HTTP Status Codes A

HTTP Status Codes A
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HTTP Status Codes
100 Continue code, 400–402, 410–411
101 Switching Protocols code, 411
110 Response is stale code, 503
111 Revalidation failed code, 503
112 Disconnected operation code, 503
113 Heuristic expiration code, 503
199 Miscellaneous warning code, 503
200 OK code, 411
201 Created code, 411–412
202 Accepted code, 412
203 Non-authoritative Information code, 412
204 No Content code, 412–413
205 Reset Content code, 413
206 Partial Content code, 413–414
214 Transformation applied code, 503–504
299 Miscellaneous persistent warning code,
504
300 Multiple Choices code, 414–415
301 Moved Permanently code, 415
302 Found code, 415–416
303 See Other code, 416
304 Not Modified code, 416–417
305 Use Proxy code, 417
307 Temporary Redirect code, 417–418
400 Bad Request code, 418
401 Unauthorized code, 186, 418–419
403 Forbidden code, 186, 419
404 Not Found code, 419
405 Method Not Allowed code, 419
406 Not Acceptable code, 419–420
407 Proxy Authentication Required code, 186,
420
408 Request Timeout code, 420
409 Conflict code, 420–421
410 Gone code, 421
411 Length Required code, 421
412 Precondition Failed code, 421
413 Request Entity Too Large code, 422
414 Request-URI Too Long code, 422
415 Unsupported Media Type code, 422
416 Requested Range Not Satisfiable code,
422
417 Expectation Failed code, 423
500 Internal Server Error code, 423
501 Not Implemented code, 423
502 Bad Gateway code, 423
503 Service Unavailable code, 423–424
504 Gateway Timeout code, 424
505 HTTP Version Not Supported code, 424
# (signs)
for comments, 25
HTTP rules, 367
A
AAA (Access, Authentication, and
Authorization), 177
access denial in, 186–187
in Apache 1.x/2.0, 182
in Apache 2.1/2.2, 182–185
authentication in, 186–187
logic in, 185–186
login schemes in, 195–199
531
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AAA (Access, Authentication, and
Authorization), continued
modules for, 187–188
authentication function, 190–192
basic authentication providers, 188–190,
193–195
configuration, 193
digest authentication providers, 193–195
overview, 180–181
summary, 199–200
Abnormal running, modules dealing with,
337–338
absoluteURI option, 389
abstract in HTTP/1.1 specification, 358
Accept request-header field, 159, 453–455,
507
Accept-Charset request-header field, 455–456
Accept-Encoding request-header field,
456–457
Accept-Language request-header field, 159,
382, 457–458
Accept-Ranges response-header field, 459
Accepted status code, 412
Access
AAA. See AAA (Access, Authentication, and
Authorization)
denying, 186–187
in HTTP/1.1 specification, 424
access_checker hook
in host-based access control, 183
purpose, 45
in request processing, 155–156
ACCESS_CONF option, 246
Acknowledgments in HTTP/1.1 specification,
510–512, 530
AddHandler directive, 42
AddLanguage directive, 159
AddOutputFilter directive, 211
AddOutputFilterByType directive, 211
Age calculations in cache expiration model,
434–436
Index
Age of responses in HTTP/1.1 specification,
363
Age response-header field, 459
Agent-driven content negotiation, 425–427
Alias directive, 157–158
Allow directive, 182
Allow entity-header field, 459–460
Ampersands (&) for key/value pairs, 138
Anonymous authentication, 193
ap_ header files, 39
ap_check_cmd_context function, 255
ap_check_command_context function, 256
ap_config.h file, 268
ap_dbd API, 290, 302–303
ap_dbd_acquire function, 283–284, 286–287,
302–303
ap_dbd_cacquire function, 287, 302–303
ap_dbd_close function, 283, 287, 302
ap_dbd_open function, 282, 287, 302–303
ap_dbd_prepare function, 287, 302, 304
ap_dbd_t type, 302
ap_destroy_sub_req function, 164, 167
AP_FILTER_PROTO_CHANGE field, 216
AP_FILTER_PROTO_CHANGE_LENGTH
field, 216
AP_FILTER_PROTO_NO_BYTERANGE
field, 216
AP_FILTER_PROTO_NO_CACHE field, 217
AP_FILTER_PROTO_NO_PROXY field, 217
AP_FILTER_PROTO_TRANSFORM field,
217
ap_filter_protocol function, 216
ap_filter_rec_t type, 209–210
ap_filter_t type, 67, 208–209
AP_FTYPE_CONNECTION filters, 204
AP_FTYPE_CONTENT_SET filters, 203–204
AP_FTYPE_NETWORK filters, 204
AP_FTYPE_PROTOCOL filters, 203
AP_FTYPE_RESOURCE filters, 203–204
AP_FTYPE_TRANSCODE filters, 204
ap_get_brigade function, 137
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ap_get_module_config function, 144
ap_getword_conf function, 250
ap_hook_access_checker hook, 181
ap_hook_auth_checker hook, 181
ap_hook_check_user_id hook, 181
ap_hook_fatal_exception hooks, 336
ap_hook_handler function, 268–269
ap_hook_monitor function, 337–338
ap_hook_translate_name function, 268
ap_hook_type_checker function, 269
AP_IMPLEMENT_EXTERNAL_HOOK_RU
N_ALL macro, 268
AP_IMPLEMENT_EXTERNAL_HOOK_RU
N_FIRST macro, 268
AP_IMPLEMENT_EXTERNAL_HOOK_VOI
D macro, 268
AP_INIT_FLAG macro, 246–247
AP_INIT_ITERATE macro, 247–248
AP_INIT_ITERATE2 macro, 247–250
AP_INIT_NO_ARGS macro, 246
AP_INIT_RAW_ARGS macro, 247, 250, 258
AP_INIT_TAKE1 macro, 242–243, 246
AP_INIT_TAKE2 macro, 247
AP_INIT_TAKE3 macro, 247
AP_INIT_TAKE12 macro, 247
ap_internal_fast_redirect function, 162
ap_internal_redirect function, 161
ap_log_cerror function, 324–325
ap_log_error function, 324–325
ap_log_perror function, 324–325
ap_log_rerror function, 324–325
ap_lookup_provider function, 275
ap_meets_conditions function, 146
AP_MODE_GETLINE mode, 231
AP_MODE_READBYTES mode, 231
ap_pass_brigade function, 137, 205, 221
ap_pcfg_open_custom function, 261
ap_provider API, 272–277
ap_provider.h header file, 41
ap_register_output_filter_protocol function,
216
533
ap_run_sub_req function, 164
ap_set_content_type function, 125, 211
ap_set_file_slot function, 245
ap_set_flag_slot function, 247
ap_set_module_config function, 283
ap_some_auth_required function, 186
ap_sub_req_lookup_dirent function, 164
ap_sub_req_lookup_file function, 164
ap_sub_req_lookup_uri function, 164
ap_sub_req_method_uri function, 164
Apache 1
AAA in, 182
history, 1–2
Apache 2
AAA in, 182
connection pooling in, 291–292
history, 2–3
Apache 2.2
AAA in, 182–185
smart filtering in, 211–217
Apache Bugzilla database, 10
#apache chat channel, 17
Apache license, 12–14, 343
accepting warranty or additional liability conditions, 347
applying, 347–348
definitions, 343–345
disclaimer of warranty, 346–347
grant of copyright license, 345
grant of patent license, 345
limitation of liability, 347
redistribution provisions, 345–346
submission of contributions, 346
trademarks, 346
Apache Module Developers mailing list, 16
#apache-modules chat channel, 17
Apache Portable Runtime (APR), 53–54
apr_status_t and return values, 58
APU library, 56–57
buckets and brigades, 74–75
conditional compilation, 59
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Apache Portable Runtime (APR), continued
data structures, 70–73
databases, 79–83
declaration macros, 58
developers list for, 16
encoding and cryptography, 76–77
extensions, 79
filesystems, 76
internationalization, 69
libraries, 21
modules, 54–55
namespacing, 57–58
networks, 76
pools, 29, 78–79
basic memory management, 61–62
connection, 290–292
generalized memory management, 62–63
implicit and explicit cleanup, 63–64
lifetime, 65–67
limitations, 68
subpools, 98
processes and threads, 78
reference manual, 57
resource management, 59
