Similarities and Differences Dutch GAAP vs. IFRS

Similarities and Differences Dutch GAAP vs. IFRS
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Similarities
and Differences
Dutch GAAP vs. IFRS
November 2013
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PwC
Similarities
and Differences
Dutch GAAP vs. IFRS
Contents
4
PwC
Preface
7
Executive summary
8
1. Accounting framework and first-time adoption Accounting framework
First-time adoption
13
13
16
2. Financial statements Primary statements and notes
Separate financial statements
Errors, change in accounting, change in estimates
19
19
25
26
3. Business combinations, consolidated financial statements,
and investments in associates and joint ventures Business combinations
Consolidation
Equity accounting (Investments in associates and joint ventures)
Joint arrangements 29
29
33
37
39
4. Income and expenses Income
Expenses
43
43
47
5. Financial instruments Definitions, scope and classification
Measurement, impairment and derecognition
Hedge-accounting
51
51
53
57
6. Non-financial assets Inventories
Investment property
Property, plant and equipment
Intangible assets other than goodwill
Impairment 63
63
65
67
69
71
7. Non-financial liabilities and equity Provisions and contingencies
Equity
Employee benefits
Income taxes
75
75
78
80
82
8. Other topics Leases
Foreign currencies
Hyperinflation
Events after the end of the reporting period
Related-party disclosures
Discontinued operations and non-current assets held for sale
Segment reporting
Earnings per share
85
85
89
91
92
93
94
96
97
9. IFRS only Interim financial reporting
Agriculture
Exploration for and evaluation of mineral resources
Service concessions
Insurance contracts
99
99
100
100
101
101
10. Dutch GAAP only
Threshold and size criteria of entities
Directors’ report
Public sector accounting
Intercompany results
103
104
105
105
106
Appendices
Appendix 1 Balance sheet Appendix 2 Income statement
Appendix 3 Cash flow statement
Appendix 4 Statement of changes in equity
108
109
111
112
115
Colofon
118
Similarities and Differences Dutch GAAP vs. IFRS Chapter
5
Note: This publication is for those who wish to gain a broad understanding of the significant
differences between Dutch GAAP and IFRS. It is not comprehensive. It focuses on a
selection of those differences most commonly found in practice. When applying the
individual accounting frameworks, entities should consult all of the relevant accounting
standards and, where applicable, national law.
While every effort has been made to ensure accuracy, information contained in this publication
may not be comprehensive or may have been omitted that may be relevant to a particular
reader. In particular, this publication is not intended as a study of all aspects of Dutch GAAP or
IFRS or as a substitute for reading the standards and interpretations when dealing with specific
issues. No responsibility for loss to any person acting or refraining from acting as a result of any
material in this publication can be accepted by PwC. Recipients should not act on the basis of this
publication without seeking professional advice.
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Preface
Introduction
This publication “Similarities and
Differences Dutch GAAP vs. IFRS” is
designed by PwC The Netherlands to
highlight some of the key differences
between Dutch GAAP and IFRS and to
encourage early consideration of what
IFRS means to the entity.
In the publication we deal with Dutch
GAAP as a starting point whereas we
elaborate on the key differences with IFRS
in the adjacent IFRS column. If there are
no or only less significant differences a
“same as” or “similar” remark is included
in the IFRS column.
Dutch GAAP
In this overview of similarities and
differences we refer to Dutch GAAP, which
covers:
• The Dutch Civil Code, Book 2, Part 9
(‘BW 2 T9’); including:
- The General Administrative Order
on model formats (‘Besluit modellen
jaarrekening’ – ‘GAO on model
formats’);
- T
he Decree on valuations (‘Besluit
actuele waarde’); and
• The Dutch Accounting Standards
(‘Richtlijnen voor de jaarverslaggeving’).
Dutch company law is part of the Dutch
Civil Code. The legal provisions relating to
entities limited by shares in the Netherlands
are included in Book 2 of the Code, which
contains legal provisions relating to all legal
persons and entities, including co-operatives and associations, as well as limited
liability entities. The financial reporting
regulatory framework is built around
the relevant elements of the Code, and is
supplemented by the Dutch Accounting
Standards (‘DAS’), judicial precedence (‘de
Ondernemingskamer’) and, more latterly,
International Financial Reporting Standards
and the Authority for Financial Markets
(‘Autoriteit Financiële Markten’ (AFM)).
The Dutch Accounting Standards have
no legal force, but provide more detailed
guidance on the interpretation of the law
and in areas not specifically covered by the
Code. In practice, the Dutch Accounting
Standards form an important part of the
Dutch Generally Accepted Accounting
Principles and this has been confirmed in a
number of legal cases.
Applicability
We based our publication on Dutch Law
and the 2012 version of the DAS which
is applicable for financial statements
for annual periods beginning on or
after 1 January 2013. The Dutch GAAP
column deals with the recognition
and measurement requirements for
medium-sized and large entities. Small
entities are not covered in this overview.
The size criteria and specific exemptions
for medium-sized entities are included in
chapter 10.
With regard to IFRS authoritative
pronouncements and other developments
through 1 January 2013 are taken into
account which means that the standards
IAS19R, IFRS 10, 11, 12 and 13 are
included. For entities applying IFRS as
endorsed by the European Union the
Standards IFRS 10, 11 and 12 are effective
for annual periods beginning on or after
January 1, 2014.
Some topics cannot be compared as
they are not dealt with in one of the two
frameworks. Public sector accounting
for example is only covered under
Dutch GAAP, whereas the standard on
Agriculture in IFRS (IAS 41) has no
equivalent in the DAS. Therefore we
included topics that are IFRS only and
topics that are Dutch GAAP only.
Terminology and appendices
For your information we included the
translation of frequently used terms below:
historical cost
- historische kostprijs
current value- actuele waarde
replacement
value
- vervangingswaarde
value in use
- bedrijfswaarde
fair value- marktwaarde/
reële waarde
realisable value - opbrengstwaarde
Furthermore we included examples of a
balance sheet, an income statement, a cash
flow statement and a statement of changes
in equity in the appendices based on Dutch
GAAP and IFRS in order to become more
familiar with the major differences in
presentation.
This publication is a part of PwC’s on-going
commitment to help entities navigate the
switch from Dutch GAAP to IFRS and to
support those entities that use both GAAP’s
in their group structure or wish to compare
and contrast.
This publication is not all-encompassing.
When applying the individual accounting
frameworks, entities should consult all of
the relevant accounting standards and,
where applicable, national law.
The online version of this publication
can be accessed via the Dutch branch of
www.inform.pwc.com
Amsterdam, November 2013
Hugo van den Ende
Joost Wiering
PwC
The Netherlands
Similarities and Differences Dutch GAAP vs. IFRS preface
7
Executive summary
This executive summary aims to demonstrate how converting to IFRS has
implications far beyond the entity’s financial reporting function; to highlight
some of the key differences between IFRS and Dutch GAAP; and to encourage
early consideration of what IFRS means to the entity.
These and other issues are expanded upon in the main body of this
publication. It takes into account authoritative pronouncements issued
under IFRSs published up to 1 January 2013. With regard to Dutch GAAP
it takes into account the 2012 – version which is applicable for financial
statements for annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2013.
Accounting framework
and First time adoption
(chapter 1)
IFRS: Liabilities related to refinancing completed after the balance sheet date are addressed as events after the
balance sheet date and are hence presented as current.
In case of breach of debt covenants the liabilities may only be presented as non-current if a waiver for one year
is granted by the lender before the balance sheet date.
Dutch GAAP: Liabilities related to refinancing may be presented as non-current if the refinancing is completed
after the balance sheet date, but before the date of issuance of the financial statements.
In case of violation of debt covenants the liabilities may only be presented as non-current if a waiver for more
than one year is granted by the lender before the date of issuance of the financial statements.
IFRS: The first-time adopter of IFRS is an entity that presents its first annual financial statements that conform
to IFRS.
First-time adoption requires retrospective application of the IFRS effective at the reporting date for an entity’s
first IFRSs financial statements. There are mandatory exceptions and optional exemptions to the requirement
for retrospective application.
Dutch GAAP: There are no separate guidelines regarding a first-time adoption. General approach would be to
retrospectively apply accounting principles in full.
Financial statements
(chapter 2)
IFRS: A statement of changes in equity is required, presenting a reconciliation of equity items between the
beginning and end of the period.
Dutch GAAP: A statement of changes in equity is required, presenting a reconciliation of equity items between
the beginning and end of the period. However this is not a primary statement, but should be included in the
disclosure notes.
IFRS: An entity is required to present a statement of comprehensive income either in a single statement, or in
two statements comprising of a separate income statement and a separate statement of other comprehensive
income.
There is no prescribed format. Management selects a method of presenting its expenses by either function or
nature.
Dutch GAAP: The statement of comprehensive income is not a primary statement. Instead, under Dutch GAAP
only the income statement (or profit and loss account) according to the models of the General Administrative
Order on model formats is applicable. Next to this, an ‘Overzicht Totaalresultaat’ is required in the disclosure
notes for large entities. This overview bears some resemblance with the IFRS - Other Comprehensive Income
statement.
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IFRS: A material prior-period error is an omission from the entity’s financial statements for prior periods that
could influence the decisions that users make on the basis of the financial statements. Material prior-period
errors are adjusted retrospectively unless it is impracticable to determine the effects of the error.
Dutch GAAP: The expression “fundamental error” is used (and not material error) in order to conclude to a
restatement. A fundamental error is an error in the financial statements detected after the approval of the
financial statements by the general meeting of shareholders, which results in serious shortcomings in the
financial statements. Fundamental errors are adjusted retrospectively in the first set of financial statements
after their detection.
Other errors that are not fundamental (but may be material) are recognised in the income statement of the
current period.
Business combinations
and consolidation
(chapter 3)
IFRS: The definition of control in IFRS 10, explains that ‘an investor controls an investee when it is exposed, or
has rights, to variable returns from its involvement with the investee and has the ability to affect those returns
through its power over the investee’.
A parent entity is exempt from having to present consolidated financial statements if certain criteria are met.
Dutch GAAP: Definition of control under DAS is similar to the definition included previously in IAS 27.
‘Control is the power to govern the financial and operating policies of an entity to obtain benefits from its
activities.’
A similar consolidation exemption (intermediate holding) is applicable for Dutch GAAP; more exemptions are
applicable, for example with regard to personal holdings, investment entities and small entities.
IFRS: The use of the acquisition method of accounting for business combination transactions is required.
Transaction costs are excluded under IFRS 3 (revised). Contingent consideration is recognised regardless of
the probability of payment. Contingent liabilities are part of the cost of a business provided their fair values can
be measured reliably.
Dutch GAAP: The purchase method is applicable. As DAS did not adopt the amendments that were made in
IFRS3 (revised) 2008 several differences exist with IFRS.
DAS also allows the pooling of interest method when certain criteria are met. The most common type of
combination is where one of the combining entities obtains control over the other.
Transaction costs are included in the cost of the acquisition. Contingent considerations are only included as
part of the acquisition cost if it is probable that the amount will be paid and its fair value can be measured
reliably. Contingent liabilities are assumed to be included in the acquisition price and are not a separate part of
the cost of a business.
IFRS: Goodwill shall be capitalised. Amortisation of goodwill is not permitted. Goodwill is subject to an
impairment test annually and when there is an indicator of impairment. The option provided by IFRS to
measure the non-controlling interest using either fair value method or proportionate share method on each
transaction may result in a different goodwill amount compared to Dutch-GAAP.
Dutch GAAP: After initial recognition, the goodwill is measured at cost less accumulated amortisation and any
accumulated impairment losses. Goodwill is amortised over its useful life, there is a rebuttable presumption
that the useful life of goodwill is up to a maximum of 20 years. According to Dutch law it is also allowed to
charge goodwill directly to the shareholders’ equity or the income statement.
Equity accounting
(chapter 3)
Joint arrangements
(chapter 3)
IFRS: Investments in associates in the consolidated financial statements are accounted for using the equity
method. The cost method is only permitted in the separate financial statements.
Dutch GAAP: An entity may account for its investments in associates in the consolidated financial statements
using one of the following methods:
• net asset value method
• visible equity value if insufficient data are available to apply the net asset value method
Proportionate consolidation for jointly controlled entities is allowed. The net asset value method is permitted
otherwise.
Similarities and Differences Dutch GAAP vs. IFRS Executive summary
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IFRS: For investments in associates the equity method is applied. Goodwill related to associates is part of
the carrying amount of the associate. Any goodwill included as part of the carrying amount of the investment
in the associate is not tested separately for impairment but, rather, as part of the test for impairment of the
investment as a whole.
Dutch GAAP: For investments in associates the net asset value method is applied. Unlike the equity method
goodwill is recognised as a separate intangible asset; therefore subject to amortisation and a separate
impairment test if triggering events are applicable.
IFRS distinguishes two types of joint arrangements:
• joint operation: involved parties have rights to the assets and obligations for the liabilities of the operation.
• joint venture: involved parties have rights to the net assets.
Only the equity method is applied to account for joint ventures.
Dutch GAAP distinguishes three types of joint venture:
• jointly controlled entities
• jointly controlled operations, in which each venturer uses its own assets for a specific project
• jointly controlled operations, in which the assets are jointly owned by the venturers.
A venturer may account for its joint ventures using:
• proportionate consolidation if this satisfies the true and fair view
• the net asset value method
Income and expenses
(chapter 4)
IFRS: Pensions are provided to employees either through defined contribution plans or defined benefit plans.
Defined benefit plan expense includes:
• service costs (via income statement)
• net interest on the net defined benefit liability(via income statement)
• remeasurements of the net defined benefit liability (via OCI)
Dutch GAAP: The distinction between defined contribution plan and defined benefit plan does not exist. The
pension contributions payable by the employer to the pension fund are expensed.
Financial instruments
(chapter 5)
IFRS: IAS 39, ‘Financial instruments: Recognition and measurement’, distinguishes four measurement
categories of financial assets – that is, Financial assets at fair value through profit or loss, Held-to-maturity
investments, Loans and receivables and Available-for-sale financial assets. There are two categories of
financial liabilities – that is, Financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss and Other liabilities.
Dutch GAAP: There are five measurement categories of financial assets: trading portfolio, derivatives,
acquired loans and bonds, loans and other receivables and investments in equity instruments. There are three
measurement categories of financial liabilities: trading portfolio, derivatives and other financial liabilities.
IFRS: Preference shares that bear contingent dividends are classified as a liability. The basis for this
presentation is the fact that the payment of dividends is not at the discretion of the entity.
Dutch GAAP: Preference shares that bear contingent dividends depending on the profit for the year may be
classified as equity or as debt as an accounting policy choice in the consolidated financial statements.
IFRS: Derivatives (assets and liabilities) are measured at fair value through profit or loss.
Dutch GAAP: Derivatives (assets and liabilities) with listed shares as underlying are measured at fair value
through profit or loss. Other derivatives which are not in the trading portfolio can be measured either at fair
value through profit or loss or at amortised cost.
IFRS: IAS 39 permits three types of hedging relationship:
• Cash flow hedges
• Fair value hedges
• Hedges of a net investment in a foreign operation, as defined in IAS 21.
Apart from these three types of hedging relationships Dutch GAAP also allows cost price hedge accounting.
Non-financial assets
(chapter 6)
IFRS: For tangible and intangible assets, there is an accounting policy choice between the cost model and
the revaluation model. If an asset’s carrying amount is increased as a result of a revaluation, the increase is
recognised in other comprehensive income and accumulated in equity as ‘revaluation reserve’.
Goodwill and other intangibles with indefinite lives are reviewed for impairment and not amortised.
Dutch GAAP: For tangible and intangible assets, there is an accounting policy choice between the cost model
and the revaluation model. If an entity re-values an asset, it recognises a revaluation reserve in equity (legal
reserve) unless this upward revaluation is a reversal of a prior downward revaluation.
All intangible assets, including goodwill, are assumed to have finite lives and are amortised.
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Non-financial assets –
inventories (chapter 6)
IFRS: Inventories are measured at the lower of cost and net realisable value.
The cost of inventories is assigned by using either the first-in, first-out (FIFO) or weighted average cost formula.
Dutch GAAP: Inventories are measured at the lower of cost and net realisable value, or according to the
revaluation model.
The cost of inventories is assigned by using either the first-in, first-out (FIFO), weighted average cost formula of
Last-in, last-out (LIFO) (though LIFO is not recommended).
IFRS: Borrowing costs are capitalised if certain criteria are met.
Dutch GAAP: Borrowing costs may be capitalised when certain criteria are met.
Non-financial liabilities
and equity (chapter 7)
IFRS: IFRS is strict on the timing of the recognition of the provision. A provision can only be recognised per
period-end when the criteria are met at the balance sheet date (for example with regard to a restructuring).
A provision for major repair and maintenance of property, plant and equipment is not allowed under IFRS.
Dutch GAAP: DAS is less strict on the timing of the recognition of the provision than IFRS. A provision can still
be recognised per period-end when the detailed plan was in place at the balance sheet date whilst the valid
expectation criterion is met after the balance sheet date but before the approval of the financial statements.
It is allowed to recognise a provision for major repair and maintenance of property, plant and equipment;
although one can argue whether this is an obligation the Dutch law explicitly allows these types of provision.
Non-financial liabilities
IFRS: Post-employment benefits are provided to employees either through defined contribution plans or
and equity – Employee
defined benefit plans.
benefits, defined benefit
plans (chapter 7)
DC plans: the regular contributions payable by the employer to the pension fund or insurance company are
expensed. DB plans: entities are required to recognise on the balance sheet the difference between the present
value of the defined benefit obligation and the fair value of plan assets. The use of an accrued benefit valuation
method (the projected unit credit method) is required for calculating defined benefit obligations.
Dutch GAAP: No distinction is made between defined benefit plans and defined contribution plans. Instead
DAS 271 applies a liability approach to pension accounting. The pension contributions payable by the
employer to the pension fund are expensed.
For additional liabilities, if any, a provision is recognised. This could be the case if the entity is obliged to do
additional payments to a pension fund due to a deficit in that fund.
Non-financial liabilities
and equity – Income
taxes (chapter 7)
IFRS: Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using the tax rates (and tax laws) that apply or have
been (substantively) enacted by the reporting date.
Dutch GAAP: The measurement of deferred tax assets and liabilities is the same as under IFRS although
deferred taxes are allowed to be discounted.
Other topics –
IFRS: Amounts for discontinued operations are required and identified in the income statement.
Discontinued operations
and assets held for sale Dutch GAAP: Separate presentation of discontinued operations in the income statement is not allowed.
(chapter 8)
There are only some disclosure requirements.
Other topics - Events
after the balance sheet
date (Chapter 8)
IFRS: Dividends that are declared after the balance sheet date are not recognised as a liability at the balance
sheet date.
Dutch GAAP: The balance sheet can be presented before or after result appropriation. In the latter case
proposed dividends are recognised as a separate component of equity, or as a liability.
Similarities and Differences Dutch GAAP vs. IFRS Executive summary
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1. Accounting framework and
first-time adoption
1.1 Accounting framework
Book 2, Part 9 of the Dutch Civil Code, which deals
with the financial statements and annual report,
provides instructions on the principles of valuation
of assets and liabilities and the determination of the
results. Additional guidance is included in the DAS.
IFRSs are developed and published to promote the use
of those IFRSs in general purpose financial statements
and other financial reporting. Dutch Law facilitates the
use of IFRS.
The following comparisons have been made based on
the Dutch Civil Code, DAS 100 ‘Introduction’, DAS 930
‘Framework for the preparation and presentation of
financial statements’, DAS 115 ‘Criteria for recognition
and disclosure of information’, DAS 254 ‘Liabilities’
(Dutch GAAP), and the Conceptual framework 2010,
IAS 1 ‘Presentation of financial statements’ and IAS 32
‘Financial instruments: presentation’ (IFRS).
Dutch GAAP
Scope
IFRS
Bv’s, nv’s and some other legal entities are subject to the requirements of IFRSs are developed and published
Book 2, Part 9 of the Dutch Civil Code (hereafter “the Code”). Additional
to promote the use of those IFRSs in
general purpose financial statements and
guidance is included in the DAS.
other financial reporting. IFRSs apply to
Listed entities in the Netherlands are required to apply IFRS for their
all general purpose financial statements,
consolidated financial statements.
which are directed towards the common
information needs of a wide range of
Dutch Law facilitates the use of IFRS in general purpose financial
users.
statements for non-listed entities
Articles 2:360, 2:362, DAS 100.100-104
Conceptual framework 2010, chapter 1
and Preface to IFRS, 7, 10
Definitions
Asset
An asset is a resource controlled by an entity as a result of past events
and from which future economic benefits are expected to flow to the
entity.
Same as Dutch GAAP.
Future economic benefits can arise from continuing use of the asset or
from its disposal.
The following factors are not essential in assessing the existence of an
asset:
• its physical substance;
• the right of ownership.
DAS 930.49a, 53-59
Liability
A liability is a present obligation of an entity arising from past events, the
settlement of which is expected to result in an outflow from the entity of
resources embodying economic benefits.
Conceptual framework 2010,
chapter 4.8-14
Same as Dutch GAAP.
The present obligation can be either a legal or constructive obligation
(based on established pattern of past practice or a creation of valid
expectations).
DAS 930.49a, 60-64
Conceptual framework 2010,
chapter 4.8-14
Equity
Refer to chapter 7:
Non-financial liabilities and equity.
Refer to chapter 7:
Non-financial liabilities and equity.
Income
Refer to chapter 4:
Income and expenses.
Refer to chapter 4:
Income and expenses.
Expenses
Refer to chapter 4:
Income and expenses.
Refer to chapter 4:
Income and expenses.
Similarities and Differences Dutch GAAP vs. IFRS Accounting framework and first-time adoption
13
Dutch GAAP
Recognition of
the elements
of the financial
statements
IFRS
Recognition is the process of incorporating in the balance sheet or
Same as Dutch GAAP.
income statement an item that meets the definition of an element and
satisfies the following criteria:
• It is probable that any future economic benefit associated with the item
will flow to or from the entity.
• The item has a cost or a value that can be measured reliably.
In addition, regard needs to be given to the materiality considerations.
An item that fails to meet the recognition criteria may qualify for
recognition at a later date as a result of subsequent circumstances or
events.
DAS 930.82-88
Conceptual framework 2010,
chapter 4.37-39
Concepts and pervasive principles
Measurement
bases
The measurement bases include historical cost and current value.
Current value includes replacement value, realisable value, value in use
and fair value.
The measurement bases include
historical cost, current cost, realisable
value and present value.
The measurement basis most commonly adopted is historical cost.
The measurement basis most commonly
adopted is historical cost. However,
certain items may be valued at fair
value (for example, investment property,
biological assets and certain categories
of financial instruments).
Article 2:384.1, Decree on valuations, DAS 930.100-101
Conceptual framework 2010,
chapter 4.54-56
Underlying
assumptions
Financial statements are prepared on an accrual basis and on the
Same as Dutch GAAP.
assumption that the entity is a going concern and will continue in
operation in the foreseeable future (which is at least, but not limited to, 12
months from the balance sheet date).
Conceptual framework 2010, chapter 4
Article 384:2-3, DAS 930.22-23
IAS 1.25, 27
Qualitative
characteristics
The four qualitative characteristics are understandability, relevance,
reliability and comparability.
Materiality is a sub-characteristic of relevance. Substance over form,
prudence and completeness are sub-characteristics of reliability.
Timeliness and balance between benefit and cost are defined as
constraints on relevant and reliable information.
Fair presentation
Relevance and faithful presentation
are the fundamental qualitative
characteristics. Enhancing qualitative
characteristics are comparability,
verifiability, timeliness and
understandability.
Cost is a pervasive constraint on the
information that can be provided by
financial reporting.
DAS 930.24-46
Conceptual framework 2010, chapter 3
The Dutch Civil Code requires the financial statements to be prepared in
accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, to provide a
view enabling a well-founded opinion to be formed of the legal entity’s
assets, liabilities and results and, insofar as the nature of the financial
statements permits, of its solvency and liquidity.
Similar to Dutch GAAP.
However, in extremely rare
circumstances entities are permitted
to depart from the IFRSs, only if
management concludes that compliance
The requirement to provide ‘a true and fair view’ is fundamental, overwith one of the requirements would be
riding other requirements. An entity must depart from the requirements
so misleading as to conflict with the
of the Dutch Civil Code if compliance with those requirements would
objective of the financial statements. The
detract from the true and fair view given by the accounts. When there is a nature, reason and financial impact of
departure, the reason for departure, and its effect on the net assets and
the departure needs to be explained in
result must be disclosed.
the financial statements.
Furthermore, if additional information, over and above the legal
requirements, is needed to give a true and fair view, the financial
statements must include this additional information.
Article 2:362
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IAS 1.15, 1.19-20
Offsetting
Dutch GAAP
IFRS
Assets and liabilities or income and expenses cannot be offset, except
where specifically required or permitted by the standard.
Same as Dutch GAAP.
Offsetting is required if an entity possesses an adequate legal instrument
to balance and settle the asset and liability simultaneously, and intends
to settle or realise simultaneously.
Refinancing and
debt covenants
Article 2:363.2, DAS 115.305
IAS 1.32, IAS 32.42
Liabilities related to refinancing are presented as non-current if the
refinancing is completed before the balance sheet date.
Liabilities related to refinancing
are presented as non-current if the
refinancing is completed before the
balance sheet date.
Liabilities related to refinancing may be presented as non-current if the
refinancing is completed after the balance sheet date, but before the date
of issuance of the financial statements.
Liabilities related to refinancing
completed after the balance sheet
In case of violation of debt covenants the liabilities may only be
date are addressed as events after
presented as non-current if a waiver for more than one year is granted by the balance sheet date and are hence
the lender before the date of issuance of the financial statements.
presented as current.
In case of breach of debt covenants
the liabilities may only be presented as
non-current if a waiver for one year is
granted by the lender before the balance
sheet date.
DAS 254.304-307
IAS 1.69-76
Similarities and Differences Dutch GAAP vs. IFRS Accounting framework and first-time adoption
15
1.2 First-time adoption
IFRS 1 ‘First-Time Adoption of International Financial
Reporting Standards’ applies when an entity adopts
IFRS for the first time by an explicit and unreserved
statement of compliance with IFRS. IFRS 1 was created
to help companies transition to IFRS and provides
practical accommodations intended to make first-time
adoption cost-effective.
Dutch GAAP
Transition to Dutch There are no separate guidelines
GAAP and IFRS
regarding a first-time adoption. General
approach would be to retrospectively
apply accounting principles in full.
There are no separate guidelines regarding firsttime adoption of Dutch GAAP although as a general
principle retrospective application is assumed.
IFRS
The first-time adopter of IFRS is an entity that presents its first
annual financial statements that conform to IFRS.
First-time adoption requires retrospective application of the IFRS
effective at the reporting date for an entity’s first IFRSs financial
statements. There are mandatory exceptions and optional
exemptions to the requirement for retrospective application.
IFRS 1.2, 1.4, 1.7, 1.10, 1.13
Date of transition
There are no separate guidelines regarding date
of transition.
Reconciliation
There are no separate guidelines regarding
reconciliation.
Mandatory
exceptions
Not applicable.
This is the beginning of the earliest period for which full
comparative information is presented in accordance with IFRS in
its first IFRS financial statements. The entity prepares an opening
IFRS balance sheet at the date of transition as the starting point
for its IFRS accounting.
IFRS 1.6, Appendix A
A first-time adopter’s first financial statements include the
following reconciliations:
• R
econciliations of its equity reported under its previous
financial reporting framework to its equity under IFRSs for both
the transition date and the end of the latest period presented
in the entity’s most recent annual financial statements under its
previous financial reporting framework.
• R
econciliation to its total comprehensive income in
accordance with IFRSs for the latest period in the entity’s
most recent annual financial statements. The starting point
for that reconciliation shall be total comprehensive income in
accordance with previous GAAP for the same period or, if an
entity did not report such a total, profit or loss under previous
GAAP.
IFRS 1.23-25
A first-time adopter does not change the accounting that it
followed previously for any of the following transactions:
• d
erecognition of financial assets and liabilities;
• hedge accounting;
• non-controlling interests;
• c
lassification and measurement of financial assets;
• embedded derivatives; and
• government loans.
Any estimates in accordance with IFRS at the transition date are
consistent with the estimates that were made for the same date
under the previous GAAP (unless those estimates were in error).
IFRS 1.13, 14, Appendix B
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Optional
exemptions
Dutch GAAP
IFRS
Not applicable.
The following optional exemptions to the requirement for
retrospective application are available for use insofar they are
relevant to the entity:
• business combinations;
• share-based payment transactions;
• insurance contracts;
• deemed cost;
• leases;
• cumulative translation differences;
• investments in subsidiaries, jointly controlled entities and
associates;
• assets and liabilities of subsidiaries, associates and joint
ventures;
• compound financial instruments;
• designation of previously recognised financial instruments;
• fair value measurement of financial assets or financial liabilities
at initial recognition;
• decommissioning liabilities included in the cost of property,
plant and equipment;
• financial assets or intangible assets accounted for in
accordance with IFRIC 12;
• borrowing costs;
• transfers of assets from customers;
• extinguishing financial liabilities with equity instruments;
• severe hyperinflation;
• disclosures about financial instruments;
• joint arrangements; and
• stripping costs in the production phase of a surface mine.
Furthermore IFRS 1 contains some short-term exemptions.
IFRS 1.18, Appendix C-E
Similarities and Differences Dutch GAAP vs. IFRS Accounting framework and first-time adoption
17
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2. Financial statements
2.1 Primary statements and notes
The format and content of the financial statements are
set out in Book 2 of the Dutch Civil Code. The Code
reflects the requirements of the 4th and 7th European
Directives. In addition to the Code, the General
Administrative Order (GAO) on model formats provides
models for the balance sheet and the income statement.
Additional requirements are set out in the Dutch
Accounting Standards, judicial precedence and IFRS.
The following comparisons have been made based
primarily on DAS 110 ‘Objectives and principles’, GAO
on model formats, DAS 240 ‘Equity’, DAS 300 ‘Purpose
and classification’, DAS 360 ‘Cash flow statement’, DAS
930 ‘Framework for the preparation and presentation
of financial statements’ (Dutch GAAP), and IAS
1 ‘Presentation of financial statements’ and IAS 7
‘Statement of cash flows’ (IFRS).
Dutch GAAP
IFRS
General requirements
Compliance
An explicit statement that financial statements comply
with the Dutch reporting standards is not required.
However, in the financial statements is almost always
referred to the Dutch Civil Code as well as to the Dutch
Accounting Standards.
Going concern
An entity prepares financial statements on a going
concern basis (which is at least 12 months from the
end of the reporting period) unless management either
intends to liquidate the entity or to cease trading, or has
no realistic alternative but to do so.
Management explicitly states that financial statements
comply with IFRS. Compliance cannot be claimed unless
the financial statements comply with all the requirements
of this standard.
IAS 1.16
Same as Dutch GAAP.
In case of discontinuity the financial statements are
prepared on the basis of liquidation of the operations of
the entity.
Departure from
the standard
Article 2:384.3, DAS 170.2, DAS 930.23
IAS 1.25-26
Management departs from the standard if it concludes
that this is necessary in order to give a true and fair view.
This departure as well as the effects on equity and result
is disclosed.
Management departs from the standard if it concludes
that compliance with the requirement would be so
misleading as to conflict with the objective of the
financial statements as set out in the ‘Framework’. Such
departure is considered to occur only in extreme rare
circumstances. Management may not depart from the
standard if the relevant regulatory framework prohibits
this. Also refer to chapter 1.
Also refer to chapter 1.
Comparative
information
Article 2:362.4, DAS 110.105-108
IAS 1.19
Comparative information is provided for all amounts
presented in the primary statements and to the extent
possible for the amounts presented in the disclosure
notes.
Except when IFRSs permit or require otherwise,
management discloses comparative information
in respect of the previous comparable period for
all amounts reported in the financial statements
(primary statements and the disclosure notes).
Comparative information for narrative and descriptive
information is only presented when this is relevant
for the understanding of the current period’s financial
statements.
Article 2:363.5, DAS 110.127
IAS 1.38
Similarities and Differences Dutch GAAP vs. IFRS Financial statements
19
Components
of financial
statements
Dutch GAAP
IFRS
A set of financial statements comprises:
• a balance sheet;
• an income statement;
• a cash flow statement; and
• notes comprising a summary of significant accounting
policies and other explanatory information.
A set of financial statements comprises:
• a
balance sheet (or: a statement of financial position);
• a
single statement of comprehensive income (including
items of other comprehensive income), or a separate
income statement and a separate statement of (other)
comprehensive income;
• a
statement of changes in equity;
• a
cash flow statement; and
• n
otes comprising a summary of significant accounting
policies and other explanatory information.
A statement of comprehensive income, which as a
minimum includes the consolidated net result and
all items that are recognised directly into equity, is
mandatory for large entities. It can be presented as a
primary statement or as part of the disclosure notes.
In addition, management includes a balance sheet as at
the beginning of the earliest comparative period when
A statement of changes in equity is included in the notes, an entity applies an accounting policy retrospectively or
as a movement schedule.
makes a retrospective restatement or when it reclassifies
items in its financial statements.
