Lenovo RackSwitch G8296 Application Guide

Lenovo RackSwitch G8296 Application Guide
Lenovo RackSwitch G8296
Application Guide
For Lenovo Enterprise Network Operating System 8.4
Note: Before using this information and the product it supports, read the general information in the Safety information and Environmental Notices and User Guide documents on the Lenovo Documentation CD and the Warranty Information document that comes with the product.
First Edition (September 2016)
© Copyright Lenovo 2016
Portions © Copyright IBM Corporation 2014.
LIMITED AND RESTRICTED RIGHTS NOTICE: If data or software is delivered pursuant a General Services Administration “GSA” contract, use, reproduction, or disclosure is subject to restrictions set forth in Contract No. GS‐35F‐05925.
Lenovo and the Lenovo logo are trademarks of Lenovo in the United States, other countries, or both.
Contents
Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Who Should Use This Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24
What You’ll Find in This Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25
Additional References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29
Typographic Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30
Part 1: Getting Started . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Chapter 1. Switch Administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Administration Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34
Command Line Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34
Establishing a Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35
Using Telnet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36
Using Secure Shell. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36
Using SSH with Password Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . .37
Using SSH with Public Key Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . .38
.Using Simple Network Management Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . .39
BOOTP/DHCP Client IP Address Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40
Global BOOTP Relay Agent Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40
Domain‐Specific BOOTP Relay Agent Configuration. . . . . . . . . . .41
DHCP Option 82 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41
DHCP Snooping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41
Easy Connect Wizard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43
Configuring the Easy Connect Wizard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43
Basic System Mode Configuration Example . . . . . . . . . . . . .44
Transparent Mode Configuration Example . . . . . . . . . . . . .44
Redundant Mode Configuration Example . . . . . . . . . . . . .45
Switch Login Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47
Setup vs. the Command Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49
Idle Disconnect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50
Boot Strict Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51
Acceptable Cipher Suites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54
Configuring Strict Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55
Configuring No‐Prompt Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55
SSL/TLS Version Limitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55
Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55
Chapter 2. Initial Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Information Needed for Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58
Default Setup Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59
Stopping and Restarting Setup Manually . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60
Stopping Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60
Restarting Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60
Setup Part 1: Basic System Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61
Setup Part 2: Port Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63
Setup Part 3: VLANs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .65
© Copyright Lenovo 2016
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Setup Part 4: IP Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
IP Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Loopback Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Using Loopback Interfaces for Source IP Addresses . . . . . . . . . 67
Loopback Interface Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Default Gateways . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
IP Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Setup Part 5: Final Steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Optional Setup for Telnet Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Chapter 3. Switch Software Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Loading New Software to Your Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
Loading Software via the ISCLI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
Loading Software via BBI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
USB Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
USB Boot. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
USB Copy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
The Boot Management Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Recovering from a Failed Software Upgrade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Recovering from a Failed Boot Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Part 2: Securing the Switch
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Chapter 4. Securing Administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Secure Shell and Secure Copy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Configuring SSH/SCP Features on the Switch. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
To Enable or Disable the SSH Feature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
To Enable or Disable SCP Apply and Save . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Configuring the SCP Administrator Password . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Using SSH and SCP Client Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
To Log Into the Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
To Copy the Switch Configuration File to the SCP Host . . . . . . . 87
To Load a Switch Configuration File from the SCP Host . . . . . . . 88
To Apply and Save the Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
To Copy the Switch Image and Boot Files to the SCP Host . . . . . . 88
To Load Switch Configuration Files from the SCP Host. . . . . . . . 89
SSH and SCP Encryption of Management Messages . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Generating RSA Host Key for SSH Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
SSH/SCP Integration with Radius Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
SSH/SCP Integration with TACACS+ Authentication . . . . . . . . . . 90
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End User Access Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .91
Considerations for Configuring End User Accounts . . . . . . . . . . .91
Strong Passwords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .91
User Access Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .92
Setting up User IDs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .92
Defining a User’s Access Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .92
Validating a User’s Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .92
Enabling or Disabling a User . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .92
Locking Accounts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .92
Re‐Enabling Locked Accounts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93
Listing Current Users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93
Logging into an End User Account . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93
Password Fix‐Up Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93
Chapter 5. Authentication & Authorization Protocols . . . . . . . . . 95
RADIUS Authentication and Authorization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .96
How RADIUS Authentication Works . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .96
Configuring RADIUS on the Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .96
RADIUS Authentication Features in Enterprise NOS . . . . . . . . . . .98
Switch User Accounts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .98
RADIUS Attributes for Enterprise NOS User Privileges . . . . . . . . .99
TACACS+ Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
How TACACS+ Authentication Works. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
TACACS+ Authentication Features in Enterprise NOS . . . . . . . . . 101
Authorization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
Accounting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
Command Authorization and Logging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
Configuring TACACS+ Authentication on the Switch . . . . . . . . . 103
LDAP Authentication and Authorization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
Configuring the LDAP Server. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
Configuring LDAP Authentication on the Switch . . . . . . . . . . . 104
Chapter 6. 802.1X Port-Based Network Access Control . . . . . . . . 107
Extensible Authentication Protocol over LAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
EAPoL Authentication Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
EAPoL Message Exchange . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
EAPoL Port States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
Guest VLAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
Supported RADIUS Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
EAPoL Configuration Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
Chapter 7. Access Control Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
Summary of Packet Classifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
Summary of ACL Actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
Assigning Individual ACLs to a Port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
ACL Order of Precedence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
ACL Metering and Re‐Marking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
Metering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
Re‐Marking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
ACL Port Mirroring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
© Copyright Lenovo 2016
Contents
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Viewing ACL Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
ACL Configuration Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
ACL Example 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
ACL Example 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
ACL Example 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
ACL Example 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
ACL Example 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
VLAN Maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
Management ACLs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
Using Storm Control Filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
Chapter 8. Secure Input/Output Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
SIOM Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
Setting an SIOM Security Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
Enabling and Disabling the SIOM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
Using Protocols With SIOM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
Insecure Protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
Secure Protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
Insecure Protocols Unaffected by SIOM . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
Implementing Secure LDAP (LDAPS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
Enabling LDAPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
Disabling LDAPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
Syslogs and LDAPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
Using Cryptographic Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
Part 3: Switch Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
Chapter 9. VLANs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
VLANs Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
VLANs and Port VLAN ID Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
VLAN Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
PVID/Native VLAN Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
VLAN Tagging/Trunk Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
VLAN Topologies and Design Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
Multiple VLANs with Tagging/Trunk Mode Adapters . . . . . . . . . 146
VLAN Configuration Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
Protocol‐Based VLANs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
Port‐Based vs. Protocol‐Based VLANs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
PVLAN Priority Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
PVLAN Tagging/Trunk Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
PVLAN Configuration Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
Configuring PVLAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
Private VLANs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
Private VLAN Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
Configuration Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
Configuration Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
Chapter 10. Ports and Link Aggregation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
Configuring QSFP+ Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
Aggregation Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
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G8296 Application Guide for ENOS 8.4
Static LAGs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
Static LAG Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
Static Aggregation Configuration Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
Configuring a Static LAG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
Link Aggregation Control Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
Static LACP LAGs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
LACP Port Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
LACP Individual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
LACP Minimum Links Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
Configuring LACP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
Configurable LAG Hash Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
Chapter 11. Virtual Link Aggregation Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
VLAG Capacities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
VLAGs versus Port LAGs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
Configuring VLAGs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
Basic VLAG Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
Configuring the ISL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
Configuring the VLAG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
VLAG Configuration ‐ VLANs Mapped to MSTI. . . . . . . . . . 180
Configuring Health Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
VLAGs with VRRP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
Task 1: Configure VLAG Peer 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
Task 2: Configure VLAG Peer 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
Two‐tier vLAGs with VRRP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
vLAG Peer Gateway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
FDB Refresh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
Configuring VLAGs in Multiple Layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
Task 1: Configure Layer 2/3 border switches. . . . . . . . . . . . 192
Task 2: Configure switches in the Layer 2 region. . . . . . . . . . 193
VLAG with PIM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
Traffic Forwarding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
Health Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
Chapter 12. Spanning Tree Protocols. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
Spanning Tree Protocol Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
Global STP Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
© Copyright Lenovo 2016
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PVRST Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
Port States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
Bridge Protocol Data Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
How BPDU Works . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
Determining the Path for Forwarding BPDUs . . . . . . . . . . . 200
Simple STP Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
Per‐VLAN Spanning Tree Groups. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
Using Multiple STGs to Eliminate False Loops . . . . . . . . . . 204
VLANs and STG Assignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
Manually Assigning STGs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
Guidelines for Creating VLANs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
Rules for VLAN Tagged/Trunk Mode Ports. . . . . . . . . . . . 206
Adding and Removing Ports from STGs . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
The Switch‐Centric Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
Configuring Multiple STGs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
Port States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
RSTP Configuration Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
RSTP Configuration Example. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
MSTP Region. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
Common Internal Spanning Tree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
MSTP Configuration Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
MSTP Configuration Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
MSTP Example 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
MSTP Example 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
Port Type and Link Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
Edge/Portfast Port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
Link Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
Chapter 13. Quality of Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
QoS Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
Using ACL Filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
Summary of ACL Actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
ACL Metering and Re‐Marking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
Metering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
Re‐Marking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
Using DSCP Values to Provide QoS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
Differentiated Services Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
Per Hop Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
QoS Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
DSCP Re‐Marking and Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
DSCP Re‐Marking Configuration Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
DSCP Re‐Marking Configuration Example 1 . . . . . . . . . . . 227
DSCP Re‐Marking Configuration Example 2 . . . . . . . . . . . 227
Using 802.1p Priority to Provide QoS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
Queuing and Scheduling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
Control Plane Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
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WRED with ECN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
How WRED/ECN work together . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
Configuring WRED/ECN. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
WRED/ECN Configuration Example. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
Configure Global Profile for WRED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
Configure Port‐level Profile for WRED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
Configure Global Profile for ECN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
Configure Port‐level Profile for ECN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
Verify WRED/ECN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
Chapter 14. Precision Time Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
Ordinary Clock Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
Transparent Clock Mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
Tracing PTP Packets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
Viewing PTP Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
Part 4: Advanced Switching Features. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
Chapter 15. OpenFlow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
OpenFlow Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
Switch Profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
OpenFlow Versions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
OpenFlow Instance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
Flow Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
Static Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250
Port Membership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252
FDB Aging and ECMP with OpenFlow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
Static Flow Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
Table‐Miss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256
Fail Secure Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257
Emergency Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
OpenFlow Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260
OpenFlow Edge Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260
Link Aggregation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261
Data Path ID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262
sFlow Compatibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263
OpenFlow Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264
Configuring OpenFlow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
Configuration Example 1 ‐ OpenFlow Boot Profile . . . . . . . . . . . 265
Configuration Example 2 ‐ Default Boot Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . 268
Feature Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270
Chapter 16. Deployment Profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
Available Profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272
Selecting Profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273
Automatic Configuration Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274
Chapter 17. Virtualization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
Chapter 18. VMready . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277
VE Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278
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Defining Server Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278
VM Group Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278
Local VM Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279
Distributed VM Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
VM Profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
Initializing a Distributed VM Group. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
Assigning Members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
Synchronizing the Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283
Removing Member VEs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283
VMcheck . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284
Virtual Distributed Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
Migrating to vDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
Virtualization Management Servers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288
Assigning a vCenter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288
vCenter Scans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
Deleting the vCenter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
Exporting Profiles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290
VMware Operational Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290
Pre‐Provisioning VEs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291
VLAN Maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292
VM Policy Bandwidth Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293
VM Policy Bandwidth Control Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293
Bandwidth Policies vs. Bandwidth Shaping . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294
VMready Information Displays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295
Local VE Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295
vCenter Hypervisor Hosts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296
vCenter VEs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297
vCenter VE Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298
vCenter Switchport Mapping Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298
VMready Configuration Example. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
Chapter 19. Network Virtualization Gateway. . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
NSX Manager. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302
NSX Controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302
NSX Edge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302
NSX vSwitch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302
NSX Tunneling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303
VXLAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304
Lenovo VXLAN Gateway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306
VXLAN ACL Filtering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309
VXLAN Gateway Topologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310
VXLAN Tunnels over Layer 3 Routed Network . . . . . . . . . . 310
Directly Attached VXLAN Tunnel with a Layer 2 Network . . . . . 310
Physical Servers on Layer 2 Switches. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311
VXLAN Tunnels through a Layer 2 Network (Not Supported) . . . 311
VXLAN Gateway Configuration Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312
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Chapter 20. FCoE and CEE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315
Fibre Channel over Ethernet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316
The FCoE Topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316
FCoE Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317
FCoE Forwarder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317
Configuring FCF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317
Fibre Channel Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318
FCF VLAN Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318
Full Fabric Zoning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318
Zones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319
Zonesets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319
Defining Zoning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320
Scalability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321
Changing the Active Zoneset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321
Port Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322
Port Aggregation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322
Converged Enhanced Ethernet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323
Turning CEE On or Off . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323
Effects on Link Layer Discovery Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323
Effects on 802.1p Quality of Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324
Effects on Flow Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325
FCoE Initialization Protocol Snooping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326
Global FIP Snooping Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326
FIP Snooping for Specific Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326
Port FCF and ENode Detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327
FCoE Connection Timeout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327
FCoE ACL Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327
FCoE VLANs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328
Viewing FIP Snooping Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328
Operational Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329
FIP Snooping Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329
FCoE Forwarder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330
Configuring FCF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330
Fibre Channel Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330
FCF VLAN Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331
Full Fabric Zoning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331
Zones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332
Zonesets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332
Defining and Activating Zoning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333
Changing the Active Zoneset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334
FCF Scalability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335
Priority‐Based Flow Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336
Global Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
PFC Configuration Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338
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Enhanced Transmission Selection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339
802.1p Priority Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339
Priority Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340
PGID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340
Assigning Priority Values to a Priority Group . . . . . . . . . . . 341
Deleting a Priority Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341
Allocating Bandwidth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341
Configuring ETS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342
Data Center Bridging Capability Exchange. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346
DCBX Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346
Enabling and Disabling DCBX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347
Peer Configuration Negotiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347
Configuring DCBX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348
Chapter 21. Fibre Channel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351
Ethernet vs. Fibre Channel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352
Supported Switch Roles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353
FCoE Gateway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353
NPV Gateway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353
Full‐Fabric FC/FCoE Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353
Limitations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354
Implementing Fibre Channel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355
Port Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355
Fibre Channel VLANs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356
Port Membership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356
Switching Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357
NPV Gateway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357
Full Fabric Zoning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358
Zones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358
Zonesets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359
Defining Zoning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360
Activating a Zoneset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361
E_Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361
Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362
Storage Management Initiative Specification (SMI‐S) . . . . . . . . 363
Fibre Channel Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364
Configuration Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364
Example 1: NPV Gateway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364
Example 2: Full Fabric FC/FCoE Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365
Fibre Channel Standard Protocols Supported. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367
Chapter 22. Edge Virtual Bridging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369
EVB Operations Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370
VSIDB Synchronization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370
VLAN Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371
Deleting a VLAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371
Manual Reflective Relay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371
VSIDB ‐ IPv6 Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372
EVB Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373
Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375
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Unsupported features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375
Chapter 23. Static Multicast ARP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377
Configuring Static Multicast ARP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378
Configuration Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378
Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380
Chapter 24. Dynamic ARP Inspection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381
Understanding ARP Spoofing Attacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381
Understanding DAI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381
Interface Trust States and Network Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382
DAI Configuration Guidelines and Restrictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384
DAI Configuration Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384
Chapter 25. Unified Fabric Port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387
UFP Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 388
Virtual Ports Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389
vPort‐S‐Tag Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389
vPort‐VLAN Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389
UFP vPort Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389
Tunnel Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389
802.1Q Trunk Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390
Access Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390
FCoE Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391
Auto‐VLAN Mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391
UFP Bandwidth Provisioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392
ETS Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392
UFP Strict Bandwidth Provisioning Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394
Using UFP with Other RackSwitch G8296 Features . . . . . . . . . . . . 395
Layer 2 Failover. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395
Increased VLAN Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395
Private VLANs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395
VMReady . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 396
802.1Qbg. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 396
UFP Configuration Examples. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397
Example 1: Access Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397
Example 2: Trunk Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 398
Example 3: Auto‐VLAN Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400
Example 4: Tunnel Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400
Example 5: FCoE Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401
Example 6: Layer 2 Failover Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 402
Part 5: IP Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405
Chapter 26. Basic IP Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 407
IP Routing Benefits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 408
Routing Between IP Subnets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 408
Example of Subnet Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409
Using VLANs to Segregate Broadcast Domains . . . . . . . . . . . . 410
Configuration Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 410
ARP ‐ Local Proxy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413
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Network Address Translation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414
Static NAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 415
Unidirectional NAT Translation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 416
Network Address Port Translation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 416
Dynamic NAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 416
NAT Proxy ARP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 417
Global NAT Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 417
Scaling and Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 418
ECMP Static Routes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 419
ECMP Route Hashing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 419
Configuring ECMP Static Routes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421
DHCP Relay Agent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422
Chapter 27. Policy-Based Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 423
PBR Policies and ACLs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424
Applying PBR ACLs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424
Configuring Route Maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425
Match Clauses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425
Set Clauses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425
Configuring Health Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427
Example PBR Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428
Configuring PBR with other Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429
Unsupported Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429
Dynamic PBR (Multi‐Tenant) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430
Features and Limitations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430
Example Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430
Chapter 28. Routed Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434
Configuring a Routed Port. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436
Configuring OSPF on Routed Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436
OSPF Configuration Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437
Configuring RIP on Routed Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437
RIP Configuration Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437
Configuring PIM on Routed Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 438
PIM Configuration Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 438
Configuring BGP on Routed Ports. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439
Configuring IGMP on Routed Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439
Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440
Chapter 29. Internet Protocol Version 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 441
IPv6 Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 442
IPv6 Address Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 443
IPv6 Address Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 444
Unicast Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 444
Multicast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 444
Anycast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 444
IPv6 Address Autoconfiguration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 446
IPv6 Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 447
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Neighbor Discovery. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 448
Neighbor Discovery Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 448
Host vs. Router . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 449
Supported Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450
Configuration Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 451
IPv6 Configuration Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 452
IPv6 Example 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 452
IPv6 Example 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 452
Chapter 30. IPsec with IPv6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 455
IPsec Protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 456
Using IPsec with the Lenovo RackSwitch G8296 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 457
Setting up Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 457
Creating an IKEv2 Proposal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 458
Importing an IKEv2 Digital Certificate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 458
Generating a Certificate Signing Request . . . . . . . . . . . . . 458
Generating an IKEv2 Digital Certificate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 462
Enabling IKEv2 Preshared Key Authentication . . . . . . . . . . 462
Setting Up a Key Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 463
Using a Manual Key Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 464
Using a Dynamic Key Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 466
Chapter 31. Routing Information Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 467
Distance Vector Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 468
Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 468
Routing Updates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 468
RIPv1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 469
RIPv2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 469
RIPv2 in RIPv1 Compatibility Mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 469
RIP Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 470
RIP Configuration Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 471
Chapter 32. Internet Group Management Protocol . . . . . . . . . . 473
IGMP Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 474
How IGMP Works . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475
IGMP Capacity and Default Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 476
IGMP Snooping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 478
IGMP Querier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 478
Querier Election . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 478
IGMP Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 479
IGMPv3 Snooping. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 479
IGMP Snooping Configuration Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 481
IGMP Snooping Configuration Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 482
Advanced Configuration Example: IGMP Snooping . . . . . . . . . . 482
Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 483
Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 484
Troubleshooting IGMP Snooping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 487
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IGMP Relay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 490
Configuration Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 490
Configure IGMP Relay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 491
Advanced Configuration Example: IGMP Relay . . . . . . . . . . . 492
Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 492
Configuration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 493
Additional IGMP Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 497
FastLeave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 497
IGMP Filtering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 497
Configuring the Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 497
Configuring the Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 498
Configure IGMP Filtering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 498
Static Multicast Router. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 498
Chapter 33. Multicast Listener Discovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 499
MLD Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 500
How MLD Works . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 501
How Flooding Impacts MLD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 502
MLD Querier. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 502
Querier Election . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 502
Dynamic Mrouters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 502
MLD Capacity and Default Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 503
Configuring MLD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 504
Chapter 34. Border Gateway Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 505
Internal Routing Versus External Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 506
Route Reflector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 507
Configuring Route Reflection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 509
Restrictions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 510
Forming BGP Peer Routers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 511
Static Peers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 511
Dynamic Peers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 512
Configuring Dynamic Peers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 512
Removing Dynamic Peers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 512
Loopback Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 514
What is a Route Map? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 514
Next Hop Peer IP Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 514
Incoming and Outgoing Route Maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 515
Precedence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 515
Configuration Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 515
Aggregating Routes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 517
Redistributing Routes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 517
BGP Communities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 518
BGP Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 519
Local Preference Attribute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 519
Metric (Multi‐Exit Discriminator) Attribute. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 519
Next Hop Attribute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 520
Selecting Route Paths in BGP. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 521
Equal Cost Multi‐Path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 521
Multipath Relax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 521
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BGP Failover Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 522
Default Redistribution and Route Aggregation Example . . . . . . . . . . 524
Chapter 35. Open Shortest Path First . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 527
OSPFv2 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 528
Types of OSPF Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 528
Types of OSPF Routing Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 529
Neighbors and Adjacencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 530
The Link‐State Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 530
The Shortest Path First Tree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 532
Internal Versus External Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 532
OSPFv2 Implementation in Enterprise NOS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 533
Configurable Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 533
Defining Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 534
Assigning the Area Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 534
Using the Area ID to Assign the OSPF Area Number . . . . . . . . 535
Attaching an Area to a Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 535
Interface Cost . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 536
Electing the Designated Router and Backup . . . . . . . . . . . . . 536
Summarizing Routes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 536
Default Routes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 537
Virtual Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 537
Router ID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 538
Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 539
Configuring Plain Text OSPF Passwords . . . . . . . . . . . . . 540
Configuring MD5 Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 540
Host Routes for Load Balancing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 541
Loopback Interfaces in OSPF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 542
OSPF Features Not Supported in This Release. . . . . . . . . . . . . 542
OSPFv2 Configuration Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 543
Example 1: Simple OSPF Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 544
Example 2: Virtual Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 546
Configuring OSPF for a Virtual Link on Switch #1 . . . . . . . . . 546
Configuring OSPF for a Virtual Link on Switch #2 . . . . . . . . . 547
Other Virtual Link Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 549
Example 3: Summarizing Routes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 550
Verifying OSPF Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 551
OSPFv3 Implementation in Enterprise NOS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 552
OSPFv3 Differences from OSPFv2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 552
OSPFv3 Requires IPv6 Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 552
OSPFv3 Uses Independent Command Paths . . . . . . . . . . . 552
OSPFv3 Identifies Neighbors by Router ID . . . . . . . . . . . . 553
Other Internal Improvements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 553
OSPFv3 Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 553
OSPFv3 Configuration Example. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 553
Neighbor Configuration Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 555
Chapter 36. Protocol Independent Multicast . . . . . . . . . . . . . 557
PIM Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 558
Supported PIM Modes and Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 559
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Basic PIM Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 560
Globally Enabling or Disabling the PIM Feature. . . . . . . . . . . . 560
Defining a PIM Network Component . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 560
Defining an IP Interface for PIM Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 560
PIM Neighbor Filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 561
Additional Sparse Mode Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 563
Specifying the Rendezvous Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 563
Influencing the Designated Router Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . 563
Specifying a Bootstrap Router . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 564
Configuring a Loopback Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 564
Using PIM with Other Features. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 566
PIM with ACLs or VMAPs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 566
PIM with IGMP. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 566
PIM with VLAG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 566
PIM Configuration Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 567
Example 1: PIM‐SM with Dynamic RP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 567
Example 2: PIM‐SM with Static RP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 568
Example 3: PIM‐DM. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 568
Part 6: High Availability Fundamentals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 571
Chapter 37. Basic Redundancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 573
Aggregating for Link Redundancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 574
Virtual Link Aggregation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 574
Hot Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 575
Forward Delay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 575
Preemption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 575
FDB Update . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 575
Configuration Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 575
Configuring Hot Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 576
Chapter 38. Layer 2 Failover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 577
Monitoring LAG Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 578
Setting the Failover Limit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 578
Manually Monitoring Port Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 579
Monitor Port State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 579
Control Port State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 579
L2 Failover with Other Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 580
Static LAGs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 580
LACP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 580
Spanning Tree Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 580
Configuration Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 581
Configuring Layer 2 Failover. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 581
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Chapter 39. Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . 583
VRRP Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 584
VRRP Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 584
Virtual Router. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 584
Virtual Router MAC Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 584
Owners and Renters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 584
Master and Backup Virtual Router . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 585
Virtual Interface Router . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 585
VRRP Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 585
Selecting the Master VRRP Router . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 586
Failover Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 587
Active‐Active Redundancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 587
Virtual Router Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 587
Enterprise NOS Extensions to VRRP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 588
Virtual Router Deployment Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 589
Assigning VRRP Virtual Router ID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 589
Configuring the Switch for Tracking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 589
VRRP ‐ Next Hop Tracking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 590
High Availability Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 591
VRRP High‐Availability Using Multiple VIRs . . . . . . . . . . . . . 591
Task 1: Configure G8296 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 592
Task 2: Configure G8296 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 593
VRRP High‐Availability Using VLAGs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 595
Part 7: Network Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 597
Chapter 40. Link Layer Discovery Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . 599
LLDP Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 600
Enabling or Disabling LLDP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 601
Global LLDP Setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 601
Transmit and Receive Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 601
LLDP Transmit Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 602
Scheduled Interval . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 602
Minimum Interval. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 602
Time‐to‐Live for Transmitted Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 603
Trap Notifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 603
Changing the LLDP Transmit State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 604
Types of Information Transmitted . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 604
LLDP Receive Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 606
Types of Information Received . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 606
Viewing Remote Device Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 606
Time‐to‐Live for Received Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 608
LLDP Example Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 610
Chapter 41. Simple Network Management Protocol . . . . . . . . . . 611
SNMP Version 1 & Version 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 611
SNMP Version 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 612
Configuring SNMP Trap Hosts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 614
SNMPv2 Trap Host Configuration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 615
SNMPv3 Trap Host Configuration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 616
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SNMP MIBs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 617
Switch Images and Configuration Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 624
Loading a New Switch Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 625
Loading a Saved Switch Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 625
Saving the Switch Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 626
Saving a Switch Dump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 626
Chapter 42. Service Location Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 627
Active DA Discovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 628
SLP Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 629
Chapter 43. NETCONF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 631
NETCONF Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 632
XML Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 633
Installing the NETCONF Client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 634
Using Juniper Perl Client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 636
Establishing a NETCONF Session . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 637
NETCONF Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 639
Protocol Operations Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 640
<get‐config> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 640
<edit‐config> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 641
<copy‐config> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 643
<delete‐config> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 644
<lock> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 644
<unlock>. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 645
<get> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 646
<close‐session> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 647
<kill‐session> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 647
<get‐configuration> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 648
<get‐interface‐information> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 649
Part 8: Monitoring
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 653
Chapter 44. Remote Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 655
RMON Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 656
RMON Group 1—Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 657
RMON Group 2—History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 658
History MIB Object ID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 658
Configuring RMON History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 658
RMON Group 3—Alarms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 659
Alarm MIB objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 659
Configuring RMON Alarms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 659
RMON Group 9—Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 661
Chapter 45. sFlow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 663
sFlow Statistical Counters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 663
sFlow Network Sampling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 663
sFlow Example Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 664
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Chapter 46. Port Mirroring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 665
Port Mirroring Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 666
Configuring Port Mirroring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 667
Part 9: Appendices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 669
Appendix A. Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 671
Appendix B. Getting help and technical assistance . . . . . . . . . . 673
Appendix C. Notices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 675
Trademarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 677
Important Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 678
Recycling Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 679
Particulate Contamination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 680
Telecommunication Regulatory Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 681
Electronic Emission Notices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 682
Federal Communications Commission (FCC) Statement . . . . . . . . 682
Industry Canada Class A Emission Compliance Statement . . . . . . . 682
Avis de Conformité à la Réglementation dʹIndustrie Canada . . . . . . 682
Australia and New Zealand Class A Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . 682
European Union ‐ Compliance to the Electromagnetic Compatibility Directive
682
Germany Class A Compliance Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 683
Japan VCCI Class A Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 684
Japan Electronics and Information Technology Industries Association (JEITA) Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 684
Korea Communications Commission (KCC) Statement . . . . . . . . . 685
Russia Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) Class A statement . . . . . . . . 686
People’s Republic of China Class A electronic emission statement . . . . . . 687
Taiwan Class A compliance statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 688
© Copyright Lenovo 2016
Contents
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G8296 Application Guide for ENOS 8.4
Preface
This Application Guide describes how to configure and use the Lenovo Enterprise Network Operating System 8.4 software on the Lenovo RackSwitch G8296 (referred to as G8296 throughout this document). For documentation on installing the switch physically, see the Installation Guide for your G8296.
© Copyright Lenovo 2016
23
Who Should Use This Guide
This guide is intended for network installers and system administrators engaged in configuring and maintaining a network. The administrator should be familiar with Ethernet concepts, IP addressing, Spanning Tree Protocol, and SNMP configuration parameters.
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G8296 Application Guide for ENOS 8.4
What You’ll Find in This Guide
This guide will help you plan, implement, and administer Enterprise NOS software. Where possible, each section provides feature overviews, usage examples, and configuration instructions. The following material is included:
Part 1: Getting Started
This material is intended to help those new to ENOS products with the basics of switch management. This part includes the following chapters:

Chapter 1, “Switch Administration,” describes how to access the G8296 to configure the switch and view switch information and statistics. This chapter discusses a variety of manual administration interfaces, including local management via the switch console, and remote administration via Telnet, a web browser, or via SNMP.

Chapter 2, “Initial Setup,” describes how to use the built‐in Setup utility to perform first‐time configuration of the switch.

Chapter 3, “Switch Software Management,” describes how to update the ENOS software operating on the switch.
Part 2: Securing the Switch

Chapter 4, “Securing Administration,” describes methods for using Secure Shell for administration connections, and configuring end‐user access control.

Chapter 5, “Authentication & Authorization Protocols,” describes different secure administration for remote administrators. This includes using Remote Authentication Dial‐in User Service (RADIUS), as well as TACACS+ and LDAP.

Chapter 6, “802.1X Port‐Based Network Access Control,” describes how to authenticate devices attached to a LAN port that has point‐to‐point connection characteristics. This feature prevents access to ports that fail authentication and authorization and provides security to ports of the G8296 that connect to blade servers.

Chapter 7, “Access Control Lists,” describes how to use filters to permit or deny specific types of traffic, based on a variety of source, destination, and packet attributes.

Chapter 8, “Secure Input/Output Module,” describes which protocols can be enabled. This feature allows secured traffic and secured authentication management.
Part 3: Switch Basics
© Copyright Lenovo 2016

Chapter 9, “VLANs,” describes how to configure Virtual Local Area Networks (VLANs) for creating separate network segments, including how to use VLAN tagging for devices that use multiple VLANs. This chapter also describes Protocol‐based VLANs, and Private VLANs.

Chapter 10, “Ports and Link Aggregation,” describes how to group multiple physical ports together to aggregate the bandwidth between large‐scale network devices.
Preface
25

Chapter 11, “Virtual Link Aggregation Groups,” describes using Virtual Link Aggregation Groups (VLAGs) to form LAGs spanning multiple VLAG‐capable aggregator switches.

Chapter 12, “Spanning Tree Protocols,” discusses how Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) configures the network so that the switch selects the most efficient path when multiple paths exist. Covers Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP), Per‐VLAN Rapid Spanning Tree (PVRST), and Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP).

Chapter 13, “Quality of Service,” discusses Quality of Service (QoS) features, including IP filtering using Access Control Lists (ACLs), Differentiated Services, and IEEE 802.1p priority values.

Chapter 14, “Precision Time Protocol,” describes the configuration of PTP for clock synchronization.
Part 4: Advanced Switching Features

Chapter 15, “OpenFlow,” describes how to create an OpenFlow Switch instance on the RackSwitch G8296.

Chapter 16, “Deployment Profiles,” describes how the G8296 can operate in different modes for different deployment scenarios, adjusting switch capacity levels to optimize performance for different types of networks.

Chapter 17, “Virtualization,” provides an overview of allocating resources based on the logical needs of the data center, rather than on the strict, physical nature of components.

Chapter 18, “VMready,” discusses virtual machine (VM) support on the G8296.

Chapter 19, “Network Virtualization Gateway,” describes how to operate a virtual machine over a network.

Chapter 22, “Edge Virtual Bridging,” (EVB) discusses the IEEE 802.1Qbg—a standards‐based protocol that defines how virtual Ethernet bridges exchange configuration information. EVB bridges the gap between physical and virtual network resources, thus simplifying network management.

Chapter 23, “Static Multicast ARP,” discusses the configuration of a static ARP entry with multicast MAC address for Microsoft’s Network Load Balancing (NLB) feature to function efficiently.

Chapter 24, “Dynamic ARP Inspection,” discusses this security feature that lets a switch intercept and examine all ARP request and response packets in a subnet, discarding those packets with invalid IP to MAC address bindings. This capability protects the network from man‐in‐the‐middle attacks.

Chapter 25, “Unified Fabric Port,” describes how UFP logically subdivides a high‐speed physical link connecting to a server NIC. UFP provides a switch fabric component to control the NIC.

Chapter 26, “Basic IP Routing,” describes how to configure the G8296 for IP routing using IP subnets, BOOTP, and DHCP Relay.

Chapter 29, “Internet Protocol Version 6,” describes how to configure the G8296 for IPv6 host management.
Part 5: IP Routing
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G8296 Application Guide for ENOS 8.4

Chapter 30, “IPsec with IPv6,” describes how to configure Internet Protocol Security (IPsec) for securing IP communications by authenticating and encrypting IP packets, with emphasis on Internet Key Exchange version 2, and authentication/confidentiality for OSPFv3.

Chapter 31, “Routing Information Protocol,” describes how the ENOS software implements standard Routing Information Protocol (RIP) for exchanging TCP/IP route information with other routers.

Chapter 32, “Internet Group Management Protocol,” describes how the ENOS software implements IGMP Snooping or IGMP Relay to conserve bandwidth in a multicast‐switching environment.

Chapter 33, “Multicast Listener Discovery,” describes how Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD) is used with IPv6 to support host users requests for multicast data for a multicast group.

Chapter 34, “Border Gateway Protocol,” describes Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) concepts and features supported in ENOS.

Chapter 35, “Open Shortest Path First,” describes key Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) concepts and their implemented in ENOS, and provides examples of how to configure your switch for OSPF support.
Part 6: High Availability Fundamentals

Chapter 37, “Basic Redundancy,” describes how the G8296 supports redundancy through LAGs and hotlinks.

Chapter 38, “Layer 2 Failover,” describes how the G8296 supports high‐availability network topologies using Layer 2 Failover.

Chapter 39, “Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol,” describes how the G8296 supports high‐availability network topologies using Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol (VRRP).
Part 7: Network Management
© Copyright Lenovo 2016

Chapter 40, “Link Layer Discovery Protocol,” describes how Link Layer Discovery Protocol helps neighboring network devices learn about each others’ ports and capabilities.

Chapter 41, “Simple Network Management Protocol,” describes how to configure the switch for management through an SNMP client.
Preface
27
Part 8: Monitoring

Chapter 44, “Remote Monitoring,” describes how to configure the RMON agent on the switch, so that the switch can exchange network monitoring data.

Chapter 45, “sFlow, described how to use the embedded sFlow agent for sampling network traffic and providing continuous monitoring information to a central sFlow analyzer.

Chapter 46, “Port Mirroring,” discusses tools how copy selected port traffic to a monitor port for network analysis.

Appendix A, “Glossary,” describes common terms and concepts used throughout this guide.

Appendix B, “Getting help and technical assistance,” provides details on where to go for additional information about Lenovo and Lenovo products.

Appendix C, “Notices,” contains safety and environmental notices.
Part 9: Appendices
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G8296 Application Guide for ENOS 8.4
Additional References
Additional information about installing and configuring the G8296 is available in the following guides:
© Copyright Lenovo 2016

Lenovo RackSwitch G8296 Installation Guide

Lenovo RackSwitch G8296 ISCLI Command Reference for Lenovo Enterprise Network Operating System 8.4

Lenovo RackSwitch G8296 Release Notes for Lenovo Enterprise Network Operating System 8.4
Preface
29
Typographic Conventions
The following table describes the typographic styles used in this book.
Table 1. Typographic Conventions
Typeface or
Symbol
Meaning
Example
ABC123
This type is used for names of commands, files, and directories used within the text.
View the readme.txt file.
It also depicts on‐screen computer Main#
output and prompts.
ABC123
This bold type appears in Main# sys
command examples. It shows text that must be typed in exactly as shown.
<ABC123>
To establish a Telnet session, This italicized type appears in enter:
command examples as a parameter placeholder. Replace host# telnet <IP address>
the indicated text with the appropriate real name or value when using the command. Do not type the brackets.
This also shows book titles, special terms, or words to be emphasized.
Read your User’s Guide thoroughly.
[ ]
Command items shown inside brackets are optional and can be used or excluded as the situation demands. Do not type the brackets.
host# ls [­a]
|
The vertical bar ( | ) is used in command examples to separate choices where multiple options exist. Select only one of the listed options. Do not type the vertical bar.
host# set left|right
AaBbCc123
Click the Save button.
This block type depicts menus, buttons, and other controls that appear in Web browsers and other graphical interfaces.

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Part 1: Getting Started
© Copyright Lenovo 2016
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G8296 Application Guide for ENOS 8.4
Chapter 1. Switch Administration
Your RackSwitch G8296 (G8296) is ready to perform basic switching functions right out of the box. Some of the more advanced features, however, require some administrative configuration before they can be used effectively.
The extensive Lenovo Enterprise Network Operating System switching software included in the G8296 provides a variety of options for accessing the switch to perform configuration, and to view switch information and statistics.
This chapter discusses the various methods that can be used to administer the switch.
© Copyright Lenovo 2016
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Administration Interfaces
Enterprise NOS provides a variety of user‐interfaces for administration. These interfaces vary in character and in the methods used to access them: some are text‐based, and some are graphical; some are available by default, and some require configuration; some can be accessed by local connection to the switch, and others are accessed remotely using various client applications. For example, administration can be performed using any of the following:

A built‐in, text‐based command‐line interface and menu system for access via serial‐port connection or an optional Telnet or SSH session

The built‐in Browser‐Based Interface (BBI) available using a standard web‐browser

SNMP support for access through network management software such as IBM Director or HP OpenView
The specific interface chosen for an administrative session depends on user preferences, as well as the switch configuration and the available client tools.
In all cases, administration requires that the switch hardware is properly installed and turned on. (see the Lenovo RackSwitch G8296 Installation Guide).
Command Line Interface
The Industry Standard Command Line Interface (ISCLI) provides a simple, direct method for switch administration. Using a basic terminal, you can issue commands that allow you to view detailed information and statistics about the switch, and to perform any necessary configuration and switch software maintenance.
You can establish a connection to the ISCLI in any of the following ways:
Serial connection via the serial port on the G8296 (this option is always available)
 Telnet connection over the network
 SSH connection over the network

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G8296 Application Guide for ENOS 8.4
Establishing a Connection
The factory default settings permit initial switch administration through only the built‐in serial port. All other forms of access require additional switch configuration before they can be used.
Remote access using the network requires the accessing terminal to have a valid, routable connection to the switch interface. The client IP address may be configured manually, or an IPv4 address can be provided automatically through the switch using a service such as DHCP or BOOTP relay (see “BOOTP/DHCP Client IP Address Services” on page 40), or an IPv6 address can be obtained using IPv6 stateless address configuration.
Note: Throughout this manual, IP address is used in places where either an IPv4 or IPv6 address is allowed. IPv4 addresses are entered in dotted‐decimal notation (for example, 10.10.10.1), while IPv6 addresses are entered in hexadecimal notation (for example, 2001:db8:85a3::8a2e:370:7334). In places where only one type of address is allowed, IPv4 address or IPv6 address is specified.
1. Log on to the switch. 2. Enter IP interface mode. RS G8296> enable
RS G8296# configure terminal
RS G8296(config)# interface ip <IP interface number>
3. Configure the management IP interface/mask.

IPv4:
RS G8296(config­ip­if)# ip address <management interface IPv4 address>
RS G8296(config­ip­if)# ip netmask <IPv4 subnet mask>

IPv6:
RS G8296(config­ip­if)# ipv6 address <management interface IPv6 address>
RS G8296(config­ip­if)# ipv6 prefixlen <IPv6 prefix length>
4. Configure the VLAN, and enable the interface. RS G8296(config­ip­if)# vlan 1
RS G8296(config­ip­if)# enable
RS G8296(config­ip­if)# exit
5. Configure the default gateway.

IPv4:
RS G8296(config)# ip gateway <gateway number> address <IPv4 address>
RS G8296(config)# ip gateway <gateway number> enable

IPv6: RS G8296(config)# ip gateway6 <gateway number> address <IPv6 address>
RS G8296(config)# ip gateway6 <gateway number> enable
© Copyright Lenovo 2016
Chapter 1: Switch Administration
35
Once you configure the IP address and have a network connection, you can use the Telnet program from an external management station to access and control the switch. Once the default gateway is enabled, the management station and your switch do not need to be on the same IP subnet.
The G8296 supports an industry standard command‐line interface (ISCLI) that you can use to configure and control the switch over the network using the Telnet program. You can use the ISCLI to perform many basic network management functions. In addition, you can configure the switch for management using an SNMP‐based network management system or a Web browser.
For more information, see the documents listed in “Additional References” on page 29. Using Telnet
A Telnet connection offers the convenience of accessing the switch from a workstation connected to the network. Telnet access provides the same options for user and administrator access as those available through the console port.
By default, Telnet access is enabled. Use the following commands to disable or re‐enable Telnet access: RS G8296(config)# [no] access telnet enable
Once the switch is configured with an IP address and gateway, you can use Telnet to access switch administration from any workstation connected to the management network.
To establish a Telnet connection with the switch, run the Telnet program on your workstation and issue the following Telnet command:
telnet <switch IPv4 or IPv6 address> You will then be prompted to enter a password as explained “Switch Login Levels” on page 47.
Two attempts are allowed to log in to the switch. After the second unsuccessful attempt, the Telnet client is disconnected via TCP session closure.
Using Secure Shell
Although a remote network administrator can manage the configuration of a G8296 via Telnet, this method does not provide a secure connection. The Secure Shell (SSH) protocol enables you to securely log into another device over a network 36
G8296 Application Guide for ENOS 8.4
to execute commands remotely. As a secure alternative to using Telnet to manage switch configuration, SSH ensures that all data sent over the network is encrypted and secure.
The switch can do only one session of key/cipher generation at a time. Thus, a SSH/SCP client will not be able to login if the switch is doing key generation at that time. Similarly, the system will fail to do the key generation if a SSH/SCP client is logging in at that time.
The supported SSH encryption and authentication methods are:

Server Host Authentication: Client RSA‐authenticates the switch when starting each connection

Key Exchange: ecdh‐sha2‐nistp521, ecdh‐sha2‐nistp384, ecdh‐sha2‐nistp256, ecdh‐sha2‐nistp224, ecdh‐sha2‐nistp192, rsa2048‐sha256, rsa1024‐sha1, diffie‐hellman‐group‐exchange‐sha256, diffie‐hellman‐group‐exchange‐sha1, diffie‐hellman‐group14‐sha1, diffie‐hellman‐group1‐sha1

Encryption: aes128‐ctr, aes128‐cbc, rijndael128‐cbc, blowfish‐cbc,3des‐cbc, arcfour256, arcfour128, arcfour

MAC: hmac‐sha1, hmac‐sha1‐96, hmac‐md5, hmac‐md5‐96

User Authentication: Local password authentication, public key authentication, RADIUS, TACACS+
Lenovo Enterprise Network Operating System implements the SSH version 2.0 standard and is confirmed to work with SSH version 2.0‐compliant clients such as the following:

OpenSSH_5.4p1 for Linux

Secure CRT Version 5.0.2 (build 1021)

Putty SSH release 0.60 Using SSH with Password Authentication
By default, the SSH feature is disabled. Once the IP parameters are configured and the SSH service is enabled, you can access the command line interface using an SSH connection.
To establish an SSH connection with the switch, run the SSH program on your workstation by issuing the SSH command, followed by the switch IPv4 or IPv6 address:
# ssh <switch IP address>
You will then be prompted to enter a password as explained “Switch Login Levels” on page 47.
© Copyright Lenovo 2016
Chapter 1: Switch Administration
37
Using SSH with Public Key Authentication
SSH can also be used for switch authentication based on asymmetric cryptography. Public encryption keys can be uploaded on the switch and used to authenticate incoming login attempts based on the clients’ private encryption key pairs. After a predefined number of failed public key login attempts, the switch reverts to password‐based authentication.
To set up public key authentication:
1. Enable SSH:
RS G8296(config)# ssh enable
2. Import the public key file using SFTP or TFTP for the admin user account::
RS G8296(config)# copy {sftp|tftp} public­key
Port type ["DATA"/"MGT"]: mgt
Address or name of remote host: 9.43.101.151
Source file name: 11.key
Username of the public key: admin
Confirm download operation (y/n) ? y
Notes:

When prompted to input a username, a valid user account name must be entered. If no username is entered, the key is stored on the switch, and can be assigned to a user account later.

A user account can have up to 100 public keys set up on the switch.
3. Configure a maximum number of 3 failed public key authentication attempts before the system reverts to password‐based authentication:
RS G8296(config)# ssh maxauthattempts 3
Once the public key is configured on the switch, the client can use SSH to login from a system where the private key pair is set up:
# ssh <switch IP address>
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G8296 Application Guide for ENOS 8.4
.Using
Simple Network Management Protocol
ENOS provides Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) version 1, version 2, and version 3 support for access through any network management software, such as IBM Director or HP‐OpenView.
Note: SNMP read and write functions are enabled by default. For best security practices, if SNMP is not needed for your network, it is recommended that you disable these functions prior to connecting the switch to the network.
To access the SNMP agent on the G8296, the read and write community strings on the SNMP manager must be configured to match those on the switch. The default read community string on the switch is public and the default write community string is private.
The read and write community strings on the switch can be configured using the following commands: RS G8296(config)# snmp­server read­community <1‐32 characters>
‐and‐
RS G8296(config)# snmp­server write­community <1‐32 characters>
The SNMP manager must be able to reach any one of the IP interfaces on the switch.
For the SNMP manager to receive the SNMPv1 traps sent out by the SNMP agent on the switch, configure the trap host on the switch with the following commands: RS G8296(config)# snmp­server trap­source <trap source IP interface>
RS G8296(config)# snmp­server host <IPv4 address> <trap host community string>
To restrict SNMP access to specific IPv4 subnets, use the following commands:
RS G8296(config)# access management­network <IPv4 address> <subnet mask> snmp­ro
‐and‐
RS G8296(config)# access management­network <IPv4 address> <subnet mask> snmp­rw
For IPv6 networks, use:
RS G8296(config)# access management­network6 <IPv6 address> <IPv6 prefix length> snmp­ro
‐and‐
RS G8296(config)# access management­network6 <IPv6 address> <IPv6 prefix length> snmp­rw
Note: Subnets allowed for SNMP read‐only access must not overlap with subnets allowed for SNMP read‐write access.
For more information on SNMP usage and configuration, see Chapter 41, “Simple Network Management Protocol.”
© Copyright Lenovo 2016
Chapter 1: Switch Administration
39
BOOTP/DHCP Client IP Address Services
For remote switch administration, the client terminal device must have a valid IP address on the same network as a switch interface. The IP address on the client device may be configured manually, or obtained automatically using IPv6 stateless address configuration, or an IPv4 address may obtained automatically via BOOTP or DHCP relay as discussed in the next section.
The G8296 can function as a relay agent for Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP) or DHCP. This allows clients to be assigned an IPv4 address for a finite lease period, reassigning freed addresses later to other clients.
Acting as a relay agent, the switch can forward a client’s IPv4 address request to up to five BOOTP/DHCP servers. In addition to the five global BOOTP/DHCP servers, up to five domain‐specific BOOTP/DHCP servers can be configured for each of up to 10 VLANs.
When a switch receives a BOOTP/DHCP request from a client seeking an IPv4 address, the switch acts as a proxy for the client. The request is forwarded as a UDP Unicast MAC layer message to the BOOTP/DHCP servers configured for the client’s VLAN, or to the global BOOTP/DHCP servers if no domain‐specific BOOTP/DHCP servers are configured for the client’s VLAN. The servers respond to the switch with a Unicast reply that contains the IPv4 default gateway and the IPv4 address for the client. The switch then forwards this reply back to the client.
DHCP is described in RFC 2131, and the DHCP relay agent supported on the G8296 is described in RFC 1542. DHCP uses UDP as its transport protocol. The client sends messages to the server on port 67 and the server sends messages to the client on port 68.
BOOTP and DHCP relay are collectively configured using the BOOTP commands and menus on the G8296.
Global BOOTP Relay Agent Configuration
To enable the G8296 to be a BOOTP (or DHCP) forwarder, enable the BOOTP relay feature, configure up to four global BOOTP server IPv4 addresses on the switch, and enable BOOTP relay on the interface(s) on which the client requests are expected.
Generally, it is best to configure BOOTP for the switch IP interface that is closest to the client, so that the BOOTP server knows from which IPv4 subnet the newly allocated IPv4 address will come.
In the G8296 implementation, there are no primary or secondary BOOTP servers. The client request is forwarded to all the global BOOTP servers configured on the switch (if no domain‐specific servers are configured). The use of multiple servers provides failover redundancy. However, no health checking is supported.
1. Use the following commands to configure global BOOTP relay servers: RS G8296(config)# ip bootp­relay enable
RS G8296(config)# ip bootp­relay server <1‐5> address <IPv4 address>
2. Enable BOOTP relay on the appropriate IP interfaces.
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G8296 Application Guide for ENOS 8.4
BOOTP/DHCP Relay functionality may be assigned on a per‐interface basis using the following commands: RS G8296(config)# interface ip <interface number>
RS G8296(config­ip­if)# relay
RS G8296(config­ip­if)# exit
Domain-Specific BOOTP Relay Agent Configuration
Use the following commands to configure up to five domain‐specific BOOTP relay agents for each of up to 10 VLANs: RS G8296(config)# ip bootp­relay bcast­domain <1‐10> vlan <VLAN number>
RS G8296(config)# ip bootp­relay bcast­domain <1‐10> server <1‐5> address <IPv4 address>
RS G8296(config)# ip bootp­relay bcast­domain <1‐10> enable
As with global relay agent servers, domain‐specific BOOTP/DHCP functionality may be assigned on a per‐interface basis (see Step 2 in page 40).
DHCP Option 82
DHCP Option 82 provides a mechanism for generating IP addresses based on the client device’s location in the network. When you enable the DHCP relay agent option on the switch, it inserts the relay agent information option 82 in the packet, and sends a unicast BOOTP request packet to the DHCP server. The DHCP server uses the option 82 field to assign an IP address, and sends the packet, with the original option 82 field included, back to the relay agent. DHCP relay agent strips off the option 82 field in the packet and sends the packet to the DHCP client.
Configuration of this feature is optional. The feature helps resolve several issues where untrusted hosts access the network. See RFC 3046 for details.
Use the following commands to configure DHCP Option 82:
RS G8296(config)# ip bootp­relay information enable (Enable Option 82)
RS G8296(config)# ip bootp­relay enable (Enable DHCP relay)
RS G8296(config)# ip bootp­relay server <1‐5> address <IP address>
DHCP Snooping
DHCP snooping provides security by filtering untrusted DHCP packets and by building and maintaining a DHCP snooping binding table. This feature is applicable only to IPv4 and only works in non‐stacking mode.
An untrusted interface is a port that is configured to receive packets from outside the network or firewall. A trusted interface receives packets only from within the network. By default, all DHCP ports are untrusted.
The DHCP snooping binding table contains the MAC address, IP address, lease time, binding type, VLAN number, and port number that correspond to the local untrusted interface on the switch; it does not contain information regarding hosts interconnected with a trusted interface. © Copyright Lenovo 2016
Chapter 1: Switch Administration
41
By default, DHCP snooping is disabled on all VLANs. You can enable DHCP snooping on one or more VLANs. You must enable DHCP snooping globally. To enable this feature, enter the following commands:
RS G8296(config)# ip dhcp snooping vlan <vlan number(s)>
RS G8296(config)# ip dhcp snooping
Following is an example of DHCP snooping configuration, where the DHCP server and client are in VLAN 100, and the server connects using port 24. RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# ip dhcp snooping vlan 100
G8296(config)# ip dhcp snooping
G8296(config)# interface port 24
G8296(config­if)# ip dhcp snooping trust(Optional; Set port as trusted)
G8296(config­if)# ip dhcp snooping information option­insert
(Optional; add DHCP option 82)
RS G8296(config­if)# ip dhcp snooping limit rate 100 (Optional; Set DHCP packet rate)
42
G8296 Application Guide for ENOS 8.4
Easy Connect Wizard
Lenovo EasyConnect (EZC) is a feature designed to simplify switch configuration. A set of predefined configurations can be applied on the switch via ISCLI. By launching the EZC Wizard, you are prompted for a minimal set of input and the tool automatically customizes the switch software.
The EZC Wizard allows you to choose one of the following configuration modes:

Basic System mode supports settings for hostname, static management port IP, netmask, and gateway.

Transparent mode collects server and uplink port settings. Note: You can either accept the static defaults or enter a different port list for uplink and/or server ports.

Redundant mode refers to VLAG settings.
The EZC configuration will be applied immediately. Any existing configuration will be deleted, the current active or running configuration will not be merged or appended to the EZC configuration.
For any custom settings that are not included in the predefined configuration sets, the user has to do it manually.
Note: To support scripting, the feature also has a single‐line format. For more information, please refer to Lenovo Networking ISCLI Reference Guide.
Configuring the Easy Connect Wizard
To launch the EZC Wizard, use the following command: RS G8296# easyconnect
The wizard displays the available predefined configuration modes. You are prompted to select one of the following options: RS G8296# easyconnect Auto configures the switch into a set configuration based on the input provided.
Current configuration will be overwritten with auto configuration settings.
The wizard can be canceled anytime by pressing Ctrl+C.
Select which of the following features you want enabled:
#Configure Basic system (yes/no)?
#Configure Transparent mode (yes/no)?
#Configure Switch Redundant mode (yes/no)?
© Copyright Lenovo 2016
Chapter 1: Switch Administration
43
Basic System Mode Configuration Example
This example shows the parameters available for configuration in Basic System mode: RS G8296# easyconnect Configure Basic system (yes/no)? y
Please enter "none" for no hostname.
Enter hostname(Default: None)? host
Please enter "dhcp" for dhcp IP.
Select management IP address (Current: 10.241.13.32)? Enter management netmask(Current: 255.255.255.128)? Enter management gateway:(Current: 10.241.13.1)? Pending switch port configuration:
Hostname: host
Management interface:
IP: 10.241.13.32
Netmask: 255.255.255.128
Gateway: 10.241.13.1
Confirm erasing current config to re­configure Easy Connect (yes/no)?
Note: You can either accept the default values or enter new parameters.
Transparent Mode Configuration Example
This example shows the parameters available for configuration in Transparent mode:
RS G8296# #easyconnect Configure Transparent mode (yes/no)? y
Select Uplink Ports (Static Defaults: 49­64)? The following Uplink ports will be enabled:
Uplink ports(1G/10G): 49­64
Select Server Ports (Static Defaults: 1­48,65­86)? The following Server ports will be enabled:
Server ports(1G/10G): 1­48,65­86
Pending switch configuration:
Uplink Ports: 49­64
Server Ports: 1­48,65­86
Disabled Ports: Confirm erasing current config to re­configure Easy Connect (yes/no)? 44

If your selection for a port group contains ports of different mode or speed, the selection is not valid and you are guided to either select other ports or change the speed of the ports.

You can either accept the static defaults or enter a different port list for uplink and/or server ports.
G8296 Application Guide for ENOS 8.4
Redundant Mode Configuration Example
This example shows the parameters available for configuration in Redundant mode: RS G8296# #easyconnect Configure Switch Redundant mode (yes/no)? y
Note: It is recommended to select Basic system configuration in order to set the management IP address used for vLAG health check.
Configure Basic system (yes/no)? y
Configure this switch as vLAG Primary or Secondary Peer (primary/secondary)? prim
Select ISL Ports (Static Defaults: 87­96)?
The following ISL ports will be enabled:
ISL ports(40G) : 87­96
Select vLAG TierID (Default: 101)? Select management IP address (Current: 192.168.49.50)? Enter management netmask (Current: 255.255.255.0)? Select Peer IP address for vLAG healthcheck (Default: 1.1.1.2)? Warning: vLAG healthcheck Peer IP is not reachable.
Do you want to select another Peer IP (yes/no)? y
Select Peer IP address for vLAG healthcheck (Default: 1.1.1.2)? Warning: vLAG healthcheck Peer IP is not reachable.
Do you want to select another Peer IP (yes/no)? n
Select Uplink Ports (Static Defaults: 49­64)? The following Uplink ports will be enabled:
Uplink ports(1G/10G): 49­64
Select Downlink Ports (Static Defaults: 1­48,65­86)? The following Downlink ports will be enabled:
Downlink ports(1G/10G): 1­48,65­86
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45
Please enter "none" for no hostname.
Enter hostname(Default: Primary VLAG)? Please enter "none" for no gateway.
Enter management gateway:(Default: 0.0.0.0)?
Pending switch configuration:
vLAG switch type: Primary
ISL Ports: 87­96
vLAG TierID: 101
vLAG Peer IP: 1.1.1.2
Uplink Ports: 49­64
Downlink Ports: 1­48,65­86
Disabled Ports: empty
Hostname: Primary VLAG
Management interface:
IP: 192.168.49.50
Netmask: 255.255.255.0
Gateway: 0.0.0.0
Confirm erasing current config to re­configure Easy Connect (yes/no)? Notes:
46

If your selection for a port group contains ports of different speed, the selection is not valid, and you are guided to either select other ports or change the speed of the ports.

All unused port are configured as shut down in the configuration dump.

You can either accept the static defaults or enter a different port list for ISL, uplink, and/or downlink ports.
G8296 Application Guide for ENOS 8.4
Switch Login Levels
To enable better switch management and user accountability, three levels or classes of user access have been implemented on the G8296. Levels of access to CLI, Web management functions, and screens increase as needed to perform various switch management tasks. Conceptually, access classes are defined as follows: 
User interaction with the switch is completely passive—nothing can be changed on the G8296. Users may display information that has no security or privacy implications, such as switch statistics and current operational state information.

Operators can only effect temporary changes on the G8296. These changes will be lost when the switch is rebooted/reset. Operators have access to the switch management features used for daily switch operations. Because any changes an operator makes are undone by a reset of the switch, operators cannot severely impact switch operation.

Administrators are the only ones that may make permanent changes to the switch configuration—changes that are persistent across a reboot/reset of the switch. Administrators can access switch functions to configure and troubleshoot problems on the G8296. Because administrators can also make temporary (operator‐level) changes as well, they must be aware of the interactions between temporary and permanent changes.
Access to switch functions is controlled through the use of unique user names and passwords. Once you are connected to the switch via console, remote Telnet, or SSH, you are prompted to enter a password. The default user names/password for each access level are listed in the following table.
Note: It is recommended that you change the default switch passwords after initial configuration and as regularly as required under your network security policies.
Table 2. User Access Levels ‐ Default Settings
© Copyright Lenovo 2016
User
Account
Password Description and Tasks Performed
Status
user
user
The User has no direct responsibility for switch management. He or she can view all switch status information and statistics, but cannot make any configuration changes to the switch.
Disabled
oper
oper
The Operator manages all functions of the switch. The Operator can reset ports, except the management ports.
Disabled
admin
admin The superuser Administrator has complete Enabled
access to all menus, information, and configuration commands on the G8296, including the ability to change both the user and administrator passwords.
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47
Note: Access to each user level (except admin account) can be disabled by setting the password to an empty value. To disable admin account, use the command no access user administrator­enable. The Admin account can be disabled only if there is at least one user account enabled and configured with administrator privilege. 48
G8296 Application Guide for ENOS 8.4
Setup vs. the Command Line
Once the administrator password is verified, you are given complete access to the switch. If the switch is still set to its factory default configuration, the system will ask whether you wish to run Setup (see Chapter 2, “Initial Setup”), a utility designed to help you through the first‐time configuration process. If the switch has already been configured, the command line is displayed instead.
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Chapter 1: Switch Administration
49
Idle Disconnect
By default, the switch will disconnect your Telnet session after 10 minutes of inactivity. This function is controlled by the idle timeout parameter, which can be set from 0 to 60 minutes, where 0 means the session will never timeout.
Use the following command to set the idle timeout value: RS G8296(config)# system idle <0‐60>
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G8296 Application Guide for ENOS 8.4
Boot Strict Mode
The implementations specified in this section are compliant with National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Special Publication (SP) 800‐131A.
The RackSwitch G8296 can operate in two boot modes:

Compatibility mode (default): This is the default switch boot mode. This mode may use algorithms and key lengths that may not be allowed/acceptable by NIST SP 800‐131A specification. This mode is useful in maintaining compatibility with previous releases and in environments that have lesser data security requirements.

Strict mode: Encryption algorithms, protocols, and key lengths in strict mode are compliant with NIST SP 800‐131A specification.
When in boot strict mode, the switch uses Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)/Transport Layer Security (TLS) 1.2 protocols to ensure confidentiality of the data to and from the switch. Before enabling strict mode, ensure the following:

The software version on all connected switches is Enterprise NOS 8.4.

The supported protocol versions and cryptographic cipher suites between clients and servers are compatible. For example: if using SSH to connect to the switch, ensure that the SSH client supports SSHv2 and a strong cipher suite that is compliant with the NIST standard.

Compliant Web server certificate is installed on the switch, if using BBI.

A new self‐signed certificate is generated for the switch (RS G8296(config)# access https generate­certificate). The new certificate is generated using 2048‐bit RSA key and SHA‐256 digest.

Protocols that are not NIST SP 800‐131A compliant must be disabled or not used.

Only SSHv2 or higher is used.

The current configuration, if any, is saved in a location external to the switch. When the switch reboots, both the startup and running configuration are lost.
Only protocols/algorithms compliant with NIST SP 800‐131A specification are used/enabled on the switch. Please see the NIST SP 800‐131A publication for details. The following table lists the acceptable protocols and algorithms: Table 3. Acceptable Protocols and Algorithms

Protocol/Function Strict Mode Algorithm
© Copyright Lenovo 2016
Compatibility Mode Algorithm
BGP
BGP does not comply with NIST SP Acceptable
800‐131A specification. When in strict mode, BGP is disabled. How‐
ever, it can be enabled, if required.
Certificate
Generation
RSA‐2048
SHA‐256
RSA 2048
SHA 256
Certificate
Acceptance
RSA 2048 or higher
SHA 224 or higher
RSA
SHA, SHA2
Chapter 1: Switch Administration
51
Table 3. Acceptable Protocols and Algorithms (continued)
Protocol/Function Strict Mode Algorithm
Compatibility Mode Algorithm
HTTPS
TLS 1.2 only
See “Acceptable Cipher Suites” on page 54; TLS 1.0, 1.1, 1.2
See “Acceptable Cipher Suites” on page 54; Key Exchange
DH Group 24
DH group 1, 2, 5, 14, 24
Encryption
3DES, AES‐128‐CBC
3DES, AES‐128‐CBC
Integrity
HMAC‐SHA1
HMAC‐SHA1, HMAC‐MD5
HMAC‐SHA1, HMAC‐MD5
IKE
IPSec
AH
HMAC‐SHA1
ESP
3DES, AES‐128‐CBC, HMAC‐SHA1 3DES, AES‐128‐CBC, HMAC‐SHA1, HMAC‐MD5
LDAP
LDAP does not comply with NIST Acceptable
SP 800‐131A specification. When in strict mode, LDAP is disabled. However, it can be enabled, if required.
OSPF
OSPF does not comply with NIST SP Acceptable
800‐131A specification. When in strict mode, OSPF is disabled. How‐
ever, it can be enabled, if required.
RADIUS
Acceptable
RADIUS does not comply with NIST SP 800‐131A specification. When in strict mode, RADIUS is dis‐
abled. However, it can be enabled, if required.
Random Number Generator
NIST SP 800‐90A AES CTR DRBG
Secure NTP
Secure NTP does not comply with Acceptable
NIST SP 800‐131A specification. When in strict mode, secure NTP is disabled. However, it can be enabled, if required.
SLP
SHA‐256 or higher
RSA/DSA 2048 or higher
SNMP
SNMPv3 only
AES‐128‐CFB‐128/SHA1
Note: Following algorithms are acceptable if you choose to support old SNMPv3 factory default users:
AES‐128‐CFB/SHA1
DES/MD5
AES‐128‐CFB‐128/SHA1
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G8296 Application Guide for ENOS 8.4
NIST SP 800‐90A AES CTR DRBG
SNMPv1, SNMPv2, SNMPv3
DES/MD5, AES‐128‐CFB‐128/SHA1
Table 3. Acceptable Protocols and Algorithms (continued)
Protocol/Function Strict Mode Algorithm
Compatibility Mode Algorithm
SSH/SFTP © Copyright Lenovo 2016
Host Key
SSH‐RSA
SSH‐RSA
Key Exchange
ECDH‐SHA2‐NISTP521
ECDH‐SHA2‐NISTP384
ECDH‐SHA2‐NISTP256
ECDH‐SHA2‐NISTP224
RSA2048‐SHA256
DIFFIE‐HELLMAN‐GROUP‐EXCH
ANGE‐SHA256
DIFFIE‐HELLMAN‐GROUP‐EXCH
ANGE‐SHA1
ECDH‐SHA2‐NISTP521
ECDH‐SHA2‐NISTP384
ECDH‐SHA2‐NISTP256
ECDH‐SHA2‐NISTP224
ECDH‐SHA2‐NISTP192
RSA2048‐SHA256
RSA1024‐SHA1
DIFFIE‐HELLMAN‐GROUP‐EX
CHANGE‐SHA256
DIFFIE‐HELLMAN‐GROUP‐EX
CHANGE‐SHA1
DIFFIE‐HELLMAN‐GROUP14‐S
HA1
DIFFIE‐HELLMAN‐GROUP1‐S
HA1
Encryption
AES128‐CTR
AES128‐CBC
3DES‐CBC
AES128‐CTR
AES128‐CBC
RIJNDAEL128‐CBC
BLOWFISH‐CBC
3DES‐CBC
ARCFOUR256
ARCFOUR128
ARCFOUR
MAC
HMAC‐SHA1
HMAC‐SHA1‐96
HMAC‐SHA1
HMAC‐SHA1‐96
HMAC‐MD5
HMAC‐MD5‐96
TACACS+
TACACS+ does not comply with NIST SP 800‐131A specification. When in strict mode, TACACS+ is disabled. However, it can be enabled, if required.
Acceptable
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53
Acceptable Cipher Suites
The following cipher suites are acceptable (listed in the order of preference) when the RackSwitch G8296 is in compatibility mode: Table 4. List of Acceptable Cipher Suites in Compatibility Mode
Cipher ID Key Exchange
0xC027
ECDHE
0xC013
ECDHE
0xC012
ECDHE
Authenti­ Encryption MAC
cation
RSA
AES_128_
SHA256
CBC
RSA
AES_128_
SHA1
CBC
RSA
3DES
SHA1
Cipher Name
0xC011
ECDHE
RSA
RC4
SHA1
SSL_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_RC4_128_SHA
0x002F
RSA
RSA
SHA1
TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA
0x003C
RSA
RSA
SHA256
TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA256
0x0005
RSA
RSA
AES_128_
CBC
AES_128_
CBC
RC4
SHA1
SSL_RSA_WITH_RC4_128_SHA
0x000A
RSA
RSA
3DES
SHA1
SSL_RSA_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA
0x0033
DHE
RSA
0x0067
DHE
RSA
0x0016
DHE
RSA
AES­128_CB SHA1
C
AES_128_CB SHA256
C
3DES
SHA1
TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA2
56
TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA
SSL_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA
TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA
TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA256
SSL_DHE_RSA_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA
The following cipher suites are acceptable (listed in the order of preference) when the RackSwitch G8296 is in strict mode: Table 5. List of Acceptable Cipher Suites in Strict Mode
Cipher ID Key Exchange
0xC027
ECDHE
54
0xC013
ECDHE
0xC012
ECDHE
Authenti­ Encryption MAC
cation
RSA
AES_128_
SHA256
CBC
RSA
AES_128_
SHA1
CBC
RSA
3DES
SHA1
0x0033
DHE
RSA
0x0067
DHE
RSA
0x0016
DHE
RSA
0x002F
RSA
RSA
0x003C
RSA
RSA
0x000A
RSA
RSA
G8296 Application Guide for ENOS 8.4
AES­128_
CBC
AES_128_
CBC
3DES
AES_128_
CBC
AES_128_
CBC
3DES
Cipher Name
TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA2
56
TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA
SSL_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA
SHA1
TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA
SHA256
TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA256
SHA1
SSL_DHE_RSA_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA
SHA1
TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA
SHA256
TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA256
SHA1
SSL_RSA_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA
Configuring Strict Mode
To change the switch mode to boot strict mode, use the following command: RS G8296(config)# [no] boot strict enable
When strict mode is enabled, you will see the following message: Warning, security strict mode limits the cryptographic algorithms used by secure protocols on this switch. Please see the documentation for full details, and verify that peer devices support acceptable algorithms before enabling this mode. The mode change will take effect after reloading the switch and the configuration will be wiped during the reload. System will enter security strict mode with default factory configuration at next boot up. Do you want SNMPV3 support old default users in strict mode (y/n)?
For SNMPv3 default users, see “SNMP Version 3” on page 612.
When strict mode is disabled, the following message is displayed: Warning, disabling security strict mode. The mode change will take effect after reloading the switch.
You must reboot the switch for the boot strict mode enable/disable to take effect.
Configuring No-Prompt Mode
If you expect to administer the switch using SNSC or another browser‐based interface, you need to turn off confirmation prompts. To accomplish this, use the command: RS G8296(config)# [no] terminal dont­ask
In no‐prompt mode, confirmation prompts are disabled for this and future sessions.
SSL/TLS Version Limitation
Each of the following successive encryption protocol versions provide more security and less compatibility: SSLv3, TLS1.0, TLS1.1, TLS1.2. When negotiating the encryption protocol during the SSL handshake, the switch will accept, by default, the latest (and most secure) protocol version supported by the client equipment. To enforce a minimal level of security acceptable for the connections, use the following command:
RS G8296(config)# ssl minimum­version {ssl|tls10|tls11|tls12}
Limitations
In Enterprise NOS 8.4, consider the following limitation/restrictions if you need to operate the switch in boot strict mode:
© Copyright Lenovo 2016
Chapter 1: Switch Administration
55
56

Power ITEs and High‐Availability features do not comply with NIST SP 800‐131A specification.

The G8296 will not discover Platform agents/Common agents that are not in strict mode.

Web browsers that do not use TLS 1.2 cannot be used.

Limited functions of the switch managing Windows will be available.
G8296 Application Guide for ENOS 8.4
Chapter 2. Initial Setup
To help with the initial process of configuring your switch, the Lenovo Enterprise Network Operating System software includes a Setup utility. The Setup utility prompts you step‐by‐step to enter all the necessary information for basic configuration of the switch.
Setup can be activated manually from the command line interface any time after login.
© Copyright Lenovo 2016
57
Information Needed for Setup
Setup requests the following information:




58
Basic system information

Date & time

Whether to use Spanning Tree Group or not
Optional configuration for each port

Speed, duplex, flow control, and negotiation mode (as appropriate)

Whether to use VLAN trunk mode/tagging or not (as appropriate)
Optional configuration for each VLAN

Name of VLAN

Which ports are included in the VLAN
Optional configuration of IP parameters

IP address/mask and VLAN for each IP interface

IP addresses for default gateway

Whether IP forwarding is enabled or not
G8296 Application Guide for ENOS 8.4
Default Setup Options
The Setup prompt appears automatically whenever you login as the system administrator under the factory default settings.
1. Connect to the switch.
After connecting, the login prompt appears.
Enter Password:
2. Enter admin as the default administrator password.
If the factory default configuration is detected, the system prompts:
Lenovo RackSwitch G8296
18:44:05 Wed Jan 3, 2009 The switch is booted with factory default configuration.
To ease the configuration of the switch, a "Set Up" facility which
will prompt you with those configuration items that are essential to the operation of the switch is provided.
Would you like to run "Set Up" to configure the switch? [y/n]:
Note: If the default admin login is unsuccessful, or if the administrator Main Menu appears instead, the system configuration has probably been changed from the factory default settings. If desired, return the switch to its factory default configuration.
3. Enter y to begin the initial configuration of the switch, or n to bypass the Setup facility.
© Copyright Lenovo 2016
Chapter 2: Initial Setup
59
Stopping and Restarting Setup Manually
Follow these instructions to manually stop and start the Setup utility.
Stopping Setup
To abort the Setup utility, press <Ctrl‐C> during any Setup question. When you abort Setup, the system will prompt:
Would you like to run from top again? [y/n]
Enter n to abort Setup, or y to restart the Setup program at the beginning.
Restarting Setup
You can restart the Setup utility manually at any time by entering the following command at the administrator prompt:
RS G8296(config)# setup
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G8296 Application Guide for ENOS 8.4
Setup Part 1: Basic System Configuration
When Setup is started, the system prompts:
"Set Up" will walk you through the configuration of
System Date and Time, Spanning Tree, Port Speed/Mode,
VLANs, and IP interfaces. [type Ctrl­C to abort "Set Up"]
1. Enter y if you will be configuring VLANs. Otherwise enter n.
If you decide not to configure VLANs during this session, you can configure them later using the configuration menus, or by restarting the Setup facility. For more information on configuring VLANs, see the Lenovo Enterprise Network Operating System Application Guide. Next, the Setup utility prompts you to input basic system information.
2. Enter the year of the current date at the prompt:
System Date:
Enter year [2009]:
Enter the four‐digits that represent the year. To keep the current year, press <Enter>.
3. Enter the month of the current system date at the prompt:
System Date:
Enter month [1]:
Enter the month as a number from 1 to 12. To keep the current month, press <Enter>.
4. Enter the day of the current date at the prompt:
Enter day [3]:
Enter the date as a number from 1 to 31. To keep the current day, press <Enter>.
The system displays the date and time settings:
System clock set to 18:55:36 Wed Jan 28, 2009.
5. Enter the hour of the current system time at the prompt:
System Time:
Enter hour in 24­hour format [18]:
Enter the hour as a number from 00 to 23. To keep the current hour, press <Enter>.
6. Enter the minute of the current time at the prompt:
Enter minutes [55]:
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61
Enter the minute as a number from 00 to 59. To keep the current minute, press <Enter>.
7. Enter the seconds of the current time at the prompt:
Enter seconds [37]:
Enter the seconds as a number from 00 to 59. To keep the current second, press <Enter>. The system then displays the date and time settings:
System clock set to 8:55:36 Wed Jan 28, 2009.
8. Turn Spanning Tree Protocol on or off at the prompt:
Spanning Tree:
Current Spanning Tree Group 1 setting: ON
Turn Spanning Tree Group 1 OFF? [y/n]
Enter y to turn off Spanning Tree, or enter n to leave Spanning Tree on.
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G8296 Application Guide for ENOS 8.4
Setup Part 2: Port Configuration
Note: When configuring port options for your switch, some prompts and options may be different. 1. Select whether you will configure VLANs and VLAN trunk mode/tagging for ports: Port Config:
Will you configure VLANs and VLAN Tagging/Trunk­Mode for ports? [y/n]
If you wish to change settings for VLANs, enter y, or enter n to skip VLAN configuration. Note: The sample screens that appear in this document might differ slightly from the screens displayed by your system. Screen content varies based on the firmware versions and options that are installed.
2. Select the port to configure, or skip port configuration at the prompt: If you wish to change settings for individual ports, enter the number of the port you wish to configure. To skip port configuration, press <Enter> without specifying any port and go to “Setup Part 3: VLANs” on page 65. 3. Configure Gigabit Ethernet port flow parameters.
The system prompts:
Gig Link Configuration:
Port Flow Control:
Current Port EXT1 flow control setting: both
Enter new value ["rx"/"tx"/"both"/"none"]:
Enter rx to enable receive flow control, tx for transmit flow control, both to enable both, or none to turn flow control off for the port. To keep the current setting, press <Enter>.
4. Configure Gigabit Ethernet port autonegotiation mode. If you selected a port that has a Gigabit Ethernet connector, the system prompts:
Port Auto Negotiation:
Current Port autonegotiation: on
Enter new value ["on"/"off"]:
Enter on to enable port autonegotiation, off to disable it, or press <Enter> to keep the current setting. 5. If configuring VLANs, enable or disable VLAN trunk mode/tagging for the port.
If you have selected to configure VLANs back in Part 1, the system prompts:
Port VLAN tagging/trunk mode config (tagged/trunk mode port can be a member of multiple VLANs)
Current VLAN tagging/trunk mode support: disabled
Enter new VLAN tagging/trunk mode support [d/e]:
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Chapter 2: Initial Setup
63
Enter d to disable VLAN trunk mode/tagging for the port or enter e to enable VLAN tagging for the port. To keep the current setting, press <Enter>.
6. The system prompts you to configure the next port: Enter port (1­52):
When you are through configuring ports, press <Enter> without specifying any port. Otherwise, repeat the steps in this section.
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G8296 Application Guide for ENOS 8.4
Setup Part 3: VLANs
If you chose to skip VLANs configuration back in Part 2, skip to “Setup Part 4: IP Configuration” on page 66.
1. Select the VLAN to configure, or skip VLAN configuration at the prompt:
VLAN Config:
Enter VLAN number from 2 to 4094, NULL at end:
If you wish to change settings for individual VLANs, enter the number of the VLAN you wish to configure. To skip VLAN configuration, press <Enter> without typing a VLAN number and go to “Setup Part 4: IP Configuration” on page 66.
2. Enter the new VLAN name at the prompt:
Current VLAN name: VLAN 2
Enter new VLAN name:
Entering a new VLAN name is optional. To use the pending new VLAN name, press <Enter>. 3. Enter the VLAN port numbers: Define Ports in VLAN:
Current VLAN 2: empty
Enter ports one per line, NULL at end:
Enter each port, by port number or port alias, and confirm placement of the port into this VLAN. When you are finished adding ports to this VLAN, press <Enter> without specifying any port. 4. Configure Spanning Tree Group membership for the VLAN: Spanning Tree Group membership:
Enter new Spanning Tree Group index [1­255]:
5. The system prompts you to configure the next VLAN: VLAN Config:
Enter VLAN number from 2 to 4094, NULL at end:
Repeat the steps in this section until all VLANs have been configured. When all VLANs have been configured, press <Enter> without specifying any VLAN. © Copyright Lenovo 2016
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Setup Part 4: IP Configuration
The system prompts for IPv4 parameters.
Although the switch supports both IPv4 and IPv6 networks, the Setup utility permits only IPv4 configuration. For IPv6 configuration, see Chapter 29, “Internet Protocol Version 6.”
IP Interfaces
IP interfaces are used for defining the networks to which the switch belongs.
Up to 126 IP interfaces can be configured on the RackSwitch G8296 (G8296). The IP address assigned to each IP interface provides the switch with an IP presence on your network. No two IP interfaces can be on the same IP network. The interfaces can be used for connecting to the switch for remote configuration, and for routing between subnets and VLANs (if used).
1. Select the IP interface to configure, or skip interface configuration at the prompt:
IP Config:
IP interfaces:
Enter interface number: (1­126) If you wish to configure individual IP interfaces, enter the number of the IP interface you wish to configure. To skip IP interface configuration, press <Enter> without typing an interface number and go to “Default Gateways” on page 68. 2. For the specified IP interface, enter the IP address in IPv4 dotted decimal notation:
Current IP address: 0.0.0.0
Enter new IP address:
To keep the current setting, press <Enter>.
3. At the prompt, enter the IPv4 subnet mask in dotted decimal notation:
Current subnet mask: 0.0.0.0
Enter new subnet mask:
To keep the current setting, press <Enter>.If configuring VLANs, specify a VLAN for the interface.
The following prompt appears if you selected to configure VLANs back in Part 1:
Current VLAN: 1
Enter new VLAN [1­4094]:
Enter the number for the VLAN to which the interface belongs, or press <Enter> without specifying a VLAN number to accept the current setting.
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4. At the prompt, enter y to enable the IP interface, or n to leave it disabled:
Enable IP interface? [y/n]
5. The system prompts you to configure another interface:
Enter interface number: (1­126) Repeat the steps in this section until all IP interfaces have been configured. When all interfaces have been configured, press <Enter> without specifying any interface number.
Loopback Interfaces
A loopback interface provides an IP address, but is not otherwise associated with a physical port or network entity. Essentially, it is a virtual interface that is perceived as being “always available” for higher‐layer protocols to use and advertise to the network, regardless of other connectivity.
Loopback interfaces improve switch access, increase reliability, security, and provide greater flexibility in Layer 3 network designs. They can be used for many different purposes, but are most commonly for management IP addresses, router IDs for various protocols, and persistent peer IDs for neighbor relationships.
In Enterprise NOS 8.4, loopback interfaces have been expanded for use with routing protocols such as OSPF and BGP. Loopback interfaces can also be specified as the source IP address for syslog, SNMP, RADIUS, TACACS+, NTP, and router IDs.
Loopback interfaces must be configured before they can be used in other features. Up to five loopback interfaces are currently supported. They can be configured using the following commands:
RS G8296(config)# interface loopback <1‐5>
RS G8296(config­ip­loopback)# [no] ip address <IPv4 address> <mask> enable
RS G8296(config­ip­loopback)# exit
Using Loopback Interfaces for Source IP Addresses
The switch can use loopback interfaces to set the source IP addresses for a variety of protocols. This assists in server security, as the server for each protocol can be configured to accept protocol packets only from the expected loopback address block. It may also make is easier to locate or process protocol information, since packets have the source IP address of the loopback interface, rather than numerous egress interfaces.
Configured loopback interfaces can be applied to the following protocols:

Syslogs
RS G8296(config)# logging source­interface loopback <1‐5>

SNMP traps
RS G8296(config)# snmp­server trap­source loopback <1‐5>
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
RADIUS
RS G8296(config)# ip radius source­interface loopback <1‐5>

TACACS+
RS G8296(config)# ip tacacs source­interface loopback <1‐5>

NTP
RS G8296(config)# ntp source loopback <1‐5>
Loopback Interface Limitations


ARP is not supported. Loopback interfaces will ignore ARP requests.
Loopback interfaces cannot be assigned to a VLAN.
Default Gateways
To set up a default gateway:
1. At the prompt, select an IP default gateway for configuration, or skip default gateway configuration:
IP default gateways:
Enter default gateway number: (1­4) Enter the number for the IP default gateway to be configured. To skip default gateway configuration, press <Enter> without typing a gateway number and go to “IP Routing” on page 68.
2. At the prompt, enter the IPv4 address for the selected default gateway:
Current IP address: 0.0.0.0
Enter new IP address:
Enter the IPv4 address in dotted decimal notation, or press <Enter> without specifying an address to accept the current setting.
3. At the prompt, enter y to enable the default gateway, or n to leave it disabled:
Enable default gateway? [y/n]
4. The system prompts you to configure another default gateway:
Enter default gateway number: (1­4) Repeat the steps in this section until all default gateways have been configured. When all default gateways have been configured, press <Enter> without specifying any number. IP Routing
When IP interfaces are configured for the various IP subnets attached to your switch, IP routing between them can be performed entirely within the switch. This eliminates the need to send inter‐subnet communication to an external router 68
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device. Routing on more complex networks, where subnets may not have a direct presence on the G8296, can be accomplished through configuring static routes or by letting the switch learn routes dynamically.
This part of the Setup program prompts you to configure the various routing parameters.
At the prompt, enable or disable forwarding for IP Routing:
Enable IP forwarding? [y/n]
Enter y to enable IP forwarding. To disable IP forwarding, enter n. To keep the current setting, press <Enter>.
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Setup Part 5: Final Steps
1. When prompted, decide whether to restart Setup or continue:
Would you like to run from top again? [y/n]
Enter y to restart the Setup utility from the beginning, or n to continue.
2. When prompted, decide whether you wish to review the configuration changes:
Review the changes made? [y/n]
Enter y to review the changes made during this session of the Setup utility. Enter n to continue without reviewing the changes. We recommend that you review the changes.
3. Next, decide whether to apply the changes at the prompt:
Apply the changes? [y/n]
Enter y to apply the changes, or n to continue without applying. Changes are normally applied.
4. At the prompt, decide whether to make the changes permanent:
Save changes to flash? [y/n]
Enter y to save the changes to flash. Enter n to continue without saving the changes. Changes are normally saved at this point.
5. If you do not apply or save the changes, the system prompts whether to abort them:
Abort all changes? [y/n]
Enter y to discard the changes. Enter n to return to the “Apply the changes?” prompt.
Note: After initial configuration is complete, it is recommended that you change the default passwords.
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Optional Setup for Telnet Support
Note: This step is optional. Perform this procedure only if you are planning on connecting to the G8296 through a remote Telnet connection.
Telnet is enabled by default. To change the setting, use the following command: RS G8296(config)# no access telnet © Copyright Lenovo 2016
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Chapter 3. Switch Software Management
The switch software image is the executable code running on the G8296. A version of the image comes pre‐installed on the device. As new versions of the image are released, you can upgrade the software running on your switch. To get the latest version of software supported for your G8296, go to the following website:
http://www.lenovo.com/support/
To determine the software version currently used on the switch, use the following switch command: RS G8296# show boot
The typical upgrade process for the software image consists of the following steps:

Load a new software image and boot image onto an FTP, SFTP or TFTP server on your network.

Transfer the new images to your switch. 
Specify the new software image as the one which will be loaded into switch memory the next time a switch reset occurs.

Reset the switch.
For instructions on the typical upgrade process using the ENOS ISCLI, or BBI, see “Loading New Software to Your Switch” on page 74.
CAUTION:
Although the typical upgrade process is all that is necessary in most cases, upgrading from (or reverting to) some versions of Lenovo Enterprise Network Operating System requires special steps prior to or after the software installation process. Please be sure to follow all applicable instructions in the release notes document for the specific software release to ensure that your switch continues to operate as expected after installing new software.
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Loading New Software to Your Switch
The G8296 can store up to two different switch software images (called image1 and image2) as well as special boot software (called boot). When you load new software, you must specify where it is placed: either into image1, image2, or boot. For example, if your active image is currently loaded into image1, you would probably load the new image software into image2. This lets you test the new software and reload the original active image (stored in image1), if needed. To load a new software image to your switch, you will need the following:

The image and boot software loaded on an FTP, SFTP or TFTP server on your net‐
work.
Note: Be sure to download both the new boot file and the new image file.

The hostname or IP address of the FTP, SFTP or TFTP server
Note: The DNS parameters must be configured if specifying hostnames.

The name of the new system image.
When the software requirements are met, use one of the following procedures to download the new software to your switch. You can use the ISCLI, or the BBI to download and activate new software.
Loading Software via the ISCLI
1. In Privileged EXEC mode, enter the following command: Router# copy {tftp|ftp|sftp} {image1|image2|boot­image}
2. Enter the hostname or IP address of the FTP, SFTP or TFTP server.
Address or name of remote host: <name or IP address>
3. Enter the name of the new software file on the server.
Source file name: <filename>
The exact form of the name will vary by server. However, the file location is normally relative to the FTP, SFTP or TFTP directory (for example, tftpboot). 4. If required by the FTP, SFTP or TFTP server, enter the appropriate username and password.
5. The switch will prompt you to confirm your request.
Once confirmed, the software will begin loading into the switch.
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6. When loading is complete, use the following commands to enter Global Configuration mode to select which software image (image1 or image2) you want to run in switch memory for the next reboot: Router#
configure terminal
boot image {image1|image2} Router(config)#
The system will then verify which image is set to be loaded at the next reset: Next boot will use switch software image1 instead of image2.
7. Reboot the switch to run the new software:
Router(config)# reload
The system prompts you to confirm your request. Once confirmed, the switch will reboot to use the new software.
Loading Software via BBI
You can use the Browser‐Based Interface to load software onto the G8296. The software image to load can reside in one of the following locations: 
FTP server

TFTP server

SFTP server

Local computer
After you log onto the BBI, perform the following steps to load a software image: 1. Click the Configure context tab in the toolbar. 2. In the Navigation Window, select System > Config/Image Control. The Switch Image and Configuration Management page appears.
3. If you are loading software from your computer (HTTP client), skip this step and go to the next. Otherwise, if you are loading software from an FTP, SFTP, or TFTP server, enter the server’s information in the FTP, SFTP, or TFTP Settings section.
4. In the Image Settings section, select the image version you want to replace (Image for Transfer). 
If you are loading software from an FTP, SFTP, or TFTP server, enter the file name and click Get Image. 
If you are loading software from your computer, click Browse.

In the File Upload Dialog, select the file and click OK. Then click Download via
Browser. Once the image has loaded, the page refreshes to show the new software.
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USB Options
You can insert a USB drive into the USB port on the G8296 and use it to work with switch image and configuration files. You can boot the switch using files located on the USB drive, or copy files to and from the USB drive. To safely remove the USB drive, first use the following command to un‐mount the USB file system: system usb­eject
Command mode: Global configuration
USB Boot
USB Boot allows you to boot the switch with a software image file, boot file, or configuration file that resides on a USB drive inserted into the USB port. Use the following command to enable or disable USB Boot: [no] boot usbboot enable
Command mode: Global configuration
When enabled, when the switch is reset/reloaded, it checks the USB port. If a USB drive is inserted into the port, the switch checks the root directory on the USB drive for software and image files. If a valid file is present, the switch loads the file and boots using the file. Note: The following file types are supported: FAT32, NTFS (read‐only), EXT2, and EXT3. The following list describes the valid file names, and describes the switch behavior when it recognizes them. The file names must be exactly as shown, or the switch will not recognize them. 76

RSG8296_Boot.img
The switch replaces the current boot image with the new image, and boots with the new image.

RSG8296_OS.img
The switch boots with the new software image. The existing images are not affected. 
RSG8296_replace1_OS.img
The switch replaces the current software image1 with the new image, and boots with the new image. RSG8296_replace1_OS.img takes precedence over RSG8296_OS.img.

RSG8296_replace2_OS.img
The switch replaces the current software image2 with the new image, and boots with the new image. RSG8296_replace2_OS.img takes precedence over RSG8296_OS.img.

RSG8296.cfg
The switch boots with the new configuration file. The existing configuration files (active and backup) are not affected. G8296 Application Guide for ENOS 8.4

RSG8296_replace.cfg
The switch replaces the active configuration file with the new file, and boots with the new file. This file takes precedence over any other configuration files that may be present on the USB drive. If more than one valid file is present, the switch loads all valid files and boots with them. For example, you may simultaneously load a new boot file, image file, and configuration file from the USB drive. The switch ignores any files that do not match the valid file names or that have the wrong format. USB Copy
If a USB drive is inserted into the USB port, you can copy files from the switch to the USB drive, or from the USB drive to the switch. USB Copy is available only for software image 1 and the active configuration. Copy to USB
Use the following command to copy a file from the switch to the USB drive (Privileged EXEC mode): usbcopy tousb <filename> {boot|image1|active|syslog|crashdump}
In this example, the active configuration file is copied to a directory on the USB drive: G8296(config)# usbcopy tousb a_folder/myconfig.cfg active
Copy from USB
Use the following command to copy a file from the USB drive to the switch: usbcopy fromusb <filename> {boot|image1|active}
In this example, the active configuration file is copied from a directory on the USB drive: G8296(config)# usbcopy fromusb a_folder/myconfig.cfg active
The new file replaces the current file. Note: Do not use two consecutive dot characters ( .. ). Do not use a slash character ( / ) to begin a filename. © Copyright Lenovo 2016
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The Boot Management Menu
The Boot Management menu allows you to switch the software image, reset the switch to factory defaults, or to recover from a failed software download. You can interrupt the boot process and enter the Boot Management menu from the serial console port. When the system displays Memory Test, press <Shift B>. The Boot Management menu appears. Resetting the System ...
Memory Test ................................
Boot Menu mode
FLASH: 16 MB
L2: 512 KB enabled
PCIe1: Root Complex of PCIe, x2, regs @ 0xffe0a000
PCIe1: Bus 00 ­ 01
MMC: FSL_ESDHC: 0
Net: eTSEC1, eTSEC2 [PRIME]
Boot Management Menu
I ­ Change booting image
C ­ Change configuration block
R ­ Boot in recovery mode (tftp and xmodem download of images to recover switch)
Q ­ Reboot
E ­ Exit
Please choose your menu option: I
Current boot image is 1. Enter image to boot: 1 or 2: 2
Booting from image 2
The Boot Management menu allows you to perform the following actions: 
To change the booting image, press I and follow the screen prompts. 
To change the configuration block, press C, and follow the screen prompts. 
To perform a TFTP/XModem download, press R and follow the screen prompts.

To reboot the switch, press Q. The booting process restarts.

To exit the Boot Management menu, press E. The booting process continues. Recovering from a Failed Software Upgrade
Use the following procedure to recover from a failed software upgrade. 1. Connect a PC to the serial port of the switch. 2. Open a terminal emulator program that supports XModem Download (for example, HyperTerminal, CRT, PuTTY) and select the following serial port characteristics:
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
Speed: 9600 bps

Data Bits: 8

Stop Bits: 1
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
Parity: None

Flow Control: None
3. To access the Boot Management menu you must interrupt the boot process from the Console port. Boot the G8296, and when the system begins displaying Memory Test progress (a series of dots), press <Shift B>. The boot managment menu appears: Resetting the System ...
Memory Test ................................
Boot Management Menu
I ­ Change booting image
C ­ Change configuration block
R ­ Boot in recovery mode (tftp and xmodem download of images to recover switch)
Q ­ Reboot
E ­ Exit
Please choose your menu option:
4. Select R for Boot in recovery mode. The following appears: Entering Rescue Mode.
Please select one of the following options:
T) Configure networking and tftp download an image
X) Use xmodem 1K to serial download an image
R) Reboot
E) Exit
© Copyright Lenovo 2016

If you choose option X (Xmodem serial download), go to Step 5.

If you choose option T (TFTP download), go to Step 6.
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5. Xmodem download: When you see the following message, change the Serial Port characteristics to 115200 bps: Change the baud rate to 115200 bps and hit the <ENTER> key before
initiating the download.
a. Press <Enter> to set the system into download accept mode. When the readiness meter displays (a series of “C” characters), start XModem on your terminal emulator. b. When you see the following message, change the Serial Port characteristics to 9600 bps: Change the baud rate back to 9600 bps, hit the <ESC> key.
c. When you see the following prompt, enter the image number where you want to install the new software and press <Enter>: Install image as image 1 or 2 (hit return to just boot image): 1
d. The following message is displayed when the image download is complete. Continue to step 7. Entering Rescue Mode.
Please select one of the following options:
T) Configure networking and tftp download an image
X) Use xmodem 1K to serial download an image
R) Reboot
E) Exit
Option?:
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6. TFTP download: The switch prompts you to enter the following information:
Performing TFTP rescue. Please answer the following questions (enter 'q' to quit):
IP addr :
Server addr:
Netmask :
Gateway :
Image Filename:
a. Enter the required information and press <Enter>.
b. You will see a display similar to the following: Host IP : 10.10.98.110
Server IP : 10.10.98.100
Netmask : 255.255.255.0
Broadcast : 10.10.98.255
Gateway : 10.10.98.254
Installing image G8296­8.4.1.0_OS.img from TFTP server 10.10.98.100
c. When you see the following prompt, enter the image number and press <Enter>: Install image as image 1 or 2 (hit return to just boot image): 1
d. The following message is displayed when the image download is complete. Continue to step 7. Installing image as image1...
Image1 updated successfully
Please select one of the following options:
T) Configure networking and tftp download an image
X) Use xmodem 1K to serial download an image
R) Reboot
E) Exit
7. Image recovery is complete. Perform one of the following steps:

Press r to reboot the switch.

Press e to exit the Boot Management menu

Press the Escape key (<Esc>) to re‐display the Boot Management menu.
Recovering from a Failed Boot Image
Use the following procedure to recover from a failed boot image upgrade.
1. Connect a PC to the serial port of the switch.
2. Open a terminal emulator program that supports Xmodem download (for example, HyperTerminal, CRT, PuTTY) and select the following serial port characteristics:
© Copyright Lenovo 2016

Speed: 9600 bps

Data Bits: 8

Stop Bits: 1
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
Parity: None

Flow Control: None
3. Boot the switch and access the Boot Management menu by pressing <Shift B> while the Memory Test is in progress and the dots are being displayed.
4. Select X for Xmodem download. The following appears: Perform xmodem download
To download an image use 1K Xmodem at 115200 bps.
5. When you see the following message, change the Serial Port characteristics to 115200 bps: Change the baud rate to 115200 bps and hit the <ENTER> key before
initiating the download.
a. Press <Enter> to set the system into download accept mode. When the readiness meter displays (a series of “C” characters), start Xmodem on your terminal emulator.You will see a display similar to the following: Extracting images ... Do *NOT* power cycle the switch.
**** RAMDISK ****
Un­Protected 38 sectors
Erasing Flash...
...................................... done
Erased 38 sectors
Writing to Flash...9....8....7....6....5....4....3....2....1....done
Protected 38 sectors
**** KERNEL ****
Un­Protected 24 sectors
Erasing Flash...
........................ done
Erased 24 sectors
Writing to Flash...9....8....7....6....5....4....3....2....1....
b. When you see the following message, change the Serial Port characteristics to 9600 bps: Change the baud rate back to 9600 bps, hit the <ESC> key.
Boot image recovery is complete.
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Part 2: Securing the Switch
© Copyright Lenovo 2016
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Chapter 4. Securing Administration
Secure switch management is needed for environments that perform significant management functions across the Internet. Common functions for secured management are described in the following sections: 
“Secure Shell and Secure Copy” on page 86

“End User Access Control” on page 91
Note: SNMP read and write functions are enabled by default. For best security practices, if SNMP is not needed for your network, it is recommended that you disable these functions prior to connecting the switch to the network (see Chapter 41, “Simple Network Management Protocol).
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Secure Shell and Secure Copy
Because using Telnet does not provide a secure connection for managing a G8296, Secure Shell (SSH) and Secure Copy (SCP) features have been included for G8296 management. SSH and SCP use secure tunnels to encrypt and secure messages between a remote administrator and the switch.
SSH is a protocol that enables remote administrators to log securely into the G8296 over a network to execute management commands.
SCP is typically used to copy files securely from one machine to another. SCP uses SSH for encryption of data on the network. On a G8296, SCP is used to download and upload the switch configuration via secure channels.
Although SSH and SCP are disabled by default, enabling and using these features provides the following benefits:

Identifying the administrator using Name/Password

Authentication of remote administrators

Authorization of remote administrators

Determining the permitted actions and customizing service for individual administrators

Encryption of management messages

Encrypting messages between the remote administrator and switch

Secure copy support
Lenovo Enterprise Network Operating System implements the SSH version 2.0 standard and is confirmed to work with SSH version 2.0‐compliant clients such as the following:

OpenSSH_5.4p1 for Linux

Secure CRT Version 5.0.2 (build 1021)

Putty SSH release 0.60 Configuring SSH/SCP Features on the Switch
SSH and SCP features are disabled by default. To change the SSH/SCP settings, using the following procedures.
Note: To use SCP, you must first enable SSH.
To Enable or Disable the SSH Feature
Begin a Telnet session from the console port and enter the following command:
RS G8296(config)# [no] ssh enable
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To Enable or Disable SCP Apply and Save
Enter the following command from the switch CLI to enable the SCP putcfg_apply and putcfg_apply_save commands:
RS G8296(config)# [no] ssh scp­enable
Configuring the SCP Administrator Password
To configure the SCP‐only administrator password, enter the following command (the default password is admin):
RS G8296(config)# [no] ssh scp­password
Changing SCP­only Administrator password; validation required...
Enter current administrator password: <password>
Enter new SCP­only administrator password: <new password>
Re­enter new SCP­only administrator password: <new password>
New SCP­only administrator password accepted.
Using SSH and SCP Client Commands
This section shows the format for using some client commands. The following examples use 205.178.15.157 as the IP address of a sample switch.
To Log Into the Switch
Syntax:
>> ssh [­4|­6] <switch IP address>
‐or‐
>> ssh [­4|­6] <login name>@<switch IP address>
Note: The ­4 option (the default) specifies that an IPv4 switch address will be used. The ­6 option specifies IPv6.
Example:
>> ssh scpadmin@205.178.15.157
To Copy the Switch Configuration File to the SCP Host
Syntax:
>> scp [­4|­6] <username>@<switch IP address>:getcfg <local filename> Example:
>> scp scpadmin@205.178.15.157:getcfg ad4.cfg
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To Load a Switch Configuration File from the SCP Host
Syntax:
>> scp [­4|­6] <local filename> <username>@<switch IP address>:putcfg
Example:
>> scp ad4.cfg scpadmin@205.178.15.157:putcfg
To Apply and Save the Configuration
When loading a configuration file to the switch, the apply and save commands are still required for the configuration commands to take effect. The apply and save commands may be entered manually on the switch, or by using SCP commands.
Syntax:
>> scp [­4|­6] <local filename> <username>@<switch IP address>:putcfg_apply
>> scp [­4|­6] <local filename> <username>@<switch IP address>:putcfg_apply_save
Example:
>> scp ad4.cfg scpadmin@205.178.15.157:putcfg_apply
>> scp ad4.cfg scpadmin@205.178.15.157:putcfg_apply_save

The CLI diff command is automatically executed at the end of putcfg to notify the remote client of the difference between the new and the current configurations.

putcfg_apply runs the apply command after the putcfg is done.

putcfg_apply_save saves the new configuration to the flash after putcfg_apply is done.

