HP 200LX User`s Reference
HP 200LX User’s Guide
Page 1
Notice
This manual and any examples contained herein are provided “as is” and are subject to
change without notice. Hewlett-Packard Company makes no warranty of any kind with
regard to this manual, including, but not limited to, the implied warranties of
merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose. Hewlett-Packard Co. shall not be
liable for any errors or for incidental or consequential damages in connection with the
furnishing, performance, or use of this manual or the examples herein.
The above disclaimers and limitations shall not apply to consumer transactions in Australia
and the United Kingdom and shall not affect the statutory rights of consumers.
©Hewlett-Packard Co. 1996. All rights reserved. Reproduction, adaptation, or translation of
this manual is prohibited without prior written permission of Hewlett-Packard Company,
except as allowed under the copyright laws.
Hardware and software floating point math library copyright © 1984-1992 Dimension
Research, Inc.
ROM-DOS operating system software copyright © 1989-1993 Datalight, Inc.
PCMCIA Software copyright © SystemSoft 1993. Modifications copyright Geoworks 1995.
The programs that control this product are copyrighted and all rights are reserved.
Reproduction, adaptation, or translation of those programs without prior written permission
of Hewlett-Packard Co. is also prohibited.
The HP OmniGo 700 is a trademark of Hewlett-Packard Co.
Hewlett-Packard Singapore (Pte) Ltd
Asia Pacific Personal Computer Division
72 Bendemeer Road #01-01/07-01
Singapore 1233
HP Software Product License Agreement
Important: Please carefully read this License Agreement before operating the
equipment. Rights in the software are offered only on the condition that the
Customer agrees to all terms and conditions of the License Agreement.
Operating the equipment indicates your acceptance of these terms and
conditions. If you do not agree to the License Agreement, you may return the
unopened package for a full refund.
In return for payment of the applicable fee, HP grants the Customer a license
in the software, until terminated, subject to the following:
Use:
Customer may use the software on any one computer.
Customer may not reverse assemble or decompile the software.
Copies and Adaptations:
Customer may make copies or adaptations of the software:
For archival purposes, or
Page 2
When copying or adaptation is an essential step in the use of the software
with a computer so long as the copies and adaptations are used in no
other manner.
Customer has no other rights to copy unless they acquire an appropriate
license to reproduce which is available from HP for some software.
Customer agrees that no warranty, free installation, or free training is
provided by HP for any copies or adaptations made by Customer.
All copies and adaptations of the software must bear the copyright notice(s)
contained in or on the original.
Ownership:
Customer agrees that they do not have any title or ownership of the software,
other than ownership of the physical media.
Customer acknowledges and agrees that the software is copyrighted and
protected under the copyright laws.
Customer acknowledges and agrees that the software may have been
developed by a third party software supplier named in the copyright
notice(s) included with the software, who shall be authorized to hold the
Customer responsible for any copyright infringement or violation of this
License Agreement.
Transfer of Rights in Software:
Customer may transfer rights in the software to a third party only as part of
the transfer of all their rights and only if Customer obtains the prior
agreement of the third party to be bound by the terms of this License
Agreement.
Upon such a transfer, Customer agrees that their rights in the software are
terminated and that they will either destroy their copies and adaptations or
deliver them to the third party.
Transfer to a U.S. government department or agency or to a prime or lower
tier contractor in connection with a U.S. government contract shall be
made only upon their prior written agreement to terms required by HP.
Sublicensing and Distribution: Customer may not sublicense the software or
distribute copies or adaptations of the software to the public in physical media
or by telecommunication without the prior written consent of HP.
Page 3
Termination: HP may terminate this software license for failure to comply
with any of these terms provided HP has requested Customer to cure the
failure and Customer has failed to do so within thirty (30) days of such notice.
Updates and Upgrades: Customer agrees that the software does not include
updates and upgrades which may be available from HP under a separate
support agreement.
Export Clause: Customer agrees not to export or re-export the software or any
copy or adaptation in violation of the U.S. Export Administration regulations
or other applicable regulations.
Edition 1 ............................................................... January 1996
Page 4
Table of Contents
1–Getting started .................................................... 16
2–About 1-2-3 .......................................................... 46
Differences between 1-2-3 on the palmtop and 1-2-3 release 2.4
on the PC ...............................................................................................48
Additions to 1-2-3 on the palmtop ...............................................................48
Deletions from 1-2-3 on the palmtop ...........................................................48
Modifications to 1-2-3 for the palmtop .......................................................49
About configuration settings ....................................................................49
3–The Appointment Book ...................................... 51
Scheduling appointments ..........................................................................52
Types of appointment lists .........................................................................58
Changing the current date ........................................................................61
Editing and deleting appointments ..........................................................62
Running a program or system macro at a certain time .........................64
To-do lists ....................................................................................................65
Using multiple appointment books ...........................................................68
Translating appointment books ................................................................68
Setting options and defaults for the Appointment Book ........................68
Appointment Book function keys .............................................................72
4–The Phone Book and the Database ................... 74
About the Phone Book application...........................................................75
Adding to and editing a phone book ........................................................76
Searching a phone book ............................................................................78
Using multiple phone books ......................................................................79
Translating phone books ...........................................................................79
Creating your own database .....................................................................80
About database structures ............................................................................81
Defining a new database structure ...............................................................83
Modifying a database definition ..................................................................87
Modifying the data card ...............................................................................89
Page 5
Searching a database .................................................................................90
Sorting data lists ........................................................................................90
Rearranging the columns in data lists .....................................................91
Defining subsets of a database ..................................................................92
Displaying existing subsets ..........................................................................93
Defining a new subset ..................................................................................93
Using the category field ...............................................................................95
Using multiple criteria in a subset definition ...............................................97
Editing or deleting subset definitions ..........................................................99
Advanced subset selection .........................................................................99
SSL syntax .................................................................................................100
Relational operators .............................................................. 100
Boolean operators ................................................................. 101
Comparison of SSL and define subset screen....................... 102
SSL examples ............................................................................................102
Limits while using the Phone Book and Database ................................103
Phone Book and Database function keys ...............................................103
5–World Time ....................................................... 106
City lists ....................................................................................................107
Specifying your local city ..........................................................................108
Adding a city to World Time .....................................................................109
Editing or deleting a city............................................................................ 110
Creating your own city list (custom cities) ................................................ 111
Using the map........................................................................................... 111
Converting times across time zones ....................................................... 112
About the settings for daylight savings time ......................................... 113
Using subsets of the city list .................................................................... 114
Copying or moving information ............................................................. 115
Limits while using World Time .............................................................. 115
World Time function keys ....................................................................... 116
6–The Stopwatch .................................................. 118
7–The Memo Editor ............................................. 120
Creating a memo ......................................................................................120
Saving memo files ....................................................................................122
Saving memos as ASCII text files .............................................................122
Page 6
Settings for saving memo files ...................................................................124
Password protection for memos.................................................................124
Formatting a memo .................................................................................124
Editing or reading a memo .....................................................................126
Copying or deleting information ............................................................127
Smart clip: copying multiple fields from records ......................................127
Deleting, copying, or inserting memos ......................................................128
Searching a memo file .............................................................................129
Options for displaying the memo ...........................................................129
Using outline-style numbering ................................................................131
Starting outline (Hierarchical) numbering .................................................131
Editing existing outlined text .....................................................................133
Printing a memo .......................................................................................133
About printing to a printer .................................................... 133
About printing to a file ......................................................... 134
Setting up printing information ..................................................................134
Memo Editor function keys ....................................................................135
8–The Note Taker ................................................. 137
Creating a note .........................................................................................138
Editing or deleting notes .........................................................................139
Changing the data card ...........................................................................140
Searching the Note Taker ........................................................................141
Using multiple Note Taker files ..............................................................142
Using subsets of the Note Taker..............................................................142
Limits while using the Note Taker ..........................................................142
Note Taker function keys ........................................................................142
9–Pocket Quicken Basics ..................................... 145
About files and accounts .........................................................................145
About categories and groups ..................................................................148
What’s a category?.....................................................................................149
What’s a group? .........................................................................................150
Use the group field for expense reporting .................................................152
Using the register .....................................................................................153
Entering transactions ..............................................................................154
The add transaction screen ........................................................................154
Using QuickFill and QuickKeys ................................................................157
Splitting transactions .................................................................................158
Page 7
Transferring money between accounts .......................................................158
Changing your entry preferences ...............................................................159
Sharing data with desktop Quicken .......................................................160
Using the connectivity pack to merge or synchronize Quicken files .........160
Importing and exporting Pocket Quicken files ..........................................161
10–Balancing your Pocket Quicken
checkbook .......................................................... 163
The general reconciling procedure .........................................................163
Balancing your account for the first time ..................................................163
Reconciling the account .............................................................................164
Solving problems ......................................................................................166
Correcting differences ...............................................................................166
Check the number of payments and deposits ....................... 166
Check the dollar amounts of items ....................................... 167
Check the opening and ending balances ............................... 167
Having pocket quicken adjust for differences ...........................................167
Updating your previously reconciled balance ...........................................168
Adding earlier transactions to Pocket Quicken ....................................168
Example: adding earlier transactions to your account .......... 168
11–Creating and printing Pocket Quicken
reports ................................................................ 170
12–Calculator basics and math functions .......... 174
Simple arithmetic .....................................................................................175
About the calc line ...................................................................................175
The calc line.......................................................................... 175
The annunciator area ............................................................ 175
The calculator keyboard .........................................................................176
About the special calculator keys ......................................... 177
rOperator priority ...................................................................................178
Percent ......................................................................................................179
Other keyboard arithmetic .....................................................................179
Using the automatic constant in calculations ........................................180
The K abbreviation ............................................................... 180
Page 8
Clearing the constant ............................................................ 181
Storing and recalling numbers ...............................................................181
Using the history stack ...............................................................................181
Using registers ...........................................................................................182
Moving values between the calc line and 1-2-3 .....................................184
The point-and-shoot method of data entry............................................185
Clearing information from calculator memory ....................................186
Using RPN with the calculator ...............................................................186
Technical math functions ........................................................................187
Changing the angle mode ..................................................... 189
13–Business percentage calculations .................. 193
14–Time value of money and interest
conversions ........................................................ 195
The TVM screen ......................................................................................195
Switching TVM cases ........................................................... 197
Clearing TVM variables ....................................................... 197
Making TVM calculations ......................................................................197
Conventions for entering TVM values ................................. 198
Step 1 .................................................................................... 200
Step 2 .................................................................................... 201
Step 3 .................................................................................... 201
Step 4 .................................................................................... 201
Calculating amortization ........................................................................201
Sending an amortization table to 1-2-3 or a printer .............................207
Calculating interest rate conversions .....................................................210
If compounding and payment periods differ ......................................... 211
Additional TVM examples ......................................................................214
Yield of a discounted (or premium) mortgage ...........................................214
Step 1 .................................................................................... 214
Step 2 .................................................................................... 215
Step 3 .................................................................................... 215
Loans with fees ..........................................................................................215
Step 1 .................................................................................... 215
Step 2 .................................................................................... 216
Page 9
A tax-free account......................................................................................217
A taxable retirement account .....................................................................219
15–Uneven cash flow calculations ....................... 221
NPV and IRR%: discounting cash flows ...............................................221
Making cash-flow calculations ...............................................................222
The cash-flow function keys....................................................................223
Uneven cash flow examples .....................................................................223
Plotting......................................................................................................227
16–Currency and other unit conversions ........... 228
Converting currencies .............................................................................228
Changing the list of currencies ..................................................................229
Converting other units ............................................................................230
17–Statistics ........................................................... 231
Entering and editing data .......................................................................231
Saving statistical data in a file ................................................................233
Statistics calculations...............................................................................233
Curve fitting and forecasting ..................................................................236
Plotting the curve model for your data..................................................240
18–Date calculations ............................................. 241
19–Using the Solver and Function Plotting ....... 243
The solve catalog ......................................................................................243
Entering and editing equations ..................................................................244
Calculating with your solver equations ......................................................247
Clearing and deleting solver equations and variables ................................248
About shared solver variables............................................... 248
Solve catalog function keys .......................................................................249
Using multiple equation lists ...................................................................250
Using the solver in a 1-2-3 Worksheet. ..................................................250
How the solver works ..............................................................................254
Halting and restarting an iterative search ..................................................255
Entering guesses ........................................................................................255
Rules for writing equations.....................................................................256
Page 10
Length of equations ...................................................................................256
Variable names ...........................................................................................256
Constants ...................................................................................................257
Functions ...................................................................................................257
Operators, parentheses, and the order of calculations ...............................257
Functions first ....................................................................... 257
Exponentiation before multiplication and division .............. 257
Multiplication and division before addition and subtraction 258
Date formats ..............................................................................................258
Solver functions .......................................................................................258
Typing aids for solver functions .............................................................265
Conditional expressions (IF function) ....................................................266
Order of logical operations ........................................................................267
Creating function keys for multiple equations (S function) .......................268
The TVM functions .................................................................................269
The summing function (SIGMA)............................................................270
Examples of solver equations ..................................................................271
Simple annual interest ................................................................................271
Advance payments (leasing) ......................................................................272
Discounted notes........................................................................................273
Moving average .........................................................................................274
Simulating a toss of dice ............................................................................276
Distance between two locations .................................................................277
Finding several solutions to an equation....................................................278
Creating solver files on a PC or another editor ....................................280
Function plotting .....................................................................................281
How function plotting works ..................................................................287
Selecting the expression to plot .................................................................287
Setting the plot conditions .........................................................................288
Interacting with the graph ..........................................................................289
20–Configuring and customizing the calculator 293
Configuration options .............................................................................293
Creating your custom calculator application ........................................294
21–The setup utility .............................................. 296
Setting the date and time.........................................................................296
Specifying audio volume and display intensity .....................................298
Allocating memory between system RAM and the RAM disk ............299
Page 11
Changing country defaults, punctuation, currency, and
code page settings ...............................................................................301
Specifying the sorting order for Lotus 1-2-3 .........................................303
Specifying a topcard or picture display .................................................303
Closing Com1 to save power ...................................................................304
22–The Filer and File Management .................... 305
Take care of your data.............................................................................306
Working with files ....................................................................................307
Viewing a directory .................................................................................309
Changing the current directory .............................................................. 311
Using plug-in memory cards ...................................................................312
Backing up a directory’s files .................................................................313
Directories and file name extensions used by palmtop applications ...313
Using the split screen ...............................................................................315
Transferring files between your HP 200LX and another computer ...316
Transferring files using an IR connection ..................................................317
Transferring files between an HP 100LX and an HP 200LX ....................319
Transferring files between an HP 95LX and an HP 200LX ......................319
About HP 95LX appt book and phone book files ................ 319
23–System macros ................................................ 322
Creating system macros ..........................................................................322
Creating macros that execute other macros ...............................................324
Saving and opening sets of system macros ............................................324
Clearing (deleting) system macros .........................................................325
System macros and Lotus 1-2-3 ..............................................................325
System macros examples .........................................................................326
24–Managing your applications .......................... 327
Installing applications .............................................................................327
Icons view and list view of applications .................................................329
Starting, quitting, and deleting applications .........................................330
Managing memory ...................................................................................331
Types of memory .......................................................................................331
Determining memory usage .......................................................................331
Maximizing system RAM ..........................................................................332
Page 12
25–MS-DOS in your palmtop PC........................ 334
Accessing the DOS prompt .....................................................................334
About the System Manager Program .................................... 335
Files and directories.................................................................................336
DOS commands in your palmtop ...........................................................339
Standard DOS commands ..........................................................................339
Special utility commands ...........................................................................342
KIT Country Options ............................................................ 348
KIT File Format .................................................................... 348
Installing DOS applications ....................................................................348
Tips on running DOS applications .........................................................349
Controlling the appearance of a DOS display .......................................351
Customizing your system ........................................................................353
About the MS-DOS startup procedure ......................................................353
Boot (reset) options ...................................................................................353
26–Datacomm ....................................................... 355
Configuring for Datacomm.....................................................................356
Using configuration files ...........................................................................359
Preparing your hardware .......................................................................360
Making serial connections ......................................................................360
Beginning and ending a communication session ...................................362
Customizing your display for Datacomm ..............................................363
Capturing data in a file ...........................................................................364
Automating datacomm procedures ........................................................364
Transferring files .....................................................................................366
Character translation between code pages............................................367
Sample CTF file.................................................................... 368
27–Using a modem with your palmtop PC ........ 372
Equipment you need ................................................................................372
Connecting to a serial modem ................................................................373
Connecting to a card modem ..................................................................373
Using a card modem in the plug-in slot .....................................................374
About batteries and card modems..............................................................374
Page 13
28–Using a printer with your palmtop PC ......... 375
Equipment you need ................................................................................375
Preparing to print ....................................................................................376
Printing .....................................................................................................376
Printing from PIM applications .............................................................377
Printing to a file (creating an ASCII data file)...........................................380
Setting up printing information (setup)......................................................380
29–cc:Mail ............................................................. 382
About cc:Mail ..........................................................................................382
What you need to make it work .............................................................382
Starting cc:Mail the first time ................................................................383
Receiving and reading messages .............................................................384
Replying to messages ...............................................................................384
Creating and sending messages ..............................................................385
About folders ............................................................................................385
About address books and mailing lists ...................................................386
Addressing options ..................................................................................390
Managing your messages ........................................................................391
Printing in cc:Mail ...................................................................................393
Importing and attaching files to a message ...........................................393
Changing your communication settings ................................................394
Understanding cc:Mail’s host ....................................................................395
Understanding cc:Mail’s prefix .................................................................395
Creating another modem file .....................................................................396
Using an interactive connection to the post office ................................399
30–Using Laplink Remote Access ....................... 401
What you need to make it work .............................................................401
Running Laplink Remote Access on your palmtop ..............................402
About server mode................................................................ 402
A–Warranty, support, and service ...................... 403
B–Batteries and environmental limits ................ 406
Main battery type .................................................................. 406
Backup battery type .............................................................. 406
Page 14
Removing and installing batteries ..........................................................407
Rechargeable batteries ............................................................................409
AC adapter information ..........................................................................410
Environmental limits for your palmtop and plug-in cards .................. 411
C–Character set .................................................... 412
Character set tables .................................................................................412
Generating special characters ................................................................415
Generating accented characters ............................................ 415
D–South and East European language support 417
How to access character sets and keyboard layouts .............................418
Running KEYBEZ .....................................................................................419
Accessing the characters ....................................................... 419
Printing considerations ...........................................................................420
Keyboard overlays & code page tables..................................................421
Greek and Cyrillic overlays .......................................................................422
Hungarian and Polish overlays ..................................................................423
Slavic and Turkish overlays .......................................................................424
CP 437G (PC Latin/Greek) .......................................................................425
CP 437T (PC Turkish) ...............................................................................427
CP 852 (PC Latin-2) ..................................................................................429
CP 866 (PC Cyrillic) .................................................................................431
E–Regulatory information ................................... 429
F–Games ................................................................ 431
Index ...................................................................... 432
Page 15
1
Getting started
Before You Begin. Install the batteries, adjust the display contrast, set the
time and date, and fill out the Topcard as described at the beginning of the
Quick Start Guide.
A look at your palmtop PC
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Application keys
Plug-in card slot (drive A)
Card-eject slide switch
Menu key
Backup battery cover
6.
7.
8.
9.
IR port (Infrared radiates through the plastic)
Serial port
AC adapter jack
ON/OFF key
Page 16
Hardware features
Among the palmtop PC’s hardware features are
A rugged “clamshell” design, which protects the keyboard and
display when you’re on the go.
A CGA-compatible, 80 x 25 character display with a “zoom”
capability for text-based applications.
A PCMCIA release 2.0, type II plug-in card slot.
An Infrared (IR) port for wireless communications.
A serial port for communications to a PC, modem, printer, or
other serial device.
A typewriter keyboard layout with a “sticky” shift key—you don’t need to hold
down [L] while you press another key; you press it to activate it and then
press the other key. Shifted key definitions are shown in orange on the
keyboard.
Software features
The second row on the palmtop keyboard contains a set of green application
keys.
Green Application Keys
These keys enable you to run the built-in applications. The last key in the row,
[&É], gives you access to additional built-in applications that show up in the
display.
Page 17
More Applications Screen
Use [F10] (Page Dn) to see additional applications.
The Built-in Applications
Press
[E]
[Q]
[B]
[C]
[F]
[A]
[G]
[&É]
To Start
The Filer
Pocket Quicken
The Appointment Book
The Phone Book
The Memo Editor
Lotus 1-2-3
The Calculator
Applications Manager
Press
[&É] [S]
[&É] [C]
[&É] [W]
[&É] [B]
[&É] [N]
[&É] [D]
[&É] [T]
[&É] [M]
[&É] [I]
[&É] [R]
[&É] [+]
[&É] [U]
[&É] [O]
To Start
The Setup Utility
Datacomm
The Stopwatch
The Database
The Note Taker
MS-DOS
World Time
System Macros
cc:Mail
LapLink Remote
Hearts+Bones
Lair of Squid
Demo program
Note
Help is always available within any application by simply pressing the
[F1] key ([CTRL]+[F1] in Datacomm). Because it is your built-in
quick-reference guide.
To quit an application, press [MENU] [Q]. It is not necessary to quit one
application before starting another, but quitting applications helps free up
system memory.
Page 18
Activating password protection
You can protect your entire palmtop from being used by other people by setting
a password. Setting passwords for individual files is covered under Setting
passwords for files later in this chapter. You can set a machine-locking
password to work in one of two ways:
Auto-lock mode. Whenever the palmtop is turned off, times
out, or is reset by a system reset, you must enter the
password before you use it.
Manual-lock mode. Turn the palmtop off by pressing [ON]+[ENTER]—-hold
down [ON], press and release [ENTER]—to activate password protection.
When the palmtop times out, is reset, or is turned off by just pressing [ON],
you do not need to enter the password to use the machine.
When password protection is activated and you turn on your palmtop, you
must respond to the prompt by typing your password and pressing [ENTER]
before you can use the unit.
Rules for the password:
It will be case-sensitive.
It can have up to 12 characters.
You can use only the lower 128 characters in the character set.
These are generally the characters on the keyboard. For a
complete list of these characters, see Appendix C.
You cannot use control characters.
Caution
Be sure to record your password in a safe place. To resume operation if
you forget it, you’ll have to call Hewlett-Packard Customer Support at
the number on the inside back cover of this manual.
If you use the KEYBEZ utility to remap the keyboard, take care to
choose a password that won’t be affected by the remapping.
To set or change a password:
Press [&É] [D] to start the DOS application.
Type PASSWORD and press [ENTER].
Page 19
Follow the instructions on the screen. Remember to press [ENTER] after each
response to a prompt. When you are told to verify your password, simply
type it again.
Type EXIT and press [ENTER] to quit DOS.
When you first set a password, it is automatically implemented in manual-lock
mode—password protection is activated only when you turn off your palmtop
by pressing [ON]+[ENTER]. You can change this to auto-lock mode, or
deactivate password protection altogether, by following the next procedure.
To change the mode or deactivate password
protection:
Press [&É] [D] to start the DOS application.
Do one of the following:
Type PASSWORD /A to implement auto-lock mode.
Type PASSWORD /M to implement manual-lock mode.
Type PASSWORD /D to deactivate password protection.
Press [ENTER]. If you’re deactivating password protection, you’ll need to enter
the old password at this point.
Type EXIT and press [ENTER] to quit DOS.
Managing memory
Types of memory in the Palmtop
ROM. Permanent memory that contains the built-in applications and that
cannot be erased or overwritten. ROM contains a permanent ROM disk,
which is designated drive D.
System RAM. Workspace for open applications. Open spreadsheets and
memos that haven’t been saved reside here.
RAM disk. Storage space for saving files when you’re done working on them.
The RAM disk is designated drive C and is used just like a hard disk on a PC.
Memor y cards. Plug-in memory for additional storage space for data and
programs. The plug-in slot is designated drive A, and memory cards are used
like floppy disks on a PC.
Page 20
Saving data
Data that you enter using most of the palmtop applications is saved
automatically when you enter it. The stored file (either on drive A or C) is
changed as you edit it.
However, in 1-2-3, the Memo Editor, the Calculator, and System Macros a
stored file is not changed until you formally save changes. A worksheet or
memo is copied into system RAM where it is edited. When it is saved, the
changed copy is moved back to drive A or C and, unless you save it under
another name or path, it overwrites the original copy.
All palmtop applications follow standard MS-DOS conventions for file and
path names
Note
Your palmtop contains a directory on drive C called _DAT. You should
not remove or rename this directory because it is used by several of the
built-in applications.
Backing up data
It’s a good idea to regularly back up drive C like you would any PC hard disk.
Use the Filer to copy the files to a memory card or, if you have the Connectivity
Pack, to a PC. The backup procedure is described under Backing up a
directory’s files in chapter 22.
Using memory cards
Your palmtop supports PCMCIA 2.0 type I or type II memory cards, which
enable you to significantly expand data and program storage. Terms you
sometimes hear that refer to memory cards include mass storage cards, PC
cards, flash cards, flash disks, and RAM cards.
A memory card plugged into your palmtop is designated drive A, and you use it
just like you would use a floppy disk on your PC.
At the time of this writing, HP provides three flash memory cards (called Flash
Disks) for your palmtop: the HP F1012A (5 MB card), the HP F1013A (10 MB
card), and the HP F1014A (20 MB card).
Page 21
See your dealer for purchase information.
To insert and remove a card:
Caution
Be sure to turn off the palmtop before inserting or removing a plug-in
card. Otherwise, data loss could result.
To insert a card, hold it with the logo on top and push it in the slot on the left
side of the palmtop until it won’t go in any further. A fully-inserted card is flush
with the palmtop case. To remove a card, slide the card-eject switch to the left.
Inserting and Removing a Card
Resetting your palmtop
If your palmtop fails to respond to keystrokes or otherwise behaves unusually,
you should do a system reset (also called rebooting the computer). Do not
remove the batteries.
Caution
A system reset erases the contents of system RAM (but not the RAM
disk). Therefore, any data not already saved will be lost.
Page 22
You perform a system reset by pressing [CTRL]+[ALT]+[DEL] (that is, holding
down [CTRL] and [ALT] and then pressing [DEL]).
If a system reset doesn’t work, as a last resort you can attempt a hard reset by
simultaneously pressing [CTRL]+[ON]+[L] (the gold arrow). You will be asked
if you want to initialize the RAM disk, which erases its contents. If you type y
(for yes) and press [ENTER], a hard reset will occur and all data is lost; if you
type n (for no) and press [ENTER], a system reset is attempted.
Caution
A hard reset erases the contents of system RAM and the RAM disk. All
data on drive C (the RAM disk) will be lost. Also, settings changed via
the Setup Utility (for example, battery charging) will revert to their
default states.
If resetting your system as described above doesn’t fix your problem, contact
Customer Support as described on the inside back cover of this manual.
Battery-saving tips
Use rechargeable batteries as described in Appendix B.
Use the AC adapter ( HP F1011A) whenever possible.
Quit Datacomm and the Filer (press [MENU] [Q]) when you’re
not using them. These applications use the serial port and
therefore require slightly more power than the other
applications.
When you see the message telling you that the main batteries
are low, replace them (or recharge them) as soon as possible.
This will help you get the most out of your backup battery.
See Appendix B for instructions on changing batteries.
Always install fresh, high quality batteries (all of the same
brand).
Remove high-current plug-in cards—this does not include memory cards—
when you’re not using them. For example, plug-in modem cards are
notorious for draining batteries quickly, even when you’re not using the
modem. Therefore, be sure to take out a modem card when you’re not using
Page 23
it, and when you are using it, use the AC adapter.
Application screens
To start an application:
Press its green application key.
If the application is not on the keyboard, press [&É], then press the underlined
letter as shown.
To quit an application:
Press [MENU] [Q].
The elements of an application screen
An Application Screen
Screen title identifies the particular screen.
Menu bar displays the menu of commands. Press [MENU] or
[ALT] to display the menu bar. If the computer beeps, you
need to press [ESC] first.
Function-key labels show current functions for keys [F1] to [F10].
Page 24
Controlling the display size with ZOOM
To change the size of the characters:
Press [FN] ZOOM (that is, [FN] then [SPACEBAR]) to change the
size of the displayed characters in text-based applications,
such as the Memo Editor and 1-2-3. ZOOM cycles through
three different display sizes (1-2-3 uses only the first two):
80 columns x 25 lines. This fits as much information on
the palmtop display as on your PC display. It produces the
smallest characters.
64 columns x 18 lines. This is the only size for most
built-in applications.
40 columns x 16 lines. This produces the largest characters.
PIM application views: list and record
The palmtop Personal Information Management (PIM) applications
(Appointment Book, Phone Book, Note Taker, Database, World Time) present
information in two major views:
The data list summarizes each record with a one-line entry.
The data record shows you all the information for one item (list entry). For
instance, an appointment record contains everything about your 10:00
appointment (when, where, how long, what for, and so on).
The Data List
This lists the data records in the current application file. Each record has a
one-line entry.
Page 25
An Appointment List
Use [K] and [J] to highlight any item and scroll through the
list. To jump further, use [FN] HOME, [FN] END, [FN] PG
UP, and [FN] PG DN.
Press [ENTER] to display the complete record of the highlighted
item.
Press [F2] (Add) to add a new item.
The Data Record
The record defines each item in detail. The data appear in labeled fields.
An Appointment Record
Page 26
Use [TAB] or [L] [TAB] to move from field to field.
Press [ALT]+underlined letter to move directly to a field. In the
above example, [ALT]+[N] moves the cursor to the Note
field.
Press [F10] to save and close the record.
Press [ESC] or [F9] to cancel changes to a record.
The Note field provides an area for text entry and editing. Pressing [F3] (Note)
provides a full-screen area for text editing.
Screen annunciators
Annunciators displayed on the screen indicate certain conditions that are in
effect.
Annunciator
↑
O
h
g
Meaning
Location
The [L] shift is on. Lower corner.1
The [FN] shift is on. Lower corner.1
Insert mode. Cursor shows underlying character.
Replace mode. Cursor hides underlying
character.
|
End of text field.
Cursor.
_(underscore) Cursor for 1-2-3.
M
Caps Lock is on.
Lower corner.1
P
Busy. The palmtop is processing information.
Center.
Lower right for 1-2-3 and DOS screens; lower left for other applications.
Menus
There are three ways to perform palmtop operations:
Using keys that perform operations, like [ESC] and [DEL].
Using function keys ([F1] through [F10]), which perform the
operations shown on the current function-key labels.
Using menu commands, which appear in pull-down menus under the menu
bar.
Page 27
All commands appear in menus. Most of the more common ones also appear
on function-key labels. Many others are on the keyboard.
Menu Commands and Function Keys
Menu bar. Press [MENU] or [ALT] to display it. To select a
command, press the underlined letter key (press [F] for File,
for example) or highlight the command (press an arrow key)
and press [ENTER].
Pull-down menu. Shows the commands under the menu item.
To select a command, press its underlined letter.
Unavailable command. If a command appears dimmed (“grayed”), then it
is not available at this time.
Ellipsis (…). This command will display a dialog box to solicit more
information.
Shortcut keys (hot keys). You can press these keys instead of displaying
menus and selecting commands. For instance, pressing [F5] in Datacomm is
a shortcut for [MENU] [C] [A] (Connect Capture).
Function-key labels. The currently active functions for the corresponding toprow keys [F1] through [F10].
To scan the menu commands:
Press [MENU].
Press [ENTER] to pull down the first menu.
Press [H] to move across the main menu, displaying each pull-down menu.
This gives you an overview of the features available in an application.
Page 28
To cancel a menu:
Press [ESC].
This returns the previous display.
Using dialog boxes
Dialog boxes appear in response to certain commands or functions that
require more information from you. A dialog box appears shaded and on top of
its parent screen, indicating that it arises from a broader context.
If you are asked for information, you can specify it by typing it in or by
selecting an option from a list box. Labeled function keys are available for
certain standard responses.
The Elements of a Dialog Box
A Dialog Box: Print Specification
Curr ent field. Your current position is shown by a highlighted field or by a
cursor in a box.
Option buttons. Options in the same group box are mutually
exclusive, so you can select only one. An option button
might include a list box for further choices.
List box. A list box offers a list of choices. Drop-down list
boxes initially are closed, as in the picture above. A closed
list box shows one line—the current selection.
The R indicates a list box that you can open to display more
Page 29
lines. When the cursor is in this field, press [ALT]+[J]
simultaneously to open it. ([ALT]+[K] closes it.)
Check Box. Select as many check boxes as you want.
Text box. You can type information here. The top box in a list
box is also a text box, but some list boxes are not editable
(changeable).
Function keys. The functions change with the context, except
for [F1] (Help), [F9], and [F10]. Press [F10] (OK) when you
are finished filling out the dialog box. Or press [F9] (or
[ESC]) to cancel any changes.
Command buttons. These are large, rounded boxes for OK, Cancel, and a few
other commands. All command buttons are also available as function keys.
Navigating dialog boxes and records
To move to a field (in a record or a dialog box):
From any field, simultaneously press [ALT]+underlined letter.
or
Tab to the field ([TAB] or [L] [TAB]).
To select an option button:
Simultaneously press [ALT]+underlined letter.
or
Tab to the option-button group, and then arrow to the specific
option to turn it on.
If there is a box next to the option button, press [TAB] to move to it and fill it in
or make a selection.
To check and uncheck a box:
Simultaneously press [ALT]+underlined letter.
or
Tab to the check box, and then press [SPACEBAR].
To use a command button:
There is always a default, outlined command button, usually the “OK” button.
Page 30
Press [ENTER] to execute the default command button.
or
Press the corresponding function key (such as [F10] for OK).
or
Press [ALT]+underlined letter simultaneously.
or
Tab to a different command button and press [ENTER].
To use a list box:
List boxes offer a choice of options. Some list boxes are editable; that is, you
can add your own choices.
Select the list box first, such as by tabbing to it.
To open a list box, simultaneously press [ALT]+[J]. (R stands
for [ALT]+[J] just as an underlined letter stands for
[ALT]+letter.)
To scroll through a list box, press [J] or [K]. This
automatically changes the selection shown in the text box on
top.
To quickly locate an item in a non-editable list box, type its
first letter (or more). The highlight bar moves to the next
item starting with that letter. (If the list box is editable, then
typing edits it.)
To close a list box, press [ALT]+[K] or [ESC].
An Open List Box
To complete or exit a dialog box record:
Press [F10] to save what you’ve specified.
or
Press [ESC] or [F9] (Cancel) to cancel what you’ve specified.
Page 31
or—-in a dialog box only—
Press [ENTER] to execute the command button that is “on” (highlighted). Record
screens have no command buttons.
Example: Practice Filling In a Dialog Box. You can practice the
techniques described in this section by calling up a File Print dialog box.
Record screens have many of these same elements.
Press [B] [MENU] [F] [P] for the Appointment Book’s File Print dialog box.
Practice navigating and filling in the fields.
Practice turning on option buttons, marking check boxes, opening a list box,
and scrolling through it.
Press [ESC] to cancel what you’ve done.
Press [MENU] [Q] to quit the application.
A Look at the keyboard
These diagrams of the keyboard call out keys with special functions.
Page 32
Keyboard—upper part
Keys:
Description:
Escape ([ESC])
Cancels or “backs out” of the current context.
[F1]
is always HELP. The other function keys change their operations
according to the labels along the bottom of the screen. Some
external applications may use [F11] and [F12], accessed as [FN] [1]
and [FN] [2].
More ([&É])
Provides access to all applications.
Insert ([FN] [DEL])
Toggles between text-overwrite and text-insert.
Arrow keys
Move the cursor in text or move the highlight bar in a list of items.
The [FN]-shifted arrow keys move the cursor or bar further: to the
top of the file or the beginning of a line (HOME), to the bottom of
a file or end of a line (END), or by pages (PG UP, PG DN).
Tab and backtab ([L] [TAB])
Move the cursor among data fields, such as when you are
filling in fields of information.
Application keys
Immediately start the specified application.
Delete ([DEL])
Deletes a character at the cursor or a highlighted item in a list.
Page 33
Keyboard—lower part
Keys:
Description:
Caps Lock ([FN] [0])
Toggles capitalization on and off.
[MENU]
displays the current menu of commands. [ALT] doubles for
[MENU] except in 1-2-3, where [/] is used.
Calculator keys
In the Calculator application only, these keys are redefined by the
symbols in white underneath them. These are not shifted.
Shift
Operations and characters printed in orange above the keys are
shifted. Press [L] first, then the key. You do not need to hold
[L] down while pressing the second key. To cancel the shift
mode, press [L] again.
Function shift
Operations printed in purple below or above the keys are Fnshifted. Press [FN] first, then the key. You do not need to hold [FN]
down while pressing the second key. To cancel the shift mode,
press [FN] again.
ZOOM
Switches the resolution of the display. The effect varies from
application to application.
Date and Time stamping Insert the current date and time into the current text line in built-in
applications.
Clipboard keys
Cut, copy, or paste selected items or text and save them in the
Clipboard buffer.
Cancel and undo operations
Key or Command:
Description:
Page 34
[ESC]
Cancels the current activity and restores the
previous screen.
~Cancel~ ([F9])
Cancels dialog boxes without taking
any action. Also closes open records without
saving new information.
Break ([CTRL]+BREAK)
Sends a standard PC break.
Quit ([MENU] [Q])
Closes the current (active) application.
Undo ([MENU] [E] [U])
Reverses the last data-altering or
file-altering action, such as deleting, editing,
cutting, or pasting records, or merging files.
Undo does not work in all situations; check
the Edit menu for it. You can also undo an
undo operation.
Selecting items in lists
Some operations can act on more than one item in a list at a time. You can, for
instance, delete several Phone Book entries at a time by first selecting and
then deleting the desired items (names).
You can select items in most lists of records or files.
Selecting and De-Selecting
Keys
[SPACEBAR]
Description
Selects or de-selects an item in a list,
marking it with a ◆.
[L] [SPACEBAR] Selects or de-selects all items in a list.
[L]+[H]
Selects a range in a text field by
highlighting it. (Use any arrow key.)
To select items in a list:
Highlight the item. ([K] and [J] move the highlight bar.)
Press [SPACEBAR]. This marks the item with a ◆. This is a toggle: pressing
[SPACEBAR] again de-selects.
Repeat to select more items.
◆To select all items at once, press [L] [SPACEBAR]. This is also a toggle.
Page 35
Deleting items in lists
To delete items in a list:
Highlight the item. If you want to delete more than one item, press [SPACEBAR]
to select each item.
Press [DEL] [F10] to delete all selected items.
Standard menu commands
Every application has its own set of menus. However, there is a core group of
menus that is common across most applications, particularly those for
Personal Information Management. Because of the different purposes of the
different applications, not all the standard commands are in every application.
Pressing [MENU] in an application displays its main menu. The standard menu
commands are:
File
Edit
View
Options
Quit
Help
File menu: To manage files, such as opening, copying, and
printing.
Edit menu: To edit text or entire records, such as copying,
deleting, and undoing.
View menu: To display different portions or perspectives of
information, such as subsets, split screens, and mail lists.
Options menu: The options vary widely among applications.
Quit: To exit the current application.
Help menu: To read online Help information.
Many menu commands have alternative access on function keys or keyboard
keys. For instance, the Edit menu includes Delete, which is the same as
pressing [DEL].
Using file commands
Specifying files
Many File commands in PIM, the Calculator, Pocket Quicken, cc:Mail, and
Datacomm ask you to specify a file name to act upon. The palmtop uses
Page 36
standard MS-DOS file naming conventions.
Dialog Box for File Open
To specify the file name in a dialog box:
Type in the full file name yourself.
or
Select the file name and/or directory using the Files and Directories list boxes.
This is a memory aid if you don’t remember all the existing directory and
file names. It is also a shortcut to typing.
To type the file name yourself:
Type the file name into the file name text box. If the current directory shown
below this box is not correct, then type the full path name
(drive:\directory\…\filename).
Press [F10].
To select the file using the list boxes:
If the Files box shows the file you want, tab to the Files box
and highlight the file name. Press [F10].
If Files does not show the file you want, then check other drives and
directories:
Page 37
Tab to the Directories box and highlight the directory or drive you want.
Drive specifications appear as [-A-], etc. The parent directory appears
as ...
Press [F10] (or [ENTER]) to change the current directory or drive and display
its files.
If the file you want appears in the Files box, then select the Files box (press
[ALT]+[F], highlight the file you want, and press [F10].
To view files in the current directory (wildcards):
You can use wildcards to display all files matching a certain name pattern. The
wildcard * stands for any number of characters. The wildcard ? stands for any
one character.
In the file name text box, type the file names you want to search for. For
instance, *.doc stands for all files with the extension .DOC.
Press [F10]. This displays a list of matching files in the Files box.
Setting passwords for files
You can protect PIM files, 1-2-3 files, and Pocket Quicken files by using
passwords. To protect your entire palmtop from being used, see Activating
Password Protection near the beginning of this chapter. Once you set a
password for a file, the file is not retrievable without the password.
Rules for the password:
It will be case-sensitive.
It can have up to 16 characters.
Any characters, including spaces, are valid.
To set or change a PIM or Pocket Quicken file’s
password:
Press [MENU] [F] [W] (File Password) and follow the directions.
You can password-protect a 1-2-3 file using the normal 1-2-3 method.
To delete a PIM or Pocket Quicken file’s password:
Use [MENU] File Password and leave the new password blank. (Do not press
[SPACEBAR].)
Page 38
Searching for specific text
The ~~Find~~ function key ([F4]) is present in the PIM applications (covered
later in this manual) and in the Solver (covered in chapter 19).
To find a text string:
While displaying a list or record, press [F4] (Find). Note that appointments and
to-do items are searched separately—you must display the appropriate
context.
Fill in the box with the characters or text to search for.
Optional: Tab to and select the check boxes you want (press [SPACEBAR] to
change). One makes the search include the Note fields, and the other
discriminates upper from lower case letters.
Press [F10] or [F4] (Next) to search forward from the current position.
Or press [F3] (Previous) to search backward from the current
position.
To repeat the search, press [L] [F4].
A successful search stops when it finds the first instance of matching text.
Either the matching text or the list item containing the matching text will be
highlighted, depending on the current display. Lists do not display all the text
that the full records do, so the matching text might not appear in the list.
If your records include extensive notes in the Note field, you can speed up a
search by not checking Include Notes for the search.
Copying or moving information
The clipboard: copying, cutting, and pasting
The Clipboard is a buffer that saves the last item that was copied or cut. The
Clipboard operations are COPY, CUT, and PASTE. These operations work
within all built-in applications.
Clipboard Operations
Keys
[FN] COPY
[FN] CUT
Description
Copies the highlighted item or text or field
into the Clipboard buffer.
Deletes the highlighted item or text or field
Page 39
[FN] PASTE
and stores it in the Clipboard buffer. [DEL]
acts like CUT without saving to the
Clipboard buffer.
Copies the item or text or field from the
Clipboard buffer into the list or text field
where the cursor is.
To highlight a range of text:
Move the cursor to the beginning of the text, then press [L]+[H] to highlight
the range you want.
Pressing any arrow key cancels the highlighting.
To move or copy a piece of text:
Highlight the desired text range.
Press [FN] CUT to move the text, or press [FN] COPY to copy it.
Move the cursor to the new location for the selected text. This can be in a
different application.
Press [FN] PASTE.
To move or copy an item in a list:
Highlight the item.
Press [FN] CUT to move the item, or press [FN] COPY to copy it.
Move the cursor to the new location for the item. This can be in a different
application.
Press [FN] PASTE.
You cannot move or copy more than one item at a time.
About Moving and Copying an Item in a List
Copying or cutting an entry in a list copies its entire data record to the
Clipboard buffer. Within an application screen you can move an entire entry
(such as an appointment) around. Across applications, however, an entry can
be moved or copied only as a piece of text, not as a complete record. For
example, you cannot copy a Phone Book record to a Database list. However,
you can copy its data fields (as unformatted text) to the Note field of a
Database record or to a memo in the Memo Editor.
Page 40
The format of the item that COPY or CUT copies into the Clipboard buffer is
determined by the first Smart Clip definition (covered in the next section). By
default, COPY and CUT copy all fields of the item into the Clipboard.
To delete a piece of text:
Highlight the desired text range. (Press [L]+[H].)
Press [FN] CUT or [DEL]. CUT stores the deleted text in the Clipboard buffer,
while [DEL] does not.
Smart clip: copying multiple data fields from records
Smart Clip is available in the PIM applications and uses the Clipboard to copy
formatted information quickly from predefined fields in the current application
to another location (a memo or a text field). You might want, for example, to
quickly copy several fields of information from a database to a memo in the
Memo Editor or to a note in the Note Taker.
In most PIM applications, ~~Clip~~ provides predefined field-copying
choices. In addition, you can define your own Smart Clips and control the
formatting (the layout) of Smart Clip fields.
To define your own Smart Clip:
In a database, press [F5] (Clip).
Press [F2] [F2] (Define Field). Select a field name.
Optional Formatting. This group box is only for arranging
fields in columns. Otherwise, leave this field blank and the
correct width is automatically determined.
Suppress Line if Empty. If checked, this suppresses a
carriage return after the specified field if the selected
record has no data for that field. This prevents missing
data from producing a blank line in the clipped output.
This option inserts the code ,? into the Smart Clip
definition.
Reverse Name. If checked, this reverses the order of the
names in a field, such as the Name field in the Phone
Book. Names usually appear in a record last name first.
Reverse Name would switch Doe, Jane to Jane Doe.
Press [F10] when done defining the field.
Page 41
To add another field, add space (press [SPACEBAR]) or start a new line (press
[ENTER]). Press [F2] again and fill out the dialog box as above. You can add
as many fields as you want. Press [F10] when done.
You can also enter text or punctuation among the fields, including a final
carriage return ([ENTER]) to separate records of text. For example:
A Smart Clip with Extra Text and Punctuation
Press [F10] when done with the Define Smart Clip screen.
Type a name for this Smart Clip definition and press [F10]. If you do not supply
a name, then the new Smart Clip definition is named “Unnamed”.
However, the next unnamed Smart Clip definition will overwrite (replace)
the previous one.
The Smart Clip is now defined, named, and ready to use. Press [ESC] to exit the
Smart Clip screens. Or press [F10], which clips the defined fields from the
specified records, if any, and saves them in the Clipboard.
If you want to use this Smart Clip now, then follow the next procedure.
To clip information from a PIM application:
Select the records whose information you want to clip:
To select one record, highlight that entry in the list or open its
record.
To select more than one record, mark each desired record by
highlighting it in the list and [SPACEBAR].
To select (or de-select) all records in the current list, press
[MENU] [E] [A].
Press [F5] (Clip) to display the Smart Clip list.
Page 42
Highlight the Smart Clip you want and press [F10].
Open the application and the record into which you’d like to copy this
information.
Tab to the text field that should receive this information. A text field is any
part of a memo, or any field meant for entering text, like an appointment
Description or a Note field.
Press [FN] PASTE.
Using Smart Clips with Check Boxes and Option
Buttons
A check box field in a Smart Clip definition appears as the
named check box when you paste the Smart Clip for the
selected records. The check box will be checked or
unchecked, depending on its status in a record.
An option button in a Smart Clip definition appears as just its
field name (without the button) when you paste the Smart
Clip if the option button is turned on in a record. If a button
is off, then nothing will be clipped.
When including option buttons in a Smart Clip definition, you should include
all of them from the same group, since option buttons are mutually
exclusive and only the one that is “on” in a record will be clipped.
To edit or rename a Smart Clip:
In a PIM application, press [F5] (Clip).
Page 43
Highlight the desired Smart Clip.
Press [F3] to rename the highlighted Smart Clip.
Press [F4] to edit the highlighted Smart Clip.
Press [DEL] to delete the highlighted field.
Press [F4] to edit the highlighted field.
Press [F2] to add another field.
Press [F10] when done. Press [ESC] to exit the Smart Clip screens.
To delete a Smart Clip definition:
In a PIM application, press [F5] (Clip).
Highlight the Smart Clip you want to delete.
Press [F7] [F10] (Delete OK).
To restore a Smart Clip definition you have just deleted (or edited), escape the
Smart Clip list, then select [MENU] Edit Undo. Use undo before doing another
operation.
Getting answers fast: online help
The fastest way to get information about how to use any application is to use
the built-in online Help information.
Press [F1] at any time to see context-sensitive Help; that is, information
regarding your current situation on the palmtop (the current menu, display, or
pending operation). (In the Datacomm application, press [CTRL]+[F1]
The Help menu offers different types of Help. Press [MENU] [H] to display it.
Command
Description
Index
List of Help topics for the current application.
Getting Started Basic use of the palmtop. Not applicationspecific. A good place to start learning about
your palmtop.
How to Use Help Keystrokes in the Help system.
About application
Copyright and version information.
Here is a typical help screen from the Appointment Book:
Page 44
A Typical Help Screen
The outlined words are links to more Help topics. To find out what “current
date” means, for instance, press [J] to move the highlight to current~date,
then press [ENTER].
To return to the previously displayed Help topic, press [F8] (Back).
