EXOflex PIFA

EXOflex PIFA
EXOflex
Manual
© Copyright AB Regin, Sweden, 2008
DISCLAIMER
The information in this manual has been carefully checked and is believed to be correct. AB Regin however, makes no
warranties as regards the contents of this manual and users are requested to report errors, discrepancies or ambiguities to
Regin, so that corrections may be made in future editions. The information in this handbook is subject to change
without prior notification.
The software described in this book is supplied under license by Regin and may be used or copied only in accordance
with the terms of the license. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form, in any fashion,
electronically or mechanically, without the express, written permission of Regin.
COPYRIGHT
© AB Regin. All rights reserved.
TRADEMARKS
EXOdesigner, EXOreal, EXO4 and EXOline are registered trademarks of AB Regin.
MS-DOS, Windows, Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows 2000 and Windows NT are registered trademarks of
Microsoft Corporation.
Echelon, LON, LONWORKS, LonMaker, LonTalk, LNS, LONMARK are registered trademarks of Echelon
Corporation
Some product names mentioned in this book are used for identification purposes only and may be the registered
trademarks of their respective companies.
January 2008
Document Revision: 2005-1-02
Brief Contents
Part I Introduction and System Overview
5
Chapter 1 Using This Manual
7
Chapter 2 Introduction to EXOflex
8
Chapter 3 EPU Internal System Design
22
Chapter 4 Naming System for EXOflex Components
27
Part II Installation and Commissioning
29
Chapter 5 Cabinet Installations
31
Chapter 6 Power Supply
33
Chapter 7 Communication Buses & Interfaces
36
Chapter 8 Connecting Active Transmitters to Inputs
39
Chapter 9 Commissioning
41
Part III EXOflex Software
43
Chapter 10 Overview
47
Chapter 11 EFX PIFA Units
49
Chapter 12 The Processor and the Power-PIFA
56
Chapter 13 Communication
59
Chapter 14 Digital Inputs
62
Chapter 15 Digital Outputs
67
Chapter 16 Analog Inputs
72
Chapter 17 Analog Outputs
76
Chapter 18 The External Display
79
Chapter 19 TCP/IP
83
Chapter 20 Applications
96
Part IV Specifications
100
Enclosure Specifications
102
Environment Specifications
104
Processor Specifications, ECX1
105
General PIFA Specifications
106
Model Modem 9011 - PTT Modem
113
Part V Examples of Complete EXOflexunits
Chapter 21 Complete EXOflex-units
Part VI Maintenance and Service
127
129
130
Chapter 22 Changing the Battery
132
Chapter 23 Resetting The Program Memory
135
Chapter 24 Changing the PROM
137
Chapter 25 Installing Processors and Option Cards
138
Part VII Appendix
142
Chapter 26 Modems
144
Chapter 27 Options
146
Chapter 28 Interference
150
Chapter 29 The EMC and LVD Directive
152
Chapter 30 Glossary of Terms
153
Part VIII Index
155
Part IX Regin Resellers
160
Part I Introduction and
System Overview
Chapter 1 Using This Manual
5
Table of contents
Part I Introduction and System Overview
Chapter 1 Using This Manual
7
Conventions Used in This Manual
7
Chapter 2 Introduction to EXOflex
8
EXOflex
8
EPU – EXO Process Unit
8
The EXOflex Housing
9
The EXOL Processor
11
EXOflex PIFA-units
11
Mounting a PIFA-unit
12
Compact Mounting
12
Signal Descriptions
Cardholders
Inlay Cards for PIFA-units
13
13
14
Mounting
16
Horizontal Rail-mounting
16
Wall Mounting
18
Vertical Mounting
19
External Display
20
Summary
21
Chapter 3 EPU Internal System Design
Isolation Barrier
23
Addressing PIFA-units
23
Distributed Processor Power
24
The Built-In Battery
25
Serial Ports
Multi-Processor House
25
26
Chapter 4 Naming System for EXOflex
Components
Houses (process houses/expansion houses)
PIFA-units
6
22
Part I Introduction and System Overview
27
27
27
Chapter 1 Using This Manual
This manual presents guidelines for system designers and project engineers on how to
structure and connect EXOflex-units and other equipment into reliable systems.
This manual is intended as a guide. The final responsibility for the function of any particular
installation rests solely upon the system designer, who should, by extensive testing, ensure
that all the specifications are met.
If you should find errors or unclear information in this manual, kindly contact Regin
so that future editions can be corrected and improved.
This manual will be revised without prior notice, as and when deemed necessary. Please
check regularly that you have the latest revision.
Conventions Used in This Manual
This manual uses the following conventions:
This box and symbol will provide general information, not necessarily concerned
directly with EXOflex.
This box and symbol will provide useful tips and tricks.
This type of box will give important information about avoiding common mistakes,
dangerous practices, etc.
This box and symbol will be used to guide you through a procedure.
Chapter 1 Using This Manual
7
Chapter 2 Introduction to EXOflex
EXOflex
EXOflex is a general system for control, regulation, supervision and communication in
general automation installations. The system offers great possibilities when constructing
many different types of control and regulation systems: outstations in distributed systems,
DUC’s in building automation systems, service gateways in LAN’s and on the Internet, etc.
The system is of a modular design and provides unique opportunities for adapting the
number and type of inputs and outputs required, as well as the type of communication
needed by the individual client.
An EXOflex unit is a process computer that can run completely independently or linked to
other EXOflex-units and other types of computers and equipment, in small or large systems.
EXOflex consists of a range of hardware components, and of comprehensive software in the
form of an operating system, standardized applications and add-ons. EXOflex is to a large
extent compatible with other EXO products, including older process stations (controllers)
and software.
Software applications such as EXOdesigner (development tools), EXO4 (operator
program/SCADA), EXOreport etc, can be used to their full extent with EXOflex, and have in
some cases been supplemented to fully integrate EXOflex with earlier products.
The software for EXOflex is described in Part III of this book. The system’s hardware is
described below.
EPU – EXO Process Unit
EXOflex makes it possible to construct process stations with varying types and numbers of
I/Os, communication ports and processors. The concept EPU = EXO Process Unit is used to
designate an EXOflex process station, and is often equivalent to a Module in the earlier
product range (strictly speaking, there are a few differences, which will be described later).
The EPU is programmed in the same way, with EXOdesigner and ready-made objects and
blocks, or alternatively, in free EXOL-code. The same program can often be used with few
or no changes. The processor running the EXOL-code is called the main processor or EXOL
processor. In contrast to earlier systems, an EPU can contain several EXOL processors.
An EPU usually consists of a mechanical unit mounted in a house. All the external
connections are found on the PIFA = Process Interface Adapter. To increase the number of
I/Os, an EPU can be extended with one or more houses, each containing further PIFA-units.
These are known as “Expansion Units”.
Most of the PIFA-units have their own microprocessors, which provide specific configurable
function for that model. This facilitates programming and reduces the load on the EXOLprocessor. This configuration is done in EXOdesigner, in easy-to-use windows.
8
Part I Introduction and System Overview
The EXOflex Housing
The EPU hardware consists of a housing and a selection of PIFA-units. The housings are
supplied ready assembled as Processor Housings with an EXOL processor or as Expansion
Housings without processor.
The EXOflex housings are based on an extrusion-pressed, anodized aluminum chassis. This
robust chassis, which is available in four different lengths, is then the base for constructing
the various different sizes of casings (housings), by adding the base circuit boards, end walls,
shell, dividers, etc, as shown in the following illustrations.
Figure 1. An EXOflex house with section width 2.
Figure 2. Side-view of an EXOflex house.
Chapter 2 Introduction to EXOflex
9
Figure 3. The basic components of an EXOflex house.
Base Circuit Board
Extrusion pressed,
anodised
aluminium chassis
Seperator
End-wall
Shell
Covers
The basic system encompasses four different sizes of casing, with the section- widths 1, 2, 3
or 4. These are constructed from the components described above, all of which are also
available as spare parts.
Figure 4. A complete EXOflex unit.
10
Part I Introduction and System Overview
The EXOL Processor
The EXOL processor is located on two separate cards.
‰
CPU-card with a C515C micro-controller
‰
EFX-card with C515C micro-controller
These two cards, known as ECX1, are jointly responsible for the processor function and will
together be known as the Processor in the rest of this text.
It is also possible, at a later point, to connect the processor function in an expansion
unit. See Chapter 25 Installing Processors and Option Cards.
EXOflex PIFA-units
The true power of the EXOflex system lies in the range of PIFA-units available. All the cards
are of a standard design and size and can be quickly and simply installed by slotting them
into place.
Figure 5. An EXOflex PIFA-unit.
Processor using
PIFAos
Connection
instructions
Plug-in screw
connectors for
process connections
LED’s for I/O’s
Chapter 2 Introduction to EXOflex
11
Mounting a PIFA-unit
Figure 6. The PIFA-unit slides easily into place and is held in place by two screws.
PIFA inserts along guide
slots
Held in place by two
screws
When a new PIFA-unit is mounted in an EPU, the signal description should also be fitted, as
described below. The PIFA-unit must also be programmatically installed, according to the
procedures in Part III .
Compact Mounting
Process connections are made on the PIFA-unit’s connector blocks. Most of the wiring is
neatly hidden under the cover.
Figure 7. The unit can be mounted adjacent to a cable duct.
12
Part I Introduction and System Overview
Signal Descriptions
Cardholders
Each section of an EPU is fitted with a plastic cardholder for special cards showing signal
descriptions. The cardholder is an integral part of the handle located at the center of each
section. This is pulled out to show the descriptions. See the illustrations below.
The innermost part of the cardholder is a hinge. The cardholder must be pulled out
all the way before it is raised or lowered.
Figure 8. The inlay card in the lower position shows the signal descriptions for the
PIFA-unit in the upper position.
Figure 9. The inlay card in the upper position shows the signal descriptions for the
PIFA-unit in the lower position.
Chapter 2 Introduction to EXOflex
13
There are also description cards for vertically mounted units. See Figure 15.
Inlay Cards for PIFA-units
All PIFA-units are supplied with templates intended for signal descriptions for the inlays.
The templates are supplied in MS-Word 97 format and can be edited. The files are supplied
as read-only and must be saved under a new name each time they are used. The following
examples are for model EP6012, which has 4 different inlays. Other PIFA-units may have
fewer inlay cards if they have limitations on their mounting.
Example 1 – PIFA-unit mounted horizontally above the cardholder.
The cardholder is then pulled out and shown below the PIFA-unit.
AO1:
AO2:
AO3:
AO4:
AO5:
AO6:
AO7:
AO8:
AO9:
AO10:
AO11:
AO12:
EP6012 Address:
.
Example 2 – PIFA-unit mounted horizontally below the cardholder.
EP6012 Address:
AO1:
AO2:
AO3:
AO4:
AO5:
AO6:
AO7:
AO8:
AO9:
AO10:
AO11:
AO12:
14
Part I Introduction and System Overview
Example 3 – PIFA-unit mounted vertically to the right of
cardholder.
the
AO1:
AO2:
AO3:
AO4:
AO5:
AO6:
AO7:
AO8:
AO9:
AO10:
AO11:
AO12:
EP6012 Address:
Example 4 – PIFA-unit mounted vertically to the left of the
cardholder.
AO1:
AO2:
AO3:
AO4:
AO5:
AO6:
AO7:
AO8:
AO9:
AO10:
AO11:
AO12:
EP6012 Address:
Chapter 2 Introduction to EXOflex
15
Mounting
EXOflex-units can be mounted horizontally or vertically. If mounted vertically, the use of
fasteners is recommended.
Figure 10. Mounting the EXOflex house.
The unit is mounted in one of these two ways:
Vertically
Position 1
Horizontally
Position 1
Note that one power-PIFA must always be present in each house and is always
mounted in position 1. In the event of damage as a result of the power-PIFA being
incorrectly mounted, your guarantee will not be valid.
Horizontal Rail-mounting
When mounted horizontally, the unit will hang on the integrated track in the aluminum
chassis.
Figure 11. The EXOflex unit snaps quickly onto a TS 35 DIN-rail.
Snap quickly onto
a TS35 DIN-rail
16
Part I Introduction and System Overview
Figure 12. The track at the rear the unit hangs on.
The track the
unit hangs
on.
Use an end-stop on the DIN-rail so that the unit cannot move sideways.
Figure 13. Removing the unit.
Remove from the DIN-rail by
bending the lower peg
downward while pulling the
base of the unit upwards.
Chapter 2 Introduction to EXOflex
17
Wall Mounting
The unit is mounted on a wall using fasteners. These slide into the runners at the rear of the
aluminum chassis.
Figure 14. Wall mounting with fasteners.
18
Part I Introduction and System Overview
Vertical Mounting
When mounted vertically, the unit is rotated 90o clockwise, so that it stands on end, as in
Figure 15. In this way, the power-PIFA will be located in the upper right position.
Figure 15. Vertical mounting of the EPU.
Power-PIFA
Inlay cardholders
In vertical mounting, the power PIFA is always located in the upper right position.
Chapter 2 Introduction to EXOflex
19
External Display
The EXOflex range includes a freestanding external display. See the figure below.
The external display is used for local display of alarms, changes to set-point values, etc. It is
an independent PIFA that connects to a processor house via the EFX channel. See also Part
III for software handling and Part IV for specifications.
Figure 16. The external display ED9200.
20
Part I Introduction and System Overview
Summary
EXOflex-installations are made up of one or more of the following components:
‰ Processor unit – unit/house with processor, section width 1, 2, 3 or 4.
‰ Expansion unit – unit/house without processor, section width 1, 2, 3 or 4.
Processor units and expansion units are available in four different section widths. These and
the wide range of PIFA-units makes it possible to adapt the number and type of I/Os as
desired – for very small installations or for ones with thousands of I/Os.
Figure 17. Four section widths.
‰ PIFA-units – power, I/O, communication, fieldbus adapters, external display, etc.
‰ Extra processor cards – can be fitted in all sections.
The complete range of EXOflex-components and auxiliary equipment can be found in the
latest price list from Regin.
Chapter 2 Introduction to EXOflex
21
Chapter 3 EPU Internal System Design
An EXOflex base circuit board contains contacts for the processor, PIFA-units and option
cards. Each section has space for one processor, two PIFA-units and two option cards. The
baseboard links all of the internal electronics together.
The various option cards always have their physical inputs and outputs on PIFA-units.
Figure 18. An example of a Processor Unit with section width 2.
Base circuit board (section width 2)
PIFA-unit (4 positions)
Option card (4 positions)
Processor (2 positions)
EFX-channel - Internal
communication channel between
the processor and the PIFA-units
22
Part I Introduction and System Overview
Isolation Barrier
The parts of the PIFA-units close to the process are separated from the internal electronics by
an isolation barrier, which is bridged by the use of an optocoupler. This provides for
optimum handling of difficult electrical environments.
This also means that the parts of the PIFA-units close to the process must get their power
from an external source, which could well be the same as the source supplying the whole
EXOflex-unit.
Figure 19. The isolation barrier.
Internal electronics
Isolation barrier
Addressing PIFA-units
The processor in the position furthest to the left in Figure 20 (the main processor) normally
communicates with all of the houses’ PIFA-units. In certain cases however, you will want to
use one or more extra processors, and in this case, these slave processors will take over the
PIFA-units in their own sections and in the following ones. In the example below, the main
processor addresses the PIFA-units in positions 2,3 and 4. The slave processor in section 3
addresses the PIFA-units in positions 5,6,7 and 8. Communication from processor to PIFAunit is via the EFX-channel, which runs along the baseboard. In the example, the EFXchannel is divided into two separate channels, one for each processor.
An external display is always addressed from the main processor and via its EFX-channel.
Chapter 3 EPU Internal System Design
23
Figure 20. A schematic view of the internal design of a 4-section Processor Unit.
Position 1: Power-PIFA
with battery
EFX
1
3
Processor
LOT
1 reset button per
processor position
Processors 2 x (CPU + EFX)
5
7
Processor Unit
Processor
2
4
6
8
Section
Positions 2-8: any PIFA
PIFA-units in expansion houses are also handled via the main processor’s EFX channel. To
give all the PIFA-units in expansion houses a unique identity, a base address must be set for
the expansion unit. This setting is made with the address jumper switches on the power-PIFA
in the expansion house.
Figure 21. An example of a multi-unit installation.
EFX
1
3
5
7
Processor Unit
Processor
LOT
EFX
2
4
6
8
9
11
13
15
Expansion Unit
10
12
14
16
A maximum of 32 PIFA’s can be addressed
Distributed Processor Power
The Processor Card
The processor card uses a double-processor set-up, with two 8-bit 8051 compatible
processors. The first of these handles processor Tasks (the EXOreal-processor) and the other
handles the PIFA-units via the EFX-channel.
The PIFA-unit
Each PIFA-unit in turn contains an 8-bit processor, connected to the EFX-channel. This
handles the I/Os, filtering, scaling, frequency generation etc, all depending on which PIFA is
being used.
24
Part I Introduction and System Overview
The Built-In Battery
All units have an in-built battery for data memory. The battery on the power-PIFA must be
changed regularly. The recommended replacement period is five years.
The old battery can be replaced with no loss of memory, but the procedure should not take
longer than 30 minutes. See Chapter 22 Changing the Battery.
Serial Ports
An EXOflex processor can have a maximum of 3 serial ports, just as all other EXO
controllers. The ports are called Port 1, Port 2 and Port 3, or P1, P2 and P3 for short. Serial
ports are not handled by independent PIFA’s via EFX (as for e.g. digital inputs), but by
EXOreal directly.
There are also other types of communication ports that are handled by independent PIFAunits, e.g. the EXOlon PIFA and the TCP/IP PIFA-units that are used as gateway in Lon and
TCP/IP networks.
To use Ports 1-3, special connection-PIFA’s must be used.
This means that the 3 ports have the same properties, possibilities and limitations as other
models. All of the software-based configuration, interfaces etc, is identical to that in other
models.
Ports 1-3 can be used for RS232 or RS485 (EXOline) and are galvanically separated from
each other and from the internal electronics. Selection of RS232 or RS485 interface is
hardware-based. In some applications with long communication distances, there is a further
option available for the RS485 interface, i.e. to transmit at higher power, so-called
hlEXOline.
When using RS232 on Port 1, this is always limited to the signals RxD, TxD and RTS, whilst
on Port 2 you will have RxD, TxD, RTS, CTS, and on Port 3, a complete set of signals for
RS232, i.e. RxD, TxD, RTS, CTS, DTR, DSR, RI and DCD. EXOreal’s support for dial-up
modems for EXOline-communication is thus limited to Port 3.
To use the serial ports, you must use the PIFA’s port-connections. These are not configured
in EXOflex Tool, but are simply installed physically in the intended positions.
Examples of PIFA units with port connections are the power-PIFA EP1011 and the double
port PIFA EP8102.
The power PIFA must be used on position 1 (in the processor house) The double port PIFA
can be used in other positions. Port connections cannot be used in expansion houses at all.
This means that Port 1 (from the main processor) can be obtained via the power-PIFA and, as
mentioned earlier, in the form of an RS232 interface and an RS485 interface.
The double port PIFA contains, as the name implies, two port connections (P2 and P3), and it
can be used in all other positions in the processor house. The port connections go to different
serial ports, depending on the position in the processor house. Furthermore, there is space for
an option card, which can be connected to P2 or P3 on the PIFA.
If the double port PIFA is used in position 2 in the processor house, port 2 and 3 (from the
main processor) are obtained via the PIFA. If the double port PIFA is used in another
position, you will only get P2 (from the main processor).
See below:
Chapter 3 EPU Internal System Design
25
Figure 22. Schematic showing the principles for a processor house.
1
P1
3
P2
5
P2
7
P2
Processor
P2
P2, P3
P2
P2
4
2
6
8
When using more than one double port PIFA in a processor house, P2 (from the main
processor) will be available in all positions, but not at the same time. One position at a time
can be selected with the system variable Control_Port_2.
When using an option card, software is used to connect a port to the card.
Multi-Processor House
In houses with several processors (controllers), the main processor’s port 2 is connected to
the other processors’ port 1. The connection is entirely internal. See below:
Figure 23. Schematic showing the principles for a multi-processor house.
P1
1
Processor-1
P2, P3
2
3
P1
P1
4
5
5
Processor-2
P2 P3
P1
Processor-3
6 P2 P3
6
7
7
P1
Processor-4
8
P2 P3
8
Support for multi-processor houses requires a base circuit board with revision 784-21x1or
higher, which was included in deliveries starting in August 2000. The revision can be found
in position 2, down and to the left.
26
Part I Introduction and System Overview
Chapter 4 Naming System for EXOflex
Components
Houses (process houses/expansion houses)
EHxy[P]
H = House
x = Number of sections
y = Number of processors
Examples:
EH10 – one section, no processor
EH41 – four sections, one processor
PIFA-units
EPxynn[P]
nn = number of connections
P = PIFA
x = PIFA type
1 = Power
2 = DI
3 = DO
4 = Mixed DI/DO
5 = AI
6 = AO
7 = Mixed I/O
8 = Special
9 = External Display
y = type variant
E.g.
EP1011 = Power PIFA
EP2032 = 32 DI
EP6012 = 12 AI
EP8102 = Dual Basic Serial
EP9040 = LOT
Chapter 4 Naming System for EXOflex Components
27
28
Part I Introduction and System Overview
Part II Installation and
Commissioning
Chapter 4 Naming System for EXOflex Components
29
Table of contents
Part II Installation and Commissioning
Chapter 5 Cabinet Installations
Cabinet Layout
Chapter 6 Power Supply
31
33
24V DC Units
Power PIFA-units
33
33
Other PIFA-units
34
Check the Power Requirements
35
Maximum Limits
35
Chapter 7 Communication Buses &
Interfaces
36
EXOline
36
hlEXOline
37
SIOX Bus
37
M-Bus
37
The RS232 Interface
37
The Ethernet Interface
37
The SO Interface
38
Chapter 8 Connecting Active Transmitters
to Inputs
39
The Two-Wire Transmitter
39
The Three-Wire Transmitter (PNP-type)
40
The Three-Wire Current Sink Transmitter (NPN-type)
40
Other Considerations
40
Chapter 9 Commissioning
41
Setting Addresses
30
31
Part II Installation and Commissioning
41
Chapter 5 Cabinet Installations
A correct cabinet installation entails, amongst other things, not mixing cables for sensitive
analog measurements with disruptive power cables. It is therefore very important that the
cabinet area is used properly. As you can choose which position in the EXOflex-unit to
mount a particular PIFA-unit, you can then e.g. put analog PIFA-units on the one side and
digital PIFA-units on the other. This will result in a natural separation of sensitive and
disruptive cables.
The following section provides further tips for creating an installation that complies with
EMC requirements.
Cabinet Layout
Figure 24. A typical cabinet layout.
Power Supply
Relays
Line
Filter
Overvoltage
protector
Separate analog signals from digital
Ground Rail
Telephone
Line
Analog
Signals
Digital
Signals
Line
A Few Rules
‰ Use a heavy ground rail close to where external cables enter the cabinet. The rail should
be connected to local ground with a heavy wire.
‰ If using a steel cabinet, it and its door should be connected to the ground rail for safety.
Chapter 5 Cabinet Installations
31
‰ The output contacts of power relays should be connected to wires that are separated
from other wiring as much as possible.
‰ Contactors switching heavy loads can be prevented from causing interference in other
parts of an installation by using a transient protection device on the contactor output.
This RC network is sometimes an integrated part of the contactor.
‰ If a power-supply filter is used, it should be mounted close to the rail and grounded at
the rail.
‰ If lightning protection is used on the communications line, it should be mounted
directly on the rail.
‰ Use separate ground wires for each ground connector on each controller and each power
supply. Always connect grounds to the rail.
‰ Conductors connecting modems to controllers are more sensitive than other connections.
These should be kept together and not be mixed with other cables unless absolutely
necessary.
‰ If shielded wires are used outside the cabinet, the shield should be properly connected to
the ground rail.
‰ If shielded cables are used inside the cabinet, the shield should be connected to the rail.
Internal shielding is an excellent way of improving interference protection from external
cables that are being exposed to heavy disturbances.
‰ Do not install frequency converters in the same cabinet as regulation equipment. It is our
experience that frequency converters, even CE-marked ones, generate extremely heavy
interference, often far beyond the allowed limits.