In addition to the financial statements entities are
required to prepare a director’s report as well as other
The entity may use titles for the statements other than
information.
those used in the standard.
DAS 110.101, DAS 265, Article 2:378.1, 391, 392
IAS 1.10 - 11
According to the GAO on model formats there are four
balance sheet formats (Models A-D) depending on size
criteria and preferred classification.
There is no prescribed balance sheet format. However,
the following items are required to be presented on the
face of the balance sheet as a minimum:
The following sub-totals should be presented and
cannot be renamed:
Assets:
• property, plant and equipment
• investment property
• intangible assets
• financial assets
• investments accounted for using the equity method
• biological assets
• inventories
• trade and other receivables
• cash and cash equivalents
• t he total of assets classified as held for sale and
assets included in disposal groups classified as held
for sale in accordance with IFRS 5
Balance sheet
General
Assets:
• non-current assets
• current assets
Liabilities and equity:
• equity
• provisions
• non-current liabilities
• current liabilities
Unlike IFRS, provisions are presented separately from
other categories. Provisions are disclosed as non-current Liabilities and equity:
or current depending on the duration of the provision.
• trade and other payables
• provisions
The order of the line items in the models cannot be
• financial liabilities
changed.
• liabilities and assets for current tax;
• deferred tax liabilities and deferred tax assets
Refer to Appendix I for an example of a balance sheet.
• liabilities included in disposal groups classified as held
for sale in accordance with IFRS 5
• non-controlling interests, presented within equity
• issued capital and reserves attributable to owners of
the parent
GAO on model formats
Current/noncurrent distinction
Items in the balance sheet are distinguished between
non-current (fixed) and current dependent on whether or
not these items are in use on a long-term basis.
According to the Dutch Accounting Standards an asset is
classified as current if it is:
• expected to be realised, sold or consumed in the
entity’s normal operating cycle (irrespective of length);
• primarily held for the purpose of trading;
• expected to be realised within 12 months after the
balance sheet date; or
• cash and cash equivalent (not restricted in its use
within the 12 months after the balance sheet date).
Liabilities are classified as current if they are due within
12 months.
Article 2:364, DAS 190.201-210, DAS 254.303
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An entity presents additional headings, line items and
sub-totals if this is relevant to an understanding of the
entity’s financial position.
IAS 1.54 - 59
The current/non-current distinction is required except
when a liquidity presentation is more reliable and
relevant. With regard to assets similar criteria apply as in
Dutch GAAP.
For liabilities more detailed guidance is available.
A liability is classified as current if:
• it is expected to be settled in the entity’s normal
operating cycle;
• it is primarily held for the purpose of trading;
• it is expected to be settled within 12 months after the
balance sheet date; or
• the entity does not have an unconditional right to
defer settlement of the liability until12 months after the
balance sheet date.
IAS 1.60, 1.66, 1.69
Dutch GAAP
IFRS
There are six prescribed income statement formats
(Models E-J) in the GAO on model formats.
An entity is required to present a statement of
comprehensive income either in a single statement,
or in two statements comprising of a separate
income statement and a separate statement of other
comprehensive income (OCI).
There is no prescribed format.
Income statement
General
The order in the models is fixed and cannot be changed.
Management selects a method of presenting its
expenses by either function or nature. Additional
disclosure of expenses by nature is required if
presentation by function is chosen.
Dutch Law does not distinguish an income statement
and a comprehensive income statement. An ‘Overzicht
Totaalresultaat’ is required for large entities.
The method of presenting expenses (by function or by
nature) is similar to Dutch GAAP.
Pre-described minimum line items should be presented
in the income statement.
This overview of the total comprehensive income for
the period can be presented together with the primary
statements or as part of the disclosure notes and
includes as a minimum:
• the consolidated net result for the period; and
• the gains and losses recognised directly in equity
based on their nature.
Refer to Appendix II for an example of an income
statement.
Line items
GAO on model formats, DAS 265.201
IAS 1.81, IAS 1.99-105
For a presentation by nature the following items are
presented on the face of the income statement (Article
2:377.3):
• net revenue
• change in stock of finished products and work-inprogress *)
• capitalised own production costs *)
• other operating income
• wages and salaries *)
• social security and pension charges *)
• raw materials and other external costs *)
• amortisation / depreciation and impairments of fixed
assets *)
• extraordinary impairments of current assets *)
• other operating expenses *)
• income from subsidiaries and associates
• value adjustments of other fixed securities and
receivables
• finance and similar income
• finance and similar costs
The following items are required to be presented on the
face of the statement of comprehensive income (as a
single statement) as a minimum:
• revenue
• finance costs
• s hare of profit or loss of associates and joint ventures
accounted for using the equity method
• tax expense
• a
single item comprising the total of (1) the post-tax
gain or loss of discontinued operations, and (2) the
post-tax gain or loss recognised on the measurement
to fair value less costs to sell or on the disposal
of the assets or disposal group(s) constituting the
discontinued operation
• profit or loss for the period
• items of other comprehensive income classified by
nature
• s hare of the other comprehensive income of
associates and joint-ventures accounted for using the
equity method
• total comprehensive income
For a presentation by function the following additional
line items are presented (Article 2:377.4):
• cost of sales
• gross margin
• selling costs
• general and administration expenses
Line items marked with * in the presentation by nature
are removed (see above).
In case of a by function presentation additional
disclosures are required with regard to amortisation and
personnel costs (only for large entities).
Separate presentation of discontinued operations is not
allowed.
Other
comprehensive
income
If the entity applies the two-statement approach, the
last three line items above are presented in a separate
statement of comprehensive income.
Profit or loss for the period and total comprehensive
income for the period are allocated in the statement of
comprehensive income to the amounts attributable to
non-controlling interests and owners of the parent.
In addition, disclosure is required of the amount
of income from continuing operations and from
discontinued operations attributable to owners of the
parent.
Article 2:377, DAS 270.501-506, GAO on model formats
IAS 1.82-83, IFRS 5.33d
Any recycling items are presented as a separate gain or
loss in comprehensive income (overzicht totaalresultaat),
with adequate disclosures.
Similar to Dutch GAAP.
In addition, the amount of income tax relating to each
item of other comprehensive income is disclosed.
A distinction is made between other comprehensive
income items that are not reclassified and those that are
reclassified.
DAS 265.205
IAS 1.82A, 1.90-91
Similarities and Differences Dutch GAAP vs. IFRS Financial statements
21
Extraordinary
items
Dutch GAAP
IFRS
Extraordinary items are permitted in very rare
circumstances, which lead to revenues or costs clearly
distinguishable from those related to normal activities.
Classification as extraordinary is primary based on the
nature of the item and not on its size. Examples are
natural disasters or expropriation
The presentation of extraordinary items in the primary
statements or in the notes is not permitted.
Article 2:377.1b, DAS 270.407-410
IAS 1.87
Statement of changes in equity
General
The statement of changes in equity is not a primary
statement, but part of the disclosure note on equity.
Disclosure is only required in the separate financial
statements.
Refer to Appendix IV for an example of a statement of
changes in equity.
The statement of changes in equity presents a
reconciliation of equity items between the beginning and
end of the reporting period.
The following items are presented on the face of the
statement of changes in equity:
a) t otal comprehensive income for the period, showing
separately the total amount attributable to owners of
the parent and to non-controlling interests;
b) for each component of the equity, the effects of
restatements of changes in accounting policies and
corrections of material prior-period errors; and
c) for each component of equity, reconciliation between
the carrying amount at the beginning and the
end of the period, separately disclosing changes
resulting from (1) profit or loss, (2) each item of
other comprehensive income, and (3) transactions
with owners in their capacity as owners, showing
separately contributions by and distributions to
owners and changes in ownership interests in
subsidiaries that do not result in a loss of control.
The amounts of dividends recognised as distributions
to owners during the period, and the related amount per
share, are presented either in the statement of changes
in equity or in the notes.
Articles 2:378, 410.1, DAS 240.237, 401-411
IAS 1.106-107
The cash flow statement is a primary statement which
is mandatory for medium-sized and large entities.
Exemptions apply, for example for entities with a
parent that has included a cash flow statement in the
consolidated accounts.
A cash flow statement is a mandatory integral part of the
financial statements (primary statement).
Cash flow statement
General and
content
The presentation of the cash flow statement and its
contents are similar to Dutch GAAP.
The cash flow statement presents the generation and use
of cash by category (operating, investing and finance)
over a specified period of time.
a) Operating activities are the entity’s principal revenueproducing activities.
b) Investing activities are the acquisition and disposal of
non-current assets (including business combinations)
and investments.
c) Financing activities are changes in the equity and
borrowings.
Refer to Appendix III for an example of a cash flow
statement.
DAS 360.104, DAS 360.2
Reporting
Operating cash flows may be presented by using either
cash flow from
the direct method (gross cash receipts and payments)
operating activities or the indirect method (adjusting operating result or net
profit for non-operating and non-cash transactions, and
for changes in working capital).
Examples of non-cash transactions are acquisition
of assets by means of a finance lease, or conversion
of debt to equity. The direct method is considered to
provide a better view. In practice the indirect method is
almost always used.
IAS 7.1, 7.6-12
Similar to Dutch GAAP.
IFRS encourages the use of the direct method.
Entities are encouraged but not required to use their
operating profit as the basis for the operating cash flows
if they use the indirect method.
DAS 360.209-216
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IAS 7.18-20
Reporting cash
flow from investing
and financing
activities / interest
and dividends
Netting
Bank overdrafts
Foreign currency
cash flows
Dutch GAAP
IFRS
In line with the illustrative examples in DAS 360 cash
flows from investing and financing activities are reported
separately gross.
Cash flows from investing and financing activities are
reported separately gross (that is, gross cash receipts
and gross cash payments). Certain cash flows are
allowed to be reported on a net basis.
The following classification applies for interest and
dividend:
• interest paid: operating or financing cash flows with
the exception of interest that is capitalised as part of a
recognised asset which is classified as investing cash
flow
• interest received: operating or financing cash flows
• dividends received: operating or financing cash flows
• dividends paid: finance cash flow
Cash flows related to interest and dividends should be
reported consistently in operating, investing or financing
activities.
DAS 360.202, 213, 217-221, appendix 3
IAS 7.21-22, 31
As a general principle it is stated that cash inflows and
cash outflows are presented separately (see above).
Similar to Dutch GAAP but with some specific
exceptions. Cash flows arising from the following
operating, investing or financing activities may be
reported on a net basis:
a) c
ash receipts and payments on behalf of customers
when the cash flows reflect the activities of the
customer rather than those of the entity; and
b) c
ash receipts and payments for items in which the
turnover is quick, the amounts are large, and the
maturities are short.
DAS 360.202
IAS 7.21-23A
Bank overdrafts are normally considered financing
activities similar to borrowings. The definition of Cash
and cash equivalents (“geldmiddelen”) does not include
bank overdraft. However, under certain strict conditions
these bank overdrafts are sometimes considered as a
component of cash (best practice).
Bank overdrafts are normally considered financing
activities similar to borrowings. However, if they are
repayable on demand and form an integral part of
an entity’s cash management, bank overdrafts are a
component of cash and cash equivalents.
DAS 940
IAS 7.8
Cash flows arising from transactions in foreign currencies
are translated to the functional currency by applying
the exchange rate at the date of the cash flows or an
average exchange rate.
Cash flows arising from transactions in foreign currencies
are translated to the functional currency by applying the
exchange rate at the date of the cash flows. Cash flows
of a foreign subsidiary are translated to the functional
currency using the exchange rate at the date of the cash
flows.
Exchange gains and losses on cash held in a foreign
currency is reported as a reconciling item in the cash
flow statement, and presented separately from cash
flows from operating, investing and financing activities.
The use of average exchange rates is allowed if it
approximates the actual rate.
For exchange gains and losses on cash held in a foreign
currency the same rules apply as Dutch GAAP.
DAS 360.203
IAS 7.25-28
Notes to the financial statements
General
The notes are a part of the financial statements. It is not
allowed to use the notes to rectify an incorrect treatment
of items in the balance sheet and income statement.
The notes are an integral part of the financial statements.
The purpose of the notes is to:
a) p
resent information about the basis of preparation of
the financial statements and the specific accounting
policies used;
b) d
isclose the information required by IFRSs that is not
presented elsewhere in the financial statements; and
c) p
rovide information that is not presented elsewhere
in the financial statements, but is relevant to an
understanding of any of them.
Article 2:361.1, DAS 110.125, DAS 300.102
IAS 1.10, 1.112
Similarities and Differences Dutch GAAP vs. IFRS Financial statements
23
Structure
Dutch GAAP
IFRS
Information presented in one of the primary statements
should be cross-referenced to the relevant notes where
possible by large entities (recommended for mediumsized entities).
Information presented in the primary statements is crossreferenced to the relevant notes as far as practicable.
The following disclosures are included, as a minimum,
within the notes to the financial statements:
• a summary of the accounting principles (the
measurement basis used in preparing the financial
statements and the other accounting policies used
that are relevant to an understanding of the financial
statements)
• the consolidation principles
• additional financial overviews
• disclosures as required by the law (such as movement
schedules and further specifications)
• other information insofar this is useful for the
understanding of equity and result
• information that is not presented elsewhere in the
financial statements, such as related parties or
contingent liabilities
The following disclosures are included within the notes to
the financial statements:
• a
statement of compliance with IFRS
• a
summary of significant accounting policies
• s upporting information for line items presented in the
primary statements;
• o
ther disclosures including contingent liabilities and
non-financial disclosures
Furthermore key sources of estimation uncertainty and
judgements need to be disclosed.
Where applicable, the notes include disclosures
of changes in accounting policies and accounting
estimates, information about key sources of estimation
uncertainty and judgements.
Where applicable, the notes include disclosures
of changes in accounting policies and accounting
estimates. Furthermore information about key sources of
estimation uncertainty and judgements may be included.
DAS 300.103-107, DAS 930.21
Information about
judgements
DAS 930.21
Information about
key sources
of estimation
uncertainty
IAS 1.16, 1.114, 1.117, 1.122, 1.125, 1.129
No explicit requirement in Dutch GAAP. However in
The judgements that management has made in
practice these judgements are included quite frequent, in applying the accounting policies and that have the most
line with the applicable IFRS requirements.
significant effect on the amounts recognised in the
financial statements are disclosed in the notes.
IAS 1.122
No explicit requirement in Dutch GAAP. However in
The nature and carrying amounts of assets and liabilities
practice this information is included quite frequent, in line for which estimates and assumptions have a significant
with the applicable IFRS requirements.
risk of causing a material adjustment to their carrying
amount within the next financial period are disclosed in
the notes.
The disclosure also includes a sensitivity analysis
regarding the methods, assumptions and estimates
applied in determining the carrying amount.
DAS 930.21
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IAS 1.125, 129
2.2 Separate financial statements
The preparation of separate financial statements is
required by the Dutch Civil Code. When consolidated
financial statements are prepared in accordance
with IFRS, Dutch law allows three options for the
preparation of the entity financial statements: Dutch
GAAP, IFRS or in accordance with the recognition and
measurement principles as applied in the consolidated
financial statements whilst applying the Dutch GAAP
presentation and disclosure requirements.
Although IFRS does not prescribe the preparation of
financial statements, it does have specific requirements
for the preparation of separate financial statements.
The following comparisons have been made based
on DAS 100 ‘Introduction’, DAS 214 (amended
2012) ‘Financial fixed assets’ (Dutch GAAP) and IAS
27 ‘Separate financial statements’ (IFRS). DAS 214
(amended 2012) replaces DAS 214 (amended 2009)
and is effective for accounting periods beginning on or
after 1 January 2013.
Separate financial statements
General
Specific
measurement and
recognition rules
The preparation of separate financial statements is
required by Dutch Law.
IFRS does not prescribe the preparation of separate
financial statements. However if an entity elects or
is required by law or regulation to prepare separate
financial statements, IFRS has specific requirements for
the preparation of separate financial statements.
Article 2:361.1
IAS 27.10
Under Dutch GAAP an investor may account for
its investments (in which it can exercise significant
influence) using one of the following:
• the net asset value method
• visible equity value if insufficient data are available to
apply the net asset value method
• the cost method (when certain criteria are met)
When an entity prepares separate financial statements,
it accounts for investments in subsidiaries, joint ventures
and associates either:
When applying the net asset value or visible equity value,
the result for the year is derived based on the reported
result of the investment and aligned with the accounting
policies of the reporting entity. Dividends received are
deducted from the carrying amount of the investment.
(a) at cost, or
(b) in accordance with IAS 39.
The entity applies the same accounting for each
category of investments. A dividend from a subsidiary,
joint venture or associate is recognised in the income
statement in the separate financial statements when its
right to receive the dividend is established.
When applying the cost method, dividends received are
generally recognised as income, unless it represents the
repayment of the cost of the investment (so-called ‘preacquisition dividend’), where these dividends are then
deducted from the carrying amount.
Article 2:389.2-3, DAS 214.301, 214.325, 214.504
Relevant
accounting policy
choices for Dutch
entities which
apply IFRS in
their consolidated
financial
statements
IAS 27.10-12
In case the consolidated financial statements are prepared in accordance with IFRS as adopted by the European
Union, Dutch law allows three options for the preparation of the entity financial statements:
1) in accordance with the legal requirements as stated in the Dutch Civil Code (Dutch GAAP);
2) in accordance with IFRS as adopted by the European Union, as applicable for the entity’s financial statements
(IFRS); or
3) in accordance with the recognition and measurement principles as applied in the consolidated financial
statements whilst applying the Dutch GAAP presentation and disclosure requirements.
Option 3 is intended to avoid differences in equity and result in the separate financial statements compared to the
consolidated financial statement.
The application of this option 3 is visible in the following topics:
i. Measurement of investments in consolidated subsidiaries: these investments are measured at net asset value
or the equity method based on the accounting principles as applied in the consolidated financial statements.
ii. Measurement of investments in which it has significant influence (‘associates’): these associates are measured
in accordance with the equity method based on accounting principles as applied in the consolidated financial
statements according to IAS 28.
iii. Presentation of goodwill: in case of measuring the investments in subsidiaries according to the net asset value,
goodwill is presented separately in the balance sheet (if it relates to goodwill paid upon the direct acquisition
of a consolidated subsidiary). In other situations goodwill is part of the carrying amount of the net asset value
of the related investment.
iv. In case of applying the equity method: goodwill is part of the carrying amount of the investment, according to
the presentation requirements in the consolidated financial statements.
v. The assessment of the impairment of goodwill and investments occurs according to the accounting principles
of those applied in the consolidated financial statements.
vi. Classification and presentation of equity and liability instruments: when an equity instrument is classified as
liability instrument according to IFRS, the instrument will be so classified in the entity financial statements.
The third option to prepare entity financial statements is applied by most Dutch entities.
DAS 100.107
Similarities and Differences Dutch GAAP vs. IFRS Financial statements
25
2.3 Errors, change in accounting,
change in estimates
Correction of errors, changes in accounting policies
and changes in estimates require different accounting
treatments due to their diverse nature. The three cases
are treated fairly similar under Dutch GAAP and IFRS.
Selection of
accounting policies
and hierarchy of
other guidance
The following comparisons have been made based
on the Dutch Civil Code, DAS 110 ‘Objectives and
principles’, DAS 930 ‘Framework for the preparation and
presentation of financial statements’, DAS 140 ‘Changes
in accounting policies’, DAS 145 ‘Changes in accounting
estimates’, DAS 150 ‘Correction of errors’ (Dutch GAAP)
and IAS 8 ‘Accounting policies, changes in accounting
estimates and errors’ (IFRS).
Dutch GAAP
IFRS
When Dutch GAAP do not address a transaction, other
event or condition, management is expected to refer to
DAS 930 (the Framework) in order to select recognition
criteria and measurement concepts that results into
relevant and reliable information
When IFRS does not address a transaction, other
event or condition, management uses its judgement
in developing and applying an accounting policy that
results into relevant and reliable information.
In such cases, management considers the following
sources, in descending order:
• t he requirements and guidance in IFRS on similar and
related issues; and
• the definitions and other guidance in the Framework.
In addition, management may consider the most recent
pronouncements of other standard setters, other
accounting literature and accepted industry practices to the
extent that these do not conflict with the concepts in IFRS.
DAS 110.110, DAS 930
Consistency
of accounting
policies
Changes in
accounting
policies
IAS 8.10-12
Management chooses and applies consistently one of
Same as Dutch GAAP.
the available accounting policies. Accounting policies are
applied consistently to similar transactions.
DAS 110.124
IAS 8.13
When required by amendments in the Dutch Civil Code
or by the DAS, or if this results into a better view, an
accounting policy needs to be changed.
Same as Dutch GAAP although IFRS has no underlying
local law.
Changes in accounting policies are accounted for in
accordance with the transition provision of the DAS. If
specific transition provisions do not exist, the changes
are applied retrospectively; the opening balance is
adjusted and the comparative figures are restated (as if
the new accounting policy had always been applied).
The recognition of changes in accounting policies is
similar to Dutch GAAP.
The reason for the change in accounting policy is
disclosed as well as the differences between the new
and the previous policies.
Changes in
accounting
estimates
Article 2:363.5, DAS 140.206-216
IAS 8.19-27
Changes in accounting estimates result from new
information or new developments and, accordingly, are
not correction of errors.
Same as Dutch GAAP.
Changes in accounting estimates are recognised
prospectively by including the effects in the income
statement in the period that is affected (that is, the period
of change and future periods) except if the change in
estimates gives rise to changes in assets, liabilities or
equity. In this case, it is recognised by adjusting the
carrying amount of the related asset, liability or equity in
the period of change.
Correction of
errors
DAS 145.301-305, DAS 940
IAS 8.5, 8.36-37
A fundamental error is an error in the financial statements
detected after the approval of the financial statements
by the general meeting of shareholders, which results in
serious shortcomings in the financial statements in the
light of giving adequate insight required by law.
A material prior-period error is an omission from the
entity’s financial statements for prior periods that could
influence the decisions that users make on the basis of
the financial statements.
Fundamental errors are adjusted retrospectively (that is,
by adjusting opening retained earnings and the related
comparatives) in the first set of financial statements after
their detection.
Material prior-period errors are adjusted retrospectively
unless it is impracticable to determine the effects of the
error.
Other errors (not fundamental) are recognised in the
income statement of the current period.
Article 2:362.6, DAS 150.201-204
26
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IAS 8.5, 8.41-48
Similarities and Differences Dutch GAAP vs. IFRS Financial statements
27
28
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3.Business combinations, consolidated
financial statements, and investments in
associates and joint ventures
3.1 Business combinations
A business combination is a transaction or event in
which an entity (‘acquirer’) obtains control of one or
more businesses (‘acquiree(s)’). A business combination
involves the bringing together of separate entities or
businesses into one reporting entity. IFRS requires the
use of the acquisition method of accounting for business
combination transactions.
DAS requires that the purchase method is applied. This
method was also required by IFRS 3 prior to its revision
Scope of the
standard
in 2008. DAS also allows the pooling of interest method
when certain criteria are met. The most common
type of a business combination is where one of the
combining entities obtains control over the other. Both
IFRS and DAS do not contain any guidance on business
combinations under common control.
The following comparisons have been made based
on the Dutch Civil Code and DAS 216 ‘Mergers and
acquisitions’ (Dutch GAAP) and IFRS 3 ‘Business
combinations’ (as revised in 2008).
Dutch GAAP
IFRS
The formation of a joint venture as well the acquisition of
an asset or a group of assets which do not constitute a
business are not in scope of the standard.
The scope exclusions are similar to Dutch GAAP.
Combinations involving entities or businesses under
common control or formation of a joint venture are
excluded from the scope of the standard.
DAS 216.104
IFRS 3.2
Business
A business is not defined under Dutch GAAP. However in
practice the same definition is used as under IFRS.
A business is an integrated set of activities and assets
that is capable of being conducted and managed for the
purpose of providing a return in the form of dividends,
lower costs or other economic benefits directly to
investors or other owners, members or participants.
Acquisition date
The acquisition date is the date on which the acquirer
obtains control over the acquiree, which is generally the
date of the agreement in which the transaction closes.
IFRS 3 Appendix A
Same as Dutch GAAP.
However, the acquirer might obtain control on a date that
is either earlier or later than the closing date. An acquirer
should consider all pertinent facts and circumstances in
identifying the acquisition date.
DAS 216.105, DAS 940
IFRS 3.8-9
Similarities and Differences Dutch GAAP vs. IFRS Business combinations, consolidated financial statements, and investments in associates and joint ventures
29
Dutch GAAP
Acquisition
accounting
IFRS
Most transactions qualify as an acquisition. Under certain All business combinations in the scope of IFRS 3
strict rules, the pooling of interest method is allowed.
should be accounted for using the acquisition method
of accounting. The pooling of interests method is not
Acquisitions are accounted for by applying the purchase allowed.
method of accounting. The purchase method views
a business combination from the perspective of the
The acquisition method applied under IFRS has more
acquirer. At the acquisition date, the acquirer recognises, detailed application guidance and is different in certain
separately from goodwill, the identifiable assets acquired, circumstances compared to Dutch GAAP.
the liabilities assumed and any non-controlling interest in
the acquiree.
IFRS requires that contingent liabilities are recognised
and measured at fair value at the acquisition date. Under
The purchase method can be summarised in the
Dutch GAAP no contingent liabilities are recognised as
following steps:
part of the acquisition.
1. Identify the acquirer.
2. Determine the acquisition date.
Under IFRS transaction costs are not part of the
3. Recognise and measure the identifiable assets
consideration.
acquired, the liabilities assumed and any noncontrolling interest in the acquire.
Any previously held interests are remeasured to fair
4. Recognise and measure the consideration transferred value, whereby the remeasurement is recognised in the
for the acquiree.
income statement.
5. Recognise and measure goodwill or a gain from a
bargain purchase.
Transaction costs are part of the purchase price and
contingent liabilities are not recognised in the allocation
of the purchase price. A revaluation of recognised assets
and liabilities within a previously held interest to fair
value are recognised in equity by means of a revaluation
reserve.
When equal parties merge, the business combination
is accounted for by applying the pooling of interest
method. The pooling of interests method is allowed in
very rare circumstances.
1. Identifying the
acquirer
DAS 216.107-108, 216.201, 216.301 , DAS 940
IFRS 3.4, 3.8, 3.10, 3.42, 3.53
The acquisition method requires identification of an
acquirer for every business combination. The acquirer
is the entity that obtains control over one or more other
entities or businesses (the ‘acquiree(s)’).
Similar to Dutch GAAP. However control is differently
defined under IFRS due to the introduction of IFRS 10.
Control is the power to govern the financial and
operating policies of an entity to obtain benefits from its
activities.
Under IFRS 10, an investor controls an investee when
the investor is exposed, or has rights, to variable returns
from its involvement with the investee and has the
ability to affect those returns through its power over the
investee.
Where a new entity is created to acquire two or more
pre-existing entities, one of the pre-existing entities must
be designated as the acquirer for accounting purposes.
This type of business combination is accounted for as a
reverse acquisition.
A number of factors may influence control including:
equity shareholding, control of the board, control
agreements and potential voting rights. If an entity owns
more than 50% of the equity shareholding in another
entity, there is a presumption of control.
A reverse acquisition occurs when the entity that issues
the securities (the new entity and legal acquirer) is
identified as an acquiree for accounting purposes.
DAS 216.107 -109, DAS 940
30
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IFRS 10.6-7
2. Cost of
acquisition
Dutch GAAP
IFRS
The purchase price in a business combination is
measured at its fair value, which is calculated as the
sum of the acquisition date fair values of the assets
transferred by the acquirer, the liabilities incurred by the
acquirer to the former owners of the acquiree and the
equity interests issued by the acquirer. However:
Fairly similar to Dutch GAAP (where purchase price is
identified as consideration transferred), however there
are some important differences:
Entities have the option to remeasure the assets and
liabilities as part of their previously held interest to fair
value at the transaction date. Such remeasurements
are recognised in equity as a revaluation reserve. This
remeasurement does not affect the purchase price.
When a business combination is achieved in stages, the
acquirer should remeasure its previously held interest
in the acquiree at its fair value at the date control is
obtained, recognising a resulting gain or loss in the
income statement. The prior interest held is deemed to
be part of the consideration paid in exchange for the
controlling interest.
Costs directly attributable to the acquisition are
expensed as incurred. These costs may include, for
example, finder’s fees; advisory, legal, accounting,
1. Transaction costs directly attributable to the
valuation and other professional service fees; general
acquisition are part of the consideration transferred.
administrative costs and internal acquisition department
2. Previously held interests are included in the
costs. An exception to this requirement relates to costs
consideration transferred for the amount(s) paid at the to issue debt or equity securities that are recognised in
earlier transaction date(s).
accordance with IAS 32 and IAS 39.
Consideration that will be paid at a later date is recorded
at its fair value, discounted to its present value at the
acquisition date if the effect of discounting is material.
Share-based
consideration
Adjustments to the
cost of a business
combination
contingent on
future events
(Contingent
consideration)
DAS 216.203-207
IFRS 3.42, 3.52
Shares issued as consideration are recorded at their fair
value at the date of the exchange.
Similar to Dutch GAAP.
DAS 216.206
IFRS 3.37
A portion of the consideration may be contingent on
the outcome of future events or the acquired entity’s
performance (‘contingent consideration’). Contingent
consideration is recognised at its fair value at the date of
acquisition, when it is probable that the consideration will
be paid and when the amount can be estimated reliably.
The acquirer recognises the acquisition-date fair value
of contingent consideration. There is no probability
threshold.
The accounting for a contingent consideration after the
date of acquisition depends on whether it is classified as
a liability or as equity.
Any change in the contingent consideration after the date
of acquisition is recognised as change in the goodwill
Liabilities are remeasured to fair value each reporting
amount recognised.
period through the income statement. Contingent
considerations which are classified as equity are not
The above does not only apply to changes within a year
remeasured.
after the transaction date, but to all changes in the years
after the transaction date.
The classification as either a liability or equity is
determined with reference to the guidance in IAS 32.
3. Allocating the
cost of a business
DAS 216.239-240
IFRS 3.39, 3.58
At the acquisition date, the acquirer recognises,
separately from goodwill, the acquiree’s identifiable
assets and liabilities and any non-controlling interest. The
assets and liabilities identified may include some that
have not been previously recognised by the acquiree.
Similar to Dutch GAAP.
The general principle is that the assets and liabilities
are recognised at fair value. Fair value is the amount for
which an asset could be exchanged, or a liability settled,
between knowledgeable, willing parties in an arm’s
length transaction.
However, there are some exceptions for the
measurement of items such as: income taxes,
indemnification assets, and employee benefits.
However IFRS defines fair value as ‘the price that would
be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in
an orderly transaction between market participants at the
measurement date’.
Furthermore, IFRS requires that contingent liabilities are
recognised at the acquisition date.
In addition IFRS contains more measurement exemptions
than Dutch GAAP. This includes, but is not limited to
re-acquired rights, share-based payments and assets
held for sale.
Dutch GAAP is also stricter than IFRS on the recognition
of intangible assets such as customer relationships
which are not contractually determined.
DAS 216.208-210
IFRS 3.10, 3.24- 31, IFRS 13.9
Similarities and Differences Dutch GAAP vs. IFRS Business combinations, consolidated financial statements, and investments in associates and joint ventures
31
Restructuring
provision
Dutch GAAP
IFRS
A restructuring provision is recognised in the acquisition
balance sheet if the acquirer developed and announced
the main features of a formal plan before the acquisition
date.
Liabilities related to restructurings or exit activities of the
acquiree should be recognised at the acquisition date
(and is part of the purchase price allocation) if, from the
acquirer’s perspective, an obligation to incur the costs
associated with these activities existed at the acquisition
date in accordance with IAS 37.
The further details of this plan should be formalised
within three months after the acquisition date.
In all other cases, liabilities related to restructurings
or exit activities and the related expense should be
recognised through the income statement in the postcombination period when all applicable criteria of IAS 37
have been met.
Contingent
liabilities
Goodwill
DAS 216.212
IFRS 3.11
The acquired contingencies are not recognised.
The contingent liabilities are assumed to be included in
the amount recognised as (negative) goodwill.
The acquired contingencies are recognised separately
at the acquisition date as a part of allocation of the
consideration transferred, provided their fair values can
be measured reliably.
DAS 216.209
IFRS 3.23, 3.56
After initial recognition, the goodwill is measured at cost
less accumulated amortisation and any accumulated
impairment losses.
Goodwill is recognised for the future economic benefits
arising from assets acquired that are not individually
identified and separately recognised.
Goodwill is amortised over its useful life. Under DAS
there is a rebuttable presumption that the useful life of
goodwill is no longer than 20 years.
Goodwill is the difference between the consideration
transferred, the amount of any non-controlling interest
in the acquiree and the acquisition-date fair value of any
previous equity interest in the acquiree over the fair value
of the identifiable net assets acquired.
According to Dutch law it is also allowed to charge
goodwill directly to the shareholders’ equity or the
income statement.
Article 2:386.3, 2:389.7, DAS 216.221
Goodwill is not amortised. Instead, it is subject to
impairment tests annually or more frequently if there is an
indication of impairment.
The option to measure the non-controlling interest using
either fair value method or proportionate share method
on each transaction may result in a different goodwill
amount compared to Dutch GAAP.