Press [ESC] or [F9] (Cancel) to exit the Help system.
What about games?
Your HP 200LX has two games built in: Hearts & Bones and Lair of Squid.
See Appendix F for instructions on starting the games.
Page 45
2
About 1-2-3
Because the vast majority of our customers are already Lotus®
1-2-3® users and have requested less product documentation,
this chapter describes only the features of 1-2-3 Release 2.4
that are particular to your palmtop.
If you want additional documentation, there are excellent books
about using 1-2-3 available—visit your local bookstore for a
recommendation. And remember, HELP is always available;
just press [F1] (HELP) to get online information about the 1-23 command you are using.
No Installation Required. To start 1-2-3 simply press [A]. The
default display size is 64 columns x 18 lines.
Page 46
Pressing [FN] ZOOM (that is, [FN] followed by the spacebar)
switches back and forth between the 64-column x 18-line
display and an 80-column x 25-line display (the common PC
screen size). Try it and watch the screen size change.
With the help of the Connectivity Pack, you can transfer
worksheets between your palmtop and another PC. The
Connectivity Pack for your palmtop is available from your HP
dealer.
To enter, edit, and move around a worksheet:
You enter the data, labels, formulas, and formats as you would
in any version of 1-2-3.
You edit cells as you would expect, using [Ä] (backspace),
[DEL] (delete), [F2] (EDIT), and [F5] (GOTO).
You move around the worksheet as you would expect, using
arrow keys and cursor-movement keys. Note that PGUP,
PGDN, HOME, and END are [FN]-shifted keystrokes (for
example, you press [FN] then [I] to execute HOME).
To leave 1-2-3:
You can either quit 1-2-3 ([MENU] [Q]), or simply press another
application key.
Page 47
Differences between 1-2-3 on the palmtop and
1-2-3 release 2.4 on the PC
Although the palmtop version of the 1-2-3 Release 2.4 is
essentially the same as the packaged version for your PC, there
are some important differences. Even if you’re a 1-2-3 expert,
you should read the following descriptions of the additions,
deletions, and modifications to your palmtop 1-2-3.
Additions to 1-2-3 on the palmtop
Backsolving 1-2-3 values using the Calculator.
Clipboard functions for copying material from one location to
another: [FN] COPY copies a defined range to the Clipboard,
and [FN] PASTE inserts this material into the current location.
Deletions from 1-2-3 on the palmtop
The Install utility: No installation is necessary on the palmtop.
The collating sequence (sorting order) and the printer
configuration are set in the Setup utility.
The landscape printing option.
WYSIWYG and color support.
Mouse support.
The Tutorial add-in and tutorial files.
The Translate utility.
The Access system (to access PrintGraph, Translate,
and 1-2-3).
The SmartIcons add-in.
The SmartPics™ files.
The Backsolver add-in.
The Background printing option.
The PrintGraph program. However, you can print a displayed
graph by pressing [FN] PRTSC.
The Viewer and Auditor add-in.
The Macro Library Manager.
Page 48
Modifications to 1-2-3 for the palmtop
Write-protected cells appear no different from other cells. The
PR protection indicator appears in the control panel when a
protected cell is highlighted.
Because of ROM memory constraints, the Help text is less
extensive.
The macro commands {BIGLEFT}, {BIGRIGHT}, {PGUP},
and {PGDN} will operate differently depending on whether
your palmtop is displaying 64 columns x 18 lines or 80
columns x 25 lines.
There is no 123.EXE file, so you cannot start 1-2-3 from DOS.
To save memory, the default status for the Undo feature is off
(disabled). Select /Worksheet Global Default Other Undo
Enable to turn Undo on.
Add-ins must be run from RAM. To work, therefore, an add-in
must fit in RAM, must work with any size screen in MDA or
CGA mode, and must have been developed using the Add-In
Toolkit specifications.
The collating sequence for 1-2-3 can be set only in the Setup
utility.
About configuration settings
1-2-3 can specify many configuration settings under /
Worksheet Global Default. The Setup utility ([&É] [S])
establishes many other settings for the palmtop, including for
1-2-3. A few settings appear in both Setup and 1-2-3: date
format, time format, punctuation, currency, and printing
(interface and baud).
Setup’s time and date formats do not affect 1-2-3 cells.
Setup supplies default (initial) values to 1-2-3 for punctuation
and currency, as well as for the printer interface, baud, and
name.
If you make a printer, punctuation, or currency setting in 1-2-3,
Page 49
it overrides the setting in Setup.
Remember that for a /Worksheet Global Default setting
command to remain in effect after the current session, you must
preserve it with the Update command. Otherwise, the settings
for the next session will take default values from Setup again.
To set the printer configuration:
Press [&É] [S] [MENU] [O] [P] to select the printer
configuration screen in Setup.
If you’re not already there, tab to the baud group box.
Use the arrow keys to select the specific baud for your printer (the default is
9600).
Tab to the interface group box.
Use the arrow keys to select the interface. Com1 is the default, and there is
currently no HP infrared printer available.
Tab to the list box containing the list of printers.
Use the arrow keys to highlight the name of the printer that is compatible with
yours. A Kodak Diconix printer, for instance, can have its option switches
set to be compatible with either the Epson or the IBM. You then select the
Name setting in Setup that matches the printer’s compatibility.
Press [F10] to save your settings.
Press [MENU] [Q] to exit Setup.
Page 50
3
The Appointment Book
When you first start the Appointment Book (press [B]), you
see the daily appointment list, which is a schedule of the day’s
appointments.
In the daily appointment list use [K] or [J] to highlight an
appointment, then press [ENTER] to see the appointment
record.
Example Appointment Record
From an appointment record, you can return to the appointment
list by pressing [F10] (to save any changes) or [F9] (to cancel
Page 51
any changes). From the appointment list,
To see a weekly appointment list, press [F8] (Week).
To see a monthly list, press [F7] (Month).
To return to the daily appointment list, press [F9] (Appt).
Scheduling appointments
To schedule an appointment:
Press [B] to start the Appointment Book
Press [MENU] [A] [A] to display the screen to add an appointment. As a
shortcut, you could instead press [F2] (Add).
Fill in the fields. Use [TAB] or [ALT]+underlined letter to move among them;
use [SPACEBAR] to check/uncheck a box.
Description. This text provides the entry for the appointment list.
Start and End Times. The End Time is optional. Pressing [+] or [-]
changes the time by fifteen minutes. [L] [+] and [L] [-] change the time
by one minute.
Location. Optional. This information also appears in the appointment list,
following an @.
Alarm. If the alarm is enabled (box checked), the palmtop will beep for the
appointment. Press [SPACEBAR] to disable the alarm (box not checked) for
that one appointment. The leadtime sets how far ahead of the
appointment time the alarm will go off.
Note. Optional. The Note field provides a large field for any additional
information. Pressing [F3] (Note) displays a full-screen note.
Start Date. Pressing [+] or [-] changes the date by one day.
No. Consecutive Days. If the appointment goes for more than one day, fill
in No. of Consecutive Days (or set a Daily Repeat Option).
Views. If these boxes are checked, this appointment shows
up in the weekly and monthly appointment lists (schedules).
Optional: Press [F8] (Repeat) to specify a repeating appointment.
Press [F10] when done. Or press [ESC] to cancel the information.
Repeat Options
Frequency Other Specifications
No Repeat
Examples
Cancels the existing repeat option, if any.
Daily
Interval can be any number of days.
Every 5th day; every 30th day.
Weekly
Interval can be any number of weeks.
Friday.
Every Wednesday; every other
Page 52
Monthly
Interval can be any number of months. Can specify by date or by position in
the month.
The 7th of every month; the first
Wednesday every 3 months.
Yearly
Interval can be any number of years. Can specify by date or by position in
the year.
August 7th every 2 years; the first
Wednesday in August every year.
Custom
Can specify by date or by day position in specified months. The 7th of
January, April, and October every year; the first and third Monday
and Wednesday in June, July, and August every year.
Example: Scheduling an Appointment. Schedule a dental
appointment for 2:30 pm on July 15, 1994. Set the alarm to go
off 30 minutes prior to the appointment to give you time to
drive to the dentist’s office.
Keys:
Description:
[B]
Starts the Appointment Book.
[MENU] [A] [A] Opens up an appointment record.
Dentist
Fills in the Description field.
[TAB] 2.3p
Sets the start time of 2:30 pm.
[TAB]
Moves to the End Time field. The default end
time is an hour after the start time. Since an
hour is about right, there’s no need to type in
another end time.
[TAB] Suite 324 Highlights and fills in the Location field.
[ALT]+[L] 30 Skips to the Alarm Leadtime field and enters 30
minutes (the default is 5 minutes). Pressing
[ALT] along with an underlined letter takes
you directly to that field.
[TAB] Brush before leaving. Enters a note to yourself.
[TAB] 7/15/94 Enters the date of the appointment.
Page 53
[F10]
[F5] [F4]
Saves this appointment and displays the
appointment list for July 15, 1994.
Restores today as the current date.
On July 15 an alarm will sound at 2:00 pm to remind you of
your dental appointment. You simply press [ESC] to clear the
alarm.
Example: Scheduling a Bi-Weekly Repeating Appointment.
Schedule a repeating appointment for your bi-weekly staff
meeting, which is held in Shasta Room every other Wednesday
at 9:30 am.
Keys:
Description:
[B]
Starts the Appointment Book.
[MENU] [A] [A] Opens up an appointment record.
Staff Mtg
Fills in the Description field.
[TAB] 9:3a
Sets the start time of 9:30 am
[TAB] 11
Sets an end time of 11:00 am.
[TAB] Shasta Room
Highlights and fills in the Location
field.
Page 54
[ALT]+[N]. Take donuts and agenda.
Enters a note to
yourself. Pressing [ALT] along with an
underlined letter takes you directly to that
field.
[F8] [W]
Opens the Weekly Repeat Options for you to fill
out.
[TAB] 2
Sets the appointment to repeat every other week.
[TAB] W
Sets its day to be Wednesday.
[TAB]
Highlights the default starting date, which is tied
to the Start Date in the appointment record.
[TAB]
Highlights the default ending date, which
defaults to 5 years from the Start Date. Enter
another date if that duration is too long.
[F10]
Saves this repeat information and returns you to
the appointment record. Notice the Repeat
Status below the Views box.
Page 55
[F10] [F5] [F4]
Saves this record and returns you to the
appointment list for today. Now, every other
Wednesday an alarm will sound 5 minutes
before your staff meeting; simply press [ESC]
to clear the alarm.
To set a snooze alarm:
When an alarm goes off, press [SPACEBAR]. This sets the alarm
to recur in 5 minutes. Any past-due alarm then appears.
To postpone the display of past-due alarms until after the
snooze interval, press [FN] [SPACEBAR].
For a longer snooze interval, press [SPACEBAR] up to 11 times
total. Each press equals 5 minutes. Press [Ä] to decrease the
snooze interval by 5 minutes.
To schedule an event:
An event is an item associated with a day but not a time.
In the Appointment Book, press [MENU] [A] [E]. This opens an
appointment record with the Start Time and End Time fields
preset to None for an event.
Fill in the rest of the fields as for adding an appointment.
Press [F10] when done.
Example: Scheduling a Yearly Repeating Event. Oregon’s trout
fishing season regularly opens the last Saturday in April.
Schedule the annual opening day as a repeating event.
Keys:
Description:
Page 56
[B]
Starts the Appointment Book.
[MENU] [A] [E] Opens up an appointment record for an event.
Trout season opens
Fills in the Description field.
[ALT]+[C] Oregon
Fills the Location field.
[TAB] Plan a trip to Odell Lake
Enters a note.
[F8] [Y]
Selects the Yearly Repeat Options.
[ALT]+[P]
Moves to the Repeat By Day Position field.
[TAB] L
Selects Last.
[TAB] S
Selects Saturday. If Sunday appears, press [S]
again to see Saturday.
[TAB] A
Selects April. If August appears when you
press [A], press it again to see April. This
completes selecting the last Saturday in
April.
[ALT]+[E] 5/01/2005 Sets the event to repeat until May 2005.
[F10] [F10]
Saves the record and returns you to the
appointment list at the date of the first
occurrence. Now, the opening of Oregon’s
trout season will appear on your appointment
list as a repeating event.
Page 57
Types of appointment lists
There are daily, weekly, and monthly appointment lists
(schedules), as well as a six-month calendar.
Daily Appointment List (~~Appt~~)
Symbol
●
U
e
[
Meaning
Repeating appointment.
Appointment includes Note.
Alarm.
Duration of appointment.
e
U
Weekly Appointment List (~~Week~~)
Page 58
Monthly Appointment List (~Month~~)
Symbol
x
…
Meaning
p.m. appointment.
Event.
More appointments.
Six-Month Calendar (6~Month~) — No Appointments
Page 59
Moving Around Appointment Lists
Keys
Description
[K], [J]
Moves the highlight bar through times, days,
weeks, or months, depending on the display.
If the highlight moves to a different day, that
becomes the current date.
[L] [K], [L] [J] Moves the highlight to the previous/
next week.
[I], [H]
Moves the highlight to the previous or next
day.
[FN] PG UP, [FN] PG DN
Moves the highlight to the
previous/next day part, month, or half-year
(depending on the context).
[FN] HOME,
[FN] END Moves the highlight to the
beginning/end of the current day, or to the
first/last displayed date (depending on the
context).
[CTRL]+[I],
Moves the highlight to the previous or next
day that has an appointment or event.
[CTRL]+[H]
[CTRL]+[K],
Moves the highlight to the previous or next
appointment or event.
[CTRL]+[J]
[TAB]
Moves the highlight between appointments
and events. If no events, it just beeps.
To view all the events for a month:
In the Appointment Book, press [MENU] [V] [E] (View All-Events).
Press [F9] (Appt) to return to the daily appointment list.
Tips for scheduling:
Page 60
Check your schedule before adding a new appointment. Check
your monthly (~Month~~), then weekly (~~Week~~), then
daily schedules for successive overviews of available days
and times.
Another way to start adding an appointment: When an
appointment list is displayed, any typed character will
automatically open the appointment record and start filling
in the Description field.
An alternative to filling in the Start Date field in the
appointment record is to change the current date before
executing Add. Use the arrow keys or Goto function to
change the current date.
Filling out the appointment record: Another way to fill in the
Date fields is to call up the small, one-month calendar (press
[F6]). Use arrow keys to highlight a date in the calendar.
When you press [ENTER], the calendar’s date will be recorded
in the Date field.
Filling out the appointment record: The Time and Date fields
accept any delimiter characters (:, /, space, ., or ,) for the
date and time. For example, typing 11 [SPACEBAR] in the
Time field enters 11:30am, and typing 9p enters 9:00pm.
Typing 11.3 in the Date field enters November 3 (in the
current or next year, as appropriate).
Filling out the appointment record: To enter an afternoon time,
type p, pm, or use 24-hour time.
To change the displayed time intervals in a daily or weekly
appointment list (schedule), press [FN] ZOOM.
Changing the current date
Note
Page 61
The current date is the date currently displayed or highlighted. This is
not the same as today’s date (the system date), which can be changed
only via the Setup utility.
Starting from a list, you can change the current date to the next
day by pressing [H] and to the previous day by pressing [I].
Try it and notice how the date changes.
To change the current date to any date (Goto):
Start from any list (daily, weekly, monthly, 6-month, or To-Do). If necessary,
press [ESC] to display a list.
Press [F5] (Goto).
Type the date to go to and press [ENTER]. As a shortcut, try using the arrow
keys.
When you press [F5] (Goto), you can also use the Goto
function keys. [TAB] moves the cursor between the calendar
and the date box.
Function Keys for Goto ([F5])
Key Label
Changes the Current Date
~nDay-~~, ~nDay+~~
Backward or forward n number of
days, which you specify.
~Today~~
To today’s date.
~Month–~, ~Month+~
Backward or forward one month.
~Year–-~, ~Year+~~
Backward or forward one year.
Editing and deleting appointments
To edit (change) an appointment:
Start from the daily (or weekly) appointment list. Press ~~Appt~~, if
necessary.
If necessary, change to the desired date (use ~~Goto~~).
Use the arrow keys to highlight the appointment you want to edit.
Press [ENTER] to display the appointment record.
Page 62
Tab to and edit the field you want to change. Try using [+] and [-] when you
edit the time, date, and alarm fields.
Press [F10] to save your changes. Or press [ESC] to cancel them.
To change a repeating appointment to a one-time
appointment:
Open the record for the date that you want to keep. Highlight the repeating
appointment you want to change.
Press [F8] to display Repeat Options.
Arrow to the option button No Repeat.
Press [F10] three times (to confirm the change).
To delete an appointment:
Deleting an appointment removes it from the Appointment
Book.
Start from the daily (or weekly) appointment list. Press
~~Appt~~, if necessary.
If necessary, change to the desired date (use ~~Goto~~).
Use the arrow keys to highlight the appointment to delete.
Press [DEL].
If you highlight and try to delete an occurrence of a repeating
appointment, you’ll see the Repeating Item Delete dialog box.
If you want to delete just the one appointment, press [F10].
If you want to delete more than one occurrence:
Press [J].
Tab to the range boxes and enter the range you want to delete.
Press [F10] to delete the range. Press [ESC] to cancel the delete.
To restore a deleted appointment (Undo):
Press [MENU] [E] [U] immediately after the deletion.
To delete all appointments and to-do items before or
after a date:
This deletes all Appointment Book entries for the given period.
If you want, you can save the removed items in an archive
(back-up) file.
Page 63
Press [MENU] [F] [R] (File Remove).
Dialog Box for File Remove
Highlight Before or After and specify the date.
If you want to save the deleted items in an archive file, check the appropriate
box and specify the name of the archive file.
Press [F10] when done.
Similarly, you can use File Extract ([MENU] [F] [E]) to back up
(“extract”) all items before or after a given date.
Running a program or system macro at a
certain time
You can set an appointment to run a program or a system macro
rather than set off an alarm.
For example, you could use this feature to set the palmtop to
use a macro to automatically open Datacomm and log onto an
information service (using a script file) during a low-use, lowcost time of night.
To set an appointment that runs a program or macro:
Press [F2] or [MENU] [A] [A] to add a new appointment.
Start the Description field with | for a program or || for a system macro. (| is
shifted [\] key.)
For a program: Follow the | with the full pathname (file name and
directory names) of the program to run. The program must have a .EXE,
.COM, or .BAT extension, and it must exist already. An example of a
Description to run the program SALESFIG (subdirectory SALES,
subdirectory _DAT) is: |C:\_DAT\SALES\SALESFIG.EXE
For a system macro: Follow the || with the number (1-10) of the macro to
Page 64
run.
Fill out the other fields as for other appointments, except for these fields,
which have special meanings:
Alarm. Must be enabled (checked) to run the program.
Location. Specifying Q (quiet) in this field suppresses any error message
that might result from running the specified program or macro.
Press [F10].
When the time comes and the program or macro runs, the
screen displays the result of the program or macro. A program
ends with the message, Press any key to exit from DOS...
Specifying Q for the Location suppresses this message and
returns the display automatically to the context that preceded
this “appointment”.
Note
A program cannot run if a DOS application is open when the
appointment comes due.
To-do lists
To-do lists are much like appointment lists: You can view a list
of to-do items; and, if you want more details about an item, you
can display its record. Press [F10] (ToDo) from an appointment
list to display the current day’s to-do list.
Page 65
A To-Do List
Symbol Meaning
S
Item new today (its first occurrence).
✓
Completed item (checked off).
!
Item due today (and not yet checked off).
f
Item past-due (and not yet checked off).
U
●
Item includes Note.
Repeating item.
fUS
Highlight an item and press [ENTER] to see its complete record:
A To-Do Item’s Record
Page 66
To add a to- item’s due do item to the list:
In the Appointment Book, press [MENU] [A] [T].
Fill in the fields. Use [TAB] or [ALT]+letter to move among them.
Description. This will appear in the to-do list.
Start Date. The first date a to-do item appears. Pressing [+] or [-] changes
the date by one day.
Due Date. Optional. If the to-do item has not been checked off, an
exclamation point appears on the due date in the to-do list. Then, on
subsequent days a sad face appears until the item is checked off.
Priority. Every to-do item has a priority number (one or two
digits and/or letters), which you can type in. The items are
sorted by their priority; numbers are sorted before letters.
Multiple items can have the same priority.
Note. Optional. The Note field provides a large field for any additional
information. Pressing ~~Note~~ ([F3]) displays a full-screen note.
Carr y For ward. If this box is checked, then the to-do item reappears in
each day’s list until the item is marked as completed. Pressing [SPACEBAR]
checks/unchecks this box. Note that Carry Forward repeats an item, using
more memory.
Press [F10] when done. Or press [ESC] to cancel the information.
To scan a to-do list:
Use the arrow keys to move the highlight bar through a list of
items. When you want to see more details about an item, press
[ENTER] to see its record; when you’re done with it, press [ESC]
to return to the list.
To check off a completed to-do item:
Highlight the completed item.
Press [-] or [SPACEBAR]. The item is checked and moved to the bottom of the
list.
Highlighting it again and pressing [-] or [SPACEBAR] clears the checkmark.
More Information about To-Do Items
On a to-do date, an exclamation point appears next to it in the
to-do list.
Page 67
When the item is past due, a sad face appears instead.
You search, edit, and delete to-do items the same way you do
appointments.
You can use ~Repeat~ ([F8]) to create repeating to-do items
the same way you create repeating appointments.
Using multiple appointment books
You can create more than one Appointment Book file, thereby
creating more than one appointment list in this application. Use
[MENU] File New or [MENU] File Copy to create a new
Appointment Book file. Use [MENU] File Merge to merge
another Appointment Book file into the current one.
Only the Appointment Book currently open will activate
alarms.
Translating appointment books
HP 100LX files need no translation to be used in your HP
200LX; they share the same file format.
To translate an HP 95LX Appointment Book to an HP
200LX Appointment Book:
Copy an HP 95LX Appointment Book file to your HP 200LX via the infrared
serial port, a serial cable, or a plug-in memory card (see chapter 22).
In your HP 200LX Appointment Book, open ([MENU] File Open) the copied file,
filename.ABK.
When prompted, specify a new file name (other than APPT) without any
extension.
File Open then translates the .ABK file to an HP 200LX
Appointment Book file, automatically supplying the extension
.ADB. This operation can take 1 to 5 minutes for an averagesized Appointment Book.
Setting options and defaults for the
Appointment Book
The options and defaults that you can set are
Clock display (in appointment list; in to-do list).
Page 68
Calendar display (in appointment list; in to-do list).
Next-appointment display (in appointment list; in to-do list).
Graph of appointments (in appointment list; in to-do list).
Timeline—the time intervals shown for the daily appointment
list.
Default appointment and to-do settings.
Alarm volume and sound.
Daily greeting.
Possible Components of an Appointment List
To change the clock, calendar, Next Appointment, or
Day Graph in an appointment or to-do list:
For the appointment list, press [MENU] [O] [A] (Options CustomizeAppointments-View). For the to-do list, press [MENU] [O] [O] (Options
Customize-ToDo-List-View).
Page 69
Highlight the option button for the desired display: with a clock in the corner, a
calendar, or neither.
Check the relevant check boxes if you would like to see the Next Appointment
called out in a side box and/or see a vertical Day Graph that shades in the
times and durations of the current day’s appointments. Next Appointment
can appear only in conjunction with the clock or calendar.
Press [F10] when done (or [ESC] to cancel).
To change the appointment timeline setting:
In the Appointment Book, press [MENU] [O] [T] (Options Timeline).
Select the timeline option you prefer: displaying no times except those for
scheduled appointments (Appointments Only), or displaying regular times
at intervals of 15, 30, or 60 minutes.
Enter the first hour of the day for the timeline. This affects times you fill in
when adding an appointment: If you don’t specify a.m. or p.m. when filling
in a time field, then the time is assumed to be after the first hour of the day.
Select whether the calendars and the weekly and monthly timelines should
start with Sunday or Monday.
Press [F10] when done (or [ESC] to cancel).
To change the time intervals in the daily/weekly timeline:
Display the timeline, which appears in the daily and weekly appointment lists
(schedules).
Press [FN] ZOOM. ZOOM cycles through the time intervals: 60 minutes, 30
minutes, 15 minutes, and no intervals (just appointments).
To change the default settings for appointments:
In the Appointment Book, press [MENU] [O] [D] (Options AppointmentDefaults).
Set the following default values:
Appointment Duration. This determines the default End Time for a new
appointment.
Alarm. Enabled or not (on or off), and Leadtime (how long before the
appointment the alarm goes off).
Items to See in Week/Month View. Whether appointments and events
should appear in the weekly and monthly appointment lists. They always
appear in the daily list.
Press [F10] when done (or [ESC] to cancel).
To change the default settings for to-do items:
In the Appointment Book, press [MENU] [O] [E] (Options ToDo-Defaults).
Set the following default values:
Carry Forward. Uncompleted to-do items are carried forward to today if
Carry Forward is set.
Page 70
Priority. The default priority for a to-do item. The priority can have one or
two letters/numbers; numbers are sorted first.
Press [F10] when done (or [ESC] to cancel).
To change the alarm volume and sound:
In the Appointment Book, press [MENU] [O] [B] (Options Alarm-Beep).
Checking Mute overrides the volume level. You might choose to mute all
alarms when going into a meeting, for example.
Select (by tabbing and arrowing) the volume level and the sound.
The Custom choice requires the presence of a programming
statement in a file named C:\_DAT\ALARM.SND. Create
this file as an ASCII file using the Memo Editor. This file
can have up to 511 characters.
To test the volume and sound, press [F3]. To cancel the test, press any key.
Press [F10] when done (or [ESC] to cancel).
Commands for Custom Alarm Programming
Command
Parameters
Meaning
A..G
+ or # (sharp)
- (flat).
tempo
Plays this note in current octave, length, and
0 (disabled)
1 (enabled)
Default is 0.
Any keystroke terminates the alarm sound.
K
L
1 to 64 (8 is whole,
16 is half, etc.)
Sets length of following notes. Default is 8.
M
N (normal) L (legato) S (staccato)|
O
0 to 7
Playing style. Default is N.
P
1 to 64
Sets one pause of length n. 64 is shortest.
T
0 to 255
Sets tempo. Higher is faster. Default is 150.
V
0 to 3
Sets current octave. Default is 4.
Sets volume. Higher is louder.
period
Extends a note’s duration by half.
space or comma
Affects readability only.
Parameters follow the commands. For example, the beginning
of Mary Had a Little Lamb can be written as:
T230 K1 EDCDEEE. DDDP10 EGG.
Page 71
To turn off the daily greeting:
The first time your palmtop is turned on each day it shows you
your appointments, events, and to-dos for the day. This is called
the daily greeting.
In the Appointment Book, press [MENU] [O] (Options) to display the Options
commands.
Press [G] (Daily-Greeting) to uncheck and turn off the daily greeting feature.
Repeat the above steps to turn the daily greeting back on.
Appointment Book function keys
What the function keys do depends on whether the current
context is appointments or to-dos.
Function Keys for an Appointment or To-Do List
Key Label Description
~~Add~~~
Opens a template to define a new appointment or to-do item.
~~Note~~
Shows you the contents of the Note field for the highlighted item.
~~Find~~
Searches for the specified text (a character string).
~~Goto~~
Changes the current (displayed) date to the one specified.
6 Month~
Displays the six-month calendar.
~Month~~
Displays the current month’s appointments and events.
~~Week~~
Displays the current week’s appointments and events.
~~Appt~~
Displays the current day’s appointments and events.
~~ToDo~~
Displays the current day’s to-do list.
~~Add~~~
Opens a template to define a new appointment or to-do item.
~~Note~~
Provides a full-screen note field.
Function Keys for an Appointment or To-Do List
Key Label Description
~~Find~~
Searches for the specified text (a character string).
~~Clip~~
To copy predefined fields (a Smart Clip) from the Appointment
Book to the Clipboard. Also to define new Smart Clips. Smart Clip
definitions are also used in Custom Style printing. See Chapter 1.
Page 72
Calendr~
~Repeat~
Displays a small calendar for reference and date entry.
Defines a repeat interval for an appointment or to-do item.
Page 73
4
The Phone Book and the
Page 74
Database
The Phone Book and Database are two separate, but related
applications. The Phone Book is a database that has been
predefined to hold names, phone numbers, and so on. The
Database application enables you to build your own databases.
Most of the topics and procedures in this chapter apply to both
applications.
About the Phone Book application
Press [C] to start the Phone Book. At first the Phone Book
will be empty, but when you add items it will look like this:
A Typical Phone Book List
Each individual or business has its own record of information.
You view a record of information by highlighting the one you
want and pressing [ENTER].
Page 75
A Phone Book Record
From a phone record, you can return to the phone list by
pressing [F10] (to save any changes) or [F9] (to cancel any
changes).
Adding to and editing a phone book
To add a record to the Phone Book:
Press [C] [F2] to start the Phone Book and display an empty record.
Type in the name. Enter names either last-name first or first-name first, but be
consistent because of alphabetic sorting.
Type information into the rest of the fields, pressing [TAB], [L] [TAB], or
[ALT]+underlined letter to move from field to field.
Some fields can hold more than the window shows. Press [H]
or [I] to view long fields.
The Note field provides an extra-large field. Press ~~Note~~
Page 76
to display a full-screen note. Any item with a note displays a +
to its left in the Phone list.
The Category field includes any categories entered for other
records. See Using the category field later in this chapter.
Press [F10] when done or press [F2] to open a new record. Or press [ESC] to
cancel the information.U
To edit (change) a phone record:
Display the phone list. Press [ESC] or [F10], if necessary.
Highlight the item you want to edit (either use the arrow keys or just start
typing the name and watch the display scroll as you type).
Press [ENTER] to display the record.
Tab to and edit the fields you want to change. To clear a field, press [DEL].
Press [F10] to save your changes. Or press [ESC] to cancel them.
To delete a phone record:
Display the phone list. Press [ESC] or [F10], if necessary.
Highlight the item you want to delete (either use the arrow keys or just start
typing the name and watch the display scroll as you type).
If you want to delete several items, select each one by
highlighting it and pressing [SPACEBAR].
3. Press [DEL].
To restore the last deleted item (Undo):
Press [MENU] [E] [U].
To add or delete a field:
Since the Phone Book is simply a defined database structure,
you can alter its structure by starting the Database application
and opening the Phone Book file there. Use [MENU] File
Modify-Database to edit the Phone Book structure (see
Modifying a database definition later in this chapter). However,
you should not change the Phone Book structure if you plan to
use the Import function in the Connectivity Pack.
To remove the data card from the phone list:
You can control whether the data card is displayed in the phone
Page 77
list.
Display the phone list. Press [ESC] or [F10], if necessary.
Press [MENU] [V] (View) to see the View commands.
The default state of the Show-DataCard option is on (checked). Press [D] to
uncheck the box and remove the card from the list.
To restore the data card to the phone list, press [MENU] [V] [D]
(View Show-DataCard) to recheck the option.
To customize the information on the data card:
The data card is simply a Smart Clip of the information on a
data record. You can edit the existing definition of the data card
Smart Clip using [F5] (Clip) from the phone list. Note in the
data card definition that - and = are formatting commands that
render thin and thick lines. For more information on editing
Smart Clips, see chapter 1.
Searching a phone book
You can scan the Phone Book by scrolling through the Phone
list ([K], [J]) or by looking through sequential records
(~~Next~~, ~~Prev~~).
To look up a name (speed-locate):
Display the phone list. Press [ESC] or [F10], if necessary.
Start typing the name; the list scrolls as you type.
Press [ENTER] when the name is highlighted.
To find any piece of text:
From a phone list or record, press [F4] (Find).
Fill in the dialog box with the characters or text to search for.
Optionally tab to and select (press [SPACEBAR]) the boxes for including notes in
the search and for discriminating upper and lower case.
Press [F10] to search from the beginning of the list.
Or press [F4] (Next) to search through the list from the
current (highlighted) position.
Or press [F3] (Previous) to start the search backwards
through the list from the current position.
Page 78
To repeat the last search, press [L] [F4].
A successful search stops at the first instance of matching text.
Either the matching text (if a phone record is displayed) or the
item containing the matching text (if the phone list is
displayed) is highlighted.
Using multiple phone books
You can create more than one Phone Book file, thereby creating
more than one phone list in this application. Use [MENU] File
New or [MENU] File Copy to create a new Phone Book file.
Use [MENU] File Merge to merge another Phone Book file into
the current one.
Translating phone books
HP 100LX files need no translation to be used in your HP
200LX; they share the same file format. However, an Phone
Book, Database, or Note Taker file displayed in your HP
200LX will look slightly different than a corresponding HP
200LX file. You can make data from your HP 100LX be
displayed just like HP 200LX data by merging the HP 100LX
file with an HP 200LX file—use [MENU] File Merge.
To translate an HP 95LX Phone Book to an HP 200LX Phone
Book:
Copy an HP 95LX Phone Book file to the HP 200LX via the infrared serial
port, a serial cable, or a plug-in memory card (see chapter 22).
In the HP 200LX Phone Book, open ([MENU] File Open) the copied file,
filename.PBK.
When prompted, specify a new file name (other than PHONE) without any
extension.
File Open then translates the .PBK file to an HP 200LX Phone
Book file, automatically supplying the extension .PDB. This
operation could take several minutes for a very large Phone
Book.
Since the two types of phone records do not have exactly the
same fields, this is how the information will be distributed:
Page 79
Phone Book Translation
HP 95LX Field becomes HP 200LX Field
Name (30 characters)
Name (29 characters)
Phone
Business Phone
Address
Note
If you want, you can then use the Clipboard functions ([FN]
CUT and [FN] PASTE) to move the information from one HP
200LX field (like Note) to another (like Address1).
Creating your own database
Press [&É] [B] to start the Database application. A database
has two distinct parts:
A structure (or template) that defines the fields the
database has. The fields will hold data and are labeled by
field names.
The data records. Each record contains its data values in the
defined fields. The database list lists all the records in a
database.
The Database application comes with one prepared database
file for information about restaurants. You can use this built-in
database structure (file name RESTR.GDB) to see what the
Database application is like and practice using it. The Phone
Book application ([C]) is another example of a built-in
database structure. In fact, you open, add to, delete, edit,
search, etc., a database and its records in the same way you do a
phone book.
Page 80
A Database List with No Data Records
In addition, you can define a database to contain the data fields
you want, with any size and placement of fields.
About database structures
You can create a new database by:
Defining a new database structure, then filling out records for
it.
Copying an existing database structure, then filling out new
records for it. You can also modify this structure before filling
out the data records.
File Commands for Defining Databases
[MENU] File Commands Description
Define-New-Database To define a new database structure.
File New
To copy the current database structure
but not its data. Use for a new set of data.
Modify-Database
To modify the current database
structure.
A database is made up of a structure and many records of data
(like phone records). The structure defines the data fields by
field name, field type, and visual arrangement.
Page 81
A Database Structure
Field Types for Database Structures
Field Type
Description
Text
Provides a box for text. The box will hold times more
characters than its length shows (at least 10). For more
space, add more than one text field.
Number For numeric data.
Date or Time
For date or time data using any punctuation
as delimiters. Dates and times must match
the format used for the system date and time
(set in the Setup utility). For time, the
number must represent hours and minutes.
For example, the input 1.30 means 1 hour 30
minutes, not 1.3 hours.
Label
For descriptive text without a box. Provides a label
for each record. It has no data.
Group boxFor visual grouping of the fields inside it. Option
buttons must appear inside a group box. If
the group box is too small, you can increase
its size.
Page 82
Option button
To indicate one choice from a set of choices.
The option set must appear in a group box.
Option buttons in the same group box are
mutually exclusive.
Check boxTo indicate yes/no (on/off) choices. Check boxes can
be grouped together into a group box for
appearance, but each one must be checked or
unchecked independently of the others.
Category For categorizing records. You can create a data
subset based on a category of records. Limit:
one Category field per database. The
Category field is a special drop-down list
box that is editable. The same category
choices (up to 32) are available from all
records of the same database. You cannot
add category choices while defining the
database.
Note
For adding notes in a large field with text-editing
features. Limit: one Note field per database
structure.
Defining a new database structure
To add and define the new fields:
In the Database application, press [MENU] [F] [D] (File Define-New-Database).
You see the Add Field dialog box:
Type in the name for a data field. A field name can have up to 20 characters.
Names are not case-sensitive, and they ignore non-alphanumeric characters
and leading digits. The & character has a special meaning explained later.
Page 83
Tab to the Field type group box and select the type of field.
To add another field, press [F2]. All fields will appear on one screen (page)
initially, eventually overlying one another. You can move the fields apart at
any time.
You can have up to four pages per database structure. To access the next page
press [FN] [J].
When done adding fields, press [F10]. If one field disappears under another
one, just press [TAB] until the hidden field is highlighted. Use arrow keys to
move it.
To move or size a database field:
Keys
Description
[K], [J], [H], [I]
Moves the current (highlighted) field
up, down, right, left. To move to a previous
or following page, use CUT and PASTE.
[L] arrow Moves the current field by finer increments.
[CTRL]+[H], [CTRL]+[I]
Adjusts the width of the current
field. You can also adjust the height of Group
boxes and Note fields.
[FN] CUT and [FN] PASTE For moving the current field to
another page. (Use PG UP or PG DN before
pasting.) Option buttons or Check boxes
inside a Group box can move with the group
box.
To add a group box with option buttons (or check boxes):
Option buttons must exist inside a group box.
Add the group box first.
Add the option buttons (or check boxes). They automatically appear inside the
group box. You can move check boxes out.
To hold more than three buttons, enlarge the group box. Otherwise, additional
buttons overlie the bottom button.
Add any additional option buttons. Highlight any overlapping buttons—one at
a time—and move them apart.
To give a field a shortcut key:
You can always select a field in a database structure by tabbing
Page 84
to it. You can also create a shortcut key (as part of the
database definition) to select a field quickly in an open record.
Include an ampersand when you define the field name. The
letter it precedes will be underlined. For instance, specifying a
field name as &Name makes the field name appear as Name.
Its shortcut is [ALT]+[N].
You cannot use the characters F, E, V, S, O, Q, H; they are already used
by the system.
To use the shortcut, simultaneously press [ALT]+underlined
letter.
You can use the same shortcut key on different pages of the
database.
To edit or delete a field in the Define New Database
screen:
Key Label Description
~~Edit~~ To change the name or the type of the current
field. You can change the type only if you
have not yet saved this field in the database
structure (by saving it with a file name).
~Delete~ To delete the current field. Also deletes any data
associated with this field.
Caution
If you delete a field from a database structure, this will also delete any
Smart Clip definition or Subset definition that contained this field.
To save and name the new database:
Press [F10] to save the database structure. Or press [ESC] [F5] (No) to cancel
the new database structure.
Name the new database. The default file extension is .GDB (for General Data
Base). You do not need to type in the extension.
Page 85
Press [F10] when done.
This displays the list for the newly defined database. Since there are no records
yet, the list is empty except for some column headers. You can now enter
data into this database using [F2] (Add).
Define a
database structure like this and name it WINE.GDB.
Example: Defining a Database for a Wine Collection.
Keys
Description
[&É] [B]
Opens the Database application.
[MENU] [F] [D]
Starts the Define New Database procedure with an Add Field dialog box.
Wine Collection [ALT]+[L] [ENTER]
Adds the label “Wine Collection”. Pressing [ENTER] is the same as pressing [F2].
Variety [ALT]+[T] [ENTER]
Adds a text field for the Variety.
Winery [ENTER] [ENTER] [H]
Adds a Winery text field and moves it over to align with the previous field. [ENTER] [ENTER] are the same as
Page 86
[F10].
[F2] Vintage [ALT]+[U] [F10]
Adds a Vintage number field.
[H]… [K] [K]
Moves Vintage field to right of Variety field.
[F2] Cost [F10]
Adds a Cost number field.
[H]… [K]
Moves Cost field to right of Winery.
[F2] Qty [F10] [H]
Adds and aligns a Qty number field.
[F2] Notes [ALT]+[N] [F10] [CTRL]+[I]… [H] [H] [CTRL]+[J]…
[F2] Type [ALT]+[B] [ENTER]
Adds a Type group box.
Red [ALT]+[O] [ENTER]
Adds a Red option button.
White [ENTER] Blush [ENTER] Sparkling [F10]
Adds, narrows, moves, and deepens a Notes note field.
Adds other option buttons and displays the database structure. The last two buttons overlie
each other, making them illegible.
[J]
Moves last option button down.
[L] [TAB]
Backtabs to highlight the Type group box.
[CTRL]+[J]…
Enlarges Type box to hold all buttons.
[F10]
Saves new structure definition.
wine [F10]
Names this database file WINE.GDB in the current directory. Displays the new, empty database list, ready for
data entry.
Once you have entered wines into the list, the data card will
display specifics on the current (highlighted) wine.
Modifying a database definition
Follow these instructions to edit the definition of a database
structure that has already been saved and named. The data set
(if any) is not affected by a change to the name or position of a
field.
Page 87
To edit the database structure:
Display the database list of the file you want to edit. If the file is not currently
displayed, use [F9] (Open) to display it. Type in or select the database file
name and press [F10].
Do not open a record or display a database structure.
Press [MENU] [F] [F] (File Modify-Database).
Use the same techniques you used while defining the new
database structure. When done, press [F10] to save the modified
structure, or press [ESC] to cancel the modifications.
Key Label
Description
~~Add~~~
Adds a new field.
~~Size~~
Size mode. Pressing arrow keys now
changes the size of the current field.
Shortcut: [CTRL]+arrow key. Press
~~Move~~ to cancel Size mode.
~~Edit~~
To rename the current field before it’s
saved.
~Delete~
Deletes the current field.
arrow keys and [L] arrow keys Moves the current field,
unless Size mode is on.
Note
In order to protect any existing data, you cannot edit the field type once
it has been saved in a database structure.
To restore the original database structure:
Select [MENU] Edit Undo before doing another operation. You
can also undo an undo operation.
To duplicate a database structure:
This duplicates a database definition without its data. Do this if
you want an identical or similar database definition for a new
Page 88
set of data.
If the database you want to copy is not currently displayed, use [F9] (Open) to
display it.
Press [MENU] [F] [N] (File New).
Name the new database file and press [F10].
The new database is now ready for you to modify or enter data.
Modifying the data card
The data card that shows up in your database list screen
contains information from the record of the highlighted entry.
When you create your database, the first 10 fields you add are
by default put into the data card definition. Information from
these fields will appear in the data card. You can change the
data card definition, and you can altogether remove the data
card from the list screen.
To customize the information on the data card:
The data card is simply a Smart Clip of the information on a
data record. You can edit the existing definition of the data card
Smart Clip using [F5] (Clip) from the database list screen. Note
in the data card definition that - and = are formatting
commands that render thin and thick lines. For more
information on editing Smart Clips, see chapter 1.
To remove the data card from the database list
screen:
Display the database list. Press [ESC] or [F10], if necessary.
Press [MENU] [V] (View) to see the View commands.
The default state of the Show-DataCard option is on (checked). Press [D] to
uncheck the box and remove the card from the list.
To restore the data card to the database list, press [MENU]
[V] [D] (View Show-DataCard) to recheck the option.
Page 89
Searching a database
You search a database you create just like you search a Phone
Book database: scroll through the database list ([K], [J]) or
look through sequential data records (~~Next~~,
~~Prev~~). For specific searches, use speed-locate or
~~Find~~, as explained earlier in this chapter.
Sorting data lists
By default, your database (including Phone Book) records are
sorted in the list in order by the top left field of the record
(which is the leftmost column). You can change:
Which field to use for sorting. The choice of field determines
whether the sorting method is alphabetical (Text field),
numerical (Number field), or chronological (Date and Time
fields).
Whether to sort in ascending (the usual) or descending order.
Whether to have second and third sorting fields to break sorting
ties (such as for two phone records named Dave Johnson).
To change the sorting method:
This affects just the current list (or the current subset of a list).
Display the list.
Press [F7] (Sort).
Select the first sorting field. Use [J] to highlight your choice. Use [ALT]+[J] to
view the whole list.
To change the order (ascending/descending), tab to the check box and press
[SPACEBAR].
If you wish, tab to and specify second and third sorting fields.
Press [F10] when done. Or press [ESC] to cancel the information.
Example: Types of Sorting in the Phone Book. If the sorting field
is a Name field, sorting occurs alphabetically. Ascending
means from A to Z, so Aardvark appears before Zebu in the
list. If the sorting field is a number field, sorting occurs
numerically. Ascending means from lower to higher, so 2000
Page 90
appears before 2026. Only numbers in number fields can be
sorted numerically. If the sorting field is a date or time field,
sorting occurs chronologically. Ascending means from earlier
to later, so 6/1/1993 appears before 6/1/1994.
Rearranging the columns in data lists
You can customize the appearance of a database (including
Phone Book) list by altering how many columns are displayed,
how wide they are, and which data fields the columns
represent. For instance, you could change the appearance of a
phone list from this:
to this:
To rearrange the columns in a list:
This affects just the current list (or the current subset of a list).
Display the list.
Press [F8] (Columns).
Highlight (arrow to) the column you want to alter or move.
Page 91
Use the function keys described below.
Press [F10] to save the rearrangement. Or press [ESC] to cancel it.
Function Keys for Rearranging Columns (Columns~)
Key Label Description
~~Add~~~ Adds a specified column to the right of the
current column.
~Delete~ Deletes the highlighted column. Leaves a blank
column on the right side.
~~Edit–~ Changes the highlighted column to the one you
specify (by field name).
~Width–~ Narrows the highlighted column.
~Width+~ Widens the highlighted column.
~¬Move~~ Swaps positions with the column on the left.
~Moveª~~ Swaps positions with the column on the right.
Note
Rearranging the columns affects the appearance of the list only. It does
not affect the actual data in the records.
Defining subsets of a database
The ~Subset~ function displays a specified subset of your
Database. You define the subset by filling out a database
template according to the field contents you want to select for.
For example, you could define a subset of the wine database
that selects and displays only the white wines.
Note
Page 92
Defining subsets does not affect the original, complete list of records.
The ~Subset~ function does not create new or separate databases. It
defines and displays a subset of the current database. Subsets have
names, but they are not separate files.
Displaying existing subsets
To display an existing subset:
While displaying a database list, press [F6] (Subset).
Highlight the desired subset name and press [F10].
To display the complete database list again:
While displaying the database list, press [F6] (Subset).
Highlight “All (Database, Phone Book, etc.) Items” in the list
of subset choices and press [F10].
Defining a new subset
To define a subset:
You can define up to 16 subsets.
While displaying the database list, press [F6] (Subset).
Press [F2] (Define). The Define Subset screen displays a copy of the current
database structure.
Fill in one or more fields with the contents you want to select for.
Press [F10].
Type a name for the new subset and press [F10]. This displays the subset list
with the new name highlighted. If you do not type in a name, then the new
subset is named “Unnamed Subset”. However, the next unnamed subset
will overwrite (replace) the previous one.
Press [F10]. This displays the new subset (whose name appears in the title bar).
Using Check Boxes and Option Buttons in a Subset Definition
By default, check boxes in the Define Subset screen are
dimmed. This means they are neutral; that is, either status
(checked or not) in a record will qualify for the subset. Use
[SPACEBAR] to cycle through selected, not selected, or neutral
(shaded).
By default, option buttons are not on. This means they are
Page 93
neutral; that is, either status (on or off) in a record will
qualify for the subset. To specify that an option button must
be off to qualify for the subset, you must use an SSL
statement. See Advanced subset selection later in this
chapter.
If a check box is checked or an option button is on, then a
record that matches this status will qualify for the subset.
To set an option button in a subset definition:
Tab and/or arrow to the option button you want and press the
[SPACEBAR] This is different from the usual way of setting an
option button by arrowing.
You cannot turn on more than one option button.
Example: Defining a Database Subset. Define a subset of the
restaurant database (RESTR.GDB) that displays only
restaurants that are open all night. Save this subset under the
name “All-Night Places.” To define this subset, check the All
Night check box in the Meals group box.
Keys
Description
[&É] [B]
Opens the Database. If RESTR.GDB is not
displayed, do the next step:
[F9] restr [F10] Displays the built in restaurant database
(though the list is empty if you haven’t added
data records).
[F6] [F2]
Opens the Define Subset screen, which is
identical to the database structure.
[ALT]+[T]
Highlights the All Night check box and turns it
on. The other check boxes remain dimmed
(neutral).
Page 94
[F10] All-Night Places [F10] Names this subset “All-Night
Places.”
[F10]
Displays this subset.
[F6] [K] [F10] Selects and displays the complete database list
again (“All Database Items”).
Using the category field
Information in the Category field of a record is often used to
define a subset. For example, the Phone Book has two built-in
(predefined) categories in the Category field: “Business” and
“Personal”. You could specify one of these categories in each
record to distinguish between business and personal Phone
Book records.
The Category field is a list box that is editable and allows
multiple selections. For instance, you can compose the multiple
category “Business;SW Club;Local”. The list box maintains a
list of all possible categories used in other records; you select
from the list (or add to it) the category choices you want for
each individual record, if any.