The putcfg_apply and putcfg_apply_save commands are provided because extra apply and save commands are usually required after a putcfg; however, an SCP session is not in an interactive mode.
To Copy the Switch Image and Boot Files to the SCP Host
Syntax:
>> scp [­4|­6] <username>@<switch IP address>:getimg1 <local filename> >> scp [­4|­6] <username>@<switch IP address>:getimg2 <local filename> >> scp [­4|­6] <username>@<switch IP address>:getboot <local filename> Example:
>> scp scpadmin@205.178.15.157:getimg1 6.1.0_os.img
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To Load Switch Configuration Files from the SCP Host
Syntax:
>> scp [­4|­6] <local filename> <username>@<switch IP address>:putimg1
>> scp [­4|­6] <local filename> <username>@<switch IP address>:putimg2
>> scp [­4|­6] <local filename> <username>@<switch IP address>:putboot
Example:
>> scp 6.1.0_os.img scpadmin@205.178.15.157:putimg1
SSH and SCP Encryption of Management Messages
The following encryption and authentication methods are supported for SSH and SCP:

Server Host Authentication: Client RSA authenticates the switch at the beginning of every connection

Key Exchange: RSA

Encryption:
3DES‐CBC, DES

User Authentication:
Local password authentication, RADIUS
Generating RSA Host Key for SSH Access
To support the SSH host feature, an RSA host key is required. The host key is 2048 bits and is used to identify the G8296.
To configure RSA host key, first connect to the G8296 through the console port (commands are not available via external Telnet connection), and enter the following command to generate it manually.
RS G8296(config)# ssh generate­host­key
When the switch reboots, it will retrieve the host key from the FLASH memory.
Note: The switch will perform only one session of key/cipher generation at a time. Thus, an SSH/SCP client will not be able to log in if the switch is performing key generation at that time. Also, key generation will fail if an SSH/SCP client is logging in at that time.
SSH/SCP Integration with Radius Authentication
SSH/SCP is integrated with RADIUS authentication. After the RADIUS server is enabled on the switch, all subsequent SSH authentication requests will be redirected to the specified RADIUS servers for authentication. The redirection is transparent to the SSH clients.
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SSH/SCP Integration with TACACS+ Authentication
SSH/SCP is integrated with TACACS+ authentication. After the TACACS+ server is enabled on the switch, all subsequent SSH authentication requests will be redirected to the specified TACACS+ servers for authentication. The redirection is transparent to the SSH clients.
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End User Access Control
Enterprise NOS allows an administrator to define end user accounts that permit end users to perform operation tasks via the switch CLI commands. Once end user accounts are configured and enabled, the switch requires username/password authentication. For example, an administrator can assign a user, who can then log into the switch and perform operational commands (effective only until the next switch reboot). Considerations for Configuring End User Accounts
Note the following considerations when you configure end user accounts:

A maximum of 20 user IDs are supported on the switch.

ENOS supports end user support for console, Telnet, BBI, and SSHv2 access to the switch. 
If RADIUS authentication is used, the user password on the Radius server will override the user password on the G8296. Also note that the password change command only modifies only the user password on the switch and has no effect on the user password on the Radius server. Radius authentication and user password cannot be used concurrently to access the switch. 
Passwords for end users can be up to 128 characters in length for TACACS, RADIUS, Telnet, SSH, Console, and Web access.
Strong Passwords
The administrator can require use of Strong Passwords for users to access the G8296. Strong Passwords enhance security because they make password guessing more difficult.
The following rules apply when Strong Passwords are enabled:

Minimum length: 8 characters; maximum length: 64 characters

Must contain at least one uppercase alphabet

Must contain at least one lowercase alphabet

Must contain at least one number

Must contain at least one special character: Supported special characters: ! “ # % & ‘ ( ) ; < = >> ? [\] * + , ‐ . / : ^ _ { | } ~

Cannot be same as the username
When strong password is enabled, users can still access the switch using the old password but will be advised to change to a strong password at log‐in. Strong password requirement can be enabled using the following command: RS G8296(config)# access user strong­password enable
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The administrator can choose the number of days allowed before each password expires. When a strong password expires, the user is allowed to log in one last time (last time) to change the password. A warning provides advance notice for users to change the password.
User Access Control
The end‐user access control commands allow you to configure end‐user accounts.
Setting up User IDs
Up to 20 user IDs can be configured. Use the following commands to define any user name and set the user password at the resulting prompts: RS G8296(config)# access user 1 name <1‐64 characters>
RS G8296(config)# access user 1 password
Changing user1 password; validation required:
Enter current admin password: <current administrator password>
Enter new user1 password: <new user password>
Re­enter new user1 password: <new user password>
New user1 password accepted. Defining a User’s Access Level
The end user is by default assigned to the user access level (also known as class of service, or COS). COS for all user accounts have global access to all resources except for User COS, which has access to view only resources that the user owns. For more information, see Table 8 on page 101.
To change the user’s level, select one of the following options: RS G8296(config)# access user 1 level {user|operator|administrator} Validating a User’s Configuration
RS G8296# show access user uid 1
Enabling or Disabling a User
An end user account must be enabled before the switch recognizes and permits login under the account. Once enabled, the switch requires any user to enter both username and password. RS G8296(config)# [no] access user 1 enable Locking Accounts
To protect the switch from unauthorized access, the account lockout feature can be enabled. By default, account lockout is disabled. To enable this feature, ensure the strong password feature is enabled (See “Strong Passwords” on page 91). Then use the following command: RS G8296(config)# access user strong­password lockout
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After multiple failed login attempts, the switch locks the user account if lockout has been enabled on the switch. Re-Enabling Locked Accounts
The administrator can re‐enable a locked account by reloading the switch or by using the following command: RS G8296(config)# access user strong­password clear local user lockout username <user name>
However, the above command cannot be used to re‐enable an account disabled by the administrator. To re‐enable all locked accounts, use the following command: RS G8296(config)# access user strong­password clear local user lockout all
Listing Current Users
The following command displays defined user accounts and whether or not each user is currently logged into the switch. RS G8296# show access user
Usernames:
user ­ Enabled ­ offline
oper ­ Disabled ­ offline
admin ­ Always Enabled ­ online 1 session
Current User ID table:
1: name jane , ena, cos user , password valid, online 1 session
2: name john , ena, cos user , password valid, online 2 sessions
Logging into an End User Account
Once an end user account is configured and enabled, the user can login to the switch using the username/password combination. The level of switch access is determined by the COS established for the end user account. Password Fix-Up Mode
Password Fix‐Up Mode enables admin user account recovery if administrator access is lost. A user must connect to the switch over the serial console and log in using the “ForgetMe!” password. This enables the admin account if disabled and a new administrator password can be entered.
To disable the Password Fix‐Up functionality, use the following command:
RS G8296(config)# no access user password­recovery
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Chapter 5. Authentication & Authorization Protocols
Secure switch management is needed for environments that perform significant management functions across the Internet. The following are some of the functions for secured IPv4 management and device access:

“RADIUS Authentication and Authorization” on page 96

“TACACS+ Authentication” on page 100

“LDAP Authentication and Authorization” on page 104
Note: Lenovo Enterprise Network Operating System 8.4 does not support IPv6 for RADIUS, TACACS+ or LDAP.
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RADIUS Authentication and Authorization
Enterprise NOS supports the RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial‐in User Service) method to authenticate and authorize remote administrators for managing the switch. This method is based on a client/server model. The Remote Access Server (RAS)—the switch—is a client to the back‐end database server. A remote user (the remote administrator) interacts only with the RAS, not the back‐end server and database. RADIUS authentication consists of the following components:
A protocol with a frame format that utilizes UDP over IP (based on RFC 2138 and 2866)
 A centralized server that stores all the user authorization information
 A client: in this case, the switch

The G8296—acting as the RADIUS client—communicates to the RADIUS server to authenticate and authorize a remote administrator using the protocol definitions specified in RFC 2138 and 2866. Transactions between the client and the RADIUS server are authenticated using a shared key that is not sent over the network. In addition, the remote administrator passwords are sent encrypted between the RADIUS client (the switch) and the back‐end RADIUS server.
How RADIUS Authentication Works
The RADIUS authentication process follows these steps:
1. A remote administrator connects to the switch and provides a user name and password.
2. Using Authentication/Authorization protocol, the switch sends request to authentication server.
3. The authentication server checks the request against the user ID database.
4. Using RADIUS protocol, the authentication server instructs the switch to grant or deny administrative access.
Configuring RADIUS on the Switch
Use the following procedure to configure Radius authentication on your switch. 1. Configure the IPv4 addresses of the Primary and Secondary RADIUS servers, and enable RADIUS authentication. RS G8296(config)# radius­server primary­host 10.10.1.1
RS G8296(config)# radius­server secondary­host 10.10.1.2
RS G8296(config)# radius­server enable
Note: You can use a configured loopback address as the source address so the RADIUS server accepts requests only from the expected loopback address block. Use the following command to specify the loopback interface:
RS G8296(config)# ip radius source­interface loopback <1‐5>
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2. Configure the RADIUS secret. RS G8296(config)# radius­server primary­host 10.10.1.1 key <1‐32 character secret>
RS G8296(config)# radius­server secondary­host 10.10.1.2 key <1‐32 character secret>
3. If desired, you may change the default UDP port number used to listen to RADIUS. The well‐known port for RADIUS is 1812. RS G8296(config)# radius­server port <UDP port number>
4. Configure the number retry attempts for contacting the RADIUS server, and the timeout period. RS G8296(config)# radius­server retransmit 3
RS G8296(config)# radius­server timeout 5
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RADIUS Authentication Features in Enterprise NOS
ENOS supports the following RADIUS authentication features:

Supports RADIUS client on the switch, based on the protocol definitions in RFC 2138 and RFC 2866.

Allows RADIUS secret password up to 32 bytes and less than 16 octets.

Supports secondary authentication server so that when the primary authentication server is unreachable, the switch can send client authentication requests to the secondary authentication server. Use the following command to show the currently active RADIUS authentication server: RS G8296# show radius­server

Supports user‐configurable RADIUS server retry and time‐out values:

Time‐out value = 1‐10 seconds

Retries = 1‐3
The switch will time out if it does not receive a response from the RADIUS server in 1‐3 retries. The switch will also automatically retry connecting to the RADIUS server before it declares the server down.

Supports user‐configurable RADIUS application port. The default is 1645/UDP‐based on RFC 2138. Port 1812 is also supported.

Allows network administrator to define privileges for one or more specific users to access the switch at the RADIUS user database.
Switch User Accounts
The user accounts listed in Table 6 can be defined in the RADIUS server dictionary file. Table 6. User Access Levels
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User Account
Description and Tasks Performed
Password
User
The User has no direct responsibility for switch management. They can view all switch status information and statistics but cannot make any configuration changes to the switch.
user
Operator
The Operator manages all functions of the switch. The Operator can reset ports, except the management port. oper
Administrator
The super‐user Administrator has complete access admin to all commands, information, and configuration commands on the switch, including the ability to change both the user and administrator passwords.
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RADIUS Attributes for Enterprise NOS User Privileges
When the user logs in, the switch authenticates his/her level of access by sending the RADIUS access request, that is, the client authentication request, to the RADIUS authentication server.
If the remote user is successfully authenticated by the authentication server, the switch will verify the privileges of the remote user and authorize the appropriate access. The administrator has two options: to allow backdoor access via Telnet, SSH, HTTP, or HTTPS; to allow secure backdoor access via Telnet, SSH, or BBI. Backdoor and secure backdoor provides access to the switch when the RADIUS servers cannot be reached.
The default G8296 setting for backdoor and secure backdoor access is disabled. Backdoor and secure backdoor access is always enabled on the console port.
Irrespective of backdoor/secure backdoor being enabled or not, you can always access the switch via the console port by using noradius as radius username. You can then enter the username and password configured on the switch. If you are trying to connect via SSH/Telnet/HTTP/HTTPS (not console port), there are two possibilities: 
Backdoor is enabled: The switch acts like it is connecting via console.

Secure backdoor is enabled: You must enter the username: noradius. The switch checks if RADIUS server is reachable. If it is reachable, then you must authenticate via remote authentication server. Only if RADIUS server is not reachable, you will be prompted for local user/password to be authenticated against these local credentials.
All user privileges, other than those assigned to the Administrator, have to be defined in the RADIUS dictionary. RADIUS attribute 6 which is built into all RADIUS servers defines the administrator. The file name of the dictionary is RADIUS vendor‐dependent. The following RADIUS attributes are defined for G8296 user privileges levels: Table 7. Enterprise NOS‐proprietary Attributes for RADIUS
© Copyright Lenovo 2016
User Name/Access
User-Service-Type
Value
User
Vendor‐supplied
255
Operator
Vendor‐supplied
252
Admin
Vendor‐supplied
6
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TACACS+ Authentication
ENOS supports authentication and authorization with networks using the Cisco Systems TACACS+ protocol. The G8296 functions as the Network Access Server (NAS) by interacting with the remote client and initiating authentication and authorization sessions with the TACACS+ access server. The remote user is defined as someone requiring management access to the G8296 through a data port. TACACS+ offers the following advantages over RADIUS: 
TACACS+ uses TCP‐based connection‐oriented transport; whereas RADIUS is UDP‐based. TCP offers a connection‐oriented transport, while UDP offers best‐effort delivery. RADIUS requires additional programmable variables such as re‐transmit attempts and time‐outs to compensate for best‐effort transport, but it lacks the level of built‐in support that a TCP transport offers.

TACACS+ offers full packet encryption whereas RADIUS offers password‐only encryption in authentication requests.

TACACS+ separates authentication, authorization and accounting.
How TACACS+ Authentication Works
TACACS+ works much in the same way as RADIUS authentication as described on page 96.
1. Remote administrator connects to the switch and provides user name and password.
2. Using Authentication/Authorization protocol, the switch sends request to authentication server.
3. Authentication server checks the request against the user ID database.
4. Using TACACS+ protocol, the authentication server instructs the switch to grant or deny administrative access.
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TACACS+ Authentication Features in Enterprise NOS
Authentication is the action of determining the identity of a user, and is generally done when the user first attempts to log in to a device or gain access to its services. ENOS supports ASCII inbound login to the device. PAP, CHAP and ARAP login methods, TACACS+ change password requests, and one‐time password authentication are not supported.
Authorization
Authorization is the action of determining a user’s privileges on the device, and usually takes place after authentication.
The default mapping between TACACS+ authorization levels and ENOS management access levels is shown in Table 8. The authorization levels must be defined on the TACACS+ server. Table 8. Default TACACS+ Authorization Levels
ENOS User Access Level
TACACS+ level
user
0
oper
3
admin
6
Alternate mapping between TACACS+ authorization levels and ENOS management access levels is shown in Table 9. Use the following command to set the alternate TACACS+ authorization levels. RS G8296(config)# tacacs­server privilege­mapping
Table 9. Alternate TACACS+ Authorization Levels
ENOS User Access Level
TACACS+ level
user
0 ‐ 1
oper
6 ‐ 8
admin
14 ‐ 15
If the remote user is successfully authenticated by the authentication server, the switch verifies the privileges of the remote user and authorizes the appropriate access. The administrator has an option to allow secure backdoor access via Telnet/SSH. Secure backdoor provides switch access when the TACACS+ servers cannot be reached. You always can access the switch via the console port, by using notacacs and the administrator password, whether secure backdoor is enabled or not. Note: To obtain the TACACS+ backdoor password for your G8296, contact Technical Support. © Copyright Lenovo 2016
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Accounting
Accounting is the action of recording a userʹs activities on the device for the purposes of billing and/or security. It follows the authentication and authorization actions. If the authentication and authorization is not performed via TACACS+, there are no TACACS+ accounting messages sent out.
You can use TACACS+ to record and track software login access, configuration changes, and interactive commands. The G8296 supports the following TACACS+ accounting attributes: 
protocol (console/Telnet/SSH/HTTP/HTTPS)

start_time

stop_time

elapsed_time

disc_cause
Note: When using the Browser‐Based Interface, the TACACS+ Accounting Stop records are sent only if the Logout button on the browser is clicked. Command Authorization and Logging
When TACACS+ Command Authorization is enabled, ENOS configuration commands are sent to the TACACS+ server for authorization. Use the following command to enable TACACS+ Command Authorization: RS G8296(config)# tacacs­server command­authorization
When TACACS+ Command Logging is enabled, ENOS configuration commands are logged on the TACACS+ server. Use the following command to enable TACACS+ Command Logging: RS G8296(config)# tacacs­server command­logging
The following examples illustrate the format of ENOS commands sent to the TACACS+ server: authorization request, cmd=shell, cmd­arg=interface ip
accounting request, cmd=shell, cmd­arg=interface ip
authorization request, cmd=shell, cmd­arg=enable
accounting request, cmd=shell, cmd­arg=enable
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Configuring TACACS+ Authentication on the Switch
1. Configure the IPv4 addresses of the Primary and Secondary TACACS+ servers, and enable TACACS authentication. Specify the interface port (optional) RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# tacacs­server primary­host 10.10.1.1
G8296(config)# tacacs­server primary­host mgtb­port
G8296(config)# tacacs­server secondary­host 10.10.1.2
G8296(config)# tacacs­server secondary­host data­port
G8296(config)# tacacs­server enable
Note: You can use a configured loopback address as the source address so the TACACS+ server accepts requests only from the expected loopback address block. Use the following command to specify the loopback interface:
RS G8296(config)# ip tacacs source­interface loopback <1‐5>
2. Configure the TACACS+ secret and second secret. RS G8296(config)# tacacs­server primary­host 10.10.1.1 key <1‐32 character secret>
RS G8296(config)# tacacs­server secondary­host 10.10.1.2 key <1‐32 character secret>
3. If desired, you may change the default TCP port number used to listen to TACACS+. The well‐known port for TACACS+ is 49. RS G8296(config)# tacacs­server port <TCP port number>
4. Configure the number of retry attempts, and the timeout period. RS G8296(config)# tacacs­server retransmit 3
RS G8296(config)# tacacs­server timeout 5 © Copyright Lenovo 2016
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LDAP Authentication and Authorization
ENOS supports the LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol) method to authenticate and authorize remote administrators to manage the switch. LDAP is based on a client/server model. The switch acts as a client to the LDAP server. A remote user (the remote administrator) interacts only with the switch, not the back‐end server and database.
LDAP authentication consists of the following components:
A protocol with a frame format that utilizes TCP over IP
A centralized server that stores all the user authorization information
 A client: in this case, the switch


Each entry in the LDAP server is referenced by its Distinguished Name (DN). The DN consists of the user‐account name concatenated with the LDAP domain name. If the user‐account name is John, the following is an example DN:
uid=John,ou=people,dc=domain,dc=com
Configuring the LDAP Server
G8296 user groups and user accounts must reside within the same domain. On the LDAP server, configure the domain to include G8296 user groups and user accounts, as follows:

User Accounts:
Use the uid attribute to define each individual user account. If a custom attribute is used to define individual users, it must also be configured on the switch.

User Groups:
Use the members attribute in the groupOfNames object class to create the user groups. The first word of the common name for each user group must be equal to the user group names defined in the G8296, as follows:

admin

oper

user
Configuring LDAP Authentication on the Switch
1. Turn LDAP authentication on, then configure the IPv4 addresses of the Primary and Secondary LDAP servers.Specify the interface port (optional). RS G8296(config)# ldap­server enable
RS G8296(config)# ldap­server primary­host 10.10.1.1mgta­port
RS G8296(config)# ldap­server secondary­host 10.10.1.2data­port
2. Configure the domain name.
RS G8296(config)# ldap­server domain <ou=people,dc=my‐domain,dc=com> 3. You may change the default TCP port number used to listen to LDAP (optional).
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The well‐known port for LDAP is 389.
RS G8296(config)# ldap­server port <1‐65000>
4. Configure the number of retry attempts for contacting the LDAP server, and the timeout period.
RS G8296(config)# ldap­server retransmit 3
RS G8296(config)# ldap­server timeout 10 5. You may change the default LDAP attribute (uid) or add a custom attribute. For instance, Microsoft’s Active Directory requires the cn attribute.
RS G8296(config)# ldap­server attribute username <128 alpha‐numeric characters>
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Chapter 6. 802.1X Port-Based Network Access Control
Port‐Based Network Access control provides a means of authenticating and authorizing devices attached to a LAN port that has point‐to‐point connection characteristics. It prevents access to ports that fail authentication and authorization. This feature provides security to ports of the RackSwitch G8296 (G8296) that connect to blade servers.
The following topics are discussed in this section:
© Copyright Lenovo 2016

“Extensible Authentication Protocol over LAN” on page 108

“EAPoL Authentication Process” on page 109

“EAPoL Port States” on page 111

“Guest VLAN” on page 111

“Supported RADIUS Attributes” on page 112

“EAPoL Configuration Guidelines” on page 114
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Extensible Authentication Protocol over LAN
Lenovo Enterprise Network Operating System can provide user‐level security for its ports using the IEEE 802.1X protocol, which is a more secure alternative to other methods of port‐based network access control. Any device attached to an 802.1X‐enabled port that fails authentication is prevented access to the network and denied services offered through that port.
The 802.1X standard describes port‐based network access control using Extensible Authentication Protocol over LAN (EAPoL). EAPoL provides a means of authenticating and authorizing devices attached to a LAN port that has point‐to‐point connection characteristics and of preventing access to that port in cases of authentication and authorization failures.
EAPoL is a client‐server protocol that has the following components:

Supplicant or Client The Supplicant is a device that requests network access and provides the required credentials (user name and password) to the Authenticator and the Authenticator Server.

Authenticator The Authenticator enforces authentication and controls access to the network. The Authenticator grants network access based on the information provided by the Supplicant and the response from the Authentication Server. The Authenticator acts as an intermediary between the Supplicant and the Authentication Server: requesting identity information from the client, forwarding that information to the Authentication Server for validation, relaying the server’s responses to the client, and authorizing network access based on the results of the authentication exchange. The G8296 acts as an Authenticator.

Authentication Server
The Authentication Server validates the credentials provided by the Supplicant to determine if the Authenticator ought to grant access to the network. The Authentication Server may be co‐located with the Authenticator. The G8296 relies on external RADIUS servers for authentication.
Upon a successful authentication of the client by the server, the 802.1X‐controlled port transitions from unauthorized to authorized state, and the client is allowed full access to services through the port. When the client sends an EAP‐Logoff message to the authenticator, the port will transition from authorized to unauthorized state.
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EAPoL Authentication Process
The clients and authenticators communicate using Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP), which was originally designed to run over PPP, and for which the IEEE 802.1X Standard has defined an encapsulation method over Ethernet frames, called EAP over LAN (EAPOL). Figure 1 shows a typical message exchange initiated by the client.
Figure 1. Authenticating a Port Using EAPoL
RADIUS
Server
802.1x Client
EAPOL
Ethernet
Lenovo Switch
Authenticator
(RADIUS Client)
RADIUS-EAP
UDP/IP
Port Unauthorized
EAPOL-Start
EAP-Request (Credentials)
EAP-Response (Credentials)
Radius-Access-Request
Radius-Access-Challenge
EAP-Request (Credentials)
EAP-Response (Credentials)
Radius-Access-Request
Radius-Access-Accept
EAP-Success
Port Authorized
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EAPoL Message Exchange
During authentication, EAPOL messages are exchanged between the client and the G8296 authenticator, while RADIUS‐EAP messages are exchanged between the G8296 authenticator and the RADIUS server.
Authentication is initiated by one of the following methods:

The G8296 authenticator sends an EAP‐Request/Identity packet to the client

The client sends an EAPOL‐Start frame to the G8296 authenticator, which responds with an EAP‐Request/Identity frame.
The client confirms its identity by sending an EAP‐Response/Identity frame to the G8296 authenticator, which forwards the frame encapsulated in a RADIUS packet to the server.
The RADIUS authentication server chooses an EAP‐supported authentication algorithm to verify the client’s identity, and sends an EAP‐Request packet to the client via the G8296 authenticator. The client then replies to the RADIUS server with an EAP‐Response containing its credentials.
Upon a successful authentication of the client by the server, the 802.1X‐controlled port transitions from unauthorized to authorized state, and the client is allowed full access to services through the controlled port. When the client later sends an EAPOL‐Logoff message to the G8296 authenticator, the port transitions from authorized to unauthorized state.
If a client that does not support 802.1X connects to an 802.1X‐controlled port, the G8296 authenticator requests the clientʹs identity when it detects a change in the operational state of the port. The client does not respond to the request, and the port remains in the unauthorized state.
Note: When an 802.1X‐enabled client connects to a port that is not 802.1X‐controlled, the client initiates the authentication process by sending an EAPOL‐Start frame. When no response is received, the client retransmits the request for a fixed number of times. If no response is received, the client assumes the port is in authorized state, and begins sending frames, even if the port is unauthorized.
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EAPoL Port States
The state of the port determines whether the client is granted access to the network, as follows:

Unauthorized
While in this state the port discards all ingress and egress traffic except EAP packets.

Authorized
When the client is successfully authenticated, the port transitions to the authorized state allowing all traffic to and from the client to flow normally.

Force Unauthorized
You can configure this state that denies all access to the port.

Force Authorized
You can configure this state that allows full access to the port.
Use the 802.1X global configuration commands (dot1x) to configure 802.1X authentication for all ports in the switch. Use the 802.1X port commands to configure a single port.
Guest VLAN
The guest VLAN provides limited access to unauthenticated ports. The guest VLAN can be configured using the following commands:
RS G8296(config)# dot1x guest­vlan ?
Client ports that have not received an EAPOL response are placed into the Guest VLAN, if one is configured on the switch. Once the port is authenticated, it is moved from the Guest VLAN to its configured VLAN. When Guest VLAN enabled, the following considerations apply while a port is in the unauthenticated state:
© Copyright Lenovo 2016

The port is placed in the guest VLAN.

The Port VLAN ID (PVID) is changed to the Guest VLAN ID.

Port tagging is disabled on the port.
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Supported RADIUS Attributes
The 802.1X Authenticator relies on external RADIUS servers for authentication with EAP. Table 10 lists the RADIUS attributes that are supported as part of RADIUS‐EAP authentication based on the guidelines specified in Annex D of the 802.1X standard and RFC 3580.
Table 10. Support for RADIUS Attributes
112
# Attribute
Attribute Value
A-R
A-A
A-C
A-R
1 User‐Name
The value of the Type‐Data field from the supplicant’s EAP‐Response/ Identity message. If the Identity is unknown (for example, Type‐Data field is zero bytes in length), this attribute will have the same value as the Calling‐Station‐Id.
1
0‐1
0
0
4 NAS‐IP‐Address IPv4 address of the authenticator used for Radius communication.
1
0
0
0
5 NAS‐Port
Port number of the authenticator port to which the supplicant is attached.
1
0
0
0
24 State
Server‐specific value. This is sent unmodified back to the server in an Access‐Request that is in response to an Access‐Challenge.
0‐1
0‐1
0‐1
0
30 Called‐Station‐I
D
The MAC address of the authenticator encoded as an ASCII string in canonical format, such as 000D5622E3 9F.
1
0
0
0
31 Calling‐Station‐I
D
The MAC address of the supplicant encoded as an ASCII string in canonical format, such as 00034B436206.
1
0
0
0
64 Tunnel‐Type
Only VLAN (type 13) is currently supported (for 802.1X RADIUS VLAN assignment). The attribute must be untagged (the Tag field must be 0).
0
0‐1
0
0
65 Tunnel‐Medium‐ Only 802 (type 6) is currently Type
supported (for 802.1X RADIUS VLAN assignment). The attribute must be untagged (the Tag field must be 0).
0
0‐1
0
0
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Table 10. Support for RADIUS Attributes (continued)
# Attribute
Attribute Value
A-R
A-A
A-C
A-R
81 Tunnel‐Private‐
Group‐ID
VLAN ID (1‐4094). When 802.1X RADIUS VLAN assignment is enabled on a port, if the RADIUS server includes the tunnel attributes defined in RFC 2868 in the Access‐Accept packet, the switch will automatically place the authenticated port in the specified VLAN. Reserved VLANs (such as for management) may not be specified. The attribute must be untagged (the Tag field must be 0).
0
0‐1
0
0
79 EAP‐Message
Encapsulated EAP packets from the supplicant to the authentication server (Radius) and vice‐versa. The authenticator relays the decoded packet to both devices.
1+
1+
1+
1+
80 Message‐
Authenticator
Always present whenever an EAP‐Message attribute is also included. Used to integrity‐protect a packet. 1
1
1
1
87 NAS‐Port‐ID
Name assigned to the authenticator port, e.g. Server1_Port3
1
0
0
0
Legend: RADIUS Packet Types: A‐R (Access‐Request), A‐A (Access‐Accept), A‐C (Access‐Challenge), A‐R (Access‐Reject)
RADIUS Attribute Support:





© Copyright Lenovo 2016
0
0+
0‐1
1
1+
This attribute MUST NOT be present in a packet.
Zero or more instances of this attribute MAY be present in a packet.
Zero or one instance of this attribute MAY be present in a packet.
Exactly one instance of this attribute MUST be present in a packet.
One or more of these attributes MUST be present.
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EAPoL Configuration Guidelines
When configuring EAPoL, consider the following guidelines:
114

The 802.1X port‐based authentication is currently supported only in point‐to‐point configurations, that is, with a single supplicant connected to an 802.1X‐enabled switch port.

When 802.1X is enabled, a port has to be in the authorized state before any other Layer 2 feature can be operationally enabled. For example, the STG state of a port is operationally disabled while the port is in the unauthorized state.

The 802.1X supplicant capability is not supported. Therefore, none of its ports can successfully connect to an 802.1X‐enabled port of another device, such as another switch, that acts as an authenticator, unless access control on the remote port is disabled or is configured in forced‐authorized mode. For example, if a G8296 is connected to another G8296, and if 802.1X is enabled on both switches, the two connected ports must be configured in force‐authorized mode.

Unsupported 802.1X attributes include Service‐Type, Session‐Timeout, and Termination‐Action.

RADIUS accounting service for 802.1X‐authenticated devices or users is not currently supported.

Configuration changes performed using SNMP and the standard 802.1X MIB will take effect immediately.
G8296 Application Guide for ENOS 8.4
Chapter 7. Access Control Lists
Access Control Lists (ACLs) are filters that permit or deny traffic for security purposes. They can also be used with QoS to classify and segment traffic to provide different levels of service to different traffic types. Each filter defines the conditions that must match for inclusion in the filter, and also the actions that are performed when a match is made.
Lenovo Enterprise Network Operating System 8.4 supports the following ACLs:

IPv4 ACLs
Up to 256 ACLs are supported for networks that use IPv4 addressing. IPv4 ACLs are configured using the following ISCLI command path:
RS G8296(config)# access­control list <IPv4 ACL number> ?

IPv6 ACLs
Up to 128 ACLs are supported for networks that use IPv6 addressing. IPv6 ACLs are configured using the following ISCLI command path:
RS G8296(config)# access­control list6 <IPv6 ACL number> ?

VLAN Maps (VMaps)
Up to 128 VLAN Maps are supported for attaching filters to VLANs rather than ports. See “VLAN Maps” on page 123 for details.

Management ACLs (MACLs)
Up to 256 MACLs are supported for filtering traffic toward CPU. MACLs are configured using the following ISCLI command path: RS G8296(config)# access­control macl <MACL number> ?
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Summary of Packet Classifiers
ACLs allow you to classify packets according to a variety of content in the packet header (such as the source address, destination address, source port number, destination port number, and others). Once classified, packet flows can be identified for more processing.
IPv4 ACLs, IPv6 ACLs, and VMaps allow you to classify packets based on the following packet attributes:


Ethernet header options (for IPv4 ACLs and VMaps only)

Source MAC address

Destination MAC address

VLAN number and mask

Ethernet type (ARP, IP, IPv6, MPLS, RARP, etc.)

Ethernet Priority (the IEEE 802.1p Priority)
IPv4 header options (for IPv4 ACLs and VMaps only)

Source IPv4 address and subnet mask

Destination IPv4 address and subnet mask

Type of Service value

IP protocol number or name as shown in Table 11:
Table 11. Well‐Known Protocol Types

116
Number
Protocol Name
1
2
6
17
89
112
icmp
igmp
tcp
udp
ospf
vrrp
IPv6 header options (for IPv6 ACLs only)

Source IPv6 address and prefix length

Destination IPv6 address and prefix length

Next Header value

Flow Label value

Traffic Class value
G8296 Application Guide for ENOS 8.4

TCP/UDP header options (for all ACLs)

TCP/UDP application source port and mask as shown in Table 12

TCP/UDP application destination port as shown in Table 12
Table 12. Well‐Known Application Ports
TCP/UDP
Port Application
20
21
22
23
25
37
42
43
53
69
70

ftp‐data
ftp
ssh
telnet
smtp
time
name
whois
domain
tftp
gopher
TCP/UDP
Port Application
79
80
109
110
111
119
123
143
144
161
162
finger
http
pop2
pop3
sunrpc
nntp
ntp
imap
news
snmp
snmptrap
TCP/UDP
Port Application
179
194
220
389
443
520
554
1645/1812
1813
1985
bgp
irc
imap3
ldap
https
rip
rtsp
Radius
Radius Accounting
hsrp
TCP/UDP flag value as shown in Table 13
Table 13. Well Known TCP Flag Values

Flag
Value
URG
ACK
PSH
RST
SYN
FIN
0x0020
0x0010
0x0008
0x0004
0x0002
0x0001
Packet format (for IPv4 ACLs and VMaps only)

Ethernet format (eth2, SNAP, LLC)

Ethernet tagging format

IP format (IPv4, IPv6)
Summary of ACL Actions
Once classified using ACLs, the identified packet flows can be processed differently. For each ACL, an action can be assigned. The action determines how the switch treats packets that match the classifiers assigned to the ACL. G8296 ACL actions include the following:
Pass or Drop the packet
Redirect the packet
 Re‐mark the packet with a new DiffServ Code Point (DSCP)
 Re‐mark the 802.1p field
 Set the COS queue


© Copyright Lenovo 2016
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Assigning Individual ACLs to a Port
Once you configure an ACL, you must assign the ACL to the appropriate ports. Each port can accept multiple ACLs, and each ACL can be applied for multiple ports. ACLs can be assigned individually.
To assign an individual ACLs to a port, use the following IP Interface Mode commands: RS G8296(config)# interface port <port>
RS G8296(config­if)# access­control list <IPv4 ACL number>
RS G8296(config­if)# access­control list6 <IPv6 ACL number>
When multiple ACLs are assigned to a port, higher‐priority ACLs are considered first, and their action takes precedence over lower‐priority ACLs. ACL order of precedence is discussed in the next section.
ACL Order of Precedence
If no assigned ACL matches the port traffic, no ACL action is applied.
ACL Metering and Re-Marking
You can define a profile for the aggregate traffic flowing through the G8296 by configuring a QoS meter (if desired) and assigning ACLs to ports.
Note: When you add ACLs to a port, make sure they are ordered correctly in terms of precedence (see “ACL Order of Precedence” on page 118).
Actions taken by an ACL are called In‐Profile actions. You can configure additional In‐Profile and Out‐of‐Profile actions on a port. Data traffic can be metered, and re‐marked to ensure that the traffic flow provides certain levels of service in terms of bandwidth for different types of network traffic.
Metering
QoS metering provides different levels of service to data streams through user‐configurable parameters. A meter is used to measure the traffic stream against a traffic profile which you create. Thus, creating meters yields In‐Profile and Out‐of‐Profile traffic for each ACL, as follows:

In‐Profile—If there is no meter configured or if the packet conforms to the meter, the packet is classified as In‐Profile.

Out‐of‐Profile—If a meter is configured and the packet does not conform to the meter (exceeds the committed rate or maximum burst rate of the meter), the packet is classified as Out‐of‐Profile.
Using meters, you set a Committed Rate in Kbps. All traffic within this Committed Rate is in‐profile. Additionally, you can set a Maximum Burst Size that specifies an allowed data burst larger than the Committed Rate for a brief period. These parameters define the In‐Profile traffic.
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Meters keep the sorted packets within certain parameters. You can configure a meter on an ACL, and perform actions on metered traffic, such as packet re‐marking.
Re-Marking
Re‐marking allows for the treatment of packets to be reset based on new network specifications or desired levels of service. You can configure the ACL to re‐mark a packet as follows:
© Copyright Lenovo 2016

Change the DSCP value of a packet, used to specify the service level that traffic receives.

Change the 802.1p priority of a packet.
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ACL Port Mirroring
For IPv4 ACLs and VMaps, packets that match the filter can be mirrored to another switch port for network diagnosis and monitoring.
The source port for the mirrored packets cannot be a portchannel, but may be a member of a portchannel.
The destination port to which packets are mirrored must be a physical port.
The action (permit, drop, etc.) of the ACL or VMap must be configured before assigning it to a port.
Use the following commands to add mirroring to an ACL:

For IPv4 ACLs: RS G8296(config)# access­control list <ACL number> mirror port <destination port>
The ACL must be also assigned to it target ports as usual (see “Assigning Individual ACLs to a Port” on page 118).

For VMaps (see “VLAN Maps” on page 123): RS G8296(config)# access­control vmap <VMap number> mirror port <monitor destination port>
See the configuration example on page 124.
Viewing ACL Statistics
ACL statistics display how many packets have “hit” (matched) each ACL. Use ACL statistics to check filter performance or to debug the ACL filter configuration.
You must enable statistics for each ACL that you wish to monitor: RS G8296(config)# access­control list <ACL number> statistics
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ACL Configuration Examples
This section contains examples of access control list configuration.
ACL Example 1
Use this configuration to block traffic to a specific host. All traffic that ingresses on port 1 is denied if it is destined for the host at IP address 100.10.1.1
1. Configure an Access Control List. RS G8296(config)# access­control list 1 ipv4 destination­ip­address 100.10.1.1
RS G8296(config)# access­control list 1 action deny
2. Add ACL 1 to port 1. RS G8296(config)# interface port 1
RS G8296(config­if)# access­control list 1
RS G8296(config­if)# exit
ACL Example 2
Use this configuration to block traffic from a network destined for a specific host address. All traffic that ingresses in port 2 with source IP from class 100.10.1.0/24 and destination IP 200.20.2.2 is denied.
1. Configure an Access Control List. RS G8296(config)# access­control list 2 ipv4 source­ip­address 100.10.1.0 255.255.255.0
RS G8296(config)# access­control list 2 ipv4 destination­ip­address 200.20.2.2 255.255.255.255
RS G8296(config)# access­control list 2 action deny
2. Add ACL 2 to port 2. RS G8296(config)# interface port 2
RS G8296(config­if)# access­control list 2
RS G8296(config­if)# exit
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ACL Example 3
Use this configuration to block traffic from a specific IPv6 source address. All traffic that ingresses in port 2 with source IP from class 2001:0:0:5:0:0:0:2/128 is denied.
1. Configure an Access Control List. RS G8296(config)# access­control list6 3 ipv6 source­address 2001:0:0:5:0:0:0:2 128
RS G8296(config)# access­control list6 3 action deny
2. Add ACL 2 to port 2. RS G8296(config)# interface port 2
RS G8296(config­if)# access­control list6 3
RS G8296(config­if)# exit
ACL Example 4
Use this configuration to deny all ARP packets that ingress a port.
1. Configure an Access Control List. RS G8296(config)# access­control list 2 ethernet ethernet­type arp
RS G8296(config)# access­control list 2 action deny
2. Add ACL 2 to port EXT2. RS G8296(config)# interface port 2
RS G8296(config­if)# access­control list 2
RS G8296(config­if)# exit
ACL Example 5
Use the following configuration to permit access to hosts with destination MAC address that matches 11:05:00:10:00:00 FF:F5:FF:FF:FF:FF and deny access to all other hosts.
1. Configure Access Control Lists. RS G8296(config)# access­control list 30 ethernet destination­mac­address 11:05:00:10:00:00 FF:F5:FF:FF:FF:FF
RS G8296(config)# access­control list 30 action permit
RS G8296(config)# access­control list 100 ethernet destination­mac­address 00:00:00:00:00:00 00:00:00:00:00:00
RS G8296(config)# access­control list 100 action deny
2. Add ACLs to a port. RS
RS
RS
RS
122
G8296(config)# interface port 2
G8296(config­if)# access­control list 30
G8296(config­if)# access­control list 100
G8296(config­if)# exit
G8296 Application Guide for ENOS 8.4
VLAN Maps
A VLAN map (VMap) is an ACL that can be assigned to a VLAN or VM group rather than to a switch port as with IPv4 ACLs. This is particularly useful in a virtualized environment where traffic filtering and metering policies must follow virtual machines (VMs) as they migrate between hypervisors.
The G8296 supports up to 128 VMaps.
Individual VMap filters are configured in the same fashion as IPv4 ACLs, except that VLANs cannot be specified as a filtering criteria (unnecessary, since the VMap are assigned to a specific VLAN or associated with a VM group VLAN).
VMaps are configured using the following ISCLI configuration command path:
RS G8296(config)# access­control vmap <VMap ID> ?
action Set filter action
egress­port Set to filter for packets egressing this port
ethernet Ethernet header options
ipv4 IP version 4 header options
meter ACL metering configuration
mirror Mirror options
packet­format Set to filter specific packet format types
re­mark ACL re­mark configuration
statistics Enable access control list statistics
tcp­udp TCP and UDP filtering options
Once a VMap filter is created, it can be assigned or removed using the following configuration commands:

For regular VLAN, use config‐vlan mode:
RS G8296(config)# vlan <VLAN ID>
RS G8296(config­vlan)# [no] vmap <VMap ID> [serverports| non­serverports]

For a VM group (see “VM Group Types” on page 278), use the global configuration mode:
RS G8296(config)# [no] virt vmgroup <ID> vmap <VMap ID> [serverports|non­serverports]
Note: Each VMap can be assigned to only one VLAN or VM group. However, each VLAN or VM group may have multiple VMaps assigned to it.
When the optional serverports or non­serverports parameter is specified, the action to add or remove the VMap is applied for either the switch server ports (serverports) or uplink ports (non­serverports). If omitted, the operation will be applied to all ports in the associated VLAN or VM group.
© Copyright Lenovo 2016
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VMap Example
In this example, EtherType 2 traffic from VLAN 3 server ports is mirrored to a network monitor on port 4.
RS G8296(config)# access­control vmap 21 packet­format ethernet ethernet­type2
RS G8296(config)# access­control vmap 21 mirror port 4
RS G8296(config)# access­control vmap 21 action permit
RS G8296(config)# vlan 3
RS G8296(config­vlan)# vmap 21 serverports
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Management ACLs
Management ACLs (MACLs) filter inbound traffic i.e. traffic toward the CPU. MACLs are applied switch‐wide. Traffic can be filtered based on the following:

IPv4 source address

IPv4 destination address

IPv4 protocols 
TCP/UDP destination or source port
Lower MACL numbers have higher priority.
Following is an example MACL configuration based on a destination IP address and a TCP‐UDP destination port: RS G8296(config)# access­control macl 1 ipv4 destination­ip­address 1.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
RS G8296(config)# access­control macl 1 tcp­udp destination­port 111 0xffff
RS G8296(config)# access­control macl 1 statistics
RS G8296(config)# access­control macl 1 action permit
RS G8296(config)# access­control macl 1 enable
Use the following command to view the MACL configuration: RS G8296(config)# show access­control macl 1
MACL 1 profile : Enabled
IPv4
- DST IP
: 1.1.1.1/255.255.255.0
TCP/UDP
- DST Port
: 111/0xffff
Action
: Permit
Statistics
: Enabled
© Copyright Lenovo 2016
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Using Storm Control Filters
Excessive transmission of broadcast or multicast traffic can result in a network storm. A network storm can overwhelm your network with constant broadcast or multicast traffic, and degrade network performance. Common symptoms of a network storm are denial‐of‐service (DoS) attacks, slow network response times, and network operations timing out. The G8296 provides filters that can limit the number of the following packet types transmitted by switch ports: Broadcast packets
Multicast packets
 Unknown unicast packets (destination lookup failure)


Unicast packets whose destination MAC address is not in the Forwarding Database are unknown unicasts. When an unknown unicast is encountered, the switch handles it like a broadcast packet and floods it to all other ports in the VLAN (broadcast domain). A high rate of unknown unicast traffic can have the same negative effects as a broadcast storm. Configure broadcast filters on each port that requires broadcast storm control. Set a threshold that defines the total number of broadcast packets transmitted (0‐2097151), in packets per second. When the threshold is reached, no more packets of the specified type are transmitted.
To filter broadcast packets on a port, use the following commands: RS G8296(config)# interface port 1
RS G8296(config­if)# storm­control broadcast level rate <packets per second>
To filter multicast packets on a port, use the following commands: RS G8296(config­if)# storm­control multicast level rate <packets per second>
To filter unknown unicast packets on a port, use the following commands: RS G8296(config­if)# storm­control unicast level rate <packets per second>
RS G8296(config­if)# exit
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Chapter 8. Secure Input/Output Module
The Secure Input/Output Module (SIOM) enables you to determine which protocols can be enabled. The SIOM only allows secured traffic and secured authentication management.
The following topics are discussed in this chapter:
© Copyright Lenovo 2016

“SIOM Overview” on page 128

“Setting an SIOM Security Policy” on page 129

“Implementing Secure LDAP (LDAPS)” on page 132

“Using Cryptographic Mode” on page 135
127
SIOM Overview
A security policy is a set of rules to be enforced on the switch software. The SIOM contains the following sub‐features:
128

A Security Policy that can be enforced on the switch software

A Secure LDAP (LDAPS) implementation in addition to the current the LDAP feature
G8296 Application Guide for ENOS 8.4
Setting an SIOM Security Policy
The SIOM feature introduces the following levels of security policy:

Legacy Mode
Legacy Mode maintains the existing security behavior of the IOM or switch. All communication protocols currently supported by the IOM software continue to be allowed and supported in this mode. All behaviors of the IOM remain the same; the only difference is you can set the mode which will take effect after the next reboot of the switch.

Secure Mode
In Security Mode or SIOM, only secure communication protocols are allowed to be enabled. Communication protocols that are deemed to be not secure are disabled and not allowed to run on the switch.
Note: Once a switch has entered Secure Mode, it cannot return to Legacy Mode without a reboot. Enabling and Disabling the SIOM
To enable Secure Mode on the G8296, enter:
RS G8296(config)# boot security­policy secure­mode
Note: The switch will remain in Legacy Mode until you reboot. To disable Secure Mode on the G8296, enter:
RS G8296(config)# boot security­policy legacy­mode
Note: The switch will remain in Secure Mode until you reboot. To display the running security policy, enter:
RS G8296(config)# show boot security­policy
Using Protocols With SIOM
Some protocols can be used with SIOM. This section explains which protocols can and cannot operate with SIOM on the RackSwitch G8296.
Insecure Protocols
When you are in Secure Mode, the following protocols are deemed “insecure” and are disabled:
© Copyright Lenovo 2016

HTTP 
LDAP Client

SNMPv1

SNMPv2

Telnet (server and client)
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
FTP (server and client)

Radius (client

TACACS+ (client)

TFTP Server
Except for the TFTP server, these protocols cannot be enabled when the switch is operating in Secure Mode because the commands to enable or disable them disappear with SIOM enabled.
The following protocols, although deemed “insecure” by SIOM, are enabled by default and can be disabled.

DHCP client 
SysLog
Note: Service Location Protocol (SLP) Discovery is also deemed “insecure” but is unaffected by Secure Mode. SLP has the same default settings as in Legacy Mode. If you can enable or disable SLP in Legacy Mode, you can enable or disable it the same way in Secure Mode.
The following supported protocols are not enabled by default but can always be enabled in Secure Mode.

DNS Resolution

TFTP client (for signed items only, such as switch images)
The following protocols, although deemed “insecure” and allowed by SIOM, are not supported by the G8296:

RCP

SMTP

MIME

TCP command in secure mode (Port 6090)

DHCPv6 client
Secure Protocols
The following protocols are deemed “secure” and are enabled by default in Secure Mode:

SCP Server

SNMPv3 Client

SFTP Client

SSHv2 Server

SSHv2 Client

HTTPS Server
You can disable these protocols.
The following protocols are deemed “secure” and cannot be disabled in any mode:

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
LDAPS Client
The following protocols are also deemed “secure” on the G8296 and can be enabled. 
IKE

IPSec
The default state for these protocols in Secure Mode, whether enabled or disabled, is the same as in Legacy Mode.
The following protocols are deemed “secure” but are not currently supported by the G8296:

EAPoL

SCP

S/MIME

SNMPv3 Manager

TCP command secure mode (Port 6091)
Insecure Protocols Unaffected by SIOM
The following protocols are deemed “insecure” but can be enabled in all Security Policy Modes:

Ping

Ping IPv6

Traceroute

Traceroute IPv6

TFTP IPv6

SNMPv3 IPv6

bootp
Notes:
© Copyright Lenovo 2016

Telnet IPv6 and TFTP IPv6 are disabled in Secure Mode.

TFTP IPv6 is allowed in Secure Mode for signed image transfers only.
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Implementing Secure LDAP (LDAPS)
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) is a protocol for accessing distributed directory information services over a network. Enterprise NOS uses LDAP for authentication and authorization. With an LDAP client enabled, the switch will authenticate a user and determine the user’s privilege level by checking with one or more directory servers instead of a local database of users. This prevents customers from having to configure local user accounts on multiple switches; they can maintain a centralized directory instead. As part of the SIOM, you can implement Secure Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAPS) in addition to standard LDAP.
Enabling LDAPS
LDAPS is disabled by default. To enable LDAPS:
1. Turn LDAP authentication on: RS G8296(config)# ldap­server enable
2. Enable LDAP Enhanced Mode:
RS G8296(config)# ldap­server mode enhanced
This changes the ldap­server subcommands to support LDAPS.
3. Configure the IPv4 addresses of each LDAP server.Specify the interface port (optional). RS G8296(config)# ldap­server host {1­4} <IP address or hostname>mgta­port
4. You may change the default TCP port number used to listen to LDAPS (optional).
The well‐known port for LDAP is 636.
RS G8296(config)# ldap­server port <1‐65000>
5. Configure the Security Mode:
RS G8296(config)# ldap­server security {clear|ldaps|mutual|starttls}
where:
132
Parameter
Description
clear
Cleartext Mode (no security)
ldaps
LDAPS Mode
mutual
Mutual authentication in Transport Layer Security (TLS)
starttls
Secure LDAP via StartTLS without cleartext fallback
G8296 Application Guide for ENOS 8.4
6. Configure the distinguished name (DN) and password (optional).
RS G8296(config)# ldap­server binddn dn “<distinguished name> “
RS G8296(config)# ldap­server binddn key “<password> “
If this is not configured, the switch will use user‐provided login credentials to bind. A DN will then be constructed from the userʹs login credentials and then used in the initial BIND attempt.
7. Configure the root DN:
RS G8296(config)# ldap­server basedn <root DN name>
8. Configure the user search attribute (optional):
RS G8296(config)# ldap­server attribute username <search attribute>
If no user search attribute is specified, the default is uid.
9. Configure the group search attribute (optional):
RS G8296(config)# ldap­server attribute group <search attribute>
If no group search attribute is specified, the default is memberOf.
10. Configure the login permissions attribute:
RS G8296(config)# ldap­server attribute login­permission <attribute>
Note: If no login permissions attribute is configured, LDAP client will not function.
11. Configure the group filter attribute (optional):
RS G8296(config)# ldap­server group­filter <filter attributes separated by comma>
Note: The group filter string must contain no whitespace.
If no group filter attribute is configured, no groups will be filtered and all groups will be considered in any search.
12. Enable DNS server verification:
RS G8296(config)# ldap­server srv
Disabling LDAPS
To disable LDAPS, enter:
RS G8296(config)# ldap­server security clear
RS G8296(config)# ldap­server mode legacy
For information about using LDAP in Legacy Mode, see “LDAP Authentication and Authorization” on page 104.
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Syslogs and LDAPS
Syslogs are required for the following error conditions:
134

Password change required on first login

Password expired

Username or password invalid

Account temporarily locked

Unknown/no reason given
G8296 Application Guide for ENOS 8.4
Using Cryptographic Mode
The RackSwitch G8296 is able to change between Cryptographic Compatibility Mode and NIST SP 800‐131a Cryptographic Mode. In Cryptographic Mode, encryption key lengths must comply with NIST SP 800‐131a minimum requirements; only compliant encryption algorithms are allowed.
To enable Cryptographic Mode:
Note: You may want to save your configuration before enabling Cryptographic Mode, as this process will wipe out your configuration.
1. Set the boot mode:
RS G8296(config)# boot strict enable
2. Reboot the switch.
3. Verify that the switch is operating in Cryptographic Mode:
RS G8296# show boot strict
Current strict settings:
Strict Mode : enabled
Old default Snmpv3 accounts support : no
Strict settings saved:
Strict Mode : enabled
Old default Snmpv3 accounts support : no
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Part 3: Switch Basics
This section discusses basic switching functions:
 VLANs
 Port Aggregation
 Spanning Tree Protocols (Spanning Tree Groups, Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol, and Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol)
 Virtual Link Aggregation Groups
 Quality of Service
© Copyright Lenovo 2016
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Chapter 9. VLANs
This chapter describes network design and topology considerations for using Virtual Local Area Networks (VLANs). VLANs commonly are used to split up groups of network users into manageable broadcast domains, to create logical segmentation of workgroups, and to enforce security policies among logical segments. The following topics are discussed in this chapter: 
“VLANs and Port VLAN ID Numbers” on page 140

“VLAN Tagging/Trunk Mode” on page 142

“VLAN Topologies and Design Considerations” on page 146
This section discusses how you can connect users and segments to a host that supports many logical segments or subnets by using the flexibility of the multiple VLAN system.

“Private VLANs” on page 153
Note: VLANs can be configured from the Command Line Interface (see “VLAN Configuration” as well as “Port Configuration” in the Command Reference). © Copyright Lenovo 2016
139
VLANs Overview
Setting up virtual LANs (VLANs) is a way to segment networks to increase network flexibility without changing the physical network topology. With network segmentation, each switch port connects to a segment that is a single broadcast domain. When a switch port is configured to be a member of a VLAN, it is added to a group of ports (workgroup) that belong to one broadcast domain.
Ports are grouped into broadcast domains by assigning them to the same VLAN. Frames received in one VLAN can only be forwarded within that VLAN, and multicast, broadcast, and unknown unicast frames are flooded only to ports in the same VLAN.
The RackSwitch G8296 (G8296) supports jumbo frames with a Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) of 9,216 bytes. Within each frame, 18 bytes are reserved for the Ethernet header and CRC trailer. The remaining space in the frame comprise the packet, which includes the payload and any additional overhead, such as 802.1q or VLAN tags. Jumbo frame support is automatic: it is enabled by default, requires no manual configuration, and cannot be manually disabled. VLANs and Port VLAN ID Numbers
VLAN Numbers
The G8296 supports up to 4095 VLANs per switch. Each can be identified with any number between 1 and 4094. VLAN 1 is the default VLAN for the data ports. VLAN 4095 is used by the management network, which includes the management ports. Use the following command to view VLAN information: RS G8296#show vlan
VLAN Name Status Ports
­­­­ ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ ­­­­­­ ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­
1 Default VLAN ena 1­87 88 89­96
4095 Mgmt VLAN ena MGT
Primary Secondary Type Ports vPorts
­­­­­­­ ­­­­­­­­­ ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ 140
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PVID/Native VLAN Numbers
Each port in the switch has a configurable default VLAN number, known as its PVID. By default, the PVID for all non‐management ports is set to 1, which correlates to the default VLAN ID. The PVID for each port can be configured to any VLAN number between 1 and 4094. Use the following command to view PVIDs: RS G8296# show interface information
(or)
RS G8296# show interface trunk Port Tag RMON Lrn Fld Openflow tis tes PVID DESCRIPTION VLAN(s)
Trk NVLAN
­­­­­­­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­­­­­­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­­­­­ ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­
1 y d e e d d d 1 1 1003
2 y d e e d d d 1 1 1003
3 n d e e d d d 1 1
4 n d e e d d d 1 1
5 n d e e d d d 1 1
6 n d e e d d d 1 1
7 n d e e d d d 1 1
8 n d e e d d d 1 1
9 n d e e d d d 1 1
10 n d e e d d d 1 IXIA 1
...
96 n d e e d d d 1 1
MGT n d e e d d d 4095 4095
* = PVID/Native­VLAN is tagged.
# = PVID is ingress tagged.
Trk = Trunk mode
NVLAN = Native­VLAN
Use the following command to set the port PVID/Native VLAN: Access Mode Port
RS G8296(config)# interface port <port number>
RS G8296(config­if)# switchport access vlan <VLAN ID>
For Trunk Mode Port
RS G8296(config)# interface port <port number>
RS G8296(config­if)# switchport trunk native vlan <VLAN ID>
Each port on the switch can belong to one or more VLANs, and each VLAN can have any number of switch ports in its membership. Any port that belongs to multiple VLANs, however, must have VLAN tagging/trunk mode enabled (see “VLAN Tagging/Trunk Mode” on page 142). © Copyright Lenovo 2016
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VLAN Tagging/Trunk Mode
Lenovo Enterprise Network Operating System software supports 802.1Q VLAN tagging, providing standards‐based VLAN support for Ethernet systems.
Tagging places the VLAN identifier in the frame header of a packet, allowing each port to belong to multiple VLANs. When you add a port to multiple VLANs, you also must enable tagging on that port. Since tagging fundamentally changes the format of frames transmitted on a tagged port, you must carefully plan network designs to prevent tagged frames from being transmitted to devices that do not support 802.1Q VLAN tags, or devices where tagging is not enabled. Important terms used with the 802.1Q tagging feature are:

VLAN identifier (VID)—the 12‐bit portion of the VLAN tag in the frame header that identifies an explicit VLAN. 
Port VLAN identifier (PVID)—a classification mechanism that associates a port with a specific VLAN. For example, a port with a PVID of 3 (PVID =3) assigns all untagged frames received on this port to VLAN 3. Any untagged frames received by the switch are classified with the PVID of the receiving port. 
Tagged frame—a frame that carries VLAN tagging information in the header. This VLAN tagging information is a 32‐bit field (VLAN tag) in the frame header that identifies the frame as belonging to a specific VLAN. Untagged frames are marked (tagged) with this classification as they leave the switch through a port that is configured as a tagged port.

Untagged frame— a frame that does not carry any VLAN tagging information in the frame header.

Untagged member—a port that has been configured as an untagged member of a specific VLAN. When an untagged frame exits the switch through an untagged member port, the frame header remains unchanged. When a tagged frame exits the switch through an untagged member port, the tag is stripped and the tagged frame is changed to an untagged frame.

Tagged member—a port that has been configured as a tagged member of a specific VLAN. When an untagged frame exits the switch through a tagged member port, the frame header is modified to include the 32‐bit tag associated with the PVID. When a tagged frame exits the switch through a tagged member port, the frame header remains unchanged (original VID remains). When an access port is set as a trunk, it is automatically added to all data VLANs. To change the allowed VLAN range, use the command:
switchport trunk allowed vlans <range>
Note: If a 802.1Q tagged frame is received by a port that has VLAN‐tagging disabled and the port VLAN ID (PVID) is different than the VLAN ID of the packet, then the frame is dropped at the ingress port. 142
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Figure 2. Default VLAN settings
802.1Q Switch
VLAN 1
Port 1
Port 2
Port 3
Port 4
Port 5
Port 6
Port 7
...
PVID = 1
DA
CRC
SA
Incoming
untagged
packet
Outgoing
untagged packet
(unchanged)
Data
CRC
Data
SA
DA
Key
By default:
All ports are assigned PVID = 1
All ports are untagged members of VLAN 1
BS45010A
Note: The port numbers specified in these illustrations may not directly correspond to the physical port configuration of your switch model.
When a VLAN is configured, ports are added as members of the VLAN, and the ports are defined as either tagged or untagged (see Figure 3 through Figure 6).
The default configuration settings for the G8296 has all ports set as untagged members of VLAN 1 with all ports configured as PVID = 1. In the default configuration example shown in Figure 2, all incoming packets are assigned to VLAN 1 by the default port VLAN identifier (PVID =1). Figure 3 through Figure 6 illustrate generic examples of VLAN tagging. In Figure 3, untagged incoming packets are assigned directly to VLAN 2 (PVID = 2). Port 5 is configured as a tagged member of VLAN 2, and port 7 is configured as an untagged member of VLAN 2. Note: The port assignments in the following figures are not meant to match the G8296. Figure 3. Port‐based VLAN assignment
Data
SA
Before
DA
Port 2
Port 3
802.1Q Switch
Port 6
Port 7
Tagged member
of VLAN 2
Port 5
CRC
Port 1
Port 4
PVID = 2
Untagged packet
Port 8
Untagged member
of VLAN 2
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As shown in Figure 4, the untagged packet is marked (tagged) as it leaves the switch through port 5, which is configured as a tagged member of VLAN 2. The untagged packet remains unchanged as it leaves the switch through port 7, which is configured as an untagged member of VLAN 2.
Figure 4. 802.1Q tagging (after port‐based VLAN assignment) Port 4
Port 1
Port 2
Tagged member
of VLAN 2
Port 3
Port 5
PVID = 2
802.1Q Switch
Port 6
Untagged memeber
of VLAN 2
Port 7
CRC*
Data
Tag
SA
DA
(*Recalculated)
Port 8
CRC
8100
Priority
CFI
VID = 2
16 bits
3 bits
1 bits
12 bits
Data
After
Outgoing
untagged packet
(unchanged)
SA
Key
DA
Priority
CFI
VID
- User_priority
- Canonical format indicator
- VLAN identifier
BS45012A
In Figure 5, tagged incoming packets are assigned directly to VLAN 2 because of the tag assignment in the packet. Port 5 is configured as a tagged member of VLAN 2, and port 7 is configured as an untagged member of VLAN 2.
Figure 5. 802.1Q tag assignment
Port 1
PVID = 2
Port 2
Port 3
Data
Tag
SA
Before
DA
802.1Q Switch
Port 6
Port 7
Tagged member
of VLAN 2
Port 5
CRC
Port 4
Tagged packet
Port 8
Untagged member
of VLAN 2
BS45013A
As shown in Figure 6, the tagged packet remains unchanged as it leaves the switch through port 5, which is configured as a tagged member of VLAN 2. However, the tagged packet is stripped (untagged) as it leaves the switch through port 7, which is configured as an untagged member of VLAN 2. 144
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Figure 6. 802.1Q tagging (after 802.1Q tag assignment)
Port 4
Port 1
Port 2
802.1Q Switch
Port 6
Untagged member
of VLAN 2
Port 7
CRC*
Tagged member
of VLAN 2
Port 3
Port 5
PVID = 2
CRC
Data
Tag
SA
DA
Port 8
(*Recalculated)
8100
Priority
CFI
VID = 2
16 bits
3 bits
1 bit
12 bits
Data
SA
DA
Outgoing
untagged packet
changed
(tag removed)
After
Key
Priority
CFI
VID
- User_priority
- Canonical format indicator
- VLAN identifier
BS45014A
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VLAN Topologies and Design Considerations
Note the following when working with VLAN topologies:

By default, the G8296 software is configured so that tagging/trunk mode is disabled on all ports. 
By default, the G8296 software is configured so that all data ports are members of VLAN 1. 
256When using Spanning Tree, STG 2‐256 may contain only one VLAN unless Multiple Spanning‐Tree Protocol (MSTP) mode is used. With MSTP mode, STG 1 to 32 can include multiple VLANs. 
All ports involved in both aggregation and port mirroring must have the same VLAN configuration. If a port is on a LAG with a mirroring port, the VLAN configuration cannot be changed. For more information about aggregation, see Chapter 10, “Ports and Link Aggregation” and Chapter 46, “Port Mirroring.”
Multiple VLANs with Tagging/Trunk Mode Adapters
Figure 7 illustrates a network topology described in Note: on page 147 and the configuration example on page page 149. Figure 7. Multiple VLANs with VLAN‐Tagged Gigabit Adapters Enterprise
Routing Switch
Server 1
VLAN 1
Server 2
VLAN 1
Enterprise
Routing Switch
Server 3
VLAN 2
Server 4
VLAN 3
Server 5
VLAN 1, 2
The features of this VLAN are described in the following table. 146
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Table 14. Multiple VLANs Example
Component
Description
G8296 switch
This switch is configured with three VLANs that represent three different IP subnets. Five ports are connected downstream to servers. Two ports are connected upstream to routing switches. Uplink ports are members of all three VLANs, with VLAN tagging/trunk mode enabled. Server 1
This server is a member of VLAN 1 and has presence in only one IP subnet. The associated switch port is only a member of VLAN 1, so tagging/trunk mode is disabled. Server 2 This server is a member of VLAN 1 and has presence in only one IP subnet. The associated switch port is only a member of VLAN 1, so tagging/trunk mode is disabled. Server 3
This server belongs to VLAN 2, and it is logically in the same IP subnet as Server 5. The associated switch port has tagging/trunk mode disabled. Server 4
A member of VLAN 3, this server can communicate only with other servers via a router. The associated switch port has tagging/trunk mode disabled. Server 5
A member of VLAN 1 and VLAN 2, this server can communicate only with Server 1, Server 2, and Server 3. The associated switch port has tagging/trunk mode enabled. Enterprise Routing switches
These switches must have all three VLANs (VLAN 1, 2, 3) configured. They can communicate with Server 1, Server 2, and Server 5 via VLAN 1. They can communicate with Server 3 and Server 5 via VLAN 2. They can communicate with Server 4 via VLAN 3. Tagging/trunk mode on switch ports is enabled. Note: VLAN tagging/trunk mode is required only on ports that are connected to other switches or on ports that connect to tag‐capable end‐stations, such as servers with VLAN‐tagging/trunk mode adapters. To configure a specific VLAN on a trunk port, the following conditions must be met:
The port must be in trunk mode.
The VLAN must be in the trunk’s allowed VLAN range. By default, the range includes all VLANs
 The VLAN must be un‐reserved.
 The VLAN must be created.


The order in which these conditions are met is not relevant. However, all conditions must be met collectively. When all the conditions are met, the VLAN is enabled on the port. If one of the conditions is broken, the VLAN is disabled.
© Copyright Lenovo 2016
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If a port’s native VLAN is a private VLAN and its allowed VLAN range contains only invalid VLANs (either reserved VLANs or VLANs the port cannot belong to), removing the private VLAN mapping from the port will add the port to default VLAN and add the default VLAN to the allowed VLAN range.
When setting up multiple VLANs, ports configured in private VLAN mode are not added to private VLANs unless the private VLANs are also configured for those ports.
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VLAN Configuration Example
Use the following procedure to configure the example network shown in Figure 7 on page 146. 1. Enable VLAN tagging/trunk mode on server ports that support multiple VLANs. RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# interface port 5
G8296(config­if)# switchport mode trunk
G8296(config­if)# switchport trunk allowed vlans 1,2
G8296(config­if)# exit
2. Enable tagging/trunk mode on uplink ports that support multiple VLANs. RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# interface port 19
G8296(config­if)# switchport mode trunk
G8296(config­if)# switchport trunk allowed vlan add 2,3
G8296(config­if)# exit
G8296(config)# interface port 20
G8296(config­if)# switchport mode trunk
G8296(config­if)# switchport trunk allowed vlan add 2,3
G8296(config­if)# exit
3. Configure server ports that belong to a single VLAN. RS G8296(config)# interface port 4
RS G8296(config­if)# switchport access vlan 2
RS G8296(config­if)# exit
By default, all ports are members of VLAN 1, so configure only those ports that belong to other VLANs. © Copyright Lenovo 2016
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Protocol-Based VLANs
Protocol‐based VLANs (PVLANs) allow you to segment network traffic according to the network protocols in use. Traffic for supported network protocols can be confined to a particular port‐based VLAN. You can give different priority levels to traffic generated by different network protocols.
With PVLAN, the switch classifies incoming packets by Ethernet protocol of the packets, not by the configuration of the ingress port. When an untagged or priority‐tagged frame arrives at an ingress port, the protocol information carried in the frame is used to determine a VLAN to which the frame belongs. If a frame’s protocol is not recognized as a pre‐defined PVLAN type, the ingress port’s PVID is assigned to the frame. When a tagged frame arrives, the VLAN ID in the frame’s tag is used.
Each VLAN can contain up to eight different PVLANs. You can configure separate PVLANs on different VLANs, with each PVLAN segmenting traffic for the same protocol type. For example, you can configure PVLAN 1 on VLAN 2 to segment IPv4 traffic, and PVLAN 8 on VLAN 100 to segment IPv4 traffic.
To define a PVLAN on a VLAN, configure a PVLAN number (1‐8) and specify the frame type and the Ethernet type of the PVLAN protocol. You must assign at least one port to the PVLAN before it can function. Define the PVLAN frame type and Ethernet type as follows:


Frame type—consists of one of the following values:

Ether2 (Ethernet II)

SNAP (Subnetwork Access Protocol)

LLC (Logical Link Control)
Ethernet type—consists of a 4‐digit (16 bit) hex value that defines the Ethernet type. You can use common Ethernet protocol values, or define your own values. Following are examples of common Ethernet protocol values:

IPv4 = 0800

IPv6 = 86dd

ARP = 0806
Port-Based vs. Protocol-Based VLANs
Each VLAN supports both port‐based and protocol‐based association, as follows:
150

The default VLAN configuration is port‐based. All data ports are members of VLAN 1, with no PVLAN association.

When you add ports to a PVLAN, the ports become members of both the port‐based VLAN and the PVLAN. For example, if you add port 1 to PVLAN 1 on VLAN 2, the port also becomes a member of VLAN 2.

When you delete a PVLAN, it’s member ports remain members of the port‐based VLAN. For example, if you delete PVLAN 1 from VLAN 2, port 1 remains a member of VLAN 2.

When you delete a port from a VLAN, the port is deleted from all corresponding PVLANs.
G8296 Application Guide for ENOS 8.4
PVLAN Priority Levels
You can assign each PVLAN a priority value of 0‐7, used for Quality of Service (QoS). PVLAN priority takes precedence over a port’s configured priority level. If no priority level is configured for the PVLAN (priority = 0), each port’s priority is used (if configured).
All member ports of a PVLAN have the same PVLAN priority level.
PVLAN Tagging/Trunk Mode
When PVLAN tagging is enabled, the switch tags frames that match the PVLAN protocol. For more information about tagging, see “VLAN Tagging/Trunk Mode” on page 142.
Untagged ports must have PVLAN tagging disabled. Tagged ports can have PVLAN tagging either enabled or disabled.
PVLAN tagging has higher precedence than port‐based tagging. If a port is tagging/trunk mode enabled, and the port is a member of a PVLAN, the PVLAN tags egress frames that match the PVLAN protocol.
Use the tag list command (protocol­vlan <x> tag­pvlan) to define the complete list of tag‐enabled ports in the PVLAN. Note that all ports not included in the PVLAN tag list will have PVLAN tagging disabled.
PVLAN Configuration Guidelines
Consider the following guidelines when you configure protocol‐based VLANs:
© Copyright Lenovo 2016

Each port can support up to 16 VLAN protocols.

The G8296 can support up to 16 protocols simultaneously.

Each PVLAN must have at least one port assigned before it can be activated.

The same port within a port‐based VLAN can belong to multiple PVLANs.

An untagged port can be a member of multiple PVLANs.

A port cannot be a member of different VLANs with the same protocol association.
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Configuring PVLAN
Follow this procedure to configure a Protocol‐based VLAN (PVLAN).
1. Configure VLAN tagging/trunk mode for ports.
RS G8296(config)# interface port 1, 2
RS G8296(config­if)# switchport mode trunk
RS G8296(config­if)# exit
2. Create a VLAN and define the protocol type(s) supported by the VLAN.
RS G8296(config)# vlan 2
RS G8296(config­vlan)# protocol­vlan 1 frame­type ether2 0800
3. Configure the priority value for the protocol.
RS G8296(config­vlan)# protocol­vlan 1 priority 2
4. Add member ports for this PVLAN.
RS G8296(config­vlan)# protocol­vlan 1 member 1, 2
Note: If VLAN tagging is turned on and the port being added to the VLAN has a different default VLAN (PVID/Native VLAN), you will be asked to confirm changing the PVID to the current VLAN.
5. Enable the PVLAN.
RS G8296(config­vlan)# protocol­vlan 1 enable
RS G8296(config­vlan)# exit
6. Verify PVLAN operation. RS G8296(config)# show vlan
VLAN Name Status Ports
­­­­ ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ ­­­­­­ ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­
1 Default VLAN ena 1­48, XGE1­XGE4
2 VLAN 2 ena 1 2
PVLAN Protocol FrameType EtherType Priority Status Ports
­­­­­ ­­­­­­­­ ­­­­­­­­­­ ­­­­­­­­­ ­­­­­­­­ ­­­­­­­ ­­­­­­­­­­­
2 1 Ether2 0800 2 enabled 1 2
PVLAN PVLAN­Tagged Ports
­­­­­ ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­
none none
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Private VLANs
Private VLANs provide Layer 2 isolation between the ports within the same broadcast domain. Private VLANs can control traffic within a VLAN domain, and provide port‐based security for host servers. Use Private VLANs to partition a VLAN domain into sub‐domains. Each sub‐domain is comprised of one primary VLAN and one or more secondary VLANs, as follows: Primary VLAN—carries unidirectional traffic downstream from promiscuous ports. Each Private VLAN configuration has only one primary VLAN. All ports in the Private VLAN are members of the primary VLAN.  Secondary VLAN—Secondary VLANs are internal to a private VLAN domain, and are defined as follows: 

Isolated VLAN—carries unidirectional traffic upstream from the host servers toward ports in the primary VLAN. Each Private VLAN configuration can contain only one isolated VLAN. 
Community VLAN—carries upstream traffic from ports in the community VLAN to other ports in the same community, and to ports in the primary VLAN. Each Private VLAN configuration can contain multiple community VLANs. After you define the primary VLAN and one or more secondary VLANs, you map the secondary VLAN(s) to the primary VLAN. Private VLAN Ports
Private VLAN ports are defined as follows: Promiscuous—A promiscuous port is a port that belongs to the primary VLAN. The promiscuous port can communicate with all the interfaces, including ports in the secondary VLANs (Isolated VLAN and Community VLANs).
 Isolated—An isolated port is a host port that belongs to an isolated VLAN. Each isolated port has complete layer 2 separation from other ports within the same private VLAN (including other isolated ports), except for the promiscuous ports. 

© Copyright Lenovo 2016

Traffic sent to an isolated port is blocked by the Private VLAN, except the traffic from promiscuous ports. 
Traffic received from an isolated port is forwarded only to promiscuous ports. Community—A community port is a host port that belongs to a community VLAN. Community ports can communicate with other ports in the same com‐
munity VLAN, and with promiscuous ports. These interfaces are isolated at layer 2 from all other interfaces in other communities and from isolated ports within the Private VLAN.
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Configuration Guidelines
The following guidelines apply when configuring Private VLANs: 
The default VLAN 1 cannot be a Private VLAN. 
IGMP Snooping must be disabled on Private VLANs.

All VLANs that comprise the Private VLAN must belong to the same Spanning Tree Group. Configuration Example
Follow this procedure to configure a Private VLAN. 1. Select a VLAN and define the Private VLAN type as primary. RS G8296(config)# vlan 700
RS G8296(config­vlan)# private­vlan primary
RS G8296(config­vlan)# exit
2. Configure a promiscuous port for VLAN 700. 3. Configure two secondary VLANs: isolated VLAN and community VLAN. RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# vlan 701
G8296(config­vlan)# private­vlan isolated
G8296(config­vlan)# exit
G8296(config)# vlan 702
G8296(config­vlan)# private­vlan community
G8296(config­vlan)# exit
4. Map secondary VLANs to primary VLAN. RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# vlan 700­702
G8296(config­vlan)# stg 1
G8296(config­vlan)# exit
G8296(config)# vlan 700
G8296(config­vlan)# private­vlan association 701,702
G8296(config­vlan)# exit
5. Configure host ports for secondary VLANs. 154
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# interface port 2
G8296(config­if)# switchport mode private­vlan
G8296(config­if)# switchport private­vlan host­association 700 701
G8296(config­if)# exit
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# interface port 3
G8296(config­if)# switchport mode private­vlan
G8296(config­if)# switchport private­vlan host­association 700 702
G8296(config­if)# exit
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6. Verify the configuration. RS G8296(config)# show vlan private­vlan
Primary Secondary Type Ports
­­­­­­­ ­­­­­­­­­ ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­
700 701 isolated 1 2
700 702 community 1 3 © Copyright Lenovo 2016
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Chapter 10. Ports and Link Aggregation
Link Aggregation (LAG) groups can provide super‐bandwidth, multi‐link connections between the G8296 and other LAG‐capable devices. A LAG is a group of ports that act together, combining their bandwidth to create a single, larger virtual link. This chapter provides configuration background and examples for aggregating multiple ports together: © Copyright Lenovo 2016

“Configuring QSFP+ Ports” on page 158

“Aggregation Overview” on page 160”

“Configuring a Static LAG” on page 162

“Configurable LAG Hash Algorithm” on page 168

“Link Aggregation Control Protocol” on page 164
157
Configuring QSFP+ Ports
QSFP+ ports support both 10GbE and 40GbE, as shown in Table 15. Table 15. QSFP+ Port Numbering
Physical Port Number
40GbE mode
10GbE mode
Port 87
Port 87
Ports 87/1-87/4
Port 88
Port 88
Ports 88/1-88/4
Port 89
Port 89
Port 90
Port 90
Port 91
Port 91
Port 92
Port 92
Port 93
Port 93
Port 94
Port 94
Port 95
Port 95
Port 96
Port 96
Use the following procedure to change the QSFP+ port mode. 1. Display the current port mode for the QSFP+ ports. # show boot qsfp­port­modes
QSFP ports booted configuration:
Port 87 ­ 40G Mode
Port 88 ­ 40G Mode
Port 89 ­ 40G Mode
Port 90 ­ 40G Mode
Port 91 ­ 40G Mode
Port 92 ­ 40G Mode
Port 93 ­ 40G Mode
Port 94 ­ 40G Mode
Port 95 ­ 40G Mode
Port 96 ­ 40G Mode
QSFP ports saved configuration:
Port 87 ­ 40G Mode
Port 88 ­ 40G Mode
2. Change the port mode to 10GbE. Select the physical port number. RS G8296(config)#no boot qsfp­40Gports 87
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3. Verify the change. # show boot qsfp­port­modes
QSFP ports booted configuration:
Port 87 ­ 40G Mode
Port 88 ­ 40G Mode
Port 89 ­ 40G Mode
Port 90 ­ 40G Mode
Port 91 ­ 40G Mode
Port 92 ­ 40G Mode
Port 93 ­ 40G Mode
Port 94 ­ 40G Mode
Port 95 ­ 40G Mode
Port 96 ­ 40G Mode
QSFP ports saved configuration:
Port 87/1, 87/2, 87/3, 87/4 ­ 10G Mode
Port 88 ­ 40G Mode
4. Reset the switch. RS G8296(config)# reload
Use the following command to reset a port to 40GbE mode. RS G8296(config)# boot qsfp­40Gports 87/1
Use the ‘no’ form of the command to reset a port to 10GbE mode. RS G8296(config)# no boot qsfp­40Gports <port number or a range of ports> © Copyright Lenovo 2016
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Aggregation Overview
When using LAGs between two switches, as shown in Figure 8, you can create a virtual link between the switches, operating with combined throughput levels that depends on how many physical ports are included.
Each G8296 supports up to 102 LAGs, but only 64 can be operational at any given time in stand‐alone mode. and dynamic Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP) LAGs Each type can contain up to 32 member ports, depending on the port type and availability.
Figure 8. Port LAG
Switch 1
Switch 2
LAG
LAGs are also useful for connecting a G8296 to third‐party devices that support link aggregation, such as Cisco routers and switches with EtherChannel technology (not ISL aggregation technology) and Sunʹs Quad Fast Ethernet Adapter. LAG technology is compatible with these devices when they are configured manually.
LAG traffic is statistically distributed among the ports in a LAG, based on a variety of configurable options.
Also, since each LAG is comprised of multiple physical links, the LAG is inherently fault tolerant. As long as one connection between the switches is available, the trunk remains active and statistical load balancing is maintained whenever a port in a LAG is lost or returned to service. 160
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Static LAGs
When you create and enable a static LAG, the LAG members (switch ports) take on certain settings necessary for correct operation of the aggregation feature. Static LAG Requirements
Before you configure your LAG, you must consider these settings, along with specific configuration rules, as follows:
1. Read the configuration rules provided in the section, “Static Aggregation Configuration Rules” on page 161.
2. Determine which switch ports (up to ) are to become LAG members (the specific ports making up the LAG). 3. Ensure that the chosen switch ports are set to enabled. LAG member ports must have the same VLAN and Spanning Tree configuration.
4. Consider how the existing Spanning Tree will react to the new LAG configuration. See Chapter 12, “Spanning Tree Protocols,” for Spanning Tree Group configuration guidelines.
5. Consider how existing VLANs will be affected by the addition of a LAG.
Static Aggregation Configuration Rules
The aggregation feature operates according to specific configuration rules. When creating LAGs, consider the following rules that determine how a LAG reacts in any network topology:
All links must originate from one logical device, and lead to one logical destina‐
tion device. Usually, a LAG connects two physical devices together with multiple links. However, in some networks, a single logical device may include multiple physical devices or when using VLAGs (see Chapter 11, “Virtual Link Aggrega‐
tion Groups). In such cases, links in a LAG are allowed to connect to multiple physical devices because they act as one logical device.
 Any physical switch port can belong to only one LAG.
 Aggregation from third‐party devices must comply with Cisco® EtherChannel® technology.


All ports in a LAG must have the same link configuration (speed, duplex, flow control), the same VLAN properties, and the same Spanning Tree, storm control, and ACL configuration. It is recommended that the ports in a LAG be members of the same VLAN.

Each LAG inherits its port configuration (speed, flow control, tagging) from the first member port. As additional ports are added to the LAG, their settings must be changed to match the LAG configuration. 
When a port leaves a LAG, its configuration parameters are retained. You cannot configure a LAG member as a monitor port in a port‐mirroring con‐
figuration.
 LAGs cannot be monitored by a monitor port; however, LAG members can be monitored.

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Configuring a Static LAG
In the following example, three ports are aggregated between two switches.
Figure 9. LAG Configuration Example 2
1
LAG 3
9 16
LAG 3 combines
Ports 2, 9, and 16
11 18
LAG 1
LAG 1 combines
Ports 1, 11, and 18
Prior to configuring each switch in this example, you must connect to the appropriate switches as the administrator.
Note: For details about accessing and using any of the commands described in this example, see the Lenovo RackSwitch G8296 ISCLI Reference.
1. Follow these steps on the G8296: a. Define a LAG.
RS G8296(config)# portchannel 3 port 2,9,16
RS G8296(config)# portchannel 3 enable
b. Verify the configuration.
# show portchannel information
Examine the resulting information. If any settings are incorrect, make appropriate changes.
2. Repeat the process on the other switch.
RS G8296(config)# portchannel 1 port 1,11,18
RS G8296(config)# portchannel 1 enable
3. Connect the switch ports that will be members in the LAG. LAG 3 (on the G8296) is now connected to LAG 1 (on the other switch). Note: In this example, two G8296 switches are used. If a third‐party device support‐
ing link aggregation is used (such as Cisco routers and switches with EtherChannel technology or Sunʹs Quad Fast Ethernet Adapter), LAGs on the third‐party device must be configured manually. Connection problems could arise when using auto‐
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4. Examine the aggregation information on each switch.
# show portchannel information
PortChannel 3: Enabled
port state:
2: STG 1 forwarding
9: STG 1 forwarding
16: STG 1 forwarding
Information about each port in each configured LAG is displayed. Make sure that LAGs consist of the expected ports and that each port is in the expected state.
The following restrictions apply: © Copyright Lenovo 2016

Any physical switch port can belong to only one LAG.

Up to 32 ports can belong to the same LAG.

All ports in static LAGs must be have the same link configuration (speed, duplex, flow control). 
Aggregation with third‐party devices must comply with Cisco® EtherChannel® technology.
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Link Aggregation Control Protocol
Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP) is an IEEE 802.3ad standard for grouping several physical ports into one logical port (known as a Link Aggregation group) with any device that supports the standard. Please refer to IEEE 802.3ad‐2002 for a full description of the standard. The 802.3ad standard allows standard Ethernet links to form a single Layer 2 link using Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP). Link aggregation is a method of grouping physical link segments of the same media type and speed in full duplex, and treating them as if they were part of a single, logical link segment. If a link in an LACP LAG fails, traffic is reassigned dynamically to the remaining link(s) of the dynamic LAG. Note: LACP implementation in the Lenovo Enterprise Network Operating System does not support the Churn machine, an option used to detect if the port is operable within a bounded time period between the actor and the partner. Only the Marker Responder is implemented, and there is no marker protocol generator. A port’s Link Aggregation Identifier (LAG ID) determines how the port can be aggregated. The Link Aggregation ID (LAG ID) is constructed mainly from the partner switch’s system ID and the port’s admin key, as follows: 
System ID: an integer value based on the partner switch’s MAC address and the system priority assigned in the CLI. 
Admin key: a port’s Admin key is an integer value (1‐65535) that you can configure in the CLI. Each switch port that participates in the same LACP LAG must have the same admin key value. The Admin key is local significant, which means the partner switch does not need to use the same Admin key value. For example, consider two switches, an Actor (the G8296) and a Partner (another switch), as shown in Table 16.
Table 16. Actor vs. Partner LACP configuration
Actor Switch
Partner Switch
LACP LAG
Port 7 (admin key = 100)
Port 1 (admin key = 50)
Primary LAG
Port 8 (admin key = 100)
Port 2 (admin key = 50)
Primary LAG
Port 9 (admin key = 100)
Port 3 (admin key = 70)
Secondary LAG
Port 10 (admin key = 100) Port 4 (admin key = 70)
Secondary LAG
In the configuration shown in Table 16, Actor switch ports 7 and 8 aggregate to form an LACP LAG with Partner switch ports 1 and 2. Only ports with the same LAG ID are aggregated in the LAG. Actor switch ports 9 and 10 are not aggregated in the same LAG, because although they have the same admin key on the Actor switch, their LAG IDs are different (due to a different Partner switch admin key configuration). Instead, they form a secondary LAG with Partner switch ports 3 and 4.
LACP automatically determines which member links can be aggregated and then aggregates them. It provides for the controlled addition and removal of physical links for the link aggregation. 164
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Static LACP LAGs
To prevent switch ports with the same admin key from forming multiple LAGs, you can configure the LACP LAG as static. In a static LACP LAG, ports with the same admin key, but with different LAG IDs, compete to get aggregated in a LAG. The LAG ID for the LAG is decided based on the first port that is aggregated in the group. Ports with this LAG ID get aggregated and the other ports are placed in suspended mode. As per the configuration shown in Table 16 on page 164, if port 7 gets aggregated first, then the LAG ID of port 7 would be the LAG ID of the LAG. Port 8 will join the LAG while ports 9 and 10 would be placed in suspended mode. When in suspended mode, a port transmits only LACP data units (LACPDUs) and discards all other traffic.
A port may also be placed in suspended mode for the following reasons:

When LACP is configured on the port but it stops receiving LACPDUs from the partner switch.

When the port has a different LAG ID because of the partner switch MAC or port LACP key being different. For example: when a switch is connected to two partners.
Static LACP LAGs are configured by associating the LACP admin key to a portchannel ID within a dedicated LACP portchannel group range: RS G8296(config)# portchannel lacp key <adminkey of the LAG> LACP Port Modes
Only 32 ports can actively participate in the LAG at a given time.
Each port on the switch can have one of the following LACP modes.

off (default)
You can configure this port into a regular static LAG. 
active
The port is capable of forming an LACP LAG. This port sends LACPDU packets to partner system ports. 
passive
The port is capable of forming an LACP LAG. This port only responds to the LACPDU packets sent from an LACP active port.
Each active LACP port transmits LACP data units (LACPDUs), while each passive LACP port listens for LACPDUs. During LACP negotiation, the admin key is exchanged. The LACP LAG is enabled as long as the information matches at both ends of the link. If the admin key value changes for a port at either end of the link, that port’s association with the LACP LAG is lost. When the system is initialized, all ports by default are in LACP off mode and are assigned unique admin keys. To make a group of ports aggregable, you assign them all the same admin key. You must set the port’s LACP mode to active to activate LACP negotiation. You can set other port’s LACP mode to passive to reduce the amount of LACPDU traffic at the initial LAG‐forming stage. © Copyright Lenovo 2016
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Use the following command to check whether the ports are aggregated: RS G8296 # show lacp information Note: If you configure LACP on ports with 802.1X network access control, make sure the ports on both sides of the connection are properly configured for both LACP and 802.1X.
LACP Individual
Ports with LACP enabled (active or passive) are prevented by default from forming individual links if they cannot join an LACP LAG. To override this behavior, use the following commands: RS G8296(config) # interface port <port no. or range>
RS G8296(config­if) # no lacp suspend­individual
This allows the selected ports to be treated as normal link‐up ports, which may forward data traffic according to STP, Hot Links or other applications, if they do not receive any LACPDUs.
Note: By default, all ports are configured with the command lacp suspend­individual.
LACP Minimum Links Option
For dynamic LAGs that require a guaranteed amount of bandwidth to be considered useful, you can specify the minimum number of links for the LAG. If the specified minimum number of ports is not available, the LAG link will not be established. If an active LACP LAG loses one or more component links, the LAG will be placed in the down state if the number of links falls to less than the specified minimum. By default, the minimum number of links is 1, meaning that LACP LAGs will remain operational as long as at least one link is available.
The LACP minimum links setting can be configured as follows:

Interface (port) configuration mode:
RS G8296(config)# interface port <port number or range>
RS G8296(config­if)# port­channel min­links <minimum links>
RS G8296(config­if)# exit

Portchannel configuration mode:
RS G8296(config)# interface portchannel lacp <LACP key>
RS G8296(config­PortChannel)# port­channel min­links <minimum links>
RS G8296(config­if)# exit
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Configuring LACP
Use the following procedure to configure LACP for ports 7, 8, 9 and 10 to participate in link aggregation. 1. Configure port parameters. All ports that participate in the LACP LAG must have the same settings, including VLAN membership. 2. Select the port range and define the admin key. Only ports with the same admin key can form an LACP LAG. RS G8296(config)# interface port 7­10
RS G8296(config­if)# lacp key 100
3. Set the LACP mode. RS G8296(config­if)# lacp mode active
4. Optionally allow member ports to individually participate in normal data traffic if no LACPDUs are received.
RS G8296(config­if)# no lacp suspend­individual
RS G8296(config­if)# exit
5. Set the link aggregation as static, by associating it with LAG ID 65105
RS G8296(config)# portchannel 105 lacp key 100
© Copyright Lenovo 2016
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Configurable LAG Hash Algorithm
Traffic in a LAG is statistically distributed among member ports using a hash process where various address and attribute bits from each transmitted frame are recombined to specify the particular LAG port the frame will use.
The switch can be configured to use a variety of hashing options. To achieve the most even traffic distribution, select options that exhibit a wide range of values for your particular network. Avoid hashing on information that is not usually present in the expected traffic, or which does not vary.
The G8296 supports the following hashing options:

Layer 2 source MAC address: RS G8296(config)# portchannel thash l2thash l2­source­mac­address

Layer 2 destination MAC address: RS G8296(config)# portchannel thash l2thash l2­destination­mac­address

Layer 2 source and destination MAC address: RS G8296(config)# portchannel thash l2thash l2­source­destination­mac

Layer 3 IPv4/IPv6 source IP address: RS G8296(config)# portchannel thash l3thash l3­source­ip­address

Layer 3 IPv4/IPv6 destination IP address: RS G8296(config)# portchannel thash l3thash l3­destination­ip­address

Layer 3 source and destination IPv4/IPv6 address (the default): RS G8296(config)# portchannel thash l3thash l3­source­destination­ip

Layer 2 hash configuration: RS G8296(config)# portchannel thash l3thash l3­use­l2­hash

Layer 4 port hash RS G8296(config)# portchannel thash l4port

Ingress port hash RS G8296(config)# portchannel thash ingress
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The G8296 supports the following FCoE hashing options: RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
© Copyright Lenovo 2016
G8296(config)# portchannel thash fcoe cntag­id
G8296(config)# portchannel thash fcoe destination­id
G8296(config)# portchannel thash fcoe fabric­id
G8296(config)# portchannel thash fcoe originator­id
G8296(config)# portchannel thash fcoe responder­id
G8296(config)# portchannel thash fcoe source­id
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Chapter 11. Virtual Link Aggregation Groups
In many data center environments, downstream servers or switches connect to upstream devices which consolidate traffic. For example, see Figure 10.
Figure 10. Typical Data Center Switching Layers with STP vs. VLAG
ISL
Aggregation
Layer
STP blocks
implicit loops
VLAGs
VLAG
Peers
Links remain
active
Access
Layer
Servers
As shown in the example, a switch in the access layer may be connected to more than one switch in the aggregation layer to provide for network redundancy. Typically, Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP, PVRST, or MSTP—see Chapter 12, “Spanning Tree Protocols) is used to prevent broadcast loops, blocking redundant uplink paths. This has the unwanted consequence of reducing the available bandwidth between the layers by as much as 50%. In addition, STP may be slow to resolve topology changes that occur during a link failure, and can result in considerable MAC address flooding.
Using Virtual Link Aggregation Groups (VLAGs), the redundant uplinks remain active, utilizing all available bandwidth.
Two switches are paired into VLAG peers, and act as a single virtual entity for the purpose of establishing a multi‐port aggregation. Ports from both peers can be grouped into a VLAG and connected to the same LAG‐capable target device. From the perspective of the target device, the ports connected to the VLAG peers appear to be a single LAG connecting to a single logical device. The target device uses the configured Tier ID to identify the VLAG peers as this single logical device. It is important that you use a unique Tier ID for each VLAG pair you configure. The VLAG‐capable switches synchronize their logical view of the access layer port structure and internally prevent implicit loops. The VLAG topology also responds more quickly to link failure and does not result in unnecessary MAC flooding.
VLAGs are also useful in multi‐layer environments for both uplink and downlink redundancy to any regular LAG‐capable device. For example:
© Copyright Lenovo 2016
171
Figure 11. VLAG Application with Multiple Layers
Layer 2/3 Border
LACP-capable
Routers
LAG
LAG
VLAG 5
VLAG 6
ISL
Layer 2 Region
with multiple levels
VLAG
Peers C
LAG
VLAG 3
VLAG 3
VLAG 4
ISL
VLAG
Peers A
ISL
VLAG
Peers B
VLAG 1
LAG
Servers
VLAG 2
LACP-capable
Switch
LAG
LACP-capable
Server
Wherever ports from both peered switches are aggregated to another device, the aggregated ports must be configured as a VLAG. For example, VLAGs 1 and 3 must be configured for both VLAG Peer A switches. VLAGs 2 and 4 must be configured for both VLAG Peer B switches.VLAGs 3, 5, and 6 must be configured on both VLAG Peer C switches. Other devices connecting to the VLAG peers are configured using regular static or dynamic LAGs.
Note: Do not configure a VLAG for connecting only one switch in the peer set to another device or peer set. For instance, in VLAG Peer C, a regular LAG is employed for the downlink connection to VLAG Peer B because only one of the VLAG Peer C switches is involved.
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In addition, when used with VRRP, VLAGs can provide seamless active‐active failover for network links. For example
Figure 12. VLAG Application with VRRP:
VLAG
Peers
ISL
VRRP
Master
Server
© Copyright Lenovo 2016
VLAG
VRRP
Backup
Active
Traffic Flows
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VLAG Capacities
Servers or switches that connect to the VLAG peers using a multi‐port VLAG are considered VLAG clients. VLAG clients are not required to be VLAG‐capable. The ports participating in the VLAG are configured as regular port LAGs on the VLAG client end.
On the VLAG peers, the VLAGs are configured similarly to regular port LAGs, using many of the same features and rules. See Chapter 10, “Ports and Link Aggregation” for general information concerning all port LAGs.
Each VLAG begins as a regular port LAG on each VLAG‐peer switch. The VLAG may be either a static LAG (portchannel) or dynamic LACP LAG, and consumes one slot from the overall port LAG capacity pool. The LAG type must match that used on VLAG client devices. Additional configuration is then required to implement the VLAG on both VLAG peer switches. You may configure up to 102 LAGs on the switch, with all types (regular or VLAG, static or LACP) sharing the same pool.
The maximum number of supported VLAG instances is as follows:

With STP off: Maximum of 52VLAG instances

With STP on:

PVRST/MSTP with one VLAG instance per VLAN/STG: Maximum of 52 VLAG instances

PVRST/MSTP with one VLAG instance belonging to multiple VLANs/STGs: Maximum of 20VLAG instances
Each LAG type can contain up to 32 member ports, depending on the port type and availability.
VLAGs versus Port LAGs
Though similar to regular port LAGs in many regards, VLAGs differ from regular port LAGs in a number of important ways:

A VLAG can consist of multiple ports on two VLAG peers, which are connected to one logical client device such as a server, switch, or another VLAG device.

The participating ports on the client device are configured as a regular port LAG.

The VLAG peers must be the same model, and run the same software version.

VLAG peers require a dedicated inter‐switch link (ISL) for synchronization. The ports used to create the ISL must have the following properties:

174

ISL ports must have VLAN tagging turned on.

ISL ports must be configured for all VLAG VLANs.

ISL ports must be placed into a regular port LAG (dynamic or static).

A minimum of two ports on each switch are recommended for ISL use.
Dynamic routing protocols, such as OSPF, cannot terminate on VLAGs.
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© Copyright Lenovo 2016

Routing over VLAGs is not supported. However, IP forwarding between subnets served by VLAGs can be accomplished using VRRP.

VLAGs are configured using additional commands.

It is recommended that end‐devices connected to VLAG switches use NICs with dual‐homing. This increases traffic efficiency, reduces ISL load, and provides faster link failover.
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Configuring VLAGs
When configuring VLAG or making changes to your VLAG configuration, consider the following VLAG behavior:

When adding a static Mrouter on VLAG links, ensure that you also add it on the ISL link to avoid VLAG link failure. If the VLAG link fails, traffic cannot be recovered through the ISL. Also ensure you add the same static entry on the peer VLAG switch for VLAG ports.

If you have enabled VLAG on the switch, and you need to change the STP mode, ensure that you first disable VLAG and then change the STP mode.

When VLAG is enabled, you may see two root ports on the secondary VLAG switch. One of these will be the actual root port for the secondary VLAG switch and the other will be a root port synced with the primary VLAG switch.

The LACP key used must be unique for each VLAG in the entire topology. 
The STG to VLAN mapping on both VLAG peers must be identical.
The following parameters must be identically configured on the VLAG ports of both the VLAG peers:
176

VLANs

Native VLAN tagging

Native VLAN/PVID

STP mode

BPDU Guard setting

STP port setting

MAC aging timers

Static MAC entries

ACL configuration parameters

QoS configuration parameters
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Basic VLAG Configuration
Figure 13 shows an example configuration where two VLAG peers are used for aggregating traffic from downstream devices.
Figure 13. Basic VLAGs
ISL
VLAG Peer 1
1
2
Mgmt IP: 10.10.10.1/24
8
9
VLAG Peer 2
2
3
LACP 200
VLAG 1
Mgmt IP: 10.10.10.2/24
7
8
VLAG 2
LACP 1000
VLAN 100
LACP 2000
VLAN 100
Client Switch
Client Switch
In this example, each client switch is connected to both VLAG peers. On each client switch, the ports connecting to the VLAG peers are configured as a dynamic LACP port LAG. The VLAG peer switches share a dedicated ISL for synchronizing VLAG information. On the individual VLAG peers, each port leading to a specific client switch (and part of the client switch’s port LAG) is configured as a VLAG.
In the following example configuration, only the configuration for VLAG 1 on VLAG Peer 1 is shown. VLAG Peer 2 and all other VLAGs are configured in a similar fashion.
Configuring the ISL
The ISL connecting the VLAG peers is shared by all their VLAGs. The ISL needs to be configured only once on each VLAG peer.
1. Configure STP if required. Use PVRST or MSTP mode only:
RS G8296(config)# spanning­tree mode pvrst
2. Configure the ISL ports and place them into a port LAG:
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
© Copyright Lenovo 2016
G8296(config)# interface port 1­2
G8296(config­if)# switchport mode trunk
G8296(config­if)# lacp mode active
G8296(config­if)# lacp key 200
G8296(config­if)# exit
G8296(config)# vlag isl adminkey 200
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Notes:

In this case, a dynamic LAG is shown. A static LAG (portchannel) could be configured instead.

ISL ports and VLAG ports must be members of the same VLANs.
3. Configure VLAG Tier ID. This is used to identify the VLAG switch in a multi‐tier environment. RS G8296(config)# vlag tier­id 10
4. Configure the ISL for the VLAG peer.
Make sure you configure the VLAG peer (VLAG Peer 2) using the same ISL aggregation type (dynamic or static), the same VLAN for VLAG and VLAG ISL ports, and the same STP mode and tier ID used on VLAG Peer 1.
Configuring the VLAG
To configure the VLAG:
1. Configure the VLAN for VLAG 1 ports. Make sure members include the ISL and VLAG 1 ports. Once the VLAN is ready, the ISL ports are automatically added to it.
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
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G8296(config)# vlan 100
G8296(config­vlan)# exit
G8296(config)# interface port 8
G8296(config­if)# switchport mode trunk
G8296(config­if)# switchport trunk allowed vlan 100
G8296(config­if)# exit
Note: In MSTP mode, VLANs are automatically mapped to CIST.
2. Place the VLAG 1 port(s) in a port LAG:
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# interface port 8
G8296(config­if)# lacp mode active
G8296(config­if)# lacp key 1000
G8296(config­if)# exit
3. Assign the LAG to the VLAG:
RS G8296(config)# vlag adminkey 1000 enable
4. Continue by configuring all required VLAGs on VLAG Peer 1, and then repeat the configuration for VLAG Peer 2.
For each corresponding VLAG on the peer, the port LAG type (dynamic or static), VLAN, STP mode, and ID must be the same as on VLAG Peer 1.
5. Enable VLAG globally.
RS G8296(config)# vlag enable
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6. Verify the completed configuration:
# show vlag information
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VLAG Configuration - VLANs Mapped to MSTI
Follow the steps in this section to configure VLAG in environments where the STP mode is MSTP and no previous VLAG was configured.
Configuring the ISL
The ISL connecting the VLAG peers is shared by all their VLAGs. The ISL needs to be configured only once on each VLAG peer. Ensure you have the same region name, revision and VLAN‐to‐STG mapping on both VLAG switches.
1. Configure STP:
RS G8296(config)# spanning­tree mode mst
2. Configure the ISL ports and place them into a portchannel (dynamic or static):
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# interface port 1­2
G8296(config­if)# switchport mode trunk
G8296(config­if)# lacp mode active
G8296(config­if)# lacp key 200
G8296(config­if)# exit
G8296(config)# vlag isl adminkey 200
Notes:

In this case, a dynamic LAG is shown. A static LAG (portchannel) could be configured instead.