IFRS 3.10
Associate
becomes
subsidiary or joint
venture
Negative goodwill
The acquirer is allowed to recognise the assets and
liabilities at fair value when acquiring control; any change
in value to assets or liabilities retained in its previously
held interest is recognised in equity as a revaluation
reserve.
If an associate or joint venture becomes a subsidiary,
the investor shall remeasure its previously held equity
interest to fair value and recognise the resulting gain or
loss, if any, in the income statement.
DAS 216.204
IAS 28.18
Negative goodwill is deferred as a liability and released
to the income statement when charges or losses are
recognised, provided that this has been anticipated at
acquisition date and these charges and losses can be
reliably measured.
IFRS defines negative goodwill as a ‘bargain purchase’.
If no expected charges or losses are identified at
acquisition date, any negative goodwill is released in
accordance with the weighted average of the remaining
useful life of the non-monetary assets acquired. Where
negative goodwill exceeds the fair value of the identified
non-monetary assets, the excess is recognised directly
as a profit in the income statement.
Accounting
for business
combinations
in the separate
financial
statements
The standard requires the acquirer to ensure that it
really does have a gain on a bargain purchase where
one is identified. The acquirer needs to make sure that
it has used all of the available evidence at the date of
acquisition and re-assessed the business combination
accounting.
If it is concluded that a bargain purchase exists, it is
recognised in the income statement at the date of the
transaction.
DAS 216.235
IFRS 3.34-36
Investments in subsidiaries are measured at their netasset value as a result the purchase method should
be applied for business combinations in the separate
financial statements.
IFRS 3 is not applicable for accounting for business
combinations in the separate financial statements under
IFRS because investments in subsidiaries are measured
at either cost or fair value.
The net-asset value of a business combination is derived
from the consolidated financial statements if these are
prepared by the entity.
IFRS 3 would be applicable if a business was acquired
without a legal entity.
IAS 27
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3.2 Consolidation
The following comparisons have been made based on
DAS 217 ‘Consolidation’ and IFRS 10 ‘Consolidated
financial statements’, issued in 2011. IFRS 10 applies to
annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2013.
For entities applying IFRS as endorsed by the European
Union the standard is effective for annual periods
beginning on or after 1 January 2014.
Control
IFRS 10 replaces the consolidation requirements
previously included in IAS 27 ‘Consolidated and
separate financial statements’. IFRS 10 establishes
principles for the presentation and preparation of
consolidated financial statements when an entity
controls one or more other entities.
IFRS 10 introduces no new concepts but builds on
existing control guidance. However IFRS 10 adds
additional context and contains extensive application
guidance.
Dutch GAAP
IFRS
Definition of control under DAS is similar to the definition
included previously in IAS 27.
The definition of control in IFRS 10 explains that
‘an investor controls an investee when it is exposed, or
has rights, to variable returns from its involvement with
the investee and has the ability to affect those returns
through its power over the investee’.
‘Control is the power to govern the financial and
operating policies of an entity to obtain benefits from its
activities.’
This definition encompasses three distinct characteristics
that all must be present in order for an entity to control
another entity:
• power over the investee;
• e
xposure, or rights, to variable returns from its
involvement with the investee; and
• t he ability to use its power over the investee to affect
the amount of the investor’s returns.
Subsidiary
DAS 940
IFRS 10.6-7
The term ‘subsidiary’ is not used in Dutch GAAP. Instead
DAS applies two other concepts, namely:
• a ‘daughter entity’
• a ‘group entity’
Similar to Dutch GAAP. However under IFRS the term
subsidiary is defined. A subsidiary is an entity that is
controlled by another entity.
A daughter entity is an entity in which either a majority of
the voting power is retained by the parent, or the parent
has a right to appoint and dismiss the majority of the
board of directors of an entity.
Although DAS applies a different terminology, the
application of IFRS results in most cases in virtually the
same outcome compared to DAS.
A group entity is an entity which is controlled by the
ultimate parent of the group and is part of an economic
unity in which legal entities are organizationally linked to
each other. Another important feature of a group entity is
the element of central leadership of the group.
In practice, this means that the various entities operate
as one entity for organisational and economic purposes.
In this comparison document the term ‘subsidiary’ is
used in order to indicate that an entity is controlled by
another entity (cf IFRS).
Requirements
to prepare
consolidated
financial
statements
Article 2:24, DAS 940
IFRS 10 Appendix A
An entity which is the head of a group of entities is
required to prepare consolidated financial statements.
Similar to Dutch GAAP. A parent shall prepare
consolidated financial statements using uniform
accounting policies for like transactions and other events
in similar circumstances. Consolidation of an investee
shall begin from the date the investor obtains control of
the investee and cease when the investor loses control
of the investee.
DAS 216.201
IFRS 10.19-20
Similarities and Differences Dutch GAAP vs. IFRS Business combinations, consolidated financial statements, and investments in associates and joint ventures
33
Exemption
from applying
consolidated
financial
statements
Dutch GAAP
IFRS
Personal holdings are exempt from presenting
consolidated financial statements if certain criteria are
met.
IFRS 10 applies to all parent entities, except for postemployment benefit plans or other long-term employee
benefit plans to which IAS 19 applies and certain other
exemptions noted below.
An exemption also applies to an intermediate holding
entity that is consolidated by a parent entity that
publishes annual accounts complying with the seventh
EU directive or equivalent, and no notification of
objection in writing is received from holders of at least
10% of issued capital. The parent’s financial statements
should be filed by the entity at the local Chamber of
Commerce.
Entities which meet the thresholds for ‘small entities’
are also exempt from preparing consolidated financial
statements if 90% or more of the shareholders do not
object to applying this consolidation exemption.
A parent entity is exempt from having to present
consolidated financial statements if it meets all of the
following criteria:
• It is a wholly-owned subsidiary or is a partially-owned
subsidiary of another entity and all its other owners,
including those not otherwise entitled to vote, have
been informed about, and do not object to, the parent
not presenting consolidated financial statements.
• T
he parent’s debt or equity securities are not publicly
traded.
• T
he parent did not file, and is not filing, its financial
statements for the purpose of issuing publicly traded
instruments.
• T
he ultimate or any intermediate parent of the entity
produces IFRS consolidated financial statements that
are available for public use.
In addition post-employment benefit plans or other longterm employee benefit plans to which IAS 19 Employee
Benefits applies are also exempted from preparing
consolidated financial statements.
Scope of
consolidated
financial
statements
Article 2:407-408, DAS 217.101, 271.214-217
IFRS 10.4b
Dutch GAAP requires that only group entities are
by definition included in the consolidated financial
statements. Daughter entities are only included in the
consolidated financial statements when the following
criteria are met:
• an entity has control over a daughter entity, and
• the daughter entity is subject to the central leadership
of the group.
An entity that is a parent presents consolidated financial
statements. A parent is an entity that controls one or
more entities.
This can imply that certain entities in which an entity
has a majority of the voting rights are not consolidated.
However, most daughter entities will normally qualify as
group entities. The ‘central leadership’ refers to ‘special
purposes entities’ which may not be owned directly by
the group, but should still be considered as part of the
group when certain criteria are met (see below).
Please note that when a group acquires an entity with
the sole purpose of divesting it within a short period,
this acquired entity does not need to be included in
the consolidated financial statements if it meets certain
criteria. These criteria are similar, but not equal, to the
‘held for sale criteria’ under IFRS.
IFRS 10 requires all entities that have an ‘interest’ in
another entity to perform an assessment of whether
control exists. IFRS 12 describes an ‘interest’ in another
entity as a ‘contractual or non-contractual involvement
that exposes an entity to variability of returns from the
performance of the other entity’’.
A reporting entity can have an interest in another entity
by involvement through other means, not just through an
equity holding, some examples of an interest are debt or
equity instruments, credit enhancements, guarantees or
liquidity support.
The definition of control in IFRS 10, explains that ‘an
investor controls an investee when it is exposed, or
has rights, to variable returns from its involvement with
the investee and has the ability to affect those returns
through its power over the investee’.
The definition of control under the former version of IAS
27 focused on an entity having the “power to govern
the financial and operating policies of an entity so as to
obtain benefit from its activities”.
The main distinction between the old and new definition
of control is that under IFRS 10, there is a clear
requirement to link power and returns and an investor’s
ability to affect those returns.
DAS 217.301-302, 217.305
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IAS 27.4, IFRS 10.4 Appendix A, IFRS 10.6,
IFRS 12 Appendix A
Structured entities
(SPEs)
Dutch GAAP
IFRS
When an entity is established to achieve a narrowly
defined purpose (special purpose), it is considered to
be a special purpose entity (SPE). Whether the SPE is a
group entity should be assessed based on the definition
of a group entity.
Voting rights may not always have a significant effect
on an investee’s returns. Where such arrangements
are in place, these entities are described as ‘structured
entities’.
A group entity is an entity which is controlled by the
ultimate parent of the group and is part of an economic
unity in which legal entities are organizationally linked to
each other. Another important feature of a group entity is
the element of central leadership of the group.
Specific guidance under Dutch GAAP on the accounting
for SPE’s is less extensive compared to IFRS.
Previously, SIC 12 uses the term ‘special purpose
entities’ (SPEs) to mean those entities that are created
to accomplish a narrow and well-defined objective,
and stipulated separate consolidation criteria for
these entities. This term is no longer used in IFRS 10.
However a narrow and well-defined objective may be
an identification characteristic for structured entities.
This suggests that a subset of former SPEs will likely fall
under the new category of ‘structured entities’. ‘Autopilot’ entities under SIC 12 are likely to be key candidates
for classification as ‘structured entities’.
All substantive powers in such entities may appear to
have been surrendered to contracts that impose rigid
control over the entities’ activities. None of the parties
may appear to have power. However, entities may be
indirectly controlled by one of the parties involved. This is
a highly judgemental area and a detailed analysis of the
control criteria is required. IFRS 10 contains extensive
guidance for the assessment whether an entity controls
a structured entity. This guidance covers amongst others
the following topics:
• Involvement and decisions made at the investee’s
inception as part of its design
• C
ontractual arrangements established at investee’s
inception
• C
ontractual arrangements established at investee’s
inception
• C
ommitment to ensure that investee operates as
designed
Measurement of
non-controlling
interests
DAS 217.204-205
IFRS 10 B17-B21
Non-controlling interests are measured at the respective
net asset value of entities which have other shareholders
than the controlling shareholder.
IFRS 10 specifies that allocation of profits and assets
to the parent entity and non-controlling interests for
consolidation purposes is usually based on present
ownership interests. However, where potential voting
rights or other derivatives, in substance, give access to
the economic benefits associated with an ownership
interest, the allocation of profits and assets is determined
by taking into account the eventual exercise of those
potential voting rights and derivatives.
Potential voting rights are not taken into account when
measuring the non-controlling interests.
Such potential voting rights and derivatives are not
accounted for using IAS 39.
Presentation of
non-controlling
interest (NCI)
DAS 217.502
IFRS 10 B23(c), B47-50.
An entity attributes the profit or loss to the owners of
the parent and to the non-controlling interests. NCIs
are presented as a separate component of equity in the
balance sheet.
Similar to Dutch GAAP. However profit or loss
attributable to NCI’s is not a separate component in the
income statement. Allocation of the profit or loss for
the period to the owners of the parent and the NCI’s is
presented below the income statement.
Profit or loss which is attributable to NCIs is presented as
a separate component in the income statement.
In addition the entity also attributes total comprehensive
income to the owners of the parent and to the noncontrolling interests
Profit or loss and total comprehensive income are
attributed to NCIs and owners of the parent in the
income statement.
Article 2:411, Article 2:10.2, GAO on model formats,
DAS 240.303
Accounting
policies
Intra group
balances and
transactions
IFRS 10 B94, IAS 1.54q, 1.83, IAS 27.27-28
Consolidated financial statements are prepared by using
uniform accounting policies for like transactions, and
events in similar circumstances, for all of the entities in
a group.
Same as Dutch GAAP.
DAS 217.504
IFRS 10 B87
Intra-group balances and transactions are eliminated in
full.
Same as Dutch GAAP.
DAS 217.507
IFRS 10 B87
Similarities and Differences Dutch GAAP vs. IFRS Business combinations, consolidated financial statements, and investments in associates and joint ventures
35
Reporting periods
Dutch GAAP
IFRS
The financial statements of the parent and its
subsidiaries used in the preparation of the consolidated
financial statements shall have the same reporting date.
Similar to Dutch GAAP. However IFRS does not contain
explicit guidance on the period that is allowed between
the reporting period of the parent and that of the
subsidiary.
When the end of the reporting period of the parent
is different from that of a subsidiary, the subsidiary
prepares, for consolidation purposes, additional
financial information as of the same date as the financial
statements of the parent to enable the parent to
consolidate the financial information of the subsidiary,
unless it is impracticable to do so.
In addition, Dutch GAAP specifies the maximum
difference of the reporting periods (three months) and
the requirement to adjust for significant transactions that
occur in the gap period.
Separate financial
statements
DAS 217.506
IFRS 10 B92
An entity is required to present separate financial
statements. An entity is allowed to include a condensed
entity income statement if it also prepares consolidated
financial statements.
When separate financial statements of a parent are
prepared, the entity chooses to account for all of its
investments in subsidiaries, jointly controlled entities and
associates either:
In the separate financial statements of the parent, the
entity measures all of its investments in subsidiaries,
jointly controlled entities and associates using the net
asset value method. The costs measurement is allowed
when there are valid reasons. Such reasons relate for
example to the international structure of the group or the
application of the article 408 consolidation exemption.
• at cost less impairment; or
• at fair value through profit or loss.
Also refer to chapter 2.2 ‘Separate financial statements’.
Application of
the measurement
principles applied
in the consolidated
financial
statements
Different accounting policies are permitted when
accounting for different types of investment in different
classes.
Investments accounted for at cost shall be accounted
for in accordance with IFRS 5 when they are classified
as held for sale (or included in a disposal group that is
classified as held for sale).
Article 2:361.1, 2:389, DAS 214.202, 214.325, DAS 402
IAS 27.10
Under DAS the measurement principles applied in the
separate financial statements are equal to those applied
in the consolidated financial statements due to the fact
participating interests and subsidiaries are measured
based on the net asset value method (similar to the
equity method).
Different measurement principles apply to the equity
investments held by the entity compared to the
consolidated financial statements.
In case the consolidated financial statements are
prepared in accordance with IFRS as adopted by the
European Union, Dutch law allows that the separate
financial statements are prepared in accordance with the
recognition and measurement principles as applied in
the consolidated financial statements which are based
on IFRS. This option is intended to avoid differences in
equity and result in the separate financial statements
compared to the consolidated financial statements. In
this situation investments in subsidiaries are measured
at net asset value based on the accounting principles
as applied in the consolidated financial statements.
Presentation and disclosures are based on Dutch law
and GAAP.
Also refer to chapter 2.2 ‘Separate financial statements’.
DAS 362.8, DAS 214.205
36
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IAS 27.10
3.3 Equity accounting (investments
in associates and joint ventures)
IAS 28 applies to accounting for investments in
associates. IAS 28 requires that interests in such
entities are accounted for using the equity method
of accounting. An associate is an entity in which the
investor has significant influence, but which is neither
a subsidiary nor a joint venture of the investor. In
May 2011, the IASB issued a new version of IAS 28
‘Investments in associates and joint ventures’, that
includes the requirements for joint ventures, as well as
associates, to be equity accounted following the issue of
IFRS 11 ‘Joint arrangements’.
Definition
This standard is effective 1 January 2013, although EU
endorsed for 1 January 2014.
Under DAS 214 a similar accounting treatment applies
which is indicated as the net asset value method.
However, also the cost model is allowed when certain
criteria are met.
The following comparisons have been made based on
the Dutch Civil Code, DAS 214 ‘Financial fixed assets’,
DAS 121 ‘Impairment of fixed assets’ (Dutch GAAP) and
IAS 28 ‘Investments in associates and joint ventures’
(revised 2011) as well as some other Standards (IFRS).
Dutch GAAP
IFRS
Dutch GAAP uses the term ‘participating interest’
(deelneming) which represents a broader concept,
namely: contribution of capital with the object of a longterm relationship for the furtherance of the entity’s own
activities.
An associate is an entity over which the investor has
significant influence.
Refer to chapter 3.4 for the definition of a joint venture.
A participating interest would include an entity over
which the investor will have significant influence.
Significant
influence
Article 2:24c-d, DAS 214.202
IAS 28.3
There is a rebuttable presumption that a participating
interest exists if the entity holds 20% or more of the
share capital of the entity.
Significant influence is the power to participate in the
financial and operating policy decisions of the investee
but is not control or joint control of those policies.
It is presumed to exist when the investor holds at least
20% of the investee’s voting power; it is presumed not
to exist when less than 20% is held. These presumptions
may be rebutted if there is clear evidence to the contrary.
IFRS gives the following indicators of significant
influence to be considered where the investor holds less
than 20% of the voting power of the investee:
• r epresentation on the board of directors or equivalent
body
• participation in policy-making processes
• m
aterial transactions between the investor and the
investee
• interchange of managerial personnel
• provision of essential technical information
The existence and effect of potential voting rights that
are currently exercisable or convertible are considered
when assessing whether an entity has significant
influence.
Measurement after
initial recognition
Cost model
Article 2:389.1, DAS 214.302
IAS 28.3, 8
An investor may account for its investments using one
of the following:
• the net asset value method
• if insufficient data are available to apply the net asset
value method:
- v isible equity value if insufficient data are available
to apply the net asset value method; or
- t he cost method (as a deviation from the methods
above if there is justification to do so).
Investments in associates are accounted for using
the equity method. Some exceptions are in place, for
example if the entity is a parent that is exempt from
preparing consolidated financial statements.
Article 2:389.2-3, DAS 214.306
IAS 28.16-17, IFRS 10.4
Not permitted except when certain criteria are met.
Dividends are deducted from the costs of acquisition in
case of pre-acquisition profits.
Not permitted except in separate financial statements.
Article 2:389.9, DAS 214.325, 214.504
IAS 28.16-17, 28.44, IFRS 10.4
Similarities and Differences Dutch GAAP vs. IFRS Business combinations, consolidated financial statements, and investments in associates and joint ventures
37
Equity method /
net asset value
method
Dutch GAAP
IFRS
The net asset value is applicable for investments in
associates. Unlike the equity method, goodwill is
presented separately as an intangible asset; refer to the
measurement of goodwill in chapter 3.1 and 6.5.
Initial recognition is at cost. Cost is not defined in IAS 28.
In other standards it is defined as including transaction
costs, except in IFRS 3, which requires transaction costs
in a business combination to be expensed. Entities may
therefore choose whether their accounting policy is to
expense transaction costs or to include them in the cost
of the investment.
Like the equity method, the investor’s share of the
participating interest’s profit or loss is presented in
the income statement. A distribution received from
the investment reduces the carrying amount of the
investment.
In addition a legal reserve for non-distributed profits of
investments should be recognised.
Impairments
Legal reserves
DAS 214.307-309
IAS 28.10, 28.32, 28.38-39
Investments on which the net asset value or cost are
applied, are tested for impairment if an indication exist
that the investment may be impaired. Refer to chapter
6.5 for more details regarding impairments.
Similar to Dutch GAAP. The indicators of IAS 39 are used,
the actual impairment test is applied using IAS 36.
DAS 121.101
IAS 28.40
In cases where the net asset value method is applied, but Legal reserves are not covered in the standards.
where there are restrictions with regard to the distribution
of dividends, special rules apply. This means that the
investing entity can still record its share in the results of
the participation, but is required to recognise a legal
non-distributable reserve, being the difference between:
• the share in results and other remeasurements since
acquisition; and
• dividends to which the investor is entitled and which
are collectible in the Netherlands.
Article 2:389
Separate financial
statements
Refer to chapter 2.2 ‘Separate financial statements’.
Where separate financial statements of a parent are
prepared, management adopts a policy of accounting for
all its associates either:
• at cost less impairment; or
• at fair value through profit or loss (IAS 39).
Investments are accounted for in accordance with IFRS 5
when they are classified as held for sale.
Also refer to chapter 2.2 ‘Separate financial statements’.
Full or partial
disposal of
associates
Article 2:361.1, 2:389, DAS 214.301-312, 214.325
IAS 27.10
In case of loss of significant influence over an associate
as a result of a full or partial disposal, the investor
uses the last known net asset value as a basis for the
subsequent measurement at cost or fair value.
If an investor loses significant influence over an associate
as a result of a full or partial disposal, it derecognises
that associate and recognises in profit or loss the
difference between, on the one hand, the sum of the
proceeds received plus the fair value of any retained
interest and, on the other hand, the carrying amount of
the investment in the associate at the date significant
influence is lost.
Thereafter, the investor accounts for any retained interest
using IAS 39, as appropriate.
Classification and
presentation
38
PwC
DAS 214.321
IAS 28.22-23
An investor classifies investments in participating
interests as non-current assets. Participating interests
are presented as a line item on the balance sheet.
Similar to Dutch GAAP; however, the term associate
is used instead of participating interest and only those
associates accounted for using the equity method are
presented as a line item.
GAO on model formats
IAS 1.54(e), IAS 28.15
3.4 Joint arrangements
The following comparisons have been made based
on DAS 215 ‘Joint ventures’ and IFRS 11 ‘Joint
arrangements’. IFRS 11 sets out the principles of
accounting for a joint arrangement. The standard deals
with the classification and measurement matters for
joint operations and joint ventures. The disclosure
requirements are included in IFRS 12 ‘Disclosure of
interests in other entities’. The standard supersedes IAS
31 ‘Interests in Joint Ventures’ and SIC-13
Types of joint
arrangements
Definition
‘Jointly Controlled Entities - Non-Monetary
Contributions by Venturers’ and is effective 1 January
2013, although EU endorsed for 1 January 2014
IFRS 11 and DAS 215 both identify several types of joint
arrangements. However where IFRS only distinguishes
joint operations from joint ventures, DAS acknowledges
three types of joint arrangements. This also leads
to differences in accounting method under both
frameworks.
Dutch GAAP
IFRS
Dutch GAAP distinguishes three types of joint venture:
• jointly controlled entities.
• jointly controlled operations, in which each venturer
uses its own assets for a specific project.
• jointly controlled operations, in which the assets are
jointly owned by the venturers.
The different types of joint ventures are allowed to be
measured differently.
IFRS distinguishes two types of joint arrangements:
• joint operation; involved parties have rights to
the assets and obligations for the liabilities of the
operation.
• joint venture; involved parties have rights to the net
assets.
DAS 215.204-205
IFRS 11.15-16
A joint venture is defined as a contractual arrangement
A joint venture is a joint arrangement whereby the parties
whereby two or more parties (the venturers) undertake an that have joint control of the arrangement have rights to
economic activity that is subject to joint control.
the net assets of the arrangement.
Joint control is defined as the contractually agreed
sharing of control of an arrangement, which exists only
when decisions about the relevant activities require the
unanimous consent of the parties sharing control.
DAS 215.103, DAS 940
Accounting for
joint ventures
Accounting for
joint operations
Accounting for
jointly controlled
assets
Separate financial
statements
IFRS 11.16, Appendix A
A venturer may account for its investments using:
Only the equity method is applied to account for joint
• proportionate consolidation if this satisfies the true and ventures. Proportionate consolidation is no longer
fair view
allowed.
• the net asset value method (refer to chapter 3.3).
Also refer to chapter 3.3 equity accounting.
DAS 215.201, 215.208, Article 2:409
IFRS 11.24
Dutch GAAP distinguishes between two types of jointly
controlled operations:
• jointly controlled operations, in which each venturer
uses its own assets for a specific project. A venture
recognises in its financial statements the assets it
controls, the liabilities it incurs, the expenses it incurs
and its share of the income from the sale of goods or
services by the joint venture.
• jointly controlled operations, in which the assets are
jointly owned by the venturers. A venturer recognises
in its financial statements its share of the jointly owned
assets, liabilities, expenses and income from the sale
of goods or services by the joint venture.
The share of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses
relating to an interest in a joint operation are accounted
for in accordance with the IFRSs applicable to the
particular assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses.
DAS 215.205
IFRS 11.20
A venturer accounts for its share of the jointly controlled
assets, liabilities, income and expenses, and any
liabilities and expenses it has incurred.
Same as above.
DAS 215.205
IFRS 11.20
Separate financial statements are required for the parent.
The entity adopts a policy of accounting for all of its
jointly controlled entities, either:
• net asset value method; or
• at cost less impairment (only if there are valid reasons,
like the international structure of the group or the
application of the Article 408 consolidation exemption).
An interest in a joint operation is accounted on the same
basis as in the consolidated financial statements, if this
joint operation is directly held by the entity.
Article 2:389, DAS 215.208
IAS 27.10
An interest in a joint venture shall be accounted for in a
venturer’s separate financial statements at cost or at fair
value.
Similarities and Differences Dutch GAAP vs. IFRS Business combinations, consolidated financial statements, and investments in associates and joint ventures
39
Accounting for
contributions to
a jointly controlled
entity
Dutch GAAP
IFRS
Gains and losses on contribution or sales of assets to a
joint venture by a venturer are recognised to the same
extent as that of the interests of the other venturers
provided the assets are retained by the joint venture
and significant risks and rewards of ownership of the
contributed assets have been transferred. The venturer
recognises the full amount of any loss when there is
evidence of impairment loss from the contribution
or sale.
A venturer that contributes nonmonetary assets to
a jointly controlled entity in exchange for an equity
interest in the jointly controlled entity recognises in its
consolidated income statement the portion of the gain
or loss attributable to the equity interests of the other
venturers, except when:
• T
he significant risks and rewards of ownership of the
contributed assets have not been transferred to the
jointly controlled entity;
• T
he gain or loss on the assets contributed cannot be
measured reliably; or
• T
he contribution transaction lacks commercial
substance.
Further requirement is provided for recognition, prior to
the transfer, of expected loss on, or existing impairment
of, the asset transferred. The use of fair values for
measurement by the joint venture itself of contributions
from the venturers of assets and liabilities is required.
DAS 215.208-210
40
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IAS 28.30, 31, IFRS 11.24
Similarities and Differences Dutch GAAP vs. IFRS Business combinations, consolidated financial statements, and investments in associates and joint ventures
41
42
PwC
4. Income and expenses
4.1 Income
In this chapter the following types of income are
included: income arising from the sale of goods,
rendering of services, use of others by an entity’s assets,
constructions contracts and government grants.
The following comparisons have been made based on
the Dutch Civil Code, DAS 221 ‘Construction contracts’,
DAS 270 ‘Income statement’, DAS 274 ‘Government
grants’, DAS 930 ‘Framework for the preparation and
presentation of financial statements’ and DAS 940
‘Definitions’ (Dutch GAAP), and IAS 18 ‘Revenue’, IAS
11 ‘Construction contracts’ and IAS 20 ‘Accounting
for government grants and disclosure of government
assistance’ (IFRS).
Dutch GAAP
IFRS
‘Income’ comprises of increases in economic benefits
during the reporting period in the form of inflows or
enhancements of assets; or decreases in liabilities that
result in increases in equity, other than those relating to
contributions from equity investors.
The definition of income encompasses both revenue and
gains.
Definitions
Income
DAS uses the term ‘baten’.
Revenue
DAS 930.70a
Conceptual framework 2010 chapter 4.29
‘Revenue’ is income that arises in the course of an
entity’s ordinary activities. It is referred to by a variety of
terms including sales, fees, interest, dividends, royalties
and rent.
Same as Dutch GAAP.
DAS uses the term ‘opbrengsten’.
DAS 940
IAS 18.7
Two primary revenue standards capture all revenue
transactions within one of four broad categories:
• Sale of goods
• Rendering of services
• Others’ use of an entity’s assets (yielding interest,
royalties, etc.)
• Construction contracts
Same as Dutch GAAP.
Revenue
Recognition –
general
Revenue recognition criteria for each of these categories
include the probability that the economic benefits
associated with the transaction will flow to the entity and
that the revenue and costs can be measured reliably.
Additional recognition criteria apply within each broad
category.
The principles laid out within each of the categories are
generally to be applied without significant further rules
and/or exceptions.
Measurement
DAS 270.1, DAS 221
IAS 18.1, 18.4, 11.1
Revenue is measured at the fair value of the
consideration received or receivable is required.
Same as Dutch GAAP.
DAS 270.106
IAS 18.9
Similarities and Differences Dutch GAAP vs. IFRS Income and expenses
43
Multiple-element
arrangements
Dutch GAAP
IFRS
The revenue recognition criteria are usually applied
separately to each transaction. However, in certain
circumstances, it is necessary to separate a transaction
into identifiable components in order to reflect the
substance of the transaction.
Same as Dutch GAAP.
Two or more transactions may need to be grouped
together if they are linked in such a way that the whole
commercial effect cannot be understood without
reference to the series of transactions as a whole.
Sale of goods
Rendering of
services
DAS 270.109
IAS 18.13
In addition to the general revenue recognition criteria
above, revenue from the sale of goods is recognised
when:
• the entity has transferred to the buyer the significant
risks and rewards of ownership of goods; and
• the entity retains neither continuing managerial
involvement nor effective control over the goods sold.
Same as Dutch GAAP.
DAS 270.110-114
IAS 18.14
Service transactions are accounted for under the
percentage-of-completion method when the outcome of
a transaction can be reliably estimated.
Same as Dutch GAAP.
Revenue may be recognised on a straight-line basis if the
services are performed by an indeterminate number of
acts over a specified period of time.
When the outcome of a service transaction cannot be
estimated reliably, revenue is only recognised to the
extent of recoverable expenses incurred.
Recognition of revenue may have to be deferred in
instances where a specific act is more significant than
any other acts and recognised when the significant act
is executed.
DAS 270.115-123
IAS 18.20
Use by others of an entity’s assets
Interest
Royalties
Dividends
Interest is recognised using the effective interest method. Same as Dutch GAAP.
DAS 270.125
IAS 18.30a, IAS 39.9, IAS 39 AG5-8
Royalties are recognised on an accruals basis in
accordance with the substance of the relevant
agreement.
Same as Dutch GAAP.
DAS 270.125
IAS 18.30b
Dividends are recognised when the shareholder’s right to
receive payment is established.
Same as Dutch GAAP.
DAS 270.125
IAS 18.30c
Construction contracts
Scope and
definition
A construction contract is a contract for the construction
of an asset or a combination of assets that are closely
interrelated or interdependent in terms of their design,
technology and function or their ultimate purpose or use.
A construction contract in Dutch GAAP does not need
to be specifically negotiated, which makes the scope
broader.
General
A construction contract is a contract specifically
negotiated for the construction of an asset or a
combination of assets that are closely interrelated or
interdependent in terms of their design, technology and
function or their ultimate purpose or use.
IFRS is stricter than DAS as it specifically requires the
contract to be specifically negotiated.
DAS 940
IAS 11.3
When the outcome of a contract can be estimated
reliably, revenue and costs are recognised by reference
to the stage of completion of the contract activity at the
end of the reporting period (percentage of completion
method).
Same as Dutch GAAP.
Additional detailed guidance on fixed price and cost-plus
contracts is provided.
Reliable estimation of the outcome requires reliable
estimates of the stage of completion, future costs and
collectability of billings.
Separate guidance on reliable estimations of the
percentage of completion is provided.
DAS 221.301-303
44
PwC
IAS 11.22-24
Dutch GAAP
IFRS
Percentage of
The stage of completion of a transaction or contract
Same as Dutch GAAP, except for the additional
completion method is determined using the method that measures most
circumstances (bullets in left column) during which
reliably the work performed. When the final outcome
percentage of completion method is also allowed.
cannot be estimated reliably, a zero-profit method is
used (revenue recognised is limited to the extent of costs
incurred, if those costs are expected to be recovered).
This method is also allowed if:
• the contracts are expected to be completed within one
year; and
• the projects are equally spread in time and size.
When it is probable that total contract costs will exceed
total contract revenue, the expected loss is recognised
as an expense immediately.
Presentation
DAS 221.314-316
IAS 11.32
Dutch GAAP does not require separating assets and
liabilities resulting from construction contracts.
IFRS requires the assets and liabilities related to
construction contracts to be presented separately.
Furthermore work in progress related to construction
contracts is presented as a separate line item and not as
part of the category inventories.
Combining and
segmenting
contracts
Article 2:369 , DAS 221.406-412
IAS 11.39-45
Combining and segmenting contracts is required when
certain criteria are met.
Similar to Dutch GAAP.
DAS 221.111-112
IAS 11.8-11.9
Revenue may be recognised on the exchange of
dissimilar goods and services. The transaction is
measured at the fair value of goods or services received,
adjusted by the amount of any cash or cash equivalents
transferred.
Similar to Dutch GAAP.
Other topics
Barter transaction
The carrying value of the goods and services given up,
adjusted by the amount of any cash or cash equivalents
transferred, is used where the fair value of goods
or services received cannot be measured reliably.
Exchanges of similar goods and services do not generate
revenue.