Controllers are often mounted in cabinets containing relays, actuators, transformers and other
equipment. This should normally not be of any concern. However, actuators handling heavy
currents (>10A) must always be mounted in separate cabinets.
32
Part II Installation and Commissioning
Chapter 6 Power Supply
The EXOflex system with its separate PIFA-units can be viewed as galvanically isolated
“processing islands”, where each island normally requires an external power supply. This
design provides a number of possibilities and advantages:
‰ Each PIFA-unit (processing island) can be powered by separate, isolated power units.
This means the galvanic insulation from other processes can be retained, if this is
desired.
‰ Very accurate analog measurements can be made.
‰ Battery backup of selected processes.
‰ Separately fused processes, and thus better error handling.
When the advantages above are not required, some, or all, of the PIFA-units can be powered
by the same source, which may also be used for active two-wire sensors and output relays,
etc. Note that the maximum load of the supply must not be exceeded.
Note also that long cables will introduce a voltage drop that may impair correct operation of
the units. A 1.5mm2 conductor typically has a resistance of 11 Ω/1000 m. If carrying 1 A, the
drop will be 2.2 V per 100 meters of cable (two conductors). It is therefore recommended
that a separate power supply be used at each location where units are mounted.
To avoid high, ground relative voltages, it is recommended that the power supply is
grounded. The best point is at the negative pole of the power supply.
24V DC Units
Although a stabilized power supply is highly recommended, you may use a rectified AC
supply with a filter capacitor, with a value depending on the load and permissible tolerance
on the input voltage.
Note that external power supplies generating 24V DC for EXO controllers must be
CE marked as SELV, safety extra low voltage, or PELV, protected extra low
voltage, power supplies.
Observe that the peak and lowest momentary value of the filtered supply voltage
must be within the supply tolerance specified for the model. If you are using a
rectified AC supply, momentary values cannot normally be measured with a
standard voltmeter, but instead require an oscilloscope.
Power PIFA-units
‰ Connection to power supply
All power PIFA-units have a galvanically insulated DC/DC converter that generates the
internal supply for the logic circuits and, in some cases, galvanically insulated voltages
for external equipment (see Part IV Specifications). The 0 V circuit is the terminal
marked 0 V and the positive +24 V.
Chapter 6 Power Supply
33
The 0 V circuit should be grounded at the power supply, to define the potential with
reference to ground and to compensate for disturbances and transients from I/O
signals.
‰ The Protective Ground Circuit, EMI ground
This terminal is located close to the power terminals and labeled . It is connected
internally to the PIFA frame and to internal protective circuits. It should be connected
with a separate, heavy wire to the ground rail.
Other PIFA-units
‰ Connection to power supply
All processing PIFA units must be connected to an external power supply, which may be
the same supply as for the Power PIFA. The 0 V-circuit is the terminal marked 0 V, and
the positive+24 V.
The 0 V-connection is normally grounded at the supply source, so as to define the
potential to earth reference and to compensate for disturbances and transients from
I/O signals.
‰ The Protective Ground Circuit, EMI ground
This terminal is located close to the current terminals and is marked . It is connected
internally to the PIFA’s frame and to internal protective circuits. It should be tied with a
separate, heavy wire to the ground rail.
‰ The RS232 connections (Port 1, 2 or 3)
These connections are galvanically isolated from the internal circuits. The signal zero is
marked Gnd. Use screened cable and earth it at one point.
‰ The EXOline-connection ( Port 1, 2 or 3)
Galvanically insulated from all other circuits. The 0V reference is labeled N and should
be tied to the screen of the communication cable, which in turn should be grounded at
least one point.
‰ Digital input and output connections.
Inputs should be referenced to +C (+24 V) and outputs to –C (0 V)
‰ Analog input connections
Voltage and resistance measuring (PT100 etc.) is relative to Agnd.
Screened cables must be used and the screens connected to the SCR-connector next to
the input connection. Alternatively, the screen can be connected to the ground rail
according to Figure 24 on page 31. In most cases, this alternative connection will give a
measurement result that is accurate enough. However, in harsh electrical environments
we recommend that the screen is connected to SCR. Power supply for transmitters etc.
is from the fused +C output on the AI PIFA-unit.
‰ Analog output connections
Analog output voltages are referenced relative to Agnd.
Certain PIFA-units have a connection for screened cables for analog outputs. The
connection is SCR.
34
Part II Installation and Commissioning
Check the Power Requirements
The PIFA-unit’s internal circuits and option cards get their power supply from the powerPIFA. This internal voltage is mostly 5 V, but other voltages can also apply, e.g. ±12 V.
So as to not exceed the maximum power output from the power-PIFA, you must ensure that
the total internal power requirements of all the individual PIFA-units and options do not
exceed the power-PIFA’s maximum current supply on the internal voltages.
More information can be found under the information for each PIFA in Part IV
Maximum Limits
Care must be taken during installation and commissioning that inputs, outputs, ports and
supply terminals are not subject to excessive voltages due to incorrect external connections.
A safe routine during installation is to connect the plug-in contacts to the PIFA-units only
when all external cables have been connected and tested.
Chapter 6 Power Supply
35
Chapter 7 Communication Buses &
Interfaces
EXOline
EXOline is the standard means for communication via fixed cables.
The EPUs are connected in parallel on the line, as shown in Figure 25.
Figure 25. EXOline - Parallel Connected EPUs.
Screened and twisted cables should be used. The area should be 0,25 mm2 or more, as
dictated by mechanical considerations, and the capacitance should be less than 100 pF/m.
The line should normally be terminated at both ends (last controller at each end) with a
resistor value of 100 Ω/0.5 W
The line may be branched into several lines in a tree structure. If one of the branches should
exceed 200m, it is recommended that the line be terminated with an nx100 Ω resistor at the
last controller in each branch (n = No of branches). Up to 50 controllers may be connected
on the same line without amplification. The screen should normally be grounded at least at
one point, normally the N terminal on the master unit.
The E-signal
EXOline carries messages in both directions on the same pair of conductors. A special signal
is used to control the communication direction when converting to RS232 and EXOloop.
This signal is called the E-signal.
36
Part II Installation and Commissioning
hlEXOline
hlEXOline is an enhanced EXOline port capable of supplying more power to the line and
handling line receivers with higher sensitivity than the standard EXOline port. Extended
communication distances may thus be achieved by using hlEXOline. The cable area should
be 0.5 mm2 or more, as dictated by mechanical considerations and with terminations as for
EXOline, but the resistor should be able to dissipate 2 Watts (100Ω/2W), due to higher line
power.
hlEXOline is obtained by moving a jumper switch on the power-PIFA (Port 1) or on the
communication-PIFA (Port 2–3). See the descriptions for each PIFA-unit in Part IV
Specifications.
Note that hlEXOline and EXOline must not be mixed on the same communication
loop.
SIOX Bus
The SIOX bus is a two wire asynchronous bus with a level of 24 V DC. The wire should
normally be a twisted pair and the recommended cable area is 1.5 mm2. The bus should not
normally be terminated.
See also documentation from Telefrang AB for more information regarding the properties of
the SIOX bus.
M-Bus
The M-Bus, or Meter Bus, is a two wire asynchronous bus and 42 V DC power supply for
connected meters. The wire should normally be a twisted pair and the recommended cable
area is 1.5 mm2. The cable should not be longer than 3 km for 2400 bps communication
speed. The bus should not normally be terminated.
The RS232 Interface
RS232 is used for communication between two devices, port to port, on normally fixed
cables.
A screened cable must be used. The area should be 0.25 mm2 or more, as dictated by
mechanical considerations, and the length should not exceed 15 meters, unless otherwise
specified in the data sheet. The RS232 port on EXOflex-units is normally insulated from the
internal circuits, but the RS232 cable should nonetheless be separated from heavy
disturbances.
The Ethernet Interface
Ethernet is an interface used for constructing computer networks. Ethernet is not specific for
any particular media or communication speed and it is used often for creating local area
networks (LANs), radio networks and fiber optic networks using very high speeds.
One of the most common standards for Ethernet in a LAN is IEEE 802.3, which is Ethernet
with a transfer speed of 10 Mbits. The usual way to connect to a 10Mbit Ethernet network is
via 10Base-T, which is the technical term for twisted-pair Ethernet. Other connection
methods used for 10 Mbit Ethernet are 10Base-2/BNC (thin-wire Ethernet) and AUI (thickwire Ethernet).
Chapter 7 Communication Buses & Interfaces
37
When connecting equipment to a twisted pair Ethernet network, a so-called TP cable is used.
The TP cable is an 8-pole twisted pair cable with an impedance of 100 Ohms impedance and
RJ45 connectors at both ends. The TP cable is either screened (STP) or unscreened (UTP).
EXOflex-units that are connected to Ethernet have a screened RJ45 connector and should
therefore be connected by screened TP cable (STP). To avoid disturbances to network traffic,
the cable should not be spliced or pass a plinth.
The SO Interface
The SO interface is a commonly used interface for energy meters. Some digital inputs can
handle SO signals directly, by selecting SO logic levels via jumpers on the PIFA-unit.
The connection diagram in the figure below shows a meter with SO interface with open
collector output and a common + pole.
Figure 26. The SO interface.
Meter
EXOMATIC module
SO
38
Part II Installation and Commissioning
+
+C
_
DIN
(24V+)
Chapter 8 Connecting Active Transmitters
to Inputs
Active transmitters supplying 0–20 mA or 4–20 mA are frequently used for flow, pressure,
differential pressure, etc. There are three basic categories available.
The Two-Wire Transmitter
This type is typically powered by 12–24 V DC and varies its current consumption
proportionally to the input in the range 4-20 mA. This type is connected with the positive
terminal to +C (+24 V), or better still, to 12 V DC if available and is sufficient for the
transmitter. The negative pole is connected to the analog input with the current shunt
activated. If the transmitter is short circuited, excessive current will be fed into the controller,
which will be damaged. To protect the controller, use a fast fuse in the circuit or a separate,
current limited supply. Note that Agnd must not be connected. Instead the current through
the shunt must be re-routed via the PIFA-unit’s 0 V-connection. The fuse can be omitted if
the transmitter is supplied by 12 V instead of +C (24 V).
Figure 27. Connection of Two-Wire Transmitter.
+C
Fuse
+C
AGnd
Chapter 8 Connecting Active Transmitters to Inputs
39
The Three-Wire Transmitter (PNP-type)
This type feeds current to the load, which should be connected to the signal ground.
Figure 28. Current Source Active Transmitter.
AG
0V
Figure 28 shows a suitable connection. Note that Agnd should not be connected to the
PIFA-unit. Instead the current through the shunt goes via the 0V-connection The same
connection may be used with an internally powered transmitter, provided the internal power
supply is insulated.
The Three-Wire Current Sink Transmitter (NPN-type)
This type requires an insulation amplifier as shown in Figure 29. Note that Agnd should not
be connected to the PIFA-unit. Instead the current through the shunt goes via the
0V-connection. Power supplies can be common or separate, as in the figure.
Figure 29. Current Sink Active Transmitter.
Transmitter
EP5012
ISO
AGnd
0V
Other Considerations
Many transmitter types have internal ground connection via the sensor or power supply. An
insulation amplifier is required in most cases.
40
Part II Installation and Commissioning
Chapter 9 Commissioning
Setting Addresses
Each PIFA must have a unique address in the interval 0 to 31.
PIFA-units mounted in an EXOflex-house will receive an address depending on their
position in the house. The position at the uppermost left has the address 1, the position under
that has address 2, the position to the right of position 1 has the address 3 and so on. See the
figure below.
1
3
5
7
2
4
6
8
In a processor house, with one or more processors, the PIFA-units will have these addresses
as standard upon delivery, i.e. the power-PIFA’s address jumpers are set to the base address
0.
In expansion houses, base addresses can be set using a group of jumper switches. The base
addresses are selected as follows:
Base address
Jumpers
321
28
24
20
16
12
8
4
0
(Standard setting for processor house)
3, 2 and 1 in the table refer to Figure 31.
The PIFA-unit’s address is then obtained by adding the base address to the PIFA-position’s
address. The external display PIFA always has the address 0.
Chapter 9 Commissioning
41
Example
Figure 30. Addressing in a system with one processor unit and one expansion unit.
0
EFX
1 (0+1)
3 (0+3)
5 (0+5)
2 (0+2)
4 (0+4)
6 (0+6)
9 (8+1)
11 (8+3)
13 (8+5)
10 (8+2)
12 (8+4)
14 (8+6)
Processor
LOT
EFX
Processor Unit
Base address 0
Expansion Unit
Base address 8
Add the base address to the position address to get the PIFA-unit’s address
To avoid ESD damage to the electronics, you must use a wristband connected to
earth for this procedure.
Figure 31. The jumper switches for setting base addresses on the EPU’s power
PIFA.
3
2
1
The jumpers for setting base addresses. Here they are set for the base
address 28, i.e. no jumpers have been set.
42
Part II Installation and Commissioning
Part III EXOflex Software
Chapter 9 Commissioning
43
Table of contents
Part III EXOflex Software
Chapter 10 Overview
47
Configuration
47
Chapter 11 EFX PIFA Units
Resources
49
Configuration
Commands
Changing the Configuration
49
50
50
Application Interface
Read, Write and Parameter Variables
Control Variables
50
51
52
Run Modes
Normal Run
No Power
Power-up
Off-line Mode
Communication Disturbance
Spontaneous Warm-start
52
52
53
53
54
54
54
Other Considerations
PIFAos
Serial Number
54
54
55
Chapter 12 The Processor and the PowerPIFA
Part III EXOflex Software
56
EXOreal
56
The EFX Channel
56
Hardware Clock
57
Built-in Battery
57
External Battery (Option 9035)
57
Digital Inputs and Outputs (on the Main Power PIFA)
58
Chapter 13 Communication
44
49
59
Electrical Formats
59
Connections
The Main Processor
Other Processors
59
59
60
System Variables
61
Chapter 14 Digital Inputs
62
General
62
Function
Run-time Logging
Pulse Counting
Pulse Rate Measuring
62
63
63
64
Function Diagram
65
Configuration
65
Variables
66
Chapter 15 Digital Outputs
67
General
67
Function
Pulse Proportioning
Frequency Generation
Power-up
Off-line Mode
Overheating Protection
67
68
68
69
69
69
Function Diagram
70
Configuration
70
Variables
70
Chapter 16 Analog Inputs
72
General
72
Function
Compensation for Wire Resistance
Measurement Range
Priorities
72
72
73
73
Function Diagram
74
Configuration
74
Variables
75
Chapter 17 Analog Outputs
76
General
76
Function
Power-up
Off-line Mode
76
76
77
Function Diagram
77
Configuration
77
Variables
78
Chapter 18 The External Display
79
The Display
79
Keypad
79
LEDs
81
Chapter 9 Commissioning
45
Beeper
81
Character Sets
82
Chapter 19 TCP/IP
46
83
General
83
Network Construction
84
Security
84
Performance
Unreachable Controllers
85
85
Configuration
Load the Configuration
85
90
Loading the Operating System
93
Advanced Applications
Multidrop
Multimaster
Firewalls
93
93
94
94
Hardware Interface
95
Chapter 20 Applications
96
Controller Objects
96
Display
96
Limitations
98
Part III EXOflex Software
Chapter 10 Overview
EXOflex’ mechanical design, which uses different types of houses, has little meaning when
programming. Instead we use the logical concept of controllers.
In earlier EXO systems, the term module was used to describe both hardware and software.
In the EXOflex system, however, we define a module (controller) as:
A processor (using EXOreal) and its PIFA-units.
A processor house can thus contain one or more controllers and it is also possible to connect
one or more expansion houses to the processor house. These together then make up a
controller. This definition of a controller is used exclusively in EXOdesigner, EXO4, etc.
Each EXOflex-controller can handle a maximum of 32 PIFA-units. There are two basic types
of PIFA-units: EFX-units and non-EFX-units.
EFX PIFA Units
EFX PIFA units communicate with EXOreal in the processor house via the so-called EFX
channel. EFX is RS485 based communication, which is only intended for use between PIFA
units and EXOreal. The EFX channel runs between all the PIFA units in a house, but can
also be run via a cable from one house to another.
This type of PIFA can be placed in any position in processor or expansion houses, with
identical functionality.
EFX PIFA units have their own CPU, which uses the operating system PIFAos. The
operating system in the PIFAs and EXOreal handle all communication between each other
completely automatically and invisibly. The result of this is that the PIFA units’ functionality
is exposed via ordinary EXOL variables in VPacs.
Non EFX PIFA Units
Non EFX PIFA units do not communicate with EXOreal in the processor house via the
EFX-channel, but by special connections inside the processor house. This is used by power
and communication PIFAs, which cannot be used in expansion houses. Furthermore, there
are special rules for which positions they may occupy in the processor house.
EXOreal handles non EFX PIFA units directly, as if they were built into the processor, in the
same way as in earlier EXO systems. Non EFX PIFA units can have their own CPU, but do
not have to.
Configuration
EXOflex-controllers are created and programmed in the usual way, using Project Builder,
Controller Functions, EXOL files, etc.
To configure the functions in an EXOflex controller, you use the controller function
EXOflex I/O, which is added with Controller Functions in the usual way.
Configuration does not take place on-line, but instead in EXOL files on the hard drive
(exactly as for all other controller functions). The configuration is loaded to the controller
together with the application programs.
The configuration of EXOflex and the PIFA units is the only difference as concerns
application programming of the controllers, everything else is the same as usual. All the
existing programs in EXOdesigner (and other, third-party programs) can be used as they are.
Chapter 10 Overview
47
During configuration you must specify which PIFAs are being used. This is done with
EXOflex I/O Tool:
Figure 32. EXOflex Tool.
Add a PIFA by clicking New and selecting the model in the dialog Add PIFA:
Figure 33. Add a PIFA-unit.
A new PIFA unit is assigned the first available address. This is then changed to the actual
address in the attribute Address.
Both EFX and non EFX PIFA units must be defined in EXOflex I/O Tool. The individual
functions for each PIFA are configured separately in a special tool. Most PIFA units are
configured with PIFA I/O Tool.
You can also provide a description for each PIFA. All other configuration is described in
Chapter 11 EFX PIFA Units.
48
Part III EXOflex Software
Chapter 11 EFX PIFA Units
EFX PIFA units are in many cases advanced, with many possible settings. Configuration is
done (in most cases) with PIFA I/O Tool.
Resources
A PIFA often contains a number of separate units, e.g. analog inputs or digital outputs. Each
such unit is called a resource. Both the hardware and software are organized by resources.
In the case of software, a resource is roughly equivalent to an object. There are a number of
standardized software resource types, which are to be found in many different PIFA units in
various combinations.
Configuration
Most types of PIFA units are configured with PIFA I/O Tool. There are, however, certain
advanced types of PIFA units that have their own tools. You start a PIFA unit’s
configuration tool from EXOflex I/O Tool.
Figure 34. An example of a PIFA I/O Tool window:
In PIFA I/O, each resource is configured as a separate object. The configuration attributes
vary, depending on the resource type. See the description for each resource type.
There are, however, certain attributes that are always available for all resource types:
Description and Name.
Description is intended for describing the resource in the application.
Name is intended for giving the resource another programmatic name than the default. See
also Application Interface below.
Chapter 11 EFX PIFA Units
49
During configuration, a number of VPacs with variables equivalent to the PIFA-units’
interface variables are created. A BPac is also created, which has pointers to all these data
structures, as well as a few other settings.
Commands
Debug
Teh command Debug starts EXOtest in order to inspect the attribute variables of the selected
resources. An .ete file is created for each resource. You start a debug session either by
pressing the button or with the key combination Alt+U.
Synchronize Parameters
The command Syncrhonize Parameters is used to read the configuration parameters from
the controller. In this way you can synchronize the project’s configuration in the software
with the actual configuration in the controller. To execute a synchronization you press the
button or use the key combination Alt+R.
Changing the Configuration
As mentioned above, configuration is done in EXOL files on the hard drive, in the files
PIFAConf.Dpe, PIFA.Dpe and PIFACtrl.Dpe.
The EXOL-files are loaded to the controller with the command Load Controller, just as
other EXOL files. However, when changes have been made, you cannot simply reload the
files, but must instead reload the entire controller, i.e. cold or cool start it.
Note that the application can change the value of a parameter variable during run
time without changing the configuration. When the PIFA is reloaded however, all
the variables will receive the values stored in the configuration.
Application Interface
The EXOflex controller’s application is programmed as usual in EXOL files, which can
interact with other controllers and operator programs (e.g. EXO4) in the usual way.
This is possible due to the fact that the interface between the PIFA units and the application
programs goes via ordinary EXOL variables in VPacs. The VPacs are created on the hard
drive during configuration and loaded to the controller with the command Load Controller.
The operating system in the EXOflex controller and the PIFA units automatically and
invisibly takes care of the transfer between the PIFA units and the variables in the VPacs.
The VPacs with variables are called PIFA.Dpe etc. The function EXOflex I/O
automatically declares these in the process Tasks (Normal, Slow, Fast and VeryFast).
The variables are divided into four different data classes, according to how data is
transferred, according to the below:
50
Data class
Description
Read variables
Transferred automatically from the PIFA units to the controller upon
changes. Will be read by the application programs. See however,
Counter Variables below.
Part III EXOflex Software
Write variables
Can be written or read by the application programs. Transferred
automatically from the controller to the PIFA units upon changes.
Parameter
variables
Can be written or read by the application programs. Transferred
automatically from the controller to the PIFA units upon changes, i.e. as
for write variables, but at a lower priority.
Control
variables
Special variables, valid for the whole PIFA, irrespective of the
PIFA’smodel. The variables have various meanings. There are variables
for e.g. indicating status, serial number, PIFAos revision etc.
These variables are stored in PIFACtrl.Dpe (which is not declared
automatically in the process Task).
Read, Write and Parameter Variables
Each PIFA has its own set of read, write and parameter variables. Normally all PIFA units of
a particular model have a fixed set of variables. This means that for each PIFA model you
install, you will get the same set of variables. There can however, be PIFA units with a
dynamic set of variables, where even the variable set itself depends on the configuration.
The variables are usually organized and named according to their resources, so that all the
variables belonging to a particular resource start in the same way, i.e. with the resource
name. The name of the attribute follows directly after the resource name.
Each resource has a default name. This name is normally constructed from information about
the resource type, the PIFA-address and the resource number. Examples of default resource
names are AI1_2 and DI3_7, for analog input 2 in PIFA 1 and digital input 7 in PIFA 3
respectively. You can however, during configuration give each resource any name, e.g.
OutTemp, FanGuard, Pump, etc.
Example:
A normal digital input has a variable that registers the input’s value. This variable is special,
as its name is equivalent to the resource’s name, e.g. DI3_7 or Fanguard. A digital input
also has variables for selecting on/off delays. These are called OnDelay and OffDelay
respectively. The variable names for these will then be DI3_7OnDelay,
DI3_7OffDelay, FanGuardOnDelay and FanGuardOffDelay.
Indexing
In most cases, an attribute for all the resources in a PIFA is also available for indexing,
which can be exploited in loops in application programs. In this case, the default name in the
variable name is always used. The resource numbers are used as an index, instead of the
actual variable name.
Example:
On/off delays for the digital inputs in PIFA 3 are available in the indexed variables
DI3OnDelay(x) and DI3OffDelay(x) respectively, where x is the resource number.
Counter Variables
Read variables can normally only be read by application programs. If you write something in
such a variable, this value will be overwritten as soon as a new value is generated by the
PIFA. An exception to this is counter variables, which e.g. count pulses or track run time for
a digital input. This type of variable can be both read and written. If you enter something into
a variable of this type, it will proceed to count from the value you entered.
Chapter 11 EFX PIFA Units
51
Transient Flags
All read variables have transient flags that are set when the value is changed. Especially for
digital inputs, there are flags that are set also for very short pulses. See Chapter 14 Digital
Inputs on page 62.
You cannot use the transient flags for write and parameter variables in application
programs in EXOflex, since they are used internally by EXOreal.
Control Variables
The control variables apply to the whole PIFA and are therefore not organized by resource.
The names of these variables can not be configured. They always start with PIFAx, where x
is the PIFA address, followed directly by the name of the attribute.
Example:
The serial number for the PIFA in position 3 can be read in the variable
PIFA3_SerialNumber.