ISL ports and VLAG ports must be members of the same VLANs.
3. Configure the VLAG Tier ID. This is used to identify the VLAG switch in a multi‐tier environment. RS G8296(config)# vlag tier­id 10
4. Configure the ISL for the VLAG peer.
Make sure you configure the VLAG peer (VLAG Peer 2) using the same ISL aggregation type (dynamic or static), the same VLAN for VLAG and VLAG ISL ports, and the same STP mode and tier ID used on VLAG Peer 1.
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Configuring the VLAG
To configure the VLAG:
1. Configure the VLAN for VLAG 1 ports. RS G8296(config)# vlan 100
RS G8296(config­vlan)# exit
Note: The VLAN is automatically mapped to CIST.
2. Shut down ISL ports and VLAG ports. This ensures that traffic passes through to other switches. RS G8296(config)# interface port 1­2,8
RS G8296(config­if)# shutdown
3. Map the VLAN to an MSTI. RS G8296(config)# spanning­tree mst 1 vlan 100
4. Disable VLAG. RS G8296(config)# no vlag enable
5. Add VLAG ports to the VLAN. RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# interface port 1­2,8
G8296(config­if)# switchport mode trunk
G8296(config­if)# switchport trunk allowed vlan 100
G8296(config­if)# exit
6. Enable VLAG. RS G8296(config)# vlag enable
7. Place the VLAG 1 ports in a port trunk group.
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# interface port 8
G8296(config­if)# lacp mode active
G8296(config­if)# lacp key 1000
G8296(config­if)# exit
8. Assign the trunk to the VLAG.
RS G8296(config)# vlag adminkey 1000 enable
9. Continue by configuring all required VLAGs on VLAG Peer 1, then follow the steps for configuring VLAG Peer 2.
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10. Configure the VLAN for VLAG 2. RS G8296(config)# vlan 100
RS G8296(config­vlan)# exit
Note: The VLAN is automatically mapped to CIST.
11. Map the VLAN to an MSTI. RS G8296(config)# spanning­tree mst 1 vlan 100
Note: At this point, traffic may be momentarily disrupted due to STP recalculation.
12. Disable VLAG. RS G8296(config)# no vlag enable
Note: At this point, traffic may be momentarily disrupted due to STP recalculation.
13. Add VLAG ports to the VLAN. RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# interface port 1­2,8
G8296(config­if)# switchport mode trunk
G8296(config­if)# switchport trunk allowed vlan 100
G8296(config­if)# exit
14. Enable VLAG. RS G8296(config)# vlag enable
Note: At this point, traffic may be momentarily disrupted due to STP recalculation.
On VLAG Peer 1:
15. Enable ISL ports and VLAG ports: RS G8296(config)# interface port 1­2,8
RS G8296(config­if)# no shutdown
On VLAG Peer2:
16. Place the VLAG 2 ports in a port trunk group:
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# interface port 8
G8296(config­if)# lacp mode active
G8296(config­if)# lacp key 1000
G8296(config­if)# exit
17. Assign the trunk to the VLAG:
RS G8296(config)# vlag adminkey 1000 enable
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18. Verify the completed configuration:
RS G8296# show vlag
Configuring Health Check
We strongly recommend that you configure the G8296 to check the health status of its VLAG peer. Although the operational status of the VLAG peer is generally determined via the ISL connection, configuring a network health check provides an alternate means to check peer status in case the ISL links fail. Use an independent link between the VLAG switches to configure health check. Note: Configuring health check on an ISL VLAN interface or on a VLAG data port may impact the accuracy of the health check status.
1. Configure a management interface for the switch. Note: If the switch does not have a dedicated management interface, configure a VLAN for the health check interface. The health check interface can be configured with an IPv4 address:
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# interface ip 128
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip address 10.10.10.1 255.255.255.0
G8296(config­ip­if)# enable
G8296(config­ip­if)# exit
Note: Configure a similar interface on VLAG Peer 2. For example, use IP address 10.10.10.2.
2. Specify the IPv4 or IPv6 address of the VLAG Peer:
RS G8296(config)# vlag hlthchk peer­ip 10.10.10.2
Note: For VLAG Peer 2, the management interface would be configured as 10.10.10.2, and the health check would be configured for 10.10.10.1, pointing back to VLAG Peer 1.
VLAG supports either IPv4 or IPv6 health check addresses at one time. Configuring an IPv4 health check address, will set any IPv6 health check address in the VLAG to 0, and vice‐versa.
You can still configure an IPv6 health check address in a profile that does not support IPv6.
The local health check IP address cannot be configured manually. It is automatically configured within the same subnetwork as the peer’s VLAG health check IP address.
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VLAGs with VRRP
Note: In a multi‐layer environment, configure VRRP separately for each layer. We recommend that you configure VRRP only on the tier with uplinks. See “Configuring VLAGs in Multiple Layers” on page 192.
VRRP (see Chapter 39, “Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol”) can be used in conjunction with VLAGs and LACP‐capable devices to provide seamless redundancy.
Figure 14. Active‐Active Configuration using VRRP and VLAGs
VRRP Master
Server 1
VLAG Peer 1
Layer 3
Router
VLAG 1
VIR: 10.0.1.100
1
10.0.1.1
10
11
2
Internet
4
5
4
5
VLAG 2
12
Server 2
ISL
10.0.1.2
10
1
11
12
VLAG 3
Server 3
2
Layer 3
Router
VRRP Backup
10.0.1.3
VLAG Peer 2
VIR: 10.0.1.100
Network 10.0.1.0/24
Task 1: Configure VLAG Peer 1
Note: Before enabling VLAG, you must configure the VLAG tier ID and ISL portchannel.
1. Configure VLAG tier ID RS G8296(config)# vlag tier­id 10
2. Configure appropriate routing.
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# router ospf
G8296(config­router­ospf)# area 1 area­id 0.0.0.1
G8296(config­router­ospf)# enable
G8296(config­router­ospf)# exit
Although OSPF is used in this example, static routing could also be deployed. For more information, see Chapter 35, “Open Shortest Path First” or Chapter 26, “Basic IP Routing.”
3. Configure a server‐facing interface.
RS
RS
RS
RS
184
G8296(config)# interface ip 3
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip address 10.0.1.10 255.255.255.0
G8296(config­ip­if)# vlan 100
G8296(config­ip­if)# exit
G8296 Application Guide for ENOS 8.4
4. Turn on VRRP and configure the Virtual Interface Router.
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# router vrrp
G8296(config­vrrp)# enable
G8296(config­vrrp)# virtual­router 1 virtual­router­id 1
G8296(config­vrrp)# virtual­router 1 interface 3
G8296(config­vrrp)# virtual­router 1 address 10.0.1.100
G8296(config­vrrp)# virtual­router 1 enable
5. Set the priority of Virtual Router 1 to 101, so that it becomes the Master.
RS G8296(config­vrrp)# virtual­router 1 priority 101
RS G8296(config­vrrp)# exit
6. Configure the ISL ports and place them into a port LAG:
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# interface port 4­5
G8296(config­if)# switchport mode trunk
G8296(config­if)# lacp mode active
G8296(config­if)# lacp key 2000
G8296(config­if)# exit
Note: In this case, a dynamic LAG is shown. A static LAG (portchannel) could be configured instead.
7. Configure the upstream ports.
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# interface port 1
G8296(config­if)# switchport access vlan 10
G8296(config­if)# exit
G8296(config)# interface port 2
G8296(config­if)# switchport access vlan 20
G8296(config­if)# exit
8. Configure the server ports.
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
© Copyright Lenovo 2016
G8296(config)# interface port 10
G8296(config­if)# switchport access vlan 100
G8296(config­if)# exit
G8296(config)# interface port 11
G8296(config­if)# switchport access vlan 100
G8296(config­if)# exit
G8296(config)# interface port 12
G8296(config­if)# switchport access vlan 100
G8296(config­if)# exit
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9. Configure all VLANs including VLANs for the VLAGs. RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# vlan 10
G8296(config­vlan)# exit
G8296(config)# interface port 1
G8296(config­if)# switchport mode trunk
G8296(config­if)# switchport trunk allowed vlan add 10
G8296(config­if)# exit
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# vlan 20
G8296(config­vlan)# exit
G8296(config)# interface port 2
G8296(config­if)# switchport mode trunk
G8296(config­if)# switchport trunk allowed vlan add 20
G8296(config­if)# exit
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# vlan 100
G8296(config­vlan)# exit
G8296(config)# interface port 4­5
G8296(config­if)# switchport mode trunk
G8296(config­if)# switchport trunk allowed vlan 100
G8296(config­if)# exit
10. Configure Internet‐facing interfaces.
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
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RS
RS
RS
RS
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G8296(config)# interface ip 1
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip address 172.1.1.10 255.255.255.0
G8296(config­ip­if)# vlan 10
G8296(config­ip­if)# enable
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip ospf area 1
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip ospf enable
G8296(config­ip­if)# exit
G8296(config)# interface ip 2
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip address 172.1.3.10 255.255.255.0
G8296(config­ip­if)# vlan 20
G8296(config­ip­if)# enable
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip ospf area 1
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip ospf enable
G8296(config­ip­if)# exit
11. Place the VLAG port(s) in their port LAGs.
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
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G8296(config)# interface port 10
G8296(config­if)# lacp mode active
G8296(config­if)# lacp key 1000
G8296(config­if)# exit
G8296(config)# interface port 11
G8296(config­if)# lacp mode active
G8296(config­if)# lacp key 1100
G8296(config­if)# exit
G8296(config)# interface port 12
G8296(config­if)# lacp mode active
G8296(config­if)# lacp key 1200
G8296(config­if)# exit
12. Assign the LAGs to the VLAGs:
RS G8296(config)# vlag adminkey 1000 enable
RS G8296(config)# vlag adminkey 1100 enable
RS G8296(config)# vlag adminkey 1200 enable
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13. Globally enable VLAG
RS G8296(config)# vlag enable
14. Verify the completed configuration:
# show vlag information
Task 2: Configure VLAG Peer 2
The VLAG peer (VLAG Peer 2) must be configured using the same ISL aggregation type (dynamic or static), the same VLAN for VLAG and VLAG ISL ports, and the same STP mode and Tier ID used on VLAG Switch 1.
For each corresponding VLAG on the peer, the port LAG type (dynamic or static), VLAN, and STP mode and ID must be the same as on VLAG Switch 1.
1. Configure VLAG tier ID and enable VLAG globally. RS G8296(config)# vlag tier­id 10
RS G8296(config)# vlag enable
2. Configure appropriate routing.
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# router ospf
G8296(config­router­ospf)# area 1 area­id 0.0.0.1
G8296(config­router­ospf)# enable
G8296(config­router­ospf)# exit
Although OSPF is used in this example, static routing could also be deployed.
3. Configure a server‐facing interface.
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# interface ip 3
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip address 10.0.1.11 255.255.255.0
G8296(config­ip­if)# vlan 100
G8296(config­ip­if)# exit
4. Turn on VRRP and configure the Virtual Interface Router.
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# router vrrp
G8296(config­vrrp)# enable
G8296(config­vrrp)# virtual­router 1 virtual­router­id 1
G8296(config­vrrp)# virtual­router 1 interface 3
G8296(config­vrrp)# virtual­router 1 address 10.0.1.100
G8296(config­vrrp)# virtual­router 1 enable
5. Configure the ISL ports and place them into a port LAG:
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
© Copyright Lenovo 2016
G8296(config)# interface port 4­5
G8296(config­if)# switchport mode trunk
G8296(config­if)# lacp mode active
G8296(config­if)# lacp key 2000
G8296(config­if)# exit
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6. Configure the upstream ports.
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# interface port 1
G8296(config­if)# switchport access vlan 30
G8296(config­if)# exit
G8296(config)# interface port 2
G8296(config­if)# switchport access vlan 40
G8296(config­if)# exit
7. Configure the server ports.
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# interface port 10
G8296(config­if)# switchport access vlan 100
G8296(config­if)# exit
G8296(config)# interface port 11
G8296(config­if)# switchport access vlan 100
G8296(config­if)# exit
G8296(config)# interface port 12
G8296(config­if)# switchport access vlan 100
G8296(config­if)# exit
8. Configure all VLANs including VLANs for the VLAGs. 188
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# vlan 30
G8296(config­vlan)# exit
G8296(config)# interface port 1
G8296(config­if)# switchport mode trunk
G8296(config­if)# switchport trunk allowed vlan add 30
G8296(config­if)# exit
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# vlan 40
G8296(config­vlan)# exit
G8296(config)# interface port 2
G8296(config­if)# switchport mode trunk
G8296(config­if)# switchport trunk allowed vlan add 40
G8296(config­if)# exit
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# vlan 100
G8296(config­vlan)# exit
G8296(config)# interface port 4­5
G8296(config­if)# switchport mode trunk
G8296(config­if)# switchport trunk allowed vlan 100
G8296(config­if)# exit
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9. Configure Internet‐facing interfaces.
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
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RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# interface ip 1
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip address 172.1.2.11 255.255.255.0
G8296(config­ip­if)# vlan 30
G8296(config­ip­if)# enable
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip ospf area 1
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip ospf enable
G8296(config­ip­if)# exit
G8296(config)# interface ip 2
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip address 172.1.4.12 255.255.255.0
G8296(config­ip­if)# vlan 40
G8296(config­ip­if)# enable
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip ospf area 1
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip ospf enable
G8296(config­ip­if)# exit
10. Place the VLAG port(s) in their port LAGs.
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
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G8296(config)# interface port 10
G8296(config­if)# lacp mode active
G8296(config­if)# lacp key 1000
G8296(config­if)# exit
G8296(config)# interface port 11
G8296(config­if)# lacp mode active
G8296(config­if)# lacp key 1100
G8296(config­if)# exit
G8296(config)# interface port 12
G8296(config­if)# lacp mode active
G8296(config­if)# lacp key 1200
G8296(config­if)# exit
11. Assign the LAGs to the VLAGs:
RS G8296(config)# vlag adminkey 1000 enable
RS G8296(config)# vlag adminkey 1100 enable
RS G8296(config)# vlag adminkey 1200 enable
12. Verify the completed configuration:
# show vlag information
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Two-tier vLAGs with VRRP
vLAG Active‐Active VRRP makes the secondary vLAG switch route Layer 3 traffic, thus reducing routing latency. If it is used in a two‐tier vLAG environment, there may be two VRRP master switches for one VRRP domain and their role will constantly flap. To prevent such occurrences, there are two vLAG VRRP modes:
1. vLAG VRRP Active (Full Active‐Active) mode
In active mode, Layer 3 traffic is forwarded in all vLAG related VRRP domains. To enable vLAG VRRP active mode on a switch, use the following command: RS G8296(config)# vlag vrrp active
Note: This is the default vLAG VRRP mode.
2. vLAG VRRP Passive (Half Active‐Active) mode
In passive mode, Layer 3 traffic is forwarded in a vLAG related VRRP domain only if either the switch or its peer virtual router is the VRRP master. To enable vLAG VRRP passive mode on a switch, use the following command: RS G8296(config)# no vlag vrrp active
To verify the currently configured vLAG VRRP mode you can use the following command: RS G8296(config)# show vlag vrrp
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vLAG Peer Gateway
vLAG Peer Gateway allows a vLAG switch to act as the active gateway for packets that are addressed to the router MAC address of the vLAG peer. The feature enables local forwarding of such packets without crossing the ISL trunk, therefore improving ISL usage and avoiding potential traffic loss.
To make it functional, vLAG Peer Gateway must be configured on both vLAG peer switches.
By default, the feature is disabled. To enable it, use the following command: RS G8296(config)# vlag peer­gateway
Use the no form of the command to disable vLAG Peer Gateway.
To display information about the current vLAG Peer Gateway settings, use the following commands: RS G8296(config)# show vlag
RS G8296(config)# show vlag peer­gateway
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FDB Refresh
vLAG uses a FDB refresh interval to periodically check the status of synchronized FDB entries. If a MAC address is detected as waiting to be removed from the FDB, the address will be re‐installed in the FDB.
By default, FDB refresh is enabled. To enable or disable FDB refresh, use the following command: RS G8296(config)# [no] vlag mac­address­table refresh
Configuring VLAGs in Multiple Layers
Figure 15. VLAG in Multiple Layers
Layer 2/3 Border
LACP-capable
Routers
LAG
LAG
VLAG 5
VLAG 6
ISL
Layer 2 Region
with multiple levels
Switch A
VLAG
Peers A
Switch B
VLAG
Peers C
VLAG 3
LAG
VLAG 3
VLAG 4
ISL
ISL
Switch C
Switch D
VLAG 1
Switch E
Switch F
VLAG
Peers B
VLAG 2
LAG
Switch G
LACP-capable
Switch
LAG
Servers
LACP-capable
Server
Figure 15 shows an example of VLAG being used in a multi‐layer environment. Following are the configuration steps for the topology. Task 1: Configure Layer 2/3 border switches.
Configure ports on border switch as follows: RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# interface port 1,2
G8296(config­if)# lacp key 100
G8296(config­if)# lacp mode active
G8296(config­if)# exit
Repeat the previous steps for the second border switch.
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Task 2: Configure switches in the Layer 2 region.
Consider the following:

ISL ports on switches A and B ‐ ports 1, 2

Ports connecting to Layer 2/3 ‐ ports 5, 6

Ports on switches A and B connecting to switches C and D: ports 10, 11

Ports on switch B connecting to switch E: ports 15, 16

Ports on switch B connecting to switch F: ports 17, 18
1. Configure VLAG tier ID and enable VLAG globally. RS G8296(config)# vlag tier­id 10
RS G8296(config)# vlag enable
2. Configure ISL ports on Switch A. RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# interface port 1,2
G8296(config­if)# switchport mode trunk
G8296(config­if)# lacp key 200
G8296(config­if)# lacp mode active
G8296(config­if)# exit
RS G8296(config)# vlag isl adminkey 200
RS G8296(config­vlan)# exit
3. Configure port on Switch A connecting to Layer 2/3 router 1. RS G8296(config)# vlan 10
VLAN number 10 with name “VLAN 10” created
VLAN 10 was assigned to STG 10
RS G8296(config­vlan)# exit
RS G8296(config)# interface port 1,2,5
RS G8296(config­if)# switchport mode trunk
RS G8296(config­if)# switchport trunk allowed vlan 10
RS G8296(config­if)# exit
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# interface port 5
G8296(config­if)# lacp key 400
G8296(config­if)# lacp mode active
G8296(config­if)# exit
RS G8296(config)# vlag adminkey 400 enable
Repeat the previous steps on Switch B for ports connecting to Layer 2/3 router 1.
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4. Configure port on Switch A connecting to Layer 2/3 router 2. RS G8296(config)# vlan 20
VLAN number 20 with name “VLAN 20” created
VLAN 20 was assigned to STG 20
RS G8296(config­vlan)# exit
RS G8296(config)# interface port 1,2,6
RS G8296(config­if)# switchport mode trunk
RS G8296(config­if)# switchport trunk allowed vlan 20
RS G8296(config­if)# exit
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# interface port 6
G8296(config­if)# lacp key 500
G8296(config­if)# lacp mode active
G8296(config­if)# exit
RS G8296(config)# vlag adminkey 500 enable
Repeat these commands on Switch B for ports connecting to Layer 2/3 router 2.
5. Configure ports on Switch A connecting to downstream VLAG switches C and D. RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# vlan 20
G8296(config­vlan)# exit
G8296(config)# interface port 10,11
G8296(config­if)# switchport mode trunk
G8296(config­if)# switchport trunk allowed vlan 20
G8296(config­if)# lacp key 600
G8296(config­if)# lacp mode active
G8296(config­if)# exit
RS G8296(config)# vlag adminkey 600 enable
Repeat these commands on Switch B for ports connecting to downstream VLAG switch C and D.
6. Configure ports on Switch B connecting to downstream switches E and F. RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# vlan 30
G8296(config­vlan)# exit
G8296(config)# interface port 15­18
G8296(config­if)# switchport mode trunk
G8296(config­if)# switchport trunk allowed vlan 30
G8296(config­if)# lacp key 700
G8296(config­if)# lacp mode active
G8296(config­if)# exit
7. Configure ISL between switches C and D, and between E and F as shown in Step 1.
8. Configure the Switch G as shown in Step 2.
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VLAG with PIM
Protocol Independent Multicast (PIM) is designed for efficiently routing multicast traffic across one or more IPv4 domains. PIM is used by multicast source stations, client receivers, and intermediary routers and switches, to build and maintain efficient multicast routing trees. PIM is protocol independent; It collects routing information using the existing unicast routing functions underlying the IPv4 network, but does not rely on any particular unicast protocol. For PIM to function, a Layer 3 routing protocol (such as BGP, OSPF, RIP, or static routes) must first be configured on the switch.
Lenovo Enterprise Network Operating System supports PIM in Sparse Mode (PIM‐SM) and Dense Mode (PIM‐DM). For more details on PIM, see Chapter 36, “Protocol Independent Multicast.”
PIM, when configured in a VLAG topology, provides efficient multicast routing along with redundancy and failover. When the multicast source is located in the core L3 network, only the primary VLAG switch forwards multicast data packets to avoid duplicate packets reaching the access layer switch. The secondary VLAG switch is available as backup and forwards packets only when the primary VLAG switch is not available and during failover. When the multicast source is located in the L2 domain, behind the VLAG ports, either the primary or the secondary switch will forward the data traffic to the receiver, based on the shortest path detected by PIM.
See Figure 13 on page 177 for a basic VLAG topology. For PIM to function in a VLAG topology, the following are required:

IGMP (v1 or v2) must be configured on the VLAG switches.

A Layer 3 routing protocol (such as BGP, OSPF, RIP, or static routes) must be globally enabled and on VLAG‐associated IP interfaces for multicast routing. 
The VLAG switches must be connected to upstream multicast routers. 
The Rendezvous Point (RP) and/or the Bootstrap router (BSR) must be configured on the upstream router.

The multicast sources must be connected to the upstream router.

Flooding must be disabled on the VLAG switches or in the VLAN associated with the VLAG ports. 
ISL ports must be members of VLANs that have VLAG ports as members.
For PIM configuration steps and commands, see “PIM Configuration Examples” on page 567.
Traffic Forwarding
In a VLAG with PIM topology, traffic forwarded by the upstream router is managed as follows when the multicast source is located in the core L3 network and the receiver is located in the L2 network:

© Copyright Lenovo 2016
If the primary and secondary VLAG ports are up, the primary switch forwards traffic to the receiver. The secondary switch blocks the traffic. Multicast entries are created on both the VLAG switches: primary VLAG switch with forward state; secondary VLAG switch with pruned state.
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
If the primary VLAG port fails, the secondary VLAG switch forwards traffic to the receiver. Multicast entries are created on both the VLAG switches: primary VLAG switch with forward state; secondary VLAG switch with VLAG pruned state.

If the secondary VLAG port fails, the primary VLAG switch forwards traffic to the receiver. Multicast entries are created on both the VLAG switches: primary VLAG switch with forward state; secondary VLAG switch with pruned state.

If the primary VLAG switch is down, the secondary VLAG switch forwards traffic to the receiver. When the primary VLAG switch boots up again, it becomes the secondary VLAG switch and blocks traffic to the receiver. The VLAG switch that was secondary initially becomes the primary and continues forwarding traffic to the receiver.

If the secondary VLAG switch is down, the primary VLAG switch forwards traffic to the receiver. When the secondary VLAG switch is up, it blocks traffic. The primary switch forwards traffic to the receiver.

If the uplink to the primary VLAG switch is down, the secondary VLAG switch forwards traffic to the receiver and to the primary VLAG switch over the ISL. The primary VLAG switch blocks traffic to the receiver so the receiver does not get double traffic. Both the VLAG switches will have multicast entries in forward state.

If the uplink to the secondary VLAG switch is down, the primary VLAG switch forwards traffic to the receiver and to the secondary VLAG switch over the ISL. The secondary VLAG switch blocks traffic to the receiver so the receiver does not get double traffic. Both the VLAG switches will have multicast entries in the forward state.
When the multicast source is connected to VLAG ports (layer 2 domain), traffic forwarded by the VLAG routers is managed as follows:

IPMC traffic from the access switch can be hashed to any of the VLAG switches. Consequently, both the primary and secondary VLAG switches must synchronize the (S,G) entries for faster failover.

The Rendezvous Point sends (S,G) entries to either the primary or secondary VLAG switch, depending on which provides the shortest path to the source. However, Register‐Stop messages are only sent to the primary VLAG switch. Based on the shortest path, one of the VLAG switches will forward traffic for a particular (S,G) entry to the receiver.

For the VLAG multi‐tier topology, an additional L3 backup path to ISL is supported. On the L3 backup interface, both L3 routing protocols and PIM must be enabled.
Health Check
In a VLAG with PIM topology, you must configure health check. See “Health Check” on page 196.
When health check is configured, and the ISL is down, the primary VLAG switch forwards traffic to the receiver. The secondary VLAG switch ports will be errdisable state and will block traffic to the receiver.
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Chapter 12. Spanning Tree Protocols
When multiple paths exist between two points on a network, Spanning Tree Protocol (STP), or one of its enhanced variants, can prevent broadcast loops and ensure that the RackSwitch G8296 uses only the most efficient network path.
This chapter covers the following topics:
© Copyright Lenovo 2016

“Spanning Tree Protocol Modes” on page 198

“Global STP Control” on page 199

“PVRST Mode” on page 199

“Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol” on page 211

“Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol” on page 213

“Port Type and Link Type” on page 217
197
Spanning Tree Protocol Modes
Lenovo Enterprise Network Operating System 8.4 supports the following STP modes:

Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP)
IEEE 802.1D (2004) RSTP allows devices to detect and eliminate logical loops in a bridged or switched network. When multiple paths exist, STP configures the network so that only the most efficient path is used. If that path fails, STP automatically configures the best alternative active path on the network to sustain network operations. RSTP is an enhanced version of IEEE 802.1D (1998) STP, providing more rapid convergence of the Spanning Tree network path states on STG 1.
See “Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol” on page 211 for details.

Per‐VLAN Rapid Spanning Tree (PVRST)
PVRST mode is based on RSTP to provide rapid Spanning Tree convergence, but supports instances of Spanning Tree, allowing one STG per VLAN. PVRST mode is compatible with Cisco R‐PVST/R‐PVST+ mode.
PVRST is the default Spanning Tree mode on the G8296. See “PVRST Mode” on page 199 for details.

Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP)
IEEE 802.1Q (2003) MSTP provides both rapid convergence and load balancing in a VLAN environment. MSTP allows multiple STGs, with multiple VLANs in each.
See “Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol” on page 213 for details.
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Global STP Control
By default, the Spanning Tree feature is globally enabled on the switch, and is set for PVRST mode. Spanning Tree (and thus any currently configured STP mode) can be globally disabled using the following command: RS G8296(config)# spanning­tree mode disable
Spanning Tree can be re‐enabled by specifying the STP mode: RS G8296(config)# spanning­tree mode {pvrst|rstp|mst}
where the command options represent the following modes:
rstp:
pvrst:
 mst:


RSTP mode
PVRST mode
MSTP mode
PVRST Mode
Note: Per‐VLAN Rapid Spanning Tree (PVRST) is enabled by default on the G8296.
Using STP, network devices detect and eliminate logical loops in a bridged or switched network. When multiple paths exist, Spanning Tree configures the network so that a switch uses only the most efficient path. If that path fails, Spanning Tree automatically sets up another active path on the network to sustain network operations.
ENOS PVRST mode is based on IEEE 802.1w RSTP. Like RSTP, PVRST mode provides rapid Spanning Tree convergence. However, PVRST mode is enhanced for multiple instances of Spanning Tree. In PVRST mode, each VLAN may be automatically or manually assigned to one of 255 available STGs. Each STG acts as an independent, simultaneous instance of STP. PVRST uses IEEE 802.1Q tagging to differentiate STP BPDUs and is compatible with Cisco R‐PVST/R‐PVST+ modes.
The relationship between ports, LAGs, VLANs, and Spanning Trees is shown in Table 17.
Table 17. Ports, LAGs, and VLANs
Switch Element
Belongs To
Port
LAG or one or more VLANs
LAG
One or more VLANs
VLAN (non‐default)

PVRST: One VLAN per STG
RSTP: All VLANs are in STG 1
 MSTP: Multiple VLANs per STG

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Port States
The port state controls the forwarding and learning processes of Spanning Tree. In PVRST, the port state has been consolidated to the following: discarding, learning, and forwarding.
Due to the sequence involved in these STP states, considerable delays may occur while paths are being resolved. To mitigate delays, ports defined as edge ports (“Port Type and Link Type” on page 217) may bypass the discarding and learning states, and enter directly into the forwarding state.
Bridge Protocol Data Units
To create a Spanning Tree, the switch generates a configuration Bridge Protocol Data Unit (BPDU), which it then forwards out of its ports. All switches in the Layer 2 network participating in the Spanning Tree gather information about other switches in the network through an exchange of BPDUs.
How BPDU Works
A bridge sends BPDU packets at a configurable regular interval (2 seconds by default). The BPDU is used to establish a path, much like a hello packet in IP routing. BPDUs contain information about the transmitting bridge and its ports, including bridge MAC addresses, bridge priority, port priority, and path cost. If the ports are in trunk mode/tagged, each port sends out a special BPDU containing the tagged information.
The generic action of a switch on receiving a BPDU is to compare the received BPDU to its own BPDU that it will transmit. If the priority of the received BPDU is better than its own priority, it will replace its BPDU with the received BPDU. Then, the switch adds its own bridge ID number and increments the path cost of the BPDU. The switch uses this information to block any necessary ports.
Note: If STP is globally disabled, BPDUs from external devices will transit the switch transparently. If STP is globally enabled, for ports where STP is turned off, inbound BPDUs will instead be discarded.
Determining the Path for Forwarding BPDUs
When determining which port to use for forwarding and which port to block, the G8296 uses information in the BPDU, including each bridge ID. A technique based on the “lowest root cost” is then computed to determine the most efficient path for forwarding.
Bridge Priority
The bridge priority parameter controls which bridge on the network is the STG root bridge. To make one switch become the root bridge, configure the bridge priority lower than all other switches and bridges on your network. The lower the value, the higher the bridge priority. Use the following command to configure the bridge priority: RS G8296(config)# spanning­tree stp <STG number or range> bridge priority <0‐65535>
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Port Priority
The port priority helps determine which bridge port becomes the root port or the designated port. The case for the root port is when two switches are connected using a minimum of two links with the same path‐cost. The case for the designated port is in a network topology that has multiple bridge ports with the same path‐cost connected to a single segment, the port with the lowest port priority becomes the designated port for the segment. Use the following command to configure the port priority: RS G8296(config­if)# spanning­tree stp <STG number or range> priority <port priority>
where priority value is a number from 0 to 240, in increments of 16 (such as 0, 16, 32, and so on). If the specified priority value is not evenly divisible by 16, the value will be automatically rounded down to the nearest valid increment whenever manually changed in the configuration, or whenever a configuration file from a release prior to ENOS 6.5 is loaded.
Root Guard
The root guard feature provides a way to enforce the root bridge placement in the network. It keeps a new device from becoming root and thereby forcing STP re‐convergence. If a root‐guard enabled port detects a root device, that port will be placed in a blocked state.
You can configure the root guard at the port level using the following commands:
RS G8296(config)# interface port <port number>
RS G8296(config­if)# spanning­tree guard root
The default state is “none”, i.e. disabled.
Loop Guard
In general, STP resolves redundant network topologies into loop‐free topologies. The loop guard feature performs additional checking to detect loops that might not be found using Spanning Tree. STP loop guard ensures that a non‐designated port does not become a designated port.
To globally enable loop guard, enter the following command:
RS G8296(config)# spanning­tree loopguard
Note: The global loop guard command will be effective on a port only if the port‐level loop guard command is set to default as shown below:
RS G8296(config)# interface port <port number>
RS G8296(config­if)# no spanning­tree guard
To enable loop guard at the port level, enter the following command:
RS G8296(config)# interface port <port number>
RS G8296(config­if)# spanning­tree guard loop
The default state is “none” (disabled).
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Port Path Cost
The port path cost assigns lower values to high‐bandwidth ports, such as 10 Gigabit Ethernet, to encourage their use. The objective is to use the fastest links so that the route with the lowest cost is chosen. A value of 0 (the default) indicates that the default cost will be computed for an auto‐negotiated link or LAG speed.
Use the following command to modify the port path cost: RS G8296(config)# interface port <port number>
RS G8296(config­if)# spanning­tree stp <STG number or range> path­cost <path cost value> RS G8296(config­if)# exit
The port path cost can be a value from 1 to 200000000. Specify 0 for automatic path cost.
Simple STP Configuration
Figure 16 depicts a simple topology using a switch‐to‐switch link between two G8296 1 and 2. Figure 16. Spanning Tree Blocking a Switch‐to‐Switch Link Enterprise
Routing
Switches
Switch 1
Switch 2
x
STP
Blocks Link
Server
Server
Server
Server
To prevent a network loop among the switches, STP must block one of the links between them. In this case, it is desired that STP block the link between the Lenovo switches, and not one of the G8296 uplinks or the Enterprise switch LAG.
During operation, if one G8296 experiences an uplink failure, STP will activate the Lenovo switch‐to‐switch link so that server traffic on the affected G8296 may pass through to the active uplink on the other G8296, as shown in Figure 17.
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Figure 17. Spanning Tree Restoring the Switch‐to‐Switch Link Enterprise
Routing
Switches
Switch 1
Server
Uplink
Failure
STP
Restores Link
Server
Server
Switch 2
Server
In this example, port 10 on each G8296 is used for the switch‐to‐switch link. To ensure that the G8296 switch‐to‐switch link is blocked during normal operation, the port path cost is set to a higher value than other paths in the network. To configure the port path cost on the switch‐to‐switch links in this example, use the following commands on each G8296. RS G8296(config)# interface port 10
RS G8296(config­if)# spanning­tree stp 1 path­cost 60000
RS G8296(config­if)# exit
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Per-VLAN Spanning Tree Groups
PVRST mode supports a maximum of 256 STGs, with each STG acting as an independent, simultaneous instance of STP.
Notes:

By default, a maximum number of 128 STGs is supported. To upgrade the value to 256, configure the switch accordingly and reboot.

For optimal performance, it is recommended to stay within a maximum of 14 interfaces or aggregated links (including vLAGs) with 4K MAC table entries when deploying 256 STP groups.
Multiple STGs provide multiple data paths which can be used for load‐balancing and redundancy. To enable load balancing between two G8296s using multiple STGs, configure each path with a different VLAN and then assign each VLAN to a separate STG. Since each STG is independent, they each send their own IEEE 802.1Q tagged Bridge Protocol Data Units (BPDUs).
Each STG behaves as a bridge group and forms a loop‐free topology. The default STG 1 may contain multiple VLANs (typically until they can be assigned to another STG). STGs 2‐256 may contain only one VLAN each.
Using Multiple STGs to Eliminate False Loops
Figure 18 shows a simple example of why multiple STGs are needed. In the figure, two ports on a G8296 are connected to two ports on an application switch. Each of the links is configured for a different VLAN, preventing a network loop. However, in the first network, since a single instance of Spanning Tree is running on all the ports of the G8296, a physical loop is assumed to exist, and one of the VLANs is blocked, impacting connectivity even though no actual loop exists.
Figure 18. Using Multiple Instances of Spanning Tree Group
False x
Loop
Switch 2
VLAN 30
VLAN 1
Switch 1
STG 1
VLAN 1
is active
STG 2
VLAN 30
is active
Application Switch
Application Switch
With a single Spanning Tree,
one link becomes blocked.
Using multiple STGs,
both links may be active.
In the second network, the problem of improper link blocking is resolved when the VLANs are placed into different Spanning Tree Groups (STGs). Since each STG has its own independent instance of Spanning Tree, each STG is responsible only for the loops within its own VLAN. This eliminates the false loop, and allows both VLANs to forward packets between the switches at the same time.
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VLANs and STG Assignment
In PVRST mode, up to 256 STGs are supported. Ports cannot be added directly to an STG. Instead, ports must be added as members of a VLAN, and the VLAN must then be assigned to the STG. STG 1 is the default STG. Although VLANs can be added to or deleted from default STG 1, the STG itself cannot be deleted from the system. By default, STG 1 is enabled and includes VLAN 1, which by default includes all switch ports (except for management VLANs and management ports)
STG 256 is reserved for switch management. By default, STG 256 is disabled, but includes management VLAN 4095 and the management ports
By default, all other STGs (STG 2 through 255) are enabled, though they initially include no member VLANs. VLANs must be assigned to STGs. By default, this is done automatically using VLAN Automatic STG Assignment (VASA), though it can also be done manually (see “Manually Assigning STGs” on page 206.
When VASA is enabled (as by default), each time a new VLAN is configured, the switch will automatically assign that new VLAN to its own STG. Conversely, when a VLAN is deleted, if its STG is not associated with any other VLAN, the STG is returned to the available pool.
The specific STG number to which the VLAN is assigned is based on the VLAN number itself. For low VLAN numbers (1 through 255), the switch will attempt to assign the VLAN to its matching STG number. For higher numbered VLANs, the STG assignment is based on a simple modulus calculation; the attempted STG number will “wrap around,” starting back at the top of STG list each time the end of the list is reached. However, if the attempted STG is already in use, the switch will select the next available STG. If an empty STG is not available when creating a new VLAN, the VLAN is automatically assigned to default STG 1.
If ports are tagged, each tagged port sends out a special BPDU containing the tagged information. Also, when a tagged port belongs to more than one STG, the egress BPDUs are tagged to distinguish the BPDUs of one STG from those of another STG.
VASA is enabled by default, but can be disabled or re‐enabled using the following commands: RS G8296(config)# [no] spanning­tree stg­auto
If VASA is disabled, when you create a new VLAN, that VLAN automatically belongs to default STG 1. To place the VLAN in a different STG, assign it manually.
VASA applies only to PVRST mode and is ignored in RSTP and MSTP modes.
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Manually Assigning STGs
You may manually assign VLANs to specific STGs, whether or not VASA is enabled.
1. If no VLANs exist (other than default VLAN 1), see “Guidelines for Creating VLANs” on page 206 for information about creating VLANs and assigning ports to them.
2. Assign the VLAN to an STG using one of the following methods:

From the global configuration mode: RS G8296(config)# spanning­tree stp <STG number> vlan <VLANs> 
Or from within the VLAN configuration mode:
RS G8296(config)# vlan <VLAN numbers>
RS G8296(config­vlan)# stg <STG number>
RS G8296(config­vlan)# exit
When a VLAN is assigned to a new STG, the VLAN is automatically removed from its prior STG.
Note: For proper operation with switches that use Cisco PVST+, it is recommended that you create a separate STG for each VLAN.
Guidelines for Creating VLANs
Follow these guidelines when creating VLANs:

When you create a new VLAN, if VASA is enabled (the default), that VLAN is automatically assigned its own STG. If VASA is disabled, the VLAN automatically belongs to STG 1, the default STG. To place the VLAN in a different STG, see “Manually Assigning STGs” on page 206. The VLAN is automatically removed from its old STG before being placed into the new STG.

Each VLANs must be contained within a single STG; a VLAN cannot span multiple STGs. By confining VLANs within a single STG, you avoid problems with Spanning Tree blocking ports and causing a loss of connectivity within the VLAN. When a VLAN spans multiple switches, it is recommended that the VLAN remain within the same STG (be assigned the same STG ID) across all the switches.

If ports are tagged, all aggregated ports can belong to multiple STGs.

A port cannot be directly added to an STG. The port must first be added to a VLAN, and that VLAN added to the desired STG.
Rules for VLAN Tagged/Trunk Mode Ports
The following rules apply to VLAN tagged ports:
206

Tagged/trunk mode ports can belong to more than one STG, but untagged/access mode ports can belong to only one STG.

When a tagged/trunk mode port belongs to more than one STG, the egress BPDUs are tagged to distinguish the BPDUs of one STG from those of another STG.
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Adding and Removing Ports from STGs
The following rules apply when you add ports to or remove ports from STGs:

When you add a port to a VLAN that belongs to an STG, the port is also added to that STG. However, if the port you are adding is an untagged port and is already a member of another STG, that port will be removed from its current STG and added to the new STG. An untagged port cannot belong to more than one STG.
For example: Assume that VLAN 1 belongs to STG 1, and that port 1 is untagged and does not belong to any STG. When you add port 1 to VLAN 1, port 1 will automatically become part of STG 1.
However, if port 5 is untagged and is a member of VLAN 3 in STG 2, then adding port 5 to VLAN 1 in STG 1 will change the port PVID from 3 to 1: "Port 5 is an UNTAGGED/Access Mode port and its PVID/Native­VLAN changed from 3 to 1.

When you remove a port from VLAN that belongs to an STG, that port will also be removed from the STG. However, if that port belongs to another VLAN in the same STG, the port remains in the STG.
As an example, assume that port 2 belongs to only VLAN 2, and that VLAN 2 belongs to STG 2. When you remove port 2 from VLAN 2, the port is moved to default VLAN 1 and is removed from STG 2.
However, if port 2 belongs to both VLAN 1 and VLAN 2, and both VLANs belong to STG 1, removing port 2 from VLAN 2 does not remove port 2 from STG 1 because the port is still a member of VLAN 1, which is still a member of STG 1.

An STG cannot be deleted, only disabled. If you disable the STG while it still contains VLAN members, Spanning Tree will be off on all ports belonging to that VLAN.
The relationship between port, LAGs, VLANs, and Spanning Trees is shown in Table 17 on page 199.
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The Switch-Centric Model
PVRST is switch‐centric: STGs are enforced only on the switch where they are configured. PVRST allows only one VLAN per STG, except for the default STG 1 to which multiple VLANs can be assigned. The STG ID is not transmitted in the Spanning Tree BPDU. Each Spanning Tree decision is based entirely on the configuration of the particular switch.
For example, in Figure 19, each switch is responsible for the proper configuration of its own ports, VLANs, and STGs. Switch A identifies its own port 17 as part of VLAN 2 on STG 2, and the Switch B identifies its own port 8 as part of VLAN 2 on STG 2.
Figure 19. Implementing PVRST
Chassis
Switch A
Application
Switch B
17
STG 2
8
VLAN 2
18
2
STG 3
VLAN 3
8
1
STG 1
VLAN 1
2
1
1
Application
Switch C
8
Application
Switch D
The VLAN participation for each Spanning Tree Group in Figure 19 on page 208 is as follows:

VLAN 1 Participation
Assuming Switch B to be the root bridge, Switch B transmits the BPDU for STG 1 on ports 1 and 2. Switch C receives the BPDU on port 2, and Switch D receives the BPDU on port 1. Because there is a network loop between the switches in VLAN 1, either Switch D will block port 8 or Switch C will block port 1, depending on the information provided in the BPDU.

VLAN 2 Participation
Switch B, the root bridge, generates a BPDU for STG 2 from port 8. Switch A receives this BPDU on port 17, which is assigned to VLAN 2, STG 2. Because switch B has no additional ports participating in STG 2, this BPDU is not forwarded to any additional ports and Switch B remains the designated root.

VLAN 3 Participation
For VLAN 3, Switch A or Switch C may be the root bridge. If Switch A is the root bridge for VLAN 3, STG 3, then Switch A transmits the BPDU from port 18. Switch C receives this BPDU on port 8 and is identified as participating in VLAN 3, STG 3. Since Switch C has no additional ports participating in STG 3, this BPDU is not forwarded to any additional ports and Switch A remains the designated root.
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Configuring Multiple STGs
This configuration shows how to configure the three instances of STGs on the switches A, B, C, and D illustrated in Figure 19 on page 208.
Because VASA is enabled by default, each new VLAN is automatically assigned its own STG. 1. Set the Spanning Tree mode on each switch to PVRST. RS G8296(config)# spanning­tree mode pvrst
Note: PVRST is the default mode on the G8296. This step is not required unless the STP mode has been previously changed, and is shown here merely as an example of manual configuration.
2. Configure the following on Switch A:
a. Enable VLAN 2 and VLAN 3. RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# vlan 2
G8296(config­vlan)# exit
G8296(config)# vlan 3
G8296(config­vlan)# exit
If VASA is disabled, enter the following commands:
RS G8296(config)# spanning­tree stp 2 vlan 2
RS G8296(config)# spanning­tree stp 3 vlan 3
b. Add port 17 to VLAN 2, port 18 to VLAN 3. RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# interface port 17
G8296(config­if)# switchport mode trunk
G8296(config­if)# switchport trunk allowed vlan 2
G8296(config­if)# exit
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# interface port 18
G8296(config­if)# switchport mode trunk
G8296(config­if)# switchport trunk allowed vlan 3
G8296(config­if)# exit
VLAN 2 and VLAN 3 are removed from STG 1.
Note: In PVRST mode, each instance of STG is enabled by default.
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3. Configure the following on Switch B:
a. Add port 8 to VLAN 2. Ports 1 and 2 are by default in VLAN 1 assigned to STG 1. RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# vlan 2
G8296(config­vlan)# exit
G8296(config)# interface port 8
G8296(config­if)# switchport mode trunk
G8296(config­if)# switchport trunk allowed vlan 2
G8296(config­if)# exit
If VASA is disabled, enter the following command:
RS G8296(config)# spanning­tree stp 2 vlan 2
b. VLAN 2 is automatically removed from STG 1. By default VLAN 1 remains in STG 1.
4. Configure the following on application switch C:
a. Add port 8 to VLAN 3. Ports 1 and 2 are by default in VLAN 1 assigned to STG 1. RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# vlan 3
G8296(config­vlan)# exit
G8296(config)# interface port 8
G8296(config­if)# switchport mode trunk
G8296(config­if)# switchport trunk allowed vlan 3
G8296(config­if)# exit
If VASA is disabled, enter the following command:
RS G8296(config)# spanning­tree stp 3 vlan 3
b. VLAN 3 is automatically removed from STG 1. By default VLAN 1 remains in STG 1.
5. Switch D does not require any special configuration for multiple Spanning Trees. Switch D uses default STG 1 only.
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Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol
RSTP provides rapid convergence of the Spanning Tree and provides the fast re‐configuration critical for networks carrying delay‐sensitive traffic such as voice and video. RSTP significantly reduces the time to reconfigure the active topology of the network when changes occur to the physical topology or its configuration parameters. RSTP reduces the bridged‐LAN topology to a single Spanning Tree.
RSTP was originally defined in IEEE 802.1w (2001) and was later incorporated into IEEE 802.1D (2004), superseding the original STP standard.
RSTP parameters apply only to Spanning Tree Group (STG) 1. The PVRST mode STGs 2‐256 are not used when the switch is placed in RSTP mode.
RSTP is compatible with devices that run IEEE 802.1D (1998) Spanning Tree Protocol. If the switch detects IEEE 802.1D (1998) BPDUs, it responds with IEEE 802.1D (1998)‐compatible data units. RSTP is not compatible with Per‐VLAN Rapid Spanning Tree (PVRST) protocol. Port States
RSTP port state controls are the same as for PVRST: discarding, learning, and forwarding.
Due to the sequence involved in these STP states, considerable delays may occur while paths are being resolved. To mitigate delays, ports defined as edge/portfast ports (“Port Type and Link Type” on page 217) may bypass the discarding and learning states, and enter directly into the forwarding state.
RSTP Configuration Guidelines
This section provides important information about configuring RSTP. When RSTP is turned on, the following occurs:
© Copyright Lenovo 2016

STP parameters apply only to STG 1.

Only STG 1 is available. All other STGs are turned off.

All VLANs, including management VLANs, are moved to STG 1.
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RSTP Configuration Example
This section provides steps to configure RSTP.
1. Configure port and VLAN membership on the switch.
2. Set the Spanning Tree mode to Rapid Spanning Tree. RS G8296(config)# spanning­tree mode rstp
3. Configure RSTP parameters. RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)#
G8296(config)#
G8296(config)#
G8296(config)#
G8296(config)#
spanning-tree stp 1 bridge priority 8192
spanning-tree stp 1 bridge hello-time 5
spanning-tree stp 1 bridge forward-delay 20
spanning-tree stp 1 bridge maximum-age 30
no spanning-tree stp 1 enable
4. Configure port parameters: RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
212
G8296(config)# interface port 3
G8296(config-if)# spanning-tree stp 1 priority 240
G8296(config-if)# spanning-tree stp 1 path-cost 500
G8296(config-if)# no spanning-tree stp 1 enable
G8296(config-if)# exit
G8296 Application Guide for ENOS 8.4
Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol
Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP) extends Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP), allowing multiple Spanning Tree Groups (STGs) which may each include multiple VLANs. MSTP was originally defined in IEEE 802.1s (2002) and was later included in IEEE 802.1Q (2003).
In MSTP mode, the G8296 supports up to 32 instances of Spanning Tree, corresponding to STGs 1‐32, with each STG acting as an independent, simultaneous instance of RSTP.
MSTP allows frames assigned to different VLANs to follow separate paths, with each path based on an independent Spanning Tree instance. This approach provides multiple forwarding paths for data traffic, thereby enabling load‐balancing, and reducing the number of Spanning Tree instances required to support a large number of VLANs.
Due to Spanning Tree’s sequence of discarding, learning, and forwarding, lengthy delays may occur while paths are being resolved. Ports defined as edge/portfast ports (“Port Type and Link Type” on page 217) bypass the Discarding and Learning states, and enter directly into the Forwarding state.
Note: In MSTP mode, Spanning Tree for the management ports is turned off by default.
MSTP Region
A group of interconnected bridges that share the same attributes is called an MST region. Each bridge within the region must share the following attributes:

Alphanumeric name

Revision number

VLAN‐to STG mapping scheme
MSTP provides rapid re‐configuration, scalability and control due to the support of regions, and multiple Spanning‐Tree instances support within each region.
Common Internal Spanning Tree
The Common Internal Spanning Tree (CIST) or MST0 provides a common form of Spanning Tree Protocol, with one Spanning‐Tree instance that can be used throughout the MSTP region. CIST allows the switch to interoperate with legacy equipment, including devices that run IEEE 802.1D (1998) STP.
CIST allows the MSTP region to act as a virtual bridge to other bridges outside of the region, and provides a single Spanning‐Tree instance to interact with them.
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MSTP Configuration Guidelines
This section provides important information about configuring Multiple Spanning Tree Groups:

When the switch initially has PVRST mode enabled and VLANs 1‐255 are configured and distributed to STGs 1‐255, when you turn on MSTP, the switch moves VLAN 1 and VLANs 33‐128 to the CIST. When MSTP is turned off, the switch moves VLAN 1 and VLANs 33‐255 from the CIST to STG 1. 
When you enable MSTP, a default revision number of 1 and a blank region name are automatically configured.
MSTP Configuration Examples
The following section contains examples of how to configure multiple spanning trees.
MSTP Example 1
This section provides steps to configure MSTP on the G8296.
1. Configure port and VLAN membership on the switch.
2. Configure Multiple Spanning Tree region parameters, and set the mode to MSTP. RS G8296(config)# spanning­tree mst configuration
(Enter MST configuration mode)
RS G8296(config­mst)# name <name>
(Define the Region name)
RS G8296(config­mst)# revision <0 – 65535>(Define the Region revision number)
RS G8296(config­mst)# exit
RS G8296(config)# spanning­tree mode mst(Set mode to Multiple Spanning Trees) 3. Map VLANs to MSTP instances: RS G8296(config)# spanning­tree mst configuration
(Enter MST configuration mode)
RS G8296(config­mst)# instance <instance ID> vlan <vlan number or range>
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MSTP Example 2
This configuration shows how to configure MSTP Groups on the switch, as shown in Figure 19. Figure 20. Implementing Multiple Spanning Tree Groups Enterprise
Routing Switch
Enterprise
Routing Switch
MSTP Group 1
Root
MSTP Group 2
Root
Passing VLAN 1
Blocking VLAN 2
Server 1
VLAN 1
Server 2
VLAN 1
Blocking VLAN 1
Passing VLAN 2
Server 3
VLAN 2
Server 4
VLAN 2
This example shows how multiple Spanning Trees can provide redundancy without wasting any uplink ports. In this example, the server ports are split between two separate VLANs. Both VLANs belong to two different MSTP groups. The Spanning Tree priority values are configured so that each routing switch is the root for a different MSTP instance. All of the uplinks are active, with each uplink port backing up the other.
1. Configure port membership and define the STGs for VLAN 1. Enable tagging on uplink ports that share VLANs. Port 19 and port 20 connect to the Enterprise Routing switches. RS G8296(config)# interface port 19, 20
RS G8296(config­if)# switchport mode trunk
RS G8296(config­if)# exit
2. Configure MSTP: Spanning Tree mode, region name, and version. RS G8296(config)# spanning­tree mst configuration
RS G8296(config­mst)# name MyRegion
(Define the Region name)
RS G8296(config­mst)# revision 100 (Define the Revision level)
RS G8296(config­mst)# exit
RS G8296(config)# spanning­tree mode mst(Set mode to Multiple Spanning Trees)
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3. Map VLANs to MSTP instances: RS G8296(config)# spanning­tree mst configuration
RS G8296(config­mst)# instance 1 vlan 1
RS G8296(config­mst)# instance 2 vlan 2
4. Add server ports 1 and 2 to VLAN 1. Add uplink ports 19 and port 20 to VLAN 1. RS G8296(config)# interface port 1,2,19,20
RS G8296(config­if)# switchport access vlan 1
RS G8296(config­if)# exit
5. Configure port membership and define the STGs for VLAN 2. Add server ports 3 and 4 to VLAN 2. Uplink ports 19 and 20 are automatically added to VLAN 2. Assign VLAN 2 to STG 2. RS G8296(config)# interface port 3,4
RS G8296(config­if)# switchport access vlan 2
RS G8296(config­if)# exit
Note: Each STG is enabled by default.
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Port Type and Link Type
The following port types and link types work with STP.
Edge/Portfast Port
A port that does not connect to a bridge is called an edge port. Since edge ports are assumed to be connected to non‐STP devices (such as directly to hosts or servers), they are placed in the forwarding state as soon as the link is up. Edge ports send BPDUs to upstream STP devices like normal STP ports, but do not receive BPDUs. If a port with edge enabled does receive a BPDU, it immediately begins working as a normal (non‐edge) port, and participates fully in Spanning Tree.
Use the following commands to define or clear a port as an edge port: RS G8296(config)# interface port <port>
RS G8296(config­if)# [no] spanning­tree portfast
RS G8296(config­if)# exit
Link Type
The link type determines how the port behaves in regard to Rapid Spanning Tree. Use the following commands to define the link type for the port: RS G8296(config)# interface port <port>
RS G8296(config­if)# [no] spanning­tree link­type <type>
RS G8296(config­if)# exit
where type corresponds to the duplex mode of the port, as follows:

p2p
A full‐duplex link to another device (point‐to‐point)

shared
A half‐duplex link is a shared segment and can contain more than one device.

auto
The switch dynamically configures the link type.
Note: Any STP port in full‐duplex mode can be manually configured as a shared port when connected to a non‐STP‐aware shared device (such as a typical Layer 2 switch) used to interconnect multiple STP‐aware devices.
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Chapter 13. Quality of Service
Quality of Service features allow you to allocate network resources to mission‐critical applications at the expense of applications that are less sensitive to such factors as time delays or network congestion. You can configure your network to prioritize specific types of traffic, ensuring that each type receives the appropriate Quality of Service (QoS) level.
The following topics are discussed in this section: © Copyright Lenovo 2016

“QoS Overview” on page 220

“Using ACL Filters” on page 221

“Using DSCP Values to Provide QoS” on page 223

“Using 802.1p Priority to Provide QoS” on page 229

“Queuing and Scheduling” on page 230

“Control Plane Protection” on page 230

“WRED with ECN” on page 231
219
QoS Overview
QoS helps you allocate guaranteed bandwidth to the critical applications, and limit bandwidth for less critical applications. Applications such as video and voice must have a certain amount of bandwidth to work correctly; using QoS, you can provide that bandwidth when necessary. Also, you can put a high priority on applications that are sensitive to timing out or that cannot tolerate delay, by assigning their traffic to a high‐priority queue. By assigning QoS levels to traffic flows on your network, you can ensure that network resources are allocated where they are needed most. QoS features allow you to prioritize network traffic, thereby providing better service for selected applications.
Figure 21 shows the basic QoS model used by the switch. Figure 21. QoS Model Ingress
Ports
Classify
Packets
Perform
Actions
ACL
Filter
Permit/Deny
Queue and
Schedule
COS
Queue
The basic QoS model works as follows: 


220
Classify traffic: 
Read DSCP value. 
Read 802.1p priority value. 
Match ACL filter parameters. Perform actions:

Define bandwidth and burst parameters

Select actions to perform on in‐profile and out‐of‐profile traffic

Deny packets

Permit packets

Mark DSCP or 802.1p Priority

Set COS queue (with or without re‐marking)
Queue and schedule traffic: 
Place packets in one of the COS queues. 
Schedule transmission based on the COS queue. G8296 Application Guide for ENOS 8.4
Egress
Using ACL Filters
Access Control Lists (ACLs) are filters that allow you to classify and segment traffic, so you can provide different levels of service to different traffic types. Each filter defines the conditions that must match for inclusion in the filter, and also the actions that are performed when a match is made.
Lenovo Enterprise Network Operating System 8.4 supports up to 256 ACLs.
The G8296 allows you to classify packets based on various parameters. For example:
Ethernet: source MAC, destination MAC, VLAN number/mask, Ethernet type, priority.
 IPv4: Source IP address/mask, destination address/mask, type of service, IP pro‐
tocol number.
 TCP/UPD: Source port, destination port, TCP flag.
 Packet format

For ACL details, see Chapter 7, “Access Control Lists.”
Summary of ACL Actions
Actions determine how the traffic is treated. The G8296 QoS actions include the following:

Pass or Drop

Redirect
Re‐mark a new DiffServ Code Point (DSCP)
 Re‐mark the 802.1p field
 Set the COS queue

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ACL Metering and Re-Marking
You can define a profile for the aggregate traffic flowing through the G8296 by configuring a QoS meter (if desired) and assigning ACLs to ports. When you add ACLs to a port, make sure they are ordered correctly in terms of precedence.
Actions taken by an ACL are called In‐Profile actions. You can configure additional In‐Profile and Out‐of‐Profile actions on a port. Data traffic can be metered, and re‐marked to ensure that the traffic flow provides certain levels of service in terms of bandwidth for different types of network traffic.
Metering
QoS metering provides different levels of service to data streams through user‐configurable parameters. A meter is used to measure the traffic stream against a traffic profile, which you create. Thus, creating meters yields In‐Profile and Out‐of‐Profile traffic for each ACL, as follows:

In‐Profile–If there is no meter configured or if the packet conforms to the meter, the packet is classified as In‐Profile.

Out‐of‐Profile–If a meter is configured and the packet does not conform to the meter (exceeds the committed rate or maximum burst rate of the meter), the packet is classified as Out‐of‐Profile.
Using meters, you set a Committed Rate in Kbps (multiples of 64 Mbps). All traffic within this Committed Rate is In‐Profile. Additionally, you set a Maximum Burst Size that specifies an allowed data burst larger than the Committed Rate for a brief period. These parameters define the In‐Profile traffic.
Meters keep the sorted packets within certain parameters. You can configure a meter on an ACL, and perform actions on metered traffic, such as packet re‐marking.
Re-Marking
Re‐marking allows for the treatment of packets to be reset based on new network specifications or desired levels of service. You can configure the ACL to re‐mark a packet as follows:
222

Change the DSCP value of a packet, used to specify the service level traffic receives.

Change the 802.1p priority of a packet.
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Using DSCP Values to Provide QoS
The switch uses the Differentiated Services (DiffServ) architecture to provide QoS functions. DiffServ is described in IETF RFCs 2474 and 2475. The six most significant bits in the TOS byte of the IP header are defined as DiffServ Code Points (DSCP). Packets are marked with a certain value depending on the type of treatment the packet must receive in the network device. DSCP is a measure of the Quality of Service (QoS) level of the packet.
The switch can classify traffic by reading the DiffServ Code Point (DSCP) or IEEE 802.1p priority value, or by using filters to match specific criteria. When network traffic attributes match those specified in a traffic pattern, the policy instructs the switch to perform specified actions on each packet that passes through it. The packets are assigned to different Class of Service (COS) queues and scheduled for transmission. Differentiated Services Concepts
To differentiate between traffic flows, packets can be classified by their DSCP value. The Differentiated Services (DS) field in the IP header is an octet, and the first six bits, called the DS Code Point (DSCP), can provide QoS functions. Each packet carries its own QoS state in the DSCP. There are 64 possible DSCP values (0‐63). Figure 22. Layer 3 IPv4 packet Version
Length
ID
Length
ToS
Offset
TTL
Differentiated Services Code Point (DSCP)
unused
7
1
6
5
4
3
2
FCS
Proto
SIP
DIP
Data
0
The switch can perform the following actions to the DSCP: Read the DSCP value of ingress packets.  Re‐mark the DSCP value to a new value
 Map the DSCP value to a Class of Service queue (COSq). 
The switch can use the DSCP value to direct traffic prioritization. With DiffServ, you can establish policies to direct traffic. A policy is a traffic‐controlling mechanism that monitors the characteristics of the traffic, (for example, its source, destination, and protocol) and performs a controlling action on the traffic when certain characteristics are matched. © Copyright Lenovo 2016
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Trusted/Untrusted Ports
By default, all ports on the G8296 are trusted. To configure untrusted ports, re‐mark the DSCP value of the incoming packet to a lower DSCP value using the following commands:
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
224
G8296(config)# interface port 1
G8296(config­if)# dscp­marking
G8296(config­if)# exit
G8296(config)# qos dscp dscp­mapping <DSCP value (0‐63)> <new value>
G8296(config)# qos dscp re­marking
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Per Hop Behavior
The DSCP value determines the Per Hop Behavior (PHB) of each packet. The PHB is the forwarding treatment given to packets at each hop. QoS policies are built by applying a set of rules to packets, based on the DSCP value, as they hop through the network. The default settings are based on the following standard PHBs, as defined in the IEEE standards: 
Expedited Forwarding (EF)—This PHB has the highest egress priority and lowest drop precedence level. EF traffic is forwarded ahead of all other traffic. EF PHB is described in RFC 2598. 
Assured Forwarding (AF)—This PHB contains four service levels, each with a different drop precedence, as shown in the following table. Routers use drop precedence to determine which packets to discard last when the network becomes congested. AF PHB is described in RFC 2597. Drop
Precedence
Class 1
Class 3
Class 4
Low
AF11 (DSCP 10)
AF21 (DSCP 18)
AF31 (DSCP 26)
AF41 (DSCP 34)
Medium
AF12 (DSCP 12)
AF22 (DSCP 20)
AF32 (DSCP 28)
AF42 (DSCP 36)
High
AF13 (DSCP 14)
AF23 (DSCP 22)
AF33 (DSCP 30)
AF43 (DSCP 38)

Class Selector (CS)—This PHB has eight priority classes, with CS7 representing the highest priority, and CS0 representing the lowest priority, as shown in the following table. CS PHB is described in RFC 2474. Priority
Class Selector
DSCP
Highest
CS7
56
CS6
48
CS5
40
CS4
32
CS3
24
CS2
16
CS1
8
CS0
0
Lowest
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QoS Levels
Table 18 shows the default service levels provided by the switch, listed from highest to lowest importance: Table 18. Default QoS Service Levels
Service Level
Default PHB
802.1p Priority
Critical
CS7
7
Network Control
CS6
6
Premium
EF, CS5
5
Platinum
AF41, AF42, AF43, CS4
4
Gold
AF31, AF32, AF33, CS3
3
Silver
AF21, AF22, AF23, CS2
2
Bronze
AF11, AF12, AF13, CS1
1
Standard
DF, CS0
0
DSCP Re-Marking and Mapping
The switch can use the DSCP value of ingress packets to re‐mark the DSCP to a new value, and to set an 802.1p priority value. Use the following command to view the default settings. RS G8296# show qos dscp
Current DSCP Remarking Configuration: OFF
DSCP New DSCP New 802.1p Prio
­­­­­­­­ ­­­­­­­­ ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­
0 0 0
1 1 0
2 2 0
3 3 0
4 4 0
5 5 0
6 6 0
7 7 0
8 8 1
9 9 0
10 10 1
...
54 54 0
55 55 0
56 56 7
57 57 0
58 58 0
59 59 0
60 60 0
61 61 0
62 62 0
63 63 0
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Use the following command to turn on DSCP re‐marking globally: RS G8296(config)# qos dscp re­marking
Then you must enable DSCP re‐marking on any port that you wish to perform this function (Interface Port mode). Note: If an ACL meter is configured for DSCP re‐marking, the meter function takes precedence over QoS re‐marking.
DSCP Re-Marking Configuration Examples
DSCP Re-Marking Configuration Example 1
The following example includes the basic steps for re‐marking DSCP value and mapping DSCP value to 802.1p.
1. Turn DSCP re‐marking on globally, and define the DSCP‐DSCP‐802.1p mapping. You can use the default mapping. RS G8296(config)# qos dscp re­marking
RS G8296(config)# qos dscp dscp­mapping <DSCP value (0‐63)> <new value>
RS G8296(config)# qos dscp dot1p­mapping <DSCP value (0‐63)> <802.1p value>
2. Enable DSCP re‐marking on a port.
RS G8296(config)# interface port 1
RS G8296(config­if)# qos dscp re­marking
RS G8296(config­if)# exit
DSCP Re-Marking Configuration Example 2
The following example assigns strict priority to VoIP traffic and a lower priority to all other traffic.
1. Create an ACL to re‐mark DSCP value and COS queue for all VoIP packets. RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# access­control list 2 tcp­udp source­port 5060 0xffff
G8296(config)# access­control list 2 meter committed­rate 10000000
G8296(config)# access­control list 2 meter enable
G8296(config)# access­control list 2 re­mark in­profile dscp 56
G8296(config)# access­control list 2 re­mark dot1p 7
G8296(config)# access­control list 2 action permit
2. Create an ACL to set a low priority to all other traffic.
RS G8296(config)# access­control list 3 action set­priority 1
RS G8296(config)# access­control list 3 action permit
3. Apply the ACLs to a port and enable DSCP marking.
RS G8296(config)# interface port 5
RS G8296(config­if)# access­control list 2
RS G8296(config­if)# access­control list 3 ethernet source­mac­address 00:00:00:00:00:00 00:00:00:00:00:00
RS G8296(config­if)# dscp­marking
RS G8296(config­if)# exit
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4. Enable DSCP re‐marking globally. RS G8296(config)# qos dscp re­marking
5. Assign the DSCP re‐mark value.
RS G8296(config)# qos dscp dscp­mapping 40 9
RS G8296(config)# qos dscp dscp­mapping 46 9
6. Assign strict priority to VoIP COS queue.
RS G8296(config)# qos transmit­queue weight­cos 7 0
7. Map priority value to COS queue for non‐VoIP traffic.
RS G8296(config)# qos transmit­queue mapping 1 1
8. Assign weight to the non‐VoIP COS queue.
RS G8296(config)# qos transmit­queue weight­cos 1 2
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Using 802.1p Priority to Provide QoS
The G8296 provides Quality of Service functions based on the priority bits in a packet’s VLAN header. (The priority bits are defined by the 802.1p standard within the IEEE 802.1Q VLAN header.) The 802.1p bits, if present in the packet, specify the priority to be given to packets during forwarding. Packets with a numerically higher (non‐zero) priority are given forwarding preference over packets with lower priority value. The IEEE 802.1p standard uses eight levels of priority (0‐7). Priority 7 is assigned to highest priority network traffic, such as OSPF or RIP routing table updates, priorities 5‐6 are assigned to delay‐sensitive applications such as voice and video, and lower priorities are assigned to standard applications. A value of 0 (zero) indicates a “best effort” traffic prioritization, and this is the default when traffic priority has not been configured on your network. The switch can filter packets based on the 802.1p values. Figure 23. Layer 2 802.1q/802.1p VLAN tagged packet DMAC SMAC
SFD
Preamble
Priority
7
6
Tag
FCS
E Type Data
VLAN Identifier (VID)
5
4
3
2
1
0
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Ingress packets receive a priority value, as follows: 
Tagged packets—switch reads the 802.1p priority in the VLAN tag. 
Untagged packets—switch tags the packet and assigns an 802.1p priority value, based on the port’s default 802.1p priority. Egress packets are placed in a COS queue based on the priority value, and scheduled for transmission based on theCOS queue number. Higher COS queue numbers provide forwarding precedence.
To configure a port’s default 802.1p priority value, use the following commands: RS G8296(config)# interface port 1
RS G8296(config­if)# dot1p <802.1p value (0‐7)>
RS G8296(config­if)# exit
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Queuing and Scheduling
The G8296 has 8 output Class of Service (COS) queues per port. If CEE is enabled, this is changed to 3 queues per port and ETS is then used to configure the scheduling in a manner different than what is described in this section. Each packet’s 802.1p priority determines its COS queue, except when an ACL action sets the COS queue of the packet.
You can configure the following attributes for COS queues:

Map 802.1p priority value to a COS queue

Define the scheduling weight of each COS queue
You can map 802.1p priority value to a COS queue, as follows: RS G8296(config)# qos transmit­queue mapping <802.1p priority value (0‐7)> <COS queue (0‐7)>
To set the COS queue scheduling weight, use the following command:
RS G8296(config)# qos transmit­queue weight­cos <COSq number> <COSq weight (0‐15)>
Control Plane Protection
Control plane receives packets that are required for the internal protocol state machines. This type of traffic is usually received at low rate. However, in some situations such as DOS attacks, the switch may receive this traffic at a high rate. If the control plane protocols are unable to process the high rate of traffic, the switch may become unstable.
The control plane receives packets that are channeled through protocol‐specific packet queues. Multiple protocols can be channeled through a common packet queue. However, one protocol cannot be channeled through multiple packet queues. These packet queues are applicable only to the packets received by the software and does not impact the regular switching or routing traffic. Packet queue with a higher number has higher priority. You can configure the bandwidth for each packet queue. Protocols that share a packet queue will also share the bandwidth.
Use the following commands to configure the control plane protection (CoPP) feature: RS G8296(config)# qos protocol­packet­control packet­queue­map <0‐>
<protocol> (Configure a queue for a protocol)
RS G8296(config)# qos protocol­packet­control rate­limit­packet­queue
<0‐> <1‐10000> (Set the bandwidth for the queue,
in packets per second)
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WRED with ECN
Weighted Random Early Detection (WRED) is a congestion avoidance algorithm that helps prevent a TCP collapse, where a congested port indiscriminately drops packets from all sessions. The transmitting hosts wait to retransmit resulting in a dramatic drop in throughput. Often times, this TCP collapse repeats in a cycle, which results in a saw‐tooth pattern of throughput. WRED selectively drops packets before the queue gets full, allowing majority of the traffic to flow smoothly. WRED discards packets based on the CoS queues. Packets marked with lower priorities are discarded first. Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN) is an extension to WRED. For packets that are ECN‐aware, the ECN bit is marked to signal impending congestion instead of dropping packets. The transmitting hosts then slow down sending packets.
How WRED/ECN work together
For implementing WRED, you must define a profile with minimum threshold, maximum threshold, and a maximum drop probability. The profiles can be defined on a port or a CoS.
For implementing ECN, you require ECN‐specific field that has two bits—the ECN‐capable Transport (ECT) bit and the CE (Congestion Experienced) bit—in the IP header. ECN is identified and defined by the values in these bits in the Differentiated Services field of IP Header. Table 19 shows the combination values of the ECN bits.
Table 19. ECN Bit Setting
© Copyright Lenovo 2016
ECT Bit
CE Bit
Description
0
0
Not ECN‐capable
0
1
Endpoints of the transport protocol are ECN‐capable
1
0
Endpoints of the transport protocol are ECN‐capable
1
1
Congestion experienced
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WRED and ECN work together as follows:

If the number of packets in the queue is less than the minimum threshold, packets are transmitted. This happens irrespective of the ECN bit setting, and on networks where only WRED (without ECN) is enabled.

If the number of packets in the queue is between the minimum threshold and the maximum threshold, one of the following occurs:


If the ECN field on the packet indicates that the endpoints are ECN‐capable and the WRED algorithm determines that the packet has likely been dropped based on the drop probability, the ECT and CE bits for the packet are changed to 1, and the packet is transmitted.

If the ECN field on the packet indicates that neither endpoint is ECN‐capable, the packet may be dropped based on the WRED drop probability. This is true even in cases where only WRED (without ECN) is enabled.

If the ECN field on the packet indicates that the network is experiencing congestion, the packet is transmitted. No further marking is required.
If the number of packets in the queue is greater than the maximum threshold, packets are dropped based on the drop probability. This is the identical treatment a packet receives when only WRED (without ECN) is enabled.
Configuring WRED/ECN
For configuring WRED, you must define a TCP profile and a non‐TCP profile. WRED prioritizes TCP traffic over non‐TCP traffic.
For configuring ECN, you must define a TCP profile. You don’t need a non‐TCP profile as ECN can be enabled only for TCP traffic.
If you do not configure the profiles, the profile thresholds are set to maximum value of 0xFFFF to avoid drops.
Note: WRED/ECN can be configured only on physical ports and not on LAG. WRED and ECN are applicable only to unicast traffic.
Consider the following guidelines for configuring WRED/ECN:
Profiles can be configured globally or per port. Global profiles are applicable to all ports.
 Always enable the global profile before applying the port‐level profile.

Note: You can enable the global profile and disable the port‐level profile. However, you must not enable the port‐level profile if the global profile is disabled.






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WRED settings are dependent on Memory Management Unit (MMU) Settings. If you change the MMU setting, it could impact WRED functionality.
You cannot enable WRED if you have QoS buffer settings such as Converged Enhanced Ethernet (CEE), Priority‐based Flow Control (PFC), or Enhanced Transmission Selection (ETS). The number of WRED profiles per‐port must match the total number of COS Queues configured in the system.
If you have configured a TCP profile and enabled ECN, ECN remarking happens only if all traffic experiencing congestion is TCP traffic.
Configure a TCP profile only after enabling ECN on the interface.
You can apply TCP and non‐TCP profile configurations irrespective of ECN status (enabled/disabled).
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WRED/ECN Configuration Example
Follow these steps to enable WRED/ECN and configure a global and/or port‐level profile. If you configure global and port‐level profile, WRED/ECN uses the port‐level profile to make transmit/drop decisions when experiencing traffic congestion.
Configure Global Profile for WRED
1. Enable WRED globally.
RS G8296(config)# qos random­detect enable
2. Enable a transmit queue.
RS G8296(config)# qos random­detect transmit­queue 0 enable
3. Configure WRED thresholds (minimum, maximum, and drop rate) for TCP traffic.
RS G8296(config)# qos random­detect transmit­queue 0 tcp min­threshold 1 max­threshold 2 drop­rate 3
Note: Percentages are of Average Queue available in hardware and not percentages of traffic.
4. Configure WRED thresholds (minimum, maximum, and drop rate) for non‐TCP traffic.
RS G8296(config)# qos random­detect transmit­queue 0 non­tcp min­threshold 4 max­threshold 5 drop­rate 6
5. Select the port.
RS G8296(config)# interface port 1
6. Enable WRED for the port.
RS G8296(config­if)# random­detect enable
RS G8296(config­if)# exit
Configure Port-level Profile for WRED
1. Enable WRED globally.
RS G8296(config)# qos random­detect enable
2. Select the port.
RS G8296(config)# interface port 1
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3. Enable WRED for the port .
RS G8296(config­if)# random­detect enable
4. Enable a transmit queue.
RS G8296(config­if)# random­detect transmit­queue 0 enable
5. Configure WRED thresholds (minimum, maximum, and drop rate) for TCP traffic.
RS G8296(config­if)# random­detect transmit­queue 0 tcp min­threshold 11 max­threshold 22 drop­rate 33
Note: Percentages are of Average Queue available in hardware and not percentages of traffic.
6. Configure WRED thresholds (minimum, maximum, and drop rate) for non‐TCP traffic.
RS G8296(config­if)# random­detect transmit­queue 0 non­tcp min­threshold 44 max­threshold 55 drop­rate 66
RS G8296(config­if)# exit
Configure Global Profile for ECN
1. Enable ECN globally.
RS G8296(config)# qos random­detect ecn enable
2. Enable a transmit queue.
RS G8296(config)# qos random­detect transmit­queue 0 enable
3. Configure ECN thresholds (minimum, maximum, and drop rate) for TCP traffic.
RS G8296(config)# qos random­detect transmit­queue 0 tcp min­threshold 1 max­threshold 2 drop­rate 3
Note: Percentages are of Average Queue available in hardware and not percentages of traffic.
4. Select the port.
RS G8296(config)# interface port 1
5. Enable ECN for the port.
RS G8296(config­if)# random­detect ecn enable
RS G8296(config­if)# exit
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Configure Port-level Profile for ECN
1. Enable ECN globally.
RS G8296(config)# qos random­detect ecn enable
2. Select the port.
RS G8296(config)# interface port 1
3. Enable ECN for the port.
RS G8296(config­if)# random­detect ecn enable
4. Enable a transmit queue.
RS G8296(config­if)# random­detect transmit­queue 0 enable
5. Configure ECN thresholds (minimum, maximum, and drop rate) for TCP traffic.
RS G8296(config­if)# random­detect transmit­queue 0 tcp min­threshold 11 max­threshold 22 drop­rate 33
RS G8296(config­if)# exit
Note: Percentages are of Average Queue available in hardware and not percentages of traffic.
Verify WRED/ECN
Use the following command to view global WRED/ECN information: RS G8296(config)# show qos random­detect
Current wred and ecn configuration:
Global ECN: Enable
Global WRED: Enable
TQ0:­WRED­TcpMinThr­TcpMaxThr­TcpDrate­NonTcpMinThr­NonTcpMaxThr­NonTcpDrate­
Ena 10 20 30 10 20 30
TQ1:­WRED­TcpMinThr­TcpMaxThr­TcpDrate­NonTcpMinThr­NonTcpMaxThr­NonTcpDrate­
Dis 0 0 0 0 0 0
TQ2:­WRED­TcpMinThr­TcpMaxThr­TcpDrate­NonTcpMinThr­NonTcpMaxThr­NonTcpDrate­
Dis 0 0 0 0 0 0
TQ3:­WRED­TcpMinThr­TcpMaxThr­TcpDrate­NonTcpMinThr­NonTcpMaxThr­NonTcpDrate­
Dis 0 0 0 0 0 0
TQ4:­WRED­TcpMinThr­TcpMaxThr­TcpDrate­NonTcpMinThr­NonTcpMaxThr­NonTcpDrate­
Dis 0 0 0 0 0 0
TQ5:­WRED­TcpMinThr­TcpMaxThr­TcpDrate­NonTcpMinThr­NonTcpMaxThr­NonTcpDrate­
Dis 0 0 0 0 0 0
TQ6:­WRED­TcpMinThr­TcpMaxThr­TcpDrate­NonTcpMinThr­NonTcpMaxThr­NonTcpDrate­
Dis 0 0 0 0 0 0
TQ7:­WRED­TcpMinThr­TcpMaxThr­TcpDrate­NonTcpMinThr­NonTcpMaxThr­NonTcpDrate­
Dis 0 0 0 0 0 0
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Use the following command to view port‐level WRED/ECN information:
RS G8296(config)# show interface port 1 random­detect
Port: 1
ECN: Enable
WRED: Enable
TQ0:­WRED­TcpMinThr­TcpMaxThr­TcpDrate­NonTcpMinThr­NonTcpMaxThr­NonTcpDrate­
Dis 0 0 0 0 0 0
TQ1:­WRED­TcpMinThr­TcpMaxThr­TcpDrate­NonTcpMinThr­NonTcpMaxThr­NonTcpDrate­
Ena 4 5 6 1 2 3
TQ2:­WRED­TcpMinThr­TcpMaxThr­TcpDrate­NonTcpMinThr­NonTcpMaxThr­NonTcpDrate­
Dis 0 0 0 0 0 0
TQ3:­WRED­TcpMinThr­TcpMaxThr­TcpDrate­NonTcpMinThr­NonTcpMaxThr­NonTcpDrate­
Dis 0 0 0 0 0 0
TQ4:­WRED­TcpMinThr­TcpMaxThr­TcpDrate­NonTcpMinThr­NonTcpMaxThr­NonTcpDrate­
Dis 0 0 0 0 0 0
TQ5:­WRED­TcpMinThr­TcpMaxThr­TcpDrate­NonTcpMinThr­NonTcpMaxThr­NonTcpDrate­
Dis 0 0 0 0 0 0
TQ6:­WRED­TcpMinThr­TcpMaxThr­TcpDrate­NonTcpMinThr­NonTcpMaxThr­NonTcpDrate­
Dis 0 0 0 0 0 0
TQ7:­WRED­TcpMinThr­TcpMaxThr­TcpDrate­NonTcpMinThr­NonTcpMaxThr­NonTcpDrate­
Dis 0 0 0 0 0 0
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Chapter 14. Precision Time Protocol
As defined in the IEEE 1588‐2008 standard, Precision Time Protocol (PTP) is a precision clock synchronization protocol for networked measurement and control systems. PTP provides system‐wide synchronization accuracy and precision in the sub‐microsecond range with minimal network and local clock computing resources. The synchronization is achieved through the exchange of messages: General messages that carry data but need not be time stamped; Event messages that are time stamped and are critical for clock synchronization accuracy.
A PTP network consists of PTP‐enabled devices such as switches or routers. These devices consist of the following types of clocks:
Master clock: In a PTP domain, the clock with the most precise time is considered the master clock. A best master clock algorithm determines the highest quality clock in a network.
 Ordinary clock: An ordinary clock synchronizes its time with the Master clock. The ordinary clock has a bidirectional communication with the master clock. By receiving synchronization/delay response and sending delay request packets, the ordinary clock adjusts its time with the master clock.  Boundary clock: A boundary clock connects to multiple networks. It synchro‐
nizes with the attached master clock and in turn acts as a master clock to all attached ordinary clocks. Boundary clocks help to reduce the effect of jitter in Ethernet‐based networks.
 Transparent clock: A transparent clock listens for PTP packets and adjusts the cor‐
rection field in the PTP event packets as they pass the PTP device.

Lenovo RackSwitch G8296 supports the configuration of ordinary clock and transparent clock. It cannot be a master clock as the switch does not participate in the master clock selection process. Note: Lenovo Enterprise Network Operating System does not support IPv6 for PTP.
By default, PTP version 2 is installed on the switch but is globally disabled. Use the following command to globally enable PTP: RS G8296(config)# ptp {ordinary|transparent} enable
PTP is configured on switch ports. In case of LAG ports, the PTP configuration must be the same on all ports participating in the same LAG. The switch uses only one port from a LAG (typically the one used by a multicast protocol) to forward PTP packets. By default, PTP is enabled on all the switch ports. To disable PTP on a port, use the following commands: RS G8296(config)# interface port <port number>
RS G8296(config­if)# no ptp
Note: PTP cannot be enabled on management ports.
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PTP packets have a Control Plane Protection (CoPP) queue of 36. You can change this CoPP priority using the following command: RS G8296(config)# qos protocol­packet­control packet­queue­map <0‐47> <protocol>
You can modify the PTP queue rate using the following command: RS G8296(config)# qos protocol­packet­control rate­limit­packet­queue <0‐47> <1‐10000>
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Ordinary Clock Mode
When the RackSwitch G8296 is configured as an ordinary clock, it synchronizes its clock with the master clock. If the G8296 does not detect a master clock, it will not synchronize its clock with any other device. In this mode, the G8296’s clock cannot be modified manually or using another time protocol such as Network Time Protocol (NTP). As an ordinary clock, the G8296 synchronizes with a single PTP domain. The switch uses a delay‐request mechanism to synchronize with the master clock. The switch uses a source IP address for the packets it generates. You can create a loopback interface for this purpose. By default, the switch uses the lowest interface in the VLAN from which the sync messages are received. To assign a loopback interface, use the following command: RS G8296(config)# ip ptp source­interface loopback <interface number>
Note: If there are no interfaces on the switch that belong to the VLAN from which the sync messages are received, then the ordinary clock will not function. An error message will be generated. You can view this message using the RS G8296# show ptp command. Transparent Clock Mode
When the G8296 is configured as a transparent clock, its time can be set manually or using any time protocol. You must configure PTPv2 for the transparent clock to function. The switch does not modify PTPv1 packets as they pass through the switch.
As a transparent clock, the G8296 supports syntonization (synchronization of clock frequency but not time) and synchronization with multiple domains.
Event packets received on all ports on the switch that have PTP enabled will be adjusted with the residence time. The switch sends all PTP packets to the multicast group address: 224.0.1.129. You can use Protocol Independent Multicast (PIM), Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP), or any other multicast protocol to route the PTP packets.
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Tracing PTP Packets
PTP packets can be traced on the PTP ports. These packets can be identified by their destination IP address and UDP ports. The following table includes the IEEE standard specification: Table 20. IEEE Standard PTP Messages
Message
IP Address/UDP Port
PTP‐primary: All PTP messages except 224.0.1.129
peer delay mechanism messages
PTP‐pdelay: Peer delay mechanism messages
224.0.0.107
Event Messages: Sync, delay request, peer delay request, peer delay response 319
General Messages: Announce, follow‐up, delay response, peer delay response follow‐up, management
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Viewing PTP Information
The following table includes commands for viewing PTP information: Table 21. PTP Information Commands
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Command
Description
RS G8296(config)# show ptp
Displays global PTP information
RS G8296(config)# show interface port <port number>
Displays port information including port‐specific PTP information
RS G8296(config)# show ptp counters
Displays ingress and egress PTP counters
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Part 4: Advanced Switching
Features
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Chapter 15. OpenFlow
This document describes how you can create an OpenFlow Switch instance on the Lenovo RackSwitch G8296.
The following topics are discussed in this document: © Copyright Lenovo 2016

“OpenFlow Overview” on page 244

“Switch Profiles” on page 245

“OpenFlow Versions” on page 246

“OpenFlow Instance” on page 247

“Flow Tables” on page 248

“Static Flows” on page 250

“Table‐Miss” on page 256

“Fail Secure Mode” on page 257

“Emergency Mode” on page 258

“OpenFlow Ports” on page 260

“sFlow Compatibility” on page 263

“OpenFlow Groups” on page 264

“Configuring OpenFlow” on page 265

“Feature Limitations” on page 270
243
OpenFlow Overview
OpenFlow architecture consists of a control plane residing outside of the switch (typically on a server) and a data plane residing in the switch. The control plane is called OpenFlow controller. The data plane which resides in the switch consists of a set of flows which determine the forwarding of data packets.
The OpenFlow protocol is described in the OpenFlow Switch Specification 1.0.0 and OpenFlow Switch Specification 1.3.1.
An OpenFlow network consists of simple flow‐based switches in the data path, with a remote controller to manage all switches in the OpenFlow network.
OpenFlow maintains a TCP channel for communication of flow management between the controller and the switch. All controller‐switch communication takes place over the switchʹs management network. 244
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Switch Profiles
The RackSwitch G8296 can be used for configuring OpenFlow and legacy switching features simultaneously. However, Layer 2 and Layer 3 switching features can be configured only on the ports that are not OpenFlow ports. Legacy switching ports and OpenFlow ports do not communicate with each other. Alternately, the switch can be configured as an OpenFlow‐only switch if you do not need to configure legacy switching features. Based on your requirement, select the switch boot profile using the following commands:

OpenFlow‐only: RS G8296(config)# boot profile openflow
The switch will operate only in OpenFlow environment. None of the legacy switching features will be supported.

OpenFlow and Legacy Switching: RS G8296(config)# boot profile default
Legacy switching features can be configured on the non‐OpenFlow ports. By default, the switch boots in this profile.
Reload the switch to apply boot profile changes. © Copyright Lenovo 2016
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OpenFlow Versions
The RackSwitch G8296 can be configured to run either version 1.0 or version 1.3 of the OpenFlow standard. By default, the switch uses OpenFlow 1.0. To shift between versions, use the following commands:

RS G8296(config)# boot openflow v1
The switch will run OpenFlow 1.0 after reboot. This version does not support the use of MPLS‐based flows (See “Flow Tables” on page 248) groups, static portchannels, or static LACP LAGs in OpenFlow instances (see “Configuring OpenFlow” on page 265).

RS G8296(config)# boot openflow v13
The switch will run OpenFlow 1.3 after reboot. This version does not support emergency flow tables (see “Emergency Mode” on page 258).
OpenFlow 1.3 includes (but not limited to) the following key features:
246

Layer 3 MPLS

Static portchannels and static LACP LAGs

MAC address/IP address masking

Flexible Table Miss and Fail Secure

40Gb support

Static CLI for Flow Programming

OpenFlow Groups

FDB aging timer

OpenFlow 1.0 backwards compatibility
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OpenFlow Instance
The G8296 supports up to two instances of the OpenFlow protocol. Each instance appears as a switch to the controller. Instances on the same switch can be connected to different networks. Each instance maintains a separate TCP channel for communication of flow management between controller and switch. Each instance supports up to four controllers. However, only one controller per instance is active at any time.
Global OpenFlow configuration applies to all instances. OpenFlow parameters for an instance can be configured using the command: RS G8296(config)# openflow instance <instance ID>.
OpenFlow ports cannot be shared between instances. © Copyright Lenovo 2016
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Flow Tables
A set of a flow identification condition and an action towards a flow is called flow entry, and the database that stores the entries is called the flow table. A flow is defined as all the packets matching a flow entry in an OpenFlow flow table. Each flow entry includes:

Qualifiers ‐ These are header fields that are matched with a packet.

Actions to be performed when a packet matches the qualifiers.
The controller decides which flows to admit and the path their packets follow.
The switch classifies the flows as ACL‐based, FDB‐based, or MPLS‐based. MPLS‐based flows are supported only in version 1.3 of the OpenFlow standard. When the switch operates in OpenFlow boot profile (See “Switch Profiles” on page 245), a maximum of 2000 ACL‐based flows, 4096 FDB multicast flows, 123904 FDB unicast flows, 1000 MPLS label pop flows, and 2000 MPLS label push flows are available. When the switch operates in default boot profile, a maximum of 1500 ACL‐based flows, 4096 FDB multicast flows, 123904 FDB unicast flows, 1000 MPLS label pop flows, and 2000 MPLS label push flows are available. The instances share these flows dynamically. To guarantee a specific number of flows to an instance, use the following commands:

OpenFlow boot profile: RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS

G8296(config)# openflow instance <instance ID>
G8296(config­openflow­instance)# max­flow­acl <0‐2000> G8296(config­openflow­instance)# max­flow­mcast­fdb <0‐4096>
G8296(config­openflow­instance)# max­flow­ucast­fdb <0‐123904>
G8296(config­openflow­instance)# max­flow­mpls­pop <0‐1000>
G8296(config­openflow­instance)# max­flow­mpls­push <0‐2000>
Default boot profile: RS G8296(config)# openflow instance <instance ID>
RS G8296(config­openflow­instance)# max­flow­acl <0‐1500> RS G8296(config­openflow­instance)# max­flow­mcast­fdb <0‐4096>
Note: When the switch operates in default boot profile, the number of FDB flows to an instance cannot be guaranteed.
In version 1.0 of the OpenFlow standard, the G8296 supports two flow tables per switch instance; basic flow table and emergency flow table. Actions are applied to packets that match the flow entry. This is done in the data path.
This system identifies packets as a flow by matching parameters in the following fields: 248

Ingress port

Source MAC (SMAC)

Destination MAC (DMAC)

Ether Type
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
VLAN TAG – Single VLAN tag – VLAN ID and Priority

IP address (source IP and destination IP)

IP Protocol

MPLS label (for OpenFlow 1.3)

DSCP bits

Layer 4 Port (TCP, UDP)

ICMP code and type

If EtherType is ARP, the specified ARP type (request/reply) or SIP in the ARP payload can be used to match a packet. Once a packet arrives, the switch searches the flow table. When a flow entry is hit in the search, the packet is processed according to the action specified in the flow entry. © Copyright Lenovo 2016
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Static Flows
You can configure static flow entries for OpenFlow instances. The switch forwards traffic based on these entries even if it is not connected to a controller. Up to 1000 static ACL entries across all instances can be configured. An OpenFlow controller cannot modify or delete these entries. Static flow entries can replace entries installed by a controller. Static flow entries are not lost when the switch is reloaded.
Static flow entries are based on the following qualifiers, actions, and options: Table 22. Static Flow Entry Qualifiers in OpenFlow 1.0
Qualifier
Description
ingress‐port
port of the instance
src‐mac
source MAC address
dst‐mac
destination MAC address
vlan‐id
VLAN identifier (tagged, untagged, or 0‐4094)
vlan‐priority
802.1p(0‐7)
src‐ip
source IP address
dst‐ip
destination IP address
src‐port
Layer 4 source port (0‐65535)
dst‐port
Layer 4 destination port (0‐65535)
ether‐type
ʺarpʺ/ʺ0806ʺ or ʺipʺ/ʺ0800ʺ or (hex‐value < = 65535)
protocol
ʺtcpʺ or ʺudpʺ or 0‐255
tos
IP TOS (0‐255)
type
ʺrequestʺ or ʺreplyʺ (can be set only if ether type is ARP)
all
all qualifiers or any qualifier
Table 23. Static Flow Entry Qualifiers in OpenFlow 1.3
250
Qualifier
Description
in‐port
switch input port
in‐portchannel
switch input static LAG (portchannel) or static LACP LAG
in‐phy‐port
switch physical input port, valid only when in‐port is specified
eth‐src
source MAC address and mask
eth‐dst
destination MAC address and mask
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Table 23. Static Flow Entry Qualifiers in OpenFlow 1.3
Qualifier
Description
vlan‐vid
VLAN identifier (untagged, tagged or <0‐4094>)
vlan‐pcp
802.1p(0‐7)
ipv4‐src
source IPv4 address and mask
ipv4‐dst
destination IPv4 address and mask
tcp‐src
TCP source port (0‐65535)
tcp‐dst
TCP destination port (0‐65535)
udp‐src
UDP source port (0‐65535)
udp‐dst
UDP destination port (0‐65535)
icmpv4‐type
ICMPv4 type
icmpv4‐code
ICMPv4 code
eth‐type
ʺarpʺ/ʺ0806ʺ or ʺipʺ/ʺ0800ʺ or (hex‐value < =65535)
ip‐proto
ʺtcpʺ or ʺudpʺ or 0‐255
ip‐dscp
IP DSCP (6 bits in ToS field)
arp‐op
ʺrequestʺ or ʺreplyʺ (can be set only if eth‐type is ARP)
mpls‐label
MPLS label
all
all qualifiers or any qualifier
Table 24. Static Flow Entry Actions in OpenFlow 1.0
Action
Description
out‐put
ʺallʺ,ʺin‐portʺ,ʺfloodʺ,ʺcontrollerʺ or a valid port
set‐src‐mac
change source MAC address
set‐dst‐mac
change destination MAC address
strip‐vlan‐id
strip VLAN
set‐vlan‐id
set VLAN ID
set‐vlan‐priority
set 802.1p priority (0‐7)
set‐nw‐tos
set IP TOS (0‐255)
drop
drop the packet
Table 25. Static Flow Entry Actions in OpenFlow 1.3
© Copyright Lenovo 2016
Action
Description
output
physical ports
reserved ports: all, controller, in‐port
output‐portchannel
Logical ports: static LAG (portchannel) or static LACP LAG
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Table 25. Static Flow Entry Actions in OpenFlow 1.3
Action
Description
set‐eth‐src
change source MAC address
set‐eth‐dst
change destination MAC address
push‐vlan
push a new VLAN tag, 0x8100
pop‐vlan
pop the VLAN tag
push‐mpls
push a new MPLS tag, 0x8847
pop‐mpls
pop MPLS tag, 0x0800 or 0x800 (IP Ethertype)
set‐vlan‐vid
set VLAN ID, <0‐4094>
set‐vlan‐pcp
set 802.1p priority (0‐7)
set‐ip‐dscp
Set IP DSCP (0‐63), 6 highest bits in TOS
set‐mpls‐ttl
set MPLS TTL
set‐mpls‐label
Set MPLS label, <1‐0xFFFFF>
copy‐ttl‐out
copy TTL outward ‐ from next‐to‐outermost to outer‐
most
copy‐ttl‐in
copy TTL inward ‐ from outermost to next‐to‐outer‐
most
drop
drop the packet
Actions for static flows must be specified in the following order: set‐mpls‐ttl, copy‐ttl‐in, pop‐mpls, pop‐vlan, push‐mpls, push‐vlan, copy‐ttl‐out, set‐field, output.
The set‐field action includes set‐eth‐src, set‐eth‐dst, set‐vlan‐vid, set‐vlan‐pcp, set‐ip‐dscp, set‐mpls‐label. They may be used in any order.
The output action includes output and output‐portchannel. They may be used in any order.
Table 26. Static Flow Entry Options
Option
Description
max‐len
maximum length of flow to send to controller
Port Membership
When static flow entries are configured, port membership changes are handled as follows: 252

If a port is the “in‐port” or “out‐port” in a static flow entry, the port membership cannot be changed.

When a port membership changes, the ingress bitmap of static entries with in‐port ANY will be updated.
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
When a port membership changes, the egress bitmap of static entries with redirect output FlOOD/ANY will be updated.
FDB Aging and ECMP with OpenFlow
You can enable FDB aging in OpenFlow using the following commands:
RS G8296(config)# interface port <port number>
RS G8296(config­if)# openflow fdb­aging
To enable Layer 2 ECMP for OpenFlow station moves, use the following commands:
RS G8296(config)# interface port <port number>
RS G8296(config­if)# openflow static­station­move
Static Flow Examples
Following are examples of static flow entries:

Basic ACL flow: RS G8296(config­openflow­instance)# static­table add index 1 match ingress­port=1 actions out­put=10 priority 12345

Flow with multiple qualifiers and actions: RS G8296(config­openflow­instance)# static­table add index 2 match vlan­id=1,dst­mac=00:00:00:00:00:01 actions set­vlan­priority=3,out­put=20 priority 1000

Flow with action: output to controller: RS G8296(config­openflow­instance)# static­table add index 3 match all actions out­put=controller options max­len=65534 priority 1000
Static ACL flow entries can be deleted using the command: RS G8296(config­openflow­instance)# static­table remove index <index number>
Static ACL flow entries can be deleted using the command: RS G8296(config­openflow­instance)# static­table remove index <index number>
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Static flow table information can be viewed using the following commands: In OpenFlow version 1.0: RS G8296(config­openflow­instance)# show openflow table
Openflow instance 1 is currently disabled
Openflow Instance Id: 2
BASIC FLOW TABLE
CONTROLLER ADDED FLOWS
Flow:1 Filter Based, priority: 0, hard­time­out: 0, idle­time­out: 0
cookie: 0x0
QUALIFIERS: ACTION: drop
STATS: packets=0, bytes=0 Flow:2 Filter Based, priority:65535, hard­time­out: 0, idle­time­out: 0
cookie: 0x0
QUALIFIERS: ether­type:0x88cc
protocol: 0, tos: 0
src­ip:0.0.0.0/32, dst­ip:0.0.0.0/32
src­port: 0, dst­port: 0
ACTION: output:CONTROLLER [Max Len: 65535 / ­ bytes (C/S)]
STATS: packets=0, bytes=0 Flow:3 Filter Based, priority: 2, hard­time­out: 0, idle­time­out: 0
cookie: 0x0
QUALIFIERS: ACTION: output:CONTROLLER [Max Len: 65535 / ­ bytes (C/S)]
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In OpenFlow version 1.3: RS G8296(config­openflow­instance)# show openflow table
Openflow instance 1 is currently disabled
Openflow Instance Id: 2
CONTROLLER added FLOWs
Flow 1, Filter Based, priority:1000, hard­time­out:0, idle­time­out:0 cookie:0x0 QUALIFIERS: in­port:PCH1 eth­dst:01:00:08:00:00:03 vlan­vid:1 Instruction: apply_action ACTION: output:18, PCH1, PCH66 STATS: packets=0, bytes=0 Flow 2, Filter Based, priority:2, hard­time­out:0, idle­time­out:0 cookie:0x0 QUALIFIERS: Instruction: write_action ACTION: output:CONTROLLER [Max Len: 65535 / ­ bytes (C/S)] STATS: packets=0, bytes=0 Flow 3, Filter Based, priority:65535, hard­time­out:0, idle­time­out:0 cookie:0x0 QUALIFIERS: eth­type:0x88cc Instruction: write_action ACTION: output:CONTROLLER [Max Len: 65535 / ­ bytes (C/S)] STATS: packets=0, bytes=0 Flow 4, Filter Based, priority:0, hard­time­out:0, idle­time­out:0 cookie:0x0 QUALIFIERS: Instruction: empty ACTION: drop STATS: packets=0, bytes=0
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Table-Miss
In OpenFlow 1.3, if a match is not found for an arriving packet, the packet is either dropped or sent to the controller. If sent to the controller, the controller decides which action(s) to perform on all packets from the same flow. The decision is then sent to the switch and cached as an entry in the switch instance’s flow table. If the controller decides to add the flow, it sends a flow add message to the switch. The switch then adds the flow in its flow table. The next arriving packet that belongs to the same flow is then forwarded at line‐rate through the switch without consulting the controller.
By default, packets that don’t match any of the existing flow entries are dropped. To set up an OpenFlow instance to send non‐matching packets to the controller instead of dropping them, use the following commands:
RS G8296(config)# openflow instance <instance ID>
RS G8296(config­openflow­instance)# table­miss controller
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Fail Secure Mode
In OpenFlow 1.3, if contact with all controllers is lost, the switch automatically enters a fail secure mode. In this mode, the switch continues to operate based on the existing flow entries until they expire (according to the configured flow timeout value), while packets and messages destined to the controllers are dropped. When a connection to a controller is reestablished, the controller has the option to either delete or keep any remaining flow entries.
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Emergency Mode
Note: Emergency Mode is supported only in version 1.0 of the OpenFlow standard.
By default, Emergency mode is disabled. In this state, if the connection to the controller fails, the switch will behave as described in Fail Secure mode for Openflow 1.3.
To enable Emergency mode, use the following command: RS G8296(config)# openflow instance <instance ID>
RS G8296(config­openflow­instance)# emergency
In Emergency mode enabled state, if the connection to the controller fails, the switch tries to establish connection with any of the other configured controllers. If it is unable to connect with any controller, it enters Emergency mode. It replaces the flow entries with the entries from the emergency flow table.
The switch stays in the Emergency mode for the time configured as the Emergency timeout interval (default value is 30 seconds), after which the switch tries to establish connection with any configured controller. 
If connection with a controller is established, the switch exits Emergency mode. Entries in the Emergency flow table are retained. If desired, the controller may delete all the emergency flow entries. 
If connection with a controller is not established, the switch stays in Emergency mode and continues to forward packets based on the Emergency flows. It retries to establish a connection with a controller every time the Emergency timeout interval expires.
Emergency mode can be activated or deactivated per instance. To activate Emergency mode on an instance, use the following command: RS G8296# openflow instance <instance ID> enter­emergency
To deactivate Emergency mode on an instance, use the following command: RS G8296# no openflow instance <instance ID> enter­emergency
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Table 27 displays an example of emergency flows created: Table 27. Emergency Flows
RS G8296(config)# show openflow table Openflow Instance Id: 1
BASIC FLOW TABLE
Flow:1 FDB Based, priority: 1000, hard­time­out: 0
QUALIFIERS: dst­mac:01­02­03­05­06­00, vlan­id: 100 ACTION: out­port:21
Flow:2 Filter Based, priority:32768, hard­time­out: 0, idle­time­out: 0
QUALIFIERS: vlan­id: 100
dst­mac:01­02­03­66­76­00
ACTION: output:22
STATS: packets=0, bytes=0 EMERGENCY FLOW TABLE
Flow:1 FDB Based, priority: 1000, hard­time­out: 0
QUALIFIERS: dst­mac:01­02­03­66­06­00, vlan­id: 100 ACTION: out­port:21
Flow:2 Filter Based, priority:32768, hard­time­out: 0, idle­time­out: 0
QUALIFIERS: vlan­id: 100
dst­mac:01­02­03­66­06­00
ACTION: output:22
Openflow Instance Id: 2
BASIC FLOW TABLE
Flow:1 FDB Based, priority: 1000, hard­time­out: 0
QUALIFIERS: dst­mac:01­55­03­11­96­00, vlan­id: 200 ACTION: out­port:31
EMERGENCY FLOW TABLE
Flow:1 FDB Based, priority: 1000, hard­time­out: 0
QUALIFIERS: dst­mac:01­55­03­11­16­00, vlan­id: 200 ACTION: out­port:31
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OpenFlow Ports
When OpenFlow is enabled, all OpenFlow instance member ports become OpenFlow ports. OpenFlow ports have the following characteristics: 
Learning is turned off.