DAS 270.108-108a
Customer loyalty
programmes
Discounting of
revenues
Agent vs. principal
IAS 18.12, SIC 31
The entity accounts for the award credits as a separately Similar to Dutch GAAP. However, IFRIC 13 contains
identifiable component of the initial sales transaction.
additional guidance on customer loyalty programmes
The entity shall allocate the fair value of the consideration when third parties supply the awards.
received or receivable in respect of the initial sale
between the award credits and the other components
of the sale. The consideration allocated to the award
credits is measured by reference to their fair value, i.e.
the amount for which the award credits could be sold
separately.
DAS 270.109-109a
IFRIC 13
Discounting of revenues to present value is required in
instances where the inflow of cash or cash equivalents
is deferred. In such instances, an imputed interest rate
is used for determining the amount of revenue to be
recognised, as well as the separate interest income
component to be recorded over time.
Similar to Dutch GAAP.
DAS 270.107
IAS 18.11
Amounts collected on behalf of third parties and which
do not result in increases in equity for the entity do not
qualify as revenue. Therefore, such amounts should not
be included as revenue.
Similar to Dutch GAAP.
Draft DAS 270.105c (effective as per January 1, 2014)
IAS 18.8
Assistance by government in the form of transfers
of resources to an entity in return for past or future
compliance with certain conditions relating to the
operating activities of the entity.
Similar to Dutch GAAP.
DAS 274.101-106
IAS 20.3
IFRS refers to the third party as the principal.
Government grants
Definition
Similarities and Differences Dutch GAAP vs. IFRS Income and expenses
45
Recognition and
measurement
Dutch GAAP
IFRS
Government grants are not recognised until there is a
reasonable assurance that:
• the entity complies with the conditions attached to the
grants; and
• the grants are receivable.
Similar to Dutch GAAP.
Government grants are recognised in the income
statement over the periods necessary to match
them with the related costs that they are intended
to compensate, on a systematic basis. They are not
credited directly to shareholder’s interest.
An entity recognises government grants according to the
nature of the grant as follows:
• A grant that does not impose specified future
performance conditions on the recipient is recognised
in income when the grant proceeds are receivable.
• A grant that imposes specified future performance
conditions on the recipient is recognised in income
only when the performance conditions are met.
• Grants received before the income recognition criteria
are satisfied are recognised as a liability and released
to income when all attached conditions have been
complied with.
In addition, a number of other methods are allowed,
like offsetting the government grant with the investment
value in the balance sheet
Grants are measured at the fair value of the asset
received or receivable.
DAS 274.107-116
46
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IAS 20.7 -22
4.2 Expenses
The table below includes comparisons for certain key
topics such as share-based payments and employee
benefits.
Share-based payments
Accounting for share-based payments does not differ
exceptionally between Dutch GAAP and IFRS. However,
on a detailed level a number of differences may be
applicable. These differences mainly relate to the
following subjects:
• scope;
• vesting conditions;
• choice of settlement;
• modifications; and
• taxes.
Post-employment benefits include pensions, postemployment life insurance and medical care. Pensions
are provided to employees (under IFRS) either through
defined contribution plans or defined benefit plans. The
liabilities in defined benefit pension plans are frequently
material. They are long-term and difficult to measure,
and this gives rise to difficulty in measuring the cost
attributable to each year. The accounting for pensions
under Dutch GAAP is different from IFRS. Under Dutch
GAAP the distinction between defined contribution plan
and defined benefit plan does not exists. The pension
contributions payable by the employer to the pension
fund are expensed.
In this chapter the treatment of employee benefits in the
income statement is discussed. Refer to chapter 7 for the
recognition of employee benefits in the balance sheet.
Employee benefits
Employee benefits are all forms of consideration given
or promised by an entity in exchange for services
rendered by its employees. These benefits include
salary-related benefits (such as wages, profit-sharing,
bonuses and compensated absences, such as paid
holiday and long-service leave), termination benefits
(such as severance and redundancy pay) and postemployment benefits (such as retirement benefit plans).
The following comparisons have been made based on
the Dutch Civil Code, DAS 271 ‘Employee benefits’,
DAS 273 ‘Borrowing costs’, DAS 275 ‘Share-based
payments’, DAS 930 ‘Framework for the preparation
and presentation of financial statements’, DAS 940
‘Definitions’ (Dutch GAAP) and the conceptual
framework 2010, IFRS 2 ‘Share-based payments’, IAS 19
‘Employee benefits’ (revised 2011, effective as per
1 January 2013) and IAS 23 ‘Borrowing costs’ (IFRS).
Dutch GAAP
IFRS
Expenses are decreases in economic benefits during the
reporting period in the form of outflows, depletions of
assets or incurrences of liabilities that result in decreases
in equity, other than those relating to distributions to
equity investors.
Expenses encompass losses as well as those expenses
that arise in the course of the ordinary activities of the
entity such as cost of sales, wages and depreciation.
DAS 940, DAS 930.70b
Conceptual Framework 2010, chapter 4.33
Expenses are recognised in the income statement when
the decrease in future economic benefits related to a
decrease in an asset or an increase of a liability can be
measured reliably.
Same as Dutch GAAP.
DAS 930.94-98
Conceptual Framework 2010, chapter 4.49-53
Borrowing costs that are directly attributable to the
acquisition, construction or production of a qualifying
asset as part of the cost of that asset may be capitalised
if the criteria are met. However this is not required.
Same as Dutch GAAP, although the capitalisation of
borrowing costs related to qualifying assets is required
when the criteria are met.
General
Definition of
expense
Expense
recognition –
general
Borrowing costs
Capitalisation
The following criteria for capitalisation apply:
• the expected future economic benefits are large
enough to cover the book value of the asset (including
the borrowing costs); and
• the future economic benefits can be measured reliably.
All other borrowing costs are expensed.
Article 2:388.2, DAS 273.204-212
IAS 23.1, 23.8
Share-based payments
Scope
Share-based payment transactions include:
• Equity-settled share-based payments
• Cash-settled share-based payments
Same as Dutch GAAP. Besides, IFRS includes
transactions in which one group entity receives goods
or services and another group entity settles the sharebased payment.
Excluded are contribution-in-kind transactions and
transactions between entities under common control.
DAS 275.102-103
IFRS 2.2-6A
Similarities and Differences Dutch GAAP vs. IFRS Income and expenses
47
Dutch GAAP
IFRS
Recognition
An entity recognises the goods or services received in
a share-based payment transaction when it obtains the
goods or as the services are received.
Same as Dutch GAAP
DAS 275.202
IFRS 2.7
Measurement –
equity-settled
share-based
transactions
Equity-settled share-based transactions granted to nonemployees (i.e. suppliers) are measured at the fair value
of the goods or services received. In case the fair value
of the goods or services cannot be measured reliably,
the transactions are measured at the fair value of the
equity instruments granted. Equity-settled share-based
transactions granted to employees are measured at the
fair value of the granted equity instruments at the equity
instruments intrinsic value at the grant date. The intrinsic
value should be re-measured at every balance sheet date
and at the settlement date. Adjustments of the intrinsic
value are recognised through profit or loss.
Transactions are measured at fair value of the goods or
services received. If the entity cannot estimate reliably
these fair values, which is deemed typically in case
for transactions with employees, the transactions are
measured at the fair value of the equity instruments
granted, ignoring any non-market vesting conditions or
reload features. In rare cases, when the fair value cannot
be reliably estimated, the instruments are measured at
their intrinsic value, just as under Dutch GAAP.
DAS 275.203-204, 301-302, 314
IFRS 2.10-21, 2.24
Measurement –
cash-settled
share-based
transactions
Cash-settled share-based payment transactions are
Same as Dutch GAAP.
measured at the fair value of the liability. Until the liability
is settled, the fair value of the liability is re-measured at
each reporting date and at the date of final settlement,
with any changes in fair value recognised in profit or loss.
DAS 275.205, 275.301
IFRS 2.30
Employee benefits – post-employment benefits
Defined
contribution plans
Not applicable. The distinction between defined
contribution plan and defined benefit plan no longer
exists. The pension contributions payable by the
employer to the pension fund are expensed.
Defined contribution plan expense is the contribution
payable by the employer to the fund for that accounting
period.
RJ 271.306
IAS 19.28, 51b
Defined benefit plans
Components of the Not applicable.
cost of a defined
benefit plans
Defined benefit plan expense includes:
• service costs (via income statement)
• n
et interest on the net defined benefit liability(via
income statement)
• r emeasurements of the net defined benefit liability
(via OCI)
IAS 19.120-134
Service cost
Not applicable.
Service costs comprise current service costs, past
service costs and gains and losses on settlement.
Current service cost is the increase in the present value
of the DBO resulting from employee service in the current
period.
Past service cost is the change in the present value of
the DBO resulting from a plan amendment or curtailment.
IAS 19.8, 66-112
Net interest
Not applicable.
Remeasurements
Not applicable.
Application of
other standards
Entities are allowed to apply US-GAAP or IFRS related
to pensions and other post-retirement benefits in
the financial statements instead of DAS 271. These
standards are to be applied in full.
The interest is determined by multiplying the net defined
benefit liability by the discount rate on high quality
corporate bonds.
IAS 19.8, 83, 123-126
Remeasurements of the defined benefit liability comprise
actuarial gains and losses, the return on plan assets less
the interest that was already taken into account in the
net interest as mentioned above, and any change in the
effect of the asset ceiling.
IAS 19.8, 127-130
DAS 271.101
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The application of US-GAAP is not allowed in IFRS.
Dutch GAAP
IFRS
Employee benefits – termination benefits
Recognition
Termination benefits are recognised when management
is demonstrably committed to the reduction in workforce.
Management is demonstrably committed to a termination
when it has a detailed formal plan for the termination and
is without realistic possibility of withdrawal.
Termination benefits do not provide an entity with future
economic benefits and are recognised as an expense
immediately.
DAS 271.5
Termination benefits are recognised at the earlier of the
following dates:
• t he entity can no longer withdraw the offer of those
benefits; or
• t he entity recognises a restructuring provision in which
costs are included for the payment of termination
benefits.
A termination benefit is given only in exchange for the
termination of employment. A benefit that is in any way
dependent on providing services in the future is not a
termination benefit.
IAS 19.165, 170
Similarities and Differences Dutch GAAP vs. IFRS Income and expenses
49
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5. Financial instruments
Under Dutch GAAP the accounting treatment of financial instruments is covered by DAS
290. Under IFRS, the accounting treatment of financial instruments is included in IAS 32
(presentation), IAS 39 (recognition and measurement) and IFRS 7 (disclosures).
IFRS 9 will ultimately replace IAS 39. The project to replace IAS 39 is divided into three main
phases. As each phase is completed, the relevant portions of IAS 39 will be deleted and chapters
in IFRS 9 will be created that replace the requirements in IAS 39. The three main phases are:
phase 1: Classification and measurement of financial assets and financial liabilities, phase 2:
Impairment methodology and phase 3: Hedge accounting. Currently the first phase has been
completed and included in IFRS 9. IFRS 9 is applicable for financial statements for annual
periods beginning on or after 1 January 2015 pending EU endorsement.
5.1 Definitions, scope and classification
Both under Dutch GAAP and IFRS measurement of a
financial instrument depends on its classification. The
two frameworks distinguish different measurement
categories. Whereas IFRS distinguishes four financial
assets and two financial liabilities measurement
categories, Dutch GAAP distinguishes one more
category for both assets and liabilities. However, the
initial measurement is at fair value under both IFRS and
Dutch GAAP.
Definition
of financial
instrument
Categories
The following comparisons have been made based on
the Dutch Civil Code, DAS 290 ‘Financial instruments’,
DAS 940 ‘Definitions’ (Dutch GAAP), and IAS 32
‘Financial instruments: presentation’, IAS 39 ‘Financial
instruments: Recognition and measurement’ and IFRS 7
‘Financial instruments: Disclosures’ (IFRS).
Dutch GAAP
IFRS
A financial instrument is a contract that gives rise to a
financial asset of one entity and a financial liability or
equity instrument of another entity.
Same as Dutch GAAP.
DAS 940
IAS 32.11
Dutch GAAP distinguishes five measurement categories
of financial assets:
• trading portfolio
• derivatives
• purchased loans and bonds
• issued loans and other receivables
• investments in equity instruments
IAS 39 distinguishes four measurement categories of
financial assets:
• financial assets at fair value through profit or loss
• held-to-maturity investments
• loans and receivables
• available-for-sale financial assets
Dutch GAAP distinguishes three measurement
categories of financial liabilities:
• trading portfolio
• derivatives
• other financial liabilities
IAS 39 distinguishes two measurement categories of
financial liabilities:
• financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss
• other liabilities
Derivatives are included in financial assets (liabilities) at
fair value through profit and loss.
Dutch GAAP does not have a fair value option.
DAS 290.407, 413
IAS 39.9
Similarities and Differences Dutch GAAP vs. IFRS Financial instruments
51
Scope
Classification as
equity or liability
(general)
Dutch GAAP
IFRS
DAS 290 scopes out:
• interests in subsidiaries and associates as defined in
DAS 214.1
• interests in joint ventures as defined in DAS 215
• leases [DAS 292]
• employee benefits [DAS 271]
• insurance contracts [DAS 605]
• financial instruments that meet the definition of an
entity’s own equity [DAS 240]
• financial guarantees. However DAS 290 is applicable
to financial guarantees whereby payments have to be
made as a consequence of changes in the underlying,
for instance, interest rates, price of a financial
instrument, price of a commodity, foreign exchange
rate, index of prices or interest rates, creditworthiness
of other variables
• contracts for contingent consideration in a business
combination (applies to acquirer only) [DAS 216]
• contingent assets or liabilities related to a business
combination (accounted for under DAS 216)
• contracts with payments based on climatic, geological
or other physical variables
• certain loan commitments
• certain commodity contracts if they meet the own use
exemption. These contracts are treated as normal
sell and purchase contracts and are accounted
accordingly
• financial instruments related to share-based payments
[DAS 275]
IAS 39 scopes out:
• interests in subsidiaries, associates and joint ventures
that are accounted for using the cost method
prescribed in IAS 27, IAS 28 and IAS 31 or accounted
for in accordance with IFRS 5
• fi
nancial instruments that meet the definition of an
entity’s own equity (accounted for in accordance with
IAS 32)
• leases (accounted for under IAS 17)
• employee benefits (accounted for under IAS 19)
• share-based payments (accounted for under IFRS 2)
• insurance contracts (accounted for under IFRS 4)
• from an acquirer’s perspective only, contracts for
contingent consideration in a business combination
that occurred under IFRS 3 (superseded). That is those
that occurred in annual periods starting prior to 1 July
2009.
• forward contracts between an acquirer and a vendor in
a business combination
• loan commitments (other than those described
in IAS 39.4). IAS 37 is applicable to these loans
commitments.
DAS 290.201-202
IAS 32.4, IAS 39.2, IFRS 7.3
In the issuer’s consolidated financial statements the
classification of its issued financial instruments is based
on the economic substance of a financial instrument.
Puttable own equity instruments are exceptions to this
rule.
In the consolidated and separate financial statements a
financial instrument is classified as a liability if the issuer
could be obliged to settle in cash or another financial
instrument.
Therefore, differences exist between the treatment of
wheather derivatives and financial guarantee contracts.
In the separate financial statements the classification of
financial instruments by the issuer is based on the legal
form of an instrument instead of the economic substance
of the financial instrument.
The total of financial instruments that, on the basis of
economic substance, would be classified as liability
in the consolidated financial statements should be
separately presented within equity.
DAS 290.801-812, 240.207-209
Classification as
Preference shares that bear contingent dividends
equity or liability
depending on the profit for the year may be classified as
(preference shares) equity or as debt as an accounting policy choice in the
consolidated financial statements.
Initial recognition
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IAS 32.15-16
Preference shares that bear contingent dividends are
classified as a liability. The basis for this presentation
is the fact that the payment of dividends is not at the
discretion of the entity.
DAS 290.810
IAS 32 AG25-26
A financial instrument is recognised only when the entity
becomes a party to its contractual provision.
Same as Dutch GAAP.
DAS 290.701
IAS 39.14
5.2 Measurement, impairment and
derecognition
Initial measurement is similar to all financial
instruments under both Dutch GAAP and IFRS, namely
at fair value. Subsequent measurement depends on its
classification of the financial instrument. Although the
classification differs between Dutch GAAP and IFRS, the
subsequent measurement possibilities are mainly the
same. Also impairment methodology and derecognition
under IFRS have large overlap with Dutch GAAP,
however with some exceptions.
This chapter also includes embedded derivatives. In
September 2013 an exposure draft of DAS 290 has been
issued that requires bifurcation of embedded derivatives
that are measured at cost. When adopted, this will be
applicable to financial reporting years starting at or
after 1 January 2014 . Small entities are exempted from
the bifurcation requirement.
The following comparisons have been made based on
the Dutch Civil Code, DAS 115 ‘Criteria for recognition
and disclosure of information’, DAS 273 ‘Borrowing
costs’, DAS 290 ‘Financial instruments’, DAS 940
‘Definitions’ (Dutch GAAP), and IAS 39 ‘Financial
instruments: Recognition and measurement’ and
IFRS 13 ‘Fair value measurement’ (IFRS). IFRS 13
was published in 2011 and is to be applied for annual
periods beginning on or after 1 January 2013.
Dutch GAAP
IFRS
On initial recognition, financial instruments are measured
at fair value plus, in the case of a financial instrument
other than at fair value through profit or loss, transaction
costs. The fair value on initial recognition is normally
the transaction price, unless part of the consideration
is for something other than a financial instrument or the
instrument bears an off-market interest rate.
Similar to Dutch GAAP.
DAS 290.501
IAS 39.43, AG64-65
• F
inancial assets and financial liabilities in the trading
portfolio are measured at fair value through profit or
loss.
• Derivatives (assets and liabilities) which are not in the
trading portfolio can be measured either at fair value
through profit or loss or at amortised cost.
• Derivatives with listed shares as underlying are
measured at fair value through profit or loss.
• Purchased loans and bonds held to maturity are
measured at amortised cost.
• Other purchased loans and bonds can be measured
either at fair value or at amortised cost. If the
accounting principle is fair value, changes can be
directly recognised in the income statement or, insofar
as the changes in fair value are positive, directly into
equity and recycled when realised. In the latter case,
if the fair value of the instrument is lower than the
cost, the difference is recognised directly in income
statement.
• Loans and other receivables are measured at
amortised cost.
• Investments in quoted equity instruments are
measured at fair value. Fair value changes can be
directly recognised in the income statement or, insofar
as the changes in fair value are positive, directly into
equity and recycled when realised. If the fair value of
the instrument is lower than the cost, the difference is
recognised directly in the income statement.
• Investments in unquoted equity instruments are
measured at cost or at fair value. If the entity chooses
to use fair value, changes in the fair value can be
directly recognised in the income statement or, insofar
as the changes in fair value are positive, directly into
equity and recycled when realised. If the fair value of
the instrument is lower than the cost, the difference is
recognised directly in the income statement.
• F
inancial instruments classified as held for trading or
designated as at fair value through profit or loss are
measured at fair value through profit or loss.
• H
eld-to-maturity investments and loans and
receivables are measured at amortised cost.
• F
inancial liabilities other than those at fair value
through profit or loss are measured at amortised cost.
• A
vailable-for-sale investments are measured at fair
value with changes in fair value recorded in equity.
• Investments in equity securities whose fair value
cannot be measured reliably are measured at cost less
impairment.
DAS 290.508-522
IAS 39.46-47, 39.66
Measurement
Initial
measurement
Subsequent
measurement
Similarities and Differences Dutch GAAP vs. IFRS Financial instruments
53
Amortised cost
Dutch GAAP
IFRS
Amortised cost is the net of:
• the amount at which the financial instrument is
measured at initial recognition, minus repayments of
the principal;
• plus/minus the cumulative amortisation using the
effective interest method of any difference between
the amount at initial recognition and the amount to be
repaid at maturity;
• minus any reduction for impairment or uncollectability
(for financial assets).
Similar to Dutch GAAP, except that straight-line
amortisation is not allowed.
Straight-line amortisation is allowed if it this does not
lead to major differences with the effective interest
method.
Effective interest
method
DAS 273.201, DAS 940
IAS 39.9
A method to calculate the amortised cost of a financial
instrument and to allocate the interest income/expense
over the relevant period based on the effective interest
rate.
Same as Dutch GAAP.
DAS 940
IAS 39.9
Fair value is the amount for which an asset could be
exchanged, or a liability settled, between knowledgeable,
willing parties in an arm’s length transaction (called
‘market value’ in the Decree on valuations).
Fair value is the price that would be received to sell
an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly
transaction between market participants at the
measurement date.
Fair value measurement assumes that the transaction to
sell the asset or transfer the liability takes place either:
a) in the principal market for the asset or liability; or
b) in the absence of a principal market, in the most
advantageous market for the asset or liability
DAS 940, Decree on valuations
IFRS 13.9, 13.16
When instruments are traded in an active market, the
listed price is the best indication of fair value.
Similar to Dutch GAAP but more guidance provided
around valuation. IFRS 13 establishes a fair value
hierarchy that categorises into three levels:
Fair value
Definition
Fair value –
hierarchy
In circumstances whereby the listed price is not a reliable
indication of the fair value (i.e. the market is not active,
Level 1 inputs are quoted prices in active markets for
the market is not sufficiently developed or the volumes
identical assets or liabilities that the entity can access at
being transacted are limited), valuation techniques can
the measurement date.
be used to determine a reliable fair value.
Level 2 inputs are inputs other than quoted prices
Commonly used valuation techniques are comparison
included within level 1 that are observable for the asset
to fair value of instruments with similar characteristics,
or liability, either directly or indirect (i.e. quoted prices for
discounted cash flow and option models. When using
similar assets or liabilities in active markets, or quoted
the discounted cash flow technique, the reporting entity
prices in markets that are not active).
uses the discount rate applicable to comparable financial
instruments with regard to terms and characteristics,
Level 3 inputs are unobservable inputs for the asset or
including credit standing of the counterparty, the agreed liability.
interest rate period, the remaining maturity and the
currency of the payment.
Under IFRS there is an explicit requirement to take the
entity’s own credit risk into account when determining
fair value.
Transaction costs
Article 10 Decree on valuations; DAS 290.526-527
IFRS 13.72-76, 81-82, 86
The fair value obtained through listed price or estimation
techniques does not consider transaction costs.
Similar to Dutch GAAP.
DAS 290. 528
The price in the principal (or most advantageous) market
used to measure the fair value of the asset or liability is
not adjusted for transaction costs. However, transport
costs are included.
IFRS 13.25-26
Policy choice
not-listed equities
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For investments in equity instruments which are not
quoted and which are not part of a trading portfolio the
entity can choose to measure the instruments after initial
recognition either at fair value or at cost.
Under IFRS there is no exemption to applying fair
value for financial instruments in one of the fair value
categories.
DAS 290.504
IFRS 13
Dutch GAAP
IFRS
Impairment of financial instruments measured at cost or amortised cost
General
At the end of each reporting period, financial assets
measured at cost or amortised cost are reviewed for
objective evidence of impairment. If such objective
evidence exists, an impairment loss needs to be
calculated.
Impairment losses are recognised in the income
statement immediately. If the objective evidence reverses
in a subsequent period, impairment losses are reversed
in the the income statement of subsequent periods.
Similar to Dutch GAAP except for the following:
• Impairment review also needs to be performed for
available-for-sale financial assets carried at fair value
through equity.
• Impairment losses on equity investments carried at
cost and available-for-sale equity investments cannot
be reversed.
However, in respect of current assets an entity is allowed
to recognise an impairment loss that is expected as
a result from a future event happening on short term
after balance sheet date, though this method is not
recommended.
Assets measured
at amortised cost
Article 2:387.3, DAS 290.533, 537, 539
IAS 39.58, 66, 69
For instruments measured at amortised cost (for
example, trade accounts, notes receivable and loans
from banks), the impairment loss is the difference
between the assets carrying amount and the present
value of estimated future cash flows discounted at the
financial asset’s original effective interest rate.
Similar to Dutch GAAP, with exception that the simplified
way to calculate the impairment amount is not available.
For assets measured at (amortised) cost it is possible to
choose for a simplified way to calculate the impairment
amount. The assets can be measured at cost or lower
market value. If in the subsequent periods the fair value
increases, the impairment should be reversed up to the
amount of the (amortised) cost.
DAS 290.537-537a
Derivatives
measured at
amortised cost
IAS 39.63
Derivatives that are carried at amortised cost with a
Under IFRS all derivatives are always carried at fair value
negative fair value are recognised as financial liability,
in the balance sheet.
except in case of an effective cost price hedge relation
The lower fair value is recognised as an impairment in the
income statement.
DAS 290.541
Derecognition
Financial assets
An entity only derecognises a financial asset when:
• the rights to the cash flows from the assets have
expired or are settled;
• the entity has transferred substantially all the risks and
rewards of ownership of the financial asset; or
• the entity has retained some significant risks and
rewards but has transferred control of the asset to
another party. In this case, the asset is derecognised,
and any rights and obligation created or retained are
recognised.
Similar to Dutch GAAP but IFRS includes additional
guidance on pass-through arrangements, continuing
involvement and some other relevant aspects relating to
transfer of a financial asset. The continuing involvement
model is not known under Dutch GAAP.
The economic substance of the transaction determines
whether (part of) a financial asset is derecognised. The
transfer of control is not specifically required.
Financial liabilities
DAS 115.110-112, DAS 290.702
IAS 39.17-37
Financial liabilities are derecognised only when they are
extinguished - that is, when the obligation is discharged,
is cancelled or expires.
The economic substance of the transaction determines
whether (part of) a financial liability is derecognised.
Similar to Dutch GAAP, however there is some anti-abuse
guidance included in IAS 39.
DAS 115.110-112
IAS 39.39-42, AG62
Similarities and Differences Dutch GAAP vs. IFRS Financial instruments
55
Dutch GAAP
IFRS
Embedded derivatives
General
An embedded derivative is a component of a hybrid
Under IAS 39 bifurcation is required if the host contract
(combined) instrument that also includes a non-derivative in its entirety is not accounted for at fair value through
host contract.
profit or loss and the following conditions are met:
Under Dutch GAAP bifurcation is only required when the
entity values its derivatives at fair value through profit or
loss and the following conditions are met:
(a) the economic characteristics and risks of the
embedded derivative are not closely related to
the economic characteristics and risks of the host
contract;
(b) a separate instrument with the same terms as the
embedded derivative would meet the definition of a
derivative; and
(c) the hybrid (combined) instrument is not measured at
fair value with changes in fair value recognised in the
income statement.
(a) t he economic characteristics and risks of the
embedded derivative are not closely related to
the economic characteristics and risks of the host
contract;
(b) a
separate instrument with the same terms as the
embedded derivative would meet the definition of a
derivative; and
(c) t he hybrid (combined) instrument is not measured at
fair value with changes in fair value recognised in the
income statement.
IAS 39 does not exempt from the bifurcation
requirements.
Small and medium entities are exempted from the
bifurcation requirement.
DAS 290.825-828
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IAS 39.11
5.3 Hedge accounting
The following comparisons have been made based on
DAS 290 ‘Financial instruments’, RJ-Uiting 2013-12
(Dutch GAAP), and IAS 39 ‘Financial instruments:
Recognition and measurement’.
Although the hedging models under IFRS and Dutch
GAAP are founded on similar principles, there are
a number of application differences. Some of the
differences result in IFRS being more restrictive than
Dutch GAAP. Areas where IFRS is more restrictive
than Dutch GAAP include the nature, frequency,
and methods of measuring and assessing hedge
effectiveness. Furthermore, Dutch GAAP permits one
more type of hedging relationships, cost price hedge
accounting.
In September 2013 the exposure draft 2013-12 has been
issued that clarifies effectiveness testing requirements
under the cost price hedge accounting model. It states
that a quantitative effectiveness test should be used
when the critical terms of the hedged item and the
hedging instrument do not match. This aligns the cost
price hedge accounting with the fair value based cash
flow hedge and fair value hedge accounting models
of DAS 290. When adopted, this will be applicable to
financial reporting years starting at or after 1 January
2014 (early application is permitted).
Dutch GAAP
General
Criteria for hedge
accounting
IFRS
An entity may designate a hedging relationship between Similar to Dutch GAAP.
a hedging instrument and a hedged item in such a way
as to recognise gains and losses on a hedged item and a
hedging instrument in the income statement at the same
time.
Article 2:384.8, DAS 290.601-602
IAS 39.71, 39.85
Two options for hedge documentation are available:
• individual hedge documentation
• generic hedge documentation for groups of hedging
instruments. This documentation includes the
general hedging strategy for such groups of hedging
instruments, and how this links to the general risk
management policy of the entity, how the hedged
items and hedging instruments are identified and how
ineffectiveness is assessed and recorded.
IAS 39 also requires management to document how
hedge effectiveness will be measured. The hedge
effectiveness is assessed on an on-going basis and
determined actually to have been highly effective
throughout the financial reporting period for which the
hedge was designated. Under IAS 39, retrospective
hedge effectiveness testing always has to be performed
using a quantitative test that takes the full fair value of
the derivative into account.
For both types of documentation, hedge effectiveness
testing has to be performed (can be qualitative in nature).
Risks for which
hedge accounting
is permitted
DAS 290.613-616
IAS 39.74, 39.88a, 39.88e
An entity is allowed to hedge the risks in (a group of)
assets, liabilities, binding contracts or highly probable
future transactions.
The risks for which hedge accounting is permitted are
not specifically included in the DAS, but need to be
separately identifiable and measurable to be able to
measure the effectiveness of the hedge.
IAS 39 restricts the risks or portions in a financial
instrument that can be hedged based on the principal
that those risks or portions must be separately
identifiable components of the financial instrument,
and changes in the cash flows or fair value of the
entire financial instrument arising from changes in
the designated risks and portions must be reliably
measurable.
IAS 39 states that non-financial hedged items can only
be designated as hedged item in its entirety or for its
foreign currency risk only.
IAS 39 allows a group of similar items to be designated
as a hedged item.
Models for hedge
accounting
DAS 290.609-612
IAS39.74-75, 39.78, 39.82, 39.85, 39.AG99F
DAS 290 permits four types of hedging relationships:
• Cash flow hedges
• Fair value hedges
• Hedges of a net investment in a foreign operation, as
defined in DAS 122 and DAS 940
• Cost price hedges.
IAS 39 permits three types of hedging relationship:
• Cash flow hedges
• Fair value hedges
• Hedges of a net investment in a foreign operation, as
defined in IAS 21.
IFRS does not acknowledge cost price hedging.
DAS 290.617-618
IAS 39.86
Similarities and Differences Dutch GAAP vs. IFRS Financial instruments
57
Hedging
instruments for
which hedge
accounting is
permitted
Dutch GAAP
IFRS
DAS 290 permits hedging instruments to be:
• derivatives that are not net written options; and
• non-derivative assets or liabilities used as a hedge of
foreign currency risk.
IAS 39 permits similar hedging instruments as Dutch
GAAP.
Hedging instruments are only permitted to be designated
if and when concluded with external parties (i.e. not
Hedging instruments are only permitted to be designated concluded with parties included in the consolidated
if and when concluded with external parties (i.e. not
financial statements).
concluded with parties included in the consolidated
financial statements).
Management is permitted to separately designate the
intrinsic value of an option or the spot component of a
forward contract.
IAS 39 does not restrict pre-payment, early termination
or extension features in hedging instruments, unless
where they make the hedging instrument a net written
option. However, such features may impact the
effectiveness of the relationship.
IAS 39 allows (groups of) derivatives or a non-derivative
and derivative to be designated as a combined hedging
instrument in certain cases.
IAS 39 allows a single hedging instrument to be
designated as a hedge of multiple risks.
Effectiveness
testing
DAS 290.605-608
IAS 39.72-74, 39.76-77
The entity is required to perform retrospective and
prospective effectiveness tests at least every balance
sheet date. A specific method for testing effectiveness
is not defined, but examples of testing are given that
include comparing the critical terms of hedged item and
hedging instrument or performing regression analysis.
The entity documents its chosen method as part of the
hedging documentation.
The entity is required to perform quantitative
retrospective and prospective effectiveness tests at least
once per reporting period.
A specific method for testing effectiveness is not defined,
but the entity documents its chosen method as part of
the hedging documentation.
All ineffectiveness must be recorded in the income
statement.
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Retrospective testing has to be performed on the basis
of a quantitative method taking the full fair value of the
derivative into account. However, the standard does not
recommend any specific method.
With regard to cost price hedges, critical terms
comparison will be sufficient in most of the cases.
Prospective effectiveness can be demonstrated using
the critical terms method. However this method is only
allowed when the terms of the hedged item and hedging
instrument perfectly match. Otherwise, a quantitative
method should be used to assess whether the hedge
relationship is expected to be highly effective in the
future.
DAS 290.6.14-616, 290.619, 290.625, 290.634,290.636
IAS 39.88e, IG F4.7, AG 108
Cash flow hedge
and hedge of a net
investment in a
foreign operation
Dutch GAAP
IFRS
Where an entity designates the hedging relationship and
it complies with the conditions above, it recognises any
excess of the fair value of the hedging instrument over
the change in the fair value of the expected cash flows
(hedge ineffectiveness). The effective part is recognised
in equity.
Similar to Dutch GAAP, except that IAS 39 specifies that
the amounts recognised in other comprehensive income
are based on cumulative changes in the fair value of the
hedging instrument and hedged risk.