The control variables are placed in their own VPac, named PIFACtrl.Dpe (which is not
declared automatically in the process Task).
Run Modes
A PIFA can run in a number of different modes, as described below.
Normal Run
When a PIFA is in normal run mode, it is said to be in its active mode. Values are then
automatically transferred between the PIFA and the EXOL-variables in the controller. The
transfer is event-driven, i.e. values are only transferred when they change. Although the
process is event-driven it is not immediate. There are certain delays in the system.
The delays are dependent on the variable’s data class, the number of PIFA units and the
PIFA’s priority. If all the PIFA units have the same priority, the maximum delays can be
calculated in the following way:
Read variables: 20 + (NumberOfPIFA-units * 1.4) milliseconds.
Write variables: 20 * NumberOfPIFA-units milliseconds.
Parameter variables: 400 * NumberOfPIFA-units milliseconds.
In EXOflex I/O Tool, you can configure the priority for each PIFA. This can be exploited if
you have a limited number of PIFAs that need much faster transfer than the other ones. The
priority is specified numerically, the value 1 is the highest priority. It can be fairly
complicated to calculate the maximum delay when priorities are stated in this way. However,
the maximum delay between two PIFA units is inversely proportional to the relationship
between their respective priorities, i.e. a PIFA with priority 1 is 3 times as fast as a PIFA
with priority 3, which in turn is twice as fast as a PIFA with priority 6, and so on.
You can also change the priority of parameter variables in relationship to write variables.
Normally write variables are 20 times faster, but this can be configured in the parameter
Priority for scanning for changes in the parameter variables in PIFA I/O Tool.
52
Part III EXOflex Software
No Power
When a PIFA has no power, then naturally nothing happens. All outputs are "low", even
digital outputs with relays. This is always equivalent to the value 0 during normal operation
in the corresponding write variable for the application programs.
Power-up
A PIFA usually has no battery and will therefore not "remember" anything of its
configuration, settings or values for outputs, etc. All outputs will therefore be "low".
The EXOflex controller however, contains all the variables and their configurations, values,
etc. When both the PIFA and the controller are powered up and have made contact, the
controller will automatically update the PIFA with this information. Once this is done, the
PIFA’s continued behavior will depend on its configuration for Type Of Activation in
EXOflex I/O. Automatic or manual activation can be selected.
If automatic activation is selected, the PIFA will automatically go to active mode (i.e. normal
operation) as soon as the PIFA and the controller have been updated.
If manual activation is selected, the PIFA will instead go to passive mode as soon as the
PIFA and the controller have been updated. In passive mode, values are automatically
transferred between the PIFA units and the EXOL variables in the controller, just as in active
mode, but all outputs will remain "low". Inputs and other resources function exactly as in
active mode.
The PIFA will remain in passive mode until it is activated manually, usually by the
application program. Manual activation is intended for use in sensitive installations, where
various equipments need to be started in very special ways after power-up.
Apart from this advanced function, output resources usually also have other, simple
functions for start-up, e.g. PowerUpDelay. See the description for each resource type.
A PIFA’s mode can be read in the control variable PIFAx_Status, where x is the PIFA’s
address. The variable can have one of the following values:
Mode
Value
Description
No contact
0
The controller has no contact with the PIFA. This could
mean that it does not exist, that it is defective, that it is not
powered or that a communication cable is missing or is
defective.
Start-up
1
The PIFA is in start-up mode. The PIFA and the controller
are updating each other.
Passive
2
The PIFA is in passive mode and functions as usual,
except that all outputs are "low".
Active
3
The PIFA is in active mode, i.e. normal operation.
Configuration error
4
The PIFA is not of the model specified in the
configuration. The PIFA behaves as if in off-line mode.
See Off-line Mode below.
A PIFA in passive mode can be activated manually by setting the variable PIFAx_Active,
where x is the PIFA’s address. This can be done by the application program in the controller.
Chapter 11 EFX PIFA Units
53
Off-line Mode
Off-line mode means that the PIFA has power, but no contact with the controller. This
mostly happens for a PIFA in an expansion house or in an external display PIFA if the cable
between the units is missing or defective, or if the processor house has no power.
As the PIFA has power it can continue to operate, but it must work entirely without
instructions from the application program. The only point of interest (for normal PIFA-units)
is the mode for the outputs.
A PIFA that goes into off-line mode directly after power-up cannot do anything, as it has no
battery and will behave as if in a powerless state, i.e. the outputs will remain "low".
A PIFA that goes into off-line mode directly from normal operation will remember all of its
settings and values, as long as it has power itself. The behavior for each output in this case
can be configured. You can either let the output retain the value it had when it entered offline mode, or you can let it go "low" directly.
When the PIFA regains contact with the controller, they will first of all update each other.
Once this is done, the PIFA’s continued behavior will depend on the configuration for the
type of activation, in exactly the same way as for power-up.
Communication Disturbance
Communication between a controller and its PIFA units is via the EFX-channel.
Communication within the processor house cannot, in principle, be disturbed.
Communication with PIFA units in an expansion house or with an external display PIFA
however, is via a cable. This communication can be disturbed. Naturally, the protocol used in
the EFX channel contains mechanisms that ensure that disturbance is detected and that the
query is automatically sent again. If there is severe disturbance however, communication can
sometimes be knocked out in all retries.
If there is long-term communication disturbance (several seconds), the PIFA will go to offline mode.
Whatever happens, the controller and the PIFA will continue to update each other as soon as
communication is re-established. The continued behavior will depend on the configuration
for the type of activation, in the usual way.
Spontaneous Warm-start
All the operating systems involved contain security systems, both in the software and
hardware, which monitor their function. If something serious occurs, e.g. because of an error
in an operating system, there will be an automatic re-start, i.e. a spontaneous warm-start.
When this occurs, the controller and the PIFA will immediately update each other again.
Continued behavior will depend on the configuration for the type of activation, in the usual
way.
Other Considerations
PIFAos
Each EFX-PIFA has its own CPU with the operating system PIFAos. The revision of PIFAos
for each PIFA can be read from a number of EXOL-variables, as below:
54
Part III EXOflex Software
Type Variable
Description
X
PIFAx_RevisionMajor
Integer part of the PIFAos revision.
X
PIFAx_RevisionMinor
Decimal part of the PIFAos revision.
X
PIFAx_RevisionBranch Branch part of the PIFAos revision.
I
PIFAx_RevisionNumber Incremental part of the PIFAos revision.
x is the PIFA’s address.
Example: 1.3-1-17
Serial Number
The serial number for each PIFA can be read in the variable PIFAx_SerialNumber,
where x is the PIFA’s address.
Chapter 11 EFX PIFA Units
55
Chapter 12 The Processor and the PowerPIFA
Each processor unit has one or more processors. The processor furthest to the left in the
house is called the main processor. This handles the resources in the power-PIFA and also
has a special role in handling the serial ports.
EXOreal
Each processor has a CPU with the real-time operating system EXOreal, which is the heart
of the controller. EXOreal runs all the application programs etc. The EXOreal CPU is of the
type C515C, which is a variant of Intel’s 8051 core. This CPU is 100% software compatible
with the processors used in other EXO controllers: the 8032 and the 80522. It also has the
same performance, i.e. equivalent to 22 MHz clock frequency.
The EXOreal revision can be read from a number of system variables in the usual way. See
the document EXOreal.
The EXOreal CPU has 480 kByte expanded memory and 32 kByte conventional memory for
application programs. The amount of free memory can be read with e.g. EXOtest in the usual
way. See also the document Troubleshooting controllers with EXOtest.
The EFX Channel
Each processor also has an EFX channel, which is handled by another CPU, using the realtime operating system EFXos.
In a house with only one processor, the EFX channel runs to all the PIFA units in the house
and to contacts on the power-PIFA, where the EFX channel can be connected via a cable to
an expansion house or an external display PIFA.
In houses with several processors, the EFX channel runs from each processor to the PIFA
units in the same section as the processor and to sections to the right of that, up to the next
processor.
The EFXos revision can be read from the system variables EFXosRevMajor,
EFXosRevMinor, EFXosRevBranch and EFXosRevNumber.
Type Name
QPac
QLN Cell
X
EFXosRevMajor
QEXOflex
239
10
-
2.8
-
Integer part of EFXos version.
X
EFXosRevMinor
QEXOflex
239
11
-
2.8
-
Decimal part of EFXos version
(multiplied by 10).
X
EFXosRevBranch
QEXOflex
239
12
-
2.8
-
Branch part of EFXos revision.
QEXOflex
239
13
-
2.8
-
Incremental part of EFXos revision.
I
56
EFXosRevNumber
Part III EXOflex Software
Nor Ver T Description
Hardware Clock
Each processor has a hardware clock that ensures that the real-time clock runs with high
accuracy, even when the processor house has no power. Transfer between the hardware clock
and the software clock in EXOreal occurs completely automatically.
Built-in Battery
The power-PIFA contains a battery that preserves the contents of the processors’ memory
and keeps the hardware clock running when the house has no power.
The battery is easily replaced by pulling out the power-PIFA. Each processor has a small
current reserve that can keep the memory and hardware clock running for approximately 30
minutes, without the power-PIFA.
The power-PIFA also monitors the battery voltage. When the voltage drops too low, a LED
in the front panel is lit. Furthermore, the system variable BattFail is set in the house’s
main processor. See also the document EXOreal.
External Battery (Option 9035)
The main power PIFA EP1011 can be fitted with option 9035, which makes it possible to
connect an external battery as an alternative power source for the controller. This battery is
intended to complement the normal power supply to the controller, so that the controller can
continue working as normal during a power failure.
The main power PIFA has certain indicators regarding the external battery and the power
supply. These are found in the system variable ExtBattery and is shown with LEDs on
the front panel of the main power PIFA.
Line Failure (LF), bit #0, indicates that the normal external power supply is not working, i.e.
the controller is being powered by the external battery. When the bit is set to zero, the
controller is powered as normal.
Battery Low (Lo), bit #1, indicates that the voltage from the external battery is running low.
If this bit is set when the external battery is powering the controller, the battery can only
continue to power the controller for a short while. You may however assume that the time is
long enough for sending an alarm.
Battery Failure (BF), bit #2, indicates that the external battery is out of function, e.g.
completely drained or erroneously connected. This can of course only be indicated while the
normal power supply is working.
Type Name
QPac
QLN Cell Nor Ver T Description
X
QSystem
241
ExtBattery
29
-
2.8
-
Handling of external battery
(Option 9035).
Bit # 0 = Normal external power
supply out of function.
Bit #1 = External battery, low
voltage.
Bit #2 = External battery out of
function.
Chapter 12 The Processor and the Power-PIFA
57
Digital Inputs and Outputs (on the Main Power PIFA)
The main power PIFA has a few simple digital inputs and outputs.
The main power PIFA is not an EFX PIFA, which means that the inputs and outputs do not
work in the same way as in other PIFA units. Instead these are handled directly by EXOreal,
as in other, non-EXOflex-controllers, i.e. with the system variables DIn and DQn. See also
the document EXOreal.
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Part III EXOflex Software
Chapter 13 Communication
Serial ports are handled in the same way as in non EXOflex controllers, directly by EXOreal.
In software respects, each EXOflex controller always has 3 ports. Communication is handled
by the application program in the traditional way, which is described in detail in the
document EXOreal.
The differences in EXOflex are mechanical and electrical, i.e. how the ports are connected in
the house, both between the processors in the house and to the various PIFA units.
Electrical Formats
All ports can be used for RS232 or RS485.
RS485
All RS485 ports have a complete set of signals, i.e. N, A, B and E.
RS232
The ports have support for various sets of signal for RS232, according to the below:
Port 1: RxD, TxD and RTS.
Port 2: RxD, TxD, RTS and CTS.
Port 3: RxD, TxD, RTS, CTS, DTR, DSR, RI and DCD.
Connections
The Main Processor
The main processor is the one furthest to the left in a processor house. Descriptions of how to
connect these ports follow below.
Port #1
Port #1 always connects to the power-PIFA in PIFA position 1. There is no configuration for
the actual connection.
Port #2
The main processor’s port #2 can be connected in several ways.
Internally, port #2 is connected to port #1 on the other processors in the house. In houses
with several processors, this should be used for communication between the processors (i.e.
the controllers). This connection is always present, irrespective of the configuration.
Chapter 13 Communication
59
Port #2 can also be connected to a communication-PIFA in any position in the house. The
position is selected with the system variable Control_Port_2, by assigning it the
position address for the desired PIFA. Assigning it the value 0 will mean that it is not
connected.
In houses with several processors, port #2 can be used for internal EXOline communication
in the house and for external controllers via a communication PIFA, both at the same time.
It is possible to mount an option card alongside the communication PIFA in the same
position. The port’s connection is selected with bit #1 in the system variable
Signal_Port_2. When the bit is reset, the port is connected directly to the external
connector on the communication PIFA. When the bit is set, it is connected via the option
card and onwards to its external connector on the communication PIFA.
Normally, the port’s connection is configured statically, but for special applications it is
possible to change the connection dynamically. This is not suitable for EXOline
communication, but rather for communication using special protocols with low performance
requirements, e.g. meter reading.
Port #3
Port #3 is always connected to PIFA position 2, if a communication PIFA is used in that
position.
It is possible to mount an option card with the communication PIFA, in the same position.
Select the port’s connection with bit #1 in the system variable Signal_Port_3. When the
bit is reset, the port is connected directly to the external connector on the communication
PIFA. When the bit is set, it is connected via the option card and onwards to its external
connector on the communication PIFA.
The application program can determine whether or not the external connector on the
communication PIFA is connected via a cable to other equipment. This is indicated by bit #3
in Signal_Port_3. If there is a connection present, this will be set.
Other Processors
Port #1
Port #1 is always connected to port #2 in the main processor. The port cannot be connected
externally.
Port #2
Port #2 can only be connected to a communication PIFA in one of the two PIFA positions in
the same section as the processor. Select the position with the system variable
Control_Port_2, by assigning it the position address for the desired PIFA. The value 0
will mean that it is not connected.
It is possible to mount an option card with the communication PIFA, in the same position.
Select the port’s connection with bit #1 in the system variable Signal_Port_2. When the
bit is reset, the port is connected directly to the external connector on the communication
PIFA. When the bit is set, it is connected via the option card and onwards to its external
connector on the communication PIFA.
Port #3
Port 3 is always connected to the PIFA position closest to and "under" the processor, if using
a communication PIFA in that position.
60
Part III EXOflex Software
It is possible to mount an option card with the communication PIFA, in the same position.
Select the port’s connection with bit #1 in the system variable Signal_Port_3. When the
bit is reset, the port is connected directly to the external connector on the communication
PIFA. When the bit is set, it is connected via the option card and onwards to its external
connector on the communication PIFA.
The application program can detect whether or not the external connector on the
communication PIFA is connected via a cable to other equipment. This is indicated by bit #3
in Signal_Port_3. If there is a connection present, this will be set.
System Variables
Type Name
QPac
QLN Cell Nor Ver T Description
X
Signal_Port_2
QCom
248
X
Signal_Port_3
QCom
248
46
0
2.4
-
Control signals in port #3.
X
Control_Port_2
QCom
248
55
2
2.8
-
Determines which PIFA position
port #2 will connect to.
45
0
2.4
-
Control signals in port #2.
Chapter 13 Communication
61
Chapter 14 Digital Inputs
General
There are two standardized types of digital inputs, in software respect normal and advanced.
They have the following functions:
Normal Inputs
A normal digital input has the following functions:
‰ A digital filter, which always filters out pulses shorter than 4.5 ms and always registers
pulses longer than 9 ms.
‰ The signal can be inverted.
‰ Configurable on/off delays, in the interval 0.1 to 3000 seconds, with separate variables
for filtered values and raw values.
‰ Run time logging with the resolution 1 second. The function has double counters (with
normal or very high resolution respectively). The counters can be set independently of
each other by the application program.
‰ A transient flag that is set each time a changed value is registered that can be used to
register short pulses in a Task.
Advanced Inputs
An advanced digital input has the following functions:
‰ All the functions found in a normal input, but with a faster digital filter, which always
filters out pulses shorter than 2.25 ms and always registers pulses longer than 4.5 ms.
‰ Pulse counting up to 110 pulses per second. The function has double counters (with
normal and very high resolution respectively). The counters can be set independently of
each other by the application program.
‰ Pulse speed measuring up to 110 pulses per second.
‰ Option to automatically convert pulse counting and pulse speed measuring to application
units (scaling).
Function
Using the configuration attribute Type, the digital input’s function is selected.
With the type Normal, the input’s level is continuously indicated by the variable DI. The
indication can be delayed by using the attributes OnDelay and OffDelay respectively, which
specify the on and off delays in seconds, in the interval 0.1 to 3000 seconds.
It is also possible to invert the signal, i.e. a low signal to the hardware will be seen as high in
the software and vice versa. The inversion is not absolute until the first reading of the level in
the hardware. The function is activated with the attribute Invert Signal.
For troubleshooting (or other purposes), the input’s momentary value (raw value) is indicated
in the variable DIRaw.
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Part III EXOflex Software
Run-time Logging
Digital inputs have a built-in function for run time logging. The function is active if Type =
Runtime Counter.
The function logs the time the input is high. The desired unit can be configured in the
variable TimeUnit and is given in seconds. By default, run time is calculated in hours (3600
seconds), but always uses the resolution 1 second.
The time logged is counted up automatically in the variable DICount. The application
program can, at any time, set the value of DICount to some other value. The input
continues to count from the entered value.
By configuring Two Counters = Yes there will be two separate variables for run time
logging: DICount and DICount2. These are intended for logging run time at different
time periods. Both can be set (or reset) independently of each other by the application
program.
DICount has high resolution, with approximately 12 figure accuracy, which is equivalent to
>30 000 years. DICount2 has a more moderate resolution, with approximately 6 figure
accuracy, which is equivalent to 11 days (24h periods). DICount2 can advantageously be
used for data assimilation to Logging, for e.g. logging run time per 24h. Logging can be
configured to log DICount2 directly to achieve this.
When run time logging is active, the input’s value is indicated simultaneously in DI and
DIRaw, just as during normal function.
Pulse Counting
Normal Inputs
Pulse counting on normal digital inputs can be done with an application program, if the
pulses are not coming too quickly. It is then possible to catch very short pulses (> 9 ms) in a
relatively slow program, with the help of the transient flag.
Each time the input’s value changes, this is indicated in the variables DI and DIRaw. The
input’s transient flags are also set each time the value changes. By reading the transient flag
in the program, even very short pulses can be counted. EXOdesigner provides a ready-made
controller object Pulse Counting, which is suitable for this purpose.
The shortest time allowed between pulses is determined by the transfer between the PIFA
and EXOreal, as well as by the application program’s scan cycle.
Example: With 7 PIFA units and a program with the scan cycle 500 ms, the shortest period
allowed between the pulses is: 20 + 7*1.4 ms + 500 ms = 530 ms. This applies if all the
PIFA units have the same priority. If this is too slow, you can increase the priority for some
of the PIFA units and decrease it for others.
Advanced Inputs
Advanced digital inputs have a built-in function for pulse counting. The function is active if
Type = Pulse Counter or Pulse Counter+Rate.
The function counts all pulses (> 4.5 ms) and automatically counts up the variable DICount
at regular intervals. Pulses arriving at speeds of up to 9 ms can be counted. The function can
also automatically convert the value to application units. The number of pulses is multiplied
with the value Scale before DICount is updated.
The application program can, at any time, set the value of DICount to a desired value. The
input will then continue to count from the entered value.
Chapter 14 Digital Inputs
63
By configuring Two Counters = Yes you will get two separate variables with pulse
counting: DICount and DICount2. These are intended for pulse counting at different
resolutions. Both can be set (or reset) independently of each other by the application
program.
DICount has high resolution, with approx. 12 numbers accuracy, i.e. 1 billion pulses.
DICount2 has a more moderate resolution, with approx. 6 numbers accuracy, i.e. 1 million
pulses. DICount2 can advantageously be used for data assimilation to Logging, for e.g.
logging the number of pulses per day (24h). Logging can be configured to log DICount2
directly to achieve this function.
When pulse counting is active, the input’s status is not indicated in DI and DIRaw. If this is
required, you must configure Type with a numerical value that activates the function. Note
however, that if the pulse speed is high, this will put a great load on the EXOreal processor.
Pulse Rate Measuring
Normal Inputs
Pulse rate measuring (i.e. frequency measuring) on normal digital inputs can be done with an
application program, if pulses are not coming too quickly. It is then possible to capture very
short pulses (> 9 ms) in a relatively slow program, with the help of the transient flags for DI
or DIRaw, in the same way as for pulse counting.
EXOdesigner has a ready-made controller object for pulse rate measuring, Pulse Counting,
which is suitable for this purpose.
Advanced Inputs
Advanced digital inputs have a built-in function for pulse rate measuring (i.e. frequency
measuring). The function is active if Type = Pulse Counter+Rate.
Pulse rate is indicated continuously in the variable DIRate.
The function counts all pulses (> 4.5 ms), even if they are coming very quickly (> 9 ms). The
pulse rate is calculated each time that NoOfPulses pulses are received. If not enough pulses
have been received in the period MaxTime (normally 1 minute), the rate is calculated
anyway.
You can configure the desired unit in the variable TimeUnit, in seconds. With e.g.
TimeUnit = 60, the pulse rate is calculated as pulses/minute. Furthermore, this function can
also automatically convert the values to application units. The pulse rate is multiplied with
the value Scale before DIRate is updated.
When pulse rate measuring is active, the input’s status is not indicated in DI or DIRaw. If
this is required, you must configure Type with a numerical value that activates the function.
Note however, that if the pulse rate is high, this will put a great load on the EXOreal
processor.
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Part III EXOflex Software
Function Diagram
Figure 35. The functions of a digital input shown schematically.
Filter
DIRaw
Hardware
Filter
Hysteresis
(9 ms)
DI
OnDelay & OffDelay
Invert
Signal
RunTime
Counter
RunTime
Filter
Scaling
Pulse
Hysteresis
(4.5 ms)
TimeUnit
DICount
CountType
Pulse
Counter
Scaling
DICount2
Scale
Advanced
functions
Rate
Counter
Scaling
DIRate
Scale & TimeUnit
Configuration
A digital input has the following configuration attributes:
Attribute
Normal
Description
Type
Normal
Type of function for the digital input. Specified as one of the following
alternatives: Off [0], Normal [3], Run time Counter [83], Pulse Counter [16],
Pulse Counter+Rate [144].
Corresponds to the bits 0, 1, 4, 6 and 7 in the variable DIMode. Arbitrary
combinations can be configured using a numerical value.
Invert Signal
No
Specifies if the signal will be inverted, i.e. a low signal to the hardware will be
high in the software and vice versa.
Two Counters
No
Used when two variables are required, for pulse counting or run time logging, i.e.
DICount and DICount2.
Corresponds to bit #5 in the variable DIMode.
OnDelay
0.0
On-delay. Given in seconds in the interval 0.0 to 3000.0 seconds.
OffDelay
0.0
Off-delay. Given in seconds in the interval 0.0 to 3000.0 seconds.
TimeUnit
3600
Time unit for calculation of pulse speed or run time logging. Given in seconds in
the interval 1 to 32000 seconds.
Scale
1.0
Scaling factor for converting pulse counting and pulse speed measuring to
application units.
1
Number of pulses after which the pulse speed will be calculated and transferred.
The period must, however, have been at least 1 second in duration. The number
of pulses is given in the interval 0 to 250 pulses.
(Advanced inputs)
NoOfPulses
(Advanced inputs)
NoOfPulses = 0 means that the pulse speed is calculated solely by time, with the
interval MaxTime.
MaxTime
(Advanced inputs)
60
Maximum time allowed to elapse before the pulse speed will be calculated, even
if not enough pulses have been received. Specified in seconds in the interval 1 to
32000 seconds.
Chapter 14 Digital Inputs
65
Variables
A digital input has the following variables:
Type Variable
Nor
Class Description
L
DI
-
Read
The input’s current value, after any on/off delays.
L
DIRaw
-
Read
The input’s current value, before any on/off delays.
X
DIMode
3
Param. Configuration of the digital input’s mode:
Bit #0: The variable DI is active.
Bit #1: The variable DIRaw is active.
Bit #4: The variable DICount is active.
Bit #5: The variable DICount2 is active.
