil pump,
located in the oil pan and gear driven from the crankshaft
gear.
A by-pass valve is provided in full-flow oll filter(s) as
insurance against interruption of oil flow by a dirty or
clogged element,
1. Oil is drawn into pump through an oil line to oil pan
sump. A screen in sump strains the oil.
2. Internal lubricating oil flows from pump to cooler to
full-flow filters mounted on side of engine, then to oil
headers in block.
3. Oil headers, drilled full length of block on each side,
deliver oil to moving parts within engine.
4. Oil pipes — or a combination of pipes and passages —
carry oil from camshaft to upper rocker housings; various
drillings through block, crankshaft, connecting rods and
rocker levers complete oil circulating system.
5, On engines equipped with oil-cooled pistons, oil Is
supplied from the front of the block to oil headers which
are drilled the length of block on each side; headers supply
oil to spray nozzies, which direct oil to piston skirts.
6. Lubricating oil pressure is controlled by a regulator
located in the lubricating oH pump.
5-16 Operation and Maintenance Manual
Cummins Diesel Engines
Operating Principles
(D VIBRATION DAMPER
() MAIN BEARING
(® CONNECTING ROD BEARING
® PISTON
(® COOLANT; PASSAGE
© INJECTOR
(7) THERMOSTAT:
(D VALVE ROCKER LEVERS
(® INJECTOR ROCKER LEVER
( 7-50 TURBOCHARGER
(1) INTER-COOLER/AIR INTAKE
MANIFOLD
PUSH TUBES
TAPPETS
@ CAMSHAFT
(9 OIL COOLER
OIL TO ENGINE
® FULL-FLOW OIL FILTERS
@ OIL TO COOLER
@ OIL SUCTION
LUBRICATING OIL PAN
@ LUBRICATING OIL PUMP
COOLANT
LUBRICATING OIL
Fig. 5-20, (CWC-13.) Lubricating oil and coolant flow - side view, V-1710
Operation and Maintenance Manual 5-17
Cummins Diesel Engines
Operating Principles
Cooling System
Water is circulated by a centrifugal water pump mounted
either in or on the front of the engine, belt driven from the
accessory drive or crankshaft, except C-180 water pump is
mounted on side of block and is coupling driven by
supercharger.
Water circulates around wet-type cylinder liners, through
the cylinder heads and around injector sleeves. Fig. 5-14
through Fig. 5-21. Injector sleeves, in which injectors are
mounted, are designed for fast dissipation of heat. The
engine has a thermostat or thermostats to control engine
operating temperature. Engine coolant is cooled by a
radiator and fan or a heat exchanger.
The Fieetguard Water Filter is standard on Cummins
Engines. The filter by-passes a small amount of coolant
from the system via a filtering and treating element which
must be replaced periodically. Refer to Coolant
Fig. 5-21, (LWC-22). Coolant and lubricating oil flow — NTA Inline Engine
Specifications for water filter capacity and treatment of
make-up water,
NTA Aftercooled Engine
Water flows from radiator into cavity of water pump, where
water flow splits. One portion circulates to the cylinder
block water header around wet type cylinder liners,
through the cylinder head and around the injector sleeves,
upwards to the water manifold, to the thermostat housing,
At the rear of the block water header, water is directed to
the aftercooler, Fig. 5-21. Water flows forward through the
aftercooler to the water crossover to the thermostat
housing. The second portion of water flows from the cavity
of the water pump housing through the oil cooler and
tubing to the rear of the water manifold forward to the
thermostat housing, to control engine temperature,
VIBRATION DAMPER
0iL FROM COOLER
OIL TO COOLER
IDLER PULLEY
WATER PUMP
FAN HUB
OIL FILTER
THERMOSTAT
AIR COMPRESSOR
INTAKE AIR CROSSOVER
ROCKER LEVERS
PUSH TUBES
INJECTOR
AFTERCOOLER
PISTON
CONNECTING ROD
CAM FOLLOWERS
CRANKSHAFT OIL SEAL
MAIN OIL PASSAGE
CRANKSHAFT
OIL PAN
OIL SUPPLY TUBE
COOLANT FLOW LUBRICATING OIL PUMP
LUBRICATING OIL FLOW
EOOOEEEEEEEREEEEECEEEEEE
5-18
Operation and Maintenance Manual
Cummins Diesel Engines
Operating Principles
Air System
The diesel engine requires hundreds of gallons of air for
every gallon of fuel that it burns. For the engine to operate
efficiently, it must breathe freely, intake and exhaust
systems must not be restricted.