Flood blocking is turned on.

Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) is disabled.
The switch communicates with OpenFlow controllers through controller management ports or through dedicated out‐of‐band management ports on the switch. All OpenFlow ports, except controller management ports, must be members of VLAN 1. Controller management ports can be members of any VLAN except VLAN 1.
Note: When the switch operates in the default boot profile, we recommend that you use a non‐OpenFlow port to connect the switch with the controller. Use the following command to view port information: RS G8296(config)# show interface information
For each OpenFlow instance, when you configure the controller IP address and port, the switch establishes a TCP connection with the controller for flow control and management. See Step 3 on page 265. The switch supports up to four controllers per instance. The default controller port is 6633 and is reachable via any in‐band port configured as management port or through dedicated out‐of‐band management port (MGT). The controller management ports must not be members of an OpenFlow instance. You can use a controller to manage and control multiple instances. Use the following command to configure a data port as a controller management port (available only in OpenFlow boot profile): RS G8296(config)# openflow mgmtport <port number>
Note: In default boot profile, when you disable OpenFlow, the OpenFlow ports become legacy switch ports and are added to the default VLAN 1.
OpenFlow Edge Ports
You can configure a port as an OpenFlow edge port. Edge ports are connected to either non‐OpenFlow switches or servers. OpenFlow edge ports have the following characteristics:

Flood blocking is turned on.

MAC learning is turned on.
Use the following command to configure a port as an edge port: RS G8296(config)# openflow instance <instance ID>
RS G8296(config­openflow­instance)# edgeport <port number>
Note: Edge ports are not OpenFlow standard ports. You must configure edge ports only if the controller supports it.
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You may also add an existing LAG to the edge ports list. To add either a static LAG (portchannel) or a static LACP LAG, use the following command:
RS G8296(config­openflow­instance)# edgeport portchannel <LAG ID>
where the LAG ID is derived from the original LAG configuration:

Static LAG (portchannel)
RS G8296(config)# portchannel <LAG ID> port <port list>

Static LACP LAG
RS G8296(config)# portchannel <LAG ID> lacp key <LACP admin key>
For more information about LAGs, see Chapter 10, “Ports and Link Aggregation.”
Link Aggregation
In OpenFlow 1.3, port LAGs can be added to OpenFlow instances. A LAG aggregates its member ports to form a logical port with increased bandwidth. You can add an existing static LAG (portchannel) or static LACP LAG to an OpenFlow instance using the following commands: RS G8296(config)# openflow instance <instance ID>
RS G8296(config­openflow­instance)# member portchannel <LAG ID>
where the LAG ID (the logical port ID) is derived from the original LAG configuration, based on the LAG type:

Static LAG (portchannel)
RS G8296(config)# portchannel <LAG ID> port <port list>

Static LACP LAG
RS G8296(config)# portchannel <LAG ID> lacp key <LACP admin key>
Note: For more information about configuring LAGs, see Chapter 10, “Ports and Link Aggregation.”
Once added to the instance, the LAG ports inherit the OpenFlow data properties such as MAC learning turned off, flood blocking turned on, and STP disabled.
The LAG link remains active as long as at least one member port is up. The LAG link speed is an aggregation of the speed of the individual member ports. If any port in the LAG goes down, the overall LAG link speed is decreased accordingly.
To add a static LAG or static LACP LAG to the edge ports list, use the following command:
RS G8296(config­openflow­instance)# edgeport portchannel <LAG ID>
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Data Path ID
The data path ID—automatically computed—is a combination of two bytes of the instance ID and six bytes of the switch MAC address. Alternately, the data path ID can be manually configured using the following command. Each instance on the switch must have a unique data path ID: RS G8296(config)# openflow instance <instance ID>
RS G8296(config­openflow­instance)# dpid <Data path ID>
0x)
(Hex string starting with Note: If the data path ID is changed, the switch instance closes the active connection and reconnects with the modified data path ID.
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sFlow Compatibility
OpenFlow ports that are set for sFlow sampling will send incoming sample packets to both the sFlow server or analyzer and the OpenFlow controller as “packet‐in.” sFlow servers must be configured as reachable over a management port or a non‐OpenFlow data port.
Unicast FDB flows support ingress and egress sampling.
ACL‐based flows, MPLS‐based flows, multicast FDB‐based flows, packet‐in, send‐to‐controller, and mirror‐to‐controller flows support only ingress sampling.
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OpenFlow Groups
In OpenFlow 1.3, the RackSwitch G8296 supports OpenFlow groups based on the OpenFlow 1.3.1 specification. The following OpenFlow group features are supported:
264

Group types: ALL and INDIRECT

Up to 256 groups per instance

Group operations: ADD, MODIFY, and DELETE

Support for group multipart messages: group counter statistics, group description, and group features

Flows: ACL, MPLS, and FDB

Port types: Physical port, logical port (static portchannel or static LACP LAG)
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Configuring OpenFlow
The RackSwitch G8296 is capable of operating both in normal switching environment (default boot profile) and in OpenFlow switch environment (OpenFlow boot profile). Note: If you disable OpenFlow, you must reboot the switch to resume normal switch environment operations.
Perform the following steps to configure an OpenFlow switch instance. 1. Enable OpenFlow:
RS G8296(config)# openflow enable
2. Create an OpenFlow switch instance and add data ports: RS G8296(config)# openflow instance <1‐>
RS G8296(config­openflow­instance)# member <port number or range>
In version 1.3 of the OpenFlow standard, you can also add static portchannels or static LACP LAGs to the instance:
RS G8296(config­openflow­instance)# member portchannel <1‐204>
3. Configure a controller for the OpenFlow switch instance: RS G8296(config­openflow­instance)# controller <1‐4> address <IP address> [mgt­port|data­port]
RS G8296(config­openflow­instance)# controller <1‐4> port <1‐65535>
4. Enable the OpenFlow switch instance: RS G8296(config­openflow­instance)# enable
The switch is ready to perform switching functions in an OpenFlow environment. 5. Verify OpenFlow configuration: RS G8296(config)# show openflow instance <instance ID> information
Configuration Example 1 - OpenFlow Boot Profile
The following example includes steps to configure an OpenFlow switch instance when the switch operates in OpenFlow boot profile. Configure OpenFlow instance 1, which connects with two controllers via in‐band management ports, and OpenFlow instance 2, which connects with two controllers via in‐band management ports.
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1. Configure IP interface 128 for out‐of‐band connection: RS G8296(config)# interface ip 128
RS G8296(config­ip­if)# ip address 172.20.100.1 255.255.0.0 enable
RS G8296(config­ip­if)# exit
2. Configure IP interface 1 for in‐band connection: RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# vlan 3000
G8296(config­vlan)# exit
G8296(config)# interface port G8296(config­if)# switchport mode trunk
G8296(config­if)# switchport trunk allowed vlan 3000
G8296(config­if)# exit
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# interface ip 1
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip address 172.21.100.1 255.255.0.0 enable
G8296(config­ip­if)# vlan 3000
G8296(config­ip­if)# exit
3. Configure IP interface 2 for in‐band connection: RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# vlan 4000
G8296(config­vlan)# exit
G8296(config)# interface port 6
G8296(config­if)# switchport mode trunk
G8296(config­if)# switchport trunk allowed vlan 4000
G8296(config­if)# exit
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# interface ip 2
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip address 172.22.100.1 255.255.0.0 enable
G8296(config­ip­if)# vlan 4000
G8296(config­ip­if)# exit
4. Enable OpenFlow globally:
RS G8296(config)# openflow enable
5. Configure OpenFlow in‐band management ports: RS G8296(config)# openflow mgmtport 5,6(Switch can connect with the controllers via dataport 5 and 6, which are connected to the controller networks)
Note: Step 5 is not required when the switch operates in default boot profile.
6. Create OpenFlow switch instance 1 and adddata ports: RS G8296(config)# openflow instance 1
(Create OpenFlow instance 1)
RS G8296(config­openflow­instance)# member 17,18,19­25(Add data ports 17,18, anddata port range 19 through 25 as members of OpenFlow instance 1)
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7. Configure controller 1 IP address using out‐of‐band management port: RS G8296(config­openflow­instance)# controller 1 address 172.20.100.73 mgt­port
(Switch connects with controller 1 via the
out‐of‐band management port; default controller
port is used in this example)
8. Configure controller 2 IP address using in‐band management port: RS G8296(config­openflow­instance)# controller 2 address 172.22.100.73data­port
(Switch connects with controller 2 via the in‐band management port configured in Step 5; default controller port is used in this example)
9. Enable OpenFlow instance 1: RS G8296(config­openflow­instance)# enable
RS G8296(config­openflow­instance)# exit
10. Create OpenFlow switch instance 2 and add data ports: RS G8296(config)# openflow instance 2
(Create OpenFlow instance 2)
RS G8296(config­openflow­instance)# member 26,27,28­34
(Adddata ports 26,27, anddata port range 28 through 34 as members of OpenFlow instance 2)
11. Configure controller 2 IP address using in‐band management port: RS G8296(config­openflow­instance)# controller 2 address 172.21.100.73 data­port
(Switch connects with controller 1 via the in‐band management port configured in Step 5; default controller port is used in this example)
12. Configure controller 2 IP address using in‐band management port: RS G8296(config­openflow­instance)# controller 2 address 172.22.100.73 data­port
Switch connects with controller 2 via in‐band management port configured in Step 5; default controller port is used in this example)
13. Enable OpenFlow instance 2: RS G8296(config­openflow­instance)# enable
14. View OpenFlow Configuration: RS G8296(config)# show running­config
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Configuration Example 2 - Default Boot Profile
The following example includes steps to configure an OpenFlow switch instance when the switch operates in Default boot profile.
1. Configure IP interface 128 for out‐of‐band connection: RS G8296(config)# interface ip 128
RS G8296(config­ip­if)# ip address 172.20.100.1 255.255.0.0 enable
RS G8296(config­ip­if)# exit
2. Configure IP interface 1 for in‐band connection: RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# vlan 3000
G8296(config­vlan)# exit
G8296(config)# interface port 6
G8296(config­if)# switchport mode trunk
G8296(config­if)# switchport trunk allowed vlan add 3000
G8296(config­if)# exit
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# interface ip 1
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip address 172.21.100.1 255.255.0.0 enable
G8296(config­ip­if)# vlan 3000
G8296(config­ip­if)# exit
3. Configure IP interface 2 for in‐band connection: RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# vlan 4000
G8296(config­vlan)# exit
G8296(config)# interface port 6
G8296(config­if)# switchport mode trunk
G8296(config­if)# switchport trunk allowed vlan 4000
G8296(config­if)# exit
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# interface ip 2
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip address 172.22.100.1 255.255.0.0 enable
G8296(config­ip­if)# vlan 4000
G8296(config­ip­if)# exit
4. Enable OpenFlow globally:
RS G8296(config)# openflow enable
5. Create OpenFlow switch instance 1 and add data ports: RS G8296(config)# openflow instance 1
(Create OpenFlow instance 1)
RS G8296(config­openflow­instance)# member 17,18,19­25(Adddata ports 17,18, anddata port range 19 through 25 as members of OpenFlow instance 1)
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6. Configure controller 1 IP addresses using out‐of‐band management port: RS G8296(config­openflow­instance)# controller 1 address 172.20.100.73 mgt­port
(Switch connects with controller 1 via the out‐of‐band management port; default controller port is used in this example)
7. Configure controller 2 IP address using in‐band management port: RS G8296(config­openflow­instance)# controller 2 address 172.21.100.73 data­port
(Switch connects with controller 2 via the in‐band management port; default controller port is used in this example)
8. Enable OpenFlow instance 1: RS G8296(config­openflow­instance)# enable
RS G8296(config­openflow­instance)# exit
9. Create OpenFlow switch instance 2 and add data ports: RS G8296(config)# openflow instance 2
(Create OpenFlow instance 2)
RS G8296(config­openflow­instance)# member 26,27,28­32
(Adddata ports 26,27, anddata port range 28 through 32 as members of OpenFlow instance 2)
10. Configure controller 1 IP address using in‐band management port: RS G8296(config­openflow­instance)# controller 1 address 172.21.100.73 data­port
(Switch connects with controller 1 via the in‐band management port; default controller port is used in this example)
11. Configure controller 2 IP address using in‐band management port: RS G8296(config­openflow­instance)# controller 2 address 172.22.100.73 data­port
Switch connects with controller 2 via in‐band management port; default controller port is used in this example)
12. Enable OpenFlow instance 2: RS G8296(config­openflow­instance)# enable
RS G8296(config­openflow­instance)# exit
View OpenFlow Configuration: RS G8296(config)# show running­config
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Feature Limitations
When the switch is booted in the OpenFlow profile, it operates only in OpenFlow switch environment. None of the normal switching environment features are supported.
If the switch is booted in default profile, normal switching environment features can be configured on the non‐OpenFlow ports. However, the following features are not supported: 270

ACLs

FCoE/CEE

Dynamic PBR

IPMC with IP options

IPv6

Management ACL

VLAG

VMap

VMready

vNIC
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Chapter 16. Deployment Profiles
The Enterprise NOS software for the Lenovo RackSwitch G8296 can be configured to operate in different modes for different deployment scenarios. Each deployment profile sets different capacity levels for basic switch resources, such as the number of IP Multicast (IPMC) entries and ACL entries, to optimize the switch for different types of networks.
This chapter covers the following topics
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
“Available Profiles” on page 272

“Selecting Profiles” on page 273

“Automatic Configuration Changes” on page 274 271
Available Profiles
The following deployment profiles are currently available on the G8296:

Default Profile: This profile is recommended for general network usage. Switch resources are allocated to support a wide range of features such as IPv6, ACLs, and FCoE/CEE.

ACL Profile: This profile enables you to configure maximum number of ACLs. The IPv6, FCoE/CEE, and VMready features will not be supported. This profile also does not support the forwarding of IPMC packets with IP options.
The properties of each mode are compared in the following table.
Table 28. Deployment Mode Comparison
Capacity, by Mode
Switch Feature
Default
Openflow
ACL
ACLs
256
256
896
IPv6
Supported
Not Supported
Not Supported
VMready
Supported
Not Supported
Not Supported
VMap
Supported
Not Supported
Not Supported
FCoE/CEE
Supported
Not Supported
Not Supported
Note: Throughout this guide, where feature capacities are listed, values reflect those of the Default profile only, unless otherwise noted.
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Selecting Profiles
To change the deployment profile, you must first select the new profile and then reboot the switch.
Note: Before changing profiles, it is recommended that you save the active switch configuration to a backup file so that it may be restored later if desired.
When you select a profile, you will see a warning message. For example, if you select the ACL profile, you will see the following message:
Warning: Setting boot profile to "ACL" will cause FIPS, IPv6 and VM ACL configuration to be lost in next boot and error messages will be displayed when above configurations are restored.
Next boot will use "ACL" profile.
To view the current deployment profile, use the following command: RS G8296# show boot
Use the following commands to change the deployment profile: RS G8296(config)# boot profile {default|openflow|acl}
(Select deployment profile)
RS G8296(config)# exit
(To privileged EXEC mode)
RS G8296# reload
(Reboot the switch)
When using a specialized profile, menus and commands are unavailable for features that are not supported under the profile. Such menus and commands will be available again only when a supporting profile is used.
Note: Deployment profiles other than those listed in this section should be used only under the direction of your support personnel.
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Automatic Configuration Changes
When a new profile is loaded, configuration settings for any unsupported features will be ignored. However, these settings are retained in memory until you change or save the current configuration under the new profile. Until then, you can return to the old profile with all prior configuration settings intact.
Once you change or save the configuration under a new profile, any configuration settings related to unsupported features will be reset to their default values. At that point, you will have to reconfigure these settings or use a backup configuration if you reapply the old profile.
For example, when using the ACL profile, because IPv6 is not supported in that mode, IPv6 settings will be excluded when the configuration is saved. Then, if returning to the Default profile, it will be necessary to reconfigure the IPv6 settings, or to use the backup configuration.
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Chapter 17. Virtualization
Virtualization allows resources to be allocated in a fluid manner based on the logical needs of the data center, rather than on the strict, physical nature of components. The following virtualization features are included in Lenovo Enterprise Network Operating System 8.4 on the RackSwitch G8296 (G8296):

Virtual Local Area Networks (VLANs)
VLANs are commonly used to split groups of networks into manageable broadcast domains, create logical segmentation of workgroups, and to enforce security policies among logical network segments.
For details on this feature, see Chapter 9, “VLANs.”

Link aggregation
A port LAG pools multiple physical switch ports into a single, high‐bandwidth logical link to other devices. In addition to aggregating capacity, LAGs provides link redundancy.
For details on this feature, see Chapter 10, “Ports and Link Aggregation.”

Virtual Link Aggregation (VLAGs)
With VLAGs, two switches can act as a single logical device for the purpose of establishing port aggregation. Active LAG links from one device can lead to both VLAG peer switches, providing enhanced redundancy, including active‐active VRRP configuration.
For details on this feature, see Chapter 11, “Virtual Link Aggregation Groups.”

VMready
The switch’s VMready software makes it virtualization aware. Servers that run hypervisor software with multiple instances of one or more operating systems can present each as an independent virtual machine (VM). With VMready, the switch automatically discovers virtual machines (VMs) connected to switch.
For details on this feature, see Chapter 18, “VMready.”

Edge Virtual Bridging (EVB)
An IEEE 802.1Qbg standard that simplifies network management by providing a standards‐based protocol that defines how virtual Ethernet bridges exchange configuration information. EVB bridges the gap between physical and virtual network resources by allowing networks to become virtual machine (VM)‐aware.
For details on this feature, see Chapter 22, “Edge Virtual Bridging.”
ENOS virtualization features provide a highly‐flexible framework for allocating and managing switch resources.
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Chapter 18. VMready
Virtualization is used to allocate server resources based on logical needs, rather than on strict physical structure. With appropriate hardware and software support, servers can be virtualized to host multiple instances of operating systems, known as virtual machines (VMs). Each VM has its own presence on the network and runs its own service applications.
Software known as a hypervisor manages the various virtual entities (VEs) that reside on the host server: VMs, virtual switches, and so on. Depending on the virtualization solution, a virtualization management server may be used to configure and manage multiple hypervisors across the network. With some solutions, VMs can even migrate between host hypervisors, moving to different physical hosts while maintaining their virtual identity and services.
The Lenovo Enterprise Network Operating System 8.4 VMready feature supports up to VEs in a virtualized data center environment. The switch automatically discovers the VEs attached to switch ports, and distinguishes between regular VMs, Service Console Interfaces, and Kernel/Management Interfaces in a VMware® environment.
VEs may be placed into VM groups on the switch to define communication boundaries: VEs in the same VM group may communicate with each other, while VEs in different groups may not. VM groups also allow for configuring group‐level settings such as virtualization policies and ACLs.
The administrator can also pre‐provision VEs by adding their MAC addresses (or their IPv4 address or VM name in a VMware environment) to a VM group. When a VE with a pre‐provisioned MAC address becomes connected to the switch, the switch will automatically apply the appropriate group membership configuration.
The G8296 with VMready also detects the migration of VEs across different hypervisors. As VEs move, the G8296 NMotion™ feature automatically moves the appropriate network configuration as well. NMotion gives the switch the ability to maintain assigned group membership and associated policies, even when a VE moves to a different port on the switch.
VMready also works with VMware Virtual Center (vCenter) management software. Connecting with a vCenter allows the G8296 to collect information about more distant VEs, synchronize switch and VE configuration, and extend migration properties.
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VE Capacity
When VMready is enabled, the switch will automatically discover VEs that reside in hypervisors directly connected on the switch ports. Enterprise NOS 8.4 supports up to 4096 VEs. Once this limit is reached, the switch will reject additional VEs.
Note: In rare situations, the switch may reject new VEs prior to reaching the supported limit. This can occur when the internal hash corresponding to the new VE is already in use. If this occurs, change the MAC address of the VE and retry the operation. The MAC address can usually be changed from the virtualization management server console (such as the VMware Virtual Center).
Defining Server Ports
Before you configure VMready features, you must first define whether ports are connected to servers or are used as uplink ports. Use the following ISCLI configuration command to define a port as a server port: RS G8296(config)# system server­ports port <port alias or number>
Ports that are not defined as server ports are automatically considered uplink ports.
VM Group Types
VEs, as well as switch server ports, switch uplink ports, static LAGs, and LACP LAGs, can be placed into VM groups on the switch to define virtual communication boundaries. Elements in a given VM group are permitted to communicate with each other, while those in different groups are not. The elements within a VM group automatically share certain group‐level settings.
ENOS 8.4 supports up to 4096 VM groups. There are two different types:
Local VM groups are maintained locally on the switch. Their configuration is not synchronized with hypervisors.
 Distributed VM groups are automatically synchronized with a virtualization management server (see “Assigning a vCenter” on page 288).

Each VM group type is covered in detail in the following sections.
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Local VM Groups
The configuration for local VM groups is maintained on the switch (locally) and is not directly synchronized with hypervisors. Local VM groups may include only local elements: local switch ports and LAGs, and only those VEs connected to one of the switch ports or pre‐provisioned on the switch.
Local VM groups support limited VE migration: as VMs and other VEs move to different hypervisors connected to different ports on the switch, the configuration of their group identity and features moves with them. However, VE migration to and from more distant hypervisors (those not connected to the G8296, may require manual configuration when using local VM groups.
Configuring a Local VM Group
Use the following ISCLI configuration commands to assign group properties and membership:
RS G8296(config)# virt vmgroup <VM group number> ?
cpu
(Enable sending unregistered IPMC to CPU)
flood
(Enable flooding unregistered IPMC)
key <LACP LAG key>
(Add LACP LAG to group)
optflood
(Enable optimized flooding)
port <port alias or number>
(Add port member to group)
portchannel <LAG number>
(Add static LAG to group)
profile <profile name>
(Not used for local groups)
stg <Spanning Tree group>
(Add STG to group)
tag
(Set VLAN tagging on ports)
validate <advanced|basic>
(Validate mode for the group)
vlan <VLAN number>
(Specify the group VLAN)
vm <MAC>|<index>|<UUID>|<IPv4 address>|<name>(Add VM member to group)
vmap <VMAP number> [intports|extports](Specify VMAP number)
vport
(Add a virtual port to the group
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The following rules apply to the local VM group configuration commands:

cpu: Enable sending unregistered IPMC to CPU.

flood: Enable flooding unregistered IPMC.

key: Add LACP LAGs to the group.

optflood: Enable optimized flooding to allow sending unregistered IPMC to the Mrouter ports without having any packet loss during the learning period; This option is disabled by default; When optflood is enabled, the flood and cpu settings are ignored.

port: Add switch server ports or switch uplink ports to the group.

portchannel: Add static port LAGs to the group.

profile: The profile options are not applicable to local VM groups. Only distributed VM groups may use VM profiles (see “VM Profiles” on page 281).

stg: The group may be assigned to a Spanning‐Tree group for broadcast loop control (see Chapter 12, “Spanning Tree Protocols”).

tag: Enable VLAN tagging for the VM group. If the VM group contains ports which also exist in other VM groups, enable tagging in both VM groups.

validate: Set validation mode for the group.

vlan: Each VM group must have a unique VLAN number. This is required for local VM groups. If one is not explicitly configured, the switch will automatically assign the next unconfigured VLAN when a VE or port is added to the VM group.

vmap: Each VM group may optionally be assigned a VLAN‐based ACL (see “VLAN Maps” on page 292).

vm: Add VMs.
VMs and other VEs are primarily specified by MAC address. They can also be specified by UUID, IP address, or by the index number as shown in various VMready information output (see “VMready Information Displays” on page 295).

vport: Add a virtual port to the group.
Use the no variant of the commands to remove or disable VM group configuration settings:
RS G8296(config)# no virt vmgroup <VM group number> [?]
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Distributed VM Groups
Distributed VM groups allow configuration profiles to be synchronized between the G8296 and associated hypervisors and VEs. This allows VE configuration to be centralized, and provides for more reliable VE migration across hypervisors.
Using distributed VM groups requires a virtualization management server. The management server acts as a central point of access to configure and maintain multiple hypervisors and their VEs (VMs, virtual switches, and so on).
The G8296 must connect to a virtualization management server before distributed VM groups can be used. The switch uses this connection to collect configuration information about associated VEs, and can also automatically push configuration profiles to the virtualization management server, which in turn configures the hypervisors and VEs. See “Virtualization Management Servers” on page 288 for more information.
VM Profiles
VM profiles are required for configuring distributed VM groups. They are not used with local VM groups. A VM profile defines the VLAN and virtual switch bandwidth shaping characteristics for the distributed VM group. The switch distributes these settings to the virtualization management server, which in turn distributes them to the appropriate hypervisors for VE members associated with the group.
Creating VM profiles is a two part process. First, the VM profile is created as shown in the following command on the switch:
RS G8296(config)# virt vmprofile <profile name>
Next, the profile must be edited and configured using the following configuration commands:
RS G8296(config)# virt vmprofile edit <profile name> ?
eshaping <average bandwidth> <burst size> <peak>
shaping <average bandwidth> <burst size> <peak>
vlan <VLAN number>
For virtual switch bandwidth shaping parameters, average and peak bandwidth are specified in kilobits per second (a value of 1000 represents 1 Mbps). Burst size is specified in kilobytes (a value of 1000 represents 1 MB). Eshaping (egress shaping) is used for distributed virtual switch.
Note: The bandwidth shaping parameters in the VM profile are used by the hypervisor virtual switch software. To set bandwidth policies for individual VEs, see “VM Policy Bandwidth Control” on page 293.
Once configured, the VM profile may be assigned to a distributed VM group as shown in the following section.
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Initializing a Distributed VM Group
Note: A VM profile is required before a distributed VM group may be configured. See “VM Profiles” on page 281 for details.
Once a VM profile is available, a distributed VM group may be initialized using the following configuration command:
RS G8296(config)# virt vmgroup <VM group number> profile <VM profile name>
Only one VM profile can be assigned to a given distributed VM group. To change the VM profile, the old one must first be removed using the following ISCLI configuration command:
RS G8296(config)# no virt vmgroup <VM group number> profile
Note: The VM profile can be added only to an empty VM group (one that has no VLAN, VMs, or port members). Any VM group number currently configured for a local VM group (see “Local VM Groups” on page 279) cannot be converted and must be deleted before it can be used for a distributed VM group.
Assigning Members
VMs, ports, and LAGs may be added to the distributed VM group only after the VM profile is assigned. Group members are added, pre‐provisioned, or removed from distributed VM groups in the same manner as with local VM groups (“Local VM Groups” on page 279), with the following exceptions:
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
VMs: VMs and other VEs are not required to be local. Any VE known by the virtualization management server can be part of a distributed VM group.

The VM group vlan option (see page 280) cannot be used with distributed VM groups. For distributed VM groups, the VLAN is assigned in the VM profile.
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Synchronizing the Configuration
When the configuration for a distributed VM group is modified, the switch updates the assigned virtualization management server. The management server then distributes changes to the appropriate hypervisors.
For VM membership changes, hypervisors modify their internal virtual switch port groups, adding or removing server port memberships to enforce the boundaries defined by the distributed VM groups. Virtual switch port groups created in this fashion can be identified in the virtual management server by the name of the VM profile, formatted as follows: Lenovo_<VM profile name>
(or)
Lenovo_<VM profile name> <index number>
(for vDS)
Adding a server host interface to a distributed VM group does not create a new port group on the virtual switch or move the host. Instead, because the host interface already has its own virtual switch port group on the hypervisor, the VM profile settings are applied to its existing port group.
Note: When applying the distributed VM group configuration, the virtualization management server and associated hypervisors must take appropriate actions. If a hypervisor is unable to make requested changes, an error message will be displayed on the switch. Be sure to evaluate all error message and take the appropriate actions for the expected changes to apply.
Removing Member VEs
Removing a VE from a distributed VM group on the switch will have the following effects on the hypervisor:
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
The VE will be moved to the Lenovo_Default port group in VLAN 0 (zero).

Traffic shaping will be disabled for the VE.

All other properties will be reset to default values inherited from the virtual switch.
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VMcheck
The G8296 primarily identifies virtual machines by their MAC addresses. An untrusted server or a VM could identify itself by a trusted MAC address leading to MAC spoofing attacks. Sometimes, MAC addresses get transferred to another VM, or they get duplicated.
The VMcheck solution addresses these security concerns by validating the MAC addresses assigned to VMs. The switch periodically sends hello messages on server ports. These messages include the switch identifier and port number. The hypervisor listens to these messages on physical NICs and stores the information, which can be retrieved using the VMware Infrastructure Application Programming Interface (VI API). This information is used to validate VM MAC addresses. Two modes of validation are available: Basic and Advanced.
Use the following command to select the validation mode or to disable validation: RS G8296(config)# [no] virt vmgroup <VM group number> validate {basic|advanced}
Basic Validation
This mode provides port‐based validation by identifying the port used by a hypervisor. It is suitable for environments in which MAC reassignment or duplication cannot occur.
The switch, using the hello message information, identifies a hypervisor port. If the hypervisor port is found in the hello message information, it is deemed to be a trusted port. Basic validation should be enabled when:

A VM is added to a VM group, and the MAC address of the VM interface is in the Layer 2 table of the switch.

A VM interface that belongs to a VM group experiences a “source miss” i.e. is not able to learn new MAC address.

A trusted port goes down. Port validation must be performed to ensure that the port does not get connected to an untrusted source when it comes back up.
Use the following command to set the action to be performed if the switch is unable to validate the VM MAC address: RS G8296(config)# virt vmcheck action basic {log|link}
log ­ generates a log
link ­ disables the port
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Advanced Validation
This mode provides VM‐based validation by mapping a switch port to a VM MAC address. It is suitable for environments in which spoofing, MAC reassignment, or MAC duplication is possible.
When the switch receives frames from a VM, it first validates the VM interface based on the VM MAC address, VM Universally Unique Identifier (UUID), Switch port, and Switch ID available in the hello message information. Only if all the four parameters are matched, the VM MAC address is considered valid.
In advanced validation mode, if the VM MAC address validation fails, an ACL can be automatically created to drop the traffic received from the VM MAC address on the switch port. Use the following command to specify the number of ACLs to be automatically created for dropping traffic: RS G8296(config)# virt vmcheck acls max <1‐256>
Use the following command to set the action to be performed if the switch is unable to validate the VM MAC address: RS G8296(config)# virt vmcheck action advanced {log|link|acl}
Following are the other VMcheck commands: Table 29. VMcheck Commands
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Command
Description
RS G8296(config)# virt vmware hello {ena|
hport <port number>|haddr|htimer}
Hello messages setting: enable/add port/advertise this IP address in the hello messages instead of the default management IP address/set the timer to send the hello messages
RS G8296(config)# no virt vmware hello {enable|hport <port number>}
Disable hello mes‐
sages/remove port
RS G8296(config)# [no] virt vmcheck trust <port number or range>
Mark a port as trusted; Use the no form of the command to mark port as untrusted
RS G8296# no virt vmcheck acls
ACLs cannot be used for VMcheck
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Virtual Distributed Switch
A virtual Distributed Switch (vDS ) allows the hypervisor’s NIC to be attached to the vDS instead of its own virtual switch. The vDS connects to the vCenter and spans across multiple hypervisors in a datacenter. The administrator can manage virtual machine networking for the entire data center from a single interface. The vDS enables centralized provisioning and administration of virtual machine networking in the data center using the VMware vCenter server.
When a member is added to a distributed VM group, a distributed port group is created on the vDS. The member is then added to the distributed port group. Distributed port groups on a vDS are available to all hypervisors that are connected to the vDS. Members of a single distributed port group can communicate with each other.
Note: vDS works with ESX 4.0 or higher versions.
To add a vDS, use the command: RS G8296# virt vmware dvswitch add <datacenter name> <dvSwitch name> [<dvSwitch‐version>]
Prerequisites
Before adding a vDS on the G8296, ensure the following:
VMware vCenter is fully installed and configured and includes a “bladevm” administration account and a valid SSL certificate.
 A virtual distributed switch instance has been created on the vCenter. The vDS version must be higher or the same as the hypervisor version on the hosts.
 At least two hypervisors are configured. 
Guidelines
Before migrating VMs to a vDS, consider the following:

At any one time, a VM NIC can be associated with only one virtual switch: to the hypervisor’s virtual switch, or to the vDS.

Management connection to the server must be ensured during the migration. The connection is via the Service Console or the Kernel/Management Interface.

The vDS configuration and migration can be viewed in vCenter at the following locations:

vDS: Home> Inventory > Networking

vDS Hosts: Home > Inventory > Networking > vDS > Hosts
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Migrating to vDS
You can migrate VMs to the vDS using vCenter. The migration may also be accomplished using the operational commands on the G8296 available in the following CLI menus: For VMware vDS operations: RS G8296# virt vmware dvswitch ?
add Add a dvSwitch to a DataCenter
addhost Add a host to a dvSwitch
adduplnk Add a physical NIC to dvSwitch uplink ports
del Remove a dvSwitch from a DataCenter
remhost Remove a host from a dvSwitch
remuplnk Remove a physical NIC from dvSwitch uplink ports
For VMware distributed port group operations: RS G8296# virt vmware dpg ?
add Add a port group to a dvSwitch
del Delete a port group from a dvSwitch
update Update a port group on a dvSwitch
vmac Change a VM NIC's port group
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Virtualization Management Servers
The G8296 can connect with a virtualization management server to collect configuration information about associated VEs. The switch can also automatically push VM group configuration profiles to the virtualization management server, which in turn configures the hypervisors and VEs, providing enhanced VE mobility.
One virtual management server must be assigned on the switch before distributed VM groups may be used. ENOS 8.4 currently supports only the VMware Virtual Center (vCenter).
Assigning a vCenter
Assigning a vCenter to the switch requires the following:
The vCenter must have a valid IPv4 address which is accessible to the switch (IPv6 addressing is not supported for the vCenter).
 A user account must be configured on the vCenter to provide access for the switch. The account must have (at a minimum) the following vCenter user privi‐
leges:
 Network
 Host Network > Configuration
 Virtual Machine > Modify Device Settings

Once vCenter requirements are met, the following configuration command can be used on the G8296 to associate the vCenter with the switch:
RS G8296(config)# virt vmware vcspec <vCenter IPv4 address> <username> [noauth]
This command specifies the IPv4 address and account username that the switch will use for vCenter access. Once entered, the administrator will be prompted to enter the password for the specified vCenter account.
The noauth option causes to the switch to ignores SSL certificate authentication. This is required when no authoritative SSL certificate is installed on the vCenter.
Note: By default, the vCenter includes only a self‐signed SSL certificate. If using the default certificate, the noauth option is required.
Once the vCenter configuration has been applied on the switch, the G8296 will connect to the vCenter to collect VE information.
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vCenter Scans
Once the vCenter is assigned, the switch will periodically scan the vCenter to collect basic information about all the VEs in the datacenter, and more detailed information about the local VEs that the switch has discovered attached to its own ports.
The switch completes a vCenter scan approximately every two minutes. Any major changes made through the vCenter may take up to two minutes to be reflected on the switch. However, you can force an immediate scan of the vCenter by using one of the following ISCLI privileged EXEC commands:
RS G8296# virt vmware scan
(Scan the vCenter)
‐or‐
RS G8296# show virt vm ­v ­r
(Scan vCenter and display result)
Deleting the vCenter
To detach the vCenter from the switch, use the following configuration command:
RS G8296(config)# no virt vmware vcspec
Note: Without a valid vCenter assigned on the switch, any VE configuration changes must be manually synchronized.
Deleting the assigned vCenter prevents synchronizing the configuration between the G8296 and VEs. VEs already operating in distributed VM groups will continue to function as configured, but any changes made to any VM profile or distributed VM group on the switch will affect only switch operation; changes on the switch will not be reflected in the vCenter or on the VEs. Likewise, any changes made to VE configuration on the vCenter will no longer be reflected on the switch.
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Exporting Profiles
VM profiles for discovered VEs in distributed VM groups are automatically synchronized with the virtual management server and the appropriate hypervisors. However, VM profiles can also be manually exported to specific hosts before individual VEs are defined on them.
By exporting VM profiles to a specific host, virtual machine port groups will be available to the host’s internal virtual switches so that new VMs may be configured to use them.
VM migration requires that the target hypervisor includes all the virtual switch port groups to which the VM connects on the source hypervisor. The VM profile export feature can be used to distribute the associated port groups to all the potential hosts for a given VM.
A VM profile can be exported to a host using the following ISCLI privileged EXEC command:
RS G8296# virt vmware export <VM profile name> <host list> <virtual switch name>
The host list can include one or more target hosts, specified by host name, IPv4 address, or UUID, with each list item separated by a space.
Once executed, the requisite port group will be created on the specified virtual switch. If the specified virtual switch does not exist on the target host, the port group will not be created.
VMware Operational Commands
The G8296 may be used as a central point of configuration for VMware virtual switches and port groups using the following ISCLI privileged EXEC commands:
RS G8296# virt vmware ?
dpg
Distributed port group operations
dvswitch VMWare dvSwitch operations export
Create or update a vm profile on one host
pg
Add a port group to a host
scan
Perform a VM Agent scan operation now
updpg
Update a port group on a host
vmacpg
Change a vnic's port group
vsw
Add a vswitch to a host
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Pre-Provisioning VEs
VEs may be manually added to VM groups in advance of being detected on the switch ports. By pre‐provisioning the MAC address of VEs that are not yet active, the switch will be able to later recognize the VE when it becomes active on a switch port, and immediately assign the proper VM group properties without further configuration.
Undiscovered VEs are added to or removed from VM groups using the following configuration commands:
RS G8296(config)# [no] virt vmgroup <VM group number> vm <VE MAC address>
For the pre‐provisioning of undiscovered VEs, a MAC address is required. Other identifying properties, such as IPv4 address or VM name permitted for known VEs, cannot be used for pre‐provisioning.
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VLAN Maps
A VLAN map (VMAP) is a type of Access Control List (ACL) that is applied to a VLAN or VM group rather than to a switch port as with regular ACLs (see Chapter 7, “Access Control Lists”). In a virtualized environment, VMAPs allow you to create traffic filtering and metering policies that are associated with a VM group VLAN, allowing filters to follow VMs as they migrate between hypervisors.
ENOS 8.4 supports up to 128 VMAPs. Individual VMAP filters are configured in the same fashion as regular ACLs, except that VLANs cannot be specified as a filtering criteria (unnecessary, since VMAPs are assigned to a specific VLAN or associated with a VM group VLAN).
VMAPs are configured using the following ISCLI configuration command path:
RS G8296(config)# access­control vmap <VMAP ID> ?
action Set filter action
egress­port Set to filter for packets egressing this port
ethernet Ethernet header options
ipv4 IP version 4 header options
meter ACL metering configuration
mirror Mirror options
packet­format Set to filter specific packet format types
re­mark ACL re­mark configuration
statistics Enable access control list statistics
tcp­udp TCP and UDP filtering options
Once a VMAP filter is created, it can be assigned or removed using the following commands:

For regular VLANs, use config‐vlan mode:
RS G8296(config)# vlan <VLAN ID>
RS G8296(config­vlan)# [no] vmap <VMAP ID> [serverports| non­serverports]

For a VM group, use the global configuration mode:
RS G8296(config)# [no] virt vmgroup <ID> vmap <VMAP ID> [serverports|non­serverports]
Note: Each VMAP can be assigned to only one VLAN or VM group. However, each VLAN or VM group may have multiple VMAPs assigned to it.
The optional serverports or non­serverports parameter can be specified to apply the action (to add or remove the VMAP) for either the switch server ports (serverports) or switch uplink ports (non­serverports). If omitted, the operation will be applied to all ports in the associated VLAN or VM group.
Note: VMAPs have a lower priority than port‐based ACLs. If both an ACL and a VMAP match a particular packet, both filter actions will be applied as long as there is no conflict. In the event of a conflict, the port ACL will take priority, though switch statistics will count matches for both the ACL and VMAP.
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VM Policy Bandwidth Control
In a virtualized environment where VEs can migrate between hypervisors and thus move among different ports on the switch, traffic bandwidth policies must be attached to VEs, rather than to a specific switch port.
VM Policy Bandwidth Control allows the administrator to specify the amount of data the switch will permit to flow from a particular VE, without defining a complicated matrix of ACLs or VMAPs for all port combinations where a VE may appear.
VM Policy Bandwidth Control Commands
VM Policy Bandwidth Control can be configured using the following configuration commands:
RS G8296(config)# virt vmpolicy vmbwidth <VM MAC>|<index>|<UUID>| <IPv4 address>|<name>?
txrate <committed rate> <burst> [<ACL number>] (Set the VM transmit bandwidth – ingress for switch)
rxrate <committed rate> <burst>
(Set the VM receive bandwidth – egress
for switch)
bwctrl
(Enable bandwidth control)
Bandwidth allocation can be defined for transmit (TX) traffic or receive (RX) traffic. Because bandwidth allocation is specified from the perspective of the VE, the switch command for TX Rate Control (txrate) sets the data rate to be sent from the VM to the switch, and the RX rate sets the data rate to be received by the VM from the switch.
The committed rate is specified in multiples of 64 kbps, from 64 to 40,000,000. The maximum burst rate is specified as 32, 64, 128, 256, 1024, 2048, or 4096 kb. If both the committed rate and burst are set to 0, bandwidth control will be disabled.
When txrate is specified, the switch automatically selects an available ACL for internal use with bandwidth control. Optionally, if automatic ACL selection is not desired, a specific ACL may be selected. If there are no unassigned ACLs available, txrate cannot be configured.
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Bandwidth Policies vs. Bandwidth Shaping
VM Profile Bandwidth Shaping differs from VM Policy Bandwidth Control.
VM Profile Bandwidth Shaping (see “VM Profiles” on page 281) is configured per VM group and is enforced on the server by a virtual switch in the hypervisor. Shaping is unidirectional and limits traffic transmitted from the virtual switch to the G8296. Shaping is performed prior to transmit VM Policy Bandwidth Control. If the egress traffic for a virtual switch port group exceeds shaping parameters, the traffic is dropped by the virtual switch in the hypervisor. Shaping uses server CPU resources, but prevents extra traffic from consuming bandwidth between the server and the G8296.
VM Policy Bandwidth Control is configured per VE, and can be set independently for transmit traffic. Bandwidth policies are enforced by the G8296. VE traffic that exceeds configured levels is dropped by the switch upon ingress. Setting txrate uses ACL resources on the switch.
Bandwidth shaping and bandwidth policies can be used separately or in concert.
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VMready Information Displays
The G8296 can be used to display a variety of VMready information.
Note: Some displays depict information collected from scans of a VMware vCenter and may not be available without a valid vCenter. If a vCenter is assigned (see “Assigning a vCenter” on page 288), scan information might not be available for up to two minutes after the switch boots or when VMready is first enabled. Also, any major changes made through the vCenter may take up to two minutes to be reflected on the switch unless you force an immediate vCenter scan (see “vCenter Scans” on page 289.
Local VE Information
A concise list of local VEs and pre‐provisioned VEs is available with the following ISCLI privileged EXEC command: RS G8296# show virt vm
IP Address VMAC Address Index Port VM Group (Profile) Check status ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ ­­­­­ ­­­­­­­­ ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ ­­­­­­­­­­­­
0.0.0.0 00:50:56:55:47:0c 5 17.3 ~0.0.0.0 00:50:56:b3:1e:7b 2 17.3 1 test ~0.0.0.0 00:50:56:b3:1f:16 1 17.3 1 test ~0.0.0.0 00:50:56:b3:2c:b9 4 18 2 ~0.0.0.0 00:50:56:b3:5f:32 3 18 1 test ~0.0.0.0 00:50:56:b3:69:5a 0 19.3 1 test VMReady ports: 17­21
Number of entries: 6
~ indicates inactive VMs
0.0.0.0 indicates IP address not yet available
Note: The Index numbers shown in the VE information displays can be used to specify a particular VE in configuration commands.
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If a vCenter is available, more verbose information can be obtained using the following ISCLI privileged EXEC command option: RS G8296# show virt vm ­v
Index MAC Address, Name (VM or Host), Port, Group Vswitch,
IP Address @Host (VMs only) VLAN Port Group
­­­­­ ­­­­­­­­­­­­ ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ ­­­­­ ­­­­­ ­­­­­­­­­­
0 00:50:56:9c:21:2f atom 4 vSwitch0
172.16.46.15 @172.16.46.10 500 Eng_A
+1 00:50:56:72:ec:86 172.16.46.50 3 vSwitch0
172.16.46.51 0 VMkernel
*2 00:50:56:4f:f2:85 172.16.46.10 4 vSwitch0
172.16.46.10 0 Mgmt
+3 00:50:56:7c:1c:ca 172.16.46.10 4 vSwitch0
172.16.46.11 0 VMkernel
*4 00:50:56:4e:62:f5 172.16.46.50 3 vSwitch0
172.16.46.50 0 Mgmt
5 00:50:56:9c:00:c8 quark 4 vSwitch0
172.16.46.25 @172.16.46.10 0 Corp
6 00:50:56:9c:29:29 particle 3 vSwitch0
172.16.46.35 @172.16.46.50 0 VM Network
7 00:50:56:9c:47:fd nucleus 3 vSwitch0
172.16.46.45 @172.16.46.50 0 Finance
­­
12 of 12 entries printed
* indicates VMware ESX Service Console Interface
+ indicates VMware ESX/ESXi VMkernel or Management Interface
To view additional detail regarding any specific VE, see “vCenter Switchport Mapping Details” on page 298).
vCenter Hypervisor Hosts
If a vCenter is available, the following ISCLI privileged EXEC command displays the name and UUID of all VMware hosts, providing an essential overview of the data center:
RS G8296# show virt vmware hosts
UUID Name(s), IP Address
­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­
00a42681­d0e5­5910­a0bf­bd23bd3f7800 172.16.41.30
002e063c­153c­dd11­8b32­a78dd1909a00 172.16.46.10
00f1fe30­143c­dd11­84f2­a8ba2cd7ae00 172.16.44.50
0018938e­143c­dd11­9f7a­d8defa4b8300 172.16.46.20
...
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Using the following command, the administrator can view more detailed vCenter host information, including a list of virtual switches and their port groups, as well as details for all associated VEs:
RS G8296# show virt vmware showhost {<UUID>|<IPv4 address>|<host name>}
Vswitches available on the host:
vSwitch0
Port Groups and their Vswitches on the host:
Lenovo_Default vSwitch0
VM Network vSwitch0
Service Console vSwitch0
VMkernel vSwitch0
­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­
MAC Address 00:50:56:9c:21:2f
Port 4
Type Virtual Machine
VM vCenter Name halibut
VM OS hostname localhost.localdomain
VM IP Address 172.16.46.15
VM UUID 001c41f3­ccd8­94bb­1b94­6b94b03b9200
Current VM Host 172.16.46.10
Vswitch vSwitch0
Port Group Lenovo_Default
VLAN ID 0
...
vCenter VEs
If a vCenter is available, the following ISCLI privileged EXEC command displays a list of all known VEs:
RS G8296# show virt vmware vms
UUID Name(s), IP Address
­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­
001cdf1d­863a­fa5e­58c0­d197ed3e3300 30vm1
001c1fba­5483­863f­de04­4953b5caa700 VM90
001c0441­c9ed­184c­7030­d6a6bc9b4d00 VM91
001cc06e­393b­a36b­2da9­c71098d9a700 vm_new
001c6384­f764­983c­83e3­e94fc78f2c00 sturgeon
001c7434­6bf9­52bd­c48c­a410da0c2300 VM70
001cad78­8a3c­9cbe­35f6­59ca5f392500 VM60
001cf762­a577­f42a­c6ea­090216c11800 30VM6
001c41f3­ccd8­94bb­1b94­6b94b03b9200 halibut, localhost.localdomain,
172.16.46.15
001cf17b­5581­ea80­c22c­3236b89ee900 30vm5
001c4312­a145­bf44­7edd­49b7a2fc3800 vm3
001caf40­a40a­de6f­7b44­9c496f123b00 30VM7
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vCenter VE Details
If a vCenter is available, the following ISCLI privileged EXEC command displays detailed information about a specific VE:
RS G8296# show virt vmware showvm {<VM UUID>|<VM IPv4 address>|<VM name>}
­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­
MAC Address 00:50:56:9c:21:2f
Port 4
Type Virtual Machine
VM vCenter Name halibut
VM OS hostname localhost.localdomain
VM IP Address 172.16.46.15
VM UUID 001c41f3­ccd8­94bb­1b94­6b94b03b9200
Current VM Host 172.16.46.10
Vswitch vSwitch0
Port Group Lenovo_Default
VLAN ID 0
vCenter Switchport Mapping Details
If a vCenter is available, the following ISCLI privileged EXEC command displays detailed information about VE switchport mapping:
RS G8296# show virt vmware switchport­mapping
ST 5 ==> 10.241.32.133 vmnic5
ST 5 ==> 10.241.32.133 vmnic5
23 ==> 10.241.32.131 vmnic3
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VMready Configuration Example
This example has the following characteristics:
A VMware vCenter is fully installed and configured prior to VMready configura‐
tion and includes a “bladevm” administration account and a valid SSL certifi‐
cate.
 The distributed VM group model is used.
 The VM profile named “Finance” is configured for VLAN 30, and specifies NIC‐to‐switch bandwidth shaping for 1Mbps average bandwidth, 2MB bursts, and 3Mbps maximum bandwidth.
 The VM group includes four discovered VMs on switch server ports 1 and 2, and one static LAG (previously configured) that includes switch uplink ports 3 and 4.

1. Define the server ports. RS G8296(config)# system server­ports port 1­2
2. Enable the VMready feature.
RS G8296(config)# virt enable
3. Specify the VMware vCenter IPv4 address.
RS G8296(config)# virt vmware vmware vcspec 172.16.100.1 bladevm
When prompted, enter the user password that the switch must use for access to the vCenter.
4. Create the VM profile.
RS G8296(config)# virt vmprofile Finance
RS G8296(config)# virt vmprofile edit Finance vlan 30
RS G8296(config)# virt vmprofile edit Finance shaping 1000 2000 3000
5. Define the VM group.
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# virt vmgroup 1 profile Finance
G8296(config)# virt vmgroup 1 vm arctic
G8296(config)# virt vmgroup 1 vm monster
G8296(config)# virt vmgroup 1 vm sierra
G8296(config)# virt vmgroup 1 vm 00:50:56:4f:f2:00
G8296(config)# virt vmgroup 1 portchannel 1
When VMs are added, the server ports on which they appear are automatically added to the VM group. In this example, there is no need to manually add ports 1 and 2.
6. If necessary, enable VLAN tagging for the VM group:
RS G8296(config)# virt vmgroup 1 tag
Note: If the VM group contains ports that also exist in other VM groups, make sure tagging is enabled in both VM groups. In this example configuration, no ports exist in more than one VM group.
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Chapter 19. Network Virtualization Gateway
NSX is a VMware virtualized network platform that offers the operational model of a virtual machine over a network. Virtual networks function in a similar way to virtual machines for computers. NSX builds virtual networks inside software, providing a full set of networking services, such as logical switching, routing, firewall, load balancing, VPN, quality of service (QoS), and monitoring.
Virtual networks are managed independently of the underlying type of network hardware. NSX reproduces the entire network model in software, allowing any network topology (simple or complex) to be created and provisioned in a few seconds. Virtual networks can then be deployed over any existing network hardware without generating disruptions in functionality.
NSX uses the Virtual Extensible LAN (VXLAN) protocol to provide network virtualization for cloud computing, VXLAN offers the same Ethernet Layer 2 services as the VLAN protocol, but with increased flexibility and scalability. The VXLAN protocol uses an overlay mechanism to tunnel virtualized network traffic over existing Layer 3 or Layer 2 networks. These logical networks must be programmed and managed throughout the network including virtual and physical servers, networking equipment, and storage devices.
The integration of NSX and Lenovo switches offers the following benefits to deploying network virtualization within software defined cloud networking:

Virtual and physical workloads can be connected upon demand on a common logical segment regardless of hypervisor, IP subnet, or physical location

Holistic views of the virtual and physical topology increase operational efficiency

Network virtualization with NSX does not require IP multicast to learn or forward broadcast, unknown unicast, or multicast packets

A single point of management and control (NSX API) can be used for configuring logical networks across hypervisors and physical access switches
NSX consists of the following components:
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
NSX Manager

NSX Controller

NSX Edge

NSX Virtual Switch (vSwitch)
301
Figure 24. VMware NSX Architecture Virtual Network
VM
NSX Manager
Layer 2
Layer 3
Layer 2
NSX
Controller
Software
Lenovo HW
Layer 2 Gateway
VM
VDS
VDS
VDS
VDS
ESXi
ESXi
ESXi
ESXi
NSX Edge
Hardware
Lenovo Switch
VLAN
Server
Server
Server
VM
VM
VM
VM
VM
VM
VM
VM
VM
VM
Server
VLAN
Servers
Server
External
Network
Physical Network
NSX Manager
The NSX Manager is the centralized management component of NSX. It provides a management interface for NSX, through which virtual networks can then be configured.
The NSX Manager is capable of deploying the NSX Controller and NSX Edge, configuring the controller cluster, installing VXLAN, and more.
NSX Controller
The NSX Controller is a distributed state management system that controls virtual networks and overlay transport tunnels. It consists of a cluster of several virtual machines.
It is the central control point for all logical switches and it maintains information about all virtual machines, logical switches, hosts, and VXLANs.
NSX Edge
NSX Edge isolates a virtual network by providing network edge security and gateway services, such as dynamic routing, perimeter firewall, DHCP, NAT, and load balancing.
NSX vSwitch
A NSX vSwitch is the software that creates an abstraction between the servers hypervisors and the physical network. It allows the distribution of virtual workloads on any available infrastructure in the data center, regardless of the underlying physical network infrastructure.
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NSX Tunneling
NSX establishes logical connections called tunnels between specific physical devices or virtual machines on the virtual network. This allow the advantage of not needing to change the physical topology of a network. The network separation is achieved through the use of software, thus making it a logical separation and not a physical one.
For example, in a large cloud data center the physical network needs to be restructured to meet the needs of multiple clients. Rather than physically altering the network, NSX provides the option of creating any virtual network topology and deploying it over the existing physical network.
To achieve this logical separation, NSX creates tunnels between the physical or virtual devices needed in a specific topology. A tunnel is created using the VXLAN protocol and it originates and terminates in a VXLAN Tunnel End Point (VTEP).
A VTEP can be created on a VMware vSphere Hypervisor or on a physical switch. Once a tunnel is set up, it gives the impression that the devices (physical or virtual) connected to its VTEPs are communicating across a Layer 2 domain. The underlying Layer 3 infrastructure is invisible to the devices communicating through the tunnel.
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VXLAN
VXLAN is an extension to the VLAN protocol, designed to provide increased scalability in virtual networks. VXLAN is an Ethernet Layer 2 overlay protocol over a Layer 3 network. It uses an encapsulation method similar to VLAN that wraps MAC‐based Ethernet Layer 2 frames with Layer 4 UDP packets, using destination UDP port 4789.
In typical physical networks, the number of VLANs is limited to 4094. VXLAN increases scalability up to 16 million logical networks and allows for Layer 2 adjacency across IP networks. This is achieved by adding a 24 bit segment ID to the VXLAN frame. The segment ID differentiates between individual logical networks, allowing millions of isolated Layer 2 VXLAN networks to coexist over the same Layer 3 infrastructure. Similar to VLANs, only virtual machines on the same VXLAN can exchange information with one another.
The virtualization of computing enables the mobility of virtual machines across different physical servers that exist in separate Layer 2 domains. This is done by tunneling virtual traffic over Layer 3 networks. Tunneling allows the dynamic distribution of resources within or across data centers without the limitations of Layer 2 boundaries or the necessity of creating large geographical Layer 2 domains.
VXLAN is an overlay technology that encapsulates Ethernet frames generated by physical or virtual workloads that are connected to the same logical Layer 2 segment. This segment is commonly called a Logical Switch (LS). The VXLAN frame format is shown in Figure 25.
Figure 25. VXLAN Frame Format VXLAN Encapsulated Frame
Original Ethernet Frame
304
14 bytes
20 bytes
8 bytes
8 bytes
Outer
Ethernet
Header
Outer
IP
Header
Outer
UDP
Header
VXLAN
Header
Outer
Destination
MAC
IP
Header
Data
Source
Port
VXLAN
Flags
Outer
Source
MAC
IP
Protocol
Destination
Port
(8472)
RSVD
Optional
VXLAN
Type
Header
Checksum
UDP
Length
VXLAN
NI
(VNI)
Optional
Outer
802.1Q
Outer
Source
IP
UDP
Checksum
RSVD
Ether
Type
Outer
Destination
IP
G8296 Application Guide for ENOS 8.4
Inner
Dest
MAC
Inner Optional Optional
Source Ether
Inner
MAC
Type 802.1Q
Original
Ethernet
Payload
Hash of original L2/L3/L4 headers
VXLAN Network Identifier (24 bits)
VTEPs (VXLAN Tunnel End Points)
FCS
VXLAN uses Layer 2 over Layer 3 encapsulation. The Ethernet frame generated by a workload is wrapped within external VXLAN, UDP, IP, and Ethernet headers to ensure its transportation across the network infrastructure that connects the VXLAN endpoints together.
The first step in encapsulation is wrapping the Ethernet frame within a VXLAN header. This header uses a 24 bit VXLAN Network Identifier (VNI) that scales beyond the 4094 limitation of VLANs, allowing up to 16 million logical networks. Similar to VLANs, the VXLAN header is associated to an IP subnet. Internal IP subnet communication is achieved only between devices connected to the same virtual network or logical switch.
The second step is to encapsulate the VXLAN header within a UDP header. The Layer 2, Layer 3, and Layer 4 headers of the original Ethernet frame are hashed to determine the source port for the external UDP header. This ensures the load balancing of VXLAN traffic across equal cost paths available within the transport network infrastructure.
After adding the UDP header, the packet is encapsulated with an external IP header. The source and destination IP addresses of this header are used to uniquely identify the ESXi hosts originating and terminating the VXLAN frame encapsulation. These ESXi hosts are called VXLAN Tunnel End Points (VTEPs).
The final step is to wrap the packet in an external Ethernet header. This header uses the MAC address of VTEP associated with the original Ethernet frame as its source MAC address and the MAC address of the next‐hop routing device as its destination MAC address.
Note: VXLAN encapsulation increases the size of the IP packet by wrapping the internal Ethernet frame in an external UDP header. The overall Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) for all interfaces members of the physical infrastructure that will carry the VXLAN frame needs to be increased to a minimum of 1,600 bytes.
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Lenovo VXLAN Gateway
In a typical cloud data center, physical servers and virtual machines need to share the same Layer 2 domain. A physical server is unable to communicate with a virtual machine using the VXLAN protocol.
A VXLAN Gateway is required to enable the communication between physical and virtual devices using the VXLAN protocol. The Gateway enables this by translating the VXLAN packet into a traditional VLAN.
The Lenovo VXLAN Gateway allows physical servers to consistently connect to virtual machines within a cloud infrastructure of a NSX for vSphere environment.
Figure 26. VXLAN Gateway Services VxLAN
VTEP GW
VXLAN
12345
VXLAN
12345
IP Network
VTEP 2
VTEP 1
VLAN 200
VXLAN 12345
VxLAN
VTEP GW
VXLAN 12345
VM1
VLAN 100
VM2
Server 1
Server 2
Data Center 1
Data Center 2
The Lenovo VXLAN Gateway provides the following:

Access Control Lists (ACLs) for VXLAN‐based user traffic

Configuration and monitoring using ISCLI, web, or SNMP

Packet counters for virtual ports and networks associated with the VXLAN Gateway

Open vSwitch Database (OVSDB) Protocol for orchestration from Software‐Defined Networking (SDN) Controller Node

Full support for Bidirectional Forwarding Detection (BFD) to ensure SDN Replication Cluster availability

Mirroring of VXLAN inner packets for troubleshooting

Line rate packet forwarding for both VXLAN and non‐VXLAN packets
To enable the VXLAN Gateway on the G8296, use the following command: RS G8296(config)# nwv mode nsx­gw
To disable the VXLAN Gateway, use the following command: RS G8296(config)# no nwv mode
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To configure the VXLAN Gateway, use the following command: RS G8296(config)# nwv nsx­gw
RS G8296(conf­nsx­gw)#
Note: After issuing this command, you will enter VXLAN Gateway configuration command mode.
To be part of the virtual network, the switch must inform the NSX Manager which of its interfaces will be used as a VXLAN Tunnel End Point (VTEP). To achieve this, you can configure the IP address of the local VTEP by using the following command: RS G8296(conf­nsx­gw)# tunnel ip <IPv4 address>
To delete the VXLAN Gateway tunnel IP configuration, use the following command: RS G8296(conf­nsx­gw)# no tunnel
To display the tunnels created between the local switch VTEP and other VTEPs across the virtual network, use the following command: RS G8296# show nwv nsx­gw tunnels
Tunnel Count: 2
Local IP Address Remote IP Address Remote Type Status
­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ ­­­­­­­­­­­­­ ­­­­­­
10.10.2.100 10.10.2.10 SN(active) Up
10.10.2.100 10.10.3.110 VTEP Up
For the switch to operate as a VXLAN Gateway, it must synchronize network information with the NSX Controller. To configure the IP address of the NSX Controller, use the following command: RS G8296(conf­nsx­gw)# controller ip <IPv4 address>
You can also configure the TCP port of the NSX Controller: RS G8296(conf­nsx­gw)# controller port <1‐65534>
To delete the NSX Controller configuration from the switch, use the following command: RS G8296(conf­nsx­gw)# no controller
To verify the connection to the NSX Controller, use the following command: RS G8296# show nwv ovsdb connection
Idx Type Peer State Inact. ms Backoff ms Latest Method
­­­ ­­­­­­­­­ ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ ­­­­­­ ­­­­­­­­­ ­­­­­­­­­­ ­­­­­­­­­­­­­
1 SSL(Active) 10.240.180.96:6640 ACTIVE 30000 8000 transact(comment)
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To display information about the VXLAN Gateway, use the following command: RS G8296# show nwv nsx­gw
NSX Gateway Information:
Status: Enabled
Gateway IP: 10.10.2.100
BFD Status: Enabled
Controller Connections:
Idx Type Peer State Inact. ms Backoff ms Latest Method
­­­ ­­­­­­­­­­­­­ ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ ­­­­­­ ­­­­­­­­­ ­­­­­­­­­­ ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­
1 SSL (Active) 10.240.180.96:6640 ACTIVE 30000 8000 transact (comment)
2 SSL (Active) 10.240.180.97:6640 ACTIVE 30000 8000 transact (insert)
3 SSL (Active) 10.240.180.98:6640 ACTIVE 30000 8000 transact (comment)
Physical Port Count: 7
VNI­VLAN Mappings Count: 3
­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­
Name VNI VLAN Status
­­­­ ­­­­ ­­­­ ­­­­­­
3/2 5000 100 Up
3/3 5000 100 Up
To display virtual network information, use the following command: RS G8296# show nwv nsx­hw virtual­network
VNI name
­­­­­­­­­­ ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­
5000 e847da86­40d0­4751­a897­382f226263c7
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VXLAN ACL Filtering
Access Control Lists (ACLs) can be configured to filter network traffic based on several VXLAN parameters.
To configure an ACL to filter traffic based on its VXLAN Network Identifier (VNI), use the following command: RS G8296(config)# access­control list <1‐256> vxlan vnid <1‐16777215>
For example, configure ACL 10 to filter traffic with VNI 178800: RS G8296(config)# access­control list 10 vxlan vnid 178800
To display ACL filtering configuration based on VXLAN, use the following command: RS G8296> show access­control list <1‐256> [vxlan]
For example: RS G8296> show access­control list 20
Filter 20 profile:
VXLAN
­ VNID : 100
Meter
­ Set to disabled
­ Set committed rate : 64
­ Set max burst size : 32
Re­Mark
­ Set use of TOS precedence to disabled
Actions : Permit
Statistics : enabled
RS G8296> show access­control list 20 vxlan
VXLAN
­ VNID : 100
To remove ACL filtering based on the VNI, use the following command: RS G8296(config)# access­control list <1‐256> vxlan vnid
To reset ACL filtering based on VXLAN, use the following command: RS G8296(config)# default access­control list <1‐256> vxlan
ACLs can be configured to filter on the fields of the internal ethernet packet. To do this, use the following command: RS G8296(config)# [no] access­control vxlan inner­packet enable
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VXLAN Gateway Topologies
The following deployment topologies are supported by the Lenovo VXLAN Gateway:
VXLAN Tunnels over Layer 3 Routed Network
This topology shows the servers directly connected to the G8296 ports in access mode while connectivity between the VTEPs is L3 routed.
Figure 27. VXLAN Tunneling over Layer 3 Routed Network Servers
Lenovo Switch
VTEP - 10.10.20.5
Layer 3 Switch
Replicator
VLAN 23
OSPF Area 0
VLAN 11
VXLAN
Tunnels
ESXi 1
VTEP - 10.10.2.6
VM1
ESXi 2
VTEP - 10.10.2.8
VM2
VM3
VM4
Directly Attached VXLAN Tunnel with a Layer 2 Network
In this topology all nodes including ESXi and physical servers are connected directly to the G8296 VXLAN Gateway switch in a Layer 2 configuration.
Figure 28. VXLAN Tunneling over Layer 2 Network Lenovo Switch
VTEP - 10.10.2.5
Servers
Replicator
VLAN 23
VLAN 11
VXLAN
Tunnels
ESXi 1
VTEP - 10.10.2.6
VM1
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ESXi 2
VTEP - 10.10.2.8
VM2
VM3
VM4
Physical Servers on Layer 2 Switches
This topology allows connecting physical servers using VLAN trunks into the G8296 VXLAN gateway switch.
Figure 29. VXLAN Tunneling over VXLAN Gateway Switch Lenovo Switch
VTEP - 10.10.20.5
VXLAN
Tunnels
k:
Trun , 23
s 11
VLAN
Layer 2
Switch
Layer 3
Switch
OSPF Area 0
VLAN 23
VLAN 11
ESXi 1
VTEP - 10.10.2.6
VM1
ESXi 2
VTEP - 10.10.2.8
VM2
VM3
VM4
VXLAN Tunnels through a Layer 2 Network (Not Supported)
This topology is not supported when multiple VTEPs are connected to the Lenovo VXLAN gateway switch using a Layer 2 switch.
Figure 30. VXLAN Tunneling over Layer 2 Switches Bare Metal
Servers
Lenovo Switch
VTEP - 10.10.2.5
Layer 2 Switch
Replicator
VLAN 23
VLAN 11
VxLAN
Tunnels
ESXi 1
VTEP - 10.10.2.6
VM1
ESXi 2
VTEP - 10.10.2.8
VM2
VM3
VM4
The G8296 has a hardware restriction that does not allow this kind of topology. It supports only a single next‐hop per network port. It cannot initiate tunnels from a single network port to multiple remote Tunnel End Points (TEPs) across a Layer 2 network. Instead, it can initiate tunnels from a single network port to multiple remote TEPs across a Layer 3 network.
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VXLAN Gateway Configuration Example
The following example shows the steps required to configure the G8296 as a VXLAN Gateway for VMware NSX.
Figure 31. VXLAN Gateway Example Lenovo Switch
VTEP C - 1.1.1.1
Lenovo Switch
VTEP D - 1.1.1.2
OSPF Area 0
Legacy Server 1
12.1.1.11
Legacy Server 2
12.1.1.12
Lenovo Switch
Replicator
10.10.1.117
VTEP A
10.10.1.110
VTEP B
10.10.1.111
ESXi
ESXi
VM1
VM3
VM2
VM4
Server with Hypervisor
ESXi 1
10.240.136.110
Server with Hypervisor
ESXi 2
10.240.136.111
1. Configure the DNS and NTP server addresses to get the correct time and avoid certificate failure check due to certificate expiration.
a. Configure the primary and secondary DNS server addresses: RS G8296(config)# ip dns primary­server 10.96.1.18 mgt­port
RS G8296(config)# ip dns secondary­server 10.128.0.111 mgt­port
b. Enable NTP and configure the NTP server address: RS G8296(config)# ntp enable
RS G8296(config)# ntp primary­server time.nist.gov mgt­port
2. Assign the hardware VTEP an IP address by using either an IP interface or a loopback interface.
a. Configure an IP interface: RS
RS
RS
RS
312
G8296(config)# interface ip 1
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip address 10.240.180.145 255.255.255.0
G8296(config­ip­if)# enable
G8296(config­ip­if)# exit
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b. Configure a loopback interface: RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# interface loopback 1
G8296(config­ip­loopback)# ip address 10.10.2.110 255.255.255.255
G8296(config­ip­loopback)# enable
G8296(config­ip­loopback)# exit
3. Enable the VXLAN Gateway: RS G8296(config)# nwv mode nsx­gw
4. Configure the local VXLAN VTEP: RS G8296(config)# nwv nsx­gw
RS G8296(conf­nsx­gw)# tunnel ip 10.10.2.110
Note: The VTEP IP address can be either the IP interface address or the loopback IP address configured at step 2.
5. Configure NSX Mode on the switch ports that will physically participate in the virtual network: RS G8296(config)# interface port 5
RS G8296(config­if)# nsx­gw enable
RS G8296(config­if)# exit
6. The switch is now configured as a VXLAN Gateway. The next step is to add it to NSX Manager as a Hardware Device.
a. Obtain the PKI certificate from the switch: RS G8296(config)# show pki certificate
­­­­­BEGIN CERTIFICATE­­­­­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­­­­­END CERTIFICATE­­­­­
b. Using the VMware vSphere Web Client add the switch as a Hardware Device. Attach the physical switch ports configured at step 5 to Logical Switches as required for network connectivity. For more details on how to add the Hardware Gateway, see the VMware NSX Administration Guide.
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7. Configure the NSX Controller IP address and Controller port on the switch: RS G8296(conf­nsx­gw)# controller ip 10.240.136.116
RS G8296(conf­nsx­gw)# controller port 6640
RS G8296(conf­nsx­gw)# exit
To verify that the connection to the NSX Controller is active, use the following command: RS G8296(config)# show nwv ovsdb connection
Idx Type Peer State Inact. ms Backoff ms Latest Method
­­­ ­­­­­­­­­ ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ ­­­­­­ ­­­­­­­­­ ­­­­­­­­­­ ­­­­­­­­­­­­­
1 SSL(Active) 10.240.180.96:6640 ACTIVE 30000 8000 transact (comment)
8. Configure VXLAN ACL filtering using one of the following two methods:
a. On a transit switch without any VXLAN Gateway functionality, being unable to filter traffic based on the internal Ethernet frame, an ACL can be configured to manipulate VXLAN packets based on the Virtual Network Identifier (VNI)On : RS G8296(config)# access­control list 20 action deny
RS G8296(config)# access­control list 20 vxlan vnid 100
The ACL must be then applied on the relevant switch interface through which the VXLAN traffic will pass.
b. On a switch with the VXLAN Gateway enabled, an ACL can be configured to filter based on the internal Ethernet frame: RS G8296(config)# access­control list 10 action deny
RS G8296(config)# access­control list 10 ipv4 destination­ip­address 192.168.10.111
The switch can filter any internal Ethernet frame based on its Layer 2, 3, or 4 attributes and allows all supported actions.
To enable or disable the filtering of VXLAN packets based on the internal Ethernet frame, use the following command: RS G8296(config)# [no] access­control vxlan inner­packet enable
9. (Optional) Mirror the VXLAN packets. In the following example, traffic that matches the ACL conditions will be mirrored on switch port 6: RS G8296(config)# access­control list 1 vxlan vnid 5001
RS G8296(config)# access­control list 1 action deny
RS G8296(config)# access­control list 1 mirror port 6
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Chapter 20. FCoE and CEE
This chapter provides conceptual background and configuration examples for using Converged Enhanced Ethernet (CEE) features of the RackSwitch G8296, with an emphasis on Fibre Channel over Ethernet (FCoE) solutions. The following topics are addressed in this chapter:

“Fibre Channel over Ethernet” on page 316
Fibre Channel over Ethernet (FCoE) allows Fibre Channel traffic to be transported over Ethernet links. This provides an evolutionary approach toward network consolidation, allowing Fibre Channel equipment and tools to be retained, while leveraging cheap, ubiquitous Ethernet networks for growth.

“FCoE Initialization Protocol Snooping” on page 326
Using FCoE Initialization Protocol (FIP) snooping, the G8296 examines the FIP frames exchanged between ENodes and FCFs. This information is used to dynamically determine the ACLs required to block certain types of undesired or unvalidated traffic on FCoE links.

“FCoE Forwarder” on page 330
An FCoE Forwarder (FCF) authenticates connecting neighbors, provides Fibre Channel IDs, enforce port security among zones, and informs neighboring devices of network changes.

“Converged Enhanced Ethernet” on page 323
Converged Enhanced Ethernet (CEE) refers to a set of IEEE standards developed primarily to enable FCoE, requiring enhancing the existing Ethernet standards to make them lossless on a per‐priority traffic basis, and providing a mechanism to carry converged (LAN/SAN/IPC) traffic on a single physical link. CEE features can also be utilized in traditional LAN (non‐FCoE) networks to provide lossless guarantees on a per‐priority basis, and to provide efficient bandwidth allocation.

“Priority‐Based Flow Control” on page 336
Priority‐Based Flow Control (PFC) extends 802.3x standard flow control to allow the switch to pause traffic based on the 802.1p priority value in each packet’s VLAN tag. PFC is vital for FCoE environments, where SAN traffic must remain lossless and must be paused during congestion, while LAN traffic on the same links is delivered with “best effort” characteristics.

“Enhanced Transmission Selection” on page 339
Enhanced Transmission Selection (ETS) provides a method for allocating link bandwidth based on the 802.1p priority value in each packet’s VLAN tag. Using ETS, different types of traffic (such as LAN, SAN, and management) that are sensitive to different handling criteria can be configured either for specific bandwidth characteristics, low‐latency, or best‐effort transmission, despite sharing converged links as in an FCoE environment.

“Data Center Bridging Capability Exchange” on page 346
Data Center Bridging Capability Exchange Protocol (DCBX) allows neighboring network devices to exchange information about their capabilities. This is used between CEE‐capable devices for the purpose of discovering their peers, negotiating peer configurations, and detecting misconfigurations.
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Fibre Channel over Ethernet
Fibre Channel over Ethernet (FCoE) is an effort to converge two of the different physical networks in today’s data centers. It allows Fibre Channel traffic (such as that commonly used in Storage Area Networks, or SANs) to be transported without loss over 10Gb Ethernet links (typically used for high‐speed Local Area Networks, or LANs). This provides an evolutionary approach toward network consolidation, allowing Fibre Channel equipment and tools to be retained, while leveraging cheap, ubiquitous Ethernet networks for growth.
With server virtualization, servers capable of hosting both Fibre Channel and Ethernet applications will provide advantages in server efficiency, particularly as FCoE‐enabled network adapters provide consolidated SAN and LAN traffic capabilities.
The Lenovo RackSwitch G8296 with Lenovo Enterprise Network Operating System 8.4 software is compliant with the INCITS T11.3, FC‐BB‐5 FCoE specification.
Note: The G8296 supports up to 2048 FCoE login sessions.
The FCoE Topology
In an end‐to‐end Fibre Channel network, switches and end devices generally establish trusted, point‐to‐point links. Fibre Channel switches validate end devices, enforce zoning configurations and device addressing, and prevent certain types of errors and attacks on the network.
In a converged multi‐hop FCoE network where Fibre Channel devices are bridged to Ethernet devices, the direct point‐to‐point QoS capabilities normally provided by the Fibre Channel fabric may be lost in the transition between the different network types. The G8296 provides a solution to overcome this.
Figure 32. A Mixed Fibre Channel and FCoE Network In Figure 32 on page 316, the Fibre Channel network is connected to the FCoE network through an FCoE Forwarder (FCF). The FCF acts as a Fibre Channel gateway to and from the FCoE network.
For the FCoE portion of the network, the FCF is connected to the FCoE‐enabled G8296, which is connected to a server (running Fibre Channel applications) through an FCoE‐enabled Converged Network Adapter (CNA) known in Fibre Channel as Ethernet Nodes (ENodes).
Note: The figure also shows a non‐FCoE LAN server connected to the G8296 using a CNA. This allows the LAN server to take advantage of some CEE features that are useful even outside of an FCoE environment.
To block undesired or unvalidated traffic on FCoE links that exists outside the regular Fibre Channel topology, Ethernet ports used in FCoE are configured with Access Control Lists (ACLs) that are narrowly tailored to permit expected FCoE traffic to and from confirmed FCFs and ENodes, and deny all other FCoE or FIP traffic. This ensures that all FCoE traffic to an from the ENode passes through the FCF.
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Because manual ACL configuration is an administratively complex task, the G8296 can automatically and dynamically configure the ACLs required for use with FCoE. Using FCoE Initialization Protocol (FIP) snooping (see “FCoE Initialization Protocol Snooping” on page 326), the G8296 examines the FIP frames normally exchanged between the FCF and ENodes to determine information about connected FCoE devices. This information is used to automatically determine the appropriate ACLs required to block certain types of undesired or unvalidated FCoE traffic.
Automatic FCoE‐related ACLs are independent from ACLs used for typical Ethernet purposes.
FCoE Requirements
The following are required for implementing FCoE using the Lenovo RackSwitch G8296 (G8296) with ENOS 8.4 software:
The G8296 must be connected to the Fibre Channel network using the switch’s built‐in Fibre Channel features (see Chapter 21, “Fibre Channel”) or an external FCF such as another G8296 or a Cisco Nexus 5000 Series Switch.
 The G8296, when configured as an FIP snooping bridge (see “FCoE Initialization Protocol Snooping” on page 326), must be connected to the Fibre Channel net‐
work through an FCF such as a Lenovo Lenovo RackSwitch G8296 or a Cisco Nexus 5000 Series Switch.


For each G8296 port participating in FCoE, the connected server must use the supported FCoE CNA. The QLogic CNA is currently the first CNA supported for this purpose. CEE must be turned on (see “Turning CEE On or Off” on page 323). When CEE is on, the DCBX, PFC, and ETS features are enabled and configured with default FCoE settings. These features may be reconfigured, but must remain enabled for FCoE to function.
 FIP snooping must be turned on (see “FCoE Initialization Protocol Snooping” on page 326). When FIP snooping is turned on, the feature is enabled on all ports by default. The administrator can disable FIP snooping on individual ports that do not require FCoE, but FIP snooping must remain enabled on all FCoE ports for FCoE to function.

FCoE Forwarder
The RackSwitch G8296 has an integrated FC‐BB‐5 compliant FCoE Forwarder (FCF), allowing it to take the role of a full fabric FCoE switch. As a full fabric FCoE switch, the G8296 authenticates connecting neighbors, provides Fibre Channel IDs, enforces port security among zones, and informs neighboring devices of network changes. In FCF mode, the G8296 cannot be connected directly to another FCF switch in the same VLAN.
Configuring FCF
The switch’s role as a full fabric switch in the FCoE network can be defined on a per‐VLAN basis. The G8296 supports up to 12 FCF VLANs.
To enable or disable FCF for a specific VLAN:
RS G8296(config)# vlan <VLAN no.>
RS G8296(config­vlan)# [no] fcf enable
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Fibre Channel Services
The following Fibre Channel services are supported:

Name Server (Directory Server) – provides a means to discover information about ENodes connected to the FCF. This Service is provided through Well Known Address (WKA) FFFFFCh.

Zone Server – provides partitioning of a SAN fabric into smaller subsets to restrict interference, add security, and simplify management.

Fabric Login – assigns a fabric address (FCID) to the ENode. This service is provided through WKA FFFFFEh.

Fabric Controller – provides State Change Notifications (SCNs) to registered ENodes whenever there is a change in the fabric topology.

Fabric Configuration Server (FCS) – provides a way for a management application to discover fabric attributes. This Service is provided through WKA FFFFFAh

Fabric‐Device Management Interface (FDMI) – enables management for devices such as CNAs through the Fabric.
FC services are provided as Class 3 (Unacknowledged connectionless services) only.
FCF VLAN Configuration
Use the following commands to configure VLAN settings for FCF:
1. Select the FCF vlan:
RS G8296(config)# vlan <VLAN no.>
2. Configure the FCF global fabric priority:
RS G8296(config­vlan)# fcoe fcf­priority <0 – 255>
3. Define an FC map to uniquely identify the FCF:
RS G8296(config­vlan)# fcoe fcmap <0xefc00 – 0xefcff>
4. Configure the FIP keep‐alive duration in ms:
RS G8296(config­vlan)# fcoe fka­adv­period <4000 – 90000>
Full Fabric Zoning
The G8296 supports FCoE zones and zonesets for VLANs operating in full fabric mode. Zoning allows logical grouping of ports and storage devices within a storage area network. Zoning defines access control between groups of servers and storage devices.
An SAN is typically divided into zones and zonesets, as described in the following sections.
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Zones
A zone is a logical grouping of end nodes that are permitted to interact with each other. Zones can be grouped into zonesets, which can be activated or deactivated as a single entity. A zone provides security by restricting access to only those devices that reside within the zone. Zoning also confines change notification floods within each zone.
Each zone contains one or more servers and one or more storage devices. Ports and devices in a zone are called zone members. A zone contains one or more zone members. A device can belong to one or more zones. End nodes that are members of a zone can communicate with each other, but they are isolated from nodes in other zones of which they are not a member.
If no zone is configured for the device, it resides in the default zone. You can configure the default zone to permit or deny its member devices to communicate with each other. By default, the default zone is set to deny.
You can specify zone members based on any of the following criteria: 
pWWN: The port World Wide Number is a unique ID representing a particular end node. The pWWN is a 64‐bit hexadecimal value (for example, 20:34:00:80:e5:23:f4:55)

FC ID: The Fibre Channel identifier (FC ID) specifies the unique fabric domain ID of a device that connects to a node port on the switch. The FC ID is assigned by the full‐fabric switch during the connection sequence and can change if the device logs out of the Fibre Channel fabric and returns. The FC ID is a 24‐bit hexadecimal value (for example, 0xab00c1), but can also be specified in hexadecimal dotted notation (for example, ab.00.c1) generally representing <domain or device>.<area>.<link>

FC alias: The Fibre Channel alias specifies the device that connects to a node port on the switch. The FC alias is a 1‐64 character text value (for example, StorageOne). Notes:

When you create an FC alias using SNMP, a default pWWN of value 10:00:00:00:00:00:00:00 is automatically assigned to the FC alias. You must change this default pWWN value. Not doing so will result in a conflict of pWWN IDs the next time you try to create an FC alias.

The G8296 uses hard zoning, which is enforced in the switch hardware, based on the pWWNs of the Fibre Channel initiators and targets.
The G8296 supports up the 1024 zones per zoneset, each with up to 32 member devices.
Zonesets
Zonesets provide a mechanism for conveniently grouping zones. Each zoneset can contain one or more zones. A zone can belong to one or more zonesets.
Only one zoneset can be activated at a given time. If you deactivate the active zoneset, no zonesets are active until you activate another zoneset. If you activate one zoneset while another zoneset is active, the currently active zoneset is deactivated.
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When you activate a zoneset, the new zoneset access policies are applied. Any changes to the active zoneset will impact only the traffic between the affected ports. Affected ports are those ports for which there is a change in the peering relationship due to active zoneset change. Also, RSCNs are generated only for the affected ports.
Up to eight zonesets can be configurated on the switch at any given time, though only one can be active.
Defining Zoning
Define the following general properties for Fibre Channel zones and zonesets:
1. If desired, create (or remove) aliases for Fibre Channel devices: RS G8296(config)# [no] fcalias name <device alias name> vlan <VLAN no.>
Repeat for each alias as necessary.
2. If desired, add (or remove) members to the FC aliases:
RS G8296(config­fcalias)# [no] member pwwn <Port World Wide Name>
3. For each desired zone:
a. Name (or remove) the zone.
RS G8296(config)# [no] zone name <zone name> vlan <VLAN no.>
b. Add (or remove) one or more members to the zone using either pWWNs, FC IDs, or FC Aliases RS G8296(config­zone)# [no] member pwwn <port World Wide Name>
RS G8296(config­zone)# [no] member fcalias <device alias name>
Repeat as necessary for each member device.
c. Exit from zone configuration: RS G8296(config­zone)# exit
d. Check the zone setup:
RS G8296(config)# show zone name <zone name> vlan <VLAN no.>
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4. For each desired zoneset:
a. Name (or remove) the zoneset.
RS G8296(config)# [no] zoneset name <zoneset name> vlan <VLAN no.>
b. Add (or remove) one or more member zones to the zoneset:
RS G8296(config­zoneset)# [no] member <zone name>
Repeat as necessary for each member zone.
c. Exit from zoneset configuration: RS G8296(config­zone)# exit
d. Activate the zoneset
RS G8296(config)# zoneset activate <zoneset name> vlan <VLAN no.>
e. Check the zoneset setup:
RS G8296(config)# show zoneset name <zoneset name> vlan <VLAN no.>
Scalability
The following scaling limits apply for full fabric FCF:

Maximum number of VLANs on which FCF can be enabled – 12

Maximum number of logins per VLAN – 2048

Maximum number of logins across all 12 VLANs – 2048

Maximum number of zonesets per VLAN – 8

Maximum number of zones per VLAN – 1024

Maximum number of members per zone – 32

Maximum number of members in all zones per VLAN – 2048

Maximum number of aliases in all zones per VLAN – 2048
Changing the Active Zoneset
Fibre Channel is intended to operate with minimal disruption. To prevent the various synchronization events that would result if each stage of a live zoning configuration was applied, the cumulative configuration changes for zones and zoneset are held in reserve until explicitly activated by the administrator.
When activated, the new zoneset will be synchronized throughout the Fibre Channel fabric for each modified zone. Fibre Channel traffic will be temporarily disrupted in modified zones as changes to the fabric are recognized by the connected devices. Until activation, the previously established zoneset will remain in effect.
The basic zoneset commands are as follows:

Activate or deactivate a zoneset: RS G8296(config)# [no] zoneset activate name <zoneset name> vlan <VLAN no.>
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
View the settings for the active zoneset:
RS G8296# show zoneset active vlan <VLAN no.>

View the settings for the pending configuration changes:
RS G8296# show zoneset vlan <VLAN no.>
Port Requirements
To connect a port to an FCoE device/enode, the following conditions must be met:

The port must be in trunk mode.

The port must be configured as a Spanning Tree portfast.

The FCoE VLAN must be included in the allowed VLANs list.

The FCoE VLAN must not be the native VLAN of the trunk port.
The following commands are used to set up an Ethernet interface for FCoE usage:
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# interface port 2/4
G8296(config­if)# switchport mode trunk
G8296(config­if)# spanning­tree portfast
G8296(config­if)# switchport trunk allowed­vlan 10
G8296(config­if)# exit
Port Aggregation
Enterprise NOS 8.4 supports port aggregation for FCoE connections. The Link Aggregation (LAG) can be used for separate FCoE traffic, or for Ethernet and FCoE traffic. Ports directly connected to servers cannot be combined in a LAG group. Uplink ports, connected to the FCF, can be grouped as static or dynamic LAGs.
Normal LAG operations such as creating/enabling the LAG, and adding/removing member ports can be performed. When a port is added to a LAG, FCFs previously detected on the port will be deleted. The deleted FCF may be relearned later. However, this may cause flickering in the network traffic. We recommend that you make LAG changes, if any, prior to live FCoE traffic.
Priority‐based Flow Control (PFC) and Data Center Bridging (DCBX) are configured on a per‐port basis. Each port in a LAG must have the same ETS, PFC, and DCBX configuration. When a port ceases to be the LAG member, its configuration does not change. 322
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Converged Enhanced Ethernet
Converged Enhanced Ethernet (CEE) refers to a set of IEEE standards designed to allow different physical networks with different data handling requirements to be converged together, simplifying management, increasing efficiency and utilization, and leveraging legacy investments without sacrificing evolutionary growth.
CEE standards were developed primarily to enable Fibre Channel traffic to be carried over Ethernet networks. This required enhancing the existing Ethernet standards to make them lossless on a per‐priority traffic basis, and to provide a mechanism to carry converged (LAN/SAN/IPC) traffic on a single physical link. Although CEE standards were designed with FCoE in mind, they are not limited to FCoE installations. CEE features can be utilized in traditional LAN (non‐FCoE) networks to provide lossless guarantees on a per‐priority basis, and to provide efficient bandwidth allocation based on application needs.
Turning CEE On or Off
By default on the G8296, CEE is turned off. To turn CEE on or off, use the following CLI commands:
RS G8296(config)# [no] cee enable
CAUTION:
Turning CEE on will automatically change some 802.1p QoS and 802.3x standard flow control settings on the G8296. Read the following material carefully to determine whether you will need to take action to reconfigure expected settings.
It is recommended that you backup your configuration prior to turning CEE on. Viewing the file will allow you to manually re‐create the equivalent configuration once CEE is turned on, and will also allow you to recover your prior configuration if you need to turn CEE off.
Effects on Link Layer Discovery Protocol
When CEE is turned on, Link Layer Discovery Protocol (LLDP) is automatically turned on and enabled for receiving and transmitting DCBX information. LLDP cannot be turned off while CEE is turned on.
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Effects on 802.1p Quality of Service
While CEE is off (the default), the G8296 allows 802.1p priority values to be used for Quality of Service (QoS) configuration (see page 229). 802.1p QoS default settings are shown in Table 30, but can be changed by the administrator.
When CEE is turned on, 802.1p QoS is replaced by ETS (see “Enhanced Transmission Selection” on page 339). As a result, while CEE is turned on, the 802.1p QoS configuration commands are no longer available on the switch (the menu is restored when CEE is turned off).
In addition, when CEE is turned on, prior 802.1p QoS settings are replaced with new defaults designed for use with ETS priority groups (PGIDs) as shown in Table 30:
Table 30. CEE Effects on 802.1p Defaults
802.1p QoS Configuration
With CEE Off (default)
PriorityCOSq
Weight
ETS Configuration
With CEE On
Priority
COSq
PGID
0
0
1
0
1
1
2
1
2
2
3
2
3
3
4
3
4
4
5
4
5
5
7
5
6
6
15
6
7
7
0
7
When CEE is on, the default ETS configuration also allocates a portion of link bandwidth to each PGID as shown in Table 31:
Table 31. Default ETS Bandwidth Allocation
PGID
Typical Use
Bandwidth
LAN
10%
SAN
50%
Latency‐sensitive LAN
40%
If the prior, non‐CEE configuration used 802.1p priority values for different purposes, or does not expect bandwidth allocation as shown in Table 31 on page 324, when CEE is turned on, have the administrator reconfigure ETS settings as appropriate.
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It is recommended that a configuration backup be made prior to turning CEE on or off. Viewing the configuration file will allow the administrator to manually re‐create the equivalent configuration under the new CEE mode, and will also allow for the recovery of the prior configuration if necessary.
Effects on Flow Control
When CEE is turned on, standard flow control is disabled on all ports, and in its place, PFC (see “Priority‐Based Flow Control” on page 336) is enabled on all ports for 802.1p priority value 3. This default is chosen because priority value 3 is commonly used to identify FCoE traffic in a CEE environment and must be guaranteed lossless behavior. PFC is disabled for all other priority values.
Each time CEE is turned off, the prior 802.3x standard flow control settings will be restored (including any previous changes from the defaults). It is recommended that a configuration backup be made prior to turning CEE on or off. Viewing the configuration file will allow you to manually re‐create the equivalent configuration under the new CEE mode, and will also allow for the recovery of the prior configuration if necessary.
When CEE is on, PFC can be enabled only on priority value 3 and one other priority. If flow control is required on additional priorities on any given port, consider using standard flow control on that port, so that regardless of which priority traffic becomes congested, a flow control frame is generated.
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FCoE Initialization Protocol Snooping
FCoE Initialization Protocol (FIP) snooping is an FCoE feature. To enforce point‐to‐point links for FCoE traffic outside the regular Fibre Channel topology, Ethernet ports used in FCoE can be automatically and dynamically configured with Access Control Lists (ACLs). Using FIP snooping, the G8296 examines the FIP frames normally exchanged between the FCF and ENodes to determine information about connected FCoE devices. This information is used to create narrowly tailored ACLs that permit expected FCoE traffic to and from confirmed Fibre Channel nodes, and deny all other undesirable FCoE or FIP traffic.
Global FIP Snooping Settings
By default, the FIP snooping feature is turned off for the G8296. The following commands are used to turn the feature on or off:
RS G8296(config)# [no] fcoe fips enable
Note: FIP snooping requires CEE to be turned on (see “Turning CEE On or Off” on page 323).
When FIP snooping is on, port participation may be configured on a port‐by‐port basis (see the next sections).
When FIP snooping is off, all FCoE‐related ACLs generated by the feature are removed from all switch ports. FIP Snooping for Specific Ports
When FIP snooping is globally turned on (see the previous section), ports may be individually configured for participation in FIP snooping and automatic ACL generation. By default, FIP snooping is enabled for each port. To change the setting for any specific port, use the following CLI commands:
RS G8296(config)# [no] fcoe fips port <port alias, number, list, or range> enable
When FIP snooping is enabled on a port, FCoE‐related ACLs will be automatically configured.
When FIP snooping is disabled on a port, all FCoE‐related ACLs on the port are removed, and the switch will enforce no FCoE‐related rules for traffic on the port.
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Port FCF and ENode Detection
When FIP snooping is enabled on a port, the port is placed in FCF auto‐detect mode by default. In this mode, the port assumes connection to an ENode unless FIP packets show the port is connected to an FCF.
Ports can also be specifically configured as to whether automatic FCF detection will be used, or whether the port is connected to an FCF or ENode:
RS G8296(config)# fcoe fips port <port alias, number, list, or range> fcf­mode {auto|on|off}
When FCF mode is on, the port is assumed to be connected to a trusted FCF, and only ACLs appropriate to FCFs will be installed on the port. When off, the port is assumed to be connected to an ENode, and only ACLs appropriate to ENodes will be installed. When the mode is changed (either through manual configuration or as a result of automatic detection), the appropriate ACLs are automatically added, removed, or changed to reflect the new FCF or ENode connection.
FCoE Connection Timeout
FCoE‐related ACLs are added, changed, and removed as FCoE device connection and disconnection are discovered. In addition, the administrator can enable or disable automatic removal of ACLs for FCFs and other FCoE connections that timeout (fail or are disconnected) without FIP notification.
By default, automatic removal of ACLs upon timeout is enabled. To change this function, use the following CLI command:
RS G8296(config)# [no] fcoe fips timeout­acl
FCoE ACL Rules
When FIP Snooping is enabled on a port, the switch automatically installs the appropriate ACLs to enforce the following rules for FCoE traffic:









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Ensure that FIP frames from ENodes may only be addressed to FCFs.
Flag important FIP packets for switch processing.
Ensure no end device uses an FCF MAC address as its source.
Each FCoE port is assumed to be connected to an ENode and include ENode‐spe‐
cific ACLs installed, until the port is either detected or configured to be con‐
nected to an FCF.
Ports that are configured to have FIP snooping disabled will not have any FIP or FCoE related ACLs installed.
Prevent transmission of all FCoE frames from an ENode prior to its successful completion of login (FLOGI) to the FCF.
After successful completion of FLOGI, ensure that the ENode uses only those FCoE source addresses assigned to it by FCF.
After successful completion of FLOGI, ensure that all ENode FCoE source addresses originate from or are destined to the appropriate ENode port.
After successful completion of each FLOGI, ensure that FCoE frames may only be addressed to the FCFs that accept them.
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Initially, a basic set of FCoE‐related ACLs will be installed on all ports where FIP snooping is enabled. As the switch encounters FIP frames and learns about FCFs and ENodes that are attached or disconnect, ACLs are dynamically installed or expanded to provide appropriate security.
When an FCoE connection logs out, or times out (if ACL timeout is enabled), the related ACLs will be automatically removed.
FCoE‐related ACLs are independent of manually configured ACLs used for regular Ethernet purposes (see Chapter 7, “Access Control Lists”). FCoE ACLs generally have a higher priority over standard ACLs, and do not inhibit non‐FCoE and non‐FIP traffic.
FCoE VLANs
Viewing FIP Snooping Information
ACLs automatically generated under FIP snooping are independent of regular, manually configure ACLs, and are not listed with regular ACLs in switch information and statistics output. Instead, FCoE ACLs are shown using the following CLI commands:
RS G8296# show fcoe fips information
(Show all FIP‐related information)
RS G8296# show fcoe fips port <ports> information (Show FIP info for a selected port)
For example:
RS G8296# show fcoe fips port 21 information FIP Snooping on port 21:
This port has been configured to automatically detect FCF.
It has currently detected to have 0 FCF connecting to it.
FIPS ACLs configured on this port:
SMAC 00:05:73:ce:96:67, action deny.
DMAC 00:05:73:ce:96:67, ethertype 0x8914, action permit.
SMAC 0e:fc:00:44:04:04, DMAC 00:05:73:ce:96:67, ethertype 0x8906, vlan 1002, action permit.
DMAC 01:10:18:01:00:01, Ethertype 0x8914, action permit.
DMAC 01:10:18:01:00:02, Ethertype 0x8914, action permit.
Ethertype 0x8914, action deny.
Ethertype 0x8906, action deny.
SMAC 0e:fc:00:00:00:00, SMAC mask ff:ff:ff:00:00:00, action deny.
For each ACL, the required traffic criteria are listed, along with the action taken (permit or deny) for matching traffic. ACLs are listed in order of precedence and evaluated in the order shown.
The administrator can also view other FCoE information:
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RS G8296# show fcoe fips fcf
(Show all detected FCFs)
RS G8296# show fcoe fips fcoe
(Show all FCoE connections)
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Operational Commands
The administrator may use the operational commands to delete FIP‐related entries from the switch.
To delete a specific FCF entry and all associated ACLs from the switch, use the following command:
RS G8296# no fcoe fips fcf <FCF MAC address> [<VLAN number>]
FIP Snooping Configuration
In this example, as shown in Figure 32 on page 316, FCoE devices are connected to port 2 for the FCF device and port 3 for an ENode. You can configure FIP snooping on these ports using the following commands:
1. Enable VLAN tagging on the FCoE ports:
RS G8296(config)# interface port 23
( Select FCoE ports)
RS G8296(config­if)# switchport mode trunk( Enable VLAN tagging)
RS G8296(config­if)# exit
(Exit port configuration mode)
2. Place FCoE ports into a VLAN supported by the FCF and CNAs (typically VLAN 1002):
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# vlan 1002
(Select a VLAN)
G8296(config­vlan)# exit
(Exit VLAN configuration mode)
G8296(config)# interface port 3
(Add FCoE ports to the VLAN)
G8296(config­if)# switchport mode trunk
G8296(config­if)# switchport trunk allowed vlan add 1002
G8296(config­if)# exit
3. Turn CEE on.
RS G8296(config)# cee enable
Note: Turning CEE on will automatically change some 802.1p QoS and 802.3x standard flow control settings and menus (see “Turning CEE On or Off” on page 323).
4. Turn global FIP snooping on:
RS G8296(config)# fcoe fips enable
5. Enable FIP snooping on FCoE ports, and set the desired FCF mode:
RS G8296(config)# fcoe fips port 2 enable
RS G8296(config)# fcoe fips port 2 fcf­mode on
RS G8296(config)# fcoe fips port 3 enable
RS G8296(config)# fcoe fips port 3 fcf­mode off
(Enable FIPS on port 2)
(Set as FCF connection)
(Enable FIPS on port 3)
(Set as ENode connection)
Note: By default, FIP snooping is enabled on all ports and the FCF mode set for automatic detection. The configuration in this step is unnecessary, if default settings have not been changed, and is shown merely as a manual configuration example.
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FCoE Forwarder
The RackSwitch G8296 has an integrated FC‐BB‐5 compliant FCoE Forwarder (FCF), allowing it to take the role of a full fabric FCoE switch. As a full fabric FCoE switch, the G8296 authenticates connecting neighbors, provides Fibre Channel IDs, enforces port security among zones, and informs neighboring devices of network changes. In FCF mode, the G8296 cannot be connected directly to another FCF switch in the same VLAN.
Configuring FCF
The switch’s role as a full fabric switch in the FCoE network can be defined on a per‐VLAN basis. The G8296 supports up to 12 FCF VLANs. To enable or disable FCF for a specific VLAN:
RS G8296(config)# vlan <VLAN number>
RS G8296(config­vlan)# [no] fcf enable
To connect an FCoE device or enode to a port of a G8296, the following conditions must be met:

The port must be in trunk mode.

The port must be configured as a Spanning Tree port.