lifetime, 65–67
pool limitations, 68
pools, 61–64
problem of, 60–61
strings and formats, 69
summary, 83–84
time and date, 70
URI handling, 77
Apache Software Foundation (ASF), 3–6
ApacheCon conferences, 17
APLOG_DEBUG level, 326
APLOG_INFO level, 326–327
APLOG_MARK macro, 325
APLOG_TOCLIENT level, 325
Appendices in HTTP specification
additional features, 524–525
HTTP entities vs. RFC 2045 entities,
521–524
Index
Internet media types
message/http and application/http, 518–519
multipart/byteranges, 519–520
tolerant applications, 520–521
application/http type, 518–519
application/x-www-form-urlencoded format,
138
Applications, tolerant, 520–521
Applications development
Apache history, 1–3
Apache Software Foundation, 3–6
codebase, 7–9
developers, 10–11
forums, 9–10
further reading, 16–19
intellectual property in, 12–16
participation in forums, 11
process, 6
summary, 19
APR. See Apache Portable Runtime (APR)
apr_ header files, 39
apr_allocator function, 106
apr_array_header_t type, 70
#apr chat channel, 17
apr_conf_vector_t type, 29
apr_date module, 70
apr_dbd API, 82–83, 290, 292–294
database operations in, 294–298
functions in, 298–301
apr_dbd_check_conn function, 299
apr_dbd_close function, 298
apr_dbd_driver_t type, 294, 307–308
apr_dbd_error function, 298, 301
apr_dbd_escape function, 301
apr_dbd_get_driver function, 298
apr_dbd_get_entry function, 300
apr_dbd_get_name function, 300
apr_dbd_get_row function, 297, 300
apr_dbd.h file, 298
apr_dbd_init function, 298
apr_dbd_internal.h file, 307–308
apr_dbd_name function, 298
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apr_dbd_native function, 293
apr_dbd_native_handle function, 298
apr_dbd_num_cols function, 300
apr_dbd_num_tuples function, 300
apr_dbd_open function, 298
apr_dbd_pquery function, 295, 301
apr_dbd_prepare function, 296, 301
apr_dbd_prepared_t type, 294, 308
apr_dbd_pselect function, 295, 301
apr_dbd_pvquery function, 295, 301
apr_dbd_pvselect function, 295, 301
apr_dbd_query function, 295, 299
apr_dbd_results_t type, 294
apr_dbd_row_t type, 294, 308
apr_dbd_select function, 295–296, 300
apr_dbd_set_dbname function, 299
apr_dbd_t type, 294, 308
APR_DBD_TRANSACTION_COMMIT
mode, 297
apr_dbd_transaction_end function, 299
APR_DBD_TRANSACTION_IGNORE_ERR
ORS mode, 297
apr_dbd_transaction_mode_get function, 299
apr_dbd_transaction_mode_set function, 299
APR_DBD_TRANSACTION_ROLLBACK
mode, 297
apr_dbd_transaction_start function, 299
apr_dbd_transaction_t type, 294, 308
apr_dbm.h file, 80
apr_dbm module, 80–81, 106
APR_DECLARE_EXTERNAL_HOOK macro,
270
APR_DECLARE macro, 58, 284
apr_file_info module, 76
apr_file_io module, 76
apr_filepath function, 111
apr_fnmatch module, 76
apr_global_mutex function, 78, 102
APR_HASH_KEY_STRING macro, 73
apr_hash module, 70
apr_hash_t type, 72
535
APR_HOOK_FIRST macro, 171, 269
APR_HOOK_LAST macro, 269
APR_HOOK_MIDDLE macro, 269
APR_HOOK_REALLY_FIRST macro, 269
APR_HOOK_REALLY_LAST macro, 269
apr_hooks.h file, 268, 270
apr_hooks module, 79
apr_iconv library, 69
APR_IMPLEMENT_EXTERNAL_HOOK_R
UN_ALL macro, 271
APR_IMPLEMENT_OPTIONAL_HOOK_R
UN_ALL macro, 270
apr_memcache module, 106
apr_mmap module, 76
apr_network_io module, 76
apr_off_t type, 231
apr_optional_hooks.h file, 268, 270
apr_optional_hooks module, 79
apr_optional module, 79
apr_palloc function, 286
apr_poll module, 76
apr_pool_cleanup function, 280
apr_pool_cleanup_kill function, 63–64
apr_pool_cleanup_register function, 64, 283
apr_pool_cleanup_run function, 64
apr_pool_clear function, 99
apr_pool_t type, 29
apr_proc_mutex function, 78, 102
apr_queue_create function, 73
apr_queue module, 70
apr_queue_t type, 73
apr_read_type_e, 231
apr_reslist_create function, 278
apr_reslist_destroy function, 278
apr_reslist module, 78
implementing, 278–284
for resource reuse, 99
apr_ring module, 70, 73
apr_rmm module, 105–106
apr_shm function, 78, 104–105
apr_signal function, 78
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536
apr_status_t type, 58, 165–166, 298
apr_strings module, 69
apr_strmatch module, 69
apr_table_addn function, 71
apr_table_merge function, 72
apr_table_mergen function, 72
apr_table module, 70
apr_table_overlap function, 72
apr_table_set function, 72
apr_table_setn function, 71–72
apr_table_t type, 71
apr_thread_cond function, 78
apr_thread_mutex function, 78
apr_thread_proc function, 78
apr_thread_rwlock function, 78
apr_time_from_sec macro, 70
apr_time module, 70
apr_time_sec macro, 70
apr_time_t type, 70
apr_uri module, 77
apr_uri_parse function, 77
apr_uri_t type, 77
apr_uri_unparse function, 77
APR-UTIL (APU) library, 56–57
apr_xlate module, 69
APU_MODULE_DECLARE_DATA module,
307
apvfs library, 76
apxs utility, 128
Architecture. See Platform and architecture
ARRAY_merge function, 254–255
Arrays, 70–71
Articles, websites for, 19
ASF (Apache Software Foundation), 3–6
ASF members, 5
#asfinfra chat channel, 17
Asterisks (*) in HTTP rules, 367
Attribute/value pairs in transfer codings, 376
Audits for intellectual property violations, 16
Augmented BNF, 366–368
auth_checker hook, 45, 155–156
AuthDBDUserPWQuery, 304
Authentication
AAA. See AAA (Access, Authentication, and
Authorization)
in Apache 2.1/2.2, 183–184
basic, 178–179
cookies for, 198–199
credentials, 509
digest, 179, 193–195
HTTP/1.1 specification, 424
methods, 187
in mod_authn_dbd, 304
providers, 188–190, 193–195
Require directive, 186
Web login, 180
Authentication dialog, 179–180
authn_dbd_password function, 305
authn_dbd_prepare function, 304–305
authn_provider structure, 194
Author addresses in HTTP/1.1 specification,
516–518
Authorization
AAA. See AAA (Access, Authentication, and
Authorization)
in Apache 2.1/2.2, 184–185
Authorization field, 460–461
authz_dbd_login function, 270–271
B
Backports, 8
Backslash characters (\) in HTTP, 369
Backus-Naur Form (BNF), 366–368
Bad Gateway status code, 423
Bad Request status code, 418
Bars (|) in HTTP rules, 366
Basic authentication, 178–179
Basic authentication providers, 188–190,
193–195
Basic rules in HTTP, 368
Binary exponential backoff algorithm,
402–403
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block argument for filters, 208
Blocking for input filters, 231
Blocks, coding, 86–87
BNF (Backus-Naur Form), 366–368
Bodies
entities, 395
HTTP messages, 385–386
Braces ({}) for blocks, 86
Branches in code repository, 7
Breakpoints, 329–330
Brigades, 74–75, 132-137, 210-211, 217-227
Broken connections, 138 debugging, 339–340
Browsers
authentication dialogs for, 197–199
delays and broken connections in, 339–340
Buckets, 74–75
for handlers 132-137
for filters, 217–227
metadata, 205
for rings, 73
Buffer overflows, 109
Bugzilla database, 10
Builds
cross-platform, 284–288
forum participation for, 11
Byte ranges
for cache responses, 448
working with, 492–493
in apache, 203
C
C language
stubs, 122
wrappers, 63
C++ language
for pools, 64
throw/catch structures, 116
Cache-Control general-header field, 431,
461–462
basic expiration mechanism for, 464–466
537
cacheable responses for, 463–464
extensions, 470
revalidation and reload controls for, 466–469
Cacheable responses in HTTP/1.1 specification, 362
Caches
in HTTP, 362, 427–428
client-controlled behavior for, 432
control mechanisms for, 431
correctness of, 429
errors in, 450
expiration model, 433–438