The intake air should always be routed through an air
cleaner. The cleaner may be mounted on engine or
equipment and may be either oil bath, paper element or
composite type depending upon engine application. Air is
routed from air cleaner directly to intake air manifold,
turbocharger or supercharger.
NTA Aftercooler
An aftercooler (or intercooler as it is sometimes called) is a
device in the engine intake system designed to reduce
intake air temperature and/or preheat intake air
temperature.
The aftercooler consists of a housing, used as a portion of
the engine intake air manifold, with an internal core. The
core is made of tubes through which engine coolant
circulates. Air is cooled or heated by passing over the core
prior to going into the engine combustion chambers.
Therefore, improved combustion results from better
control of intake air temperature cooling or warming as
applied by the aftercooler.
Supercharger
A supercharger is a gear-driven mechanism which employs
rotors to force air into engine cylinders. The supercharger is
driven from the engine crankshaft through a gear train
turning at about 1.8 times engine speed. Fig. 5-22.
Turbocharger
The turbocharger forces additional air into combustion
chambers so engine can burn more fuel and develop more
horsepower than if it were naturally aspirated. In some
cases the turbocharger is used for the engine to retain
efficiency (balanced fuel to air ratio) at altitudes above sea
level.
The turbocharger consists of a turbine wheel and a
centrifugal blower, or compressor wheel, separately encased
but mounted on and rotating with a common shaft.
The power to drive the turbine wheel — which in turn
drives the compressor — is obtained from energy of engine
O se BASKET THRUST WASHER
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Fig. 5-22, (N21004). Supercharger (cross section)
exhaust gases. Rotating speed of the turbine changes as the
energy level of gas changes; therefore, the engine is supplied
with enough air to burn fuel for its load requirements. Fig.
5-23, 5-24, 5-25, 5-26 and 5-27. The turbocharger is
lubricated and cooled by engine lubricating oil.
Air Compressor
The Cummins air compressor may be either a single or two
cylinder unit coupling or gear driven from the engine gear
train accessory drive. Lubrication is received from the
engine lubricating system, with oil carried by internal
drillings, on 80 deg tilt engines air compressor crankcase
is drained by a scavenger pump mounted on gear case
cover and is driven by lubricating oil pump drive gear.