The FCoE VLAN must be included in the trunk allowed VLANs list.

The FCoE VLAN must not be the native VLAN of the trunk port.
For example, to make port 2, which is connected to an FCoE device, part of FCF‐enabled vlan 1002, use the following commands:
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# vlan 1002
G8296(config­vlan)# fcf enable
G8296(config­vlan)# exit
G8296(config)# interface port 2
G8296(config­if)# switchport mode trunk
G8296(config­if)# spanning­tree portfast
G8296(config­if)# switchport trunk allowed vlan add 1002
G8296(config­if)# exit
Fibre Channel Services
The following Fibre Channel (FC) services are supported:
330

Name Server (Directory Server) – provides a means to discover information about ENodes connected to the FCF. This Service is provided through Well Known Address (WKA) FFFFFCh.

Zone Server – provides partitioning of a SAN fabric into smaller subsets to restrict interference, add security, and simplify management.

Fabric Login – assigns a fabric address (FCID) to the ENode. This service is provided through WKA FFFFFEh.

Fabric Controller – provides State Change Notifications (SCNs) to registered ENodes whenever there is a change in the fabric topology.
G8296 Application Guide for ENOS 8.4

Fabric Configuration Server (FCS) – provides a way for a management application to discover fabric attributes. This Service is provided through WKA FFFFFAh.

Fabric‐Device Management Interface (FDMI) – enables management for devices such as CNAs through the fabric.
FC services are provided as Class 3 (Unacknowledged connectionless services) only.
FCF VLAN Configuration
For a FCF VLAN default FCoE parameters will be set once it is enabled. The default values are:

FC‐MAP : 0x0efc00

FCF‐Priority
: 128

FKA‐Adv : 8000
If you want to change these values, use the following commands to configure VLAN settings for FCF:
1. Select the FCF vlan:
RS G8296(config)# vlan <VLAN number>
2. Configure the FCF global fabric priority:
RS G8296(config­vlan)# fcoe fcf­priority <0 – 255>
3. Define an FC map to uniquely identify the FCF:
RS G8296(config­vlan)# fcoe fcmap <0efc00 – 0efcff>
4. Configure the FIP keep‐alive duration in ms:
RS G8296(config­vlan)# fcoe fka­adv­period <4000 – 90000>
5. Check FCF Vlan Configuration:
RS G8296(config)# show fcf Full Fabric Zoning
The G8296 supports FCoE zones and zonesets for VLANs operating in full fabric mode. Zoning allows logical grouping of ports and storage devices within a storage area network. Zoning defines access control between groups of servers and storage devices.
An SAN is typically divided into zones and zonesets, as described in the following sections.
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Zones
A zone is a logical grouping of end nodes that are permitted to interact with each other. Zones can be grouped into zonesets that can be activated or deactivated as a single entity. A zone provides security by restricting access to only those devices that reside within the zone. Zoning also confines change notification floods within each zone.
Each zone contains one or more servers and one or more storage devices. Ports and devices in a zone are called zone members. A zone contains one or more zone members. A device can belong to one or more zones. End nodes that are members of a zone can communicate with each other, but they are isolated from nodes in other zones of which they are not a member.
If no zone is configured for the device, it resides in the default zone. You can configure the default zone to permit or deny its member devices to communicate with each other. By default, the default zone is set to deny.
You can specify zone members based on any of the following criteria:

pWWN: The port World Wide Number is a unique ID representing a particular end node. The pWWN is a 64‐bit hexadecimal value (for example, 20:34:00:80:e5:23:f4:55)

FC alias: The Fibre Channel alias specifies the device that connects to a node port on the switch. The FC alias is a 1‐64 character text value (for example, “StorageOne”).
Notes:

When you create an FC alias using SNMP, a default pWWN of value 10:00:00:00:00:00:00:00 is automatically assigned to the FC alias. You must change this default pWWN value. Not doing so will result in a conflict of pWWN IDs the next time you try to create an FC alias.

The G8296 uses hard zoning, which is enforced in the switch hardware, based on the pWWNs of the Fibre Channel initiators and targets.

The G8296 supports up the 512 zones per zoneset, each with up to 32 member devices.
Zonesets
Zonesets provide a mechanism for conveniently grouping zones. Each zoneset can contain one or more zones. A zone can belong to one or more zonesets. Only one zoneset can be activated at a given time. If you deactivate the active zoneset, no zonesets are active until you activate another zoneset. If you activate one zoneset while another zoneset is active, the currently active zoneset is deactivated.
When you activate a zoneset, the new zoneset access policies are applied. Any changes to the active zoneset will impact only the traffic between the affected ports.
Affected ports are those ports for which there is a change in the peering relationship due to active zoneset change. RSCNs are generated only for the affected ports.
By default the default‐zone status is deny all.
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Without zoning configuration, none of the Storage targets is visible to hosts. The default‐zone configuration can be made permit all using the following command: RS G8296(config)# zone default­zone permit
Note: We recommend that you activate well‐defined zoning configuration for increased security.
Defining and Activating Zoning
Define the following general properties for Fibre Channel zones and zonesets:
1. If desired, create (or remove) aliases for Fibre Channel devices:
RS G8296(config)# [no] fcalias name <device alias name> vlan <VLAN number>
Repeat for each alias as necessary.
2. If desired, add (or remove) members to the FC aliases:
RS G8296(config­fcalias)# [no] member pwwn <Port World Wide Name>
3. For each desired zone:
a. Name (or remove) the zone.
RS G8296(config)# [no] zone name <zone name> vlan <VLAN number>
b. Add (or remove) one or more members to the zone using either pWWNs or FC Aliases:
RS G8296(config­zone)# [no] member pwwn <Port World Wide Name>
or:
RS G8296(config­zone)# [no] fcalias <device alias name>
Repeat as necessary for each member device.
c. Exit from zone configuration:
RS G8296(config­zone)# exit
d. Check the zone setup:
RS G8296(config)# show zone name <zone name> vlan <VLAN number>
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4. For each desired zoneset:
a. Name (or remove) the zoneset.
RS G8296(config)# [no] zoneset name <zoneset name> vlan <VLAN number>
b. Add (or remove) one or more member zones to the zoneset:
RS G8296(config­zoneset)# [no] member name <zone name>
Repeat as necessary for each member zone.
c. Exit from zoneset configuration:
RS G8296(config­zoneset)# exit
d. Activate the zoneset:.
RS G8296(config)# zoneset activate name <zoneset name> vlan <VLAN number>
e. Check the zoneset setup:
RS G8296(config)# show zoneset name <zoneset name> vlan <VLAN number>
5. To check overview of zoning status for a vlan:
RS G8296(config)# show zone status vlan <VLAN number>
Changing the Active Zoneset
Fibre Channel is intended to operate with minimal disruption. To prevent the various synchronization events that would result if each stage of a live zoning configuration was applied, the cumulative configuration changes for zones and zoneset are held in reserve until explicitly activated by an administrator.
When activated, the new zoneset is synchronized throughout the Fibre Channel fabric for each modified zone. Fibre Channel traffic is temporarily disrupted in modified zones as changes to the fabric are recognized by the connected devices. Until activation, the previously established zoneset remains in effect.
The basic zoneset commands are as follows:

Activate or deactivate a zoneset:
RS G8296(config)# [no] zoneset activate name <zoneset name> vlan <VLAN number>

View the settings for the active zoneset:
RS G8296(config)# show zoneset active vlan <VLAN number>
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
View the settings for the pending configuration changes:
RS G8296(config)# show zoneset vlan <VLAN number>
FCF Scalability
The following scaling limits apply for full fabric FCF:
© Copyright Lenovo 2016

Maximum number of VLANs on which FCF can be enabled: 12

Maximum number of logins per VLAN: 2048

Maximum number of logins across all 12 VLANs: 2048

Maximum number of zonesets per VLAN: 8

Maximum number of zones per VLAN: 512

Maximum number of members per zone: 32

Maximum number of members in all zones per VLAN: 1024

Maximum number of aliases in all zones per VLAN: 1024
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Priority-Based Flow Control
Priority‐based Flow Control (PFC) is defined in IEEE 802.1Qbb. PFC extends the IEEE 802.3x standard flow control mechanism. Under standard flow control, when a port becomes busy, the switch manages congestion by pausing all the traffic on the port, regardless of the traffic type. PFC provides more granular flow control, allowing the switch to pause specified types of traffic on the port, while other traffic on the port continues.
PFC pauses traffic based on 802.1p priority values in the VLAN tag. The administrator can assign different priority values to different types of traffic and then enable PFC for up to two specific priority values: priority value 3, and one other. The configuration can be applied globally for all ports on the switch. Then, when traffic congestion occurs on a port (caused when ingress traffic exceeds internal buffer thresholds), only traffic with priority values where PFC is enabled is paused. Traffic with priority values where PFC is disabled proceeds without interruption but may be subject to loss if port ingress buffers become full.
Although PFC is useful for a variety of applications, it is required for FCoE implementation where storage (SAN) and networking (LAN) traffic are converged on the same Ethernet links. Typical LAN traffic tolerates Ethernet packet loss that can occur from congestion or other factors, but SAN traffic must be lossless and requires flow control.
For FCoE, standard flow control would pause both SAN and LAN traffic during congestion. While this approach would limit SAN traffic loss, it could degrade the performance of some LAN applications that expect to handle congestion by dropping traffic. PFC resolves these FCoE flow control issues. Different types of SAN and LAN traffic can be assigned different IEEE 802.1p priority values. PFC can then be enabled for priority values that represent SAN and LAN traffic that must be paused during congestion, and disabled for priority values that represent LAN traffic that is more loss‐tolerant.
PFC requires CEE to be turned on (“Turning CEE On or Off” on page 323). When CEE is turned on, PFC is enabled on priority value 3 by default. Optionally, the administrator can also enable PFC on one other priority value, providing lossless handling for another traffic type, such as for a business‐critical LAN application.
Note: For any given port, only one flow control method can be implemented at any given time: either PFC or standard IEEE 802.3x flow control.
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Global Configuration
PFC requires CEE to be turned on (“Turning CEE On or Off” on page 323). When CEE is turned on, standard flow control is disabled on all ports, and PFC is enabled on all ports for 802.1p priority value 3. While CEE is turned on, PFC cannot be disabled for priority value 3. This default is chosen because priority value 3 is commonly used to identify FCoE traffic in a CEE environment and must be guaranteed lossless behavior. PFC is disabled for all other priority values by default, but can be enabled for one additional priority value.
Note: When using global PFC configuration in conjunction with the ETS feature (see “Enhanced Transmission Selection” on page 339), ensure that only pause‐tolerant traffic (such as lossless FCoE traffic) is assigned priority values where PFC is enabled. Pausing other types of traffic can have adverse effects on LAN applications that expect uninterrupted traffic flow and tolerate dropping packets during congestion.
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PFC Configuration Example
Note: DCBX may be configured to permit sharing or learning PFC configuration with or from external devices. This example assumes that PFC configuration is being performed manually. See “Data Center Bridging Capability Exchange” on page 346 for more information on DCBX. Even if the G8296 learns the PFC configuration from a DCBX peer, the PFC configuration must be performed manually.
This example is consistent with the network shown in Figure 32 on page 316. In this example, the following topology is used. In this example, PFC is to facilitate lossless traffic handling for FCoE (priority value 3) and a business‐critical LAN application (priority value 4).
Assuming that CEE is off (the G8296 default), the example topology shown in the table above can be configured using the following commands:
1. Turn CEE on.
RS G8296(config)# cee enable
Note: Turning CEE on will automatically change some 802.1p QoS and 802.3x standard flow control settings and menus (see “Turning CEE On or Off” on page 323).
2. Enable PFC for the FCoE traffic.
Note: PFC is enabled on priority 3 by default. If using the defaults, the manual configuration commands shown in this step are not necessary. 3. Enable PFC for the business‐critical LAN application:
RS G8296(config)# cee port 1 pfc priority 4 enable(Enable on LAN priority)
RS G8296(config)# cee port 1 pfc priority 4 description "Critical LAN"
(Optional description)
RS G8296(config)# cee port 4 pfc priority 4 enable( Enable on LAN priority)
RS G8296(config)# cee port 4 pfc priority 4 description "Critical LAN"
(Optional description)
4. Save the configuration.
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Enhanced Transmission Selection
Enhanced Transmission Selection (ETS) is defined in IEEE 802.1Qaz. ETS provides a method for allocating port bandwidth based on 802.1p priority values in the VLAN tag. Using ETS, different amounts of link bandwidth can specified for different traffic types (such as for LAN, SAN, and management).
ETS is an essential component in a CEE environment that carries different types of traffic, each of which is sensitive to different handling criteria, such as Storage Area Networks (SANs) that are sensitive to packet loss, and LAN applications that may be latency‐sensitive. In a single converged link, such as when implementing FCoE, ETS allows SAN and LAN traffic to coexist without imposing contrary handling requirements upon each other.
The ETS feature requires CEE to be turned on (see “Turning CEE On or Off” on page 323).
802.1p Priority Values
Under the 802.1p standard, there are eight available priority values, with values numbered 0 through 7, which can be placed in the priority field of the 802.1Q VLAN tag:
16 bits
Tag Protocol ID (0x8100)
0
3 bits
1
Priority CF
I
12 bits
VLAN ID
15 16
32
Servers and other network devices may be configured to assign different priority values to packets belonging to different traffic types (such as SAN and LAN).
ETS uses the assigned 802.1p priority values to identify different traffic types. The various priority values are assigned to priority groups (PGID), and each priority group is assigned a portion of available link bandwidth.
Priorities values within in any specific ETS priority group are expected to have similar traffic handling requirements with respect to latency and loss.
802.1p priority values may be assigned by the administrator for a variety of purposes. However, when CEE is turned on, the G8296 sets the initial default values for ETS configuration as follows:
Figure 33. Default ETS Priority Groups
In the assignment model shown in Figure 33 on page 339, priorities values 0 through 2 are assigned for regular Ethernet traffic, which has “best effort” transport characteristics.
Because CEE and ETS features are generally associated with FCoE, Priority 3 is typically used to identify FCoE (SAN) traffic.
Priorities 4‐7 are typically used for latency sensitive traffic and other important business applications. For example, priority 4 and 5 are often used for video and voice applications such as IPTV, Video on Demand (VoD), and Voice over IP (VoIP). Priority 6 and 7 are often used for traffic characterized with a “must get © Copyright Lenovo 2016
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there” requirement, with priority 7 used for network control which is requires guaranteed delivery to support configuration and maintenance of the network infrastructure.
Note: The default assignment of 802.1p priority values on the G8296 changes depending on whether CEE is on or off. See “Turning CEE On or Off” on page 323 for details.
Priority Groups
For ETS use, each 801.2p priority value is assigned to a priority group which can then be allocated a specific portion of available link bandwidth. To configure a priority group, the following is required:

CEE must be turned on (“Turning CEE On or Off” on page 323) for the ETS feature to function.

A priority group must be assigned a priority group ID (PGID), one or more 802.1p priority values, and allocated link bandwidth greater than 9%.
PGID
Each priority group is identified with number (0 through 7, and 15) known as the PGID.
PGID 0 through 7 may each be assigned a portion of the switch’s available bandwidth.
PGID 8 through 14 are reserved as per the 802.1Qaz ETS standard.
PGID 15 is a strict priority group. It is generally used for critical traffic, such as network management. Any traffic with priority values assigned to PGID 15 is permitted as much bandwidth as required, up to the maximum available on the switch. After serving PGID 15, any remaining link bandwidth is shared among the other groups, divided according to the configured bandwidth allocation settings.
Make sure all 802.1p priority values assigned to a particular PGID have similar traffic handling requirements. For example, PFC‐enabled traffic must not be grouped with non‐PFC traffic. Also, traffic of the same general type must be assigned to the same PGID. Splitting one type of traffic into multiple 802.1p priorities, and then assigning those priorities to different PGIDs may result in unexpected network behavior.
Each 802.1p priority value may be assigned to only one PGID. However, each PGID may include multiple priority values. Up to eight PGIDs may be configured at any given time. 340
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Assigning Priority Values to a Priority Group
Each priority group may be configured from its corresponding ETS Priority Group, available using the following command:
RS G8296(config)# cee global ets priority­group pgid <group number (0‐7, or 15)> priority <priority list>
where priority list is one or more 802.1p priority values (with each separated by a comma). For example, to assign priority values 0 through 2:
RS G8296(config)# cee global ets priority­group pgid <group number (0‐7, or 15)> priority 0,1,2
Note: Within any specific PGID, the PFC settings (see “Priority‐Based Flow Control” on page 336) must be the same (enabled or disabled) for all priority values within the group. PFC can be enabled only on priority value 3 and one other priority. When assigning priority values to a PGID, the specified priority value will be automatically removed from its old group and assigned to the new group when the configuration is applied.
Each priority value must be assigned to a PGID. Priority values may not be deleted or unassigned. To remove a priority value from a PGID, it must be moved to another PGID.
For PGIDs 0 through 7, bandwidth allocation can also be configured through the ETS Priority Group menu. See for “Allocating Bandwidth” on page 341 for details.
Deleting a Priority Group
A priority group is automatically deleted when it contains no associated priority values, and its bandwidth allocation is set to 0%.
Note: The total bandwidth allocated to PGID 0 through 7 must equal exactly 100%. Reducing the bandwidth allocation of any group will require increasing the allocation to one or more of the other groups (see “Allocating Bandwidth” on page 341).
Allocating Bandwidth
Follow these guidelines when allocating bandwidth.
Allocated Bandwidth for PGID 0 Through 7
You may allocate a portion of the switch’s available bandwidth to PGIDs 0 through 7. Available bandwidth is defined as the amount of link bandwidth that remains after priorities within PGID 15 are serviced (see “Unlimited Bandwidth for PGID © Copyright Lenovo 2016
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15” on page 342), and assuming that all PGIDs are fully subscribed. If any PGID does not fully consume its allocated bandwidth, the unused portion is made available to the other priority groups.
Priority group bandwidth allocation can be configured using the following command:
RS G8296(config)# cee global ets priority­group pgid <priority group number> bandwidth <bandwidth allocation> pgid
where bandwidth allocation represents the percentage of link bandwidth, specified as a number between 10 and 100, in 1% increments, or 0.
The following bandwidth allocation rules apply:
Bandwidth allocation must be 0% for any PGID that has no assigned 802.1p pri‐
ority values.
 Any PGID assigned one or more priority values must have a bandwidth allocation greater than 9%.
 Total bandwidth allocation for groups 0 through 7 must equal exactly 100%. Increasing or reducing the bandwidth allocation of any PGID also requires adjusting the allocation of other PGIDs to compensate.

If these conditions are not met, the switch will report an error when applying the configuration.
Note: Actual bandwidth used by any specific PGID may vary from configured values by up to 10% of the available bandwidth in accordance with 802.1Qaz ETS standard. For example, a setting of 10% may be served anywhere from 0% to 20% of the available bandwidth at any given time.
Unlimited Bandwidth for PGID 15
PGID 15 is permitted unlimited bandwidth and is generally intended for critical traffic (such as switch management). Traffic in this group is given highest priority and is served before the traffic in any other priority group.
If PGID 15 has low traffic levels, most of the switch’s bandwidth will be available to serve priority groups 0 through 7. However, if PGID 15 consumes a larger part of the switch’s total bandwidth, the amount available to the other groups is reduced.
Note: Consider traffic load when assigning priority values to PGID 15. Heavy traffic in this group may restrict the bandwidth available to other groups.
Configuring ETS
Consider an example consistent with that used forPFC configuration (on page 338):1
Table 32. ETS Configuration
Priority
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Usage
0
LAN (best effort delivery)
1
LAN (best effort delivery)
2
LAN (best effort delivery)
3
SAN (Fibre Channel over Ethernet, with PFC)
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PGID
Bandwidth
0
10%
1
20%
Table 32. ETS Configuration
Priority
Usage
4
Business Critical LAN (lossless Ethernet, with PFC)
5
Latency‐sensitive LAN
6
Latency‐sensitive LAN
7
Network Management (strict)
PGID
Bandwidth
2
30%
3
40%
15
unlimited
The example shown in Table 32 is only slightly different than the default configuration shown in Figure 33 on page 339. In this example, latency‐sensitive LAN traffic (802.1p priority 5 through 6) are moved from priority group 2 to priority group 3. This leaves Business Critical LAN traffic (802.1p priority 4) in priority group 2 by itself. Also, a new group for network management traffic has been assigned. Finally, the bandwidth allocation for priority groups 3, 4, and 5 are revised.
Note: DCBX may be configured to permit sharing or learning PFC configuration with or from external devices. This example assumes that PFC configuration is being performed manually. See “Data Center Bridging Capability Exchange” on page 346 for more information on DCBX.
This example can be configured using the following commands:
1. Turn CEE on.
RS G8296(config)# cee enable
Note: Turning CEE on will automatically change some 802.1p QoS and 802.3x standard flow control settings and menus (see “Turning CEE On or Off” on page 323).
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2. Configure each allocated priority group with a description (optional), list of 802.1p priority values, and bandwidth allocation:
RS G8296(config)# cee global ets priority­group pgid 0 priority 0,1,2
(Select a group for regular LAN, and
set for 802.1p priorities 0, 1, and 2)
RS G8296(config)# cee global ets priority­group pgid 0 description "Regular LAN"
(Set a group description—optional)
RS G8296(config)# cee global ets priority­group pgid 1 priority 3
(Select a group for SAN traffic, and
set for 802.1p priority 3)
RS G8296(config)# cee global ets priority­group pgid 1 description "SAN"
(Set a group description—optional)
RS G8296(config)# cee global ets priority­group pgid 2 priority 4
(Select a group for latency traffic,
and set for 802.1p priority 4)
RS G8296(config)# cee global ets priority­group pgid 2 description "Biz­Critical LAN"
(Set a group description—optional)
RS G8296(config)# cee global ets priority­group pgid 3 description "Latency­Sensitive LAN"
(Set a group description—optional)
RS G8296(config)# cee global ets priority­group pgid 3 priority 5,6 pgid 0 bandwidth 10 pgid 1 bandwidth 20 pgid 2 bandwidth 30 pgid 3 bandwidth 40
(Configure link bandwidth restriction)
Note: Priority group 15 is permitted unlimited bandwidth. As such, the commands for priority group 15 do not include bandwidth allocation.
3. Save the configuration.
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To view the configuration, use the following command: RS G8296(config)# show cee global ets Current ETS Configuration:
Number of COSq: 8
Current Mapping of 802.1p Priority to Priority Groups:
Priority PGID COSq
­­­­­­­­ ­­­­ ­­­­
0 0 0
1 0 0 2 0 0
3 1 1
4 2 2
5 3 3
6 3 3
7 15 7
Current Bandwidth Allocation to Priority Groups:
PGID PG% Description
­­­­ ­­­ ­­­­­­­­­­­
0 10 Regular LAN
1 20 SAN
2 30 Biz­Critical LAN
3 40 Latency­sensitive LAN
15 ­ Network Management
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Data Center Bridging Capability Exchange
Data Center Bridging Capability Exchange (DCBX) protocol is a vital element of CEE. DCBX allows peer CEE devices to exchange information about their advanced capabilities. Using DCBX, neighboring network devices discover their peers, negotiate peer configurations, and detect misconfigurations.
DCBX provides two main functions on the G8296:

Peer information exchange
The switch uses DCBX to exchange information with connected CEE devices. For normal operation of any FCoE implementation on the G8296, DCBX must remain enabled on all ports participating in FCoE.

Peer configuration negotiation
DCBX also allows CEE devices to negotiate with each other for the purpose of automatically configuring advanced CEE features such as PFC, ETS, and (for some CNAs) FIP. The administrator can determine which CEE feature settings on the switch are communicated to and matched by CEE neighbors, and also which CEE feature settings on the switch may be configured by neighbor requirements.
The DCBX feature requires CEE to be turned on (see “Turning CEE On or Off” on page 323).
DCBX Settings
When CEE is turned on, DCBX is enabled for peer information exchange on all ports. For configuration negotiation, the following default settings are configured:
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
Application Protocol: FCoE and FIP snooping is set for traffic with 802.1p priority 3

PFC: Enabled on 802.1p priority 3

ETS

Priority group includes priority values 0 through 2, with bandwidth allocation of 10%

Priority group includes priority value 3, with bandwidth allocation of 50%

Priority group includes priority values 4 through 7, with bandwidth allocation of 40%
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Enabling and Disabling DCBX
When CEE is turned on, DCBX can be enabled and disabled on a per‐port basis, using the following commands:
RS G8296(config)# [no] cee port <port alias or number> dcbx enable
When DCBX is enabled on a port, Link Layer Detection Protocol (LLDP) is used to exchange DCBX parameters between CEE peers. Also, the interval for LLDP transmission time is set to one second for the first five initial LLDP transmissions, after which it is returned to the administratively configured value. The minimum delay between consecutive LLDP frames is also set to one second as a DCBX default.
Peer Configuration Negotiation
CEE peer configuration negotiation can be set on a per‐port basis for a number of CEE features. For each supported feature, the administrator can configure two independent flags:

The advertise flag
When this flag is set for a particular feature, the switch settings will be transmit to the remote CEE peer. If the peer is capable of the feature, and willing to accept the G8296 settings, it will be automatically reconfigured to match the switch.

The willing flag
Set this flag when required by the remote CEE peer for a particular feature as part of DCBX signaling and support. Although some devices may also expect this flag to indicate that the switch will accept overrides on feature settings, the G8296 retains its configured settings. As a result, the administrator must configure the feature settings on the switch to match those expected by the remote CEE peer.
These flags are available for the following CEE features:

Application Protocol
DCBX exchanges information regarding FCoE and FIP snooping, including the 802.1p priority value used for FCoE traffic. The advertise flag is set or reset using the following command:
RS G8296(config)# [no] cee port <port alias or number> dcbx app_proto advertise
The willing flag is set or reset using the following command:
RS G8296(config)# [no] cee port <port alias or number> dcbx app_proto willing
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
PFC
DCBX exchanges information regarding whether PFC is enabled or disabled on the port. The advertise flag is set or reset using the following command:
RS G8296(config)# [no] cee port <port alias or number> dcbx pfc advertise
The willing flag is set or reset using the following command:
RS G8296(config)# [no] cee port <port alias or number> dcbx pfc willing

ETS
DCBX exchanges information regarding ETS priority groups, including their 802.1p priority members and bandwidth allocation percentages. The advertise flag is set or reset using the following command:
RS G8296(config)# [no] cee port <port alias or number> dcbx ets advertise
The willing flag is set or reset using the following command:
RS G8296(config)# [no] cee port <port alias or number> dcbx ets willing
Configuring DCBX
Consider an example consistent Figure 32 on page 316 and used with the previous FCoE examples in this chapter:
FCoE is used on ports 2 and 3.
CEE features are also used with LANs on ports 1 and 4.
 All other ports are disabled or are connected to regular (non‐CEE) LAN devices.


In this example, the G8296 acts as the central point for CEE configuration. FCoE‐related ports will be configured for advertising CEE capabilities, but not to accept external configuration. Other LAN ports that use CEE features will also be configured to advertise feature settings to remote peers, but not to accept external configuration. DCBX will be disabled on all non‐CEE ports.
This example can be configured using the following commands:
1. Turn CEE on.
RS G8296(config)# cee enable
Note: Turning CEE on will automatically change some 802.1p QoS and 802.3x standard flow control settings and menus (see “Turning CEE On or Off” on page 323).
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2. Enable desired DCBX configuration negotiation on FCoE ports:
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# cee port 2 dcbx enable
G8296(config)# cee port 2 dcbx app_proto advertise
G8296(config)# cee port 2 dcbx ets advertise
G8296(config)# cee port 2 dcbx pfc advertise
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# cee port 3 dcbx enable
G8296(config)# cee port 3 dcbx app_proto advertise
G8296(config)# cee port 3 dcbx ets advertise
G8296(config)# cee port 3 dcbx pfc advertise
3. Enable desired DCBX advertisements on other CEE ports:
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# cee port 1 dcbx enable
G8296(config)# cee port 1 dcbx app_proto advertise
G8296(config)# cee port 1 dcbx ets advertise
G8296(config)# cee port 1 dcbx pfc advertise
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# cee port 4 dcbx enable
G8296(config)# cee port 4 dcbx app_proto advertise
G8296(config)# cee port 4 dcbx ets advertise
G8296(config)# cee port 4 dcbx pfc advertise
4. Disable DCBX for each non‐CEE port as appropriate:
5. Save the configuration.
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Chapter 21. Fibre Channel
This chapter describes how to configure the G8296 for use with Fibre Channel networks.
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Ethernet vs. Fibre Channel
As a converged switch, the RackSwitch G8296 provides simultaneous support of Ethernet and Fibre Channel networks.
Ethernet is ubiquitous in modern networks. It is generally quick, easy, and inexpensive to implement. Ethernet is also flexible and dynamic by nature. Devices join and leave a well‐designed Ethernet network with little impact beyond their individual function. Because flux is the norm, Ethernet is classified as a ʺbest effortʺ delivery protocol. This means that some loss of packets is acceptable, and that with multiple routes often available, packets in a stream may arrive at their destination out of sequence. Ethernet devices are expected to re‐request and resend lost packets, and reassemble data in the proper order at the destination.
The Fibre Channel protocol adheres to a very different philosophy. Fibre Channel is most popular in storage networks end‐to‐end stability, reliability, and security are emphasized in favor over low cost and dynamic scalability. In Fibre Channel networks, the connecting ports must be fully authorized to communicate with their well‐defined neighbors. Bandwidth for properly connected devices is tuned to avoid loss due to congestion. Also, routes for traffic are converged in advance, ensuring that only one route is used by any given traffic stream so that packets arrive in their expected sequence.
Ethernet and Fibre Channel networks are coming into contact with each other more frequently in modern networks. In some cases, legacy Fibre Channel devices are connected via Ethernet networks using Converged Enhanced Ethernet (CEE), a collection of recent Ethernet features designed to satisfy Fibre Channel delivery expectations. Although not the focus of this chapter, the G8296 supports CEE and Fibre Channel over Ethernet (FCoE). For details, see Chapter 20, “FCoE and CEE.”
Another approach is to use converged switches such as the G8296 to support direct connection to both Ethernet and Fibre Channel networks. This allows a “best of both worlds” approach, using ubiquitous Ethernet networks for regular traffic, and full connection to Fibre Channel networks for lossless applications and the legacy architecture of established Storage Area Networks.
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Supported Switch Roles
The G8296 can be used in the following Fibre Channel applications:

Node Port Virtualized gateway, linking multiple FCoE nodes to an upstream full fabric switch.

FC‐BB‐5 compliant full fabric FC/FCoE switch.
These functions are independent of each other, and can coexist or be used in combination on the switch.
FCoE Gateway
The G8296 acts as a bridge between FCoE traffic and the Fibre Channel network. The switch performs Ethernet encapsulation for traffic heading to Ethernet ports, and performs decapsulation for traffic to Fibre Channel ports.
FCoE features are covered in Chapter 20, “FCoE and CEE.” These features can be used independently or in conjunction with NPV gateway and full fabric switch features.
NPV Gateway
As a Node Port Virtualized (NPV) gateway, the G8296 can act as a Fibre Channel collector, connecting numerous Fibre Channel end‐point devices (known as nodes) for uplink to a Fibre Channel full fabric switch, performing stateless FC/FCoE encapsulation and decapsulation.
This helps resolve a typical problem in Fibre Channel networks where port density is low on Director Class SAN switches, or considered too valuable to relegate to individual nodes. As an NPV gateway, the G8296 acts as a proxy to the upstream full fabric switch on behalf of the connected nodes.
The G8296 supports standard Node Port Identifier Virtualization (NPIV) behavior.
The NPV gateway allows concurrent logins from multiple node ports (and multiple server connections) to be forwarded upstream to the full‐fabric switch.
The upstream switch provides full fabric services such as zoning enforcement, and makes all switching decisions.
The gateway switch appears as a Fibre Channel end node to the full fabric switch, and acts as proxy for the full fabric switch to its connected node devices.
When multiple uplink ports are available between the NPV gateway and the upstream switch, nodes are not ensured to be assigned the same uplink whenever they request a session. Only FCoE end nodes are allowed to be downstream connections. All Fibre Channel devices are connected to the full fabric FC switch.
Full-Fabric FC/FCoE Switch
As a full fabric FC/FCoE switch, the G8296 authenticates connecting neighbors, provides Fibre Channel IDs, enforces port security among zones, and informs neighboring devices of network changes.
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When acting as a full‐fabric switch, the G8296 can be connected to NPV gateways or directly to Fibre Channel nodes. In full‐fabric mode, the G8296 can be connected directly to another full fabric G8296 through Fibre Channel ISL. See “E_Ports” on page 361 for more information.
Limitations
In Enterprise NOS 8.4, G8296 does not support the following Fibre Channel port types:
354

FL_ports connecting storage fabric loop devices.

In NPV Gateway mode, Fibre Channel ports connected to NP‐F devices.
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Implementing Fibre Channel
This section describes the basic elements of Fibre Channel configuration. For examples combining these elements, see “Fibre Channel Configuration” on page 364
Note: If you need to change the Fibre Channel configuration mode from BBI to ISCLI, first save the configuration using the save button on the BBI. Do not use two configuration modes at the same time. Port Modes
The G8296 has the following types of network port:

High‐Capacity Ethernet Ports
Ports 1‐16
These 40Gb QSFP+ Ethernet ports can be configured as either four 40Gb Ethernet ports (1, 5, 9, and 13), or as 16 10Gb Ethernet ports (1‐4, 5‐8, 5‐12, and 13‐16).

Ethernet Ports
Ports 17‐52
These standard 10Gb SFP+ Ethernet ports provide external connectors.

Omni Ports (External)
Ports 53‐64
These 10Gb SFP+ hybrid ports can be configured to operate either in Ethernet mode (the default) or in Fibre Channel mode for direct connection to Fibre Channel devices.
All Ethernet ports (including the Omni Ports by default) can carry any Ethernet data traffic, including Fibre Channel over Ethernet (FCoE) traffic.
When configured to operate in Fibre Channel mode, Omni Ports can be used as Fibre Channel downlinks (connected to Fibre Channel servers or storage devices) or as uplinks (connected to the data center SAN network).
The Omni Port mode (Ethernet or Fibre Channel) can be changed only for pairs of ports. The following port pairs share the same mode: 53‐54, 55‐56, 57‐58, 59‐60, 61‐62, 63‐64.
Paired ports need not be connected to the same device and can even be used in different VLANs. The only required mutual attribute is the network type (Ethernet or Fibre Channel).
Fibre Channel configuration requires that at least one pair of Omni Ports be set to Fibre Channel mode.
The mode for Omni Port pairs or ranges can be configured using the following privileged configuration command:
RS G8296(config)# [no] system port <low port>­<high port> type fc
Note: VLAN tagging is automatically enabled on any port placed in Fibre Channel mode.
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Fibre Channel VLANs
On the G8296, each Fibre Channel network connected to the switch must be assigned its own VLAN. For each VLAN used with Fibre Channel, following properties must be defined:

VLAN number

Switch role (NPV mode or full fabric mode)

Port membership

Fibre Channel ports roles (as uplink ports or node connections)
The following commands are used to define a typical VLAN:

Set or delete a VLAN
RS G8296(config)# [no] vlan <VLAN number>
FCoE networks typically use VLAN 1002. If using a different VLAN for FCoE, be sure that any connected servers and FCoE bridge will support your selection.
This command initiates VLAN configuration mode. All VLAN‐related Fibre Channel configuration is performed in this mode.

Enable or disable the VLAN
RS G8296(config­vlan)# [no] enable

Exit VLAN configuration mode
RS G8296(config­vlan)# exit
See “Fibre Channel Configuration” on page 364 for command examples. For more VLAN information, see Chapter 9, “VLANs.”
Port Membership
As with typical VLAN configuration, each VLAN used with a Fibre Channel network must include a description of its port members. VLANs used in Fibre Channel networks follow typical VLAN configuration rules (see “VLANs Overview” on page 140), with the following additions:

An FC port may belong to only one Fibre Channel VLAN.

VLAN tagging is automatically enabled for VLANs where NPV mode or full fabric mode is enabled.

At least one Fibre Channel port must be included in each Fibre Channel VLAN.
From within VLAN configuration mode, the following command is used to add or remove port members:
RS G8296(config)# interface port <port number, alias, list, or range>
RS G8296(config­if)# switchport trunk allowed vlan [add|remove] <VLAN ID>
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For example:
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# interface port 1,3­4
G8296(config­if)# switchport mode trunk
G8296(config­if)# switchport trunk allowed vlan 1,1002
G8296(config­if)# exit
RS G8296(config)# interface fc 62
RS G8296(config­if)# switchport trunk allowed vlan 1,1002
RS G8296(config­if)# exit
Notes:

The FCoE ports and FC Omni Ports must also be members of VLAN 1 and the Fibre Channel VLAN.

If using the BBI to add ports or remove ports to or from a Fibre Channel VLAN, first apply the change and then proceed with further configuration.
Switching Mode
The switch’s role in the Fibre Channel network can be defined on a per‐VLAN basis. The administrator can specify one of the following modes:

NPV mode to uplink one or more nodes to a full fabric switch or Fibre Channel devices

Full fabric mode
The G8296 supports up to 12 Fibre Channel VLANs at any given time. Only one mode can be active on any specific VLAN at a given time, and only one VLAN can operate in full fabric mode.
From within VLAN configuration mode, the following commands are used to specify the Fibre Channel mode:

To enable or disable NPV mode:
RS G8296(config­vlan)# [no] npv enable

To enable or disable full fabric mode:
RS G8296(config-vlan)# [no] fcf enable
Note: When either NPV or full fabric mode are enabled, VLAN tagging is automatically enabled on the VLAN.
NPV Gateway
Within each VLAN used with Fibre Channel, the physical ports may be used in the following roles:
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
NPV External Interfaces
The NPV external interface map specifies which Fibre Channel port or ports (Omni Ports set to Fibre Channel mode) are used for this purpose within each Fibre Channel VLAN. At least one Fibre Channel port is required, though two are typically used in order to provide redundancy. The following VLAN configuration command is used to define or remove the uplink:
RS G8296(config­vlan)# [no] npv traffic­map external­interface <ports>

Fibre Channel over Ethernet node
Traffic from Ethernet ports which are properly configured to use CEE and FCoE (see Chapter 20, “FCoE and CEE”) is permitted with no additional configuration.

Ethernet
Traffic on regular (non‐FCoE) Ethernet ports will be blocked on Fibre Channel VLANs.
Full Fabric Zoning
The G8296 supports Fibre Channel zones and zonesets for VLANs operating in full fabric mode. In NPV gateway mode, zoning is controlled by the upstream full fabric switch and is not configurable in the NPV gateway VLAN.
Zoning allows logical grouping of ports and storage devices within a storage area network. Zoning defines access control between groups of servers and storage devices.
A SAN typically is divided into zones and zonesets, as described in the following sections.
Zones
A zone is a logical grouping of end nodes that are permitted to interact with each other. Zones can be grouped into a zonesets, which can be activated or deactivated as a single entity. A zone provides security by restricting access to only those devices that reside within the zone. Zoning also confines change notification floods within each zone.
Each zone contains one or more servers and one or more storage devices. Ports and devices in a zone are called zone members. A zone contains one or more zone members. A device can belong to one or more zones. End nodes that are members of a zone can communicate with each other, but they are isolated from nodes in other zones of which they are not a member.
If no zone is configured for the device, it resides in the default zone. You can configure the default zone to permit or deny its member devices to communicate with each other.
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You can specify zone members based on any of the following criteria: 
pWWN: The port World Wide Number is a unique ID representing a particular end node. The pWWN is a 64‐bit hexadecimal value (for example, 20:34:00:80:e5:23:f4:55)

FC ID: The Fibre Channel identifier (FC ID) specifies the unique fabric domain ID of a device that connects to a node port on the switch. The FC ID is assigned by the full‐fabric switch during the connection sequence and can change if the device logs out of the Fibre Channel fabric and returns. The FC ID is a 24‐bit hexadecimal value (for example, 0xab00c1), but can also be specified in hexadecimal dotted notation (for example, ab.00.c1) generally representing <domain or device>.<area>.<link>

FC alias: The Fibre Channel alias specifies the device that connects to a node port on the switch. The FC alias is a 1‐64 character text value (for example, StorageOne). Notes:

When you create an FC alias using SNMP, a default pWWN of value 10:00:00:00:00:00:00:00 is automatically assigned to the FC alias. You must change this default pWWN value. Not doing so will result in a conflict of pWWN IDs the next time you try to create an FC alias.

The G8296 uses hard zoning, which is enforced in the switch hardware, based on the pWWNs of the Fibre Channel initiators and targets.
The G8296 supports up the 64 zones per zoneset, each with up to 20 member devices. However, when an FC alias is used, only 10 devices can be members of a zone. Zonesets
Zonesets provide a mechanism for conveniently grouping zones. Each zoneset can contain one or more zones. A zone can belong to one or more zonesets.
Only one zoneset can be activated at a given time. If you deactivate the active zoneset, no zonesets are active until you activate another zoneset. If you activate one zoneset while another zoneset is active, the currently active zoneset is deactivated.
When you activate a zoneset, the new zoneset access policies are applied.
Up to four zonesets can be configurated on the switch at any given time, though only one can be active.
Without zoning configuration, none of the Storage targets is visible to hosts. The default‐zone configuration can be made “permit all” using the command:
RS G8296(config)# zone default­zone permit vlan <VLAN ID> By default the default‐zone status is “deny all”.
For security reasons, it is highly recommended that you activate a well‐defined zoning configuration.
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Defining Zoning
Define the following general properties for Fibre Channel zones and zonesets:
1. If desired, create (or remove) aliases for Fibre Channel devices: RS G8296(config)# [no] fcalias <device alias name> wwn <port World Wide Name>
Repeat for each alias as necessary.
2. For each desired zone:
a. Name (or remove) the zone.
RS G8296(config)# [no] zone name <zone name>
b. Add (or remove) one or more members to the zone using either pWWNs, FC IDs, or FC Aliases RS G8296(config­zone)# [no] member pwwn <port World Wide Name>
RS G8296(config­zone)# [no] member fcid <Fibre Channel ID>
RS G8296(config­zone)# [no] member fcalias <device alias name>
Repeat as necessary for each member device.
c. Exit from zone configuration: RS G8296(config­zone)# exit
3. For each desired zoneset:
a. Name (or remove) the zoneset.
RS G8296(config)# [no] zoneset name <zoneset name>
b. Add (or remove) one or more member zones to the zoneset:
RS G8296(config­zoneset)# [no] member <zone name>
Repeat as necessary for each member zone.
c. Exit from zoneset configuration: RS G8296(config­zone)# exit
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Activating a Zoneset
Fibre Channel is intended to operate with minimal disruption. To prevent the various synchronization events that would result if each stage of a live zoning configuration was applied, the cumulative configuration changes for zones and zoneset are held in reserve until explicitly activated by the administrator.
When activated, the new zoneset will be synchronized throughout the Fibre Channel fabric for each modified zone. Fibre Channel traffic will be temporarily disrupted in modified zones as changes to the fabric are recognized by the connected devices. Until activation, the previously established zoneset will remain in effect.
The basic zoneset commands are as follows:

Activate or deactivate a zoneset: RS G8296(config)# [no] zoneset activate name <zoneset name>

View the settings for the active zoneset:
RS G8296# show zoneset active

View the settings for the pending configuration changes:
RS G8296# show zoneset
E_Ports
E_ports (expansion ports) connect two full‐fabric switches to form an inter‐switch link (ISL). Up to four Fibre Channel ISLs can be established between two full‐fabric switches. Only Fibre Channel port types can be configured as E‐ports. These ports must be members of a Fibre Channel VLAN. Use the following commands to configure E_ports: RS G8296(config)# system port <port range> type fc
RS G8296(confifg)# interface fc <port range>
RS G8296(config­if)# type e
To verify the port configuration and operational state, use the following command:
RS G8296(config)# show interface fc information
If different zones were configured on the switches being connected using E_ports, the zones merge to establish a consistent zoning policy across the fabric. The zones on the two switches must belong to any one zoneset.
Note: Zones are added in the merged zoneset only if the zoneset on the individual switch was active. © Copyright Lenovo 2016
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Table 33 lists the zone merge rules.
Table 33. Zone Merge Rules
Adjacent Zoning
Configuration
Local Zoning
Configuration
Result in Local Switch
Zone Set State is Deactivated.
Zone Set State is Activated or Deactivated.
No change
Zone Set State is Activated.
Zone Set State is Deactivated.
Zone Set gets the Adjacent Zone Set State (the Zone Set is activated).
Zone Set gets the adjacent Zone Set.
Adjacent Zone Set is equal to the Local Zone Set
No change
Adjacent and Local Zone Sets contain a Zone with ISL Isolated.
the same name but different members.
Zone Set becomes Adjacent Zone Set contains Zones that are not included in the Local Zone Set, and/or Local Zone Activated.
Set contains Zones that are not included in the Zone Set is the merge of the Adjacent Zone Set.
local Zones plus the Adjacent Zones.
Limitations
362

Lenovo Enterprise Network Operating System supports ISL distance up to 3 kms. 
E_ports can be configured only on Lenovo Lenovo RackSwitch G8296 and Lenovo Flex System Fabric CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch. E_ports cannot interoperate with the switches from other vendors. 
A maximum of eight switches are supported in a Fibre Channel fabric.

A maximum of four E_ports can be configured on a switch.
G8296 Application Guide for ENOS 8.4
Storage Management Initiative Specification (SMI-S)
RS G8296(config)# no fcoe fips enable
RS G8296(config)# no fcoe optimized­forwarding enable
Lenovo Enterprise Network Operating System providges a programming interface using the SMI‐S to ease interoperability in a multivendor SAN environment. In this release, only limited support is provided. The G8296 switch must be operating in full fabric mode. An embedded SMI‐S agent runs on the G8296 and includes standard profiles as specified in the SMI‐S. These profiles include: 
Fabric Profile

Indication Profile

Server Profile

Switch Profile
Configuring SMI-S
You must the IBM Director (includes Tivoli Storage Productivity Center (TPC)) to configure and administer the fibre channel fabric, as configuring the switch, fabric, or ports via the CLI is not supported. Zoning control can be implemented and includes the following functions:

Session control (start, commit, and rollback)

Zoning updates

Create and destroy zone set, zone, and zone alias

Add/Remove zone to zone set, zone alias, or port WWN to zone and port WWN to zone alias

Activate and deactivate zoneset
Connection with the SMI‐S agent can be established via IPv4 or IPv6 management interface using HTTP/HTTPS. Use the following link: http://<Management IP address>:5988
(OR)
https://<Management IP address>:5989
The namespace for the SMI‐S agent is root/interop.
You will need to authenticate using the login and password configured for the switch.
SMI-S Restrictions
The current implementation of SMI‐S does not support the following:

NPV mode

Switch port zoning

Zone configuration on the switch that uses FC IDs instead of port WWNs. Note: The CLI commands may be available, but the zone configuration will not be applied. © Copyright Lenovo 2016
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Fibre Channel Configuration
Configuration Guidelines
In Enterprise NOS 8.4, consider the following when configuring Fibre Channel on the G8296:

Up to 12 Fibre Channel networks (on separate VLANs) are supported.

Only one Fibre Channel VLAN can operate in full fabric mode at any given time. All others can operate as NPV gateways.

Only Omni Ports (53‐64) can be placed in Fibre Channel mode. All other ports operate in Ethernet mode, which may participate in Fibre Channel networks as FCoE nodes.

At least one Omni Port is required to operate in Fibre Channel mode in each Fibre Channel VLAN.

Zones and zonesets apply only to a VLAN in full fabric mode. Up to 4 zonesets may be configured, but only 1 can be active at any given time. The G8296 supports up the 64 zones per zoneset, each with up to 20 member devices. However, when an FC alias is used, only 10 devices can be members of a zone.
Example 1: NPV Gateway
In this example, the G8296 operates as an NPV gateway:
Figure 34. Using the G8296 as an NPV Gateway
1
FCoE
Lenovo
2
Converged
Switch
3
62
4
FCoE
61
Storage Area
Network
FCoE
FCoE
Full Fabric
Switch
The switch connects to FCoE node ports to an external Fibre Channel full fabric switch. Because multiple nodes will share the G8296 uplinks, the network must be configured as an NPV gateway.
Note: Up to 12 Fibre Channel VLANs can be configured on the switch at any given time, any or all of which can be configured as NPV gateways.
1. Specify which Omni Ports are directly connected to Fibre Channel devices:
RS G8296(config)# system port 61­62 type fc
Note: On the G8296, FC devices can be connected only to Omni Ports. Omni Ports connected to FCoE devices are considered part of the Ethernet network and should be left to operate in Ethernet mode.
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2. Enable tagging for internal ports participating in FCoE:
RS G8296(config)# interface port 1­4
RS G8296(config-if)# switchport mode trunk
RS G8296(config-if)# exit
3. Specify all member ports for the VLAN:
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config­vlan)# interface port 1­4
G8296(config­vlan)# switchport trunk allowed vlan add 1,1002
G8296(config­vlan)# interface fc 61­62
G8296(config­vlan)# switchport trunk allowed vlan add 1,1002
4. Specify a VLAN for this Fibre Channel network:
RS G8296(config)# vlan 1002
5. Enable NPV mode on the VLAN:
RS G8296(config­vlan)# npv enable
RS G8296(config­vlan)# exit
6. Specify which external ports are connected to the upstream Fibre Channel full fabric switch:
RS G8296(config­vlan)# npv traffic­map external­interface 61­62
RS G8296(config­vlan)# exit
Note: Although this example depicts two Fibre Channel ports connected to the upstream device, this is done for the sake of network redundancy. Only one Fibre Channel port is actually required.
7. Remove unused ports—ports that are not part of the uplink to the Fibre Channel fabric—from the NPV VLAN.
Example 2: Full Fabric FC/FCoE Switch
Consider the following Fibre Channel network:
Figure 35. Using the G8296 as a Full Fabric FC/FCoE Switch
Fibre Channel
Storage
Fibre Channel
Server
Zone1/2
Zone1
5
FCoE
Zone1
Lenovo 6
Converged
Switch
7
FCoE
Zone1
FCoE
Zone2
FCoE
Zone2
63
64
8
In this example network, the G8296 acts as the full fabric switch for the Fibre Channel network in two zones.
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Note: Although up to 12 Fibre Channel VLANs can be configured on the switch at any given time, only one can operate in full fabric mode. The rest may be configured as NPV gateways. For instance, the full fabric configuration in this example can be used simultaneously with up to 11 NPV gateways configured as shown in the NPV example on page 365.
1. Specify which Omni Ports will be used for Fibre Channel devices:
RS G8296(config)# system port 63­64 type fc
Note: On the G8296, Fibre Channel devices can be connected only to Omni Ports. Omni Ports connected to FCoE devices are considered part of the Ethernet network and should be left to operate in Ethernet mode.
2. Enable tagging for internal ports participating in FCoE:
RS G8296(config)# interface port 5­8
RS G8296(config-if)# switchport mode trunk
RS G8296(config-if)# exit
3. Specify a VLAN for the this Fibre Channel network:
RS G8296(config)# vlan 200
RS G8296(config-vlan)# enable
4. Specify all member ports for the VLAN:
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config­vlan)# interface port 5­8
G8296(config­vlan)# switchport trunk allowed vlan 1,200
G8296(config­vlan)# interface fc 63­64
G8296(config­vlan)# switchport trunk allowed vlan 1,200
Note: At least one Fibre Channel port must be included.
5. Enable full fabric mode on the VLAN:
RS G8296(config-vlan)# fcf enable
RS G8296(config-vlan)# exit
6. Define Fibre Channel zones:
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
366
G8296(config)# zone name Zone1
G8296(config-zone)# member pwwn 20:34:00:80:e5:23:b1:55
G8296(config-zone)# member pwwn 20:34:00:80:e5:27:f4:56
G8296(config-zone)# member pwwn 20:34:00:80:e5:28:31:13
G8296(config-zone)# member pwwn 20:34:00:80:e5:28:31:14
G8296(config-zone)# exit
G8296(config)# zone name Zone2
G8296(config-zone)# member pwwn 20:34:00:80:e5:28:43:57
G8296(config-zone)# member pwwn 20:34:00:80:e5:18:b3:58
G8296(config-zone)# member pwwn 20:34:00:80:e5:28:31:13
G8296(config-zone)# exit
G8296(config)# zoneset name City1
G8296(config-zoneset)# member Zone1
G8296(config-zoneset)# member Zone2
G8296(config-zoneset)# exit
G8296(config)# zoneset activate name City1
G8296 Application Guide for ENOS 8.4
Fibre Channel Standard Protocols Supported
Following table lists the standard FC protocols supported on the RackSwitch G8296. Table 34. FC Protocols Supported
Protocol
Fibre Channel FCoE ∙ T11 FCoE Initialization Protocol (FIP) (FC‐BB‐5) Fibre Channel forwarding (FCF)
Port Types Fibre Channel: F, NP, NP‐F, VF
E (N/OS 7.8 onwards)
Sixteen Buffer credits supported:
Fabric Device Management Interface (FDMI)
NPIV NPV Gateway
Fabric Shortest Path First (FSPF)
Port security
Fibre Channel ping, debugging
Fibre Channel Standards ∙ FC‐PH, Revision 4.3 (ANSI/INCITS 230‐1994) • FC‐PH, Amendment 1 (ANSI/INCITS 230‐1994/AM1 1996)
• FC‐PH, Amendment 2 (ANSI/INCITS 230‐1994/AM2‐1999)
• FC‐PH‐2, Revision 7.4 (ANSI/INCITS 297‐1997)
• FC‐PH‐3, Revision 9.4 (ANSI/INCITS 303‐1998)
• FC‐PI, Revision 13 (ANSI/INCITS 352‐2002)
• FC‐PI‐2, Revision 10 (ANSI/INCITS 404‐2006)
• FC‐PI‐4, Revision 7.0
• FC‐FS, Revision 1.9 (ANSI/INCITS 373‐2003)
• FC‐FS‐2, Revision 0.91
• FC_FS_3 Revision 1.11
• FC‐LS, Revision 1.2
• FC‐SW‐2, Revision 5.3 (ANSI/INCITS 355‐2001)
• FC‐SW‐3, Revision 6.6 (ANSI/INCITS 384‐2004)
• FC‐SW‐5, Revision 8.5 (ANSI/INCITS 461‐2010)
• FC‐GS‐3, Revision 7.01 (ANSI/INCITS 348‐2001)
• FC‐GS‐4, Revision 7.91 (ANSI/INCITS 387‐2004)
• FC‐GS‐6 Revision 9.4 (ANSI/INCITS 463‐2010)
• FC‐BB‐5, Revision 2.0 for FCoE
• FCP, Revision 12 (ANSI/INCITS 269‐1996)
• FCP‐2, Revision 8 (ANSI/INCITS 350‐2003)
• FCP‐3, Revision 4 (ANSI/INCITS 416‐2006)
• FC‐MI, Revision 1.92 (INCITS TR‐30‐2002, except for FL‐ports and Class 2)
• FC‐MI‐2, Revision 2.6 (INCITS TR‐39‐2005)
• FC‐SP, Revision 1.6
• FC‐DA, Revision 3.1 (INCITS TR‐36‐2004) © Copyright Lenovo 2016
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Chapter 22. Edge Virtual Bridging
The 802.1Qbg/Edge Virtual Bridging (EVB) is an emerging IEEE standard for allowing networks to become virtual machine (VM)‐aware. EVB bridges the gap between physical and virtual network resources. The IEEE 802.1Qbg simplifies network management by providing a standards‐based protocol that defines how virtual Ethernet bridges exchange configuration information. In EVB environments, physical end stations, containing multiple virtual end stations, use a bridge to form a LAN. The virtual NIC (vNIC) configuration information of a virtual machine is available to these EVB devices. This information is generally not available to an 802.1Q bridge.
Lenovo Enterprise Network Operating System EVB features are compliant with the IEEE 802.1Qbg Authors Group Draft 0.2. For a list of documents on this feature, see: http://www.ieee802.org/1/pages/802.1bg.html.
The Lenovo RackSwitch G8296 performs the role of a 802.1Qbg bridge in an EVB environment.
Enterprise NOS implementation of EVB supports the following protocols:
© Copyright Lenovo 2016

Virtual Ethernet Bridging (VEB) and Virtual Ethernet Port Aggregator (VEPA): VEB and VEPA are mechanisms for switching between VMs on the same hypervisor. VEB enables switching with the server, either in the software (vSwitch), or in the hardware (using single root I/O virtualization capable NICs). VEPA requires the edge switch to support “Reflective Relay”— an operation where the switch forwards a frame back to the port on which it arrived if the destination MAC address is on the same port.

Edge Control Protocol (ECP): ECP is a transport protocol that operates between two peers over an IEEE 802 LAN. ECP provides reliable, in‐order delivery of ULP (Upper Layer Protocol) PDUs (Protocol Data Units). 
Virtual Station Interface (VSI) Discovery and Configuration Protocol (VDP): VDP allows hypervisors to advertise VSIs to the physical network. This protocol also allows centralized configuration of network policies that will persist with the VM, independent of its location.

EVB Type‐Length‐Value (TLV): EVB TLV is a Link Layer Discovery protocol (LLDP)‐based TLV used to discover and configure VEPA, ECP, and VDP.
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EVB Operations Overview
The ENOS includes a pre‐standards VSI Type Database (VSIDB) implemented through the System Networking Switch Center (SNSC), the IBM Flex System Manager (FSM), or the IBM System Networking Distributed Switch 5000V. The VSIDB is the central repository for defining sets of network policies that apply to VM network ports. You can configure only one VSIDB.
Note: This document does not include the VSIDB configuration details. Please see the SNSC, FSM, or IBM System Networking Distributed Switch 5000V guide for details on how to configure VSIDB.
The VSIDB operates in the following sequence:
1. Define VSI types in the VSIDB. The VSIDB exports the database when the G8296 metering sends a request.
2. Create a VM. Specify VSI type for each VM interface. See the SNSC, FSM, or IBM System Networking Distributed Switch 5000V guide for details on how to specify the VSI type.
The hypervisor sends a VSI ASSOCIATE, which contains the VSI type ID, to the switch port after the VM is started. The switch updates its configuration based on the requested VSI type. The switch configures the per‐VM bandwidth using the VMpolicy.
The ENOS supports the following policies for VMs:

ACLs

Bandwidth VSIDB Synchronization
The switch periodically checks for VSIDB changes based on the configured interval. You can configure this interval using the following command: RS G8296(config)# virt evb vsidb <number>
RS G8296(conf­vsidb)# [no] update­interval <time in seconds>
To disable periodic updates, use the “no update­interval” command.
If the switch finds that the VSIDB has changed, it updates the local VSIDB cache. When the cache is successfully updated, it sends a syslog message.
After updating the local VSIDB cache, the switch disassociates any VM whose type ID or VLAN no longer exists in the updated cache.
The switch updates the local VSIDB cache when any of the following takes place:
370

When, at the configured refresh interval, the switch finds that the VSIDB configuration has changed since the last poll. 
When a VM sends an ASSOCIATE message, but the VSI type does not exist in the local VSIDB cache.

When a VM sends an ASSOCIATE message, and the VSI type exists but the VSI type’s VLAN ID does not exist in the local VSIDB cache.
G8296 Application Guide for ENOS 8.4
When you update the VSIDB using the following command:

RS G8296# virt evb update vsidb <number>
When the management port link status changes from down to up

VLAN Behavior
When a VM gets associated, the corresponding VLAN is dynamically created on the switch port if the VLAN does not already exist. VLANs that are dynamically created will be automatically removed from the switch port when there are no VMs using that VLAN on the port.
Dynamic VLAN information will not be displayed in the running configuration. However, the VLAN, port, and STP commands display the dynamic VLAN information with a “*”. If you configure any Layer 2/Layer 3 features on dynamically created VLANs, the VLAN information is displayed in the running configuration.
Deleting a VLAN
If you delete a VLAN that has a VM associated with it, you will see a warning message similar to the following: Warning: Vlan 10 is used by VM and can't be removed.
The VMs will not get disassociated.
If a VM is associated with a port, and you remove this port from a VLAN, you will see a warning message similar to the following: Warning: Port 23 in Vlan 10 is used by VM and can't be removed.
The VMs will not get disassociated.
Manual Reflective Relay
Reflective Relay (RR) is an operation where the switch forwards a frame back to the port on which it arrived if the destination MAC address is on the same port. When an EVB profile is configured on a port, RR is automatically enabled on the port after capability exchange with the peer, using the IEEE802.1QBG protocol. This is the usual mode of operation.
When the switch interoperates with devices that do not support IEEE 802.1QBG protocols, RR can be manually configured using the following command:
RS G8296(config­if)# reflective­relay force
Manual RR and EVB profile cannot be configured on a port at the same time.
If a port belongs to an isolated VLAN, Manual RR will not work for the respective port.
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VSIDB - IPv6 Support
The VSIDB manager can be configured with an IPv4 or IPv6 address. Use the following command to configure the VSIDB manager IP address: RS G8296(config)# virt evb vsidb 1
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(Set VSI database Manager IP)
EVB Configuration
This section includes the steps to configure EVB based on the following values:

Profile number: 1

Port number: 1

Retry interval: 8000 milliseconds

VSI Database: 
Manager IP: 172.31.37.187

Port: 80
Note: VSI Database can be accessed via HTTP or HTTPS. The manager IP can be configured with an IPv4 or IPv6 address. 1. Create an EVB profile. RS G8296(config)# virt evb profile 1 (Enter number from 1‐16)
2. Enable Reflective Relay. RS G8296(conf­evbprof)# reflective­relay 3. Enable VSI discovery. RS G8296(conf­evbprof)# vsi­discovery
RS G8296(conf-evbprof)# exit 4. Enable a server port.
RS G8296(config)# system server­ports port <port‐number>
5. Add EVB profile to port. RS G8296(config)# interface port 1
RS G8296(config-if)# evb profile 1 (Enter EVB profile ID)
RS G8296(config­if)# exit
6. Configure ECP retransmission interval. RS G8296(config)# ecp retransmit­interval 8000 (Enter retransmission interval in milliseconds (100‐9000)
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7. Set VSI database information. RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# virt evb vsidb 1
G8296(conf­vsidb)# host 172.31.37.187 (Set VSI database Manager IP)
G8296(conf­vsidb)# port 80 (Set VSI database Manager port)
G8296(conf­vsidb)# filepath “vsidb” (Set VSI database document path)
G8296(conf­vsidb)# filename “all.xml”(Set VSI database file name)
G8296(conf­vsidb)# update­interval 30(Set update interval in seconds) G8296(conf­vsidb)# exit
Note: When you connect to an SNSC VSIDB, the port/docpath configuration is as follows:
HTTP:

Port: 40080

Docpath: snsc/rest/vsitypes
HTTPS:

Port: 40443

Docpath: snsc/rest/vsitypes
When you connect to a 5000v VSIDB, the port/docpath configuration is as follows:

Port: 80

Docpath: vsitypes
8. Enable LLDP. 374
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Limitations

If both ACL and egress bandwidth metering are enabled, traffic will first be matched with the ACL and will not be limited by bandwidth metering.

ACLs based on a source MAC or VLAN must match the source MAC and VLAN of the VM. If not, the policy will be ignored and you will see the following warning message:
"vm: VSI Type ID 100 Associated mac 00:50:56:b6:c0:ff on port 6, ignore 1 mismatched ACL"
Unsupported features
The following features are not supported with EVB:
© Copyright Lenovo 2016

LAG/VLAG

vNIC
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Chapter 23. Static Multicast ARP
The Microsoft Windows operating system includes Network Load Balancing (NLB) technology that helps to balance incoming IP traffic among multi‐node clusters. In multicast mode, NLB uses a shared multicast MAC address with a unicast IP address. Since the address resolution protocol (ARP) can map an IP address to only one MAC address, port, and VLAN, the packet reaches only one of the servers (the one attached to the port on which the ARP was learnt).
To avoid the ARP resolution, you must create a static ARP entry with multicast MAC address. You must also specify the list of ports through which the multicast packet must be sent out from the gateway or Layer 2/Layer 3 node.
With these configurations, a packet with a unicast IPv4 destination address and multicast MAC address can be sent out as per the multicast MAC address configuration. NLB maps the unicast IP address and multicast MAC address as follows:
Cluster multicast MAC address: 03‐BF‐W‐X‐Y‐Z; where W.X.Y.Z is the cluster unicast IP address.
You must configure the static multicast ARP entry only at the Layer 2/Layer 3 or Router node, and not at the Layer 2‐only node.
Lenovo Enterprise Network Operating System supports a maximum of 20 static multicast ARP entries. When the ARP table is full, an error message appears in the syslog.
Note: If you use the ACL profile, an ACL entry is consumed for each Static Multicast ARP entry that you configure. Hence, you can configure a maximum of 896 ACLs and multicast MAC entries together when using the ACL profile.The ACL entries have a higher priority. In the default profile, the number of static multicast ARP entries that you configure does not affect the total number of ACL entries.
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Configuring Static Multicast ARP
To configure multicast MAC ARP, you must perform the following steps:

Configure the static multicast forwarding database (FDB) entry: Since there is no port list specified for static multicast ARP, and the associated MAC address is multicast, you must specify a static multicast FDB entry for the cluster MAC address to limit the multicast domain. If there is no static multicast FDB entry defined for the cluster MAC address, traffic will not be forwarded. Use the following command: RS G8296(config)# mac­address­table multicast <cluster MAC address> <port(s)>

Configure the static multicast ARP entry: Multicast ARP static entries should be configured without specifying the list of ports to be used. Use the following command: RS G8296(config)# ip arp <destination unicast IP address> <destination multicast MAC address> vlan <cluster VLAN number>
Configuration Example
Consider the following example:

Cluster unicast IP address: 10.10.10.42

Cluster multicast MAC address: 03:bf:0A:0A:0A:2A 
Cluster VLAN: 42

List of individual or port LAGs to which traffic should be forwarded: 54 and 56
Following are the steps to configure the static multicast ARP based on the given example:
1. Configure the static multicast FDB entry. RS G8296(config)# mac­address­table multicast 03:bf:0A:0A:0A:2A 42 54,56
2. Configure the static multicast ARP entry: RS G8296(config)# ip arp 10.10.10.42 03:bf:0A:0A:0A:2A vlan 42
You can verify the configuration using the following commands:

Verify static multicast FDB entry: RS G8296(config)# show mac­address­table multicast address 03:bf:0A:0A:0A:2A
Multicast Address VLAN Port(s)
­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ ­­­­ ­­­­­­­­­
03:bf:0A:0A:0A:2A 42 54 56
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
Verify static multicast ARP entry: RS G8296(config)# show ip arp
Current ARP configuration:
rearp 5
Current static ARP:
ip mac port vlan
­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ ­­­­­ ­­­­
10.10.10.42 03:bf:0A:0A:0A:2A 42
­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­
Total number of arp entries : 2
IP address Flags MAC address VLAN Age Port
­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ ­­­­­ ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ ­­­­ ­­­ ­­­­
10.10.10.1 P fc:cf:62:9d:74:00 42 10.10.10.42 P 03:bf:0A:0A:0A:2A 42 0 © Copyright Lenovo 2016
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Limitations
380

You must configure the ARP only in the Layer 2/Layer 3 node or the router node but not in the Layer 2‐only node. Enterprise NOS cannot validate if the node is Layer 2‐only. 
The packet is always forwarded to all the ports as specified in the Multicast MAC address configuration. If VLAN membership changes for the ports, you must update this static multicast MAC entry. If not, the ports, whose membership has changed, will report discards.

ACLs take precedence over static multicast ARP. If an ACL is configured to match and permit ingress of unicast traffic, the traffic will be forwarded based on the ACL rule, and the static multicast ARP will be ignored. G8296 Application Guide for ENOS 8.4
Chapter 24. Dynamic ARP Inspection
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) provides IP communication within a Layer 2 broadcast domain by mapping an IP address to a MAC address. Network devices maintain this mapping in a cache that they consult when forwarding packets to other devices. If the ARP cache does not contain an entry for the destination device, the host broadcasts an ARP request for that deviceʹs address and stores the response in the cache.
Understanding ARP Spoofing Attacks
ARP spoofing (also referred to as ARP cache poisoning) is one way to initiate man‐in‐the‐middle attacks. A malicious user could poison the ARP caches of connected systems (hosts, switches, routers) by sending forged ARP responses and could intercept traffic intended for other hosts on the LAN segment.
For example, in Figure 36, the attacker (Host C) can send an ARP Reply to Host A pretending to be Host B. As a result, Host A populates its ARP cache with a poisoned entry having IP address IB and MAC address MC. Host A will use the MAC address MC as the destination MAC address for traffic intended for Host B. Host C then intercepts that traffic. Because Host C knows the true MAC addresses associated with Host B, it forwards the intercepted traffic to that host by using the correct MAC address as the destination, keeping the appearance of regular behavior.
Figure 36. ARP Cache Poisoning
Host A
(IA, MA)
A
B
Host B
(IB, MB)
C
Host C (man-in-the-middle)
(IC, MC)
Understanding DAI
Dynamic ARP Inspection is a security feature that lets the switch intercept and examine all ARP request and response packets in a subnet, discarding those packets with invalid IP to MAC address bindings. This capability protects the network from man‐in‐the‐middle attacks.
A switch on which ARP Inspection is configured does the following:
© Copyright Lenovo 2016

Intercepts all ARP requests and responses on untrusted ports.

Verifies that each of these intercepted packets has a valid IP/MAC/VLAN/port binding before updating the local ARP cache or before forwarding the packet to the appropriate destination.
381

Drops invalid ARP packets and sends a syslog message with details about each dropped packet.
DAI determines the validity of an ARP packet based on valid IP‐to‐MAC address bindings stored in a trusted database, the DHCP snooping binding database. This database is built by DHCP snooping if DHCP snooping is enabled on the VLANs and on the switch. As shown in Figure 37, if the ARP packet is received on a trusted interface, the switch forwards the packet without any checks. On untrusted interfaces, the switch forwards the packet only if it is valid.
For hosts with statically configured IP addresses, static DHCP snooping binding entries can be configured with a big lease time.
Figure 37. Dynamic ARP inspection at work
Valid
Packets
ARP
Packets
ARP
Packets
Trusted
Interface
Untrusted
Interface
DAI
DHCP
Snooping/
Binding
DB
Invalid
Packet
Interface Trust States and Network Security
DAI associates a trust state with each interface on the switch.
In a typical network configuration, you configure all switch ports connected to host ports as untrusted and configure all switch ports connected to switches as trusted. With this configuration, all ARP packets entering the network from a given switch bypass the security check. The trust state configuration should be done carefully: configuring interfaces as untrusted when they should be trusted can result in a loss of connectivity.
In Figure 38, assume that both Switch A and Switch B are running DAI on the VLAN that includes Host 1 and Host 2. If Host 1 and Host 2 acquire their IP addresses from the DHCP server connected to Switch A, only Switch A has the DHCP IP‐to‐MAC binding of Host 1. Therefore, if the interface between Switch A and Switch B is untrusted, the ARP packets from Host 1 are dropped by Switch B. Connectivity between Host 1 and Host 2 is lost.
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Figure 38. ARP Packet Validation on a VLAN Enabled for DAI
DHCP server
Port 1
Switch A
Port 2
Port 3
Host 1
Switch B
Port 2
Port 3
Host 2
If Switch A is not running DAI, Host 1 can easily poison the ARP caches of Switch B and Host 2, if the link between the switches is configured as trusted. This condition can occur even though Switch B is running DAI.
The best option for the setup from Figure 38 is to have DAI running on both switches and to have the link between the switches configured as trusted.
In cases in which some switches in a VLAN run DAI and other switches do not, configure the interfaces connecting such switches as untrusted. However, to validate the bindings of packets from switches where DAI is not configured, configure static DHCP snooping binding entries on the switch running DAI. When you cannot determine such bindings, isolate switches running DAI at Layer 3 from switches not running DAI.
DAI ensures that hosts (on untrusted interfaces) connected to a switch running DAI do not poison the ARP caches of other hosts in the network. However, DAI does not prevent hosts in other portions of the network connected through a trusted interface from poisoning the caches of the hosts that are connected to a switch running DAI.
© Copyright Lenovo 2016
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DAI Configuration Guidelines and Restrictions
When configuring DAI, follow these guidelines and restrictions:

DAI is an ingress security feature; it does not perform any egress checking.

DAI is not effective for hosts connected to switches that do not support DAI or that do not have this feature enabled. Because man‐in‐the‐middle attacks are limited to a single Layer 2 broadcast domain, separate the domain with DAI checks from the one with no checking. This action secures the ARP caches of hosts in the domain enabled for DAI.

DAI depends on the entries in the DHCP snooping binding database to verify IP‐to‐MAC address bindings in incoming ARP requests and ARP responses.

For non‐DHCP environments, for each static IP address add a static DHCP Snooping binding entry with the biggest lease time in order not to expire.

Ports belonging to a port‐channel must have the same trust state.
DAI Configuration Example
Following is the configuration for the example in Figure 38.
SwitchA(config)# interface port 1­3
SwitchA(config­if)# switchport access vlan 2
SwitchA(config)# interface port 1­2
SwitchA(config­if)# ip arp inspection trust
SwitchA(config­if)# exit
SwitchA(config)# interface port 3
SwitchA(config­if)# no ip arp inspection trust
SwitchA(config­if)# exit
SwitchA(config)# ip arp inspection vlan 2
SwitchB(config)# interface port 2­3
SwitchB(config­if)# switchport access vlan 2
SwitchB(config)# interface port 2
SwitchB(config­if)# ip arp inspection trust
SwitchB(config­if)# exit
SwitchB(config)# interface port 3
SwitchB(config­if)# no ip arp inspection trust
SwitchB(config­if)# exit
SwitchB(config)# ip arp inspection vlan 2
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The DHCP Snooping binding tables will be similar to the following: Mac Address IP Address Lease(seconds) Type VLAN Interface ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­
­­­­­
00:00:00:00:00:01 Host1_IP 1000 Dynamic 2 3 00:00:00:00:00:02 Host2_IP 2000 Dynamic 2 2
Total number of bindings: 2
SwitchB#show ip dhcp snooping binding Mac Address IP Address Lease(seconds) Type VLAN Interface ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­
­­­­­ 00:00:00:00:00:02 Host2_IP 2000 Dynamic 2 3
Total number of bindings: 1
SwitchA# show ip dhcp snooping binding Output of show commands:
SwitchA# show ip arp inspection vlan
Vlan
­­­­
Configuration ­­­­­­­­­­­­­
2
Enabled
SwitchA# show ip arp inspection interfaces
Interface
­­­­­­­­­
Trust State
­­­­­­­­­­­
1Trusted
2Trusted
3Untrusted
4Untrusted
...
SwitchA# show ip arp inspection statistics
Vlan
­­­­
ForwardedDropped
­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­
2
100 200
When Host 1 tries to send an ARP with an IP address of 1.1.1.3 that is not present in the DHCP Binding table, the packet is dropped and an error message similar to the following is logged: “Dec 16 21:00:10 192.168.49.50 NOTICE ARP­Inspection: Invalid ARP Request on port 3, VLAN 2 ([00:02:00:02:00:02/1.1.1.3/00:00:00:00:00:00/1.1.1.4])”
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Chapter 25. Unified Fabric Port
Unified Fabric Port (UFP) is a cost‐effective way to allocate, share and dynamically control network bandwidth between a server and a switch. UFP lets you create multiple virtual connections. The UFP protocol is a link‐level protocol that runs a separate instance for each physical communication link established between a server NIC and a switch port. Virtualizing the ports allows you to separate or aggregate port traffic by applying the network policies defined on the switch. Virtualization lessens bottlenecks and provides higher bandwidth while consolidating equipment use. UFP provides a switch fabric component to control NICs. The server operating system (OS) or hypervisor recognizes each subdivided link (channel) as an independent physical NIC. Each channel has a unique identity and profile that defines its properties and functionality. The server communicates with the switch over the channel as defined in the channel profile. The channels share the high‐speed physical link bandwidth.
For each channel, the vNIC on the server side communicates with virtual port on the switch side.
Figure 39. UFP vPorts Top of Rack Server
NIC
VNIC
Physical
NIC Port
Server
Switch Port
vPort
VNIC
OS or
Hypervisor VNIC
vPort
VNIC
vPort
Lenovo
Switch
vPort
The UFP protocol has the following operation categories: © Copyright Lenovo 2016

Channel Initialization: The server NIC and the switch port negotiate the number of channels and establish channel identifiers. Each UFP channel has a data component and a control component. The two components have the same UFP channel ID. 
Channel Control: For an established channel, the switch can modify channel properties by sending a control message on the UFP channel. While the channel ID is the same for the control and data components, the destination MAC address of the control message frame is a well‐known address. 
Discovery Capability: UFP can discover other ports that are UFP enabled. Once you enable UFP, you can check the information statistics for established channels.
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UFP Limitations
The following limitations apply when configuring UFP: 388

For Emulex NICs, FCoE must be configured only on vPort 2 of the physical NIC.

UFP port in FCoE mode cannot operate with FIP auto‐VLAN feature.

VLANs that have member vPorts configured in trunk‐, access‐, or auto‐modes cannot have member vPorts configured in tunnel mode or FCoE.

vPorts on a physical port must be members of separate VLANs.

VLANs 4002‐4009 are reserved for outer tagging.

VLAN translation is not applied on egress ports that have UFP enabled but no vPorts configured in trunk‐, access‐, or auto‐modes.

UFP bandwidth is guaranteed lossless only for unicast traffic.

VMready is supported only on a vPort which is configured in auto‐VLAN mode. When a vPort is in auto‐VLAN mode, it can support up to 32 VMGroups.

EVB is supported only on a vPort which is configured in auto‐VLAN mode.

VMready and EVB cannot be configured on the same physical port.

UFP vPorts can support up to 1024 VLANs in trunk mode and auto mode.

UFP can be enabled only on ports connected to servers and defined as server ports

When CEE is turned on, FCoE vPort must be used for lossless priority traffic. For loss‐tolerant priority traffic, a non‐FCoE UFP vPort must be used. The lossless property of FCoE vPort is not guaranteed, if lossless and loss‐tolerant traffic are combined.

When the vPort is enabled and the channel link state is up, the system does not support changing vPort VLAN type from private/non‐private to non‐private/private.

When integrating with private VLANs, UFP is not supported in stacking mode.

A maximum of eight vPorts can be configured for each physical switch port.

UFP and vNIC cannot be configured at the same time on a switch.

VMReady Local Group configuration is not supported by UFP.
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Virtual Ports Modes
A single physical switch port is configured with virtual ports (vPorts). Each UFP channel connects the server NIC with a switch vPort. Properties that are defined for a vPort, such as native VLAN and bandwidth, are applied to the traffic that belongs to the vPort.
Note: A maximum of eight vPorts can be configured for each physical switch port.
vPort-S-Tag Mapping
A vPort can also be identified with an S‐tag (service tag or outer tag). When a vPort is initialized, the switch communicates the UFP channel ID of the vPort to the server NIC. When the server NIC or switch transmit frames, they add this S‐tag to indicate the vPort or vNIC to which the packet is being transmitted. No VLAN mapping is required. Such packets can be single tagged or double tagged (with S‐tag).
vPort-VLAN Mapping
In local domain data path type, the switch and server identify the vPort and vNIC by the port and VLAN tag in the incoming and outgoing packets. Because no two vPorts carry traffic for the same VLAN, the port‐and‐VLAN combination must be uniquely mapped to a vPort. UFP vPort Mode
The UFP mode is configured based on the type of switching domain (single VLAN or multiple VLANs) where the vPort is connected. 
Use local domain data path types for trunk or access mode. 
Use pass‐through domain data path types for tunnel mode. In tunnel mode, a vPort can belong to only one VLAN.
Use the following command to configure UFP vPort mode: RS G8296(config)# ufp port <num> vport <num>
RS G8296(config_ufp_vport)# network mode {access|trunk|auto|tunnel|fcoe}
Default mode is ‘tunnel’
Tunnel Mode
In tunnel mode, a vPort can belong to only one VLAN. An outer tag with the vPort’s VLAN ID is inserted in packets that egress the vPort. The inner VLAN tag remains unchanged. The switch processes packets based on the outer tag. When all the ports or vPorts that belong to a particular VLAN are placed in tunnel mode, they belong to one pass‐through domain.
Use tunnel mode to send all VM data traffic to an upstream switch, for Layer 2 or Layer 3 processing, in one domain. In such cases, the UFP port or vPort must be in tunnel mode and the upstream switch port must be in 802.1Q trunk mode.
Note: Two vPorts on a physical port cannot be members of the same VLAN. © Copyright Lenovo 2016
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Figure 40. Packet pass‐through in Tunnel Mode
vNICs
Server
OS/Hypervisor
Regular
VLAN ID
vPorts
Ports without
vNICs
Lenovo Switch
NIC
NIC attaches UFP
Channel VLAN ID
Switching uses outer tag;
Ignores regular VLAN
Switch strips
outer tag
Outer tag sets vNIC;
NIC strips outer tag
Switching uses outer tag;
Ignores regular VLAN
Switch adds outer
Channel VLAN ID
Outbound
Packet
Inbound
Packet
802.1Q Trunk Mode
In trunk mode, a vPort can carry packets that have inner tags that belong to up to 1024 VLANs. A maximum of 4088 VLANs for all UFP vPorts can be configured on the switch in stand‐alone mode. Each VLAN in the inner tag requires a VLAN translation entry.
Note: Two vPorts operating in trunk mode on the same physical port cannot carry the same set of VLANs in the inner tag.
Figure 41. Packet passing through in Trunk Mode vNIC
Server
OS/Hypervisor
Regular
VLAN IDs
vPort
Lenovo Switch
NIC
NIC attaches UFP
Channel VLAN ID
VLAN
Translation
VLAN
Classification
Ports without
vNICs
Switch strips
outer tag
Outbound
Packet
Access Mode
In access mode, a vPort carries packets with inner tags that belong to one VLAN. The vPort is associated with the VLAN defined by the command: RS G8296(config_ufp_vport)# network default­vlan <2‐4094>
Note: VLANs 4002‐4009 are reserved for outer tagging.
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FCoE Mode
FCoE traffic is carried by a vPort. The server‐side endpoint of this virtual port will be represented through a FC vHBA. Setting a virtual port in FCoE mode will enable Priority‐based Flow Control (PFC) on the physical port.
A vPort configured in FCoE mode can only be attached to a Fibre Channel (FC) VLAN. Only vPort 2 on a physical port can be configured in FCoE mode. A vPort in FCoE mode operates as a local domain data path type with packets being single tagged.
Auto-VLAN Mode
When a vPort is configured in auto‐VLAN mode, the vPort participates in VM discovery using VMready or 802.1Qbg. VLANs are dynamically provisioned based on VMready discovery or 802.1Qbg VM association.
When a vPort operates in auto‐VLAN mode, it supports 32 VM groups. In the case of 802.1Qbg, when a vPort operates in auto‐VLAN mode, the maximum number of VLANs in the inner tag are 1024. The vPort cannot be configured in Virtual Ethernet Port Aggregator (VEPA) mode. © Copyright Lenovo 2016
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UFP Bandwidth Provisioning
UFP provides one two modes of bandwidth provisioning for vPort: ETS Mode and Strict Bandwidth Provisioning Mode. ETS Mode
Enhanced Transmission Selection (ETS) mode of bandwidth provisioning is useful when an end‐to‐end QoS framework for the entire data center, with bandwidth provisioning for different applications, is desired. ETS mode color marks traffic from point of origination to point of destination. It helps to couple QoS provisioning in the access layer with data center fabric.
This mode functions with the ETS feature available on the G8296. You must first define the ETS characteristics of the G8296. Assign each vNIC to desired traffic class by assigning a system class priority. The Data Center Bridging Capabilities Exchange (DCBX) and UFP protocols propagate the configured parameters for the vNIC to apply appropriate traffic coloring and shaping at the source.
When operating in this mode, traffic scheduling and bandwidth allocation behavior on switch egress is driven by the ETS class of traffic.
When two vNICs use the same traffic class configuration, the order in which switch schedules traffic at egress depends on the order the traffic arrives at egress buffer. Since bandwidth allocation is derived from traffic class rather than vNIC, switch egress doesn’t differentiate between different vNIC traffics.
Use the following command to configure ETC bandwidth provisioning: RS G8296(config_ufp_vport)# qos ets {host­control|priority}
Note: CEE must be globally enabled before accessing QoS ETS Mode.
These examples display currently configured QoS ETS settings: RS G8296(config_ufp_vport)# show ufp information qos UFP QOS:
Port | Vport | Mode | Minbw% | Maxbw% | Prio | HstCtrl
­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­
33 | 1 | ETS | | | 0 | Dis
| 2 | ETS | | | 1 | Dis
| 3 | ETS | | | 2 | Dis
| 4 | ETS | | | 3 | Dis
| 5 | ETS | | | 4 | Dis
| 6 | ETS | | | 5 | Dis
| 7 | ETS | | | 6 | Dis
| 8 | ETS | | | 7 | Dis
­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­
43 | 1 | ETS | | | 0 | Dis
| 2 | ETS | | | 1 | Dis
| 3 | ETS | | | 2 | Dis
| 4 | ETS | | | 3 | Dis
| 5 | ETS | | | 4 | Dis
| 6 | ETS | | | 5 | Dis
| 7 | ETS | | | 6 | Dis
| 8 | ETS | | | 7 | Dis
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RS G8296(config_ufp_vport)# show ufp port 33
Port 33: UFP ena, qos­mode ­ ets
33.1: Enabled
EVB profile configuration: EVB profile disabled
Network configuration: Defvlan 100, Mode access, Tagdef dis, Private VLAN disabled
QOS ETS mode configuration:
Priority: 0 | Host Control: dis
33.2: Enabled
EVB profile configuration: EVB profile disabled
Network configuration: Defvlan 200, Mode trunk, Tagdef ena, Private VLAN disabled
QOS ETS mode configuration:
Priority: 1 | Host Control: dis
33.3: Enabled
EVB profile configuration: EVB profile disabled
Network configuration: Defvlan 300, Mode trunk, Tagdef ena, Private VLAN disabled
QOS ETS mode configuration:
Priority: 2 | Host Control: dis
33.4: Enabled
EVB profile configuration: EVB profile disabled
Network configuration: Defvlan 400, Mode trunk, Tagdef ena, Private VLAN disabled
QOS ETS mode configuration:
Priority: 3 | Host Control: dis
33.5: Enabled
EVB profile configuration: EVB profile disabled
Network configuration: Defvlan 500, Mode trunk, Tagdef ena, Private VLAN disabled
QOS ETS mode configuration:
Priority: 4 | Host Control: dis
33.6: Enabled
EVB profile configuration: EVB profile disabled
Network configuration: Defvlan 600, Mode trunk, Tagdef ena, Private VLAN disabled
QOS ETS mode configuration:
Priority: 5 | Host Control: dis
33.7: Enabled
EVB profile configuration: EVB profile disabled
Network configuration: Defvlan 700, Mode trunk, Tagdef ena, Private VLAN disabled
QOS ETS mode configuration:
Priority: 6 | Host Control: dis
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UFP Strict Bandwidth Provisioning Mode
Strict bandwidth provisioning mode configures the switch and NIC apply bidirectional bandwidth control on the vPort as per the defined configuration. By default, a bandwidth of 2.5 Gbps per vPort is guaranteed. If other vPorts are idle, the bandwidth of a vPort can be up to 10 Gbps. A minimum bandwidth of 1 Gbps is provisioned, which can be raised by 100 Mbps increments. The sum of the minimum bandwidth guaranteed for all vPorts together cannot exceed the capacity of the physical link. A vPort can also be configured with a maximum bandwidth.
This mode works with the port scheduler to avoid unintended packet drops due to policing through EFP metering block. If flow control is enabled, the switch provides a no‐drop packet forwarding behavior, which improves end‐to‐end TCP‐throughput performance. Note: If a vPort is configured with low upper limit, it might lead to head‐of‐line congestion on the egress port.
ETS mode is disabled when strict bandwidth provisioning mode is enabled. By default, uplink ports have a separate traffic class for storage traffic with guaranteed bandwidth. The rest of the bandwidth is shared equally among other traffic.
Use the following command to configure strict bandwidth provisioning: RS G8296(config_ufp_vport)# qos bandwidth {max|min} <10‐100>
min ­ Set minimum guaranteed bandwidth
max ­ Set maximum allowed bandwidth
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Using UFP with Other RackSwitch G8296 Features
UFP works with other G8296 features, as described with limitations and details. Layer 2 Failover
UFP failover can be configured with manual monitoring.
For more information on failover, see Chapter 38, “Layer 2 Failover.”
For an example configuration, see “Example 6: Layer 2 Failover Configuration” on page 402.
Increased VLAN Limits
Configured with UFP and VLANs, a vPort can support maximum 1024 VLANs. A UFP port supports 1024 VLANs. For more information on VLAN configuration, see Chapter 9, “VLANs.”
Private VLANs
It supports the following Private VLAN modes in UFP vPorts:

Disabled

Trunk

Promiscuous

Host
The following are the criteria of these Private VLAN modes:

Private‐VLAN mode is disabled: 

© Copyright Lenovo 2016
Allows only non‐private domain.
Private‐VLAN mode is trunk:

Allows both primary and secondary VLAN which belong to the private VLAN domain.

Allows non‐private VLAN domains.

vPorts belonging to the same UFP port cannot be in the same private‐VLAN domain.

For the traffic of a specific VLAN to be passed through a port, requires the port to be explicitly added to that VLAN. For example, for a UFP port to pass traffic in private VLAN primary 100 and secondary 10, the port must be added to both VLAN 100 and VLAN 10.

Since this port type is intended to be functional as an ISL port, the isolate‐VLAN is allowed to pass traffic through this port type.
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

Private‐VLAN mode is promiscuous:

Allows only primary VLAN.

There can be multiple Private VLAN domains.

The Private VLAN domains must be unique for vPorts belonging to the same UFP port.
Private‐VLAN mode is host:

Allows only ONE secondary VLAN. In the case of a vPort is in network trunk mode, there will be multiple VLANs assigned to the vPort, but there will still be only ONE secondary VLAN. The other VLANs will not be private‐VLANs.

Warns if no primary VLAN is associated with the secondary VLAN assigned to a vPort.
UFP with private VLANs is supported under the following limitations:

vPorts from the same physical port cannot belong to the same private VLAN domain.

UFP ports cannot have switchport mode private‐VLAN enabled on them.

Private VLAN is supported only on vPorts configured with trunk or access mode.

UFP cannot be configured on promiscuous ports.
For more information on private VLANs, see Chapter 9, “Private VLANs.
VMReady
Configuring with UFP and VMReady, the G8296 can support up to 32 VMGroups with UFP vPorts in auto‐mode. VMReady is supported only on a vPort which is configured in auto‐VLAN mode. For more information on VMReady, see Chapter 18, “VMready.”
802.1Qbg
Configured with Edge Virtual Bridging (EVB), UFP supports up to 1024 VLANs on a vPort.
EVB is supported only on a vPort which is configured in auto‐VLAN mode.
For more information on EVB, see Chapter 22, “Edge Virtual Bridging.”
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UFP Configuration Examples
Following is an example configuration of UFP vPorts in access mode. Example 1: Access Mode
1. Configure port 1 as server port:
G8296(config)# system server­ports port 1
2. Turn on UFP. G8296(config)# ufp enable
3. Configure port 1 as UFP. G8296(config)# ufp port 1 enable
Warning: "Tagging/Trunk­mode" is enabled on UFP port 1
4. Configure virtual port. G8296(config)# ufp port 1 vport 1
5. Configure vPort access mode. G8296(config_ufp_vport)# network mode access
6. Configure vPort default VLAN. G8296(config_ufp_vport)# network default­vlan 100
7. Specify QoS parameters for the vPort. G8296(config_ufp_vport)# qos bandwidth min 25 (in percentage)
G8296(config_ufp_vport)# qos bandwidth max 100 (in percentage)
G8296(config_ufp_vport)# enable
G8296(config_ufp_vport)# exit
8. Configure PVID/Native VLAN for port 2. G8296(config)# interface port 2
G8296(config­if)# switchport mode access
G8296(config­if)# switchport access vlan 100
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Example 2: Trunk Mode
Following is an example configuration of UFP vPorts in trunk mode. 1. Configure port 1 as server port:
G8296(config)# system server­ports port 1
2. Turn on UFP. RS G8296(config)# ufp enable
3. Configure port 1 as UFP. G8296(config)# ufp port 1 enable
Warning: "Tagging/Trunk­mode" is enabled on UFP port 1
4. Configure virtual port. G8296(config)# ufp port 1 vport 1
5. Configure vPort trunk mode. G8296(config_ufp_vport)# network mode trunk
6. Configure vPort default VLAN. G8296(config_ufp_vport)# network default­vlan 100
7. Specify QoS parameters for the vPort. G8296(config_ufp_vport)# qos bandwidth min 25 (in percentage)
G8296(config_ufp_vport)# qos bandwidth max 100 (in percentage)
8. Enable the vPort. G8296(config_ufp_vport)# enable
G8296(config_ufp_vport)# exit
9. Configure port 2 as UFP. G8296(config)# ufp port 2 enable
Warning: "Tagging/Trunk­mode" is enabled on UFP port 2
10. Configure virtual port. G8296(config)# ufp port 2 vport 3
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11. Configure vPort trunk mode. G8296(config_ufp_vport)# network mode trunk
12. Configure vPort default VLAN. G8296(config_ufp_vport)# network default­vlan 100
13. Ensure tagging is disabled on vPort. G8296(config_ufp_vport)# no network default­tag
14. Specify QoS parameters for the vPort. G8296(config_ufp_vport)# qos bandwidth min 25 (in percentage)
G8296(config_ufp_vport)# qos bandwidth max 100 (in percentage)
15. Enable the vPort. G8296(config_ufp_vport)# enable
G8296(config_ufp_vport)# exit
16. Enable tagging/trunk mode on port 3. G8296(config)# interface port 3
G8296(config­if)# switchport mode trunk
G8296(config­if)# switchport trunk native vlan 100
G8296(config­if)# switchport trunk allowed vlan add 200,300
G8296(config­if)# exit
17. Configure VLAN 200 parameters. G8296(config)# vlan 200
G8296(config­vlan)# vmember 1.1
G8296(config­vlan)# vmember 2.3
G8296(config­vlan)# exit
18. Configure VLAN 300 parameters. G8296(config)# vlan 300
G8296(config­vlan)# vmember 1.1
G8296(config­vlan)# vmember 2.3
G8296(config­vlan)# exit
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Example 3: Auto-VLAN Mode
1. Configure port 1 as server port:
G8296(config)# system server­ports port 1
2. Turn on UFP. RS G8296(config)# ufp enable
3. Configure port 1 as UFP. G8296(config)# ufp port 1 enable
Warning: "Tagging/Trunk­mode" is enabled on UFP port 1
4. Configure virtual port. G8296(config)# ufp port 1 vport 1
5. Configure vPort default VLAN. G8296(config_ufp_vport)# network default­vlan 100
6. Configure vPort auto mode. G8296(config_ufp_vport)# network mode auto
Note: VLAN is dynamically added by 802.1Qbg. 7. Specify QoS parameters for the vPort. G8296(config_ufp_vport)# qos bandwidth min 25 (in percentage)
G8296(config_ufp_vport)# qos bandwidth max 100 (in percentage)
8. Enable the vPort. G8296(config_ufp_vport)# enable
G8296(config_ufp_vport)# exit
Example 4: Tunnel Mode
Following is an example configuration of UFP vPorts in tunnel mode. 1. Configure port 1 as a UFP server port. G8296(config)# system server­ports port 1
2. Turn on UFP. G8296(config)# ufp enable
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3. Configure port as UFP. G8296(config)# ufp port 1 enable
Warning: "Tagging/Trunk­mode" is enabled on UFP port 1
4. Configure virtual port. G8296(config)# ufp port 1 vport 1
5. Configure vPort tunnel mode. G8296(config_ufp_vport)# network mode tunnel
6. Configure vPort default VLAN. G8296(config_ufp_vport)# network default­vlan 4000
7. Specify QoS parameters for the vPort. G8296(config_ufp_vport)# qos bandwidth min 25 (in percentage)
G8296(config_ufp_vport)# qos bandwidth max 100 (in percentage)
8. Enable the vPort. G8296(config_ufp_vport)# enable
G8296(config_ufp_vport)# exit
9. Configure tagging on port 2. Note: Port 2 must be an upstream port.
G8296(config)# interface port 2
G8296(config­if)# tagpvid­ingress
G8296(config­if)# no vlan dot1q tag native G8296(config­if)# switchport access vlan 4000
G8296(config­if)# exit
Example 5: FCoE Mode
Following is an example configuration of UFP vPorts in FCoE mode. 1. Enable CEE. Configure port 1 as a UFP server port. G8296(config)# system server­ports port 1
2. Enable CEE. G8296(config)# cee enable
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3. Enable FIPs. G8296(config)# fcoe fips enable
4. Turn on UFP. RS G8296(config)# ufp enable
5. Configure port as UFP. G8296(config)# ufp port 1 enable
Warning: "Tagging/Trunk­mode" is enabled on UFP port 1
6. Configure virtual port. G8296(config)# ufp port 1 vport 2
7. Configure vPort FCoE mode. G8296(config_ufp_vport)# network mode fcoe
8. Configure vPort default VLAN. G8296(config_ufp_vport)# network default­vlan 1102
9. Specify QoS parameters for the vPort. G8296(config_ufp_vport)# qos bandwidth min 25 (in percentage)
G8296(config_ufp_vport)# qos bandwidth max 100 (in percentage)
10. Enable the vPort. G8296(config_ufp_vport)# enable
G8296(config_ufp_vport)# exit
11. Enable tagging/trunk mode on the uplink port.
Note: Port 2 is connected to the upstream FCF. G8296(config)# interface port 2
G8296(config­if)# switchport mode trunk
G8296(config­if)# switchport trunk native vlan 1
G8296(config­if)# switchport trunk allowed vlan add 1102
G8296(config­if)# exit
Example 6: Layer 2 Failover Configuration
While configuring a failover trigger, you cannot use the member command for a physical port that has vPorts configured. Instead, you must use the vmember command to add the vPorts as members of a failover trigger. The following 402
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example includes the commands to configure a failover trigger using a physical port 8 (UFP not enabled) and vPorts 9.1, 9.2, 9.3, and 9.4 configured on UFP‐enabled physical port 9.
See “Example 1: Access Mode” on page 397 for steps to configure a vPort in access mode. Follow the steps below for configuring the failover trigger:
1. Enable failover globally: G8296(config)# failover enable
2. Configure trigger 1 and add monitor and control ports: G8296(config)# failover trigger 1 mmon monitor member 5
G8296(config)# failover trigger 1 mmon control member 8
G8296(config)# failover trigger 1 mmon control vmember 9.1,9.2,9.3,9.4
Note: If you try to add a physical port (that has vPorts configured) as a member of a trigger, you may see the following error message when you enable the trigger:
G8296(config)# failover trigger 1 ena
Failover Error: trigger 1 physical port 9 has virtual ports.
3. Enable failover trigger: G8296(config)# failover trigger 1 enable
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Part 5: IP Routing
This section discusses Layer 3 switching functions. In addition to switching traffic at near line rates, the application switch can perform multi‐protocol routing. This section discusses basic routing and advanced routing protocols:
 Basic IP Routing
 Policy‐Based Routing
 Routed Ports
 Internet Protocol Version 6
 IPsec with IPv6
 Routing Information Protocol
 Internet Group Management Protocol
 Multicast Listener Discovery
 Border Gateway Protocol
 Open Shortest Path First
 Protocol Independent Multicast
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Chapter 26. Basic IP Routing
This chapter provides configuration background and examples for using the G8296 to perform IP routing functions. The following topics are addressed in this chapter:
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
“IP Routing Benefits” on page 408

“Routing Between IP Subnets” on page 408

“Example of Subnet Routing” on page 409

“ARP ‐ Local Proxy” on page 413

“Network Address Translation” on page 414

“ECMP Static Routes” on page 419

“Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol” on page 421

“DHCP Relay Agent” on page 422
407
IP Routing Benefits
The switch uses a combination of configurable IP switch interfaces and IP routing options. The switch IP routing capabilities provide the following benefits:

Connects the server IP subnets to the rest of the backbone network.

Provides the ability to route IP traffic between multiple Virtual Local Area Networks (VLANs) configured on the switch.
Routing Between IP Subnets
The physical layout of most corporate networks has evolved over time. Classic hub/router topologies have given way to faster switched topologies, particularly now that switches are increasingly intelligent. The G8296 is intelligent and fast enough to perform routing functions at wire speed. The combination of faster routing and switching in a single device allows you to build versatile topologies that account for legacy configurations.
For example, consider a corporate campus that has migrated from a router‐centric topology to a faster, more powerful, switch‐based topology. As is often the case, the legacy of network growth and redesign has left the system with a mix of illogically distributed subnets.
This is a situation that switching alone cannot cure. Instead, the router is flooded with cross‐subnet communication. This compromises efficiency in two ways:

Routers can be slower than switches. The cross‐subnet side trip from the switch to the router and back again adds two hops for the data, slowing throughput considerably.

