Residential Wood Pellet Heating

Residential Wood Pellet Heating
Residential
Wood Pellet Heating
A Practical Guide for Homeowners
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Residential Wood Pellet Heating | A Practical Guide for Homeowners
Introduction
Arctic Energy Alliance (AEA)
The Arctic Energy Alliance (AEA) is a not-for-profit society established
in 1997. Our mission is: “To promote and facilitate the adoption of
efficient, renewable and carbon neutral energy practices by all members
of NWT society”. From our offices in Yellowknife, Inuvik, Norman Wells
and Fort Simpson we offer support and advice on energy efficiency,
renewable energy and sustainable energy practices for individuals,
businesses, communities, and other interested groups in all communities
in the NWT.
The purposes of this guide are to introduce wood pellet heating to
people who don’t know what it’s all about, to help people determine
whether a wood pellet heating appliance might be suitable for them,
and to help those who are interested in buying a wood pellet appliance
through the process.
Is this guide for me?
This practical guide explains what homeowners should know before
buying a wood pellet heating appliance. It explains what wood pellets
are, their advantages and disadvantages and the different types of
heating appliances that burn them. It is a step-by-step guide to buying
a wood pellet heating appliance and includes tips on the space required
to install a new system, maintenance, insurance and permits for
residential installations. Charts are included to help you remember to
ask the right questions!
If you are interested in using wood pellets on a
commercial scale, please see Wood Pellet Heating for
Businesses, to be released soon.
Residential Wood Pellet Heating | A Practical Guide for Homeowners
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Table of contents
INTRODUCTION..............................................................3
Arctic Energy Alliance (AEA)........................................................... 3
Is this guide for me?................................................3
WOOD PELLETS.............................................................6
What are wood pellets?.................................................................... 6
Where do they come from?.............................................................. 6
How are they made?.......................................................................... 6
How popular are pellets in the NWT?.......................................... 6
Will pellets run out? Is this a fad?................................................. 7
Will I save money with wood pellets?.......................................... 7
What are the benefits to the environment?............................... 7
Where can I buy pellets?................................................................... 8
Are all pellets the same?.................................................................. 8
WOOD PELLET APPLIANCES.......................................10
Stoves.................................................................................................... 10
Wood pellet stoves vs wood stoves............................................. 11
Wood Stoves and Pellets................................................................. 11
Boilers and Furnaces........................................................................ 12
Wood pellet boilers/furnaces vs oil or propane..................... 13
DECIDING WHAT YOU WANT.......................................13
How much heat – 1 room or your whole house?................... 13
How much will it cost?.................................................................... 14
How much work is involved?......................................................... 14
Where should I put a pellet appliance?..................................... 15
How much space do you need?.................................................... 15
Your home (fill out and take shopping)..................................... 18
Appliances (fill out with salesperson)........................................ 19
STOVES - RESIDENTIAL...............................................20
Regulatory and insurance issues....................20
Regulations.........................................................................................20
Permits..................................................................................................22
Inspections..........................................................................................22
Insurance..................................................................23
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Residential Wood Pellet Heating | A Practical Guide for Homeowners
Installation..............................................................24
Choosing an installer.......................................................................24
Basic installation...............................................................................24
Operation and Maintenance...............................25
Choosing your pellets......................................................................25
Before starting your stove..............................................................25
Daily operation..................................................................................25
Maintenance.......................................................................................26
BOILERS/FURNACES – RESIDENTIAL.........................28
Regulatory and insurance issues....................28
Regulations.........................................................................................28
Permits..................................................................................................30
Inspections..........................................................................................30
Insurance.............................................................................................30
Installation..............................................................32
Choosing an installer.......................................................................32
Basic Installation...............................................................................32
Operation and Maintenance...............................33
Choosing your pellets......................................................................33
Before running your system...........................................................33
Daily operation..................................................................................33
Maintenance.......................................................................................33
APPENDIX A..................................................................36
Local Authority Requirements.......................................................36
APPENDIX B..................................................................41
Appendix B City of Yellowknife
Solid Fuel Appliance Installation Checklist.............................. 41
APPENDIX C..................................................................45
Directory...............................................................................................45
APPENDIX D..................................................................47
Glossary................................................................................................47
APPENDIX E..................................................................49
Footnotes.............................................................................................49
Residential Wood Pellet Heating | A Practical Guide for Homeowners
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Wood pellets
What are wood pellets?
Wood pellets are small hard cylinders of highly compressed wood. They
are made entirely from sawdust or shavings and are between 6mm
(1/4 inch) and 8mm (5/16 inch) across and less than 38mm (1 1/2inch)
long. They won’t crumble into sawdust unless they get wet.
Where do they come from?
The pellets being sold in the Northwest Territories come from several
Canadian manufacturers in different provinces including Alberta,
Manitoba and British Columbia.
Sawdust used to be considered a waste
product from lumber production and
was burned or dumped. Now it is often
salvaged and made into pellets. The
sawdust is dried and compressed into
pellets using a die. No additives are
necessary because compounds naturally
present in the wood, help the pellets
keep their shape. Photo: AEA.
How are they made?
Wood pellets.
How popular are pellets in the NWT?
Wood pellets have been used for heating in the NWT for over 10 years.
Heating with wood pellets is gaining popularity in the NWT because
the pellet supply is more established and diversified than it was even 3
years ago, and because the selection of heating appliances has grown –
now you can get pellet boilers and furnaces to heat your house.
Over 1,000 tonnes of bagged wood pellets (equivalent to about
500,000 litres of oil) are used in houses in the NWT every year and
the total NWT wood pellet use is over 10,000 tonnes per year (about
5,000,000 litres of oil). This is expected to grow in the next few years as
more planned systems come on line.
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Residential Wood Pellet Heating | A Practical Guide for Homeowners
Will pellets run out? Is this a fad?
We are not likely to run out of pellets. The Canadian and worldwide
wood pellet markets are growing fast. Worldwide production was
estimated at about 0.1 million tonnes in 1980, and had grown to about
10 million tonnes in 2008. The Canadian wood pellet production from
32 pellet mills was about 2 million tonnes in 2008, and was expected to
continue increasing.
Most Canadian pellets are exported to Europe because a strong
domestic market hasn’t been created yet. It is estimated that all of the
heating requirements in NWT communities could be met by roughly
320,000 tonnes of wood pellets per year, a fraction of the Canadian
production.
Will I save money with wood pellets?
You should expect to save money on your fuel bills if you use wood
pellet heating, but the amount depends on how much of your existing
fuel you replace with pellets and the cost of your fuel and of pellets.
For example, in Yellowknife the cost of pellets was about 50% of the
cost of oil on a heating value basis in June 2008 and about 80% of the
cost of oil in June 2009 – mostly due to the change in oil prices.
What are the benefits to the
environment?
Wood pellets are considered Carbon Neutral
As long as the trees being used to make pellets are harvested
sustainably, they are considered Carbon Neutral. The carbon released by
wood pellets when burned is absorbed by the trees growing to replace
them so they are not considered net emitters of Greenhouse gases
(GHGs). GHGs are thought to be responsible for Climate Change, which
is having a huge impact on the NWT’s fragile environment.
Moving from oil, propane or natural gas to wood pellets for heating can
reduce GHG emissions.
Residential Wood Pellet Heating | A Practical Guide for Homeowners
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Low environmental impact of spills
Wood pellets are non-toxic so there is no environmental damage if a
spill occurs. Spilled pellets can be swept up or left to biodegrade, unlike
heating oil which can be extremely difficult and costly to clean up due to
its toxic and flammable nature.
Pellets come in 18 kg (40 pound) bags, 1
tonne (1000 kg, 2205 pound) bags or can
be delivered in bulk by a pellet delivery truck
to an outdoor storage container. The 18 kg
Wood Pellets in 18 kg bags from
bags are widely available from stores (such
Yellowknife retailers
as hardware stores) in Yellowknife and the
South Slave areas. If you live outside those
areas, check with your local retailers. 1 tonne bags are currently only
available directly from pellet mills, and may be 1 metric tonne (1000 kg,
2205 lbs) or 1 US ton (907 kg, 2000 lbs), check with the supplier before
ordering. So far bulk delivery is only available in parts of the North and
South Slave regions.
Photo: AEA.