To use a Category list box:
To open a category list box, tab to it (or press [ALT]+[G] and
press [J].
To make a selection from the choices given, highlight the
choice and press [SPACEBAR]. The choice will be added to the
Page 95
text box. A semicolon separates multiple selections in the
text box.
To remove a selection, highlight the choice and press
[SPACEBAR] again.
To close a category list box, press [ALT]+[P] or [ESC].
An Open Category Box
Note
Each database structure can have one Category field. Each Category
field can have up to 32 category choices or 255 characters (no more
than 128 characters per choice).
To edit a category list box:
To add a category choice to the list, close the list box and type
the new entry.
To delete a category choice from the list, highlight it and press
[DEL].
To de-select a category choice, highlight it in the list and press
[SPACEBAR].
Example: Using the Category Field to Define Subsets. Create a
personal phone list and a business phone list by defining two
subsets based on the Category field in each Phone Book record.
For a record to appear in one of these lists, it must contain
“Personal” or “Business” in its Category field. If a record
belongs in both categories, then select (press [SPACEBAR]) both
Page 96
categories.
The subset definition (~Subset~ ~Define~) for the
personal phone list would look like this:
Define Subset Screen for a Personal Phone List
Name this subset “Personal” and a corresponding one “Business”.
When you want to display one of these subsets, press
~Subset~, highlight the subset name, and press [F10]. To
display the original list again, select the subset named All
Phone Book Items.
Using multiple criteria in a subset definition
To define a subset with multiple criteria:
You can make a subset definition more sophisticated by filling
out more than one field and/or by including more than one
possible entry in a field. In the Define Subset screen,
If you want more than one field searched to compile the subset, then fill in as
many fields as you want. The subset will include only records for which all
the specified fields qualify.
If you want to specify more than one possible match for a field, then separate
Page 97
those possible matches with a comma. (A logical OR.)
If you want a subset to exclude a certain field entry, then precede that entry by
a hyphen. (A logical NOT.)
If you want to specify a range of numbers, precede a number by <, >, =, <=,
>=, or <> (not equal to).
If you want to specify a criterion that could appear in any field, precede it with
*. For example, entering *English in the Restaurant field will select for
“English” in any field in the record.
Field Selection Criteria \ Define Subset Screen
Definition in Field
Values That Qualify
empty
Any value in this field.
value
If this field contains the given value.
* value
If any field contains the given value.
value, value
If this field contains either of the given values.
value &value
If this field contains both of the given values.
- value
If this field does not contain the given value.
= value
If this field exactly matches the given value, with no extra characters. For
example, =red will not match red and green or red;green.
< value
<= value
> value
>= value
<> value
If this field has one of these unequal relations with
the given value.
Example: Defining a Subset with Multiple Criteria. The subset
definition below will display a subset of the restaurant
database. The subset will comprise restaurants in Paris that
serve Algerian or Moroccan food of excellent quality.
Page 98
Subset Definition with Multiple Criteria
Editing or deleting subset definitions
To edit or rename a subset definition:
While displaying the database list, press [F6] (Subset).
Highlight the desired subset.
Press [F4] (Edit) or [F3] (Rename).
Make the changes and press [F10] when done.
Press [F10] again. This displays the edited subset.
To delete a subset definition:
While displaying the database list, press [F6] (Subset).
Highlight the subset you want to delete.
Press [F7] [F10] (Delete OK).
To restore a subset definition you have just deleted (or edited),
escape the subset list, then select [MENU] Edit Undo. Use undo
before doing another operation.
Advanced subset selection
The General~ function ([F2] in the Define Subset screen)
lets you use the Subset Specification Language (SSL) to create
subset criteria as command statements that are are too complex
for the Define Subset screen (such as comparing values in
different fields).
Page 99
An SSL Statement
To see the SSL statement for a subset specification:
Press [F6] [F2] (Subset Define) and fill out the template, or
press [F6] [F4] (Subset Edit) for an existing subset definition.
Press [F2] (General) if available.
SSL syntax
SSL statements use relational operators and Boolean operators
to select records for the subset. Spaces around operators are
optional.
Relational operators
Relational operators test the relationship between two
arguments. The test usually compares a field (by its field name)
with some value, but it can also compare two fields. The test is
not case-sensitive. If the test result is true, then the record being
tested passes the filter.
Arguments for Relational Tests
Argument Description
fieldname The field name must match the field name given in
the record’s template. If the field name has
any non-alphanumeric characters, the name
must be enclosed in {}. You can test any field
with a relational operator except those with
check boxes and option buttons.
value
There are three types of values: strings (enclosed in
„“), numbers, and others (enclosed in {}).
Other-type values are times, dates, and
Page 100
application-defined data types.
If a field and a value are compared, they must be of the same
type (string, number, date, etc.).
Relational Operators
Operator
=
<>
Meaning
Example
Does field match exactly another field or value? City = „Boston“ Home“ = Business
Does field not match exactly another field or value? Score<>0
<, <=
=>, >
Is field less than or equal to the value?
Is field greater than or equal to the value?
->
Is the field a member of the given set of strings? The
set is either the given values or a range of
values. A range is two values separated by ..
(includes boundary values). State ->“MI“,
„OH“ Zip->“97000"..“97999"
Does the field contain the given value?
Phone#
„(503)“ Note# „Cougar“
Does the field not contain the given value? City#
„Detroit“
#
!field#
Date <{10/12/92} Income <= 25000
{Start Time}>{12:00a} Latitude> = 0
Testing Check Boxes and Option Buttons. Although
check boxes and option buttons are not operators, their states
(on/off) can be tested to yield a Boolean result (true/false). For
example, Enabled tests whether the Enabled check box (for an
alarm) is checked.
Boolean operators
Boolean operators act on relational operations to negate,
extract, or combine results when filtering records to create a
subset. If a test result is true, then the record being tested passes
the filter. Boolean operators have lower precedence than relational operators.
Boolean Operators (in order of precedence)
Operator
Example
!(NOT)
!Phone#“(503)“
Phone field does not contain (503).
!Enabled
The alarm is not enabled.
& (AND)
Selects Record If
State=“VA“ & City<>“Richmond“
State is VA but City is not Richmond
Page 101
| (OR)
State=“HI“|State=“AK“
State is either HI or AK.
To apply an operation on a string to any field:
Use *“string“ to select records containing the specified string.
For example, to select (for a subset) all phone records with the
dialing prefix 750 in any field, enter the SSL statement
„*750“.
Comparison of SSL and define subset screen
Define Subset screens are translated internally to SSL
statements for interpretation of the subset criteria. The
following table compares the two methods of subset definition:
using the Define Subset screen and using the General~
function (SSL statement) to define some subset criteria in the
Category field. (SSL statements may include parentheses to
clarify order of operation.)
Examples Comparing Define Subset and SSL\in Definitions for the
Category Field
Define Subset
SSL Statement
red,green
Category#“red“ | Category#“green“
Selects Record If:
Category field contains „red“or „green“ or both
-red
! Category#“red“
-red,green
! Category#“red“ | Category#“green“
Category field does not contain red
Category field contains gree nor does not contain red.
red & green
Category#“red“ & Category#“green“
Category field contains both red and green.
=red,green
Category=“red“ | Category#“green“
Category field matches exactly red or contains green.
*red, *green
*“red“ | *“green“
Any field contains red or green or both.
SSL examples
This SSL statement defines a Phone Book subset for all Massachusetts phone numbers and all phone numbers without area
codes:
Phone#”(508)” | Phone#”(617)” | !Phone#” (“
This SSL statement defines a Phone Book subset for all West
Coast business clients:
State->“CA“,“OR“,“WA“,“BC“ & Category#“Business“ &
Category#“Client“
Page 102
This SSL statement defines a Phone Book subset for all
suppliers in major western Oregon cities:
Category=“supplier“ & State#“OR“
& City->“Portland“,“Salem“,“Eugene“,“Medford“
Limits while using the Phone Book and
Database
Maximum number of records (items) in a Phone Book file:
limited by available disk space. Theoretical maximum: about
5,000.
Maximum number of data characters per text field: times the
visible length, or at least 10.
Maximum number of data characters in a Note: 32 KB (about 30 screens).
Maximum number of choices in a Category field: 32 (or 255 total
characters, with no more than 128 characters per choice).
Maximum number of fields per database structure: 99 (fewer if long fields).
Maximum number of pages in a database structure: 4.
Maximum number of subsets in a database: 16.
Phone Book and Database function keys
Function Keys for Define-New-Database and Modify-Database
Key Label Description
~~Add~~~ Opens a dialog box to define a new database field.
~~Size~~ Turns Size mode on. Pressing [I], [H], [K], and
[J] now enlarges or diminishes the current
field. Shortcut: [CTRL]+arrow key.
~~Move~~ Turns Size mode off. Pressing arrow keys now
moves the current field.
~~Edit~~ Opens a dialog box to edit the current field.
~Delete~ Deletes the current field.
Function Keys for the Phone and Data Lists
Key Label Description
Page 103
~~Add~~~ Opens a template to add a new Database record.
~~Note~~ Displays the full-screen Note for the highlighted
item, if the current database has a Note field.
~~Find~~ Searches for the specified character string (letters
or other characters).
~~Clip~~ To copy predefined fields (a Smart Clip) from a
database to the Clipboard. Also to define
new Smart Clips and to edit the data card.
See chapter 1. Smart Clip definitions are also
used in Custom Style printing.
~Subset~ To display and/or define a specified subset of the
data list.
~~Sort~~ Specifies how to sort the records for the list.
Columns~ Specifies how many columns appear in a list, how
wide they are, and which fields they display.
~~Open~~ To open a different Database file.
Function Keys for a Phone and Data Record
(an Item)
Key Label Description
~~Add~~~ Opens a structure to define a new Database record.
~~Note~~ Displays the full-screen note, if the database
structure has a Note field.
~~Find~~ Searches for the specified character string (letters
or other characters).
~~Clip~~ To copy predefined fields (a Smart Clip) from a
database to the Clipboard. Also to define
new Smart Clips.
~~Prev~~ Displays the previous record.
~~Next~~ Displays the next record.
Page 104
Function Keys for Defining Subsets and Smart Clips
Key Label Description
~Define~ To define a new subset or Smart Clip.
~Rename~ To rename the highlighted subset or Smart Clip
definition.
~~Edit~~ To edit the highlighted subset or Smart Clip
definition.
~Delete~ To delete the highlighted subset or Smart Clip
definition.
Page 105
5
World Time
Press [&É] [T] to start World Time. World Time is a database
of cities, including information about
Page 106
Local time and Daylight Savings Time.
Location on a map, with latitude and longitude.
Telephone dialing prefixes.
You can also create your own list of cities, called Custom
Cities.
City lists
List of All Cities (~~All~~~)
Symbol Meaning
T
Daylight Savings Time is on.
+
Time is tomorrow.
–
Time is yesterday.
✓
City is also in Custom Cities list.
U
Note is included.
S
To open a city’s record:
In a city list, highlight a city (use [J] or [K], or simply start
typing the city’s name) and press [ENTER].
Page 107
A City Record
To look up a city (speed-locate):
Display a city list. Press [ESC] or [F10], if necessary.
Start typing the name of the city. The list scrolls as you type, highlighting the
first matching city.
Press [ENTER] when done, or arrow to the city you want.
The speed-locate operates as it does in the Database and the
Phone Book.
Specifying your local city
Your local city is the reference point for the World Time
application.
Example: Specifying the Local City. Select Chicago as your local
city. Substitute a city in your time zone, if you like.
Keys:
Description:
[&É] [T]
Starts World Time. If the All Cities list isn’t
displayed, press ~~All~~~ ([F9]) to see it.
chi
Highlights Chicago. The list scrolls as you type,
highlighting the first matching city.
[F7] [F10]
Selects Chicago as the local city and updates the
system time to the time in Chicago.
Page 108
The first time you set your local city, its time is set from the
palmtop’s clock setting, called the system time. If you change
the local city to a city in another time zone, you’ll be asked if
you want the system time automatically changed to reflect the
difference in time zones. If you respond yes, remember that
alarms and appointments will come due based on the time in
the new local city.
Adding a city to World Time
Since the All Cities list does not include every location in the
world, you can add other cities to the list.
To add a city:
In World Time, press [F2] (Add).
Fill in the fields. Use [TAB] or [ALT]+letter to move among fields.
City and Country.
International Prefix. Optional. The international telephone access code
for dialing out of this city.
City Prefix. Optional. Telephone dialing prefixes to reach this country and
city.
Custom List. Check this box (press [SPACEBAR]) to include
this city in the Custom Cities list, as well as the All Cities list.
Categor y. Optional. Includes a list of any categories used for other cities.
You can enter a new category or press [J] to see the full list and select an
existing category. You can categorize the cities in any way you want, and
use this information later to view a subset of cities. The category “ROM”
means that that city belongs to the original All Cities list.
Page 109
Time Offset From. Number of hours difference between this city’s time
and either the current palmtop time (“System”) or Greenwich Mean Time
(“Universal”). If the offset is positive, then the city’s time is later than
System or Universal time; if the offset is negative, then the time is earlier.
The time offset is for standard time only, not daylight savings time.
Daylight Savings. Can be set to be always on (Yes), always off (No), or to
automatically switch. The Automatic schedules available are for North
America, Southern Hemisphere, and Europe.
Location. Optional. The easiest way to fill this in is to use the ~Locate~
function ([F8]). Use the arrow keys to pinpoint the city’s location, then
press [F10]. The values shown are degrees and decimal fractions thereof,
not degrees and minutes.
Note. The Note field provides a large field for any additional
information. Pressing ~~Note~~ displays a full-screen note.
Press [F10] when done. Or press [ESC] to cancel the information.
Tips
If you are adding a series of records, press just [F2] instead of
[F10] [F2] between records. This saves the current record and
opens a new template.
The fields can hold more than the window displays. Press [H]
or [I] to view long fields.
If you don’t know a new city’s time offset, then look up a city
of the same time zone in the All Cities list and note its time
difference from Universal time.
The Category field is useful for categorization and viewing
subsets. For example, you could indicate here the official
language, and later display a list of Spanish-speaking locales.
Editing or deleting a city
To edit (change) a city:
Display a city list: if necessary, press [F9] (Custom or All).
Highlight the city you want to edit.
Press [ENTER] to open the record.
Edit the fields. Use [TAB] or [ALT]+underlined letter to move among fields.
To clear a field, highlight it and press [DEL].
Page 110
To restore a field’s previous contents, press [ESC].
Press [F10] to save your changes. Or press [ESC] to cancel them.
To delete a city:
Deleted cities are removed from both All Cities and Custom
Cities lists.
Highlight a city and press [DEL].
If the city belongs to the original version of the All Cities list,
the original version is restored. Original records in ROM
cannot be deleted.
If the city is one you added, it is completely deleted.
You can select multiple cities (use [SPACEBAR]and delete them
all at once.
To restore the just-deleted cities, press [MENU] [E] [U] (Edit
undo).
Creating your own city list (custom cities)
The Custom Cities list allows you to define your own list of
cities. You can compile this list by checkmarking cities in the
All Cities list or by checking the Custom List box in a city’s
record.
To put a city in the Custom Cities list:
Display the All Cities list (press ~~All~~~, if necessary).
Highlight the city you want to put in the Custom Cities list.
Press [+]. This places a checkmark after the name, indicating that this city is
now in the Custom Cities list, as well.
Albuquerque, NM USA ✔ 12:19 pm
Press [F9] (Custom) to display your Custom Cities List.
To remove a city from the Custom Cities list, highlight the city
and press [-].
Using the map
To see a city on the map:
In a city list, highlight the city.
Page 111
Press [F10] (Map).
To open the city’s record, press [ENTER].
Pinpointing a City on a Map (~~Map~~~)
To display a list again, press [F10] again.
Converting times across time zones
Time conversions let you pick any time in a city and find out
the corresponding time elsewhere. For instance, you can find
out what time it is here when it is 5:00 p.m. in Barcelona.
Actually, you can see what time it is in any city when it is 5:00
p.m. in Barcelona.
To specify a time in a city and temporarily convert the time for all
other cities:
Select the city: either highlight it in a city list or display it on the map.
Press [F8] (Convert).
Type in the time as hours.minutes. A period serves as well as a colon. In the
12-hour time format, typing a indicates a.m., p p.m.
Page 112
Press [F10]. This displays the corresponding times in your local city and in all
other cities. A + before the time means the time is tomorrow, while a means the time is yesterday.
Press [ESC] to return to the normal display (current times).
About the settings for daylight savings time
The three daylight savings time (DST) settings are:
Yes: For locations that are always on DST. Also for cities that
are currently on DST, but will go off it on an irregular
schedule. You then change the setting yourself.
No: For locations that do not use DST. Also for cities that are
currently off DST, but will go onto it on an irregular
schedule. You then change the setting yourself.
Automatic: For locations that go onto and off of DST on a
regular schedule. These schedules are provided:
Northern: The schedule used in most of North America
(first Sunday in April to last Sunday in October).
Southern: The schedule used in most of the southern
hemisphere (last Sunday in October to first Sunday in
March).
European: The schedule used in most of Europe (last
Sunday in March to Last Sunday in September).
None: The same as No DST.
Note
For convenience’ sake, some countries have an Automatic DST setting
even if their schedule does not exactly match the defined one.
Page 113
To change the DST setting (a shortcut):
If you want to change the DST setting for several cities, it is
faster to use this shortcut than to change the city’s record.
Display a city list and highlight the city.
Press [*] to change the setting. [*] cycles through the three settings: Yes (Y),
No (N), and Automatic (A).
Repeat for the next city. The change is made to the city’s record, and so it
affects both city lists (All Cities and Custom Cities).
Using subsets of the city list
Using ~Subset~, you can display a subset of the All Cities
list that meets any criteria you specify. For example, you could
display just those cities in a certain country, or just those cities
that don’t use daylight savings time.
For instructions on using the Subset feature, see chapter 4 or
the online Help.
Example: To Define the Subset: All Cities in Mexico. Create a
subset that displays all the cities in Mexico.
Press [F6] (Subset) [F2] (Define). Fill in just the Country field, leaving all other
fields neutral. “Neutral” means that any status will qualify for the subset.
The dimmed Custom List check box is neutral.
The Subset Definition: Cities in Mexico
Page 114
Press [F10], name the subset Mexico, then view it: Mexico [F10] [F10].
The List of Cities in Mexico
To display the All Cities list again, press [F9].
Copying or moving information
You can use the Clipboard functions to copy and move
information within World Time, as well as to and from other
applications. You can also use Smart Clip (~~Clip~~) to
copy formatted information quickly from predefined fields in
the current application to another location. The clipping
features are described in chapter 1.
Limits while using World Time
Maximum number of cities in a list: limited by available RAM
disk space. Theoretical maximum: about 5,000. (All Cities list
has about 480 cities to begin with.)
The association of some cities with certain countries is
currently in flux, such as in eastern Europe and the former
Soviet Union. The countries given here were correct at the
time of this writing, but could change. You can edit a city’s
record if its country changes.
The latitude and longitude values are accurate to one-third of a
Page 115
degree. The values are given with decimal fractions of a
degree.
Maximum characters in a Note: 32 KB (about 30 screens).
World Time function keys
Function Keys for a City List or Map
Key Label Description
~~Add~~~ Opens a template to define a new city.
~~Note~~ Displays the full-screen Note for the highlighted
city.
~~Find~~ Searches for the specified character string (letters
or other characters).
~~Clip~~ To copy predefined fields (a Smart Clip) from
World Time to the Clipboard. Also to define
new Smart Clips. Smart Clip definitions are
also used in Custom Style printing. See
chapter 1.
~Subset~ To display and/or define a specified subset of the
city list.
~ªLocal~ Sets the highlighted city as the local city.
Convert~ Converts times across time zones.
~Custom~ Displays the Custom Cities list. (Toggles with
~~All~~~.)
~~All~~~ Displays the All Cities list. (Toggles with
~Custom~.)
~~Map~~~ Displays the map if a list is visible. (Toggles with
~~List~~.)
~~List~~ Displays the current list if the map is visible.
(Toggles with ~~Map~~~.)
Page 116
Function Keys for a City Record (an Item)
Key Label Description
~~Add~~~
Opens a template to define a new city.
~~Note~~
Displays the full-screen note field for this
record.
~~Find~~
Searches for the specified character string
(letters or other characters).
~~Clip~~
To copy predefined fields (a Smart Clip) from
World Time to the Clipboard. Also to define
new Smart Clips.
~~Prev~~
Displays the previous city’s record.
~~Next~~
Displays the next city’s record.
~Locate~
Pinpoints the location of the current city on
the map. Moving the cross hairs changes the
latitude and longitude specified for the
current city.
Page 117
6
The Stopwatch
Press [&É] [W] to start the Stopwatch application, which has a
stopwatch, countdown timer, and alarm clock.
The Stopwatch, Countdown Timer, and Alarm Clock
To use the Stopwatch:
Press [F2] to reset the time to zero, if necessary.
Press [F4] to start time counting.
Press [F4] to stop counting. Press [F4] again to restart.
If the stopwatch reaches 24 hours, it resets to zero and
continues.
To use the Countdown Timer:
In the Timer field, enter the number of minutes (or hours : minutes) to count
down.
Optional: tab to the Message field and change the message to be displayed
when the countdown reaches zero.
If you want the Timer to continue repeating the countdown until you stop it,
tab to the Repeat check box and press [SPACEBAR].
Press [F8] to start the countdown.
Page 118
Press [F8] to stop the countdown, if necessary.
Press [ENTER] or [ESC] to erase the message at the end of the countdown.
The countdown either stops at zero (the default) or continues
counting negatively, depending on the setting of [MENU] Timer
Stop-Timer-at-Zero.
To cause the Countdown Timer to count past zero
(negative time):
Press [MENU] [T] [Z]. This removes the checkmark next to the
Stop-Timer-at-Zero command.
Repeat these steps to check the setting, causing the Timer to
stop counting at zero.
To stop the Countdown Timer at any time:
Press [F8].
Press [F6] to reset the Timer’s countdown time as specified. This does not start
the countdown.
To use the Alarm Clock:
Press [ALT]+[A] and enter the clock time for the alarm.
Press [F10] to set the alarm. This checks the Alarm On check box.
When the alarm goes off, press any key to stop the alarm.
To cancel an alarm that is set, press [F10]. This removes the
check from the Alarm On check box.
Page 119
7
The Memo Editor
Press [F] to start the Memo Editor. Each memo you create is a
separate file.
The Memo Editor is a text editor with these formatting
features:
Automatic word wrapping at the ends of lines.
Bold, underline, and normal typefaces.
Different font sizes for the display.
Settings for tabs, margins, and display spacing.
Insert mode (inserts text) and Replace mode (writes over text).
Outline (hierarchical) numbering available.
Formatted and unformatted (ASCII) file status.
Creating a memo
Each memo you create is a separate file.
To start a new memo:
Press [F] to start the Memo Editor.
If the screen shows no text, you can start typing immediately. You will name
the memo later when you save it.
If another memo is already displayed, press [MENU] [F] [N]. The File New
command automatically closes any open file first, prompting you to save it,
Page 120
if necessary.
Write your memo text.
Editing a Memo
Keys
[FN] INS
Description
Toggles between Insert mode and Replace
(type-over) mode for text entry.
[CTRL]+[FN] INS Inserts a line.
[CTRL]+[DEL]
Deletes a line.
[CTRL]+[ENTER] Breaks to a new line, even in Replace mode.
Moving Around a Memo
Keys
[FN] PG UP,
Description
[FN] PG DN
Moves backward or forward
in memo by one screenful.
[FN] HOME,
[FN] END Moves to beginning or end of
line.
[CTRL]+[I], [CTRL]+[H]
Moves backward or forward one
word.
[CTRL]+[FN] HOME, [CTRL]+[FN] END Moves to beginning
or end of memo.
[TAB]
Moves cursor to next tab stop.
To “stamp” the current date or time in a memo:
Press [FN] DATE or [FN] TIME. This inserts the current date or
current time at the position of the cursor.
Date and time stamping are different from date and time print
fields. Print fields insert codes into the memo that are
interpreted only during printing.
Page 121
Saving memo files
Any changes to a memo file are not saved on the RAM disk
until you complete the save procedure.
To save a memo:
Press [F10] when the memo is done or you want to save what you’ve written so
far.
If the memo is new and has no name yet, you’ll be prompted to name it: Type a
new file name of up to 8 characters and press [ENTER]. The Memo Editor
automatically appends .DOC to the file name. To enter a name without a
file extension, include a final period after the name.
If you want to save the file in a different directory or drive than
the current one, type the full path name in the box, such as
A:\BUDGET\NEWMEMO.
To back up a memo onto a memory card:
This copies the current memo file to a memory card in drive A,
the plug-in slot.
Open the memo file you want to back up.
Press [MENU] [F] [A] (File Save-As).
Specify a new or existing file on drive A (A:\filename) for the backup copy.
Press [F10].
Saving memos as ASCII text files
Memo Editor files are one of two types:
Formatted. The file contains all the formatting information of
the Memo Editor’s features: margins, headers, typeface,
outlining, and so on.
ASCII (Unformatted). An ASCII file is just characters
(letters, numbers, spaces). It has no formatting, other than line
breaks (made by pressing [ENTER]). The margins are
automatically set at 9 and 72.
A new file is ASCII until you enter some formatting
information.
If you want to create or edit a file for use in another program
(whether a palmtop application or not), you should save it as an
Page 122
ASCII (unformatted) file. Programs other than the Memo
Editor cannot read a Memo-Editor-formatted file. For instance,
if you wanted to transfer a memo from the palmtop to a PC
with WordPerfect, you should transfer it as an ASCII file.
To save a memo file as an ASCII file:
When you want to save or convert a memo file to ASCII, you
can either change the file from formatted to ASCII (same file
name), or create an ASCII copy of the formatted file (new file
name).
Press [F] to start the Memo Editor.
Open the file you want to convert.
Press [MENU] [F] [A] (File Save-As).
Accept the given file name (to alter the current file) or type a new one (to
make an ASCII copy). (This does not affect the memo you see on the
screen, it affects the version saved on disk.)
Check the ASCII check box ([TAB] [SPACEBAR]).
Press [F10] to save the new format (or [ESC] to cancel it).
Tips
To make it easy for you to distinguish formatted and ASCII
files by their file names, you could change the file name
extension for each ASCII file from .DOC (the default for a
Memo Editor file) to something else, such as .TXT. The
Memo Editor can detect the status of a file regardless of its
extension.
The Save As dialog box also appears the first time you save a
file, since you must give a new file a name. The ASCII
check box appears unchecked if the file has any formatting
information in it; otherwise it appears checked.
A shortcut for [MENU] File Save-As is [L] [F10].
Page 123
Settings for saving memo files
To turn auto-saving on or off:
Auto-saving automatically saves the current state of the
current memo every few minutes.
In the Memo Editor, press [MENU] [O] [S] (Options Setup).
Press the [SPACEBAR] to check or clear the Auto-save check box.
If you’re turning auto-saving on, tab to the Frequency box and enter the
number of minutes between auto-saves.
Press [F10] when done.
To change the default memo file name extension:
In the Memo Editor, press [MENU] [O] [S] (Options Setup).
Tab to the Default File Extension box and enter the new file name extension to
replace .DOC as the default when you save and open files.
Press [F10] when done.
Password protection for memos
You can set or change a password for a memo by pressing
[MENU] [F] [W]. Password protection for a memo takes effect
the first time the memo is saved after the password has been
set. Note that when you copy a file, its password (if any) is
copied, too. Password protected files can be deleted, but a
forgotten password cannot be removed from a file.
Formatting a memo
To start boldface, underlined, or bold underlined text
in a memo:
Press [F2] (boldface), [F3] (underlining), or [F2] [F3](bold underlining) to start
the new typeface.
Type the text you want in that typeface.
Press [F2] to stop boldface, [F3] to stop underlining, or [F2] [F3] to stop bold
underlining.
Page 124
To change the typeface of existing text:
Highlight the text you want to change by simultaneously pressing [L] and an
arrow key.
Press [F2] for boldface and/or [F3] for underlining.
To set headers and footers:
Press [MENU] [T] [H]. Use [TAB] to move among the fields.
Enter the text for the header and/or footer you want.
ress [F10] (or [ESC] to cancel).
To set the margins:
The space for the left margin does not appear in the display,
though it is shown on the ruler. The left margin does appear on
the printed page. This setting applies to the current file only.
Press [MENU] [T] [M] (Format Margins).
Fill in the fields.
Left sets the number of columns (or characters) of
indentation from the left side of a page.
Right sets the last available column on the right side of the
page.
3. Press [F10] when done. (Or [ESC] to cancel the settings.)
To set or delete a tab stop:
Press [MENU] [T] [T].
Use the left and right arrow keys to position the vertical bar to the location for
a tab stop.
Press [F4] to set the tab or [F5] to delete it.
To insert a page break (for printing):
Press [MENU] [E] [I].
Highlight Page break and press [F10].
To add page numbers (for printing):
If you want the page numbers to appear in a header or footer on
each page, press [MENU] [T] [H] (Format Header/Footer).
Press [F6] (PrntFld).
Select “Page number field” and press [F10]. The code lPGk appears. This is
Page 125
converted to the actual page number during printing.
If you need to close the Header/Footer dialog box, press [F10].
To add date and time fields (for printing):
If you want the date or time field to appear in a header or footer on each page,
press [MENU] [T] [H] (Format Header/Footer).
Press [F6] (PrntFld).
Select “Date field” or “Time field” and press [F10]. The code lDATEk or
lTIMEk appears. This is converted to the date or time at the time of
printing.
If you need to close the Header/Footer dialog box, press [F10].
Editing or reading a memo
To open an existing memo:
Press [MENU] [F] [O].
Type its file name and press [ENTER]. The File Open command automatically
closes any open file, prompting you to save it if necessary.
To re-open one of the last two memos opened:
Press [F] to start the Memo Editor.
Press [MENU] [F] [1] (or [MENU] [F] [2]).
To delete a block of text:
Hold down [L] and press an arrow key until all the text you want to delete is
highlighted.
Press [DEL].
You can also use CUT as described in the following procedure.
To CUT, COPY, PASTE:
The Clipboard holds text that has been “cut” (erased) or copied
so that it can be “pasted” back in. The Clipboard keys are
shown in purple on the keyboard (for instance, you press [FN]
then [.] to execute a cut).
Select the text of interest by highlighting it: place the cursor at the beginning of
the text region, then simultaneously hold down [L] and press an arrow
key until the text you want is highlighted.
Press [FN] COPY (to copy) or [FN] CUT (to delete or to move text). Both COPY
Page 126
and CUT move the highlighted text into the Clipboard buffer.
If you want to copy or move the text, move the cursor to the new location to
insert the text.
Press [FN] PASTE to copy the selected text into place.
If you CUT something by mistake, press [FN] PASTE to
restore it.
To save editing changes:
Press [F10](Save).
To cancel editing changes:
If you are using the Auto-save option, only the changes since
the last auto-save can be canceled (not saved).
Press [MENU] [Q] to quit the Memo Editor. A dialog box will ask whether you’d
like to save the changes to the current file.
Press [F5] (No).
Copying or deleting information
Smart clip: copying multiple fields from records
Smart Clip uses the Clipboard to copy information quickly
from the current application to another one. For example, you
might want to copy a name and phone number from the Phone
Book into a memo. For more information, see also chapter 1.
To clip information from another application into a memo:
Start the application you want to copy from.
Select the records (highlight and press [SPACEBAR]) whose information you want
to clip. To select or de-select all records in the current list, press [MENU] [E]
[A].
Press [F5] to display the Smart Clip list.
Highlight the Smart Clip you want and press [F10].
Open the memo you want to copy to.
Place the cursor where you want the information to be copied.
Press [FN] PASTE.
Example: Clipping Appointment Information into a Memo.
Suppose you are writing a memo and would like to include
Page 127
information about an appointment. You can use Smart Clip to
quickly copy that information into your memo. Note that in the
Appointment Book, you can clip only one record at a time.
Leave the memo and the Memo Editor open.
Press [B] and open the appointment record you want (highlight it in the list,
press [ENTER]).
Press [F5] (Clip) and select the Smart Clip for “All Fields, No Notes”. Press
[F10] when done.
Press [F], position the cursor where you want to insert the information, and
press [FN] PASTE.
Deleting, copying, or inserting memos
To delete a memo file:
Use the Filer application to delete files.
Press [E] to start the Filer.
Highlight the file to delete. If it is not in the display, you might need to open its
directory first: highlight the name of the directory and press [ENTER].
Press [MENU] [F] [D]. Press [F10] to confirm.
To rename a file, use the Filer application’s File Rename
command.
To copy a memo file:
Press [F] to open the Memo Editor.
Open the memo to copy, if it is not already displayed.
Press [MENU] [F] [A] (File Save-As).
Type the new file name for the copy in the Save File As box.
Press [F10] to create the copy (or [ESC] to cancel).
To insert another file into a memo:
Insert only other memo (.DOC) or ASCII files into a memo.
Press [F] to open the Memo Editor.
Open the memo that will receive the insertion.
Press [MENU] [F] [I] (File Insert).
Enter the name of the file you want to insert into the current memo.
Press [F10] to insert the file.
Page 128
Searching a memo file
To find any piece of text in a memo:
With a memo open, press [F4] (Find) and fill out the dialog box.
Press [F4] (Next) to search forward or press [F3] (Previous) to search backward
from the current position.
To repeat the search, press [L] [F4].
To find and replace any piece of text:
From the beginning of a memo, press [F5] (Fnd&Rep) and fill
out the dialog box.
Press [F4] (FindNxt). This starts the search from the current position.
To replace the found text, press [F5] (Replace).
To leave the found text unchanged, press [F4] (FindNxt).
To automatically replace all text that matches, press [F6] (Rep All).
To go to (move the cursor to) a specific line in a
memo:
With a memo open, press [MENU] [S] [G] (Search Goto-LineNumber).
Type in the line number and press [F10].
You can find the line number of the cursor’s current position in
the status line (upper right).
Options for displaying the memo
To change the size of the characters in the display:
Press [FN] ZOOM (or use [MENU] View Character-Size). This
cycles through three different display sizes:
40 columns by 16 lines (biggest print).
64 columns by 18 lines (default).
80 columns by 25 lines (smallest print).
To change the spacing between lines in the display:
Press [MENU] [V] [Z] (View Character-Size).
Page 129
Press [TAB] to select the Display Line Spacing box.
Enter a number, 1 through 9. This sets the number of pixels between lines. A
pixel is one dot on the screen.
Press [F10] (or [ESC] to cancel).
This setting does not affect printing.
To display or hide the ruler:
The ruler marks column numbers, margins, and tab settings.
Press [MENU] [V] [R] (View Ruler). This toggles the ruler on
and off.
To display or hide the status bar information:
The status bar tells you whether the current file has been
MODIFIED since last saved, has BOLDface and/or
UNDERlining on, has capitalization on (CAPS), is in INSERT
or REPLACE mode, or has formatting codes or not
(FORMATTED or ASCII). It also shows the line and column
position of the cursor.
Press [MENU] [V] [S] (View Status). This toggles the status bar
on and off.
To display or hide control characters:
When turned on, this displays carriage-return and tab
characters.
Press [MENU] [V] [C] (View Ctrl-Characters). This is a toggle
setting.
Page 130
Using outline-style numbering
Outline numbering creates text entries set off by indentation
and hierarchical numbering. This can include indented text that
is not numbered.
When outlining is active, it does this:
Each time you press [ENTER], another number or letter
automatically appears in the proper sequence at the left
margin or after an indentation.
You can change the level of numbering using Promote ([F7])
and Demote ([F8]). Demoting makes an item subordinate and
promoting makes an item superior to the one above it.
Outlined Text with Roman Numerals
Outlined Text with Decimal Numeration
Starting outline (Hierarchical) numbering
Page 131
First choose the numbering type:
This affects the current memo only. It affects the entire memo,
including existing text that is above the cursor’s position.
Press [MENU] [T] [O] (Format Outline).
Arrow to highlight Decimal or Roman numeral.
If you want to adjust the indentation, press [TAB] and enter a number of
character spaces (1-5).
Press [F10].
Then use Promote or Demote to start numbering:
Promote and Demote affect the numbering of the current line,
whether the line has text already or not.
Press [F7] to start numbering on the current unnumbered line.
If the line has no text yet, enter your text.
Press [ENTER] at the end of the entry. Another number (the next one in
sequence) appears. To remove a final number without text, press [K] or [J].
To create a sub-topic (subordinate entry) and
increase indentation:
Press [F8] (Demote). This “demotes” the numbering level of
the current line, such as from I. to A. or 1.1 to 1.1.1.
To create a super-topic (superior entry) and decrease
indentation:
Press [F7] (Promote). This “promotes” the numbering level of
the current line, such as from I.B. to II. or from 1.1.2 to 1.2.
To enter text without numbering:
Press [F8] until there is no beginning number.
Pressing [F8] again moves the unnumbered text back out to the
margin. Once you have entered unnumbered, unindented text
like this, the next promotion or demotion starts a new outline
(level I. or 1.).
Page 132
To stop outline numbering and indentation:
Simply press [F8] (or [F7]) until numbering and indentation are
gone, leaving the line flush against the left margin.
This affects the current line and future text, but not previous
text.
Editing existing outlined text
To remove numbering from a subtopic:
Place the cursor on the line in question, and press [F8] until the
numbering disappears.
If you want the text flush left, press [F8] again.
To promote or demote existing text:
Promoting raises the outline level of the current line, while
demoting lowers it.
Place the cursor on the line to change.
Press [F7] (Promote) or [F8] (Demote).
Printing a memo
There are three paths to take for printing memos:
Print to Printer: You can print a memo using a printer
connected to the palmtop.
Print to Printer with Connectivity Pack: You can print a
memo from a PC that has the Connectivity Pack installed.
(Copy the memo file from the palmtop to the PC, then print
the file to the PC’s printer using the Connectivity Pack
Memo Editor.)
Print to File: You can print a memo from another computer
that does not have the Connectivity Pack by printing to a file
and transferring it with Datacomm.
About printing to a printer
Printing to a printer requires that a serial printer is properly
Page 133
connected to the palmtop, and that both the printer and the
palmtop are properly configured. You configure the printer
settings for the palmtop via the Setup utility ([&É] [S] [MENU]
[O] [P]). Chapter 28 should help you set up most printers.
About printing to a file
Printing to a file creates a print file that contains control codes
that the printer (the one specified in the Setup utility) can
interpret. To copy this file to another computer, use one of the
file-transfer protocols given in the Datacomm application
([&É] [C]). You can then print out this memo file by copying
the binary file to a printer.
To print a memo from the palmtop:
Press [F] to start the Memo Editor.
Open the file you want to print ([F9]).
Press [MENU] [F] [P] (File Print).
Highlight either the Printer or the File option button in the Print-to box.
Press [F10] to print.
Setting up printing information
Press [MENU] [F] [P] [S] (File Print Setup) to specify:
How much printing should appear on a page.
Starting and/or ending the print-out with special information
(initialization and termination strings).
Page 134
Field:
Meaning:Page LengthSpecifies the lines of printable area on the
paper. For paper 8½ x 11 inches: The default page length (60) is
appropriate for sheet-fed printers (such as HP Laserjet and HP
Deskjet types), as well as for fanfold-paper printers set to skip the
paper’s perforations. Other fanfold-paper printers require a pagelength setting of 66 lines. See the printer’s manual for more
information.Top MarginSpecifies the number of blank lines to
leave above the printed text. Default is zero lines for sheet-fed
printers (like HP Laserjet and HP Deskjet) because the page length
setting already takes top and bottom margins into account. Many
fanfold-paper printers need a top margin setting of three.Bottom
MarginSpecifies the number of blank lines to leave below the
printed text. Default is zero lines for sheet-fed printers (like HP
Laserjet and HP Deskjet) because the page length setting already
takes top and bottom margins into account. Many fanfold-paper
printers need a bottom margin setting of three.Initialization
StringSpecifies optional printer-control sequences (up to 128
characters) before the print-out begins. An initialization code
might set landscape mode or select a certain font set. The exact
codes and meanings depend on the printer.Termination
StringSpecifies optional printer-control sequences (up to 128
characters) after the print-out ends. A termination code might set a
form-feed to occur at the end of the print-out or reset portrait mode
(for the next print-out). The exact codes and meanings depend on
the printer.
To enter a control code on the palmtop:
Type [\] nnn, where nnn is a three-digit control code. For
example, the control code for ESC is typed as \027.
Refer to your printer’s owner’s manual for information on
which control codes are available and what they do.
Memo Editor function keys
Key Label Description
~~Bold~~ Starts/stops boldface; makes selected text bold.
Underln~ Starts/stops underlining; makes selected text
underlined.
~~Find~~ Searches for the specified text.
Fnd&Rep~ Searches for the specified text and replaces it as
Page 135
specified.
PrntFld~ To mark the spot where a page break, page
number, current time, or current date should
be inserted during printing.
Promote~ Raises the hierarchical numbering one level for the
current line.
~Demote~ Lowers the hierarchical numbering one level for
the current line. Use also to eliminate
numbering.
~~Open~~ Asks for the name of a memo file to open.
~~Save~~ Saves the current memo file.
Page 136
8
The Note Taker
The Note Taker lets you create, save in a list, search, and edit
short notes. Use the Memo Editor to create or edit larger
memos, but use the Note Taker when you want to jot down
brief notes and keep them in a list for quick and easy access.
Since the notes are organized as items in a list rather than as
separate files, they are easy to scan, sort, search, and organize.
Press [&É] [N] to start the Note Taker.
The Note List
To open a note record:
In the note list, highlight an item and press [ENTER] or [F3]
(Note). (~~Note~~ displays the Full Screen Note.)
Press [F6] (Prev) or [F7] (Next) to see other notes.
The text of the note can fill more than one screen. To see more
text in the Note field or Full Screen Note, press [FN] PG DN or
[FN] PG UP.
Page 137
Creating a note
Each note can be up to 32 KB long (about 30 screens).
To add a new note:
In the Note Taker, press [F2] (Add).
Fill in the fields. Use [TAB] to move among fields.
Title. Identifies the note in the note list.
The main, unlabeled field is for your text.
Categor y. Includes a list of any categories used for notes. You can enter a
new category or press [J] to see the list and select an existing category.
This field can have up to 32 category choices or 255 characters (no
more than 128 characters per choice). You can categorize the records to
view subsets of notes just like you would view subsets of phone records
or cities from the World Time city list.
Press [F10] when done, or press [F2] to add another note. This saves the note
automatically. (Or press [ESC] to not save the note.)
Adding a Note Record
To “stamp” the current time or date in a note:
Press [FN] DATE or [FN] TIME. This inserts the current date or
current time at the position of the cursor.
To save a note as an ASCII (unformatted text) file:
Highlight the note in the note list, or open the note record.
Press [F3] [F2] (Note Save-As).
Page 138
Enter the file name. There is no default file extension.
Press [F10] to save the file, or press [ESC] to cancel.
Editing or deleting notes
To edit (change) a note:
Display the note list.
Highlight the item you want to edit.
Press [ENTER] or [F3] (Note) to open the note’s record.
Edit the Title, Category, or Note.
To clear the Title or Category, highlight it and press [DEL].
To restore the previous Title or Category, press [ESC].
Press [F10] to save your changes, or press [ESC] to cancel them.
To copy or move note information:
You can use the Clipboard functions to copy and move
information within the Note Taker, as well as to and from other
applications.
You can use Smart Clip to copy formatted information quickly
from predefined fields in one application to another location.
For example, you might want to copy a name and phone
number from the Phone Book into a note. ~~Clip~~ provides
predefined choices of fields to copy, and lets you define others
yourself. The predefined Smart Clip from the Note Taker is
“All Fields”.
The Clipboard and Smart Clip are covered in chapter 1.
To copy a complete note record:
Display the note list and highlight the note you want to copy.
Press [FN] COPY.
Press [FN] PASTE. The new note is sorted with the other notes.
To insert an ASCII text file into a note:
In the Note Taker, open the note you want to add to.
Press [F3] (Note) to display the Full Screen Note.
Page 139
Position the cursor where you want to insert the text.
Press [F3] (Insert).
Specify the file name. It must be an ASCII text file.
Press [F10].
To clear (erase) the text of a note:
Highlight the note in the list or open its record.
Press [F3] (Note) to display the Full Screen Note.
Press [F4] (Clear) to erase the Note field.
To delete a note:
Display the note list.
Highlight the note to delete.
If you want to delete several notes, select each note by
highlighting it and then pressing [SPACEBAR].
Press [DEL].
To restore the last deleted or edited note:
Press [MENU] [E] [U] (Edit Undo) before doing another
operation.
To erase all notes:
Display the note list.
Press [MENU] [E] [A] (Edit Select-All).
Press [DEL] [F10].
This deletes all the records from the current Note Taker file.
Changing the data card
The data card that shows up in your list of notes screen
contains information from the record of the highlighted note.
You can turn on (the default) or off the data card so that it is or
is not displayed from the list screen. You can also redefine what
the data card contains.
To remove the data card from the notes list:
Display the notes list. Press [ESC] or [F10], if necessary.
Press [MENU] [V] (View) to see the View commands.
Page 140
The default state of the Show-DataCard option is on (checked). Press [D] to
uncheck the box and remove the card from the list.
To restore the data card to the notes list, press [MENU] [V] [D]
(View Show-DataCard) to recheck the option.
To customize the data card definition:
The data card is simply a Smart Clip of the information on a
note record. You can edit the definition of the data card Smart
Clip using [F5] (Clip) from the notes list. (Note in the data card
definition that - and = are formatting commands that render
thin and thick lines.) For more information on editing Smart
Clips, see chapter 1.
Searching the Note Taker
To look up a note (speed-locate):
Display the note list.
Start typing the title of the note.
Press [ENTER] when done, or arrow to the title you want.
The speed-locate operates as it does in the Database and the
Phone Book.
To find any piece of text in the notes:
From the note list or record, press [F4] (Find).
Fill in the box with the characters or text to search for. Optional: Select the
check boxes (press [SPACEBAR] to change) for the options you want.
Press [F10] to search forward from the beginning of the list.
Or press [F4] (Next) to search forward from the current
(highlighted) position.
Or press [F3] (Previous) to search backward from the current position
To repeat the search, press [L] [F4].
If you want to search through only the titles or categories of the
notes (and not the bodies of the notes), you can speed up a
Page 141
search by not checking Include Notes for the search.
Using multiple Note Taker files
You can create more than one Note Taker file, thereby creating
more than one notes list in this application. Use [MENU] File
New or [MENU] File Copy to create a new Note Taker file. Use
[MENU] File Merge to merge another Note Taker file into the
current one.
Using subsets of the Note Taker
The ~Subset~ function displays a specified subset of your
note list. You determine the subset by filling out the Title,
Category, and/or Note fields according to the contents you want
to select for. For example, you could display the titles of just
those notes in the Category “Children”, or just those notes that
mention “computer.” To define and view subsets of the note
list, follow the instructions under Defining subsets of a
database, chapter 6.
Limits while using the Note Taker
Maximum number of notes (items) in Note Taker (one file):
limited by available RAM disk space. Theoretical maximum:
about 5,000.
All the notes are part of one file. However, you can create more
than one Note Taker file if you wish.
Maximum length of a note: 32 KB characters (about 30
screens).
Note Taker function keys
Function Keys for the Note List
Key Label Description
~~Add~~~ Opens a template to write a new note.
~~Note~~ Displays Full Screen Note for highlighted item.
Page 142
~~Find~~ Searches for the specified character string (letters
or other characters).
~~Clip~~ To copy predefined fields (a Smart Clip) from the
Note Taker to the Clipboard. Also to define
new Smart Clips and to edit the data card.
See chapter 1. Smart Clip definitions are also
used in Custom Style printing.
~Subset~ To display and/or define a specified subset of the
note list.
~~Sort~~ Specifies how to sort the notes for the list.
Columns~ Specifies how many columns appear in a list, how
wide they are, and which fields they display.
~~Open~~ To open a different Note Taker file.
Function Keys for a Note Record (an Item)
Key Label Description
~~Add~~~ Opens a template to write a new note.
~~Note~~ Displays the Full Screen Note.
~~Find~~ Searches for the specified character string (letters
or other characters).
~~Clip~~ To copy predefined fields (a Smart Clip) from the
Note Taker to the Clipboard. Also to define
new Smart Clips.
~~Prev~~ Displays the previous note.
~~Next~~ Displays the next note.
Function Keys for the Full Screen Note
Key Label Description
Save~As~ Saves the current note in the specified ASCII text
file.
Page 143
~Insert~ Copies the specified ASCII text file into the
current note at the position of the cursor.
~Clear~~ Erases the Note field.
Page 144
9
Pocket Quicken Basics
If you haven’t started Pocket Quicken yet, turn to chapter 4 in
the Quick Start Guide and follow the instructions there. Then
read the material here as necessary.
This chapter covers the concepts fundamental to Pocket Quikken: files, accounts, categories, groups, transactions, and the
register. If these Quicken terms aren’t familiar, you should read
the next few pages to gain an understanding of how Pocket
Quicken data is organized. Also, at the end of this chapter is a
section about sharing Pocket Quicken data with a desktop
version of Quicken.