Traffic to the router increases, increasing congestion.
Even if every end‐station could be moved to better logical subnets (a daunting task), competition for access to common server pools on different subnets still burdens the routers.
This problem is solved by using switches with built‐in IP routing capabilities. Cross‐subnet LAN traffic can now be routed within the switches with wire speed switching performance. This eases the load on the router and saves the network administrators from reconfiguring every end‐station with new IP addresses.
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Example of Subnet Routing
Consider the role of the G8296 in the following configuration example: Figure 42. Switch‐Based Routing Topology Default router:
205.21.17.1
IF 1
VLAN 1
IF 2
VLAN 2
IF 4
VLAN 4
IF 3
VLAN 3
Server subnet 3:
206.30.15.2-254
Server subnet 1:
100.20.10.2-254
Server subnet 2:
131.15.15.2-254
The switch connects the Gigabit Ethernet and Fast Ethernet LAGs from various switched subnets throughout one building. Common servers are placed on another subnet attached to the switch. A primary and backup router are attached to the switch on yet another subnet.
Without Layer 3 IP routing on the switch, cross‐subnet communication is relayed to the default gateway (in this case, the router) for the next level of routing intelligence. The router fills in the necessary address information and sends the data back to the switch, which then relays the packet to the proper destination subnet using Layer 2 switching.
With Layer 3 IP routing in place on the switch, routing between different IP subnets can be accomplished entirely within the switch. This leaves the routers free to handle inbound and outbound traffic for this group of subnets.
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Using VLANs to Segregate Broadcast Domains
If you want to control the broadcasts on your network, use VLANs to create distinct broadcast domains. Create one VLAN for each server subnet, and one for the router. Configuration Example
This section describes the steps used to configure the example topology shown in Figure 42 on page 409. 1. Assign an IP address (or document the existing one) for each router and each server. The following IP addresses are used:
Table 35. Subnet Routing Example: IP Address Assignments
Subnet
Devices
IP Addresses
1
Default router
205.21.17.1
2
Web servers
100.20.10.2-254
3
Database servers
131.15.15.2-254
4
Terminal Servers
206.30.15.2-254
2. Assign an IP interface for each subnet attached to the switch.
Since there are four IP subnets connected to the switch, four IP interfaces are needed:
Table 36. Subnet Routing Example: IP Interface Assignments
Interface
Devices
IP Interface Address
IF 1
Default router
205.21.17.3
IF 2
Web servers
100.20.10.1
IF 3
Database servers
131.15.15.1
IF 4
Terminal Servers
206.30.15.1
3. Determine which switch ports and IP interfaces belong to which VLANs.
The following table adds port and VLAN information:
Table 37. Subnet Routing Example: Optional VLAN Ports
Devices
410
IP Interface
Switch Ports
Default router
1
22
1
Web servers
2
1 and 2
2
Database servers
3
3 and 4
3
Terminal Servers
4
5 and 6
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VLAN #
Note: To perform this configuration, you must be connected to the switch Industry Standard Command Line Interface (ISCLI) as the administrator. 4. Add the switch ports to their respective VLANs.
The VLANs shown in Table 37 are configured as follows: RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# vlan 1
G8296(config­vlan)# exit
G8296(config)# interface port 22
(Add ports to VLAN 1)
G8296(config­if)# switchport mode trunk
G8296(config­if)# switchport trunk allowed vlan 1
G8296(config­if)# exit
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# vlan 2
G8296(config­vlan)# exit
G8296(config)# interface port 1,2 (Add ports to VLAN 2)
G8296(config­if)# switchport mode trunk
G8296(config­if)# switchport trunk allowed vlan 2
G8296(config­if)# exit
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# vlan 3
G8296(config­vlan)# exit
G8296(config)# interface port 3,4 (Add ports to VLAN 3)
G8296(config­if)# switchport mode trunk
G8296(config­if)# switchport trunk allowed vlan 3
G8296(config­if)# exit
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# vlan 4
G8296(config­vlan)# exit
G8296(config)# interface port 5,6 (Add ports to VLAN 4)
G8296(config­if)# switchport mode trunk
G8296(config­if)# switchport trunk allowed vlan 4
G8296(config­if)# exit
Each time you add a port to a VLAN, you may get the following prompt:
Port 4 is an untagged port and its PVID is changed from 1 to 3.
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5. Assign a VLAN to each IP interface. Now that the ports are separated into VLANs, the VLANs are assigned to the appropriate IP interface for each subnet. From Table 37 on page 410, the settings are made as follows: RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# interface ip 1
(Select IP interface 1)
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip address 205.21.17.3
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip netmask 255.255.255.0
G8296(config­ip­if)# vlan 1
(Add VLAN 1)
G8296(config­ip­if)# enable
G8296(config­vlan)# exit
G8296(config)# interface ip 2
(Select IP interface 2)
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip address 100.20.10.1
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip netmask 255.255.255.0
G8296(config­ip­if)# vlan 2
(Add VLAN 2)
G8296(config­ip­if)# enable
G8296(config­ip­if)# exit
G8296(config)# interface ip 3
(Select IP interface 3)
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip address 131.15.15.1
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip netmask 255.255.255.0
G8296(config­ip­if)# vlan 3
(Add VLAN 3)
G8296(config­ip­if)# enable
G8296(config­ip­if)# exit
G8296(config)# interface ip 4
(Select IP interface 4)
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip address 206.30.15.1
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip netmask 255.255.255.0
G8296(config­ip­if)# vlan 4
(Add VLAN 4)
G8296(config­ip­if)# enable
G8296(config­ip­if)# exit
6. Configure the default gateway to the routers’ addresses. The default gateway allows the switch to send outbound traffic to the router: RS G8296(config)# ip gateway 1 address 205.21.17.1
RS G8296(config)# ip gateway 1 enable
7. Enable IP routing. RS G8296(config)# ip routing
8. Verify the configuration.
RS G8296(config)# show vlan
RS G8296(config)# show interface information
RS G8296(config)# show interface ip
Examine the resulting information. If any settings are incorrect, make the appropriate changes.
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ARP - Local Proxy
An IP interface or a routed port that has local proxy ARP enabled allows the RackSwitch G8296 to respond to all ARP requests for IP addresses within the subnetwork, and to forward all traffic between hosts in the subnetwork. This feature is useful when hosts in a subnetwork are separated at Layer 2 with features such as Private VLAN. After responding to an ARP request, the G8296 sends an ARP request to the destination host for creating an ARP entry, if such an entry does not already exist in the ARP cache. If VRRP is enabled, the G8296 uses the virtual router MAC address of the master in the ARP response. If VRRP is not enabled, the G8296 uses the switch base MAC address.
When local proxy ARP is enabled on an interface, ICMP redirects must be disabled globally.
This feature can be enabled using the following commands:
On an IP interface: RS G8296(config-ip-if)# ip local-proxy-arp
On a routed port: RS G8296(config-if)# ip local-proxy-arp
For more information on routed ports, see Chapter 28, “Routed Ports.”
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Network Address Translation
Another way to circumvent using an upstream router, this time for communication between local subnets and the rest of the backbone network, is to use the G8296’s integrated Network Address Translation (NAT) functionality. NAT changes the IP addresses inside packets as they pass between different IP address spaces or realms, based on predefined mappings.
Network addresses can be segregated into two realms: the inside realm and the outside realm. This is a naming convention originating from the prevailing use case, where NAT is used to connect an internal address realm with private unregistered addresses to an external realm with globally unique registered addresses. Technically, however, the two realms are symmetrical. It is possible, for example, to define a LAN in the outside realm and the backbone network in the inside realm.
Network addresses are classified as follows:


Inside Realm (local IPs)

inside local IP – the configured IP address of the inside host. All hosts from the inside realm can access the inside local address if they have a route to it.

outside local IP – the IP address of an outside host as it appears in the inside realm. Hosts in the inside realm use the outside local address when sending packets to a host in the outside realm.
Outside Realm (global IPs)

inside global IP – the IP address of the inside host as it appears in the outside realm. Hosts in the outside realm use the inside global address as destination when sending packets to a host in the inside realm.

outside global IP – the configured IP address of the outside host.
Figure 43. NAT Address Mapping Inside Realm
Inside
Local IP
Inside
Network
Outside
Local IP
Outside Realm
Inside
Global IP
NAT Router
Outside
Network
Outside
Global IP
When an IP packet passes from the inside realm to the outside realm, its original source IP is the inside local IP and the destination IP is the outside local IP. NAT can replace both the source (SNAT) and destination (DNAT) IP addresses as follows:

SNAT – The inside local IP is replaced with the inside global IP

DNAT – The outside local IP is replaced with the outside global IP
When an IP packet arrives from the outside realm to the inside realm, the following network address translations are applied:

414
SNAT – The outside global IP is replaced with the outside local IP
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
DNAT – The inside global IP is replaced with the inside local IP
By default, IP interfaces do not participate in NAT. To configure an interface as part of the inside realm or outside realm, use the following commands:
RS G8296(config)# interface ip <Interface number>
RS G8296(config­ip­if)# ip nat {inside|outside}
To exclude the interface from NAT, revert it to the default state:
RS G8296(config)# interface ip <Interface number>
RS G8296(config­ip­if)# ip nat default
Notes:

All IP interfaces defined on the same VLAN or on VLANs participating in the same realm (either inside, outside or default) must be configured as members of the same realm. Setting an interface as part of a realm will automatically add all the interfaces in the VLAN to the respective realm. Reverting an interface to the default state, will automatically revert all interfaces in the VLAN to default.

Setting up NAT on the switch’s management IP or on IP addresses used for routing protocols may compromise your setup.
Static NAT
Static NAT allows one‐to‐one translations of the local IP addresses to the global IP addresses or of the global IP address to the local IP address.
To set up NAT for traffic passing from the inside realm to the outside realm, use the following commands:
RS G8296(config)# ip nat inside source static <inside local IP> <inside global IP>
(SNAT)
RS G8296(config)# ip nat inside destination static <outside local IP> <outside
global IP>
(DNAT)
For traffic passing from the outside realm to the inside realm, use the following commands:
RS G8296(config)# ip nat outside source static <outside global IP> <outside local
IP>
(SNAT)
RS G8296(config)# ip nat outside destination static <inside global IP> <inside
local IP>
(DNAT)
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Unidirectional NAT Translation
By default, static NAT rules create mappings that permit translations for bidirectional flows. A static inside SNAT rule for instance, in addition to the inside local IP to inside global IP mapping for outgoing traffic, will also create a corresponding inside global IP to inside local IP mapping for incoming traffic. In other words:

An inside SNAT also creates an outside DNAT

An outside DNAT also creates an inside SNAT

An outside SNAT also creates an inside DNAT

An inside DNAT also creates an outside SNAT
Figure 44. SNAT – DNAT Equivalence Inside Realm Outside Realm
SNAT
Inside
Local IP
Inside
Network
DNAT
SNAT
Outside
Local IP
Inside
Global IP
NAT Router
Outside
Network
Outside
Global IP
DNAT
To cancel these secondary mappings, use the one-way parameter at the end of the static NAT commands:
RS G8296(config)# ip nat inside source static <inside local IP> <inside global IP>
one­way
Network Address Port Translation
Network Address Port Translation (NAPT) allows NAT to isolate specific traffic streams by translating socket addresses (both the IP address and port number) instead of only the IP addresses. NAPT also enables port forwarding.
To set up NAPT for a static inside SNAT for instance, use the following command:
RS G8296(config)# ip nat inside source static {tcp|udp} <inside local IP> <local
TCP/UDP port> <inside global IP> <global TCP/UDP port>
Dynamic NAT
Dynamic NAT allows mapping pools of multiple IPs in one rule, instead of individual IP network addresses. Dynamic NAT acts similarly to Static NAT, except that the entries are only temporarily added to hardware when a packet matches the translation rule and age out after a predefined time‐out interval.
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Up to 1000 IP address pools can be defined. To create IP address pools, use the following command:
RS G8296(config)# ip nat pool <pool-name> <start_IP_address> <end_IP_address> netmask <netmask> [port­range <start_port> <end_port>]
Once the IP address pools are defined, you can configure a dynamic NAT:
RS G8296(config)# ip nat {inside|outside} source pool <match-pool-name> pool <translation-pool> [overload] [one­way]
Notes:

The overload parameter is redundant, and used only for Cisco compatibility.

The translation-pool maps only the first IP address in the range. The parameter is defined as a pool for compatibility reasons.
Because of how the dynamic rules are defined, inside dynamic rules only allow inside nodes to initiate communication with outside nodes. Likewise, outside dynamic rules allow only outside nodes to initiate communication with inside nodes. Port forwarding can be used to circumvent this behavior and allow outside nodes to initiate communication with inside nodes based on inside dynamic rules, and inside nodes to initiate communication with outside nodes based on outside dynamic rules.
Match pools cannot overlap between NAT rules. Translation pools can. It is possible, for instance, to set up two different IP ranges to translate to the same IP address.
If a static and a dynamic rule overlap, the NAT defined in the static rule will take precedence.
NAT Proxy ARP
ARP requests from inside nodes to outside nodes will be addressed to the outside nodes’ locally translated IPs (outside local IPs). Likewise, ARP requests from outside nodes to inside nodes will be addressed to the inside global IPs. To enable/disable the switch from replying to these ARP requests for outside local IPs and inside global IPs, use the following command:
RS G8296(config)# [no] ip nat proxy­arp enable
Global NAT Settings
To globally turn NAT on and off without erasing the current NAT configuration, use the following commands:
RS G8296(config)# [no] ip nat enable
To set up the time‐out in seconds for dynamic NAT rules:
RS G8296(config)# ip nat translation timeout <0-4294967>
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To delete all current dynamically created NAT translations before their time‐out expires:
RS G8296(config)# clear ip nat translations
To delete various NAT rules and IP pools:
RS G8296(config)# no ip nat {all|static|dynamic|pools}
To display current NAT settings and statistics:
RS G8296(config)# show ip nat [statistics|translations]
Scaling and Limitations
The following limitations apply for NAT:
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
Supported protocols for static NAPT and dynamic translations: TCP, UDP

Only ICMP Echo Request/Reply packets are supported for dynamic rules. All other ICMP packets are supported only for static NAT rules

IPv6 is not supported

Multicast traffic is not supported

Maximum bidirectional (two‐way) active translations (SNAT and DNAT): 1024
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Maximum unidirectional (one‐way) active translations: 2048 (1024 SNAT + 1024 DNAT)

Maximum DNAT translations (no SNAT): 1024
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Maximum bidirectional static/dynamic entries: 1024
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ECMP Static Routes
Equal‐Cost Multi‐Path (ECMP) is a forwarding mechanism that routes packets along multiple paths of equal cost. ECMP provides equally‐distributed link load sharing across the paths. The hashing algorithm used is based on the destination IP and source IP (DIPSIP) addresses or only on the source IP address (SIP). ECMP routes allow the switch to choose between several next hops toward a given destination. The switch performs periodic health checks (ping) on each ECMP gateway. If a gateway fails, it is removed from the routing table, and an SNMP trap is sent. ECMP Route Hashing
You can configure the parameters used to perform ECMP route hashing, as follows: 

sip: Source IP address dipsip: Source IP address and destination IP address (default)
The ECMP hash setting applies to all ECMP routes. © Copyright Lenovo 2016
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Configuring ECMP Static Routes
To configure ECMP static routes, add the same route multiple times, each with the same destination IP address, but with a different gateway IP address. These routes become ECMP routes. 1. Add a static route (IP address, subnet mask, gateway, and interface number). RS G8296(config)# ip route 10.10.1.1 255.255.255.255 100.10.1.1 1
2. Add another static route with the same IP address and mask, but a different gateway address. RS G8296(config)# ip route 10.10.1.1 255.255.255.255 200.20.2.2 1
3. Select an ECMP hashing method (optional). RS G8296(config)# ip route ecmphash [sip|dip]
You may add up to 32 gateways for each static route. Use the following commands to check the status of ECMP static routes: RS G8296(config)# show ip route static
Current static routes:
Destination Mask Gateway If ECMP ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ ­­­­ ­­­­­­
10.20.2.2 255.255.255.255 10.4.4.1 * 10.5.5.1 * 10.6.6.1 * ...
10.35.35.1 * ECMP health­check ping interval: 1
ECMP health­check retries number: 3
ECMP Hash Mechanism: dipsip
Gateway healthcheck: enabled
RS G8296(config)# show ip ecmp Current ecmp static routes:
Destination Mask Gateway If GW Status ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ ­­­­ ­­­­­­­­­­­ 10.20.2.2 255.255.255.255 10.4.4.1 up
10.5.5.1 up
10.6.6.1 up
...
10.34.34.1 up
10.35.35.1 up
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Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is a transport protocol that provides a framework for automatically assigning IP addresses and configuration information to other IP hosts or clients in a large TCP/IP network. Without DHCP, the IP address must be entered manually for each network device. DHCP allows a network administrator to distribute IP addresses from a central point and automatically send a new IP address when a device is connected to a different place in the network. The switch accepts gateway configuration parameters if they have not been configured manually. The switch ignores DHCP gateway parameters if the gateway is configured. DHCP is an extension of another network IP management protocol, Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP), with an additional capability of being able to allocate reusable network addresses and configuration parameters for client operation. Built on the client/server model, DHCP allows hosts or clients on an IP network to obtain their configurations from a DHCP server, thereby reducing network administration. The most significant configuration the client receives from the server is its required IP address; (other optional parameters include the “generic” file name to be booted, the address of the default gateway, and so forth).
To enable DHCP on a switch interface, use the following command: RS G8296(config)# system dhcp
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DHCP Relay Agent
DHCP is described in RFC 2131, and the DHCP relay agent supported on the G8296 is described in RFC 1542. DHCP uses UDP as its transport protocol. The client sends messages to the server on port 67 and the server sends messages to the client on port 68.
DHCP defines the methods through which clients can be assigned an IP address for a finite lease period and allowing reassignment of the IP address to another client later. Additionally, DHCP provides the mechanism for a client to gather other IP configuration parameters it needs to operate in the TCP/IP network.
In the DHCP environment, the G8296 acts as a relay agent. The DHCP relay feature enables the switch to forward a client request for an IP address to two BOOTP servers with IP addresses that have been configured on the switch.
When a switch receives a UDP broadcast on port 67 from a DHCP client requesting an IP address, the switch acts as a proxy for the client, replacing the client source IP (SIP) and destination IP (DIP) addresses. The request is then forwarded as a UDP Unicast MAC layer message to two BOOTP servers whose IP addresses are configured on the switch. The servers respond as a UDP Unicast message back to the switch, with the default gateway and IP address for the client. The destination IP address in the server response represents the interface address on the switch that received the client request. This interface address tells the switch on which VLAN to send the server response to the client.
To enable the G8296 to be the BOOTP forwarder, you need to configure the DHCP/BOOTP server IP addresses on the switch. Generally, it is best to configure the switch IP interface on the client side to match the client’s subnet, and configure VLANs to separate client and server subnets. The DHCP server knows from which IP subnet the newly allocated IP address will come.
In G8296 implementation, there is no need for primary or secondary servers. The client request is forwarded to the BOOTP servers configured on the switch. The use of five servers provide failover redundancy. However, no health checking is supported.
Use the following commands to configure the switch as a DHCP relay agent:
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G8296(config)# ip bootp­relay server 1 <IP address>
G8296(config)# ip bootp­relay server 2 <IP address>
G8296(config)# ip bootp­relay server 3 <IP address>
G8296(config)# ip bootp­relay server 4 <IP address>
G8296(config)# ip bootp­relay server 5 <IP address>
G8296(config)# ip bootp­relay enable
G8296(config)# show ip bootp­relay Additionally, DHCP Relay functionality can be assigned on a per interface basis. Use the following commands to enable the Relay functionality: RS G8296(config)# interface ip <Interface number>
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Chapter 27. Policy-Based Routing
Policy‐based routing (PBR) allows the Lenovo RackSwitch G8296 to forward traffic based on defined policies rather than entries in the routing table. Such policies are defined based on the protocol, source IP, or other information present in a packet header. PBR provides a mechanism for applying the defined policies based on access control lists (ACLs), and marking packets with a type of service (ToS) to provide preferential treatment. PBR can be applied only to the ingress traffic. You can configure a PBR policy using route maps and apply the route map to an ingress interface. You need to specify the match (using ACLs) and set (using route maps) criteria in the policy. Based on the defined rules, an action is triggered. If no match is found, or the policy rule specifies that the packet be denied, the packet is routed based on an entry in the routing table.
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PBR Policies and ACLs
Up to 256 ACLs can be configured for networks that use IPv4 addressing. Regular ACLs and PBR ACLs together cannot exceed the maximum ACLs supported.
ACLs are prioritized based on the ACL number. Lower numbers have higher priority. You must configure regular ACLs with lower numbers and PBR ACLs with higher numbers.
Note: You cannot apply an ACL directly to an interface and using a PBR policy at the same time. Applying PBR ACLs
PBR ACLs must be applied to an IP interface that has a VLAN configured. In addition to the defined ACL rules, the Lenovo Enterprise Network Operating System uses the VLAN ID as a matching criterion. Traffic is filtered on a per‐VLAN basis rather than a per‐interface basis. If multiple IP interfaces have the same VLAN ID, route maps applied to each interface are used to filter traffic on the VLAN. For example: if interface IP 10 and interface IP 11 are members of VLAN 100; interface IP 10 uses PBR ACL 410 and interface IP 11 uses PBR ACL 411. Traffic on VLAN 100 will be filtered using PBR ACLs 410 and 411.
Note: You cannot apply the PBR ACL to a Layer 2‐only port.
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Configuring Route Maps
A route map is used to control and modify routing information. When PBR is enabled on an interface, all incoming packets are filtered based on the criteria defined in the route maps. For packets that match the filtering criteria, the precedence or Differentiated Services Code Point (DSCP) value can be changed, or the packets can be routed/forwarded to the appropriate next hop.
PBR and dynamic routing protocols, such as Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) and Open Shortest Path First (OSPF), use route maps. You can define a maximum of 255 route maps. Route maps used by a PBR policy cannot be used by a dynamic routing protocol. You can configure a maximum of 32 access list statements in a route map. You can assign only one route map to a non‐management IP interface.
You must define route map criteria using match and set commands. All sequential match clauses must be met by the packets for the set clauses to be applied. Match Clauses
IPv4 ACLs can be used to specify the match criteria. The following match criteria can be used in a PBR ACL:

Source IP
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Destination IP
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Protocol
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ToS
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TCP/UDP source port

TCP/UDP destination port
If criteria other than the above are used in a PBR ACL, the switch will display an error message.
If ingress packets do not meet any of the match criteria, or if a deny statement is configured in the ACL, then the packets are routed based on the entries in the routing table.
Set Clauses
When the match clause(s) is satisfied, one of the following set clauses can be used to specify the packet forwarding criteria:
© Copyright Lenovo 2016

Next hop IP address: This must be the IP address of an interface on the adjacent router. A remote router interface cannot be used to specify the next hop. Packets are forwarded to the next hop IP address. The PBR policy uses the next hops in the order you specify. If the first next hop is down, then the second next hop is used, and so on. If you specify the next hop addresses using separate statements, then the next hops are used in the order you specify, starting from top to down. A maximum of 64 unique next hops can be configured across all route maps. 
IP Differentiated Services Code Point (DSCP) value: A value used to set the DSCP value of the matching packets.
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
IP precedence value: A value or keyword used to set the precedence value of the matching packets.
You can use a combination of set commands. However, you cannot use the set commands for DSCP and precedence together in the same route map.
Following are the basic steps and commands for configuring route maps.
1. Configure a route map. RS G8296(config)# route­map <route map number>
2. Define an access list statement and assign an ACL to the route map. RS G8296(config­route­map)# access­list <1‐32> match­access­control <IP ACL number>
3. Enable the access list. RS G8296(config­route­map)# access­list <1‐32> enable
4. Set next hop IP address i.e. IP address of an adjacent router. RS G8296(config­route­map)# set ip next­hop <IP address> [<nh2 IP address>] [<nh3 IP address>] [<nh4 IP address>] [access­list {<access list ID>|<access list range>}]
OR Set IP precedence value. RS G8296(config­route­map)# set ip precedence <value or keyword> [access­list {<access list ID>|<access list range>}]
OR Set IP DSCP value. RS G8296(config­route­map)# set ip dscp <value> [access­list {<access list ID>|<access list range>}]
5. Set next hop peer IP address. RS G8296(config­route­map)# set ip next­hop <peer IP address>
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Configuring Health Check
You can configure tracking/health check parameters for each of the next hop IP address you specify in the route map. By default, Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) resolves the next hop IP address. The ARP re‐try interval is two minutes. Use the following command to configure health check: RS G8296(config­route­map)# set ip next­hop verify­availability <next hop IP address> <priority> [icmp|arp] [interval] [retry] [access­list {<access list ID>|<access list range>}] Default values:
Protocol: ARP
Interval: 2 seconds
Retry: 3 times
You must configure a separate statement for verifying health check of each next hop. A maximum of four health check statements can be included in a route map.
Note: When you configure next hops using set ip next­hop command and health check using the set ip next­hop verify­availability command in the same route map, only the health check statements will be considered. Following is an example of a route map health check statement: RS G8296(config­route­map)# set ip next­hop verify­availability 12.1.1.1 10 icmp access­list 4
Similarly, if there are inconsistent tracking parameters for a particular next hop IP address among multiple route maps, the route map with the lowest route map number is considered.
Note: We strongly recommend that you configure health check if all or multiple next hops specified in the route map belong to the same Spanning Tree Group (STG). This is required in case of an STP topology change where all forwarding database (FDB) entries on all the ports in an STG are cleared. In such a scenario, the associated ARP entries are purged and the next hop specified in the PBR policy will not get resolved. When health check is configured, the PBR policy will route the traffic based on the second next hop that you have specified.
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Example PBR Configuration
Note: Use only the ISCLI to configure PBR. Configurations using the BBI are not supported.
Following is an example of configuring PBR to match packets with a destination network address of 3.0.0.0. The PBR is applied to ingress packets on the IP interface 11. The next hop IP address is configured as 5.5.5.5 or 10.10.10.10.
1. Configure an ACL and specify the match criteria. RS G8296(config)# access­control list 100 action permit
RS G8296(config)# access­control list 100 ipv4 destination­ip­address 3.0.0.0 255.0.0.0
2. Configure a route map. RS G8296(config)# route­map 126
3. Apply the ACL to the route map. RS G8296(config­route­map)# access­list 1 match­access­control 100
4. Set the next hop IP addresses. RS G8296(config­route­map)# set ip next­hop 5.5.5.5 10.10.10.10
RS G8296(config­route­map)# exit
5. Apply the route map to an IP interface that has a VLAN configured. RS
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G8296(config)# interface ip 11
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip policy route­map 126
G8296(config­ip­if)# exit
G8296(config)# exit
6. Verify PBR configuration. RS G8296# show ip policy
IP Interface Route map
11 126
RS G8296# show route­map 126
126: PBR, enabled
Match clauses:
alist 1: access­control list 100, enabled
Set clauses:
ip next­hop 5.5.5.5 10.10.10.10, alist all
Policy routing matches: 0 packets
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Configuring PBR with other Features
Consider the following PBR behavior when configured with the features given below:

DSCP: PBR ACLs can be used to remark an IP packet with a new precedence/DSCP value. PBR ACL remark statements have higher priority than the DSCP remark commands configured on ports.
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Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol (VRRP): If PBR is enabled on a VRRP IP interface, the PBR becomes effective on the interface when the switch becomes the VRRP master on that IP interface.
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Virtual Link Aggregation Group (VLAG): When configuring PBR on VLAG ports, you must configure the same PBR policy on both the VLAG peers. You cannot configure the next hop to be on a remote switch or on the VLAG ports.
Unsupported Features
PBR cannot be configured for:
© Copyright Lenovo 2016
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Routed ports

Multicast traffic

IPv6 packets
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Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)

Virtual Network Interface Card (vNIC)

Loopback Interface
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Dynamic PBR (Multi-Tenant)
Dynamic Policy‐Based Routing enables simplified configuration of multi‐tenant networks. An IP interface can be set up as either a:

downlink to a specific tenant’s endpoint

uplink for one or more tenants

link to a service network accessible to one or more tenants
Traffic between different tenants is routed through their uplinks (firewall). Only intra‐tenant and service network traffic is routed locally. When configuring interface tenant settings, ACLs are dynamically generated to route data traffic correspondingly.
Features and Limitations
The following features and limitations apply to Dynamic Policy‐Based Routing:
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If a tenant has two active uplinks, traffic will be load balanced across the two active next‐hop devices.

Tenants must not use overlapping IP subnets.
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If a tenant owns multiple subnets, data traffic between these subnets is not forwarded upstream. Instead, it is routed locally.

Dynamic PBR is not supported in IPv6
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Tenant configuration is not supported on management interfaces

UFP and Dynamic PBR cannot be configured at the same time

Support for up to:

30 tenants

2 uplinks per tenant

4 service networks

10 subnets per tenant

To configure additional tenants (over 30), the switch must be booted in the ACL profile. For more information about profiles, see “Available Profiles” on page 272.

An uplink can be configured as either Active or Standby. If there are two active uplinks , traffic is balanced based on the destination IP address as odd and even.
Example Configuration
Following is a configuration example for a three tenants setup, two of which are supported by a local service network:
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1. Set up Tenant 1 with endpoints on interfaces 5 and 6
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G8296(config)# interface ip 5
G8296(config­ip­if)# tenant tenant­id 1
G8296(config­ip­if)# interface ip 6
G8296(config­ip­if)# tenant tenant­id 1
2. Set up Tenant 2 with an endpoint on interface 7
RS G8296(config­ip­if)# interface ip 7
RS G8296(config­ip­if)# tenant tenant­id 2
3. Set interface 8 as a common uplink for Tenants 1 and 2
RS G8296(config­ip­if)# interface ip 8
RS G8296(config­ip­if)# tenant uplink tenant­id 1,2
4. Set up Tenant 3 with endpoints on interfaces 9 and 10 and uplinks on interfaces 11 and 12
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G8296(config­ip­if)# interface ip 9
G8296(config­ip­if)# tenant tenant­id 3
G8296(config­ip­if)# interface ip 10
G8296(config­ip­if)# tenant tenant­id 3
G8296(config­ip­if)# interface ip 11
G8296(config­ip­if)# tenant uplink tenant­id 3
G8296(config­ip­if)# interface ip 12
G8296(config­ip­if)# tenant uplink tenant­id 3
5. Set interface 13 as a link to a service network available to Tenants 1 and 3
RS G8296(config­ip­if)# interface ip 13
RS G8296(config­ip­if)# tenant services tenant­id 1,3
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Chapter 28. Routed Ports
By default, all ports on the Lenovo RackSwitch G8296 behave as switch ports, which are capable of performing Layer 2 switch functions, such as VLANs, STP, or bridging. Switch ports also provide a physical point of access for the switch IP interfaces, which can perform global Layer 3 functions, such as routing for BGP or OSPF.
However, G8296 ports can also be configured as routed ports. Routed ports are configured with their own IP address belonging to a unique Layer 3 network, and behave similar to a port on a conventional router. Routed ports are typically used for connecting to a server or to a router.
When a switch port is configured as a routed port, it forwards Layer 3 traffic and no longer performs Layer 2 switching functions.
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Overview
A routed port has the following characteristics:

Does not participate in bridging.
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Does not belong to any user‐configurable VLAN.
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Does not implement any Layer 2 functionality, such as Spanning Tree Protocol (STP).
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Is always in a forwarding state.
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Can participate in IPv4 routing.
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Can be configured with basic IP protocols, such as Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP), and with Layer 3 protocols, such as Protocol‐Independent Multicast (PIM), Routing Information Protocol (RIP), Open Shortest Path First (OSPF), and Border Gateway Protocol (BGP).

Can be configured with Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) querier and snooping functionality.
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Layer 3 configuration is saved even when the interface is shutdown. 
MAC address learning is always enabled.
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Tagging and port VLAN ID (PVID) tagging is disabled.
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Flooding is disabled.
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Bridge Protocol Data Unit (BPDU)‐guard is disabled.
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Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP) is disabled.
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Multicast threshold is disabled.
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Static Multicast MAC and static unicast MAC can be configured.
Notes:

Ports on which LACP or portchannel is enabled cannot be changed to routed ports.

Ports that have Static MAC addresses configured cannot be changed to routed ports.
When a switch port is configured as a routed port, the following configuration changes are automatically implemented:

The port is removed from all the VLANs it belonged to.

The port is added to an internal VLAN on which flooding is disabled. The ID of this internal VLAN could be 4094 or lower. The internal VLAN is assigned to Spanning Tree Group (STG) 1, if RSTP/PVRST is configured; or to Common Internal Spanning Tree (CIST), if MSTP is configured. You cannot change the VLAN number assigned to the routed port. 
STP is disabled and the port is set to a forwarding state.
Note: The maximum number of VLANs you can configure on the RackSwitch G8296 is 4095. This maximum number will be reduced by the number of routed ports you configure.
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
All the Layer 2 configuration is lost. When a routed port is changed back to a switch port, the following changes take place:

All the IP configuration is lost.
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The ARP entry corresponding to the IP address is lost.
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The switch port is added to the default VLAN and STG. In case of MSTP, it is added to the CIST.

STP is turned on.
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The switch port can participate in STG and VLAN flooding.
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Can participate in bridging.
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LACP port attributes are set to default.
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Multicast threshold remains disabled.

BPDU guard remains disabled.

IGMP configuration is lost.
Note: When you configure a routed port to back to a switch port, it does not restore the Layer 2 configuration it had before it was changed to a routed port.
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Configuring a Routed Port
Note: Use only the ISCLI to configure routed ports. Configurations using the BBI are not supported. Configurations made using SNMP cannot be saved or applied.
Note: You cannot configure a management port to be a routed port.
Following are the basic steps for configuring a routed port:
1. Enter the interface configuration mode for the port. RS G8296(config)# interface port <port number>
Note: You must enter only one port number. If you need to change multiple ports to routed ports, repeat the configuration steps for each port.
2. Enable routing. RS G8296(config­if)# no switchport
3. Assign an IP address. RS G8296(config­if)# ip address <IP address> <Subnet Mask> enable
4. (Optional) Enable a Layer 3 routing protocol. RS G8296(config­if)# ip {<ospf>|<pim>|<rip>}
Note: Configure the Layer 3 routing protocol‐related parameters in the interface configuration mode.
Configuring OSPF on Routed Ports
The following OSPF configuration commands are supported on routed ports: RS G8296(config­if)# ip ospf ?
area Set area index
cost Set interface cost
dead­interval Set dead interval in seconds or milliseconds
enable Enable OSPF for this interface
hello­interval Set hello interval in seconds or milliseconds
key Set authentication key
message­digest­key Set MD5 key ID
passive­interface Enable passive interface
point­to­point Enable point­to­point interface
priority Set interface router priority
retransmit­interval Set retransmit interval in seconds
transit­delay Set transit delay in seconds
See Chapter 35, “Open Shortest Path First,” for details on the OSPF protocol and its configuration. OSPFv3 cannot be configured on routed ports.
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OSPF Configuration Example
The following example includes the basic steps for configuring OSPF on a routed port: RS G8296(config)# router ospf
RS G8296(config­router­ospf)# area 0 enable
RS G8296(config­router­ospf)# enable
RS G8296(config-router-ospf)# exit
RS G8296(config)# interface port 1
RS G8296(config­if)# no switchport
wait...
RS G8296(config­if)# ip address 11.1.12.1 255.255.255.0 enable
wait...
RS G8296(config­if)# ip ospf area 0
RS G8296(config­if)# ip ospf enable
RS G8296(config­if)# exit
Configuring RIP on Routed Ports
The following RIP configuration commands are supported on routed ports: RS G8296(config­if)# ip rip ?
authentication Set IP authentication
default­action Set default route action
enable Enable RIP interface
listen Enable listening to route updates
metric Set metric
multicast­updates Enable multicast updates
poison Enable poisoned reverse
split­horizon Enable split horizon
supply Enable supplying route updates
triggered Enable triggered updates
version RIP version
See Chapter 31, “Routing Information Protocol,” for details on the RIP protocol and its configuration. RIP Configuration Example
The following example includes steps for a basic RIP configuration on a routed port: RS G8296(config)# router rip
RS G8296(config­router­rip)# enable
RS G8296(config-router-rip)# exit
RS G8296(config)# interface port 1
RS G8296(config­if)# no switchport
wait...
RS G8296(config­if)# ip address 11.1.12.1 255.255.255.0 enable
wait...
RS G8296(config­if)# ip rip enable
RS G8296(config­if)# exit
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Configuring PIM on Routed Ports
The following PIM configuration commands are supported on routed ports: RS G8296(config­if)# ip pim ?
border­bit Set interface as border interface
cbsr­preference Set preference for local interface as a candidate bootstrap router
component­id Add interface to the component
dr­priority Set designated router priority for the router interface
enable Enable PIM on this interface
hello­holdtime Set hello message holdtime for the interface
hello­interval Set the frequency of PIM hello messages on the interface
join­prune­interval Set frequency of PIM Join or Prune interval
lan­delay Set lan delay for the router interface
lan­prune­delay Enable lan delay advertisement on interface
neighbor­addr Neighbor address
neighbor­filter Enable neighbor filter
override­interval Set override interval for router interface
See Chapter 36, “Protocol Independent Multicast” for details on the PIM protocol and its configuration.
PIM Configuration Example
The following example includes the basic steps for configuring PIM on a routed port: RS G8296(config)# ip pim enable
RS G8296(config)# interface port 26
RS G8296(config­if)# no switchport
wait...
RS G8296(config­if)# ip address 26.26.26.1 255.255.255.0 enable
wait...
RS G8296(config­if)# ip pim enable
RS G8296(config­if)# exit
RS G8296(config)# ip pim component 1
RS G8296(config-ip-pim-component)# rp­candidate rp­address 224.0.0.0 240.0.0.0 26.26.26.1
RS G8296(config-ip-pim-component)# rp­candidate holdtime 200
RS G8296(config­ip­pim­component)# exit
RS G8296(config)# interface port 26
RS G8296(config­if)# ip pim cbsr­preference 200
RS G8296(config­if)# exit
Verify the configuration using the following command: RS G8296(config)# show ip pim interface port 26
Address IfName/IfId Ver/Mode Nbr Qry DR­Address DR­Prio
Count Interval
­­­­­­­ ­­­­­­­­­­­ ­­­­­­­­ ­­­­­ ­­­­­­­­ ­­­­­­­­­­ ­­­­­­­
26.26.26.1 Rport 26 2/Sparse 0 30 26.26.26.1 1 438
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Configuring BGP on Routed Ports
The routed port can be used to establish a TCP connection to form peer relationship with another BGP router. See Chapter 34, “Border Gateway Protocol,” for details on the BGP protocol and its configuration.
The following BGP configurations are not supported on routed ports:

Update source ‐ configuring a local IP interface
Configuring IGMP on Routed Ports
IGMP querier and snooping can be configured on routed ports. For details, see Chapter 32, “Internet Group Management Protocol.”
To configure IGMP snooping on a routed port, enter the following command in the Global Configuration mode: RS G8296(config)# ip igmp snoop port <routed port ID>
To configure fastleave on routed ports, enter the following command in the Global Configuration mode: The following IGMP querier commands are supported on routed ports: RS G8296(config)# ip igmp querier port <routed port ID> ?
election­type Set IGMP querier type
enable Turn IGMP Querier on
max­response Set Queriers max response time
query­interval Set general query interval for IGMP Querier only
robustness Set IGMP robustness
source­ip Set source IP to be used for IGMP
startup­count Set startupcount for IGMP
startup­interval Set startup query interval for IGMP
version Sets the operating version of the IGMP snooping switch
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Limitations
Following features/configurations are not supported on routed ports:
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Subinterfaces
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BPDU Guard

Broadcast Threshold
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Multicast Threshold
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Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP)
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Static Aggregation

Fibre Channel over Ethernet (FCoE)
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Converged Enhanced Ethernet (CEE)

IPv6
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IP Security (IPsec)
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Internet Key Exchange version 2 (IKEv2)
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Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol (VRRP)
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Policy‐based Routing (PBR)

Hotlinks
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Failover
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802.1X
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Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
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BOOTP
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Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)

IGMP Relay

Static Multicast Routes

Static Mrouter Port

Management Port
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Chapter 29. Internet Protocol Version 6
Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) is a network layer protocol intended to expand the network address space. IPv6 is a robust and expandable protocol that meets the need for increased physical address space. The switch supports the following RFCs for IPv6‐related features:










RFC 1981
RFC 2404
RFC 2410
RFC 2451
RFC 2460
RFC 2474
RFC 2526
RFC 2711
RFC 2740
RFC 3289
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







RFC 3306
RFC 3307
RFC 3411
RFC 3412
RFC 3413
RFC 3414
RFC 3484
RFC 3602
RFC 3810
RFC 3879
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








RFC 4007
RFC 4213
RFC 4291
RFC 4292
RFC 4293
RFC 4301
RFC 4302
RFC 4303
RFC 4306
RFC 4307









RFC 4443
RFC 4552
RFC 4718
RFC 4835
RFC 4861
RFC 4862
RFC 5095
RFC 5114
RFC 5340
This chapter describes the basic configuration of IPv6 addresses and how to manage the switch via IPv6 host management.
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IPv6 Limitations
The following IPv6 features are not supported in this release: Dynamic Host Control Protocol for IPv6 (DHCPv6)
Border Gateway Protocol for IPv6 (BGP)
 Routing Information Protocol for IPv6 (RIPng)


Most other Lenovo Enterprise Network Operating System 8.4 features permit IP addresses to be configured using either IPv4 or IPv6 address formats. However, the following switch features support IPv4 only:
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





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Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP) and DHCP
RADIUS, TACACS+ and LDAP
VMware Virtual Center (vCenter) for VMready
Routing Information Protocol (RIP)
Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)
Protocol Independent Multicast (PIM)
Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol (VRRP)
sFlow
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IPv6 Address Format
The IPv6 address is 128 bits (16 bytes) long and is represented as a sequence of eight 16‐bit hex values, separated by colons. Each IPv6 address has two parts: 
Subnet prefix representing the network to which the interface is connected 
Local identifier, either derived from the MAC address or user‐configured
The preferred hexadecimal format is as follows: xxxx:xxxx:xxxx:xxxx:xxxx:xxxx:xxxx:xxxx
Example IPv6 address: FEDC:BA98:7654:BA98:FEDC:1234:ABCD:5412
Some addresses can contain long sequences of zeros. A single contiguous sequence of zeros can be compressed to :: (two colons). For example, consider the following IPv6 address:
FE80:0:0:0:2AA:FF:FA:4CA2 The address can be compressed as follows:
FE80::2AA:FF:FA:4CA2 Unlike IPv4, a subnet mask is not used for IPv6 addresses. IPv6 uses the subnet prefix as the network identifier. The prefix is the part of the address that indicates the bits that have fixed values or are the bits of the subnet prefix. An IPv6 prefix is written in address/prefix‐length notation. For example, in the following address, 64 is the network prefix:
21DA:D300:0000:2F3C::/64 IPv6 addresses can be either user‐configured or automatically configured. Automatically configured addresses always have a 64‐bit subnet prefix and a 64‐bit interface identifier. In most implementations, the interface identifier is derived from the switchʹs MAC address, using a method called EUI‐64.
Most Enterprise NOS 8.4 features permit IP addresses to be configured using either IPv4 or IPv6 address formats. Throughout this manual, IP address is used in places where either an IPv4 or IPv6 address is allowed. In places where only one type of address is allowed, the type (IPv4 or IPv6) is specified.
© Copyright Lenovo 2016
Chapter 29: Internet Protocol Version 6
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IPv6 Address Types
IPv6 supports three types of addresses: unicast (one‐to‐one), multicast (one‐to‐many), and anycast (one‐to‐nearest). Multicast addresses replace the use of broadcast addresses. Unicast Address
Unicast is a communication between a single host and a single receiver. Packets sent to a unicast address are delivered to the interface identified by that address. IPv6 defines the following types of unicast address: 
Global Unicast address: An address that can be reached and identified globally. Global Unicast addresses use the high‐order bit range up to FF00, therefore all non‐multicast and non‐link‐local addresses are considered to be global unicast. A manually configured IPv6 address must be fully specified. Autoconfigured IPv6 addresses are comprised of a prefix combined with the 64‐bit EUI. RFC 4291 defines the IPv6 addressing architecture. The interface ID must be unique within the same subnet.

Link‐local unicast address: An address used to communicate with a neighbor on the same link. Link‐local addresses use the format FE80::EUI
Link‐local addresses are designed to be used for addressing on a single link for purposes such as automatic address configuration, neighbor discovery, or when no routers are present.
Routers must not forward any packets with link‐local source or destination addresses to other links.
Multicast
Multicast is communication between a single host and multiple receivers. Packets are sent to all interfaces identified by that address. An interface may belong to any number of multicast groups. A multicast address (FF00 ‐ FFFF) is an identifier for a group interface. The multicast address most often encountered is a solicited‐node multicast address using prefix FF02::1:FF00:0000/104 with the low‐order 24 bits of the unicast or anycast address.
The following well‐known multicast addresses are pre‐defined. The group IDs defined in this section are defined for explicit scope values, as follows:
FF00:::::::0 through FF0F:::::::0 Anycast
Packets sent to an anycast address or list of addresses are delivered to the nearest interface identified by that address. Anycast is a communication between a single sender and a list of addresses. Anycast addresses are allocated from the unicast address space, using any of the defined unicast address formats. Thus, anycast addresses are syntactically indistinguishable from unicast addresses. When a unicast address is assigned to 444
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more than one interface, thus turning it into an anycast address, the nodes to which the address is assigned must be explicitly configured to know that it is an anycast address. © Copyright Lenovo 2016
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IPv6 Address Autoconfiguration
IPv6 supports the following types of address autoconfiguration: 
Stateful address configuration
Address configuration is based on the use of a stateful address configuration protocol, such as DHCPv6, to obtain addresses and other configuration options.

Stateless address configuration
Address configuration is based on the receipt of Router Advertisement messages that contain one or more Prefix Information options. ENOS 8.4 supports stateless address configuration. Stateless address configuration allows hosts on a link to configure themselves with link‐local addresses and with addresses derived from prefixes advertised by local routers. Even if no router is present, hosts on the same link can configure themselves with link‐local addresses and communicate without manual configuration.
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IPv6 Interfaces
Each IPv6 interface supports multiple IPv6 addresses. You can manually configure up to two IPv6 addresses for each interface, or you can allow the switch to use stateless autoconfiguration.
You can manually configure two IPv6 addresses for each interface, as follows: 
Initial IPv6 address is a global unicast or anycast address.
RS G8296(config)# interface ip <interface number>
RS G8296(config­ip­if)# ipv6 address <IPv6 address>
Note that you cannot configure both addresses as anycast. If you configure an anycast address on the interface you must also configure a global unicast address on that interface.

Second IPv6 address can be a unicast or anycast address.
RS G8296(config­ip­if)# ipv6 secaddr6 <IPv6 address>
RS G8296(config­ip­if)# exit
You cannot configure an IPv4 address on an IPv6 management interface. Each interface can be configured with only one address type: either IPv4 or IPv6, but not both. When changing between IPv4 and IPv6 address formats, the prior address settings for the interface are discarded.
Each IPv6 interface can belong to only one VLAN. Each VLAN can support only one IPv6 interface. Each VLAN can support multiple IPv4 interfaces. Use the following commands to configure the IPv6 gateway: RS G8296(config)# ip gateway6 1 address <IPv6 address>
RS G8296(config)# ip gateway6 1 enable
IPv6 gateway 1 is reserved for IPv6 data interfaces. IPv6 gateway 4 is the default IPv6 management gateway.
© Copyright Lenovo 2016
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Neighbor Discovery
The switch uses Neighbor Discovery protocol (ND) to gather information about other router and host nodes, including the IPv6 addresses. Host nodes use ND to configure their interfaces and perform health detection. ND allows each node to determine the link‐layer addresses of neighboring nodes and to keep track of each neighbor’s information. A neighboring node is a host or a router linked directly to the switch. The switch supports Neighbor Discovery as described in RFC 4861. Neighbor Discovery Overview
Neighbor Discover messages allow network nodes to exchange information, as follows: 
Neighbor Solicitations allow a node to discover information about other nodes. 
Neighbor Advertisements are sent in response to Neighbor Solicitations. The Neighbor Advertisement contains information required by nodes to determine the link‐layer address of the sender, and the sender’s role on the network. 
IPv6 hosts use Router Solicitations to discover IPv6 routers. When a router receives a Router Solicitation, it responds immediately to the host.

Routers uses Router Advertisements to announce its presence on the network, and to provide its address prefix to neighbor devices. IPv6 hosts listen for Router Advertisements, and uses the information to build a list of default routers. Each host uses this information to perform autoconfiguration of IPv6 addresses. 
Redirect messages are sent by IPv6 routers to inform hosts of a better first‐hop address for a specific destination. Redirect messages are only sent by routers for unicast traffic, are only unicast to originating hosts, and are only processed by hosts.
ND configuration for general advertisements, flags, and interval settings, as well as for defining prefix profiles for router advertisements, is performed on a per‐interface basis using the following commands: RS G8296(config)# interface ip <interface number>
RS G8296(config­ip­if)# [no] ipv6 nd ?
RS G8296(config­ip­if)# exit
To add or remove entries in the static neighbor cache, use the following command:
RS G8296(config)# [no] ip neighbors ?
To view the neighbor cache table, use the following command:
RS G8296(config)# show ipv6 neighbors ?
To view the neighbor cache counters, use the following command:
RS G8296(config)# show ipv6 neighbors counters
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To clear the neighbor cache counters, use the following command:
RS G8296(config)# clear ipv6 neighbors counters
Host vs. Router
Each IPv6 interface can be configured as a router node or a host node, as follows: 
A router node’s IP address is configured manually. Router nodes can send Router Advertisements. 
A host node’s IP address can be autoconfigured. Host nodes listen for Router Advertisements that convey information about devices on the network. Note: When IP forwarding is turned on, all IPv6 interfaces configured on the switch can forward packets.
You can configure each IPv6 interface as either a host node or a router node. You can manually assign an IPv6 address to an interface in host mode, or the interface can be assigned an IPv6 address by an upstream router, using information from router advertisements to perform stateless auto‐configuration. To set an interface to host mode, use the following command:
RS G8296(config)# interface ip <interface number>
RS G8296(config­ip­if)# ip6host
RS G8296(config­ip­if)# exit
The G8296 supports up to 1156 IPv6 routes.
© Copyright Lenovo 2016
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Supported Applications
The following applications have been enhanced to provide IPv6 support. 
Ping
The ping command supports IPv6 addresses. Use the following format to ping an IPv6 address: ping <host name>|<IPv6 address> [<tries (0‐4294967295)>] [data­port] [mgmt­port]

Traceroute
The traceroute command supports IPv6 addresses (but not link‐local addresses). Use the following format to perform a traceroute to an IPv6 address: traceroute <host name>| <IPv6 address> [<max‐hops (1‐32)> [<msec delay (1‐4294967295)>]] 
Telnet server
The telnet command supports IPv6 addresses (but not link‐local addresses). Use the following format to Telnet into an IPv6 interface on the switch: telnet <host name>| <IPv6 address> [<port>] 
Telnet client
The telnet command supports IPv6 addresses (but not link‐local addresses). Use the following format to Telnet to an IPv6 address: telnet <host name>| <IPv6 address> [<port>] 
HTTP/HTTPS
The HTTP/HTTPS servers support both IPv4 and IPv6 connections. 
SSH
Secure Shell (SSH) connections over IPv6 are supported (but not link‐local addresses). The following syntax is required from the client: ssh ­u <IPv6 address>
Example: ssh ­u 2001:2:3:4:0:0:0:142

TFTP
The TFTP commands support both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses. Link‐local addresses are not supported. 
FTP
The FTP commands support both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses. Link‐local addresses are not supported. 450
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
DNS client
DNS commands support both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses. Link‐local addresses are not supported. Use the following command to specify the type of DNS query to be sent first:
RS G8296(config)# ip dns ipv6 request­version {ipv4|ipv6}
If you set the request version to ipv4, the DNS application sends an A query first, to resolve the hostname with an IPv4 address. If no A record is found for that hostname (no IPv4 address for that hostname) an AAAA query is sent to resolve the hostname with a IPv6 address. If you set the request version to ipv6, the DNS application sends an AAAA query first, to resolve the hostname with an IPv6 address. If no AAAA record is found for that hostname (no IPv6 address for that hostname) an A query is sent to resolve the hostname with an IPv4 address. Configuration Guidelines
When you configure an interface for IPv6, consider the following guidelines: © Copyright Lenovo 2016

Support for subnet router anycast addresses is not available. 
A single interface can accept either IPv4 or IPv6 addresses, but not both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses. 
A single interface can accept multiple IPv6 addresses. 
A single interface can accept only one IPv4 address. 
If you change the IPv6 address of a configured interface to an IPv4 address, all IPv6 settings are deleted. 
A single VLAN can support only one IPv6 interface. 
Health checks are not supported for IPv6 gateways. 
IPv6 interfaces support Path MTU Discovery. The CPU’s MTU is fixed at 1500 bytes. 
Support for jumbo frames (1,500 to 9,216 byte MTUs) is limited. Any jumbo frames intended for the CPU must be fragmented by the remote node. The switch can re‐assemble fragmented packets up to 9k. It can also fragment and transmit jumbo packets received from higher layers.
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IPv6 Configuration Examples
This section provides steps to configure IPv6 on the switch.
IPv6 Example 1
The following example uses IPv6 host mode to autoconfigure an IPv6 address for the interface. By default, the interface is assigned to VLAN 1.
1. Enable IPv6 host mode on an interface. RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# interface ip 2
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip6host
G8296(config­ip­if)# enable
G8296(config­ip­if)# exit
2. Configure the IPv6 default gateway. RS G8296(config)# ip gateway6 1 address 2001:BA98:7654:BA98:FEDC:1234:ABCD:5412
RS G8296(config)# ip gateway6 1 enable
3. Verify the interface address. RS G8296(config)# show interface ip 2
IPv6 Example 2
Use the following example to manually configure IPv6 on an interface. 1. Assign an IPv6 address and prefix length to the interface. RS G8296(config)# interface ip 3
RS G8296(config­ip­if)# ipv6 address 2001:BA98:7654:BA98:FEDC:1234:ABCD:5214
RS G8296(config­ip­if)# ipv6 prefixlen 64
RS G8296(config­ip­if)# ipv6 seccaddr6 2003::1 32
RS G8296(config­ip­if)# vlan 2
RS G8296(config­ip­if)# enable
RS G8296(config­ip­if)# exit
The secondary IPv6 address is compressed, and the prefix length is 32. 2. Configure the IPv6 default gateway. RS G8296(config)# ip gateway6 1 address 2001:BA98:7654:BA98:FEDC:1234:ABCD:5412
RS G8296(config)# ip gateway6 1 enable
3. Configure router advertisements for the interface (optional) RS G8296(config)# interface ip 3
RS G8296(config­ip­if)# no ipv6 nd suppress­ra
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4. Verify the configuration.
RS G8296(config­ip­if)# show layer3
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Chapter 30. IPsec with IPv6
Internet Protocol Security (IPsec) is a protocol suite for securing Internet Protocol (IP) communications by authenticating and encrypting each IP packet of a communication session. IPsec also includes protocols for establishing mutual authentication between agents at the beginning of the session and negotiation of cryptographic keys to be used during the session.
Since IPsec was implemented in conjunction with IPv6, all implementations of IPv6 must contain IPsec. To support the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) recommendations for IPv6 implementations, Lenovo Enterprise Network Operating System IPv6 feature compliance has been extended to include the following IETF RFCs, with an emphasis on IP Security (IPsec), Internet Key Exchange version 2, and authentication/confidentiality for OSPFv3:

RFC 4301 for IPv6 security

RFC 4302 for the IPv6 Authentication Header

RFCs 2404, 2410, 2451, 3602, and 4303 for IPv6 Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP), including NULL encryption, CBC‐mode 3DES and AES ciphers, and HMAC‐SHA‐1‐96.

RFCs 4306, 4307, 4718, and 4835 for IKEv2 and cryptography

RFC 4552 for OSPFv3 IPv6 authentication

RFC 5114 for Diffie‐Hellman groups
Note: This implementation of IPsec supports DH groups 1, 2, 5, 14, and 24.
The following topics are discussed in this chapter:
© Copyright Lenovo 2016

“IPsec Protocols” on page 456 
“Using IPsec with the Lenovo RackSwitch G8296” on page 457
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IPsec Protocols
The Enterprise NOS implementation of IPsec supports the following protocols:

Authentication Header (AH)
AHs provide connectionless integrity out and data origin authentication for IP packets. They also provide protection against replay attacks. In IPv6, the AH protects the AH itself, the Destination Options extension header after the AH, and the IP payload. It also protects the fixed IPv6 header and all extension headers before the AH, except for the mutable fields DSCP, ECN, Flow Label, and Hop Limit. AH is defined in RFC 4302.

Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP)
ESPs provide confidentiality, data origin authentication, integrity, an anti‐replay service (a form of partial sequence integrity), and some traffic flow confidentiality. ESPs may be applied alone or in combination with an AH. ESP is defined in RFC 4303.

Internet Key Exchange Version 2 (IKEv2)
IKEv2 is used for mutual authentication between two network elements. An IKE establishes a security association (SA) that includes shared secret information to efficiently establish SAs for ESPs and AHs, and a set of cryptographic algorithms to be used by the SAs to protect the associated traffic. IKEv2 is defined in RFC 4306.
Using IKEv2 as the foundation, IPsec supports ESP for encryption and/or authentication, and/or AH for authentication of the remote partner.
Both ESP and AH rely on security associations. A security association (SA) is the bundle of algorithms and parameters (such as keys) that encrypt and authenticate a particular flow in one direction.
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Using IPsec with the Lenovo RackSwitch G8296
IPsec supports the fragmentation and reassembly of IP packets that occurs when data goes to and comes from an external device. The Lenovo RackSwitch G8296 acts as an end node that processes any fragmentation and reassembly of packets but does not forward the IPsec traffic. :You must authenticate the IKEv2 key following the directions in “Setting up Authentication” on page 457 before you can use IPsec.
The security protocol for the session key is either ESP or AH. Outgoing packets are labeled with the SA SPI (Security Parameter Index), which the remote device will use in its verification and decryption process. Every outgoing IPv6 packet is checked against the IPsec policies in force. For each outbound packet, after the packet is encrypted, the software compares the packet size with the MTU size that it either obtains from the default minimum maximum transmission unit (MTU) size (1500) or from path MTU discovery. If the packet size is larger than the MTU size, the receiver drops the packet and sends a message containing the MTU size to the sender. The sender then fragments the packet into smaller pieces and retransmits them using the correct MTU size.
The maximum traffic load for each IPsec packet is limited to the following:

IKEv2 SAs: 5

IPsec SAs: 10 (5 SAs in each direction)

SPDs: 20 (10 policies in each direction)
IPsec is implemented as a software cryptography engine designed for handling control traffic, such as network management. IPsec is not designed for handling data traffic, such as a VPN.
Setting up Authentication
Before you can use IPsec, you need to have key policy authentication in place. There are two types of key policy authentication:

Preshared key (default)
The parties agree on a shared, secret key that is used for authentication in an IPsec policy. During security negotiation, information is encrypted before transmission by using a session key created by using a Diffie‐Hellman calculation and the shared, secret key. Information is decrypted on the receiving end using the same key. One IPsec peer authenticates the other peerʹs packet by decryption and verification of the hash inside the packet (the hash inside the packet is a hash of the preshared key). If authentication fails, the packet is discarded.

Digital certificate (using RSA algorithms)
The peer being validated must hold a digital certificate signed by a trusted Certificate Authority and the private key for that digital certificate. The side performing the authentication only needs a copy of the trusted certificate authorities digital certificate. During IKEv2 authentication, the side being validated sends a copy of the digital certificate and a hash value signed using the private key. The certificate can be either generated or imported.
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Note: During the IKEv2 negotiation phase, the digital certificate takes precedence over the preshared key.
Creating an IKEv2 Proposal
With IKEv2, a single policy can have multiple encryption and authentication types, as well as multiple integrity algorithms.
To create an IKEv2 proposal:
1. Enter IKEv2 proposal mode.
RS G8296(config)# ikev2 proposal
2. Set the DES encryption algorithm.
RS G8296(config-ikev2-prop)# encryption 3des|aes­cbc (default: 3des)
3. Set the authentication integrity algorithm type.
RS G8296(config­ikev2­prop)# integrity sha1 (default: sha1)
4. Set the Diffie‐Hellman group.
RS G8296(config-ikev2-prop)# group 1|2|5|14|24 (default: 24)
Importing an IKEv2 Digital Certificate
To import an IKEv2 digital certificate for authentication:
1. Import the CA certificate file. 2. Import the host key file. 3. Import the host certificate file. Note: When prompted for the port to use for download the file, if you used a management port to connect the switch to the server, enter mgt, otherwise enter data.
Generating a Certificate Signing Request
Before a digital certificate can be signed by a Certificate Authority (CA), it needs to be created. The generation of a certificate involves creating a Certificate Signing Request (CSR). The CSR includes various information related to the device and a public key. The public key is included in the CSR file itself and the private key associated with the public key is generated separately and kept private. The CSR can then be exported to a remote device to be signed by a CA.
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1. Create an HTTPS CSR defining the information you want to be used in the various fields: RS G8296(config)# access https generate­csr
Country Name (2 letter code) []: <country code>
State or Province Name (full name) []: <state>
Locality Name (eg, city) []: <city>
Organization Name (eg, company) []: <company>
Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) []: <org. unit>
Common Name (eg, YOUR name) []: <name>
Email (eg, email address) []: <email address>
Confirm Generate CSR? [y/n]: y
..............................................+++
..............+++
Cert Req generated successfully
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2. To verify the CSR you can use the following command:
show https host­csr [pem­format|txt­format] RS G8296> show https host­csr txt­format
Certificate Request:
Data:
Version: 0 (0x0)
Subject: C=US, ST=Cali, L=Santa Barbara, O=Lenovo, OU=Sales, CN=www.zagat.com
Subject Public Key Info:
Public Key Algorithm: rsaEncryption
RSA Public Key: (2048 bit)
Modulus (2048 bit):
00:b5:05:f6:d5:ad:ab:f2:1d:a9:57:c4:bc:84:1b:
c6:bc:cd:04:95:ea:ad:ec:4a:44:3a:6e:42:9f:39:
96:14:11:a7:8e:3e:6f:da:9a:42:c6:c4:62:a1:33:
0e:a8:d3:6a:21:ce:f3:3c:4f:c1:8d:d1:e7:9e:c7:
29:04:ea:c6:7d:54:9a:4e:10:24:10:38:45:c6:4b:
13:19:f2:dd:8a:83:3f:5c:cf:8b:85:a7:2a:b0:eb:
7a:26:1f:4c:94:47:01:81:6a:59:d5:f5:d6:7e:3b:
b5:bc:e4:3f:6d:dd:84:15:07:61:93:e0:d1:40:f8:
9d:15:d0:a6:e1:9b:a4:ab:85:b5:2b:f0:56:e9:ef:
36:43:2b:aa:be:1b:63:3c:fd:74:ab:78:76:53:12:
e6:65:4c:0d:07:91:df:b3:91:96:f4:55:f7:37:73:
8c:f6:77:d7:9d:2b:a5:bd:17:3f:11:f2:85:4b:d6:
b4:1d:3f:70:1f:13:bb:5e:2e:4c:a8:ad:6a:7f:11:
36:97:a6:25:0a:87:66:31:c9:92:59:03:31:5d:ff:
df:c6:aa:93:7c:51:9f:8e:1b:6f:2a:be:c4:4c:66:
d6:2c:4b:6d:e6:ae:4e:02:82:fc:fa:a1:de:3b:c9:
24:25:d5:6e:15:15:18:ce:9b:a6:98:ad:0c:32:1f:
94:01
Exponent: 65537 (0x10001)
Attributes:
a0:00
Signature Algorithm: sha256WithRSAEncryption
24:26:dd:96:49:47:9d:78:74:48:9b:63:4c:32:f0:78:da:7d:
82:c9:17:6d:7e:93:38:60:94:d5:02:c1:31:dc:42:69:f5:57:
46:a8:44:5a:99:ea:55:d3:99:bf:f0:48:3b:ef:60:fd:50:e6:
33:cd:89:86:d3:51:97:f2:d1:68:6f:88:8c:e7:0f:3e:19:2a:
f4:ea:6b:dc:05:24:d7:98:cd:a3:d3:c3:ef:03:93:8b:3f:fe:
75:5e:67:f1:48:b6:20:a6:ff:ae:5a:25:41:7f:e4:c8:48:d4:
63:37:16:98:9e:2d:1b:b6:65:7a:0d:90:87:07:19:f0:02:17:
3a:3e:fd:f0:40:3e:a4:0f:53:97:9b:d5:18:22:78:f3:07:94:
63:be:f9:f2:5c:23:6d:0f:22:d1:17:db:38:24:5c:6b:7b:e0:
41:a6:51:28:30:2c:f4:1d:62:6c:06:f2:4c:0c:5b:79:51:13:
73:f8:88:ba:2e:05:98:5d:41:5e:9d:58:b1:0c:8f:fc:f2:79:
d5:30:7c:95:e9:ff:9a:cc:dd:d9:4c:2e:98:32:5a:ab:cd:59:
a4:37:a5:38:03:4e:e7:27:dc:14:c8:75:9d:ca:e0:62:37:02:
19:17:16:e3:92:c0:c3:16:13:26:c9:40:d7:ec:f2:8c:8e:fc:
1a:dc:27:4c
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RS G8296> show https host­csr pem­format
­­­­­BEGIN CERTIFICATE REQUEST­­­­­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­­­­­END CERTIFICATE REQUEST­­­­­
3. Export the CSR file to an external server: RS G8296(config)# copy cert­request tftp
Port type ["DATA"/"MGT"/"EXTM"]: <port type>
Address or name of remote host: <hostname or IPv4 address>
Destination file name: <path and filename on the remote server>
Certificate request successfully tftp'd to...
4. Import the signed certificate from an external server: RS G8296(config)# copy sftp host­cert­only mgt­port Address or name of remote host: 10.241.3.32
Enter SFTP server port [22]: Source file name: mars.crt
User name: admin
Password: Confirm download operation (y/n) ? y
Connecting to 10.241.3.32...via port 22
SFTP: User platformlinux logged in.
Download in progress
SFTP: Read 985 bytes
Certificate file download complete (985 bytes)
Restart the HTTPS server manually to make the switch use the certificate
5. Reset HTTPS server. RS G8296(config)# no access https enable
access https enable Generating certificate. Please wait (approx 30 seconds)
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Generating an IKEv2 Digital Certificate
To create an IKEv2 digital certificate for authentication:
1. Create an HTTPS certificate defining the information you want to be used in the various fields. Country Name (2 letter code) [US]:
State or Province Name (full name) [CA]:
Locality Name (eg, city) [Santa Clara]:
Organization Name (eg, company) [Lenovo]:
Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) [Engineering]:
Common Name (eg, YOUR name) [10.240.226.241]:
Email (eg, email address) []:
Confirm generat‘eywing certificate? [y/n]: y
Generating certificate. Please wait (approx 30 seconds)
restarting SSL agent
2. Save the HTTPS certificate.
The certificate is valid only until the switch is rebooted. To save the certificate so that it is retained beyond reboot or power cycles, use the following command: RS G8296(config)# access https save­certificate
3. Enable IKEv2 RSA‐signature authentication: RS G8296(config)# access https enable
Enabling IKEv2 Preshared Key Authentication
To set up IKEv2 preshared key authentication:
1. Enter the local preshared key. RS G8296(config)# ikev2 preshare­key local <preshared key, a string of 1‐256 chars>
2. If asymmetric authentication is supported, enter the remote key: RS G8296(config)# ikev2 preshare­key remote <preshared key> <IPv6 host>
where the following parameters are used:

preshared key
A string of 1‐256 characters

IPv6 host
An IPv6‐format host, such as “3000::1”
3. Set up the IKEv2 identification type by entering one of the following commands:
RS G8296(config)# ikev2 identity local address (use an IPv6 address)
RS G8296(config)# ikev2 identity local email <email address>
RS G8296(config)# ikev2 identity local fqdn <domain name>
To disable IKEv2 RSA‐signature authentication method and enable preshared key authentication, enter: RS G8296(config)# access https disable
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Setting Up a Key Policy
When configuring IPsec, you must define a key policy. This key policy can be either manual or dynamic. Either way, configuring a policy involves the following steps:

Create a transform set—This defines which encryption and authentication algo‐
rithms are used.

Create a traffic selector—This describes the packets to which the policy applies.

Establish an IPsec policy.

Apply the policy.
1. To define which encryption and authentication algorithms are used, create a transform set: RS G8296(config)# ipsec transform­set <transform ID> <encryption method> <integrity algorithm> <AH authentication algorithm> where the following parameters are used:

transform ID
A number from 1‐10

encryption method
One of the following: esp­3des | esp­aes­cbc | esp­null

integrity algorithm
One of the following: esp­sha1 | none

AH authentication algorithm
One of the following: ah­sha1 | ah­md5 | none
2. Decide whether to use tunnel or transport mode. The default mode is transport. 3. To describe the packets to which this policy applies, create a traffic selector using the following command: RS G8296(config)# ipsec traffic­selector <traffic selector number> permit|deny any|icmp <type|any> |tcp > <source IP address|any> <destination IP address|any> [<prefix length>]
where the following parameters are used:
© Copyright Lenovo 2016

traffic selector number
an integer from 1‐10

permit|deny
whether or not to permit IPsec encryption of traffic that meets the criteria specified in this command

any
apply the selector to any type of traffic

icmp <type>|any
only apply the selector only to ICMP traffic of the specified type (an integer from 1‐255) or to any ICMP traffic

tcp
only apply the selector to TCP traffic

source IP address|any
the source IP address in IPv6 format or “any” source

destination IP address|any
the destination IP address in IPv6 format or “any” destination
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
prefix length
(Optional) the length of the destination IPv6 prefix; an integer from 1‐128
Permitted traffic that matches the policy in force is encrypted, while denied traffic that matches the policy in force is dropped. Traffic that does not match the policy bypasses IPsec and passes through clear (unencrypted).
4. Choose whether to use a manual or a dynamic policy. Using a Manual Key Policy
A manual policy involves configuring policy and manual SA entries for local and remote peers.
To configure a manual key policy, you need:


The IP address of the peer in IPv6 format (for example, “3000::1”).
Inbound/Outbound session keys for the security protocols.
You can then assign the policy to an interface. The peer represents the other end of the security association. The security protocol for the session key can be either ESP or AH.
To create and configure a manual policy:
1. Enter a manual policy to configure. RS G8296(config)#ipsec manual­policy <policy number>
2. Configure the policy. where the following parameters are used:

peer’s IPv6 address
The IPv6 address of the peer (for example, 3000::1)

IPsec traffic‐selector
A number from1‐10

IPsec of transform‐set
A number from1‐10

inbound AH IPsec key
The inbound AH key code, in hexadecimal

inbound AH IPsec SPI
A number from 256‐4294967295

inbound ESP cipher key
The inbound ESP key code, in hexadecimal

inbound ESP SPI
A number from 256‐4294967295

inbound ESP authenticator key The inbound ESP authenticator key code, in hexadecimal

outbound AH IPsec key
The outbound AH key code, in hexadecimal

outbound AH IPsec SPI
A number from 256‐4294967295

outbound ESP cipher key
The outbound ESP key code, in hexadecimal

outbound ESP SPI
A number from 256‐4294967295
 outbound ESP authenticator key
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The outbound ESP authenticator key code, in hexadecimal
Note:

When configuring a manual policy ESP, the ESP authenticator key is optional.

If using third‐party switches, the IPsec manual policy session key must be of fixed length as follows:

For AH key: SHA1 is 20 bytes; MD5 is 16 bytes

For ESP cipher key: 3DES is 24 bytes; AES‐cbc is 24 bytes; DES is 8 bytes

For ESP auth key: SHA1 is 20 bytes; MD5 is 16 bytes
3. After you configure the IPSec policy, you need to apply it to the interface to enforce the security policies on that interface and save it to keep it in place after a reboot. To accomplish this, enter: © Copyright Lenovo 2016
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Using a Dynamic Key Policy
When you use a dynamic key policy, the first packet triggers IKE and sets the IPsec SA and IKEv2 SA. The initial packet negotiation also determines the lifetime of the algorithm, or how long it stays in effect. When the key expires, a new key is automatically created. This helps prevent break‐ins.
To configure a dynamic key policy:
1. Choose a dynamic policy to configure. RS G8296(config)#ipsec dynamic­policy <policy number>
2. Configure the policy. RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config­ipsec­dynamic)#peer <peer’s IPv6 address>
G8296(config­ipsec­dynamic)#traffic­selector <index of traffic selector>
G8296(config­ipsec­dynamic)#transform­set <index of transform set>
G8296(config­ipsec­dynamic)#sa­lifetime <SA lifetime, in seconds>
G8296(config­ipsec­dynamic)#pfs enable|disable
where the following parameters are used:

peer’s IPv6 address
The IPv6 address of the peer (for example, 3000::1)

index of traffic‐selector
A number from1‐10

index of transform‐set
A number from1‐10

SA lifetime, in seconds
The length of time the SA is to remain in effect; an integer from120‐86400 
pfs enable|disable
Whether to enable or disable the perfect forward security feature. The default is disable.
Note: In a dynamic policy, the AH and ESP keys are created by IKEv2.
3. After you configure the IPSec policy, you need to apply it to the interface to enforce the security policies on that interface and save it to keep it in place after a reboot. To accomplish this, enter: RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
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G8296(config­ip)#interface ip <IP interface number, 1‐128>
G8296(config­ip­if)#address <IPv6 address>
G8296(config­ip­if)#ipsec dynamic­policy <policy index, 1‐10>
G8296(config­ip­if)#enable (enable the IP interface)
G8296#write (save the current configuration)
G8296 Application Guide for ENOS 8.4
Chapter 31. Routing Information Protocol
In a routed environment, routers communicate with one another to keep track of available routes. Routers can learn about available routes dynamically using the Routing Information Protocol (RIP). Lenovo Enterprise Network Operating System software supports RIP version 1 (RIPv1) and RIP version 2 (RIPv2) for exchanging TCP/IPv4 route information with other routers. Note: Enterprise NOS 8.4 does not support IPv6 for RIP.
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Distance Vector Protocol
RIP is known as a distance vector protocol. The vector is the network number and next hop, and the distance is the metric associated with the network number. RIP identifies network reachability based on metric, and metric is defined as hop count. One hop is considered to be the distance from one switch to the next, which typically is 1. When a switch receives a routing update that contains a new or changed destination network entry, the switch adds 1 to the metric value indicated in the update and enters the network in the routing table. The IPv4 address of the sender is used as the next hop.
Stability
RIP includes a number of other stability features that are common to many routing protocols. For example, RIP implements the split horizon and hold‐down mechanisms to prevent incorrect routing information from being propagated. RIP prevents routing loops from continuing indefinitely by implementing a limit on the number of hops allowed in a path from the source to a destination. The maximum number of hops in a path is 15. The network destination network is considered unreachable if increasing the metric value by 1 causes the metric to be 16 (that is infinity). This limits the maximum diameter of a RIP network to less than 16 hops.
RIP is often used in stub networks and in small autonomous systems that do not have many redundant paths.
Routing Updates
RIP sends routing‐update messages at regular intervals and when the network topology changes. Each router “advertises” routing information by sending a routing information update every 30 seconds. If a router doesn’t receive an update from another router for 180 seconds, those routes provided by that router are declared invalid. The routes are removed from the routing table, but they remain in the RIP routes table. After another 120 seconds without receiving an update for those routes, the routes are removed from respective regular updates. When a router receives a routing update that includes changes to an entry, it updates its routing table to reflect the new route. The metric value for the path is increased by 1, and the sender is indicated as the next hop. RIP routers maintain only the best route (the route with the lowest metric value) to a destination. For more information, see the Configuration section, Routing Information Protocol Configuration in the Lenovo Enterprise Network Operating System Command Reference. 468
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RIPv1
RIP version 1 use broadcast User Datagram Protocol (UDP) data packets for the regular routing updates. The main disadvantage is that the routing updates do not carry subnet mask information. Hence, the router cannot determine whether the route is a subnet route or a host route. It is of limited usage after the introduction of RIPv2. For more information about RIPv1 and RIPv2, refer to RFC 1058 and RFC 2453. RIPv2
RIPv2 is the most popular and preferred configuration for most networks. RIPv2 expands the amount of useful information carried in RIP messages and provides a measure of security. For a detailed explanation of RIPv2, refer to RFC 1723 and RFC 2453. RIPv2 improves efficiency by using multicast UDP (address 224.0.0.9) data packets for regular routing updates. Subnet mask information is provided in the routing updates. A security option is added for authenticating routing updates, by using a shared password. ENOS supports using clear password for RIPv2. RIPv2 in RIPv1 Compatibility Mode
ENOS allows you to configure RIPv2 in RIPv1compatibility mode, for using both RIPv2 and RIPv1 routers within a network. In this mode, the regular routing updates use broadcast UDP data packet to allow RIPv1 routers to receive those packets. With RIPv1 routers as recipients, the routing updates have to carry natural or host mask. Hence, it is not a recommended configuration for most network topologies. Note: When using both RIPv1 and RIPv2 within a network, use a single subnet mask throughout the network. © Copyright Lenovo 2016
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469
RIP Features
ENOS provides the following features to support RIPv1 and RIPv2: 
Poison
Simple split horizon in RIP scheme omits routes learned from one neighbor in updates sent to that neighbor. That is the most common configuration used in RIP, that is setting this Poison to DISABLE. Split horizon with poisoned reverse includes such routes in updates, but sets their metrics to 16. The disadvantage of using this feature is the increase of size in the routing updates. 
Triggered Updates
Triggered updates are an attempt to speed up convergence. When Triggered Updates is enabled, whenever a router changes the metric for a route, it sends update messages almost immediately, without waiting for the regular update interval. It is recommended to enable Triggered Updates. 
Multicast
RIPv2 messages use IPv4 multicast address (224.0.0.9) for periodic broadcasts. Multicast RIPv2 announcements are not processed by RIPv1 routers. IGMP is not needed since these are inter‐router messages which are not forwarded. To configure RIPv2 in RIPv1 compatibility mode, set multicast to disable, and set version to both. 
Default
The RIP router can listen and supply a default route, usually represented as IPv4 0.0.0.0 in the routing table. When a router does not have an explicit route to a destination network in its routing table, it uses the default route to forward those packets.

Metric
The metric field contains a configurable value between 1 and 15 (inclusive) which specifies the current metric for the interface. The metric value typically indicates the total number of hops to the destination. The metric value of 16 represents an unreachable destination.

Authentication
RIPv2 authentication uses plaintext password for authentication. If configured using Authentication password, then it is necessary to enter an authentication key value. The following method is used to authenticate an RIP message: 
If the router is not configured to authenticate RIPv2 messages, then RIPv1 and unauthenticated RIPv2 messages are accepted; authenticated RIPv2 messages are discarded. 
If the router is configured to authenticate RIPv2 messages, then RIPv1 messages and RIPv2 messages which pass authentication testing are accepted; unauthenticated and failed authentication RIPv2 messages are discarded. For maximum security, RIPv1 messages are ignored when authentication is enabled; otherwise, the routing information from authenticated messages is propagated by RIPv1 routers in an unauthenticated manner.
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RIP Configuration Example
The following is an example of RIP configuration.
Note: An interface with RIP disabled uses all the default values of the RIP, no matter how the RIP parameters are configured for that interface. RIP sends out RIP regular updates to include an UP interface, but not a DOWN interface. 1. Add VLANs for routing interfaces. >> (config)# vlan 2
>> (config­vlan)# exit
>> (config)# interface port 2
>> (config­if)# switchport mode trunk
>> (config­if)# switchport trunk allowed vlan add 2
Port 2 is an UNTAGGED port and its current PVID is 1.
Confirm changing PVID from 1 to 2 [y/n]: y
>> (config­if)# exit
>> (config)# vlan 3
>> (config­vlan)# exit
>> (config)# interface port 3
>> (config­if)# switchport mode trunk
>> (config­if)# switchport trunk allowed vlan add 3
>> (config­if)# exit
Port 3 is an UNTAGGED port and its current PVID is 1.
Confirm changing PVID from 1 to 3 [y/n]: y
2. Add IP interfaces with IPv4 addresses to VLANs. >> # interface ip 2
>> (config­ip­if)# enable
>> (config­ip­if)# ip address 102.1.1.1
>> (config­ip­if)# vlan 2
>> (config­ip­if)# exit
>> # interface ip 3
>> (config­ip­if)# enable
>> (config­ip­if)# ip address 103.1.1.1
>> (config­ip­if)# vlan 3
3. Turn on RIP globally and enable RIP for each interface. >> # router rip
>> (config­router­rip)# enable
>> (config­router­rip)# exit
>> # interface ip 2
>> (config­ip­if)# ip rip enable
>> (config­ip­if)# exit
>> # interface ip 3
>> (config­ip­if)# ip rip enable
>> (config­ip­if)# exit
Use the following command to check the current valid routes in the routing table of the switch: >> # show ip route
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For those RIP routes learned within the garbage collection period, that are routes phasing out of the routing table with metric 16, use the following command: >> # show ip rip routes
Locally configured static routes do not appear in the RIP Routes table. 472
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Chapter 32. Internet Group Management Protocol
Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) is used by IPv4 Multicast routers (Mrouters) to learn about the existence of host group members on their directly attached subnet. The IPv4 Mrouters get this information by broadcasting IGMP Membership Queries and listening for IPv4 hosts reporting their host group memberships. This process is used to set up a client/server relationship between an IPv4 multicast source that provides the data streams and the clients that want to receive the data. The switch supports three versions of IGMP:

IGMPv1: Defines the method for hosts to join a multicast group. However, this version does not define the method for hosts to leave a multicast group. See RFC 1112 for details.

IGMPv2: Adds the ability for a host to signal its desire to leave a multicast group. See RFC 2236 for details.

IGMPv3: Adds support for source filtering by which a host can report interest in receiving packets only from specific source addresses, or from all but specific source addresses, sent to a particular multicast address. See RFC 3376 for details.
The G8296 can perform IGMP Snooping, and connect to static Mrouters. The G8296 can act as a Querier, and participate in the IGMP Querier election process.
The following topics are discussed in this chapter:
© Copyright Lenovo 2016

“IGMP Terms” on page 474

“How IGMP Works” on page 475

“IGMP Capacity and Default Values” on page 476

“IGMP Snooping” on page 478

“IGMP Relay” on page 490

“Additional IGMP Features” on page 497
473
IGMP Terms
The following are commonly used IGMP terms:
474

Multicast traffic: Flow of data from one source to multiple destinations.

Group: A multicast stream to which a host can join. Multicast groups have IP addresses in the range: 224.0.1.0 to 239.255.255.255.

IGMP Querier: A router or switch in the subnet that generates Membership Queries.

IGMP Snooper: A Layer 3 device that forwards multicast traffic only to hosts that are interested in receiving multicast data. This device can be a router or a Layer 3 switch.

Multicast Router: A router configured to make routing decisions for multicast traffic. The router identifies the type of packet received (unicast or multicast) and forwards the packet to the intended destination.

IGMP Proxy: A device that filters Join messages and Leave messages sent upstream to the Mrouter to reduce the load on the Mrouter.

Membership Report: A report sent by the host that indicates an interest in receiving multicast traffic from a multicast group.

Leave: A message sent by the host when it wants to leave a multicast group.

FastLeave: A process by which the switch stops forwarding multicast traffic to a port as soon as it receives a Leave message.

Membership Query: Message sent by the Querier to verify if hosts are listening to a group.

General Query: A Membership Query sent to all hosts. The Group address field for general queries is 0.0.0.0 and the destination address is 224.0.0.1.

Group‐specific Query: A Membership Query sent to all hosts in a multicast group.
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How IGMP Works
When IGMP is not configured, switches forward multicast traffic through all ports, increasing network load. When IGMPv2 is configured on a switch, multicast traffic flows as follows:

A server sends multicast traffic to a multicast group.

The Mrouter sends Membership Queries to the switch, which forwards them to all ports in a given VLAN.

Hosts respond with Membership Reports if they want to join a group. The switch forwards these reports to the Mrouter.
Any new IGMP report which causes the IGMP entries limit to be exceeded will still be sent to the multicast router(s).

The switch forwards multicast traffic only to hosts that have joined a group.

The Mrouter periodically sends Membership Queries to ensure that a host wants to continue receiving multicast traffic. If a host does not respond, the IGMP Snooper stops sending traffic to the host.

The host can initiate the Leave process by sending an IGMP Leave packet to the IGMP Snooper.

When a host sends an IGMPv2 Leave packet, the IGMP Snooper queries to find out if any other host connected to the port is interested in receiving the multicast traffic. If it does not receive a Join message in response, the IGMP Snooper removes the group entry and passes on the information to the Mrouter.
The G8296 supports the following: IGMP version 1 2
 128 static Mrouters and 128 dynamic Mrouters

Note: Unknown multicast traffic is sent to all ports if the flood option is enabled and no Membership Report was learned for that specific IGMP group. If the flood option is disabled, unknown multicast traffic is discarded if no hosts or Mrouters are learned on a switch.
To enable or disable IGMP flood, use the following command: RS G8296(config)# vlan <vlan ID>
RS G8296(config-vlan)# [no] flood
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IGMP Capacity and Default Values
The following table lists the maximum and minimum values of the G8296 variables.
Note: When having maximum number of IGMP entries installed, any received GMP Reports/Leaves are sent to mrouter (if it exists). Table 38. G8296 Capacity Table
Variable
Maximum
IGMP Entries ‐ Snoop
3072
IGMP Entries ‐ Relay
1000
VLANs ‐ Snoop
1024
VLANs ‐ Relay
8
Static Mrouters
128
Dynamic Mrouters
128
Number of IGMP Filters
16
IPMC Groups (IGMP Relay)
1000
The following table lists the default settings for IGMP features and variables. Table 39. IGMP Default Configuration Settings
476
Field
Default Value
Global IGMP State
Disabled
IGMP Querier
Disabled
IGMP Snooping
Disabled
IGMP Filtering
Disabled
IP Multicast (IPMC) Flood
Enabled
IGMP FastLeave
Disabled for all VLANs
IGMP Mrouter Timeout
255 Seconds
IGMP Report Timeout Variable
10 Seconds
IGMP Query‐Interval Variable
125 Seconds
IGMP Robustness Variable
2
IGMPv3
Disabled
G8296 Application Guide for ENOS 8.4
Table 39. IGMP Default Configuration Settings (continued)
Field
Default Value
IGMPv3 number of sources
8 (The switch processes only the first eight sources listed in the IGMPv3 group record.)
Valid range: 1 ‐ 64
IGMPv3 ‐ allow v1v2 Snooping
© Copyright Lenovo 2016
Enabled
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IGMP Snooping
IGMP Snooping allows a switch to listen to the IGMP conversation between hosts and Mrouters. By default, a switch floods multicast traffic to all ports in a broadcast domain. With IGMP Snooping enabled, the switch learns the ports interested in receiving multicast data and forwards it only to those ports. IGMP Snooping conserves network resources.
The switch can sense IGMP Membership Reports from attached hosts and acts as a proxy to set up a dedicated path between the requesting host and a local IPv4 Mrouter. After the path is established, the switch blocks the IPv4 multicast stream from flowing through any port that does not connect to a host member, thus conserving bandwidth.
IGMP Querier
For IGMP Snooping to function, you must have an Mrouter on the network that generates IGMP Query packets. Enabling the IGMP Querier feature on the switch allows it to participate in the Querier election process. If the switch is elected as the Querier, it will send IGMP Query packets for the LAN segment.
Querier Election
If multiple Mrouters exist on the network, only one can be elected as a Querier. The Mrouters elect the one with the lowest source IPv4 address or MAC address as the Querier. The Querier performs all periodic membership queries. All other Mrouters (non‐Queriers) do not send IGMP Query packets.
Note: When IGMP Querier is enabled on a VLAN, the switch performs the role of an IGMP Querier only if it meets the IGMP Querier election criteria.
Each time the Querier switch sends an IGMP Query packet, it initializes a general query timer. If a Querier receives a General Query packet from an Mrouter with a lower IP address or MAC address, it transitions to a non‐Querier state and initializes an other querier present timer. When this timer expires, the Mrouter transitions back to the Querier state and sends a General Query packet.
Follow this procedure to configure IGMP Querier.
1. Enable IGMP and configure the source IPv4 address for IGMP Querier on a VLAN. RS G8296(config)# ip igmp enable
RS G8296(config)# ip igmp querier vlan 2 source­ip 10.10.10.1
2. Enable IGMP Querier on the VLAN. RS G8296(config)# ip igmp querier vlan 2 enable
3. Configure the querier election type and define the address. RS G8296(config)# ip igmp querier vlan 2 election­type ipv4
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4. Verify the configuration. RS G8296# show ip igmp querier vlan 2
Current IGMP snooping Querier information:
IGMP Querier information for vlan 2:
Other IGMP querier ­ none
Switch­querier enabled, current state: Querier
Switch­querier type: Ipv4, address 10.10.10.1,
Switch­querier general query interval: 125 secs,
Switch­querier max­response interval: 100 'tenths of secs',
Switch­querier startup interval: 31 secs, count: 2
Switch­querier robustness: 2
IGMP configured version is v3
IGMP Operating version is v3
IGMP Groups
One IGMP entry is allocated for each unique join request, based on the VLAN and IGMP group address. If multiple ports join the same IGMP group using the same VLAN, only a single IGMP entry is used.
IGMPv3 Snooping
IGMPv3 includes new Membership Report messages that extend IGMP functionality. The switch provides snooping capability for all types of IGMPv3 Membership Reports.
IGMPv3 supports Source‐Specific Multicast (SSM). SSM identifies session traffic by both source and group addresses. The IGMPv3 implementation keeps records on the multicast hosts present in the network. If a host is already registered, when it receives a new IS_INC, TO_INC, IS_EXC, or TO_EXC report from same host, the switch makes the correct transition to new (port‐host‐group) registration based on the IGMPv3 RFC. The registrations of other hosts for the same group on the same port are not changed.
The G8296 supports the following IGMPv3 filter modes:
INCLUDE mode: The host requests membership to a multicast group and pro‐
vides a list of IPv4 addresses from which it wants to receive traffic.
 EXCLUDE mode: The host requests membership to a multicast group and provides a list of IPv4 addresses from which it does not want to receive traffic. This indicates that the host wants to receive traffic only from sources that are not part of the Exclude list. To disable snooping on EXCLUDE mode reports, use the following command: 
RS G8296(config)# no ip igmp snoop igmpv3 exclude
By default, the G8296 snoops the first eight sources listed in the IGMPv3 Group Record. Use the following command to change the number of snooping sources: RS G8296(config)# ip igmp snoop igmpv3 sources <1‐64>
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IGMPv3 Snooping is compatible with IGMPv1 and IGMPv2 Snooping. To disable snooping on version 1 and version 2 reports, use the following command: RS G8296(config)# no ip igmp snoop igmpv3 v1v2 480
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IGMP Snooping Configuration Guidelines
Consider the following guidelines when you configure IGMP Snooping:
© Copyright Lenovo 2016

IGMP operation is independent of the routing method. You can use RIP, OSPF, or static routes for Layer 3 routing.

When multicast traffic flood is disabled, the multicast traffic sent by the multicast server is discarded if no hosts or Mrouters are learned on the switch.

The Mrouter periodically sends IGMP Queries.

The switch learns the Mrouter on the port connected to the router when it sees Query messages. The switch then floods the IGMP queries on all other ports including a LAG, if any.

Multicast hosts send IGMP Reports as a reply to the IGMP Queries sent by the Mrouter.

The switch can also learn an Mrouter when it receives a PIM hello packet from another device. However, an Mrouter learned from a PIM packet has a lower priority than an Mrouter learned from an IGMP Query. A switch overwrites an Mrouter learned from a PIM packet when it receives an IGMP Query on the same port.

A host sends an IGMP Leave message to its multicast group. The expiration timer for this group is updated to 10 seconds. The Layer 3 switch sends IGMP Group‐Specific Query to the host that had sent the Leave message. If the host does not respond with an IGMP Report during these 10 seconds, all the groups expire and the switch deletes the host from the IGMP groups table. The switch then proxies the IGMP Leave messages to the Mrouter.
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IGMP Snooping Configuration Example
This section provides steps to configure IGMP Snooping on the G8296.
1. Configure port and VLAN membership on the switch.
2. Add VLANs to IGMP Snooping. RS G8296(config)# ip igmp snoop vlan 1 3. Enable IGMPv3 Snooping (optional). RS G8296(config)# ip igmp snoop igmpv3 enable
4. Enable the IGMP feature. RS G8296(config)# ip igmp enable
5. View dynamic IGMP information. These commands display information about IGMP Groups and Mrouters learned by the switch. Advanced Configuration Example: IGMP Snooping
Figure 45 shows an example topology. Switches B and C are configured with IGMP Snooping.
Figure 45. Topology
Multicast
Host 1
Multicast
Host 2
VLAN 2
VLANs 2,3
Switch B
5
6
1
Multicast
Host 3
2
Multicast
Router
VLAN 3
Switch C
LAG 3
VLANs 2, 3
3
4
VLANs 2,3
3
4
5
6
1
2
Switch A
LAG 1
LAG 2
VLANs 2, 3
VLANs 2, 3
2
1
5
4
3
VLANs 2,3
Multicast
Server
Devices in this topology are configured as follows:
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
STG2 includes VLAN2; STG3 includes VLAN3.

The multicast server sends IP multicast traffic for the following groups:

VLAN 2, 225.10.0.11 – 225.10.0.12, Source: 22.10.0.11

VLAN 2, 225.10.0.13 – 225.10.0.15, Source: 22.10.0.13

VLAN 3, 230.0.2.1 – 230.0.2.2, Source: 22.10.0.1

VLAN 3, 230.0.2.3 – 230.0.2.5, Source: 22.10.0.3

The Mrouter sends IGMP Query packets in VLAN 2 and VLAN 3. The Mrouter’s IP address is 10.10.10.10.

The multicast hosts send the following IGMP Reports:



IGMPv2 Report, VLAN 2, Group: 225.10.0.11, Source: *

IGMPv2 Report, VLAN 3, Group: 230.0.2.1, Source: *

IGMPv3 IS_INCLUDE Report, VLAN 2, Group: 225.10.0.13, Source: 22.10.0.13

IGMPv3 IS_INCLUDE Report, VLAN 3, Group: 230.0.2.3, Source: 22.10.0.3
The hosts receive multicast traffic as follows:

Host 1 receives multicast traffic for groups (*, 225.10.0.11), (22.10.0.13, 225.10.0.13)

Host 2 receives multicast traffic for groups (*, 225.10.0.11), (*, 230.0.2.1), (22.10.0.13, 225.10.0.13), (22.10.0.3, 230.0.2.3)

Host 3 receives multicast traffic for groups (*, 230.0.2.1), (22.10.0.3, 230.0.2.3)
The Mrouter receives all the multicast traffic.
Prerequisites
Before you configure IGMP Snooping, ensure you have performed the following actions:
© Copyright Lenovo 2016

Configured VLANs.

Enabled IGMP.

Added VLANs to IGMP Snooping. 
Configured a switch or Mrouter as the Querier.

Identified the IGMP version(s) you want to enable.

Disabled IGMP flooding.
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Configuration
This section provides the configuration details of the switches shown in Figure 45.
Switch A Configuration
1. Configure VLANs and tagging.
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# interface port 1­5
G8296(config­if)# switchport mode trunk
G8296(config­if)# switchport trunk allowed vlan 2,3
G8296(config­if)# exit
2. Configure an IP interface with IPv4 address, and assign a VLAN.
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# interface ip 1
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip address 10.10.10.1 enable
G8296(config­ip­if)# vlan 2
G8296(config­ip­if)# exit
3. Assign a bridge priority lower than the default bridge priority to enable the switch to become the STP root in STG 2 and 3.
RS G8296(config)# spanning­tree stp 2 bridge priority 4096
RS G8296(config)# spanning­tree stp 3 bridge priority 4096
4. Configure LACP dynamic LAGs (portchannels).
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# interface port 1
G8296(config­if)# lacp key 100
G8296(config­if)# lacp mode active
G8296(config­if)# exit
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# interface port 2
G8296(config­if)# lacp key 100
G8296(config­if)# lacp mode active
G8296(config­if)# exit
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# interface port 3
G8296(config­if)# lacp key 200
G8296(config­if)# lacp mode active
G8296(config­if)# exit
RS G8296(config)# interface port 4
RS G8296(config­if)# lacp key 200
RS G8296(config­if)# lacp mode active
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Switch B Configuration
1. Configure VLANs and tagging.
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# vlan 2,3
G8296(config­vlan)# interface port 1­4,6
G8296(config­if)# switchport mode trunk
G8296(config­if)# switchport trunk allowed vlan 2,3
G8296(config­if)# exit
G8296(config)# interface port 5
G8296(config­if)# switchport access vlan 2
2. Configure an IP interface with IPv4 address, and assign a VLAN.
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# interface ip 1
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip address 10.10.10.2 enable
G8296(config­ip­if)# vlan 2
G8296(config­ip­if)# exit
3. Configure STP. Reset the ports to make the edge configuration operational.
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# interface port 5,6
G8296(config­if)# spanning­tree portfast
G8296(config­if)# shutdown
G8296(config­if)# no shutdown
G8296(config­if)# exit
4. Configure an LACP dynamic LAG (portchannel).
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# interface port 1,2
G8296(config­if)# lacp key 300
G8296(config­if)# lacp mode active
G8296(config­if)# exit
5. Configure a static LAG (portchannel).
RS G8296(config)# portchannel 1 port 3,4 enable
6. Configure IGMP Snooping.
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
© Copyright Lenovo 2016
G8296(config)# ip igmp enable
G8296(config)# ip igmp snoop vlan 2,3
G8296(config)# ip igmp snoop source­ip 10.10.10.2
G8296(config)# ip igmp snoop igmpv3 enable
G8296(config)# ip igmp snoop igmpv3 sources 64
G8296(config)# ip igmp snoop enable
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Switch C Configuration
1. Configure VLANs and tagging.
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# vlan 2,3
G8296(config­vlan)# interface port 1­4,6
G8296(config­if)# switchport mode trunk
G8296(config­if)# switchport trunk allowed vlan 2,3
G8296(config­if)# exit
G8296(config)# interface port 5
G8296(config­if)# switchport access vlan 3
2. Configure an IP interface with IPv4 address, and assign a VLAN.
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# interface ip 1
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip address 10.10.10.3 enable
G8296(config­ip­if)# vlan 2
G8296(config­ip­if)# exit
3. Configure STP. Reset the ports to make the edge configuration operational.
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# interface port 5,6
G8296(config­if)# spanning­tree portfast
G8296(config­if)# shutdown
G8296(config­if)# no shutdown
G8296(config­if)# exit
4. Configure an LACP dynamic LAG (portchannel).
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# interface port 1,2
G8296(config­if)# lacp key 400
G8296(config­if)# lacp mode active
G8296(config­if)# exit
5. Configure a static LAG (portchannel).
RS G8296(config)# portchannel 1 port 3,4 enable
6. Configure IGMP Snooping.
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# ip igmp enable
G8296(config)# ip igmp snoop vlan 2,3
G8296(config)# ip igmp snoop source­ip 10.10.10.3
G8296(config)# ip igmp snoop igmpv3 enable
G8296(config)# ip igmp snoop igmpv3 sources 64
G8296(config)# ip igmp snoop enable
RS G8296(config)# vlan 2
RS G8296(config­vlan)# no flood
RS G8296(config­vlan)# exit
RS G8296(config)# vlan 3
RS G8296(config­vlan)# no flood
RS G8296(config­vlan)# exit
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Troubleshooting IGMP Snooping
This section provides the steps to resolve common IGMP Snooping configuration issues. The topology described in Figure 45 is used as an example.

Multicast traffic from non‐member groups reaches the host or Mrouter

Check if traffic is unregistered. For unregistered traffic, an IGMP entry is not displayed in the IGMP groups table.
RS G8296# show ip igmp groups

Ensure IPMC flooding is disabled and CPU is enabled.
RS G8296(config)# vlan <vlan id>
RS G8296(config­vlan)# no flood
RS G8296(config­vlan)# cpu

Check the egress port’s VLAN membership. The ports to which the hosts and Mrouter are connected must be used only for VLAN 2 and VLAN 3.
RS G8296# show vlan
Note: To avoid such a scenario, disable IPMC flooding for all VLANs enabled on the switches (if this is an acceptable configuration).

Check IGMP Reports on switches B and C for information about the IGMP groups.
RS G8296# show ip igmp groups
If the non‐member IGMP groups are displayed in the table, close the application that may be sending the IGMP Reports for these groups. Identify the traffic source by using a sniffer on the hosts and reading the source IP/MAC address. If the source IP/MAC address is unknown, check the port statistics to find the ingress port.
RS G8296# show interface port <port id> interface­counters
© Copyright Lenovo 2016

Ensure no static multicast MACs, static multicast groups, or static Mrouters are configured.

Ensure IGMP Relay and PIM are not configured.
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
Not all multicast traffic reaches the appropriate receivers.

Ensure hosts are sending IGMP Reports for all the groups. Check the VLAN on which the groups are learned.
RS G8296# show ip igmp groups
If some of the groups are not displayed, ensure the multicast application is running on the host device and the generated IGMP Reports are correct.

Ensure multicast traffic reaches the switch to which the host is connected.
Close the application sending the IGMP Reports. Clear the IGMP groups by disabling, then re‐enabling the port.
Note: To clear all IGMP groups, use the following command:
RS G8296(config)# clear ip igmp groups
However, this will clear all the IGMP groups and will influence other hosts.
Check if the multicast traffic reaches the switch.
RS G8296# show ip igmp ipmcgrp
If the multicast traffic group is not displayed in the table, check the link state, VLAN membership, and STP convergence.


Ensure multicast server is sending all the multicast traffic.

Ensure no static multicast MACs, static multicast groups, or static multicast routes are configured.
IGMP queries sent by the Mrouter do not reach the host.

Ensure the Mrouter is learned on switches B and C.
RS G8296# show ip igmp mrouter
If it is not learned on switch B but is learned on switch C, check the link state of the LAG, VLAN membership, and STP convergence.
If it is not learned on any switch, ensure the multicast application is running and is sending correct IGMP Query packets.
If it is learned on both switches, check the link state, VLAN membership, and STP port states for the ports connected to the hosts.
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
IGMP Reports/Leaves sent by the hosts do not reach the Mrouter

Ensure IGMP Queries sent by the Mrouter reach the hosts.

Ensure the Mrouter is learned on both switches. Note that the Mrouter may not be learned on switch B immediately after a LAG failover/failback.
RS G8296# show ip igmp mrouter

Ensure the host’s multicast application is started and is sending correct IGMP Reports/Leaves.
RS G8296# show ip igmp groups
RS G8296# show ip igmp counters



A host receives multicast traffic from the incorrect VLAN

Check port VLAN membership.

Check IGMP Reports sent by the host.

Check multicast data sent by the server.
The Mrouter is learned on the incorrect LAG

Check link state. LAG 1 might be down or in STP discarding state.

Check STP convergence.