Bit #6: Type of counting in DICount and DICount2:
0 = Pulse counting, 1 = Run time logging (Advanced).
Bit #7: The variable DIRate is active (Advanced inputs).
R
DIOnDelay
0.0
Param. On-delay. Specified in seconds in the interval 0.0 to 3000.0
seconds.
R
DIOffDelay
0.0
Param. Off-delay. Specified in seconds in the interval 0.0 to 3000.0
seconds.
R
DICount
0.0
R/W
Run-time or pulse counter, possibly converted to application
unit.
R
DICount2
0.0
R/W
Run-time or pulse counter, possibly converted to application
unit.
R
DITimeUnit
3600
Param. Time unit for calculating pulse rate or run-time.
R
DIScale
1.0
Param. Scaling factor for converting pulse counting and pulse rate
measuring to application unit.
-
Read
1
Param. Number of pulses for which the pulse speed will be calculated
and transferred. The period must, however, have been at least 1
second in duration. The number of pulses should be given in the
interval 0 to 250 pulses.
Specified in seconds in the interval 1 to 32000 seconds.
(Advanced inputs)
R
DIRate
Pulse rate, possibly converted to application unit.
(Advanced inputs)
X
DINoOfPulses
(Advanced inputs)
NoOfPulses = 0 means that the pulse speed is calculated solely
by time, with the interval MaxTime.
R
DIMaxTime
(Advanced inputs)
60
Param. Maximum time allowed to elapse before the pulse speed will be
calculated, even if not enough pulses have been received.
Specified in seconds in the interval 1 to 32000 seconds.
DI is the digital input’s resource name, which normally is DOp_r, but this can freely be
configured in PIFA I/O.
p is the PIFA’s address, which is a numerical value from 0 to 31.
r is the resource’s number in the PIFA, which is a numerical value from 1 and upwards.
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Part III EXOflex Software
Chapter 15 Digital Outputs
General
The standardized type of digital outputs has the following functions:
‰ Direct control of the output’s mode.
‰ Configurable on/off delays, in the interval 0 to 30000 seconds, with indication of the
output’s momentary status (raw value).
‰ "Manual" control of the output’s mode.
‰ Pulse proportioning, with the resolution 10 ms.
‰ Frequency generation, with the resolution 10 ms.
‰ Possibility to control pulse proportioning and frequency generation directly in
application units (scaling).
‰ Configurable handling at power-up.
‰ Possibility to decide the signal’s behavior if the PIFA loses contact with the processor.
‰ Overheating protection, which automatically disconnects the outputs before the
electronics get overheated (only for certain models).
Function
With the configuration attribute Type you can choose the digital output’s function mode.
In Normal mode, the output’s value can be controlled directly with the variable DO. Changes
can be delayed with the help of the attributes OnDelay and OffDelay respectively, which
specify on/off delays in seconds in the interval 1 to 30000 seconds.
The output’s mode can also be controlled manually, with the variable DOManAutoSelect:
‰
When DOManAutoSelect = 2, the mode is automatic, i.e. the output’s mode is
controlled by the variable DO, as described above.
‰
When DOManAutoSelect = 0 or 1 respectively, the output will be low or high
respectively, irrespective of the value of DO.
For PIFA units with physical hand control switches, the output’s mode can also be controlled
manually. The function of the hand control switch is superior to its correspondence in the
software (the variable DOManAutoSelect). In these PIFA units, there is a variable,
DOManAutoStatus, specifying status for the digital output’s hand control modes, from
both a software and a hardware point of view:
‰
If the switch is in Auto mode, the configuration of DOManAutoSelect is shown
‰
If the switch is not in Auto, the mode of the switch is shown.
‰
When DOManAutoStatus = 3 and 4 respectively, the output is low and high
respectively.
For troubleshooting purposes, the output’s momentary status (raw value) is indicated in the
variable DORaw.
Chapter 15 Digital Outputs
67
The transfer time from the variable DO to the output’s hardware in the PIFA is determined by
the transfer between EXOreal and the PIFA, and by the internal handling in the PIFA (which
is 10 ms).
Example: With 7 PIFA units, the total transfer time will be: 20 * 7 + 10 ms = 150 ms. This
will apply if all the PIFA units have the same priority. If this is too slow, you can increase
the priority for some PIFA units and decrease it for others.
Pulse Proportioning
A digital output can generate a pulse proportioning signal automatically. You get this by
selecting Type = Pulse Proportion.
A pulse proportioning signal means that you generate a signal with a constant frequency, but
with varying pulse lengths (the time when the output is high). The signal’s resolution is 10
ms.
You control the proportioning with the variable DOPulse in percent (i.e. with the value 0–
100). The period (the time between pulses) is configured with the attribute PulseTime in
seconds, in the interval 0,01 to 300 seconds.
It is possible to control the proportioning with an application unit (instead of 0–100). The
pulse proportioning (in percent) is then controlled by DOPulse * Scale.
When the pulse proportioning function is in use, the output’s momentary status is not
indicated in DORaw. If this is required, you must configure Type with a numerical value that
activates the function. Note however, that if the pulse speed is high, this will put a great load
on the EXOreal processor.
The signal can also be controlled manually, according to the below:
‰ When DOManAutoSelect = 2, the mode is automatic, i.e. the signal is controlled
by the variable DOPulse, as described above.
‰ When DOManAutoSelect = 0, the output is low, irrespective of the value of
DOPulse.
‰ When DOManAutoSelect = 1, the signal is instead controlled by the variable
DOManPulse, possibly in an application unit if scaling is used.
Frequency Generation
A digital output can generate a frequency signal automatically. This is achieved by selecting
Type = Pulse Rate.
Frequency generation means that a signal with constant pulse length (the time when the
output is high), but with varying frequency is generated The signal’s resolution is 10 ms.
The pulse speed is controlled by the variable DOPulse in periods/second (Hertz). The pulse
length (the time when the output is high) is configured with the attribute PulseTime in
seconds, in the interval 0.01 to 300 seconds.
It is possible to control the pulse speed with an application unit (instead of pulses/seconds).
The pulse speed is then controlled by DOPulse * Scale.
During frequency generation, the output’s momentary status is not indicated in DORaw. If
this is required, you must configure Type with a numerical value that activates the function.
Note however, that if the pulse speed is high, this will put a great load on the EXOreal
processor.
You can also control the signal manually, according to the following:
‰ When DOManAutoSelect = 2, the mode is automatic, i.e. the signal is controlled
by the variable DOPulse as described above.
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Part III EXOflex Software
‰ When DOManAutoSelect = 0, the output will have the value 0 in application
units.
‰ When DOManAutoSelect = 1, the signal is instead controlled by the variable
DOManPulse in application units.
Power-up
During power-up, various things will happen depending on the PIFA’s type of activation.
The type of activation is configured individually for each PIFA in EXOflex I/O Tool.
Normally, automatic activation is used, which means that the outputs are kept low for the
time specified by the attribute PowerUpDelay. When that time has elapsed, the output is
immediately set to the value of the variable DO (without regard to OnDelay) or DOPulse,
depending on the type of function. Thereafter, it will function as usual.
The outputs are also kept low during manual activation and the whole PIFA ends up in
passive mode. This state will persist until the application program "manually" activates the
PIFA. When this happens, the output is immediately set to the value of the variable DO
(without regard to OnDelay or PowerUpDelay) or DOPulse. Thereafter, it will function as
usual.
See also Run Modes on page 52.
Off-line Mode
PIFA units in expansion houses can lose contact with the EXOreal processor, if e.g. the cable
between the expansion house and the processor house is damaged, or if the processor house
loses power. Using the attribute Off-line Action, you can decide what will happen to the
output when this occurs.
Using the configuration Off-line Action = Set Signal Low, the output is set low as soon as
the contact is lost.
Normally you would use the configuration Off-line Action = Keep Signal. The output value
current at the time of the loss of contact will instead remain on the output. For pulse
proportioning or frequency outputs, this means that the output will continue to generate
pulses on its own.
When contact is re-established, much the same will occur as during power-up, as described
above.
See also Run Modes on page 52.
Overheating Protection
Certain PIFA models have digital outputs with automatic overheating protection, which
automatically disconnects the outputs before the electronics get overheated. This applies to
outputs of the type 24V DC.
The protection triggers when the temperature in the electronics rises above 74 ˚C and returns
when it falls below 70˚C. The status for the protection is indicated in bit #0 in the variable
DOpSumStatus, which is set when the protection is triggered. It will be reset when the
protection returns.
Chapter 15 Digital Outputs
69
Function Diagram
Figure 36. The functions of a digital output shown schematically.
0
1
Filter
DO
ManAutoSelect
0
OnDelay & OffDelay
Filter
1
Filter
DO
Hardware
Scaling
DOManPulse
Switch
Pulse
Prop
0
Mode
PowerUp
Delay
Heat
Protection
DOPulse
0
Freq
Gen
DOManPulse
Non relay
output
ManAutoSelect
Relay
output
DORaw
DOManAutoStatus
Configuration
A digital output has the following configuration attributes:
Attribute
Normal
Description
Type
Normal
Type of function for the digital output. Uses one of the following alternatives:
Off [0], Normal [5], Pulse Proportion [2], Pulse Rate [3].
Corresponds to the bits 0-2 in the variable DOMode. Arbitrary combinations
can be configured using a numerical value.
OnDelay
0
On-delay. Specified in seconds in the interval 0 to 30000 seconds.
OffDelay
0
Off-delay. Specified in seconds in the interval 0 to 30000 seconds.
PowerUpDelay
0
Automatic on-delay during power-up. Specified in seconds in the interval 0
to 255 seconds.
Off-line Action
Keep
signal
Determines what will happen to the output’s value in off-line-mode.
Specified by one of the following alternatives: Keep signal [0] or Set signal
low [128].
Scale
1.0
Scaling factor for conversion to application unit.
PulseTime
1.00
Period for pulse proportioning or pulse length for frequency generation.
Corresponds to bit #7 in the variable DOMode.
Specified in seconds in the interval 0.01 to 300 seconds.
Variables
A digital output has the following variables:
70
Type Variable
Nor
Class Description
L
DO
0
Write
Controls the output’s value.
L
DORaw
-
Read
Indicates the output’s momentary status.
Part III EXOflex Software
X
DOMode
1
X
DOManAutoSelect 2
Param. Configuration of the digital output’s mode:
Bit #0-1: 00 = Inactive.
01 = Normal.
10 = Pulse proportioning.
11 = Frequency generation.
Bit #2:
The variable DORaw is active.
Bit #7:
Behavior when switching to off-line mode:
0 = The output is retained, 1 = out-signal is set low.
Param. Determines mode for a “normal” output, as follows:
0 = Manual mode: Off1 = Manual mode: On.
2 = Automatic mode (normal run-mode).
Determines mode for a “pulsed” output as follows:
0 = Manual mode: 0 in application units.
1 = Manual mode: Controlled by DOManPulse in application
units.
2 = Automatic mode: Controlled by DOPulse in application
units.
3 = Manual mode: 0 in engineering units.
4 = Manual mode: Controlled by DOManPulse in engineering
units.
Read
For PIFA with physical man/auto switches. The variable
specifies status for the digital output’s ManAuto mode (Off
sw = 0, On sw = 1, Auto = 2, Off hw = 3, On
hw = 4).
X
DOManAutoStatus -
R
DOOnDelay
0
Param. On-delay in normal operation. Specified in seconds in the
interval 0 to 30000 seconds.
R
DOOffDelay
0
Param. Off-delay in normal operation. Specified in seconds in the
interval 0 to 30000 seconds.
X
DOPowerUpDelay
0
Param. On-delay after power-up (and a few other special cases).
Specified in seconds, in the interval 0 to 255 seconds.
R
DOPulse
0.0
Write
Controls frequency or pulse proportioning in automatic mode.
R
DOManPulse
0.0
Write
Controls frequency or pulse proportioning in manual mode.
R
DOScale
1.0
Param. Scaling factor for conversion to application unit, for pulse
proportioning or frequency generation.
R
DOPulseTime
1.00
Param. Period for pulse proportioning or pulse length for frequency
generation.
Specified in seconds, in the interval 0.01 to 300 seconds.
X
DOpSumStatus
-
Read
Status summary for all digital outputs in the PIFA:
Bit #0: Overheating protection triggered.
DO is the digital output’s resource name, normally DOp_r, but this can freely be configured
in PIFA I/O.
p is the PIFA’s address, which is a numerical value from 0 to 31.
r is the resource’s number in the PIFA, which is a numerical value from 1 and upwards.
Chapter 15 Digital Outputs
71
Chapter 16 Analog Inputs
General
The standardized types of analog outputs have the following functions:
‰ Modes for many different magnitudes and measurement ranges: Voltage, current and
various temperature sensors, directly in engineering units.
‰ Built-in filter that filters out noise and hum.
‰ Configurable exponential filter for "softening up" the signal’s movements
‰ Conversion of measured values to application units.
‰ Compensation for cable resistance for measuring of resistance and temperature.
‰ Configuration of signal behavior when outside the measurement range
‰ Priority specifications can be made for all inputs.
Function
With the configuration attribute Type you select the analog input’s mode. The following
magnitudes and measurement ranges can be selected: 0–10V, 0–200mV, 0–20mA, 0–
2000Ω, Pt100 -50 to +15O°C, Pt100 0 to +600 °C, Pt1000, Ni1000 and Ni1000 L&G.
The input’s level is continually indicated in the variable AI. The measured value always first
passes a fast integration filter to filter out noise and hum. This filter cannot be configured.
You can also filter the value through an exponential filter. The filter’s time constant is
configured with the attribute FilterTime. The time constant is equal to the time taken for the
value after filtering to reach 63% of the final value when the input is changed in steps.
The value is presented directly in engineering units (according to Type) in the variable AI.
You can however, let the analog input convert it to the required application unit
automatically. You do this with the attributes Scale and Offset in the following way:
AI = ( Measured value - OffSet ) * Scale
From and including PIFAos 1.1, the scaling function can be selected with the attribute
Scaling Function. There are two functions to choose between; the above and the following:
AI = ( Measured value * Scale ) + OffSet
For troubleshooting (or other purposes), the input’s value is also indicated in the variable
AIRaw (the raw value) before it passes the exponential filter and is converted to application
units.
Compensation for Wire Resistance
The analog input can automatically compensate for resistance in wires to temperature
sensors. This is achieved by measuring the total resistance in both wires from the controller
to the sensor and configuring the measured value directly in Ohm (Ω) in the attribute
WireRes.
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Part III EXOflex Software
Measurement Range
Each function mode (as set in the configuration in Type) has a defined measurement range.
Each physical input also has an actual measurement range that is somewhat greater, at both
ends of the range. The actual measurement range differs from unit to unit, depending on what
the electronics in the analog input can handle.
For example, an analog input with the mode 0-10 Volt, has an actual measurement range of
-0.13 to +10.47 Volt. With the attributes Enable Limiter and Allow NaN!, you can decide
how the value will be indicated in the variable AI, when the signal goes outside the
measurement range.
If Enable Limiter is active, the signal is limited to the defined measurement range, even if
the signal goes outside this. If the in-signal is e.g. 10.21 volt, the analog input will still give
the value 10. If the function is not active, the value is indicated up to the limit of the actual
measurement range. This limitation is performed before the value is sent to the exponential
filter. The variable AIRaw always shows the actual measured value.
Using Allow NaN!, you can decide what will be indicated when the signal goes outside the
actual measurement range. If the function is active, the variable AI = NaN! (not-a-number)
is set when the signal is outside the actual measurement range. If the function is not active,
the actual measurement range’s limit is indicated instead.
Whatever the configuration is, the variable AIStatus always indicates if you are outside
the measurement range, as follows:
Bit #
Description
0
The signal is outside the actual measurement range.
Bit #1 indicates if the value is below or above the measurement range.
1
This bit is valid if bit #0 is set:
0 = The signal is below the actual measurement range.
1 = The signal is above the actual measurement range.
2
The signal is outside the defined measurement range, e.g. 0-10 Volt.
Bit #3 indicates if the value is below or above the measurement range.
3
This bit is valid if bit #2 is set:
0 = The signal is below the defined measurement range (e.g. < 0 Volt).
1 = The signal is above the defined measurement range (e.g. > 10 Volt).
These bits can e.g. be connected to alarm points in the controller.
Priorities
In most PIFA units, much of the electronics are shared by all the analog inputs. The PIFA
can therefore only measure the in-signal on one input at a time, which normally takes 28 ms.
If you have e.g. 12 analog inputs, a new value from each analog input will be received with
the interval 12 * 28 = 336 ms.
If this is too slow, you can increase the priority for some inputs and decrease it for others.
The priority is specified numerically, the value 1 is the highest priority. It is fairly
complicated to calculate the interval for a certain input when priorities are stated in this way.
However, it can be said that the interval for two inputs is inversely proportional to the
relationship between their priorities, i.e. an input with priority 1 is 3 times as fast as an input
with priority 3, which in turn is twice as fast as an input with priority 6, and so on.
The total time for transfer to the variable AI also depends on the transfer speed from the
PIFA to EXOreal.
Example: With 7 PIFA units, the transfer time will be: 20 + 7*1.4 ms = 30 ms, which, in
principle, is negligible in this context.
Chapter 16 Analog Inputs
73
Function Diagram
Figure 37. The functions of an analog input shown schematically.
Filter
Hysteresis
Filter
Limiter
Calibration
Wire
resistance
Adjustment
for HW
Compensation
for wire
resistance
Hardware
Linearisation
Sensor
characteristic
Scaling
Min- & maxvalue limiter
Offset & Scale
AI
Exponential
filter
Linearisation
AIRaw
Sensor
characteristic
Configuration
An analog input has the following configuration attributes:
Attribute
Normal
Description
Type
Normal
Type of function for analog input. Specified with one of the following
alternatives: Off [0], 0–10V [9], 0–200mV [10], 0–20 mA [11], 0–2000 Ohms
[4], Pt100 -50 to +15O°C [5], Pt100 0 to +600°C [12], Pt1000 [1], Ni1000 [8],
Ni1000 L&G [2].
Enable Limiter
No
Specifies if the value from the analog input will be limited to the defined
measurement range (according to the configuration of Type).
Allow NaN!
No
Priority
8
The analog input’s priority (i.e. how often its value is updated). Specified as a
numerical value in the interval 1 to 32, where 1 is the highest priority.
WireRes
0.00
Wire resistance for measuring resistance and temperatures. Specified in Ohm in
the interval 0.00 to 300.00 Ohm.
Scaling Function
0
The type of scaling function for converting measured value to application units
is specified with one of the following alternatives: (value-Offset)*Scale [0],
(value*Scale)+Offset [2].
Offset
0.0
Offset for converting measured values to application units.
Scale
1.0
Scaling factor for converting measured values to application units.
FilterTime
0
Time constant for exponential filter. The value 0 means that the filter is off.
Specified in seconds in the interval 0 to 30000 seconds.
Corresponds to bit #6 in the variable AIMode.
Specifies if the value from the analog input will be not-a-number (NaN!) when
the signal goes outside the actual measurement range.
Corresponds to bit #7 in the variable AIMode.
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Variables
An analog input has the following variables:
Type Variable
Nor
Class Description
R
AI
-
Read
The input’s current value, after any limiting, scaling, filtering,
etc.
R
AIRaw
-
Read
The input’s current value, before any limiting, scaling, filtering,
etc.
X
AIType
9
Param. Configuration of the analog input’s signal type:
0 = Inactive, 1 = Pt1000, 2 = Ni1000 L&G, 4 = 0–2000Ω,
5 = Pt100 -50 to +15O°C, 8 = Ni1000, 9 = 0–10 V,
10 = 0–200 mV, 11 = 0–20mA , 12 = Pt100 0 to +600°C.
X
AIMode
1
Param. Configuration of the analog input’s behavior:
Bit #0: The variable DIRaw is active.
Bit #1: Alternative scaling function selected.
Bit #6: The value is limited to the defined measurement range.
Bit #7: The value will be NaN! outside the actual measurement
range.
X
AIStatus
0
Read
The analog input’s status:
Bit #0: Signal is outside the actual measurement range.
Bit #1: 0 = Below, 1 = Above the actual measurement range.
Bit #2: Signal is outside the defined measurement range.
Bit #3: 0 = Below, 1 = Above the defined measurement
range.
X
AIPriority
8
Param. The analog input’s priority (i.e. how often its value is updated).
R
AIWireRes
0.0
Param. Wire resistance for measuring resistances and temperatures.
Specified in Ohms in the interval 0.00 to 300.00 Ohms.
R
AIOffset
0.0
Param. Offset for converting measured values to application units.
R
AIScale
1.0
Param. Scaling factor for converting measured values to application
units.
R
AIFilterTime
0
Param. Time constant for exponential filter. The value 0 means that the
filter is off. Specified in seconds in the interval 0 to 30000
seconds.
AI is the digital output’s resource name, normally AIp_r, but this can freely be configured
in PIFA I/O.
p is the PIFA’s address, a numerical value from 0 to 31.
r is the resource’s number in the PIFA, a numerical value from 1 and upwards.
Chapter 16 Analog Inputs
75
Chapter 17 Analog Outputs
General
The standardized types of analog outputs have the following functions:
‰ Direct control of the output’s mode.
‰ Control of the signal in application units.
‰ "Manual" control of the output’s mode.
‰ Automatic, gradual rise when the signal changes.
‰ Configurable behavior for power-up.
‰ Possibility to specify the signal’s behavior if the PIFA loses contact with the processor.
Function
The output’s value is controlled directly with the variable AO, normally in engineering units.
You can however, choose to control the signal in the desired application unit. This is done
with the attributes Scale and Offset and is done in the following way:
Out-signal = (AO * Scale) + Offset
With the configuration attribute Ramp, you can configure an automatic, gradual rise of the
out-signal. You specify how fast the out-signal shall change per second, always in
engineering units.
You can also control the signal manually, according to the below:
‰ When AOManAutoSelect = 2, the mode is automatic, i.e. the signal is controlled
by the variable AO, as described above.
‰ When AOManAutoSelect = 0, the output has the value 0 in application units.
‰ When AOManAutoSelect = 1, the signal is instead controlled by the variable
AOMan, in application units.
For troubleshooting, the output’s momentary status (raw value) is indicated in the variable
AORaw, normally in application units. The raw value can be indicated in engineering units,
by means of bit #2 in the variable AOMode.
The transfer time from the variable AO to the output’s hardware in the PIFA is determined by
the transfer between EXOreal and the PIFA, and by the internal handling in the PIFA (which
is 10 ms).
Example: With 7 PIFA units, the total transfer time will be: 20 * 7 + 10 ms = 150 ms. This
will apply if all the PIFA units have the same priority. If this is too slow, you can increase
the priority for some PIFA units and decrease it for others.
Power-up
During power-up, various things will happen depending on the PIFA’s type of activation.
The type of activation is configured individually for each PIFA in EXOflex I/O Tool.
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Normally, automatic activation is used, which means that the outputs are kept low for the
time specified by the attribute PowerUpDelay. When that time has elapsed, the output is set
to the value of the variable AO. If Ramp is configured, the signal rises gradually to that
level. Thereafter, it will function as usual.
The outputs are also kept low during manual activation and the whole PIFA ends up in
passive mode. This state will persist until the application program "manually" activates the
PIFA. When this happens, the output is set to the value of the variable AO. If Ramp is
configured, the signal rises gradually to that level. Thereafter, it will function as usual.
See also Run Modes on page 52.
Off-line Mode
PIFA units in expansion houses can lose contact with EXOreal, if e.g. the cable between the
expansion house and the processor house is damaged, or if the processor house loses power.
Using the attribute Off-line Action, you can decide what will happen to the output when this
occurs.
With the configuration Off-line Action = Set Signal Low, the output is set low as soon as
contact is lost.
Normally you would use Off-line Action = Keep Signal. The out-signal value current at the
time of the loss of contact will then instead remain on the output.
When contact is re-established, much the same will occur as during power-up, as described
above.
See also Run Modes on page 52.
Function Diagram
Figure 38. The functions of an analog output shown schematically.
0
Scaling
AOMan
AO
Filter
Ramp
Hardware
Offset & Scale
0
AOMan
ManAutoSelect
PowerUp
Delay
Fall- & risetime
limiter
Engineering Unit
AORaw
Scaling
Application Unit
Mode
Configuration
An analog output has the following configuration attributes:
Attribute
Normal
Description
PowerUpDelay
0
Automatic on-delay at power-up. Specified in seconds in the interval 0 to
255 seconds.