About files and accounts
Quicken data is kept in files. Within a file, you create one or
more accounts to store different types of transactions.
Accounts can be cash, credit card, or bank/check (savings or
checking).
The initial file created when you start Pocket Quicken is called
QDATA.PDT. (All Pocket Quicken files have a .PDT
extension.)
Most users need only one file for their data, but may use
several accounts within that file. For example, within one file
you might have separate accounts for your checks, your cash, a
company credit card, and a personal credit card.
You can password protect a Pocket Quicken file by
following the instructions on on chapter 1.
To set up an additional account:
If you followed the instructions in chapter 4 of the Quick Start
Guide, you should have set up a Pocket Quicken account.
Page 145
In Pocket Quicken press [MENU] [L] [A] (Lists Account) to see the list of
accounts.
Press [F2] (Add) to see the Add Account screen.
Fill in the Add Account screen, pressing [TAB] after each entry. Press [F1]
(Help) if you need a description of the fields—[ESC] then returns you to
where you were.
When you’re finished, press [F10] (Save).
Adding an Account
To display the list of accounts:
There are two lists of accounts that you can display:
Press [ESC] until you reach the main list of accounts, which is
your Pocket Quicken Home Base screen. You can do most
tasks starting from here.
Press [CTRL]+[A] to display a list of accounts in the current
Pocket Quicken data file.
To select another account to use:
The account selected becomes the current account for
transactions.
Press [CTRL]+[A].
Use [K] and [J] to highlight the account you want to use and press [ENTER].
To edit information about an account:
You can change the name of a Pocket Quicken account and its
description.
Press [CTRL]+[A] Highlight the account you want to edit and press [F4] (Edit).
Change the information as desired, pressing [TAB] after each entry.
When you’re finished, press [F10] (Save).
Page 146
To delete an account:
Deleting an account permanently removes all of that account’s
records from your file. Once you delete an account there is no
way to recover it. When you delete an account, Pocket Quicken
also deletes the account name from the category field of any
transfer transactions.
Press [ESC] until you reach the Pocket Quicken Home Base screen (the list of
accounts).
Highlight the account you want to delete.
Press [DEL].
Respond to the warning by selecting whether you want other accounts’ transfer
references to this account to be removed from the other accounts or not.
Press [F10] (Delete) to complete the deletion or [F9] (Cancel).
To trim your data file:
You can “trim” the current Quicken data file to remove old
transactions. This doesn’t reduce the file size, but it does make
room for new transactions to be added without increasing the
file size. Before you trim a file, you might want to use the Filer
to make a backup copy of the file.
Press [ESC] until you reach the Pocket Quicken Home Base screen (the list of
accounts).
Press [MENU] [F] [T] (File Trim).
Enter a date before which transactions will be removed.
Uncheck the relevant check box if you do not want to keep uncleared
transactions before the set date.
When you’re finished filling in the screen, press [F10] (OK).
To set up additional files:
Most people need only one Pocket Quicken file. However, you
may want to set up additional files to keep, for example, your
personal finances separate from your business finances; or, you
may want to keep a separate file for each year’s accounts.
Press [ESC] until your reach the Pocket Quicken Home Base screen (the list of
accounts).
Press [MENU] [F] [N] (File New).
Fill in the Create New File screen, pressing [TAB] after each entry.
Page 147
Don’t give the file name an extension; Pocket Quicken
automatically gives the file a .PDT extension.
Press [F1] if you need Help.
When you’re finished, press [F10] to create the file.
A newly created Pocket Quicken file becomes the current file.
You will need to set up accounts in it before you can add
transactions.
To choose another file:
When you start Pocket Quicken, it opens the last file you used.
Press [ESC] until your reach the Pocket Quicken Home Base screen (the list of
accounts).
Press [MENU] [F] [O] (File Open) to open another Pocket Quicken file. For
more information on file commands, see Using file commands in chapter 1.
About categories and groups
Pocket Quicken offers you two independent ways to organize
your transactions: using categories and using groups.
Add Transaction Screen
Screen dump of entry screen with a callout pointing out the
category and group fields.
Page 148
What’s a category?
A category tells you how you got your income (salary,
dividends, bonus, etc.) or where you spent your money (auto,
food, charity, etc.). Categories enable you to combine similar
transactions in reports. For example, you could get a report of
all your charitable gifts for last year.
Pocket Quicken provides you with predefined categories when
you create your data file.
All accounts in a file share the same set of categories.
Categories can have subcategories, such as Fuel, Loan, and
Service under the Auto expense category (Auto:Fuel,
Auto:Loan, Auto:Service).
You can add and delete categories from the list, and you can
demote categories to subcategories and promote subcategories
to categories.
You assign categories to transactions as you fill in the Add
Transaction screen. That process is covered in detail later in
this chapter in the section Entering transactions.
To display the category list:
Press [MENU] [L] [C] (Lists Category); or, as a shortcut, press
[CTRL]+[C].
To add a new category or subcategory to the list:
Press [MENU] [L] [C] (Lists Category) to display the category
list.
Press [F2] (Add) and fill in the fields. Press [F1] if you need Help.
When you’re finished, press [F10] (Save).
You can also add a category or subcategory on the fly when
you’re entering a transaction. Simply type a new category name
in the category field, press [ENTER], and respond to the prompt.
For a subcategory, type the category name, a colon, and then
the new subcategory name. The new category is added to the
list.
Page 149
To change a category or subcategory:
When you edit a category or subcategory, you can change its
name, description, or type. Change the Category Type field to
promote a subcategory to a category (income or expense),
demote a category to a subcategory of another category, or
move a subcategory to be under another category.
Press [MENU] [L] [C] (Lists Category) to display the category list.
Highlight the category you want to change.
Press [F4] (Edit) and make your changes.
When you’re finished, press [F10] (Save).
To delete a category or subcategory from the list:
When you delete a category, it is erased from the category field
of any transactions to which it was assigned. When you delete a
subcategory, its name is erased from the category list, but any
transactions to which it was assigned are reassigned to its
parent category.
Before a category with subcategories can be deleted, you must
promote the subcategories or move them to another category.
Press [MENU] [L] [C] (Lists Category) to display the category list.
Highlight the category you want to delete.
Press [F8] (Delete).
To merge two categories:
Merge two categories by making the category you don’t want
into a subcategory of the other category. Then, delete the
subcategory. That way all its transactions are automatically
reassigned to the parent category. See the previous procedures
for changing categories and deleting categories.
What’s a group?
Groups are independent of categories; you use groups to separate transactions by trip, client, project, or class. For example,
you could assign all transactions on a business trip to a trip
Page 150
named Phoenix, and then generate an expense report for that
trip. Or, you might assign transactions for food, auto, hotel, etc.
to a particular client so that you could later get a report of all
you spent on that client.
If you’re familiar with a desktop version of Quicken, you’ll
notice that group is analogous to class. In fact, if you exchange
data between Pocket Quicken and a desktop version of Quikken, the group and class lists are merged.
In Pocket Quicken you can change the group field title among
Trip (the default), Project, Client, or Class (a general
group). Also, the groups you set up can have subgroups for
further refining reports.
To change the group field title:
Press [MENU] [O] [G] (Options Group) to see the Group
Preferences screen.
Select a title for the field from the Group Name list.
Optional: Check the Auto Fill box if you want Pocket Quicken to enter a group
name automatically in each transaction. If you check this box, press [TAB]
and type the group name you want to use.
When you’re finished, press [F10] (Save).
Now, whenever you enter a transaction, the group field will
have the title you specified, and, optionally, the group you
specified will be entered as the default group automatically.
To display the group list:
Press [MENU] [L] [G] (Lists Group), or, as a shortcut, press
[CTRL]+[L].
To add groups and subgroups to the list:
Press [MENU] [L] [G] (Lists Group) to display the group list.
Press [F2] (Add) and fill in the fields. Press [F1] if you need Help.
When you’re finished, press [F10] (Save).
You can also add a group or subgroup when you’re entering a
transaction. Simply type a new group name in the group field,
press [ENTER], and respond to the prompt. For a subgroup, type
Page 151
the group name, a colon, and the new subgroup name. The new
group is added to the list.
Use the group field for expense reporting
One of the most useful features of Pocket Quicken is the ability
to track travel and entertainment expenses and then print them
in a report. The group field enables you to make this happen.
Here are some hints for effectively using the group field to
track travel and entertainment expenses:
Set the group field title to best match your needs. If you track
mostly trip expenses, use Trip; if you track mostly clientassociated expenses, use Client; if you track mostly projectrelated expenses, use Project. However, if you track a
mixture of expenses associated with various clients, trips,
and projects, use the more general title of Class.
Add groups to the group list that reflect the character of the
group of expenses. For example, you might create a group
named Boston for tracking expenses on a business trip to
Boston.
Use subgroups if you need to further refine your reports. For
example, say you have a group named ClientA to track all
your expenses associated with a particular client. If you
make regular trips to that client’s city, you might want to
track the expenses for each trip by using the subgroups
Trip1, Trip2, Trip3, etc. That way, you can get information
about the total money spent on ClientA as well as the money
spent on each trip you took to visit him.
Use categories as you normally would to track the type of
expenses: food, lodging, auto, etc. That way you can get
information on how much you spent on food, etc. for a
specified group.
Whenever you want a printed report for a certain trip, client,
etc., create your report using Pocket Quicken and then print it
using the Memo Editor. See chapter 11 for more details.
Page 152
Using the register
The account register is much the same as a paper check register
for a checking account. It shows date, check number, payee,
and payment or deposit amount for all transactions in the
current account.
A Register for a Checking Account
A quick way to search the register is to type the first letter of a
payee’s name and watch the highlight move. Keep typing the
first letter of the payee’s name until that payee is highlighted.
You use the register not only to view collective transactions in
an account, but as a convenient starting point to accomplish
many common Pocket Quicken tasks.
Tasks That Start from the Register
Task
Commands or Keys
Entering a new transaction.
Add ([F2])
Zooming in to see more entries on the screen.
Zoom ([F5])
Displaying the current account balance at the highlighted entry.
Balance ([F6])
Voiding the highlighted transaction.
Void ([F8])
Leaving the register to display the Home Base (the list of
accounts).
Accnts ([F9])
Page 153
Editing the highlighted transaction.
Deleting the highlighted transaction.
Edit ([F10])
[DEL]
Entering transactions
The transaction is the heart of Pocket Quicken. Enter a
transaction whenever you move money into or out of an
account.
The add transaction screen
Press [F2] (Add) from an account register to see the Add Transaction screen.
Add Transaction Screen
To enter a transaction, fill in the Add Transaction screen and
then press [F10] (Save). The palmtop beeps and returns to the
register.
Here’s a description of the fields in the Add Transaction screen:
Field:
Description:
Date
Enter the date of the transaction; the default is the current date. You can use
QuickKeys (shortcut keys) to fill in certain dates—for example, [+]
and [-] increment the date by one day. To see a complete list of
these keys from the Add Transaction screen, press [F1] (Help), tab
to Date, and press [ENTER]; press [ESC] to return where you were.
Payee
Enter the name of the party to whom you paid money or from whom you
received money.
Amount
Enter the amount of the transaction. Don’t worry about the sign of the
amount; Pocket Quicken automatically adds or subtracts the
Page 154
amount from the account based on the type of transaction—for
example, a deposit is added to the account.
ChkNum
Enter the transaction number (optional). For a check, enter the check
number; for a payment or invoice, enter the invoice number.
When the cursor is in this field, you can use [+] or
[-] to change the current transaction number by one.
Category
Enter the category to use for reports (optional). If you enter a new category,
you’ll be prompted to add it to the category list.
To see the category list, press [J]. You can use this list to select a category
for the transaction by highlighting the category you want and
pressing [ENTER].
To enter a subcategory, separate it from the category with a colon—for
example, Auto:Fuel.
Trip
This is the group field, and Trip is the default title. See What’s a group?
earlier in this chapter if you want to change the group field title.
Enter the name of the group to use for reports (optional). If you
enter a new group, you’ll be prompted to add it to the group list.
To see the group list, press [J]. You can use this list to select a group for the
transaction by highlighting the group you want and pressing
[ENTER].
To enter a subgroup, separate it from the group with a colon—for example,
Portland:Visit1.
Memo
Enter a one-line description of the transaction (optional).
Account
Enter the account for the transaction. The current account is the default. If
you enter a new account name, you’ll be prompted to create the
new account, which, once created, becomes the current account for
your transactions.
To see the list of accounts, press [J]. You can use this list to select an
account for the transaction by highlighting the one you want and
pressing [ENTER]. The account you select becomes the current
account.
Transaction Type Enter the transaction type, such as check or deposit. Use [K] and [J] to
cycle through the acceptable types.
Page 155
Cleared Status
Leave the status as Not Cleared for normal transactions. This field is used
by Pocket Quicken during the reconciliation process. The only time
you should select Cleared or Reconciled is when you’re entering
historical transactions that have already cleared your bank.
To add a transaction to a Pocket Quicken account:
From an account register press [F2] (Add) and fill in the Add
Transaction screen, pressing [TAB] after each entry. For
information on a field, see the above descriptions or use [F1]
for Help.
When you’re finished, press [F10] (Save).
To edit a transaction:
In an account register, highlight the entry you want to edit.
Press [ENTER].
Move to and edit the fields you want to change. Use [TAB] to move from field to
field.
When you’re finished, press [F10] (Save), or press [ESC] to cancel.
Note
If you change the check number or date, the location of the transaction
in the register may also change—Pocket Quicken sorts transactions in
the register by date and then by check number.
If you want to edit only the group or category field for an
existing transaction, there is a shortcut:
In an account register, highlight the entry you want to edit.
Press [CTRL]+[C] to display the category list, or press [CTRL]+[L] to display the
group list.
Highlight the category or group you want to use and press [F10] (Use).
This shortcut enables you to easily add a category or group to a
transaction at a later, more convenient time.
To delete a transaction:
Deleting a transaction permanently removes it from the register
and file. Instead of deleting a numbered check, consider
Page 156
voiding it.
In an account register, highlight the entry you want to delete.
Press [DEL].
To void a transaction:
By voiding a check in the register rather than deleting it, you
maintain consecutively numbered check records. The word
VOID is inserted before the payee name on the transaction and
the check is marked as cleared. A voided check remains in the
register; a deleted check does not.
In an account register, highlight the entry you want to void.
Press [F8] (Void).
Using QuickFill and QuickKeys
When entering transactions, you can use QuickFill and
QuickKeys to save you time and keystrokes.
QuickFill When you start typing in the Payee, Category,
Account, or Transaction-type field, Pocket
Quicken automatically fills in the field with
potential matches to what you’re typing.
Keep typing until QuickFill matches the
entry you want, then press [TAB] to move to
the next field.
For a subcategory, type a colon and then start
typing the subcategory name.
You can turn QuickFill on or off (the default is on)
by pressing [MENU] [O] [Q] (Options
Quickfill). If you want more information on
the QuickFill preferences, look up QuickFill
in the online Help index.
QuickKeys In some cases you can press a single key to
complete an entire field. An example is
pressing [T] in the date field to insert today’s
date. Once you’re familiar with Pocket
Page 157
Quicken, look up QuickKeys in the Help
index to get more information and see a list
of available QuickKeys.
Splitting transactions
Sometimes you need to divide a transaction between multiple
categories or groups. For example, one check to a computer
store might cover a piece of hardware, some software, and
some office supplies. You can split a transaction like that to
assign portions of the total amount to different categories or
groups. You can enter up to 30 splits for a single transaction.
To split a transaction:
Fill in the Add Transaction screen for the total amount of the transaction and
then press [F3] (Splits) to see the Transaction Splits screen.
Fill in the Category, Group, Memo, and Amount for each portion of the
transaction. Use [F6] (Prev) and [F7] (Next) to move between splits.
When you’re finished entering splits, press [F10] (Done) to save the splits and
return to the Add Transaction screen.
Press [F10] (Save) to save the transaction.
To edit a split transaction:
In an account register, highlight the entry with the splits you want to edit and
press [ENTER].
Press [F3] (Splits).
Move to and edit the fields you want to change. Use [F6] (Prev) and [F7] (Next)
to move between splits, and use [TAB] to move from field to field.
When you’re finished, press [F10] (Done).
Look up Transactions, Splitting in the online Help index for
more details about splitting transactions.
Transferring money between accounts
You can use account transfers to record many types of
transactions:
Movement of funds from a checking account to a savings
account.
Cash advances from your credit card to your checking account.
Page 158
Payments from your checking account to your credit card
account.
Note
Accounts appear at the bottom of the category list in brackets ([ ] or {}).
Accounts in square brackets ([ ]) represent accounts from the current
Pocket Quicken file, and accounts in curly brackets ({}) represent
accounts from another version of Quicken that are not present in your
file. Account names are added to the category list automatically
whenever you create a new account and whenever you import data that
has transfers to accounts that don’t exist in Pocket Quicken (those
transfers are preserved within Pocket Quicken).
When you complete the transaction, Pocket Quicken
automatically creates a parallel transaction in the receiving
account. If the source transaction is a payment or decrease, the
destination transaction is a deposit or increase.
To record a transfer transaction:
Fill in the Add Transaction screen for the full amount of the transfer.
In the Category field, select the receiving account as the category:
Press [J] to display the category list.
Press [FN] END to move to the end of the list.
Highlight the account in brackets that you want to be the receiving account
and press [ENTER].
When you’re finished, press [F10] (Save) to save the transaction.
You can also split a transfer transaction between accounts. If
you assign more than one portion of the split to a single
destination account, Pocket Quicken sums those portions and
enters one transfer transaction for that destination account.
Changing your entry preferences
You can change the way a few things work during transaction
entry. See the illustration in the following procedure to see
what you can change.
Page 159
To change entry preferences:
Press [MENU] [O] [E] (Options Entry).
Entry Preferences
Use [TAB] to move to the preference you want to change. If you need a
description of a preference, press [F1] for Help.
Press [SPACEBAR] to check or uncheck it (turn it on or off).
When you’re finished making changes, press [F10] (Save).
Sharing data with desktop Quicken
If you have a desktop version of Quicken, you can merge or
synchronize a Pocket Quicken file with a desktop Quicken file.
This capability enables you to keep the same accounts on both
your palmtop and desktop computers accurate and up-to-date.
Take the palmtop on the road; and when you return, merge or
synchronize your Pocket Quicken file with your desktop Quikken file.
The best way to combine data from Pocket Quicken files and
desktop Quicken files involves using the palmtop Connectivity
Pack.
Using the connectivity pack to merge or synchronize
Quicken files
The Connectivity Pack Xlate/Merge utility enables you to
syncronize, merge, or copy Quicken files between your
palmtop and desktop PCs. See the Connectivity Pack User’s
Guide for instructions.
Page 160
Importing and exporting Pocket Quicken files
If you don’t have the Connectivity Pack, you can exchange data
with desktop Quicken by using the Import and Export
commands. However, you still need a way to transfer a file
from one system to another. For instance, if you have a
memory-card drive on your PC, you can use a memory card as
the medium; or, you can connect the computers with the HP
1015A serial cable and then use Kermit or XMODEM protocol
to transfer the file.
Export Exports transactions from the current Pocket Quicken
account and saves them to a Quicken Interchange
Format (.QIF) file. A .QIF file, when imported by
another Quicken version, is converted into the
appropriate format and merged with a data file on that
other version. Use this command on a Pocket Quicken
account when you want to merge some or all of the
data with a file on a desktop version of Quicken. If you
want to export transactions from more than one Pocket
Quicken account, you must use the Export command
separately for each account.
Note
Exported data must conform with the requirements of the receiving
version of Quicken. The requirements for different versions of desktop
Quicken are in the online Help index under the topic Exporting.
Import Takes a file in the Quicken Interchange Format (.QIF)
and merges the data with a Pocket Quicken (.PDT) file.
Use this command when you’ve exported data from
another system and want to merge it with your Pocket
Quicken file.
To export Pocket Quicken data from the current
account:
Press [ESC] until you reach the Pocket Quicken list of accounts.
Press [MENU] [F] [E] (File Export).
Page 161
Answer the displayed questions for what transactions and lists to export. Press
[F1] for Help.
Press [F10] (File) and name the export file. Press [F1] for Help.
When finished, press [F10] (OK) to complete the export.
The result of this procedure is that you’ve created a .QIF file in
the current directory that is ready to be transferred and
imported to another version of Quicken.
To import a .QIF file into Pocket Quicken:
When you export a desktop Quicken file for importing into
Pocket Quicken, you need to create several QIF files on the
desktop version—one with only accounts and category
information, and one for each account containing only the
transactions for that account. Import the account and category
information first, then the account transactions.
Press [ESC] until you reach the Pocket Quicken list of accounts.
If you’re importing a set of transactions, highlight the account you want it to go
into.
Press [MENU] [F] [I] (File Import).
Select the file to import and then press [F10] (OK).
Answer the displayed questions for what data to import. Press [F1] for Help.
When finished, press [F10] (Import) to merge the data in the .QIF file with the
data in the current file.
Page 162
10
Balancing your Pocket
Quicken checkbook
Pocket Quicken enables you to balance or “reconcile” your
bank statement with your Pocket Quicken account. You can
balance to the degree of accuracy that works for you. You can
track down every cent if you prefer, but Pocket Quicken
doesn’t require you to balance to the penny.
The general reconciling procedure
When your bank statement arrives, follow these basic steps to
reconcile your account. If you have two or more statements that
need reconciling, start with the earliest statement and reconcile
each one individually.
If this is the first time you’ve reconciled the bank account, check to see if you
need to enter more transactions or update your opening balance. See the
following section, Balancing your account for the first time.
Start reconciling by entering information from your current bank statement.
See the section entitled Starting reconciliation.
Mark the transactions that have cleared your bank account in the Reconcile
window. See the section entitled Marking cleared transactions.
Compare the totals of cleared items in the Reconcile window with those on
your bank statement. See the section entitled Completing reconciliation.
Balancing your account for the first time
Before you can reconcile your account for the first time, you
need to do two things:
Enter all transactions into your account that have not been previously marked
as cleared. These are all transactions that have not shown up on previous
bank statements. In most cases you’ll be reminded to enter all uncleared
Page 163
transactions because the transactions appear on your bank statement when
you’re trying to reconcile. You can enter these transactions in the register as
you find them during reconciliation.
Update your Pocket Quicken opening balance to reflect the amount actually in
your account when you began using Pocket Quicken. This amount should
match the opening balance on your bank statement. You can edit the
opening balance entry in your register, or you can create an adjustment at
the end of your first reconciliation.
Example. Suppose the ending balance on the bank statement
for your checking account was $200.52 on December 31, 1994.
You started using Pocket Quicken on January 12, 1995. You
used the ending balance from your December bank statement as
the balance for your Pocket Quicken checking account. Then
you entered transactions from your paper check register from
January 1 to 12 into Pocket Quicken. From January 12 on, you
entered all transactions into Pocket Quicken every few days as
they occurred.
In February you receive your January 31 bank statement. You
see two checks (totaling $80) that you wrote in December had
not cleared the bank by your December statement. Now they
have cleared the bank, so they appear on the January bank
statement. You didn’t enter those checks in Pocket Quicken
because they occurred before January 1. Even though those two
checks were written before the date of your first Pocket Quikken transaction, you need to enter them into the register. If you
don’t enter these uncleared transactions, Pocket Quicken will
create an adjustment entry at the end of the reconciliation to
reflect the $80 difference.
Reconciling the account
To reconcile the current account with the bank statement:
Press [MENU] [A] [E] (Activities Reconcile).
Page 164
The Reconcile Register Screen
Enter the ending balance from your bank statement, any service charge
information, and any interest information. Press [TAB] after each entry.
When you’re finished with this screen, press [F10] (Next) to see a list of all
uncleared transactions.
Compare your bank statement list to this list—verify that the amounts are the
same and that there are no missing entries in Pocket Quicken that have
cleared the bank.
For an uncleared transaction that matches the bank statement
transaction, highlight it and press [F3] (Clear).
For a bank statement transaction that is not in the uncleared
list, use [F2] (Add) to enter it. Be sure to select Cleared in
the Cleared Status field.
For a transaction that has an incorrect amount or other error,
use [F4] (Edit) to correct it. Be sure to mark the transaction
as cleared, also.
When you’ve finished clearing transactions, press [F10] (Done). If you get the
Congratulations! message, press [ENTER] to complete the reconciliation. If,
however, you see a warning message, the account doesn’t balance. See the
next section for what to do.
Page 165
Solving problems
If your account doesn’t balance, you’ll see the reconcile
Warning screen when you press ~~Done~~ to complete
reconciliation.
Reconcile Warning Screen
If the difference is small, you may want to have Pocket Quikken adjust for it—see the later section Having Pocket Quicken
adjust for differences. Otherwise, you’ll need to track down the
cause of the difference to make your account balance.
Correcting differences
If your account doesn’t balance, the difference is usually due to
one or more of the following reasons:
Incorrect number of payments or deposits checked off as
cleared.
Incorrect dollar amounts on some items.
Incorrect opening or ending account balances.
Check the number of payments and deposits
Check the register for missing or mislabeled payments or
deposits that are on your bank statement but not on your check
register. Systematically check to see if:
You missed recording an item in the check register.
You missed marking an item as cleared.
You mistakenly marked an item as cleared.
You entered any transactions twice.
You entered a payment as a deposit or a deposit as a payment.
Page 166
Check the dollar amounts of items
If there’s no problem with the number of items marked as
cleared, compare the dollar amounts of the checks and deposits
on your register to the bank statement. Keep in mind that you
may have recorded all items, but typed an amount incorrectly,
or that the bank may have made a mistake by processing a
transaction for a different amount than you wrote it for.
Check the opening and ending balances
Incorrect opening or closing balances are particularly likely
sources of problems for your first reconciliation.
Having pocket quicken adjust for differences
You might decide to ignore the difference between your check
register and the bank statement. Ignoring the difference is
appropriate if the amount is small and you feel it is not worth
your time to track it down. Even though you decide to ignore
the difference, you’ll want to have Pocket Quicken enter an
adjustment for the amount of the difference. That way you’ll be
starting with accurate totals the next time you reconcile your
account.
To have Pocket Quicken add a balance adjustment:
Press [A] (Adjustment) from the reconcile Problem screen to have Pocket
Quicken create an adjusting entry to your register.
You have the option of editing the Date and Category fields. When you’re
finished editing, press [F10] (AddAdj) to add the adjustment transaction to
the register.
Page 167
Updating your previously reconciled balance
If the opening balance from your bank statement was different
from the amount Pocket Quicken expected as your previously
reconciled balance, you need to account for the difference. The
balance might differ for one of these reasons:
You are balancing your Pocket Quicken account for the
first time. Pocket Quicken uses the amount of the opening
balance in your register as the opening balance amount for
your bank statement when you reconcile. When you set up
the Pocket Quicken account, you may have entered a balance
that was different from the actual amount in your bank
account. Also, there are probably transactions missing from
your Pocket Quicken account that affect the balance. See
Balancing your account for the first time earlier in this
chapter.
You were using Pocket Quicken and reconciling your
bank account, then you started recording earlier
transactions in Pocket Quicken. For example, say it’s
July. You started recording transactions in May and
subsequently reconciled your account for May and June.
Then you went back and recorded transactions starting in
January so you could generate more comprehensive reports.
After entering these earlier items, you noticed that the ending
balance in the check register was incorrect. So, you updated
the date and amount of the opening balance for the account.
In this case see Adding earlier transactions to Pocket Quikken later in this chapter.
You have started reconciling with the current bank
statement, but you have not reconciled each of the
previous month’s statements. You should reconcile one
month at a time, starting with the earliest month.
You have changed or deleted a previously reconciled
transaction. Pocket Quicken always asks you to confirm a
change to a previously reconciled transaction. You may need
to continue reconciling and have Pocket Quicken record an
adjustment transaction when the reconciliation is complete.
Adding earlier transactions to Pocket Quicken
If you’ve used Pocket Quicken to record and reconcile
transactions, you may want to add earlier transactions to your
account so you can create more comprehensive reports. To keep
information in your account accurate, you need to follow the
steps in the example below.
Example: adding earlier transactions to your account
Page 168
In this example we assume that you started entering
transactions in June. When you set up the Pocket Quicken bank
account, you used the ending balance from your May statement
as the opening balance for the account. You’ve already
reconciled your June bank statement. Now you want to go back
and add earlier transactions starting on January 1.
Make note of the ending balance in your Pocket Quicken register before you
begin to enter earlier transactions.
Change the date and amount of the Opening Balance transaction in the Pocket
Quicken register to reflect the opening balance on January 1.
Enter all the earlier transactions starting January 1 into your account, just as
you would enter any current transaction.
When you have finished entering transactions, the ending balance in the
register should be the same as it was when you started.
Reconcile all the transactions that you entered for previous months (January
to May).
Now you can reconcile for the current month (June).
Page 169
11
Creating and printing
Pocket Quicken reports
Using Pocket Quicken you can create three types of reports:
Your transaction register for an account.
The balances of all accounts in your Quicken data file.
An “expense report”—the transactions (income and expense)
for a selected group, date range, and/or account, sorted by
categories.
You use Pocket Quicken to create a report file, and then you
use the Memo Editor to view or print the file. When the report
is created, connect a printer and print the report file like you
would any other memo. When you open the report file in the
Memo Editor, remember the file will reside in the directory in
which you created it. The path to your report file could be, for
example, C:\QUICKEN\.
Note
When you print a Pocket Quicken report using the Memo Editor, you
should change the margins to 1 (left) and 81 (right) to get the best
looking reports. In the Memo Editor menu, select Format Margins to set
the margins.
To create a report file for the current register:
This creates a printable file containing transactions from the
current account. Use the Memo Editor to print or view the file.
Remember to change the margins in the Memo Editor to 1
(left) and 81 (right) before you print.
Press [MENU] [R] [T] (Reports Transaction) to see the Create Transaction
Report screen.
Page 170
Fill in the screen, pressing [TAB] to move between fields.
Title. Optional: Enter a title for the report. If you don’t
change it, Pocket Quicken uses the title “TRANSACTION
REPORT”.
Report dates. Enter the beginning and ending dates for the
range you want to print.
Include Splits. Use the spacebar to check this box if you
want to include split information in the report. For
information on splitting transactions, see chapter 9.
When you’re finished filling in the screen, press [F10] (Create) to see the list of
print files.
Note
If you choose an existing file to print to, it will be overwritten.
Also, don’t give a new file name an extension. Pocket Quicken
automatically gives report files a .DOC extension.
Type or highlight a file name and press [F10] (OK).
To create a report file for all current balances:
This creates a printable file containing all account balances in
your Pocket Quicken data file. Use the Memo Editor to print or
view the file. Remember to change the margins in the Memo
Editor to 1 (left) and 81 (right) before you print.
Press [MENU] [R] [B] (Reports Balances) to see the Create Account Balances
Report screen.
Page 171
Fill in the screen, pressing [TAB] to move between fields.
Title. Optional: Enter a title for the report. If you don’t
change it, Pocket Quicken uses the title “ACCOUNT
BALANCES REPORT”.
Include Balances as of. Enter the date for which you want
the balances.
When you’re finished filling in the screen, press [F10] (Create) to see the list of
print files.
Note
If you choose an existing file to print to, it will be overwritten.
Also, don’t give a new file name an extension. Pocket Quicken
automatically gives report files a .DOC extension.
Type or highlight a file name and press [F10] (OK).
To create a report file for categories:
This creates a printable file that lists all transactions by
category. The list can be restricted by dates, by account, and/or
by group, creating a specific expense report. Use the Memo
Editor to print or view the file. Remember to change the
margins in the Memo Editor to 1 (left) and 81 (right) before
you print.
Use this procedure to create a business expense report.
Press [MENU] [R] [C] (Reports Category) to see the Create Category Report
screen.
Page 172
Fill in the screen, pressing [TAB] to move between fields.
Title. Optional: Enter a title for the report. If you don’t
change it, Pocket Quicken uses the title “ITEMIZED
CATEGORY REPORT”.
Account. Select Current Account to constrain the report to
the current account only; or select All Accounts (the
default) if you want the report to cover all accounts in the
current file.
Report dates. Enter the beginning and ending dates for the
range you want to print.
Trip. Optional: Enter a group for the report. If you enter a
name here, you will create an expense report by category
for just the trip (or client, project, or class) you specify.
When you’re finished filling in the screen, press [F10] (Create) to see the list of
print files.
Note
If you choose an existing file to print to, it will be overwritten.
Also, don’t give a new file name an extension. Pocket Quicken
automatically gives report files a .DOC extension.
Type or highlight a file name and press [F10] (OK).
Page 173
12
Calculator basics and math
functions
The palmtop Financial Calculator has its own set of
applications for problems of:
General arithmetic (chapter 12).
Business percentages, including markup and margin (chapter
13).
Time value of money and amortization (chapter 14).
Interest rate conversions (chapter 14).
Uneven cash flows (chapter 15).
Currency and other unit conversions (chapter 16).
One- and two-variable statistics (chapter 17).
Date calculations (chapter 18).
Solver equations that you enter (chapter 19).
Function graphing (chapter 19).
Customizing the Calculator (chapter 20).
Press [G] to start the Calculator, and press [MENU] [A] to see
the list of applications to choose from:
The rest of this chapter describes many of the basic features of
the Calculator as well as the technical math functions available
Page 174
in the Math application.
Simple arithmetic
Here is an example of simple arithmetic in the Calculator using
algebraic syntax. Notice how [=] completes the calculation.
Keys:
Description:
[G]
Starts the Calculator.
54.69 [+] 28.33 [=]
Adds 54.69 to 28.33 and displays
83.02 in the calc line.
[*] 6 [-] 200 [=]Multiplies the previous result by 6, subtracts
200 from that result, and displays 298.12 in
the calc line.
About the calc line
The calc line
This is where you enter numbers and see results. You can do
arithmetic whenever the calc line is present in any of the
Calculator applications.
The annunciator area
The top part of the box surrounding the calc line is the area the
Calculator uses to display annunciators—symbols that tell
you when the Calculator is in a special state or mode.
The ALG/RPN annunciator describes how the palmtop
expects you to enter calculations—either in algebraic syntax
(the default) or in Reverse Polish Notation.
Page 175
The RAD/GRAD annunciator tells you how angles are
interpreted: radians (RAD), grads (GRAD), or degrees (no
annunciator). This annunciator displays only in the math
screen and the Solver.
The STO/RCL annunciator turns on when you’re storing or
recalling the contents of registers.
The Popul/Sample annunciator tells you which model is
used to calculate the statistics in the List Stat application.
The 1-Var/2-Var annunciator indicates the number of
columns for statistics data entry in the List Stat application.
Chapter 20 tells you how to set or change modes of operation.
To clear the calc line:
Press [DEL]. Use [Ä] to delete only the rightmost number,
character, or operator.
To enter a negative number:
Type the number and press [+/-] (the [L] key).
To view displayed numbers to their full precision:
Press [FN] ZOOM.
Press [ESC] to continue.
The calculator keyboard
The Calculator uses primarily three areas of the keyboard:
Page 176
About the special calculator keys
Most of the time the alpha keys are not active within the Calculator. The Calculator takes advantage of this by redefining
the bottom row of alpha keys ([Z], [X], [C], etc.) along with the
[L] key to give you a set of special Calculator keys. The
Calculator definitions are printed just below the corresponding
keys—[Z] becomes [V], [X] becomes [1/X], etc.
VKey Description
[V] Calculates the square root of the number in the calc
line.
[1/X] Calculates the reciprocal of the number in the calc line.
[XWY] If the calc line contains a number, exchanges that
number with the result of the previous
calculation. If the calc line contains two
numbers separated by an operator, swaps the
order of the numbers (for example, 3/4
changes to 4/3).
[R]
Rolls down the history stack.
[LAST] Copies the result of the previous calculation into the
current calculation.
[STO] Copies a number from the calc line into the designated
Page 177
register or variable.
[RCL] Recalls the number from the designated register or
variable.
[+/-] Makes a positive number negative or a negative number
positive. For example, pressing [+/-] with
the number 118 in the calc line changes it to
-118. Pressing it a second time makes the
number positive again.
ROperator
priority
When you string calculations together, the palmtop uses a
system of operator priority to evaluate expressions:
Operator
[^]
[*] and [/]
[+] and [-]
Priority
First
Second
Third
The Calculator calculates an intermediate result when the next
operator you enter has a lower or equal priority. When the next
operator has higher priority, the Calculator retains the previous
numbers. For example, in the calculation 9 [+] 12 [/] 3 [=],
division has a higher priority than addition. Thus, the 9 and [+]
are retained as a pending operation until the division is
completed.
Example. Calculate 4 x 73 plus 5 x 72 plus 6.
Keys:
Description:
[G]
Starts the Calculator.
4 [*] 7 [^] ^ has a higher priority than *. [^] is the shifted
[Q] key.
3 [+]
Calculates 4 x 73, and the calc line shows
1,372.00+.
5 [*]
has
a
priority than +.
*^ has a higher
7 [^]
higher priority than *.
2 [+]
Adds 5 x 72 to 1,372.
6 [=]
Completes the calculation and displays 1,623.00.
If a calculation requires that operations be done in an order
inconsistent with operator priority (for example, addition
Page 178
before multiplication), use parentheses. You can have a
maximum of eight pending operations.
Percent
In most cases, [%] (the shifted [+] key) divides the number
furthest to the right in the calc line by 100. The exception is
when a plus or minus sign precedes the number. Then, the [%]
key uses the rightmost number as a percent, and calculates that
percent of the number preceding the plus or minus sign.
Example: Percentages. Find 27% of 85.3.
Keys:
Description:
[G]
Starts the Calculator.
85.3 [*] 27 [%] Divides 27 by 100.
[=]
Calculates 27% of 85.3 and displays 23.03.
Example: Calculating Simple Interest. You borrow $1,250 from
a relative, and agree to repay the loan in a year with 7% simple
interest. How much money will you owe?
Keys:
Description:
1250 [+] 7 [%] Interest on the loan (7% of $1250) is $87.50.
[=]
Displays 1,337.50, the total amount you must
repay at the end of 1 year.
Other keyboard arithmetic
Examples. The other keyboard arithmetic keys are [V] (the [Z]
key), [1/X] (the [X] key), and [^] (the shifted [Q] key). They
Page 179
act on the number furthest to the right in the calc line.
Keys:
Description:
[G]
Starts the Calculator.
4 [1/X]
Calculates the reciprocal of 4 to be 0.25.
20 [V]
Calculates the square root of 20 to be 4.47.
1.1 [^] 2 [=] Calculates 1.12 to be 1.21.
The [1/X] function is useful for calculating the root of a
number.
125 [^] 3 [1/X] Calculates and displays 125.00^0.33.
[=]
Calculates the cube root of 125 to be 5.00.
Using the automatic constant in calculations
An automatic constant is an operator (+, -, *, /, or ^) and a
number or percentage that can be used for repetitive
calculations. To initiate an automatic constant, press an
operator twice followed by a number or percentage. Once
initiated, the constant is displayed to the right of the calc line in
brackets, for example [+5%].
Example. Calculate 128x3.2, 219x3.2, and 316x3.2.
Keys:
Description:
[G]
Starts the Calculator.
128 [*] [*] 3.2 [=]
Stores *3.2 as a constant and multiplies
128 by 3.2. The
result and constant are
displayed: 409.60 [*3.20].
219 [=]
Multiplies 219 by 3.2 and displays 700.80
[*3.20].
316 [=]
Multiplies 316 by 3.2 and displays 1,011.20
[*3.20].
Example. Calculate 10 + 10%, 11 + 10%, and 25 +10%.
Keys:
Description:
10 [+] [+] 10 [%] [=] Stores +10% as a constant and adds
10% to 10. The result and constant are
displayed: 11.00 [+10.00%].
[=]
Adds 10% to 11 and displays 12.10 [+10.00%].
25 [=]
Adds 10% to 25 and displays 27.50 [+10.00%].
The K abbreviation
Page 180
If the constant causes the contents of the calc line to become
too long, the constant is abbreviated as K, as in [+K%].
Clearing the constant
Pressing [DEL] clears the constant and the result from the calc
line. Pressing another operator key or [Ä] clears just the
constant and leaves the result.
Storing and recalling numbers
You can store and recall numbers using the history stack and
using registers.
Using the history stack
The history stack is a four-level record of activities within
the Calculator. It includes the calc line and three levels “above”
the calc line. When you start a new operation on the calc line,
the previous contents move up to level 1, bumping level 1
contents to level 2, level 2 to level 3, and level 3 off the stack.
Numbers are lost when bumped off the stack.
The history stack is shared by all Calculator applications, and if
you clear the stack (by pressing [MENU] [C] [S]), the numbers
change to 0’s. The current state of the stack is always displayed
in the Calculator Math application. You can also set it to be
viewed in Arithmetic and Custom—press [MENU] [O] [M] and
select Show Stack.
The [R] key ([V] when the Calculator is active) “rolls” the
history stack down one line. For example, pressing [R] once
with the above stack moves 50.00 to the top of the stack
Page 181
(level 3) and rolls the other numbers down one level, putting
40.00 in the calc line. Pressing [R] four times cycles through
the entire stack.
The [XWY] key ([C] when the calculator is active) normally
swaps a number in the calc line with the number in stack
level 1. For example, if your stack looks like the one in the
previous illustration, pressing [XWY] puts 40.00 in the calc
line and moves 50.00 to level 1. The exception to this rule is
when you have an incomplete calculation in the calc line.
Then, [XWY] swaps the two operands. For example, pressing
[XWY] changes 2.00/3.00 in the calc line to 3.00/2.00.
The [LAST] key ([B] when the Calculator is active) copies the
number in level 1 of the history stack into a calculation you are
in the process of doing.
Using registers
The Calculator has 10 registers (storage locations), numbered
0 through 9, that can be used to store and recall numbers.
Viewing Registers
The current values in the registers can be viewed in the
Arithmetic and Custom applications: Press [MENU] [O] [M]
and select Show Registers.
Using [STO] and [RCL]
To store or recall a number, press [STO] ([N] when the
Calculator is active) or [RCL] ([M] when the Calculator is
active), followed by a number in the range 0 through 9.
[STO] copies the number from the calc line to a designated
register. If there is more than one number in the calc line, [STO]
copies only the rightmost number. [RCL] recalls the stored
number back to the calc line.
To cancel the store or recall after you’ve pressed [STO] or
[RCL], press [ESC] or [Ä].
Page 182
[STO] and [RCL] can also be used with variables. For example,
pressing [STO] ~~PMT~~~ (the payment function-key in TVM)
stores the rightmost number in the calc line into the variable
PMT. Pressing [RCL] ~~PMT~~~ copies the contents of PMT
into the calc line.
Doing Arithmetic inside Registers
The Calculator lets you do arithmetic on numbers that are
stored inside registers regardless of which Calculator
application you are in.
Example: Register Arithmetic. Store 45.7 in register 3, multiply
that number by 2.5, and store the result back in register 3.
Keys
Description
45.7 [STO] 3 Stores 45.7 into register 3.
2.5 [STO] [*] 3 Stores 114.25 (45.7 x 2.5) into register 3.
[RCL] 3
Displays the contents of register 3.
The following table shows the options for arithmetic inside
registers:
Keys
New Number in Register
[STO] [+]
old number in register + number in calc line
[STO] [-]
old number in register - number in calc line
[STO] [*]
old number in register x number in calc line
[STO] [/]
old number in register ÷ number in calc line
You can also do arithmetic on numbers stored in variables. For
example, 2 [STO] [*] ~~PMT~~~ multiplies the current
contents of PMT by 2 and stores the product in PMT.
Using the M Register
Register 0 (the M register) is a special register that has its own
set of “shortcut” memory keys. You can use the [STO] keycombinations and [RCL] with register 0 just like you would with
the rest of the registers, or you can use the four function keys
([F7] through [F10]) that are present whenever you’re in the
Page 183
Arithmetic application. These keys do storage operations on
register 0 with a minimum of keystrokes.
M Register Keys in the Arithmetic Application
Keys
Description
~~~ªM~~~ ([F7])
Stores the value in the calc line into
register 0. (Same as [STO] 0.)
~~~RM~~~ ([F8])
Recalls the contents of register 0 to the
calc line. (Same as [RCL] 0.)
~~~M+~~~ ([F9])
Adds the value in the calc line to the
old value in register 0 and stores the sum in
register 0. (Same as [STO] [+] 0.)
~~~M-~~~ ([F10])
Subtracts the value in the calc line from
the old value in register 0 and stores the
difference in register 0. (Same as [STO] [-]
0.)
→Moving
3
values between the calc line and 1-2-
If you’re using the Calculator while you have an open 1-2-3
worksheet, you have the ability to copy values from the calc
line to a 1-2-3 cell and from a 1-2-3 cell to the calc line. Any
numbers copied into 1-2-3 this way are treated as values by
1-2-3. If you use the Clipboard to move a number to 1-2-3, it is
interpreted by 1-2-3 as a label.
To copy the rightmost number in the calc line to a 12-3 cell:
Press [STO] [SPACEBAR] from the Calculator. The open 1-2-3 worksheet is
displayed.
Move the cell pointer to the cell you want to receive the number.
Press [ENTER]. The number from the calc line is copied to the highlighted cell,
and you’re returned to the Calculator.
Page 184
To copy a number in a 1-2-3 cell to the calc line:
Press [RCL] [SPACEBAR] from the Calculator. The open 1-2-3 worksheet is
displayed.
Move the cell pointer to the cell with the value you want to copy.
Press [ENTER]. The number in the highlighted cell is copied to the calc line.
If in step 2 you selected an empty cell or a cell with a label,
0.00 is returned to the calc line.
The point-and-shoot method of data entry
Most of the examples in the Calculator part of this manual
demonstrate entering data using the function keys that
correspond to the variables on the screen. An alternate method
for data entry involves highlighting a variable on the screen
using the arrow keys, typing a number, and then pressing [K],
[J], or [ENTER]. Then, once you’ve entered all the necessary
data, you can highlight the variable to solve for and press the
spacebar to return the answer.
This “point-and-shoot” method is available throughout the
Calculator whenever a list of variables is displayed.
Example: Using Point-and-Shoot to Calculate a Mortgage
Payment. The owner of Bunsen’s Burner, a local Cajun food
restaurant, has taken out a 30-year (360-month) mortgage on
his eatery. The amount is $200,000 at 10% annual interest.
Calculate his monthly payment.
Keys:
Description:
[G] [MENU] [A] [T] Selects the TVM application.
[MENU] [C] [D] Clears any prior TVM data.
[J]
Highlights the N variable.
360 [J]
Enters the number of payments and
highlights I%YR.
10 [J]
Enters the interest rate.
Page 185
200000 [J]
[SPACEBAR]
Enters the amount of the mortgage.
Calculates the monthly payment.
Clearing information from calculator memory
To clear the data associated with the current Calculator
application, press [MENU] [C] [D]. For example, if you’re in
the TVM application, pressing [MENU] [C] [D] clears all your
TVM data.
To clear the calc line, press [MENU] [C] [C].
To clear the history stack, press [MENU] [C] [S].
To clear the storage registers, press [MENU] [C] [R].
Pressing [DEL] is another way to clear just the calc line.
Using RPN with the calculator
If you’re an experienced RPN user, you may want to configure
the Calculator to operate in RPN mode—press [MENU] [O] [M]
and then select RPN in the Operation Mode box.
When the Calculator is in RPN mode, the RPN annunciator is
displayed at the left side of the calc line.
Reverse Polish Notation (RPN) is based on an
unambiguous, parentheses-free mathematical logic known as
“Polish Notation,” developed by the Polish logician Jan
Page 186
Lukasiewicz (1878–1956). While conventional algebraic
notation places the operators between the relevant numbers or
variables, Lukasiewicz’s notation places them before the
numbers or variables. For optimal efficiency of the stack, we
modified that notation to specify the operators after the
numbers. Hence the term Reverse Polish Notation, or RPN.
There are several easy-to-follow books designed to explain
RPN to the beginner. One such book is book ENTER by JeanDaniel Dodin. It’s available at the time of this writing from:
EduCALC
27693 Cabot Road
Laguna Niguel, CA 92677 USA
Telephone: 800 677-7001 (Credit card orders only)
Technical math functions
Press [G] [MENU] [A] [M] to start the Calculator Math
application, which gives you function key labels at the bottom
of the display for the technical math functions. As a shortcut
from anywhere else in the Calculator, you can press
[CTRL]+[M] to get to the Math application.
There are four sets or pages of function keys—pressing
~~More~~ ([F10]) shows you the next page, and pressing
[L]~~More~~ shows you the previous page. The Calculator
remembers the current page when you leave the math functions
Page 187
screen so that it is displayed again when you return.
Unless noted otherwise in the following tables, the technical
math functions operate on the rightmost real number in the calc
line.
Page 1 Set of Math Functions
Key Label Function
~~RND~~~ Rounds number to number of displayed decimal
places. Before rounding, the stored version
of the number may have additional non-zero
digits that are not displayed.
~~~IP~~~ Integer part of real number in calc line.