The amount recognised in equity is recognised in the
income statement when the hedged item affects profit or
loss or when the hedging relationship ends.
Hedge accounting is discontinued when:
• the hedging instrument expires, is sold or terminated;
• the hedge no longer meets the criteria for hedge
accounting; or
• the entity revokes the designation.
The amounts deferred in equity on discontinuance of
the hedge are recognised in the income statement as
soon as the hedged item is derecognised or as soon as a
forecast transaction is no longer expected to take place.
In the case where the hedge relationship no longer meets
the criteria for hedge accounting and the hedged item
pertains to a transaction taking place in the future, the
following needs to be considered:
(a) T
he hedged transaction is still expected to occur.
Hedge accounting is discontinued and the amount
recognised in equity is recycled to the income
statement or booked recognised as basis adjustment
when the transaction takes place;
(b) The hedged transaction is not expected to occur. The
amount recognised in equity should be immediately
recycled to the income statement.
If a forecast transaction results in the recognition of a
non-financial asset or liability, the amount recognised
in equity:
(a) can be reclassified to income statement;
(b) can be can included in the initial cost or carrying
amount of the asset or liability.
This is a policy choice.
DAS 290.625, 290.630-632b
IAS 39.96
Similarities and Differences Dutch GAAP vs. IFRS Financial instruments
59
Dutch GAAP
Cost price hedge
IFRS
Cost price hedge accounting is accounted for as follows: IFRS does not have a cost price hedge accounting
• If the hedged item is recognised at cost, the derivative model, as all derivatives should always be carried at fair
is also recognised at cost.
value.
• As long as the hedged item is not yet recognised in
the balance sheet, the hedging instrument is not remeasured in the balance sheet either.
• If the hedged item is a monetary item, then the
currency element in the derivative will be treated as a
monetary item.
• The standard specifically prohibits changing the
accounting treatment of the hedged item.
Hedge accounting is discontinued when:
• the hedging instrument expires, is sold or terminated;
• the hedge no longer meets the criteria for hedge
accounting; or
• the entity revokes the designation.
The cumulative result not recognised in the income
statement during the period that the hedge relationship
was effective should be separately recorded in the
balance sheet until the underlying transaction takes
place.
In the case where the hedge relationship no longer meets
the criteria for hedge accounting and the hedged item
pertains to a transaction taking place in the future, the
following needs to be considered:
(a) The hedged transaction is still expected to occur.
Hedge accounting is discontinued and the cumulative
result on the hedging instrument in the period that
the hedge relationship was effective stays off-balance
(or in the case of monetary item on-balance) until the
transaction takes place;
(b) The hedged transaction is not expected to occur.
The cumulative result on the hedging instrument in
the period that the hedge relationship was effective
should be immediately recycled to the income
statement.
DAS 290.633, 290.633b, 290.639a-b
Fair value hedge
For a hedge of fixed interest risk or of commodity price
risk of a commodity held, the hedged item is adjusted
for the gain or loss attributable to the hedged risk. That
element is included in income statement to offset the
impact of the hedging instrument.
Similar to Dutch GAAP.
Hedge accounting is discontinued when:
• the hedging instrument expires, is sold, or is
terminated;
• the hedge no longer meets the conditions for hedge
accounting; or
• the entity revokes the designation.
Upon discontinuance of the hedging relationship, both
the hedged item and the hedging instrument follow the
accounting treatment as defined on DAS 290.504.
As of the moment the fair value is discontinued, the
accounting treatment applicable to hedge instrument and
hedging instrument follow the normal rules. Moreover the
carrying amount of the hedge item is no longer adjusted
for changes related to fair value hedge accounting.
DAS 290.619-621
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IAS 39.89-94
Similarities and Differences Dutch GAAP vs. IFRS Financial instruments
61
62
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6. Non-financial assets
6.1 Inventories
The accounting treatment of inventories is quite
similar under Dutch GAAP and IFRS. However IFRS
is more restrictive in some cases. IFRS does not allow
measurement at replacement costs or using LIFO and
is stricter in including borrowing costs in the cost of
inventories.
Definition
Scope of the
standard
Measurement and
impairment
The following comparisons have been made based on
the Dutch Civil Code, DAS 220 ‘Inventories’, DAS 940
‘Definitions’ (Dutch GAAP) and IAS 2 ‘Inventories’
(IFRS).
Dutch GAAP
IFRS
Inventories are assets:
• held for sale in the ordinary course of business;
• in the process of production for such sale; or
• in the form of materials or supplies to be consumed in
the production process or in the rendering of services.
Same as Dutch GAAP.
DAS 220.105, DAS 940
IAS 2.6
Construction contracts are not in scope of this standard.
Out of scope are work in progress under construction
contracts, financial instruments, biological assets and
agricultural produce, as well as inventories held by:
• p
roducers of agricultural, forest and mineral products,
to the extent that they are measured at fair value less
costs to sell through profit or loss; and
• c
ommodity brokers and dealers who measure their
inventories at fair value less costs to sell through profit
or loss.
DAS 220.103
IAS 2.2-3
Inventories are initially recognised at cost. The cost
of inventories includes all costs of purchase, costs of
conversion and other costs incurred in bringing the
inventories to their present location and conditions.
Similar to Dutch GAAP.
Inventories are subsequently valued at the lower of
cost and selling price less costs to complete and
sell. Inventories are assessed for impairment at each
reporting date.
Measurement at replacement value is not allowed.
However, IAS 2 refers to net realisable value instead of
selling price.
Management then reassesses the selling price, less
cost to complete and sell in each subsequent period, to
determine if the impairment losses previously recognised
should be reversed.
Inventories are allowed to be measured at replacement
value (revaluation model). In case of measurement at
replacement value a revaluation reserve is recognised.
Replacement value is a sub category of current value.
Article 2:390.1, DAS 220.302-311, 220.331, Decree on
valuation
Costs of purchase
IAS 2.9-2.10, 2.28-2.33
Cost of purchase of inventories includes the purchase
price, import duties, non-refundable taxes, transport and
handling costs and any other directly attributable costs
less trade discounts, rebates and similar items.
Similar to Dutch GAAP.
DAS 220.304
IAS 2.11
Similarities and Differences Dutch GAAP vs. IFRS Non-financial assets
63
Costs of
conversion
Other costs
Dutch GAAP
IFRS
Costs of conversion of inventories include costs directly
related to the units of production, such as direct labour.
They also include a systematic allocation of fixed and
variable production overheads that are incurred in
converting materials into finished goods.
Similar to Dutch GAAP.
DAS 220.305-309
IAS 2.12
Borrowing costs may be included in the cost of
inventories under limited circumstances as identified by
DAS 273 (as an option).
Borrowing costs are included in the cost of inventories
under limited circumstances as identified by IAS 23 (as a
requirement).
Refer to chapter 4.2 Expenses.
Cost formulas
DAS 220.312-313
IAS 2.17
The cost of inventories used is assigned by using the
first-in, first-out (FIFO) formula, the weighted average
cost formula or the last-in, first-out (LIFO) formula.
Similar to Dutch GAAP, however last-in, first-out (LIFO) is
not permitted.
The same cost formula is used for all inventories that
have a similar nature and use to the entity. Where
inventories have a different nature or use, different cost
formula may be justified.
LIFO is allowed under Dutch Law, though this method is
not recommended.
Techniques for
measuring cost
Article 2:385.2, DAS 220.314-317
IAS 2.25
An entity may use techniques for measuring the cost of
inventories if the results approximate cost. Accepted
techniques are:
• standard cost method
• retail method
• most recent purchase price
Similar to Dutch GAAP.
The most recent purchase price is not mentioned as an
example.
The most recent purchase price is an example of
measurement at replacement value.
DAS 220.321-322
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IAS 2.21
6.2 Investment property
Investment property is property held by the owner or
by a lessee under a financial lease to earn rentals or
for capital appreciation or both. Initial measurement
is at its purchase price including directly attributable
costs. Subsequent measurement is at fair value or at
cost. There are only minor differences between the
accounting treatment under Dutch GAAP and IFRS.
Definition
The differences mainly relate to the recognition of
borrowing costs and the legal revaluation reserve.
The following comparisons have been made based on
the Dutch Civil Code, DAS 213 ‘Investment property’,
DAS 273 ‘Borrowing costs’, DAS 940 ‘Definitions’
(Dutch GAAP), and IAS 23 ‘Borrowing costs’ and IAS 40
‘Investment property’ (IFRS).
Dutch GAAP
IFRS
Investment property is a property (land or building,
or part of a building, or both) held by the owner or by
a lessee under a financial lease to earn rentals or for
capital appreciation or both.
Same as Dutch GAAP.
A property interest held for use in the production or
supply of goods or services, held for administrative
purposes or held for sale related to the ordinary course
of business is not an investment property
Initial
measurement
DAS 213.104, DAS 940
IAS 40.5
The cost of a purchased investment property is its
purchase price plus any directly attributable costs such
as professional fees for legal services, property transfer
taxes and other transaction costs.
Similar to Dutch GAAP, except for borrowing costs that
are directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or
production of a qualifying asset. These costs are required
to be capitalised as part of the cost of the asset.
Additionally, borrowing costs that are directly attributable
to the acquisition, construction or production of a
qualifying asset may be capitalised as part of the cost of
that asset.
Subsequent
measurement
(also refer to chapter 4 Expenses – Borrowing costs)
(also refer to chapter 4 Expenses – Borrowing costs)
DAS 213.301-306, 213.512 , DAS 273.204-212
IAS 23.1-8, IAS 40.20-24
Management may choose as its accounting policy to
carry all its investment properties at fair value or at cost.
The accounting method chosen has to be used for all
investment properties.
Same as Dutch GAAP with a reference to IAS16 when
the fair value cannot be measured reliably.
There is a rebuttable presumption that the fair value
can be measured reliably. If this is not the case the
investment property is valued at cost (until disposal)
according to the model in DAS 212.
IAS 8 states that a voluntary change in accounting
method is possible, only if this change causes the
financial statements to provide more relevant and reliable
information. Additionally, it is stated that it is highly
unlikely that a change from fair value to cost model will
result in a more relevant presentation.
If an entity has used fair value for a specific investment
property before, they continue to measure the property at
fair value until disposal.
Fair value
DAS 140.206, DAS 213.501-515
IAS 40.30-32, 40.53, 40.55
Gains and losses arising from changes in the fair value
of investment property are recognised in the income
statement. Investment property measured at fair value is
not depreciated.
Same as Dutch GAAP, except no revaluation reserve
needs to be recognised.
A revaluation reserve (legal reserve) is recognised for the
difference between the cost price and the fair value until
the fair value is realised. The reserve is charged against
the annual profit or the other reserves.
Cost model
Article 2:390.1, DAS 213.503-511
IAS 40.33-55
The cost model is consistent with the treatment of
property, plant and equipment (PPE) as described in
DAS 212. Investment properties are carried at cost
less accumulated depreciation and any accumulated
impairment losses.
Same as Dutch GAAP, except that IFRS refers to IAS
16 ‘Property, plant and equipment’ and to IFRS 5 ‘Noncurrent assets held for sale and discontinued operations’
for investment property classified as held-for-sale.
DAS 213.515
IAS 40.56
Similarities and Differences Dutch GAAP vs. IFRS Non-financial assets
65
Transfers
Dutch GAAP
IFRS
Transfer to or from investment properties applies when
the property meets or ceases to meet the definition of an
investment property.
Same as Dutch GAAP.
For a transfer from investment property carried at fair
value to owner-occupied property or inventories, the
property’s deemed cost for subsequent accounting in
according with DAS 212 ‘Property plant and equipment’
or DAS 220 ‘Inventories’ is its fair value at the date of
change in use.
Any step-up from owner-occupied property to
investment property (from cost to fair value) is accounted
for as a revaluation.
DAS 213.601-609
Mixed use
DAS 213.108
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IAS 40.57-61
In case of mixed use, the separation of PPE and
Same as Dutch GAAP.
investment Property is based on the ability of the entity
to sell both parts separately. If this separation is not
possible, the asset will only be classified as investment
property if the part held for production, supply of goods
or services, or for administrative purposes is insignificant.
IAS 40.10
6.3 Property, plant and equipment
Property, plant and equipment (PPE) are tangible
assets that are held for use in the production or supply
of goods and services, for rental to others or for
administrative purposes; and are expected to be used
during more than one period.
Definition
Guidance under Dutch GAAP and IFRS as it relates
to PPE contains only small differences, for example
with regard to the residual value, the costs of major
inspection and the (legal) revaluation reserve.
The following comparisons have been made based
on the Dutch Civil Code, DAS 212 ‘Tangible fixed
assets’ DAS 940 ‘Definitions’ (Dutch GAAP) and IAS 16
‘Property, plant and equipment’ (IFRS).
Dutch GAAP
IFRS
Property, plant and equipment (PPE) are tangible assets
that are:
• held for use in the production or supply of goods
and services, for rental to others or for administrative
purposes; and
• expected to be used during more than one period.
Same as Dutch GAAP.
PPE classified as held for sale (IFRS 5), biological assets
(IAS 41), exploration and evaluation assets (IFRS 6) and
mineral rights and reserves are explicitly out of scope of
IAS 16.
IAS 16 does apply to PPE used to develop or maintain
the above listed assets.
Initial
measurement
DAS 212.106, DAS 940
IAS 16.3, 16.6
PPE is measured initially at cost. Cost includes:
• purchase price;
• any costs directly attributable to bring the asset to the
location and condition necessary for it to be capable of
operating in the manner intended by management; and
• borrowing costs that are directly attributable to the
acquisition, construction or production of an asset.
Similar to Dutch GAAP, with the addition that the initial
estimate of costs of dismantling and removing the asset
and restoring the site on which it is located are also
included in cost.
Furthermore an entity may include the costs of
dismantling and removing the asset in the initial cost
or recognise an increasing provision for these costs
(option).
Subsequent
measurement
Recognition of
revaluation in
equity
Article 2:388.2, DAS 212.302, 212.435-436
IAS 16.16, IAS 23.8
PPE can be carried at cost less accumulated
depreciation and any impairment losses (cost model).
In addition to this, the revaluation model is allowed, in
which classes of PPE are carried at a revalued amount
less any accumulated depreciation and subsequent
accumulated impairment losses.
A revaluation reserve is recognised for the difference
between the cost price (taking into account any
accumulated depreciation and impairment losses) and
the revalued amount.
In addition to the cost model, the revaluation model is an
option, in which classes of PPE are carried at a revalued
amount, being its fair value at revaluation date less any
subsequent accumulated depreciation and subsequent
accumulated impairment losses.
Revaluation shall be made with sufficient regularity.
Article 2:384.1, 2:390.3, DAS 212.401
IAS 16.30-42
If an entity revalues an asset, it recognises a revaluation
reserve in equity (legal requirement) unless this upward
revaluation is a reversal of a prior downward revaluation.
In that case, the upward revaluation is taken to the
income statement
If an asset’s carrying amount is increased as a result
of a revaluation, the increase is recognised in other
comprehensive income and accumulated in equity as
‘revaluation reserve’.
Upward revaluations related to assets previously subject
to a revaluation decrease are recognised in the income
statement up to the amount previously decreased.
Any downward revaluations, including permanent
diminutions in value, are deducted from the revaluation
reserve, subject to maintaining the revaluation reserve
at the statutory minimum. The statutory minimum
requires that the reserve is at least equal to the sum of
the upward revaluations above cost (taking into account
any accumulated depreciation and impairment losses),
relating to the assets still held at the balance sheet date.
Any downward revaluations which would take the reserve
below zero must be taken to the income statement.
Article 2:390, DAS 212.412 – 414
A downward revaluation is recognised in the income
statement unless this is related to an asset previously
revalued upwards. Then the decrease is recognised in
other comprehensive income and reduces the amount
accumulated as revaluation surplus in equity.
Legal reserves are not covered in the standard.
IAS 16.39-40
Similarities and Differences Dutch GAAP vs. IFRS Non-financial assets
67
Major inspection
Impairment
Depreciation −
definition
Components
approach
Depreciation
charge
Depreciable
amount and
depreciation
period
Dutch GAAP
IFRS
The cost of a major inspection or replacement of parts of
an item occurring at regular intervals over its useful life
is capitalised to the extent that it meets the recognition
criteria of an asset. The carrying amount of the previous
inspection or parts replaced is derecognised.
In addition, entities are also allowed to recognise a
provision for costs of major inspection.
If the recognition criteria are not met, the costs are
expensed.
Similar to Dutch GAAP except for the option to recognise
a provision for costs of major inspection.
Article 2:374.1, DAS 212.445, 212.448, 212.451
IAS 16.13
PPE is tested for impairment when there is an indication
that the asset may be impaired. Existence of impairment
indicators is assessed at each reporting date.
Same as Dutch GAAP.
DAS 212.453, DAS 121
IAS 16.63, IAS 36.7-9
The systematic allocation of the depreciable amount of
an asset over its useful life.
Same as Dutch GAAP.
DAS 212.106, DAS 940
IAS 16.6
PPE may have significant parts with different useful
lives or with significantly different patterns of benefit
consumption. In that case the cost of an item of PPE
is allocated to its significant parts, with each part
depreciated separately. Significant parts that have
the same useful life and depreciation method may be
grouped in determining the depreciation charge.
Same as Dutch GAAP.
DAS 212.418-420
IAS 16.43-47
The depreciation charge for each period is recognised in
the income statement unless it is included in the carrying
amount of another asset (this is the case when an asset
is used to produce another asset).
Same as Dutch GAAP.
DAS 212.421-422
IAS 16.48
The depreciable amount of an asset is allocated over
its useful life. The residual value and the useful life
of an asset are reviewed if there is an indication of
change since the last reporting date and amended if
expectations differ from previous estimates.
Similar to Dutch GAAP although IAS 16 specifically
states that the residual value and the useful life of an
asset are reviewed at least at each annual reporting
date and amended if expectations differ from previous
estimates.
Change in residual value or useful life is accounted for as
a change in estimates.
Depreciation
method
DAS 212.426-428, DAS 145
IAS 16.50-51
The depreciation method should reflect the pattern in
which the asset’s future economic benefits are expected
to be consumed by the entity.
Similar to Dutch GAAP although IAS 16 specifically
states that the depreciation method is reviewed at least
at each annual reporting date.
The depreciation method is reviewed if there is an
indication that there has been a significant change since
the last annual reporting date. Change in the depreciation
method is accounted for as a change in estimates (DAS
145).
DAS 212.423-425
Non-current assets Dutch GAAP does not have separate accounting for
held for sale
assets held for sale.
If non-current assets are no longer in use, those assets
are measured at:
• their carrying amount or lower realisable value, or, by
means of a temporary revaluation, the higher realisable
value (cost model); or
• the realisable value (current value model) if the
decision has been made to sell the asset.
IAS 16.60-62
A plan to dispose of an asset is an indicator of
impairment that triggers the calculation of the asset’s
recoverable amount for the purpose of determining
whether the asset is impaired.
PPE is classified as held for sale if its carrying amount
will be recovered principally through a sale transaction
rather than through continuing use. Assets held for sale,
which are not depreciated, are measured at the lower of
its carrying amount and fair value less costs to sell.
For the difference compared to the carrying amount, a
revaluation reserve is recognised.
Article 2:390.1, DAS 212.501-503
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IAS 16.3, IFRS 5.6, 5.15
6.4 Intangible assets other than
goodwill
of assets. This impacts amortisation, since assets with an
indefinite useful life are not amortised.
An intangible asset is an identifiable non-monetary asset
without physical substance. A key difference between
Dutch GAAP and IFRS is that Dutch GAAP considers
the useful life of assets to be finite, whereas IFRS
distinguishes between finite and indefinite useful lives
The following comparisons have been made based on
the Dutch Civil Code and DAS 210 ‘Intangible assets’
and DAS 940 ‘Definitions’ (Dutch GAAP) and IAS 38
‘Intangible assets’.
Definition
General principles
for recognition
Recognition as an
expense
Dutch GAAP
IFRS
An intangible asset is an identifiable non-monetary asset
without physical substance. The identifiable criterion is
met when the intangible asset is separable (that is, it can
be sold, transferred, licensed, rented or exchanged), or
where it arises from contractual or legal rights.
Same as Dutch GAAP.
DAS 210.104, 210.109-111, DAS 940
IAS 38.8, 38.11-12
Expenditure on intangibles is recognised as an asset
when it meets the recognition criteria of an asset.
Same as Dutch GAAP.
DAS 210.201
IAS 38.21-23
Expenditure on the following items is not recognised as
an asset:
• start-up costs
• training
• advertising
• relocation costs
• expenditures on internally generated intangibles such
as brands, mastheads, customer lists, publishing titles
and items similar in substance.
Expenditure on the following items is not recognised as
an asset:
• start-up costs
• training
• advertising
• relocation costs
• e
xpenditures on internally generated intangibles such
as brands, mastheads, customer lists, publishing titles
and items similar in substance.
However, certain entity start-up costs like incorporation
and share issue costs are allowed to be capitalised. If
these costs are capitalised a legal reserve is recognised.
Past expenses on intangible items are not recognised as
an asset.
Past expenses on intangible items are not recognised as
an asset.
Article 2:365.1a, 2:365.2 , DAS 210.103- 237
Separately
Intangible assets are measured initially at cost. Cost
acquired intangible includes:
assets
• the purchase price
• any costs directly attributable to preparing the assets
for its intended use
Intangible assets
acquired as part
of a business
combination
IAS 38.63, 38.69, 38.71
Same as Dutch GAAP.
DAS 210.203-204
IAS 38.24, 38.27
The cost of an intangible asset acquired as a part of a
business combination is its fair value at the acquisition
date. There is a rebuttable presumption that the
intangible assets can be separated from goodwill.
The cost of an intangible asset acquired as a part of a
business combination is its fair value at the acquisition
date. There is a rebuttable presumption that the
intangible assets can be separated from goodwill.
In addition, intangible assets are only recognised if the
following criteria are met:
• it is probable that the expected future economic
benefits that are attributable to the asset will flow to
the entity; and
• the cost of the asset can be measured reliably.
The recognition of intangible assets should not lead to
(an increase of) negative goodwill.
DAS 210.201-202, 210.207-212
IAS 38.33-37
Research and
Research costs are expensed as incurred. Development
development costs costs are capitalised when specific criteria are met.
Measurement after
initial recognition
Same as Dutch GAAP.
DAS 210.221-230
IAS 38.51, 38.54, 38.57
Intangible assets are carried at cost less any
accumulated amortisation and any accumulated
impairment losses (cost model). In addition to the cost
model, the revaluation model is allowed under certain
conditions, in which intangible assets are carried at a
revalued amount less any accumulated depreciation and
subsequent accumulated impairment losses.
Same as Dutch GAAP.
DAS 210.302, 210.306
IAS 38.72
Similarities and Differences Dutch GAAP vs. IFRS Non-financial assets
69
Useful life
Intangible assets
with finite useful
life
Dutch GAAP
IFRS
The useful life of an intangible asset is considered to be
finite.
The useful life of an intangible asset is either finite or
indefinite.
The useful life of an intangible asset that arises from
contractual or other legal rights should not exceed the
period of the contractual or other legal rights but may be
shorter depending on the period over which the asset is
expected to be used. Renewal periods may be taken into
account if certain criteria are met.
The useful life is regarded as indefinite when, based
on analysis of all of the relevant factors, there is no
foreseeable limit to the period over which the asset is
expected to generate net cash inflows.
DAS 210.401, 201.407-408
IAS 38.88, 38.94
Intangible assets are amortised on a systematic basis
over the useful lives of the intangibles. There is a
rebuttable presumption that the useful life does not
exceed twenty years.
Intangible assets with finite useful life (including those
that are revalued) are amortised. Amortisation is carried
out on a systematic basis over the useful lives of the
intangibles.
The residual value at the end of their useful lives is
assumed to be zero, unless there is either a commitment
by a third party to purchase the asset and/or there is an
active market for the asset.
Same as Dutch GAAP with regard to the residual value of
such assets.
Similar to Dutch GAAP with regard to the useful life of
an intangible asset that arises from contractual or other
legal rights, except that renewal periods may be taken
into account if certain criteria are met.
Same as Dutch GAAP with regard to the amortisation
period, method and residual value review.
The review of the amortisation period, method and
residual value is performed at least at every financial
year-end.
Intangible assets
with indefinite
useful life
DAS 210.401, 210.416
IAS 38.97, 38.100, 38.104
Not applicable. All intangible assets are considered to
have finite lives.
These assets are not amortised.
The useful life assessment is reviewed at each annual
reporting period to determine whether events and
circumstances continue to support an indefinite useful
life assessment.
Change in the useful life assessment from indefinite to
finite is an indicator that an asset may be impaired and is
accounted for as a change in estimate.
Impairment
70
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DAS 210.407
IAS 38.107, 38.109-110
Intangible assets are tested for impairment when there is
an indication that the asset may be impaired. Existence
of impairment indicators is assessed at each reporting
date.
Intangible assets are tested for impairment when there is
an indication that the asset may be impaired. Existence
of impairment indicators is assessed at each reporting
date.
In addition, intangibles with a useful life exceeding
twenty years and intangibles not in use are tested for
impairment annually irrespective of whether there is an
indication of impairment.
In addition, intangibles with indefinite useful lives are
tested for impairment annually irrespective of whether
there is an indication of impairment.
DAS 210.417-422
IAS 36.9-10
6.5 Impairment
Nearly all assets are subject to an impairment test
to ensure that they are not overstated. The basic
principle of impairment is that an asset may not be
carried on the balance sheet above its recoverable
amount. Recoverable amount is defined as the higher
of the asset’s fair value less costs of disposal and its
value in use. Fair value less costs of disposal is the
price that would be received to sell an asset in an
orderly transaction between market participants at
the measurement date, less costs of disposal. An asset
is impaired when its carrying amount exceeds its
recoverable amount. An impairment loss is recognised
immediately in the income statement, unless the asset
is carried at revalued amount in accordance with
Cash-generating
unit (CGU)
another standard. The guidance in IFRS with respect to
impairment is similar to Dutch GAAP. However, IFRS
includes more detailed guidance about indicators of
impairment, allocation of goodwill, reversal of goodwill
and disclosures.
The table below addresses the impairment of nonfinancial assets other than inventories. Refer to chapter
6.1 for impairment of inventories.
The following comparisons have been made based on
the Dutch Civil Code DAS 121 ‘Impairment of fixed
assets’ and DAS 940 ‘Definitions’ (Dutch GAAP) and
IAS 36 ‘Impairment of assets’ (IFRS).
Dutch GAAP
IFRS
The smallest identifiable group of assets that generates
cash inflows that are largely independent of the cash
inflows from other assets or groups of assets.
Same as Dutch GAAP.
DAS 940
IAS 36.6
Scope
Assets are subject to an impairment test according
to the requirements outlined below, with the following
exceptions;
• financial instruments (DAS 290);
• employee benefit assets (DAS 271);
• deferred tax assets (DAS 272);
• financial assets (DAS 290).
Impairment
formula
An asset is impaired when its carrying amount exceeds it
recoverable amount.
In addition to the assets excluded from the scope of
Dutch GAAP the following assets are excluded:
• inventories (IAS 2);
• d
eferred acquisition costs and intangibles arising from
contractual rights under insurance contracts (IFRS 4);
• assets arising from construction contracts (IAS 11);
• b
iological assets carried at fair value less estimated
cost to sell (IAS 41);
Please note that the exceptions may not be complete (for • n
on-current assets classified as held for sale in
instance, inventories are also out of scope as dealt with
accordance with IFRS 5.
through DAS 220).
IAS 36.2
DAS 121.102
Same as Dutch GAAP.
The recoverable amount is defined as the higher of an
asset’s or CGU’s fair value less costs to sell and its value
in use.
Impairment losses
DAS 121.201, DAS 940
IAS 36.8, 36.60
An impairment loss is recognised immediately in the
income statement, unless the asset is carried at revalued
amount in accordance with another standard. In this
case, the impairment loss is treated as a revaluation
decrease in accordance with that other standard.
Similar to Dutch GAAP. However, the following assets
are tested for impairment irrespective of whether there is
indication of impairment:
• intangible assets with an indefinite useful life or an
intangible asset not yet available for use
• goodwill
DAS 121.401-402, Article 2:387.5, Article 390.3
Annual assessment Assets are tested for impairment when there is an
of indicators
indication that the asset may be impaired. The existence
of impairment indicators is assessed at each reporting
date.
Goodwill is tested annually if the period of amortisation
is higher than 20 years, even if there is no indication of
impairment.
DAS 121.202, DAS 216.230
IAS 36.60
Similar to Dutch GAAP, However, the following assets
are tested for impairment irrespective of whether there is
indication of impairment:
• intangible assets with an indefinite useful life or an
intangible asset not yet available for use
• goodwill
IAS 36.9-10
Similarities and Differences Dutch GAAP vs. IFRS Non-financial assets
71
Indicators of
impairment
Dutch GAAP
IFRS
External indicators of impairment include a decline in
an asset’s market value, significant adverse changes in
technological, market, economic or legal environment,
increases in market interest rates or when the entity’s net
asset value is above its market capitalisation.
Similar to Dutch GAAP. An additional indicator for an
investment (in a subsidiary, jointly controlled entity
or associate) exists when the carrying amount of the
investment in the separate financial statements exceeds
the carrying amounts in the consolidated financial
statements of the investee’s net assets, including
associated goodwill or the dividend exceeds the total
comprehensive income of the investment in the period
the dividend is declared.
Internal indicators include evidence of obsolescence
or physical damage of an asset, changes in the way
an asset is used (for example, due to restructuring or
discontinued operations) or evidence is available from
internal reporting that indicates that the economic
performance of an asset is, or will be, worse than
expected.
Recoverable
amount
Value in use
DAS 121.203
IAS 36.12
The recoverable amount is defined as the higher of an
asset’s or CGU’s fair value less costs to sell and its value
in use, unless the asset (not applicable for investments)
is carried at fair value.
Similar to Dutch GAAP.
DAS 121.301-304
IAS 36.18
The value in use is defined as the present value of the
future cash flows expected to be derived from an asset
or CGU.
Similar to Dutch GAAP.
Future cash flows are estimated for the asset in its
current condition.
Estimates of future cash flows include projections
of cash inflows from the continuing use of the asset,
projections of cash outflows that are necessarily incurred
to generate the cash inflows from continuing use of the
asset and can be directly attributed, or allocated on a
reasonable and consistent basis, to the asset and net
cash flows, if any, to be received (or paid) for the disposal
of the asset at the end of its useful life.
Estimates of future cash flows do not include future
cash inflows or outflows that are expected to arise
from a future restructuring to which an entity is not
yet committed or improving or enhancing the asset’s
performance.
DAS 940, DAS 121.309-327
Fair value less
costs to sell
Allocation of
goodwill
IAS 36.30-57
When performing the impairment test of an asset (or
Similar to Dutch GAAP.
CGU), the entity estimates the fair value less costs to sell
based on a hierarchy of reliability of evidence:
• a price in a binding sale agreement in an arm’s length
or market price in an active market, less costs of
disposal;
• best available information to reflect the amount that an
entity could obtain at the reporting date from disposal
of the asset in an arm’s length transaction between
knowledgeable, willing parties, less costs of disposal.
Outcome of recent transactions for similar assets
within the same industry need to be considered.
DAS 121.305-308
IAS 36.26-29
Goodwill acquired in a business combination is allocated
to the CGUs that are expected to benefit from the
synergies of the combination. Irrespective of whether
other assets or liabilities of the acquiree are assigned to
those units or groups of units.
Similar to Dutch GAAP, with a reference to operating
segments as defined in in paragraph 5 of IFRS 8 (before
aggregation).
IAS 36 includes comprehensive guidance on how to
allocate goodwill under several circumstances.
Goodwill is tested for impairment at the lowest level at
which it is monitored by management. CGUs may be
grouped for testing, but the grouping cannot be higher
than an operating segment as defined in paragraph 304
of DAS 350 (before aggregation).
DAS 121.513-519
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IAS 36.80-87, IFRS 8.5
Reversal of
impairment
Dutch GAAP
IFRS
At each reporting date after recognition of the
impairment loss, an entity assesses whether there is any
indication that an impairment loss may have decreased
or may no longer exist. The impairment loss is reversed
if the recoverable amount of an asset (CGU) exceeds its
carrying amount.
Similar to Dutch GAAP. However, includes more detailed
guidance and distinction of reversal of impairment
for an individual asset, assets in a CGU and goodwill.
Impairments on goodwill are never reversed.
External indicators that an impairment loss recognised
in prior periods for an asset other than goodwill may no
longer exist or may have decreased include
an significant increase in an asset’s market value,
significant favourable changes in technological, market,
economic or legal environment, decreases in market
interest
Internal indicators include changes in the way an asset
is used (for example, due to costs incurred to improve
or enhance the asset’s performance or restructure the
operation to which the asset belongs) or evidence is
available from internal reporting that indicates that the
economic performance of an asset is, or will be, better
than expected
Goodwill impairment can only be reversed in very rare
circumstances.