Where can I buy
pellets?
Are all pellets the same?
Photo: AEA.
The pellet fuel industry, through the Pellet Fuels
Institute (PFI), has developed standards for wood
pellets. PFI-graded fuel is tested for density,
dimensions, fines, chlorides, and ash content. The
PFI has three grades of pellets, Utility, Standard
and Premium. Most pellets sold in the NWT are
Pellet Fuels Institute Premium
Premium grade. Premium pellets must produce less
Grading Analysis.
than 1% ash and have more stringent requirements
for moisture, fines, and durability. Premium grade
pellets are recommended to reduce the amount of ash removal that is
required.
There can be differences between brands of pellets that meet the Premium
grade, primarily in ash content, however blind laboratory testing by AEA
found that energy content is very similar between brands. The three charts
on the following page show the energy content, ash and moisture in the
pellets tested.
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Residential Wood Pellet Heating | A Practical Guide for Homeowners
Heating Value
25,000
[kJ/kg]
20,000
15,000
10,000
5,000
0"
Pinnacle
La Crete
Dragon
Mountain
Firemaster
WestwoodSpruce
WestwoodFir
Fireside
Ultra
2011 test results
19820
19240
19200
19400
19740
19240
0
0
2009 test results
19301
19087
19180
0
0
0
19548
18494
Lignetics
Ash Content
[ %]
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
Pinnacle
La Crete
Dragon
Mountain
Firemaster
WestwoodSpruce
WestwoodFir
2011 test results
0.29
0.37
0.28
0.29
0.33
0.15
2009 test results
0.27
0.45
0.41
Fireside Ultra
Lignetics
0.38
0.92
Fireside
Ultra
Lignetics
5.00
5.39
Moisture Content
7.00
6.00
[ %]
5.00
4.00
3.00
2.00
1.00
0.00
Pinnacle
La Crete
Dragon
Mountain
Firemaster
WestwoodSpruce
WestwoodFir
2011 test results
3.40
5.94
3.42
5.27
4.64
4.99
2009 test results
4.86
5.94
5.52
Residential Wood Pellet Heating | A Practical Guide for Homeowners
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Wood pellet
appliances
Wood pellets can be burned in pellet stoves, boilers and furnaces. This
section presents how these appliances work, the differences between
them and some advantages and disadvantages of each.
Stoves
Wood pellet stoves are used to heat one room or area without being
connected to a central heating system. They are normally located in a
well-used room and are designed to be decorative and to provide heat
by radiation and/or convection. From the outside they look similar to
wood stoves, although the fire inside looks slightly different.
• Wood pellets are stored in a
hopper (1)
• They are fed by an electric
auger (3) into the burn grate
(7) at a rate determined by
the temperature control
• An automatic igniter (5)
starts the fire
• Fire heats the air in heat
exchange tubes (6) and a
convection fan (2) blows
this heated air into the room
where a stove is situated
• The ash pan (4) below the
burn grate collects the
Diagram: PelPro Pellet Appliances 10 .
A typical top-fed stove.
residue.
Stove design differs between manufactures but follows the same
principles: electricity turns an auger, which moves pellets at a steady
rate into the burn area. Clean air is heated indirectly by the fire and is
blown out from the stove to heat the room. As the stove heats up, it also
warms the room by radiating its heat.
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Residential Wood Pellet Heating | A Practical Guide for Homeowners
Wood pellet stoves vs wood stoves
Advantages of Pellet Stoves
• Automatic fuelling – don’t have to add and turn logs.
• Can be controlled by a thermostat to keep the temperature stable
automatically
• Fire starts at the push of a button – no setting the fire or
chopping kindling.
• Only need to fill hopper once or twice a day.
• Don’t need to open fire box, so embers don’t fly out.
• Pellets are cleaner than logs – fill the hopper from the bag, no
wood splinters or bark on the floor.
• Less ash than with a log fire.
• Less risk of chimney fires and accidental fires than with logs.
• Don’t need to chop wood, spend money on gas, chainsaw, etc.
Disadvantages of Pellet Stoves
• Must use pellets – can’t burn logs in wood pellet appliances.
• Pellet stoves currently available don’t work without electricity.
It is possible to install back-up power to run your stove, but it is
expensive (often $400 - $1000).
• Pellets are usually more expensive than chopped wood per unit of
heat produced.
Wood Stoves and Pellets
It is possible to use a device to burn wood pellets in a wood stove,
however doing so may void the manufacturer’s warranty. This is due to
the potential for overheating, which is possible because pellets have
a lower moisture content than cord wood so they can burn hotter and
produce hotter gases. If the chimney has not been cleaned regularly, the
hotter gases could ignite the built-up creosote and cause a chimney fire.
Residential Wood Pellet Heating | A Practical Guide for Homeowners
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Boilers and Furnaces
Wood pellet boilers and furnaces are used to heat a whole house and
sometimes the domestic hot water too. They are normally put out of
sight, in a utility room and heat the house through a central heating
system. Boilers and furnaces are larger than stoves and have larger
hoppers to store more pellets.
• Pellets are stored in a hopper
(1). Here it is built into the
boiler. Some models use an
external hopper.
•Pellets are fed by an electric
auger (3) into the burn pot
(7) at a rate determined by
the temperature control.
• An automatic igniter (5)
starts the fire.
•Fire heats the liquid in heat
exchange tubes (6) and the
exhaust gases (2) are vented
to the outside. Here they are
vented through a wall or a
Diagram: Harman Home Heating11.
flue through the ceiling.
A Harman pellet boiler.
• The ash pan (4) below the
combustion chamber collects
the residue.
The design and features of furnaces and boilers varies from companyto-company and model-to-model. Boilers heat a liquid (commonly a
mixture of glycol and water) which travels through pipes in a house.
Heat is transferred from the liquid to a room through a heat exchanger
such as radiators, baseboard fin heaters or heating coils. A boiler can
also be used to heat your domestic hot water (DHW). Furnaces heat air
that is circulated around the house through heating ducts. A boiler with
a fan-coil heat exchanger can also be used for forced-air heating.
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Residential Wood Pellet Heating | A Practical Guide for Homeowners
Wood pellet boilers/furnaces
vs oil or propane
Advantages of Wood Pellet Boilers/Furnaces
• Pellets usually cost much less than oil or propane per unit of heat
produced.
• Burning pellets produces fewer GHG emissions than burning oil or
propane.
• Spilled or leaking pellets are easier, safer and much cheaper to
clean up than oil or propane.
Disadvantages of Wood Pellet Boilers/Furnaces
• Pellet appliances are more expensive than oil or propane
appliances.
• Maintenance such as ash removal and cleaning must be
performed regularly (usually by the homeowner).
• Pellet container must be filled regularly unless you have bulk
storage with an automatic feed (currently only available in
Yellowknife).
Deciding what you want
Once you understand the basics of wood pellet heating and have
decided you might buy an appliance, think about the type of system you
want and what will fit into your home. Friends or contractors can make
suggestions, but the decision is yours – you have to live with it.
How much heat – 1 room or your
whole house?
First, decide what type of system you want. If you want something
decorative to heat a room and nearby spaces, look at stoves (space
heaters). The stove you buy should be the right size for the space you
want to heat – or you could end up with one very hot room; bigger is
not necessarily better. The sales people at the store where you buy your
stove should be able to help you choose the right size.
If you want to replace the main heating system in your home, look
at furnaces or boilers (main heating system). It is easiest and least
expensive to replace a furnace with a furnace and a boiler with a
Residential Wood Pellet Heating | A Practical Guide for Homeowners
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boiler since the piping or venting throughout the house won’t have to
be replaced. It is also possible to replace a furnace with a boiler and
a heating coil which is installed in the ductwork. With some boiler
systems, it is possible to heat your household hot water using pellets.
How much will it cost?
If you’re heating with oil, propane, gas or electricity, offsetting some of
your heating with pellets will save you money in monthly heating costs.
The amount you save will depend on how much you use your wood
pellet appliance and the cost of the fuel you use now.
Purchasing and installing the appliance can be expensive, especially
since additional components such as a flue and chimney or vent, wall
and floor protection, and permits will be required. Stoves are cheaper
than boilers and furnaces – but the annual fuel savings are lower too.