~~~FP~~~ Fractional part of real number in calc line.
~~ABS~~~ Absolute value of real number in calc line.
~~~LN~~~ Natural (base e) logarithm of a positive number.
~~E^X~~~ Natural antilogarithm; ex.
~~LOG~~~ Common (base 10) logarithm of a positive number.
~~10^X~~ Common (base 10) antilogarithm; 10x.
Example: Rounding a Number. This example assumes numbers
are displayed to two decimal places.
Keys:
Description:
[G] [MENU] [A] [M] Selects the Calculator Math application.
You may need to press ~~More~~ to see the
function key used in this example.
4.589 [+] 2.6891 [=] Calculates 7.2781. The result is
Page 188
~~RND~~~
displayed to two decimal places-—7.28—
but the entire number is in memory and is
used in any further calculations.
Rounds the number to 7.28. (7.2781 is no
longer in Calculator memory.)
Example: Logarithmic Functions. Find the natural log of 47.5.
Keys:
Description:
[G] [MENU] [A] [M] Selects the Calculator Math application.
You may need to press ~~More~~ to see the
function keys used in this example.
47.5 ~~~LN~~~ Natural log of 47.5 is 3.86.
~~E^X~~~ Natural antilogarithm of 3.86 is 47.50.
Key Label
~~~PI~~~
~~SIN~~~
~~COS~~~
~~TAN~~~
Page 2 Set of Math Functions
Function
Key LabelFunction
π (3.14159265359)
~~ASIN~~
arc sine
sine
~~ACOS~~
arc
cosine
cosine
~~ATAN~~
arc
tangent
tangent
Changing the angle mode
The trigonometric functions in the previous table (except
for π), and the polar/rectangular-coordinate conversion
functions in the next table, interpret angles in degrees, radians,
or grads, depending on the angle mode. The Annunciators at
the top-left part of the calc line indicate the mode—the RAD
annunciator indicates Radians mode, the GRAD annunciator
indicates Grads mode, and no annunciator indicates Degrees
mode.
To change the angle mode, press [G] [MENU] [O] [M] and then
select the desired angle mode.
Example: Trigonometric Functions. This example assumes the
Page 189
angle mode is set to Degrees.
Keys:
Description:
[G] [MENU] [A] [M] Selects the Calculator Math application.
You may need to press ~~More~~ to see the
function keys used in this example.
15 ~~SIN~~~Sine of 15° is 0.26.
2.73 ~~ATAN~~ Arc tangent of 2.73 is 69.88.
Page 3 Set of Math Functions
Key Label
Function
~~ªDEG~~
To degrees; converts the number from a radian value to its decimal degree
equivalent.
~~ªRAD~~
To radians; converts the number from a decimal degree value to its radian
equivalent.
~~ªHR~~~
To hours; converts the number from hours(degrees)-minutes-secondsdecimal seconds format (H.MMSSss or D.MMSSss) to decimal
hours (or degrees) format.
~~ªHMS~~
To hours-minutes-seconds; converts the number from decimal hours (or
degrees) to hours(degrees)-minutes-seconds-decimal seconds
format (H.MMSSss or D.MMSSss).
~XCOORD~
Stores the x-coordinate or calculates the x- and y-coordinates.
~YCOORD~
Stores the y-coordinate or calculates the x- and y-coordinates.
~RADIUS~
Stores the radius or calculates the radius and angle.
~ANGLE~~
Stores the angle or calculates the radius and angle.
→Example: Angle and Hour Conversions. In this example you
may have to press ~~More~~ ([F10]) after you start the Math
application to get to the ~~~PI~~~ function key.
Keys:
Description:
[G] [MENU] [A] [M] Selects the Calculator Math application.
1.79 [*] ~~~PI~~~ [=]
Calculates 1.79π to be 5.62.
~~More~~ ~~ªDEG~~
Converts 5.62 radians to 322.20
degrees.
90.2015 ~~ªHR~~~ Converts 90 degrees, 20 minutes, 15
seconds to 90.34 decimal degrees.
Example: Coordinate Conversions. Convert the rectangular
Page 190
coordinates (10,-15) to polar coordinates. This example
assumes the angle mode is set to Degrees.
Keys:
Description:
[G] [MENU] [A] [M] Selects the Calculator Math application.
You may need to press ~~More~~ to see the
function keys used in this example.
10 ~XCOORD~
Stores the x-coordinate.
15 [+/-] ~YCOORD~ Stores the y-coordinate.
~RADIUS~
Calculates the radius and angle and
displays RADIUS = 18.03.
Page 191
Page 4 Set of Math Functions
Key LabelFunction
~~~X~~~~
Stores x for calculating combinations and
permutations.
~~~Y~~~~
Stores y for calculating combinations and
permutations.
~~Cx,y~~
Combinations; calculates the number of
different sets containing y items that can be
taken from a larger group of x items. Different orders of the same y items are not
counted separately.
~~Px,y~~
Permutations; calculates the number of
different arrangements of y items that can be
taken from a larger group of x items. Different orders of the same y items are counted
separately.
~~~N!~~~
Calculates the factorial of the rightmost
number in the calc line.
~~SEED~~
Stores a seed for the random number
generator. A seed is a number that initiates
the sequence of random numbers. Pressing 0
~~SEED~~ uses a new seed from the system
clock. To specify a particular seed, key in a
non-zero number and press ~~SEED~~. You
can repeat a random number sequence by
storing the same non-zero seed.
~~RAN#~~
Displays a random number between 0 and 1.
All random numbers have 12 significant
digits.
Example: Probability Functions. Calculate combinations and
permutations.
Keys:
Description:
[G] [MENU] [A] [M] Selects the Calculator Math application.
You may need to press ~~More~~ to see the
function keys used in this example.
5 ~~~X~~~~ Stores x.
3 ~~~Y~~~~ Stores y.
~~Cx,y~~ Calculates combinations: Cx,y = 10.00.
~~Px,y~~ Calculates permutations: Px,y = 60.00.
Page 192
13
Business percentage
calculations
To start the Calculator Business% application press [G][MENU]
[A] [B]. Or, as a shortcut from anywhere within the Calculator,
press [CTRL]+[B]. Business% has two screens: one for
calculating percent change and percent of total, and one for
calculating markup and margin. Press ~~More~~ ([F10]) to
switch between the two screens:
Percent Change and Percent of Total
Markup and Margin
Page 193
To calculate percent change:
The percent change function keys are ~~OLD~~~ ([F3]),
~~NEW~~~ ([F4]), and ~~%CHG~~ ([F5]). Percent change is
expressed as a percentage of the OLD number.
Display the percent change screen.
Type the old number and press [F3], and type the new number and press [F4].
Press [F5] to return the percent change to the calc line.
To calculate percent of total:
The percent of total function keys are ~TOTAL~~ ([F7]),
~~PART~~ ([F8]), and ~%TOTAL~ ([F9]).
Display the percent change screen.
Type the total and press [F7], and type the part and press [F8].
Press [F9] to return the percent of total to the calc line.
To calculate markup and margin:
Markup calculations are expressed as a percent of cost.
Margin is markup expressed as a percent of price.
Display the markup and margin screen.
Type the cost and press [F6], and type the price and press [F7].
Press [F8] or [F9] to return the markup or margin to the calc line.
For the percent and markup/margin calculations you can
actually calculate any unknown variable as long as the others
are known. For example, you can calculate selling price by
entering the known cost and desired markup or margin and then
pressing ~PRICE~~ ([F7]). Similarly, if you know the percent
change and the new number, you can calculate the old number.
Page 194
14
Time value of money and
interest conversions
The time-value-of-money (TVM) application enables you to do
compound-interest, amortization, and interest-rate-conversion
calculations. You can use TVM to solve virtually any financial
problem involving a series of cash flows (money received or
money paid) that meets these criteria:
The dollar amount is the same for each payment.
The payments occur at regular intervals.
Payment periods coincide with the compounding periods.
For uneven or irregular cash flow problems, see chapter 15,
Uneven cash flow calculations.
The TVM screen
Press [G] [MENU] [A] [T] to start TVM.
Page 195
Key LabelDescription
~Amort~~
Brings up the amortization screen and
function keys (see Calculating amortization
later in this chapter).
~Iconv~~
Brings up the interest conversion screen and
function keys (see Calculating interest rate
conversions later in this chapter).
~~B/E~~~
Switches the payment mode between BEGIN
(for payments made at the beginning of
periods) and END (for payments made at the
end of periods).
~~P/YR~~
Stores the number of payments or
compounding periods per year. The value
must be an integer in the range 1 through
999.
~~~N~~~~
Stores or calculates the total number of
payments (or compounding periods). N can
be expressed in any unit of time—for
example, days, months, or years. [L]
~~~N~~~~ multiplies the number in the calc
line by P/YR and stores the result in N. For
example, if P/YR is 12, pressing 30 [L]
~~~N~~~~ stores 360 in N.
~~I%YR~~
Stores or calculates the nominal annual
interest rate as a percentage.
~~~PV~~~
Stores or calculates the present value of a
series of future cash flows. To a lender or
borrower, PV is the amount of the loan; to an
investor, PV is the initial investment. PV
always occurs at the beginning of the first
period.
Page 196
~~PMT~~~
~~~FV~~~
Stores or calculates the amount of each
periodic payment. The payments are the
same amount, and no payments are skipped.
Payments can occur at the beginning or end
of each period.
Stores or calculates the future value—the
amount of the final cash flow, or the
compounded value of the series of previous
cash flows. FV always occurs at the end of
the last period.
The ~Amort~~ (amortization) and ~Iconv~~ (interest rate
conversion) function keys bring up other screens with their own
function keys. If the amortization or interest conversion screen
is displayed when you start TVM, you can press [ESC] to get
back to the main TVM screen.
Switching TVM cases
The Calculator lets you keep two different sets of TVM variables in memory, cases 1 and 2. To switch cases, press [H] or
[I]—the case number at the top of the screen and the values in
the variables change.
Clearing TVM variables
The Calculator retains the values stored in the TVM variables
until they are changed or cleared. To clear the variables for the
displayed TVM case—the other case is not affected—press
[MENU] [C] [D]. This clears N, I%YR, PV, PMT, and FV to 0,
sets P/YR to 12, and sets End mode.
Making TVM calculations
To make TVM calculations, follow this general procedure:
Press [G] [MENU] [A] [T] to start TVM.
If necessary, press [ESC] to display the main TVM screen.
Check and set these TVM conditions:
Number of payments per year (use ~~P/YR~~).
Payments at beginning or end of periods (use ~~B/E~~~).
Page 197
Enter values for the four known TVM variables.
Find the unknown value.
Conventions for entering TVM values
Cash flows are either positive or negative, depending on your
perspective. A loan is a positive cash flow (money coming in)
to the borrower and a negative cash flow (money going out) to
the lender. Money deposited in a savings account is a negative
cash flow for the investor and a positive cash flow for the bank.
Keep in mind as you enter values and view results that money
flowing to you is a positive number and money flowing from
you is a negative number. Use [+/-] to change the sign.
Also, make sure the timing of payment—at the beginning of
each period or at the end of each period—is set properly for
your problem (END is the default). Use ~~B/E~~~ to switch
the payment mode.
The next few pages contain a series of TVM examples. Also,
see Additional TVM examples at the end of this chapter.
Example: A Car Loan. Otto Tailfin is financing the purchase of a
car with a 3-year loan at 10.5% annual interest, compounded
monthly. The purchase price of the car is $11,250, and his
down payment is $2500. What are his monthly payments?
Assume that payments start at the end of the first period.
Keys:
Description:
[G] [MENU] [A] [T] Starts the TVM application.
[MENU] [C] [D] Clears any prior TVM data.
3 [L] [F6]
Enters the total number of monthly payments.
10.5 [F7]
Enters the annual interest rate.
11250 [-] 2500 [F8] Enters the amount of the loan as the
present value.
0 [F10]
Enters 0 as the future value because the loan
will be completely paid off at the end of 3
years. This step is really not necessary
because FV was set to 0 when the data was
Page 198
[F9]
cleared above.
Calculates a monthly payment of $284.40.
Example: A Mortgage with a Balloon Payment. Russ T. Pipes has
taken out a 25-year, $75,250 house mortgage at 13.8% annual
interest. He expects to sell the house in 4 years, repaying the
loan in a balloon payment. Find the size of the balloon
payment—the value of the mortgage after 4 years of payments.
Keys:
Description:
[G] [MENU] [A] [T] Starts the TVM application.
[MENU] [C] [D] Clears any prior TVM data.
25 [L] [F6]
Enters 300 as the total number of monthly
payments.
13.8 [F7]
Enters the annual interest rate.
75250 [F8]
Enters the amount of the mortgage as the
present value.
0 [F10]
Enters 0 as the future value.
[F9]
Calculates the monthly payment of $894.33.
894.33 [+/-] [F9] Stores the actual dollars-and-cents payment,
which is the computed payment rounded to 2
decimal places. Otherwise, PMT would have
fractional cents as previously calculated.
4 [L] [F6]
Enters the number of payments in 4 years.
[F10]
Calculates the balloon to be $73,408.81.
Example: A Savings Account. Penny Horder deposits $2000
into a savings account that pays 7.2% annual interest,
compounded annually. If she makes no other deposits into the
account, how long does it take for the account to contain
$3000?
Page 199
Keys:
Description:
[G] [MENU] [A] [T] Starts the TVM application.
[MENU] [C] [D] Clears any prior TVM data.
1 [F5]
Sets 1 compounding period per year.
7.2 [F7]
Enters the annual interest rate.
2000 [+/-] [F8] Enters the amount of the deposit.
3000 [F10]
Enters the future value.
[F6]
Calculates 5.83 years.
Since the calculated value of N is between 5 and 6, it will take
6 years of annual compounding to achieve a balance of at least
$3,000. The actual balance at the end of 6 years can be
calculated:
6 [F6]
Enters 6 as N.
[F10]
Calculates the balance to be $3,035.28 after 6
years.
Sandy Lome is leasing farm equipment for 4
years. The monthly payment of $2400 is due today. An additional $2400 payment at the beginning of the leasing period
replaces the final payment. The leasing agreement includes an
option to buy the equipment for $15,000 at the end of the
leasing period. Calculate the capitalized value of the lease,
assuming that the interest rate Lome pays to borrow funds is
18%, compounded monthly.
Make the calculation in four steps:
Example: A Lease.
Calculate the present value for the 47 monthly payments—the initial
investment required to make the monthly payments.
Add the advance payment to the result of step 1.
Calculate the present value of the buy option—the initial investment required
to generate the option price after 48 months.
Add the values calculated in steps 2 and 3.
Step 1
Calculate the present value of the monthly payments.
Page 200
Keys:
Description:
[G] [MENU] [A] [T] Starts the TVM application.
[MENU] [C] [D] Clears any prior TVM data.
[F4]
Set payments at the beginning of the periods.
47 [F6]
Enters the number of payments.
18 [F7]
Enters the annual interest rate.
2400 [+/-] [F9] Enters the monthly payment.
[F8]
Calculates the present (capitalized) value of
the 47 monthly payments to be $81,735.58.
Step 2
Add the additional advance payment to PV and store the
answer.
[+] 2400 [=]
Adds the advance payment to PV.
[STO] 1
Stores 84,135.58 in register 1.
Step 3
Find the present value of the buy option.
48 [F6]
Enters the number of periods.
15000 [+/-] [F10] Enters the amount of buy option.
0 [F9]
Clears PMT.
[F8]
Calculates the present value of the buy option
to be $7,340.43.
Step 4
Add the results of steps 2 and 3.
[+] [RCL] 1 [=] Calculates $91,476.00 to be the present
(capitalized) value of the lease.
Calculating amortization
Amortization calculations determine the amounts applied
toward principal and interest in a payment or series of
payments. When you’re in TVM and press ~Amort~~ ([F2]),
you get the amortization function keys:
Page 201
Key Label Description
~~~GO~~~ Calculates the amortization for a group of
payments. If you enter a number in the calc
line and then press ~~~GO~~~, that number
is used as the number of payments in the
group; if you press ~~~GO~~~ without
entering a number, the current number of
payments per year (P/YR) is used, which is
12 unless you change it.
[L]
~~~GO~~~
Calculates the amortization
for a number of groups, specified by the
number you type in the calc line.
~Adjust~ Displays the amortization adjustment screen and
function keys.
~I%YR’~~ Stores or calculates a new interest rate or returns
the current interest rate to the calc line.
~~PMT’~~ Stores or calculates a new payment amount or
returns the current payment to the calc line.
~~BAL~~~ Returns the amount of the remaining balance of
the loan to the calc line. Pressing [STO]
~~BAL~~~ stores a new balance.
~~INT~~~ Returns the amount of the payments applied
toward interest to the calc line.
~ACCUM~~ Returns the amount of accumulated interest since
the start of the amortization (period 0) to the
calc line.
~~PRIN~~ Returns the amount of the payments applied
toward principal to the calc line.
~1–2–3~~ Specifies the current 1-2-3 worksheet as the
Page 202
destination for the amortization table. When
an amortization table is generated, it is sent
to the 1-2-3 worksheet starting at the current
cell. This feature works only when a 1-2-3
worksheet is currently loaded.
To make amortization calculations:
Start TVM by pressing [MENU] [A] [T].
Check that these TVM conditions are set:
Number of payments per year.
Payments at beginning or end of periods.
Store values for three TVM variables: I%YR, PV, and PMT. These variables
define the payment schedule. For an adjustable rate mortgage, also store
the total number of payments in N.
Press ~Amort~~ ([F2]) to select the amortization screen.
Do one of the following:
Simply press ~~~GO~~~ ([F2]) to calculate amortization for
the number of periods stored in P/YR (default is 12).
Enter the number of payments to amortize, then press
~~~GO~~~ ([F2]).
For an Adjustable Rate Mortgage (ARM):
At the point in the schedule where the interest rate changes,
adjust it by typing the new rate in the calc line and pressing
~I%YR’~~ ([F4]).
Calculate the adjusted payment by pressing ~~PMT’~~ ([F5]).
Optionally press ~Adjust~ ([F3]) to select the amortization
adjustment screen. This screen enables you to adjust other
amortization variables, if necessary, for your particular
problem.
Continue using ~~~GO~~~ ([F2]) to calculate the adjusted
amortization schedule.
When you’re finished, press [ESC] to return to the amortization screen.
To start the amortization schedule over, press [MENU] [C] [D]
to clear the data and begin again.
Amortization calculations use values of PV, PMT, and INT
rounded to the number of decimal places specified by the
current display setting. However, the stored values of PV and
PMT do not change. Amortization uses all 16 digits of I%YR.
Page 203
Pressing [ESC] from the amortization screen returns you to the
main TVM screen.
Example: Amortization Schedule for a Home Mortgage. Part 1.
Rufus Leekin has taken out a 30-year, $65,000 mortgage at
12.5% annual interest. Calculate his monthly payment, and then
calculate the first year’s payments that are applied toward
principal and interest.
Keys:
Description:
[G] [MENU] [A] [T] Starts the TVM application.
[MENU] [C] [D] Clears any prior TVM data.
30 [L] [F6]
Enters the number of payments.
12.5 [F7]
Enters the annual interest rate.
65000 [F8]
Enters the amount of the mortgage.
[F9]
Calculates $693.72 as the monthly payment.
[F2]
Selects the amortization screen.
[F2]
Calculates the amortization for the first year
(12 payments).
Part 2. Calculate the loan balance after 3½ years. You’ve
already amortized the first 12 months, so if you amortize 30
more months, you will have amortized a total of 42 months, or
3½ years.
30 [F2]
Calculates the amortization for the next 30
payments. After 3½ years, Rufus has an
Page 204
unpaid balance of $64,129.05.
Example: Adjustable Rate Mortgage. Part 1. Pete Moss took out
a $100,000, 20-year ARM to purchase the building for his
garden supply store. His interest rate for the first year is 8.25%.
Moss expects the rate for the second year to increase to 8.75%.
How would the increase affect his monthly payment for the
second year?
Keys:
Description:
[G] [MENU] [A] [T] Starts the TVM application. You may
need to press [ESC] to display the main TVM
screen.
[MENU] [C] [D] Clears any prior TVM data.
20 [L] [F6]
Enters the number of payments.
8.25 [F7]
Enters the annual interest rate.
100000 [F8]
Enters the amount of the mortgage.
[F9]
Calculates the monthly payment of $852.07.
[F2]
Selects the amortization screen.
[F2]
Calculates the amortization for the first year
(12 payments). His remaining balance is
$97,948.74.
8.75 [F4]
Enters the adjusted interest rate (I%YR’).
[F5]
Calculates the adjusted payment (PMT’). The
number of remaining periods is updated
automatically to 228.
Page 205
Moss’s monthly payment would increase from $852.07 in year
1 to $882.62 in year 2.
Part 2. How much would Moss pay in interest the second year?
[F2]
Calculates amortization for the second year.
Pete’s interest total for the second year is
$8,487.46.
Example: Graduated Payment Mortgage. To purchase a vacation
condominium, Biff Beamer took out a 15-year, 12.5% GPM for
$95,000. His monthly payment for the first 2 years is $875,
after which time the payment increases to fully amortize the
loan. What will the remaining balance be at the end of the 2
years? How much will Biff’s payment have to increase to fully
amortize the loan by the end of the original 15-year period?
Keys:
Description:
[G] [MENU] [A] [T] Starts the TVM application. You may
need to press [ESC] to display the main TVM
screen.
[MENU] [C] [D] Clears any prior TVM data.
15 [L] [F6]
Enters the number of payments.
12.5 [F7]
Enters the annual interest rate.
95000 [F8]
Enters the amount of the mortgage.
875 [+/-] [F9]
Enters the monthly payment during the first 2
years.
[F2]
Selects the amortization screen.
Page 206
24 [F2]
[F5]
Calculates the amortization for the first 2
years, showing a remaining balance of
$98,106.01.
Calculates the payment required to fully
amortize the loan over the remaining number
of periods. For the last 13 years of the loan
Biff’s monthly payment will be $1,275.15.
Note
The previous example involves negative amortization—a case in which
payments are less than accrued interest for a time, causing the principal
to increase by the difference between paid and accrued interest. In
negative amortization the interest amounts shown in the amortization
screen reflect the accrued interest, not the interest paid. As long as the
payment is less than the accrued interest for the period, you can
calculate the interest paid for a group of payments by multiplying the
payment amount by the number of payments in the group.
Sending an amortization table to 1-2-3 or a
printer
To print an amortization table:
From the amortization screen, press [MENU] [F] [P] [D] to turn
printing on. When printing is on, a PRINT annunciator appears
in the upper-right corner of the display.
Use ~~~GO~~~ and [L] ~~~GO~~~ to generate the parts of the table you
want printed. [L] ~~~GO~~~ is very useful here because it prints the table
for the number of groups specified in the calc line. The groups are printed
as they are generated.
When you’re finished printing, press [MENU] [F] [P] [D] again to turn printing
off. Leaving the amortization screen also turns off printing.
Page 207
To send an amortization table to the current 1-2-3
worksheet:
From within TVM press ~Amort~~ ([F2]) then ~1–2–3~~
([F10]). The current 1-2-3 worksheet is displayed.
Move the cell pointer to the cell where you want to start receiving input and
press [ENTER]. Eight amortization column headings are put into the
worksheet and you are returned to the amortization screen. The
amortization screen now shows a 1-2-3 annunciator in the upper-right
corner of the screen to remind you that output will be sent to 1-2-3.
Calculate amortization as described earlier in this chapter. Each time you
press ~~~GO~~~ (or [L] ~~~GO~~~) the results are sent to the current 12-3 worksheet—a row of information is sent for each group of payments
calculated.
When you no longer want the results sent to the current worksheet, press ~1–
2–3~~ ([F10]) again. The 1-2-3 annunciator turns off.
When you display the worksheet, you’ll be able to see the
amortization output. Here is an example of five groups sent to a
worksheet:
The table sent to the worksheet comprises eight columns of
data:
Column Description
Group
The group number.
BAL
The remaining balance at the end of that group of
payments.
PRIN
The principal paid for that group of payments.
INT
The interest paid for that group of payments.
Page 208
ACCUM
#PMTS
I%YR
PMT
The accumulated interest paid.
The number of payments in that group.
The annual interest rate for that group of payments.
The periodic payment for that group.
Page 209
Calculating interest rate conversions
Interest rates are generally stated as nominal annual interest
rates. A nominal annual interest rate is an annual rate that is
compounded periodically—for example, 18% per year, compounded monthly (12 times per year). When investments have
different compounding periods, effective interest rates are used
to compare them. The effective rate is the annual rate that
would produce the same interest earnings as the nominal rate
compounded P times per year. For example, earning 18%
annual rate compounded monthly (nominal rate) is equivalent
to earning 19.56% effective annual interest.
The Calculator lets you easily convert interest rates for
comparison. When you press [MENU] [A] [T] to start TVM and
then press ~Iconv~~ ([F3]), you get the interest conversion
screen with the following function keys:
Key LabelDescription
~~P/YR~~
Stores the number of payments per year.
~~I%YR~~
Stores or calculates the nominal annual rate.
~~EFF%~~
Stores or calculates the effective annual rate.
~I%PER~~
Stores or calculates the periodic interest rate
(I%YR ÷ P/YR).
~~CONT~~
Stores or calculates the continuouslycompounded rate.
~360/5~~
Stores or calculates the rate based on the 360/
365 method. This is a very specialized
method sometimes used in the savings
industry. If you don’t know about it, don’t
worry—it’s too complicated to explain here.
Storing any of the interest rate values automatically updates the
others. Storing P/YR updates the other values based on the
effective rate. Also, pressing [RCL] before a function key recalls
that value to the calc line.
Page 210
Pressing [ESC] from the interest conversion screen returns you
to the main TVM screen.
Example: Converting and Comparing Interest Rates. Rodeo star
Buck Doff is considering how to invest his recent winnings. He
has two investment options: one promises to pay 13.6% annual
interest, compounded daily, and the other promises to pay
14.0%, compounded semi-annually. Which of Doff’s options
would give him the highest effective rate?
Keys:
Description:
[G] [MENU] [A] [T] Starts the TVM application. You may
need to press [ESC] to display the main TVM
screen.
[F3]
Selects the interest conversion screen.
365 [F3]
Enters the number of compounding periods in
option 1.
13.6 [F4] Enters the nominal annual rate for option 1, and
returns an effective annual rate of 14.57%.
[H]
Selects interest conversion screen, case 2.
2 [F3]
Enters the number of compounding periods in
option 2.
14.0 [F4] Enters the nominal annual rate for option 2, and
returns an effective annual rate of 14.49%.
Use [H] to switch back and forth between case 1 and case 2 to
compare the effective rates. The effective annual rate for option
1 (14.57%) is higher than that for option 2 (14.49%).
If compounding and payment periods differ
TVM in the Calculator assumes that the compounding periods
and the payment periods are the same. However, regularly
occurring deposits and withdrawals do not necessarily coincide
with the investment’s compounding periods. To solve a TVM
problem where they don’t coincide, first convert the interest
Page 211
rate to an equivalent interest rate with compounding periods
that match the regular deposits or withdrawals.
Example: A Savings Account with Compounding Periods Different from Payment Periods. Starting today, Penny Horder makes
monthly deposits of $25 into an account paying 5% interest
compounded daily (365-day basis). At the end of 7 years, how
much will Penny receive from the account?
Keys:
Description:
[G] [MENU]
[A] [T]
Starts the TVM application. You
may need to press [ESC] to get the main
TVM screen.
[MENU] [C] [D] Clears any prior TVM data.
[F3]
Selects the interest conversion screen.
365 [F3]
Enters the number of compounding periods.
5 [F4]
Enters the nominal annual rate for daily
compounding, and returns an effective
annual rate of 5.13%.
12 [F3]
Enters monthly compounding periods, and
calculates the equivalent nominal rate for
monthly compounding at 5.01%.
[ESC]
Displays the main TVM screen.
[F4]
Sets payment mode to beginning of a period.
7 [L] [F6] Enters the total number of periods.
25 [+/-] [F9] Enters the payment per period.
0 [F8]
Enters the present value.
[F10]
Calculates that Penny’s account will have
$2,519.61 after 7 years.
Example: Canadian Mortgages. In Canadian mortgages, interest
is compounded semi-annually while payments are made
monthly. The Canadian mortgage factor is calculated by
Page 212
converting the stated nominal interest rate (compounded semiannually) to the nominal rate compounded monthly (the
payment period). The factor is then used as the TVM variable
I%YR.
The multinational law firm of Honig, Bradley, and Erickson has
opened a Canadian office in Toronto. What is the monthly
payment required to fully amortize their 30-year, $300,000
Canadian mortgage with an interest rate of 11.5%?
Keys:
Description:
[G] [MENU] [A] [T] Starts the TVM application. You may
need to press [ESC] to get the main TVM
screen.
[MENU] [C] [D] Clears any prior TVM data.
[F3]
Selects the interest conversion screen.
2 [F3]
Enters the number of compounding periods.
11.5 [F4]
Enters the nominal annual interest rate and
calculates 11.83% as the effective annual
rate.
12 [F3]
Enters monthly compounding periods, and
calculates 11.23% as the equivalent nominal
rate for monthly compounding (the
Canadian mortgage factor).
[ESC]
Displays the main TVM screen.
30 [L] [F6]
Enters the total number of periods.
300000 [F8]
Enters the present value.
0 [F10]
Enters the future value.
[F9]
Calculates Honig, Bradley, and Erickson’s
monthly payment to be $2,910.09.
Page 213
Additional TVM examples
Yield of a discounted (or premium) mortgage
The annual yield of a mortgage bought at a discount or
premium can be calculated given the original mortgage amount
(PV), interest rate (I%YR), periodic payment (PMT), balloon
payment (if any) (FV), and the price paid for the mortgage (new
PV).
Example: Yield of a Discounted Mortgage. Seymour Profit
wishes to purchase a $100,000 mortgage from Skip Towne.
Towne originally issued the mortgage at 9% interest for 20
years. Since the mortgage was issued, 42 monthly payments
have been made. The loan is to be paid in full (a balloon
payment) at the end of its fifth year. What is the yield if the
purchase price of the mortgage is $79,000?
Calculate PMT for the fully amortized loan (N = 20 x 12, FV = 0, PV = 100,000, and I%YR = 9).
Calculate the balloon payment (FV). Use PMT from step 1, N = 5 x 12.
Store the number of payments remaining until the balloon payment as N (5 x
12 - 42), and store the proposed purchase price as PV (-79,000); calculate
I%YR (the annual yield).
Step 1
Calculate PMT.
Keys:
Description:
[G] [MENU] [A] [T] Starts the TVM application. You may
need to press [ESC] to display the main TVM
screen.
[MENU] [C] [D] Clears any prior TVM data.
20 [L] [F6]
Enters the total number of monthly payments
for a full 20-year mortgage.
9 [F7]
Enters the annual interest rate.
100000 [+/-] [F8]Enters the amount of the original loan.
0 [F10]
Enters 0 as FV.
Page 214
[F9]
Calculates the monthly payment received
from the borrower to be $899.73.
Step 2
Calculate the balloon.
5 [L] [F6]
Enters the number of payments in 5 years.
[F10]
Calculates the balloon due in 5 years to be
$88,707.05.
Step 3
Calculate the yield.
[RCL] [F6] [-] 42 [F6] Enters the number of payments
remaining until the balloon payment.
79000 [+/-] [F8] Enters proposed, discounted purchase price.
[F7]
Calculates annual yield for discounted mortgage
with balloon to be 20.72%.
Loans with fees
The annual percentage rate, APR, incorporates fees
charged when a mortgage is issued, which effectively raises the
interest rate. The actual amount received by the borrower (PV)
is reduced, while the periodic payments remain the same.
Example: APR of a Loan with Fees. Ernest Munnie is charged
two points for the issuance of his mortgage. One point is equal
to 1% of the mortgage amount. If the mortgage amount is
$60,000 for 30 years and the interest rate is 11.5% annually
with monthly payments, what APR is Ernie paying?
Calculate PMT, using PV=$60,000 and I%YR=11.5%.
Adjust PV to reflect the amount of the loan minus the fees. Then, calculate the
APR (I%YR), using the PMT calculated in step 1 (all other values remain
the same).
Step 1
Calculate PMT.
Page 215
Keys:
Description:
[G] [MENU] [A] [T] Starts the TVM application. You may
need to press [ESC] to display the main TVM
screen.
[MENU] [C] [D] Clears any prior TVM data.
30 [L] [F6] Enters the number of monthly payments.
11.5 [F7]
Enters the annual interest rate.
60000 [F8]
Enters the amount of the loan.
0 [F10]
Enters 0 as FV since there’s no balloon
payment.
[F9]
Calculates $594.17 as the monthly payment.
Step 2
Adjust PV and calculate the APR.
[RCL] [F8] [-]
2[%] [F8] Enters the actual amount of
money received by the borrower.
[F7]
Calculates the APR to be 11.76%.
Example: Interest-Only Loan with Fees from the Lender’s Point
of View. Bill Lender is making a $1,000,000, 10-year, 10.5%
(annual interest) interest-only loan with an origination fee of 3
points. What is the yield to Bill? Assume that the interest-only
payments are made monthly. (PMT is $1,000,000 x 10.5 ÷ 12,
FV is the entire loan amount, and PV is the loan amount minus
the points.)
Keys:
Description:
[G] [MENU] [A] [T] Starts the TVM application. You may
need to press [ESC] to display the main TVM
screen.
[MENU] [C] [D] Clears any prior TVM data.
10 [L] [F6]
Enters the number of monthly payments
(120).
Page 216
1000000 [F10] [+/-] [F8]
Enters loan amount and balloon
payment (the entire loan).
10.5 [F7]
Enters annual interest rate.
[F9]
Calculates and stores the monthly payment of
$8,750.
[RCL] [F8] [-] 3 [%] [=] [F8] Enters amount borrowed (totalpoints) as $970,000. (PV -970,000.)
[F7]
Calculates APR, the yield to the lender, as
11.00%.
A tax-free account
You can use the TVM screen to calculate the future value of a
tax-free or tax-deferred account, such as an IRA or Keogh
account. Current tax law will determine the extent to which the
account is tax-free. The purchasing power of the future value
depends on the inflation rate and the duration of the account.
N=
the number of payments until retirement.
I%YR =
the annual dividend rate.
PV =
the present value of the retirement account.
PMT = the amount of your deposit. It must be constant for the
duration of the account.
FV =
the future value of the retirement account.
Example: Future Value and Purchasing Power of a Tax-Free
Account. Part 1. Les Tacksis plans to open an individual
retirement account with a dividend rate of 8.175%, and invest
$2,000 at the beginning of each year until he retires in 35 years.
Calculate the account balance at retirement.
Keys:
Description:
[G] [MENU] [A] [T] Starts the TVM application. You may
need to press [ESC] to display the main TVM
Page 217
screen.
[MENU] [C] [D] Clears any prior TVM data.
1 [F5]
Sets payments per year to 1.
[F4]
Sets payment mode to BEGIN.
35 [F6]
Enters the number of periods.
8.175 [F7]
Enters the dividend rate.
0 [F8]
The present value is 0 before the first
payment.
2000 [+/-] [F9] Enters the annual deposit.
[F10]
Calculates $387,640.45 as the amount in the
account at retirement.
Part 2. How much has Les paid into the account at retirement?
[RCL] [F9] [*] [RCL] [F6] [=] Calculates PMT x N to be
$70,000.00.
Part 3. How much interest has the account earned. The interest
earned equals the difference between FV and the total amount
deposited.
[+] [RCL] [F10] [=]
Calculates the interest part of FV to
be $317,640.45.
Part 4. If his post-retirement tax rate is 15%, what is the
after-tax future value of the account? Assume only interest is
taxed.
[*] 15 [%] [=]
Calculates taxes, 15% of total
interest.
[+/-] [+] [RCL] [F10] [=] Subtracts taxes from total FV to
calculate after-tax FV to be $339,994.39.
Part 5. Calculate the purchasing power of this amount in
today’s dollars, assuming an 8% annual inflation rate.
[F10]
Page 218
0 [F9]
8 [F7]
[F8]
Calculates the purchasing power in today’s
dollars to be $22,995.36. A negative number
for PV in the display indicates money
available to flow from the investor, so it
represents positive purchasing power.
A taxable retirement account
The following example calculates the future value of a taxable
retirement account that receives regular, annual payments. The
annual tax on the interest is paid out of the account. Assume
the deposits have been taxed already.
N=
the number of payments until retirement.
I%YR =
the annual interest rate diminished by the tax rate:
interest rate x (1 - tax rate).
PV =
the current amount in the retirement account.
PMT =
the amount of the annual payment.
FV =
the future value of the retirement account.
Example: Future Value and Purchasing Power of a Taxable
Retirement Account. Part 1. Izzy Smart is considering investing
his money with E. Norma Spayback Investment Company.
They claim that if Izzy invests $3,000 with them each year for
35 years at a dividend rate of 8.175%, with dividends taxed as
ordinary income, he’ll be rich at retirement with close to
$500,000. Exactly how much would Izzy have in the account at
retirement? Assume a tax rate of 28%, and that payments begin
today.
Keys:
Description:
[G] [MENU] [A] [T] Starts the TVM application. You may
need to press [ESC] to get the main TVM
screen.
Page 219
[MENU] [C] [D] Clears any prior TVM data.
1 [F5]
Sets payments per year to 1.
[F4]
Sets payment mode to BEGIN.
35 [F6]
Enters the number of periods.
8.175 [-] 28 [%] [F7] Enters and stores the dividend rate
diminished by the tax rate as 5.89%.
0 [F8]
The present value is 0 before the first
payment.
3000 [+/-] [F9]
Enters the annual deposit.
[F10]
Calculates $345,505.61 as the future value of
the taxed account. Due to taxation, this is not
“close to $500,000.”
Part 2. What would be the purchasing power of that amount in
today’s dollars, assuming 8% annual inflation?
0 [F9]
No payments (PMT).
8 [F7]
I%YR
[F8]
Calculates the purchasing power in today’s
dollars to be $23,368.11. A negative number
for PV indicates money to flow from the
investor, so it is positive purchasing power.
Page 220
15
Uneven cash flow
calculations
When you press [G] [MENU] [A] [F], you get the Cash Flows
application, which enables you to calculate internal rate of
return (IRR%), net present value (NPV), net uniform series
(NUS), and net future value (NFV). Also, you can plot net
present value versus the annual interest rate.
NPV and IRR%: discounting cash flows
The NPV and IRR% functions are frequently referred to as
discounted cash flow functions. When a cash flow is
discounted, you calculate its present value. When multiple cash
flows are discounted, you calculate the present values and add
them together.
The net present value (NPV) function finds the present value of
a series of cash flows. The annual nominal interest rate must be
known to calculate NPV.
The internal rate of return (IRR%) function calculates the
annual nominal interest rate that is required to give an NPV of
zero.
The utility of these two financial tools becomes clear after
working a few examples.
Page 221
Making cash-flow calculations
To make cash-flow calculations:
Organize your cash flows. Just like with TVM, money flowing from you is
negative, and money flowing to you is positive. Put equal, consecutive cash
flows into groups.
Press [G] [MENU] [A] [F] to start the Cash Flow application.
If necessary, clear prior data by pressing [MENU] [C] [D].
Enter the number of compounding periods per year.
If you plan to calculate NPV, NUS, or NFV, enter the annual interest rate.
Enter the amount of the initial investment.
Enter the amount of the next cash flow. If this amount occurs more than once
consecutively, enter in the right-hand column the number of times it occurs.
Repeat the previous step for all cash flows and groups.
Press the function key for what you want to calculate: IRR%, NPV, NUS, or
NFV.
Here is what some cash-flow data might look like:
An Example of Cash-Flow Data
You can save your cash-flow data in files for future use by
using [MENU] [F] [C]. Cash-flow files are automatically given a
.CFL extension. You open cash-flow files using [MENU] [F]
[O].
Page 222
The cash-flow function keys
Key Label
~Insert~
~Delete~
IRR%/YR~
~~NPV~~~
~~NUS~~~
~~NFV~~~
~I%/YR~~
~~P/YR~~
~~Plot~~
Description
Inserts cash flows into the list at the highlight.
Deletes the highlighted cash flows.
Calculates the annualized internal rate of return—
the annual interest rate at which the net
present value of the cash flows equals 0.
Calculates net present value—the present value of
a series of cash flows plus the initial cost of
the investment, computed for a specified
periodic interest rate.
Calculates net uniform series—the dollar amount
of regular, equal cash flows having a present
value equivalent to the net present value.
Calculates net future value—the future value of
the net present value.
Stores the annual nominal interest rate.
Stores the number of periods per year.
Plots NPV vs. the periodic interest rate.
Uneven cash flow examples
Example: Calculating IRR%, NPV, NUS, and NFV of an Investment. Part 1. An investor makes an initial investment of
$80,000 and expects returns over the next 5 years as shown in
the table below:
Year 1
$5,000
Year 2
$4,500
Year 3
$5,500
Year 4
$4,000
Year 5
$115,000
Page 223
Calculate IRR%, NPV, NUS, and NFV, assuming an annual
interest rate of 10.5%.
Keys:
Description:
[G] [MENU] [A] [F] Starts the Cash Flow application.
[MENU] [C] [D] Clears any prior data.
1 [F9]
Enters 1 compounding period per year.
80000 [+/-] [ENTER] Enters the investment as the initial cash
flow.
5000 [ENTER] 4500 [ENTER] 5500 [ENTER] 4000 [ENTER] 115000
[ENTER] Enters the cash flows over the life
of the investment.
[F4]
Calculates the IRR% per year to be 11.93.
10.5 [F8]
Enters the annual interest rate.
[F5]
Calculates the NPV to be $4,774.63.
[F6]
Calculates the NUS to be $1,275.66.
[F7]
Calculates the NFV to be $7,865.95.
Part 2. Assuming the same interest rate, calculate NPV if cash
flow number 4 is reduced from $4,000 to $1,000.
Highlight flow# 4 Use the arrow keys to highlight the $4,000
cash flow.
1000 [ENTER]
Inserts $1,000 in its place.
[F5]
Calculates the NPV to be $2,762.43.
Example: An Investment with Grouped Cash Flows. You are
considering an investment that requires a cash outlay of
$50,000 with the following annual returns:
Flow 1
3 annual payments of $5,000
Flow 2
4 annual payments of $10,000
Flow 3
1 annual payment of $0
Flow 4
3 annual payments of $15,000
Page 224
Calculate IRR%. Also, find the NPV at an annual interest rate
of 9%.
Keys:
Description:
[G] [MENU] [A] [F] Starts the Cash Flow application.
[MENU] [C] [D]
Clears any prior data.
1 [F9]
Enters 1 compounding period per year.
50000 [+/-] [ENTER] Enters the initial investment.
5000 [H] 3
[ENTER] 10000 [H]
4 [ENTER] 0 [ENTER] 15000 [H] 3 [ENTER]
Enters the groups of cash flows.
[F4]
Calculates an IRR% of 11.30.
9 [F8] [F5]
Enters the interest rate and calculates an
NPV of $6,728.63.
Example: An Investment with Quarterly Returns. You have been
offered an opportunity to invest $20,000. The investment
returns quarterly payments over 4 years as follows:
Year 1
4 payments of $500
Year 2
4 payments of $1,000
Year 3
4 payments of $2,000
Year 4
4 payments of $3,000
Calculate the annual rate of return for this investment.
Keys:
Description:
[G] [MENU] [A] [F] Starts the Cash Flow application.
[MENU] [C] [D]
Clears any prior data.
4 [F9]
Enters 4 periods per year, based on
quarterly payments.
20000 [+/-] [ENTER] Enters the initial investment.
500 [H] 4 [H] 1000 [H] 4 [H] 2000 [H] 4 [H] 3000 [H] 4 [H]
Enters the groups of cash flows.
[F4]
Calculates the annual return to be 9.72%.
Page 225
Example: Deposits Needed for a Future Expenditure. Your son
will be starting college in 12 years, at which time he will need
$15,000 at the beginning of each year for 4 years. How much
should you deposit each month into a fund paying 9% annual
interest to meet his educational expenses?
To do this calculation, enter the withdrawals into a cash flow
list along with zero for all the deposits. Then, store the annual
interest rate and calculate NUS. NUS is the periodic deposit
equivalent to the withdrawals.
Keys:
Description:
[G] [MENU] [A] [F] Starts the Cash Flow application.
[MENU] [C] [D] Clears any prior data and resets the number
of periods per year to 12.
0 [ENTER]
Enters zero as the initial cash flow.
0 [H] 12 [*] 12 [-] 1 [ENTER]Enters 143 months (after the
initial investment) until the first withdrawal.
15000 [ENTER] Enters the freshman year withdrawal.
0 [H] 11 [ENTER] Enters 11 more months until the next
withdrawal.
15000 [ENTER] Enters the sophomore year withdrawal.
0 [H] 11 [ENTER] Enters 11 more months until the next
withdrawal.
15000 [ENTER] Enters the junior year withdrawal.
0 [H] 11 [ENTER] Enters 11 more months until the next
withdrawal.
15000 [ENTER] Enters the senior year withdrawal.
9 [F8]
Enters the interest rate.
[F6]
Calculates an NUS of 182.30. Starting this
month, you would need to make monthly
payments of $182.30 into this fund for your
son’s education.
Page 226
Plotting
Pressing ~~Plot~~ ([F10]) when you’re in the Cash Flow
application enables you to plot NPV versus I%/YR for the
current cash-flow data. Here is a plot using the autoscale
feature (~~Auto~~) for the second example in this chapter.
For a more detailed explanation of the plotting parameters and
procedures, see Function plotting in chapter 19.
Page 227
16
Currency and other unit
conversions
Press [G] [MENU] [A] [O] to see the Conversions menu. Or, as
a shortcut from within the Calculator, press [CTRL]+[O].
Highlight the units you want to convert and press [ENTER]. To
highlight a unit type, either use the arrow keys or type the first
letter of the word.
Pressing [ESC] from any conversion screen returns you to the
Select Conversions menu. Also, pressing [MENU] [C] [D]
clears all the displayed unit values.
Converting currencies
Since exchange rates change frequently, you have the ability to
change exchange rates between currencies.
To change exchange rates:
From within Currency Conversions, press [F2] (Edit) to display the Currency
Conversions Edit screen.
Use the arrow keys to highlight a currency.
Type the exchange rate for that currency. A rate of 0 removes a currency from
consideration when you calculate exchanges.
Press [J] or [ENTER].
Repeat the steps 4 through 6 for all the desired currencies. Note that [F10]
(More) enables you to see all three screens of currencies. Here is what a list
might look like.
Page 228
When you’re finished assigning rates, press [ESC] to return to the main
Currency Conversions screen.
To calculate exchanges:
From within Currency Conversions, type the number of units
and press the function key for the corresponding currency—for
example, 20 [F8] (~Pound~~). All the currencies are shown
simultaneously in equivalent amounts—in this case, in amounts
equal to 20 Pounds.
A currency value can be returned to the calc line by pressing
[RCL] followed by the function key for the currency you want.
Changing the list of currencies
You can add up to five currencies to the list of currencies, plus
you can change the name of any currency in the original list.
Effectively, this means that you can create a list with any 21
currencies you want.
To change the name of a currency:
From within Currency Conversions, press [F2] to display the Currency
Conversions Edit screen.
Highlight the currency you want to change and press [F2] (Name).
Type the new name and press [ENTER].
Type the exchange rate for the new currency and press [ENTER].
Repeat steps 2 through 4 for all changes you want to make.
When you’re finished, press [ESC] to return to the main Currency Conversions
screen.
Page 229
You can use the previous procedure to add a new currency to
the bottom of the list by highlighting an empty currency line in
step 2. Use [F10] to find a page of currencies with empty lines.
Converting other units
Besides currency conversions, you have the ability to convert
related units within the categories of length, area, volume,
mass, and temperature.
To convert units of length, area, volume, mass, or
temperature:
Press [G] [MENU] [A] [O] to start the Conversions application.
Select the type of units you want to convert (highlight and press [ENTER]).
Type a value and press the function key corresponding to its unit. If the unit
you want isn’t currently displayed, remember that [F10] displays another
screen of related units for most unit types.
A unit value can be returned to the calc line by pressing [RCL]
followed by the function key for the unit you want.
Example: Length Conversion. How many meters are there in 1
mile?
Keys:
Description:
[G] [MENU] [A] [O] Starts the Conversions application.
[L] [ENTER]
Displays the length conversions screen.
1 [F2]
Enters 1 mile and displays the conversions.
[RCL] [F7]
Returns the number of meters to the calc line.
There are 1609.34 meters in 1 mile.
Page 230
17
Statistics
When you press [G] [MENU] [A] [L] (or [CTRL]+[L] from
anywhere in the Calculator), you get the List Stat application,
which enables you to:
Calculate statistics for a column of data.
Fit a curve to a set of data.
Forecast estimates.
Graph your data and curve.
Entering and editing data
You can enter data in either one column for one-variable
statistics or two columns for paired-variable statistics. When
you’re in the data edit screen, [F4] switches between one
and two columns.