The cylinder head is cooled by engine coolant. Operating
functions are as follows:
Air Intake
Air is drawn into the compressor through the engine intake
Fig. 5-23, (T380-A). T-35 turbocharger (cross section)
®
e
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©
© ©
Operation and Maintenance Manual
Cummins Diesel Engines
Operating Principles
PISTON AING SEAL
BEARING HOUSING
'Y” CLAMP
‘0" AING SEAL
COMPRESSOR CASING
WW cn =~ OD LN de 6 PO =
CIL SEAL ASSEMBLY
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COMPRESSOR WHEEL
12
PISTON RING SEAL
‘0° RING SEAL
THRUST WASHER
BEARING
TURBINE WHEEL
© © DG @ © ©@ @ © © 6 © ® 6
TURBINE CASING
14 13 11 103
(D HEAT SHIELD
© PISTON RING SEAL
( EXHAUST OUT
(© TURBINE WHEEL
(© TURBINE CASING 2
(® EXHAUST IN
@ OIL IN
® AIR TO ENGINE
(® COMPRESSOR CASING
BEARING INSERT
© PISTON RING SEAL
( OIL SEAL ASSEMBLY
(i) COMPRESSOR WHEEL
(9 AIR IN
345783
UD o wd O5 CH Le 3 п
(D SEAL PLATE 13
(9 O-RING SEAL 15
GD O-RING SEAL 18
@ BEARING HOUSING 18
GD OIL OUT 19
@ BEARING
5-19
EXHAUST IN
DIL IN
DIFFUSER PLATE
AR TO ENGINE
COLLECTOR HOUSING
OIL SEAL ASSEMBLY
IMPELLER
AIR IN
O-RING SEALS
BEARING INSERT
V-BAND CLAMP
OiL OUT
13 BEARING HOUSING
14 BEARING
15 INSULATION PAD
16 HEAT SHIELD
17 PISTON RING SEAL
18 EXHAUST OUT
19 TURBINE WHEEL AND SHAFT
20 TURBINE CASING
Fig. 5-26, (AWC-12). ST-50 turbocharger (cross section)
AIR IN
AIR OUT
COMPRESSOR HOUSING
V-BAND CLAMP
BACKPLATE
OIL IN
CENTER HOUSING
SHROUD
TURBINE HOUSING
EXHAUST QUT
EXHAUST IN
TURBINE WHEEL AND SHAFT
BEARINGS
SNAP RINGS
OIL OUT
THRUST WASHER
THRUST COLLAR
ON SEAL ASSEMBLY
COMPRESSOR WHEEL
@ INSULATION PAD
Fig. 5-24, (AWC-8}. T-50 turbocharger (cross section)
HEAT SHIELD
PISTON RING SEAL
EXHAUST OUT
TURBINE WHEEL AND SHAFT
TURBINE CASING
EXHAUST IN
он. №
DIFFUSER PLATE
AIR TO ENGINE
COLLECTOR HOUSING
BEARING INSERT
в Ви 12 OIL SEAL ASSEMBLY
— dee —— 13 IMPELLER
a | 14 AIR IN
15 O-RING SEALS
16 V-BAND CLAMP
17 OIL OUT
18 BEARING HOUSING
19 BEARING
20 19 18 16 15 20 INSULATION PAD
OS + сло 46 62 КЗ ==
131
—
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Fig. 5-25, (AWC-9). VT-50 turbocharger (cross section)
Fig. 5-27, {TA-1). T18-A turbocharger {cross section)
(O COOLANT
@ UNLOADER VALVE
@ AIR GOVERNOR CONNECTION
© AIR INLET
® INTAKE VALVE
(® EXHAUST VALVE
Fig. 5-28, (AWC-10). Cummins air compressor (single cylinder)
5-20
air manifold or compressor mounted breather. As the
piston moves down, a partial vacuum occurs above it.
The difference in cylinder pressure and atmospheric
pressure forces the inlet valve down from its seat, allowing
the air to flow through the intake port and into the
cylinder. When the piston has reached the bottom of its
stroke, spring pressure is sufficient to overcome lesser
pressure differential and forces the valve against its seat.
Fig. 5-28 and Fig. 5-29.
9
34 .—
11
2 12
1 13
4
THRUST WASHERS 9 CYLINDER HEAD COVER
1
2 CRANKSHAFT 10 CYLINDER HEAD
3 SUPPORT 11 PISTON RINGS
4 BUSHINGS 12 PISTON
5 EXHAUST VALVE 13 CONNECTING ROD
6 INTAKE VALVE 14 FUEL PUMP DRIVE
7 AIR GOVERNOR INLET 15 LUBRICATING OIL INLET
8 UNLOADER VALVE ASSEMBLY
Fig. 5-29 (AWC-11) Cummins air compressor (two cylinder)
Compression
When the piston starts its upward stroke, the increased
pressure of air in the cylinder and head forces the outlet
valve away from its seat. The compressed air then flows
through outlet ports and into the air tank as the piston
continues its upward stroke. On piston downstroke, the
exhaust valve closes and the intake valve opens except
during unloading period.