The installed cost of stoves is normally $3,000 to $6,000. Residential
boilers and furnaces are about $10,000 to $20,000, installed. When
comparing costs, be sure to compare the full installed costs.
How much work is involved?
Operating a pellet appliance involves work; a brief description is given
below. The sections on Operation and Maintenance have more details.
If you’re not able to or interested in doing regular work to operate and
maintain the appliance, then pellets might not be for you.
Stoves
Pellet stoves must be filled from weekly to daily depending on how
much they’re used, the ash pan needs to be emptied regularly (usually
weekly), and basic cleaning is required (from weekly to monthly).
Regular (normally annual) thorough cleaning of the chimney and stove
components is necessary to ensure safe and efficient operation.
Boilers and furnaces
Pellet boilers/furnaces need more care than oil, propane, gas or
electric ones, but the care varies – some need daily attention. The
hopper may need loading daily, or it may be automated. The ash pan
must be emptied and tubes cleaned regularly (often monthly). Annual
maintenance must be performed by a knowledgeable person.
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Residential Wood Pellet Heating | A Practical Guide for Homeowners
Where should I put a pellet
appliance?
Normally stoves are located in living spaces and boilers/furnaces are
put in the utility room. The exact location is up to you, although there
are some restrictions, mainly to do with venting.
The exhaust gases must leave the house safely, either through a chimney
that goes up above the roof, or a vent that goes out through the wall.
Your choice of heating appliance will determine the venting method.
Some appliances also require outside air for combustion.
The National Building Code (NBC) and the Canadian Standards
Association (CSA) Standard B365-10 govern where chimneys and
sidewall vents may be placed. For example, sidewall vents must be at
least 2.1m (7 feet) above any public right-of-way and must be at least
1m (3 feet) from any door or window. See the NBC and B365-10 for
details.
How much space do you need?
Pellet storage
Pellets must be kept dry. If they get damp, they start to crumble and
won’t burn. Don’t use wet or crumbled pellets because they can cause
many problems, from jammed augers to overheated stoves. Bags of
pellets often have holes in them so they must be kept covered or in
a weather tight container if stored outside. Ravens will pick through
plastic to the pellets, exposing them to snow or rain.12 Putting plywood
over the bags seems to stop them, but indoor storage is better. One
standard 18 kg (40 lb) bag of pellets is about 0.028 m3 (1 cubic foot).
In communities where pellets aren’t sold locally, you might need to store
a full year’s supply at home.
If you’re storing bulk (loose) pellets, you may need to store 4 tonnes
(8,818 lbs) of pellets, which will take about 6 m3 (212 cubic feet). In
most communities by-laws specify that the building/tank shouldn’t be
in front of your house (see Appendix A for details). Don’t block access
for services such as water and sewage, or your fire escape routes. Bulk
storage bins, whether inside or outside, should be sealed and fitted with
a vent with a filter to stop dust flying out when it is filled.
Residential Wood Pellet Heating | A Practical Guide for Homeowners
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Stoves, boilers and furnaces
The clearance requirements (distance they must be from combustible
materials, including walls, ceiling, furniture, etc.) for Underwriters
Laboratories of Canada (ULC) certified stoves, boilers and furnaces are
given in the appliance “Manufacturer’s Instructions”. They are different
for each model and may be decreased by using shielding on the walls
and/or ceiling. For example, the clearances might be 7.5 cm (3 inches)
at the back and 30 cm (12 inches) on the sides. The default clearances,
if the Manufacturer’s Instructions don’t say any differently, are 150 cm
(60 inches) on top, 120 cm (48 inches) on all sides, and they must be
mounted so that the floor is shielded from overheating and is protected
from embers by a non-combustible material (‘ember pad’) which must
extend up to 20 cm (8 inches) on the sides and back, and up to
45 cm (18 inches) on any side with a loading door - see CSA B36510 for details. Other system components such as the flue also have
minimum clearances. See the section on regulations, permits and
installation issues for more information and ask your installer about the
options.
Boiler and furnace examples in the NWT
When a wood pellet boiler/furnace is installed, the old one is normally
left as back-up (your insurance company may require this). If the old
system isn’t left, an electric heating appliance can be installed as backup if needed. You need to have space for both systems.
Some common set-ups found in the NWT are:
• Boiler/furnace with built-in hopper entirely located in the utility
room. Normally this type of system requires that the hopper be
filled manually by bags of pellets (up to 6 bags at a time). This
doesn’t involve any external building.
• Boiler/furnace and separate bulk pellet storage located in
the utility room. This system feeds automatically and it may
be possible to have the bulk storage container filled by a bulk
delivery truck. Indoor storage is not practical in small homes
because of the amount of space the pellets take.
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Residential Wood Pellet Heating | A Practical Guide for Homeowners
• Boiler/furnace located in the utility room and bulk pellet storage
outside. An auger feeds the pellets from the storage, through
the wall, into the appliance. The bulk storage container could
be filled by a bulk delivery truck or 1 tonne bags. Local by-laws
must be followed when situating the tank. See the section on
regulations for NWT information and Appendix A for information
for your community.
• Boiler/furnace and bulk storage located in a purpose-built
accessory building outside. This system has automatic pellet feed
and pipes containing a hot water/glycol solution move heat into
the home. It involves building a shed separate from your house.
Local by-laws must be followed when building the shed. See the
section on regulations for NWT information and Appendix A for
information for your community.
Residential Wood Pellet Heating | A Practical Guide for Homeowners
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Your home
(fill out and take shopping)
Answer the questions below and take this page when you go shopping.
Your answers will help the salespeople select appropriate appliances
to show you. The more information you provide, the easier it will be to
narrow down your choices.
While you’re shopping, fill out the form on the back of this page with
what the suppliers tell you. It will help you compare the options later
and you’ll have the data your insurance company needs to re-evaluate
your insurance.
1) Do you want a stove, boiler or furnace?____________________
2) What type of home do you live in? ________________________
3) What size floor area do you want to heat? __________________
4) Would you prefer a wall vent or chimney? _ _________________
5) What type of heating system do you have now? ______________
6) How do you heat your hot water? _ _______________________
7) What was your heating bill last year? ______________________
8) How much fuel do you use for a whole year (in litres)? _________
9) How much fuel do you use for the coldest month?_ ___________
10) Where do you want to put the appliance and pellet storage?
____________________________________________________
11) Measure how much space you have for the appliance.
____________________________________________________
Measure how much space you have for pellet storage.
____________________________________________________
12) If you want a boiler or furnace, are you leaving your old system in
as a back up? o Yes o No
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Residential Wood Pellet Heating | A Practical Guide for Homeowners
Appliances
(fill out with salesperson)
Store
Brand
Model #
Certified
Heat output
Cost of appliance
Floor protection/
wall shielding
options
Total installed cost
Installer
Installation date
Appliance location
Pellet storage
location
Pellets used/year
Manual hopper refill
Maintenance
Pros
Cons
Residential Wood Pellet Heating | A Practical Guide for Homeowners
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Stoves - residential
This section is for people interested in installing residential stoves. For
residential boiler and furnace information please go to page 28.
Regulatory and
insurance issues
Read through this section BEFORE placing an order. It contains
important information on some regulatory and insurance issues. It is
your responsibility to ensure your installation complies with all relevant
codes and regulations. Contact your insurance broker before making
a final decision since the insurance company might have special
requirements and your premiums might change.
Regulations
Wood pellet stove installations must meet all the relevant codes and
standards, and permits from your Local Authority may be required. The
requirements listed below apply throughout the NWT. In addition, see
Appendix A for a guide to the requirements in each community. Always
check with your Local Authority for up-to-date information and to obtain
relevant permits before starting a project.
Codes and Standards
National Building Code (NBC 2010) – Pellet stove installations must
comply with this. Part 9 Section 9.21 Masonry & Concrete Chimneys &
Flues, Section 9.22 Fireplaces, Section 9.32 Ventilation and Section 9.33
Heating & Air Conditioning may be of particular interest.
B365-10 (Installation Code for Solid-Fuel-Burning Appliances and
Equipment) – All pellet stove installations must comply with this.
NWT Electrical Protection Act – All pellet stove installations must
comply with this and the CAN/CSA Canadian Electrical Code.