Page 231
Data Edit Screen with One Column of Data
To enter statistical data:
Press [G] [MENU] [A] [L] to start the List Stat application.
If the data edit screen is not displayed, press [ESC] one or more times or press
~~Edit~~ ([F10]) to see it.
If the displayed number of columns (one or two) is not right for your data,
press [F4].
Type in your data, pressing [ENTER] after each number.
To edit a list of data:
Highlight an entry to change, type a number, and press [ENTER].
You can also use these keys in the data edit screen:
Data Editing Function Keys
Key Label Description
~Insert~ Inserts new data at the highlight, moving the rest of
the data down.
~Delete~ Deletes the highlighted number. Note that the data
pair is deleted, whether both numbers are
displayed or not.
~~Sort~~ Numerically sorts the column with the highlight
from least to greatest. Pairs of data are kept
together.
Page 232
SwapVar~ Swaps the position of the two columns of data,
even if only one column is displayed. Note:
If you’ve entered only one column of data,
SwapVar~ swaps that column with a
column of zeros; pressing SwapVar~ swaps
back the original data.
To clear data:
From the data edit screen, press [MENU] [C] [D] to clear the
entire data list. Both columns are cleared, even if only one is
visible.
Saving statistical data in a file
When you switch to another application or open another data
file, changes to the current file are saved automatically. The
default statistics file is STAT.STA.
You can copy data to another file that you name by using
[MENU] [F] [C] (File Copy). If you don’t specify a file
extension, the palmtop automatically appends the extension
.STA for you.
Use [MENU] [F] [O] to open another statistical data file.
Statistics calculations
To calculate statistics for a column of data:
Make sure the highlight is in the column of data you want to use to calculate
the statistics (use [H] or [I]).
Press ~Stats~~ ([F9]).
Here are the function keys available when you press
~Stats~~:
Stats Function Keys
Key Label Description
~~MEAN~~ Recalls the mean value to the calc line.
Page 233
~STDEV~~ Recalls the standard deviation to the calc line.
~~MIN~~~ Recalls the minimum value to the calc line.
~MEDIAN~ Recalls the median value to the calc line.
~~MAX~~~ Recalls the maximum value to the calc line.
~W.MEAN~ Recalls the weighted mean to the calc line. This
key appears only when two columns of data
are visible in the data edit screen.
G.STDEV~ Recalls the grouped standard deviation to the calc
line. This key appears only when two
columns of data are visible.
~Sample~ ~Popul~~
[F9] switches between sample and
population for the model used to calculate
the standard deviation and grouped standard
deviation. Use ~Sample~ to get unbiased
results based on a sample of a population;
use ~Popul~~ to get results based on data
for an entire population. The Sample/Popul
annunciator (just above the calc line)
indicates the current mode.
~~Edit~~ Returns to the data edit screen.
Example: Statistics Calculations. Nimrod Archery Company
had the following phone bills during the past 6 months:
Month
Expense
Month
Phone
Phone
Expense
1. March
$340
4. June
$780
2. April
$175
5. July
$625
3. May
$450
6. August
$245
To prepare for this example:
Page 234
Press [G] [MENU] [A] [L] to start the List Stat application.
Press [MENU] [C] [D] to clear any prior data.
3. If [F4] shows ~1–Var~~, press it to display only one
column of data. When you press ~1–Var~~, the label changes
to ~2–Var~~.
Now calculate population statistics for the data and return the
standard deviation to the calc line.
Keys:
Description:
340 [ENTER] Enters the data.
175 [ENTER]
450 [ENTER]
780 [ENTER]
625 [ENTER]
245 [ENTER]
[F9]
Calculates and displays the statistics.
At this point if [F9] shows ~Popul~~, press it to choose the
population statistics model for the standard deviation. When
you press ~Popul~~, the Popul annunciator appears above the
calc line.
[F3]
Returns the standard deviation to the calc line.
Page 235
To calculate weighted mean and grouped standard
deviation:
Within the List Stat application, enter data into two columns, with the first
column (x-column) containing the numeric data and the second column (ycolumn) containing the weights or frequencies of each number.
Press ~Stats~~ ([F9]) to see the values for weighted mean and grouped
standard deviation. To recall a value to the calc line, press the function key
for the value you want.
Curve fitting and forecasting
The Calculator enables you to find a mathematical relationship
between two sets of numbers (x-values and y-values) using
curve fitting. Once the curve is calculated, you can use it to do
forecasting (what if?) calculations.
To calculate the curve, the Calculator uses one of four models.
The default is Linear and stays in effect until you change it.
Page 236
To do curve fitting and forecasting:
Within the List Stat application, enter two columns of data. With two columns
visible, the left column represents the x-values and the right column
represents the y-values.
Press ~Frcast~ ([F8]) and check the correlation coefficient
to ensure the current model is acceptable.
If necessary, change the model by pressing [F7].
To do forecasting, type a number and press the function key for
the known value—~XVALUE~ or ~YVALUE~.
Example: Curve Fitting and Forecasting. For the past 6 weeks
the manager of Tom’s and Jerry’s Pet Store has kept records of
their sales and the number of minutes of radio advertising that
were purchased:
Page 237
Minutes of
Sales
Advertising
Week 1 2
Week 2 1
Week 3 3
Week 4 5
Week 5 5
Week 6 4
$1,400
$920
$1,100
$2,265
$2,890
$2,200
Part 1. Determine whether there is a linear relationship between
the amount of radio advertising purchased and the weekly
sales.
To prepare for this example:
Press [G] [MENU] [A] [L] to start the List Stat application.
Press [MENU] [C] [D] to clear any prior data.
If [F4] shows ~2–Var~~, press it to display two columns of data.
Keys:
Description:
2 [ENTER] 1400 [ENTER]Enters the first data pair.
1 [ENTER] 920 [ENTER] Enters the second data pair.
3 [ENTER] 1100 [ENTER] Enters the rest of the data.
5 [ENTER] 2265 [ENTER]
5 [ENTER] 2890 [ENTER]
4 [ENTER] 2200 [ENTER]
[F8]
Calculates the curve and displays the forecast
screen.
If the forecast model is not Linear, press [F7] [L] [F10] to
select it.
Page 238
The correlation coefficient of 0.90 satisfies the manager that it
is a linear relationship.
Part 2. Estimate the level of sales if 7 minutes of advertising
were purchased.
7 [F2] [F3]
Enters 7 as the x-value and displays a y-value of
3,357.38. Tom’s and Jerry’s can expect
around $3,300 in sales with 7 minutes of
radio advertising.
To view statistical summations:
Display the data edit screen (press [ESC] one or more times if
necessary).
Press ~Frcast~ ([F8]) then ~~Sums~~ ([F8]).
To recall a value to the calc line, press the function key for the summation
value you want.
Here are the summation values for the data in the previous
example:
Page 239
Plotting the curve model for your data
The easiest way to plot the curve model for your data is to use
the autoscale feature:
Display the data edit screen (press [ESC] one or more times if necessary).
Make sure both columns of data are visible (press
~2–Var~~ if necessary).
Press ~Frcast~ ([F8]).
Press ~~Plot~~ ([F9]).
Press ~~Auto~~ ([F3]) to display the curve.
When you’re finished viewing the curve, press [ESC].
In addition, you can take advantage of the Calculator functionplotting power and flexibility as described in chapter 19 under
Function plotting.
Page 240
18
Date calculations
Press [G] [MENU] [A] [D] to start the Date Calculations
application. You can use Date Calculations to:
Determine the day of the week for any date.
Find the number of days between two dates.
Determine the date a given number of days in the future or past.
Date Calculation Function Keys
Key Label Description
~DATE1~~ ~DATE2~~
Stores or calculates a date, using the current
Calculator date format—month/day/year (MM.DDYYYY), or
day.month.year (DD.MMYYYY), or year.month.day
(YYYY.MMDD). Also displays the day of the week. If you omit
YYYY, the current year is used. See the next page for more
information on date formats.
~DDAYS~~ Stores or calculates number of days between DATE1 and DATE2 using the
actual calendar. The actual calendar recognizes leap years.
~360/YR~ Calculates number of days between DATE1 and DATE2 using the 360-day
calendar (based on 30-day months).
~365/YR~ Calculates number of days between DATE1 and DATE2 using the 365-day
calendar (ignores leap years).
~TODAY~~ Displays the current date, which can then be stored in DATE1 or DATE2.
About Calculator Date Formats
The Setup utility enables you to set the current date format for
your palmtop. The 11 different formats in Setup correspond to
three formats that the Calculator uses. See chapter 21 for
instructions on changing the current date format.
Date Formats: Calculator vs. Setup Utility
Calculator
DD.MMYYYY
Setup Utility
(DD-MMM-YY)
(MMM-YY)
(DD.MM.YY)
(DD-MMM)
(DD/MM/YY)
(DD/MM)
Page 241
MM.DDYYYY
YYYY.MMDD
(DD.MM)
(MM/DD/YY)
(YY-MM-DD)
(MM/DD)
(MM-DD)
Example: Calculating Dates. What day of the week is July 4,
1996? How many days between July 4, 1996 and September
23, 1997? What day is 90 days after July 4? What day is 180
days prior to July 4? Assume the current date format is month/
day/year (MM.DDYYYY).
Keys:
Description:
[G] [MENU] [A] [D] Starts the Date Calculation application.
7.041996
Enters July 4, 1996 in the current date
format.
[F3]
July 4, 1996 falls on a Thursday.
9.231997 [F4]
Enters September 23, 1997 in DATE2.
[F5]
The actual number of days between DATE1
and DATE2 is 446.
90 [F5] [F4]
October 2 is 90 days after July 4, 1996.
180 [+/-] [F5] [F4]
January 6 is 180 days prior to July 4,
1996.
To clear the Date Calculation variables:
Press [MENU] [C] [D]. DATE1 and DATE2 are reset to today’s
date.
Page 242
19
Using the Solver and
Function Plotting
The Solver enables you to enter your own equations with
variables into the Calculator. You can solve for any of the
variables using special function keys, one for each variable,
that the Solver creates for you. You can also plot an equation
against any of it’s variables.
Your equations can be named and saved in the Solve Catalog
for later use.
The solve catalog
Press [G] [MENU] [A] [S] to start the Solver. If a screen entitled
Solve Catalog is not displayed, press [ESC] repeatedly until it is.
Until you enter some equations, your Solve Catalog will be
empty, but here is an example with some equations.
Page 243
Entering and editing equations
The Solve Catalog can contain as many equations as your
palmtop’s memory permits. Entering equation names is optional.
Solver Example. Suppose you frequently buy carpet and must
calculate how much it will cost. The price is quoted to you per
square yard. Regardless of how you do the calculation (even if
you do it longhand), you use an equation:
Part 1. Enter the above Carpet equation into the Solver.
Page 244
Keys:
Description:
[G] [MENU] [A] [S] Selects the Solve Catalog. If you don’t
see a screen entitled Solve Catalog, press
[ESC] until you see it.
[FN] [H] [I] Ensures the highlight is at the end of the
catalog and in the name field (the left side of
the screen where equation names are
displayed).
Carpet [ENTER] Enters the equation name into the name field.
[H]
Moves the highlight to the equation field.
PPSY [*] L [*] W [/] 9 [=] COST
Automatically
displays the solve editor and types the Carpet
equation.
[F10] [F9]
Verifies the equation, enters it into the equation
list, and selects the solve calc screen. If the
Solver detects an error in the equation, the
cursor in the solve editor locates the
problem. Correct the error and press [F10]
[F9] again.
Part 2. Calculate the cost of carpet needed to cover a 9 foot by
12 foot room. The carpet costs $22.50 per square yard.
Keys:
Description:
Page 245
22.5 [F2]
12 [F3]
9 [F4]
[F5]
Stores the price per square yard in PPSY.
Stores the length.
Stores the width.
Calculates the cost, $270.00.
Part 3. Determine the most expensive carpet you can buy if the
maximum amount you can pay to carpet the room is $300.
The following steps illustrate the “point-and-shoot” way to
enter a value into a variable and to solve for a variable. Pointand-shoot is described in detail in chapter 1.
Keys:
Description:
[K] 300 [K] [K] [K] Stores $300 in COST and moves the
cursor to the PPSY cell.
[SPACEBAR]
Calculates the maximum price per square
yard you can pay to be $25.00.
To enter an equation and its name:
Press [G] [MENU] [A] [S] to display the Solve Catalog. You may need to press
[ESC] one or more times, also.
Move the highlight bar up or down to the position you want to enter the new
equation.
Type the equation. When you start typing, the solve editor automatically
starts. Follow these guidelines:
To improve readability, you can add spaces between
elements.
Page 246
You can add a comment at any point in an equation. Simply
start and end the comment with an exclamation point (!).
Press [ENTER] to break an equation at any point to improve
clarity.
The maximum length of an equation is about 2000
characters, and a single equation can have up to 256 different variables.
Press [F10].
Entering a name is optional. Press [I] to highlight the name field. Type a name
and press [ENTER].
When you’re ready to use the equation, press ~~calc~~ at
which point the Solver verifies the equation. If the equation
cannot be interpreted, the Solver briefly displays: Invalid
equation and the cursor is positioned before the first character
the Solver could not interpret. Check to be sure you’ve made
no typing mistakes and that you’ve followed the rules for
writing equations described later in this chapter.
To edit an equation or its name:
From the Solve Catalog, press [F6] (Edit) to edit the highlighted equation or name. To cancel an edit, press [ESC].
Calculating with your solver equations
To perform a calculation:
Display the Solve Catalog screen.
Highlight the equation you want to calculate.
Press ~~Calc~~ [F9]. This selects a new screen dedicated to the current
equation where each variable is represented by a function key.
Store your known values by typing a value and then pressing the function key
for the associated variable. You must store values in all variables but one.
Press the function key for the value you want to calculate. If the Solver is able
to find a solution to the equation, the answer is displayed in the calc line.
In most cases, this is all you will need to know about how the
Solver works. However, there are certain types of equations
that are more difficult to solve. If, during the calculation, the
display temporarily shows sets of changing numbers, such as:
Page 247
A:1.50000000000 A:1.13476129834 +
the Solver is searching for a solution. See How the Solver
works later in this chapter.
Clearing and deleting solver equations and variables
To clear (set to zero) a set of variables:
Display the Solve Catalog.
Highlight the desired equation and press [F9].
Press [MENU] [C] [D].
Caution
Be sure you display the solve calc screen (press [F9]), not the Solve
Catalog screen to clear the variables for an equation. If you press [MENU]
[C] [D] in the Solve Catalog screen, you will erase all variables and all
equations.
About shared solver variables
If two or more equations contain the same variable names, that
variable (and its value) is shared among the equations in which
it appears. If you delete or clear a shared variable, its value is
lost to all the equations that share it.
To delete an empty line, a name, or an equation and/or its variables:
In the Solve Catalog highlight the empty line, name, or
equation and use [F3] (Delete). ([ESC] cancels the delete
command.)
Note
When deleting an equation, you should first delete its variables (as long
as none are shared variables) to free up memory.
If you delete the equation’s variables but not the equation, the variables
are created again with values of zero the next time you use the equation.
Page 248
To delete all variables and/or all equations:
Display the Solve Catalog.
Press [MENU] [C] [D].
Use [K] to select all equations, all variables, or both.
Press [F10] to delete them, or press [F9] to cancel the delete.
Note
When you delete variables, you free up for other uses the memory they
used. If you do not delete the equations, the variables are created again
with values of zero the next time you use the equation. The memory
used by a single variable is 15 bytes plus a byte for each character in the
variable.
Solve catalog function keys
Solve Catalog Function Keys
Key Label Description
~Insert~ ([F2])
Inserts a blank row above the
highlighted row. This row is ready to accept
your new name and your new equation.
~Delete~ ([F3])
Deletes highlighted name, highlighted
equation and/or its variables, or a blank row.
~~Find~~ ([F4])
Searches names or equations
(whichever field is highlighted) for specified
characters. See Searching for specific text in
chapter 1 for details.
~~Edit~~ ([F6])
Allows you to edit highlighted name or
equation. Also allows you to view long
equations.
~1–2–3~~ ([F8])
Displays the Solve 1-2-3 screen.
Allows you to “back-solve” a 1-2-3
worksheet; that is, make a cell containing a
formula equal to a desired value by solving
for a specified input cell.
Page 249
~~Calc~~ ([F9])
Verifies the equation or expression and
selects the solve calc screen.
~~Plot~~ ([F10])
Displays function plotting.
Using multiple equation lists
The Calculator Solver application enables you to manage
different equation lists using the standard File commands.
Use [MENU] [F] [C] (File Copy) to copy an equation list to a
new file. If you save the equation list using an existing file
name, the new file will overwrite the old file.
Use [MENU] [F] [O] (File Open) to open an existing equation
list file.
Use [MENU] [F] [N] (File New) to create a new, empty equation
list.
Use [MENU] [F] [M] (File Merge) to merge another equation
list into your current list at the position of the highlight.
Using the solver in a 1-2-3 Worksheet.
A worksheet often contains a series of cells where all but one
contain variable values (the variable names are the cell names),
and where that one remaining cell contains the result of a
formula calculation. The formula uses the other cell names as
its variables, and the contents of those other cells are the values
for those variables.
Normally, the values in the variable cells are entered first, then
the formula cell calculates the result. The Solve Catalog’s 1-2-3
feature (~1–2–3~~) allows this calculation order to be
reversed. Rather than have the formula-cell’s value calculated
last, it’s entered first, and a variable-cell’s value is calculated
last. This variable cell is called the solve cell, and this method
of calculating for that cell’s value is called backsolving.
Page 250
To calculate a 1-2-3 solve cell value that will produce
a specified formula cell value:
Use 1-2-3 to create worksheet segment that includes a formula cell and the
data cells representing all the variables used in the formula cell. Ensure
that this worksheet is the current worksheet.
Enter values into all but one of the data cells. The remaining data cell is the
solve cell.
Press [G] [MENU] [A] [S] (and press [ESC] one or more times, if necessary) to
display the Solve Catalog.
Press ~1–2–3~~ ([F8]) to display the calculator’s Solve 1-2-3 screen.
Press ~~Form~~ ([F8]) to display the current 1-2-3 worksheet.
Move the cursor to highlight the formula cell.
Press [ENTER] to define that cell as the formula cell and to return to the
calculator’s Solve 1-2-3 screen.
Type the value of the result you want that formula cell to calculate and press
~VALUE~~ ([F9]).
Press ~Solve~~ ([F10]) to display the current 1-2-3 worksheet.
Move the cursor to highlight the data cell you choose to be the solve cell—the
cell whose value is to be determined.
Press [ENTER] to define that cell as the solve cell and to return to the
calculator’s Solve 1-2-3 screen. The cell’s value is calculated, displayed in
the Solve 1-2-3 screen, and entered in the worksheet.
To restore the solve cell to its previous value:
Press ~~Undo~~ ([F5]). The solve cell is restored to the value
it had just before the last backsolve took place.
To set up a solver worksheet:
Write down your chosen formula (like DISTANCE = RATE * TIME), then
convert it to an expression by subtracting the right side from the left (like
RATE * TIME – DISTANCE).
Reserve a set of adjacent 1-2-3 cells, one for for each variable in your
expression and the last one (the formula cell) for the expression itself.
Enter the expression into the formula cell.
Press [G] [MENU] [A] [S] (and press [ESC] one or more times, if necessary) to
display the Solve Catalog.
Press ~1–2–3~~ ([F8]) to display the Solve 1-2-3 screen.
Press ~~Form~~ ([F8])to display the current 1-2-3 worksheet.
Move the cursor to the formula cell.
Press [ENTER] to define that cell as the formula cell and to return to the
calculator’s Solve 1-2-3 screen.
Type 0 as the result you want that cell to calculate and press ~VALUE~~ ([F9]).
Your solver worksheet is now ready to be used.
Page 251
To use a solver worksheet:
This procedure starts with the worksheet set up as described in
the above procedure To set up a solver worksheet:. This
worksheet is now the current worksheet. You know the values
of all but one of the variables, and you’ll use this solver
worksheet together with the Calculator’s Solve 1-2-3 screen to
solve for that unknown.
If the Solve 1-2-3 screen is not displayed, display the Solve Catalog, then press
~1–2–3~~ ([F8]).
Press [A] to display the solver worksheet.
Enter values into all but one of the variable’s cells.
Move the cursor to the unknown variable’s cell.
Press [G] [F10] [ENTER] and see the solution in the calc line labeled Solve
result. If the expression in the worksheet’s formula cell does not evaluate
to zero exactly, that cell will contain a very small number.
To solve for another variable, repeat these steps.
Example: Creating and Using a Solver Worksheet. This example
demonstrates how to set up the solver worksheet and how to
use it.
The equation used in this example is RATE * TIME =
DISTANCE. The solver worksheet uses expressions, not
equations, so forming left – right gives the expression (RATE *
TIME) - DISTANCE. If you want to press keys as you follow this
example, create the worksheet shown in the following figure.
Cells B3, B4, and B5 contain values only; no formulas. Cell B8
contains the formula +B3*B4-B5. When the example starts,
this worksheet is the current worksheet.
Page 252
Keys:
[A]
Description:
Displays the solver worksheet containing the
formula (RATE * TIME) - DISTANCE in cell
B8.
highlight cell B3 Move the cursor to cell B3.
40 [J] [J] 100 Enters 40 miles per hour into B3 and 100
miles into B5.
[J] [J] [J] Moves the cursor to cell B8.
[G] [MENU] [A] [S] Displays the Solve Catalog. You may
have to press [ESC] one or more times.
~1–2–3~~ ([F8])
Displays the Calculator’s 1-2-3 screen.
~~Form~~ ([F8])
Displays the current 1-2-3 worksheet.
The cursor highlights cell B8, the formula
cell.
[ENTER]
Defines B8 as the formula cell and returns to the
Calculator’s 1-2-3 screen.
0 ~VALUE~~ ([F9])
Enters the value the formula cell is to
calculate.
~Solve~~ ([F10]
Displays the worksheet. The formula
cell, B8, is highlighted.
[K] (4 times) Highlights cell B4, TIME. This is the cell whose
value is to be calculated to force cell B8 to
Page 253
[ENTER]
equal zero.
Defines B4 (TIME) as the solve cell and returns
to the solve 1-2-3 screen. The calculation is
performed and the display shows 2.5 hours
(the Solve result) as the time required to
cause RATE * TIME – DISTANCE (B8) to
equal zero. If you return to the worksheet,
you’ll see that B8 now contains 0.
How the solver works
Initially, the Solver tries to find a direct solution by rearranging
the equation and then solving for the variable. If the Solver
finds a direct solution, the Calculator displays the answer on
the calc line, and no other information is displayed.
If the Solver is unable to find a direct solution, the Solver tries
to find an iterative solution. This involves searching for the
answer by estimating a set of answers, seeing how close they
are to a solution, and then making another set of estimates. The
Calculator displays the current estimates (“guesses”) while the
Solver is searching for an answer iteratively. You should keep
in mind that there may be more than one solution to an
equation, and that it may be necessary for you to enter guesses
in order to influence which solution the Solver finds.
Since the process of finding an iterative solution is very
complex, there are four possible outcomes that you should be
aware of:
The Calculator displays an answer but displays no message. It
is very likely that the Solver has found a solution. The
Calculator may display additional information if you repeat
the calculation by pressing the function key for the variable
you solved for.
The Calculator displays an answer and automatically displays a
message. The Solver has found a possible solution, but you
Page 254
must use judgement in interpreting the results.
The Calculator displays Try again. Bad guesses. This indicates
that the Solver cannot begin the search with the current
guesses. See the following section Entering guesses.
The Calculator displays Solution not found because the Solver
was unable to find a solution. Check to see if your equation and
stored values are correct. If the equation is correct, you may be
able to find a solution by entering very good guesses.
Halting and restarting an iterative search
When the Solver is searching for an iterative solution, you can
halt the calculation by pressing any key. The Calculator
displays the best estimate the Solver has found so far, and the
message Interrupted. You can restart the search from where it
left off by pressing the function key for the variable you are
solving for. Or, you can restart the search using your own
guesses.
Entering guesses
Entering your own guesses serves two purposes. First, it can
save time by telling the Solver where to start searching. Second, if more than one solution exists, entering guesses can
help the Solver select the answer you want. You can enter
guesses in the Solve Calc screen at these times:
Before beginning the calculation, after you’ve stored a value
for every variable except the unknown variable.
After you’ve halted the iterative search.
After the Solver has returned an answer, and you want to begin
searching for another answer somewhere else.
You can enter one or two guesses. If you enter one guess, the
Solver makes a second guess. If you enter two guesses, the
Solver starts searching for a solution in the range between the
two guesses.
Page 255
To enter guesses:
To enter only one guess, key in the value and press the function
key for the variable twice.
To enter two guesses, key in the first guess and press the
function key once, and then key in the second guess and press
the function key twice.
Rules for writing equations
The rules for writing equations use several terms:
Variables are the named items for which you store or calculate
values.
Constants are numbers—for example, $10,000, 360 days.
Operators perform arithmetic—for example, * and –.
Functions do calculations using mathematical capabilities built
into the Solver—for example, SQRT(x), USPV(i %,n), and
DDAYS(d1,d2,cal).
Length of equations
An equation cannot exceed 2279 characters and cannot contain
more than 256 different variables. There are no other limits as
long as there is sufficient memory to store it.
Variable names
Solver variable names can be a maximum of 15 characters long
and must be all one word (no spaces allowed). The following
characters are not allowed in variable names: +, –, *, /,^, (, ), <,
>, =, :, ;, !, {, }, [, ], and |. Also, the character currently defined
as argument separator (, in US mode and . in European mode)
is not allowed in variable names. You cannot use NOT, AND,
OR, or XOR as variable names, nor can you use the names of
functions that have no arguments as variable names. A variable
name cannot begin with a number. Variable names are case
sensitive.
Page 256
The first seven characters of the variable names become
function key labels. Therefore, make sure no two variables
have the same first seven characters.
Constants
Constants must be keyed in as numbers without digit separators
or other characters.
Functions
An equation can contain any of the functions shown in the
Solver functions table later in this chapter. Functions are builtin shortcuts to creating complex expressions.
Operators, parentheses, and the order of calculations
When necessary, use parentheses to control the order of
calculations. Without parentheses, the Solver does calculations
using the same rules as those used by an algebraic calculator.
These rules are:
Functions first
For example, when solving for D in the equation
A*SQRT(B+C)=D, the Solver calculates and then multiplies the
answer by A.
Exponentiation before multiplication and division
For example, an equation typed in as A*B3=C is interpreted as A x B3 = C.
B is raised to the 3rd power and then multiplied by A. To raise A x B to the
Page 257
3rd power, write the equation: (A*B)^3=C.
Multiplication and division before addition and subtraction
For example, an equation typed in as A+B/C=12 is interpreted as:
To divide the sum A + B by C, type the equation: (A+B)/C=12.
You cannot use parentheses for “implied” multiplication. For example, an
equation printed in a book as Psb{SN}=Psb S(1-F) can be typed into the
Solver as PSN=PS*(1-F). The * sign must be inserted between PS and the
parenthesis.
Date formats
The functions CDATE, DATE, and DDAYS, either return a
date or use one or more dates as arguments. The format in
which these dates are expressed depends on the date format set
in the Setup Utility. The formats shown in the second and third
columns give the Calculator date formats shown in the first
column.
Date Formats: Calculator vs. Setup Utility
Calculator
DD.MMYYYY
MM.DDYYYY
YYYY.MMDD
Setup Utility
(DD-MMM-YY)
(MMM-YY)
(DD.MM.YY)
(DD.MM)
(MM/DD/YY)
(YY-MM-DD)
(DD-MMM)
(DD/MM/YY)
(DD/MM)
(MM/DD)
(MM-DD)
Note that you won’t see the entire date in the display unless
you’ve set the number format to be All or Fixed Point with 6
digits. To change the format press [MENU] [O] [N] and fill out
the Number Format dialog box.
Solver functions
The table on the following pages lists the Solver functions.
Lowercase characters in parentheses stand for numbers, variable names, or numeric expressions that the functions use to do
their calculations.
Page 258
Solver Functions
Function
Description
ABS(x)
Absolute value.
ACOS(x)
Arc cosine. 1
ALOG(x)
Common (base 10) antilogarithm; 10x
ANGLE(x,y) 2 Returns polar coordinate angle b given (x,y)
rectangular coordinates. 1
ASIN(x)
Arc sine. 1
ATAN(x)
Arc tangent. 1
CALCCELL (input list, output range, row, col)2
You can
specify row, col, just row, or neither. input
list is zero or more inputs to the worksheet of
the form: [expr, range, row, col]. For each
input, the expression is evaluated and stored
in the appropriate cell in the worksheet. Then
the worksheet is recalculated, and the value
of the output cell is returned.
CDATE
Current date.3
COMB(x,y) Number of combinations of x items taken y at a
time.
COS(x)
Cosine.1
CPCOL
Returns the worksheet column number of the
current cell pointer.
CPROW
Returns the worksheet row number of the current
cell pointer.
CTIME
Current time in HH.MMSS, 24-hour format.
DATE(date,n)The date n days after (when n is positive) or
before (when n is negative) the specified
date.3
Uses the current angle mode—degrees, radians, or grads. To change the angle mode,
press[MENU][O][M].
Uses the current argument separator when keying in formulas.
Uses the current date format, DD.MMYYYY, MM.DDYYYY, or YYYY.MMDD. See the
Page 259
earlier section Date Formats.
Solver Functions (continued)
Function
Description
DDAYS(d1,d2,cal)
The number of days between dates d1
and d2.1 cal designates the calendar: cal=1
for the actual calendar, which recognizes
leap years. cal=2 for the 365-day calendar,
which ignores leap years. cal=3 for the 360day calendar, which uses 12, 30-day months.
DEG(x)
Converts x in radians to decimal degrees.
EXP(x)
Natural antilogarithm; ex.
EXPM1(x)
ex – 1.
FACT(x)
Factorial; x is an integer 0.
FLOW(filename, row) The specified cash flow from the
specified cash-flow file. The file name must
be entered without a DOS path and file
extension. The CFL extension and the
current path from the Cash Flows application
are assumed.
FP(x)
Fractional part.
FV(n,i %yr,pv, pmt,p/yr,m) TVM function for FV.2
G(var)
The GET function returns the contents of x.
HMS(x)
Converts x in decimal hours (degrees) to
H.MMSS (D.MMSS) format.
HR(x)
Converts x in H.MMSS (D.MMSS) format to
decimal format.
IDIV(x,y)
Integer part of the quotient x÷y.
IF(con,alg1,alg2)If conditional expression con is true, use
algebraic expression alg1; otherwise, use
alg2. IF is discussed later in this chapter.
Uses the current date format, DD.MMYYYY, MM.DDYYYY, or YYYY.MMDD. See the
earlier section Date formats.
Page 260
See the section The TVM functions later in this chapter.
Solver Functions (continued)
Function
Description
INT(x)
The greatest integer less than or equal to x.
INV(x)
Reciprocal, 1/x.
IP(x)
Integer part.
ITEM(filename, row,col)
Returns the value of the
designated statistics data (from a .STA file).
If you don’t specify a column, it defaults to
1.1
I%YR(n,pv,pmt, fv,p/yr,m) TVM function for I %YR.2
L(var,alg)
The LET function evaluates the algebraic
expression alg, stores the result in x, and also
returns that result as the value of the L
function.
LENGTH(range) Returns the number of worksheet rows in the
given range.
LN(x)
Natural (base e) log of x.
LNP1(x)
ln (1 + x).
LOG(x)
Common (base 10) log of x.
MAX(x,y)
Larger of x and y.
MIN(x,y)
Smaller of x and y.
MOD(x,y)
The remainder of the division x÷y; MOD(x,y)
x–yxINT(x÷y).
N(i %yr,pv,pmt, fv,p/yr,m)
TVM function for N.2
PERM(x,y)
Permutations of x items taken y at a time.
PI
π 3.141592653589793 (16 digits).
PMT(n,i %yr,pv,
fv,p/yr,m)
TVM function for PMT.2
PV(n,i %yr,pmt,
Page 261
fv,p/yr,m)
RAD(x)
TVM function for PV.2
Converts x in decimal degrees to radians.
filename must be entered without a DOS path and extension. The current path and
standard extension from the application are assumed.
See the section The TVM functions later in this chapter.
Page 262
Solver Functions (continued)
Function
Description
RADIUS(x,y) Returns polar coordinate radius R given (x,y)
rectangular coordinates.
RAN# or RAND Pseudo-random number (0& <1).
RCLCELL (range,row,col) You can specify row and col, just
row, or neither. Returns the value of the
designated worksheet cell.
RND(x,y)
x rounded to y decimal places (when 0y15) or to
|y| significant digits (when –16y–1). When y=16, x is
rounded to number of decimal places given by current
display setting.
S(var)
var is a variable; S(var) is used with the IF
function to create a set of function keys from
more than one equation. (S is discussed later
in this chapter.)
SGN(x)
Sign of x (+1 if x>0, 0 if x=0, –1 if x<0).
SIGMA (cv,c1,c2,s,alg)
Sums values of the algebraic
expression (alg) for values of the counter
variable (cv). cv starts with value c1 and is
incremented in steps of s, to a final value of
c2. (SIGMA is covered in more detail later in
this chapter.)
SIN(x)
Sine.1
SIZEC(filename) Returns the last flow number in the specified
cash-flow file. 2
SIZES(filename) Returns the number of statistics rows in the
specified statistics-data file.2
Uses the current angle mode—degrees, radians, or grads. To change the angle mode,
press [MENU] [O] [M].
filename must be entered without a DOS path and extension. The current path and
standard extension from the application are assumed.
Page 263
Solver Functions (continued)
Function
SPFV(i %,n)
SPPV(i %,n)
Description
Future value of a single $1.00 payment;
equivalent to (1+i %÷100)n. n is the number
of compounding periods, i % is the interest
rate per compounding period, expressed as a
percentage.
Present value of a single $1.00 payment;
equivalent to 1÷SPFV(i %,n). n is the
number of compounding periods. i % is the
interest rate per compounding pe riod,
expressed as a percentage.
2
x
SQ(x)
SQRT(x)
STOCELL(expr, range,row,col)
You can specify row, col,
just row, or neither. Evaluates the expression
and stores the result in the designated
worksheet cell. The worksheet is not
recalculated.
#T(filename, flownum,row) Group size of the specified cash
flow in the specified cash-flow file.1
TAN(x)
Tangent.2
TRN(x,y)
x is truncated to y decimal places (when 0y15)
or to |y| significant digits (when –16y–1). When y
equals 16, x is truncated to the number of decimal
places given by the current display setting.
USFV(i %,n)
Future value of a uniform series of $1.00
payments; equivalent to (SPFV(i %,n)–1) ÷
(i% ÷ 100). n is the number of payments. i %
is the periodic interest rate, expressed as a
percentage.
filename must be entered without a DOS path and extension. The current path and
standard extension from the application are assumed.
Page 264
Uses the current angle mode—degrees, radians, or grads. To change the angle mode,
press [MENU] [O] [M].
Solver Functions (continued)
Function
USPV(i %,n)
Description
Present value of a uniform series of $1.00
payments; equivalent to USFV(i %,n) ÷
SPFV(i%,n). n is the number of payments. i
% is the periodic interest rate, expressed as a
percentage.
WIDTH(range) Returns the number of worksheet columns in
the given range.
XCOORD(R,b) x-coordinate of polar coordinates. Uses the
current angle mode—degrees or radians.
YCOORD(R,b) y-coordinate of polar coordinates. Uses the
current angle mode—degrees or radians.
Typing aids for solver functions
Solver functions may either be typed in or entered with the help
of function keys. For example, when you’re entering an
equation and want to use the function PMT, you can press
~~Fin~~~ ~~PMT~~~ to display PMT(,,,,,). The commas
(argument separators) and parentheses are displayed as well as
the three letters. As you type in the arguments to the function,
use [H] to skip over the commas and parentheses. After
entering the function, press [ESC] to display the previous set of
function keys.
Here are the function keys in the solve editor that give you
typing aids.
Solve Editor Function Keys
Key Label Description
~~Math~~ Provides typing aids for RND, IP, FP, ABS, LN,
EXP, LOG, ALOG, SQRT, SQ, INV, TRN,
Page 265
LNP1, EXPM1, IDIV, INT, MOD, MIN,
MAX, SGN, SIGMA.
~~Trig~~ Provides typing aids for PI, SIN, COS, TAN,
ASIN, ACOS, ATAN
~~Conv~~ Provides typing aids for DEG, RAD, HR, HMS,
XCOORD, YCOORD, RADIUS, ANGLE,
CTIME, CDATE, DATE, DDAYS.
~~Prob~~ Provides typing aids for COMB, PERM, FACT,
RAN#.
~~Fin~~~ Provides typing aids for N, I%YR, PV, PMT, FV,
SPFV, SPPV, USFV, USPV.
~Other~~ Provides typing aids for STOCELL, RCLCELL,
CALCCELL, LENGTH, WIDTH, CPCOL,
CPROW, IF, OR, XOR, AND, NOT, S, L, G.
~~NUMª~~ Inserts into the editor the last number or other
operand displayed in the calc line. The
number is inserted in full precision.
→Conditional
expressions (IF function)
Equations can include conditional expressions using the IF
function. For example, the Solver accepts the equation:
BONUS=IF(SALES>3000,.02*SALES,.01*SALES). The two
commas inside the parentheses stand for “THEN” and “OR
ELSE.” According to this equation, if SALES is greater than
3000, then BONUS equals .02 x SALES; otherwise, BONUS
equals .01 x SALES.
In general, the form of the IF function is:
IF(conditional expression , algebraic expression , algebraic
expression)
A conditional expression can also be an algebraic expression. If
the algebraic expression evaluates to zero, it is interpreted as
false. Otherwise, true. For example, if A equals – 1 in the
algebraic expression A+1, the expression is false. If A equals
Page 266
any other number, the expression is true.
The logical and relational operators that can be used in
conditional expressions are described in the table below:
Operators Used in Conditional Expressions
Logical Operators:
Relational Operators:
NOT, AND, OR, XOR
> Greater than & < Less than
= Equal to
> = Greater than or equal to
<= Less than or equal to
<> Not equal to
Order of logical operations
Logical operations are done after arithmetic operations
(addition, subtraction, etc.). For example, the expression:
A+1 OR B=5
is true if A<>–1 and/or B=5. The expression is false only if
A=–1 and B <>5.
When there are two or more, they are done in the order NOT
first, then AND, and finally OR or XOR. Thus, the expression:
A=360 AND B=12 OR A=365
is true if A equals 360 and B equals 12, or if A equals 365.
Here are several examples of equations using conditional
expressions:
Equation: B=IF(7<A AND A<=15,2*A/6,3*A+10)+C
Meaning: If A is greater than 7 and less than or equal to 15, then
B=(2xA÷6)+C. Otherwise, B=(3xA+10)+C.
Equation: VALUE=FIRST+IF(NOT FIRST=0,1/FIRST,0)
Meaning: If FIRST is unequal to 0, then VALUE=FIRST+ (1÷FIRST). If
FIRST=0, then VALUE=FIRST.
Equation: T=W*IF(A=0 XOR B=0,A+B,A*B)
Meaning: T=Wx(A+B) if A or B, but not both, equals 0. Otherwise,
T=WxAxB. In other words,
Page 267
When A=0 and B0, T=WxB
When A0 and B=0, T=WxA
When A=0 and B=0, T=0
When A0 and B0, T=WxAxB.
Creating function keys for multiple equations (S
function)
The S (solving for) function is used with the IF function to
group equations and to specify the conditions where one or the
other is used. For example, consider these equations for
calculating gross pay:
Wage pay based on an hourly wage:
Salary pay based on a
fixed salary plus a 5% sales commission:
WPAY=WAGE*HRS SLPAY=SALRY+.05*SALES
where:
WPAY = gross wage pay.
WAGE = hourly wage.
HRS = hours worked. where:
SLPAY = gross salary pay.
SALRY = the fixed salary.
SALES = sales.
To use the S function, the equations must first be rearranged to
place 0 on one side of each equation:
WPAY-WAGE*HRS=0
SLPAY-SALRY-.05*SALES=0
To create one set of function keys that can be used for either
equation:
IF(S(WPAY),WPAY-WAGE*HRS,SLPAY-SALRY.05*SALES)=0
IF(S(WPAY) tests the condition: Solving for WPAY?
If the condition is true, the expression WPAY-WAGE*HRS is used.
If the condition is false, the expression SLPAY-SALRY-.05*SALES is used.
Page 268
The =0 ending is optional. If it’s omitted, =0 is implied.
The S function appears within the IF function in the conditional
expression. In this case, the conditional expression is true if
you solve for WPAY, and false if you solve for anything else.
The algebraic expressions in the IF function are the two
equations, rewritten to gather all the terms on one side of the
equation, so that each expression is equal to 0.
The IF function can be set equal to an expression common to
both equations. For example, the equations X+Y+(10/A)=Z
and Q+R+(10/A)=T can be combined to IF(S(X) OR S(Y) OR
S(Z),X+Y-Z,Q+R-T)=-10/A. Note that the Solver uses the
second equation when solving for Q, R, T, or A.
The TVM functions
The five Solver TVM functions allow you to write equations
that do calculations analogous to the calculations done in the
TVM Calculator application:
N(
i%yr, pv,
pmt, fv, p/yr,
m)
I%YR (
n,
pv, pmt, fv, p/yr,
m)
PV ( n,
i %yr, pmt, fv, p/yr,
m)
PMT ( n,
i %yr, pv, fv, p/yr,
m)
FV ( n,
i %yr, pv, pmt, p/yr,
m)
Each function calculates one TVM value, given the values for
all the others. For example, the first function calculates N (the
total number of payments or compounding periods), given the
annual percentage interest rate, present value, payment amount,
future value, number of payments per year, and the Begin/End
mode.
The parameters of the functions (the contents of the
parentheses) are defined identically (with one exception) to the
TVM application’s variables. The exception is that m stands for
the Begin/End mode (~~B/E~~~). Use m=1 for Begin mode,
Page 269
m=0 for End mode.
You can give the parameters any legal variable name; for
example you can use LOAN in place of pv. Parameters can also
be algebraic expressions. For example, the following equation
calculates the monthly payment for a car loan:
CARPMT=PMT(MONTHS,I%YR,PRICE-DOWN,0,12,0)
MONTHS is the number of monthly periods (n).
DOWN is the down payment.
PRICE is the purchase price.
PRICE-DOWN is the present value (pv).
The first 0 is the final value (fv).
12 is the payments/year (p/yr).
The final 0 specifies End mode.
Notice that PMT is not a variable in the equation—it is the
name of the function.
The Solver TVM variables are not shared with the variables in
the Calculator’s TVM application. For example, the variable I
%YR in. the CARPMT equation is separate from the TVM
variable I %YR.
The summing function (SIGMA)
The SIGMA function provides the ability to do a variety of
summing operations. The function has the form:
SIGMA(counter variable, starting value, ending value, step
size, algebraic expression)
The counter variable takes on a series of values, beginning
with the starting value, and incrementing according to the
step size, until it passes the ending value. For each value of
the counter, the algebraic expression is evaluated, and the
value is added to the previous value. The function returns the
final summation. The counter variable is not represented by a
function key.
The following equation contains a counter I and two other
variables, X and THESUM:
Page 270
THESUM=SIGMA(I,1,6,1,I*X)
The counter I runs from 1 through 6 in steps of 1—that is, 1, 2,
3, 4, 5, 6. For each value of I, I x X is calculated and added to
the sum. If you store 3 in X and then solve for THESUM, the
Solver calculates THESUM = 63; that is, 3 + 6 + 9 + 12 + 15 +
18.
Examples of solver equations
Simple annual interest
The following equation calculates the amount due for a loan
with simple annual interest, given the duration of the loan.
Both the principal and interest are paid in a lump sum at the
end of the loan period. This LOAN,DAYS equation assumes a
365-day calendar basis.
DEBT = LOAN + LOAN * I% / 100 * DAYS / 365
where
DEBT = the total owed at the end of the loan period.
LOAN = the original amount (principal) lent.
I % = the annual interest rate as a percent.
DAYS = the number of days of the loan.
If you know the dates for the course of the loan, rather than the
number of days, use this LOAN,DATES equation:
DEBT = LOAN + LOAN * I% / 100 *
DDAYS(DATE1,DATE2,IF(BASIS=365,1,3)) / BASIS
where
DATE1 = the date the loan commences.
DATE2 = the date the loan ends.
BASIS = 360 for a 360-day basis.
BASIS = 365 for a 365-day basis.
Example: Simple Interest for a Specified Number of Days. You
lend a friend $450 for 60 days, charging 7% simple annual
interest (calculated on a 365-day basis). What is the total
amount he will owe you in 60 days?
Page 271
Starting from the solve calc screen for the LOAN,DAYS
equation,
Keys:
Description:
450 ~~LOAN~~ Stores loan amount.
7 ~~~I%~~~
Stores interest rate.
60 ~~DAYS~~
Stores term of loan.
~~DEBT~~
Calculates $455.18 due in 60 days.
Example: Simple Interest From the Dates of the Loan. On March
26, 1992, you borrow $1,200 from a relative. You promise to
repay the loan, with 8% simple interest (to be calculated on a
365-day basis), on June 12, 1993. How much will you owe?
Starting from the solve calc screen for the LOAN,DATES
equation,
Keys:
Description:
1200 ~~LOAN~~
Stores loan amount.
8 ~~~I%~~~
Stores interest rate.
3.261992 ~DATE1~~ Stores date of loan (assumes current
date format is MM.DDYYYY).
6.121993 ~DATE2~~ Stores repayment date.
365 ~BASIS~~
Stores calendar basis.
~~DEBT~~
Calculates $1,316.52 to be repaid.
Advance payments (leasing)
Occasionally payments are made in advance, such as in leasing.
Leasing agreements sometimes call for the extra payments to
be made when the transaction is closed. A residual value
(salvage value) can also exist at the end of the normal term.
The following equation named ADV calculates the monthly
payment and the annual yield when one or more payments are
made in advance. It can be modified to accommodate periods
Page 272
other than monthly by changing the number 12 to the
appropriate number of payment periods per year.
PMT=(-PV-FV*(SPPV(I%YR/12,N)))/
(USPV(I%YR/12,N-#ADV)+#ADV)
where
PMT = the monthly payment amount.
PV = the value of the equipment.
FV = the residual value.
I %YR = the annual interest rate as a percent.
N = the total number of payments.
#ADV = the number of advance payments.
Example: Leasing With Advance Payments. Equipment worth
$750 is leased to you for 12 months. The equipment is assumed
to have no salvage value at the end of the lease. You agree to
make three payments at the time of closing. What is the
monthly payment if the annual interest rate is 10%?
Starting from the solve calc screen for this example’s equation,
Keys:
Description:
750 ~~~PV~~~
12 ~~~N~~~~
0 ~~~FV~~~
3 ~~#ADV~~
10 ~~I%YR~~ Stores known values.
~~PMT~~~
Calculates a $64.45 monthly payment.
Discounted notes
A note is a written agreement to pay the buyer of the note a
sum of money plus interest. Notes do not have periodic
coupons, since all interest is paid at maturity. A discounted
note is a note that is purchased below its face value. In the
following two equations, the calendar basis is actual/360. To
find the price given the discount rate, use the following
NOTE,PRICE equation:
Page 273
PRICE=RV-(DISC*RV*DDAYS(SETT,MAT,1)/36000)
To find the yield given the price (or to find the price given the
yield), use the NOTE,YIELD equation:
YIELD=(RV-PRICE)/PRICE*36000/DDAYS(SETT,MAT,1)
where
PRICE = the purchase price per $100 face value.
YIELD = the yield as an annual percentage.
RV = the redemption value per $100.
DISC = the discount rate as a percent.
SETT = the settlement date (in current date format).
MAT = the maturity date (in current date format).
Example: Price and Yield of a Discounted Note. What are the
price and yield of the following U.S. Treasury Bill: settlement
date July 16, 1991; maturity date December 17,1991; discount
rate 8.7%? (Assume MM.DDYYYY format.)
Starting from the solve calc screen for the NOTE,PRICE
equation,
Keys:
Description:
7.161991 ~~SETT~~
12.171991 ~~MAT~~~
8.7 ~~DISC~~
100 ~~~RV~~~ Stores known values
~PRICE~~
Calculates a price of $96.28.
Starting from the solve calc screen for the NOTE,YIELD
equation,
~YIELD~~
Calculates a 9.04% yield.
Moving average
Moving averages are often used to predict trends in data over
time. In moving average calculations, a specified number of
values are averaged. Each time a new value is acquired, the
oldest is discarded.
Page 274
The following Solver equation named MOVAVG calculates the
moving average of data stored in a 1-2-3 worksheet.
MAVG=SIGMA(I,MAX(1,LAST-N+1),LAST,1,RCLCELL
(name,I))/MIN(LAST,N)
where
N = the number of values averaged in each calculation.
LAST = the entry number of the most recent value to be averaged.
name = the range name of the first data cell.
Calculate a three-month moving
average for the number of units manufactured during the first
half of the year. Manufacturing volumes were:
Example: Moving Average.