history lists, 452–453
invalidation in, 451–452
for negotiated responses, 449–450
replacement of, 452
response cacheability, 444–445
responses from, 445–448
security considerations, 509–510
shared and non-shared, 450
side effects in, 451
validation model, 438–444
warnings for, 430–432
write-through mandatory, 452
for pools, 96
in request processing, 160
for shared memory, 104
Calculations in cache expiration model,
434–437
Callback functions
for filters, 205
for modules, 125–126
Canonical form
conversion to, 522
media types, 379–380
case statements, 87
CGI (Common Gateway Interface), 123, 291
Character sets
in HTTP/1.1 specification, 374–375
in RFC 2068, 528
Chat for developers, 9, 17
check_password function, 194
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check_user_id hook
for authentication, 183–184, 190
purpose, 45
in request processing, 155–156
child_init function
for garbage collection, 96
for reslist, 281
for threads, 93–94, 117
Child pools, 67
chroot command, 113
Chunked transfer coding, 204, 377–378
CLA (Contributor License Agreement), 15
corporate, 353–356
individual, 349–353
Classic LAMP Model, 291
Cleanup, pool, 63–64
client_cookie function, 271
Client error 4xx status code definitions,
418–423
client_login function, 270
Clients and client behavior
for caches, 432
in HTTP/1.1 specification, 361
idle, 509
for prematurely closed connections, 402–403
Clockless origin server operation, 479–480
cmd_parms_struct structure, 243
Codebase, 7
Coding, 85
blocks, 86–87
comments, 87–88
declarations, 87
flow control, 87
forum participation for, 11
functions, 86
lines, 86
Combining cache response headers, 447–448
<Comment> container, 258
Comments
coding, 87–88
in containers, 25
HTTP, 368–369
Index
COMMIT for transactions, 297
Commit-Then-Review (CTR) code, 8
Committers in Apache Software Foundation, 5
Common Gateway Interface (CGI), 123, 291
Communicating between modules, 90–92
Comparisons, URI, 372
Compatibility of HTTP versions, 525–529
Compilation
conditional, 59
module, 128
Complex parsing, filters for, 221–225
Complexity in handler vs. filter decisions, 47
compress encoding format, 376
Compression and decompression, 49, 203,
232-235
Conditional compilation, 59, 284-288
Conferences for developers, 17
Configuration 237-262
AAA modules, 193
basics, 41–42
filters, 213–215
modules. See Modules
pools, 66
in start-up phase, 23–25
Configuration data
scope of, 89
in thread-safe programming, 92
Configuration records, 29
Configuration vectors, 88
Conflict status code, 420–421
Conflicts
directives, 238
in httpd.conf, 251–253
conn_rec object, 29
definition, 37–38
for filters, 203
CONNECT method, 410
Connection general-header field, 470–471
Connections
debugging, 339–340
filters, 203–204
HTTP/1.0 compatibility with, 526–527
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HTTP/1.1, 359
message transmission requirements, 400–403
persistent, 396–400, 526–527
pooling, 67, 290–292
scope of, 90
Constructor/destructor model, 60
Containers, 24–25
context checking, 255–257
custom, 257–261
merging, 251–254
Content-Base in RFC 2068, 527
Content codings in HTTP/1.1 specification,
375–376
Content-Disposition response-header field
for default filenames, 524–525
security issues, 509
Content-Encoding entity-header field,
395–396, 471–472, 523
Content filters, 202–205
Content generators, 123
default handlers, 144–148
HelloWorld module. See HelloWorld module
reading form data, 138–144
in request processing, 42–43, 48
summary, 148
Content-Language entity-header field, 382,
472–473
Content-Length entity-header field, 216, 387,
473
Content-Location entity-header field,
473–474, 489
Content-MD5 entity-header field, 216,
474–476
Content negotiation, 424–425
agent-driven, 426–427
HTTP/1.1, 360
in apache, 158–160
server-driven, 425–426
transparent, 427
Content-Range entity-header field, 383,
476–478
Content-Transfer-Encoding (CTE) field, 523
539
Content-Type entity-header field, 395–396,
478
See also ap_set_content_type
Context in configuration, 25, 255–257
Continuation lines, 86
Continue status code, 400–402, 410–411
Contributor License Agreement (CLA), 15
corporate, 353–356
individual, 349–353
Control mechanisms for caches, 431
Conversion
to canonical form, 522
of date formats, 522
Cookies for authentication, 198–199
copy function for buckets, 74
Copyleft, 13
Copyright license, 345
copyright notice in HTTP1.1 specification,
358
Copyright statement in HTTP/1.1 specification, 530
Core dumps, debugging, 332–333
CoredumpDirectory directive, 332
Corporate CLA, 353–356
Costs, license, 12
CR LF
HTTP, 368–369
with media types, 379–380
Crashes, tracing, 331–332
CREATE keyword in RFC 2068, 527
Credentials, authentication, 509
Cross-MPM programming, 101–102
process and global locks in, 102–104
shared memory in, 104–106
Cross-platform issues
API builds, 284–288
programming, 99–101
Cryptography, 76–77
CTR (Commit-Then-Review) code, 8
Cursors, 296–297
Custom containers, 257–261
Custom login schemes, 195–199
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D
Data axis for filters, 46–49
Data compression and decompression, 49
Data structures, 70
arrays, 70–71
hash tables, 72–73
for module configuration, 239
queues, 73
rings, 73
tables, 71–72
Data types, 294–296
Data vs. metadata, 153
Database framework, 79–80, 289
ap_dbd, 302–303
Apache 1.x/2.0 vs. Apache 2.2, 290
apr_dbd, 82–83, 292–294
functions in, 298–301
operations in, 294–298
apr_dbm, 80–81
connection pooling, 290–292
DBD architecture, 292
DBD driver, 306–320
mod_authn_dbd application, 303–306
summary, 320
Date
format conversions, 522
in HTTP/1.1 specification, 373–374
module for, 70
Date general-header field, 478–480
Day-based anonymous authentication, 193
DBD, drivers in, 292, 306–307
apr_dbd_internal.h for, 307
exporting, 307–308
functions, 309–320
dbd_close function, 280
dbd_construct function, 278–279
dbd_destruct function, 280
dbd_mysql driver, 311
dbd_setup function, 280–281
DDoS (distributed denial of service) attacks,
109
Index
Debugging, 323
core dumps, 332–333
crash tracing, 331–332
filters, 338–341
hooks for, 336–338
logging for, 324–327
modules for, 333–337
MPMs for, 331
running under debugger, 327–333
servers, 329–331
summary, 341
help for system administrators, 326–327
Declarations
coding, 87
macros for, 58
module APIs, 286–288
DECLINED handler value, 126
default_handler function, 144
Defaults
handlers, 144–148
text media type, 379–380
deflate encoding format, 376
deflate_in_filter function, 232–235
Delays, debugging, 339–340
DELETE method
cache invalidation with, 451
as idempotent method, 404
working with, 409
Deletions, cache invalidation after, 451–452
Delta seconds, 374
Denial of service (DoS) attacks
protecting against, 109–110
on proxies, 510
Deny directive, 182
Deny from directive, 186
Denying access, 186–187
Dependencies, external. See Libraries
destroy function, 74
Developers, 10–11
in Apache Software Foundation, 5
documentation for, 18
mailing list, 16
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Development branches in code repository, 7
Development forums, 9–10
Digest authentication
overview, 179
providers, 193–195
Directives
Cache-Control field, 461–462
characteristics, 24
context for, 25
for filters, 211
functions for, 242–246