Local Authority – All installations must comply with the requirements of
your Local Authority and Community By-laws. The information available
at time of printing is listed by community in Appendix A.
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Residential Wood Pellet Heating | A Practical Guide for Homeowners
Certified Stoves – If the pellet stove is certified, it will be labelled as
such (ULC S627) and come with “Manufacturer’s Instructions”. The
stove installation must comply with these instructions. If there is a
conflict between the “Manufacturer’s Instructions” and the B365-10, the
“Manufacturer’s Instructions” must be followed.
Mobile Home – If the installation is in a mobile home, the stove
must be certified for such installations. Look in the “Manufacturer’s
Instructions” to confirm this.
Other certification – Some of the other components of your installation,
such as the flue pipe, may also be certified. If they are, they must
be installed according to the “Manufacturer’s Instructions” for that
component. The table below lists some of the standards you might
encounter. It is not necessary for your components to be certified, as
long as your installation complies with NBC 2010, B365-10, the NWT
Electrical Protection Act and any additional requirements imposed by
your Local Authority.
Standard (Code)
ULC S604
ULC S610
ULC S627
ULC S628
ULC S629
ULC S632
ULC S635
ULC S639
ULC S640
ULC S641
Standard (Name)
NOT SUITABLE FOR WOOD PELLET
APPLICATIONS
Standard for Factory Built Type A Chimneys
Standard for Factory Built Fireplaces
Space Heaters for Use with Solid Fuels
Standard Fireplace Inserts
Standard for 650C Chimneys
Standard for Heat Shields
Standard for Liners for Existing Masonry and
Factory Built Chimneys
Standard for Steel Liner Assemblies for Masonry
Fireplaces
Standard for Liners for New Masonry Chimneys
Standard for Chimney Connectors
Residential Wood Pellet Heating | A Practical Guide for Homeowners
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Permits
Permits are issued by the GNWT Department of Public Works and
Services (PWS) or by your Local Authority, depending on the permit. You
must apply for and receive all necessary permits before starting work.
When you’re planning your installation schedule, make sure you leave
enough time for all of your permits to be issued and any waiting periods
to pass before the installation is begun. (It can take more than 3 weeks
for a permit to be issued).
Electrical Permit – Pellet stoves require an electrical connection so
an electrical permit is necessary unless your stove is designed to plug
directly into an existing outlet. Your electrician should apply for a permit
from PWS at the GNWT (873-7399, www.pws.gov.nt.ca).
Mechanical and Building Permits – Mechanical or Building Permits
may be necessary, depending on your community. Information regarding
permits for specific communities is given in Appendix A.
Inspections
Electrical Inspections – If an electrical permit is necessary, electrical
inspections are required when the work is roughed in and when it’s
finished. Your electrician will inform PWS when the work has reached
the stage where it needs to be inspected.
Local Authority Inspections – Some Local Authorities will conduct
inspections based on the permits they issue. Further information is
provided in Appendix A. See your Local Authority for details.
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Residential Wood Pellet Heating | A Practical Guide for Homeowners
Insurance
Installing a pellet stove can affect your home insurance. Once you have
an idea of the stove you want and how you want it installed, call your
insurance broker to make sure there won’t be any problems or special
conditions that you must meet. Each company has its own requirements,
which vary depending on the size, age, construction, etc of your home.
Check with your broker even if your neighbour didn’t have any problems.
Don’t wait until you have bought a stove.
Some points regarding insurance requirements which might apply are:
• All of the insurance companies we’ve heard from to date require
that stoves be ULC certified.
• Some insurance companies require that your stove be installed
by a professional or that it be inspected by a Wood Energy
Technology Transfer (WETT) Certified Inspector. It may be difficult
to get a WETT Certified Inspector outside of regional centres in
the NWT. If you need an inspection, book one before installation.
To see a list of WETT certified professionals, go to www.wettinc.
ca/search.html.
• Some insurance companies require copies of your inspection
reports. Keep all the paperwork in a safe place. When you want
to sell your house, it will be easier to sell if you have kept the
paperwork and instruction manual for the stove.
• A stove which uses more than 80 bags of pellets per year is often
considered a primary heating system and falls into the same
insurance category as furnaces and boilers.
Table for results of insurance inquiries
Insurance broker
Insurance company
Stove make/model
New premium
Special requirements
Comments
If you have problems with your insurance company refusing to cover pellet stoves
or large premium increases (25 % or more), please contact the AEA.
We may be able to refer you to a company that can help.
Residential Wood Pellet Heating | A Practical Guide for Homeowners
23
Installation
Choosing an installer
After you have filled out the forms on the previous pages, you need
to decide who will install your stove. Your stove is an investment and
you want it to work properly and be safe. Whoever installs it should
know what he or she is doing. You could ask your supplier to install
it or recommend an installer. If you choose to install it yourself, you
should understand how it works and what you’re doing. Stoves can be
dangerous. A poor installation can cause house fires, poor air quality,
carbon monoxide in the house and other serious problems. Proper
installation of the flue and other components is as important as the
installation of the stove itself. If you install it yourself, an inspection by
a qualified technician is recommended.
Basic installation
Basic preparatory work for installation includes installing heat and
ember protection for the floor, and possibly wall and ceiling shielding
for the stove, flue and any components which pass through walls or
ceilings. The installation itself includes putting the stove in place,
installing the venting equipment including flue pipe, combustion air
intake, wall vent, chimney, flue collar, etc, as necessary, making any
electrical connections.
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Residential Wood Pellet Heating | A Practical Guide for Homeowners
Operation and
Maintenance
Choosing your pellets
You must burn appropriate fuel, as described in the information provided
with the appliance. Burning other materials can be dangerous and
damage the stove. See the section on pellets for more information about
different grades of pellets available.
Before starting your stove
Below are some points to consider before starting your appliance.
• Before operating the appliance, make sure you have working
smoke detectors AND carbon monoxide alarms, as described in the
National Building Code Section 9.32.3.9. They should comply with
the CAN/CSA 6.19 Standard and normally be placed 1 in each
bedroom or within 5 metres of each bedroom door.
• Get instructions, any certification and the manual from your
installer.
• Have your installer give you a demonstration of how to operate the
appliance, including filling the hopper, starting the fire, adjusting
any controls, emptying the ash pan and turning it off, and any
maintenance tasks that you should perform. This demonstration
allows you to make sure the appliance is working properly and ask
about any problems or concerns without the need for return visits.
Daily operation
Operate the stove as your manual directs. Pay close attention to it in the
first few months so you will develop an understanding of how it works and
what’s normal.
Accessories
Stove accessories such as pokers, shovels and forks are not used with
pellet stoves as there are no logs to move. The ashes must be removed;
sometimes a vacuum is required, while some stoves have an ash pan
which can be removed from the stove and emptied. Cleaning brushes may
be needed for regular maintenance, and a high temperature resistant shop
vacuum is useful, but not necessary.
Residential Wood Pellet Heating | A Practical Guide for Homeowners
25
Maintenance
Stoves should be maintained regularly to prevent breakdowns, ensure
the appliance has a long life and to ensure it burns well – reducing
fuel consumption and environmental pollution. See your manual for
maintenance details. You should keep a servicing log – a record of what
has been done to the stove, when and by whom. The maintenance
required varies depending on the type of stove you get and how much
you use it. Some of the maintenance that might be required is listed
below.
Tasks you might complete:
• Check burn pot daily and clean it to keep air inlets open.
• Empty ash pan (this should be done when the ashes are cold).
Frequency depends on the stove – may be daily. Ashes should
be placed in a metal container with a tight-fitting lid and moved
outdoors. No other waste should be kept in this container. The
cold ashes can be spread in your garden.
• Clean the glass with glass cleaner, when the glass is completely
cool.
• The heat exchange tubes must be scraped clean occasionally
with brushes or a built-in device – this may require professional
service.
• The ash traps, chambers located behind the fire chamber to
prevent excess ash in the exhaust from leaving the stove, must be
emptied – may require professional service.
Tasks for your maintenance contractor:
• Empty ash traps and clean exhaust passages.
• Clean and lubricate fans and motors.
• Clean the hopper and fuel feed system.
• Clean the heat exchanger system.
• Clean and check exhaust pipes.
• Verify and adjust the stove settings.