Disclosure
DAS 121.601-618
IAS 36.109-125
The following should be disclosed for each class of
assets:
• the amount of impairment losses recognised in the
income statement during the period
• the amount of reversals of impairment losses
recognised in the income statement during the period
• the amount of impairment losses on revalued assets
recognised in equity during the period
• the amount of reversals of impairment losses on
revalued assets recognised in equity during the period
Similar to Dutch GAAP. In addition, an entity discloses
the line item(s) of the income statement in which the
amounts are recognised.
DAS 121.801-807
IAS 36.126-137 (including amendments)
Also, more extensive guidance about disclosure of
impairment losses and possible reversals.
Similarities and Differences Dutch GAAP vs. IFRS Non-financial assets
73
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7. Non-financial liabilities and equity
7.1 Provisions and contingencies
A liability is a ‘present obligation of the entity arising
from past events, the settlement of which is expected
to result in an outflow from the entity of resources
embodying economic benefits’. A provision falls within
the category of liabilities and is defined as ‘a liability of
uncertain timing or amount’.
Definition
Scope of the
standard
The following comparisons have been made based
on the Dutch Civil code DAS 212 ‘Tangible fixed
assets’, DAS 252 ‘Provisions, contingent liabilities and
contingent assets’ and DAS 940 ‘Definitions’ (Dutch
GAAP) and IAS 37 ‘Provisions, contingent liabilities and
contingent assets’ (IFRS).
Dutch GAAP
IFRS
A provision is a liability of uncertain timing or amount.
However certain provisions can also be recognised in
relation to cost equalisation, such as provisions related
to major repair and maintenance.
Similar to Dutch GAAP. However provisions in relation to
cost equalisation are not allowed to be recognised.
Article 2:374.1, DAS 940
IAS 37.10
DAS 252 covers provisions, contingent liabilities and
contingent assets, but excludes those that relate to
executory contracts (except where these are onerous).
Similar to Dutch GAAP.
The standard does not apply to items covered by another
standard such as contingent liabilities assumed by an
acquirer in a business combination, which are dealt with
by DAS 216.
DAS 252.101, 252.103
IAS 37.2-7
Provisions
Recognition
A provision is recognised only when:
Similar to Dutch GAAP. However a provision for major
• the entity has a present obligation to transfer
repair and maintenance of property, plant and equipment
economic benefits as a result of a past event;
is not allowed under IFRS. Refer to chapter 6.3 PP&E.
• it is probable (more likely than not) that an entity will be
required to transfer economic benefits in settlement of
the obligation; and
• the amount of the obligation can be estimated reliably.
A present obligation arising from a past event may take
the form either of a legal obligation or a constructive
obligation. An obligating event leaves the entity no
realistic alternative to settling the obligation. If the entity
can avoid the future expenditure by its future actions, it
has no present obligation, and no provision is required.
In addition under DAS it is allowed to recognise a
provision for major repair and maintenance of property,
plant and equipment. Refer to chapter 6.3 PP&E.
Initial
measurement
Article 2:374.1, DAS 252.201 - 204, DAS 212.451
IAS 37.14-26
The amount recognised as a provision should be the
best estimate of the expenditure required to settle or
transfer the present obligation at the balance sheet date.
The best estimate should take account of any risks and
uncertainties.
Similar to Dutch GAAP. However where the effect of
the time value of money is material, the amount of a
provision should be the present value of the expenditures
expected to be required to settle the obligation.
The entity can elect to either measure a provision, at its
present value or its nominal value.
DAS 252.306-307
IAS 37.45
Similarities and Differences Dutch GAAP vs. IFRS Non-financial liabilities and equity
75
Accrued interest
Subsequent
measurement
Use of provisions
Dutch GAAP
IFRS
Under DAS the entity has an accounting policy choice.
Additions to the provision due to accrued interest may
be presented either as interest expenses or as part of the
related expense in the income statement.
Under IFRS the entity has no presentation options.
When a provision is measured at the present value of the
amount expected to be required to settle the obligation,
the unwinding of the discount is recognised as finance
cost in in the income statement in the period of the
unwinding of the discount.
DAS 252.317
IAS 37.60
The measurement rule as applied at initial recognition
must be reapplied at each balance sheet date. The
estimate of the liability should therefore be updated at
each balance sheet date.
Same as Dutch GAAP.
DAS 252.314
IAS 37.59
Provisions are to be used only for the expenditures for
which they were established, and reversed when they
are no longer required for that particular expenditure.
They cannot be held as a general provision to be applied
against some other unrelated expenditure.
Same as Dutch GAAP.
Where the initial provision was charged to expense, any
subsequent reversal is credited to the same line in the
income statement in accordance with the principle of
consistency.
Reimbursement
Provision for
restructuring
DAS 252.318-319
IAS 37.59, 37.61, IAS 1.45
A liability and any expected reimbursement should be
presented gross in the balance sheet. The asset resulting
from the reimbursement should only be recognised when
it is probable that reimbursement will be received if the
entity settles the obligation and it should not exceed
the amount of the provision. However, in the income
statement, the expense relating to settlement of the
liability and the reimbursement may be presented net.
Similar to Dutch GAAP. However the probability threshold
under IFRS for the recognition of the asset is higher. A
reimbursement receivable can only be recognised when
it is virtually certain that it will be received.
DAS 252.311-313
IAS 37.53-54
A restructuring programme is defined as a programme
that is:
• planned and controlled by management; and
• materially changes either the scope of a business or
the manner in which that business is conducted.
Similar to Dutch GAAP. However IFRS is strict on the
timing of the recognition of the provision. A provision
can only be recognised per period-end when the criteria
are met at the balance sheet. Events after the reporting
date are not taken into account, unless they provide
information about the situation per the balance sheet
date.
The characteristics of an obligating event for a
restructuring are specified as follows:
• a detailed formal plan identifying at least five specified
key features of the plan and its implementation; and
• a valid expectation on the part of those affected, either
by starting to implement the plan or announcing its
main features to those affected by it.
DAS is less strict on the timing of the recognition of the
provision than IFRS. A provision can still be recognised
per period-end when the detailed plan was in place
at the balance sheet date whilst the valid expectation
criterion is met after the balance sheet date but before
the approval of the financial statements.
Provision for
restoration and
dismantling
DAS 252.413 - 416
IAS 37.10, 37.72-73
The cost of an item of property, plant and equipment
includes the initial estimate of the costs of dismantling
and removing the item and restoring the site on which it
is located. The obligation for an entity incurs either when
the item is acquired or as a consequence of using the
item during a particular period for purposes other than to
produce inventories during that period.
Similar to Dutch GAAP.
However entities do not have the option to build-up this
provision during over useful life of the asset.
In addition entities also have the accounting policy
option to build-up this provision over the useful life of
the asset.
DAS 212.435, 212.443-444
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IAS 16.76b
Contingent
liabilities
Dutch GAAP
IFRS
A contingent liability is either a possible but uncertain
obligation, or a present obligation that is not recognised
as a liability because either it is not probable that an
outflow will occur or the amount cannot be measured
reliably. Management does not recognise a contingent
liability as a liability unless it has been acquired in a
business combination.
Similar to Dutch GAAP.
A contingent liability is disclosed unless the possibility of
an outflow of resources embodying economic outflows
is remote.
Contingent assets
DAS 252.205-208, DAS 940
IAS 37.10, 37.27-28, IFRS 3.23
Contingent assets are not recognised. However, when
the inflow of economic benefits is virtually certain, the
related asset is recognised as an asset.
Similar to Dutch GAAP.
A contingent asset is disclosed if an inflow of economic
benefits is probable.
DAS 252.209-212, 252.518-521, DAS 940
IAS 37.10, 37.31, 37.33
Similarities and Differences Dutch GAAP vs. IFRS Non-financial liabilities and equity
77
7.2 Equity
Under Dutch GAAP the accounting treatment of equity
in the entity financial statements differs from the
consolidated financial statements. Under IFRS there is
no distinction between the accounting treatment in the
consolidated and entity financial statements.
Definition
The following comparisons have been made based
on the Dutch Civil Code, DAS 240 ‘Equity’, DAS 290
‘Financial instruments’ and DAS 940 ‘Definitions’ (Dutch
GAAP), and the conceptual framework 2010, IAS 32
‘Presentation’ and IAS 39 ‘Financial instruments:
Recognition and measurement’ (IFRS).
Dutch GAAP
IFRS
Residual interest in the assets of the entity after
deducting all liabilities.
Residual interest in the assets of the entity after
deducting all liabilities.
In the separate accounts equity includes:
• share capital
• share premium
• revaluation reserves
• other statutory reserves
• reserves according to the articles of association
• other reserves
• non distributed profits
• result for the year (unless already appropriated)
These items are (if applicable) presented separately. This
is however not required for the consolidated financial
statements.
Issue of equity
shares
Article 2:373, 2:411.1, DAS 940
Conceptual framework 2010, chapter 4.4.c
Equity instruments are measured at the fair value of the
consideration received or receivable, net of direct issue
costs.
IFRS is not explicit, but the application in practice is the
same.
DAS 240.206
Legal reserves
Dutch GAAP prescribes a number of legal (nondistributable) reserves namely in the following cases:
• reserve for capitalised research and development
costs or incorporation costs;
• retained earnings of participating interests since
the first valuation where these are subject to foreign
exchange controls or similar restrictions;
• currency translation differences (both positive and
negative) in case of conversion of participating
interests from a foreign currency to the functional
currency; and
• in cases where assets are revalued above cost.
The formation of a legal reserve must be as an
appropriation of distributable reserves and not a charge
to the income statement.
Article 2:373.4, 2:390, 2:389.8, 2:389.6
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IFRS does not acknowledge the concept of legal
reserves. The standards are primarily designed to
provide relevant information to investors and not to
protect creditors.
Revaluation
reserve
Dutch GAAP
IFRS
The revaluation reserve is a non-distributable legal
reserve which must be formed when an entity re-values
an asset above original cost. The difference between the
carrying value before and after the revaluation must be
credited to a separate revaluation reserve.
Any downward revaluations, including impairments,
must be debited to the revaluation reserve, subject to
maintaining the revaluation reserve at the legal minimum.
The legal minimum requires that the reserve is equal to
the sum of the upward revaluations above cost, relating
to assets still held on the balance sheet date.
With regard to assets in the scope of IAS16 PP&E the
following rule applies: if an asset’s carrying amount is
increased as a result of a revaluation, the increase is
recognised in OCI and accumulated in equity under
the heading of revaluation surplus (unless the increase
reverse an earlier decrease of the same asset).
Furthermore under IFRS it is possible to have negative
revaluation reserves related to assets that are valued
against available-for-sale.
Any downward revaluations which would take the reserve
below this minimum level, must be taken to the income
statement, and separately disclosed.
Revaluation reserves can arise as a consequence of the
application of fair value to:
• An increase in the fair value of assets (not financial
instruments) which are required to be recorded in
equity. For instance, PPE.
• An increase in the fair value of a financial instrument
(not included in a hedge accounting relationships) that
is recorded in the revaluation reserve, for example
listed securities which are not part of the trading
portfolio.
• An increase in the fair value of assets which are
recorded in the income statement for which there is no
liquid market, for example investments in real state.
• An increase in the fair value of financial instruments,
which are used as hedging instruments.
Presentation
Puttable financial
instruments and
obligations arising
on liquidation
Compound
financial
instruments
Article 2:390, DAS 240.222-228
IAS 16.39, 40
Legal form determines the presentation in the entity
financial statements.
Under IFRS the presentation is determined on the basis
of the contractual arrangements.
However the presentation in the consolidated financial
statements is determined on the basis of the economic
substance
Refer to chapter 5.1 ‘Financial instruments: definitions,
scope and classification’.
DAS 240.208, DAS 290.82
IAS 32.15
Puttable financial instruments and instruments that
impose on the entity an obligation to deliver a pro rata
share in net assets only on liquidation can be classified
as equity in the consolidated balance sheet if specified
criteria are met. Presentation as equity is allowed, but
not required.
Puttable financial instruments and instruments that
impose on the entity an obligation to deliver a pro rata
share in net assets only on liquidation are classified as
equity if specified criteria are met.
DAS 290.808
IAS 32.16A-D
Compound instruments are instruments which have both
equity and liability components. Dutch GAAP does not
require bifurcation of the two components and allows
for these instruments to be classified on the basis of the
predominant characteristics.
On issuing convertible debt or similar compound
instruments that contain both a liability and an equity
component, management allocates the proceeds
between the liability component and the equity
component at initial recognition. This allocation cannot
be revised in a subsequent period.
The sum of the carrying amounts assigned to the liability
and equity components on initial recognition is always
equal to the fair value of the instrument as a whole.
No gain or loss arises from initially recognising the
instrument’s components separately.
Treasury shares
Non-controlling
interest
DAS 290.813
IAS 32.28-31, AG 31
Treasury shares are the equity instruments that
have been issued and re-acquired by the entity. An
entity deducts from the equity the fair value of the
consideration given for the treasury shares. The entity
does not recognise a gain or loss in the income
statement on the purchase, sale, issue or cancellation
of treasury shares.
Similar to Dutch GAAP.
DAS 240.213-215
IAS 32.33, 32.35, AG36
In consolidated financial statements, any non-controlling
interest in the net assets of a subsidiary is included in
equity.
Similar to Dutch GAAP.
Article 10.2, GAO on model accounts, DAS 240.303
IAS 27.27, IAS 1.54q
Similarities and Differences Dutch GAAP vs. IFRS Non-financial liabilities and equity
79
7.3 Employee benefits
This section on employee benefits focuses only on the
recognition and measurement of the defined benefit
liability in the balance sheet. The recognition and
measurement of the related income and expenses
are addressed in chapter 4 ‘Income and expenses’.
Employee benefits
Remunerations
during active
employment
The comparisons have been made based on DAS
271 ‘Employee benefits’ issued in 2009 and IAS 19
(Revised), effective as per 1 January 2013. Dutch legal
entities are allowed to apply the standards on pensions
that are applicable under US GAAP or (EU endorsed)
IFRS if certain conditions are met.
Dutch GAAP
IFRS
Employee benefits are all forms of consideration given
by an entity to employees. Dutch GAAP distinguishes
between three types:
• remunerations during active employment (such as
wages, salaries, profit-sharing and bonuses);
• termination benefits (employee benefits provided
in exchange for the termination of an employee’s
employment); and
• post-employment benefits (such as retirement benefit
plans).
Similar to Dutch GAAP although remunerations during
active employment are split into:
• s hort-term employee benefits (such as wages, salaries,
profit-sharing and bonuses); and
• o
ther long-term employee benefits (such as long-term
service leave and jubilee benefits).
DAS 271.102-103
IAS 19.5, 19.8
Dutch GAAP distinguishes employee benefits in the
form of accumulating paid absences (for example:
holidays) and non-accumulating absences. In case of
accumulating paid absences an obligation arises as
employees render service that increases their entitlement
to future paid absences. Costs for non-accumulating
paid absences are recognised when the absence occur.
Similar to Dutch GAAP although more emphasis is laid
on the distinction between short-term and (other) long
term employee benefits.
Employee benefits are recognised as an expense in
the period in which the employees have rendered their
service.
Other long-term employee benefits include items such
as long-term paid absences (long-service or sabbatical
leave), jubilee benefits and long-term disability benefits.
The criterion for long term is that the benefit is not
expected to be settled wholly before twelve months
after the end of the annual reporting period in which the
employees render the related service.
If the costs exceed the amounts that have been paid to
For other long term employee benefits the same method
the employees in the period in which the employees have of accounting is used as for defined benefit plans, except
rendered their service a liability is recognised.
for recognising remeasurements in other comprehensive
income.
Termination
benefits
DAS 271.201 – 207
IAS 19.9-18, 19.153-156
Refer to chapter 4, ‘Income and expenses’.
Refer to chapter 4 ‘Income and expenses’.
Dutch GAAP applies a liability approach to pension
accounting.
Post-employment benefits are provided to employees
either through defined contribution plans or defined
benefit plans
DAS 271.306
IAS 19.27
Dutch GAAP does not distinct between defined benefit
and defined contribution plans.
A DC plan is a post-employment plan under which the
entity pays fixed contributions into a separate fund. The
entity has no legal or constructive obligation to pay
further contributions if the plan does not hold sufficient
assets to pay all employees the benefits relating to
employee service in the current or prior periods.
Pension accounting
General
Distinction
between defined
contribution (DC)
plans and defined
benefit (DB) plans
The regular contributions payable by the employer to the
pension fund or insurance company are expensed.
For additional liabilities, if any, a provision is recognised.
This could be the case if the entity is obliged to do
additional payments to a pension fund due to a deficit in
that fund.
A DB plan is a post-employment plan that is not a DC
plan.
Whether an arrangement is a DC plan or a DB plan
depends on the substance of the transaction rather than
the form of the agreement.
Multi-employer
plans and state
plans
DAS 271.306-307, 271.311
IAS 19.8, 19.27-30
Dutch GAAP does not distinct between DB and DC.
Multi-employer plans and state plans are classified as
DC plans or DB plans on the basis of the terms of the
plan, including any constructive obligation that goes
beyond the formal terms.
As indicated before, a provision may be recognised
dependent on the conditions of the agreement between
the entity and the pension fund. The provision is
measured on the basis of the principles of DAS 252 (best If sufficient information is not available to use DB
estimate).
accounting for a DB multi-employer plan, it can be
accounted for as if it were a DC plan. That fact that it is a
DB plan is disclosed.
DAS 271.302, 271.311, 271.315
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IAS 19.32-34, 19.43, 19.148d
Insured benefit
Measurement
of defined
contribution plans
Dutch GAAP
IFRS
A provision is recognised when, based in the insurance
contract, the general criteria with regard to provisions
(DAS 252) are met.
A post-employment benefit plan whose benefits are
insured by an insurance contract is treated as a DC
plan only where the entity has no legal or constructive
obligation either:
• t o pay the employee benefits directly to the employee
when they become due; or
• t o pay further amounts if the insurer does not pay all
future employee benefits relating to employee service
in the current and prior periods.
DAS 271.313
IAS 19.46-49
Refer to “Distinction between defined contribution (DC)
plans and defined benefit (DB) plans” in this chapter.
The regular contributions payable by the employer to the
pension fund or insurance company are expensed.
If the contributions to a DC plan do not fall due wholly
within 12 months after the end of the period, the future
contributions are discounted.
Defined benefit
plans – balance
sheet recognition
Defined benefit
obligation (DBO)
DAS 271.306-307
IAS 19.50-52
Not applicable.
Entities are required to recognise on the balance sheet
the difference between the present value of the defined
benefit obligation and the fair value of plan assets. This
amount is subject to the asset ceiling test.
DAS 271
IAS 19.57, 19.113
Not applicable.
The DBO relates to the expected future payments
required to settle the obligation resulting from employee
services in the current and prior periods.
The use of an accrued benefit valuation method (the
projected unit credit method) is required for calculating
DBO. This method sees each period of service as
giving rise to an additional unit of benefit entitlement
and measures each unit separately to build up the final
obligation.
IAS 19.8, 19.67-68
Discount rate
Not applicable.
Plan assets
Not applicable.
The DBO is recorded at present values using a discount
rate derived from high-quality corporate bonds with a
maturity consistent with the expected maturity of the
obligations. In countries where no deep market in highquality bonds exists, the yield rate on government bonds
is used.
IAS 19.83
Plan assets are measured at their fair value at the
balance sheet date. There is no specific guidance in
IAS19 on how fair value should be determined. .
For the definition of fair value refer to chapter 5.2.
IFRS 13.18, 13.70, IAS 19.57a 19.113-115
Similarities and Differences Dutch GAAP vs. IFRS Non-financial liabilities and equity
81
7.4 Income taxes
The standards on corporate income tax (DAS 272 and
IAS 12) only deal with taxes on income, comprising
current tax and deferred tax.
Current tax expense for a period is based on the taxable
and deductible amounts that will be shown on the
tax return for the current year. An entity recognises a
liability in the balance sheet in respect of current tax
expense for the current and prior periods to the extent
unpaid. It recognises an asset if current tax has been
overpaid.
Tax payable based on taxable profit seldom matches the
tax expense that might be expected based on pre-tax
accounting profit. The mismatch can occur because
the accounting recognition criteria for items of income
and expense are different from the treatment of items
under tax law. Deferred tax accounting seeks to deal
with this mismatch. It is based on the temporary
differences between the tax base of an asset or liability
and its carrying amount in the financial statements.
For example, an asset is revalued upwards but not sold,
the revaluation creates a temporary difference (if the
carrying amount of the asset in the financial statements
is greater than the tax base of the asset), and the tax
consequence is a deferred tax liability.
The following comparisons have been made based on
the Dutch Civil Code, DAS 272 ‘Income taxes’, DAS 940
‘Definitions’ (Dutch GAAP) and IAS 12 ‘Income taxes’
(IFRS).
Dutch GAAP
IFRS
The amount of income taxes payable (recoverable) in
respect of the taxable profit (tax loss) for the current
period.
Same as Dutch GAAP.
DAS 940
IAS 12.5
Unpaid current tax for current and prior periods is
recognised as a liability. If the amount already paid
exceeds the amount due for those periods, the excess is
recognised as an asset.
Same as Dutch GAAP.
Current tax
Definition
Recognition
The benefit relating to a tax loss that can be carried back
to recover current tax of a previous period is recognised
as an asset.
Measurement
DAS 272.201-202
IAS 12.12-13
Although DAS 272 is silent on the measurement
of current taxes the approach is in line with the
measurement according to IFRS.
Current tax liabilities (assets) for the current and prior
periods and related tax expense (income) are measured
at the amount expected to be paid to (recovered from)
the taxation authorities, using the tax rates (and tax laws)
that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the
reporting date.
IAS 12.46
Deferred taxes
Definition of
deferred tax
liabilities/ (assets)
Tax basis
Temporary
differences
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The amounts of income taxes payable (potentially
recoverable) in future in respect of taxable (deductible)
temporary differences (and the carry-forward of unused
tax losses and tax credits).
Same as Dutch GAAP.
DAS 272.301, 272.306, 272.311, DAS 940
IAS 12.5
Tax basis is the measurement under applicable tax law of Similar to Dutch GAAP but with additional guidance on
an asset, liability or equity instrument.
the tax basis of an asset and liability:
• T
he tax basis of an asset is the amount that will be
No detailed guidance on the tax basis of an asset and a
tax deductible against any taxable economic benefits
liability.
that will flow to an entity when it recovers the carrying
amount of the asset.
• T
he tax base of a liability is its carrying amount, less
any amount that will be tax deductible in respect of
that liability in future periods.
DAS 940
IAS 12.7-8
Temporary differences are differences between the tax
basis of an asset or liability and its carrying amount in
the financial statements that will result in a taxable or
deductible amount when the carrying amount of the
asset or liability is recovered or settled.
Same as Dutch GAAP.
DAS 940
IAS 12.5
Recognition and
measurement of
deferred taxes
(general principles,
and the recognition
of deferred tax
assets)
Dutch GAAP
IFRS
General
Deferred tax is provided for all temporary differences
and the carry-forward of unused tax losses, with a few
exceptions such as the initial recognition of goodwill
and the outside basis differences (that is, temporary
difference arising from investments in subsidiaries,
branches, joint ventures and associates) from
investments that are essentially permanent in duration.
General
Same as Dutch GAAP.
Revaluation
The recognition of a deferred tax liability related to
revaluation of property, plant and equipment is not
required but strongly recommended. If no deferred tax
liability is recognised, this should be disclosed including
the quantitative effects.
Revaluation
A temporary difference arises if assets are revalued and
no equivalent adjustment is made for tax purposes.
DTA
A deferred tax asset is only recognised to the extent that
it is probable that there will be sufficient future taxable
profit to enable recovery of the deferred tax asset.
DTA
A deferred tax asset is only recognised to the extent that
it is probable that there will be sufficient future taxable
profit to enable recovery of the deferred tax asset. A
deferred tax asset is not recognised if the probability
of realisation is only connected to the existence of a
deferred tax liability relating to revalued assets.
Article 2:390.1, 2:390.5, DAS 272.301, 272.304, 272.306,
272.310, 272.505
Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using
the tax rates (and tax laws) that apply or have been
(substantively) enacted by the reporting date.
IAS 12.15, 12.18b, 12.24, 12.34, 12.39
Same as Dutch GAAP although deferred taxes are not
discounted.
Deferred taxes are allowed to be discounted.
Where an entity is subject to different tax rates
depending on different levels of taxable income, deferred
tax assets and liabilities are measured at the average
tax rate applicable to the periods in which it expects the
temporary differences to reverse.
DAS 272.401 – 405
Review of deferred
tax assets
IAS 12.47 - 53
The carrying amount of the deferred tax asset is
Similar to Dutch GAAP.
reviewed at each reporting date and is reduced when
it is no longer probable that sufficient taxable profit will
be available to allow recovery of the deferred tax asset.
This reduction is reversed when subsequently it becomes
probable that sufficient taxable profit will be available.
DAS 272.406
IAS 12.56
Current and deferred tax is recognised in the income
statement, except to the extent that the tax arises from
a business transaction or a transaction or event that
is recognised in the same or other period outside the
income statement (directly in equity).
Current and deferred tax is recognised in the income
statement, except to the extent that the tax arises from
a business transaction or a transaction or event that
is recognised in the same or other period outside the
income statement (either in other comprehensive income
or directly in equity).
DAS 272.502
IAS 12.58, 12.61A, 12.68
Withholding tax on
dividend
Tax relating to dividends that is paid or payable to
taxation authorities on behalf of the shareholders (for
example, withholding tax) is charged to equity as part of
the dividends.
Same as Dutch GAAP.
DAS 272.506
IAS 12.65A
Uncertain tax
position
There is no specific guidance under DAS 272. In practice, There is no specific guidance under IAS 12. In practice,
the entity will record the liability measured as the single
the entity will record the liability measured as either a
best estimate.
single best estimate or a weighted average probability of
the possible outcomes, if the likelihood is greater than 50%.
Offsetting
An entity offsets current tax assets and current tax
liabilities, or offsets deferred tax assets and deferred tax
liabilities, only when it has a legally enforceable right to
set off the amounts and it intends either to settle on a
net basis or to realise the asset and settle the liability
simultaneously.
For the offsetting of current tax, same as Dutch GAAP.
DAS 115.305
IAS 12.71, 12.74 - 75
Recognition
directly in
comprehensive
income / in equity
Other tax issues
For the offsetting of deferred tax, IAS 12 does not
require a detailed time schedule of the reversal of each
temporary difference. Rather, it requires to set off the
assets and liabilities of the same taxable entity if and only
if they relate to income tax levied by the same authority
and the entity has a legal enforceable right to set off
current tax assets against liabilities.
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8. Other topics
8.1 Leases
pattern of income and expenses in the income
statement.
In May 2013 the IASB issued a revised exposure
draft (ED) on lease accounting. The issued ED on
lease transactions aims to improve the quality and
comparability of financial reporting of lessees and
lessors by providing in the financial statements greater
transparency about the entity’s leverage, the assets the
entity uses in its operations and the risks to which it is
exposed from entering into lease transactions.
It is unclear if and when the IASB will issue a new lease
standard and when it will be effective. There are neither
indications that the Dutch Accounting Standards Board
(DASB) will follow the IASB and will change the current
lease accounting standard in the short term.
One of the main implications of this revised ED is that
all long term (> 12 months) leases will be recognised in
the balance sheet of the lessee. In addition the proposals
also contain new guidance regarding the recognition
The following comparisons have been made based
on the Dutch Civil Code, DAS 292 ‘Leasing’, DAS 940
‘Definitions’ (Dutch GAAP) and IFRIC 4 ‘Determining
whether an arrangement contains a lease’ and IAS 17
‘Leases’ (IFRS).
Dutch GAAP
IFRS
A lease is an agreement whereby the lessor conveys to
the lessee in return for a payment or series of payments
the right to use an asset for an agreed period of time.
Similar to Dutch GAAP.
DAS 940
IAS 17.4
Determining whether an arrangement is, or contains,
a lease is based on the substance of the arrangement.
A lease is present when:
• fulfilment of the arrangement is dependent on the use
of a specified asset or assets; and
• the arrangement conveys a right to use the asset or
assets.
Similar to Dutch GAAP.
DAS 292.107
IFRIC 4.6
The standard applies to accounting for all leases other
than:
• leases in the exploration industries;
• licensing agreements for such items as motion picture
films and video recordings.
• investment property provided by lessors under an
operating lease; and
• lessee’s property accounted as investment property
Similar to Dutch GAAP. However lease accounting is also
not applied to:
• b
iological assets held by lessees under a finance
lease; and
• b
iological assets provided by lessors under an
operating lease.
Definition and scope
Definition
Determining
whether an
arrangement
contains a lease
Scope of the
standard
Arrangements that do not take the legal form of a lease but
that convey rights to use assets in return for payments are
in substance leases and are accounted as such.
DAS 292.101
IAS 17.2, IFRIC 4
A lease is classified at inception as a finance lease if it
transfers substantially all the risks and rewards incidental
to ownership to the lessee. All other leases are treated
as operating leases. Whether a lease is a finance lease
or an operating lease depends on the substance of the
transaction rather than the legal form of the contract.
Similar to Dutch GAAP.
DAS 292.118, 292.120
IAS 17.8, 17.10
Lease classification
General
characteristics
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85
Examples of
situations that
would normally
lead to a lease
being classified as
a finance lease
Dutch GAAP
IFRS
In substance, a finance lease is a financing transaction
that enables the lessee to effectively acquire an
asset, although the entity may not get the legal title to
ownership.
Similar to Dutch GAAP. However IFRS does not contain
quantitative thresholds.
The following are examples of situations that, individually
or in combination, would normally lead to a lease being
classified as a finance lease:
• Ownership is transferred to the lessee at the end of the
lease term.
• The lessee has an option to buy the leased asset at the
end of the lease term, priced so that it is reasonably
certain at inception that the lessee will exercise the
option.
• The lease term is for at least 75% of the economic life
of the asset.
• At inception, the present value of the minimum lease
payments is 90% or more of the fair value of the asset.
• The leased assets are very specialised and only the
lessee can use them without major modifications.
DAS 292.120
Reassessment
of the lease
classification
IAS 17.10
Lease classification is made at the inception of the lease. Similar to Dutch GAAP.
If at any time the lessee and the lessor agree to change
the provisions of the lease, other than by renewing the
lease, in a manner that would have resulted in a different
classification of the lease if the changed terms had
been in effect at the inception of the lease, the revised
agreement is regarded as a new agreement over its term.
Changes in estimates, or changes in circumstances,
do not give rise to a new classification of a lease for
accounting purposes.
Sale-and-leaseback transactions
DAS 292.123
IAS17.13
Sale and leaseback transactions are a way of releasing
cash and are an alternative to borrowing. The vendor
sells an asset, but retains use of the asset by entering
into a lease with the buyer/lessor. The accounting
treatment depends on the substance of the transaction,
taking into account whether the leaseback is finance
or operating lease, and whether the sale proceeds and
lease rentals are on an arm’s length basis.
Similar to Dutch GAAP.
If the leaseback is classified as an operating lease,
then any gain is recognised in the income statement
immediately if the sale and leaseback terms clearly
are at fair value. Otherwise, the sale and leaseback are
accounted for as follows:
• If the sale price is above the fair value:
- the difference between fair value and carrying
amount is recognised immediately; but
- the excess of sale price over fair value should be
deferred and amortised over the period for which the
asset is expected to be used.
• If the sale price is below the fair value:
- t he difference between sale price and carrying
amount should be recognised immediately except
that, if a loss arising is compensated by future rent
at below market price, it should be deferred and
amortised in proportion to the rent payments over
the period for which the asset is expected to be
used.
For sale-and-lease-back transactions resulting in a
finance lease-back, any gain realised by the seller-lessee
on the transaction is deferred and amortised through the
income statement over the lease term.
DAS 292.401-407
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IAS 17. 59-63
Dutch GAAP
IFRS
Lease treatment in the financial statements of a lessee
Finance lease
The assets and liabilities are recognised at fair value
or, if lower, at the present value of the minimum lease
payments at the inception of the lease. The present
value of minimum lease payment is discounted using
the interest rate implicit in the lease. If the interest rate
implicit in the lease is impracticable to determine the
lessee’s incremental borrowing rate is to be used.
Similar to Dutch GAAP.
The leased asset is depreciated over the shorter of the
lease term and its useful life. If it is reasonably certain
that title will pass to the lessee at the end of the lease
term, the asset is depreciated over its useful life.
Lease rentals are split into two components – a finance
charge and the reduction of the outstanding liability. The
finance charge shall be allocated to each period during
the lease term so as to produce a constant periodic
rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability.
Contingent rents shall be charged as expenses in the
periods in which they are incurred.
DAS 292.201, 292.206-207, DAS 121, DAS 940
Operating lease
IAS 17.20, 17.25, 17.27
Lessees do not capitalise operating leases. Lease
Similar to Dutch GAAP.
payments, excluding any payments for services such as
insurance, are recognised on a straight line basis over
the lease term unless there is a systematic way to spread
the cost that is more representative of the benefit to the
user.
DAS 292.210-211, DAS 940
IAS 17.33
Lease treatment in the financial statements of a lessor
Finance lease lessor
The lessor recognises a finance lease receivable for the
amount due under the finance lease, measured at the
‘net investment’ in the lease. This is calculated as the
minimum lease payments, including any residual value
guaranteed by the lessee or a third party, discounted
at the interest rate implicit in the lease, plus any
unguaranteed residual value which accrues to the lessor.