for module configuration, 238, 242–250
preprocessor, 285–286
user data in, 244–245
Directories, configuring, 240–241
<Directory> container, 238, 240, 251–252
<DirectoryMatch> directive, 241
Disambiguating in cache expiration model
expiration values, 437
multiple responses, 437–438
Disconnected operation warn code, 503
Distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks,
109
Diverting requests, 161–163
DNS spoofing, 508
do_garbage function, 97–98
Document variants, 168–171
Documentation
APR, 57
forum participation for, 11
websites for, 18
DoS (denial of service) attacks
protecting against, 109–110
on proxies, 510
doxygen format, 57
Drivers, DBD, 292, 306–307
apr_dbd_internal.h for, 307
dbd_mysql, 311
exporting, 307–308
functions, 309–320
541
E
Encoding
APR, 76–77
HTTP formats, 375–376
in form data, 138-139
in URIs, 506
enctype attribute, 138
End-to-end headers, 445–446
End-to-end reload, 467
Entities
filtering, 204
HTTP vs. RFC 2045, 521–524
in HTTP/1.1 specification, 360, 394
bodies, 395–396
header fields, 395
length, 396
Entity tags
for cache validation, 439, 442–444
in HTTP/1.1 specification, 382–383
Environment variables
CGI, 41
for filters, 214–215
in request_rec, 30
setting, 24, 45, 55, 91
EOS bucket type, 226
checking for, 219
in debugging, 340
support for, 75
err_headers_out table, 92
Error log, 324–326
ErrorDocument directive, 163
Errors and error documents
in caches, 450
connection monitoring for, 400
I/O, 137–138
in modules, 172–174
in request processing, 162–163
in secure programming, 109
ETag response-header field, 216, 480
Event MPMs, 27
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exec command, 113
EXEC_ON_READ option, 246
Existing parsers, filtering through, 225–227
Expanded macros, 121
expat library, 206, 225–226
Expect request-header field, 480
Expectation Failed status code, 423
Expiration and expiration models, 362–363
age calculations, 434–436
for Cache-Control general-header field,
464–466
disambiguating, 437–438
expiration calculations, 437
heuristic, 433–434
server-specified, 433
Expires entity-header field, 481–482
Explicit cleanup of pools, 63–64
Explicit expiration time in HTTP/1.1 specification, 362
Explicit user agent warnings, 431–432
Exporting
drivers, 307–308
functions, 264
optional hooks, 270–271
Extending API, 263–264
APR, 79
cross-platform builds, 284–288
hooks and optional hooks, 267–271
new function implementation, 264–266
provider API, 272–277
providing services, 277–284
summary, 288
External dependencies. See Libraries
F
Fastcgi, 28
fatal_exception hook, 268
Fatal exception hooks, 268, 336
Feasibility factor in handler vs. filter
decisions, 46
Index
fetch_dbm_value function, 81
File bucket type, 75
File names, attacks based on, 507–508
<Files> container, 238, 240, 251
Filesystems
APR, 76
mapping, 156–158
security in, 111–113
filter_func function, 210
filter_hooks function, 214
filter_init_func function, 210
filter_insert function, 213–214
filter-oriented output, 133
FilterChain directive, 213
Filters and filter modules, 201–202
buckets for, 217–221
callback functions for, 205
for complex parsing, 221–225
content, protocol, and connection, 202–205
debugging, 338–341
through existing parsers, 225–227
input, 202, 207–208, 210–211, 230–235
mod_filter, 213
objects, 208–210
output, 202, 207, 210–211
pipelining for, 205–206
for pools, 67
postprocessing and preprocessing, 212
for protocol handling, 215–217
request processing, 46–49
self-configuration, 213–215
stdio-like I/O, 227–230
summary, 235–236
find_file function, 112–113
First-hand responses in HTTP/1.1 specification, 362
Fixups hook
purpose, 45
in request processing, 155–156
Fixups phase in subrequests, 166
#flastmod SSI element, 165
Flexibility with libraries, 119
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Flow and flow control
coding, 87
for message connections, 400
upstream/downstream, 363
Flush bucket type, 75
Forbidden status code, 186, 419
Form data, parsing, 138–144
form_data function, 265
form_hooks function, 266
Form-processing modules, 49
form_value function, 142, 265
Format strings, 295–296
Formats
APR, 69
date/time, 373–374, 522
Found status code, 415–416
Free Software Foundation (FSF), 13
Free software licenses, 12
Fresh responses in HTTP/1.1 specification,
363
Freshness lifetime in HTTP/1.1 specification,
363
From request-header field, 482
FSF (Free Software Foundation), 13
#fsize SSI element, 165
Full copyright statement in HTTP/1.1 specification, 530
Full date formats in HTTP/1.1 specification,
373–374
Fully generic shared memory, 106
Functions
apr_dbd API, 298–301
callback, 125–126, 205
coding, 86
DBD driver, 309–320
for directives, 242–246
exporting, 264
implementing, 264–266
optional, 265–266
registering, 115
static, 129
using, 266
543
G
Garbage collection
function for, 96–98
in resource management, 60–61
Gateway Timeout status code, 424
Gateways in HTTP/1.1 specification, 362
GDBM, 80–81
General header fields, 387–388
Generic grammar in HTTP/1.1 specification,
366–369
GET method
as idempotent method, 404
OK status code with, 411
side effects of, 451
working with, 405–406
Global data in thread-safe programming, 92
Global locks, 102–104
global mutexes, 102–103
GLOBAL_ONLY macro, 255
global_score entry, 334
Global variables, 117, 338
GNU General Public License (GPL), 13–14
Gone status code, 421
GPL (GNU General Public License), 13–14
Grammar in HTTP/1.1 specification, 366–369
Grant of copyright license, 345
Grant of patent license, 345
gzip encoding format, 375
H
Handler field, 127
Handler hook
purpose, 45
in request processing, 156
Handlers
default, 144–148
vs. filters, 46–48
pools, 66
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Hash characters (#)
for comments, 25
HTTP rules, 367
Hash tables, 72–73
HEAD method, 404
as idempotent method, 404
OK status code with, 411
side effects of, 451
working with, 406
Header field definitions in HTTP/1.1 specification, 453
Accept, 453–455
Accept-Charset, 455–456
Accept-Encoding, 456–457
Accept-Language, 457–458
Accept-Ranges, 459
Age, 459
Allow, 459–460
Authorization, 460–461
Cache-Control, 461–470
Connection, 470–471
Content-Encoding, 471–472
Content-Language, 472–473
Content-Length, 473
Content-Location, 473–474
Content-MD5, 474–476
Content-Range, 476–478
Content-Type, 478
Date, 478–480
ETag, 480
Expect, 480–481
Expires, 481–482
From, 482
Host, 482–483
If-Match, 483–484
If-Modified-Since, 484–486
If-None-Match, 486–487
If-Range, 487–488
If-Unmodified-Since, 488
Last-Modified, 488–489
Location, 489
Max-Forwards, 489–490
Pragma, 490–491
Index
Proxy-Authenticate, 491
Proxy-Authorization, 491
Range, 492–494
Referer, 494
Retry-After, 494–495
Server, 495
TE, 495–496
Trailer, 497
Transfer-Encoding, 497
Upgrade, 498–499
User-Agent, 499
Vary, 499–500
Via, 500–501
Warning, 501–504
WWW-Authenticate, 504
header_parser hook, 197
purpose, 45
in request processing, 155–156
Headers and header fields 153-155
for cache responses, 445–448
contents, 384–385
entities, 395
filter, 204
general, 387–388
in HTTP/1.1. See Header field definitions in
HTTP/1.1 specification
Range, 493–494
request messages, 154, 391
response messages, 394
headers_in table, 91
headers_out table, 92
Heap bucket type, 75
HelloWorld module, 124
completed, 127–129
handler field, 127