26
Residential Wood Pellet Heating | A Practical Guide for Homeowners
Operation &
Maintenance
(fill out with installer)
Have your contractor complete the maintenance table below.
Maintenance Task
Frequency
Done by
Residential Wood Pellet Heating | A Practical Guide for Homeowners
27
Boilers/Furnaces –
residential
This section provides information for people interested in residential
boilers or furnaces. If you’re interested in stoves, please go to page 20.
If you’re interested in commercial boilers or furnaces, please get a copy
of Wood Pellet Heating for Businesses.
Regulatory and
insurance issues
Read through this section BEFORE placing an order. It contains
important information on the some regulatory and insurance issues.
It’s your responsibility to ensure your installation complies with all the
codes and regulations. Contact your insurance broker before making
a final decision since your premiums might change and the insurance
company might have special requirements.
Regulations
Boiler and furnace installations must meet the relevant codes and
standards, and permits from your Local Authority may be required.
The requirements that apply throughout the NWT are listed below.
In addition, see Appendix A for a guide to the requirements in each
community. Always check with your Local Authority for up-to-date
information and to obtain relevant permits before starting a project.
The contractor you hire to install your system should ensure it meets all
regulations and take care of all the necessary permits and inspections,
but it’s your responsibility to make sure it has been done.
Codes and Standards
National Building Code (NBC 2010) – All pellet boiler/furnace
installations must comply with this. Part 6 Heating, Ventilating and Air
Conditioning, Part 9 Section 9.21 Masonry and Concrete Chimneys and
Flues, Section 9.22 Fireplaces, Section 9.32 Ventilation and Section 9.33
Heating and Air Conditioning may be of particular interest.
28
Residential Wood Pellet Heating | A Practical Guide for Homeowners
B365-10 (Installation Code for Solid-Fuel-Burning Appliances and
Equipment) – Pellet boiler/furnace installations must comply with this. If
there is a conflict between the Manufacturer’s Instructions and the B365-10,
the Manufacturer’s Instructions must be followed.
NWT Electrical Protection Act – All pellet boiler/furnace installations must
comply with this and the CAN/CSA Canadian Electrical Code.
National Plumbing Code – All pellet boiler/furnace installations must
comply with this.
Utility Company Clearances – If a storage tank or accessory building is
erected for the pellets, boiler or furnace, proper clearances must be left for
power lines.
Local Authority – All pellet boiler/furnace installations must comply with
the requirements of your Local Authority and Community By-laws. The
details available at time of printing are listed by community in Appendix A.
CSA B366.1 (Solid Fuel Fired Central Heating Appliances) – If the pellet
boiler/furnace is certified, it will be under CSA B366.1, will be labelled
as such, and come with Manufacturer’s Instructions. The installation must
comply with these instructions. Certification is not required for all boilers
and furnaces in the NWT, but is highly recommended. It will be very, very
difficult to get permits and pass inspections if the appliance is not certified.
Most insurance companies require B366.1 certification.
Other certification – Some of the other components of your installation,
such as the flue pipe, may also be certified. If they are, they must be
installed according to the “Manufacturer’s Instructions” for that component.
The table below lists some of the standards you might encounter.
Standard (Code)
ULC S604
ULC S629
ULC S632
ULC S635
ULC S639
ULC S640
ULC S641
Standard (Name)
NOT SUITABLE FOR WOOD PELLET APPLICATIONS
Standard for Factory Built Type A Chimneys
Standard for 650C Chimneys
Standard for Heat Shields
Standard for Liners for Existing Masonry and Factory
Built Chimneys
Standard for Steel Liner Assemblies for Masonry
Fireplaces
Standard for Liners for New Masonry Chimneys
Standard for Chimney Connectors
Residential Wood Pellet Heating | A Practical Guide for Homeowners
29
Permits
Permits are issued by GNWT Department of Public Works and Services
or by your Local Authority, depending on the permit. You must apply for
and receive all necessary permits before starting work on the installation.
When planning your installation schedule, make sure you leave enough
time for all of your permits to be issued and any waiting periods to pass
before the installation is begun.
Electrical Permit – Furnaces/boilers require an electrical connection
so an electrical permit is necessary. Your electrician should apply for a
permit from PWS at the GNWT (873-7399, www.pws.gov.nt.ca).
Boiler Installation Permit – Boilers larger than 30 kW require a boiler
permit. Since most residential systems are smaller than this, it isn’t
normally needed. Your contractor should apply for a permit from PWS at
the GNWT (873-7399, www.pws.gov.nt.ca) if necessary.
Mechanical and Building Permits – Mechanical, Development or
Building Permits may be necessary, depending on your community.
Information regarding permits for specific communities is given in
Appendix A.
Inspections
Electrical Inspections – Electrical inspections are required when the
work is roughed in and when it’s finished. Your electrician will inform
PWS when an inspection is necessary.
Local Authority Inspections – Some Local Authorities will conduct
inspections based on the permits they issue. Further information is
provided in Appendix A. See your local authority for details.
Insurance
Installing a pellet boiler/furnace will affect your home insurance. It is
very likely that your premiums will increase. Once you have an idea of
the installation you want, contact your insurance provider to ensure
there won’t be any problems and they don’t have any special conditions.
Each company has its own requirements, which vary depending on the
age, construction, etc of your home. Check with your insurance company
even if your neighbour had no problems. Don’t wait until you have
bought a system.
Some points regarding insurance requirements which might apply are:
• All of the insurance companies we’ve heard from to date require
that furnaces/boilers be certified to CSA B366.1.
30
Residential Wood Pellet Heating | A Practical Guide for Homeowners
• Some insurance companies require that your appliance be installed by
a professional or that it be inspected by a WETT Certified Inspector. It
may be difficult to get a WETT certified inspector outside of regional
centres. Go to http://www.wettinc.ca/search.html to see a list.
• Some insurance companies require copies of your permit applications
and/or inspection reports. Keep all the paperwork in a safe place.
When you want to sell your house, it will be easier to sell if you
have kept all the paperwork for the heating system along with the
instruction manual.
• Most insurance companies require that you keep your old heating
system installed as a backup. Even if it isn’t required, having a backup
system will often result in a smaller premium increase. If you can’t
leave the old system in, it might be possible to install an inexpensive
electric heating system as a backup. You should be able to get a
backup electrical system for less than $2,000. However, you will need
a 200A electrical service to the house. If you’re building a new house,
requesting this with your initial power request will save time and
money.
• Some insurance companies require that wood pellet boilers/furnaces
be located outside the home in an accessory building, and some
require that that building be located at least 50 feet from any other
building, fuel tank, or other combustible.
• Some companies require that the wood pellet furnace/boiler have
a natural draft so there must be a 1.2 to 1.5 m (4 or 5 foot) vertical
section of flue pipe. This is to prevent a backdraft if the power goes
out or if there’s a strong wind blowing outside.
Table for results of insurance inquiries
Insurance provider
Insurance company
Boiler/furnace make/
model
Pellet storage
New premium
Special requirements
Comments
If you have problems with your insurance company refusing to cover pellet appliances or very large
premium increases (25 per cent or more), please contact the Arctic Energy Alliance and we may be
able to refer you to a company that can help.
Residential Wood Pellet Heating | A Practical Guide for Homeowners
31
Installation
Choosing an installer
After you have filled out the forms on the previous pages, you need to
decide who will install your appliance. Your heating system is a longterm investment that can increase the comfort level and resale value
of your house. You want it to work properly and safely in the years to
come. Whoever installs it should know what he or she is doing. The
simplest and often the best option is to ask your supplier to install
it or recommend an installer. Unless you’re an experienced heating
contractor with a thorough understanding of the system, we don’t
recommend you install it yourself. A poor installation can cause in
house fires, poor air quality and carbon monoxide (CO) in the house,
frozen pipes or water leaks, and other serious problems.
Basic Installation
There are several components to the installation of your wood pellet
boiler or furnace. The pellet storage must be built (unless it is built-in),
heat and ember shielding around the appliance must be installed if
necessary, the venting system must be installed, and the system must be
connected to the heating ducts (furnace) or pipes (boiler). Talk to your
installer about the details.