Unloading
When pressure in the air tank is at a predetermined level, air
pressure is applied to top of unloader cap by a compressor
governor. This pressure forces the unloader cap down and
holds the intake valve open during non-pumping cycle.
Operation and Maintenance Manual
Cummins Diesel Engines
Operating Principles
When pressure in air tank drops, the unloader cap returns to
its upper position and intake and compression sequences
begin once again.
Vacuum Pump
The Cummins Vacuum Pump, shown in Fig. 5-30, is an
adaptation of Cummins Air Compressor; it is a
single-cylinder unit driven from engine gear train accessory
drive. Lubrication is received from engine lubricating
EXHAUST VALVE SEAT
EXHAUST VALVE
EXHAUST YALVE SPRING
INTAKE VALVE SPRING
INTAKE VALVE
INTAKE VALVE SEAT
о о ео ее ©
VALVE SET SCREW
Fig. 5-30, (V11205). Cummins vacuum pump
system, with oil carried by internal drillings. The cylinder
head is cooled by engine coolant. Operating functions are
as follows:
Air Intake
As piston moves downward on intake stroke a vacuum
occurs above piston, The difference in cylinder pressure and
atmospheric pressure forces inlet valve from its seat
allowing air to flow through intake port into cylinder from
vacuum tank thus creating vacuum in vacuum tank. When
piston has reached bottom of its stroke, spring pressure is
sufficient to overcome lesser pressure differential and forces
valve against its seat.
Compression
When piston starts upward stroke, increased pressure of air
in cylinder and head forces outlet valve away from seat. Air
then flows through outlet port and is discharged into
vacuum pump crankcase or engine crankcase, as piston
continues upward stroke. When piston reaches end of
stroke, air pressure in head drops to a point where spring
forces exhaust valve against seat and closes outlet passage.
Index
Aftercooler .. . 1.1. 2121414441 4 1 1 4220 5-18
Air and Vapor Lines . . . . . . . . . ........ 2-29
Air Cleaner Cleaning (Oil Bath Type) ........ 2-29
Air Cleaner Element—Cartridge Type . . . . . . ... 2-6
Air Cleaner Element Cleaning
(Single and Dual Type Elements) .......... 2-5
Air Cleaner Element Cleaning (Dry Type) . ...... 2-5
Air Cleaner Oil Changing . . . . . . ... ....... 2-7
Air Cleaner Oil Level . ..... . . ... ...... 2-4
Air Cleaner Tray Screen Cleaning. . . . . . . ... 2-13
Air Compressor ... 1.242424 44 1112410 2-30,5-18
Air Compressor Breather . . . . . . . . .. ..... 2-14
Air Connections ... 1.242441 4 414 20 1-2 2-29
Air Intet Restriction At Air Cleaner . ......... 2-4
Air Iniet Restriction At Engine .. .. ........, 2-4
Air Piping 2.110412 412 111 4 LL 1 1120 2-13
Air System .. 1.1.2. 211 1 LL LL LL 11220 5-18
Air Tank Draining . . . . . . ............. 2-8
Alternator Brushes And Commutators . . . . . . .. 2-29
Aneroid .... 1.212111 1 41 01 LL 0112110 5-7
Aneroid Oil Level, Check . . . . . .. . . ...... 2-11
Aneroid Change Oil, Check Bellows
and Replace Breather . . . . . . . . ....... 2-29
Aneroid—Replace Bellows and