Similar to Dutch GAAP.
However initial direct costs can only be included in the
initial measurement of the lease receivable and cannot
be immediately recognised in the income statement.
Lease rentals are allocated between a reduction in the
receivable and finance income so that finance income
recognised represents a constant percentage rate of
return on the net investment.
Entities have an accounting policy option regarding the
initial direct costs. Initial direct costs are included in the
initial measurement of the lease receivable or can either
be immediately recognised in the income statement.
Operating lease lessor
DAS 292.301-309
IAS 17.36-41
The lessor continues to recognise the leased asset as
property, plant and equipment. Rentals are taken to the
income statement on a straight line basis, unless there is
another systematic basis that is more representative.
Similar to Dutch GAAP. However, initial direct costs are
not allowed to be immediately recognised in the income
statement.
Entities have an accounting policy option for the
Initial direct costs incurred by lessors in negotiating
and arranging an operating lease. These shall either
be added to the carrying amount of the leased asset
and recognised as an expense over the lease term on
the same basis as the lease income, or they shall be
immediately recognised in the income statement.
The depreciation policy for depreciable leased assets
shall be consistent with the lessor’s normal depreciation
policy for similar assets, and depreciation shall be
calculated in accordance with DAS 210 (Intangible
assets) and DAS 212 (Property, plant and equipment).
DAS 292.312-318
IAS17.49-55
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87
Dutch GAAP
IFRS
No explicit guidance is included in DAS. However in
practice the same requirements as IFRS apply.
Lessors sometimes provide incentives for lessees to
enter into operating leases. Incentives include rent free or
below-market rent periods, upfront cash payments to the
lessee, directly paying the lessee’s costs, for example,
relocation, or settling their liabilities.
Incentives
Operating lease
incentives
Whatever the form of an incentive, it should be taken
into account as part of the overall consideration paid by
the lessee to the lessor for the leased asset. Therefore a
lessee should spread incentives received over the lease
term on a straight line basis (rarely, another systematic
basis may be more appropriate). In effect this reduces
the cost of the rentals taken to the income statement, so
that the aggregate consideration reflects the true rental
cost to the lessee.
The lessor recognises incentives paid as a reduction of
rental income on a straight-line basis over the lease term.
SIC 15
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8.2 Foreign currencies
currency and therefore the accounting records may
be maintained in different currencies. Because it
is not possible to combine transactions measured
in different currencies, the foreign operation’s
results and financial position are translated into a
single currency, namely that in which the group’s
consolidated financial statements are reported
(‘presentation currency’).
Many entities do business with overseas suppliers or
customers, or have overseas operations. This gives rise
to two main accounting issues:
• Some transactions (for example, those with overseas
suppliers or customers) may be denominated in
foreign currencies. These transactions are expressed
in the entity’s own currency (‘functional currency’)
for financial reporting purposes.
• A parent entity may have foreign operations such
as overseas subsidiaries, branches or associates.
The functional currency of these foreign operations
may be different to the parent entity’s functional
Functional
currency
The following comparisons have been made based on
the Dutch Civil Code, DAS 122 ‘Foreign currencies’, DAS
940 ‘Definitions’ (Dutch GAAP) and IAS 21 ‘The effects
of changes in foreign exchange rates’ (IFRS).
Dutch GAAP
IFRS
Currency of the primary economic environment in which
the entity operates.
Same as Dutch GAAP.
DAS 122.105-111, DAS 940
Presentation
currency
Currency in which the financial statements are presented. Same as Dutch GAAP.
DAS 122.301, DAS 940
Monetary item
The essential feature of a monetary item is a right
to receive (or an obligation to deliver) a fixed or
determinable number of units of currency.
Same as Dutch GAAP except that all derivatives
(including FX derivatives) are recognised and measured
at fair value through profit and loss and considered to be
monetary items.
Conversely, the essential feature of a non-monetary
item is the absence of a right to receive (or an obligation
to deliver) a fixed or determinable number of units of
currency.
Foreign exchange derivatives are considered to be nonmonetary items.
General
DAS 940, DAS 122.113
IAS 21.16
All components of the financial statements are measured
in the functional currency. All transactions entered into in
currencies other than the functional currency are treated
as transactions in a foreign currency.
Similar to Dutch GAAP.
An entity considers the following factors in determining
its functional currency:
• The currency that mainly influences sales prices for
goods and services.
• The currency of the country whose competitive forces
and regulations mainly determine the sales prices of its
goods and services.
• The currency that mainly influences labour, material
and other cost of providing goods or services.
The following factors may also provide evidence of an
entity’s functional currency:
• The currency in which funds from financing activities
are generated.
• The currency in which receipts from operating
activities are usually retained.
DAS 122.105 - 111
IAS 21.9-10
Similarities and Differences Dutch GAAP vs. IFRS Other topics
89
Foreign currencies
transactions
Dutch GAAP
IFRS
A transaction in a foreign currency is recorded in the
functional currency using the exchange rate at the date
of transaction (average rates may be used if they do not
fluctuate significantly).
Same as Dutch GAAP.
At the end of each reporting period, foreign currency
monetary balances are translated using the exchange
rate at the closing date.
Non-monetary balances denominated in a foreign
currency are carried:
• at cost: reported using the exchange rate at the date
of the transaction.
• at fair value: reported using the exchange rate at the
date when the fair values were determined.
Recognition
of exchange
differences
DAS 122.201-206
IAS 21.21-22
Exchange differences on monetary items are recognised
in the income statement for the period except for those
differences arising on a monetary item that forms part of
an entity’s net investment in a foreign entity (subject to
strict criteria of what qualifies as net investment).
Same as Dutch GAAP, except that the cumulative
amount of the exchange differences related to that
foreign operation, recognised in other comprehensive
income and accumulated in the separate component
of equity, is reclassified from equity to the income
statement when the gain or loss on (partial) disposal is
recognised.
In the consolidated financial statements, such exchange
differences are recognised as a separate component
in equity. Cumulative exchange differences on foreign
operations initially recognised in equity as a currency
translation adjustment (CTA) are recommended to be
recycled to the income statement upon disposal of the
foreign operation. The alternative is transfer to the other
reserves.
The CTA is not a legal reserve.
The CTA is a non-distributable legal reserve.
Article 2:389.8, DAS 122.207-213, 122.311
Change in
A change is justified only if there are changes in
functional currency underlying transactions, events and conditions that are
relevant to the entity.
IAS 21.28, 21.30, 21.32, 21.39-40, 21.48
Same as Dutch GAAP.
The effect of a change in functional currency is
accounted for prospectively from the date of the change.
DAS 122.110, 122.214
IAS 21.35-37
General
An entity may choose to present its financial statements
in any currency if this is justified by its operations or its
international group structure. If the presentation currency
differs from the functional currency, an entity translates
its results and financial position into the presentation
currency.
An entity may present its financial statements in any
currency. If the presentation currency differs from the
entity’s functional currency, it translates its results and
financial position into the presentation currency.
DAS 122.301, article 2:362.7
IAS 21.38
Translation to
the presentation
currency
The assets and liabilities are translated at the closing rate Same as Dutch GAAP.
at the date of the balance sheet; income and expenses
are translated using the exchange rates at the dates
of the transactions (average rates may be used if they
do not fluctuate significantly). All resulting exchange
differences are recognised in equity (CTA).
Translation of a
foreign operation
Article 2:389.8, DAS 122.302-306
IAS 21.39-41
Entities in the group may have different functional
currencies. When preparing consolidated financial
statements, the financial statements of all entities
are translated into the reporting entity’s presentation
currency.
Cumulative translation differences on foreign operations
initially recognised in other comprehensive income are
recycled to the income statement (via OCI) upon (partial)
disposal of the foreign operation.
Cumulative translation differences on foreign operations,
initially recognised in equity, are recommended to be
recycled to the income statement upon disposal of the
foreign operation. The alternative is transfer to the other
reserves.
Article 2:389.8, DAS 122.302, 307-311
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IAS 21.48
8.3 Hyperinflation
If an entity’s functional currency is the currency of a
hyper-inflationary economy, its financial statements are
restated prior to translation into a different presentation
currency. This is because the effects of hyper-inflation
would otherwise reduce the comparability of prior
period information and therefore its usefulness. DAS
122 and IAS 29 require such an entity’s financial
statements to be restated in terms of the measuring
Definition
Presentation
Economies
ceasing to
hyperinflationary
unit current at the end of the reporting period. This
measuring unit is calculated by applying a general price
index to the underlying financial statements.
The following comparisons have been made based on
the Dutch Civil Code and DAS 122 ‘Foreign currencies’
(Dutch GAAP) and IAS 21 ‘The effects of changes in
foreign exchange rates’ and IAS 29 ‘Financial reporting
in hyper-inflationary economies’ (IFRS).
Dutch GAAP
IFRS
Hyperinflation is defined as a cumulative inflation rate
over three years which equals or exceeds 100%. This
definition is less detailed than the definition under IFRS.
Hyperinflation is indicated by characteristics of the
economic environment of a country which include, but
are not limited to, the following:
• t he general population prefers to keep its wealth
in non-monetary assets or in a relatively stable
foreign currency. Amounts of local currency held are
immediately invested to maintain purchasing power;
• t he general population regards monetary amounts
not in terms of the local currency but in terms of
a relatively stable foreign currency. Prices may be
quoted in that currency;
• s ales and purchases on credit take place at prices
that compensate for the expected loss of purchasing
power during the credit period, even if the period is
short;
• interest rates, wages and prices are linked to a price
index; and
• t he cumulative inflation rate over three years is
approaching, or exceeds, 100%.
DAS 122.312
IAS 29.3
Where an entity’s functional currency is the currency of
a hyperinflationary economy, the financial statements
are stated in terms of the measuring unit current at the
end of the reporting period. The gain or loss on the net
monetary position is included in the income statement
and separately disclosed.
Similar to Dutch GAAP.
DAS 122.312
IAS 21.43, IAS 29.8-9
When an economy ceases to be hyperinflationary and
an entity discontinues the preparation and presentation
of financial statements prepared in accordance with
DAS 122, it shall treat the amounts expressed in the
measuring unit currency at the end of the previous
reporting period as the basis for the carrying amounts in
its subsequent financial statements.
Similar to Dutch GAAP.
DAS 122.313
IAS 21.43, IAS 29.38
Similarities and Differences Dutch GAAP vs. IFRS Other topics
91
8.4 Events after the end
of the reporting period
the date of approval (that is, ‘events after the reporting
period’) should be reflected in the financial statements.
It is not generally practicable for preparers to finalise
financial statements without a period of time elapsing
between the balance sheet date and the date on which
the financial statements are authorised for issue. The
question therefore arises as to the extent to which
events occurring between the balance sheet date and
The following comparisons have been made based on
the Dutch Civil Code and DAS 160 ‘Subsequent events’
(Dutch GAAP) and IAS 10 ‘Events after the reporting
period’ (IFRS).
Events after
the end of the
reporting period
Adjusting event
Dutch GAAP
IFRS
Events after the end of the reporting period are those
events, favourable and unfavourable, that occur in:
• the period between the end of the reporting period and
the date when the financial statements are authorised
for issue (period a);
• the period between the date when the financial
statements are authorised for issue and the approval
of the financial statements in the shareholders’
meeting (period b); or
• the period after the approval of the financial
statements (period c).
Events after the end of the reporting period are those
events, favourable and unfavourable, that occur between
the end of the reporting period and the date when the
financial statements are authorised for issue.
Article 2:362.6, DAS 160.103-104
IAS 10.3
Any adjusting events in period
(a) lead to adjustment of the financial statements
(b) do lead to adjustments if this is essential for a clear
understanding of the financial statements
(c) do not lead to amendments in the financial
statements (in the financial statements of next year.
DAS 150 on errors should be applied).
Adjusting events provide further evidence of conditions
that existed at the end of the reporting period and lead to
adjustments to the financial statements.
If these adjusting events (period c) demonstrate that the
financial statements have serious shortcomings then the
shareholders should be informed and a statement of the
events (supplemented with an auditor’s report) must be
filed at the Chamber of Commerce.
Non-adjusting
event
Article 2:362.6, DAS 160.201-205
IAS 10.3a
Events that are indicative of conditions that arose after
the reporting period – an entity do not adjust the amount
recognised in the financial statements to reflect these
non-adjusting events.
Similar as Dutch GAAP, except for the exemption.
An exemption is applicable for non-adjusting events
leading to discontinuity.
DAS 160.206-207
Dividends
Date of
authorisation for
issue
IAS 10.3b
The balance sheet can be presented before or after result Dividends proposed or declared after the end of the
appropriation. In the latter case proposed dividends are
reporting period are not recognised as a liability in the
recognised as a separate component of equity, or as a
reporting period.
liability.
Article 2:373.1, GAO on model formats, DAS 160.208
IAS 10.12-13
Management discloses the date on which the financial
statements were authorised for issue and who gave that
authorisation.
The process involved in authorising the financial
statements for issue will vary depending upon the
management structure, statutory requirements and
procedures followed in preparing and finalising the
financial statements.
Dutch GAAP does not explicitly state the date of
authorisation for issue.
In some cases, an entity is required to submit its financial
statements to its shareholders for approval after the
financial statements have been issued. In such cases,
the financial statements are authorised for issue on the
date of issue, not the date when shareholders approve
the financial statements.
In other cases, the management of an entity is required
to issue its financial statements to a supervisory board
for approval. In such cases, the financial statements are
authorised for issue when the management authorises
them for issue to the supervisory board.
Article 2:210
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IAS 10.4-6
8.5 Related-party disclosures
The following comparison has been made based on the
Dutch Civil Code, DAS 330 ‘Related parties’ and DAS
Definition
940 ‘Definitions’ (Dutch GAAP) and IAS 24 ‘Related
party disclosures’ (IFRS).
Dutch GAAP
IFRS
For the definition of a related party the Dutch law refers
to IAS 24. The Dutch translation is included in DAS
900.9.
A related party is a person or entity that is related to
the entity that is preparing its financial statements (the
reporting entity).
The main categories of related parties are:
• subsidiaries
• fellow subsidiaries
• associates
• joint ventures
• post-employment benefit plans
Furthermore a person (or a close member of that
person’s family) if he/she
• h
as control / significant influence over the reporting
entity, or
• is a member of key management of the entity
Disclosures
Article 2:381.3, DAS 330.102, DAS 900.9
IAS 24.9-12
Where there have been related-party transactions,
disclosure is made of the nature of the relationship, the
amount of transactions, and outstanding balances and
other elements necessary for a clear understanding
of the financial statements (for example, volume and
amounts of transactions, amounts outstanding and
pricing policies).
Where there have been related-party transactions,
disclosure is made of the nature of the relationship, the
amount of transactions, and outstanding balances and
other elements necessary for a clear understanding
of the financial statements (for example, volume and
amounts of transactions, amounts outstanding and
pricing policies).
Disclosures are only required in case of material
transactions between parties that did not take place at
arm’s length (although the DAS recommends disclosing
related party transactions ).
There is an exemption from the disclosure requirements
where there is state control over the entity.
Furthermore intra group related party transactions may
be left out.
Article 2:381.3, DAS 330.201
IAS 24.17, 24.25
Similarities and Differences Dutch GAAP vs. IFRS Other topics
93
8.6 Discontinued operations and
non-current assets held for sale
IFRS 5 specifies measurement, presentation and
disclosure requirements for assets held for sale (or
disposal groups) and discontinued operations. Dutch
GAAP does not have a standard similar to IFRS.
Although DAS 345 contains requirements regarding
the discontinuing of business activities, this standard
does not contain any measurement requirements but
Classification of
items as noncurrent assets
held for sale and
disposal groups
only disclosures requirements. IFRS 5 also contains
guidance on the measurement assets held for sale and
discontinued operations.
The following comparison has been made based on the
Dutch Civil Code, DAS 345 ‘Discontinued operations’
(Dutch GAAP) and IFRS 5 ‘Non-current assets held for
sale and discontinued operations’. DAS 345 has been
revised in 2012 and is effective for accounting periods
beginning on or after 1 January 2013.
Dutch GAAP
IFRS
DAS contains no specific guidance on the classification
in assets held for sale or disposal groups.
The common feature of non-current assets held for
sale and disposal groups is that the carrying value
is expected to be realised principally through a sale
transaction rather than through continuing use.
However DAS 345 contains some disclosures
requirements which are only applicable to discontinued
operations.
Partial sales of subsidiaries may also qualify as held for
sale if the sale will result in a loss of control, even if a
non-controlling interest is retained.
A disposal group is a group of assets that are to be
disposed of together as a single transaction, and the
liabilities directly associated with those assets that will be
transferred in the transaction. A disposal group is often a
business or a part of a business or cash-generating unit.
IFRS 5.6, 5.8A
Classification as
a discontinued
operation
Under Dutch GAAP a discontinued operation is a
business group that is a major line of business or
geographical area of operations that is not continued on
a permanent basis and is part of a single co-ordinated
disposal or abandonment plan. It can be clearly
distinguished operationally and for financial reporting
purposes, from the rest of the entity.
Dutch GAAP contains no probability criterion for the
classification of activities as discontinued operations.
Separate rules are applicable for subsidiaries acquired
exclusively for resale.
Measurement of
assets held for
sale, disposal
groups and
discontinued
operations
Similar to Dutch GAAP, except for the following:
• IFRS requires that the highly probably criterion is met
in order to meet the definition of a disposal group.
• IFRS does not allow businesses or operations that
are to be abandoned or liquidated to be classified as
discontinued operations. As a result a discontinued
operation is more narrowly defined under IFRS
compared to Dutch GAAP.
As under Dutch GAAP, a subsidiary acquired exclusively
with a view to resale is also a discontinued operation.
DAS 217.305,DAS 345.201, 345.301-302
IFRS 5.32, Appendix A
DAS contains no specific measurement requirements for
assets held for sale, disposal groups and discontinued
operations.
Specific measurement requirements apply to non-current
assets and disposal groups once they are classified as
held for sale. A non-current asset or disposal group that
has been classified as held for sale is measured at the
lower of carrying amount or fair value less costs to sell.
Discontinued operations remain measured based on the
standards that were applicable prior to the classification
as discontinued operation.
Depreciation and amortisation of tangible and intangible
assets ceases on classification as held for sale.
IFRS 5.15a, 5.25
Balance sheet
presentation
DAS contains only disclosures requirements regarding
discontinued operations and no requirement regarding
the balance sheet presentation.
Non-current assets held for sale and the assets and
liabilities of disposal groups (including those that meet
the criteria for discontinued operations) are presented
separately from other assets and liabilities in the balance
sheet.
Offsetting assets and liabilities of a disposal group is
not permitted. The assets are presented as a single line
within current assets; liabilities are presented as a single
line within current liabilities.
This presentation is required from the point that the held
for sale criteria are met. The balance sheet for previous
periods is not re-presented in this manner unless the
criteria were met at the previous period balance sheet
date.
DAS 345.301
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IFRS 5.38-40
Income statement
presentation
Dutch GAAP
IFRS
Under DAS the result of the discontinued operation can
be disclosed either in the income statement or in the
notes.
IFRS contains detailed requirements regarding the
presentation of a discontinued operation in the income
statement. A discontinued operation is presented as a
single amount on the face of the income statement that
includes:
There are no specific requirements with regards to noncurrent assets held for sale and disposal groups for the
income statement.
• post tax profit or loss from discontinued operations;
• t he post-tax gain or loss recognised in the
measurement to fair value less costs to sell; and
• w
hen realised, the post-tax gain or loss on disposal of
the discontinued operation.
This single amount is analysed and disclosed in the
notes or on the face of the income statement into:
• t he revenue, expenses and pre-tax profit or loss of the
discontinued operation;
• t ax attributable to the profit or loss of the operation;
• t he gain or loss on remeasurement to fair value less
costs to sell or the gain or loss on disposal of a
discontinued operation; and
• t ax attributable to the gain or loss on remeasurement
or disposal.
As under Dutch GAAP, there are no specific requirements
with regards to non-current assets held for sale and
disposal groups for the income statement.
Cash flow
statement
presentation
DAS 345.403
IFRS 5.33b
Under DAS the cash flows of the discontinued operation
can be disclosed either in the cash flow statement or in
the notes.
IFRS requires that the net cash flows, classified as
operating, investing and financing, attributable to a
discontinued operation for the current and comparative
period are disclosed on the face of the cash flow
statement or in the notes. These disclosures are not
required for disposal groups that are newly acquired
subsidiaries that meet the criteria for classification as
held for sale on acquisition.
There are no specific requirements regarding the
presentation of cash flows from assets held for sale or
disposal groups.
As under Dutch GAAP, there are no specific requirements
with regards to non-current assets held for sale and
disposal groups for the cash flow statement.
DAS 345.403
IFRS 5.33c
Similarities and Differences Dutch GAAP vs. IFRS Other topics
95
8.7 Segment reporting
Segment guidance under IFRS requires an entity to
disclose information that enables users of the financial
statements to evaluate the nature and financial effects of
the business activities and the economic environments
through the eyes of management (‘management
approach’). Dutch GAAP is less comprehensive although
Scope
Information to be
disclosed
there is a legal requirement to provide certain minimum
disclosures.
The following comparison has been made based on the
Dutch Civil Code and DAS 350 ‘Segment information’
(Dutch GAAP) and IFRS 8 ‘Operation segments’ (IFRS).
Dutch GAAP
IFRS
The standard on Segment Information applies to large
entities only; small and medium sized entities are
exempt.
IFRS 8 ‘Operating segments’ applies to entities whose
equity or debt instruments are publicly traded (or that are
in the process of issuing equity or debt instruments in a
public market).
Article 2:380, DAS 350
IFRS 8.2
Dutch law requires that the following minimum
disclosures are provided:
• An overview of the revenue per line of business of the
entity; and
• An overview of the revenue per geographical area.
The provided disclosures should reconcile to the income
statement.
IFRS 8’s objective is set out in a core principle, which
requires an entity to disclose information that enables
users of the financial statements to evaluate the
nature and financial effects of the business activities
and the economic environments through the eyes of
management (‘management approach’).
Amounts required to be disclosed are:
• A measure of profit or loss.
• A
measure of total assets, if such an amount is
regularly provided to the Chief Operating Decision
Maker (CODM).
• A
measure of liabilities (if such an amount is regularly
DAS 350 provides guidance for additional voluntary
provided to the CODM).
disclosures with regard to operating segments. Such
• E
ach of the following if it is included in the measure
disclosures should be based on the internal management
of profit or loss reported to the CODM or is regularly
information. An operating segment could be similar to a
provided to the CODM, even if not included in that
line of business but not by definition.
measure of segment profit or loss.
• Revenue from external customers.
The voluntary additional information includes information • R
evenue from transactions with the entity’s other
on the result, the assets, the provisions and the liabilities
operating segments (inter-segment revenue).
of the entity. This information could comprise the
• Interest revenue.
following:
• Interest expense.
• Net revenues
• Depreciation and amortisation.
• Intercompany revenues to other segments
• M
aterial items of income and expense separately
• Amounts of depreciations, amortisation and
disclosed under IAS 1 paragraph 97 (‘exceptional
impairments
items’).
• Items recognised in the income statement which are
• S
hare of results of associates and joint ventures
exceptional by nature
accounted for using the equity method.
• The operating profit for the period
• Income tax.
• M
aterial non – cash items other than depreciation and
amortisation.
Furthermore the entity provides information about
• the classification of their employees;
• the number of employees working outside the
Netherlands.
Article 2:380, 2:382, DAS 350.201-202, 350.207
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IFRS 8.1, 8.23-24
8.8 Earnings per share
Earnings per share (EPS) is a ratio that is widely used
by financial analysts, investors and others to gauge
an entity’s profitability and to value its shares. EPS
is normally calculated in the context of ordinary
shares of the entity. Earnings attributable to ordinary
Scope
shareholders are therefore determined by deducting
from net income the earnings attributable to holders of
more senior equity instruments.
The following comparison has been made based on
the Dutch Civil Code and DAS 340 ‘Earnings per share’
(Dutch GAAP) and IAS 33 ‘Earnings per share’ (IFRS).
Dutch GAAP
IFRS
DAS 340 is only applicable to entities which present
earnings per share in their financial statements.
The objective of IAS 33, ‘Earnings per share’, is to
prescribe principles for determining and presenting
earnings per share (EPS) to improve comparison
between different entities in the same period and
between different accounting periods for the same entity.
As listed entities normally apply IFRS this standard is in
practice only applicable to Dutch non-listed entities that
voluntarily present earning per share in their financial
statements.
The standard applies to entities whose ordinary shares
are listed on a recognised stock exchange, or are
otherwise publicly traded and to entities that are in the
process of issuing such shares in public markets. The
standard also applies to other entities that give EPS
information voluntarily.
DAS 340.101
IAS 33.1-3
Calculation of
basic earnings per
share
Basic EPS is calculated by dividing the profit or loss
attributable to ordinary equity holders by the weighted
average number of ordinary shares outstanding during
the period.
Similar to Dutch GAAP. However IFRS is more specific
with regards to adjustments on the profit used in the
calculation.
The weighted average number of ordinary shares is
calculated as the number outstanding at the beginning
of the period (less treasury shares), adjusted by the timeweighted effect of increases and decreases in ordinary
shares (and treasury shares) issued or bought back in
the period.
Calculation of
diluted earnings
per share
DAS 340.201, 204
IAS 33.10, 33.19-20
Diluted EPS is measured in a similar way to basic EPS
except that the profit and the weighted average number
of ordinary shares is adjusted for the effects of all dilutive
potential ordinary shares. A potential ordinary share is a
financial instrument or other contract that may entitle its
holder to ordinary shares.
Similar to Dutch GAAP although there are small
differences in the treatment of dilutive potential ordinary
shares.
Diluted earnings means the profit or loss adjusted for
the effects of changes in income, expenses, interest
and dividends that would have occurred had the dilutive
potential ordinary shares been converted into ordinary
shares.
Potential ordinary shares are treated as dilutive only if
their conversion into ordinary shares would decrease
earnings per share or increase loss per share from
‘continuing operations’.
IFRS requires that separate EPS figures for discontinued
operations are disclosed in the statement of
comprehensive income or in the notes.
Potential ordinary shares are treated as dilutive only if
their conversion into ordinary shares would decrease
earnings from normal (ordinary) operations (gewone
bedrijfsuitoefening).
Dutch GAAP has does not require separate presentation
of the EPS for discontinued operations.
Restatement of
earnings per share
of prior periods
DAS 340.211, 340.213-214, 340.221-222
IAS 33.5, 33.31-33, 33.41-43, 33.68
Basic and diluted EPS for prior periods should be
restated for bonus issues, share splits and other similar
events. In addition, if such changes occur after the
reporting period, but before the financial statements are
issued, the basic and diluted EPS figures for the year
and for prior periods should be presented on the basis
of the new number of shares. EPS calculations should
also be adjusted for the effects of errors and changes in
accounting policies accounted for retrospectively.
Similar to Dutch GAAP.
DAS 340.301
IAS 33.64
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97
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9. IFRS only
Certain topics are only covered in IFRS and not in Dutch GAAP. Entities that consider the
transition from Dutch GAAP to IFRS should assess whether they are going to fall into the scope
of these standards and if so, take into account the requirements of IFRS 1 ‘First-time adoption of
International Financial Reporting Standards’.
The objective of IFRS 1, is to ensure that an entity’s first IFRS financial statements provide high
quality information that is transparent and comparable over all periods presented, is a suitable
starting point for accounting under IFRS and can be generated at a cost that does not exceed its
benefit to users. The guidance and requirements in IFRS 1 are used when an entity prepares its
first IFRS financial statements. These are the first annual financial statements in which IFRS is
adopted and which contain an explicit and unreserved statement of compliance with IFRSs. The
standard requires companies to select accounting policies that comply with the IFRSs in force
at the closing balance sheet date for the first IFRS financial statements. The selected accounting
policies are applied retrospectively to all of the periods presented in the first IFRS financial
statements.
A. Interim Financial Reporting (IAS 34) Components of an interim financial report
Definition
An interim financial report is a financial report that
contains either a complete set of financial statements or
a set of condensed financial statements for an interim
period. An interim period is a financial reporting period
shorter than a full financial year [IAS34.4].
Scope
There is no IFRS requirement for an entity to prepare
and to publish interim financial statements. IAS 34
‘Interim financial reporting’ applies where an entity
decides to publish interim financial statements in
accordance with IFRS. IAS 34.8 sets out the minimum
content that an interim financial report should contain
and the principles that should be used in recognising
and measuring the transactions and balances included
in that report.
Entities may choose to either prepare full IFRS financial
statements or condensed financial statements, whereby
condensed reporting is the more common approach.
Entities generally use the same accounting policies at
interim dates as those to be used in the current year
annual financial statements [IAS34.28]. However,
there are special measurement requirements for certain
costs that can only be determined on an annual basis
[IAS34.39] and for the use of estimates in the interim
financial statements [IAS34.41].
[IAS34.8, 20]
As a minimum, current period and comparative figures
(condensed or complete) are disclosed as follows:
• B
alance sheet – as of the current interim period end
with comparatives for the immediately preceding
year end.
• S
tatement of comprehensive income (and,
if presented separately, income statement) –
current interim period, financial year to date and
comparatives for the same preceding periods (interim
and year to date).
• C
ash flow statement and statement of changes in
equity – financial year to date with comparatives for
the same year to date period of the preceding year.
• Explanatory notes.
IAS 34 sets out criteria to determine what information
should be disclosed in the interim financial statements.
These include:
• M
ateriality to the overall interim financial statements.
• Unusual or irregular items.
• C
hanges since previous reporting periods that have a
significant effect on the interim financial statements.
• R
elevance to the understanding of estimates used.
The selected explanatory notes to the interim report
should explain significant events and transactions that
have occurred during the interim period and update
the relevant information presented in the most recent
annual financial report.
Similarities and Differences Dutch GAAP vs. IFRS IFRS only
99
The overriding objective is to ensure that an interim
financial report includes all information that is relevant
to understanding an entity’s financial position and
performance during the interim period.
B. Agriculture (IAS 41)
Definition
Agriculture activity is the management by an entity
of the biological transformation and harvest of living
animals or plants (biological assets) for sale, into
agricultural produce, or into additional biological
assets. A biological asset is a living animal or plant
(for example: a sheep) and agricultural produce is the
harvested product of biological assets (for example:
wool) [IAS 41.5].
Recognition and measurement
A biological asset or agricultural produce is recognised
when the entity controls the asset, it is probable that
future economic benefits associated with the asset will
flow to the entity, and the fair value or cost of the asset
can be measured reliably [IAS 41.10].
A biological asset is measured on initial recognition
and at the end of each reporting period at its fair value
less costs to sell, except for the case where the fair
value cannot be measured reliably. This is the case for
biological assets for which market-determined prices
or values are not available and for which alternative
estimates of fair value are determined to be clearly
unreliable. In such cases, biological assets are measured
at cost [IAS 41.12, 41.30].
The agricultural produce harvested from biological
assets is measured at fair value less estimated costs to
sell at the point of harvest. Such measurement is the
cost at that date when applying IAS 2 Inventories or
another applicable standard [41.13].
A gain or loss arising on initial recognition of a
biological asset at fair value less cost to sell and from a
change in fair value less cost to sell of a biological asset
shall be included in the income statement for the period
in which it arises [IAS 41.26]. A gain or loss arising
on initial recognition of agricultural produce at fair
value less costs to sell shall be included in the income
statement for the period in which it arises [41.28].
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C. Exploration for and Evaluation
of Mineral Resources (IFRS 6)
Scope
IFRS 6, ‘Exploration for and evaluation of mineral
resources’, addresses the financial reporting for the
exploration for and evaluation of mineral resources
[IFRS 6.1]. It does not address other aspects of
accounting by entities engaged in the exploration
for and evaluation of mineral reserves [IFRS 6.4].
Activities outside the scope of IFRS 6 are accounted
for according to the applicable standards.
The accounting policy adopted for the recognition
of exploration and evaluation assets should result
in information that is relevant and reliable. As a
concession, certain further rules of IAS 8, ‘Accounting
policies, changes in accounting estimates and errors’,
need not be applied. This permits entities to continue
to apply policies that were followed under national
GAAP that would not comply with the requirements
of IFRS. The accounting policy may be changed only
if the change makes the financial statements more
relevant and no less reliable, or more reliable and no
less relevant.
Classification and measurement
Exploration and evaluation assets are initially measured
at cost [IFRS 6.8] and classified as either tangible
or intangible assets. After recognition, management
applies either the cost model or the revaluation model,
based on IAS 16, ‘Property, plant and equipment’, or
IAS 38, ‘Intangible assets’, according to nature of the
assets [IFRS 6.12]. As soon as technical feasibility and
commercial viability are determined, the assets are no
longer classified as exploration and evaluation assets
[IFRS 6.17].
Impairment
The exploration and evaluation assets are tested for
impairment when facts and circumstances suggest
that the carrying amounts may not be recovered
[IFRS 6.18]. The assets are also tested for impairment
before reclassification out of exploration and evaluation.