32
Residential Wood Pellet Heating | A Practical Guide for Homeowners
Operation and
Maintenance
Choosing your pellets
You must burn appropriate fuel, as described in the information
provided with the appliance. Burning other materials can be dangerous
and damage the furnace or boiler. See the section on pellets for more
information about different grades of pellets available.
Before running your system
Below are some points to consider before starting your appliance.
• Before operating the appliance, make sure you have working
smoke detectors AND carbon monoxide alarms, as described in
the National Building Code Section 9.32.3.9. They should comply
with the CAN/CSA 6.19 Standard and normally be placed 1 in
each bedroom or within 5 metres of each bedroom door and 1 in
the furnace/boiler room.
• If you have your old oil system as a backup, keeping the oil tank
full can help avoid problems with condensation and corrosion.
• Get instructions, certification and the manual from your
contractor.
• Have your contractor give you a demonstration of how to operate
the appliance, including filling the hopper, starting the fire,
adjusting any controls, emptying the ash pan and turning it off,
and any maintenance tasks that you should perform. Make sure
you also know how to switch to your backup system if necessary.
This demonstration allows you to make sure the appliance is
working and ask about any problems or concerns without the
need for return visits.
Residential Wood Pellet Heating | A Practical Guide for Homeowners
33
Daily operation
Operate the appliance as your manual or contractor directs. Pay
close attention to it in the first few months so you will develop an
understanding of how it works and what’s normal.
Accessories
Accessories such as pokers, shovels and forks are not used with pellet
appliances. The ashes fall into an ash pan which can be removed from
the appliance and emptied. Cleaning brushes may be needed for regular
maintenance, and a high temperature resistant shop vacuum is useful,
but not necessary. Specialized ash vacs are also available.
Maintenance
Boilers and furnaces should be maintained regularly to prevent
breakdowns, ensure the appliance has a long life and to ensure it burns
well – reducing fuel consumption and environmental pollution. See your
manual for maintenance details. You should keep a servicing log – a
record of what has been done to the appliance, when and by whom. You
might want to sign a maintenance and servicing contract with a trained
certified heating contractor covering periodic servicing and conditionbased maintenance. Arranging for a follow-up visit by the installer
about 1 month after installation is a good idea as it provides the
opportunity for the appliance to be fine tuned and provides a chance
for you to ask any questions you have. You should report any faults
immediately so they can be rectified to prevent damage.
Tasks you might complete:
• Check burn pot daily and clean to keep air inlets open.
• Empty ash pan (this should be done when the ashes are cold).
Frequency depends on fuel and appliance. Ashes should be
placed in a metal container with a tight-fitting lid and moved
outdoors. No other waste should be kept in this container. The
cold ashes can be spread in your garden.
• The heat exchange tubes and sides of the combustion chamber
must be scraped clean with brushes every 2 to 3 months.
34
Residential Wood Pellet Heating | A Practical Guide for Homeowners
Tasks for your maintenance contractor:
• Service the burner, empty ash traps, clean exhaust passages.
• Clean and lubricate fans and motors and fuel feed system.
• Clean and check heat exchanger system and exhaust pipes.
• Verify and adjust the appliance settings, heat delivery.
Operation & Maintenance
(fill out with installer)
Have your contractor complete the maintenance table below.
Maintenance Task
Frequency
Done by
Residential Wood Pellet Heating | A Practical Guide for Homeowners
35
Appendix A
Local Authority Requirements
In addition to the standards, codes, permits and inspections listed for the
NWT, many Local Authorities have additional requirements. The list below
is as accurate as possible at the time of printing. Check with your Local
Authority before starting an installation.
Community
Requirements
Aklavik
Community Plan By-law No. 106-97 Hamlet of Aklavik
978 -2361
& Zoning By-law No.107-97 These
are only relevant if you’re installing
pellet storage or a furnace/boiler
outside your main building. All
installations must comply with both of
these, regardless of whether permits
are required.
Contact
Behchokö
Zoning By-law No. 115-08
Community Government of
This is only relevant if you’re installing Behchokö 392-6500
pellet storage or a furnace/boiler
outside your main building. All
installations must comply with all
of this by-law, regardless of whether
permits are required.
Development Permit
This is necessary to build an accessory
building.
36
Colville Lake
Nothing additional
Colville Lake - Settlement
Corporation 709-2200
Deline
Nothing additional
Charter Community of
Deline 589-4800
Dettah
Nothing additional
Yellowknives Dene First
Nation (Dettah) 873-4307
Enterprise
Nothing additional
Hamlet of Enterprise
984-3491
Fort Good Hope
Nothing additional
Charter Community of
K’asho Got’ine 598-2231
Fort Liard
Nothing additional
Hamlet of Fort Liard
770-4104
Residential Wood Pellet Heating | A Practical Guide for Homeowners
Fort McPherson
Nothing additional
Hamlet of Fort McPherson
952-2428
Fort Providence
Nothing additional
Hamlet of Fort Providence
699-3441
Fort Resolution
Nothing additional
Deninoo Community Council
394-4556
Fort Simpson
Zoning By-law No. 295 This is only
relevant if you’re installing pellet
storage or a furnace/boiler outside
your main building. All installations
must comply with all of this by-law,
regardless of whether permits are
required.
Village of Fort Simpson
695-2253
Development Permit
This is necessary to build an accessory
building if it is higher than 6’. A
maximum of 30% of your lot can be
built on. See Section 3 of By-law 295
for more details.
Fort Smith
Town of Fort Smith
Zoning By-law No. 673
This is only relevant if you’re installing 872-8400
pellet storage or a furnace/boiler
outside your main building. All
installations must comply with all
of this by-law, regardless of whether
permits are required.
Development Permit
This is necessary to build accessory
buildings (any building outside)
unless it is smaller than 8’x10’.
Gamètì
Nothing additional
Hay River
Zoning and Building By-law No. 1812
Community Government of
Gamètì 997-3441
Town of Hay River
This is only relevant if you’re installing 874-6522
pellet storage or a furnace/boiler
outside your main building. All
installations must comply with all
of this by-law, regardless of whether
permits are required.
Development Permit
This is necessary to build accessory
buildings.
Building Permit
This is necessary to build accessory
buildings.
Residential Wood Pellet Heating | A Practical Guide for Homeowners
37
Hay River
Reserve
Nothing additional
Inuvik
Zoning By-law No. 2225/PND/04
K’atlodeeche First Nation
874-3229
Town of Inuvik 777-8600
This is only relevant if you’re installing www.inuvik.ca/townhall/
forms/
pellet storage or a furnace/boiler
outside your main building. All
installations must comply with all
of this by-law, regardless of whether
permits are required.
Development Permit
This is necessary to build accessory
buildings.
Building Permit
This is necessary to build accessory
buildings.
Jean Marie River
Nothing additional
TthedzehK’edeli First Nation
809-2000
Kakisa
Nothing additional
Ka’a’gee Tu First Nation
825-2000
Lutselk’e
Nothing additional
Lutselk’e - Dene Band
– Designated Authority
370-7000
Nahanni Butte
Nothing additional
Nahanni Butte Dene Band
602-2900
Norman Wells
Zoning By-law No. 04-19
Town of Norman Wells
This is only relevant if you’re installing 587-3700
pellet storage or a furnace/boiler
outside your main building. All
installations must comply with all
of this by-law, regardless of whether
permits are required.
Development Permit
This is necessary to build an accessory
building (any building outside) if it is
greater than 4 m2.
Paulatuk
38
Nothing additional
Hamlet of Paulatuk
580-3531
Residential Wood Pellet Heating | A Practical Guide for Homeowners
Sachs Harbour
Nothing additional
Hamlet of Sachs Harbour
690-4351
Trout Lake
Nothing additional
Sambaa K’e Dene Band
206-2828
Tsiigehtchic
Nothing additional
Charter Community of
Tsiigehtchic 955-3201
Tuktoyaktuk
Hamlet of Tuktoyaktuk
Zoning By-law No. 258
This is only relevant if you’re installing 977-2110
pellet storage or a furnace/boiler
outside your main building. All
installations must comply with all
of this by-law, regardless of whether
permits are required.
Development Permit
This may be necessary to build an
accessory building – see the Zoning
by-law for details.
Tulita
Hamlet of Tulita
Zoning By-law No. 125-97
This is only relevant if you’re installing 588-4471
pellet storage or a furnace/boiler
outside your main building. All
installations must comply with all
of this by-law, regardless of whether
permits are required.