January
February
March
April
May
June
4400
5360
2900
3670
4040
3200
If you want to preserve the current worksheet, save it to a file
before you erase it.
Keys:
Description:
[A]
Starts 1-2-3.
[MENU] [W] [E] [Y]
Erases the worksheet and moves to cell
A1.
[MENU] RNCVOL [ENTER] Creates the range name VOL for
cell A1.
[ENTER]
4400 [J]
5360 [J]
2900 [J]
3670 [J]
4040 [J]
3200 [J]
Names first cell of data range.
Enters data.
Page 275
[G] [MENU] [A] [S] [FN] [H]Displays Solve Catalog and
highlights bottom of equation list. If the
Solve Catalog screen is not displayed, press
[ESC] one or more times.
Now type the MOVAVG equation, substituting VOL for name,
and press ([F9]) to display the solve calc screen. Then,
Keys:
Description:
3 ~~~N~~~~ Stores number of points.
3 ~~LAST~~ Stores entry number of last entry to be averaged.
~~MAVG~~ Calculates an average of 4,220.00 for months 1,
2, and 3.
4 ~~LAST~~ “Moves” LAST down one entry.
~~MAVG~~ Calculates an average of 3,976.67 for months 2,
3, and 4.
5 ~~LAST~~ “Moves” LAST down one entry.
~~MAVG~~ Calculates an average of 3,536.67 for months 3,
4, and 5.
6 ~~LAST~~ ~~MAVG~~ Calculates an average of 3,636.67
for months 4, 5, and 6.
Simulating a toss of dice
The Solver random number function RAN# can simulate the
toss of one or more six-sided dice. The equation
TOSS=IP(RAN#*6+1)
generates integers in the range 1 through 6. Similarly,
TOSS=IP(RAN#*6+1)+IP(RAN#*6+1)
simulates the toss of two dice and gives the sum of both.
Type the equation for the appropriate number of dice and press ([F9]).
Press ~~TOSS~~ as many times as desired to see the results of the tosses.
Page 276
Distance between two locations
The following Solver equation calculates the approximate
statute miles between two places, given their longitudes and
latitudes. The longitudes and latitudes are entered in degreesminutes-seconds format (D.MMSS); South Latitude and East
Longitude are negative numbers. The Calculator must be in
Degrees mode.
DISTANCE=69.0466*ACOS(SIN(HR(LT1))
*SIN(HR(LT2))+COS(HR(LT1))*
COS(HR(LT2))*COS(HR(LG1)-HR(LG2)))
where
LG1, LT1 = the longitude and latitude of the first place.
LG2, LT2 = the longitude and latitude of the second place.
Find the
statute miles between Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (40º35’N,
75º10’W) and Corvallis, Oregon (44º35’N, 123º16’W).
If the RAD or GRAD annunciator is displayed, press [MENU]
[O] [M] and select Degrees angle mode.
Starting from the solve calc screen for this example’s equation,
Example: Calculating the Distance Between Two Places.
Page 277
Keys:
Description:
40.35 ~~LT1~~~
75.10 ~~LG1~~~
Stores latitude and longitude for Philadelphia.
44.35 ~~LT2~~~
123.16 ~~LG2~~~
Stores latitude and longitude for
Corvallis.
~DISTAN~
Calculates the distance to be 2,425.31 statute
miles.
Finding several solutions to an equation
Example: Solving A Cubic Equation. The equation x3-5x2 = 10x -
z can have more than one solution for x. The Solver can find
each solution or root using function plotting. The procedure
below shows one way to do this.
You’ll plot this equation for a particular value of z.
Select [MENU] [A] [S] to display the Solve Catalog. If necessary, press [ESC] one
or more times.
Type x^3-5*x^2=10*x-z into the solve editor and press [F10].
Press ~~Calc~~ ([F9]) to enter the expression into the equation list and
display function key labels for x and z.
Type 20 and press ~~~z~~~~ ([F3]) to assign the value 20 to z.
Press [ESC] to display the Solve Catalog
Press ~~Plot~~ ([F10]) to display the function plotting screen.
Press [MENU] [C] [D] to set the function-plotting conditions to initial values.
Press ~~Auto~~ ([F3]) to auto-plot the equation. YMIN and YMAX will be
chosen to ensure that the curve is shown on the screen.
Function plotting accepts both equations and expressions, but it converts
equations into expressions before plotting by subtracting the right side of
the equation from the left side. So the graph you see is actually a plot of x3 5x2 - 10x + 20 against values of x.
Your screen should look like this:
Page 278
Press ~Z–Out~~ ([F4]) to zoom out five times and to show the curve crossing
the x-axis three times (to show the three x-values where the expression
equals zero).
Start the definition of a zoom box by moving the cursor to the upper-left corner
of an imaginary box that includes all three x-axis crossings (all three roots).
To move the cursor by jumps, press an arrow key. To move the cursor by
individual dots (pixels) on the screen, press and hold [L] while pressing
an arrow key.
Press ~Z–Box~~ ([F2]) to fix this upper-left corner.
Move the cursor to locate the lower-right corner of the zoom box. Your screen
should look something like this:
Press ~Z–Box~~ again to enlarge the boxed area to full-screen size.
Move the cursor near the left root. Your screen should look something like this:
Page 279
Press [SPACEBAR]. You’ll see the root: x = –2.44
Find the other two roots in a similar way—move the cursor near each root and
press [SPACEBAR]. You’ll see each of these roots displayed in turn:
x = 1.34
x = 6.10
Press [ESC] [ESC] to return to the Solve Catalog.
Creating solver files on a PC or another editor
An equation list may be created using an editor outside of the
Solve application. Each name/equation line entry is bounded by
curly brackets. The vertical line (press [L] [\]) is used to
separate the name from the equation. If the line entry consists
of a name only, the vertical line follows the name. If the line
entry consists of an equation only, no vertical line is used.
Consider the following to be the contents of a word processor
or editor file. This file defines four lines of an equation list.
{Graph#1x^3-5*x^2-10*x+z}
{Note Price}
{y=sin(x)}
{Graph#2x^4-60*x^3-595*x^2-1770*x-1656}
When this file is retrieved or inserted into the equation list, the
four added lines will look like this:
Graph#1
x^3-5*x^2-10*x+z
Note Price
y =sin(x)
Page 280
Graph#2
x^4-60*x^3-595*x^2-1770*x-1656
Function plotting
The Solver’s function plotting lets you draw a graph and
determine roots of an equation or mathematical expression.
You can autoscale the graph so the curve is sure to appear in
the display. You can also zoom in and zoom out to see more
detailed or wider views of the graph, and you can display the
coordinates of any point on the graph. The general procedures
below are followed by an example that demonstrates the power
and flexibility of Calculator function plotting.
To draw a graph:
Highlight an equation in the Solve Catalog.
Press ~~Plot~~ ([F10]).
Press [MENU] [C] [D] to set the plot conditions to their initial values. Or, if you
know the range of interest, enter values for XMIN and XMAX—use
~~XMIN~~ ([F5]) and ~~XMAX~~ ([F6]).
Press [F3] (Auto) to draw the graph.
When you first use function plotting, the graph boundaries and
the resolution have these values:
XMIN = –5.00
XMAX = 5.00
YMIN = –3.00
YMAX = 3.00
RES = 112.00
Step 3 above resets the plot conditions to these initial values.
Another approach to steps 3 and 4 is to set XMIN, XMAX,
YMIN, and YMAX yourself and press ~~Draw~~ ([F4]).
To zoom in (to view a smaller region of the graph in
more detail):
Do one of the following:
Page 281
Press [L]~~Z–In~~ ([F3]) or ~~Z–In~~ one or more
times. Each press of [L]~~Z–In~~ zooms in by a factor
of 5 and autoscales the y-axis. Each press of
~~Z–In~~ zooms in on both axes by a factor of 5.
Press [X] ~~Z–In~~ to zoom in just the x-axis, or press [Y]
~~Z–In~~ to zoom in just the y-axis.
Use an x, y zoom box.
Use the arrow keys to move the cursor to one corner of the area
you wish to expand.
Press ~Z–Box~~ ([F2]).
Move the cursor to the diagonally opposite corner.
Press ~Z–Box~~ again to enlarge the defined area to fill the entire screen.
Use an x, autoscale-y zoom box.
Move the cursor horizontally to an x-value that defines one end
of the x-range you want to expand.
Press ~Z–Box~~ ([F2]).
Move the cursor horizontally to an x-value that defines the
other end of the x-range you want to expand.
Press [L]~Z–Box~~ to enlarge the defined x-range to fill the entire screen
and autoscale the y-axis.
To zoom out (to view a larger region of the graph in
less detail):
Use [L]~Z–Out~~ ([F4]) or ~Z–Out~~ to zoom out just
like you use ~~Z–IN~~ to zoom in.
To display the coordinates of any point on the
screen:
Press ~(X,Y)~~ one or more times until Coord is displayed
in the upper left corner of the display (coordinate mode is
active).
Use the arrow keys or shifted arrow keys (hold down [L] and press the arrow
keys repeatedly) to select the point you want. Then read on the screen the
coordinates of that point.
To display a function’s value for any point on the
Page 282
curve:
Press ~(X,Y)~~ one or more times until Trace is displayed in the upper left
corner of the display (trace mode is active).
Use the arrow keys or shifted arrow keys (hold down [L] and press [H] or [I]
repeatedly) to display the x-value you want. Then read on the screen the
corresponding function value.
To digitize a point’s coordinates (to display the coordinates with
full accuracy):
Move the cursor to the desired x-value, y-value, or point.
Do one of the following (the display will not change):
Press [X] [ENTER] to digitize the x-value.
Press [Y] [ENTER] to digitize the y-value.
Press both [X] [ENTER] and [Y] [ENTER], in turn, to digitize a point.
The coordinate or coordinates will be entered into the calculator’s history
stack. If you enter the x-coordinate first, the x-value will be in level 1 and
the y-value in the calc line. To view these values, use [XWY] or press [MENU]
[A] [M] to start the Math application.
To solve for the roots of a function graphically:
Do one of the following:
Move the cursor to an XVAR value close to a root (where the
curve crosses the x-axis). This locates an initial guess for
the root. Often, zooming out helps to find all roots.
(Optional for cases where the root is not as easily found.)
Press ~Z–Box~~ to mark (x) the first guess, then move
the cursor to another XVAR value to define a second
guess. These two guesses should be on either side of the
expected location of the root.
Press [SPACEBAR] to display the value of the root. If a “questionable solution” is
found (a gap, pole, etc.), a message is displayed to that effect followed by
the “root” on the top line.
Repeat the last two steps to solve for any additional roots.
To find the coordinates of an extremum (maximum or
Page 283
minimum):
An extremum is a point on a graph where the sign of the
curve’s first derivative changes (where a graph shows a local
maximum or minimum). This procedure shows you how to
zoom in repeatedly on the area containing the extremum until
your measurement of its coordinates achieves the desired
accuracy.
If the extremum is not already visible, zoom out (press
~Z–Out~~) until it’s visible on the graph.
Press ~(X,Y)~~ one or more times to select trace mode.
Move the cursor to the point of the extremum to display its coordinates.
Define a tight “x, autoscale y zoom box” around the extremum by moving the
cursor just to the left of the extremum and pressing ~Z–Box~~, and then
moving cursor horizontally just to the right of the extremum and pressing
[L]~Z–Box~~. The smaller the x-range containing the extremum, the
greater zoom you’ll create.
Move the cursor to the point of the extremum.
If these coordinates show the accuracy you want, you can
move the coordinates of the extremum to the Calculator
stack by pressing [X] [ENTER] [Y] [ENTER]—see the earlier
procedure “To digitize a point’s coordinates (to display the
coordinates with full accuracy):”.
If you want more accurate coordinates, zoom in again (repeat
steps 5 and 6) until they are accurate enough.
If the number of places used to display the coordinates prevents
you from seeing the accuracy you want, you can usually show
between 6 and 8 decimal places for each coordinate, depending
on the sign of the mantissa and exponent. Press [MENU] [O]
[N] and set the Number Format to Scientific and the Number of
Digits to 6, 7, or 8, and then redraw.
Example: Finding the Roots of an Equation. This example
shows how to find graphically the two roots of the equation x2
+ 10x = 75.
Page 284
Keys:
Description:
[G] [MENU] [A] [S] Displays the Solve Catalog screen. If
it’s not displayed, press [ESC] one or more
times.
[H] [FN] [H]
Ensures the highlight is at the end of the
equation field.
x [^] 2 [+] 10 [*]
(The [^] key is [L] [Q].)
x [=] 75
Enters the equation.
[F10]
Enters and highlights the equation in the Solve
Catalog.
[F10]
Displays the function plotting screen.
[MENU] [C] [D] Initializes the function plotting data. The plotvariable is x.
[F3]
Plots the equation as the expression x [^] 2
[+] 10 [*] x [-] 75. Note that the equation is
converted to an expression by subtracting the
right side from the left.
The minimum and maximum x-values (the
left and right boundaries) are those specified
by XMIN and XMAX in the function
plotting screen. The minimum and maximum
y-values (the bottom and top boundaries) are
chosen by the Auto function to ensure that
the curve is displayed on the screen.
[ESC]
Returns to the function plotting screen. This
screen shows that Auto set these values:
YMIN = –105 and YMAX = 5.
~~Draw~~ ([F4])
Redraws the graph.
Page 285
[L][F]
Zooms out and autoscales the y-axis in one
operation. The range covered by the x-axis is
increased by 5 times, and the y-axis range is
automatically chosen (autoscaled) to ensure
that the curve appears on the screen. Both
roots are now shown (where the curve
crosses the x-axis).
[I] (8 times) Moves the cursor to an x-value near the left root.
The cursor position now locates an initial
guess for this root. The initial guess is
determined only by the x-value of the
cursor’s position, so there’s no need to move
the cursor to a y-value close to zero.
[SPACEBAR]
Solves for the left root and displays its value, –
15.
Page 286
[H] (11 times)Moves the cursor to locate an initial guess for the
right root.
[SPACEBAR] Solves for the right root and displays its value, 5.
How function plotting works
When a function is plotted, evenly spaced values of the plot
variable are connected by straight lines. The number of these
plotted points is determined by RES (resolution), the plot
boundaries are given by XMIN, XMAX, YMIN, and YMAX,
and the plot variable is given by XVAR. These values are
shown in the screen that displays plot conditions.
A RES value of 10 means that the XVAR values between
XMIN and XMAX are divided into 10 equal parts. If XMIN is
-50 and XMAX is +50, the function would be plotted for xvalues of -50, -40, -30, . . . +40, and +50, and each of these
plotted points would be connected by straight lines to produce
the graph.
Selecting the expression to plot
Every graph is a plot of a function versus an independent
variable (the XVAR value). You select a function or an
equation to plot (the current equation) from the Solver’s
equation list. If you plot an equation of the form y = f(x), the
function f(x) is plotted. If you plot an equation of the form
expression = expression (such as x3 + 10x = 5x2 + 75), the
Calculator automatically changes it into a single expression (no
equal sign) by subtracting the right side of the equation from
the left side (x3 + 10x - 5x2 - 75). The value of this expression is
then plotted against XVAR.
This table shows examples of how equations would be
converted to expressions by function plotting, and what choices
you would have for the independent variable, XVAR.
Page 287
Expression or Equation in Equation List
y = sin(x)
sin(x)
sin(x)
sin(x)
(PPSY*L*W)/9 = COST (from previous example)
(PPSY*L *W)/9
What’s Plotted as y-value
Choices
y1
x
(PPSY*L *W)/9 – COST
XVAR
PPSY, L, W, COST
(PPSY*L *W)/9 PPSY, L, W
If y is selected as XVAR, the plot is y = sin(x), which is a straight line since sin(x) is a
constant.
Setting the plot conditions
Function plotting uses two screens, one that shows plot
conditions and one that shows the graph. You set the plot
conditions first when you press ~~Plot~~ from the Solve
Catalog. The function keys provided are described in the
following table.
Function Keys Active in the Function Plotting and Plot Conditions
Screen
Key Label Description
~~Auto~~ Sets the upper and lower boundaries of the graph
(YMAX and YMIN) to ensure that the curve
will appear in the display, then draws the
graph of the current equation. Using
~~Auto~~ ([F3]) is generally the easiest
way to begin plotting an equation.
~~Draw~~ Draws the graph of the current equation using the
values of the variables described below in
this table.
~~XMIN~~ Defines the left boundary of the graph; the
minimum x-axis value or XMIN. To change
this value, type the value and press
~~XMIN~~ ([F5]).
~~XMAX~~ Defines the right boundary of the graph; the
maximum x-axis value or XMAX. To change
this value, type the value and press
~~XMAX~~ ([F6]).
Page 288
~~YMIN~~ Defines the lower boundary of the graph; the
minimum y-axis value or YMIN. To change
this value, type the value and press
~~YMIN~~ ([F7]).
~~YMAX~~ Defines the upper boundary of the graph; the
maximum y-axis value or YMAX. To change
this value, type the value and press
~~YMAX~~ ([F8]).
~~XVAR~~ Specifies the independent variable. Pressing
~~XVAR~~ cycles through the equation’s
variables, specifying each in turn as the
independent variable.
~~RES~~~ Determines the resolution; the number of XVAR
values for which the function is plotted.
Larger values of RES provides greater
accuracy but the graph is drawn more slowly.
To change this value, type the value and
press ~~RES~~~ ([F10]). RES is ignored
when plotting statistics data with a linear
model.
Interacting with the graph
Once the graph is drawn , you can use specially defined keys to
zoom in, zoom out, define a part of the graph to enlarge, find
the function’s roots, and perform other operations. These
special keys and their actions are described in the following
table.
Keys Active in the Function Plotting and Interactive
Graphics Screen
Keys
[K], [J],
Description
[I], [H] Moves graphics cursor around the
graph by jumps.
Page 289
[L][K], [L][J] [L][I] [L][H] Moves the graphics
cursor around the graph by individual dots
(pixels).
[CTRL]+[K] [CTRL]+[J] [CTRL]+[I] [CTRL]+[H]
Pans the
graph in the direction of the arrow.
~~Z–In~~ Zooms in by a factor of 5.
~Z–Out~~ Zooms out by a factor of 5.
[L]~~Z–In~~ Zooms in by a factor of 5 and autoscales the
y-axis.
[L]~Z–Out~~ Zooms out by a factor of 5 and autoscales the
y-axis.
~Center~ Centers the graph at the graphics cursor
position.
[L]~Center~ Centers the graph at the graphics cursor
position and autoscales the y-axis.
Keys Active in the Function Plotting and Interactive Graphics Screen
(continued)
Keys
Description
~Z–Box~~ Press once to set a mark (x) that remains when the
cursor is moved. This mark defines one
corner of a zoom box or the first of two
guesses for a root. Move the cursor and press
it again to enlarge to full screen the portion
of the graph defined by the cursor position
and the mark. If, after setting the mark and
moving the cursor, you press [L]~Z–
Box~~, it enlarges to full screen the x-axis
portion of the graph defined by the cursor
position and the mark and then autoscales the
y-axis.
Page 290
~Solve~~ or [SPACEBAR] Solves for a root using either one
or two guesses chosen as follows: The first
guess is provided by the XVAR value of the
cursor’s position when [SPACEBAR] pressed.
For two guesses the first is provided by the
XVAR value of a mark (x), produced at the
cursor’s position when ~Z–Box~~ is
pressed. The second guess is provided by the
XVAR value of the cursor’s position when
[SPACEBAR] is pressed.
~(X,Y)~~ When pressed repeatedly, rotates through three
graph display modes: Standard mode,
showing labeled axes only. Coordinate mode,
where the coordinates of the cursor position
are displayed as the cursor moves throughout
the interactive graphics screen. Trace mode,
where the cursor traces the function as you
press [H] and [I], and the value of the
function is displayed for each cursor position
(for each XVAR-value)
Keys Active in the Function Plotting and Interactive
Graphics Screen (continued)
Keys
[ESC]
Description
Exits the graph and displays the Function Plotting
screen.
[X] [ENTER] or [ENTER] Enters the x-value of the cursor’s
position into the calc line. To exit the graph
and view the calc line, press [ESC].
[Y] [ENTER] Enters the y-value of the cursor’s position into the
calc line. To exit the graph and view the calc
line, press [ESC].
[X] [ENTER] [Y] [ENTER]
Enters both the x-value and the yPage 291
value of the cursor’s position into the history
stack. If you enter the x-coordinate first, the
x-value will be in level 1 and the y-value in
the calc line. To view these values, use [XWY]
or start the Math application to see the
history stack.
Page 292
20
Configuring and
customizing the calculator
Configuration options
To see the Calculator Options menu, press [G] [MENU] [O].
To change the Number Format:
When you press [MENU] [O] [N], you see four choices for how
numbers are displayed in the calc line.
Format: Description:
Fixed Point Sets the displayed number of digits to the right of
the decimal point to a fixed number. That
number is set by the Number of Digits
option.
Scientific Displays numbers in scientific notation. For
example, 13,246.5798 is displayed as
1.325e4.
EngineeringDisplays numbers in engineering notation. For
example, 13,246.5789 is displayed as
13.25e3.
All
Displays numbers to their full precision.
The Number of Digits field lets you specify the number of
digits to be displayed to the right of the decimal point for Fixed
Point format.
Regardless of the way numbers are displayed, the Calculator
stores most numbers to their full precision.
Page 293
To change the Calculator Modes:
When you press [MENU] [O] [M], you see the choices for
affecting Calculator modes of operation.
Angle Mode
Angles interpreted as Degrees, Radians, or
Grads.
Operation Mode Gives you two choices for the syntax for
entering calculations: RPN or conventional
Algebraic.
Show Stack
If you select this check box, the current stack
is always displayed in Arithmetic, Custom,
and Math.
Show Registers If you select this check box, the storage
registers are always displayed in Arithmetic
and Custom.
To change the Startup Application:
Within the Calculator press [MENU] [O] [S].
Use [J] to select your new Startup application.
Press [F10].
When you quit and then restart the Calculator, you see the
“Startup” application. Also, when no menu is displayed and
you press [ESC], you return to your Startup application.
Creating your custom calculator application
You can create a “Custom” Calculator application by assigning
functions or applications to a set of function keys.
To create your Custom application:
Within the Calculator press [MENU] [O] [C].
Tab to the function key you want to define.
Use [J] to select the function you want to assign to that function key.
Shortcut: Try typing the first letter of the function you want; repeat that
letter until your function is displayed.
Repeat steps 2 and 3 for other function keys.
Page 294
Press [F10] to save and start your Custom application.
To start your Custom application from another
application:
Press [G] [MENU] [A] [U].
To make Custom your Startup Application:
Press [G] [MENU] [O] [S].
Use [J] to highlight Custom (it’s near the bottom of the list) and press [F10].
Page 295
21
The setup utility
The Setup utility establishes these settings for your
palmtop PC:
Battery type and recharging (see Appendix B for information).
Printer configuration (see chapter 28 for information).
Date, time, and their formats.
Volume and screen contrast.
Memory allocation.
International Default Settings (currency symbols, etc.).
Character sorting order (for applications other than 1-2-3).
1-2-3 sorting order (collating sequence).
Topcard display (or other customized image).
To start Setup press [&É] [S] (or [CTRL]+[E]).
This display shows
The current division of RAM between system RAM and RAM
disk.
The battery status.
The current printer type.
The status of Com1-port power when DOS is open.
Setting the date and time
Page 296
The current date and time setting establishes the current date
and time throughout the palmtop. The format settings, however,
do not affect 1-2-3 except in the printing of headers and
footers. (1-2-3 has its own commands for format settings.)
To set the current date:
In Setup, press [MENU] [O] [D].
Tab to the Current Date and edit the highlighted date using the same format to
show the new date (you can drop leading zeros).
Press [F10]
The date delimiters (punctuation between numerals) can be
any one of these: hyphen, slash, space, colon, period, or
comma. The current date can be in any year from 1980 through
2099. You can specify years 1980 through 2079 by their last
two digits—for example, 1993 can be entered as 93. To specify
years 2080 through 2099, you must enter all four digits.
To set the date format:
In Setup, press [MENU] [O] [D].
Tab to the Date Format list box.
Arrow to your format choice (see the table below). Not all choices are
displayed at the same time. Arrow to scroll the complete list.
Press [F10].
The following table shows the available format options, each
including an example date of August 14, 1994.
Date Formats
Format
DD-MMM-YY
DD-MMM
MMM-YY
MM/DD/YY
DD/MM/YY
DD.MM.YY
Example
14-AUG-94
14-AUG
AUG-94
08/14/94
14/08/94
14.08.94
For mat
YY-MM-DD
MM/DD
DD/MM
DD.MM
MM-DD
Example
94-08-14
08/14
14/08
14.08
8-14
Page 297
To set the current time:
In Setup, press [MENU] [O] [D].
Tab to the Current Time and edit the highlighted time using the same format to
show the new time (you can drop leading zeros).
Press [F10].
The time delimiters (punctuation between numerals) can be
any one of these: hyphen, slash, space, colon, period, comma,
or h m s.
To set the time format:
In Setup, press [MENU] [O] [D].
Tab to the Time Format list box.
Arrow to your format choice (see the table below). Not all choices are
displayed at the same time. Arrow to scroll the complete list.
Press [F10].
The following table shows the available format options, each
including an example time of 2:03:07 pm.
Time Formats
Format
HH:MM:SS
(AM/PM)
HH:MM
(AM/PM)
HH:MM:SS
HH.MM.SS
Example
02:03:07 pm
02:03 pm
14:03:07
14.03.07
For mat
HH,MM,SS
HHhMMmSSs
HH:MM
HH.MM
HH,MM
HHhMMm
Example
14,03,07
14h03m07s
14:03
14.03
14,03
14h03m
Specifying audio volume and display intensity
To adjust the audio volume:
In Setup, press [MENU] [O] [S].
Tab to Volume.
Press [H] to increase or [I] to decrease volume. As you change volume, a beep
sounds to demonstrate that volume.
Press [F10].
Page 298
To adjust the display contrast from any application:
To darken: Press [ON]+[+]
To lighten: Press [ON]+[-].
To invert light and dark: Press [ON]+[/].
Allocating memory between system RAM and
the RAM disk
The Setup utility enables you to change the allocation of builtin RAM (memory) between the System RAM and the RAM
disk.
System RAM is workspace memory used by applications, the
Clipboard, and DOS.
The RAM disk (drive C) is used by your palmtop to save files
just as a hard disk is used in a desktop PC.
Guidelines for Choosing a System RAM/Ram Disk
Division
If you can’t open additional applications because you have run
out of memory, either close unused applications or increase
system RAM.
If you can’t save additional files in drive C (RAM disk) created
by your applications, either delete unneeded files or increase
RAM disk.
To change RAM memory allocation between system
and disk:
Press [&É] [MENU] [A] [L] to close all open applications.
Press [&É] [S] [MENU] [O] [S].
Tab to Memory.
Press [H] and [I] to change allocation (in kilobytes). You can’t decrease RAM
disk allocation under what is required to store files currently on disk.
Press [F10] (or [F9] to cancel).
Allocating memory within system RAM
The Setup utility enables you to allocate System RAM among
Page 299
general workspace, the Clipboard, static data, and DOS. Your
palmtop was shipped with these default memory values (with
the remainder of System RAM left over for general
workspace):
Clipboard: 4K
Static data: 10K
DOS:
96K
Clipboard system RAM is the RAM used by the Clipboard
to store information. If you get an insufficient memory message
when you use the Clipboard, either reduce the size of what you
are putting in the Clipboard, or increase the amount of
Clipboard system RAM.
Static data system RAM is the RAM used by some SystemManager compliant applications you can add to your palmtop
that run like built-in applications. Do not change the static
RAM value unless you load a System-Manager compliant
program that states it needs a different amount of static RAM,
or you find that the loaded program can’t run when you switch
back to it.
DOS system RAM is the RAM available for use by DOS and
DOS applications when you run DOS from the Applications
Manager. If you set DOS system RAM to 200K bytes of
memory, for example, and then press [&É] [D] to open DOS,
the System Manager first checks to see if 200K is free. If 200K
is available, it launches DOS. Then when you attempt to run
your DOS application, it will run successfully if it requires no
more than 200K. If you set this number too high, you may not
be able to get a DOS prompt, or other applications may not
have enough remaining memory to run.
To allocate system RAM for Clipboard, static data,
and DOS:
From Setup, press [MENU] [O] [S] [F8].
Page 300
Tab to the text box for the type of system RAM you want to change.
Type a number of kilobytes within the limits shown.
Repeat steps 2 and 3 to change other memory allocations.
Press [F10] (or [F9] to cancel).
Changing country defaults, punctuation,
currency, and code page settings
In Setup, press [MENU] [O] [I] to see the International dialog
box:
Tab to the field you want to change.
Use the arrow keys select the setting you want. (You must type in the desired
currency symbol.)
Repeat for other fields.
Press [F10] (or [F9] to cancel).
Here is some relevant information about the International
settings:
As you select a country, the defaults for punctuation, date and
time formats, currency symbol plus prefix/suffix, character sort
order (for applications other than 1-2-3), and the available
choices for DOS code page are chosen to agree with those used
in the selected country. (You can still change individual settings
if you like.)
This table shows how to type various currency symbols.
Page 301
How to Display Currency Symbols
Keystrokes
Currency Symbol
Press [L] [F]
$
Press [FN] [C]
£
Press [FN] [H]
¥
Press [FN] [F]
¢
Press [FN] [F]
ƒ
In order for new punctuation and currency settings to take
effect in 1-2-3, you must quit 1-2-3 and then restart it. Also,
the settings in any 123.CNF file present at startup take
precedence over the settings made here.
Changes you make in the International dialog box using Setup
affect only System Manager Applications. They do not affect
applications that you run from the DOS prompt. To make
changes in these settings that affect both System Manager and
DOS applications, make the changes using the special DOS
command KEYBEZ. See Appendix D for information on
KEYBEZ.
The Punctuation setting establishes the symbols used by the
Calculator and the default symbols used by 1-2-3.
The table below describes the punctuation symbols you can
choose from.
Punctuation Symbols
Combination
Examples
.,,
,..
2.3
2,3
@PMT(B1,B2/12,B3)
@PMT(B1.B2/12.B3)
Decimal Point
Argument Separator
Thousands Separator
1,234
1.234
.;,
,;.
. , space
2.3
2,3
2.3
@PMT(B1;B2/12;B3)
@PMT(B1;B2/12;B3)
@PMT(B1,B2/12,B3)
1,234
1.234
1 234
, . space
. ; space
2,3
2.3
@PMT(B1.B2/12.B3)
@PMT(B1;B2/12;B3)
1 234
1 234
, ; space
2,3
@PMT(B1;B2/12;B3)
1 234
If a DOS application requires a code page different than the
default for your country, you can select the other option in
Page 302
the DOS Code Page field.
A code page change does not affect a DOS task that is already
open. A change becomes effective when you open DOS after
you make the change.
Specifying the sorting order for Lotus 1-2-3
The Sort command specifies the sorting order—called the
collating sequence—used in 1-2-3 by the /Data Sort command.
To change the 1-2-3 sorting order:
In Setup, press [MENU] [O] [1] (the number 1).
Arrow to the sorting order you want.
Press [F10].
Specifying a topcard or picture display
The Topcard appears whenever you quit all applications.
You can create a monochrome graphics image (a picture) to
appear in place of the Topcard if you have PC graphics
software that uses the .PCX file format. A picture will appear
instead of the Topcard whenever you quit all applications.
To fill out a new Topcard:
In Setup, press [MENU] [O] [O].
Tab to and fill out your Name, Title, and Company.
Check or uncheck the Show Picture box (use the [SPACEBAR]) depending on
whether or not you want the default picture to surround your Topcard
information.
Press [F10] (or press [F9] to cancel).
To display your new Topcard, quit all open applications (press [&É] [MENU] [A]
[L]).
To substitute a customized graphic image for the
Topcard:
Create the desired image in a .PCX graphics file on a PC. To fill the display, the
.PCX file should contain a monochrome image (single plane) that is 640
pixels by 200 pixels. If it’s larger, the pixels beyond the 640 by 200 frame
will not be displayed. If it’s smaller, a portion of the display will be blank.
Page 303
Transfer the file to your palmtop (for example to the C:\_DAT directory).
Press [&É] [S] to start the Setup utility.
Press [MENU] [O] [O] [F8].
Type or highlight the path and name of your .PCX file.
Press [F10].
If necessary, press [ALT]+[S] to place a check in the Show Picture box.
Press [F10].
To display your new picture, quit all open applications (press [&É] [MENU] [A]
[L]).
To remove your graphic image and restore the Topcard:
In Setup press [MENU] [O] [O].
Press [F8].
Tab to the Directories list box, arrow to D, and press [ENTER].
Arrow to _SYS and press [ENTER].
Press [ALT]+[F] and arrow to TOPCARD.PCX.
Press [ENTER] [F10].
To confirm that you have the default Topcard back, quit all applications.
Closing Com1 to save power
You can save battery power when DOS is open by disabling/
closing Com1 when you’re not using it. However, if you use a
DOS communications program, make sure the serial port is
enabled/open.)
From Setup, press [MENU] [O] [C] (Options CommunicationsPort).
Clear the checkbox Enable Com1 Port in DOS (tab to the field and press
[SPACEBAR], if necessary).
Press [F10] [MENU] [Q].
Page 304
22
The Filer and File
Management
In your palmtop PC, data is saved in electronic files just like in
any PC. The plug-in card slot is designated drive A and the
internal RAM disk (analogous to a PC hard disk) is designated
drive C. One difference, however, between your palmtop and
most PCs is that the palmtop automatically saves files in most
applications as you work. This is true for all applications
except 1-2-3, the Memo Editor, and the Calculator. In these
applications you must go through a saving process to save your
data.
The built-in applications use DOS file-naming conventions.
MS-DOS in the palmtop is described in chapter 25.
The application that enables you to manage your files—in other
words to copy, delete, and otherwise organize them—is the
Filer. Press [E] to start the Filer. If you do not have a card
plugged in, you should see a listing of your root directory (C:\)
similar to the following screen. If you do have a card plugged
in, you’ll see a split screen with the root directory on one side
and a directory for the card on the other. For more information
see Using the split screen near the end of this chapter.
Page 305
The Root Directory on Drive C
Among its many files, the root directory also lists at least one
subdirectory, _DAT (marked <DIR>). _DAT contains many
configuration files, such as the file for the printer settings, and
will also contain files you create as you use your palmtop.
Do not delete or rename the _DAT directory.
Take care of your data
You should take care of the data on your palmtop like you
would on any PC. Here are some helpful suggestions:
Close (Quit) applications when you’re finished using them.
One approach is to quit all open applications and return to the
initial display (Topcard) at the end of each day.
Back up your data files regularly by copying them to a memory
card or, if you have the Connectivity Pack, to a PC. Backing
up is covered later in this chapter.
Carry an extra set of AA batteries so that you can replace your
batteries as soon as the low-battery warning is displayed. If
your batteries die while files are open, you could lose data.
Change the backup battery as soon as possible after you see the
low backup battery warning message.
Close (Quit) all applications and turn off the palmtop before
changing batteries.
Page 306
Working with files
The Filer is your file manager—it lists directories and the files
in those directories. You can use these lists to copy, move,
delete, rename, and print files.
Example: Making a Directory for 1-2-3 Files. Create the
subdirectory C:\123 for your 1-2-3 worksheet files.
Keys:
Description:
[E] [MENU] [F] [T] Starts the Filer and opens a dialog box
for creating a directory
c:\
Sets the path.
123 [F10]
Names and creates the subdirectory.
[A] [MENU] [W] [G] [D] Starts 1-2-3 and selects the
default settings screen.
[D] [ESC] c:\123 [ENTER]
Makes the new 123 directory the
default for new 1-2-3 files.
[U]
Updates the 1-2-3 configuration file so that
C:\123 remains the default directory in future
1-2-3 sessions.
[Q] [E]
Quits the 1-2-3 menu and returns to the Filer.
To copy or move a file or directory:
In the Filer, use the arrow keys to highlight the name of the file or subdirectory.
As a shortcut, just start typing its name.
Press [F2] (copy) or [F3] (move).
Type the new file or directory name. If you specify a path with subdirectories
that don’t exist, the Filer will ask if you want them created. Respond by
pressing [F10] (OK) or [F9] (Cancel).
Press [F10] to perform the operation, or press [ESC] to cancel.
To delete a file or directory:
Do not delete the _DAT directory.
Page 307
In the Filer, highlight the name of the file or subdirectory you want to delete.
When you delete a directory, any files or directories it contains are also
deleted.
Press [DEL].
Press [F10] to perform the deletion, or press [ESC] to cancel.
To attempt to recover deleted files or directories:
In the Filer, display the directory list that contained the deleted
files or directories.
Press [MENU] [F] [U].
Type a file specification for the files or directories you want to recover. The ?
and * wildcards are allowed. To see all candidates for Undelete, accept *.*
as the undelete-file specification.
Tab to the File Type option box and arrow to your choice.
Press [F10].
File and directory names are displayed with ? replacing the first characters.
Arrow to highlight one of the files or directories you want to undelete and
press [ENTER].
The name of the highlighted file or directory is displayed. Type the character
that should replace the ? and press [F10] to attempt recovery. A message
will report the success or failure of your attempt.
Press [F10].
To rename a file or directory:
In the Filer, highlight the name of the file or directory to rename.
Press [MENU] [F] [N].
Type a new file or directory name and press [F10].
To view the contents of text (ASCII) files:
In the Filer, highlight the file name and press [F8].
Use arrow keys, [FN] HOME, [FN] END, [FN] PGUP, and [FN] PGDN to view
every part of the file.
To return to the directory display, press [F8] or [ESC].
To run an executable file:
Files with file name extensions of .EXE, .COM, or .BAT are
executable files.
In the Filer’s Directory List view, highlight the name of the executable file you
want to run.
Press [ENTER].
Page 308
To search for text in a file:
In the Filer, display the directory containing the file to search.
Press [MENU] [O] [E].
In the Text Search text box, type the text you want to find.
Select the files to search in one of these ways:
To search all files in the directory, press [F10] to display the
Text Search Results dialog box.
To search a particular file or set of files, press [TAB] and edit
the offered file name (*.*) to define the file or files you
want to search (you can use the wildcards * and ?). Then
press [F10] to display the Text Search Results dialog box.
In the Text Search Results dialog box, arrow to the file you want to see and
press [F8].
To view another file containing the search text, press [F8], then repeat step 5.
To end the search, press [F8] [F10].
To select (tag) multiple files and/or subdirectories:
You can tag several files and directories to do multiple copies,
moves, deletes, and prints all at once.
In the Filer, highlight a file or directory and press [SPACEBAR].
Repeat step 1 as often as you want.
To de-select, highlight the file or directory and press [SPACEBAR].
You can also use [MENU] [O] [T] (Options Tag) to select the
currently highlighted file or directory, all files and directories
above or below the highlight, and all files and subdirectories in
the directory. If you select None, all files and directories will be
de-selected.
Viewing a directory
In the Filer you can switch between a File List view and a
Directory Tree view (shows no file names) by pressing [F9].
Page 309
File List View
Directory Tree View
You can also Sync the view to combine both the File List and
Directory Tree views in one split screen. To Sync (or Unsync)
the view, press [F8].
Page 310
Sync View
To display a subset of the current directory:
Press [F4].
Using the wildcards ? and *, specify the current directory’s files you want
displayed. For example, the file specification *.TXT specifies all files in the
directory with the .TXT extension.
Press [F10]. The subset you choose will remain until you change it or quit the
Filer.
To display a complete directory listing when viewing
a subset:
Press [F4] [F8].
To choose the way files are sorted in a directory
listing:
In the Filer, press [MENU] [O] [S] to display the file sorting
choices.
Fill out the dialog box. Press [F1] if you need help with the fields.
Press [F10].
Changing the current directory
To reach a higher-level directory:
Either press [ESC],
Or highlight MView UpM and press [ENTER].
Page 311
To reach a lower-level directory:
Highlight the subdirectory name.
Press [ENTER].
To display any other directory or drive:
In the Filer, press [F5].
Or, press [ESC] to display the drive list. Then highlight the drive
and press [ENTER].
Using plug-in memory cards
Drive A holds plug-in memory cards.
Caution
Turn the palmtop off before inserting or removing any plug-in memory
card. Otherwise, the information on the card may be lost.
To format a plug-in memory card:
Many memory cards come preformatted—for example HP
Flash Disk cards—but if you find you need to format a memory
card, follow the procedure here.
Ensure that no program is running in MS-DOS. If a DOS program is running, a
card cannot be formatted.
Turn off the palmtop, insert the memory card, and turn on the palmtop.
In the Filer, press [MENU] [O] [C]. You will lose the present contents of your
memory card when you complete the next step.
Press [F10].
To copy (back up) a file to a memory card (drive A):
With the Filer closed and the palmtop off, insert the card.
Press [ON] [E].
Highlight the file on drive C (left side of the screen) that you want to copy to A.
If you want to copy the file into a subdirectory on drive A, open the
subdirectory:
Press [H] to switch the highlight bar to drive A.
Page 312
Highlight the subdirectory to open and press [ENTER].
Press [I] to move back to drive C.
Press [F2] [F10] to copy the file to A using the same file name.
Backing up a directory ’s files
You can back up a directory to a plug-in memory card or to a
PC using the Connectivity Pack. Install the card or the
Connectivity Pack before backing up.
To back up a directory’s files to a new or existing
directory:
In the Filer, display the listing of the directory whose files you want to back up.
The directory name and its path will be displayed at the top left of your
screen.
Press [MENU] [F] [B].
Type a path and name of a new or existing directory that will contain your
backup. This path could be to a memory card or, if you have the
Connectivity Pack and use LapLink Remote Access, to a PC. Do not end
the text you type in the To: text box with a \.
Press [TAB] and highlight to select either All directories and files or Files only.
Optional: Tab to and select Modified files only and/or Overwrite existing
files.
Press [F10].
If any directories in the path do not now exist, you’ll be asked if you want to
create them. Press [F10].
Directories and file name extensions used by
palmtop applications
The following table will help you identify files that belong to
specific applications. Most applications automatically give a
file a specific extension when the file is saved, and most files
are by default saved in the C:\_DAT directory.
Page 313
Standard File Name Extensions
Application
Appt Book
cc:Mail
cc:Mail
1-2-3
Datacomm
cc:Mail
Calculator
Datacomm
Datacomm
Memo Editor
Many App’s
Calculator
App. Mgr.
Filer
cc:Mail
DOS
Database
cc:Mail
DOS
Datacomm
System Macros
cc:Mail
Note Taker
Setup
Setup
Phone Book
1-2-3
1-2-3
Calculator
Pocket Quicken
1-2-3
World Time
File Name Extension
ADB
ADE
ATT
BAK
CAP
CCM
CFL
CTF
DCF
DOC
ENV
EQN
EXM
FCF
FLD
FON
GDB
IDX
KIT
LCF
MAC
MSG
NDB
PCF
PCX
PDB
PIC
PRN
STA
PDT
WK1
WDB
File Use
Appointment books
cc:Mail Local Address Book update
cc:Mail message attachment
Backup worksheets
Capture files
cc:Mail inbox
Cash flow lists
Character translation files
Configuration files
Memos and Quicken print files
Environment files
Solver equation lists
Sys. mgr. compliant prgms.
Configuration files
cc:Mail folders
Format files, related to KIT files
Databases
cc:Mail address book index
Keyboard Information Table files
Script files
Macro sets (1-10 macros)
cc:Mail messages
Notes
Printer configuration files
Topcard graphics
Phone books
Graphs
Print or text files
Statistics lists
Pocket Quicken data files
Worksheets
Worldtime files
Page 314
Using the split screen
The split screen (two-window) display makes file transfer and
backup much easier. You highlight the file in one window and
display the destination directory in the other window. Then
press two keys to complete the transfer. You don’t have to
remember or type the path and file name.
If there is a plug-in card in drive A, a split screen displays
when you open the Filer for the first time. The left window
displays the root directory C:\ and the right window shows A:\.
To switch between split and full screen display:
In the Filer, press [F7].
To move the highlight between split windows:
Press [H] or [I].
To copy or move files and directories using a split
screen:
In the Filer, press [F7] to display a split screen.
In the window containing the highlight, make the destination directory current.
The directory’s path will display at the top left of the screen; for instance,
C:\_dat\*.*.
Use [H] or [I] to place the highlight in the other window.
Highlight or tag the files or directories to copy or move. The figure below shows
how your screen might look at this point if you were copying
PICTURE2.PCX from drive A to the directory C:\_DAT.
Page 315
Press either [F2] (copy) or [F3] (move). The destination defaults to the current
path in the other window.
Press [F10].
You can use the above procedure for operations between your
palmtop PC and a desktop PC using the Connectivity Pack.
Using an IR transfer, you can copy or move files and directories
between two palmtops or between your palmtop and another
PC equipped with IR capability.
Transferring files between your HP 200LX and
another computer
You can copy and move files and directories between your HP
200LX and another computer in several ways:
Using a memory card compatible with both computers. Both
computers must accept PCMCIA 2.0 memory cards. You
copy or move from one computer to a memory card, then
insert that card into the other computer and copy or move
from card to computer.
Using a serial cable and Datacomm (see chapter 26).
Using the Connectivity Pack (see the Connectivity Pack User’s
Guide).
Using an IR connection.
Page 316
Transferring files using an IR connection
Your palmtop includes an IR port that enables you to perform
most of the file and directory operations described in this
chapter. Only the undelete command is unavailable during IR
communication. No cable or additional software is required.
The following steps are required for IR communication:
Configure each computer for IR communication.
Position the two computers for IR communication.
Establish IR communication for file and directory transfer.
These steps are covered by the following procedures.
To configure an HP 200LX for IR communication:
From the Filer, press [MENU] [C] [R].
Arrow to the baud rate supported by the two computers:
• For HP 200LX to HP 95LX IR communication, use 2400
baud.
• For HP 200LX to HP 200LX IR communication, use
57,600 baud.
Tab to Interface and arrow to Infrared.
Press [ALT]+[S] to reach the Server Mode option box and highlight Enabled on
the HP 200LX chosen to be the server (the unit you won’t work from).
Press [F10].
To position the two computers for IR communication:
Place the two computers with their infrared ports directly
opposite each other and separated by about 1½ inches, as
shown in the figure below. The client (the computer you’ll
operate) should face you so you can operate it conveniently.
The infrared port is lined up with the third row of keys,
counting from the top (the third row contains the [7], [8], and
[9] keys).
Page 317
To transfer files and directories by IR between two
palmtops:
Once the two palmtops are configured and positioned, do the
following on the client:
Press [F6] to establish IR communication between both palmtops. If you see
only one window in the display, press [F7] to see the split screen. The left
window (“Remote”) shows the server directory list. The right window
(“Local”) shows the client directory list (the one you are working at). If you
have trouble establishing the connection, start Datacomm ([&É] [C]) on
both computers, then return to the client’s Filer and press [F6] again.
Display the listing for the destination directory (where you want to put the
files).
Highlight the source file that you want to copy or move and select it (press
[SPACEBAR]). You can select more than one file.
Press [F2] (Copy) or [F3] (Move).
The dialog box should show the destination directory name. If not, type the
path and name of the destination directory.
Do not type \ as the final character.
Press [F10].
Press [F10] to break the IR connection.
Page 318
To switch a window between local and remote directory
displays:
The Filer will not display two remote directories
simultaneously.
Press [F6]. The Local/Remote indicator at the top-left of the
window indicates whether the displayed directories are local or
remote.
To turn an IR connection off:
When you’re not using it, be sure to turn off IR to conserve
battery power.
Press [F10] (disconnect). When no connection is active, [F10] is
labelled Connect~.
Transferring files between an HP 100LX and an HP
200LX
HP 100LX files share the same format as HP 200LX files.
Therefore, the procedures in this chapter that cover transferring
files between HP 200LX’s also apply to transferring files
between an HP 100LX and an HP 200LX.
Transferring files between an HP 95LX and an HP
200LX
You can transfer ASCII files between an HP 95LX and an HP
200LX in either direction. You can also transfer HP 95LX
Appointment Book and Phone Book files to an HP 200LX. You
cannot use HP 200LX Appointment and Phone Book files on
the HP 95LX.
About HP 95LX appt book and phone book files
Page 319
When you open for the first time a transferred HP 95LX
Appointment or Phone Book file, the HP 200LX senses the HP
95LX file format and automatically starts a translation process.
You are prompted to give a name to translate the file to—fill
out the Translate dialog box and press [F10]. Note that HP
95LX Appointment and Phone book files have the extensions
.ABK and .PBK, while HP 200LX Appointment and Phone
book files have the extensions .ADB and .PDB.
To configure an HP 95LX for IR communication:
From the Filer, press [MENU] [R] [C] [I] [3] [Q] [Q] (RemoteSet Config Interface 3(Infrared) Quit Quit).
Note
Do not copy the C:\_DAT directory between the HP 95LX and the HP
200LX. There are files of the same names that would be copied over and
lost. Instead, copy just those individual files that you want.