Check port VLAN membership.
Hosts receive multicast traffic at a lower rate than normal
Note: This behavior is expected if IPMC flood is disabled. As soon as the IGMP/IPMC entries are installed on ASIC, the IPMC traffic recovers and is forwarded at line rate. This applies to unregistered IPMC traffic. 
Ensure a storm control is not configured on the LAGs.
RS G8296(config)# interface port <port id>
RS G8296(config­if)# no storm­control multicast

© Copyright Lenovo 2016
Check link speeds and network congestion.
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IGMP Relay
The G8296 can act as an IGMP Relay (or IGMP Proxy) device that relays IGMP multicast messages and traffic between an Mrouter and end stations. IGMP Relay allows the G8296 to participate in network multicasts with no configuration of the various multicast routing protocols, so you can deploy it in the network with minimal effort.
To an IGMP host connected to the G8296, IGMP Relay appears to be an IGMP Mrouter. IGMP Relay sends Membership Queries to hosts, which respond by sending an IGMP response message. A host can also send an unsolicited Join message to the IGMP Relay.
To an Mrouter, IGMP Relay appears as a host. The Mrouter sends IGMP host queries to IGMP Relay, and IGMP Relay responds by forwarding IGMP host reports and unsolicited Join messages from its attached hosts.
IGMP Relay also forwards multicast traffic between the Mrouter and end stations, similar to IGMP Snooping.
You can configure up to two Mrouters to use with IGMP Relay. One Mrouter acts as the primary Mrouter, and one is the backup Mrouter. The G8296 uses health checks to select the primary Mrouter.
Configuration Guidelines
Consider the following guidelines when you configure IGMP Relay:
IGMP Relay and IGMP Snooping are mutually exclusive—if you enable IGMP Relay, you must turn off IGMP Snooping/Querier.
 Add the upstream Mrouter VLAN to the IGMP Relay list, using the following command:

RS G8296(config)# ip igmp relay vlan <VLAN number>

If IGMP hosts reside on different VLANs, you must: 
Disable IGMP flooding. RS G8296(config)# vlan <vlan id>
RS G8296(config­vlan)# no flood

Ensure CPU forwarding is enabled; Ensure that multicast data is forwarded across the VLANs. RS G8296(config)# vlan <vlan id>
RS G8296(config­vlan)# cpu
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Configure IGMP Relay
Use the following procedure to configure IGMP Relay.
1. Configure IP interfaces with IPv4 addresses, and assign VLANs.
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# interface ip 2
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip address 10.10.1.1
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip netmask 255.255.255.0
G8296(config­ip­if)# vlan 2
G8296(config­ip­if)# enable
G8296(config­ip­if)# exit
G8296(config)# interface ip 3
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip address 10.10.2.1
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip netmask 255.255.255.0
G8296(config­ip­if)# vlan 3
G8296(config­ip­if)# enable
G8296(config­ip­if)# exit
2. Turn IGMP on.
RS G8296(config)# ip igmp enable
3. Configure the upstream Mrouters with IPv4 addresses.
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# ip igmp relay mrouter 1 address 100.0.1.2
G8296(config)# ip igmp relay mrouter 1 enable
G8296(config)# ip igmp relay mrouter 2 address 100.0.2.4
G8296(config)# ip igmp relay mrouter 2 enable
4. Enable IGMP Relay and add VLANs to the downstream network.
RS G8296(config)# ip igmp relay vlan 2
RS G8296(config)# ip igmp relay vlan 3
RS G8296(config)# ip igmp relay enable
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Advanced Configuration Example: IGMP Relay
Figure 46 shows an example topology. Switches B and C are configured with IGMP Relay.
Figure 46. Topology
Multicast
Host 1
VLAN 3
VLANs 2,3
Switch B
5
1
2
VLAN 5
VLAN 2
VLAN 2
3
4
Multicast
Router 2
Switch C
LAG 3
6
Multicast
Router 1
Multicast
Host 3
Multicast
Host 2
3
4
5
6
7 VLAN 5
1
2
Switch A
LAG 1
LAG 2
VLAN 2
VLAN 2
2
1
5
4
3
VLAN 2
Multicast
Server
Devices in this topology are configured as follows:

The IP address of Multicast Router 1 is 5.5.5.5

The IP address of Multicast Router 2 is 5.5.5.6

STG 2 includes VLAN2; STG 3 includes VLAN 3; STG 5 includes VLAN 5.

The multicast server sends IP multicast traffic for the following groups:



VLAN 2, 225.10.0.11 – 225.10.0.15
The multicast hosts send the following IGMP Reports:

Host 1: 225.10.0.11 – 225.10.0.12, VLAN 3

Host 2: 225.10.0.12 – 225.10.0.13, VLAN 2; 225.10.0.14 – 225.10.0.15, VLAN 3

Host 3: 225.10.0.13 – 225.10.0.14, VLAN 2
The Mrouter receives all the multicast traffic.
Prerequisites
Before you configure IGMP Relay, ensure you have performed the following actions:
492

Configured VLANs.

Enabled IGMP.
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
Disabled IGMP flooding.

Disabled IGMP Snooping.
Configuration
This section provides the configuration details of the switches in Figure 46.
Switch A Configuration
1. Configure a VLAN.
RS G8296(config)# interface port 1­5
RS G8296(config­if)# switchport access vlan 2
2. Configure an IP interface with IPv4 address, and assign a VLAN..
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# interface ip 2
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip address 2.2.2.10 enable
G8296(config­ip­if)# vlan 2
G8296(config­ip­if)# exit
3. Assign a bridge priority lower than the default bridge priority to enable the switch to become the STP root in STG 2 and 3.
RS G8296(config)# spanning­tree stp 2 bridge priority 4096
4. Configure LACP dynamic LAGs (portchannels).
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# interface port 1,2
G8296(config­if)# lacp key 100
G8296(config­if)# lacp mode active
G8296(config­if)# exit
RS G8296(config)# interface port 3,4
RS G8296(config­if)# lacp key 200
RS G8296(config­if)# lacp mode active
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Switch B Configuration
1. Configure VLANs and tagging.
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# vlan 2,3
G8296(config­vlan)# interface port 1­4
G8296(config­if)# switchport access vlan 2
G8296(config­if)# exit
G8296(config)# interface port 5
G8296(config­if)# switchport access vlan 3
G8296(config­if)# exit
G8296(config)# interface port 6
G8296(config­if)# switchport mode trunk
G8296(config­if)# switchport trunk allowed vlan 2,3
G8296(config­if)# exit
2. Configure IP interfaces with IPv4 addresses, and assign VLANs.
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# interface ip 2
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip address 2.2.2.20 enable
G8296(config­ip­if)# vlan 2
G8296(config­ip­if)# exit
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# interface ip 3
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip address 3.3.3.20 enable
G8296(config­ip­if)# vlan 3
G8296(config­ip­if)# exit
RS G8296(config)# ip gateway 2 address 2.2.2.30 enable
3. Configure STP.
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# interface port 5,6
G8296(config­if)# spanning­tree portfast
G8296(config­if)# shutdown
G8296(config­if)# no shutdown
G8296(config­if)# exit
4. Configure an LACP dynamic LAG (portchannel). RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# interface port 1,2
G8296(config­if)# lacp key 300
G8296(config­if)# lacp mode active
G8296(config­if)# exit
5. Configure a static LAG (portchannel).
RS G8296(config)# portchannel 1 port 3,4 enable
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6. Configure IGMP Relay.
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# ip igmp enable
G8296(config)# ip igmp relay vlan 2,3
G8296(config)# ip igmp relay mrouter 1 address 5.5.5.5 enable
G8296(config)# ip igmp relay mrouter 2 address 5.5.5.6 enable
G8296(config)# ip igmp relay enable
RS G8296(config)# vlan 2
RS G8296(config­vlan)# no flood
RS G8296(config­vlan)# exit
RS G8296(config)# vlan 3
RS G8296(config­vlan)# no flood
RS G8296(config­vlan)# exit
Switch C Configuration
1. Configure VLANs.
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# vlan 2,3,5
G8296(config­vlan)# interface port 1­5
G8296(config­if)# switchport access vlan 2
G8296(config­if)# interface port 6,7
G8296(config­if)# switchport access vlan 5
G8296(config­if)# exit
2. Configure IP interfaces with IPv4 addresses and assign VLANs.
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# interface ip 2
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip address 2.2.2.30 enable
G8296(config­ip­if)# vlan 2
G8296(config­ip­if)# exit
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# interface ip 3
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip address 5.5.5.30 enable
G8296(config­ip­if)# vlan 5
G8296(config­ip­if)# exit
RS G8296(config)# ip gateway 2 address 2.2.2.20 enable
3. Configure STP.
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# interface port 5,6,7
G8296(config­if)# spanning­tree portfast
G8296(config­if)# shutdown
G8296(config­if)# no shutdown
G8296(config­if)# exit
4. Configure LACP dynamic LAG (portchannel).
RS
RS
RS
RS
© Copyright Lenovo 2016
G8296(config)# interface port 1,2
G8296(config­if)# lacp key 400
G8296(config­if)# lacp mode active
G8296(config­if)# exit
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5. Configure a static LAG (portchannel).
RS G8296(config)# portchannel 1 port 3,4 enable
6. Enable IGMP.
RS G8296(config)# ip igmp enable
7. Configure IGMP Relay.
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# ip igmp relay vlan 2,5
G8296(config)# ip igmp relay mrouter 1 address 5.5.5.5 enable
G8296(config)# ip igmp relay mrouter 2 address 5.5.5.6 enable
G8296(config)# ip igmp relay enable
RS G8296(config)# vlan 2
RS G8296(config­vlan)# no flood
RS G8296(config­vlan)# exit
RS G8296(config)# vlan 5
RS G8296(config­vlan)# no flood
RS G8296(config­vlan)# exit
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Additional IGMP Features
The following topics are discussed in this section: 
“FastLeave” on page 497

“IGMP Filtering” on page 497

“Static Multicast Router” on page 498
FastLeave
In normal IGMP operation, when the switch receives an IGMPv2 Leave message, it sends a Group‐Specific Query to determine if any other devices in the same group (and on the same port) are still interested in the specified multicast group traffic. The switch removes the affiliated port from that particular group, if the switch does not receive an IGMP Membership Report within the query‐response‐interval.
With FastLeave enabled on the VLAN, a port can be removed immediately from the port list of the group entry when the IGMP Leave message is received. Note: Only IGMPv2 supports FastLeave. Enable FastLeave on ports that have only one host connected. If more than one host is connected to a port, you may lose some hosts unexpectedly.
Use the following command to enable FastLeave. IGMP Filtering
With IGMP filtering, you can allow or deny certain IGMP groups to be learned on a port.
If access to a multicast group is denied, IGMP Membership Reports from the port are dropped, and the port is not allowed to receive IPv4 multicast traffic from that group. If access to the multicast group is allowed, Membership Reports from the port are forwarded for normal processing.
To configure IGMP filtering, you must globally enable IGMP filtering, define an IGMP filter, assign the filter to a port, and enable IGMP filtering on the port. To define an IGMP filter, you must configure a range of IPv4 multicast groups, choose whether the filter will allow or deny multicast traffic for groups within the range, and enable the filter.
Configuring the Range
Each IGMP filter allows you to set a start and end point that defines the range of IPv4 addresses upon which the filter takes action. Each IPv4 address in the range must be between 224.0.0.0 and 239.255.255.255.
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Configuring the Action
Each IGMP filter can allow or deny IPv4 multicasts to the range of IPv4 addresses configured. If you configure the filter to deny IPv4 multicasts, then IGMP Membership Reports from multicast groups within the range are dropped. You can configure a secondary filter to allow IPv4 multicasts to a small range of addresses within a larger range that a primary filter is configured to deny. The two filters work together to allow IPv4 multicasts to a small subset of addresses within the larger range of addresses.
Note: Lower‐numbered filters take precedence over higher‐number filters. For example, the action defined for IGMP filter 1 supersedes the action defined for IGMP filter 2.
Configure IGMP Filtering
1. Enable IGMP filtering on the switch.
RS G8296(config)# ip igmp filtering
2. Define an IGMP filter with IPv4 information.
RS G8296(config)# ip igmp profile 1 range 224.0.0.0 226.0.0.0
RS G8296(config)# ip igmp profile 1 action deny
RS G8296(config)# ip igmp profile 1 enable
3. Assign the IGMP filter to a port.
RS G8296(config)# interface port 3
RS G8296(config­if)# ip igmp profile 1
RS G8296(config­if)# ip igmp filtering
Static Multicast Router
A static Mrouter can be configured for a particular port on a particular VLAN. A static Mrouter does not have to be learned through IGMP Snooping. Any data port can accept a static Mrouter. When you configure a static Mrouter on a VLAN, it replaces any dynamic Mrouters learned through IGMP Snooping. To configure a static multicast router
1. For each Mrouter, configure a port, VLAN, and IGMP version of the multicast router. RS G8296(config)# ip igmp mrouter 5 1 2
2. Verify the configuration. RS G8296(config)# show ip igmp mrouter
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Chapter 33. Multicast Listener Discovery
Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD) is an IPv6 protocol that a host uses to request multicast data for a multicast group. An IPv6 router uses MLD to discover the presence of multicast listeners (nodes that want to receive multicast packets) on its directly attached links, and to discover specifically the multicast addresses that are of interest to those neighboring nodes.
MLD version 1 is derived from Internet Group Management Protocol version 2 (IGMPv2) and MLDv2 is derived from IGMPv3. MLD uses ICMPv6 (IP Protocol 58) message types. See RFC 2710 and RFC 3810 for details.
MLDv2 protocol, when compared to MLDv1, adds support for source filtering—
the ability for a node to report interest in listening to packets only from specific source addresses, or from all but specific source addresses, sent to a particular multicast address. MLDv2 is interoperable with MLDv1. See RFC 3569 for details on Source‐Specific Multicast (SSM).
The following topics are discussed in this chapter:
© Copyright Lenovo 2016

“MLD Terms” on page 500

“How MLD Works” on page 501

“MLD Capacity and Default Values” on page 503

“Configuring MLD” on page 504
499
MLD Terms
Following are the commonly used MLD terms:

Multicast traffic: Flow of data from one source to multiple destinations.

Group: A multicast stream to which a host can join.

Multicast Router (Mrouter): A router configured to make routing decisions for multicast traffic. The router identifies the type of packet received (unicast or multicast) and forwards the packet to the intended destination.

Querier: An Mrouter that sends periodic query messages. Only one Mrouter on the subnet can be elected as the Querier.

Multicast Listener Query: Messages sent by the Querier. There are three types of queries:

General Query: Sent periodically to learn multicast address listeners from an attached link. G8296 uses these queries to build and refresh the Multicast Address Listener state. General Queries are sent to the link‐scope all‐nodes multicast address (FF02::1), with a multicast address field of 0, and a maximum response delay of query response interval.

Multicast Address Specific Query: Sent to learn if a specific multicast address has any listeners on an attached link. The multicast address field is set to the IPv6 multicast address.

Multicast Address and Source Specific Query: Sent to learn if, for a specified multicast address, there are nodes still listening to a specific set of sources. Supported only in MLDv2.
Note: Multicast Address Specific Queries and Multicast Address and Source Specific Queries are sent only in response to State Change Reports, and never in response to Current State Reports.


500
Multicast Listener Report: Sent by a host when it joins a multicast group, or in response to a Multicast Listener Query sent by the Querier. Hosts use these reports to indicate their current multicast listening state, or changes in the multicast listening state of their interfaces. These reports are of two types:

Current State Report: Contains the current Multicast Address Listening State of the host.

State Change Report: If the listening state of a host changes, the host immediately reports these changes through a State Change Report message. These reports contain either Filter Mode Change records and/or Source List Change records. State Change Reports are retransmitted several times to ensure all Mrouters receive it.
Multicast Listener Done: Sent by a host when it wants to leave a multicast group. This message is sent to the link‐scope all‐routers IPv6 destination address of FF02::2. When an Mrouter receives a Multicast Listener Done message from the last member of the multicast address on a link, it stops forwarding traffic to this multicast address.
G8296 Application Guide for ENOS 8.4
How MLD Works
The software uses the information obtained through MLD to maintain a list of multicast group memberships for each interface and forwards the multicast traffic only to interested listeners.
Without MLD, the switch forwards IPv6 multicast traffic through all ports, increasing network load. Following is an overview of operations when MLD is configured on the G8296:

The switch acts as an Mrouter when MLDv1/v2 is configured and enabled on each of its directly attached links. If the switch has multiple interfaces connected to the same link, it operates the protocol on any one of the interfaces.

If there are multiple Mrouters on the subnet, the Mrouter with the numerically lowest IPv6 address is elected as the Querier.

The Querier sends general queries at short intervals to learn multicast address listener information from an attached link.

Hosts respond to these queries by reporting their per‐interface Multicast Address Listening state, through Current State Report messages sent to a specific multicast address that all MLD routers on the link listen to.

If the listening state of a host changes, the host immediately reports these changes through a State Change Report message.

The Querier sends a Multicast Address Specific Query to verify if hosts are listening to a specified multicast address or not. Similarly, if MLDv2 is configured, the Querier sends a Multicast Address and Source Specific Query to verify, for a specified multicast address, if hosts are listening to a specific set of sources, or not. MLDv2 listener report messages consists of Multicast Address Records:


INCLUDE: to receive packets from source specified in the MLDv2 message

EXCLUDE: to receive packets from all sources except the ones specified in the MLDv2 message
A host can send a State Change Report to indicate its desire to stop listening to a particular multicast address (or source in MLDv2). The Querier then sends a multicast address specific query to verify if there are other listeners of the multicast address. If there aren’t any, the Mrouter deletes the multicast address from its Multicast Address Listener state and stops sending multicast traffic. Similarly in MLDv2, the Mrouter sends a Multicast Address and Source Specific Query to verify if, for a specified multicast address, there are hosts still listening to a specific set of sources.
G8296 supports MLD versions 1 and 2.
Note: MLDv2 operates in version 1 compatibility mode when, in a specific network, not all hosts are configured with MLDv2.
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How Flooding Impacts MLD
MLD Querier
An Mrouter acts as a Querier and periodically (at short query intervals) sends query messages in the subnet. If there are multiple Mrouters in the subnet, only one can be the Querier. All Mrouters on the subnet listen to the messages sent by the multicast address listeners, and maintain the same multicast listening information state.
All MLDv2 queries are sent with the FE80::/64 link‐local source address prefix.
Querier Election
Only one Mrouter can be the Querier per subnet. All other Mrouters will be non‐Queriers. MLD versions 1 and 2 elect the Mrouter with the numerically lowest IPv6 address as the Querier. If the switch is configured as an Mrouter on a subnet, it also acts as a Querier by default and sends multiple general queries. If the switch receives a general query from another Querier with a numerically lower IPv6 address, it sets the other querier present timer to the other querier present timeout, and changes its state to non‐Querier. When the other querier present timer expires, it regains the Querier state and starts sending general queries.
Note: When MLD Querier is enabled on a VLAN, the switch performs the role of an MLD Querier only if it meets the MLD Querier election criteria.
Dynamic Mrouters
The switch learns Mrouters on the ingress VLANs of the MLD‐enabled interface. All report or done messages are forwarded to these Mrouters. By default, the option of dynamically learning Mrouters is disabled. To enable it, use the following command:
RS G8296(config)# interface ip <interface number>
RS G8296(config­ip­if)# ipv6 mld dmrtr enable
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MLD Capacity and Default Values
Table 40 lists the maximum and minimum values of the G8296 variables. Table 40. G8296 Capacity Table
Variable
Maximum Value
IPv6 Multicast Entries
256
IPv6 Interfaces for MLD
8
Note: IGMP and MLD share the IPMC table. When the IPMC table is full, you cannot allocate additional IGMP/MLD groups.
Table 41 lists the default settings for MLD features and variables. Table 41. MLD Timers and Default Values
Field
Default Value
Robustness Variable (RV) 2
Query Interval (QI)
125 seconds
Query Response Interval (QRI)
10 seconds
Multicast Address Listeners Interval (MALI)
260 seconds [derived: RV*QI+QRI]
Other Querier Present Interval [OQPT]
255 seconds [derived: RV*QI + ½ QRI]
Start up Query Interval [SQI]
31.25 seconds [derived: ¼ * QI]
Startup Query Count [SQC]
2 [derived: RV]
Last Listener Query Interval [LLQI] 1 second Last Listener Query Count [LLQC]
2 [derived: RV]
Last Listener Query Time [LLQT]
2 seconds [derived: LLQI * LLQT]
Older Version Querier Present Timeout: 260 seconds [derived: RV*QI+ QRI]
[OVQPT]
Older Version Host Present Interval [OVHPT]
© Copyright Lenovo 2016
260 seconds [derived: RV* QI+QRI]
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Configuring MLD
Following are the steps to enable MLD and configure the interface parameters:
1. Turn on MLD globally.
RS G8296(config)# ipv6 mld
RS G8296(config­router­mld)# enable
RS G8296(config­router­mld)# exit
2. Create an IPv6 interface.
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# interface ip 2
G8296(config­ip­if)# enable
G8296(config­ip­if)# ipv6 address 2002:1:0:0:0:0:0:3
G8296(config­ip­if)# ipv6 prefixlen 64
3. Enable MLD on the IPv6 interface. RS G8296(config­ip­if)# ipv6 mld enable
4. Configure the MLD parameters on the interface: version, robustness, query response interval, MLD query interval, and last listener query interval.
504
RS G8296(config­ip­if)# ipv6 mld version <1‐2>
(MLD version)
RS G8296(config­ip­if)# ipv6 mld robust <1‐10>
(Robustness)
RS G8296(config­ip­if)# ipv6 mld qri <1‐256>
(In seconds)
RS G8296(config­ip­if)# ipv6 mld qintrval <1‐608>
(In seconds)
RS G8296(config­ip­if)# ipv6 mld llistnr <1‐32>
(In seconds)
G8296 Application Guide for ENOS 8.4
Chapter 34. Border Gateway Protocol
Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is an Internet protocol that enables routers on an IPv4 network to share and advertise routing information with each other about the segments of the IPv4 address space they can access within their network and with routers on external networks. BGP allows you to decide what is the “best” route for a packet to take from your network to a destination on another network rather than simply setting a default route from your border router(s) to your upstream provider(s). BGP is defined in RFC 1771.
RackSwitch G8296es can advertise their IP interfaces and IPv4 addresses using BGP and take BGP feeds from as many as 96 BGP router peers. This allows more resilience and flexibility in balancing traffic from the Internet.
Note: Lenovo Enterprise Network Operating System 8.4 does not support IPv6 for BGP.
The following topics are discussed in this section:
© Copyright Lenovo 2016

“Internal Routing Versus External Routing” on page 506

“Forming BGP Peer Routers” on page 511

“Loopback Interfaces” on page 514

“What is a Route Map?” on page 514

“Aggregating Routes” on page 517

“Redistributing Routes” on page 517

“BGP Attributes” on page 519

“Selecting Route Paths in BGP” on page 521

“BGP Failover Configuration” on page 522

“Default Redistribution and Route Aggregation Example” on page 524
505
Internal Routing Versus External Routing
To ensure effective processing of network traffic, every router on your network needs to know how to send a packet (directly or indirectly) to any other location/destination in your network. This is referred to as internal routing and can be done with static routes or using active, internal dynamic routing protocols, such as RIP, RIPv2, and OSPF.
Static routes must have a higher degree of precedence than dynamic routing protocols. If the destination route is not in the route cache, the packets are forwarded to the default gateway which may be incorrect if a dynamic routing protocol is enabled.
It is also useful to tell routers outside your network (upstream providers or peers) about the routes you can access in your network. External networks (those outside your own) that are under the same administrative control are referred to as autonomous systems (AS). Sharing of routing information between autonomous systems is known as external routing.
External BGP (eBGP) is used to exchange routes between different autonomous systems whereas internal BGP (iBGP) is used to exchange routes within the same autonomous system. An iBGP is a type of internal routing protocol you can use to do active routing inside your network. It also carries AS path information, which is important when you are an ISP or doing BGP transit.
The iBGP peers have to maintain reciprocal sessions to every other iBGP router in the same AS (in a full‐mesh manner) to propagate route information throughout the AS. If the iBGP session shown between the two routers in AS 20 was not present (as indicated in Figure 47), the top router would not learn the route to AS 50, and the bottom router would not learn the route to AS 11, even though the two AS 20 routers are connected via the RackSwitch G8296.
Figure 47. iBGP and eBGP
Internet
When there are many iBGP peers, having a full‐mesh configuration results in large number of sessions between the iBGP peers. In such situations, configuring a route reflector eliminates the full‐mesh configuration requirement, prevents route propagation loops, and provides better scalability to the peers. For details, see “Route Reflector” on page 507.
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Typically, an AS has one or more border routers—peer routers that exchange routes with other ASs—and an internal routing scheme that enables routers in that AS to reach every other router and destination within that AS. When you advertise routes to border routers on other autonomous systems, you are effectively committing to carry data to the IPv4 space represented in the route being advertised. For example, if you advertise 192.204.4.0/24, you are declaring that if another router sends you data destined for any address in 192.204.4.0/24, you know how to carry that data to its destination.
Route Reflector
The Enterprise NOS implementation conforms to the BGP Route Reflection specification defined in RFC 4456.
As per RFC 1771 specification, a route received from an iBGP peer cannot be advertised to another iBGP peer. This makes it mandatory to have full‐mesh iBGP sessions between all BGP routers within an AS. A route reflector—a BGP router—
breaks this iBGP loop avoidance rule. It does not affect the eBGP behavior. A route reflector is a BGP speaker that advertises a route learnt from an iBGP peer to another iBGP peer. The advertised route is called the reflected route.
A route reflector has two groups of internal peers: clients and non‐clients. A route reflector reflects between these groups and among the clients. The non‐client peers must be fully meshed. The route reflector and its clients form a cluster.
When a route reflector receives a route from an iBGP peer, it selects the best path based on its path selection rule. It then does the following based on the type of peer it received the best path from:
© Copyright Lenovo 2016

A route received from a non‐client iBGP peer is reflected to all clients.

A route received from an iBGP client peer is reflected to all iBGP clients and iBGP non‐clients. Chapter 34: Border Gateway Protocol
507
In Figure 48, the G8296 is configured as a route reflector. All clients and non‐clients are in the same AS. Figure 48. iBGP Route Reflector
Cluster
RR Client
RR Client
iBGP
iBGP
Route Reflector
iBGP
iBGP
iBGP
RR Non-Client
RR Non-Client
The following attributes are used by the route reflector functionality:
508

ORIGINATOR ID: BGP identifier (BGP router ID) of the route originator in the local AS. If the route does not have the ORIGINATOR ID attribute (it has not been reflected before), the router ID of the iBGP peer from which the route has been received is copied into the Originator ID attribute.This attribute is never modified by subsequent route reflectors. A router that identifies its own ID as the ORIGINATOR ID, it ignores the route. 
CLUSTER LIST: Sequence of the CLUSTER ID (the router ID) values representing the reflection path that the route has passed. The value configured with the cluster­id command (or the router ID of the route reflector if the cluster­id is not configured) is prepended to the Cluster list attribute. If a route reflector detects its own CLUSTER ID in the CLUSTER LIST, it ignores the route. Up to 10 CLUSTER IDs can be added to a CLUSTER LIST.
G8296 Application Guide for ENOS 8.4
Configuring Route Reflection
Route reflection functionality can be configured as follows:
1. Configure an AS. RS G8296(config)# router bgp
RS G8296(config­router­bgp)# as 22
RS G8296(config­router­bgp)# enable
2. Configure a route reflector client. RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config­router­bgp)# neighbor 2 remote­address 10.1.50.1
G8296(config­router­bgp)# neighbor 2 remote­as 22
G8296(config­router­bgp)# neighbor 2 route­reflector­client
G8296(config­router­bgp)# no neighbor 2 shutdown
Note: When a client is configured on the G8296, the switch automatically gets configured as a route reflector.
3. Verify configuration. RS G8296(config)# show ip bgp neighbor 2 information
BGP Peer 2 Information:
2: 10.1.50.1 , version 0, TTL 255, TTL Security hops 0
Remote AS: 0, Local AS: 22, Link type: IBGP
Remote router ID: 0.0.0.0, Local router ID: 9.9.9.9
next­hop­self disabled
RR client enabled BGP status: connect, Old status: connect
Total received packets: 0, Total sent packets: 0
Received updates: 0, Sent updates: 0
Keepalive: 0, Holdtime: 0, MinAdvTime: 60
LastErrorCode: unknown(0), LastErrorSubcode: unspecified(0)
Established state transitions: 0
Once configured as a route reflector, the switch, by default, passes routes between clients. If required, you can disable this by using the following command: RS G8296(config­router­bgp)# no client­to­client reflection
You can view the route reflector BGP attributes attached to a BGP route using the following command: RS G8296(config­router­bgp)# show ip bgp information 5.0.0.0 255.255.255.0
BGP routing table entry for 5.0.0.0/255.255.255.0
Paths: (1 available, best #1)
Multipath: eBGP
Local
30.1.1.1 (metric 0) from 22.22.1.1(17.17.17.17)
Origin: IGP, localpref 0, valid, internal, best
Originator: 1.16.0.195
Cluster list: 17.17.17.17
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You can view BGP advertised routes to a specific neighbor or to all neighbors using the command:
[Prompt](config)# show ip bgp neighbor advertised­routes
Restrictions
Consider the following restrictions when configuring route reflection functionality:
510

When a CLUSTER ID is changed, all iBGP sessions are restarted.

When a route reflector client is enabled/disabled, the session is restarted.
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Forming BGP Peer Routers
Two BGP routers become peers or neighbors once you establish a TCP connection between them. You can configure BGP peers statically or dynamically. While it may be desirable to configure static peers for security reasons, dynamic peers prove to be useful in cases where the remote address of the peer is unknown. For example in B‐RAS applications, where subscriber interfaces are dynamically created and the address is assigned dynamically from a local pool or by using RADIUS.
For each new route, if a peer is interested in that route (for example, if a peer would like to receive your static routes and the new route is static), an update message is sent to that peer containing the new route. For each route removed from the route table, if the route has already been sent to a peer, an update message containing the route to withdraw is sent to that peer.
For each Internet host, you must be able to send a packet to that host, and that host has to have a path back to you. This means that whoever provides Internet connectivity to that host must have a path to you. Ultimately, this means that they must “hear a route” which covers the section of the IPv4 space you are using; otherwise, you will not have connectivity to the host in question.
Static Peers
You can configure BGP static peers by using the following commands:
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G8296(config)# router bgp
G8296(config­router­bgp)# neighbor <1‐96> remote­address <IP address>
G8296(config­router­bgp)# neighbor <1‐96> remote­as <1‐65535>
G8296(config­router­bgp)# no neighbor <1‐96> shutdown
Static peers always take precedence over dynamic peers. Consider the following:
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
If the remote address of an incoming BGP connection matches both a static peer address and an IP address from a dynamic group, the peer is configured statically and not dynamically.

If a new static peer is enabled while a dynamic peer for the same remote address exists, BGP automatically removes the dynamic peer.

If a new static peer is enabled when the maximum number of BGP peers were already configured, then BGP deletes the dynamic peer that was last created and adds the newly created static peer. A syslog will be generated for the peer that was deleted.
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Dynamic Peers
To configure dynamic peers, you must define a range of IP addresses for a group. BGP waits to receive an open message initiated from BGP speakers within that range. Dynamic peers are automatically created when a peer group member accepts the incoming BGP connection. Dynamic peers are passive. When they are not in the established state, they accept inbound connections but do not initiate outbound connections.
You can configure up to 6 AS numbers per group. When the BGP speaker receives an open message from a dynamic peer, the AS number from the packet must match one of the remote AS numbers configured on the corresponding group.
When you delete a remote AS number, all dynamic peers established from that remote AS will be deleted.
You can define attributes for the dynamic peers only at the group level. You cannot configure attributes for any one dynamic peer. All static peer attributes, except the BGP passive mode, can also be configured for groups.
To set the maximum number of dynamic peers for a group that can simultaneously be in an established state, enter the following command:
RS G8296(config­router­bgp)# neighbor group <1‐8> listen limit <1‐96>
If you reset this limit to a lower number, and if the dynamic peers already established for the group are higher than this new limit, then BGP deletes the last created dynamic peer(s) until the new limit is reached.
Note: The maximum number of static and dynamic peers established simultaneously cannot exceed the maximum peers, i.e. 96, that the switch can support. If the maximum peers are established, no more dynamic peers will be enabled even if the maximum dynamic peers limit you had configured for the groups was not reached.
Configuring Dynamic Peers
Following are the basic commands for configuring dynamic peers:
RS G8296(config)# router bgp
RS G8296(config­router­bgp)# neighbor group <1‐8> listen range <IP address> <subnet mask> (Define IP address range)
RS G8296(config­router­bgp)# neighbor group <1‐8> remote­as <1‐65535> alternate­as <1‐65535> (Enter up to 5 alternate AS numbers)
RS G8296(config­router­bgp)# no neighbor group <1‐96> shutdown
Removing Dynamic Peers
You cannot remove dynamic peers manually. However, you can stop a dynamic peer using the following command:
RS G8296(config)# router bgp stop <neighbor number>
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The stop command interrupts the BGP connection until the peer tries to re‐establish the connection.
Also, when a dynamic peer state changes from established to idle, BGP removes the dynamic peer.
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Loopback Interfaces
In many networks, multiple connections may exist between network devices. In such environments, it may be useful to employ a loopback interface for a common BGP router address, rather than peering the switch to each individual interface.
Note: To ensure that the loopback interface is reachable from peer devices, it must be advertised using an interior routing protocol (such as OSPF), or a static route must be configured on the peer.
To configure an existing loopback interface for BGP neighbor, use the following commands:
RS G8296(config)# router bgp
RS G8296(config­router­bgp)# neighbor <#> update­source loopback <1‐5>
RS G8296(config­router­bgp)# exit
What is a Route Map?
A route map is used to control and modify routing information. Route maps define conditions for redistributing routes from one routing protocol to another or controlling routing information when injecting it in and out of BGP. For example, a route map is used to set a preference value for a specific route from a peer router and another preference value for all other routes learned via the same peer router. For example, the following command is used to enter the Route Map mode for defining a route map:
RS G8296(config)# route­map <map number>(Select a route map)
A route map allows you to match attributes, such as metric, network address, and AS number. It also allows users to overwrite the local preference metric and to append the AS number in the AS route. See “BGP Failover Configuration” on page 522.
Enterprise NOS allows you to configure 255 route maps. Each route map can have up to 32 access lists. Each access list consists of a network filter. A network filter defines an IPv4 address and subnet mask of the network that you want to include in the filter. Figure 49 illustrates the relationship between route maps, access lists, and network filters.
Figure 49. Distributing Network Filters in Access Lists and Route Maps Next Hop Peer IP Address
Next hop peer IP address can be configured only for route maps used in BGP. When a route map is applied on ingress, the next hop of learnt routes is replaced with peer IP address. When applied on egress, the next hop of the redistributed routes is replaced with the local IP address. RS G8296(config)# route­map <map number>
RS G8296(config­router­map)# set ip next­hop <peer IP address>
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Incoming and Outgoing Route Maps
You can have two types of route maps: incoming and outgoing. A BGP peer router can be configured to support up to eight route maps in the incoming route map list and outgoing route map list.
If a route map is not configured in the incoming route map list, the router imports all BGP updates. If a route map is configured in the incoming route map list, the router ignores all unmatched incoming updates. If you set the action to deny, you must add another route map to permit all unmatched updates.
Route maps in an outgoing route map list behave similar to route maps in an incoming route map list. If a route map is not configured in the outgoing route map list, all routes are advertised or permitted. If a route map in the outgoing route map list is set to permit, matched routes are advertised and unmatched routes are ignored.
Precedence
You can set a priority to a route map by specifying a precedence value with the following command (Route Map mode): RS G8296(config)# route­map <map number>(Select a route map)
RS G8296(config­route­map)# precedence <1‐255>(Specify a precedence)
RS G8296(config­route­map)# exit
The smaller the value the higher the precedence. If two route maps have the same precedence value, the smaller number has higher precedence.
Configuration Overview
To configure route maps, you need to do the following:
1. Define a network filter. RS G8296(config)# ip match­address 1 <IPv4 address> <IPv4 subnet mask> RS G8296(config)# ip match­address 1 enable
Enter a filter number from 1 to 256. Specify the IPv4 address and subnet mask of the network that you want to match. Enable the network filter. You can distribute up to 256 network filters among route maps each containing access lists.
Steps 2 and 3 are optional, depending on the criteria that you want to match. In Step 2, the network filter number is used to match the subnets defined in the network filter. In Step 3, the autonomous system number is used to match the subnets. Or, you can use both (Step 2 and Step 3) criteria: access list (network filter) and access path (AS filter) to configure the route maps.
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2. (Optional) Define the criteria for the access list and enable it.
Specify the access list and associate the network filter number configured in Step 1.
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G8296(config)# route­map 1
G8296(config­route­map)# access­list 1 match­address 1
G8296(config­route­map)# access­list 1 metric <metric value> G8296(config­route­map)# access­list 1 action deny
G8296(config­route­map)# access­list 1 enable
3. (Optional) Configure the AS filter attributes. RS G8296(config­route­map)# as­path­list 1 as 1
RS G8296(config­route­map)# as­path­list 1 action deny
RS G8296(config­route­map)# as­path­list 1 enable
4. Set up the BGP attributes.
If you want to overwrite the attributes that the peer router is sending, define the following BGP attributes:

Specify up to 32 AS numbers that you want to prepend to a matched route. Use one space between each of the entries in the list.

Specify the local preference for the matched route.

Specify the Multi Exit Discriminator (MED) metric for the matched route. RS G8296(config­route­map)# as­path­preference <AS number list (up to 32 entries)>
RS G8296(config­route­map)# local­preference <local preference value>
RS G8296(config­route­map)# metric <metric value>
5. Enable the route map.
RS G8296(config­route­map)# enable
RS G8296(config­route­map)# exit
6. Turn BGP on.
RS G8296(config)# router bgp
RS G8296(config­router­bgp)# enable
7. Assign the route map to a peer router.
Select the peer router and then add the route map to the incoming route map list,
RS G8296(config­router­bgp)# neighbor 1 route­map in <1‐255>
or to the outgoing route map list.
RS G8296(config­router­bgp)# neighbor 1 route­map out <1‐255
8. Exit Router BGP mode.
RS G8296(config­router­bgp)# exit
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Aggregating Routes
Aggregation is the process of combining several different routes in such a way that a single route can be advertised, which minimizes the size of the routing table. You can configure aggregate routes in BGP either by redistributing an aggregate route into BGP or by creating an aggregate entry in the BGP routing table.
To define an aggregate route in the BGP routing table, use the following commands: RS G8296(config)# router bgp
RS G8296(config­router­bgp)# aggregate­address <1‐16> <IPv4 address> <mask>
RS G8296(config­router­bgp)# aggregate­address <1‐16> enable
An example of creating a BGP aggregate route is shown in “Default Redistribution and Route Aggregation Example” on page 524.
Redistributing Routes
In addition to running multiple routing protocols simultaneously, ENOS software can redistribute information from one routing protocol to another. For example, you can instruct the switch to use BGP to re‐advertise static routes. This applies to all of the IP‐based routing protocols.
You can also conditionally control the redistribution of routes between routing domains by defining a method known as route maps between the two domains. For more information on route maps, see “What is a Route Map?” on page 514. Redistributing routes is another way of providing policy control over whether to export OSPF routes, fixed routes, and static routes. For an example configuration, see “Default Redistribution and Route Aggregation Example” on page 524.
Default routes can be configured using the following methods:
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
Import

Originate—The router sends a default route to peers if it does not have any default routes in its routing table.

Redistribute—Default routes are either configured through the default gateway or learned via other protocols and redistributed to peer routers. If the default routes are from the default gateway, enable the static routes because default routes from the default gateway are static routes. Similarly, if the routes are learned from another routing protocol, make sure you enable that protocol for redistribution.

None
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BGP Communities
BGP communities are attribute tags that allow controlled distribution of routing information based on an agreement between BGP peers. Communities are commonly used by transit service providers to enable peering customers to choose specific routing destinations for their outgoing routes. The transit service provider would typically publish a list of well‐known or proprietary communities along with their descriptions, and take it upon itself to advertise incoming routes accordingly. For instance, an ISP may advertise that incoming routes tagged with community XY:01 will be advertised only to European peers while incoming routes tagged with community XY:02 will be advertised only to Asian peers.
The RackSwitch G8296 can be configured to manage the community tags applied to the outgoing route updates. It does not, however, modify any routing decisions based on the community tags.
Up to 32 community tags can be applied to prefixes that pass a route‐map. Valid values are between 0:0 and 65535:65535. Newly added communities will be appended to any existing configured communities. To append communities to prefixes that pass the route‐map, use the following commands:
RS G8296(config)# route­map <map number>
RS G8296(config­route­map)# set community {aa:nn [aa:nn]}
To remove all community tags from prefixes that pass the route‐map, use the following command:
RS G8296(config­route­map)# set community none
To remove configured communities on a routemap, use the following command:
RS G8296(config­route­map)# no set community
Prefixes with communities are propagated unchanged if there is no routemap that alters the community attribute and if the neighbor has community tags forwarding enabled.
To enable or disable community tags forwarding for specific neighbors or neighbor groups, use the following commands:
RS G8296(config)# router bgp
RS G8296(config­router­bgp)# neighbor 5 send­community
RS G8296(config­router­bgp)# no neighbor 6 send­community
RS G8296(config­router­bgp)# neighbor group 1 send­community
RS G8296(config­router­bgp)# no neighbor group 2 send­community
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BGP Attributes
The following BGP attributes are discussed in this section: Local preference metric (Multi‐Exit Discriminator).
Local Preference Attribute
When there are multiple paths to the same destination, the local preference attribute indicates the preferred path. The path with the higher preference is preferred (the default value of the local preference attribute is 100). Unlike the weight attribute, which is only relevant to the local router, the local preference attribute is part of the routing update and is exchanged among routers in the same AS.
The local preference attribute can be set in one of two ways:

The following commands use the BGP default local preference method, affecting the outbound direction only. RS G8296(config)# router bgp
RS G8296(config_router_bgp)# local­preference
RS G8296(config_router_bgp)# exit

The following commands use the route map local preference method, which affects both inbound and outbound directions. RS G8296(config)# route­map 1
RS G8296(config_route_map)# local­preference
RS G8296(config_router_map)# exit
Metric (Multi-Exit Discriminator) Attribute
This attribute is a hint to external neighbors about the preferred path into an AS when there are multiple entry points. A lower metric value is preferred over a higher metric value. The default value of the metric attribute is 0.
Unlike local preference, the metric attribute is exchanged between ASs; however, a metric attribute that comes into an AS does not leave the AS.
When an update enters the AS with a certain metric value, that value is used for decision making within the AS. When BGP sends that update to another AS, the metric is reset to 0.
Unless otherwise specified, the router compares metric attributes for paths from external neighbors that are in the same AS.
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Next Hop Attribute
BGP routing updates sent to a neighbor contain the next hop IP address used to reach a destination. In eBGP, the edge router, by default, sends its own IP address as the next hop address. However, this can sometimes cause routing path failures in Non‐Broadcast Multiaccess Networks (NBMA) and when the edge router sends iBGP updates.
To avoid routing failures, you can manually configure the next hop IP address. In case of NBMA networks, you can configure the external BGP speaker to advertise its own IP address as the next hop. In case of iBGP updates, you can configure the edge iBGP router to send its IP address as the next hop. Next hop can be configured on a BGP peer or a peer group. Use the following commands: 
Next Hop for a BGP Peer RS G8296(config)# router bgp
RS G8296(config­router­bgp)# neighbor <number> next­hop­self

Next Hop for a BGP Peer Group: RS G8296(config)# router bgp
RS G8296(config­router­bgp)# neighbor group <number> next­hop­self
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Selecting Route Paths in BGP
BGP selects only one path as the best path. It does not rely on metric attributes to determine the best path. When the same network is learned via more than one BGP peer, BGP uses its policy for selecting the best route to that network. The BGP implementation on the G8296 uses the following criteria to select a path when the same route is received from multiple peers.
1. Local fixed and static routes are preferred over learned routes.
2. With iBGP peers, routes with higher local preference values are selected.
3. In the case of multiple routes of equal preference, the route with lower AS path weight is selected.
AS path weight = 128 x AS path length (number of autonomous systems traversed).
4. In the case of equal weight and routes learned from peers that reside in the same AS, the lower metric is selected.
Note: A route with a metric is preferred over a route without a metric.
5. The lower cost to the next hop of routes is selected.
6. In the case of equal cost, the eBGP route is preferred over iBGP.
7. If all routes have same route type (eBGP or iBGP), the route with the lower router ID is selected.
When the path is selected, BGP puts the selected path in its routing table and propagates the path to its neighbors.
Equal Cost Multi-Path
BGP can be configured to load balance the traffic over multiple paths if first six steps in path selection are identical and the next‐hop of the route differs.
Multipath Relax
BGP multipath relax functionality allows load balancing across routes with different autonomous system paths, but equal in length (same as‐path length). With this option disabled, both autonomous system paths and as‐path length must be identical for load sharing. This functionality can be enabled using the command: RS G8296(config­router­bgp)# bestpath as­path multipath­relax
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BGP Failover Configuration
Use the following example to create redundant default gateways for a G8296 at a Web Host/ISP site, eliminating the possibility, if one gateway goes down, that requests will be forwarded to an upstream router unknown to the switch.
As shown in Figure 50, the switch is connected to ISP 1 and ISP 2. The customer negotiates with both ISPs to allow the switch to use their peer routers as default gateways. The ISP peer routers will then need to announce themselves as default gateways to the G8296.
Figure 50. BGP Failover Configuration Example
Switch
IP: 200.200.200.1
IP: 210.210.210.1
BladeCenter
Server 1
IP: 200.200.200.10
Server 2
IP: 200.200.200.11
On the G8296, one peer router (the secondary one) is configured with a longer AS path than the other, so that the peer with the shorter AS path will be seen by the switch as the primary default gateway. ISP 2, the secondary peer, is configured with a metric of “3,” thereby appearing to the switch to be three router hops away.
1. Define the VLANs.
For simplicity, both default gateways are configured in the same VLAN in this example. The gateways could be in the same VLAN or different VLANs.
RS G8296(config)# vlan 1
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2. Define the IP interfaces with IPv4 addresses.
The switch will need an IP interface for each default gateway to which it will be connected. Each interface must be placed in the appropriate VLAN. These interfaces will be used as the primary and secondary default gateways for the switch.
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G8296(config)# interface ip 1
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip address 200.200.200.1
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip netmask 255.255.255.0
G8296(config­ip­if)# enable
G8296(config­ip­if)# exit
G8296(config)# interface ip 2
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip address 210.210.210.1
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip netmask 255.255.255.0
G8296(config­ip­if)# enable
G8296(config­ip­if)# exit
3. Enable IP forwarding.
IP forwarding is turned on by default and is used for VLAN‐to‐VLAN (non‐BGP) routing. Make sure IP forwarding is on if the default gateways are on different subnets or if the switch is connected to different subnets and those subnets need to communicate through the switch (which they almost always do).
RS G8296(config)# ip routing
Note: To help eliminate the possibility for a Denial of Service (DoS) attack, the forwarding of directed broadcasts is disabled by default.
4. Configure BGP peer router 1 and 2 with IPv4 addresses.
RS G8296(config)# router bgp
RS G8296RS G8296(config­router­bgp)# neighbor 1 remote­address 200.200.200.2
RS G8296(config­router­bgp)# neighbor 1 remote­as 100
RS G8296(config­router­bgp)# no neighbor 1 shutdown
RS G8296RS G8296(config­router­bgp)# neighbor 2 remote­address 210.210.210.2
RS G8296(config­router­bgp)# neighbor 2 remote­as 200
RS G8296(config­router­bgp)# no neighbor 2 shutdown
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Default Redistribution and Route Aggregation Example
This example shows you how to configure the switch to redistribute information from one routing protocol to another and create an aggregate route entry in the BGP routing table to minimize the size of the routing table.
As illustrated in Figure 51, you have two peer routers: an internal and an external peer router. Configure the G8296 to redistribute the default routes from AS 200 to AS 135. At the same time, configure for route aggregation to allow you to condense the number of routes traversing from AS 135 to AS 200.
Figure 51. Route Aggregation and Default Route Redistribution
Switch
10.1.1.135
1. Configure the IP interface.
2. Configure the AS number (AS 135) and router ID (10.1.1.135).
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G8296(config)# router bgp
G8296(config­router­bgp)# as 135
G8296(config­router­bgp)# exit
G8296(config)# ip router­id 10.1.1.135 3. Configure internal peer router 1 and external peer router 2 with IPv4 addresses.
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G8296(config)# router bgp
G8296RS G8296(config­router­bgp)# neighbor 1 remote­address 10.1.1.4
G8296(config­router­bgp)# neighbor 1 remote­as 135
G8296(config­router­bgp)# no neighbor 1 shutdown
G8296RS G8296(config­router­bgp)# neighbor 2 remote­address 20.20.20.2
G8296(config­router­bgp)# neighbor 2 remote­as 200
G8296(config­router­bgp)# no neighbor 2 shutdown
4. Configure redistribution for Peer 1.
RS G8296(config­router­bgp)# neighbor 1 redistribute default­action redistribute
RS G8296(config­router­bgp)# neighbor 1 redistribute fixed
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5. Configure aggregation policy control.
Configure the IPv4 routes that you want aggregated.
RS G8296(config­router­bgp)# aggregate­address 1 135.0.0.0 255.0.0.0
RS G8296(config­router­bgp)# aggregate­address 1 enable
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Chapter 35. Open Shortest Path First
Lenovo Enterprise Network Operating System supports the Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) routing protocol. The Enterprise NOS implementation conforms to the OSPF version 2 specifications detailed in Internet RFC 1583, and OSPF version 3 specifications in RFC 5340. The following sections discuss OSPF support for the RackSwitch G8296:

“OSPFv2 Overview” on page 528. This section provides information on OSPFv2 concepts, such as types of OSPF areas, types of routing devices, neighbors, adjacencies, link state database, authentication, and internal versus external routing.

“OSPFv2 Implementation in Enterprise NOS” on page 533. This section describes how OSPFv2 is implemented in ENOS, such as configuration parameters, electing the designated router, summarizing routes, defining route maps and so forth.

“OSPFv2 Configuration Examples” on page 543. This section provides step‐by‐step instructions on configuring different OSPFv2 examples:

© Copyright Lenovo 2016

Creating a simple OSPF domain

Creating virtual links

Summarizing routes
“OSPFv3 Implementation in Enterprise NOS” on page 552. This section describes differences and additional features found in OSPFv3.
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OSPFv2 Overview
OSPF is designed for routing traffic within a single IP domain called an Autonomous System (AS). The AS can be divided into smaller logical units known as areas.
All routing devices maintain link information in their own Link State Database (LSDB). OSPF allows networks to be grouped together into an area. The topology of an area is hidden from the rest of the AS, thereby reducing routing traffic. Routing within an area is determined only by the area’s own topology, thus protecting it from bad routing data. An area can be generalized as an IP subnetwork. The following sections describe key OSPF concepts.
Types of OSPF Areas
An AS can be broken into logical units known as areas. In any AS with multiple areas, one area must be designated as area 0, known as the backbone. The backbone acts as the central OSPF area. All other areas in the AS must be connected to the backbone. Areas inject summary routing information into the backbone, which then distributes it to other areas as needed.
As shown in Figure 52, OSPF defines the following types of areas:
528

Stub Area—an area that is connected to only one other area. External route information is not distributed into stub areas.

Not‐So‐Stubby‐Area (NSSA)—similar to a stub area with additional capabilities. Routes originating from within the NSSA can be propagated to adjacent transit and backbone areas. External routes from outside the AS can be advertised within the NSSA but can be configured to not be distributed into other areas.

Transit Area—an area that carries data traffic which neither originates nor terminates in the area itself.
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Figure 52. OSPF Area Types
Backbone
Area 0
(Also a Transit Area)
ABR
ABR
ABR
Internal LSA
Routes
Stub Area
Not-So-Stubby Area
(NSSA)
No External Routes
from Backbone
Transit Area
Virtual
Link
ABR
External LSA
Routes
ASBR
Non-OSPF Area
RIP/BGP AS
ABR = Area Border Router
ASBR = Autonomous System
Boundary Router
Stub Area, NSSA,
or Transit Area
Connected to Backbone
via Virtual Link
Types of OSPF Routing Devices
As shown in Figure 53, OSPF uses the following types of routing devices:
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Internal Router (IR)—a router that has all of its interfaces within the same area. IRs maintain LSDBs identical to those of other routing devices within the local area.

Area Border Router (ABR)—a router that has interfaces in multiple areas. ABRs maintain one LSDB for each connected area and disseminate routing information between areas.
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Autonomous System Boundary Router (ASBR)—a router that acts as a gateway between the OSPF domain and non‐OSPF domains, such as RIP, BGP, and static routes.
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Figure 53. OSPF Domain and an Autonomous System
OSPF Autonomous System
Backbone
Area 0
BGP
External
Routes
Area 3
Inter-Area Routes
(Summary Routes)
ASBR
ABR
RIP
ABR
ASBR
Area 1
ABR
Internal
Router
Area 2
Neighbors and Adjacencies
In areas with two or more routing devices, neighbors and adjacencies are formed.
Neighbors are routing devices that maintain information about each others’ state. To establish neighbor relationships, routing devices periodically send hello packets on each of their interfaces. All routing devices that share a common network segment, appear in the same area, and have the same health parameters (hello and dead intervals) and authentication parameters respond to each other’s hello packets and become neighbors. Neighbors continue to send periodic hello packets to advertise their health to neighbors. In turn, they listen to hello packets to determine the health of their neighbors and to establish contact with new neighbors.
The hello process is used for electing one of the neighbors as the network segment’s Designated Router (DR) and one as the network segment’s Backup Designated Router (BDR). The DR is adjacent to all other neighbors on that specific network segment and acts as the central contact for database exchanges. Each neighbor sends its database information to the DR, which relays the information to the other neighbors.
The BDR is adjacent to all other neighbors (including the DR). Each neighbor sends its database information to the BDR just as with the DR, but the BDR merely stores this data and does not distribute it. If the DR fails, the BDR will take over the task of distributing database information to the other neighbors.
The Link-State Database
OSPF is a link‐state routing protocol. A link represents an interface (or routable path) from the routing device. By establishing an adjacency with the DR, each routing device in an OSPF area maintains an identical Link‐State Database (LSDB) describing the network topology for its area.
Each routing device transmits a Link‐State Advertisement (LSA) on each of its active interfaces. LSAs are entered into the LSDB of each routing device. OSPF uses flooding to distribute LSAs between routing devices. Interfaces may also be passive. Passive interfaces send LSAs to active interfaces, but do not receive LSAs, hello 530
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packets, or any other OSPF protocol information from active interfaces. Passive interfaces behave as stub networks, allowing OSPF routing devices to be aware of devices that do otherwise participate in OSPF (either because they do not support it, or because the administrator chooses to restrict OSPF traffic exchange or transit).
When LSAs result in changes to the routing device’s LSDB, the routing device forwards the changes to the adjacent neighbors (the DR and BDR) for distribution to the other neighbors.
OSPF routing updates occur only when changes occur, instead of periodically. For each new route, if a neighbor is interested in that route (for example, if configured to receive static routes and the new route is indeed static), an update message containing the new route is sent to the adjacency. For each route removed from the route table, if the route has already been sent to a neighbor, an update message containing the route to withdraw is sent.
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The Shortest Path First Tree
The routing devices use a link‐state algorithm (Dijkstra’s algorithm) to calculate the shortest path to all known destinations, based on the cumulative cost required to reach the destination.
The cost of an individual interface in OSPF is an indication of the overhead required to send packets across it.
Internal Versus External Routing
To ensure effective processing of network traffic, every routing device on your network needs to know how to send a packet (directly or indirectly) to any other location/destination in your network. This is referred to as internal routing and can be done with static routes or using active internal routing protocols, such as OSPF, RIP, or RIPv2.
It is also useful to tell routers outside your network (upstream providers or peers) about the routes you have access to in your network. Sharing of routing information between autonomous systems is known as external routing.
Typically, an AS will have one or more border routers (peer routers that exchange routes with other OSPF networks) as well as an internal routing system enabling every router in that AS to reach every other router and destination within that AS.
When a routing device advertises routes to boundary routers on other autonomous systems, it is effectively committing to carry data to the IP space represented in the route being advertised. For example, if the routing device advertises 192.204.4.0/24, it is declaring that if another router sends data destined for any address in the 192.204.4.0/24 range, it will carry that data to its destination.
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OSPFv2 Implementation in Enterprise NOS
ENOS supports a single instance of OSPF and up to 4K routes on the network. The following sections describe OSPF implementation in ENOS:
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“Configurable Parameters” on page 533
“Defining Areas” on page 534
“Interface Cost” on page 536
“Electing the Designated Router and Backup” on page 536
“Summarizing Routes” on page 536
“Default Routes” on page 537
“Virtual Links” on page 537
“Router ID” on page 538
“Authentication” on page 539
Configurable Parameters
In ENOS, OSPF parameters can be configured through the Industry Standard Command Line Interfaces (ISCLI), Browser‐Based Interface (BBI), or through SNMP. For more information, see Chapter 1, “Switch Administration.”
The ISCLI supports the following parameters: interface output cost, interface priority, dead and hello intervals, retransmission interval, and interface transmit delay.
In addition to the preceding parameters, you can specify the following:
© Copyright Lenovo 2016

Shortest Path First (SPF) interval—Time interval between successive calculations of the shortest path tree using the Dijkstra’s algorithm.

Stub area metric—A stub area can be configured to send a numeric metric value such that all routes received via that stub area carry the configured metric to potentially influence routing decisions.

Default routes—Default routes with weight metrics can be manually injected into transit areas. This helps establish a preferred route when multiple routing devices exist between two areas. It also helps route traffic to external networks.

Passive—When enabled, the interface sends LSAs to upstream devices, but does not otherwise participate in OSPF protocol exchanges.

Point‐to‐Point—For LANs that have only two OSPF routing agents (the G8296 and one other device), this option allows the switch to significantly reduce the amount of routing information it must carry and manage.
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Defining Areas
If you are configuring multiple areas in your OSPF domain, one of the areas must be designated as area 0, known as the backbone. The backbone is the central OSPF area and is usually physically connected to all other areas. The areas inject routing information into the backbone which, in turn, disseminates the information into other areas.
Since the backbone connects the areas in your network, it must be a contiguous area. If the backbone is partitioned (possibly as a result of joining separate OSPF networks), parts of the AS will be unreachable, and you will need to configure virtual links to reconnect the partitioned areas (see “Virtual Links” on page 537).
Up to 20 OSPF areas can be connected to the G8296 with ENOS software. To configure an area, the OSPF number must be defined and then attached to a network interface on the switch. The full process is explained in the following sections.
An OSPF area is defined by assigning two pieces of information: an area index and an area ID. The commands to define and enable an OSPF area are as follows:
RS G8296(config)# router ospf
RS G8296(config­router­ospf)# area <area index> area­id <n.n.n.n>
RS G8296(config­router­ospf)# area <area index> enable
RS G8296(config­router­ospf)# exit
Note: The area option is an arbitrary index used only on the switch and does not represent the actual OSPF area number. The actual OSPF area number is defined in the area portion of the command as explained in the following sections.
Assigning the Area Index
The area <area index> option is actually just an arbitrary index used only by the G8296. This index number does not necessarily represent the OSPF area number, though for configuration simplicity, it ought to where possible.
For example, both of the following sets of commands define OSPF area 0 (the backbone) and area 1 because that information is held in the area ID portion of the command. However, the first set of commands is easier to maintain because the arbitrary area indexes agree with the area IDs:


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Area index and area ID agree
area 0 area­id 0.0.0.0
(Use index 0 to set area 0 in ID octet format)
area 1 area­id 0.0.0.1
(Use index 1 to set area 1 in ID octet format)
Area index set to an arbitrary value
area 1 area­id 0.0.0.0
(Use index 1 to set area 0 in ID octet format)
area 2 area­id 0.0.0.1
(Use index 2 to set area 1 in ID octet format)
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Using the Area ID to Assign the OSPF Area Number
The OSPF area number is defined in the areaid <IP address> option. The octet format is used to be compatible with two different systems of notation used by other OSPF network vendors. There are two valid ways to designate an area ID:

Single Number
Most common OSPF vendors express the area ID number as a single number. For example, the Cisco IOS‐based router command “network 1.1.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 1” defines the area number simply as “area 1.” 
Multi‐octet (IP address): Placing the area number in the last octet (0.0.0.n)
Some OSPF vendors express the area ID number in multi‐octet format. For example, “area 0.0.0.2” represents OSPF area 2 and can be specified directly on the G8296 as “area­id 0.0.0.2”.
On the G8296, using the last octet in the area ID, “area 1” is equivalent to “area­id 0.0.0.1”.
Note: Although both types of area ID formats are supported, be sure that the area IDs are in the same format throughout an area.
Attaching an Area to a Network
Once an OSPF area has been defined, it must be associated with a network. To attach the area to a network, you must assign the OSPF area index to an IP interface that participates in the area. The format for the command is as follows:
RS G8296(config)# interface ip <interface number>
RS G8296(config­ip­if)# ip ospf area <area index>
RS G8296(config­ip­if)# exit
For example, the following commands could be used to configure IP interface 14 to use 10.10.10.1 on the 10.10.10.0/24 network, to define OSPF area 1, and to attach the area to the network:
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# router ospf
G8296(config­router­ospf)# area 1 area­id 0.0.0.1
G8296(config­router­ospf)# area 1 enable
G8296(config­router­ospf)# enable
G8296(config­router­ospf)# exit
G8296(config)# interface ip 14
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip address 10.10.10.1
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip netmask 255.255.255.0
G8296(config­ip­if)# enable
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip ospf area 1
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip ospf enable
Note: OSPFv2 supports IPv4 only. IPv6 is supported in OSPFv3 (see “OSPFv3 Implementation in Enterprise NOS” on page 552).
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Interface Cost
The OSPF link‐state algorithm (Dijkstra’s algorithm) places each routing device at the root of a tree and determines the cumulative cost required to reach each destination. You can manually enter the cost for the output route with the following command (Interface IP mode):
RS G8296(config­ip­if)# ip ospf cost <cost value (1‐65535)>
Electing the Designated Router and Backup
In any broadcast type subnet, a Designated Router (DR) is elected as the central contact for database exchanges among neighbors. On subnets with more the one device, a Backup Designated Router (BDR) is elected in case the DR fails.
DR and BDR elections are made through the hello process. The election can be influenced by assigning a priority value to the OSPF interfaces on the G8296. The command is as follows: RS G8296(config­ip­if)# ip ospf priority <priority value (0‐255)>
A priority value of 255 is the highest, and 1 is the lowest. A priority value of 0 specifies that the interface cannot be used as a DR or BDR. In case of a tie, the routing device with the highest router ID wins. Interfaces configured as passive do not participate in the DR or BDR election process:
RS G8296(config­ip­if)# ip ospf passive­interface
RS G8296(config­ip­if)# exit
Summarizing Routes
Route summarization condenses routing information. Without summarization, each routing device in an OSPF network would retain a route to every subnet in the network. With summarization, routing devices can reduce some sets of routes to a single advertisement, reducing both the load on the routing device and the perceived complexity of the network. The importance of route summarization increases with network size.
Summary routes can be defined for up to 16 IP address ranges using the following command: RS G8296(config)# router ospf
RS G8296(config­router­ospf)# area­range <range number> address <IP address> <mask>
where <range number> is a number 1 to 16, <IP address> is the base IP address for the range, and <mask> is the IP address mask for the range. For a detailed configuration example, see “Example 3: Summarizing Routes” on page 550.
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Default Routes
When an OSPF routing device encounters traffic for a destination address it does not recognize, it forwards that traffic along the default route. Typically, the default route leads upstream toward the backbone until it reaches the intended area or an external router.
Each G8296 acting as an ABR automatically inserts a default route into stub and NSSA attached areas. In simple OSPF stub areas or NSSAs with only one ABR leading upstream (see Area 1 in Figure 54), any traffic for IP address destinations outside the area is forwarded to the switch’s IP interface, and then into the connected transit area (usually the backbone). Since this is automatic, no further configuration is required for such areas.
Figure 54. Injecting Default Routes
If the switch is in a transit area and has a configured default gateway, it can inject a default route into rest of the OSPF domain. Use the following command to configure the switch to inject OSPF default routes (Router OSPF mode): RS G8296(config­router­ospf)# default­information <metric value> <metric type (1 or 2)>
In this command, <metric value> sets the priority for choosing this switch for default route. The value none sets no default and 1 sets the highest priority for default route. Metric type determines the method for influencing routing decisions for external routes.
When the switch is configured to inject a default route, an AS‐external LSA with link state ID 0.0.0.0 is propagated throughout the OSPF routing domain. This LSA is sent with the configured metric value and metric type.
The OSPF default route configuration can be removed with the command:
RS G8296(config­router­ospf)# no default­information
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Virtual Links
Usually, all areas in an OSPF AS are physically connected to the backbone. In some cases where this is not possible, you can use a virtual link. Virtual links are created to connect one area to the backbone through another non‐backbone area (see Figure 52 on page 529).
The area which contains a virtual link must be a transit area and have full routing information. Virtual links cannot be configured inside a stub area or NSSA. The area type must be defined as transit using the following command:
RS G8296(config­router­ospf)# area <area index> type transit
The virtual link must be configured on the routing devices at each endpoint of the virtual link, though they may traverse multiple routing devices. To configure a G8296 as one endpoint of a virtual link, use the following command:
RS G8296(config­router­ospf)# area­virtual­link <link number> neighbor­router <router ID>
where <link number> is a value between 1 and 3, <area index> is the OSPF area index of the transit area, and <router ID> is the router ID of the virtual neighbor, the routing device at the target endpoint. Another router ID is needed when configuring a virtual link in the other direction. To provide the G8296 with a router ID, see the following section Router ID.
For a detailed configuration example on Virtual Links, see “Example 2: Virtual Links” on page 546.
Router ID
Routing devices in OSPF areas are identified by a router ID. The router ID is expressed in IP address format. The IP address of the router ID is not required to be included in any IP interface range or in any OSPF area, and may even use the G8296 loopback interface.
The router ID can be configured in one of the following two ways:
Dynamically—OSPF protocol configures the lowest IP interface IP address as the router ID (loopback interface has priority over the IP interface). This is the default.  Statically—Use the following command to manually configure the router ID:

RS G8296(config­router­ospf)# ip router­id <IPv4 address>
If there is a loopback interface, its IP address is always preferred as the router ID, instead of an IP interface address. The ip router­id command is the preferred method to set the router ID and it is always used in preference to the other methods.
To modify the router ID from static to dynamic, set the router ID to 0.0.0.0 and re‐initialize the OSPF process.  To view the router ID, use the following command: 
RS G8296(config­router­ospf)# show ip ospf
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Authentication
OSPF protocol exchanges can be authenticated so that only trusted routing devices can participate. This ensures less processing on routing devices that are not listening to OSPF packets.
OSPF allows packet authentication and uses IP multicast when sending and receiving packets. Routers participate in routing domains based on pre‐defined passwords. ENOS supports simple password (type 1 plain text passwords) and MD5 cryptographic authentication. This type of authentication allows a password to be configured per interface.
We strongly recommend that you implement MD5 cryptographic authentication as a best practice.
Figure 55 shows authentication configured for area 0 with the password test. Simple authentication is also configured for the virtual link between area 2 and area 0. Area 1 is not configured for OSPF authentication.
Figure 55. OSPF Authentication Switch 2
Switch 1
Switch 3
Switch 5
key=blade
Switch 4
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Configuring Plain Text OSPF Passwords
To configure simple plain text OSPF passwords on the switches shown in Figure 55 use the following commands:
1. Enable OSPF authentication for Area 0 on switches 1, 2, and 3.
RS G8296(config­router­ospf)# area 0 authentication­type password
RS G8296(config­router­ospf)# exit
2. Configure a simple text password up to eight characters for each OSPF IP interface in Area 0 on switches 1, 2, and 3. RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# interface ip 1
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip ospf key test
G8296(config­ip­if)# exit
G8296(config)# interface ip 2
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip ospf key test
G8296(config­ip­if)# exit
G8296(config)# interface ip 3
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip ospf key test
G8296(config­ip­if)# exit
3. Enable OSPF authentication for Area 2 on switch 4.
RS G8296(config)# router ospf
RS G8296(config­router­ospf)# area 2 authentication­type password
4. Configure a simple text password up to eight characters for the virtual link between Area 2 and Area 0 on switches 2 and 4.
RS G8296(config­router­ospf)# area­virtual­link 1 key blade
Configuring MD5 Authentication
Use the following commands to configure MD5 authentication on the switches shown in Figure 55:
1. Enable OSPF MD5 authentication for Area 0 on switches 1, 2, and 3.
RS G8296(config­router­ospf)# area 0 authentication­type md5
2. Configure MD5 key ID for Area 0 on switches 1, 2, and 3.
RS G8296(config­router­ospf)# message­digest­key 1 md5­key test
RS G8296(config­router­ospf)# exit
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3. Assign MD5 key ID to OSPF interfaces on switches 1, 2, and 3.
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
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G8296(config)# interface ip 1
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip ospf message­digest­key 1
G8296(config­ip­if)# exit
G8296(config)# interface ip 2
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip ospf message­digest­key 1
G8296(config­ip­if)# exit
G8296(config)# interface ip 3
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip ospf message­digest­key 1
G8296(config­ip­if)# exit
4. Enable OSPF MD5 authentication for Area 2 on switch 4.
RS G8296(config)# router ospf
RS G8296(config­router­ospf)# area 1 authentication­type md5
5. Configure MD5 key for the virtual link between Area 2 and Area 0 on switches 2 and 4.
RS G8296(config­router­ospf)# message­digest­key 2 md5­key test
6. Assign MD5 key ID to OSPF virtual link on switches 2 and 4.
RS G8296(config­router­ospf)# area­virtual­link 1 message­digest­key 2
RS G8296(config­router­ospf)# exit
Host Routes for Load Balancing
ENOS implementation of OSPF includes host routes. Host routes are used for advertising network device IP addresses to external networks, accomplishing the following goals:

ABR Load Sharing
As a form of load balancing, host routes can be used for dividing OSPF traffic among multiple ABRs. To accomplish this, each switch provides identical services but advertises a host route for a different IP address to the external network. If each IP address serves a different and equal portion of the external world, incoming traffic from the upstream router must be split evenly among ABRs.

ABR Failover
Complementing ABR load sharing, identical host routes can be configured on each ABR. These host routes can be given different costs so that a different ABR is selected as the preferred route for each server and the others are available as backups for failover purposes.

Equal Cost Multipath (ECMP)
With equal cost multipath, a router potentially has several available next hops towards any given destination. ECMP allows separate routes to be calculated for each IP Type of Service. All paths of equal cost to a given destination are calcu‐
lated, and the next hops for all equal‐cost paths are inserted into the routing table.
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Loopback Interfaces in OSPF
A loopback interface is an IP interface which has an IP address, but is not associated with any particular physical port. The loopback interface is thus always available to the general network, regardless of which specific ports are in operation. Because loopback interfaces are always available on the switch, loopback interfaces may present an advantage when used as the router ID.
If dynamic router ID selection is used (see “Router ID” on page 538) loopback interfaces can be used to force router ID selection. If a loopback interface is configured, its IP address is automatically selected as the router ID, even if other IP interfaces have lower IP addresses. If more than one loopback interface is configured, the lowest loopback interface IP address is selected.
Loopback interfaces can be advertised into the OSPF domain by specifying an OSPF host route with the loopback interface IP address.
To enable OSPF on an existing loopback interface:
RS
RS
RS
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G8296(config)# interface loopback <1‐5>
G8296(config­ip­loopback)# ip ospf area <area ID>
G8296(config­ip­loopback)# ip ospf enable
G8296(config­ip­loopback)# exit
OSPF Features Not Supported in This Release
The following OSPF features are not supported in this release:
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
Summarizing external routes

Filtering OSPF routes

Using OSPF to forward multicast routes
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Configuring OSPF on non‐broadcast multi‐access networks (such as frame relay, X.25, or ATM)
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OSPFv2 Configuration Examples
A summary of the basic steps for configuring OSPF on the G8296 is listed here. Detailed instructions for each of the steps is covered in the following sections:
1. Configure IP interfaces.
One IP interface is required for each desired network (range of IP addresses) being assigned to an OSPF area on the switch.
2. (Optional) Configure the router ID.
3. Enable OSPF on the switch.
4. Define the OSPF areas.
5. Configure OSPF interface parameters.
IP interfaces are used for attaching networks to the various areas.
6. (Optional) Configure route summarization between OSPF areas.
7. (Optional) Configure virtual links.
8. (Optional) Configure host routes.
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Example 1: Simple OSPF Domain
In this example, two OSPF areas are defined—one area is the backbone and the other is a stub area. A stub area does not allow advertisements of external routes, thus reducing the size of the database. Instead, a default summary route of IP address 0.0.0.0 is automatically inserted into the stub area. Any traffic for IP address destinations outside the stub area will be forwarded to the stub area’s IP interface, and then into the backbone.
Figure 56. A Simple OSPF Domain
Network
10.10.7.0/24
Network
10.10.12.0/24
Follow this procedure to configure OSPF support as shown in Figure 56:
1. Configure IP interfaces on each network that will be attached to OSPF areas.
In this example, two IP interfaces are needed:

Interface 1 for the backbone network on 10.10.7.0/24

Interface 2 for the stub area network on 10.10.12.0/24
RS
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G8296(config)# interface ip 1
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip address 10.10.7.1
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip netmask 255.255.255.0
G8296(config­ip­if)# enable
G8296(config­ip­if)# exit
G8296(config)# interface ip 2
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip address 10.10.12.1
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip netmask 255.255.255.0
G8296(config­ip­if)# enable
G8296(config­ip­if)# exit
Note: OSPFv2 supports IPv4 only. IPv6 is supported in OSPFv3 (see “OSPFv3 Implementation in Enterprise NOS” on page 552).
2. Enable OSPF. RS G8296(config)# router ospf
RS G8296(config­router­ospf)# enable
3. Define the backbone.
The backbone is always configured as a transit area using areaid 0.0.0.0.
RS G8296(config­router­ospf)# area 0 area­id 0.0.0.0
RS G8296(config­router­ospf)# area 0 type transit
RS G8296(config­router­ospf)# area 0 enable
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4. Define the stub area.
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config­router­ospf)# area 1 area­id 0.0.0.1
G8296(config­router­ospf)# area 1 type stub
G8296(config­router­ospf)# area 1 enable
G8296(config­router­ospf)# exit
5. Attach the network interface to the backbone.
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# interface ip 1
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip ospf area 0
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip ospf enable
G8296(config­ip­if)# exit
6. Attach the network interface to the stub area.
RS
RS
RS
RS
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G8296(config)# interface ip 2
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip ospf area 1
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip ospf enable
G8296(config­ip­if)# exit
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Example 2: Virtual Links
In the example shown in Figure 57, area 2 is not physically connected to the backbone as is usually required. Instead, area 2 will be connected to the backbone via a virtual link through area 1. The virtual link must be configured at each endpoint.
Figure 57. Configuring a Virtual Link
Switch 1
Switch 2
Note: OSPFv2 supports IPv4 only. IPv6 is supported in OSPFv3 (see “OSPFv3 Implementation in Enterprise NOS” on page 552).
Configuring OSPF for a Virtual Link on Switch #1
1. Configure IP interfaces on each network that will be attached to the switch.
In this example, two IP interfaces are needed:

Interface 1 for the backbone network on 10.10.7.0/24

Interface 2 for the transit area network on 10.10.12.0/24
RS
RS
RS
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RS
RS
RS
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G8296(config)# interface ip 1
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip address 10.10.7.1
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip netmask 255.255.255.0
G8296(config­ip­if)# enable
G8296(config­ip­if)# exit
G8296(config)# interface ip 2
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip address 10.10.12.1
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip netmask 255.255.255.0
G8296(config­ip­if)# enable
G8296(config­ip­if)# exit
2. Configure the router ID.
A router ID is required when configuring virtual links. Later, when configuring the other end of the virtual link on Switch 2, the router ID specified here will be used as the target virtual neighbor (nbr) address.
RS G8296(config)# ip router­id 10.10.10.1 3. Enable OSPF.
RS G8296(config)# router ospf
RS G8296(config­router­ospf)# enable
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4. Define the backbone.
RS G8296(config­router­ospf)# area 0 area­id 0.0.0.0
RS G8296(config­router­ospf)# area 0 type transit
RS G8296(config­router­ospf)# area 0 enable
5. Define the transit area.
The area that contains the virtual link must be configured as a transit area.
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config­router­ospf)# area 1 area­id 0.0.0.1
G8296(config­router­ospf)# area 1 type transit
G8296(config­router­ospf)# area 1 enable
G8296(config­router­ospf)# exit
6. Attach the network interface to the backbone.
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# interface ip 1
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip ospf area 0
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip ospf enable
G8296(config­ip­if)# exit
7. Attach the network interface to the transit area.
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# interface ip 2
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip ospf area 1
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip ospf enable
G8296(config­ip­if)# exit
8. Configure the virtual link.
The nbr router ID configured in this step must be the same as the router ID that will be configured for Switch #2 in Step 2 on page 548.
RS G8296(config)# router ospf
RS G8296(config­router­ospf)# area­virtual­link 1 area 1
RS G8296(config­router­ospf)# area­virtual­link 1 neighbor­router 10.10.14.1
RS G8296(config­router­ospf)# area­virtual­link 1 enable
Configuring OSPF for a Virtual Link on Switch #2
1. Configure IP interfaces on each network that will be attached to OSPF areas.
In this example, two IP interfaces are needed:

© Copyright Lenovo 2016
Interface 1 for the transit area network on 10.10.12.0/24
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
Interface 2 for the stub area network on 10.10.24.0/24
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# interface ip 1
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip address 10.10.12.2
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip netmask 255.255.255.0
G8296(config­ip­if)# vlan 10
G8296(config­ip­if)# enable
G8296(config­ip­if)# exit
G8296(config)# interface ip 2
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip address 10.10.24.1
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip netmask 255.255.255.0
G8296(config­ip­if)# vlan 20
G8296(config­ip­if)# enable
G8296(config­ip­if)# exit
2. Configure the router ID.
A router ID is required when configuring virtual links. This router ID must be the same one specified as the target virtual neighbor (nbr) on switch 1 in Step 8 on page 547.
RS G8296(config)# ip router­id 10.10.14.1 3. Enable OSPF.
RS G8296(config)# router ospf
RS G8296(config­router­ospf)# enable
4. Define the backbone.
This version of ENOS requires that a backbone index be configured on the non‐backbone end of the virtual link as follows:
RS G8296(config­router­ospf)# area 0 area­id 0.0.0.0
RS G8296(config­router­ospf)# area 0 enable
5. Define the transit area.
RS G8296(config­router­ospf)# area 1 area­id 0.0.0.1
RS G8296(config­router­ospf)# area 1 type transit
RS G8296(config­router­ospf)# area 1 enable
6. Define the stub area.
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config­router­ospf)# area 2 area­id 0.0.0.2
G8296(config­router­ospf)# area 2 type stub
G8296(config­router­ospf)# area 2 enable
G8296(config­router­ospf)# exit
7. Attach the network interface to the transmit area.
RS
RS
RS
RS
548
G8296(config)# interface ip 1
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip ospf area 1
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip ospf enable
G8296(config­ip­if)# exit
G8296 Application Guide for ENOS 8.4
8. Attach the network interface to the stub area.
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# interface ip 2
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip ospf area 2
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip ospf enable
G8296(config­ip­if)# exit
9. Configure the virtual link.
The nbr router ID configured in this step must be the same as the router ID that was configured for switch #1 in Step 2 on page 546.
RS G8296(config)# router ospf
RS G8296(config­router­ospf)# area­virtual­link 1 area 1
RS G8296(config­router­ospf)# area­virtual­link 1 neighbor­router 10.10.10.1
RS G8296(config­router­ospf)# area­virtual­link 1 enable
Other Virtual Link Options
© Copyright Lenovo 2016

You can use redundant paths by configuring multiple virtual links.

Only the endpoints of the virtual link are configured. The virtual link path may traverse multiple routers in an area as long as there is a routable path between the endpoints.
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Example 3: Summarizing Routes
By default, ABRs advertise all the network addresses from one area into another area. Route summarization can be used for consolidating advertised addresses and reducing the perceived complexity of the network.
If network IP addresses in an area are assigned to a contiguous subnet range, you can configure the ABR to advertise a single summary route that includes all individual IP addresses within the area.
The following example shows one summary route from area 1 (stub area) injected into area 0 (the backbone). The summary route consists of all IP addresses from 36.128.192.0 through 36.128.254.255 except for the routes in the range 36.128.200.0 through 36.128.200.255.
Figure 58. Summarizing Routes Notes:

OSPFv2 supports IPv4 only. IPv6 is supported in OSPFv3 (see “OSPFv3 Implementation in Enterprise NOS” on page 552).

You can specify a range of addresses to prevent advertising by using the hide option. In this example, routes in the range 36.128.200.0 through 36.128.200.255 are kept private.
Use the following procedure to configure OSPF support as shown in Figure 58:
1. Configure IP interfaces for each network which will be attached to OSPF areas.
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# interface ip 1
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip address 10.10.7.1
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip netmask 255.255.255.0
G8296(config­ip­if)# vlan 10
G8296(config­ip­if)# enable
G8296(config­ip­if)# exit
G8296(config)# interface ip 2
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip address 36.128.192.1
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip netmask 255.255.255.0
G8296(config­ip­if)# vlan 20
G8296(config­ip­if)# enable
G8296(config­ip­if)# exit
2. Enable OSPF.
RS G8296(config)# router ospf
RS G8296(config­router­ospf)# enable
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3. Define the backbone.
RS G8296(config­router­ospf)# area 0 area­id 0.0.0.0
RS G8296(config­router­ospf)# area 0 type transit
RS G8296(config­router­ospf)# area 0 enable
4. Define the stub area.
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config­router­ospf)# area 1 area­id 0.0.0.1
G8296(config­router­ospf)# area 1 type stub
G8296(config­router­ospf)# area 1 enable
G8296(config­router­ospf)# exit
5. Attach the network interface to the backbone.
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# interface ip 1
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip ospf area 0
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip ospf enable
G8296(config­ip­if)# exit
6. Attach the network interface to the stub area.
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# interface ip 2
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip ospf area 1
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip ospf enable
G8296(config­ip­if)# exit
7. Configure route summarization by specifying the starting address and mask of the range of addresses to be summarized.
RS G8296(config)# router ospf
RS G8296(config­router­ospf)# area­range 1 address 36.128.192.0 255.255.192.0
RS G8296(config­router­ospf)# area­range 1 area 1
RS G8296(config­router­ospf)# area­range 1 enable
RS G8296(config­router­ospf)# exit
8. Use the hide command to prevent a range of addresses from advertising to the backbone.
RS G8296(config)# router ospf
RS G8296(config­router­ospf)# area­range 2 address 36.128.200.0 255.255.255.0
RS G8296(config­router­ospf)# area­range 2 area 1
RS G8296(config­router­ospf)# area­range 2 hide RS G8296(config­router­ospf)# exit
Verifying OSPF Configuration
Use the following commands to verify the OSPF configuration on your switch:
show ip ospf show ip ospf neighbor  show ip ospf database database­summary
 show ip ospf routes 

Refer to the Lenovo Enterprise Network Operating System Command Reference for information on the preceding commands.
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OSPFv3 Implementation in Enterprise NOS
OSPF version 3 is based on OSPF version 2, but has been modified to support IPv6 addressing. In most other ways, OSPFv3 is similar to OSPFv2: They both have the same packet types and interfaces, and both use the same mechanisms for neighbor discovery, adjacency formation, LSA flooding, aging, and so on. The administrator must be familiar with the OSPFv2 concepts covered in the preceding sections of this chapter before implementing the OSPFv3 differences as described in the following sections.
Although OSPFv2 and OSPFv3 are very similar, they represent independent features on the G8296. They are configured separately, and both can run in parallel on the switch with no relation to one another, serving different IPv6 and IPv4 traffic, respectively.
The Enterprise NOS implementation conforms to the OSPF version 3 authentication/confidentiality specifications in RFC 4552.
OSPFv3 Differences from OSPFv2
Note: When OSPFv3 is enabled, the OSPF backbone area (0.0.0.0) is created by default and is always active.
OSPFv3 Requires IPv6 Interfaces
OSPFv3 is designed to support IPv6 addresses. This requires IPv6 interfaces to be configured on the switch and assigned to OSPF areas, in much the same way IPv4 interfaces are assigned to areas in OSPFv2. This is the primary configuration difference between OSPFv3 and OSPFv2.
See Chapter 29, “Internet Protocol Version 6,” for configuring IPv6 interfaces.
OSPFv3 Uses Independent Command Paths
Though OSPFv3 and OSPFv2 are very similar, they are configured independently. OSPFv3 command paths are located as follows:
RS G8296(config)# ipv6 router ospf
RS G8296(config­router­ospf3)# ?
(OSPFv3 router config mode)
RS G8296(config)# interface ip <Interface number>(Configure OSPFv3)
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RS G8296(config­ip­if)# ipv6 ospf ?
(OSPFv3 interface config)
RS G8296# show ipv6 ospf ?
(Show OSPFv3 information)
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OSPFv3 Identifies Neighbors by Router ID
Where OSPFv2 uses a mix of IPv4 interface addresses and Router IDs to identify neighbors, depending on their type, OSPFv3 configuration consistently uses a Router ID to identify all neighbors.
Although Router IDs are written in dotted decimal notation, and may even be based on IPv4 addresses from an original OSPFv2 network configuration, it is important to realize that Router IDs are not IP addresses in OSPFv3, and can be assigned independently of IP address space. However, maintaining Router IDs consistent with any legacy OSPFv2 IPv4 addressing allows for easier implementation of both protocols.
Other Internal Improvements
OSPFv3 has numerous improvements that increase the protocol efficiency in addition to supporting IPv6 addressing. These improvements change some of the behaviors in the OSPFv3 network and may affect topology consideration, but have little direct impact on configuration. For example:

Addressing fields have been removed from Router and Network LSAs.

Flexible treatment of unknown LSA types to make integration of OSPFv3 easier.

Interface network type can be specified using the command: RS G8296(config­ip­if)# ipv6 ospf network {broadcast|non­broadcast|point­to­multipoint|point­to­point}

For an interface network type that is not broadcast or NBMA, link LSA suppression can be enabled so link LSA is not originated for the interface. Use the command: RS G8296(config­ip­if)# ipv6 ospf linklsasuppress
OSPFv3 Limitations
ENOS 8.4 does not currently support multiple interfaces of OSPFv3 on the same link.
OSPFv3 Configuration Example
The following example depicts the OSPFv3 equivalent configuration of “Example 3: Summarizing Routes” on page 550 for OSPFv2.
In this example, one summary route from area 1 (stub area) is injected into area 0 (the backbone). The summary route consists of all IP addresses from the 36::0/32 portion of the 36::0/56 network, except for the routes in the 36::0/8 range.
Figure 59. Summarizing Routes Backbone
Stub Area
Area 0
(0.0.0.0)
Area 1
(0.0.0.1)
IF 3
10::1
Summary Route
10::0/56
Network
© Copyright Lenovo 2016
IF 4
36::1
ABR
36::0/32
(- 36::0/8)
36::0/56
Network
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Note: You can specify a range of addresses to prevent advertising by using the hide option. In this example, routes in the 36::0/8 range are kept private.
Use the following procedure to configure OSPFv3 support as shown in Figure 58:
1. Configure IPv6 interfaces for each link which will be attached to OSPFv3 areas.
RS G8296RS G8296(config)# interface ip 3
(config­ip­if)# ipv6 address 10:0:0:0:0:0:0:1
RS G8296(config­ip­if)# ipv6 prefixlen 56
RS G8296(config­ip­if)# vlan 10
RS G8296(config­ip­if)# enable
RS G8296(config­ip­if)# exit
RS G8296(config)# interface ip 4
RS G8296(config­ip­if)# ip address 36:0:0:0:0:0:1
RS G8296(config­ip­if)# ipv6 prefixlen 56
RS G8296(config­ip­if)# vlan 20
RS G8296(config­ip­if)# enable
RS G8296(config­ip­if)# exit
This is equivalent to configuring the IP address and netmask for IPv4 interfaces.
2. Enable OSPFv3.
RS G8296(config)# ipv6 router ospf
RS G8296(config­router­ospf3)# enable
This is equivalent to the OSPFv2 enable option in the router ospf command path.
3. Define the backbone.
RS G8296(config­router­ospf3)# area 0 area­id 0.0.0.0
RS G8296(config­router­ospf3)# area 0 type transit
RS G8296(config­router­ospf3)# area 0 enable
This is identical to OSPFv2 configuration.
4. Define the stub area.
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config­router­ospf3)# area 1 area­id 0.0.0.1
G8296(config­router­ospf3)# area 1 type stub
G8296(config­router­ospf3)# area 1 enable
G8296(config­router­ospf3)# exit
This is identical to OSPFv2 configuration.
5. Attach the network interface to the backbone.
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# interface ip 3
G8296(config­ip­if)# ipv6 ospf area 0
G8296(config­ip­if)# ipv6 ospf enable
G8296(config­ip­if)# exit
The ipv6 command path is used instead of the OSPFv2 ip command path 554
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6. Attach the network interface to the stub area.
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# interface ip 4
G8296(config­ip­if)# ipv6 ospf area 1
G8296(config­ip­if)# ipv6 ospf enable
G8296(config­ip­if)# exit
The ipv6 command path is used instead of the OSPFv2 ip command path 7. Configure route summarization by specifying the starting address and prefix length of the range of addresses to be summarized.
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# ipv6 router ospf
G8296(config­router­ospf3)# area­range 1 address 36:0:0:0:0:0:0:0 32
G8296(config­router­ospf3)# area­range 1 area 0
G8296(config­router­ospf3)# area­range 1 enable
This differs from OSPFv2 only in that the OSPFv3 command path is used, and the address and prefix are specified in IPv6 format.
8. Use the hide command to prevent a range of addresses from advertising to the backbone.
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config­router­ospf)# area­range 2 address 36:0:0:0:0:0:0:0 8
G8296(config­router­ospf)# area­range 2 area 0
G8296(config­router­ospf)# area­range 2 hide G8296(config­router­ospf)# exit
This differs from OSPFv2 only in that the OSPFv3 command path is used, and the address and prefix are specified in IPv6 format.
Neighbor Configuration Example
When using NBMA or point to multipoint interfaces, you must manually configure neighbors. Following example includes the steps for neighbor configuration.
1. Configure IPv6 interface parameters: RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config# interface ip 10
G8296(config­ip­if)# ipv6 address 10:0:0:0:0:0:0:12 64
G8296(config­ip­if)# vlan 10
G8296(config­ip­if)# enable
G8296(config­ip­if)# ipv6 ospf area 0
G8296(config­ip­if)# ipv6 ospf retransmit­interval 5
G8296(config­ip­if)# ipv6 ospf transmit­delay 1
G8296(config­ip­if)# ipv6 ospf priority 1
G8296(config­ip­if)# ipv6 ospf hello­interval 10
G8296(config­ip­if)# ipv6 ospf dead­interval 40
G8296(config­ip­if)# ipv6 ospf network point­to­multipoint
G8296(config­ip­if)# ipv6 ospf poll­interval 120
G8296(config­ip­if)# ipv6 ospf enable
G8296(config­ip­if)# exit
2. Enable OSPFv3: RS G8296(config# ipv6 router ospf
RS G8296(config­router­ospf3)# router­id 12.12.12.12
RS G8296(config­router­ospf3)# enable
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3. Define the backbone.
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config­router­ospf3)# area 0 area­id 0.0.0.0
G8296(config­router­ospf3)# area 0 stability­interval 40
G8296(config­router­ospf3)# area 0 default­metric 1
G8296(config­router­ospf3)# area 0 default­metric type 1
G8296(config­router­ospf3)# area 0 translation­role candidate
G8296(config­router­ospf3)# area 0 type transit
G8296(config­router­ospf3)# area 0 enable
4. Configure neighbor entry: RS G8296(config­router­ospf3)# neighbor 1 address fe80:0:0:0:dceb:ff:fe00:9
RS G8296(config­router­ospf3)# neighbor 1 interface 10
RS G8296(config­router­ospf3)# neighbor 1 priority 1
RS G8296(config­router­ospf3)# neighbor 1 enable
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Chapter 36. Protocol Independent Multicast
Lenovo Enterprise Network Operating System supports Protocol Independent Multicast (PIM) in Sparse Mode (PIM‐SM) and Dense Mode (PIM‐DM).
Note: Enterprise NOS 8.4 does not support IPv6 for PIM.
The following sections discuss PIM support for the RackSwitch G8296:
© Copyright Lenovo 2016

“PIM Overview” on page 558

“Supported PIM Modes and Features” on page 559

“Basic PIM Settings” on page 560

“Additional Sparse Mode Settings” on page 563

“Using PIM with Other Features” on page 566

“PIM Configuration Examples” on page 567
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PIM Overview
PIM is designed for efficiently routing multicast traffic across one or more IPv4 domains. This has benefits for application such as IP television, collaboration, education, and software delivery, where a single source must deliver content (a multicast) to a group of receivers that span both wide‐area and inter‐domain networks.
Instead of sending a separate copy of content to each receiver, a multicast derives efficiency by sending only a single copy of content toward its intended receivers. This single copy only becomes duplicated when it reaches the target domain that includes multiple receivers, or when it reaches a necessary bifurcation point leading to different receiver domains.
PIM is used by multicast source stations, client receivers, and intermediary routers and switches, to build and maintain efficient multicast routing trees. PIM is protocol independent; It collects routing information using the existing unicast routing functions underlying the IPv4 network, but does not rely on any particular unicast protocol. For PIM to function, a Layer 3 routing protocol (such as BGP, OSPF, RIP, or static routes) must first be configured on the switch.
PIM‐SM is a reverse‐path routing mechanism. Client receiver stations advertise their willingness to join a multicast group. The local routing and switching devices collect multicast routing information and forward the request toward the station that will provide the multicast content. When the join requests reach the sending station, the multicast data is sent toward the receivers, flowing in the opposite direction of the original join requests.
Some routing and switching devices perform special PIM‐SM functions. Within each receiver domain, one router is elected as the Designated Router (DR) for handling multicasts for the domain. DRs forward information to a similar device, the Rendezvous Point (RP), which holds the root tree for the particular multicast group.
Receiver join requests as well as sender multicast content initially converge at the RP, which generates and distributes multicast routing data for the DRs along the delivery path. As the multicast content flows, DRs use the routing tree information obtained from the RP to optimize the paths both to and from send and receive stations, bypassing the RP for the remainder of content transactions if a more efficient route is available.
DRs continue to share routing information with the RP, modifying the multicast routing tree when new receivers join, or pruning the tree when all the receivers in any particular domain are no longer part of the multicast group.
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Supported PIM Modes and Features
For each interface attached to a PIM network component, PIM can be configured to operate either in PIM Sparse Mode (PIM‐SM) or PIM Dense Mode (PIM‐DM).

PIM‐SM is used in networks where multicast senders and receivers comprise a relatively small (sparse) portion of the overall network. PIM‐SM uses a more complex process than PIM‐DM for collecting and optimizing multicast routes, but minimizes impact on other IP services and is more commonly used.

PIM‐DM is used where multicast devices are a relatively large (dense) portion of the network, with very frequent (or constant) multicast traffic. PIM‐DM requires less configuration on the switch than PIM‐SM, but uses broadcasts that can consume more bandwidth in establishing and optimizing routes.
The following PIM modes and features are not currently supported in ENOS 8.4:
© Copyright Lenovo 2016

Hybrid Sparse‐Dense Mode (PIM‐SM/DM). Sparse Mode and Dense Mode may be configured on separate IP interfaces on the switch, but are not currently supported simultaneously on the same IP interface.

PIM Source‐Specific Multicast (PIM‐SSM)

Anycast RP

PIM RP filters

Only configuration via the switch ISCLI is supported. PIM configuration is currently not available using the menu‐based CLI, the BBI, or via SNMP.
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Basic PIM Settings
To use PIM the following is required:

The PIM feature must be enabled globally on the switch.

PIM network components and PIM modes must be defined.

IP interfaces must be configured for each PIM component.

PIM neighbor filters may be defined (optional).

If PIM‐SM is used, define additional parameters:

Rendezvous Point

Designated Router preferences (optional)

Bootstrap Router preferences (optional)
Each of these tasks is covered in the following sections.
Note: In ENOS 8.4, PIM can be configured through the ISCLI only. PIM configuration and information are not available using the menu‐based CLI, the BBI, or via SNMP.
Globally Enabling or Disabling the PIM Feature
By default, PIM is disabled on the switch. PIM can be globally enabled or disabled using the following commands: RS G8296(config)# [no] ip pim enable
Defining a PIM Network Component
The G8296 can be attached to a maximum of two independent PIM network components. Each component represents a different PIM network, and can be defined for either PIM‐SM or PIM‐DM operation. Basic PIM component configuration is performed using the following commands: RS G8296(config)# ip pim component <1‐2>
RS G8296(config­ip­pim­comp)# mode {sparse|dense}
RS G8296(config­ip­pim­comp)# exit
The sparse option will place the component in Sparse Mode (PIM‐SM). The dense option will place the component in Dense Mode (PIM‐DM). By default, PIM component 1 is configured for Sparse Mode. PIM component 2 is unconfigured by default.
Note: A component using PIM‐SM must also be configured with a dynamic or static Rendezvous Point (see “Specifying the Rendezvous Point” on page 563). Defining an IP Interface for PIM Use
Each network attached to an IP interface on the switch may be assigned one of the available PIM components. The same PIM component can be assigned to multiple IP interfaces. The interfaces may belong to the same VLAN, and they may also belong to different VLANs as long as their member IP addresses do not overlap.
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To define an IP interface for use with PIM, first configured the interface with an IPv4 address and VLAN as follows: RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# interface ip <Interface number>
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip address <IPv4 address> <IPv4 mask>
G8296(config­ip­if)# vlan <VLAN number>
G8296(config­ip­if)# enable
Note: The PIM feature currently supports only one VLAN for each IP interface. Configurations where different interfaces on different VLANs share IP addresses are not supported.
Next, PIM must be enabled on the interface, and the PIM network component ID must be specified: RS G8296(config­ip­if)# ip pim enable
RS G8296(config­ip­if)# ip pim component­id <1‐2>
RS G8296(config­ip­if)# exit
By default, PIM component 1 is automatically assigned when PIM is enabled on the IP interface.
Note: While PIM is enabled on the interface, the interface VLAN cannot be changed. To change the VLAN, first disable PIM on the interface.
PIM Neighbor Filters
The G8296 accepts connection to up to 24 PIM interfaces. By default, the switch accepts all PIM neighbors attached to the PIM‐enabled interfaces, up to the maximum number. Once the maximum is reached, the switch will deny further PIM neighbors.
To ensure that only the appropriate PIM neighbors are accepted by the switch, the administrator can use PIM neighbor filters to specify which PIM neighbors may be accepted or denied on a per‐interface basis.
To turn PIM neighbor filtering on or off for a particular IP interface, use the following commands:
RS G8296(config)# interface ip <Interface number>
RS G8296(config­ip­if)# [no] ip pim neighbor­filter
When filtering is enabled, all PIM neighbor requests on the specified IP interface will be denied by default. To allow a specific PIM neighbor, use the following command:
RS G8296(config­ip­if)# ip pim neighbor­addr <neighbor IPv4 address> allow
To remove a PIM neighbor from the accepted list, use the following command.
RS G8296(config­ip­if)# ip pim neighbor­addr <neighbor IPv4 address> deny
RS G8296(config­ip­if)# exit
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You can view configured PIM neighbor filters globally or for a specific IP interface using the following commands:
RS G8296(config)# show ip pim neighbor­filters
RS G8296(config)# show ip pim interface <Interface number> neighbor­filters
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Additional Sparse Mode Settings
Specifying the Rendezvous Point
Using PIM‐SM, at least one PIM‐capable router must be a candidate for use as a Rendezvous Point (RP) for any given multicast group. If desired, the G8296 can act as an RP candidate. To assign a configured switch IP interface as a candidate, use the following procedure.
1. Select the PIM component that will represent the RP candidate:
RS G8296(config)# ip pim component <1‐2>
2. Configure the IPv4 address of the switch interface which will be advertised as a candidate RP for the specified multicast group:
RS G8296(config­ip­pim­comp)# rp­candidate rp­address <group address> <group address mask> <candidate IPv4 address>
The switch interface will participate in the election of the RP that occurs on the Bootstrap Router, or BSR (see “Specifying a Bootstrap Router” on page 564).
3. If using dynamic RP candidates, configure the amount of time that the elected interface will remain the RP for the group before a re‐election is performed:
RS G8296(config­ip­pim­comp)# rp­candidate holdtime <0‐255>
RS G8296(config­ip­pim­comp)# exit
Static RP
If RP no election is desired, the switch can provide a static RP. Use the following commands:
1. Enable static RP configuration. RS G8296(config)# ip pim static­rp enable
2. Select the PIM component that will represent the RP candidate:
RS G8296(config)# ip pim component <1‐2>
3. Configure the static IPv4 address. RS G8296(config­ip­pim­comp)# rp­static rp­address <group address> <group address mask> <static IPv4 address>
Influencing the Designated Router Selection
Using PIM‐SM, All PIM‐enabled IP interfaces are considered as potential Designate Routers (DR) for their domain. By default, the interface with the highest IP address on the domain is selected. However, if an interface is configured with a © Copyright Lenovo 2016
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DR priority value, it overrides the IP address selection process. If more than one interface on a domain is configured with a DR priority, the one with the highest number is selected.
Use the following commands to configure the DR priority value (Interface IP mode):
RS G8296(config)# interface ip <Interface number>
RS G8296(config­ip­if)# ip pim dr­priority <value (0‐4294967294)>
RS G8296(config­ip­if)# exit
Note: A value of 0 (zero) specifies that the G8296 will not act as the DR. This setting requires the G8296 to be connected to a peer that has a DR priority setting of 1 or higher to ensure that a DR will be present in the network.
Specifying a Bootstrap Router
Using PIM‐SM, a Bootstrap Router (BSR) is a PIM‐capable router that hosts the election of the RP from available candidate routers. For each PIM‐enabled IP interface, the administrator can set the preference level for which the local interface becomes the BSR:
RS G8296(config)# interface ip <Interface number>
RS G8296(config­ip­if)# ip pim cbsr­preference <0 to 255>
RS G8296(config­ip­if)# exit
A value of 255 highly prefers the local interface as a BSR. A value of ‐1 indicates that the PIM CBSR preference is not configured on the switch.
Configuring a Loopback Interface
Loopback interfaces can be used in PIM Sparse Mode for Rendezvous Points (RPs) and Bootstrap Routers (BSRs). For example:

As a static RP
interface loopback 1
ip address 55.55.1.1 255.255.255.0
enable
exit
ip pim static­rp enable
ip pim component 1
rp­static rp­address 224.0.0.0 240.0.0.0 55.55.1.1
interface loopback 1
ip pim enable
exit
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
As a candidate RP
interface loopback 1
ip address 55.55.1.1 255.255.255.0
enable
exit
ip pim component 1
rp­candidate holdtime 60
rp­candidate rp­address 224.0.0.0 240.0.0.0 55.55.1.1
interface loopback 1
ip pim enable
exit

As a BSR
interface loopback 1
ip address 55.55.1.1 255.255.255.0
enable
exit
interface loopback 1
ip pim enable
ip pim cbsr­preference 2
exit
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Using PIM with Other Features
PIM with ACLs or VMAPs
If using ACLs or VMAPs, be sure to permit traffic for local hosts and routers.
PIM with IGMP
If using IGMP (see Chapter 32, “Internet Group Management Protocol”):

IGMP static joins can be configured with a PIM‐SM or PIM‐DM multicast group IPv4 address. Using the ISCLI:
RS G8296(config)# ip mroute <multicast group IPv4 address> <VLAN> <port>

IGMP Querier is disabled by default. If IGMP Querier is needed with PIM, be sure to enable the IGMP Query feature globally, as well as on each VLAN where it is needed.