Calibrate . . . . . 11124 1 1 11 LL 11120 2-31
Belt Tension—Checking And Adjusting . . . . . . . . 2-17
By-Pass Oil Filter Changing . . . . . . ........ 2-11
Check For Damage . . .. .. .... ......... 2-5
Cold-Starting Aid Checking . . . . . . .. ..... 2-35
Cold-Starting Aids. . . . . . . . .. .. ....... 1-3
Cold-Weather Protection . . . . . . . ......... 1-6
Compression Stroke ... 1.222 4141141120 5-1
Coolant Check . . . ............... 2-16,3-b
Coolant Leaks ... 1.111111 411111011210 2-8
Cootant Level . ... .. 10 10111220 1-2,2-6
Coolant Specifications . . . . .. . ..... 3-4
Cooling System .. . 1... 122110111101 110 5-17
Cooling System Cleaning . . . . . . .. ....... 2-35
Crankcase Breather Cleaning . . . . . .. . .. ... 2-12
Cranking Motor Brushes And Commutators . . . . . 2-29
Crankshaft End Clearance . . . . . . . . . . . ... 2-32
Crosshead Adjustment . . . .. . .. . .. 2-11,2-23,2-27
Daily Checks .. 1. 1.121141 4 11414 110 1-7 2-4
Diesel Cycle .. ... . 102011021111 111110 5-1
Drive Pulley 2... 21101011 2111111110 2-33
Electric Connection Cleaning . . . . . . . . . .... 2-35
Engine Break-In... 4 1011111110 1-2
EngineCoolant . . . . . . .. ............. 1-2
Engine Exhaust . .. .. . eee. ara 1-5
Engine Fuel Pressure, Speed
and Aneroid Adjustment ...... LLL. 2-29
Engine Oil Changing . . . . . . .. . ......... 2-9
Engine Oil Level, Check . . . . . . . . . ....... 2-4
Engine Shut-Down . . . . . . . . ... ........ 1-5
Engine Speeds . . . . . . . . 1 41 1111 210 1-4
Exhaust Stroke . . . . . . . ooo. 5-1
Fan Hub Inspection .... 204222142112 10 2-29
Fan Pulley Mounting . . . . . . .. ... ...... 2-33
Fuel Filter Changing (Replaceable Element Type) . . 2-12
Fuel Filter Changing (Throw-Away Type} . . . . .. 2-11
Fuel Filter Element Changing . . . . . . . . .... 2-11
Fuel Filter Sediment Draining . . . . . . . . . .. .. 2-4
Fuel Lines, Connections and Valves . . . . . . . . . 5-10
Fuel Oil Leaks . . . . . . . . .. .. ... ...... 2-8
Fuel Oil Specifications . . . . . . .. . . ....... 3-3
Fuel Pump .... 1.121011 111111 2111 210 5-2
Fuel Pump Screen And Magnet . . . . . . .... .. 2-31
Fuel Supply Lines And Connections . . . . . . . . . . 1-1
Fuel System . . . . ae 5-2
Fuel System Priming . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... 1-1
Fuel Tank Breather Cleaning . . . . . . . . . .. .. 2-12
Fuel Tank Sediment Draining . . . . . . . . . . . .. 2-4
Gear Pump And Pulsation Damper . . . . . . . . ... 5-3
Generator Brushes and Commutators . . . . . . . . 2-29
Governed Engine Speed ..... .... ...... 1-4
Governors . .... ea 5-6
Grease Specifications . . . . 1. 212411 4114220 3-3
Heat Exchanger Zinc Plugs . . . . .. aaa 2-36
High Altitude Operation . 2... 1-5
Hose Checking . . . . 1.124121 1111414 20 2-35
Hydraulic Governor ... 1.222212 24112220 1-2
Hydraulic Governor Oil Change . . . . . . . . . .. 2-28
Hydraulic Governor Oil Level . . . . . . . ... .. 2-11
Idling The Engine... 1.122111 121120 1-4
Injectors... 11124 1 1 LL LL LL LL LL 140 5-8
Injectors, Clean And Calibrate .. ... 2.122220 2-31