I/O, 132–133
errors, 137–138
input, 134–137
output, 133–134
request_rec for, 129–130
response page for, 130–132
return values, 126–127
skeleton, 124–126
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Heuristic expiration
in cache expiration model, 433–434
in HTTP/1.1 specification, 363
Heuristic expiration warn code, 503
Hexadecimal numeric characters, 369
History lists, 452–453
Hooks, 267
analysis of, 267–269
for debugging, 336–338
optional, 270–271
order of execution, 269
pools, 66
processing, 44–46, 50–51
in request processing, 155–156
Hop-by-hop headers, 445–446
Host access
in AAA, 181
in Apache 2.1/2.2, 183
Host request-header field, 390, 482–483, 526
.htaccess file
for authentication, 186
purpose, 238–239
for request processing security, 160
http_ header files, 39
HTTP/1.0, changes from, 525–526
HTTP/1.1 specification
abstract, 358
access authentication, 424
acknowledgments, 510–512, 530
appendices, 518–529
author addresses, 516–518
caching. See Caches
character sets, 374–375
connections
message transmission requirements, 400–403
persistent, 396–399
content codings, 375–376
content negotiation, 424–427
copyright notice, 358
date/time formats, 373–374
entities, 394–396
entity tags, 382–383
545
full copyright statement, 530
header fields. See Header field definitions in
HTTP/1.1 specification
index, 529
language tags, 382
media types, 379–381
memo status, 357
method definitions, 403–410
notational conventions and generic grammar,
366–369
overall operation, 364–366
product tokens, 381
purpose, 358–359
quality values, 381–382
range units, 383
references, 512–516
requirements, 359
security considerations, 504–510
status codes. See Status code definitions
terminology, 359–365
transfer codings, 376–378
Uniform Resource Identifiers, 371–372
versions, 370–371
http_config.h file, 40, 246–247, 255
http_connection.h file, 40
http_core.h file, 40
HTTP entities vs. RFC 2045 entities, 521–524
http_log.h file, 40, 324
http_main.h file, 40
HTTP messages
bodies, 385–386
connection transmission requirements,
400–403
headers, 154, 384–385, 387–388, 391
HTTP protocol for, 152–153
length, 386–387
request. See Request processing and messages
response, 153, 392–394
types, 383–384
http_protocol.h file, 40, 132, 134
http_request.h file, 40
http URL, 372
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HTTP Version Not Supported status code, 424
http_vhost.h file, 40
httpd.conf file
intro 23-25
for authentication, 186
conflicts in, 251–253
containers in, 24–25
context checking, 255–257
custom, 257–261
merging, 251–254
for core dumps, 332
directives. See Directives
for request processing security, 160
#httpd-dev chat channel, 17
httpd.h file
conn_rec in, 37
contents, 40
request_rec in, 30–35
server_rec in, 35–37
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP). See
HTTP messages; Request processing
and messages
I
IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority)
Character Set registry, 374
for content codings, 375
for transfer codings, 377
Idempotent methods, 404
identity encoding format, 376
Idle clients, 509
If-Match request-header field, 483–484
If-Modified-Since request-header field,
484–486
If-None-Match request-header field, 486–487
If-Range request-header field, 487–488
If-Unmodified-Since request-header field, 488
Image processing filters, 49
Immortal bucket type, 75
Implementing new functions, 264–266
Implicit cleanup of pools, 63–64
Index
Implied linear white space, 368–369
Inbound/outbound paths, 364
#include file SSI command, 165–166
#include virtual SSI command, 165–166
Incomplete responses in caches, 450
Index in HTTP/1.1 specification, 529
Individual CLA, 349–353
Information gathering in request processing,
163–167
Informational 1xx status code definitions,
410–411
Initialization
library, 116–117
pool, 66
server start-up, 22-23, 268
Input filters, 202, 230
blocking, 231
callback functions for, 205, 207–208
example, 232–235
modes for, 231
readbytes for, 231–232
strategies for, 210–211
Inputs
module, 134–137
safe use of, 108
validating, 107–108
insert_filter hook
in request processing, 156
for self-configuration, 213–214
Intellectual property, 12–16
Interactive online forums, 16–17
Internal redirects in request processing,
161–162
Internal Server Error status code, 423
Internationalization, 69
Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA)
Character Set registry, 374
for content codings, 375
for transfer codings, 377
Internet media types
in HTTP/1.1 specification, 379–381
message/http and application/http, 518–519
multipart/byteranges, 519–520
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Internet Relay Chat (IRC), 9, 17
Invalidation, cache, 451–452
invoke_cmd function, 330
I/O
filter, 230–235
stdio-like, 227–230
strategies, 210–211
module, 132–133
errors, 137–138
input, 134–137
output, 133–134
reading form data, 138–144
iovec type, 75
IP addresses, conserving, 526
IRC (Internet Relay Chat), 9, 17
K–L
Key/value pairs for form data, 138
Keys, hash table, 72–73
Labels, 295–296
LAMP architecture, 289–292
Language tags, 382
Last-modified dates in cache validation, 439,
442–444
Last-Modified entity-header field, 485,
488–489
lb_scores entry, 335
Length of HTTP messages, 386–387
Length Required status code, 421
Levels
authentication, 178–180
logging, 325–327
libdbi, 292
libjpeg library, 114–115
libmysqlclient library, 116
Libraries
APR, 21
apvfs, 76
with filters, 206
547
good practice, 114–118
module building with, 118–120
serf, 75
state changes in, 117–118
third-party, 114
libxml2 library, 117–118, 206
Licenses
Apache, 12–14, 343–348
corporate CLA, 353–356
GPL, 13
individual CLA, 349–353
Lifetime
in module data management, 88–90
in resource management, 65–67
<Limit> container, 256–257
<LimitExcept> container, 256
Line-length limitations in MIME, 524
Linear white space (LWS), 368–369, 384–385
Lines
coding, 86
in HTTP requests, 154
Linux in LAMP architecture, 289
Literals, 366
load_module function, 330–333
LoadFile directive, 118–120
LoadModule directive, 119
<Location> container, 238, 240–241, 251–252
Location header spoofing, 508–509
Location response-header field, 489
Locks in cross-MPM programming, 102–104
log_transaction hook, 45
logger hooks, 156
Logging and log information
abuse of, 505
for debugging, 324–327
in request processing, 156, 161
Login
custom schemes, 195–199
Web, 180
LogLevel directive, 325
longjmp function, 114
LWS (linear white space), 368–369, 384–385
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M
<Macro> container, 259–260
macro_section function, 260
macro_t type, 259
Macros
APR, 58
expanded, 121
Mailing lists, 9, 16
make_label function, 296
Malformed requests, 163
Malicious requests, 163
malloc function, 68
map_to_storage hook
purpose, 44
in request processing, 155–156
Mapping in HTTP requests, 154, 156–158
Markup parsing modules, 49
max-age directive, 465, 467–468
Max-Forwards request-header field, 489–490
max-stale directive, 466
MaxRequestsPerChild, 96, 98
MD5 hash, 194
Media types
in HTTP/1.1 specification, 379–381
message/http and application/http, 518–519
multipart/byteranges, 519–520
Memory
managing, 61–63, 96
shared, 104–106
merge_config function, 252
Merging containers, 251–254
Meritocracy in Apache Software Foundation, 4