Chapter 17 Analog Outputs
77
Raw value Mode Application
unit
Sets the display mode for the AORaw variable. One of the following
alternatives can be set: Off [0], Application unit [2], Engineering unit [6].
Corresponds to bit #1 and bit #2 in the AOMode variable.
Determines what will happen with the output’s value in off-line mode.
Specified by one of the following alternatives: Keep signal [0] or Set signal
low [128].
Off-line Action
Keep signal
Offset
0.0
Offset for converting to application unit.
Scale
1.0
Scaling factor for converting to application unit.
Ramp
0.00
Maximum permitted change of out-signal per second, directly in engineering
units.
Corresponds to bit #7 in the variable AOMode.
Variables
An analog output has following variables:
Type Variable
Nor
Class Description
L
AO
0
Write
Controls the value of the output.
L
AORaw
-
Read
Indicates the output’s momentary status.
X
AOMode
3
Param. Configuration of the analog output’s mode:
Bit #0: The analog output is active.
Bit #1: The variable AIRaw is active.
Bit #2: Type of value in the variable AORaw.
0 = Application units, 1= Engineering units.
Bit #7: Behavior when going to off-line mode.
0 = Out-signal retained, 1 = The output is set low.
Param. Determines mode, as below:
0 = Manual mode: 0 in application units.
1 = Manual mode: Controlled by AOMan in application units.
2 = Automatic mode: Controlled by AO in application units.
3 = Manual mode: 0 in engineering units.
4 = Manual mode: Controlled by AOMan in engineering units.
X
AOManAutoSelect 2
X
AOPowerUpDelay
0
Param. On-delay after power-up (and a few other special cases).
Specified in seconds in the interval 0 to 255 seconds.
R
AOMan
0.0
Write
Controls the output’s value in manual mode.
R
AOOffset
0.0
Param. Offset for converting to application units.
R
AOScale
1.0
Param. Scaling factor for converting to application units.
R
AORamp
0.00
Param. Maximum permitted change of out-signal per second, directly in
engineering units.
AO is the analog output’s resource name, normally AOp_r, but this can freely be configured
in PIFA I/O.
p is the PIFA’s address, a numerical value from 0 to 31.
r is the resource’s number in the PIFA, a numerical value from 1 and upwards.
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Chapter 18 The External Display
The external display is an independent PIFA-unit, which connects to a processor house via
the EFX-channel. It has the following resources:
‰
An LCD display with 2 x 20 characters, and software controlled background lighting
and viewing angle. The display can show considerably more national characters than
the model 5540 for Icelandic, French, Spanish, Italian, Turkish, etc. See below.
‰
20 keys as opposed to 10 in the earlier system. All double functions on the keys have
been removed. You then have the following keys [0] to [9], [↑], [↓], [←], [→], [+], [-],
[↵], [È], [.] and [C]. The keys can also generate a click-sound when pressed.
‰
Built-in beeper.
‰
LED in the key [↵] (LED_Num) and a separate alarm LED (LED_Ala). The
counterparts to the LED’s in the keys [+] and [-] have been removed. Also, there are a
further two LED’s indicating supply voltage and EFX-contact respectively.
‰
2 general digital inputs.
‰
1 general digital output with relay, for e.g. a lamp or external beeper.
The external display is a true EFX-PIFA, but to make it as compatible as possible with nonEXOflex-controllers, most of its functions are still exposed directly by EXOreal. The
exceptions are the digital inputs and outputs, which are exposed as full EXOflex-resources,
as described in Chapter 14 Digital Inputs and Chapter 15 Digital Outputs
Only one external display can be connected at a time and it always has the address 0.
In normal applications, the external display is not handled directly in the application
programs. Instead you use the ready-made controller functions Display, Station
Handler and Time Schedules Display. See also Chapter 20 Applications.
The Display
The display is handled as in non-EXOflex-controllers, i.e. with the EXOL instruction Print
and the system variables CursorPos, DisplayMode, DispTimeOutLatch,
DispTimeOut and DispAngle. See also the document EXOreal.
The character set however, does differ from non-EXOflex-controllers. There are
considerably more national characters for various European languages. A complete table of
these can be found in Character Sets on page 82.
Keypad
The keypad is handled as in non-EXOflex-controllers, i.e. primarily by the system variables
Key_No and New_Key. There are however, several new keys. For each new key there is a
new key code and a new system variable.
Using the system variable KeySound you can choose if the external display will emit a
click-sound each time a key is pressed.
The new system variable DisplayInfo allows an application program to check which
type of keypad the controller has.
Chapter 18 The External Display
79
Key Codes
The keys have the following codes:
Key
Key_No
[0]
48
[1]
49
[2]
50
[3]
51
[4]
52
[5]
53
[6]
54
[7]
55
[8]
56
[9]
57
[.]
46
[C]
27
[↵]
13
[↑]
30
[↓]
31
[←]
29
[→]
28
[+]
43
[-]
45
[È]
7
System Variables
Type Name
QPac
QLN Cell Nor Ver T Description
X
DisplayInfo
QDisp
249
X
Key_No
QDisp
249
31
-
2.0
-
Key code for latest key pressed
30
-
2.0
-
Set when a key is pressed
-
2.8
-
Information about the external display.
Bit #0: Keypad type (0 = 10 keys,
1 = 20 keys).
L
New_Key
QDisp
249
X
KeySound
QDisp
249
4
1
2.8
-
Type of key sound: 0 = None, 1 = Click
L
Key_0
QDisp
249
32
-
2.0
-
Indication for key [0]
L
Key_1
QDisp
249
33
-
2.0
-
Indication for key [1]
L
Key_2
QDisp
249
34
-
2.0
-
Indication for key [2]
35
-
2.0
-
Indication for key [3]
L
Key_3
QDisp
249
L
Key_4
QDisp
249
36
-
2.0
-
Indication for key [4]
L
Key_5
QDisp
249
37
-
2.0
-
Indication for key [5]
38
-
2.0
-
Indication for key [6]
L
Key_6
QDisp
249
L
Key_7
QDisp
249
39
-
2.0
-
Indication for key [7]
L
Key_8
QDisp
249
40
-
2.0
-
Indication for key [8]
L
Key_9
QDisp
249
41
-
2.0
-
Indication for key [9]
L
Key_Dot
QDisp
249
14
-
2.8
-
Indication for key [.]
QDisp
249
15
-
2.8
-
Indication for key [C]
L
80
3
Key_Clr
Part III EXOflex Software
L
Key_Enter
QDisp
249
16
-
2.8
-
Indication for key [↵]
L
Key_Up
QDisp
249
17
-
2.8
-
Indication for key [↑]
L
Key_Down
QDisp
249
18
-
2.8
-
Indication for key [↓]
19
-
2.8
-
Indication for key [←]
L
Key_Left
QDisp
249
L
Key_Right
QDisp
249
20
-
2.8
-
Indication for key [→]
L
Key_Plus
QDisp
249
21
-
2.8
-
Indication for key [+]
22
-
2.8
-
Indication for key [-]
23
-
2.8
-
Indication for key [È]
L
Key_Minus
QDisp
249
L
Key_Ala
QDisp
249
LEDs
The external display has only 2 LEDs that can be controlled from software: a red alarm LED
and an LED in the enter key.
These can be controlled with the system variables LED_Ala and LED_Num, just as in nonEXOflex-controllers. These are however, not suitable for getting the LEDs to flash, as the
transfer rate to the external display via the EFX-channel can be slightly too low in controllers
with many PIFA-units.
There are therefore two new system variables LEDAlarm and LedEnter that also can be
used for controlling the LEDs. Using these variables, you can let the external display do the
flashing itself, without putting a load on the application program or the EFX-channel.
The variables can be used in the following ways:
LedAlarm/Enter
Description
0
The LED is off
1
The LED is on
2-10
The LED flashes at an interval specified by the value in number of
100 ms. An interval is a complete on/off-cycle!!
255
The LED is controlled by the variable Led_Ala or Led_Num.
System Variables
Type Name
QPac
QLN Cell Nor Ver T Description
L
LED_Ala
QDisp
249
L
LED_Num
QDisp
42
0
2.0
249
43
0
2.0
-
Controls the LED in the enter key directly
9
255 2.8
-
Advanced control of the alarm LED
10
255 2.8
-
Advanced control of the LED in the enter
key
X
LedAlarm
QDisp
249
X
LedEnter
QDisp
249
-
Controls the alarm LED directly
Beeper
The beeper is handled as in non-EXOflex-controllers, i.e. with the system variables Beep
and Beep_Mode. See also the document EXOreal.
Chapter 18 The External Display
81
Character Sets
n=
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
¤
►
◄
↓
#
→
$
←
%
9
CLS2
0n
1n
¶
§
-
‼
3n
▲
▼
!
&
'
4n
(
)
Spc
*
↑
"
+
,
-
.
/
0
1
5n
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
:
;
6n
<
=
>
?
@
A
B
C
D
E
7n
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
8n
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
9n
Z
[
\
]
_
`
a
b
c
10n
d
e
f
g
∧
h
i
j
k
l
m
11n
n
o
p
q
r
s
t
u
v
w
12n
x
y
z
{
|
}
~
∆
Ç
ü
13n
é
â
ä
à
å
ç
ê
ë
è
ï
14n
î
ì
Ä
Å
É
æ
Æ
ô
ö
ò
15n
û
ù
ÿ
Ö
Ü
ø
£
Ø
₧
ƒ
16n
á
í
ó
ú
ñ
Ñ
ª
º
¿
®
17n
½
¼
¡
«
»
18n
Á
Â
À
©
2n
19n
1
¢
¥
¤
20n
Ð
¦
Ì
Ó
ß
Ô
Ò
õ
þ
Þ
„
Ú
„
Õ
Û
Ù
ý
Ý
ε
´
≥
≤
¶
§
÷
,
°
.
³
²
„
22n
23n
„
µ
24n
-
±
¹
SPC = Blank space
Part III EXOflex Software
ð
Í
Ë
1
Ã
i
Ê
.
ã
È
21n
25n
82
8
2
Î
Ï
CLS = Clears the display
Chapter 19 TCP/IP
General
The TCP/IP PIFA-unit is a special PIFA intended for connection to an internal serial port in
a processor house. Its task is to carry EXOline-messages in TCP/IP via a computer network,
from one controller to another. The connection to the network is via twisted-pair Ethernet.
Communication is always between two or more TCP/IP PIFA-units. The transport via
TCP/IP is invisible to the controller, as the communication is translated to and from ordinary
serial communication for the controller.
This means that ordinary computer networks, and even the Internet, can be used for
communication between and with controllers.
By using TCP/IP PIFA’s, systems can be spread over greater geographic areas with very
simple resources. Exploiting the infrastructures already in use for ordinary computers
reduces costs for installation.
The PIFA-unit can be used with most types of TCP/IP network, e.g. local area networks, the
Internet, etc. It is not however suitable for use in dial-up TCP/IP networks. There are certain
security functions that allow it to be used on the Internet, if there are no important security
considerations.
Figure 39 shows an example of a system where the controllers communicate with each other
with the help of TCP/IP PIFA-units.
Figure 39. System using Ethernet communication.
...
EXOFlex unit
...
...
LAN
Sensors & Actuators
...
Internet
...
NetController
The TCP/IP PIFA can also communicate with a product from WHI, called the NetController.
There is a special variant of the NetController that supports the EXOline-protocol in the
same way as the TCP/IP PIFA.
Chapter 19 TCP/IP
83
TCP/IP Gateway
The TCP/IP PIFA can also be used in EXOflex-houses without processors, for creating a
TCP/IP Gateway. This can be used independently for converting between EXOline and
TCP/IP. See also TCP/IP Gateway on page 129
Network Construction
TCP/IP has no concept of master/slave and will, in principle, allow "everybody to
communicate with everyone else". This cannot, however, be used to its full extent in the
TCP/IP-PIFA-unit, as it is merely a gateway, i.e. a bridge between a TCP/IP network and
serial communication.
A controller’s serial port is always either a master or a slave, which is configured in EXOreal
in the usual way. The TCP/IP PIFA-unit has no corresponding configuration, but detects
itself how it is being used. All communication must go between a master-port and a slave
port.
When constructing an ordinary EXOline-network with serial communication, you build a
hierarchical network, with one controller at the top, a few more below, etc. This physical and
logical structure is reflected in the controller’s addresses (PLA and ELA), to allow
configuration of piping through the controllers.
When building a network that uses TCP/IP-communication, it should be designed from the
EXOline point of view, with no regard to how it is connected in the TCP/IP-network. You
are then constructing a logical EXOline-structure, just as if ordinary serial communication
was being used. The controllers’ addresses, the ports’ modes, piping, etc are configured in
exactly the same way.
You can design the physical structure of the TCP/IP-network completely independently of
the logical construction of the EXOline-network. In most cases, you will not be constructing
TCP/IP-networks, but instead using an existing one for the communication between the
controllers. There will then usually be a network supervisor who can help with information
on how the TCP-IP PIFA-units should be configured.
Security
Security in this context means how to protect the system against network intruders. There are
a few mechanisms in the TCP/IP PIFA-unit, which together provide moderate security.
If the TCP/IP PIFA-unit is only being used in a local network, but the network is also
connected to the Internet, you can guard against unauthorized external access by using a
firewall or a proxy server.
If the project will be using the Internet for communication, any firewalls must be open for
this communication. It is, however, still possible to prevent the PIFA-units being configured
externally through the firewall. In a TCP/IP PIFA that is connected to a slave port, it is also
possible to configure it to only accept communication from the correct master.
Even if the above protective measures are not used, it will still not be easy for external
"hackers" to do anything. Without EXOdesigner, an EXOflex-house with a TCP/IP PIFA, or
a good knowledge of the EXO System, it will be extremely difficult to break in, due to the
system’s complexity. Furthermore, if the hacker wanted to do something "constructive", e.g.
change a set-point value, he would also have to know something about the controller’s
project-software.
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Part III EXOflex Software
Performance
The TCP/IP PIFA is, as mentioned in the beginning of this chapter, a gateway that takes the
information from a serial port and transports it over a network using the TCP and IP
protocols. The TCP/IP PIFA is thus not only a physical converter, but also a protocol
converter to a certain extent.
The protocol conversion results in a small delay, and therefore lower performance compared
to a cable connection between two controllers. Which communication performance that is
achieved also depends on delays and possible interferences in the network. In a normal office
network the communication speed will be approximately halfway between a fixed 9600 bps
cable connection and a 2400 modem connection.
If a master TCP/IP PIFA is used for communicating with more than 10 slave TCP/IP PIFA
units, the communication speed is lowered further. In the worst case the speed drops to a
level comparable to that of a 2400 bps modem connection.
I large systems with high demands for high communication speed, it may therefore be a good
idea to have a master TCP/IP per 10 slave PIFA-units. This can be accomplished using multi
drop between the PIFA units over Port 2 of the main processor. A more detailed description
of how this is configured is given in the section Multidrop.
Unreachable Controllers
Generally, an attempt to communicate with an unreachable or non-existing controller takes
longer time than for a reachable controller. When communicating in a network the answer
time to a computer can vary rather much, and also be quite long. To reduce the effect of
unreachable controllers, the TCP/IP PIFA masks part of the processes taking place in the
network from the station master .
There are two cases that yields somewhat varying results:
If the TCP/IP PIFA units connect with each other, but the controller on the slave side is not
responding, the result will be as for an unreachable controller in an ordinarily connected
fixed system.
If, on the other hand, the TCP/IP unit on the master side does not connect with the TCP/IP
unit on the slave side, the result will be somewhat different. After the initial attempt at
communicating with the unreachable station slave , it takes three seconds before the TCP/IP
unit returns NoAnswer to the station master. The master TCP/IP PIFA unit continues to
contact the slave TCP/IP PIFA unit in the background. The next time a message is sent to the
same slave controller, NoAnswer is returned to the master controller as soon as it is clear that
the connection with the slave PIFA unit is not established. After about a minute the TCP/IP
PIFA unit stops trying to connect to the slave PIFA unit and the next communication attempt
from the master will initiate a new 3 second delay followed by fast NoAnswer.
Considering that unreachable controllers affect the performance for the rest of the system in
a negative way, it is important not to configure equipment into a project that is not installed
and can be expected to answer. This means that non-existing substations should not be
configured in line handlers and CCM.
Configuration
Each TCP/IP PIFA is connected to a serial port on a controller. A house can contain several
controllers and each controller can have several serial ports. It is therefore possible to have
several TCP/IP PIFA-units in a processor house, even this is seldom done.
The PIFA-units must first be added in EXOflex I/O Tool, in the usual way. To do the
configuration, you then start the special TCP/IP PIFA Tool from EXOflex I/O.
Chapter 19 TCP/IP
85
The TCP/IP PIFA-unit has no contact with the controller in the house via EFX. The
configuration is not loaded via the controller, as it is for other types of PIFA-unit. Instead,
the configuration is loaded directly from the PC to the PIFA via the TCP/IP-network. For
this to be possible, both must be connected to the same sub-net (or on separate sub-nets that
are in contact with each other).
The actual configuration is done in TCP/IP Tool and saved (as usual) on the hard drive. The
configuration can then be loaded to the PIFA at some later time.
To be able to configure the TCP/IP PIFA-units in a project, you must know something about
TCP/IP-networks. A complete guide to TCP/IP networks is beyond the scope of this book,
but a short introduction is provided below:
TCP/IP
All communicating units in a TCP/IP network are known as nodes, and all are equal. There is no
concept of masters and slaves, or anything similar to it. In principle, all nodes can communicate
with any other node. Each node must have a unique address, known as an IP-address, which is a 32bit number. IP-addresses are always given as four integers between 0 and 255, separated by periods,
e.g.: 192.168.1.10.
TCP/IP allows the connection of many small local networks (sub-nets) in larger networks. The
Internet is the worlds largest TCP/IP-network, linking thousands of different sub-nets together. The
traffic between these sub-nets is handles by routers. A router is a special unit with two or more
TCP/IP-nodes, each of which can be connected to a sub-net. Traffic from one sub-net to another is
received by a router, which works out the messages’ destination by checking the IP-address
contained in them. The messages are then forwarded to the destination by the router. In this way,
nodes in one sub-net can communicate with others in other sub-nets, via one or more routers (and
sub-nets). This is very similar to piping in EXOline-networks.
For all of this to work properly, the IP-addresses must be assigned systematically, so that all the
nodes in a sub-net have IP-addresses where e.g. the first 24 bits are the same (the net-address). To
define this, a sub.net mask is used. This sub-net mask is also a 32-bits number, written with four
integers and periods. The bits in the sub-net mask that are set reveal that these are part of the net
address, and the bits that are not set say that these are part of the node address. Nearly all sub-nets in
use today have 24-bit net addresses, followed by 8-bit node addresses, which gives the sub-net mask
255.255.255.0.
Even if TCP/IP does not use the master/slave concept, it is common for network communication to
be designed so that certain nodes provide services for other nodes. These are known as servers and
clients respectively. When a client wants to contact a server, it must know the server’s IP-address.
As IP-addresses can be hard for people to remember, a system of names is used instead, which is
known as DNS. This allows each node to use a name in plain language and each sub-net a. sub-net
name. The names are registered manually in DNS-servers. When a client contacts a server, it first
queries a DNS-server (or maybe several) to obtain the correct IP-address. The node name and
sub-net name are usually written together and separated by periods. For example, in
www.regin.se the node name is www and the domain name is regin.se.
IP-addresses can be assigned manually (with a fixed configuration) or dynamically, by a server in
the network. The function for dynamically assigning addresses is called DHCP. If using dynamic
IP-addresses for a server, the clients wanting to contact it must use names, as its IP-address is cannot
be known in advance. In cases like this, a more advanced type of name-server, called DDNS must
be used. This allows dynamic registration of the IP-address (by the server itself).
The configuration in TCP/IP PIFA Tool is divided into four different tabs, according to the
following:
‰ Port Connection, for configuring the PIFA-unit’s connection to the controller’s serial
port in the processor house.
‰ Local IP Settings, for configuring the PIFA’s TCP/IP-settings.
‰ Master Routing Table, for configuring PIFA-units connected to an EXOline masterport.
‰ Slave Configuration, for configuring PIFA-units connected to an EXOline slave-port.
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Part III EXOflex Software
Port Connection
The Port Connection tab is used to configure the PIFA’s connection to the controller’s
serial port in the processor house.
Figure 40. The Port Connection tab.
The PIFA’s connection to a serial port in the house can be controlled either by the controllers
in the house or by the PIFA itself. Normally you would use the setting According to the
configuration of the controller(s) in the house, whereby the connection is controlled by the
controllers, according to the following rules:
‰ To port 2 on the processor in the same section as the PIFA, if it is connected to the
PIFA-position in question (with Connect_Port_2).
‰ Otherwise to port 2 on the main processor (furthest to the left in the house), if it is
connected to the PIFA-position in question (with Connect_Port_2).
‰ Otherwise to port 3, to the processor in the same section as the PIFA. This requires the
PIFA to be in the PIFA-position "under" the processor.
‰ Otherwise not connected.
These rules are much the same as those for other types of communication PIFA-units.
It is important to keep in mind that the port corresponding to the criteria on top of the list will
be selected if two criteria in the list above are fulfilled at the same time. If desired, the PIFA
can be configured to connect to any port, irrespective of the controllers’ configuration. This
is particularly suitable if you want to reach a cold-started controller via the TCP/IP network.
Chapter 19 TCP/IP
87
Local IP Settings
The Local IP Settings tab is used to configure the PIFA’s TCP/IP-settings.
Figure 41. The Local IP Settings tab.
TCP/IP PIFAos version 1.0 does not support DDNS, which means that most settings on this
tab will not apply.
In practice, you must use manual IP-settings, which means that DNS-names will be of no
use. In this case check the boxes for Use the following IP settings and Disable DNS. Then
enter the PIFA’s IP-address, the network’s sub-net mask and the router’s IP-address (Default
gateway) manually.
In most cases, TCP/IP PIFA-units will be used in existing networks, where there will be staff
administering the network. These parameters can then be obtained from the network
supervisor. If you are building your own network, you should know enough about TCP/IP
networks to be able to configure these parameters. In a small local network, you can e.g. use
the addresses 192.168.1.0 to 192.168.1.255. The sub-net mask will then be 255.255.255.0.
For Default Gateway, specify the router’s address. If there is no router in the network, an
unused address may be stated. The address 0.0.0.0. is not good to use since it may cause
unnecessary broadcast traffic in the network.
Host Name and Domain can be configured, even if you are not using DNS. This will not fill
any function in the system, but will act as a memory aid and as a plain language name.
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Part III EXOflex Software
Master Routing Table
The Master Routing Table tab is used to configure PIFA-units connected to an EXOline
master-port.
Figure 42. The Master Routing Table tab.
The PIFA receives EXOline-messages on its serial port from a controller in the house. It
analyses the PLA and ELA in the EXOline-message and looks up the address in the Master
Routing table. This will show which TCP/IP PIFA the message is destined for, in the form of
an IP-address. The PIFA sends the message to the other specified PIFA, which receives it
and converts it back to an EXOline-message and sends it to the connected controller in the
processor house.
In the routing-table, each line contains an interval with PLA- and ELA-addresses. Each time
the PIFA searches the table, it starts at the top and searches until it finds the line that fits the
EXOline address in question. It is even permissible to configure this so that certain EXOlineaddresses match several lines. The uppermost line that matches will then always be selected.
An example of a routing table is shown below:
A Routing table for converting between EXOline- and IP-addresses.
Min-PLA
Max-PLA
Min-ELA
Max-ELA
Slave hostname
77
77
6
10
192.168.1.199
1
1
0
255
192.168.1.10
27
27
0
255
0.0.0.0
1
50
0
255
192.168.28.235
0
255
0
255
0.0.0.0
The table is read as follows:
‰ Communication to ELA 6 to 10 in station 77 will be sent to the IP-address
192.168.1.199.
‰ Communication to station 1 will be sent to the IP-address 192.168.1.10.
‰ Communication to station 27 is not forwarded.
‰ All other communication to stations 1–50 goes to the IP-address 192.168.28.235.
‰ All other communication is not forwarded.