Development Permit
This may be necessary to build an
accessory building – see the Zoning
by-law for details.
Ulukhaktok
Nothing additional
Hamlet of Ulukhaktok
396-8000
Wekweeti
Nothing additional
Community Government of
Wekweeti
713-2010
Whati
Nothing additional
Community Government of
Whati
573-3401
Wrigley
Nothing additional
Pehdzeh Ki First Nation
581-3321
Residential Wood Pellet Heating | A Practical Guide for Homeowners
39
Yellowknife
Building By-Law No. 4469
City of Yellowknife
All installations must comply with all
of this by-law.
920-5688
Mechanical Permit
A Mechanical Permit is required for
all RESIDENTIAL stoves, boilers and
furnaces. You must receive one before
starting work. When you receive your
permit, you will receive a plan review
sheet listing necessary inspections.
You (or your contractor) must contact
the inspection department to request
an inspection when it is necessary.
http://www.yellowknife.ca/
City_Hall/Departments/
Planning_and_Development/
Building_Inspections.html
Zoning By-Law 4404
This is only relevant if you’re installing
pellet storage or a furnace/boiler
outside your main building. All
installations must comply with all
of this by-law, regardless of whether
permits are required.
Development Permit
This is necessary to build an accessory
building unless it is “the construction
or relocation of an accessory structure
or structure no higher than three
metres and covering less than 10m2 of
site area.”
Building Permit
This is necessary to build accessory
buildings if the building is heated,
insulated, has electrical power,
or is larger than 20 m2. All pellet
boilers/furnaces use electricity so
it is required for all outdoor boiler/
furnace installations and large pellet
storage sheds.
Other
See Appendix B for a checklist for
residential wood pellet installations.
40
Residential Wood Pellet Heating | A Practical Guide for Homeowners
Appendix B
City of Yellowknife Solid Fuel
Appliance Installation Checklist
OWNER:
PERMIT NO:
ADDRESS:
LOT:
BLOCK:
CONTRACTOR:
BUSINESS LICENSE NO:
p This installation is for a solid-fuel-burning space heating appliance
(i.e. pellet or wood stove)
p This installation is for a solid-fuel-burning central heating appliance
(i.e. pellet or wood furnace or boiler)
Note 1: The 2005 NBC 9.33.5.3 references CAN/CSA B365-01 as the
installation standard. 2005 NBC A-9.33.5.3 offers the following
additional information: “Standard CAN/CSA-B365 is essentially an
installation standard, and covers such issues as accessibility, air for
combustion and ventilation, chimney and venting, mounting and
floor protection, wall and ceiling clearances, installation of ducts,
pipes, thimbles and manifolds, and control and safety devices. But
the standard also includes a requirement that solid-fuel-burning
appliances and equipment satisfy the requirements of one of a
series of standards, depending on the appliance or equipment,
therefore also making it a design and construction standard. It
is required that stoves, ranges, central furnaces and other space
heaters be designed and built in conformity with the relevant
referenced standard.
Note 2: The checklist is itemized in the numerical order that the
requirement is listed in the CAN/CSA B365-01 Standard
Note 3: Not all items are applicable to every installation. Check off the
items that do not apply under the N/A column
Note 4: CAN/CSA B365-01 - 3.2.1 states, “When a difference exists
between the manufacturer’s installation instructions and the
requirements of this Standard, the installation instructions shall
govern.”
Residential Wood Pellet Heating | A Practical Guide for Homeowners
41
ITEM
REGULATORY
CLAUSE
YES
N/A
1.
The appliance, accessories, components and equipment
installed satisfies the requirements of the applicable
standard
B365 3.3.1
o
o
2.
Where a difference exists between the manufacturer’s
installation instructions and the requirements of CSA
B365-01 the manufacturer’s installation instructions
governed
B365 3.2.1
o
o
3.
The instructions furnished by the manufacturer for the
care and operation of the equipment are conspicuously
posted?
B365 3.3.3
o
o
4.
If the installation is in a mobile home the appliance is
certified for such installation
B365 3.2.2
o
o
6.
For installations in Part 9 buildings the installation
conforms to the requirements of CSA B365-01
B365 3.3
o
o
7.
For Part 3 buildings the installation conforms to the
requirements of The 2005 NBC
2005 NBC 3.6
o
o
8.
Post installation the installer certifies that all safety
devices function properly
B365 3.4.2
o
o
9.
Where a solid-fuel-burning appliance is added onto
an existing oil-or gas-fired appliance the procedures
described in CSA B365-01 Annex B have been followed.
The appropriate inspection has been performed and the
installation is deemed suitable:
B365 3.7.2
o
o
Note: If the solid-fuel-burning appliance installer is
not qualified to perform the safety inspection of the
oil-or gas-fired appliance, the installer shall engage
the services of a qualified technician to perform the
inspection and tests.
42
10.
The installation provides access for visual inspection and
maintenance
B365 3.8
o
o
11.
Where a solid-fuel-burning appliance is added onto
an existing oil-or gas-fired appliance the modifications
followed the add-on manufacturers’ instructions and the
procedure outlined in CSA B365-01 Annex C
3.10 and
Annex C
o
o
13.
A spillage detection and alarm system conforming to the B365 4.1.3;
requirements of the 2005 NBC has been installed.
4.1.4 and 2005
NBC 9.
o
o
14.
Where a furnace of boiler is installed in a confined space B365 4.3
ventilation air has been provided to conform to B365-01
o
o
Residential Wood Pellet Heating | A Practical Guide for Homeowners
15.
Combustion air duct from outdoors is connected directly
to the air inlet of the appliance that is certified for the
connection.
B365 4.2
o
o
16.
Where certified for use with a specific chimney or class
of venting system, the appliance is Installed with that
chimney or venting system
B365 5.2.2
o
o
17.
The solid-fuel-burning appliance is not connected to a
chimney that serves a natural gas- or
B365 5.2.6
o
o
18.
The solid-fuel-burning appliance is not connected to
a chimney that serves a natural gas- or propane-fired
appliance.
B365 5.2.7
o
o
19.
The flue pipe does not pass through an attic, roof space,
closet, or similar concealed space or a floor or ceiling of
combustible construction
B365 5.4.8
o
o
20.
The sidewall venting of pellet-burning appliances
conforms to minimum clearances
B365 5.6.1 5.6.3.
o
o
21.
An automatic fuel-feeding device serving a solid-fuelburning hot-water boiler conforms to:
B365 6.2.2.
o
o
22.
An automatic fuel-feeding device serving a solid-fuelburning hot-water boiler with a circulating pump
conforms to:
B365 6.2.3.
o
o
23.
An automatic fuel-feeding device serving a solid-fuelburning forced-air furnace conforms to:
B365 6.2.4.
o
o
24.
The installation of the solid-fuel-burning appliance
conforms to the requirements for floor protection.
B365 7.1.1 –
7.1.7.
o
o
25.
The wall and ceiling clearances of the solid-fuel-burning
appliance conforms to the manufacturer’s specifications
as certified or conforms to.
B365 7.2.1. –
7.2.53
o
o
26.
Where used the draft regulator or automatic damper has B365 9.2.2.
been adjusted and set to maintain flue-outlet pressure
or over-fire specified by the manufacturer.
o
o
27.
An automatic fuel-feeding device serving a solid-fuelburning appliance operates so that the smoke density,
of the flue gases, as determined by the Shell Bacharach
method, does not exceed the manufacturer’s value
where so specified.
B365 9.2.3.
o
o
28.
An automatic fuel-feeding device serving a solid-fuelburning appliance is within the limits of percentage of
carbon dioxide in the flue gases where stated by the
manufacturer
B365 9.2.4.
o
o
Residential Wood Pellet Heating | A Practical Guide for Homeowners
43
– SUBMIT TO CITY OF YELLOWKNIFE INSPECTIONS PRIOR TO FINAL INSPECTION –
DOCS-#150246-v1-INSTALLATION_CHECKLIST_FOR_SOLID_FUEL_FIRED_APPLIANCES_AND_EQUIPMENT (revised 11/26/08)
44
29.
The safety and operating controls function within the
limits specified by the manufacturer.
B365 9.2.5.
o
o
30.