message/http type, 518–519
Messages, HTTP. See HTTP messages
Metadata
vs. data, 153
private, 160
Metadata buckets, 205
Method definitions, 403
CONNECT, 410
DELETE, 409
GET, 405–406
Index
HEAD, 406
idempotent, 404
OPTIONS, 404–405
POST, 407
PUT, 408–409
safe, 403–404
TRACE, 409
Method Not Allowed status code, 419
Method tokens, 388
Metux MPM, 28
MHTML messages, 524
MIME character set, 374
in HTTP/1.1 specification, 380–381
line-length limitations, 524
MIME-Version header field, 521–522
min-fresh directive, 466
Miscellaneous persistent warning warn code,
504
Miscellaneous warning warn code, 503
Missing character sets, 375
Mmap bucket type, 75
mod_ header files, 39
mod_access module, 182
mod_alias module, 43, 157
mod_auth_basic module, 184, 187, 190, 272
mod_auth_cookie module, 92
mod_auth_dbm module, 182
mod_auth_digest module, 182, 184, 187, 272
mod_authn_alias module, 184
mod_authn_anon module, 184, 272
mod_authn_day module, 194
mod_authn_dbd module, 184, 196, 272,
303–306
mod_authn_dbm module, 184, 272
mod_authn_default module, 184
mod_authn_file module, 184, 272
mod_authn_ldap module, 272
mod_authnz_day module, 194
mod_authnz_ldap module, 184–185, 265
mod_authz_dbd.h file, 270
mod_authz_dbd module, 185, 196–197,
270–271
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mod_authz_dbm module, 185
mod_authz_default module, 185
mod_authz_groupfile module, 269
mod_authz_host module, 183–184
mod_authz_owner module, 185, 269
mod_authz_user module, 185, 191–192
mod_backdoor module, 333, 337
mod_backtrace module, 333, 336
mod_cband module, 110
mod_dbd.h file, 41, 285–286
mod_dbd module, 277–278
mod_deflate module, 49, 214, 232, 261
mod_diagnostics module, 333, 338–341
mod_env module, 91
mod_evasive module, 110
mod_expat module, 227
mod_ext_filter, 48
mod_fcgid, 28
mod_filter module, 213–214, 216
mod_form.h file, 266
mod_form module, 265
mod_headers table, 91
mod_helloworld.c file, 127
mod_include module, 165, 264
mod_includes filter, 48
mod_info module, 333
mod_ldap module, 105–106
mod_line_edit module, 222
mod_load_average module, 110
mod_macro module, 259
mod_negotiation module, 43, 158–160
mod_proxy module, 248
mod_proxy_html module, 225, 248–249,
326–327, 340–341
mod_publisher module, 264, 273
mod_rewrite, 43, 91, 326
mod_robots module, 110
mod_ruid, 28
mod_security module, 110
mod_setenvif module, 91
mod_ssl filter, 49
mod_status module, 333–334
mod_transform.h file, 264
549
mod_transform module, 168, 264
mod_transform_set_XSLT function, 264, 284
mod_transform_XSLTDoc function, 264
mod_txt module, 217-221
configuration for, 244–245
mod_upload module, 140
mod_watchdog module, 333
mod_whatkilledus module, 333, 336
mod_xhtml module, 276
mod_xmlns module, 228, 273–275
Modes for filters, 207–208, 231
Modules
AAA, 187–188
authentication function, 190–192
basic authentication providers, 188–190,
193–195
configuration, 193
digest authentication providers, 193–195
in APR, 54–55
in APU, 56–57
communicating between, 90–92
configuring, 237
alternative methods, 261
basics, 237–239
context in, 255–257
custom containers for, 257–261
directives for, 242–250
function types for, 246–250
hierarchy, 250–255
process, 239–240
scope of, 246
server and directory, 240–241
structures for, 239
summary, 262
user data in, 244–245
data management, 88
configuration vectors, 88
lifetime scopes, 88–90
debugging. See Debugging
error handling and reusability of, 172–174
libraries for, 118–120
for request processing, 168–174
written and compiled in other languages,
120–122
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550
Monitor hook, 67, 268, 337–338
Monitoring connections, 400
Moved Permanently status code, 415
mpm_common, hooks exported by, 268
Multi-homed Web servers, 526
Multi-Processing Modules (MPMs), 22, 25
cross-MPM programming issues, 101–102
process and global locks, 102–104
shared memory, 104–106
for debugging, 331
purpose, 26–27
UNIX-family, 27–28
working with, 28–29
Multiline comments, 87–88
multipart/byteranges type, 519–520
multipart/form-data format, 138
Multipart types in HTTP/1.1 specification,
380–381
Multiple Choices status code, 414–415
Multiple responses in cache expiration model,
437–438
MultiViews option, 159
must-revalidate directive, 468–469
Mutexes, 102–103
MySQL databases, 79
drivers, 82–83, 295
in LAMP architecture, 289
thread-safe library versions, 116
DBD Driver, 307-320
N
N rule, 367
Names
attacks based on, 507–508
HTTP rules, 366
Namespace modules, 273–274
Namespacing in APR, 57–58
NDBM, 80–81
Negotiated responses, caching, 449–450
Negotiation
content, 158–160, 424–427
in persistent connections, 397–398
Networks
APR, 76
security for, 111
New functions, implementing, 264–266
News, websites for, 19
Newsgroups, 16
no-cache directive, 463
No Content status code, 412–413
no-store directive, 464
no-transform directive, 469
Non-authoritative Information status code,
412
Non-shared caches, 450
Nonmodifiable headers, 446–447
Nonstandard request processing, 44
Nonvalidating conditionals, 444
Not Acceptable status code, 419–420
Not Found status code, 419
Not Implemented status code, 423
NOT_IN_DIR macro, 255
NOT_IN_DIRECTORY macro, 255
NOT_IN_FILES macro, 255
NOT_IN_LIMIT macro, 255–256
NOT_IN_LOCATION macro, 255
NOT_IN_VIRTUALHOST macro, 255
Not Modified status code, 416–417
Notational conventions in HTTP/1.1 specification, 366–369
Notes for filters, 214–215
notes table, 91
Null pointers, 332
NULL values, 269
O
OK return value, 126
OK status code, 411
Online chat, 17
Online forums, 16–17
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only-if-cached directive, 468
open_logs hook, 268
Operating systems
MPMs with, 28–29
for security, 111–113, 178
Operational phase in two-phase operation, 25
Optional elements in HTTP rules, 367
optional_fn_retrieve hook, 268
Optional functions, 265–266
Optional hooks, 270–271
OPTIONS method, 404–405
OR_ALL option, 246
OR_AUTHCFG option, 246
OR_FILEINFO option, 246
OR_INDEXES option, 246
OR_LIMIT option, 246
OR_OPTIONS option, 246
Oracle drivers, 295
Order
hook execution, 269
request processing, 49–50
Order directive, 182
Origin servers
and 100 (Continue) status, 401
in HTTP/1.1 specification, 361
Output, module, 133–134
Output filters, 202
callback functions for, 205, 207
strategies for, 210–211
Overflow, buffer, 109
P
Parameters, media type, 379
Parentheses () in rules, 367
parse_form_from_POST function, 140–142
parseChunk function, 206
Parsing
filters for, 221–227
form data, 138–144
HTTP constructs, 368
551
Partial Content status code, 413–414
Passwords
in Apache 2.1/2.2, 184
in basic authentication, 178–179
in mod_authn_dbd, 305–306
Patent license, 345
Patents, 14–15
Paths and path names
attacks based on, 507–508
inbound/outbound, 364
vs. URLs, 157
People and processes in security, 178
Per-directory configuration, 41
Per-server configuration, 41
Perchild MPM, 28
Perl language, 2, 289
Persistent connections
considerations, 399
HTTP/1.0 compatibility with, 526–527
in message transmissions, 400
operation, 397–398
proxy servers, 398
purpose, 396–397
Persistent data
garbage collection, 96–98
memory/resource management, 96–99
reslist, 99
resource reuse, 99
scope of, 90
shared resources, 106
subpools, 98
thread safety in, 93–96
Personal information, security for, 505–507
Peruser MPM, 28