Injector Plunger Adjustment . . . . . 2-11,2-21,2-24 2-26
Intake Stroke ... 2.221 2114 11 11411 120 5-1
Lubricating Oil Analysis . . . . . . . . . . .. .... 2-9
Lubricating Oil Specifications . . . . . . . . . .. 3-1,3-2
Lubricating System . .. 1... 121024102212 20 5-11
Lubricating System Priming ..... .. e. .—.. o... 1-1
Maintenance Check Sheet . .... . . . . . . .. 2-2
Maintenance Intervals . . . . . . . . . e... 2-3
Maintenance Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ... 2-1
Maintenance Schedule .. .., 211011111011 10 2-1
Manifold Nut or Capscrew Tightening . . . . . . 2-13,2-32
Maximum Horsepower Requirements . . . . . . . .. 1-4
Mounting Bolt And Nut Tightening. . . . . . . .. 2-32
Oil Change Limits. . . . . . . . 29
Oil Filter Element Changing . . . . . . ... ..... 2-9
Qil Level . .... aaa 1-1,2-4
Oil Pressure Gauge ... 1.212241 4144 42420 1-5
Oil Pressure Recording . . . .. . .. . .. . .... 2-11
Oil Temperature Gauge . . . . . . . . ....,.... 1-4
Operating Instructions. . . . . . . . .. .. . .... 1-1
Operating Principles. . ...... 2... e... 5-1
Operator's Daily Report. . . . . .. .. .. .. .. 1-10
Power Stroke . . . . 1.222 4144 4111224220 5-1
Pressure Flushing . . . . . . . . . . ......... 2-35
Preheater—Cold Starting . . . . . . . . ... .... 2-35
Pre-Cleaner and Dust Pan . . . . . . . .. . . ..... 2-4
Pre-Starting . . . . . . ea 1-1
Radiator Core Cleaning . . . . . . . . .. ...... 2-29
Rebuild Units—Inspection and Installing . . . . . . . 2-34
Specifications and Torque . . . . . . . . .. . .... 3-1
Shut-Down Valve .. . 2.112111 4 11111220 5-10
Shutterstat Checking . . . 1. 2.12 11 141 41220 2-35
Starting Procedure .. 1. 2. 21214 4111 111220 1-2
Steam Clean Engine. . . . . . . .. ........ 2-32
Storage For Engine Out of Service . . . . . . . .. .. 2-1
Supercharger . . . . . . . 2 4111111120 5-18
Temperature Settings . . . . . . . .......... 2-36
Thermal Control Settings . . . .. .. ........ 2-35
Thermatic Fan Checking . ..... ._—.. 2-35
Thermostat and Seal Checking . . . . . ... .... 2-35
Throttle . ... . . ae aa 5-5
Throttle Linkage . . . ... .......... 2-11
Torque Specifications. . .. .. .. . . ....... 3-6
Trouble Shooting . . . . . . . ee... 4-1
Trouble Shooting Chart .. 1.224111 10 02220 4-2
Turbocharger | . 5-18
Turbocharger Compressor Wheel
and Diffuser Cleaning . . . . . .. ........ 2-32
Turbocharger Mounting Nut Tightening . . . . . . . 2-32
Turbocharger Qil Leaks . . . . . _ . . . . . . . .. 2-32
Vacuum Pump 2... 21441111 11111220 5-20
Valve Adjustment . . . . . . . . .. 2-11,2-21,2-24 2-26
Vibration Damper Alignment , . . . . . . . . ... 2-30
“Warming Up” Engine . . . . . e... 1-4
Water Pump Inspection . . . . . . ... ... .... 2-29
Water Temperature Gauge . . . . . . . . .. ..... 1-5
Indiana residents —add 2% Sales Tax
Total Amount Enclosed
IMPORTANT: PLEASE PRINT CLEARLY OR TYPE NAME AND ADDRESS.
Name
Street Address
City
Country
Engine Model
Equipment Make and Type
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