Chapter 19 TCP/IP
89
A TCP/IP PIFA master can communicate with an unlimited number of TCP/IP PIFA
slaves. A master that is connected to more than 10 slaves will however have a
significantly lower performance, since the memory in the master is not sufficient for
keeping all the connections (TCP/IP sessions) running all the time.
We therefore recommend that you design communication units with a maximum of
10 TCP/IP-connected stations per line handler.
Slave Configuration
The Slave Configuration tab is for configuring PIFA-units connected to an EXOline slave
port.
Figure 43. The Slave Configuration tab.
There is no particular configuration of the PIFA necessary for it to be connected to an
EXOline slave port.
There is however, a function for limiting which TCP/IP PIFA-unit(s) can communicate with
this slave port. Simply enter the IP-numbers for the permitted master-TCP/IP PIFA-units.
The purpose of this is to prevent unauthorized communication with the connected slave port
via the TCP/IP PIFA.
Load the Configuration
The configuration is loaded directly from the TCP/IP Tool, via the network to the PIFA.
Before loading the configuration to the PIFA, you must run Setup on the PIFA. This is
because you must select the correct PIFA-unit to load the configuration to.
Run Setup on the PIFA
This is done with the command Setup PIFA in TCP/IP PIFA Tool. The command opens a
window that shows a list of all the TCP/IP PIFA-units in the same local network (sub-net) as
the computer.
90
Part III EXOflex Software
Figure 44. The Setup window.
When doing this out in the actual installation, it can be a good idea to take your own hub
with you. This is to allow you to connect to the client’s network, as there will often be a
network socket intended for connecting the controller. Connect the hub to the network socket
and then connect the laptop PC and TCP/IP PIFA to the hub’s ports. When the configuration
is complete, the hub is disconnected and the TCP/IP PIFA is connected directly to the
network socket.
The window shows the PIFA-units’ serial numbers and current IP-settings. Their Ethernetaddresses can be seen by scrolling to the right.
The serial number is an ordinary five or six figure number. All components manufactured by
Regin receive a unique serial number. The Ethernet-address is a 48-bit address, unique
amongst all Ethernet units produced (worldwide).
The PIFA’s Ethernet-address is noted on the lower barcode label behind the plate covering
the part of the PIFA not used for contacts. See the figure below. When the PIFA is not
mounted in a house, the covering plate can be moved to the side to reveal the PIFA’s
Ethernet-address and serial number.
When a configuration is tied to a PIFA-unit, the unit’s serial number is displayed in the upper
right corner of TCP/IP PIFA Tool.
Figure 45. The Ethernet-address and serial number.
Ethernet-address
Serial number
Chapter 19 TCP/IP
91
Select the correct PIFA and click Ok. The parameters on the Local IP Settings tab are then
loaded to the PIFA. The PIFA’s serial number is also saved in the unit’s configuration, which
the tool saves to the hard drive. The serial number is then used by the tool when loading
configurations etc.
If the TCP/IP PIFA unit is to be used as a slave and only uses the default
configuration under the tab “Slave Configuration”, you only need to do “Setup
PIFA” on the PIFA unit.
If a TCP/IP PIFA is moved to another controller, or if the IP-address is changed etc, Setup
must be run again. You will then see the previous TCP/IP-settings in the window. In this
case the PIFA setup can even be done from another network (via routers). Press the Search
button in the setup window and specify the current IP-address. If the tool finds the PIFA it
will be shown in the list.
Setup can also be done from another sub-net, if the PIFA already has an IP-address loaded.
Click the Search button and enter its current IP-address and it will appear in the list.
Load the Configuration
When the PIFA has been set up, the configuration can be loaded to it with the command
Load Configuration in TCP/IP Tool. The tool uses the (saved) serial number from when
Setup was used to identify the PIFA.
The configuration can be loaded from any network that can contact the PIFA via routers, but
only as long as the IP-address has not been changed. If it has changed, Setup will need to be
done again.
You might want to configure your PIFA-units before going to the customer’s installation.
Usually, the customer uses other series of IP-addresses than the ones used for your own
office. In order to solve this problem, you can change network configuration in the computer
running TCP/IP PIFA Tool to one similar to the one that the PIFA-unit will have in the
installation. The IP-address, which is selected in the same sub-net as the PIFA-unit, should
be different than the PIFA-unit’s configuration. Depending on the network services installed
in the computer, and their configuration, it might happen that the configuration still cannot
be loaded to the PIFA-unit. The reason may then be settings in proxy-clients, dialed-up
networks etc.
In order to make it possible to perform Load Configuration on a TCP/IP PIFA the
computer that loads the configuration and the TCP/IP PIFA unit must be correctly
configured for the network they are connected to. This means that an installer’s
portable computer probably is not correctly configured for the client’s network. To
be able to upload the configuration, the settings on the portable computer must be
changed so they fit the client’s network. That Setup PIFA works does not mean that
Load Configuration works. Setup PIFA is designed to work even if the network
settings in the PIFA unit are erroneous.
Set the Processor’s Address
If the controller is completely unconfigured ("cold-started"), it will have the address 254:30.
The correct address must be set before the program can be loaded. This is normally done
with the command Reset Controller in e.g. Project Builder.
This can however, be difficult to do via the TCP/IP PIFA-unit, as the routing table in the
master is hardly likely to be configured for sending EXOline-messages with the address
254:30 to just that PIFA. You should therefore set the controller’s address locally, by
connecting the computer directly to one of its serial ports.
It is however, still possible to cool start a controller via TCP/IP-PIFA-units, with no
problems.
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Part III EXOflex Software
Loading the Operating System
You can load the TCP/IP PIFA’s operating system with TCP/IP PIFA Tool. This is done
with the command Load PIFAos. The command first displays a message showing the
revisions of both the current operating system and the one about to be loaded.
For this to work, you must first have run setup on the PIFA. The tool uses the (saved) serial
number from when Setup was used to identify the PIFA. Any configuration for the PIFA will
be preserved when reloading the operating system.
The operating system can be loaded from any network that can contact the PIFA via routers,
but only as long as the IP-address has not been changed. If it has changed, Setup will need to
be done again.
From and including version 1.0-1-03 of EP8280-PIFAos, the PIFA-units’ error handling has
been redesigned to also manage upgrades under difficult network conditions.
If the operating system in the PIFA-unit is older than version 1.0-1-03, we recommend you
to do the upgrade in an ”isolated network”, where only the PIFA-unit and the computer
loading the configuration are connected. This mainly applies to networks with a high load
where the built-in error handling can restart the PIFA-unit during upgrade at network load
peaks.
If TCP/IP PIFA Tool would report that the upgrade failed, it is important not to break the
current to the PIFA-unit but to retry to carry through the upgrade. TCP/IP PIFA Tool will
retry automatically, but will give up after three attempts.
If the PIFA-unit would be restarted or without current during upgrade, the PIFA-unit will
stop functioning and has to be sent to Regin for reprogramming.
Advanced Applications
Multidrop
The TCP/IP PIFA supports multidrop on the main processor’s port 2 internally in an
EXOflex-housing. Consequently, the PIFA-unit can be connected to the main processor’s
port 2 with slave processors in the same house.
Figure 46. Multidrop on the main processor’s port 2.
EP1011
EPxxxx
EPxxxx
EPxxxx
”Master”
”Slave”
CPU P2 P1 CPU 1
”Slave”
P1 CPU 2
”Slave”
P1 CPU 3
EPxxxx
EPxxxx
EP8280 P2
EPxxxx
For this type of configuration, it is important that the slave processors’ piping settings are
made in such a way that they do not overlap the PLA- and ELA-ranges defined in the PIFAunit’s routing table. The TCP/IP PIFA uses its routing table correspondingly to how the
EXOreal-processor uses the variables Max_ELA, Max_PLA, Min_ELA and Min_PLA.
Chapter 19 TCP/IP
93
The TCP/IP PIFA can also be used for multidrop applications with port 2 on the main
processor and other communication units. With the TCP/IP PIFA is is possible to manually,
using the configuration tool, choose which port the PIFA should connect to.
The configuration of a system where the communication PIFA is used in a multidrop
application together with the TCP/IP PIFA is done in the following way: The communication
PIFA unit is configured as usual by choosing Connect to PIFA in Controller System Tool.
In the configuration of the TCP/IP PIFA, the setting To port #2 of the main processor on
the tab Port Connection is chosen.
The same configuration can also be done with two TCP/IP PIFA units instead of a
communication PIFA and a TCP/IP PIFA. It is important that the posts in the routing table of
the TCP/IP PIFA are not overlapping the routing range that has been configured in
controllers connecting to the main processor’s port 2.
The same multidrop functionality can be used by the PIFA-unit in TCP/IP Gateway version,
se TCP/IP Gateway, page 129.
TCP/IP PIFA units with serial numbers lower than A0070240 do not support
connection to the main processor’s port 2 and can therefore not be used for
multidrop applications in an EXOflex housing. The support for the main processor’s
port 2 in these PIFA units is missing in the hardware.
PIFA units without previous support for multidrop on EXOline when the PIFA is
included in a TCP/IP Gateway can, however, be made to support multidrop on
EXOline by a software upgrade to EP8280 PIFAos version 1.0-1-00 or later.
Multimaster
The multimaster function opens new communication possibilities in the EXO system. For
example can a separate controller be connected that handles varible transfers between the
controllers in parallel with the rest of the communication. However, this requires an extra
TCP/IP PIFA and a CPU in the communications unit, but will, especially in large systems,
increase the communication speed between EXO4 and the controllers.
TCP/IP PIFA units that are used as slaves can handle tha communication with several master
controllers at the same time. If two station masters simultaneously each send a question to
the station slave, one of the controllers answers will be slightly delayed, while the message
from the other station master is being processed. This means that the number of messages per
second from one of the masters will be somewhat lower than had it been alone. The total
number of messages per second will however increase since the slave recieves the next
message from the queue as soon as it has processed the previous message.
Firewalls
To communicate via TCP/IP PIFA-units through a firewall, it must be configured for that
purpose. A firewall is a unit that only allows TCP/IP-communication on certain port
numbers and not on others. TCP/IP-ports work as separate communication channels between
two nodes. The TCP/IP PIFA-units use separate ports for operation and configuration, as
described below:
Type of Communication
94
Port number
Protocol
Normal operational traffic.
26486
TCP
Configuration, i.e. the commands Setup PIFA, Load
Configuration and Load PIFAos.
26487
TCP, UDP
Part III EXOflex Software
Hardware Interface
The TCP/IP PIFA has two connections to the outside world. The first is an RJ-45 contact for
connecting to Ethernet via a TP-cable (10base-T). The other is a two-pole Phoenix-plinth for
connection to protective earth, which is necessary for the function of the equipment’s
lightning protection.
See also Error! Reference source not found. on page Error! Bookmark not defined..
Chapter 19 TCP/IP
95
Chapter 20 Applications
Controller Objects
When using an EXOflex-controller, you first add the PIFA-units with EXOflex I/O Tool and
then use PIFA I/O Tool to configure names and properties for your resources (inputs and
outputs). If you want to e.g. connect an analog input to an outside temperature sensor, give
that analog input the name Outtemp in PIFA I/O and configure the sensor type, filtering
factor etc. In your object, you then connect the variable Outtemp directly to e.g. a regulator
object. This procedure is the same for other inputs and outputs.
This means that you do not have to use special input and output objects when programming
EXOflex-controllers, thus reducing the number of objects in a controller.
It will be easier to re-use ready configured objects if you use a standard form for your
resource names. You might have e.g. configured sets of objects for different types of
ventilation aggregates. All you would then have to do would be to configure your inputs and
outputs in PIFA I/O.
Display
The external display in the EXOflex-system has more keys than non-EXOflex-controllers.
Normally you do not program the display handling directly, but instead use the ready-made
controller functions in EXOdesigner.
For this to work, you must use new versions of the affected controller functions. EXOflex
requires the following versions:
‰ Dialog 3.3
‰ Station Handle Program 3.3
‰ Time Dialog Program 2.0
For configuration purposes, the new versions are identical to their predecessors. It is only the
user interface seen in run time that has been changed.
The new versions of the controller function are general, and can well be used even in nonEXOflex-controllers.
Display
In normal move-mode, things work much the same as before, but with the new keys.
The greatest difference is in how maneuvers are performed. Earlier, there were two different
maneuver-modes: input-mode and increase/decrease-mode. These have now been merged
into one general change-mode, with the following advantages.
The entering of numerical values is now much freer, i.e. you can enter any amount of digits
and place the decimal point where you like. You can also choose whether to edit the existing
value [↵] or enter a completely new one [C]. When entering a value, you can delete
characters one by one if you make a mistake [C] and you can move around freely with the
arrow keys. The entry process can be cancelled at any time by a long [C].
96
Part III EXOflex Software
As before, you can step the value up [+] or down [-]. Earlier, you always had to step the final
digit in the value, but now you step the digit at the cursor, which can be freely moved back
and forth with the arrow keys.
Station Handler
Station Handler handles the display of alarms on the external display.
You move around, as before, with the keys [↑], [↓], [←]. To acknowledge press [↵], to
block/unblock press [C].
It is also now possible to use alarm texts of more than 20 characters. The text can be scrolled
with the key [→].
Time Schedules Display
Time Schedules Display handles the larger keypad in the same way as Display during
maneuvers. Furthermore, the program uses a completely new structure for the dialog boxes.
This new structure should be easier to learn and more like Display’s structure. This version
can also be used in non EXOflex-controllers, with the new structure.
See the example below.
TimeGroup01
-->
TimeGroup02
-->
TimeGroup03
-->
TimeGroup01
TimeChannel01
Mon: TimeChannel01
Per 1:
08:00-16:00
TimeGroup01
TimeChannel01
Tue: TimeChannel01
Per 2:
TimeGroup01
TimeChannel01
Wed: TimeChannel01
Per 3:
TimeGroup01
TimeChannel01
Thu: TimeChannel01
Per 4:
21:00-23:00
00:00-00:00
00:00-00:00
TimeGroup01
Fri: TimeChannel01
TimeGroup01
Sat: TimeChannel04
TimeGroup01
Son: TimeChannel04
TimeGroup01
Hol: TimeChannel04
Holidays
Holidays
-->
(MM.DD)
Per 1: 01.01-01.01
Holidays
(MM.DD)
Per 2: 01.05-01.05
Holidays
(MM.DD)
Per 3: 12.24-12.26
Chapter 20 Applications
97
Limitations
Performance
EXOflex-controllers have exactly the same performance as all other EXO controllers with
the 22 MHz processor. It is true that EXOreal itself does not need to handle the hardware
resources directly, but only indirectly via the EFX-channel. The handling of the EFXchannel however, puts about the same load on the controller as hardware resources in e.g. the
model 5540.
The free processor capacity available for application programs is therefore approximately the
same in an EXOflex-controller as in model 5540. The PIFA-units however, contain many
functions that need to be done in the application programs in other models. In applications
where the PIFA-units’ extra functions are required, you will thus have more processor
capacity available to the rest of the application.
Furthermore, EXOreal 2.8 has somewhat better performance than earlier versions when
handling long VPacs and BPacs. This improvement applies to all models.
Memory
EXOflex controllers have 512 kByte of expanded memory, of which 480 kB can be used to
its limits.
The general limits (for all models) are otherwise:
Tasks: Maximum 15, consisting of 256 segments each.
DPacs: Maximum 62, consisting of 256 segments each.
Texts: Max 240 (possibly fewer if the texts are very long).
The number of DPacs is enough for all normal applications, even if you put a great many
functions in a controller.
The limitations on the Tasks are probably not a problem either. The greatest likelihood of
running into problems is when programming controllers with Controller Objects and using
large numbers of functions. One (unsatisfactory) solution might be to spread the functions
over more Tasks.
Texts
The most important limitation is the one for Texts. The maximum of 240 texts must be
shared by a number of different controller functions. See below:
Station controllers
In station controllers it is normally the following programs that will be working together.
‰ Alarms and Events, needs a text for each alarm point. If the alarm will only be shown
in EXO4, you can do without text in the controller.
‰ Station Handler, needs 10 texts.
‰ Time Schedules Display, needs 3 texts, plus a text for each time object.
‰ Display, needs 4 texts plus a text for each alternative in dialog boxes using text
swapping functions. The static texts can be placed in BPacs (Large Storage).
Central controllers
In central controllers the following programs will normally be present.
‰ CCP, needs 11 texts plus one text per modem-dialed station (for telephone numbers).
98
Part III EXOflex Software
‰ Alarms and Events, with one text for each station using alarms for unreachable
stations. If the alarm is only shown in EXO4, you can do without texts in the controller.
‰ Pager/SMS, needs 43 texts, plus one text per station (i.e. the stations’ name in plain
text)
Log Channels
The number of log channels is limited to 96 per controller. There are no plans for increasing
this amount in the foreseeable future.
Alarm Points
The number of alarm points is limited to 250 per controller. If you need alarm texts in the
controller, the limit will be even lower. See Texts above.
This will not be increased in the foreseeable future
Multi-processor Houses
If, in a processor house, you get problems with one of the limitations mentioned above, your
first thought might be to install some more processors. This, however, cannot be done all that
easily, as programs you will be using cannot interact between controllers as might be desired.
Houses with several processors are, as far as software is concerned, exactly the same as
several separate controllers.
Chapter 20 Applications
99
Part IV Specifications
100
Part IV Specifications
Table of contents
Part IV Specifications
Enclosure Specifications
102
Houses
102
External Display
102
Dimensions
102
Section Widths
103
Environment Specifications
104
Processor Specifications, ECX1
105
Specifications
General PIFA Specifications
105
106
What is there to choose from?
106
PIFA-positions
106
Common Properties for PIFA-units
Communication Ports
Standard 24 V DC DI
Electrical Specifications
Standard 24 V DC DO
Electrical Specifications
Multisensor AI
Standard AO
107
107
109
109
110
110
111
111
Chapter 20 Applications
101
Enclosure Specifications
Houses
An EXOflex house can be divided into its aluminum and plastic components.
Plastic Components
The plastic components are of injection-molded, flame-resistant ABS plastic. The flame
resistance is to class V0, which means that the plastic will self-extinguish in the case of fire.
Aluminum Components
The aluminum components are of extrusion-pressed anodized aluminum. The anodization
has good resistance to light and chemicals.
Sealing
The casing sealing is to class IP30, i.e. it is intended for cabinet mounting
External Display
Refer to the external display specifications.
Dimensions
Figure 47. A side-view of the EXOflex house, with dimensions.
125mm
115mm
160mm
102
Part IV Specifications
Enclosure Specifications – datasheet: A
Section Widths
Figure 48. Section widths
EH1x
Section width 1 = 117 mm
EH2x
Section width 2 = 229 mm
EH3x
Section width 3 = 341 mm
EH4x
Section width 4 = 453 mm
Enclosure Specifications – datasheet: A
Enclosure Specifications
103
Environment Specifications
EXOflex-units may be used under the following conditions:
Operating temperature .............................................................................................. 0 to +50oC
Storage temperature............................................................................................... -20 to +70oC
Humidity (non-condensing)........................................................................................max 95 %
Above sea level.......................................................................................................max 2000 m
104
Part IV Specifications
Environment Specifications – datasheet: B
Processor Specifications, ECX1
The processor function is built on two circuit boards, one of which contains an EXOreal
processor and the other an EFX processor. The EXOreal processor handles EXOL
application code and external serial communication via Port 1-3. The EFX processor is
responsible for the exchange of data between the EXOreal processor and PIFA-units via the
EFX channel. Port 1 has its physical output on the EPU’s power-PIFA, whilst Ports 2-3 have
theirs on special communication PIFA-units, the type EP8102.
The EFX-processor is responsible for the exchange of data between the EXOreal-processor
and PIFA-units via the EFX-channel. The EFX-channel has built-in error handling with a
CRC-16 check sum.
Specifications
CPU-board
Operating system..........................................................................................................EXOreal
CPU.................................................................................................................................C515C
ROM-memory with EXOreal operating system............................................................... 64 kB
Conventional RAM memory ............................................................................................ 32 kB
Expanded RAM memory ............................................. 512 kB (480 kB can currently be used)
Battery backup of RAM, RTC ......................................... 5 years with one processor installed
Battery monitoring .......................................................................... LED + software accessible
EEPROM with factory settings .......................................................................................... 2 kB
Real-time clock (RTC) ..................................................................................... ±30 sec./month.
Port 1 ............................................................................................... RxD, TxD, RTS (E-signal)
Port 2 .......................................................................................................RxD, TxD, RTS, CTS
Port 3 ................................................................... RxD, TxD, RTS, CTS, RI, DCD, DTR, CTS
The battery is located on the power PIFA. A backup capacitor on the CPU board retains the
contents of the memory for at least 30 minutes when the unit is not powered.
EFX-board
Operating system.............................................................................................................EFXos
CPU.................................................................................................................................C515C
EFX-channel .................................................................................................RS485/115200bps
ROM-memory with EFX operating system ..................................................................... 64 kB
Dual port RAM .................................................................................................................. 2 kB
Internal Power Consumption CPU + EFX
5 V................................................................................................................................. 100 mA
Processor Specifications, ECX1
Processor Specifications – Datasheet A
105
General PIFA Specifications
This chapter provides a general overview of the PIFA-units currently available.
What is there to choose from?
The following overview is a list of PIFA-units. Detailed descriptions can be found in product
sheets, which are available from our web site http://www.regin.se.. Other units may exist.
Please contact your nearest supplier or AB Regin for information on the current range.
Model Number
Description
EP1004
Power PIFA for extender
EP1011
Main Power PIFA
EP2032
32 DI Multifunction PIFA
EP3016
16 DO Multifunction PIFA
EP4024
16 DI / 8 DO mixed Multifunction PIFA
EP5012
12 AI Multisensor PIFA
EP5112
12 AI Multisensor PIFA
EP6012
12 AO Voltage Multifunction PIFA
EP7218
12 AI / 6 AO mixed Multifunction PIFA
EP7408
8 Mixed I/O PIFA
EP7416
16 Mixed I/O PIFA
EP7601/EX7601
Access Control PIFA/Unit
EP8101
Basic Serial PIFA
EP8102
Dual Basic Serial PIFA
EP8210
EXOlon PIFA
EP8280
TCP/IP PIFA (replaced by EP8282)
EP8282
TCP/IP PIFA
ED9200
External Display
Modem 9011
PTT Modem (Option 9011)
Model 9035
Battery Charger/UPS (Option 9035)
EP0000
Blind PIFA
PIFA-positions
PIFA-units can generally be mounted in any of the compartments in an EXOflex house,
although there are certain exceptions. A power PIFA must always be present and must
always be mounted in position 1. The same position designation is used even when the house
is mounted vertically, which makes it possible to refer to e.g. position 1 with no risk of being
misunderstood. See also Chapter 9 Commissioning for more information about positions.
106
Part IV Specifications
General PIFA Specifications – Datasheet: E
Common Properties for PIFA-units
‰ The power supply to the parts of the PIFA closest to the process is always external,
although there are certain exceptions, e.g. the TCP/IP PIFA.
‰ The process connections on an individual PIFA-unit are, viewed as a group, galvanically
isolated from the internal control logic circuits by a special protective barrier, which is
bridged by an opto-coupler, relays etc. The isolation from other circuits can be retained
by using a separate power supply.
‰ Each process connection has active transient protection, which is led to a special EMI
earth (disturbance protection earth) or in some cases to protective earth.
‰ Calibration parameters for analog inputs etc, are stored in the PIFA-units’ EEPROM,
which is not dependent on a power supply. PIFA-units can thus easily be replaced.
‰ Connections are usually made on plug-in screw connectors of the Phönix brand,
although there are exceptions for certain communication ports.
Communication Ports
See the specifications for each respective PIFA for more information about that particular
model.
Ports 1, 2 and 3
‰ All standard ports, ports 1, 2 and 3 have selectable physical interfaces in the form of
EXOline, hlEXOline or RS232 as standard. See also Chapter 13 Communication.
‰ Port 3 has a full set of control signal for RS232 and advanced modem support, whilst the
other ports have a limited set, as described below. Port 3 can also be fitted with an
option card, which further increases the freedom of choice for this interface. See also
Chapter 27 Options.
‰ hlEXOline is obtained by changing a jumper setting on the power-PIFA.