Philosophy of Apache Software Foundation, 6
PHP in LAMP architecture, 289
Pipe bucket type, 75
Pipelining
for filters, 205–206
in persistent connections, 398
Piracy, 14–15
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Platform and architecture, 21
basic concepts and structures, 29
configuration basics, 41–42
conn_rec object, 37–39
cross-platform issues
API builds, 284–288
programming, 99–101
for DBD driver, 306
key API components, 39–41
MPMs, 26–29
overview, 21–22
process_rec object, 37
request processing. See Request processing and
messages
request_rec object, 30–35
server_rec object, 35–37
two-phase operation, 22–26
PMC members in Apache Software
Foundation, 5
Pointers
crashes from, 332
declaring, 87
for merging containers, 253–254
in request_rec, 30
in shared memory, 105–106
Pool bucket type, 75
poolclass class, 64
Pools, See Apache Portable Runtime (APR),
pools
post_config hook, 268
Post-configuration hooks, 66, 268
POST method, 404
cache invalidation with, 451
OK status code with, 411
parsing data from, 140–142
vs. PUT, 408
working with, 407
post_read_request hook
purpose, 44
in request processing, 155–156
PostgreSQL drivers, 295
Postprocessing filters, 212
Pragma general-header field, 490–491
Index
pre_config hook, 268
Pre-configuration hooks, 66, 268
pre_connection hook, 67
pre_mpm hook, 268
Precautionary principle, 107–109
Precondition Failed status code, 421
Predecessors of functions, 269
Prefork MPM, 27–28
Prematurely closed connections, 402–403
Prepackaged configuration functions, 245–246
Preprocessing filters, 212
Preprocessor directives, 285–286
private directive, 463
Private metadata, 160
Privileges, 111
process_connection hook, 67
process_rec object, 29, 37
process_score entry, 335
Processes, 29
APR, 78
in cross-MPM programming, 102–104
Processing hooks, 44–46, 50–51
Product tokens, 381
Programming techniques and caveats, 85
coding conventions, 85–88
cross-MPM, 101–106
cross-platform, 99–101
external dependencies and libraries, 114–120
inter-module communication, 90–92
module data management, 88–90
modules written and compiled in other languages, 120–122
persistent data, 93–99
secure programming, 106–113
summary, 122
thread-safe, 92–93
Protocol filters, 202–205, 215–217
Provider API, 272–277
Providers, authentication, 188–190, 193–195
Proxies
and 100 (Continue) status, 402
Apache, 48
for cache responses, 446–447
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denial of service attacks on, 510
in HTTP/1.1 specification, 361
persistent connections, 398
security considerations in HTTP, 509–510
Proxy-Authenticate response-header field, 187,
491
Proxy Authentication Required status code,
186, 420
Proxy-Authorization request-header field, 491
proxy-revalidate directive, 469
ProxyHTMLLinks directive, 249
ProxyPassReverse directive, 241
public directive, 463
Public domain software, 12
Public mailing lists, 16
PUT method
cache invalidation with, 451
as idempotent method, 404
working with, 408–409
Python in LAMP architecture, 289
Q
q parameter in Accept field, 454
Quality values
in HTTP/1.1 specification, 381–382
in RFC 2068, 527
Queues, 73
quick_handler hook, 44
R
Range field, 492–494
Range request-header field, 485, 493–494
Range units in HTTP/1.1 specification, 383
read function, 74
readbytes, 231–232
Reading form data, 138–144
Reason phrase in response messages, 392–394
Redirect directive, 158, 163
553
REDIRECT_STATUS variable, 162
Redirection 3xx status code definitions,
414–418
Redirects in request processing, 161–162
Redistribution section in Apache license,
345–346
Reference manual, APR, 57
References in HTTP/1.1 specification,
512–516
Referer request-header field, 494
register_hooks function, 117, 189, 192, 267,
269, 271
Registering functions, 115
Release managers, 9
Releases, 8–9
Reload controls, 466–469
RemoveOutputFilter directive, 211
Replacement of caches, 452
Report generation in Site Valet, 168
Repositories, code, 7, 10
Representation in HTTP/1.1 specification,
360
Request Entity Too Large status code, 422
Request-Line in request messages, 388
Request pools, 30
Request processing and messages, 151–152,
388
in Apache, 42, 155–156
caching in, 160
content generation in, 42–43
content negotiation in, 158–160
data axis and filters, 46–49
hooks in, 156
mapping to filesystem, 156–158
order of, 49–50
phases in, 43–44
pools in, 66
private metadata in, 160
processing hooks, 44–46, 50–51
scope in, 89–90
security in, 160
summary, 51
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554
Request processing and messages, continued
in HTTP, 153, 360
anatomy of, 153–155
diversion in, 161–163
header fields in, 391
information gathering in, 163–167
logging in, 161
malformed and malicious, 163
Request-Line for, 388–390
resources identified in, 390–391
modules for, 168–174
summary, 174–175
request_rec object
for configuration data, 239–240
definition, 30–35
for filters, 203
for HelloWorld, 129–130
for module communication, 90–92
Request/response protocols, 364
Request Timeout status code, 420
Request-URI
with PUT, 408
in request messages, 389–390
Request-URI Too Long status code, 422
Request URLs, 43
Requested Range Not Satisfiable status code, 422
Require directive, 186, 188, 256
Requirements in HTTP/1.1 specification, 359
Reset Content status code, 413
Reslists, see APR reslists
APR reslists
implementing, 278–284
working with, 99
Resources and resource management
APR, 59
lifetime, 65–67
pool limitations, 68
pools, 61–64, 78–79
problem of, 60–61
in HTTP/1.1 specification, 360
in request messages, 390–391
reusing, 99
shared, 106
Response is stale warn code, 503
Response page for HelloWorld, 130–132
Responses and response messages, 153, 360,
392
cacheability of, 444–445
from caches, 445–448
header fields, 394
status-line, 392–394
Responsibility for intellectual property violations, 16
Results sets, 296–297
Retry-After response-header field, 494–495
Return values
APR, 58
modules, 126–127
Reusability
DBD driver, 306
modules, 172–174
resources, 99
Revalidation failed warn code, 503
Revalidation for Cache-Control, 466–469
Review and consensus process, 8
Review-Then-Commit (RTC) code, 8
RFC 2045 entities, 521–524
RFC 2068, changes from, 527–529
Rings, 73
Roles in Apache Software Foundation, 4–5
ROLLBACK for transactions, 297
RSRC_CONF option, 246
RTC (Review-Then-Commit) code, 8
S
s-maxage directive, 465, 528
Safe methods, 403–404
Safe programming techniques, 178
Satisfy directive, 182
SAX filters, 228
Scope
of module configuration, 246
of module data, 88–90
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Scoreboard, 334–335
scoreboard.h file, 334
Scrutiny of DBD driver, 306
SDBM, 80
Seconds, delta, 374
Security, 177–178
AAA. See AAA (Access, Authentication, and
Authorization)
HTTP, 504–505
authentication credentials and idle clients,
509
content-disposition issues, 509
denial of service attacks on proxies, 510
DNS spoofing, 508
file and path name attacks, 507–508
location header spoofing, 508–509
personal information, 505–507
proxies and caching, 509–510
in request processing, 160
secure programming, 106–107
denial of service attacks, 109–110
operating system for, 111–113
precautionary principle, 107–109
Security phase, hooks in, 156
See Other status code, 416
Self-configuration filters, 213–215