Stripping costs
IFRIC 20, ‘Stripping costs in the production phase of a
surface mine’, applies to waste removal costs incurred
in surface mining activity during the production phase
[IFRIC 20.1]. It specifies that an entity should recognise
a stripping activity asset if it can identify the component
of the ore body to which the stripping activity has
improved access, if the associated costs can be measured
reliably and if it is probable that there will be future
economic benefit [IFRIC 20.9]. It these criteria are
not met, the costs should be expensed to the income
statement.
The stripping activity asset is accounted for as an
addition to the existing mine asset and is initially
measured at cost [IFRIC 20.12]. After recognition
the asset is carried at cost or revalued amount less
depreciation and amortisation and less impairment
losses as part of the existing asset [IFRIC 20.14].
D. Service concessions
Service concessions
A service concession arrangement is an arrangement
whereby a government or other public sector body
contracts with a private operator to develop, operate
and maintain infrastructure assets such as roads,
prisons and hospitals [IFRIC 12.2].
The operator receives a financial asset or an intangible
asset [IFRIC 12.15]. The financial asset is recognised
to the extent that the operator has an unconditional
contractual right to receive cash or another financial
asset from or at the direction of the grantor for the
construction services [IFRIC 12.16]. The intangible
asset is recognised to the extent that the operator
receives a right (or license) to charge users of the
public services. The financial and intangible assets
are initially measured at fair value [IFRIC 12.17-18].
They are subsequently measured in accordance with
the applicable IFRS standards for financial instruments
and intangibles respectively.
E. Insurance Contracts (IFRS 4)
Definition
Insurance contracts are contracts where an entity
accepts significant insurance risk from another party
(the policyholder) by agreeing to compensate the
policyholder if the insured event adversely affects the
policyholder. The risk transferred in the contract must
be insurance risk, which is any risk except for financial
risk [IFRS 4 Appendix A].
Current accounting
IFRS 4, ‘Insurance contracts’, applies to all issuers
of insurance contracts whether or not the entity is
legally an insurance company risk [IFRS 4.1,5]. The
current version of IFRS 4 was supposed to be an
interim standard pending the completion of the IASB’s
comprehensive project on insurance contracts. It allows
entities to continue with their existing accounting
policies for insurance contracts if those policies meet
certain minimum criteria. One of the minimum criteria
is that the amount of the insurance liability is subject
to a liability adequacy test. This test considers current
estimates of all contractual and related cash flows. If
the liability adequacy test identifies that the insurance
liability is inadequate, the entire deficiency is recognised
in the income statement [IFRS 4.15].
The interim standard requires detailed disclosures
that provide information that identifies and explains
the amounts in its financial statements arising from
insurance contracts and that enables users of its
financial statements to evaluate the nature and
extent of risks arising from insurance contracts risk
[IFRS 4.36,38].
Developments
Following the 2010 exposure draft (ED), the IASB has
published a revised ED that will fundamentally change
the accounting by all entities that issue insurance
contracts. The IASB has attempted to address concerns
expressed by stakeholders regarding perceived ‘artificial’
volatility resulting from the proposals in the previous
ED. The revised ED will replace IFRS 4, which (as stated
above) currently permits a wide variety of practices
in accounting for insurance contracts. The IASB is
expected to start its re-deliberations early 2014.
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10. Dutch GAAP only
In this chapter an overview is provided of some topics that only relate to Dutch GAAP meaning
that these topics are not applicable for financial statements prepared under IFRS. Nevertheless,
when a company applies IFRS for its financial reporting, Article 2:362.9 prescribes which
articles of Dutch law are applicable on top of the IFRS requirements. Below is an overview of
these articles:
Article / section
Topic
Section 7
Directors’ report (refer to chapter 10B).
Section 8
Other information
Section 9
External audit of the financial statements
Section 10
Publication of the accounts
Article 2:365.2
Disclosure on capitalized costs of incorporation, issuance of shares, research and development
Article 2:373
Disclosure of each part of the equity, rules on forming legal reserves (see chapter 7.2 Equity)
Article 2:383
Disclosure requirements re. directors’ remuneration, loans, advances and guarantees to directors’
Article 2:383b through e
Disclosure requirements re. directors’ remuneration, loans, advances and guarantees to directors’
specific for nv’s
Article 2:389.8
Currency translation adjustments (both positive and negative) in case of translation of participations
from a foreign currency to the functional currency need to be included in a legal reserve
Article 2:389.10
Differences between equity and results in the consolidated and the company accounts need
to be disclosed
Article 2:390
Guidelines when to recognise a revaluation reserve in case of measurement at current value
(including the fact that this is a legal reserve which cannot be distributed)
If a company makes use of the possibility to prepare
the financial statements based on IFRS, section 11
of Book 2 of the Dutch Civil Code is not applicable.
Section 11 describes the exemptions that apply to
small and medium-sized companies, for example the
exemption for small companies to have the financial
statements audited and the exemption for small
companies to prepare a directors’ report. As Section 11
is not applicable if the financial statements are based
on IFRS, these exemptions cannot be applied. Also
refer to chapter 10A ‘Threshold and size criteria of
entities’.
Similarities and Differences Dutch GAAP vs. IFRS Dutch GAAP only
103
A. Threshold and size criteria of entities
Opposite to IFRS, Dutch law distinguishes entities based on size criteria which affects preparation of the financial
statements and filing thereof. Entities are classified as ‘small, medium-sized or large’ on the basis of three criteria,
being total assets, net turnover and the average number of employees (Articles 2:396 and 2:397).
The criteria are summarised in the table below:
Small entity
Medium-sized entity
Large entity
Net turnover (€ '000)
≤ 8,800
> 8,800 and ≤35,000
> 35,000
Total assets (€ '000)
≤ 4,400
> 4,400 and ≤17,500
> 17,500
< 50
≥ 50 and < 250
≥ 250
Employees
An entity is classified as small, medium-sized or large where it satisfies at least two out of three criteria for that
size, and satisfies those criteria for two consecutive years. Newly formed entities are classified in accordance with
the criteria met in its first year. Thereafter, the two consecutive year rule is applied.
Small and medium-sized entities have specific exemptions from preparation requirements and filing
requirements. For example, a medium-sized entity is allowed to begin the income statement with “gross margin”
instead of “net turnover”. For small entities separate standards are issued by the Dutch Accounting Standards
Board. These standards, Dutch Accounting Standards for small entities, include numerous exemptions for
presentation and disclosure, and sometimes also for measurement. Nevertheless small entities need, as a
minimum, to comply with the Dutch Civil Code, Book 2 Part 9.
Net turnover
Net turnover is defined as the income from the supply of goods and services from the business of the entity, after
deduction of rebates and similar discounts and of turnover tax. For accounting periods longer or shorter than one
year, the turnover size criteria are adjusted proportionately.
Total assets
Total assets are defined as the total of all assets consolidated without deduction of any liabilities. The assets
should be measured on a historical cost basis, being the cost of acquisition or production excluding any
revaluations.
Average number of employees
The calculation of the average number of employees is based on persons with a contract of employment with the
entity or group entities, whether part-time or full-time, recalculated on a fulltime basis.
[Article 2:396, 2:397, DAS315, Dutch Accounting Standards for small entities]
104 PwC
B. Directors’ report
Dutch entities that are large or medium-sized have the legal obligation to prepare an annual directors’
report in addition to the financial statements.
The directors’ report is prepared by the managing board on an annual basis. This report:
• does not form part of the financial statements;
• must present a fair view of the financial position, results and future plans of the entity;
• must be consistent with the financial statements; and
• may be prepared in a language other than Dutch, subject to the agreement of the general meeting of
shareholders.
The contents of the directors’ report (Article 2:391) include, amongst others:
• A true and fair view of the financial position at the balance sheet date, developments during the year
and the results for the year.
• A full and balanced analysis of above mentioned aspects this analysis addresses non-financial and financial
performance indicators, results and developments.
• Primary risks and uncertainties under which the entity operates.
• Future developments.
• Details of research and development.
• Details of any significant post balance sheet events not reflected in the financial statements.
• The public limited entity will also state the policy of management and supervisory board remuneration.
• The use of financial instruments by the entity and the result, objectives and policy of the entity for the
financial risk management.
Where the directors’ report is included in a set of consolidated financial statements, the report should cover
the activities and developments of the group as a whole.
[Article 2:391]
C. Public sector accounting
Entities within the public sector are normally not within the scope of Part 9 of Book 2 of the Dutch Civil Code
because of their legal status. In addition to specific public sector laws and regulations, the Dutch Accounting
Standards Board established additional public sector financial reporting standards. These standards mainly
include provisions that give substance to the specific nature of the relevant organizations and in most
circumstances specific formats exist for the balance sheet and the statement of income and expenses.
The current Dutch accounting standards for the public sector are:
• Charities (DAS 640)
• Housing corporations (DAS 645)
• Fundraising institutions (DAS 650)
• Health care institutions (DAS 655)
• Educational institutions (DAS 660)
Commercial foundations and associations however are always directly within the scope of Part 9 of Book 2 of the
Dutch Civil Code. A foundation or association is commercial when the net turnover exceeds a certain threshold.
Similarities and Differences Dutch GAAP vs. IFRS Dutch GAAP only
105
D. Intercompany results
Intercompany transactions can occur between the entity and its subsidiary or associate, or mutually between
subsidiaries or associates of that entity. The recognition of results from intercompany transactions depends on:
• The character of the financial statements (consolidated or separate);
• Whether the transaction is a so-called downstream-, upstream- or side stream transaction; and
• The measurement principle of the group entity that is party in the transaction (at cost or at net asset value).
Certain elements of this Standard are also applicable for IFRS financial statements: according to IFRS
consolidated financial statements eliminate in full intragroup income and expenses relating to transactions
between entities of the group. Dutch GAAP has a similar requirement: results of intercompany transactions
between group entities are eliminated in the consolidated financial statements for the part they are not yet
realized by subsequent transactions with a third party.
Other relevant topics dealt within the Dutch standard: sales transactions with (downstream sale) or between
(side stream sale) non-consolidated associates measured at equity value are recognised in proportion to the
interest of third parties. Results from a sales transaction by a non-consolidated associate to the parent entity
(upstream sale) are recognised only if the underlying has been (re)sold to a third party or if the asset or liability
has been realized by depreciation.
The entity recognises the results of intercompany transactions in the entity financial statements on a proportional
basis, in accordance with the equity method.
[DAS 260, IFRS 10.B86]
106 PwC
Similarities and Differences Dutch GAAP vs. IFRS Dutch GAAP only
107
Appendices
108 PwC
Appendix 1 Balance sheet
Dutch GAAP
(All amounts in € thousands unless otherwise stated)
Consolidated balance sheet as at 31 December 2013
(before profit appropriation)
Assets
Model B
BMJ
31 December 2013
EUR
EUR
DAS 210
DAS 212
DAS 213
DAS 214
Fixed assets
Intangible assets
Property, plant and equipment
Investment property
Financial assets
27,482
118,089
143,818
32,258
31 December 2012
EUR
EUR
22,779
115,136
144,994
41,584
321,647
DAS 220
DAS 221
DAS 222
DAS 226
DAS 228
Current assets
Inventories
Construction contracts
Receivables
Securities
Cash and cash equivalents
9,393
10,040
90,435
6,330
1,590
324,493
8,192
9,027
46,392
5,697
1,835
117,788
71,143
439,435
395,636
Investment property may also be disclosed as property, plant and equipment. Due to the specific
characteristics of this item, separate disclosure of this item is preferred (DAS 213).
Medium-sized companies are exempt from disclosing references in the balance sheet, income
statement and cash flow statement to the relevant notes. However such references are still
recommended (DAS 300.104). No references have been included in this model.
The financial statements have been prepared before profit appropriation. A balance sheet after
profit appropriation may be compiled as well (Section 362(2), Book 2, of the Dutch Civil Code).
The preferred option is, however, to prepare the financial statements before profit appropriation
(DAS 160.208).
The balance sheet has been prepared using format B of the “General Administrative Order on
model formats” (Besluit modellen jaarrekening); format A may also be used (DAS 910.1).
Similarities and Differences Dutch GAAP vs. IFRS Appendices
109
(All amounts in € thousands unless otherwise stated)
Shareholders’ equity and liabilities
DAS 240
DAS 217.501
Group equity
Shareholder's equity
Minority interest
31 December 2013
EUR
EUR
87,838
374
31 December 2012
EUR
EUR
81,613
336
88,212
81,949
99,239
93,251
DAS 254.305 Non-current liabilities
127,127
125,424
DAS 254.303 Current liabilities
124,857
95,012
439,435
395,636
DAS 252
110 PwC
Provisions
IFRS
(All amounts in € thousands unless otherwise stated)
Consolidated balance sheet as at 31 December 2013
31 December 2013
31 December 2012
1p10 (a), 1P38, 1p113 Assets
1p60, 1p66
Non-current assets
1p54(a)
Property, plant and equipment
155,341
100,233
1p54(c)
Intangible assets
26,272
20,700
1p54(e), 28p38
Investments accounted for using the equity
method
13,373
13,244
1p54(o), 1p56
Deferred income tax assets
1p54 (d), IFRS7p8(d)
Available-for-sale financial assets
1p54(d), IFRS7p8(a)
Derivative financial instruments
1p54(h), IFRS7p8(c)
Trade and other receivables
3,520
3,321
17,420
14,910
395
245
2,322
1,352
218,643
154,005
1p60, 1p66
Current assets
1p54(g)
Inventories
24,700
18,182
1p54(h), IFRS7p8(c)
Trade and other receivables
19,765
18,330
1p54(d), IFRS7p8(d)
Available-for-sale financial instruments
1,950
-
1p54(d), IFRS7p8(a)
Derivative financial instruments
1,069
951
1p54(d), IFRS7p8(a)
Financial assets at fair value through profit or loss
11,820
7,972
1p54(i), IFRS7p8
(excluding bank
overdrafts)
Cash and cash equivalents
17,928
34,062
77,232
IFRS5p38, 1p54(p)
Assets of disposal group classified as held for
sale
Total assets
3,3333
79,497
80,565
79,497
299,208
233,502
Similarities and Differences Dutch GAAP vs. IFRS Appendices
111
(All amounts in € thousands unless otherwise stated)
31 december 2013
31 december 2012
Equity and liabilities
1p54(r)
Equity attributable to owners of the parent
1p78(e), 1p54(r)
Ordinary shares
25,300
21,000
1p78(e), 1p55
Share premium
17,144
10,494
1p78(e), 1p55
Other reserves
11,435
7,005
1p78(e), 1p55
Retained earnings
70,006
48,681
123,885
Non-controlling interest
7,888
Total equity
87,180
1,766
131,773
88,946
Liabilities
1p60, 1p69
Non-current liabilities
1p54(m), IFRS7p8(f),
(g)
Borrowings
1p54(m), IFRS7p8(e)
Derivative financial instruments
1p54(o), 1p56
Deferred income tax liabilities
1p78(d)
Post-employment benefits
1p54(l), 1p78(d)
Provisions for other liabilities and charges
115,121
96,346
135
129
12,370
9,053
4,635
2,233
316
274
132,577
1p60, 1p69
Current liabilities
1p54(k), IFRS7p8(f)
Trade and other payables
1p54(n)
Current income tax liabilities
1p54(m), IFRS7p8(f)
Borrowings
1p54(m) IFRS7p8(e)
Derivative financial instruments
1p54(l)
Provisions for other liabilities and charges
16,670
108,305
12,478
2,566
2,771
11,716
18,258
460
618
3,226
2,396
34,638
IFRS5p38, 1p54(p)
Liabilities of disposal group classified as held for
sale
220
34,858
36,521
Total liabilities
167,435
114,556
Total equity and liabilities
299,208
233,502
An entity shall cross-­
reference each item
in the statements of
financial position and of
comprehensive income,
in the separate income
statement (if presented)
and in the statements
of changes in equity
and of cash flows to any
related information in
the notes (IAS1.113). In
the examples the notes –
columns are not included.
112 PwC
36,521
The commentary that follows explains some of the key requirements in IAS 1,
‘Presentation of financial statements’, that impact the balance sheet/statement of financial position.
1. IAS 1 refers to the balance sheet as the ‘statement of financial position’. This title is not mandatory,
so in this example the better-known title of ‘balance sheet’ has retained.
2. Paragraph 54 of IAS 1 sets out the line items that are, as a minimum, required to be presented in
the balance sheet. Additional line items, headings and subtotals are presented in the balance sheet
when this presentation is relevant to an understanding of the entity’s financial position.
3. An entity discloses, either in the balance sheet or in the notes, further subclassifications of the line
items presented, classified in a manner appropriate to the entity’s operations. The detail provided
in sub-classifications depends on the IFRS requirements and on the size, nature and function of the
amounts involved.
4. The presentation and classification of items in the financial statements is retained from one period
to the next unless: (a) it is apparent, following a significant change in the nature of the entity’s
operations or a review of its financial statements, that another presentation or classification would
be more appropriate according to the criteria for selecting and applying accounting policies in IAS 8,
‘Accounting policies, changes in accounting estimates and errors’; or (b) an IFRS requires a change
in presentation.
5. Each material class of similar items is presented separately in the financial statements.
Items of a dissimilar nature or function are presented separately unless they are immaterial.
6. Management should not offset assets and liabilities unless required or permitted to by an IFRS.
Measuring assets net of valuation allowances – for example, obsolescence allowances on
inventories and doubtful debt allowances on receivables – is not offsetting.
Appendix 2 Income statement
The profit and loss statements according to Dutch GAAP and IFRS are provided to highlight the main
differences between the two standards. Under IFRS, the consolidated statement of comprehensive
income may be presented in one statement including the income statement and the other
comprehensive income statement. It is also allowed to present two separate statements (refer to chapter
2 of this brochure). In this appendix the two statement approach is presented. Dutch GAAP does not
distinguish an income statement and another comprehensive income statement. However an ‘Overzicht
Totaalresultaat’ is required in the disclosure notes for large entities.
Dutch GAAP
(All amounts in € thousands unless otherwise stated)
Consolidated income statement for the year ended 31 December 2013
BMJ
Model F
2013
EUR
DAS 270.201 Net turnover
DAS 270.3
Cost of sales
Gross profit
DAS 270.3
DAS 270.3
2012
EUR
EUR
98,732
59,424
86,914
58,893
39,308
Selling expenses
General and administrative expenses
Total costs
EUR
9,606
280
28,021
10,029
277
9,886
10,306
29,422
17,715
Other operating income
DAS 213.504 Movements in the value of investment property
DAS 240.407 Amounts released from revaluation reserves
DAS 273
Financial income / expense
188
(220)
220
(2,211)
182
(198)
198
5,989
Result from ordinary activities before taxation
DAS 272.502 Income tax expense
DAS 214.307 Share of profit of associates
27,399
(5,478)
1,067
23,886
(4,900)
167
22,988
19,153
Operating profit/(loss)
Result from ordinary activities after taxation
DAS 217.501 Minority interests
(999)
Profit/(loss) after taxation
21,989
(899)
18,254
The income statement has been prepared using cost categorisation by function; format F of
GAO on model formats (Besluit modellen jaarrekening). This format does not include employee
benefits expenses and amortisation and depreciation expenses; these must be disclosed
separately in the notes. Another available format is E, the format by category (RJ 910.1).
Similarities and Differences Dutch GAAP vs. IFRS Appendices
113
IFRS
(The amounts are not included in these statements)
Consolidated income statement1 for the year ended 31 December 2013
2013
1p10(b), 1p113, 1p38
2012
Continuing operations
1p82(a)
Revenue
1p99, 1p103
Cost of sales
1p103
Gross profit²
1p99, 1p103
Distribution costs
1p99, 1p103
Administrative expenses
1p99, 1p103
Other income
1p85
Other (losses)/gains – net
1p85
Operating profit²
1p85
Finance income
1p82(b)
Finance costs
1p85
Finance costs – net
1p82(c)
Share of profit of investments accounted
for using the equity method
1p85
Profit before income tax
1p82(d), 12p77
Income tax expense
1p85
Profit for the year from continuing operations
IFRS5p33(a)
Discontinued operations
Profit for the year from discontinued operations
(attributable to owners of the parent)
1p81A(a)
Profit for the year
1p81B(a)(ii)
1p81B(a)(i),
IFRS12p12(e)
Profit attributable to:
Owners of the parent
Non-controlling interests
¹ This income statement expenses by function.
² IAS 1 does not prescribe the disclosure of operating profit and gross profit on the face of the income statement. However, entities are not prohibited from
disclosing this or a similar line term.
This example does not include earnings per share information as this is only required for entities whose ordinary shares are traded in a public market and certain
other entities. Also refer to chapter 8.8 Earnings per share.
114 PwC
Profit for the year
2013
2012
Other comprehensive income:
1p82A
Items that will not be reclassified to profit or loss
16p39
Gains on revaluation of land and buildings
19p93B
Remeasurements of post employment benefit
obligations
1p82A
Items that may be subsequently reclassified
to profit or loss
IFRS7p20(a) (ii)
Change in value of available-for-sale financial
assets
IFRS3p59
Reclassification of revaluation of previously held
interest in ABC Group
1p85
Impact of change in foreign tax rate on deferred
tax
IFRS7p23(c)
Cash flow hedges
1p85
Net investment hedge
21p52(b)
Currency translation differences
1p82A
Share of other comprehensive income of investments accounted for using the equity method
Other comprehensive income for the year,
net of tax
1p81A(c)
Total comprehensive income for the year
1p81B(b)(ii)
1p81B(b)(i)
IFRS5p33(d)
Attributable to:
- Owners of the parent
- Non-controlling interests
Total comprehensive income attributable to
equity shareholders arises from:
- Continuing operations
- Discontinued operations
Items in the statement above are disclosed net of tax. The income tax relating to each component of
other comprehensive income is disclosed in note xx.
Similarities and Differences Dutch GAAP vs. IFRS Appendices
115
The key requirements in IAS 1, ‘Presentation of financial statements’, and other requirements that
impact the income statement/statement of comprehensive income, are explained below’.
1. Entities have a choice of presenting a statement of profit and loss and other comprehensive
income:
a) An entity may present a single statement of profit or loss and other comprehensive income,
with profit or loss and other comprehensive income presented in two sections. The sections
shall be presented together, with the profit or loss section presented first followed directly by
the other comprehensive income section; or
b) An entity may present the profit or loss section in a separate statement of profit or loss. If so,
the separate statement of profit or loss shall immediately precede the statement presenting
comprehensive income, which shall begin with profit or loss.
The main difference between these two options is that in option (a), profit for the year is
shown as a sub-total rather than the ‘bottom line’, and the statement continues down to total
comprehensive income for the year.
2. T
he statement of profit and loss and other comprehensive income shall include:
a) profit or loss
b) total other comprehensive income
c) comprehensive income for the period, being the total of (a) and (b)
3. T
he profit or loss section or the statement of profit and loss includes, as a minimum, the following
line items: a) Revenue;
b) finance costs;
c) share of the profit or loss of associates and joint ventures accounted for using the equity
method;
d) tax expense
e) a single amount for the total of discontinued operations.
4. A
dditional line items, headings and subtotals are presented in the statement of comprehensive
income and the income statement (where presented) when such presentation is relevant to an
understanding of the entity’s financial performance.
5. W
hen items of income and expense are material, their nature and amount is disclosed separately
either in the income statement or in the notes. Some entities provide this information in the
income statement in the form of additional analysis boxes or columns.
116 PwC
Appendix 3 Cash flow statement
The cash flow statement is not dealt with in the Dutch Civil Code, but in the Dutch Accounting
Standards. According to DAS 360 a cash flow statement is mandatory for large and medium-sized
entities.
Dutch GAAP
(All amounts in € thousands unless otherwise stated)
Consolidated cash flow statement
2013
EUR
DAS 360.209 Cash flow from operating activities
Operating profit/(loss)
DAS 360.212 Adjustments for:
DAS 210.401
DAS 212.417 Depreciation, amortisation and other impairments
Movements in provisions
DAS 213.504 Changes in value of investment property
EUR
2012
EUR
29,422
1,599
5,988
(220)
17,715
2,402
(5,988)
(198)
7,367
DAS 360.212 Changes in working capital:
Inventories
Construction contracts
Receivables
Securities
Current liabilities (exclusive of finance balances)
(1,201)
(1,013)
(44,043)
(633)
28,359
DAS 360.216 Cash generated from operations
DAS 360.213
DAS 360.214
DAS 360.213
DAS 360.213
Interest received
Income tax paid
Interest paid
Dividends received
Net cash generated from operating activities
EUR
(3,784)
1,201
1,013
5,846
633
(28,359)
(18,531)
(19,666)
18,258
(5,735)
349
(5,478)
(1,957)
1,236
8,289
(4,900)
(1,869)
167
(5,850)
1,687
12,408
(4,048)
Similarities and Differences Dutch GAAP vs. IFRS Appendices
117
2013
EUR
DAS 360.217
DAS 210.203
DAS 212.301
DAS 213.301
DAS 214
DAS 210.424
DAS 212.501
DAS 212.703
DAS 214
Cash flow from investing activities
Acquisition of group companies
Purchases of intangible assets
Purchases of property, plant and equipment
Acquisition of investment property
Investments in subsidiaries
Net investment in other financial assets
Disposal of group companies
Disposal of intangible assets
Proceeds from sale of property,
plant and equipment
Proceeds from sale of investment property
Disposal of other financial assets
Net cash used in financing activities
Net cash flows
DAS 122.207
Exchange gains/(losses) on cash and cash
equivalents
Net increase/(decrease) in cash
and cash equivalents
Movements in cash and cash equivalents can be broken down as follows:
Balance as at 1 January
Movements during the year
Balance as at 31 December
2012
EUR
(1,610)
(5,132)
(16,667)
(1,293)
(1,750)
(2,254)
0
1,000
0
0
0
0
0
0
1,610
0
12,194
2,300
13,370
0
0
0
Net cash used in investing activities
DAS 360.220 Cash flow from financing activities
DAS 240.403 Proceeds from issuance of shares
DAS 240.403 Dividends paid
Proceeds from borrowings
Movements in amounts owed to credit institutions
EUR
158
82
(1,824)
2,699
490
EUR
1,610
(82)
(334)
7,475
(490)
1,447
6,569
(2,708)
122
13
123
(245)
245
1,835
(245)
1,590
245
1,590
1,835
The cash flow statement has been prepared using the indirect method. The operating result
is (when using the indirect method) preferred in DAS (DAS 360.212). Model F for the cost
categorisation by function is used in this specimen (GAO on model formats). From this model,
the operating result can be calculated as the net turnover result + / + other revenue. In case
that the categorical model E is applied: total revenue - / - total operating expenses. For further
details concerning the realisation of the individual items in the cash flow statement we refer to
DAS 360. The appendix to DAS 360 also includes a detailed example of a cash flow statement
and the notes to be included.
For simplicity reasons some assumptions have been made, for example the fact that the
corporate income tax paid is equal to the amount that has been expensed in the income
statement.
118 PwC
IFRS
The cash flow statement according to IFRS is a mandatory integral part of the financial
statements (primary statement). The IFRS model is not separately presented as it resembles the
Dutch GAAP model. As under Dutch GAAP but the direct and the indirect method are allowed
although the use of the direct method is encouraged. Differences may arise with regard to
presentation of interest and dividends. Refer to the table below and to chapter 2.1 Primary
statements and notes.
As a general principle cash flows related to interest and dividends should be reported
consistently in operating, investing or financing activities.
There is no consensus on the classification of interest and dividend for entities other than
financial institutions. Interest paid and interest and dividends received may be classified
as operating cash flows because they enter into the determination of net profit or loss.
Alternatively, interest paid and interest and dividends received may be classified as financing
cash flows and investing cash flows respectively, because they are costs of obtaining financial
resources or returns on investments.
Operational
Interest paid
Interest received
Dividend paid
Dividend received
•
•
•
•
IFRS (IAS7p31 onwards)
Investing
Financing
•
•
•
•
Dutch GAAP (DAS 360.213, 214)
Operational
Investing
Financing
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Similarities and Differences Dutch GAAP vs. IFRS Appendices
119
Appendix 4 Statement of changes in equity
The statement of changes in equity is a primary statement according to IFRS. In Dutch GAAP,
however, this statement is not a primary statement, although a similar statement is disclosed in the
notes to the balance sheet (art. 378 BW2 T9).
IFRS
(All amounts in € thousands unless otherwise stated)
Consolidated statement of changes in equity
Attributable to owners of the parent
1p109(c),
1p108, 1p109,
1p113
1p106(d)(i)
1p106(d)(ii)
1p106(a)
IFRS2p50
1p106(d)(iii)
1p106(d)(iii)
1p106(d)(i)
1p106(d)(ii)
1p106(a)
Balance as at 1 January 2011
Profit for the year
Other comprehensive
income for the year²
Total comprehensive
income for the year
Value of employee services
Tax credit relating
to share option scheme
Proceeds from shares issued
Dividends
Total contribution by and
distributions to owners of the
parent, recognised directly in
equity
Balance as at
31 December 2011
Balance at 1 January 2012
Profit for the year
Other comprehensive
income for the year²
Total comprehensive
income for the year
85,258
15,512
Noncontrolling
interest
1,5
856
86,758
16,368
(407)
234
(40)
194
641
15,105
15,746
816
16,562
-
-
822
822
-
822
1,000
-
70
-
-
20
(15,736)
20
1,070
(15,736)
(550)
20
1,070
(16,286)
1,000
70
-
(14,894)
(13,824)
(550)
(14,374)
21,000
10,494
7,005
48,681
87,180
1,766
88,946
21,000
-
14,494
-
7,005
-
48,681
30,617
87,180
30,617
1,766
2,548
88,946
33,165
-
-
2,261
90
2,351
252
2,603
-
-
2,261
30,707
32,968
2,800
35,768
Share
capital
Share
premium
Other
reserves¹
Retained
earnings
Total
20,000
-
10,424
-
6,364
-
48,470
15,512
-
-
641
-
-
28
-
28
26
34
Notes
Total
equity
¹ Individual reserves can be grouped into ‘other reserves’ in the statement of changes in equity if these are similar in nature and can be regarded as
a component of equity. If the individual reserves are not shown in the statements of changes in equity, and analyses should be given in the notes.
² Companies can implement this by either (a) showing each line item of other comprehensive income separately in the above statement; or (b) by
having a single-line presentation of other comprehensive income (as shown above) plus a separate note showing an analyses of each item of other
comprehensive income over for each component of equity.
120 PwC
Attributable to owners of the parent
IFRS2p50
1p106(d)(iii)
1p106(d)(iii)
1p106(d)(iii)
1p106(d)(iii)
1p106(d)(iii)
1p106(d)(iii)
Notes
Share
capital
Share
premium
Other
reserves¹
Retained
earnings
Total
28
-
-
-
690
690
Noncontrolling
interest
-
28
-
-
-
30
30
-
30
26
29
750
-
200
-
(2,564)
-
950
(2,564)
-
950
(2,564)
26
3,550
6,450
-
-
10,000
-
10,000
29
34
-
-
5,433
-
(10,102)
5,433
(10,102)
(1,920)
5,433
(12,022)
4,300
6,650
2,869
(9,382)
4,437
(1,920)
2,517
39
-
-
-
-
-
4,542
4,542
40
-
-
(800)
-
(800)
(300)
(1,100)
40
-
-
100
-
100
1,000
1,100
4,300
6,650
2,869
(9,382)
4,437
2,622
7,059
25,300
17,144
11,435
70,006
123,885
7,888
131,773
Value of employee services
Tax credit relating to
share option scheme
Proceeds from shares issued
Purchase of treasury shares
Issue of ordinary shares related
to business combination
Convertible bond –
equity component
Dividends
Total contributions by and
distributions to owners of the
parent, recognised directly in
equity
Non-controlling interest arising
on business combination
Acquisition of non-controlling
interest in XYZ Group
Sale of interest to non-controlling
interest in Red Limited
Total transactions with
owners, recognised directly
in equity
Balance as at
31 December 2012
Total
equity
690
Dividends
The amount of dividends recognised as distributions to owners during the period and the related
amount per share are presented either in the statement of changes in equity or in the notes.
Dividends cannot be displayed in the statement of comprehensive income or income statement.
Non-controlling interest
Information to be included in the statement of changes in equity includes:
a)Total comprehensive income for the period, showing separately the total amounts attributable to
equity holders of the company and to non-controlling interest.
b)For each component of equity, the effects of retrospective application or retrospective
restatement recognised in accordance with IAS 8.
c)For each component of equity, a reconciliation between the carrying amount at the beginning
and the end of the period, separately disclosing changes resulting from:
i) profit or loss;
ii) other comprehensive income; and
iii)transactions with owners in their capacity as owners, showing separately contributions by and
distributions to owners and changes in ownershipinterests in subsidiaries that do not result in
loss of control.
For each component of equity, the analysis of other comprehensive income by item may be presented
either in the statement of changes in equity or disclosed within the notes.
Similarities and Differences Dutch GAAP vs. IFRS Appendices
121
122 PwC
Similarities and Differences Dutch GAAP vs. IFRS Chapter
123
© 2014 PricewaterhouseCoopers Accountants N.V. (Dutch Chamber of Commerce 34180285). All rights reserved. 2014.01.01.01.1. PwC refers to
the PwC network and/or one or more of its member firms, each of which is a separate legal entity. Please see www.pwc.com/structure for further details.
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