‰ The RS232 interface is selected via the hardware if you connect the signal SEL1, 2, 3 to
GND1, GND2, GND3 for the respective port.
Electrical Specifications
Type ........................................................................... EXOline (RS485), hlEXOline or RS232
standard .....................................................................................................................EXOline
Speed...........................................................................................configurable, max 19200 bps,
standard .................................................................................................................... 9600 bps
Galvanic isolation from the rest of the electronics, common mode voltage............. max 250 V
Port 1
Control signals, RS232............................................................................... RxD, TxD and RTS
Control signals, RS485............................................................................................................ E
Connector EXOline and hlEXOline ...................................................................Terminal block
Connector RS232 ...............................................................................................................RJ45
Port 2
Control signals, RS232......................................................................RxD, TxD, RTS and CTS
Control signals, RS485............................................................................................................ E
Connector EXOline, hlEXOline and RS232 ......................................................Terminal block
General PIFA Specifications – Datasheet: E
General PIFA Specifications
107
Port 3
Control signals, RS232 ..................................RxD, TxD, RTS, CTS, DTR, DSR, RI and DCD
Control signals, RS485 ............................................................................................................ E
Connector EXOline, hlEXOline and RS232...................................................... Terminal block
EFX channel (internal)
Type.................................................................................................................................RS485
Communication speed ............................................................................................. 115200 bps
108
Part IV Specifications
General PIFA Specifications – Datasheet: E
Standard 24 V DC DI
Please see the specifications for each respective PIFA for more information about that
particular model.
Figure 49. Block diagram for a standard digital input.
PIFA
EMI
border
EFXchannel
24V DC
external supply
Lim
R
EMI return
(earth)
+C
+C
uP
Properties
‰ This type of input is used for reading off floating (potential free) contacts and are active
high.
‰ A yellow LED for each input shows its current status.
‰ The EFX channel is used to connect the PIFA-unit to the processor (not applicable for
EP1011).
Process Connections
‰ The external contact’s one end is connected to the input and the other to +C. The +C
output is current limited and short circuit proof.
‰ EMI earth must be connected to the earth rail or equivalent, to prevent disturbances.
‰ The power supply’s 0V connection must also be grounded. This is normally done at the
power unit’s 0V output.
Electrical Specifications
Digital Inputs, Type DC
Logic 0 .......................................................................................................................... 0 to 5 V
input current at 0 V.......................................................................................................... 0 mA
input resistance......................................................................................................... 5,7 kOhm
Logic 1 ...................................................................................................................... 11 to 30 V
input current at +24 V ..................................................................................................... 4 mA
Shortest pulse length for detection, software type normal .... 9ms (not applicable for EP1011)
Shortest pulse length for detection, software type advanced4,5ms (not applicable for EP1011)
General PIFA Specifications – Datasheet: E
General PIFA Specifications
109
Standard 24 V DC DO
Please see the specifications for each respective PIFA for more information about that
particular model.
Figure 50. Block diagram for a standard digital output.
PIFA
24V DC
external supply
EMI
border
EFXchannel
Lim
EMI return
(earth)
–C
–C
Load
uP
Load
Properties
‰ This type of current source output is mainly constructed for use with DC-relays, lamps
and the like.
‰ The outputs’ driving stage is powered from the external supply
‰ Each output is current limited, short circuit protected and has overheat protection. Apart
from the current limiting for each individual output, there is also total limiting for all of
the outputs together. See Lim in the illustration above.
‰ A yellow LED for each output shows its status.
Process Connections
‰ An external load is connected between the output and -C.
‰ The EMI earth must be connected to the earth rail or equivalent, to protect against
disturbances.
‰ The 0V connection must also be grounded. This is normally done at the power unit’s
negative pole.
Electrical Specifications
Digital Outputs, Type DC
Type..................................................................................................................... current source
Current is fed from the PIFA-unit’s power supply connection
Output voltage at logical zero............................................................................ max 2 V/12 uA
Output current at +24 V (source)
max continuous load per output............................................................................min 400 mA
max continuous load per output at max. 30°C run temp ......................................min 500 mA
max transient load (20 ms) ..........................................................................................min 1 A
110
Part IV Specifications
General PIFA Specifications – Datasheet: E
Multisensor AI
See the specifications for each respective PIFA for more information about that particular
model.
Properties
‰ This type of input is mainly intended for use with sensors using voltage outputs and
resistance elements for measuring temperature, pressure, flow, etc. Certain models also
have a 0-20 mA input.
Process Connections
‰ Voltage signals are connected between the input and Agnd.
‰ The cable screen is connected to the connector SCR.
‰ The EMI earth must be connected to the earth rail or equivalent, to prevent disturbances.
‰ The 0V connection must also be grounded. This is normally done at the power unit’s
negative pole.
‰ The +C output is always current limited. External transmitters for 4-20mA can be
powered from a +C output. A fast fuse should be fitted in serial with the transmitter to
protect the input from short circuits in the transmitter.
‰ For PIFA-models in the range 0–20 mA, the current shunt resistor is activated by
software-controlled electronic circuits. The shunt resistor has an active current limiter
that limits the current to approximately 25mA. However, the input voltage must not
exceed 12V on the input, as each input also has active transient protection that activates
at this voltage level.
All analog inputs have active transient protection that activates at an in-voltage of
>12 V. This means that if you mistakenly allow 24 V on an input for longer than
approx. 0.5 seconds the input will be permanently damaged and the guarantee will
not be valid!
If you connect an active transmitter (4–20 mA) and power it with 12 V, the analog
input will not be damaged if the transmitter is mistakenly short-circuited.
Standard AO
See the specifications for each particular PIFA for more information about that particular
model.
Properties
‰ Each output is current limited and short circuit proof.
‰ This type of output is mainly intended for use with damper motors, shunt valves,
frequency inverters and other analog actuators for 0–10 V.
Process Connections
‰ Normal, high-ohm loads are connected between the output and AGnd. Other types of
loads for special applications with low-ohm loads are best connected between the output
and 24Vminus.
General PIFA Specifications – Datasheet: E
General PIFA Specifications
111
‰ The EMI earth must be connected to the earth rail or equivalent, to prevent disturbances.
‰ The 0V connection must also be earthed. This is normally done at the power unit’s
negative pole.
‰ Cable screens can be connected to the connector SCR (if present).
112
Part IV Specifications
General PIFA Specifications – Datasheet: E
Model Modem 9011 - PTT Modem
Introduction
Modem 9011 has the following main functions:
‰
V.22bis/V.22/V.21 and BELL 212A/103 compatible design with automatic detection of
data communication standard.
‰
Operate in character asynchronous mode.
‰
Includes an advanced "AT" command interpreter compatible with 2400 bit/s industry
standard products.
‰
Includes non-volatile memory to store user configurations.
‰
Adaptive equalization for optimum performance over all lines.
‰
Dynamic range from -3 to -45 dBm.
‰
Call progress, carrier and answer tone detectors providing intelligent dialing functions.
‰
Built-in speaker for easier error detection.
‰
DTMF and CCITT guard tone generators.
‰
High reliability in real life operation.
‰
CE-marked according to the European R&TTE Directive for use in Belgium, Denmark,
Finland, France, Germany, Holland, Norway, Sweden and the U.K.
Modem 9011 is a high performance, 2400 bit/s intelligent modem for use in dial-up
telephone network applications in EXO installations. It is 100 % compatible with the
EXOmodem 9010, with one exception: The 9011 modem does not include the capability to
make pulse dialing.
It includes a complete "AT" command and feature set compatible with industry standard
products. Its operating modes are compatible with CCITT V.22bis, V.22 and V.21 as well as
BELL 212A and 103 data communication standards. The modem may only be used in EXO
Processor controllers (see price-list).
The 9011 modem has been designed for high reliability in real life operation surrounded by
noise, interfering equipment and sometimes even thunderstorms generating high voltages
and transients. This has been accomplished by a careful component selection and by good
layout practice. Critical components in the line interface are chosen to withstand 4kV
isolation voltage between the line and the internal logic. Surge arrestors and a gas discharge
tube positioned on the motherboard close to the line inlet takes care of both fast transients
and high voltages with a high energy content.
EP9011 Specifications – Datasheet: B
Model Modem 9011 - PTT Modem
113
Specifications
Power Supply
Internal
Internal Power Consumption
5 V .................................................................................................................................140 mA
12 V .................................................................................................................................10 mA
-12 V................................................................................................................................10 mA
Other Parameters
Modulation ............................................ CCITT V.22bis, V.22, and V.21 Bell 212A and 103,
Dial-up...................................................................................................... Tone signals, DTMF
Transmission .......................................................................................................Asynchronous
Insulation between line and internal circuits ......................................................................4 kV
Settings ............................................................................................................... AT commands
Line.................................................................................................................. two-wire dial-up
Line Interface ..................................................................................... plug-in screw connector
transmit level .............................................................................................................-13 dBm
impedance.................................................................................................................600 Ohm
reception level ............................................................................................ down to –43 dBm
Standard.......................................................................................................................... TBR21
114
Part IV Specifications
EP9011 Specifications – Datasheet: B
Function
Models 3397, 5540 and the EXOflex series etc. have an internal slot for optional functions
like the Modem 9011 card. The modem is controlled from the EXOreal Processor and its
Port 3.
In EXOflex the modem is normally positioned in the lower Option position in section 1
together with a Basic or Dual Basic Serial PIFA like EP8101 or EP8102 and a Processor.
Also the lower Option positions in section 2, 3 or 4 may be used. This requires an additional
Processor and a Serial PIFA per modem in each section.
When commanded from an EXO Processor controller the modem will automatically
perform a complete handshake as defined by the V.22bis, V.22, V21 or BELL 212A/103
standards to connect with a remote modem.
The modem includes an "AT" command interpreter which is compatible with the Hayes
2400 Smartmodem command set. Also see section Hayes Commands.
The modem includes internal non-volatile memory to store the current "AT" command
configuration etc.
Settings of Speed and Format
Settings for speed and format are carried out automatically. The modem corrects itself for
speed, number of data bits and parity each time an AT command is sent.
In transparent mode (data mode) the modem handles a total of 9, 10 or 11 bits as shown
below:
S1--D1--D2--D3--D4--D5--D6--D7--S2
7 data bits without Parity
S1--D1--D2--D3--D4--D5--D6--D7--PB--S2
7 data bits with Parity
S1--D1--D2--D3--D4--D5--D6--D7--D8--S2
8 data bits without Parity
S1--D1--D2--D3--D4--D5--D6--D7--D8--PB--S2
8 data bits with Parity
In command mode result codes, if activated, will be shown in the following format:
S1--D1--D2--D3--D4--D5--D6--D7--D8--S2
8 data bits without Parity.
Note:
S1 =
start bit
D1-D8 = data bits
PB =
parity bit
S2 =
stop bit
Parity can be EVEN, ODD, MARK or SPACE.
EP9011 Specifications – Datasheet: B
Model Modem 9011 - PTT Modem
115
Hardware Preparations and Installation
Normally no preparations are necessary, but the following steps may be considered
For how to install and remove the modem, see Chapter 25 Installing Processors and Option
Cards.
‰
If no speaker function is desired, disconnect jumper J4. See Figure 51 below.
Figure 51. Modem 9011 with cut-off edges
Indicator led´s
Jumper J4
Four pole connector
Jumper J4
Description
Jumper off
Speaker is electrically disconnected
Jumper on
Speaker is electrically connected
1 = Connected jumper
‰
Insert the Modem 9011 PCB in the Option slot
Observe that Modem 9011 with cut-off edges only fits into EXOflex. For other models, e.g.
5540, the cut-off edges must be cut before mounting.
116
Part IV Specifications
EP9011 Specifications – Datasheet: B
Connections and Wiring
Connect the incoming telephone line to terminal R (Ring) and T (Tip) on the controller. If
for any reason the modem does not react to ring signals, outputs A and A1 can further
connect the telephone line to a telephone etc, if desired. Connector marked with earth symbol
(
) must be connected to a nearby ground bar or similar with a heavy wire in order to
bypass transients.
The table below also shows which pins to connect to in a standard 6 pole RJ12 plug.
Modem 9011 Function
Connector
Connect to:
RJ12 plug
UK
R
Ring
Analog PSTN
3 (or 4)
2 (or 5)
T
Tip
Analog PSTN
4 (or 3)
5 (or 2)
A
Secondary Ring
Phone
A1
Secondary Tip
Phone
Transient ground
Ground bar
The Modem 9011 connector symbols, R, T, A and A1, correspond to the ones on the serial
ports on e.g. EP8101 and EP8102.
EXOreal and Modem 9011
With EXOapt 2001 or later and Controller System Tool (in EXOdesigner) you can easily
configure whether Port 3 shall be connected to the internal or to the external Port 3
connector.
EP9011 Specifications – Datasheet: B
Model Modem 9011 - PTT Modem
117
Changing Register Settings in Modem 9011
This is advanced information and normally not necessary to read when using Modem 9011 in
normal applications.
By using a standard terminal emulator programin a PC, it is easy to change modem register
settings for external modems. When using Modem 9011, which does not have an RS232
interface, the procedure described below can be used.
Add a procedure Task according to the following example:
{ TASK
Name = ProcedureTask
TLN = PROC
}
{ QPac
SLib:\QSystem
SLib:\QCom
SLib:\QDisp
}
{ VPac
}
{ Const
l false = 0
l true = 1
x Qcom_Ln
x Baud_Port_base
x Mode_port_base
x Format_Port_Base
x BinMode_base
x StartChar_base
x EndChar_base
x BinLength_base
x TimeOut_base
x CharTimeOut_base
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
248
41
0
35
47
24
27
30
38
8
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
VLn for Qcom
Cn for Baud_Port_1
Cn for Mode_port_1
Cn for Format_Port_1
Cn for BinMode_Port_1
Cn for StartChar_Port_1
Cn for EndChar_Port_1
Cn for BinLength_Port_1
Cn for TimeOut_Port_1
Cn for CharTimeOut_Port_
}
{ Locals
l lv1
x xv1
}
{ Text
Reg:\Texts
}
118
Part IV Specifications
EP9011 Specifications – Datasheet: B
{ Code
;-------------------------------------------------------------------------DEFSTAT BinaryInit x xv1
bit( Format_Port_3, 4 ) = 1
bit( Format_Port_3, 5 ) = 0
bit( Format_Port_3, 6 ) = 1
; 8 data bits
; Parity off
; Parity ODD
; Set binary mode (Start at SOM and terminate after timeout)
sxv( Qcom_Ln, BinMode_Base-1+xv1 ) = 0
; Set start of message character...
sxv( Qcom_Ln, StartChar_Base-1+xv1 ) = 13
; Set binary message length...
sxv( Qcom_Ln, BinLength_Base-1+xv1 ) = 100
; Set the timeout...
sxv( Qcom_Ln, TimeOut_base-1+xv1 ) = 20
siv( Qcom_Ln, CharTimeOut_base+(xv1-1)*2 ) = 100
; x 64 ms
; x 4 ms
; Set port mode to MASTER...
sxv( QCom_Ln, Mode_Port_Base+xv1-1 ) = 1
bit( Signal_Port_3, 0) = 1
Delay 11
; Set DTR high
; Wait for a second
ENDSTAT l lv1
;-------------------------------------------------------------------------DEFSTAT BinaryTerminate x xv1
bit( Format_Port_3, 4 ) = 1
bit( Format_Port_3, 5 ) = 1
bit( Format_Port_3, 6 ) = 1
; 8 data bits
; Parity on
; Parity ODD
ENDSTAT l lv1
;-------------------------------------------------------------------------DEFSTAT Speak2Modem $ Binary$
;
$
$
l
Add Linefeed to the command...
Binary$ = Binary$ + CHR(13)
Binary$ = InOut$( 3, Binary$ )
lv1 = not cmp$( "" = Binary$ )
ENDSTAT $ Binary$, l lv1
;------------------------------------------------------------------------------}
Now you have the procedures necessary to communicate to the modem.
EP9011 Specifications – Datasheet: B
Model Modem 9011 - PTT Modem
119
Add a Task that uses the procedures above, according to the following example:
{ Task
...
}
...
{ Text
Reg:\Texts
}
...
{ Code
...
; Initiate Port #3 for Hayes command mode...
BinaryInit X 3
; Send some AT command to the modem...
Speak2Modem $ "ATX3&W" \ $ AnswerString
; Now the answer is available in the string 'AnswerString'
; Set Port #3 back to transparent mode...
BinaryTerminate X 3
...
}
The string AnswerString must be defined in Texts.Txe.
Hayes Commands
The modem is controlled with AT commands according to Extended Hayes. All commands
are preceded by [AT, with a few exceptions described further below. The modem has an
input buffer of 40 characters for these commands.
Some commands have parameters associated with them. If you use one of those commands
without parameter, this will be similar to a parameter of 0. For example ATE is equivalent to
ATE0.
After a command sequence of 40 characters (or less), the sequence is executed with
[Return]. When the modem has executed the response, it sends an OK response. Note that
the EXO modem is set up to not respond. See the Q1 command.
The escape sequence +++ (see sections Register S2 and Register S12) is used to control the
modem in data mode without disconnecting the line. When in command mode the modem
can be reconfigurated as desired. After reconfiguration you type ATO to go back to data
mode.
120
Part IV Specifications
EP9011 Specifications – Datasheet: B
AT Commands Supported
Note:
s
=
string
n
=
0-255 decimal
x
=
Boolean
0/1
=
false/true
Command
Options
Default
A/
Repeats last command line
N/A
A
Answer
N/A
Bx
BELL/CCITT=1/0 answer tone @ 1200 (N/A @ 2400)
0
DS=n
Dial string specified by n, n = 0-3
n=0
Ex
Command echo, 0/1 = OFF/ON
0
Hn
Hook status, 0/1 = ON/OFF
N/A
Ln
Speaker volume, (0)1/2/3 med/med/med, supports only one volume
2
Mn
Speaker, 0/1/2/3 = control (see Table 8)
1
On
Online, 0/1/2/3 = online/retrain/no retrain (see Table 9)
N/A
P
Not supported
Qx
Quiet result, 0/1 1-quiet
1
R
Reverse originate
N/A
Sn=n
Set S register (see Table 2)
N/A
Sn=?
Return value in register n (see Table 2)
N/A
T
Touch tone dial
Pulse
Vx
Verbose result, 0/1 = ON/OFF
1
Xn
Result code, 0/1/2/3/4 (see Table 1)
4
Yx
Enable long space disconnect, 1 = enable
0
Zx
Restore from Non-Volatile Memory, x = 0 or 1
N/A
&Cx
Carrier detect override, 0/1 = ALWAYS ON/NORMAL
1
&Dn
DTR Mode, 0/1/2/3 (see Table 10)
3
&F
Restore to factory configuration
N/A
&Gn
CCITT guard tone, 0/1/2 = OFF/1800/550
2
&J
Auxiliary relay control, may not be changed!
1
&Mn
Async only, (see Table 11)
0
&Qx
Same as &M
0
&Rx
Enable RTS/CTS
0
&Sx
DSR override, 0/1 = US/UK
0
&V
View active configuration and user files
N/A
&Wx
Write current configuration to NVRAM x = 0 or 1
0
&Yx
Designate default user profile Z0 or Z1
N/A
&Zn=s
Store a telephone number n = 0-3
N/A
Factory Configuration
B0 E0 L2 M1 P Q1 V1 X4 Y0 &C1 &D3 &G2 &J1 &M0 &P0 &R0 &S0 &T5 &X0
If the NOVRAM has not been initialized it may be necessary to Power Down/Power Up and type AT&F&W<cr> to properly
initialize modem state.
EP9011 Specifications – Datasheet: B
Model Modem 9011 - PTT Modem
121
Dial String Arguments
Please Observe
,
Delay 2 sec
;
Return to Command
@
Silent Answer during 5 sec during a period of S/sec
s
Dial Stored Number
!
Flash, Corresponds to the R button in most countries, Breaks the line in 90 ms
W
Wait for Tone
R
Reverse Mode
So-called blind dialing, using the comma (,) character instead of the wait (W) character in the
dial string, is not allowed.
Table 1: Result Codes
Xn
Vocal/Numeric Result Code
X0
OK/0, CONNECT/1, RING/2, NO CARRIER/3, ERROR/4
X1
All functions of X0 + CONNECT (RATE)/1 = 300, 5 = 1200, 10 = 2400
X2
All functions of X1 + NO DIAL TONE /6
X3
All functions of X1 + BUSY/7
X4
All functions of X3 + NO DIAL TONE /6
Table 2: S Registers Supported
122
Sn
Function
Units
Default
S02
Answer on ring
No of rings
000
S1
Ring counter
No of rings up to 8
000
S2
Escape code
ASCII CHR$()
043
S3
Carriage return
ASCII CHR$()
013
S4
Line feed
ASCII CHR$()
010
S5
Backspace
ASCII CHR$()
008
S6
Wait for dial tone
Seconds
002
S7
Wait for carrier
Seconds
030
S8
Pause time
Seconds
002
S9
Carrier valid
100 milliseconds
006
S10
Carrier drop out
100 milliseconds
014
S11
DTMF tone duration
1 millisecond
070
S12
Escape guard time
20 milliseconds
050
S13
Unused
*S142
Bitmapped register
S15
Unused
S16
Test register
Decimal #
S18
Test timer
Decimal 0-255
S19
Unused
N/A
S20
Unused
N/A
*S212
Bitmapped register
Decimal 0-255 See Table 4
057
*S222
Bitmapped register
Decimal 0-255, See Table 5
118
*S232
Bitmapped register
Decimal 0-255, See Table 6
166
Part IV Specifications
N/A
Decimal 0-255, See Table 3
140
N/A
000
000
EP9011 Specifications – Datasheet: B
S24
Unused
S252
DTR delay
10 milliseconds
005
S262
CTS delay
10 milliseconds
001
*S272
Bitmapped register
Decimal 0-255, See Table 7
000
N/A
* The bitmapped register functions are equivalent to normal "AT" command modem registers.
2
Stored in NVRAM with &W command.
Table 3 to 7 are bitmapped registers. The different bit values for all registers are written on
table rows and each default bit value is marked bold.
Table 3: Register S14 140Dec 8C Hex
Register S14 is an option register.
Bit
Bit value
Description
0
0
reserved
1
reserved
1
0
off
Echo on/off, En
1
on
2
0
on
Answer codes,Qx
1
off
3
0
on (digits)
Verbose result, Vx
1
off (characters)
4
0
Accept commands
1
No accept of commands
5
0
Tone
Dialing method, T, P
1
Pulse (not supported)
6
0
reserved
1
reserved
7
0
Originating
A and D..
1
Answering
EP9011 Specifications – Datasheet: B
Model Modem 9011 - PTT Modem
123
Table 4: Register S21 57Dec 39 Hex
Register for control of signals etc.
Bit
Bit value
Description
0
0
RJ-11/41S/45S
Telco jack, &Jx
1
RJ-12/13
1
0
reserved
2
1
reserved
0
CTS activates after RTS with a delay of S26 seconds and goes
active directly after RTS
Enable CTS/RTS, &Rx
1
CTS always active when carrier is present.
4,3
0,0
The modem do not care about DTR.
0,1
The modem goes ON.
1,0
The modem goes on hook when DTR goes inactive.
DTR mode, &Dx
1,1
The modem is restarted when DTR goes inactive.
5
0
DCD always active.
Carrier detect, &Cx
1
DCD is active if carrier present.
6
0
DSR always active.
DSR override
1
DSR active when modem in data mode.
7
0
No
Enable Long space
disconnect
1
Yes
Bit 0 must always be 1 (RJ-12/13).
Table 5: Register S22 76Hex 118 Dec
This register controls speaker, answer codes etc. In some countries the speaker may not be
used due to local regulations regarding how the speaker volume must be controlled. In such
cases the speaker must be disconnected from the modem.
124
Bit
Bit value
Description
1,0
0,0
medium
0,1
medium
1,0
medium
Speaker volume, Ln
1,1
medium
3,2
0,0
Off
0,1
Connected until carrier detected
1,0
Always on
Speaker control, Mn
1,1
ON until carrier detected but not during dialing
6,5,4
0,0,0
X0, (see Table 1), Result codes
1,0,0
X1
1,0,1
X2
1,1,0
X3
Result codes, Xn
1,1,1
X4
7
0
Make/break ratio 39/61 (US, Canada, Sweden etc) Not supported!