Semantically transparent caches, 363
Semi-colons (:), HTTP comments, 368
Sensitive information
encoding in URIs, 506
transfer of, 505–506
Separators in coding, 86
serf library, 75
Server-driven content negotiation, 425–426
Server error 5xx status code definitions,
423–424
Server log information, abuse of, 505
server_rec object, 29
for configuration data, 239–240
definition, 35–37
Server response-header field, 495
Server-specified expiration, 433
555
Servers, 29
configuring, 240–241
debugging, 329–331
HTTP/1.1, 361
multi-homed, 526
start-up, 268, 329–331
Service Unavailable status code, 423–424
Services, providing, 277–284
Session management with SQL, 196–197
set_allowed_ports function, 248
set_links function, 249–250
set_links_raw_args function, 250
setaside function, 74
SetHandler directive, 42
setjmp function, 114
SetOutputFilter directive, 211
Shared caches, 450
Shared memory, 104–106
Shareware, 13
Shutdown in two-phase operation, 26
Side effects
with GET and HEAD, 451
with libraries, 119
Site Valet software, 53, 168
Skeletons, module, 124–126
Sloppy programming, 108–109
Smart filtering, 211–217
Socket bucket type, 75
Software licenses, 12–14
Specific end-to-end cache revalidation, 467
split function, 74
Spoofing
DNS, 508
location headers, 508–509
SQL databases
and apr_dbd, 82–83
session management with, 196–197
statements in, 295–296
Square brackets ([]) in rules, 367
Stable branches of code repository, 7
Stale responses, 363
Standard modules, 333–335
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STANDARD20_MODULE_STUFF macro,
124, 239–240
start_comment function, 258
Start-up, server, 268, 329–331
Start-up phase, configuration in, 23–25
startElement event, 228
State changes in libraries, 117–118
Static data in thread-safe programming, 92
static functions, 129
Status code definitions, 392–394, 410
client error 4xx, 418–423
from handlers, 126
informational 1xx, 410–411
redirection 3xx, 414–418
server error 5xx, 423–424
successful 2xx, 411–414
STATUS file, 8
Status-line in response messages, 392–394
stdio-like filter I/O, 227–230
Stealth libraries, 119
Strings
APR, 69
format, 295–296
Strong cache validators, 439–442
Strong entity tags, 382
Structures. See Data structures
Stubs, 122
Submission of contributions section in Apache
license, 346
Subpools, 98
subprocess_env table, 91
Subrequests, 163–167
Subversion repository, 10
Subversion system, 7
Successful 2xx status code definitions,
411–414
Successors of functions in determining order,
269
suexec, 28
switch statements, 87
Switching Protocols status code, 411
System administrators, debugging assistance
for, 326–327
Systems-level modules, 26
T
Tables, 71–72
of bags, 138
hash tables, 72–73
TCP connections, 29, 37
TE request-header field, 495–496
Temporary files, creating, 100–101
Temporary Redirect status code, 417–418
Termination, library, 116–117
Terminology in HTTP/1.1 specification,
359–365
test_config hook, 268
Testing, forum participation for, 11
Text
filtering, 217–221
media types, 379–380
parsing, 221–225
TEXT rule, 369
Third-party extensions, 18
Third-party intellectual property, 15–16
Third-party libraries
compatibility of, 114
debugging, 340–341
Thread safety, 92–93
with libraries, 116
in persistent data, 93–96
Threads, APR, 78
throw/catch structures, 116
Time
in HTTP/1.1 specification, 373–374
module for, 70
tmpfile function, 100
Tokens
in HTTP/1.1 specification, 381
in request messages, 388
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Tolerant applications, 520–521
TRACE method
as idempotent method, 404
OK status code with, 411
working with, 409
Traceback for command handler functions,
330–333
Tracing crashes, 331–332
Trademarks in Apache license, 346
Trailer general field, 497
Trailers in chunked transfer coding, 378
Transactions, 297–298
Transfer codings in HTTP/1.1 specification,
376–378
Transfer-Encoding general-header field,
385–386, 497, 523–524
Transfer-length of messages, 386–387
Transformation applied warn code, 503–504
Transformations
filters for, 212
XSLT, 168
transforms table, 169
Transient bucket type, 75
translate_alias_redir function, 157–158
translate_name hook
purpose, 44
in request processing, 155–156
Translation, forum participation for, 11
Transmission requirements for connections,
400–403
Transparent caches, 363
Transparent content negotiation, 427
Transparent proxies, 446–447
Transport-layer security, 178
Trunks in code repository, 7
Trust nothing principle, 107–109
try_alias_list function, 158
Tunnels, 362
Tutorials, websites for, 19
Two-phase operation, 22–23
operational phase, 25
start-up, 23–25
557
type_checker hooks, 168
purpose, 45
in request processing, 155–156
Types
entities, 395–396
HTTP messages, 383–384
media, 379–381
U
Unauthorized status code, 186, 418–419
Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs), 371–372
APR handling, 77
encoding sensitive information in, 506
in request messages, 389–390
UNIX-family MPMs, 27–28
Unlimited shared resources, 106
Unspecified end-to-end cache revalidation, 467
Unsupported Media Type status code, 422
Updates, cache invalidation after, 451–452
Upgrade general-header, 498–499
Upstream/downstream flow, 363
URIs (Uniform Resource Identifiers), 371–372
APR handling, 77
encoding sensitive information in, 506
in request messages, 389–390
URLs
vs. filesystem paths, 157
http, 372
request, 43
US-ASCII character set, 374
Use directive, 259–260
use_macro function, 260–261
use_namespace function, 274
Use Proxy status code, 417
Usenet newsgroups, 16
User-Agent request-header field, 499
User-Agent string, 161
User agents
in HTTP/1.1 specification, 361
warnings, 431–432
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User data in configuration functions,
244–245
Usernames in basic authentication, 178–179
Users in Apache Software Foundation, 4–5
Users list, 16
util_ header files, 39
util_filter.h file, 41, 136, 208–209, 227
util_ldap_cache_init function, 105
util_ldap.h file, 41
util_script.h file, 41
Utility factor in handler vs. filter decisions,
46
V
Validation
cache, 438–444
for Cache-Control field, 466–469
input, 107–108
Validators, 363
Values
hash table, 72–73
quality, 381–382, 527
return, 58, 126–127
Variants
of documents, 168–171
in HTTP/1.1 specification, 360–361
Vary field, 499–500
Vectors, configuration, 30, 88
Versions
HTTP, 370–371, 525–529
library, 119–120
Subversion system, 7
vhost macro, 259
Via general-header field, 500–501
Virtual hosts, 238
<VirtualHost> container, 238, 241, 251
W
Warning general-header field, 501–504
Warnings for caches, 430–432
Weak cache validators, 439–442
Weak entity tags, 383
Web, login, 180
Web servers, multi-homed, 526
Websites for developers, 17–19
Weights for HTTP quality values, 381
Whitespace in coding, 86
Wildcards in RFC 2068, 528
Worker MPM, 27
worker_score entry, 335
Wrappers, C, 63
write command, 113
Write-through mandatory in caches, 452
WWW-Authenticate response-header field,
187, 504
X
xdefault function, 228
xhtml_hooks function, 277
XML namespace framework, 272–273
XML_Parse function, 226
xmlns_filter function, 225
xmlns.h file, 275
xmlns structure, 275–276
XMLNSUseNamespace directive, 274
XSLT transformation, 168
xstartElement function, 228
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