If the switch is connected to multicast receivers and/or hosts, be sure to enable IGMP snooping globally, as well as on each VLAN where PIM receivers are attached.
PIM with VLAG
If using VLAG, see “VLAG with PIM” on page 195.
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PIM Configuration Examples
The following are examples of configuring Protocol Independent Multicast with various options.
Example 1: PIM-SM with Dynamic RP
This example configures PIM Sparse Mode for one IP interface, with the switch acting as a candidate for dynamic Rendezvous Point (RP) selection.
1. Globally enable the PIM feature:
RS G8296(config)# ip pim enable
2. Configure a PIM network component with dynamic RP settings, and set it for PIM Sparse Mode:
RS G8296(config)# ip pim component 1
RS G8296(config­ip­pim­comp)# mode sparse
RS G8296(config­ip­pim­comp)# rp­candidate rp­address 225.1.0.0 255.255.0.0 10.10.1.1
RS G8296(config­ip­pim­comp)# rp­candidate holdtime <0‐255>
RS G8296(config­ip­pim­comp)# exit
Where 225.1.0.0 is the multicast group base IP address, 255.255.0.0 is the multicast group address mask, and 10.10.1.1 is the switch RP candidate address.
Note: Because, Sparse Mode is set by default for PIM component 1, the mode command is needed only if the mode has been previously changed.
3. Define an IP interface for use with PIM:
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# interface ip 111
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip address 10.10.1.1 255.255.255.255
G8296(config­ip­if)# vlan 11
G8296(config­ip­if)# enable
The IP interface represents the PIM network being connected to the switch. The IPv4 addresses in the defined range must not be included in another IP interface on the switch under a different VLAN.
4. Enable PIM on the IP interface and assign the PIM component:
RS G8296(config­ip­if)# ip pim enable
RS G8296(config­ip­if)# ip pim component­id 1
Note: Because, PIM component 1 is assigned to the interface by default, the component­id command is needed only if the setting has been previously changed.
5. Set the Bootstrap Router (BSR) preference:
RS G8296(config­ip­if)# ip pim cbsr­preference 135
RS G8296(config­ip­if)# exit
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Example 2: PIM-SM with Static RP
The following commands can be used to modify the prior example configuration to use a static RP:
RS G8296(config)# ip pim static­rp enable
RS G8296(config)# ip pim component 1
RS G8296(config­ip­pim­comp)# rp­static rp­address 225.1.0.0 255.255.0.0 10.10.1.1
RS G8296(config­ip­pim­comp)# exit
Where 225.1.0.0 255.255.0.0 is the multicast group base address and mask, and 10.10.1.1 is the static RP address.
Note: The same static RP address must be configured for all switches in the group.
Example 3: PIM-DM
This example configures PIM Dense Mode (PIM‐DM) on one IP interface. PIM‐DM can be configured independently, or it can be combined with the prior PIM‐SM examples (which are configured on a different PIM component) as shown in Figure 60.
Figure 60. Network with both PIM‐DM and PIM‐SM Components
PIM-SM
PIM-DM
Multicast
225.1.0.0/16
Multicast
239.1.0.0/16
PIM Enabled
Switch
IP Interface 11
IP Interface 22
IP 10.10.1.1
VLAN 101
Component 1
IP 10.10.2.1
VLAN 102
Component 2
Media
Servers
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1. Configure the PIM‐SM component as shown in the prior examples, or if using PIM‐DM independently, enable the PIM feature.
RS G8296(config)# ip pim enable
2. Configure a PIM component and set the PIM mode:
RS G8296(config)# ip pim component 2
RS G8296(config­ip­pim­comp)# mode dense
RS G8296(config­ip­pim­comp)# exit
3. Define an IP interface for use with PIM:
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# interface ip 22
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip address 10.10.2.1 255.255.255.255
G8296(config­ip­if)# vlan 102
G8296(config­ip­if)# enable
4. Enable PIM on the IP interface and assign the PIM component:
RS G8296(config­ip­if)# ip pim enable
RS G8296(config­ip­if)# ip pim component­id 2
RS G8296(config­ip­if)# exit
5. (Optional) Configure PIM border router if the IPMC traffic is flowing between PIM domains: RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# ip pim pmbr enable
G8296(config)# interface ip 22
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip pim border­bit
G8296(config­ip­if)# exit
Note: For PIM Dense Mode, the DR, RP, and BSR settings do not apply.
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Part 6: High Availability
Fundamentals
Internet traffic consists of myriad services and applications which use the Internet Protocol (IP) for data delivery. However, IP is not optimized for all the various applications. High Availability goes beyond IP and makes intelligent switching decisions to provide redundant network configurations.
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Chapter 37. Basic Redundancy
Lenovo Enterprise Network Operating System 8.4 includes various features for providing basic link or device redundancy:
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
“Aggregating for Link Redundancy” on page 574

“Virtual Link Aggregation” on page 574

“Hot Links” on page 575
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Aggregating for Link Redundancy
Multiple switch ports can be combined together to form robust, high‐bandwidth LAGs to other devices. Since LAGs are comprised of multiple physical links, the LAG is inherently fault tolerant. As long as one connection between the switches is available, the LAG remains active.
In Figure 61, four ports are aggregated together between the switch and the enterprise routing device. Connectivity is maintained as long as one of the links remain active. The links to the server are also aggregated, allowing the secondary NIC to take over in the event that the primary NIC link fails.
Figure 61. Aggregating Ports for Link Redundancy
Enterprise
Routing Switch
Server
NIC 1
Internet
NIC 2
LAG
LAG
For more information on aggregation, see Chapter 10, “Ports and Link Aggregation.”
Virtual Link Aggregation
Using the VLAG feature, switches can be paired as VLAG peers. The peer switches appear to the connecting device as a single virtual entity for the purpose of establishing a multi‐port LAG. The VLAG‐capable switches synchronize their logical view of the access layer port structure and internally prevent implicit loops. The VLAG topology also responds more quickly to link failure and does not result in unnecessary MAC flooding.
VLAGs are useful in multi‐layer environments for both uplink and downlink redundancy to any regular LAG‐capable device. They can also be used in for active‐active VRRP connections.
For more information on VLAGs, see Chapter 11, “Virtual Link Aggregation Groups.”
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Hot Links
Hot Links provides basic link redundancy with fast recovery.
Hot Links consists of up to triggers. A trigger consists of a pair of layer 2 interfaces, each containing an individual port, LAG, or LACP adminkey. One interface is the Master, and the other is a Backup. While the Master interface is set to the active state and forwards traffic, the Backup interface is set to the standby state and blocks traffic until the Master interface fails. If the Master interface fails, the Backup interface is set to active and forwards traffic. Once the Master interface is restored, it regains its active state and forwards traffic. The Backup transitions to the standby state.
You may select a physical port, static LAG, or an LACP adminkey as a Hot Link interface.
Forward Delay
The Forward Delay timer allows Hot Links to monitor the Master and Backup interfaces for link stability before selecting one interface to transition to the active state. Before the transition occurs, the interface must maintain a stable link for the duration of the Forward Delay interval.
For example, if you set the Forward delay timer to 10 seconds, the switch will select an interface to become active only if a link remained stable for the duration of the Forward Delay period. If the link is unstable, the Forward Delay period starts again. Preemption
You can configure the Master interface to resume the active state whenever it becomes available. With Hot Links preemption enabled, the Master interface transitions to the active state immediately upon recovery. The Backup interface immediately transitions to the standby state. If Forward Delay is enabled, the transition occurs when an interface has maintained link stability for the duration of the Forward Delay period.
FDB Update
Use the FDB update option to notify other devices on the network about updates to the Forwarding Database (FDB). When you enable FDB update, the switch sends multicasts of addresses in the forwarding database (FDB) over the active interface, so that other devices on the network can learn the new path. The Hot Links FBD update option uses the station update rate to determine the rate at which to send FDB packets.
Configuration Guidelines
The following configuration guidelines apply to Hot links:

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When Hot Links is turned on, STP must be disabled on the hotlink ports.
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
A port that is a member of the Master interface cannot be a member of the Backup interface. A port that is a member of one Hot Links trigger cannot be a member of another Hot Links trigger.

An individual port that is configured as a Hot Link interface cannot be a member of a LAG.
Configuring Hot Links
Spanning Tree Protocol must be disabled on Hot Links ports. For instance, if Hot Links ports 1 and 2 belong to STGs 1 and 23, use the following commands to disable the STGs:
RS G8296(config)# no span stp 1 enable
RS G8296(config)# no span stp 23 enable
Use the following commands to configure Hot Links. RS G8296(config)# [no] hotlinks bpdu (Enable or disable Hot Links BPDU flood)
RS G8296(config)# [no] hotlinks enable (Enable or disable Hot Links globally)
RS G8296(config)# [no] hotlinks fdb­update (Enable or disable Hot Links FDB update)
RS G8296(config)# hotlinks fdb­update­rate (Configure FDB update rate in packets per second)
RS G8296(config)# hotlinks trigger 1 enable (Enable Hot Links Trigger 1)
RS G8296(config)# hotlinks trigger 1 master port 1 (Add port to Master interface)
RS G8296(config)# hotlinks trigger 1 backup port 2 (Add port to Backup interface)
RS G8296(config)# hotlinks enable 576
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(Turn on Hot Links)
Chapter 38. Layer 2 Failover
The primary application for Layer 2 Failover is to support Network Adapter Teaming. With Network Adapter Teaming, all the NICs on each server share the same IP address, and are configured into a team. One NIC is the primary link, and the other is a standby link. For more details, refer to the documentation for your Ethernet adapter. Note: Only two links per server can be used for Layer 2 LAG Failover (one primary and one backup). Network Adapter Teaming allows only one backup NIC for each server blade.
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Monitoring LAG Links
Layer 2 Failover can be enabled on any LAG in the G8296, including LACP LAGs. LAGs can be added to failover trigger groups. Then, if some specified number of monitor links fail, the switch disables all the control ports in the switch. When the control ports are disabled, it causes the NIC team on the affected servers to failover from the primary to the backup NIC. This process is called a failover event.
When the appropriate number of links in a monitor group return to service, the switch enables the control ports. This causes the NIC team on the affected servers to fail back to the primary switch (unless Auto‐Fallback is disabled on the NIC team). The backup switch processes traffic until the primary switch’s control links come up, which can take up to five seconds.
Figure 62 is a simple example of Layer 2 Failover. One G8296 is the primary, and the other is used as a backup. In this example, all ports on the primary switch belong to a single LAG, with Layer 2 Failover enabled, and Failover Limit set to 2. If two or fewer links in trigger 1 remain active, the switch temporarily disables all control ports. This action causes a failover event on Server 1 and Server 2.
Figure 62. Basic Layer 2 Failover
Enterprise
Routing Switches
Primary
Switch
Trigger 1
Server 1
NIC 1
NIC 2
Backup
Switch
Internet
Trigger 1
Server 2
NIC 1
NIC 2
Setting the Failover Limit
The failover limit lets you specify the minimum number of operational links required within each trigger before the trigger initiates a failover event. For example, if the limit is two, a failover event occurs when the number of operational links in the trigger is two or fewer. When you set the limit to zero, the switch triggers a failover event only when no links in the trigger are operational.
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Manually Monitoring Port Links
The Manual Monitor allows you to configure a set of ports and LAGs to monitor for link failures (a monitor list), and another set of ports and LAGs to disable when the trigger limit is reached (a control list). When the switch detects a link failure on the monitor list, it automatically disables the items in control list. When server ports are disabled, the corresponding server’s network adapter can detect the disabled link, and trigger a network‐adapter failover to another port or LAG on the switch, or another switch.
The switch automatically enables the control list items when the monitor list items return to service.
Monitor Port State
A monitor port is considered operational as long as the following conditions are true:
The port must be in the Link Up state.
If STP is enabled, the port must be in the Forwarding state.
 If the port is part of an LACP LAG, the port must be in the Aggregated state.


If any of these conditions is false, the monitor port is considered to have failed.
Control Port State
A control port is considered Operational if the monitor trigger is up. As long as the trigger is up, the port is considered operational from a teaming perspective, even if the port itself is actually in the Down state, Blocking state (if STP is enabled on the port), or Not Aggregated state (if part of an LACP LAG).
A control port is considered to have failed only if the monitor trigger is in the Down state.
To view the state of any port, use one of the following commands:
>> # show interface link
>> # show interface port <x> spanning­tree stp <x>
>> # show lacp information
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(View port link status)
(View port STP status)
(View port LACP status)
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L2 Failover with Other Features
L2 Failover works together with static LAGs, Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP), and with Spanning Tree Protocol (STP), as described in the next sections.
Static LAGs
When you add a portchannel (static LAG) to a failover trigger, any ports in that LAG become members of the trigger. You can add up to 64 static LAGs to a failover trigger, using manual monitoring. LACP
Link Aggregation Control Protocol allows the switch to form dynamic LAGs. You can use the admin key to add up to 64 LACP LAGs to a failover trigger using automatic monitoring. When you add an admin key to a trigger, any LACP LAG with that admin key becomes a member of the trigger.
Spanning Tree Protocol
If Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) is enabled on the ports in a failover trigger, the switch monitors the port STP state rather than the link state. A port failure results when STP is not in a Forwarding state (such as Learning, Discarding, or No Link) in all the Spanning Tree Groups (STGs) to which the port belongs. The switch automatically disables the appropriate control ports.
When the switch determines that ports in the trigger are in STP Forwarding state in any one of the STGs it belongs to, then it automatically enables the appropriate control ports. The switch fails back to normal operation.
For example, if a monitor port is a member of STG1, STG2, and STG3, a failover will be triggered only if the port is not in a forwarding state in all the three STGs. When the port state in any of the three STGs changes to forwarding, then the control port is enabled and normal switch operation is resumed.
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Configuration Guidelines
This section provides important information about configuring Layer 2 Failover.

Any specific failover trigger can monitor ports only, static LAGs only, or LACP LAGs only. The different types cannot be combined in the same trigger.

A maximum of 64 LACP keys can be added per trigger.

Management ports cannot be monitored.

Control ports for different triggers must not overlap. Monitor ports may overlap.
Configuring Layer 2 Failover
Use the following procedure to configure a Layer 2 Failover Manual Monitor. 1. Specify the links to monitor. >> # failover trigger 1 mmon monitor member 1­5
2. Specify the links to disable when the failover limit is reached. >> # failover trigger 1 mmon control member 6­10
3. Configure general Failover parameters.
>> # failover enable
>> # failover trigger 1 enable
>> # failover trigger 1 limit 2
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Chapter 39. Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol
The Lenovo RackSwitch G8296 (G8296) supports IPv4 high‐availability network topologies through an enhanced implementation of the Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol (VRRP).
Note: Lenovo Enterprise Network Operating System 8.4 does not support IPv6 for VRRP.
The following topics are discussed in this chapter:
© Copyright Lenovo 2016

“VRRP Overview” on page 584. This section discusses VRRP operation and Enterprise NOS redundancy configurations.

“Failover Methods” on page 587. This section describes the three modes of high availability.

“Enterprise NOS Extensions to VRRP” on page 588. This section describes VRRP enhancements implemented in ENOS.

“Virtual Router Deployment Considerations” on page 589. This section describes issues to consider when deploying virtual routers.

“High Availability Configurations” on page 591. This section discusses the more useful and easily deployed redundant configurations.
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VRRP Overview
In a high‐availability network topology, no device can create a single point‐of‐failure for the network or force a single point‐of‐failure to any other part of the network. This means that your network will remain in service despite the failure of any single device. To achieve this usually requires redundancy for all vital network components.
VRRP enables redundant router configurations within a LAN, providing alternate router paths for a host to eliminate single points‐of‐failure within a network. Each participating VRRP‐capable routing device is configured with the same virtual router IPv4 address and ID number. One of the virtual routers is elected as the master, based on a number of priority criteria, and assumes control of the shared virtual router IPv4 address. If the master fails, one of the backup virtual routers will take control of the virtual router IPv4 address and actively process traffic addressed to it.
With VRRP, Virtual Interface Routers (VIR) allow two VRRP routers to share an IP interface across the routers. VIRs provide a single Destination IPv4 (DIP) address for upstream routers to reach various servers, and provide a virtual default Gateway for the servers.
VRRP Components
Each physical router running VRRP is known as a VRRP router.
Virtual Router
Two or more VRRP routers can be configured to form a virtual router (RFC 2338). Each VRRP router may participate in one or more virtual routers. Each virtual router consists of a user‐configured virtual router identifier (VRID) and an IPv4 address.
Virtual Router MAC Address
The VRID is used to build the virtual router MAC Address. The five highest‐order octets of the virtual router MAC Address are the standard MAC prefix (00‐00‐5E‐00‐01) defined in RFC 2338. The VRID is used to form the lowest‐order octet.
Owners and Renters
Only one of the VRRP routers in a virtual router may be configured as the IPv4 address owner. This router has the virtual router’s IPv4 address as its real interface address. This router responds to packets addressed to the virtual router’s IPv4 address for ICMP pings, TCP connections, and so on.
There is no requirement for any VRRP router to be the IPv4 address owner. Most VRRP installations choose not to implement an IPv4 address owner. For the purposes of this chapter, VRRP routers that are not the IPv4 address owner are called renters.
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Master and Backup Virtual Router
Within each virtual router, one VRRP router is selected to be the virtual router master. See “Selecting the Master VRRP Router” on page 586 for an explanation of the selection process.
Note: If the IPv4 address owner is available, it will always become the virtual router master.
The virtual router master forwards packets sent to the virtual router. It also responds to Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) requests sent to the virtual routerʹs IPv4 address. Finally, the virtual router master sends out periodic advertisements to let other VRRP routers know it is alive and its priority.
Within a virtual router, the VRRP routers not selected to be the master are known as virtual router backups. If the virtual router master fails, one of the virtual router backups becomes the master and assumes its responsibilities.
Virtual Interface Router
At Layer 3, a Virtual Interface Router (VIR) allows two VRRP routers to share an IP interface across the routers. VIRs provide a single Destination IPv4 (DIP) address for upstream routers to reach various destination networks, and provide a virtual default Gateway.
Note: Every VIR must be assigned to an IP interface, and every IP interface must be assigned to a VLAN. If no port in a VLAN has link up, the IP interface of that VLAN is down, and if the IP interface of a VIR is down, that VIR goes into INIT state.
VRRP Operation
Only the virtual router master responds to ARP requests. Therefore, the upstream routers only forward packets destined to the master. The master also responds to ICMP ping requests. The backup does not forward any traffic, nor does it respond to ARP requests.
If the master is not available, the backup becomes the master and takes over responsibility for packet forwarding and responding to ARP requests.
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Selecting the Master VRRP Router
Each VRRP router is configured with a priority between 1–254. A bidding process determines which VRRP router is or becomes the master—the VRRP router with the highest priority.
The master periodically sends advertisements to an IPv4 multicast address. As long as the backups receive these advertisements, they remain in the backup state. If a backup does not receive an advertisement for three advertisement intervals, it initiates a bidding process to determine which VRRP router has the highest priority and takes over as master. In addition to the three advertisement intervals, a manually set holdoff time can further delay the backups from assuming the master status.
If, at any time, a backup determines that it has higher priority than the current master does, it can preempt the master and become the master itself, unless configured not to do so. In preemption, the backup assumes the role of master and begins to send its own advertisements. The current master sees that the backup has higher priority and will stop functioning as the master.
A backup router can stop receiving advertisements for one of two reasons—the master can be down, or all communications links between the master and the backup can be down. If the master has failed, it is clearly desirable for the backup (or one of the backups, if there is more than one) to become the master.
Note: If the master is healthy but communication between the master and the backup has failed, there will then be two masters within the virtual router. To prevent this from happening, configure redundant links to be used between the switches that form a virtual router.
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Failover Methods
With service availability becoming a major concern on the Internet, service providers are increasingly deploying Internet traffic control devices, such as application switches, in redundant configurations. ENOS high availability configurations are based on VRRP. The ENOS implementation of VRRP includes proprietary extensions.
Active-Active Redundancy
In an active‐active configuration, shown in Figure 63, two switches provide redundancy for each other, with both active at the same time. Each switch processes traffic on a different subnet. When a failure occurs, the remaining switch can process traffic on all subnets.
For a configuration example, see “High Availability Configurations” on page 591.
Figure 63. Active‐Active Redundancy
Active (subnet A and C)
Switch 1
Servers
Internet
Enterprise
Routing Switch
Switch 2
Active (subnet B and D)
Virtual Router Group
The virtual router group ties all virtual routers on the switch together as a single entity. As members of a group, all virtual routers on the switch (and therefore the switch itself), are in either a master or standby state.
A VRRP group has the following characteristics:

When enabled, all virtual routers behave as one entity, and all group settings override any individual virtual router settings.

All individual virtual routers, once the VRRP group is enabled, assume the group’s tracking and priority.

When one member of a VRRP group fails, the priority of the group decreases, and the state of the entire switch changes from Master to Standby.

When VRRP group restrictions are enabled, advertisements for the group are sent and received only on VRRP group interface.
Each VRRP advertisement can include up to 16 addresses. All virtual routers are advertised within the same packet, conserving processing and buffering resources.
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Enterprise NOS Extensions to VRRP
This section describes VRRP enhancements that are implemented in ENOS.
ENOS supports a tracking function that dynamically modifies the priority of a VRRP router, based on its current state. The objective of tracking is to have, whenever possible, the master bidding processes for various virtual routers in a LAN converge on the same switch. Tracking ensures that the selected switch is the one that offers optimal network performance. For tracking to have any effect on virtual router operation, preemption must be enabled.
ENOS can track the attributes listed in Table 42 (Router VRRP mode):
Table 42. VRRP Tracking Parameters
Parameter
Description
Number of IP interfaces on the switch that are active (“up”)
Helps elect the virtual routers with the most available routes as the master. (An IP interface is considered active when there tracking­priority­increment is at least one active port on the same interfaces
VLAN.) This parameter influences the VRRP routerʹs priority in virtual interface routers. Helps elect the virtual routers with the most available ports as the master. This parameter influences the VRRP routerʹs tracking­priority­increment priority in virtual interface routers.
ports
Number of active ports on the same VLAN
Number of virtual routers in master Useful for ensuring that traffic for any mode on the switch
particular client/server pair is handled by the same switch, increasing routing tracking­priority­increment efficiency. This parameter influences the virtual­routers
VRRP routerʹs priority in virtual interface routers.
A health check mechanism that is used to track the next hop. This parameter virtual­router <x> next­hop influences the VRRP router’s priority <IP address> [ICMP|ARP] based on the availability of the next hop.
[<interval>] [<retries>]
Next hop tracking
Each tracked parameter has a user‐configurable weight associated with it. As the count associated with each tracked item increases (or decreases), so does the VRRP routerʹs priority, subject to the weighting associated with each tracked item. If the priority level of a standby is greater than that of the current master, then the standby can assume the role of the master.
See “Configuring the Switch for Tracking” on page 589 for an example on how to configure the switch for tracking VRRP priority.
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Virtual Router Deployment Considerations
Allow for the following when setting up a virtual router.
Assigning VRRP Virtual Router ID
During the software upgrade process, VRRP virtual router IDs will be automatically assigned if failover is enabled on the switch. When configuring virtual routers at any point after upgrade, virtual router ID numbers must be assigned. The virtual router ID may be configured as any number between 1 and 128. Use the following command to configure the virtual router ID: RS G8296(config)# router vrrp
RS G8296(config­vrrp)# virtual­router 1 virtual­router­id <1‐255>
Configuring the Switch for Tracking
Tracking configuration largely depends on user preferences and network environment. Consider the configuration shown in Figure 63 on page 587. Assume the following behavior on the network:

Switch 1 is the master router upon initialization.

If switch 1 is the master and it has one fewer active servers than switch 2, then switch 1 remains the master.
This behavior is preferred because running one server down is less disruptive than bringing a new master online and severing all active connections in the process.

If switch 1 is the master and it has two or more active servers fewer than switch 2, then switch 2 becomes the master.

If switch 2 is the master, it remains the master even if servers are restored on switch 1 such that it has one fewer or an equal number of servers.

If switch 2 is the master and it has one active server fewer than switch 1, then switch 1 becomes the master.
You can implement this behavior by configuring the switch for tracking as follows:
1. Set the priority for switch 1 to 101.
2. Leave the priority for switch 2 at the default value of 100.
3. On both switches, enable tracking based on ports, interfacesor virtual routers. You can choose any combination of tracking parameters, based on your network configuration.
Note: There is no shortcut to setting tracking parameters. The goals must first be set and the outcomes of various configurations and scenarios analyzed to find settings that meet the goals.
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VRRP - Next Hop Tracking
VRRP can be configured to track next hops. A health check mechanism, using ICMP ping or ARP requests, is used to track the next hop. If the health check succeeds or fails, the priority of the virtual router, for which the next hop tracking was configured, changes based on the configured tracking‐priority‐increment value.
A VRRP group’s priority is calculated as the sum of all priorities for all active next hops. If an active next hop belongs to two virtual routers, then that next‐hop’s priority is added twice.
VRRP next hop tracking can be configured using the following commands: 
Enable VRRP tracking on next hop: RS G8296(config)# virtual-router <x> track next-hops

Configure next hop IP address: RS G8296(config-vrrp)# virtual-router <x> next-hop <IP address>
[ICMP|ARP] [<interval>] [<retries>]
Default Values:
Health check protocol: ICMP
Interval: 2 seconds
Retries: 3
Note: A maximum of four unique next‐hop IP addresses can be configured.

Configure priority for each next hop. The value is added to the virtual router’s priority when the next hop is active, and subtracted, when the next hop goes down: RS G8296(config-vrrp)# tracking-priority-increment next-hop <0‐254>
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High Availability Configurations
The following are possible scenarios using VRRP HA.
VRRP High-Availability Using Multiple VIRs
Figure 64 shows an example configuration where two G8296s are used as VRRP routers in an active‐active configuration. In this configuration, both switches respond to packets.
Figure 64. Active‐Active Configuration using VRRP
L2 Switch
VIR 1: 192.168.1.200 (Master) Server 1
VIR 2: 192.168.2.200 (Backup)
1
2
Internet
NIC 1: 10.0.1.1/24
NIC 2: 10.0.2.1/24
Server 2
Switch 1
NIC 1: 10.0.1.2/24
NIC 2: 10.0.2.2/24
4
Server 3
4
Enterprise
Routing Switch
1
2
L2 Switch
Server 4
Switch 2
VIR 1: 192.168.1.200 (Backup)
VIR 2: 192.168.2.200 (Master)
NIC 1: 10.0.1.3/24
NIC 2: 10.0.2.3/24
NIC 1: 10.0.1.4/24
NIC 2: 10.0.2.4/24
Although this example shows only two switches, there is no limit on the number of switches used in a redundant configuration. It is possible to implement an active‐active configuration across all the VRRP‐capable switches in a LAN.
Each VRRP‐capable switch in an active‐active configuration is autonomous. Switches in a virtual router need not be identically configured.
In the scenario illustrated in Figure 64, traffic destined for IPv4 address 10.0.1.1 is forwarded through the Layer 2 switch at the top of the drawing, and ingresses G8296 1 on port 1. Return traffic uses default gateway 1 (192.168.1.1).
If the link between G8296 1 and the Layer 2 switch fails, G8296 2 becomes the Master because it has a higher priority. Traffic is forwarded to G8296 2, which forwards it to G8296 1 through port 4. Return traffic uses default gateway 2 (192.168.2.1), and is forwarded through the Layer 2 switch at the bottom of the drawing.
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To implement the active‐active example, perform the following switch configuration.
Task 1: Configure G8296 1
1. Configure client and server interfaces.
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G8296(config)# interface ip 1
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip address 192.168.1.100 255.255.255.0
G8296(config­ip­if)# vlan 10
G8296(config­ip­if)# enable
G8296(config­ip­if)# exit
G8296(config)# interface ip 2
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip address 192.168.2.101 255.255.255.0
G8296(config­ip­if)# vlan 20
G8296(config­ip­if)# enable
G8296(config­ip­if)# exit
G8296(config)# interface ip 3
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip address 10.0.1.100 255.255.255.0
G8296(config­ip­if)# enable
G8296(config­ip­if)# exit
G8296(config)# interface ip 4
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip address 10.0.2.101 255.255.255.0
G8296(config­ip­if)# enable
G8296(config­ip­if)# exit
2. Configure the default gateways. Each default gateway points to a Layer 3 router.
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RS
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G8296(config)# ip gateway 1 address 192.168.1.1
G8296(config)# ip gateway 1 enable
G8296(config)# ip gateway 2 address 192.168.2.1
G8296(config)# ip gateway 2 enable
3. Turn on VRRP and configure two Virtual Interface Routers.
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G8296(config)# router vrrp
G8296(config­vrrp)# enable
G8296(config­vrrp)# virtual­router 1 virtual­router­id 1
G8296(config­vrrp)# virtual­router 1 interface 1
G8296(config­vrrp)# virtual­router 1 address 192.168.1.200
G8296(config­vrrp)# virtual­router 1 enable
G8296(config­vrrp)# virtual­router 2 virtual­router­id 2
G8296(config­vrrp)# virtual­router 2 interface 2
G8296(config­vrrp)# virtual­router 2 address 192.168.2.200
G8296(config­vrrp)# virtual­router 2 enable
4. Enable tracking on ports. Set the priority of Virtual Router 1 to 101, so that it becomes the Master.
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G8296(config­vrrp)# virtual­router 1 track ports
G8296(config­vrrp)# virtual­router 1 priority 101
G8296(config­vrrp)# virtual­router 2 track ports
G8296(config­vrrp)# exit
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5. Configure ports.
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G8296(config)# vlan 10
G8296(config­vlan)# exit
G8296(config)# interface port 1
G8296(config­if)# switchport mode trunk
G8296(config­if)# switchport trunk allowed vlan 10
G8296(config­if)# exit
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G8296(config)# vlan 20
G8296(config­vlan)# exit
G8296(config)# interface port 2
G8296(config­if)# switchport mode trunk
G8296(config­if)# switchport trunk allowed vlan 20
G8296(config­if)# exit
6. Turn off Spanning Tree Protocol globally.
RS G8296(config)# no spanning­tree stp 1
Task 2: Configure G8296 2
1. Configure client and server interfaces.
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G8296(config)# interface ip 1
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip address 192.168.1.101 255.255.255.0
G8296(config­ip­if)# vlan 10
G8296(config­ip­if)# enable
G8296(config­ip­if)# exit
G8296(config)# interface ip 2
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip address 192.168.2.100 255.255.255.0
G8296(config­ip­if)# vlan 20
G8296(config­ip­if)# enable
G8296(config­ip­if)# exit
G8296(config)# interface ip 3
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip address 10.0.1.101 255.255.255.0
G8296(config­ip­if)# enable
G8296(config­ip­if)# exit
G8296(config)# interface ip 4
G8296(config­ip­if)# ip address 10.0.2.100 255.255.255.0
G8296(config­ip­if)# enable
G8296(config­ip­if)# exit
2. Configure the default gateways. Each default gateway points to a Layer 3 router.
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G8296(config)# ip gateway 1 address 192.168.2.1
G8296(config)# ip gateway 1 enable
G8296(config)# ip gateway 2 address 192.168.1.1
G8296(config)# ip gateway 2 enable
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3. Turn on VRRP and configure two Virtual Interface Routers.
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G8296(config)# router vrrp
G8296(config­vrrp)# enable
G8296(config­vrrp)# virtual­router 1 virtual­router­id 1
G8296(config­vrrp)# virtual­router 1 interface 1
G8296(config­vrrp)# virtual­router 1 address 192.168.1.200
G8296(config­vrrp)# virtual­router 1 enable
G8296(config­vrrp)# virtual­router 2 virtual­router­id 2
G8296(config­vrrp)# virtual­router 2 interface 2 G8296(config­vrrp)# virtual­router 2 address 192.168.2.200
G8296(config­vrrp)# virtual­router 2 enable
4. Enable tracking on ports. Set the priority of Virtual Router 2 to 101, so that it becomes the Master.
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G8296(config­vrrp)# virtual­router 1 track ports
G8296(config­vrrp)# virtual­router 2 track ports
G8296(config­vrrp)# virtual­router 2 priority 101
G8296(config­vrrp)# exit
5. Configure ports.
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G8296(config)# vlan 10
G8296(config­vlan)# exit
G8296(config)# interface port 1
G8296(config­if)# switchport mode trunk
G8296(config­if)# switchport trunk allowed vlan 10
G8296(config­if)# exit
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G8296(config)# vlan 20
G8296(config­vlan)# exit
G8296(config)# interface port 2
G8296(config­if)# switchport mode trunk
G8296(config­if)# switchport trunk allowed vlan 20
G8296(config­if)# exit
6. Turn off Spanning Tree Protocol globally.
RS G8296(config)# no spanning­tree stp 1
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VRRP High-Availability Using VLAGs
VRRP can be used in conjunction with VLAGs and LACP‐capable servers and switches to provide seamless redundancy.
Figure 65. Active‐Active Configuration using VRRP and VLAGs
VRRP Master
Server 1
VLAG Peer 1
Layer 3
Router
VLAG 1
VIR: 10.0.1.100
1
10
10.0.1.1
11
2
Internet
4
5
4
5
VLAG 2
12
ISL
10.0.1.2
10
1
Server 2
11
12
VLAG 3
Server 3
2
Layer 3
Router
VRRP Backup
10.0.1.3
VLAG Peer 2
VIR: 10.0.1.100
Network 10.0.1.0/24
See “VLAGs with VRRP” on page 184 for a detailed configuration example.
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Part 7: Network
Management
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Chapter 40. Link Layer Discovery Protocol
The Lenovo Enterprise Network Operating System software support Link Layer Discovery Protocol (LLDP). This chapter discusses the use and configuration of LLDP on the switch:
© Copyright Lenovo 2016

“LLDP Overview” on page 600

“Enabling or Disabling LLDP” on page 601

“LLDP Transmit Features” on page 602

“LLDP Receive Features” on page 606

“LLDP Example Configuration” on page 610
599
LLDP Overview
Link Layer Discovery Protocol (LLDP) is an IEEE 802.1AB‐2005 standard for discovering and managing network devices. LLDP uses Layer 2 (the data link layer), and allows network management applications to extend their awareness of the network by discovering devices that are direct neighbors of already known devices.
With LLDP, the G8296 can advertise the presence of its ports, their major capabilities, and their current status to other LLDP stations in the same LAN. LLDP transmissions occur on ports at regular intervals or whenever there is a relevant change to their status. The switch can also receive LLDP information advertised from adjacent LLDP‐capable network devices.
In addition to discovery of network resources, and notification of network changes, LLDP can help administrators quickly recognize a variety of common network configuration problems, such as unintended VLAN exclusions or mis‐matched port aggregation membership.
The LLDP transmit function and receive function can be independently configured on a per‐port basis. The administrator can allow any given port to transmit only, receive only, or both transmit and receive LLDP information.
The LLDP information to be distributed by the G8296 ports, and that which has been collected from other LLDP stations, is stored in the switch’s Management Information Base (MIB). Network Management Systems (NMS) can use Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) to access this MIB information. LLDP‐related MIB information is read‐only.
Changes, either to the local switch LLDP information or to the remotely received LLDP information, are flagged within the MIB for convenient tracking by SNMP‐based management systems.
For LLDP to provide expected benefits, all network devices that support LLDP must be consistent in their LLDP configuration.
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Enabling or Disabling LLDP
Follow the instructions in this section to enable and disable LLDP.
Global LLDP Setting
By default, LLDP is enabled on the G8296. To turn LLDP on or off, use the following command:
RS G8296(config)# [no] lldp enable
(Turn LLDP on or off globally)
Transmit and Receive Control
The G8296 can also be configured to transmit or receive LLDP information on a port‐by‐port basis. By default, when LLDP is globally enabled on the switch, G8296 ports transmit and receive LLDP information (see the tx_rx option in the following example). To change the LLDP transmit and receive state, the following commands are available:
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G8296(config)# interface port 1
G8296(config­if)# lldp admin­status tx_rx
G8296(config­if)# lldp admin­status tx_only
G8296(config­if)# lldp admin­status rx_only
G8296(config­if)# no lldp admin­status
G8296(config­if)# exit
(Select a switch port)
(Transmit and receive LLDP)
(Only transmit LLDP)
(Only receive LLDP)
(Do not participate in LLDP)
(Exit port mode)
To view the LLDP transmit and receive status, use the following commands:
RS G8296(config)# show lldp port
RS G8296(config)# show interface port <n> lldp
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(status of all ports)
(status of selected port)
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LLDP Transmit Features
Numerous LLDP transmit options are available, including scheduled and minimum transmit interval, expiration on remote systems, SNMP trap notification, and the types of information permitted to be shared.
Scheduled Interval
The G8296 can be configured to transmit LLDP information to neighboring devices once each 5 to 32768 seconds. The scheduled interval is global; the same interval value applies to all LLDP transmit‐enabled ports. However, to help balance LLDP transmissions and keep them from being sent simultaneously on all ports, each port maintains its own interval clock, based on its own initialization or reset time. This allows switch‐wide LLDP transmissions to be spread out over time, though individual ports comply with the configured interval.
The global transmit interval can be configured using the following command:
RS G8296(config)# lldp refresh­interval <interval>
where interval is the number of seconds between LLDP transmissions. The range is 5 to 32768. The default is 30 seconds.
Minimum Interval
In addition to sending LLDP information at scheduled intervals, LLDP information is also sent when the G8296 detects relevant changes to its configuration or status (such as when ports are enabled or disabled). To prevent the G8296 from sending multiple LLDP packets in rapid succession when port status is in flux, a transmit delay timer can be configured.
The transmit delay timer represents the minimum time permitted between successive LLDP transmissions on a port. Any interval‐driven or change‐driven updates will be consolidated until the configured transmit delay expires.
The minimum transmit interval can be configured using the following command:
RS G8296(config)# lldp transmission­delay <interval>
where interval is the minimum number of seconds permitted between successive LLDP transmissions on any port. The range is 1 to one‐quarter of the scheduled transmit interval (lldp refresh­interval <value>), up to 8192. The default is 2 seconds.
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Time-to-Live for Transmitted Information
The transmitted LLDP information is held by remote systems for a limited time. A time‐to‐live parameter allows the switch to determine how long the transmitted data is held before it expires. The hold time is configured as a multiple of the configured transmission interval.
RS G8296(config)# lldp holdtime­multiplier <multiplier>
where multiplier is a value between 2 and 10. The default value is 4, meaning that remote systems will hold the port’s LLDP information for 4 x the 30‐second msgtxint value, or 120 seconds, before removing it from their MIB.
Trap Notifications
If SNMP is enabled on the G8296 (see “.Using Simple Network Management Protocol” on page 39), each port can be configured to send SNMP trap notifications whenever LLDP transmissions are sent. By default, trap notification is disabled for each port. The trap notification state can be changed using the following commands (Interface Port mode):
RS G8296(config)# interface port 1
RS G8296(config­if)# [no] lldp trap­notification
RS G8296(config­if)# exit
In addition to sending LLDP information at scheduled intervals, LLDP information is also sent when the G8296 detects relevant changes to its configuration or status (such as when ports are enabled or disabled). To prevent the G8296 from sending multiple trap notifications in rapid succession when port status is in flux, a global trap delay timer can be configured.
The trap delay timer represents the minimum time permitted between successive trap notifications on any port. Any interval‐driven or change‐driven trap notices from the port will be consolidated until the configured trap delay expires.
The minimum trap notification interval can be configured using the following command:
RS G8296(config)# lldp trap­notification­interval <interval>
where interval is the minimum number of seconds permitted between successive LLDP transmissions on any port. The range is 1 to 3600. The default is 5 seconds.
If SNMP trap notification is enabled, the notification messages can also appear in the system log. This is enabled by default. To change whether the SNMP trap notifications for LLDP events appear in the system log, use the following command:
RS G8296(config)# [no] logging log lldp
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Changing the LLDP Transmit State
When the port is disabled, or when LLDP transmit is turned off for the port using the LLDP admin‐status command options (see “Transmit and Receive Control” on page 601), a final LLDP packet is transmitted with a time‐to‐live value of 0. Neighbors that receive this packet will remove the LLDP information associated with the G8296 port from their MIB.
In addition, if LLDP is fully disabled on a port and then later re‐enabled, the G8296 will temporarily delay resuming LLDP transmissions on the port to allow the port LLDP information to stabilize. The reinitialization delay interval can be globally configured for all ports using the following command:
RS G8296(config)# lldp reinit­delay <interval>
where interval is the number of seconds to wait before resuming LLDP transmissions. The range is between 1 and 10. The default is 2 seconds.
Types of Information Transmitted
When LLDP transmission is permitted on the port (see “Enabling or Disabling LLDP” on page 601), the port advertises the following required information in type/length/value (TLV) format:
Chassis ID
Port ID
 LLDP Time‐to‐Live


LLDP transmissions can also be configured to enable or disable inclusion of optional information, using the following command (Interface Port mode): RS G8296(config)# interface port 1
RS G8296(config­if)# [no] lldp tlv <type>
RS G8296(config­if)# exit
where type is an LLDP information option from Table 43:
Table 43. LLDP Optional Information Types
604
Type
Description
Default
portdesc
Port Description
Enabled
sysname
System Name
Enabled
sysdescr
System Description
Enabled
syscap
System Capabilities
Enabled
mgmtaddr
Management Address
Enabled
portvid
IEEE 802.1 Port VLAN ID
Disabled
portprot
IEEE 802.1 Port and Protocol VLAN ID
Disabled
vlanname
IEEE 802.1 VLAN Name
Disabled
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Table 43. LLDP Optional Information Types (continued)
© Copyright Lenovo 2016
Type
Description
Default
protid
IEEE 802.1 Protocol Identity
Disabled
macphy
IEEE 802.3 MAC/PHY Configuration/Status, including the auto‐negotiation, duplex, and speed status of the port.
Disabled
powermdi
IEEE 802.3 Power via MDI, indicating the Disabled
capabilities and status of devices that require or provide power over twisted‐pair copper links.
linkaggr
IEEE 802.3 Link Aggregation status for the port.
Disabled
framesz
IEEE 802.3 Maximum Frame Size for the port.
Disabled
all
Select all optional LLDP information for inclusion or exclusion.
Disabled
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LLDP Receive Features
LLDP on the G8296 has the following features. Types of Information Received
When the LLDP receive option is enabled on a port (see “Enabling or Disabling LLDP” on page 601), the port may receive the following information from LLDP‐capable remote systems:
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Chassis Information
Port Information
LLDP Time‐to‐Live
Port Description
System Name
System Description
System Capabilities Supported/Enabled
Remote Management Address
The G8296 stores the collected LLDP information in the MIB. Each remote LLDP‐capable device is responsible for transmitting regular LLDP updates. If the received updates contain LLDP information changes (to port state, configuration, LLDP MIB structures, deletion), the switch will set a change flag within the MIB for convenient notification to SNMP‐based management systems.
Viewing Remote Device Information
LLDP information collected from neighboring systems can be viewed in numerous ways:
Using a centrally‐connected LLDP analysis server
 Using an SNMP agent to examine the G8296 MIB
 Using the G8296 Browser‐Based Interface (BBI)
 Using commands on the G8296

The following command displays remote LLDP information:
RS G8296(config)# show lldp remote­device [<index number>]
To view a summary of remote information, omit the Index number parameter. For example:
RS G8296(config)# show lldp remote­device
LLDP Remote Devices Information
Legend(possible values in DMAC column) :
NB ­ Nearest Bridge ­ 01­80­C2­00­00­0E
NnTB ­ Nearest non­TPMR Bridge ­ 01­80­C2­00­00­03
NCB ­ Nearest Customer Bridge ­ 01­80­C2­00­00­00
Total number of current entries: 1
LocalPort|Index|Remote Chassis ID |Remote Port|Remote System Name|DMAC
­­­­­­­­­|­­­­­|­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ |­­­­­­­­­­­|­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­|­­­­­
MGT | 1 | 00 00 00 00 11 00| 5 | C12 | NB
20 | 2 | 74 99 75 1c 75 00| 44 | C3+ | NB
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To view detailed information for a remote device, specify the Index number as found in the summary. For example, in keeping with the sample summary, to list details for the first remote device (with an Index value of 1), use the following command:
RS G8296(config)# show lldp remote­device 1
Local Port Alias: 3
Remote Device Index : 1
Remote Device TTL : 99
Remote Device RxChanges : false
Chassis Type : Mac Address
Chassis Id : 00­18­b1­33­1d­00
Port Type : Locally Assigned
Port Id : 23
Port Description : 7
System Name :
System Description: Lenovo Lenovo RackSwitch G8296, Lenovo Networking OS: version 8.4, Boot Image: version 8.4
System Capabilities Supported : bridge, router
System Capabilities Enabled
: bridge, router
Remote Management Address:
Subtype Address Interface Subtype
Interface Number Object Identifier
: IPv4
: 10.100.120.181
: ifIndex
: 128
:
Note: Received LLDP information can change very quickly. When using show commands, it is possible that flags for some expected events may be too short‐lived to be observed in the output.
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To view detailed information of all remote devices, use the following command: RS G8296# show lldp remote­device detail
Local Port Alias: MGTA Remote Device Index
: 1
Remote Device TTL
: 4678
Remote Device RxChanges
: false
Chassis Type
: Mac Address
Chassis Id
: 08­17­f4­a1­db­00
Port Type
: Locally Assigned
Port Id
: 25
Port Description
: MGTA
System Name
:
System Description
: Lenovo Lenovo RackSwitch G8296, Lenovo Networking OS: version 8.4, Boot Image: version 6.9.1.14
System Capabilities Supported : bridge, router
System Capabilities Enabled
: bridge, router
Remote Management Address:
Subtype
Address
Interface Subtype
Interface Number
Object Identifier
: IPv4
: 10.38.22.23
: ifIndex
: 127
:
Local Port Alias: 2
Remote Device Index
Remote Device TTL
Remote Device RxChanges
Chassis Type
Chassis Id
Port Type
Port Id
Port Description
: 2
: 4651
: false
: Mac Address
: 08­17­f4­a1­db­00
: Locally Assigned
: 2
: 2
System Name :
System Description
: Lenovo Lenovo RackSwitch G8296, Lenovo Networking OS: version 8.4, Boot Image: version 6.9.1.14
System Capabilities Supported : bridge, router
System Capabilities Enabled
: bridge, router
Remote Management Address:
Subtype
Address
Interface Subtype
Interface Number
Object Identifier
: IPv4
: 10.38.22.23
: ifIndex
: 127
:
Total entries displayed: 2
Time-to-Live for Received Information
Each remote device LLDP packet includes an expiration time. If the switch port does not receive an LLDP update from the remote device before the time‐to‐live clock expires, the switch will consider the remote information to be invalid, and will remove all associated information from the MIB.
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Remote devices can also intentionally set their LLDP time‐to‐live to 0, indicating to the switch that the LLDP information is invalid and must be immediately removed.
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LLDP Example Configuration
1. Turn LLDP on globally.
RS G8296(config)# lldp enable
2. Set the global LLDP timer features.
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# lldp refresh­interval 30(Transmit each 30 seconds)
G8296(config)# lldp transmission­delay 2(No more often than 2 sec.)
G8296(config)# lldp holdtime­multiplier 4(Remote hold 4 intervals)
G8296(config)# lldp reinit­delay 2 (Wait 2 sec. after reinit.)
G8296(config)# lldp trap­notification­interval 5(Minimum 5 sec. between)
3. Set LLDP options for each port.
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# interface port <n>
(Select a switch port)
G8296(config­if)# lldp admin­status tx_rx(Transmit and receive LLDP)
G8296(config­if)# lldp trap­notification(Enable SNMP trap notifications)
G8296(config­if)# lldp tlv all (Transmit all optional information)
G8296(config­if)# exit
4. Enable syslog reporting.
RS G8296(config)# logging log lldp
5. Verify the configuration settings:
RS G8296(config)# show lldp
6. View remote device information as needed.
RS G8296(config)# show lldp remote­device or
RS G8296(config)# show lldp remote­device <index number>
or
RS G8296(config)# show lldp remote­devices detail
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Chapter 41. Simple Network Management Protocol
Lenovo Enterprise Network Operating System provides Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) version 1, version 2, and version 3 support for access through any network management software, such as IBM Director or HP‐OpenView.
Note: SNMP read and write functions are enabled by default. For best security practices, if SNMP is not needed for your network, it is recommended that you disable these functions prior to connecting the switch to the network.
SNMP Version 1 & Version 2
To access the SNMP agent on the G8296, the read and write community strings on the SNMP manager must be configured to match those on the switch. The default read community string on the switch is public and the default write community string is private.
The read and write community strings on the switch can be changed using the following commands on the CLI: RS G8296(config)# snmp­server read­community <1‐32 characters>
‐and‐
RS G8296(config)# snmp­server write­community <1‐32 characters>
The SNMP manager must be able to reach the management interface or any one of the IP interfaces on the switch.
For the SNMP manager to receive the SNMPv1 traps sent out by the SNMP agent on the switch, configure the trap host on the switch with the following command: RS G8296(config)# snmp­server trap­source <trap source IP interface>
RS G8296(config)# snmp­server host <IPv4 address> <trap host community string>
Note: You can use a loopback interface to set the source IP address for SNMP traps. Use the following command to apply a configured loopback interface:
RS G8296(config)# snmp­server trap­source loopback <1‐5>
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SNMP Version 3
SNMP version 3 (SNMPv3) is an enhanced version of the Simple Network Management Protocol, approved by the Internet Engineering Steering Group in March, 2002. SNMPv3 contains additional security and authentication features that provide data origin authentication, data integrity checks, timeliness indicators and encryption to protect against threats such as masquerade, modification of information, message stream modification and disclosure.
SNMPv3 allows clients to query the MIBs securely.
SNMPv3 configuration is managed using the following command path menu: RS G8296(config)# snmp­server ?
For more information on SNMP MIBs and the commands used to configure SNMP on the switch, see the Lenovo Enterprise Network Operating System 8.4 Command Reference.
Default Configuration
Enterprise NOS has three SNMPv3 users by default. All the three users have access to all the MIBs supported by the switch:
User 1 name is adminmd5 (password adminmd5). Authentication used is MD5. Privacy protocol used is DES.
 User 2 name is adminsha (password adminsha). Authentication used is SHA. Privacy protocol used is DES.
 User 3 name is adminshaaes (password Edpq132x!#9Zpx432w). Authentica‐
tion used is SHA. Privacy protocol used is AES‐128.

In boot strict mode (See “Boot Strict Mode” on page 51), Enterprise NOS has one SNMPv3 user:

User 1 name is adminshaaes (password Edpq132x!#9Zpx432w). Authentica‐
tion used is SHA. Privacy protocol used is AES‐128.
Up to 17 SNMP users can be configured on the switch. To modify an SNMP user, enter the following commands: RS G8296(config)# snmp­server user <1‐17> name <1‐32 characters>
Users can be configured to use the authentication/privacy options. The G8296 support two authentication algorithms: MD5 and SHA, as specified in the following command: RS G8296(config)# snmp­server user <1‐17> authentication­protocol {md5|sha} authentication­password
‐or‐
RS G8296(config)# snmp­server user <1‐17> authentication­protocol none
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User Configuration Example
1. To configure a user with name “admin,” authentication type MD5, and authentication password of “admin,” privacy option DES with privacy password of “admin,” use the following CLI commands. RS G8296(config)# snmp­server user 5 name admin
RS G8296(config)# snmp­server user 5 authentication­protocol md5 authentication­password
Changing authentication password; validation required: Enter current admin password:
<admin. password>
Enter new authentication password:
<auth. password; Should be more than 18 characters >
Re­enter new authentication password: <auth. password>
New authentication password accepted.
RS G8296(config)# snmp­server user 5 privacy­protocol des privacy­password
Changing privacy password; validation required:
Enter current admin password:
<admin. password>
Enter new privacy password:
Re­enter new privacy password:
New privacy password accepted.
<privacy password; Should be more than 18 characters>
<privacy password>
2. Configure a user access group, along with the views the group may access. Use the access table to configure the group’s access level. RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# snmp­server access 5 name admingrp
G8296(config)# snmp­server access 5 level authpriv
G8296(config)# snmp­server access 5 read­view iso
G8296(config)# snmp­server access 5 write­view iso
G8296(config)# snmp­server access 5 notify­view iso
Because the read view, write view, and notify view are all set to “iso,” the user type has access to all private and public MIBs.
3. Assign the user to the user group. Use the group table to link the user to a particular access group. RS G8296(config)# snmp­server group 5 user­name admin
RS G8296(config)# snmp­server group 5 group­name admingrp
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Configuring SNMP Trap Hosts
Follow these instructions to configure SNMP trap hosts.
SNMPv1 Trap Host
1. Configure a user with no authentication and password.
RS G8296(config)# snmp­server user 10 name v1trap
2. Configure an access group and group table entries for the user. Use the following menu to specify which traps can be received by the user:
RS G8296(config)# snmp­server access <user number>
In the following example the user will receive the traps sent by the switch.
RS G8296(config)# snmp­server access 10 (Access group to view SNMPv1 traps)
name v1trap
security snmpv1
notify­view iso
RS G8296(config)# snmp­server group 10 (Assign user to the access group)
security snmpv1
user­name v1trap
group­name v1trap
3. Configure an entry in the notify table. RS G8296(config)# snmp­server notify 10 name v1trap
RS G8296(config)# snmp­server notify 10 tag v1trap
4. Specify the IPv4 address and other trap parameters in the targetAddr and targetParam tables. Use the following commands to specify the user name associated with the targetParam table: RS G8296(config)# snmp­server target­address 10 name v1trap address 10.70.70.190
RS G8296(config)# snmp­server target­address 10 parameters­name v1param
RS G8296(config)# snmp­server target­address 10 taglist v1param
RS G8296(config)# snmp­server target­parameters 10 name v1param
RS G8296(config)# snmp­server target­parameters 10 user­name v1only
RS G8296(config)# snmp­server target­parameters 10 message snmpv1
Note: ENOS 8.4 supports only IPv4 addresses for SNMPv1 and SNMPv2 trap hosts.
5. Use the community table to specify which community string is used in the trap.
RS G8296(config)# snmp­server community 10( Define the community string) index v1trap
name public
user­name v1trap 614
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SNMPv2 Trap Host Configuration
The SNMPv2 trap host configuration is similar to the SNMPv1 trap host configuration. Wherever you specify the model, use snmpv2 instead of snmpv1. RS G8296(config)# snmp­server user 10 name v2trap
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# snmp­server group 10 security snmpv2
G8296(config)# snmp­server group 10 user­name v2trap
G8296(config)# snmp­server group 10 group­name v2trap
G8296(config)# snmp­server access 10 name v2trap
G8296(config)# snmp­server access 10 security snmpv2
G8296(config)# snmp­server access 10 notify­view iso
RS G8296(config)# snmp­server notify 10 name v2trap
RS G8296(config)# snmp­server notify 10 tag v2trap
RS G8296(config)# snmp­server target­address 10 name v2trap address 100.10.2.1
RS G8296(config)# snmp­server target­address 10 taglist v2trap
RS G8296(config)# snmp­server target­address 10 parameters­name v2param
RS G8296(config)# snmp­server target­parameters 10 name v2param
RS G8296(config)# snmp­server target­parameters 10 message snmpv2c
RS G8296(config)# snmp­server target­parameters 10 user­name v2trap
RS G8296(config)# snmp­server target­parameters 10 security snmpv2
RS G8296(config)# snmp­server community 10 index v2trap
RS G8296(config)# snmp­server community 10 user­name v2trap
Note: ENOS 8.4 supports only IPv4 addresses for SNMPv1 and SNMPv2 trap hosts.
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SNMPv3 Trap Host Configuration
To configure a user for SNMPv3 traps, you can choose to send the traps with both privacy and authentication, with authentication only, or without privacy or authentication.
This is configured in the access table using the following commands: RS G8296(config)# snmp­server access <1‐32> level
RS G8296(config)# snmp­server target­parameters <1‐16> level
Configure the user in the user table accordingly.
It is not necessary to configure the community table for SNMPv3 traps because the community string is not used by SNMPv3.
The following example shows how to configure a SNMPv3 user v3trap with authentication only: RS G8296(config)# snmp­server user 11 name v3trap
RS G8296(config)# snmp­server user 11 authentication­protocol md5 authentication­password
Changing authentication password; validation required: Enter current admin password:
<admin. password>
Enter new authentication password:
<auth. password>
Re­enter new authentication password: <auth. password>
New authentication password accepted.
RS G8296(config)# snmp­server access 11 notify­view iso
RS G8296(config)# snmp­server access 11 level authNopriv
RS G8296(config)# snmp­server group 11 user­name v3trap
RS G8296(config)# snmp­server group 11 group­name v3trap
RS G8296(config)# snmp­server notify 11 name v3trap
RS G8296(config)# snmp­server notify 11 tag v3trap
RS G8296(config)# snmp­server target­address 11 name v3trap address 47.81.25.66
RS G8296(config)# snmp­server target­address 11 taglist v3trap
RS G8296(config)# snmp­server target­address 11 parameters­name v3param
RS G8296(config)# snmp­server target­parameters 11 name v3param
RS G8296(config)# snmp­server target­parameters 11 user­name v3trap
RS G8296(config)# snmp­server target­parameters 11 level authNoPriv
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SNMP MIBs
The ENOS SNMP agent supports SNMP version 3. Security is provided through SNMP community strings. The default community strings are “public” for SNMP GET operation and “private” for SNMP SET operation. The community string can be modified only through the Industry Standard Command Line Interface (ISCLI). Detailed SNMP MIBs and trap definitions of the ENOS SNMP agent are contained in the ENOS enterprise MIB document.
The ENOS SNMP agent supports the following standard MIBs:

























dot1x.mib
ieee8021ab.mib
ieee8023ad.mib
rfc1213.mib
rfc1215.mib
rfc1493.mib
rfc1573.mib
rfc1643.mib
rfc1657.mib
rfc1757.mib
rfc1850.mib
rfc1907.mib
rfc2037.mib
rfc2233.mib
rfc2465.mib
rfc2571.mib
rfc2572.mib
rfc2573.mib
rfc2574.mib
rfc2575.mib
rfc2576.mib
rfc2790.mib
rfc3176.mib
rfc4133.mib
rfc4363.mib
The ENOS SNMP agent supports the following generic traps as defined in RFC 1215:
ColdStart
WarmStart
 LinkDown
 LinkUp
 AuthenticationFailure


The SNMP agent also supports two Spanning Tree traps as defined in RFC 1493:


© Copyright Lenovo 2016
NewRoot
TopologyChange
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The following are the enterprise SNMP traps supported in ENOS: Table 44. Enterprise NOS‐Supported Enterprise SNMP Traps
618
Trap Name
Description
swLoginFailure
Signifies that someone failed to enter a valid username/password combination. swTrapDisplayString specifies whether the login attempt was from CONSOLE or TELNET. In case of TELNET login it also specifies the IP address of the host from which the attempt was made.
swValidLogin
Signifies that a user login has occurred.
swApplyComplete
Signifies that new configuration has been applied.
swSaveComplete
Signifies that new configuration has been saved.
swFwDownloadSucess
Signifies that firmware has been downloaded to [image1|image2|boot image].
swFwDownloadFailure
Signifies that firmware downloaded failed to [image1|image2|boot image].
swValidLogout
Signifies that a user logout has occurred.
swPrimaryPowerSupplyFailure
Signifies that the primary power supply has failed.
swPrimaryPowerSupplyFixed
Signifies that the primary power supply has been restored.
swDefAdminDisable
Signifies that the default admin account has been disabled.
swAcntStrngPswdNotMet
Signifies that the configured password does not match strong password complexity.
swAcntLocked Signifies that account has been locked.
swAcntUnlocked Signifies that account has been unlocked.
swStgNewRoot
Signifies that the bridge has become the new root of the STG.
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Table 44. Enterprise NOS‐Supported Enterprise SNMP Traps (continued)
© Copyright Lenovo 2016
Trap Name
Description
swCistNewRoot
Signifies that the bridge has become the new root of the CIST.
swStgTopologyChanged
Signifies that there was a STG topology change.
swCistTopologyChanged
Signifies that there was a CIST topology change.
swHotlinksMasterUp
Signifies that the Master interface is active.
swHotlinksMasterDn
Signifies that the Master interface is not active.
swHotlinksBackupUp
Signifies that the Backup interface is active.
swHotlinksBackupDn
Signifies that the Backup interface is not active.
swHotlinksNone
Signifies that there are no active interfaces.
swTeamingCtrlUp
Signifies that the teaming is up.
swTeamingCtrlDown
Signifies that the teaming control is down.
swTeamingCtrlDownTearDownBlked
Signifies that the teaming control is down but teardown is blocked.
swTeamingCtrlError
Signifies error, action is undefined.
swLACPPortBlocked
Signifies that LACP is operationally down on a port, and traffic is blocked on the port.
swLACPPortUnblocked
Signifies that LACP is operationally up on a port, and traffic is no longer blocked on the port.
swLFDPortErrdisabled
Signifies that a port is error‐disabled due to excessive link flaps.
swVlagInstanceUp
Signifies that VLAG instance is up identified in the trap message.
swVlagInstanceRemoteUp
Signifies that VLAG is down but instance on the remote instance is up.
swVlagInstanceLocalUp
Signifies that VLAG is down but local instance is up.
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Table 44. Enterprise NOS‐Supported Enterprise SNMP Traps (continued)
620
Trap Name
Description
swVlagInstanceDown
Signifies that VLAG instance is down identified in the trap message.
swVlagIslUp
Signifies that connection between VLAG switches is up.
swVlagIslDown
Signifies that connection between VLAG switches is down.
sw8021x
Signifies 802.1x feature is enabled.
swDefGwUp
Signifies that the default gateway is alive. ipCurCfgGwIndex is the index of the Gateway in ipCurCfgGwTable. The range for ipCurCfgGwIndex is from 1 to ipGatewayTableMax. ipCurCfgGwAddr is the IP address of the default gateway.
swDefGwDown
Signifies that the default gateway is down. ipCurCfgGwIndex is the index of the Gateway in ipCurCfgGwTable. The range for ipCurCfgGwIndex is from 1 to ipGatewayTableMax. ipCurCfgGwAddr is the IP address of the default gateway.
swDefGwInService
Signifies that the default gateway is up and in service. ipCurCfgGwIndex is the index of the Gateway in ipCurCfgGwTable. The range for ipCurCfgGwIndex is from 1 to ipGatewayTableMax. ipCurCfgGwAddr is the IP address of the default gateway.
swDefGwNotInService
Signifies that the default gateway is alive but not in service. ipCurCfgGwIndex is the index of the Gateway in ipCurCfgGwTable. The range for ipCurCfgGwIndex is from 1 to ipGatewayTableMax. ipCurCfgGwAddr is the IP address of the default gateway.
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Table 44. Enterprise NOS‐Supported Enterprise SNMP Traps (continued)
© Copyright Lenovo 2016
Trap Name
Description
swVrrpNewMaster
Indicates that the sending agent has transitioned to “Master” state. vrrpCurCfgVirtRtrIndx is the VRRP virtual router table index referenced in vrrpCurCfgVirtRtrTable. The range is from 1 to vrrpVirtRtrTableMaxSize. vrrpCurCfgVirtRtrAddr is the VRRP virtual router IP address.
swVrrpNewBackup
Indicates that the sending agent has transitioned to “Backup” state. vrrpCurCfgVirtRtrIndx is the VRRP virtual router table index referenced in vrrpCurCfgVirtRtrTable. The range is from 1 to vrrpVirtRtrTableMaxSize. vrrpCurCfgVirtRtrAddr is the VRRP virtual router IP address.
swVrrpAuthFailure
Signifies that a packet has been received from a router whose authentication key or authentication type conflicts with this routerʹs authentication key or authentication type. Implementation of this trap is optional. vrrpCurCfgIfIndx is the VRRP interface index. This is equivalent to ifIndex in RFC 1213 mib. The range is from 1 to vrrpIfTableMaxSize. vrrpCurCfgIfPasswd is the password for authentication. It is a DisplayString of 0 to 7 characters.
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Table 44. Enterprise NOS‐Supported Enterprise SNMP Traps (continued)
622
Trap Name
Description
swTcpHoldDown
Signifies that new TCP connection requests from a particular client will be blocked for a pre‐determined amount of time since the rate of new TCP connections from that client has reached a pre‐determined threshold. The fltCurCfgSrcIp is the client source IP address for which new TCP connection requests will be blocked. The swTrapRate specifies the amount of time in minutes that the particular client will be blocked.
swNTPSyncFailed
Signifies that synchronization with the NTP server has failed.
swNTPUpdateClock
Signifies that the system clock is updated with NTP server.
swECMPGatewayUp
Signifies that the ECMP gateway is up.
swECMPGatewayDown
Signifies that the ECMP gateway is down.
swTempExceedThreshold
Signifies that the switch temperature has exceeded maximum safety limits.
swFanFailure
Signifies that fan failure has been detected.
swFanFailureFixed
Signifies that the fan failure has been fixed.
swTempReturnThreshold
Signifies that the switch temperature has returned to under maximum safety limits.
swVMGroupVMotion
Signifies that a virtual machine has moved from a port to another.
swVMGroupVMOnline
Signifies that an advance provisioned virtual machine has came online.
swVMGroupVMVlanChange
Signifies that a virtual machine has entered a VLAN, or changed the VLAN.
swVmCheckSpoofedvm
Signifies that a spoofed VM MAC was found.
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Table 44. Enterprise NOS‐Supported Enterprise SNMP Traps (continued)
© Copyright Lenovo 2016
Trap Name
Description
swOflowConnectControllerFailure
Signifies that the connection to OpenFlow controller is broken.
swOflowConnectControllerSuccess
Signifies that the connection to OpenFlow controller is successful.
swOflowEmergencyState
Signifies that the OpenFlow switch has moved to emergency state.
swOflowNoEmergencyState
Signifies that the OpenFlow switch is out of emergency state.
swOflowSwitchOflowMode
Signifies that the device is working in OpenFlow switch mode.
swOflowSwitchNomalMode
Signifies that the device is working in normal switch mode.
swOflowSwitchFlowtableClr
Signifies that the flow table entries are cleared from the device.
swOflowSwitchStatsClr
Signifies that the OpenFlow statistics are cleared from the device.
swOflowFlowtableEntryUnavail
Signifies that the device is unable to add flow entry in OpenFlow due to unavailability of system resources.
swOflowFlowtableLimit
Signifies that the device has reached its configured flow limit.
swOflowPortDownController
Signifies that the port is operationally down by OpenFlow controller.
swOflowPortUpController
Signifies that the port is operationally up by OpenFlow controller.
swOflowVersionNegotiationError
Signifies that the device is unable to connect to controller either due to bad version, or negotiation/hello failure.
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Switch Images and Configuration Files
This section describes how to use MIB calls to work with switch images and configuration files. You can use a standard SNMP tool to perform the actions, using the MIBs listed in the table below. The table lists the MIBS used to perform operations associated with the Switch Image and Configuration files. The following SNMP actions can be performed using the MIBs listed in the table:
624

Load a new Switch image (boot or running) from an FTP, SFTP, or TFTP server 
Load a previously saved switch configuration from an FTP, SFTP, or TFTP server

Save the switch configuration to an FTP, SFTP, or TFTP server

Save a switch dump to an FTP, SFTP, or TFTP server
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Loading a New Switch Image
To load a new switch image with the name “MyNewImage­1.img” into image2, follow these steps. This example shows an FTP or TFTP server at IPv4 address 192.168.10.10, though IPv6 is also supported.
1. Set the FTP or TFTP server address where the switch image resides: Set agTransferServer.0 "192.168.10.10"
2. Set the area where the new image will be loaded: Set agTransferImage.0 "image2"
3. Set the name of the image:
Set agTransferImageFileName.0 "MyNewImage­1.img"
4. If you are using an FTP server, enter a username: Set agTransferUserName.0 "MyName"
5. If you are using an FTP server, enter a password: Set agTransferPassword.0 "MyPassword"
6. Initiate the transfer. To transfer a switch image, enter 2 (gtimg): Set agTransferAction.0 "2"
Loading a Saved Switch Configuration
To load a saved switch configuration with the name “MyRunningConfig.cfg” into the switch, follow these steps. This example shows an FTP, SFTP, or TFTP server at IPv4 address 192.168.10.10, though IPv6 is also supported. 1. Set the FTP, SFTP, or TFTP server address where the switch Configuration File resides: Set agTransferServer.0 "192.168.10.10"
2. Set the name of the configuration file: Set agTransferCfgFileName.0 "MyRunningConfig.cfg"
3. If you are using an FTP or SFTP server, enter a username: Set agTransferUserName.0 "MyName"
4. If you are using an FTP or SFTP server, enter a password: Set agTransferPassword.0 "MyPassword"
5. Initiate the transfer. To restore a running configuration, enter 3: Set agTransferAction.0 "3"
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Saving the Switch Configuration
To save the switch configuration to a file server, follow these steps. This example shows an FTP, SFTP, or TFTP server at IPv4 address 192.168.10.10, though IPv6 is also supported. 1. Set the FTP, SFTP, or TFTP server address where the configuration file is saved:
Set agTransferServer.0 "192.168.10.10"
2. Set the name of the configuration file: Set agTransferCfgFileName.0 "MyRunningConfig.cfg"
3. If you are using an FTP or SFTP server, enter a username: Set agTransferUserName.0 "MyName"
4. If you are using an FTP or SFTP server, enter a password: Set agTransferPassword.0 "MyPassword"
5. Initiate the transfer. To save a running configuration file, enter 4: Set agTransferAction.0 "4"
Saving a Switch Dump
To save a switch dump to a file server, follow these steps. This example shows an FTP, SFTP, or TFTP server at 192.168.10.10, though IPv6 is also supported. 1. Set the FTP, SFTP, or TFTP server address where the configuration will be saved: Set agTransferServer.0 "192.168.10.10"
2. Set the name of dump file: Set agTransferDumpFileName.0 "MyDumpFile.dmp"
3. If you are using an FTP or SFTP server, enter a username: Set agTransferUserName.0 "MyName"
4. If you are using an FTP or SFTP server, enter a password: Set agTransferPassword.0 "MyPassword"
5. Initiate the transfer. To save a dump file, enter 5: Set agTransferAction.0 "5"
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Chapter 42. Service Location Protocol
Service Location Protocol (SLP) allows the switch to provide dynamic directory services that help users find servers by attributes rather than by name or address. SLP eliminates the need for a user to know the name of a network host supporting a service. SLP allows the user to bind a service description to the network address of the service.
Service Location Protocol is described in RFC 2608. SLP defines specialized components called agents that perform tasks and support services as follows:

User Agent (UA) supports service query functions. It requests service information for user applications. The User Agent retrieves service information from the Service Agent or Directory Agents. A Host On‐Demand client is an example of a User Agent.

Service Agent (SA) provides service registration and service advertisement. Note: In this release, SA supports UA/DA on Linux with SLPv2 support. 
Directory Agent (DA) collects service information from Service Agents to provide a repository of service information in order to centralize it for efficient access by User Agents. There can only be one Directory Agent present per given host. The Directory Agent acts as an intermediate tier in the SLP architecture, placed between the User Agents and the Service Agents, so they communicate only with the Directory Agent instead of with each other. This eliminates a large portion of the multicast request or reply traffic on the network, and it protects the Service Agents from being overwhelmed by too many service requests. Services are described by the configuration of attributes associated with a type of service. A User Agent can select an appropriate service by specifying the attributes that it needs in a service request message. When service replies are returned, they contain a Uniform Resource Locator (URL) pointing to the service desired, and other information, such as server load, needed by the User Agent.
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Active DA Discovery
When a Service Agent or User Agent initializes, it can perform Active Directory Agent Discovery using a multicast service request and specifies the special, reserved service type (service:directory-agent). Active DA Discovery is achieved through the same mechanism as any other discovery using SLP. The Directory Agent replies with unicast service replies, which provides the URLs and attributes of the requested service.
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SLP Configuration
Use the following ISCLI commands to configure SLP for the switch: Table 45. SLP ISCLI Commands
Command Syntax and Usage
[no] ip slp enable
Enables or disables SLP on the switch. Command mode: Global configuration
[no] ip slp active-da-discovery enable
Enables or disables Active DA Discovery. Command mode: Global configuration
ip slp active-da-discovery-start-wait-time <1‐10>
Configures the wait time before starting Active DA Discovery, in seconds. The default value is 3 seconds. Command mode: Global configuration
clear ip slp directory-agents
Clears all Directory Agents learned by the switch. Command mode: Global configuration
show ip slp information
Displays SLP information. Command mode: All show ip slp directory­agents Displays Directory Agents learned by the switch. Command mode: All show ip slp user­agents Displays User Agents information. Command mode: All show ip slp counter
Displays SLP statistics. Command mode: All clear ip slp counters
Clears all Directory Agents learned by the switch. Command mode: Global configuration
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Chapter 43. NETCONF
The Network Configuration Protocol (NETCONF) provides a mechanism to manage the G8296, retrieve or modify existing configuration data, and upload new configuration data. See RFC 4741 for details on NETCONF.
NETCONF operates in a client/server model. The NETCONF client establishes a session with the switch (acting as a NETCONF server) using a Remote Procedure Call (RPC). NETCONF is based on the Extensible Markup Language (XML) for encoding data and for exchanging configuration and protocol messages.
The following topics are discussed in this section:
© Copyright Lenovo 2016

“NETCONF Overview” on page 632

“XML Requirements” on page 633

“Installing the NETCONF Client” on page 634

“Using Juniper Perl Client” on page 636

“Establishing a NETCONF Session” on page 637

“NETCONF Operations” on page 639

“Protocol Operations Examples” on page 640
631
NETCONF Overview
NETCONF provides a method to quickly configure the switch. It also allows you to implement a configuration across multiple switches, thereby saving time and reducing the chances of configuration errors.
The NETCONF protocol defines basic operations that are equivalent to the switch ISCLI commands.
Note: The current implementation of NETCONF supports only ISCLI commands.
NETCONF is a connection‐oriented protocol. See Figure 66 for an overview of NETCONF operation.
Figure 66. NETCONF Operations Procedure
<hello>
<capabilities/>
</hello>
<hello>
<capabilities/>
</hello>
<rpc>
<operation/>
</rpc>
NETCONF
Client
<rpc-reply>
<operation-response/>
</rpc-reply>
<rpc>
<close-session/>
</rpc>
NETCONF
Server
<rpc-reply>
<ok/>
</rpc-reply>
Session
• Session-ID
Transport Layer
Protocol
Connection
• Authentication
• Data integrity
• Confidentiality
Transport Layer
Protocol
1. The client establishes a transport layer connection to the switch (acting as a NETCONF server).
2. The client and switch exchange hello messages to declare their capabilities.
3. The client sends a request via rpc message to the switch.
4. The switch sends a response via rpc­reply message to the client.
Note: Steps 3 and 4 must be repeated for each request that the client sends to the switch.
5. The client sends a close­session message to the switch to end the NETCONF session and the transport layer connection.
6. The switch sends an ok response.
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XML Requirements
XML is the encoding format used within NETCONF. When using XML for NETCONF:

All NETCONF protocol elements are defined in the following namespace:
urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:netconf:base:1.0

NETCONF capability names must be Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs):
urn:ietf:params:netconf:capability:{name}:1.0
where {name} is the name of the capability.

Document type declarations must not appear in the NETCONF content.

For Secure Shell (SSH), you must use a special message termination sequence of six characters to provide message framing:
]]>]]>
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Installing the NETCONF Client
You can download the required NETCONF Client installation files from www.ibm.com. Select Support & downloads > Fixes, updates and drivers. Follow instructions on the IBM Support Portal page to find the files.
Before installing the NETCONF client, ensure you have completed the following tasks:

Install a supported version of Python (Python 2.6 or higher, up to but not including Python 3.0) in the folder C:\.

Install the PyCrypto application appropriate to the Python version you are using.
Note: The following steps are for the Windows operating systems.
Follow these steps to install the Blade NETCONF Python Client (BNClient):
1. Extract the file blade­netconf­python­client­v0.1.zip to the following folder:
C:\
Under the root folder C:\blade­netconf­python­client­v0.1, you will see two folders:

blade­netconf­python­client

python­library
Note: Make sure Paramiko version 1.7.4 or higher is in the folder C:\blade­netconf­python­client­v0.1\python­ssh­library\
2. Open the command prompt (Select Start > Run > cmd).
3. Enter the following command to install the SSH library: python C:\blade­netconf­python­client­v0.1\python­ssh­library\
paramiko­1.7.6\setup.py install
Note: If the python command does not work from the command prompt, you may need to add a system variable to set the path to the directory where you have installed Python. You can add the system variable at the following location: My
Computer > Properties > Advanced > Environment Variables
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4. Follow these steps to install BNClient:
As a python script:
a. Enter the following command for help: python C:\blade­netconf­python­client­v0.1\blade­netconf­python­
client\bnclient\bnclient.py –h
b. Enter the following command to establish a NETCONF session:

Using SSH to connect to default port 830: python C:\blade­netconf­python­client­v0.1\blade­netconf­python­
client\bnclient\bnclient.py {switch IP address} –u admin –p admin –o get

Using SSH to connect to port 22: python C:\blade­netconf­python­client­v0.1\blade­netconf­python­
client\bnclient\bnclient.py {switch IP address}:22 –u admin –p admin –o get
As a python library:
a. Open the file C:\blade­netconf­python­client­v0.1\blade­netconf­
python­client\example\get.py in a Python editor (For example, IDLE).
b. Change the IP address in the hostname field to the switch IP address, and save the file.
c. Enter the following command to establish a session:
python C:\blade­netconf­python­client­v0.1\blade­netconf­python­
client\setup.py install
d. Enter the following command to get the running configuration:
python C:\blade­netconf­python­client­v0.1\blade­netconf­python­
client\example\get.py
Note: The file get.py is an example of a NETCONF operation python script. You can edit the script or write a new script as per your requirements.
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Using Juniper Perl Client
You can use Juniper Perl client instead of BNClient to communicate with the NETCONF feature on the switch. Follow these steps to use the Juniper Perl client.
Note: You must use the Linux operating system for the Juniper Perl client.
1. Extract the file juniper­netconf­perl­client.zip to the folder:
/home/user/
You will see two folders:

juniper­netconf­perl­client

blade­netconf­perl­scripts
2. Follow these steps to install the Juniper Perl client:
As a Perl library:
a. Change to the following directory:
/home/user/juniper­netconf­perl­client
b. Extract the following file:
netconf­perl­10.0R2.10.tar.gz
c. Change to the following directory:
/home/user/juniper­netconf­perl­client/netconf­perl­10.0R2
.10
d. Install the client as per the instructions in the README file.
Note: If the prerequisites package installation fails, manually install each file in /home/user/juniper­netconf­perl­client\netconf­perl­prereqs­
patch.
As a Perl script:
a. Change to the following directory:
/home/user/blade­netconf­perl­scripts/
b. Enter the following command:
perl get/get.pl ­l admin ­p admin {swich IP address}
Note: get.pl is an example of a NETCONF operation Perl script. You can edit the script or write a new script as per your requirement.
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Establishing a NETCONF Session
SSH is the widely used protocol for NETCONF sessions. The default SSH port for NETCONF is 830. The client may also connect to the switch through SSH port 22.
Follow these steps to establish a NETCONF session. Enter commands in the client Linux Shell.
Note: You can open a maximum of four simultaneous sessions.
1. Enter the following command to open an SSH connection:
ssh admin@{switch IP address} ­p 830 ­s netconf
2. Type or paste the following hello message:
<hello>
<capabilities>
<capability>urn:ietf:params:netconf:base:1.0</capability>
</capabilities>
</hello>
]]>]]>
The switch returns a hello message:
<hello xmlns=“urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:netconf:base:1.0”>
<capabilities>
<capability>urn:ietf:params:netconf:base:1.0</capability>
<capability>urn:ietf:params:netconf:capability:writable­running:1.0</capab
ility>
<capability>urn:ietf:params:netconf:capability:rollback­on­error:1.0</capa
bility>
<capability>urn:ietf:params:netconf:capability:startup:1.0</capability>
</capabilities> <session­id>102</session­id> </hello> ]]>]]>
3. Type or paste the following rpc message. The get operation is used as an example.
<rpc message­id=“100”>
<get>
<filter type=“subtree”>
<configuration­text/>
</filter>
</get>
</rpc>
]]>]]> © Copyright Lenovo 2016
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The switch sends an rpc­reply message:
<rpc­reply message­id=“100”>
<data>
<configuration­text xmlns=“http://www.ibm.com/netconf/1.0/config­text”> version “8.4.1”
switch­type “Lenovo Lenovo RackSwitch G8296”
!
!
no system dhcp mgta
!
!
interface ip 127 ip address 172.31.36.51
enable
exit
!
ip gateway 3 address 172.31.1.1
ip gateway 3 enable
!
!
end
</configuration­text>
</data>
</rpc­reply>
]]>]]>
Note: Repeat Step 3 for each request you need to send to the switch.
4. Type or paste the following close­session message to close the NETCONF session and terminate the SSH connection.
<rpc message­id=“101”>
<close­session/>
</rpc>
]]>]]>
The switch sends the following response:
<rpc­reply message­id=“101”>
<ok/>
</rpc­reply>
]]>]]>
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NETCONF Operations
The NETCONF protocol provides a set of operations to manage and retrieve switch configuration. Table 46 provides a list of protocol operations supported by the switch.
Table 46. Protocol Operations
© Copyright Lenovo 2016
Operation
Description
get­config
Retrieve all or part of the running or startup configuration.
edit­config
Load all or part of a specified configuration to the running or startup configuration.
copy­config
Replace the target running or startup configuration with a source running or startup configuration.
delete­config
Delete startup configuration.
lock
Lock the running configuration to prevent other users (via another NETCONF session) from changing it.
unlock
Release a locked running configuration.
get
Retrieve running configuration and device state information.
close­session
Request graceful termination of a NETCONF session.
kill­session
Force the termination of a NETCONF session.
get­configuration
Retrieve configuration data from the switch.
get­interface­information
Retrieve interface status information.
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Protocol Operations Examples
Following are examples of the NETCONF protocol operations supported by the G8296.
<get-config>
Usage:
<rpc message­id=“101” xmlns=“urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:netconf:base:1.0”>
<get­config>
<source>
<running/>
</source>
<filter type=“subtree”>
<configuration­text xmlns=“http://www.ibm.com/netconf/1.0/config­text”/>
</filter>
</get­config>
</rpc>
Response from the switch:
<rpc­reply message­id=“101” xmlns=“urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:netconf:base:1.0”>
<data>
<configuration­text xmlns=“http://www.ibm.com/netconf/1.0/config­text”>
<!­­ configuration text... ­­>
</configuration­text>
</data>
</rpc­reply>
See Table 47 for the tag elements and their values.
Table 47. get­config Tag Element Values
640
Tag Element
Description
Value
source
The configuration text you want to retrieve.
running/ or startup/
filter type=“subtree”
The filter type.
subtree
!­­configuration text...­­
Contains the running configuration in ISCLI format.
G8296 Application Guide for ENOS 8.4
<edit-config>
Usage:
<rpc message­id=“101” xmlns=“urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:netconf:base:1.0”>
<edit­config>
<target>
<running/>
</target>
<default­operation>
<merge/>
</default­operation>
<error­option>
<stop­on­error/>
</error­option>
<config­text xmlns=“http://www.ibm.com/netconf/1.0/config­text”>
<configuration­text>hostname Router</configuration­text>
</config­text>
</edit­config>
</rpc>
Response from the switch:
<rpc­reply message­id=“101” xmlns=“urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:netconf:base:1.0”>
<ok/>
</rpc­reply>
See Table 48 for the tag elements and their values.
Table 48. edit­config Tag Element Values
© Copyright Lenovo 2016
Tag Element
Description
Value
target
The configuration you want to edit.
running/ or startup/
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Table 48. edit­config Tag Element Values
Tag Element
Description
Value
default­operation Set the default  merge: The new operation for the configuration is merged edit­config request.
with the target configuration at the corresponding level.
error­option
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
replace: The new configuration replaces the target configuration.

none: The target configuration does not change unless the configuration data in the configuration­text parameter uses the operation attribute to request a different operation.
Set the option to handle  stop­on­error: Abort configuration error.
the edit­config operation on first error. This is the default error‐option.

continue­on­error: Continue to process configuration data on error.

rollback­on­error: Abort the edit­config operation on first error and discard the requested configuration changes.
<copy-config>
Usage:
<rpc message­id=“101” xmlns=“urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:netconf:base:1.0”>
<copy­config>
<target>
<startup/>
</target>
<source>
<running/>
</source>
</copy­config>
</rpc>
Response from the switch:
<rpc­reply message­id=“101” xmlns=“urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:netconf:base:1.0”>
<ok/>
</rpc­reply>
See Table 49 for the tag elements and their values.
Table 49. copy­config Tag Element Values
© Copyright Lenovo 2016
Tag Element
Description
Value
target
Configuration that needs to be changed. running/ or startup/
source
Source configuration.
running/ or startup/
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<delete-config>
Usage:
<rpc message­id=“101” xmlns=“urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:netconf:base:1.0”>
<delete­config>
<target>
<startup/>
</target>
</delete­config>
</rpc>
Response from the switch:
<rpc­reply message­id=“101” xmlns=“urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:netconf:base:1.0”>
<ok/>
</rpc­reply>
See Table 50 for the tag elements and their values.
Table 50. delete­config Tag Element Values
Tag Element
Description
Value
target
Configuration that needs to be deleted.
startup/
<lock>
Usage:
<rpc message­id=“101” xmlns=“urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:netconf:base:1.0”>
<lock>
<target>
<running/>
</target>
</lock>
</rpc>
Response from the switch:
<rpc­reply message­id=“101” xmlns=“urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:netconf:base:1.0”>
<ok/>
</rpc­reply>
See Table 51 for the tag elements and their values.
Table 51. lock Tag Element Values
644
Tag Element
Description
Value
target
Configuration that needs to be edited.
running/
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<unlock>
Usage:
<rpc message­id=“101” xmlns=“urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:netconf:base:1.0”>
<unlock>
<target>
<running/>
</target>
</unlock>
</rpc>
Response from the switch:
<rpc­reply message­id=“101” xmlns=“urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:netconf:base:1.0”>
<ok/>
</rpc­reply>
See Table 52 for the tag elements and their values.
Table 52. unlock Tag Element Values
© Copyright Lenovo 2016
Tag Element
Description
Value
target
Configuration being edited.
running/
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<get>
Usage:
<rpc message­id=“101” xmlns=“urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:netconf:base:1.0”>
<get>
<filter type=“subtree”>
<!­­ request a text version of the configuration ­­>
<configuration­text xmlns=“http://www.ibm.com/netconf/1.0/config­text”/>
</filter>
</get>
</rpc>
Response from the switch:
<rpc­reply message­id=“101” xmlns=“urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:netconf:base:1.0”>
<data>
<configuration­text xmlns=“http://www.ibm.com/netconf/1.0/config­text”>
<!­­ configuration text... ­­>
</configuration ­text>
</data>
</rpc­reply>
See Table 53 for the tag elements and their values.
Table 53. get Tag Element Values
646
Tag Element
Description
Value
filter
Filter type.
subtree
configuration­text
Configuration in ISCLI format.
G8296 Application Guide for ENOS 8.4
<close-session>
Usage:
<rpc message­id=“101” xmlns=“urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:netconf:base:1.0”>
<close­session/>
</rpc>
Response from the switch:
<rpc­reply message­id=“101” xmlns=“urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:netconf:base:1.0”>
<ok/>
</rpc­reply>
<kill-session>
Usage:
<rpc message­id=“101” xmlns=“urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:netconf:base:1.0”>
<kill­session>
<session­id>4</session­id>
</kill­session>
</rpc>
Response from the switch:
<rpc­reply message­id=“101” xmlns=“urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:netconf:base:1.0”>
<ok/>
</rpc­reply>
See Table 54 for the tag elements and their values.
Table 54. kill­session Tag Element Values
© Copyright Lenovo 2016
Tag Element
Description
session­id
ID number of the session to be killed
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<get-configuration>
Usage:
<rpc message­id=“101” xmlns=“urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:netconf:base:1.0”>
<get­configuration database=“commited” format=“text”/>
</rpc>
Response from the switch:
<rpc­reply message­id=“101” xmlns=“urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:netconf:base:1.0”>
<data>
<configuration­text xmlns=“http://www.ibm.com/netconf/1.0/config­text”>
<!­­ configuration text... ­­>
</configuration ­text>
</data>
</rpc­reply>
See Table 55 for the tag elements and their values.
Table 55. get­configuration Tag Element Values
Tag Element
Description
Attributes
get­configuratio
n
Retrieve the configuration.
database ‐ supports only committed
format ‐ supports only text
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<get-interface-information>
Usage:
<rpc message­id=“101”>
<get­interface­information>
<interface­name> port xx </interface­name>
<brief/>
</get­interface­information>
</rpc>
Response from switch: 
Port detail information
<rpc­reply message­id=“101” xmlns=“urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:netconf:base:1.0”>
<interface­information>
<physical­interface>
<name></name> <admin­status></admin­status>
<oper­status></oper­status>
<local­index></local­index>
<if­type></if­type>
<link­level­type></link­level­type>
<mtu></mtu>
<speed></speed>
<link­type></link­type>
<traffic­statistics>
<input­bytes></input­bytes>
<output­bytes></output­bytes>
<input­packets></input­packets>
<output­packets></output­packets>
</traffic­statistics>
<input­error­list>
<input­errors></input­errors>
<framing­errors></framing­errors>
<input­giants></input­giants>
<input­discards></input­discards>
</input­error­list>
<output­error­list>
<output­collisions></output­collisions> <output­errors></output­errors>
<output­drops></output­drops>
</output­error­list>
</physical­interface>
</interface­information>
</rpc­reply>
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
IP detail information
<rpc­reply message­id=“101” xmlns=“urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:netconf:base:1.0”>
<interface­information>
<physical­interface>
<logical­interface>
<name></name>
<local­index></local­index>
<address­family>
<address­family­name></address­family­name>
<mtu></mtu>
<interface­address>
<ifa­destination></ifa­destination>
<ifa­local></ifa­local>
<ifa­broadcast></ifa­broadcast>
</interface­address>
</address­family>
</logical­interface>
</physical­interface>
</interface­information>
</rpc­reply>
See Table 56 for the tag elements and their values.
Table 56. get­interface­information Tag Element Values
650
Tag Element
Description
interface­name
Interface name or number. You can use the tags brief/ or detail/ to specify the amount of information you need.
name
Name of the port or IP interface.
admin­status
Administration status of port interface; shutdown or no shutdown.
oper­status
Operational status of port interface; link‐up or link‐down.
local­index
Local index of port.
if­type
Type of port; GE, XGE.
link­level­type
Ethernet
mtu
9216 for port; 1500 for IP interface.
speed
Speed of port; 1000M, 10000M.
link­type
Type of duplex port; full, half.
input­bytes
Number of bytes received at the port.
output­bytes
Number of bytes sent from the port.
input­packets
Number of frames received at port.
output­packets
Number of frames sent out from the port.
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Table 56. get­interface­information Tag Element Values
© Copyright Lenovo 2016
Tag Element
Description
input­errors
Sum of discarded frames and FCS Errors.
framing­errors
Number of failed frames received.
input­giants
Number of frames that are too long.
input­discards
Number of frames in discarding state.
output­collisions
Number of Ethernet collisions.
output­errors
Sum of the outgoing frame aborts and FCS errors.
output­drops
Number of frames dropped.
address­family­name
Name of the address family; must be set to either “inet” or “inet6”.
ifa­destination
Protocol network address of the interface.
ifa­local
Protocol host address on the interface.
ifa­broadcast
Network broadcast address.
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Part 8: Monitoring
The ability to monitor traffic passing through the G8296 can be invaluable for troubleshooting some types of networking problems. This sections cover the following monitoring features:
 Remote Monitoring (RMON)
 sFlow
 Port Mirroring
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Chapter 44. Remote Monitoring
Remote Monitoring (RMON) allows network devices to exchange network monitoring data.
RMON allows the switch to perform the following functions:
© Copyright Lenovo 2016
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Track events and trigger alarms when a threshold is reached. 
Notify administrators by issuing a syslog message or SNMP trap. 655
RMON Overview
The RMON MIB provides an interface between the RMON agent on the switch and an RMON management application. The RMON MIB is described in RFC 1757. The RMON standard defines objects that are suitable for the management of Ethernet networks. The RMON agent continuously collects statistics and proactively monitors switch performance. RMON allows you to monitor traffic flowing through the switch.
The switch supports the following RMON Groups, as described in RFC 1757:
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Group 1: Statistics
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Group 2: History
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Group 3: Alarms
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Group 9: Events
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RMON Group 1—Statistics
The switch supports collection of Ethernet statistics as outlined in the RMON statistics MIB, in reference to etherStatsTable. You can configure RMON statistics on a per‐port basis. RMON statistics are sampled every second, and new data overwrites any old data on a given port.
Note: RMON port statistics must be enabled for the port before you can view RMON statistics.
The following is an example of configuring RMON Group 1:
1. Enable RMON on a port. RS G8296(config)# interface port 1
RS G8296(config­if)# rmon
2. View RMON statistics for the port. RS G8296(config­if)# show interface port 1 rmon­counters
­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­
RMON statistics for port 1:
etherStatsDropEvents: NA
etherStatsOctets: 7305626
etherStatsPkts: 48686
etherStatsBroadcastPkts: 4380
etherStatsMulticastPkts: 6612
etherStatsCRCAlignErrors: 22
etherStatsUndersizePkts: 0
etherStatsOversizePkts: 0
etherStatsFragments: 2
etherStatsJabbers: 0
etherStatsCollisions: 0
etherStatsPkts64Octets: 27445
etherStatsPkts65to127Octets: 12253
etherStatsPkts128to255Octets: 1046
etherStatsPkts256to511Octets: 619
etherStatsPkts512to1023Octets: 7283
etherStatsPkts1024to1518Octets: 38
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RMON Group 2—History
The RMON History Group allows you to sample and archive Ethernet statistics for a specific interface during a specific time interval. History sampling is done per port. Note: RMON port statistics must be enabled for the port before an RMON History Group can monitor the port. Data is stored in buckets, which store data gathered during discreet sampling intervals. At each configured interval, the History index takes a sample of the current Ethernet statistics, and places them into a bucket. History data buckets reside in dynamic memory. When the switch is re‐booted, the buckets are emptied. Requested buckets are the number of buckets, or data slots, requested by the user for each History Group. Granted buckets are the number of buckets granted by the system, based on the amount of system memory available. The system grants a maximum of 50 buckets.
You can use an SNMP browser to view History samples.
History MIB Object ID
The type of data that can be sampled must be of an ifIndex object type, as described in RFC 1213 and RFC 1573. The most common data type for the History sample is as follows: 1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.1.<x> The last digit (x) represents the number of the port to monitor.
Configuring RMON History
Perform the following steps to configure RMON History on a port. 1. Enable RMON on a port. RS G8296(config)# interface port 1
RS G8296(config­if)# rmon
RS G8296(config­if)# exit
2. Configure the RMON History parameters for a port. RS
RS
RS
RS
G8296(config)# rmon history 1 interface­oid 1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.1.<x>
G8296(config)# rmon history 1 requested­buckets 30
G8296(config)# rmon history 1 polling­interval 120
G8296(config)# rmon history 1 owner "rmon port 1 history"
where <x> is the number of the port to monitor. For example, the full OID for port 1 would be:
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3. View RMON history for the port. RS G8296(config)# show rmon history
RMON History group configuration:
Index IFOID Interval Rbnum Gbnum
­­­­­ ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ ­­­­­­­­ ­­­­­ ­­­­­
1 1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.1.1 120 30 30
Index Owner
­­­­­ ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­
1 rmon port 1 history
RMON Group 3—Alarms
The RMON Alarm Group allows you to define a set of thresholds used to determine network performance. When a configured threshold is crossed, an alarm is generated. For example, you can configure the switch to issue an alarm if more than 1,000 CRC errors occur during a 10‐minute time interval. Each Alarm index consists of a variable to monitor, a sampling time interval, and parameters for rising and falling thresholds. The Alarm Group can be used to track rising or falling values for a MIB object. The object must be a counter, gauge, integer, or time interval.
Use one of the following commands to correlate an Alarm index to an Event index: RS G8296(config)# rmon alarm <alarm number> rising­crossing­index <event number>
RS G8296(config)# rmon alarm <alarm number> falling­crossing­index <event number>
When the alarm threshold is reached, the corresponding event is triggered. Alarm MIB objects
The most common data types used for alarm monitoring are ifStats: errors, drops, bad CRCs, and so on. These MIB Object Identifiers (OIDs) correlate to the ones tracked by the History Group. An example statistic follows: 1.3.6.1.2.1.5.1.0 – mgmt.icmp.icmpInMsgs
This value represents the alarm’s MIB OID, as a string. Note that for non‐tables, you must supply a .0 to specify end node.
Configuring RMON Alarms
Configure the RMON Alarm parameters to track ICMP messages. RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
RS
© Copyright Lenovo 2016
G8296(config)# rmon alarm 1 oid 1.3.6.1.2.1.5.8.0
G8296(config)# rmon alarm 1 alarm­type rising
G8296(config)# rmon alarm 1 rising­crossing­index 110
G8296(config)# rmon alarm 1 interval­time 60
G8296(config)# rmon alarm 1 rising­limit 200
G8296(config)# rmon alarm 1 sample delta
G8296(config)# rmon alarm 1 owner "Alarm for icmpInEchos"
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This configuration creates an RMON alarm that checks icmpInEchos on the switch once every minute. If the statistic exceeds 200 within a 60 second interval, an alarm is generated that triggers event index 110. 660
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RMON Group 9—Events
The RMON Event Group allows you to define events that are triggered by alarms. An event can be a log message, an SNMP trap, or both. When an alarm is generated, it triggers a corresponding event notification. Use the following commands to correlate an Event index to an alarm: RS G8296(config)# rmon alarm <alarm number> rising­crossing­index <event number>
RS G8296(config)# rmon alarm <alarm number> falling­crossing­index <event number>
RMON events use SNMP and syslogs to send notifications. Therefore, an SNMP trap host must be configured for trap event notification to work properly. RMON uses a syslog host to send syslog messages. Therefore, an existing syslog host must be configured for event log notification to work properly. Each log event generates a syslog of type RMON that corresponds to the event. For example, to configure the RMON event parameters. RS G8296(config)# rmon event 110 type log
RS G8296(config)# rmon event 110 description "SYSLOG_this_alarm"
RS G8296(config)# rmon event 110 owner "log icmpInEchos alarm"
This configuration creates an RMON event that sends a syslog message each time it is triggered by an alarm. © Copyright Lenovo 2016
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Chapter 45. sFlow
The G8296 supports sFlow technology for monitoring traffic in data networks. The switch includes an embedded sFlow agent which can be configured to provide continuous monitoring information of IPv4 traffic to a central sFlow analyzer.
The switch is responsible only for forwarding sFlow information. A separate sFlow analyzer is required elsewhere on the network to interpret sFlow data.
Note: Lenovo Enterprise Network Operating System 8.4 does not support IPv6 for sFlow.
sFlow Statistical Counters
The G8296 can be configured to send network statistics to an sFlow analyzer at regular intervals. For each port, a polling interval of 5 to 60 seconds can be configured, or 0 (the default) to disable this feature.
When polling is enabled, at the end of each configured polling interval, the G8296 reports general port statistics and port Ethernet statistics.
sFlow Network Sampling
In addition to statistical counters, the G8296 can be configured to collect periodic samples of the traffic data received on each port. For each sample, 128 bytes are copied, UDP‐encapsulated, and sent to the configured sFlow analyzer.
For each port, the sFlow sampling rate can be configured to occur once each 256 to 65536 packets, or 0 to disable (the default). A sampling rate of 256 means that one sample will be taken for approximately every 256 packets received on the port. The sampling rate is statistical, however. It is possible to have slightly more or fewer samples sent to the analyzer for any specific group of packets (especially under low traffic conditions). The actual sample rate becomes most accurate over time, and under higher traffic flow.
sFlow sampling has the following restrictions:

Sample Rate—The fastest sFlow sample rate is 1 out of every 256 packets.
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ACLs—sFlow sampling is performed before ACLs are processed. For ports configured both with sFlow sampling and one or more ACLs, sampling will occur regardless of the action of the ACL.

Port Mirroring—sFlow sampling will not occur on mirrored traffic. If sFlow sampling is enabled on a port that is configured as a port monitor, the mirrored traffic will not be samp