Pulse dialing, &P
1
Make/break ratio 33/67.. Not supported!
Part IV Specifications
EP9011 Specifications – Datasheet: B
Table 6: Register S23 A7 Hex 167 Dec
This register is used for setting terminal speed etc.
Bit
Bit value
Description
0
0
Remote digital loopback request accepted
RDL, &T4, &T5
1
Remote digital loopback request not accepted
3,2,1
0,0,0
0 to 300 bps, See also Settings of Speed and Format
0,1,0
1200 bps
Terminal speed
0,1,1
2400 bps
5,4
0,0
Even
0,1
Space
1,0
Odd
Parity
1,1
Mark/No parity
7,6
0,0
No guard tones
0,1
550 Hz guard tone
1,0
1800 guard tone
1.1
Reserved
Guard tones
Table 7: Register S27
0
This register is used for options.
Bit
Bit value
Description
0
0,0
Only &M0 implemented
0,1
Not used
1,0
Not used
Sync mode
1,1
Not used
2
0
Reserved
1
3
0
Reserved
1
5,4
0,0
0,1
1,0
Reserved
1,1
6
0
CCITT
BELL/CCITT
1
BELL
7
0
Reserved
1
EP9011 Specifications – Datasheet: B
Model Modem 9011 - PTT Modem
125
Table 8: Speaker Modes
Mn
Speaker Mode
M0
Speaker off
M1
Speaker on during connect only
M2
Speaker on always
M3
Speaker on during call progress
Table 9: O Modes
On
Online/Retrain Modes
O0
Return online
O1
Return online with retrain
O2
Enable automatic retrain (default)
O3
Disable automatic retrain
Table 10: DTR Modes
126
&Dn
DTR Mode
&D0
Ignore DTR.
&D1
Go to command state if ON to OFF detected.
&D2
Go to command state and disabled auto answer if ON to OFF detected.
&D3
Initialize modem with NVRAM if ON to OFF detected.
Part IV Specifications
EP9011 Specifications – Datasheet: B
Part V Examples of
Complete EXOflex-units
Model Modem 9011 - PTT Modem
127
Table of contents
Part V Examples of Complete EXOflex-units
Chapter 21 Complete EXOflex-units
128
129
General
129
TCP/IP Gateway
129
Part V Examples of Complete EXOflex-units
Chapter 21 Complete EXOflex-units
General
Complete EXOflex-units, containing the required PIFA-units, can easily be ordered. All that
is needed is a simple description stating the size of the house, which positions the units
should be mounted in and which base address should be used. If no base address is given, the
standard value 0 will be used.
If any PIFA positions are left vacant, these will be fitted with a blind PIFA.
TCP/IP Gateway
TCP/IP Gateway EX8282 is described in a product sheet.
Complete EXOflex-units
129
Part VI Maintenance and
Service
130
Part VI Maintenance and Service
Table of contents
Part VI Maintenance and Service
Chapter 22 Changing the Battery
132
Chapter 23 Resetting The Program
Memory
135
Chapter 24 Changing the PROM
137
Chapter 25 Installing Processors and
Option Cards
138
Removing the Shell
139
Complete EXOflex-units
131
Chapter 22 Changing the Battery
When the battery indicator on the power-PIFA is lit, the battery for backup of program
memory and the real-time clock has become too weak. The battery is on the power-PIFA and
is replaced as described below. A backup capacitor on the processor card saves the memory
and keeps the clock running for at least 30 minutes after the power-PIFA is removed. Thus,
if battery replacement takes less than 30 minutes there will be no need to reload the program,
and the clock will continue to run normally.
The replacement battery must be of the type CR2032.
This procedure requires knowledge of proper ESD protection, i.e. an earthed wrist
band must be used!
Figure 52. The EP1011 and its battery.
Battery
132
Part VI Maintenance and Service
Figure 53. Grip the battery firmly on both sides.
Figure 54. Squeeze the battery until it rises from its holder.
Figure 55. Remove the battery.
Changing the Battery
133
Figure 56. Press the new battery firmly down into place. Note that to preserve
correct polarity, the battery can only be inserted the “right way round”.
134
Part VI Maintenance and Service
Chapter 23 Resetting The Program
Memory
To reset the processor’s program memory, use a reset jumper in the section where the
processor is mounted.
The 2-section base circuit board in the example below has two reset jumpers, one for each
section. As only section 1 has a processor, this jumper that will be used here.
An ESD-earthed wristband must be used for this procedure.
Figure 57. A 2-section base circuit board with reset jumpers.
Reset jumpers
Section 1
Section 2
Resetting The Program Memory
135
Figure 58. A close-up of the reset jumper in section 1.
To get at the jumper on the base board, remove the PIFA-unit in the section in question.
Reset the jumper with e.g. a screwdriver.
Figure 59. Reset with a screwdriver.
136
Part VI Maintenance and Service
Chapter 24 Changing the PROM
This procedure may only be carried out by qualified resellers and requires
knowledge of secure ESD handling, i.e. an earthed wristband must be used !
First disconnect the power supply to the unit.
To change the PROM on the CPU card or EFX card, the PIFA-units and the shell in the
section affected must first be removed. See Removing the Shell on page 139.
Remove the PROM from its holder using the special PROM tool. This tool can be ordered
from AB Regin, along with the new PROM revision.
Note that the PROM has a beveled edge that must be matched to the PROM socket’s own
edge.
The PROM on a PIFA-unit is replaced in the same way (but without removing the shell).
Changing the PROM
137
Chapter 25 Installing Processors and
Option Cards
This procedure may only be performed by a qualified reseller and requires
knowledge of ESD-protection. An earthed wristband must be used !
To supplement a house with one or more extra processors (CPU card + EFX card) or option
cards, the house must first be dismantled and the affected PIFA-units and plastic shell
removed. See Removing the Shell on page 139.
To fit new processors, the jumper switches in the sections on the base circuit board where
they will be placed must be removed. These are located, in the example below, on sections 2
and 3, and also on section 4 on a 4-section base board (but they are never present on section
1 in a processor house).
Figure 60. 3-section base board with EFX-jumpers.
Section 1
138
Part VI Maintenance and Service
Section 2
Section 3
The figure below shows where on the base board the processor circuit boards are fitted.
Figure 61. CPU & EFX card in section 1.
Removing the Shell
After extracting the PIFA-units, lever the pegs on the shell carefully backwards (max
1mm) on each side of the middle section as in Figure 62.
At the same time, lift the shell up and the pegs will release. Excessive force is not
necessary!
Figure 62. The pegs for releasing the shell.
Lever the
peg
backwards carefully!!
Installing Processors and Option Cards
139
Carefully lift the shell off.
Figure 63. Removing the shell.
Fit the new cards as described below.
Figure 64. The CPU & EXF-cards and option positions in section 1.
Position for
option card
CPU-card
Card tracks
EFX-card
Position for
option card
The positions described above are also found in the other sections.
140
Part VI Maintenance and Service
Center the shell relative to the tracks in the aluminum profile. Press the shell down
so that it “clicks” into place. You will also hear a click when it is correctly
positioned. You may need to press the end-walls outwards slightly, to get the shell to
click into place. The CPU and EFX cards must also be correctly positioned so as to
fit in the cavity on the inside of the shell.
Figure 65. Replacing the shell.
Pegs
Press the end-walls
outwards if the shell
doesn’t catch
Track in
aluminum
profile
Installing Processors and Option Cards
141
Part VII Appendix
142
Part VII Appendix
Table of contents
Part VII Appendix
Chapter 26 Modems
144
Telephone Line Modems
Internal Modem
External Modem
144
144
144
Radio Modems
145
Chapter 27 Options
146
Option 9020F
146
Option 9015
146
Option 9011
147
Option 9017, EIB
147
Option 9035
147
M-Bus
Model 1176 Connections
147
148
Chapter 28 Interference
150
Chapter 29 The EMC and LVD Directive
152
Background
Declaration of Conformity
Chapter 30 Glossary of Terms
152
152
153
Installing Processors and Option Cards
143
Chapter 26 Modems
Telephone Line Modems
Telephone modems may be used in two different ways:
‰ permanently leased lines
‰ dial-up connections
Dial up operation uses a Hayes Compatible modem.
The EXO system requires a modem with the particular characteristics as listed below:
‰ Standard Hayes compatible modem.
‰ 11 bit communication format including start/stop bit and odd parity.
‰ Integrated EEPROM for new set-up storage and reloading after power outages.
‰ Others, such as DCD timing.
Internal Modem
The EXO modem Modem 9011 (and 9010) is specially designed for EXO controllers and is
intended for dial-up connections. See further chapter Model Modem 9011 - PTT Modem.
The modem is installed at the internal option’s position under a Processor where it occupies
Port 3. For connection to the telecommunication network, PIFA 8101/02 is used in
combination with the modem.
External Modem
If an external modem is required, Regin recommends Westermo’s TD-32 model for dialedup lines.
The modem can be used for EXO controllers since it can transfer the parity bit of the
EXOline protocol.
For information on Westermo resellers, please visit the Westermo website :
www.westermo.se
It can replace/be combined with Selic 243 (or 241) for communication with 2400 bps. It can
also be used for communication at higher speeds, e.g. 9 600 bps.
The settings are made with a command string which is sent to the modem and stored in its
EEPROM.
This can be done by connecting the modem to the serial port on a computer and sending the
command string with a normal terminal program, which is included in Windows 2000 for
instance. You can also ask Westermo to make the settings in the modem before delivery.
For communication with 2 400 bps (V.22bis), the following command string is used:
AT&FS0=0S30=90&S0&C1&D3L3%E0&K0F5\N1&W
144
Part VII Appendix
For communication with higher speeds, for instance 9 600 bps (V.32bis), the following
command string is used:
AT&FS0=0S30=90&S0&C1&D3L3%E0&K0\N1&W
Radio Modems
By operating in the low-power band (0,5W, 420–470MHz) this type of modem may be used
in most European countries without an operating license. The operating distance is between 2
and 5 km depending on the type of antenna and the features of the landscape.
Modems
145
Chapter 27 Options
The options listed below are available as plug-in cards for the option position in an EXOflex
house. See Chapter 3 EPU Internal System Design and Chapter 26 Modems.
The physical connection to these options are made via connectors on a communication PIFA,
e.g. EP8102.
Option 9020F
Option 9020F is a plug-in card for serial communication on the SIOX bus, typically for
certain types of meters.
The cable should not be longer than 2000 meters for 300 bps communication speed or 1000
meters at 1200 bps, when used with EXO controllers. The bus should not normally be
terminated.
Up to 20 units with SIOX interface can be hooked up to an EXO unit with this option.
Figure 66. A connection between an EP8102 and SVM 820 with SIOX interface.
7
A
8
B1
SVM
820
A
16
17
S
18
N
B2
14
Option SIOX
+24V
EP8102
with option
9020F
+24V
-
+
1
7
A
8
B1
SVM
820
A
20
Option SIOX
B2
+
AC/DC
-
24V DC
To next meter
230V AC
Option 9015
Option 9015 is a plug-in card for serial communication in Foxboro applications. This
interface has no galvanic isolation from the rest of the internal electronics. The maximum
cable length is 3 meters and it is important that the cable is placed away from power cables.
See also the Foxboro manual.
146
Part VII Appendix
Option 9011
Option 9011 (Modem 9011) is a plug-in card for serial communication via dial-up telephone
lines. See also chapter Model Modem 9011 - PTT Modem.
Option 9017, EIB
Option 9017 is a plug-in card for serial communication on the EIB bus. This interface has no
galvanic isolation from the rest of the internal electronics. The maximum cable length is 3
meters and it is important that the cable is placed away from power cables. See also the EIB
manual.
The figure below illustrates the connection of an EIB bus connector, BCU, to EP8101/02.
The DTR output on EP8101/02 cannot be controlled from software but is internally
connected to +12V.
Figure 67.
Option 9035
Option 9035 (Battery Charger/UPS) is a plug-in card for battery charging and reserve
power, which is connected to an externally connected lead acid battery. See section Error!
Reference source not found..
M-Bus
Model 1176 is an independent unit using the M-Bus interface.
Options
147
Model 1176 Connections
Figure 68. Shows how to connect the 1176 to a controller with the EXOline or
hlEXOline interface.
148
Part VII Appendix
RS232
Figure 69. Shows how model 1176 is connected to a controller with the RS232
interface.
For further information, see separate datasheet for Model 1176.
Options
149
Chapter 28 Interference
All installations are subject to interference from other electrical systems, radio sources and
from lightning. Depending on the intensity of the disturbances and the system design this
may cause:
‰ temporary errors in measurements or signals
‰ temporary program errors
‰ permanent program errors
‰ hardware malfunction
All EXO products, hardware as well as software, are designed to operate flawlessly even in
the presence of interference. However In spite of all precautions, there is always a threshold
above which problems will arise. This threshold depends to a large extent on how the
electrical installation in a cabinet is carried out, e.g. on grounding and cable positioning.
Great improvements are possible by following a couple of simple rules.
See figure below for a description of how disturbances work.
Disturbances are very high frequency pulses, which are most easily visualized as energy
packages. Due to the high frequencies, very large voltages are produced even on short wires
when the package passes. High voltages are also carried to adjacent conductors.
Figure 70. Route of disturbance through controller.
Assume a disturbance source S that injects an energy package into a conductor. The package
is in most cases injected relative to earth. The package travels along the line to return to
earth. If it passes inside the controller it creates internal voltages in its path and in other
nearby conductors, due to inductive and capacitive coupling. It also passes through the
ground wire, which puts a voltage on the ground terminal which then sends energy into other
wires connected to the controller and produces voltages in other inputs.
It is obvious from Figure 71 that the correct remedy is to create a path for the disturbance
package, directly to the cabinet’s earth.
All controllers contain internal, protective circuits connected to one of the ground terminals
of the controller. If this terminal is tied with a heavy wire to the ground rail, an incoming
disturbance will pass to ground with very little effect on the rest of the controller. A short,
screened cable used inside the cabinet with the screen connected directly to the ground rail
will provide great improvements in the threshold voltage. Likewise, if a special protective
circuit is deemed necessary, it is important that it be positioned close to the cable entry in the
cabinet. It is also important that its ground terminal is connected with a short wire to the
ground rail. See the figure below.
150
Part VII Appendix
Figure 71. Route for diversion of disturbance when protected.
If our rules for grounding and cabinet layout are followed, the protection provided will be
quite sufficient for most practical installations. It is only in cases where cables run outside
buildings and are exposed to possible lightning, or are situated close to power cables for long
distances, that a more extensive protection, such as screened cables and separate protection
circuits, is required.
Interference
151
Chapter 29 The EMC and LVD Directive
Background
As of January 1st 1996, all electric/electronic products must be CE marked on delivery from
the manufacturer and they must comply with certain requirements specified in the EMC and
LVD Directives. The Directives are issued by the EU commission.
The EMC (ElectroMagnetic Compatibility) directive describes the ability of a product to
operate satisfactorily within its environment without disturbances. The LVD (Low Voltage
Directive) directive concerns electrical safety.
The EMC and LVD directives apply to all electric/electronic apparatus, systems and
installations.
For Regin, the directives mean that every single product must comply with a number of
standards, and that a declaration of conformity is issued for each product.
Declaration of Conformity
Electromagnetic Compatibility, EMC
Units specified in this manual are CE marked and approved according to the following
Generic EMC standards:
‰ Immunity: EN 50082-2
‰ Emission: ED9200 (External Display) and EX7601 fulfill the requirements of EN 500811 and the rest of the units fulfill the EN 50081-2 requirements.
Low-Voltage Directive, LVD
Units specified in this manual are CE marked and approved according to the following safety
standards:
‰ Safety, EN 61010-1
Also parts regarding insulation requirements in the EN60950 standard are applicable and
approved of.
Note that external power supplies generating 24V DC for EXO controllers must be
CE marked as SELV, safety extra low voltage, or PELV, protected extra low
voltage, power supplies.
Note that the LVD is only applicable to products which are connected to 50VAC or 75VDC
or higher.
152
Part VII Appendix
Chapter 30 Glossary of Terms
Activation type
Active mode
Base address
Configuration data
Control variable
Decides how a PIFA will be activated after power cuts and
other errors. There are two alternatives: Automatic or manual
(by the application program).
Normal mode for a PIFA, when all its functions are running
normally.
The part of a PIFA’s address that depends on the expansion
house. The PIFA-address is calculated by adding the base
address to the PIFA’s position address.
A BPac containing configuration for PIFA-units with dynamic
variables set. Transferred to the PIFA very early in the
synchronization phase.
Variable in the processor used to control and indicate a PIFA’s
function.
CPU-card
The printed circuit board that contains the EXOreal-CPU,
amongst other things.
EEU
EXO Expansion Unit. Expansion house with PIFA-units.
Connects to an EPU via the EFX-channel.
The communication channel between a controller and its
PIFA-units.
EFX
EFX-channel
EFX-card
Another term for EFX.
Printed circuit board containing the EFX-CPU, amongst other
things.
EFXos
EFXP
The operating system in the EFX-CPU
The application protocol for EFX.
EFXT
The transport protocol for EFX.
EPU
EXO Process Unit. Combination of a Processor Unit and its
Expansion Units which together constitute a process station.
EXOreal
Expansion unit
The operating system in the controller’s CPU.
Expansion house with PIFA-units which is connected via the
EFX-channel to a Processor Unit.
Expansion house
External display
House with no processor or PIFA-units.
External display in the form of a PIFA, which is connected to
a Processor Unit via the EFX-channel.
Main processor
The processor furthest to the left in a house with several
processors.
Controller
A logical concept that means (exactly) one processor and all of
its PIFA’s.
Variable transferred from a processor to a PIFA, with low
priority.
Parameter variable
Passive mode
Special mode for a PIFA, when in principle all of its functions
are active, but the outputs are not updated. Used at start-up
when contact with the controller is not working etc.
PIFA
A node connected to a controller via EFX. Can be completely
independent or partly built-in
PIFA-address
A PIFA’s address on the EFX-channel. For house-PIFA’s this
is calculated by adding the house’s base address to the PIFA’s
position address.
Glossary of Terms
153
PIFAos
Position address
Processor
Processor unit
Processor house
House with processor and PIFA-units.
House with processor, but no PIFA-units.
Program
A number of EXOL-files in the controller that comprise the
actual application.
Variable whose value is transferred from a PIFA to the
processor.
Read variable
Resource
Smallest functional peripheral unit in a controller, e.g. an
analog input or a display.
Resource attribute
Software property for a resource.
Resource name
Resource type
The resource’s name in the software.
Standardized classification for resources with the same
function.
Part of a house, with space for 2 PIFA-units.
Section
154
The operating system in an intelligent PIFA that
communicates with the processor via EFX.
The part of a PIFA’s address that depends on the position in
the house. The PIFA-address is calculated by adding the
house’s base address to the position address.
A physical concept that describes the central functions in a
controller, i.e. the CPU and EFX-cards together.
Station
Logical concept that covers one or more controllers (and
computers) organized in a functional group. There are process
stations and computer station.
Write variable
Variable that is transferred from a processor to a PIFA, with
high priority.
Part VII Appendix
Part VIII Index
Glossary of Terms
155
Dimensions 102
Display 79, 96
Distributed Processor Power 24
A
Active Transmitters 39
Add a PIFA 48
Addresses 41
Addressing PIFA-units 23
Advanced inputs 62
Alarm Points 99
Analog inputs 72
Analog outputs 76
Application Interface 50
B
Battery 25, 57, 132
Battery charger 147
Battery, changing 132
Beeper 81
C
Cabinet Installations 31
Cardholders for Signal Descriptions 13
Changing the battery 132
Character sets 82
Clock 57
Commissioning 41
Common Properties for PIFA-units 107
Communication 59
Communication Buses & Interfaces 36
Communication Disturbance 54
Communication Ports 107
Compensation for wire resistance 72
Complete EXOflex units 129
Configuration 47
Analog inputs 74
Analog outputs 77
Digital inputs 65
Digital outputs 70
PIFA units 49
TCP/IP 85
Connection to power supply 33
Connections 59
Modem 9011 117
Control variables 52
Controller Objects 96
Counter variables 51
E
EFX channel 56
EFX PIFA units 49
EFX-PIFA-units 47
EIB 147
Electrical formats 59
Electromagnetic Compatibility 152
EMC and LVD Directives 152
EPU 8
EPU internal design 22
E-signal 36
Ethernet Interface 37
Ethernet-address 91
EXOflex
Introduction 8
EXOflex House 9
EXOL Processor 11
EXOline 36
Exomatic Processor Unit 8
EXOreal 56
External display 79
External Display 20
External Modem 144
F
Firewalls 94
Frequency generation
Digital outputs 68
Function
Analog inputs 72
Analog outputs 76
Digital inputs 62
Digital outputs 67
Function diagram
Digital inputs 65
Function Diagram
Analog inputs 74
Analog outputs 77
Digital outputs 70
G
Glossary 153
D
DC units 33
Declaration of conformity 152
Digital inputs 62
Digital inputs and outputs on the power-PIFA 58
Digital outputs 67
156
Part VIII Index
H
Hardware clock 57
hlEXOline 37
Horizontal Rail-mounting 16
I
O
Indexing 51
Inlay Cards for PIFA-units 14
Installation 31
Installing processors and option cards 138
Interference 150
Internal Modem 144
IP-addresses 89
Isolation Barrier 23
Off-line mode 54
Analog outputs 77
Digital outputs 69
Option 9020F 146
Options 146
Option-specifications
Modem 9011 113
Other Processors 60
Overheating protection
Digital outputs 69
K
Key Codes 80
Keypad 79
L
LEDs 81
Limitations 98
Load the Configuration 90
Load the Operating System 93
Local IP Settings 88
Log Channels 99
Low-Voltage Directive 152
M
Main Processor 59
Master 89
Maximum Limits 35
M-Bus 37, 147
Measurement range
Analog inputs 73
Memory 98
Model 1176 Connections 148
Model Modem 9011 113, 144, 147
Modems 144
Mounting 16
Mounting a PIFA-unit 12
Multi-Processor House 26
Multi-processor houses 99
Multisensor AIs 111
N
Naming System for EXOflex 27
NetController 83
Networks 84
No power 53
Non-EFX-PIFA-units 47
Normal run 52
P
PIFA Setup 90
PIFAos 54
PIFA-positions 106
PIFA-units 11
Port Connections 87
Ports 59
Power PIFA-units 33
Power Requirements 35
Power Supply 33
Power-up 53
Analog outputs 76
Digital outputs 69
Priorities
Analog inputs 73
Processor 56
Processor Card 24
Protective ground circuit 34
Pulse counting 63
Pulse proportioning
Digital outputs 68
Pulse rate measuring 64
R
Radio Modems 145
Rail-mounting, horizontal 16
Read, write and parameter variables 51
Removing the Shell 139
Reserve Power 147
Reset the processor’s memory 135
Resources 49
Routing table 89
Routing Table 89
RS232 59, 149
RS232 Interface 37
RS485 59
Rules for cabinet installations 31
Run modes 52
Run Time logging 63
S
Section Widths 103
Part VIII Index
157
Security 84
Serial number 55
Serial Ports 25
Set the Processor’s Address 92
Setting Addresses 41
Signal Descriptions 13
SIOX bus 37
Slave 90
SO Interface 38
Specifications
Communication ports 107
Enclosure 102
Environment 104
General for PIFAs 106
Modem 9011 114
Processor 105
Spontaneous warm-start 54
Standard 24V DC Digital Inputs 109
Standard 24V DC Digital Outputs 110
Standard Analog Outputs 111
Station Handler 97
System variables 61
System Variables
External Display 80, 81
T
TCP/IP 83
158
Part VIII Index
TCP/IP Gateway 84
Telephone Modems 144
Texts 98
Three-Wire Current Sink Transmitter (NPN-type) 40
Three-Wire Transmitter (PNP-type) 40
Time Schedules Display 97
Two-Wire Transmitter 39
U
UPS 147
V,W
Wall mounting 18
Variables
Analog inputs 75
Analog outputs 78
Digital inputs 66
Digital outputs 70
Vertical Mounting 19
Wiring
Modem 9011 117
Part VIII Index
159
Part IX Regin Resellers
160
Part IX Regin Resellers
For information on Regin Resellers, please visit the
Regin Website:
www.regin.se
Part IX Regin Resellers
161
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