The maximum duel input for an automatic fuel-feeding
device serving a solid-fuel-burning
B365 9.26.
o
o
31.
The solid-fuel-burning appliance and equipment has
been approved by the manufacturer to be connected to
the pipe-work or ductwork of oil- or gas-fired or electrical
heating
B365 10.1.
o
o
32.
The structure of an existing oil- or gas-fired or electrical
heating furnace or boiler has not been modified in any
way to accommodate the solid-fuel-burning add-on
appliance
B365 10.3
o
o
33.
Controls have been provided and wired so that the limit
control for either the solid-fuel-burning appliance or the
existing oil- or gas-fired or electric appliance will shut
down the existing oil- or gas-fired or electric appliance
and reduce the firing rate of the solid-fuel-burning
appliance to the minimum.
B365 10.7
o
o
34.
Where the installation includes provision for the storage
of wood the storage shall conform to:
B365 A2.1.1 –
A2.2.2
o
o
35.
Where the installation includes provision for the storage
of pellets the storage shall conform to:
B365 A2.2.1. –
A2.2.7
o
o
TO THE OWNER/OPERATOR: Please acknowledge by your signature item 36 if the appliance
was professionally installed or Item 37 if you as the owner/operator installed the appliance.
36.
I, the owner/operator of this installation certify that the installer instructed me in the safe
and correct operation of the appliance or accessory and I have been provided with a copy
of the manufacturer’s instructions supplied with the appliance or accessory.
Print name: _____________________
Date: __________________________
Signed: ________________________
37.
I, the owner/operator of this installation certify that I have carefully read the
manufacturer’s installation, operating and maintenance of the manufacturer’s operating
and maintenance instructions.
Print name: _____________________
Date: ________________________
Signed: ________________________
Contractor:
Business License No:
Installer’s Name (print) :
Certificate No:
Installer’s Name (print) :
Date:
Received by Name (print):
Date:
Received by Name (sign):
Residential Wood Pellet Heating | A Practical Guide for Homeowners
Appendix C
Directory
699-4321
X
X
Freund Building Supplies Ltd.
872- 2155
X
X
Fort Smith
Home Hardware
872-2121
X
Fort Smith
Northwood Log Homes Ltd
872-2484
Hay River
(and South Slave)
Taylor and Company
874-2447
X
Hay River
Hay River Home Hardware
874-6722
X
Hay River
Wesclean Northern Sales Ltd.
875-5100
Inuvik
Arctic Rim Distributors Ltd
777-2566
Inuvik
Plumb Crazy Mechanical Ltd
777-3210
Inuvik
Rocky’s Plumbing & Heating Ltd.
777-2579
X
X
Inuvik
Wrangling River Supply
777-3011
X
X
Norman Wells
Green Energy NWT Inc.
587-3015
X
X
X
Norman Wells
Sahtu Building Supplies
587-2389
X
X
X
Yellowknife
Arctic Green Energy
873-2504
X
X
Yellowknife
B & C Construction
444-5280
X
X
Yellowknife
Canadian Tire
873-2403
X
X
Yellowknife
D&S Mechanical & Thawing
Systems
444-9617
X
Yellowknife
Emco Corporation
920-7617
X
Yellowknife
Fitzgerald Carpeting
873-5768
X
Yellowknife
Central Mechanical Systems
873-3003
X
Yellowknife
Home Building Centre
669-9945
X
Yellowknife
Konge Construction
669-3683
Yellowknife
NAAS Enterprises
445-6337
Yellowknife
North of 60 Maintenance
446-5011
X
Yellowknife
True Value Hardware
765-5675
X
Yellowknife
Walmart
873-4545
X
Yellowknife
Wesclean Northern Sales Ltd.
873-6833
X
Installation & Maintenance
Aurora Marketing (NWT) Ltd.
Fort Smith
Bulk pellets
Stoves
Fort Providence
Bagged pellets
Phone
number
Furnaces
Name
Boilers
Community
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Residential Wood Pellet Heating | A Practical Guide for Homeowners
X
45
46
Residential Wood Pellet Heating | A Practical Guide for Homeowners
Appendix D
Glossary
Accessory building – A shed or other building on the same lot as the
main building.
Appliance – Wood pellet appliance – equipment that burns wood pellets
to produce heat for space heating - includes stoves, boilers and furnaces.
Auger – A steel coil or screw, which when powered by electricity moves
wood pellets into the fire at a consistent rate as determined by the energy
demand.
Boiler – An appliance intended to supply hot water or steam for space
heating.
Building envelope – The wall and roof systems around your home.
Normally the area inside the building envelope is heated and what’s
outside isn’t.
Bulk storage – The storage of loose pellets in large containers, without
additional wrapping.
Carbon monoxide (CO) – A poisonous gas without colour or smell,
produced by all wood, pellet, gas, propane, oil and coal stoves, furnaces
and boilers, it normally leaves with the exhaust gases. Low CO is one of
the goals of optimal fuel combustion.
Certified – The appliance has passed a series of tests and meets certain
safety requirements, for stoves it’s ULC S627 and for boilers and furnaces
it’s normally CSA B366.1.
Commercial installation – An appliance and all associated equipment
and building works in a building other than single-family dwellings and
institutions (such as schools and hospitals).
Creosote – A flammable tar deposited on the walls of your chimney when
you burn wood.
CSA – Canadian Standards Association – A non-profit organization that
develops standards.
Flue – The tube connecting the flue collar on an appliance to the chimney.
Residential Wood Pellet Heating | A Practical Guide for Homeowners
47
Furnace – An appliance that generates heat for distribution through air
ducts to provide space heating.
Gigajoule (GJ) – A measure of the energy contained in a fuel.
GNWT – Government of the Northwest Territories
Greenhouse Gases (GHG) – Gases being released into the atmosphere
which are thought to be contributing to climate change.
Heat Shield – A permanent barrier placed between the wood pellet
appliance and a combustible material such as a wall.
Insurance broker – Insurance agent who works on your behalf to get
you insured, will deal with several insurance companies or underwriters.
Local Authority – Your local government, the city, town, village or
hamlet government.
Manufacturer’s Instructions – An information booklet provided with
certified appliances. They are very important and must be followed.
Primary heating system – The heating system responsible for most of
the heat load of your home (they’re normally automated and controlled
by a thermostat).
PWS – Public Works and Services, a Government of the Northwest
Territories department.
Regulatory – To do with rules and requirements.
Residential installation – An appliance and associated equipment and
works in a single-family dwelling.
Space heater – An appliance for heating the space in which it sits
without the addition of a transport system to move the heat to other
areas of the house.
Stove – An appliance intended for space heating.
ULC - Underwriters’ Laboratories of Canada – an independent, not-forprofit, product safety testing and certification organization.
WETT - Wood Energy Technology Transfer – A non-profit organization
that certifies installers, inspectors, chimney sweeps and sales people
who work in the wood heating trades.
Wood pellet – small cylinder of compressed sawdust, normally 3
centimetres (1 inch) long or smaller.
48
Residential Wood Pellet Heating | A Practical Guide for Homeowners
Appendix E
Footnotes
Pellet Fuels Institute, http://www.pelletheat.org/3/industry/index.
html
1
Traeger Canada, http://www.traegercanada.com/tips6index.htm
2
Community Wood Pellet Study - Part 1 Delivered Costs, AEA,
September 2009
3
BioEnergy 2008 Conference, presentation: Production and Market
Trends
4
BioEnergy 2008 Conference, presentation: Canadian Pellet
Production for Worldwide Markets
5
Community Wood Pellet Study - Part 1 Delivered Costs, AEA,
September 2009
6
CanBio Go Pellets - http://www.gopelletscanada.com/
7
AEA calculation based on Fuel Cost library
8
Pellet Fuels Institute, http://www.pelletheat.org/3/industry/index.
html
9
10
http://www.pelprostoves.com
11
www.harmanstoves.com
12
Community Wood Pellet Study - Part 1 Delivered Costs, AEA,
September 2009
Residential Wood Pellet Heating | A Practical Guide for Homeowners
49
Notes
50
Residential Wood Pellet Heating | A Practical Guide for Homeowners
Residential Wood Pellet Heating | A Practical Guide for Homeowners
51
www.aea.nt.ca
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