To transfer files and directories by IR between an HP
95LX and an HP 200LX:
Note that a copy or move operation for an HP 95LX
Appointment Book to an HP 200LX will take 1 to 3 minutes
for a book of average size. An average Phone Book should take
less than a minute.
Configure and position the HP 95LX and HP 200LX as
described.
On the HP 200LX, press [F6] to establish IR communication. If you see only
one window in the display, press [F7] to see the split screen. The left
window (“Remote”) shows the HP 95LX’s directory list. The right window
(“Local”) shows the HP 200LX’s directory list. If you have trouble
establishing the connection, start Datacomm on both computers, then
return to the HP 200LX Filer and press [F6] again.
Display the listing for the destination directory (where you want to put the
files).
Highlight the source file that you want to copy or move and select it (press
[SPACEBAR]). You can select more than one file.
Page 320
Press [F2] (Copy) or [F3] (Move).
The dialog box should show the destination directory name. If not, type the
path and name of the destination directory. Do not type \ as the final
character.
Press [F10].
Press [F10] to break the IR connection.
Page 321
23
System macros
The System Macros application enables you to record
keystrokes for repetitive tasks. When you want to perform this
task again, you can run your macro program and let it “press”
the keys for you.
When you create a macro, you assign it to one of the function
keys [F1] through [F10]. To run a macro, you press [FN] plus
the function key to which the macro was assigned. You can run
a system macro from the Topcard display or from any
application except DOS or System Macros.
Creating system macros
A macro can contain a maximum of 255 keystrokes. To
overcome this limit see Creating macros that execute other
macros later in this chapter.
To create a system macro from the System Macro
application:
Press [&É] [M] to open System Macros.
Arrow to the function key you want your macro assigned to.
Press [F8] [F10] to initiate macro recording. You are automatically switched
back to your previous application.
Press the keys that constitute your macro. As each key is pressed, a low beep
indicates the key is recorded.
End macro recording by pressing [L]+[ON] [Fn], where
[Fn] is any function key, regardless of whether or not a macro is assigned to
it.
To enter an optional description or name for your macro, press [F2] from the
System Macros application, then type your description in the Description
text box.
Press [F10].
To create a system macro while displaying each key
Page 322
symbol:
Press [&É] [M] to open System Macros.
Arrow to the function key you want your macro assigned to.
Press [F2]
Optional: type a name or description for your macro.
Tab to the Contents dialog box. This box contains symbols for the keys you
want your macro to execute.
Press the text keys or generate the symbols for other keys in the order you want
your macro to “press” them. To generate those symbols, press [F6], then the
key or key combination that normally would produce the operation you
want your macro to perform. If you know the symbol, you can type the
operation rather than have [F6] generate it for you. If you’re not sure if you
need to use [F6] to generate the symbol (rather than press the key directly),
use [F6], since it always works. For instance, pressing [F6][MENU] displays
{Menu}.
Press [F10].
To create a system macro from another application:
From any application except System Macros and DOS, hold down [L] and
[FN], and then press the function key you want your macro assigned to. A
two-tone beep, the first low, the second high, indicates the start of macro
recording.
Press the keys that constitute your macro. As each key is pressed, a low-tone
beep indicates the key is recorded.
End macro recording by pressing [L]+[FN] and a function key.
To enter an optional description or name for your macro, press [&É] [M].
Highlight the macro, then press [F2] and type your description in the
Description text box. Then press [F10].
To run a system macro:
You cannot run a system macro from within DOS or the System Macros application.
Press [FN] followed by the function key that the System Macro
is assigned to.
To edit a system macro:
Press [&É] [M] to open System Macros.
Highlight the macro you want to edit.
Press [F2]
Edit the description and contents of your macro. If you don’t know a key
Page 323
symbol for a non-text key, press [F6], then press the non-text key. The
palmtop will enter the symbol for you.
To save your editing changes, press [F10]. Do not press [ENTER] to save changes
because it is used as a text key in the Contents box.
Creating macros that execute other macros
You can chain macros together to overcome the 255 keystroke
macro size limit. To do this, make the last step of your macro
execute a second macro. The second macro could end by
executing a third macro, and so on. Your only limit is the
amount of RAM disk memory.
To instruct a macro to run another macro:
Within System Macros highlight a function key and press [MENU] [M] [E].
Create or edit your macro.
At the end of the macro (press [FN] END) press [F7] (Chain).
Select the macro to chain to.
Press [F10].
Caution
If you chain to another file of macros, be sure the macro set you’re
chaining from is saved (press [MENU] [F] [S]). Otherwise, when you chain
from an unsaved set of macros, they will be lost.
Note
When a macro chains to another macro in another file, that other file
becomes the current file. Therefore, the macro represented by [FN] [F1],
for example, is now a different macro.
Saving and opening sets of system macros
The System Macro application will automatically save up to 10
macros. If you want to save more than 10, you need to save the
first set of up to 10 in a file. Only RAM disk size limits the
Page 324
number of sets of macros you can save in files.
To save a set of macros:
In the System Macros application, press [MENU] [F] [A].
Type a file name. The file name extension .MAC is added automatically. The
file will be saved in the C:\_DAT directory.
Press [F10].
If you add macros to a set that has already been saved, you can
save this new version of the same set by pressing [MENU] [F]
[S].
Use [MENU] [F] [O] to open an existing file of macros.
Use [MENU] [F] [N] to open a new blank set of macros.
Clearing (deleting) system macros
To clear a single system macro:
In the System Macros application, highlight the macro you
want to delete.
Press [F7] [F10].
If you have saved this macro set, save this new version (if you want) under the
same name by pressing [MENU] [F] [S].
To delete a saved set of Saved macros, use the Filer to delete
the file.
System macros and Lotus 1-2-3
You can write and run a System Macro while in the 1-2-3
application.
You can cause a System Macro to execute a 1-2-3 macro.
You cannot cause a 1-2-3 macro to execute a System Macro,
since there is no 1-2-3 macro instruction for this action.
This first example below shows how to write a System Macro
that starts a 1-2-3 macro.
Page 325
System macros examples
Example: Writing a Macro that Starts a 1-2-3 Macro.
You want to start 1-2-3 and execute a 1-2-3 macro from other
applications. Assuming the 1-2-3 macro is assigned to
[ALT]+[A], you follow these steps to write this system macro.
Display the Topcard or open any application except System Macros or DOS.
Press [L] [FN] [F1] to start recording (assuming [F1] has no macro already
assigned to it).
Press [A] [ALT]+[A].
Press [L]+[FN] [FI] to stop recording.
Now, when you press [FN][F1] from another application, 1-2-3
will start and execute the [ALT]+[A] 1-2-3 macro.
Example: Printing Today’s Appointments from the Appointment
Book
At the start of each day you want to have a printed list of your
appointments. You can execute this macro to print this list,
provided these conditions exist:
No Appointment Book record is open.
Your printer is turned on.
Create this macro as follows:
Display the Topcard or open any application except System Macros or DOS.
Press [L]+[FN] [F2] to start recording (assuming [F2] has no macro already
assigned to it).
Press [B] [F5] [F4] [MENU] [F] [P] [ALT]+[H] [ALT]+[D] [ALT]+[L] [ALT]+[P]
[F10].
Press [L]+[FN] [F2] to stop recording.
Page 326
24
Managing your applications
This chapter tells you how to
Add applications to your palmtop.
Start, quit, and delete application programs.
Manage memory in your palmtop.
Installing applications
There are two types of applications you can add to your
palmtop:
A DOS application that runs under MS-DOS 5.0 on a
computer equipped with a CGA monitor. Installing DOS
applications is found in chapter 25.
A System-Manager-compliant (SMC) application that
operates like one of the built-in applications—you can start it
from any other application, and switch between it and other
applications without closing it. These special applications are
being developed by a number of vendors specifically for the HP
200LX. System-Manager-compliant applications developed for
the HP 100LX will also run in the HP 200LX..
To install an HP 200LX-type (SMC) application:
Plug in or copy the program files:
• If the application is on a memory card, turn off your
palmtop and then insert the card into the plug-in slot (drive
A).
• If the application is on a floppy disk, use the Connectivity
Pack to transfer the files from a desktop PC to your
palmtop PC.
Add the program to the Application Manager to make it easy to run. If a
program is not part of the Application Manager, then you must start it by
going into DOS and typing its full path name.
Page 327
To add a program to the Application Manager:
The Application Manager assigns a program a name, icon, and
key that you can use to easily start any program or application
from the [&É] (More Applications) screen.
Press [&É] [F2] (Add) to display this screen:
Add an Application Screen
Name: Type a name (up to 14 characters) for the application. The name will
appear with an icon on the [&É] screen. Create an underlined character by
preceding it in the Name field with an &. That character will appear
underlined in the Icons View. The built-in applications already use some
letters, leaving these for your use: G, J, K, V, X, Y, Z. You can also use
numbers. For example, if the name of your program is “Data1” and you
want [1] to start the program, type Data &1. If you use a number, it will
always drop to the next line in the Icons View.
Path: Type the complete path and file name of your application’s executable
file (63 characters maximum). Example: C:\_DAT\CHESS.EXM. A SystemManager-compliant (SMC) program has a .EXM extension.
To specify the amount of memory to allocate for a DOS program (.EXE, .BAT, or .COM file) to run, append | n to the path
name in the Path field, where n is the number of kilobytes to
allocate. The | character is generated by pressing [L] [\].
Example: C:\Q.EXE|256 allocates 256 KB whenever Q.EXE is
run.
To allocate all available memory for a DOS program to run,
append just | to the path name. Memory-wise, this is
equivalent to starting a DOS program from the Filer
Page 328
([MENU] Options DOS).
Key Assignment: You can start an SMC (not DOS)
application with a shortcut key combination from any other
application. To assign this key combination, press &asetkey;
and follow the instructions. [F4]appears as Set~Key~ if the
path name you entered above ends with an .EXM extension.
Comments: Optional.
• For a DOS communications program to run properly, this
field must begin with “¿” ([Fn] [!]). This will also prevent
switching to other applications.
• To suppress the message “Press any key to exit DOS” at
the end of a DOS program, begin this field with “¿”
([Fn] [?]).
Icon: If your purchased application includes its own icon
stored in a file with the extension .ICN, you’ll see this icon as
you arrow through the choices. For an application that does not
have its own icon, there are three built-in icons and a blank
icon. The icon’s name will identify it.
Press [10].
Icons view and list view of applications
To open the Application Manager, press [&É]. Each SystemManager-compliant and built-in application is represented in
both the Icons View and List View shown below. To see all the
icons or listings, use [J] or [F10].
Icons View (press [F8] from the List View)
Page 329
List View (press [F8] from the Icons View)
To edit the applications list:
Each application represented by an entry in the List View has a
corresponding “Edit an Application” dialog box. For
applications you’ve added, all text boxes in this dialog box can
be edited. For built-in applications, only the “Comments” text
box can be edited. You can also change the position of an
application’s entry in this list.
To edit an application’s listing, use [F3] (Edit).
To change an application’s position in both the List and Icons
Views, use [F7] (Order).
Starting, quitting, and deleting applications
All built-in applications appear in the Application Manager
(More Applications screen), as do supplemental applications
that you have added to it (see the beginning of this chapter).
If an installed application is not in the More Applications
screen, you must run it from the DOS prompt (chapter 25).
Enter the path and name of the application’s executable file.
To start an application using the Application Manager:
Press [&É]. This displays either the Icons view or the List
view of the More Applications screen.
In Icons view: Either press the letter-key for the letter
Page 330
underlined in the applications name, or highlight the icon
and press [F5] or [ENTER]. Press [J] or [F10] to see more
icons.
In List view: Highlight the name of the application and press
[F5] or [ENTER]. Also, the Key column shows shortcut key
sequences you can use to start the applications from any
screen.
To quit an open application:
For built-in applications, press [MENU] [Q].
For added applications represented by an icon, arrow to the
application’s name in either the System Manager List or
Icons View and press [F6] (Close).
For added applications not represented by an icon, type at the
DOS prompt the application’s command that closes the
application (“quit,” “exit,” or some similar command). See
your application’s instructions.
To delete an application you added:
From the List View in the Application Manager, highlight the
application you want to delete.
Press [F4] [ENTER].
Managing memory
Types of memory
There are three main types of internal palmtop memory:
System RAM, commonly called RAM in a desktop or portable
PC.
RAM disk (drive C), analogous to a hard disk in a desktop PC.
ROM (drive D), containing files that you cannot change. They
may only be read and copied. The built-in applications are
contained here.
Determining memory usage
Page 331
The bottom of the Icons View and the top of the List View in
the Application Manager show the free and total memory in
system RAM.
In the List View of the Application Manager, the third column
shows the system RAM being used by each open application.
The memory being used by 1-2-3 is flexible and depends on the
total amount of available memory. The two numbers 1-2-3
shows are (1) the minimum memory required by the current
worksheet and (2) the largest possible worksheet that could be
created under the current conditions.
Maximizing system RAM
Available system RAM can be increased by doing one or more
of the following:
Close all open applications.
Close the System Manager.
Change your AUTOEXEC.BAT file by removing commands
for LapLink Remote Access and modem card support. (Type
REM in front of the line to be removed.)
To check the amount of available memory:
At the DOS prompt, type chkdsk and press [ENTER]. The
number of bytes free will be displayed.
To close all applications:
From within the Application Manager ([&É]), press [MENU]
[A] [L].
If you want to close individual applications from the
Application Manager, highlight an application in the List View
and press [F6].
If you want to access the DOS prompt when all applications are
closed, press [STRG]+[A].
Page 332
To close the System Manager:
After completing this procedure, built-in applications will not
be available until you restart the System Manager. You will be
able to run only DOS programs.
In the Application Manager, press [MENU] [A] [T].
Read carefully the displayed text.
Press [ENTER].
To restart the System Manager:
From the DOS prompt, type 200 and press [ENTER].
To change AUTOEXEC.BAT to release system RAM:
You shouldn’t attempt this procedure unless you are quite
familiar with MS-DOS.
Use the Filer to copy AUTOEXEC.BAT and CONFIG.SYS from drive D to drive
C.
Use the Memo Editor to edit the copy of AUTOEXEC.BAT on drive C:
Scan the file for comments describing commands that can be
removed to save system RAM.
Read the descriptions of those commands to make sure you can
give up the functionality they offer.
Remove (REM) the commands.
Save the edited copy on drive C.
Reboot the computer.
If you want to return to using the default AUTOEXEC.BAT
and CONFIG.SYS, simply delete the copies on drive C and
reboot the computer.
Page 333
25
MS-DOS in your palmtop
PC
Your palmtop contains a version of MS-DOS 5.0 in ROM that
is optimized for a palmtop PC. Some of the external commands
have been omitted, and some important utility commands have
been added.
This chapter covers:
The various ways to access the DOS prompt.
The palmtop System Manager program.
DOS file and directory conventions.
The palmtop DOS commands.
Tips on installing and running DOS applications on the
palmtop.
Boot (startup) options.
If you want more information on the MS-DOS 5.0 operating
system than is covered here, ask your local bookstore to
recommend a book that meets your needs. There are many
books written for readers of various levels of computer
knowledge.
Many file and directory operations described in this chapter can
also be performed in the Filer (chapter 22).
Accessing the DOS prompt
You have three primary ways to access the C:\> DOS prompt.
Each method gives a different amount of memory (and
flexibility) to the DOS environment. If you plan to start a DOS
program from the prompt, choose the way that’s best for the
situation.
Press [CTRL]+[A] (or [&É] [D]) to open DOS as a shell that
Page 334
acts as though it were an SMC (System-Manager compliant)
application—one you can leave and then return to exactly
where you left off. This method enables you to adjust the
amount of System RAM that DOS uses by taking memory
from the Clipboard and other applications (see Allocating
memory within system RAM in chapter 21). However, you
may not get enough memory this way to run a large
application.
From the Filer press [MENU] [O] [D] to open DOS as a shell
that also acts as an SMC program. This method
automatically dedicates all available System RAM to DOS.
This gives you a better chance of having enough memory to
run a large application. However, you can’t open a new SMC
application unless you free up some memory by quitting
DOS or closing other open SMC applications.
If you highlight in the Filer the name of an executable file
and then press [ENTER], you’ll open the DOS shell and run
the program all at once.
To get back out of DOS, type exit.
Press [&É] to open the Application Manager, then press
[MENU] [A] [T] [ENTER] (Terminate All) to close all open files,
applications, and the System Manager itself. This method gives
you the maximum amount of memory to run an application.
However, because the System Manager is not running, you
can’t access any built-in applications (which means no alarms
or appointments) until you restart the System Manager by
typing 200 at the DOS prompt and pressing [ENTER].
About the System Manager Program
The System Manager opens automatically when you reboot
because the last command in the AUTOEXEC.BAT file on
drive D loads the System Manager program. It controls all
built-in applications and all SMC (System-Manager compliant)
programs you add.
Page 335
You can leave a program or application operating under the
control of the System Manager by starting another application,
and then return to it later exactly where you left off.
Files and directories
A name for a file or directory has from one to eight characters.
An extension to a file or directory name is one to three additional characters separated from the file name by a period. For
example:
There is no distinction between uppercase and lowercase
characters in file and directory names and extensions. Also,
your palmtop implements the use of the standard DOS wildcard
symbols (* and ?).
There is a limit of 64 files in a root directory. A:\ is the root
directory on drive A, for example. To create more files, create
subdirectories for them.
Valid Characters for File and Directory Names
Letters A through Z Numbers 0 through 9
Caret (^)
Dollar sign ($)
Exclamation point (!) Number sign (#)
Ampersand (&)
Hyphen (-)
Parentheses ()
At sign (@)
Grave accent (‘)
Underscore (_)
Tilde (~)
Percent sign (%)
Braces ({})
Apostrophe (‘)
Avoid using the following file names. They are already used
by the operating system:
Page 336
Reserved File Names
AUX
CLOCK$
COM1
COM2
COM3
COM4
CON
LPT1
LPT2
LPT3
NUL
PRN
The following extensions are reserved. You can use them if
you’re creating any of the indicated file types:
Reserved File Name Extensions
Extension File Type
BAK
Backup files
BAT
DOS batch files
CHK
Assigned to files recovered by CHKDSK
COM, EXE Program files
OVL
DOS uses this extension for overlay files
REC
DOS uses this extension for RECOVERed files
SYS
Used for device drivers
$$$
DOS uses this extension for temporary files
The following extensions are used by certain types of files
associated with the built-in applications.
Special Palmtop File Name Extensions
Extension File Type
ADB
Appointment Book files
ATT
cc:Mail message attachment
BAK
1-2-3 backup worksheets
CAP
Datacomm capture files
CCM
cc:Mail inbox
CFL
Calculator cash flow lists
CTF
Character translation files for Datacomm
DCF
Datacomm configuration files
DOC
Memo Editor memo files and Quicken print files
Page 337
DRV
ENV
EQN
EXM
FCF
FLD
FON
GDB
cc:Mail communications driver
Holds application info between sessions
Solver equation files
System Manager compliant programs
Filer configuration files
cc:Mail folder
MS Windows format files
Database files
Special Palmtop File Name Extensions (continued)
Extension
ICN
IDX
INI
KIT
LCF
MAC
MDM
MSG
NDB
PCF
PCX
PDB
PIC
PRN
PDT
STA
TMP
WDB
File Type
Added SMC application’s icon file
cc:Mail address book index
cc:Mail host (Post Office) config file
Keyboard Information files
Script (logon configuration) files for Datacomm
System Macros files (1-10 macros/file)
Modem control file for comm driver
cc:Mail messages
Note Taker note files
Printer configuration files
Graphics (Topcard) files
Phone Book files
1-2-3 graphs
1-2-3 print or text files
Pocket Quicken data files
Calculator statistics lists
Temporary files
World Time files
Page 338
WK1
1-2-3 worksheet files
DOS commands in your palmtop
The palmtop’s operating system contains two types of
commands:
Standard DOS commands, including CONFIG.SYS, MS-DOS,
and Batch commands. The external MS-DOS commands are
located in D:\DOS. These are described in the following
tables.
Utility commands created specifically for the palmtop. The
utility commands are located in D:\BIN. These are described
following the standard command tables.
You can display help information on any of the palmtop’s
standard DOS 5.0 commands by typing the command name
followed with /? and pressing [ENTER]. For example, to display
information on the MORE command, you type MORE/? and
press [ENTER].
Standard DOS commands
DOS Command Syntax
Symbol
Meaning
COMMAND
Command name.
[]
Word or letter enclosed in brackets is optional.
|
Indicates a choice must be made between two
entries (ON | OFF).
drive:
Drive designator.
path
List of directories that DOS must go through to
get to a specific file or directory.
filename
Name of a file.
…
Indicates an entry may be repeated.
The standard MS-DOS 5.0 commands in the palmtop are listed
Page 339
in two tables. The first lists CONFIG.SYS commands, and the
second lists MS-DOS and Batch commands.
CONFIG.SYS Commands Available in Your Palmtop
Command Description
BUFFERS Allocates memory at system start for a specified
number of disk buffers.
DEVICE
Specifies the location and name of the device
driver you want to load.
FCBS
Specifies the number of file control blocks that
DOS can have open at the same time.
FILES
Sets the number of files that DOS can access at
one time.
INSTALL Loads a memory-resident program into memory
when you start DOS.
LASTDRIVE
Specifies the maximum number of drives you
can access.
SHELL
Specifies the location and name of the command
interpreter used by DOS.
STACKS
Supports the dynamic use of data stacks to handle
hardware interrupts.
SWITCHES Forces an enhanced keyboard to behave like a
conventional keyboard.
MS-DOS & Batch Commands Available in Your Palmtop
Command Description
ASSIGN
Redirects requests for disk operations on one drive
to a different drive.
ATTRIB
Displays or changes file attributes.
BREAK
Sets or clears extended [CTRL]+[C] checking.
CALL
Calls one batch program from another.
CHDIR or CD Displays the name of or changes the current
Page 340
directory.
CHKDSK Checks a disk and displays a status report.
CLS
Moves the cursor to the upper left corner and
clears the screen.
COMMAND
Starts a new instance of the DOS command
interpreter.
COPY
Copies one or more files to another location.
CTTY
Changes the terminal device used to control your
system.
DATE
Displays or sets the date.
DEBUG
Runs Debug, a program testing and editing tool.
DEL or ERASE Deletes one or more files.
DIR
Displays a list of files and subdirectories in a
directory.
DOSKEY Edits command lines, recalls DOS commands, and
creates macros.
ECHO
Displays messages, or turns command-echoing on
or off.
EXIT
Quits the COMMAND.COM program (command
interpreter).
FOR
Runs a specified command for each file in a set of
files.
FORMAT Formats a disk for use with DOS.
GOTO
Directs DOS to a labelled line in a batch program.
IF
Performs conditional processing in batch
programs.
MEM
Displays the amount of used and free system
memory.
MKDIR or MD Creates a directory.
MODE
Configures system devices.
Page 341
MS-DOS and Batch Commands Available in Your Palmtop (continued)
Command
MORE
PATH
PAUSE
Description
Displays output one screen at a time.
Displays or sets a search path for executable files.
Suspends processing of a batch program and
displays the message Press any key to
continue ….
PROMPT Changes the DOS command prompt.
REM
Records comments (remarks) in a batch file or in a
CONFIG.SYS file.
RENAME or REN
Renames a file or files.
RMDIR or RD Removes (deletes) a directory.
SET
Displays, sets, or removes DOS environment
variables.
SHARE
Installs file-sharing and locking capabilities on
your hard disk.
SHIFT
Changes the position of replaceable parameters in
a batch file.
TIME
Displays or sets the system time.
TYPE
Displays the contents of a text file.
VER
Displays the DOS version.
VERIFY
Tells DOS whether to verify that your files are
written correctly to a disk.
VOL
Displays the disk volume label and serial number,
if they exist.
XCOPY
Copies files (except hidden and system files) and
directory trees.
Special utility commands
CIC100 /GEN 1
Note
Page 342
In this manual the command “CIC100 /GEN 1” is referred to as
“CIC100.” However, when you use the command, the /GEN 1 parameter
should always be specified.
CIC100 (Card Installation Client) is a TSR (terminate and stay
resident) program that performs recognition and configuration
of PCMCIA modem cards. If CIC100 recognizes a given
modem card, the modem and the plug-in slot will be configured
as Com2. For more information see Connecting to a card
modem in chapter 27.
FDISK100
Performs a low-level initialization operation on an HP Flash
Disk in drive A. It is not applicable to other memory cards. See
your HP Flash Disk Card manual before using this command.
DISPCTL
DISPCTL [+C | -C] [+K | -K]
Enables or disables the [MENU]+arrow key movement and/or
the automatic cursor tracking while in the MS-DOS command
processor.
+C
Enables cursor tracking.
-C
Disables cursor tracking.
+K
Enables [MENU]+arrow key movement.
Page 343
-K
Disables [MENU]+arrow key movement.
Both options can be used together, but you must use at least
one of them with the command.
SERCTL
SERCTL [/O | /W | /I]
Controls power to the infrared (IR) and wired serial ports. This
command is for use when running programs from the DOS
prompt; the built-in applications handle powering the ports
automatically.
/O Turns off power to the active port. Turning off the I/O
ports while in the MS-DOS command
processor results in significant power
savings, thus extending battery life.
/W Powers up and activates the wired serial port. Does not
affect the baud setting.
/I
Powers up and activates the infrared (IR) port. Changes
the baud setting to 2400.
KEYBEZ
KEYBEZ [filename.kit] [kitfile option]
[filename.kit] Specifies the name of the .KIT file to be loaded.
[kitfile option] Specifies one of the supported options
available in the selected .KIT file.
This is a palmtop-specific NLS (National Language Support)
utility command. With KEYBEZ you can change the countryspecific defaults for displaying dates, times and currency. You
can also use KEYBEZ to change character sort order, file name
characters and uppercase/lowercase conversion information.
KEYBEZ can also be used to load keyboard mapping support
from one of the available KIT (Keyboard Information Table)
files.
KEYBEZ includes NLS information as well as Extended
Page 344
Country Information and Code Page support. The language/
country selection is determined by which KIT file is chosen and
which option is selected from the available options in that
particular KIT file.
KEYBEZ will enforce the selected Country defaults within
System Manager applications if the System Manager is active.
While KEYBEZ is loaded, the Options International dialog box
in the Setup application is modified to display the defaults
selected by KEYBEZ. The Country and DOS Code Page
sections of the Setup International screen are deactivated since
KEYBEZ controls these choices.
The first time executed, if given no arguments, KEYBEZ
expands the default KEYBEZ.KIT file and the default
KEYBEZ.FON file from D:\BIN. These files are placed in C:\
as HP100LX.KIT and HP100LX.FON. The next time
KEYBEZ is executed with no arguments, it will refer to
C:\HP100LX.KIT for options to display. The languages
supported by these files are described in Apendix D.
The .FON (font) file is a standard Microsoft Windows .FON
format file containing 4 bit-mapped fonts in the sizes needed by
the palmtop (6x8, 8x8, 10x11, and 16x12). The built-in .FON
file provides additional characters to support Cyrillic, Greek,
and Turkish.
KEYBEZ replaces or enhances the functionality of the
following MS-DOS Commands: COUNTRY, KEYB, MODE,
and NLSFUNC.
KIT files built into the palmtop include:
KEYBEZ.KIT with KEYBEZ.FON (South & East European
Country Support See Apendix D.)
COUNTRY.KIT (Selections with Default Code Page)
ACOUNTRY.KIT (Selections with Alternate Code Page)
LATIN.KIT (Selections with Default Code Page)
ALATIN.KIT (Selections with Alternate Code Page)
NORDIC.KIT (Selections with Default Code Page)
Page 345
ANORDIC.KIT (Selections with Alternate Code Page)
Supported Country NLS Defaults
Country
Code
Default Code Page
Alternate Code Page
For COUNTRY.KIT and ACOUNTRY.KIT:
Australia
au
437
850
Canada — Englishca
437
850
French
fr
850
437
Germany
gr
850
437
Italy
it
850
437
United Kingdom uk
437
850
United States
us
437
850
For LATIN.KIT and ALATIN.KIT:
Brazil
br
850
437
Latin America
la
850
437
Portugal
po
850
860
Spain
sp
850
437
For NORDIC.KIT and ANORDIC.KIT:
Denmark
dk
850
865
Finland
su
850
437
Iceland
ic
850
n/a
Netherlands
nl
850
437
Norway
no
850
437
Sweden
sv
850
437
How To Use KEYBEZ
The general process is to expand the compressed .KIT file and
place it on the C drive as HP100LX.KIT. This will give
KEYBEZ access to all information in the .KIT file without
needing to expand it each time before accessing it.
To expand a KIT file:
Page 346
If, for example, you want to expand d:\bin\nordic.kit before
loading the support for Denmark, do the following:
Use the compress/expand utility XINE to expand the .KIT file and install it
onto the C drive.
To expand, type the following command at the DOS prompt:
XINE D:\BIN\NORDIC.KIT C:\HP100LX.KIT
To create a modified AUTOEXEC.BAT file:
The following assumes that you want to use the default NLS values for
Denmark and that you have already expanded the .KIT file.
Use the Memo Editor to open your AUTOEXEC.BAT file (located in the root
directory C:\ or D:\)
Add the line KEYBEZ DK just before the 200 line.
Save your new version of the AUTOEXEC.BAT file in the root directory C:\.
Ensure that your CONFIG.SYS file is in the root directory C:\. Copy it from D:\
if necessary.
Close all open applications in preparation to reboot.
Reboot by pressing [CTRL]+[ALT]+[DEL].
This AUTOEXEC.BAT file will set up the following
configuration:
Danish conventions for date, time, currency, character sort
order, and lowercase/uppercase.
Default Code Page 850.
If you want to install the default NLS values for Denmark with
the Alternate Code Page, expand the .KIT file by executing
XINE D:\BIN\ANORDIC.KIT C:\HP100LX.KIT.
The modified AUTOEXEC.BAT file created above will now
provide:
Danish conventions for date, time, currency, character sort
order, and valid file names.
Alternate Code Page 865.
Note
Lotus 1-2-3 only supports code page 850. If KEYBEZ is used to configure
any code page other than page 850, your printer must be configured for
Page 347
that other code page.
Files you create may become inaccessible when you use another code
page. If you name a file when using one code page, then switch to
another code page whose characters are not compatible, you may not be
able to recover the file. To recover it, you may have to switch back to the
code page you used when you named the file.
Note
If KEYBEZ is active and Terminate-All is executed to quit the System
Manager ([&É] [MENU] [A] [T]), restart the System Manager by pressing
[CTRL]+[A]+[DEL] rather than by entering 200 at the DOS prompt. This
will ensure that KEYBEZ is reconnected correctly to the System Manager.
For more information on Eastern European language support, see
Apendix D.
KIT Country Options
You may see which countries are supported by a particular KIT
file by typing KEYBEZ followed by the .KIT file name. (e.g.
KEYBEZ D:\BIN\ACOUNTRY.KIT) This will replace any
existing C:\HP100LX.KIT file with the expanded version of the
.KIT file you specify.
KIT File Format
Documentation of the KIT file format is included in the
KEYBEZ.KIT file which is built into your palmtop. You may
view this file by executing XINE D:\BIN\KEYBEZ.KIT
C:\HP100LX.KIT and then viewing the file C:\HP100LX.KIT.
Installing DOS applications
To install a DOS application:
Probably the easiest way to install a DOS application involves
using LapLink Remote Access, part of the Connectivity Pack.
See the Connectivity Pack User’s Guide and your application
Page 348
manual for specific information. You can install the application
on either drive C or drive A (a memory card) in your palmtop.
The Application Manager enables you to assign to a program a
name, icon, and shortcut key for starting the program from the
[&É] (More Applications) screen. If a program is not SystemManager compliant, you must start it by going into DOS and
typing the full path name or highlighting the file name in the
Filer and pressing [ENTER].
To add a DOS application to the Application Manager:
Press [&É] ~~Add~~~ and fill out the fields as explained in
the beginning of chapter 24. You cannot make a key
assignment, however.
To specify the amount of memory to allocate for a DOS program (.EXE, .BAT, or .COM file) to run, append |n to the
path name in the Path field, where n is the number of
kilobytes to allocate. Example: C:\Q.EXE|256 allocates 256
KB whenever Q.EXE is run.
To allocate all available memory for the program to run,
append just | to the path name. Memory-wise, this is
equivalent to starting a DOS program from the Filer ([MENU]
Options DOS).
To run a DOS communications program from the System
Manager, the Comments field must start with “¡” ([FN] [!]).
To omit the message “Press any key to exit DOS” at the end of
a DOS program, the Comments field must start with “¿” ([FN]
[?]).
Tips on running DOS applications
Page 349
To execute [F11] and [F12] on the palmtop:
To execute:
[F11]
[F12]
Press:
[FN] [1]
[FN] [2]
To generate IBM Numeric Keypad Keys on the
palmtop
While the palmtop has a numeric keypad, the keycodes
associated with those keys correspond to the top-row number
keys on an IBM-compatible PC keyboard. If your program asks
you to press either an unshifted or shifted key on the number
pad of an IBM-compatible PC keyboard, press instead the keys
shown in the following table to get the same result.
How to Execute IBM Numeric Keypad Keys
To execute IBM key:
Pr ess on palmtop:
To execute IBM key:
Press on palmtop:
[0]
[L] [MENU]+[0]
[Ä]
[MENU]+[4]
[1]
[L] [MENU]+[1]
[]
[MENU]+[6]
d
d
[Home]
[MENU]+[7]
[9]
[L] [MENU]+[9]
[i]
[MENU]+[8]
[.]
[L] [MENU]+[.]
[PgUp]
[MENU]+[9]
[DEL]
[MENU]+[.]
[+]
[MENU]+[+]
[Ins]
[MENU]+[0]
[-]
[MENU]+[-]
[End]
[MENU]+[1]
[*]
[MENU]+[*]
[j]
[MENU]+[2]
[/]
[MENU]+[/]
Page 350
[PgDn]
[MENU]+[3]
To load a TSR:
Do not load a TSR from a DOS prompt accessed from the
Application Manager or from the Filer.
Make sure the System Manager is closed (press [&É] [MENU] [A] [T] [ENTER]).
Run the TSR.
Open the System Manager (at the DOS prompt, type 200 and press [ENTER]).
If your TSR requires a keystroke sequence like [CTRL]+[L] to
become active, press [CTRL]+[L] then press [L] again to
turn off the shift.
To run a program from drive A:
Most programs run from drive A in the normal way. But some
will not because they think it’s a floppy drive. If you have
trouble running your program from drive A, try running your
program from drive E instead of drive A. This makes use of a
command in AUTOEXEC.BAT: assign e:=a:.
If trouble persists, try reinstalling your program to drive E, and
then run the program from drive E.
Controlling the appearance of a DOS display
You can control a DOS or DOS application screen in these
ways:
Change the position of the annunciators.
Enlarge characters (ZOOM in on the display).
Move around in an enlarged-character display by moving the
cursor or by moving the window.
Change black to white and white to black.
Change shades of gray.
Details about these methods of control follow.
To change the position of the annunciators:
Press [ON]+[=] to cycle through three states (left, right, off).
Page 351
To zoom on a DOS display:
Press [FN] ZOOM to see an enlarged portion of the original 80character by 25 line display. If the cursor was at the lower-left
corner, it is still at the lower-left corner after enlargement.
Press [FN] ZOOM two more times to cycle through the zoom options and
return to the original, unenlarged display.
ZOOM does not work on applications operating in graphics
mode, but does work in text mode.
To view all parts of a zoomed display:
When characters are enlarged, you can view all parts of the
screen in one of two ways:
Move the cursor past the end of the window and watch the
window move character by character.
Use [MENU]+[H], [I], [K], and [J] to move the entire
window.
To invert DOS display colors:
You can invert a DOS or other text screens as well as graphic
screens to make black white and white black.
Press [ON]+[/].
To return to the original display, press [ON]+[/] again.
To change gray shades:
Applications that use a number of shades of gray to enhance
their graphics can be run in the palmtop’s DOS. However, your
palmtop offers four shades of gray for such applications rather
than the larger number provided by other PCs. Your palmtop
allows you to choose between two sets of these four shades that
might produce a more pleasing graphic image. In general,
however, it might be best to run such programs with their
options set to either CGA mono, LCD, monochrome, or else
change the color settings to make them easier to read.
Press [ON]+[*] to toggle between two settings.
Page 352
Customizing your system
You might want to modify your AUTOEXEC.BAT and
CONFIG.SYS files to customize the way your palmtop works.
Your palmtop was shipped with those two files located in the
root directory of drive D. You can modify copies of files on
drive D using the Memo Editor, then save them on drive C
or A.
If you save copies of AUTOEXEC.BAT and CONFIG.SYS on
drive A or C, the next time you reboot your palmtop those files
will be executed.
About the MS-DOS startup procedure
When you reboot your palmtop:
A search is made for the CONFIG.SYS file in the root directory of the
palmtop’s drives in this order: A, C, D. The CONFIG.SYS file in a new
palmtop is on drive D.
As soon as the CONFIG.SYS file is found, the drive on which it was found is
defined as the default drive. In a new palmtop, the default drive is defined
as D.
The commands found in CONFIG.SYS are executed.
A search is made in the newly-defined default drive for an AUTOEXEC.BAT
file.
If an AUTOEXEC.BAT file is found, the commands in that file are executed. If
an AUTOEXEC.BAT file exists but is not found on the default drive, the
commands in that file are not executed.
Boot (reset) options
When you reboot your palmtop, the message Press ALT for
Boot Options... is displayed briefly, then disappears
automatically as the boot process continues. If you press [ALT]
during the brief time that message is displayed, you see the
Select Default Drive Option screen:
*** Select Default Drive Option ***
Unless changed at this screen, the default drive will be the first
of drives A, C, and D found to contain a config.sys file in the
root directory. The options below allow control of default drive
Page 353
and startup file processing. This selection controls this reboot
only.
Make A default drive; process startup files.
Make C default drive; process startup files.
Make D default drive; process startup files.
Make A default drive; do not process startup files.
Make C default drive; do not process startup files.
Make D default drive; do not process startup files.
Use normal default drive determination.
Enter selection [7]:
Why These Options Are Offered. It might help to give an
example showing the usefulness of one of the options. Say you
load on drive C a DOS application plus a special driver
required by that application. You copy your startup files,
CONFIG.SYS and AUTOEXEC.BAT, from drive D to C and
modify the copies on C incorrectly in an attempt to satisfy the
requirements of the special driver. When you boot, the system
locks, since the first start-up files it found as it searched drives
A, C, and D were on C. You try to boot again, but this time you
press [ALT] to display the *** Select Default Drive Option *** screen. You select option 3, Make D default drive;
process startup files. When you press [3], the boot continues
successfully, since the original startup files on drive D were
executed. Now you can inspect the modified copies of the
startup files on drive C and attempt a fix.
To select a default drive option:
Press [CTRL]+[ALT]+[DEL] (reboot) or [CTRL]+[L]+[ON] (hard
reset) and then press [ALT] immediately. The *** Select
Default Drive Option *** screen appears.
Press the number key of the option you want. You need not press [ENTER]. To
select the default option 7, press [ENTER]. After you select your option, the
boot continues.
Page 354
26
Datacomm
The general procedure for using Datacomm to turn your
palmtop into a terminal is to:
Configure your palmtop to match the requirements of the host system.
Prepare the hardware to physically connect to the host system (either directly
or through a modem).
Make the connection and access the information you need.
These steps are covered in detail in the rest of this chapter. In
addition you’ll find related information on changing the
Page 355
number of characters in the display, capturing data in a file,
automating procedures with script files, and translating
characters between code pages.
To start Datacomm, press [&É] [C].
Configuring for Datacomm
Determine the host configuration requirements and compare
them with the palmtop default settings:
The Default Configuration Settings
Display
Setting
Choice/Description
Settings
Baud
2400
dialog box
Interface
Com1
Parity
None
Data Bits
8
Stop Bits
1
Advanced Settings
dialog box
Emulation
Backspace Key
Local Echo
Wrap Long Lines
Scroll
Flow
Enq-Ack
VT100
Backspace
Disabled
Disabled
0 lines
None
Disabled
Phone
dialog box
Type
Tone
Timeout
30 seconds
Automatic Redial Disabled
Page 356
To change the basic configuration settings:
In Datacomm, press [MENU] [C] [S] to display the choices covered in the
following table. Tab to cycle between the boxes or press [ALT] together with
the underlined letter to reach a particular box. To display all choices in a
box containing a R symbol, press [I] and [K] several times. Pressing
[ALT]+[I] will display several—but not necessarily all— choices.
If you want to make more choices, follow one or more of the next two
procedures. Otherwise, press [F10] to complete your choices.
Choices in the Settings Dialog Box
Setting Choices/Description
Baud rate 300, 1200, 2400, 4800, 9600, 19200, 38400, 57600,
115200
Interface Com1, Com2, Alternate, Infrared
Parity
None, Odd, Even, Mark, Space
Data bits 7, 8
Stop bits 1, 2
Open
Displays the Open Configuration File dialog box.
Save as Displays the Save Configuration File dialog box.
Advanced Displays the Advanced Settings dialog box.
Phone
Displays Phone Settings dialog box.
Defaults Return settings to their default values.
To change the phone configuration settings:
This is also where you add the phone number for a modem to
dial.
In the Datacomm Settings screen (press [MENU] [C] [S]),
press [F5] to display the choices covered in the following table.
Specify your choices using [TAB], arrow keys, [SPACEBAR], and typing.
Press [F10].
Page 357
Choices in the Phone Settings Dialog Box
Setting
Choices/Description
Number
Phone number to be dialed.
Type
Tone, Pulse.
Timeout
Call ends in specified seconds if no
answer.
Automatic Redial Check to enable.
To change the advanced configuration settings:
In the Datacomm Settings screen (press [MENU] [C] [S]), press [F4] to display
the choices covered in the following table.
Specify your choices using [TAB], arrow keys, [SPACEBAR], and typing.
To display the Download Directory dialog box, press [F6].
To display the Logon File dialog box, press [F7].
To display the Remap File dialog box, press [F8].
Press [F10] to make your choices effective.
Choices in the Advanced Settings Dialog Box
Setting
Choices/Description
Emulation VT100, ANSI, TTY, MAP. (MAP emulates a
“glass tty” terminal, except otherwise ignored control codes are
mapped to displayable characters—control code 1 is displayed
as ^A, control code 2 as ^B, and so on.)
Backspace key Backspace, Delete. Backspace backs up one
character, while Delete backs up and deletes one character.
Local Echo When enabled, characters you transmit will
display on your screen.
Wrap long lines When enabled, long lines are wrapped that
otherwise would disappear off the right edge of the screen.
Scroll
Defines the size of the scroll buffer that allows you
to view up to 99 previously displayed lines.
Modem Init Accepts a command line. For Hayes and Hayescompatible modems, the command line starts with AT or at and
ends with a carriage return. Many commands can be issued to
Page 358
your modem by making choices in the Settings, Advanced
Settings, and Phone dialog boxes. Use the Modem Init text box
to enter other commands.
Flow control:
RTS-CTS Request to send, clear to send. (hardware)
XON-XOFFTransmission on, transmission off. (software)
None
No flow control.
Enq-Ack
Enquire-Acknowledge.
Download Displays the Download Directory dialog box.
Logon
Displays the Logon File dialog box.
Remap
Displays a Remap File dialog box.
Using configuration files
If you save configuration settings in a file, reconfiguring your
palmtop for datacomm becomes as easy as opening a file.
To save the current configuration settings in a file:
In Datacomm, press [MENU] [C] [S] [F8].
Type a file name with no extension. The first character you type will erase .DCF
and display that character. The extension .DCF will be added to your file
name automatically. Your file will be in the C:\_DAT directory unless you
specify a different directory.
Press [F10] [F10] to save your settings in your new file and to return to
Datacomm’s opening display.
To choose an existing configuration file
In Datacomm, press [MENU] [C] [S] [F7].
If your file is saved in a directory other than C:\_DAT, tab to the Directories
list box, highlight the correct directory, and press [ENTER].
Tab to the Files list box, highlight the correct file name, and press [ENTER].
Press [F10].
Built into your C:\_DAT directory are configuration files for
four commercial information services: CompuServe, MCI,
Dow Jones News Retrieval, and GEnie.
Page 359
To choose the default configuration settings:
In Datacomm, press [MENU] [C] [S] [F6]. All configuration
settings are returned to their default settings.
Preparing your hardware
You need the HP F1015A Serial Cable to connect either to a
modem or directly to the host system.
If you’re using a modem, see chapter 27 for information on
connecting a modem to your palmtop.
If you’re connecting directly to the host system, use the HP
F1015A Serial Cable and the appropriate adapter from the HP
F1023 Adapter Kit. Connect the 10-pin end of the cable to the
Com1 port on the palmtop—make sure the HP logo faces up
when you insert it—and connect the other end of the cable
(possibly with an adapter) to the host serial port.
Note
Connecting cables and adapters to computers can be a tricky procedure
because the required adapters can vary with different computers. If you
need help with this process, contact a local electronics dealer or the
manufacturer of the computer you’re trying to connect.
Making serial connections
In most cases, the serial cable and 25-pin adapter provide the
desired serial connection between the palmtop and the other
PC. But if you’re connecting the palmtop to a modem or to
another type of serial connector, you will need to use different
adapters. The following table shows several serial connections.
Serial Connections for the Palmtop
To connect to…
Use…
PC Serial Port (9-pin male)
Serial cable1
PC Serial Port (25-pin male)
25-pin1 adapter c Serial cable1
PC Serial Port (25-pin female)
Printer 2 adapter c Serial cable1
Page 360
Gender 3 converter c 25-pin1 adapter c Serial cable1
Modem 2 adapter c Serial cable1
Modem (25-pin female)
Null3 modem c Gender3 converter c 25-pin1 adapter c Serial cable 1
1
From Connectivity Pack or HP F1015A Serial Cable.
2
From Connectivity Pack or HP F1023 Connector/Adapter Kit.
3
From electronics supply store or computer dealer.
The following table and figure show the pin assignments and
pin locations for the palmtop Com1 serial port and the 10-pin
connector. This information is important if you need to get help
connecting to a remote system or other device.
Pin Assignments for the palmtop Port
and the 9-Pin Connector
Port Pin No.
Signal
Connector Pin No.
Port Pin No.
Signal
Connector Pin No.
1
Data carrier detect
1
2
Receive data
3
6
Data set ready
4
7
Request to send
3
Transmit data
2
8
Clear to send
8
7
4
Data terminal ready
6
9
Ring indicator
9
5
Signal ground
5
10
Shield
5
Pin Numbers
Pin assignments on the HP F1015A serial cable are for
standard RS232 DB9 connectors.
Page 361
Beginning and ending a communication session
Once your palmtop is properly configured and connected to a
modem or host system, you’re ready to communicate.
To begin data communication:
Press [F10] to initiate communication.
To end data communication:
If necessary, log off the remote system.
To close the data communication session:
If you’re connected via modem or IR, press [F10].
If you have a direct connection, just disconnect the cable.
To close the Datacomm application, press [MENU] [Q]. The last configuration
settings you used will be active when you return.
Hangup
The hangup command is executed automatically whenever you quit
Datacomm ([MENU] [Q]).
Example: Communicating with CompuServe. CompuServe is a
popular bulletin board service used worldwide for
communication, information, and software. Call (800) 8488199 in the U.S. to get an identification number, password, and
local phone number. Outside the U.S., call 1 (614) 457-0802.
Start Datacomm ([&É] [C]).
Select [MENU] Connect Settings and press [F7] (Open). This displays a list of
available configuration files. These files provide standard information to
access the listed communication services.
Tab to the Files box to highlight COMPUSRV.DCF, the configuration file for
CompuServe.
Press [F10] (OK).
Press [F5] (Phone) and type the local “node” CompuServe phone number. It’s
best to omit hyphens and parentheses. If necessary, use a comma to create
a pause. Example: 9,15039672460 dials an outside line to call longdistance to (503) 967-2460.
Press [F10] [F10] (OK OK) to save this information in COMPUSRV.DCF.
Press [F10] (Connect). When the connection is made, you will see
Page 362
Press [ENTER]. Enter CIS as host, then your ID number and password as
requested.
When you’re finished communicating, log off from CompuServe by typing bye.
Then press [F10] (Hangup).
Customizing your display for Datacomm
To change between 64x18 and 80x25 displays:
Press [FN] ZOOM. The display toggles between 64x18 and
80x25 characters.
To move the 64x18 window around the 80x25 screen:
The 64x18 character display is a moveable window into the
80x25 screen.
Window Moving Keys
Keys
Description
[ALT]+[K]
Move up one line.
[ALT]+[J]
Move down one line.
[ALT]+[H]
Move right one character.
[ALT]+[I]
Move left one character.
[CTRL]+[H]
Move right one screen.
[CTRL]+[I]
Move left one screen.
[ALT]+[FN] PGUP
Scroll up one screen.
[ALT]+[FN] PGDN
Scroll down one screen.
[ALT]+[FN] HOME
Return to the current cursor position.
To scroll up to 99 lines:
You can scroll text to see up to 99 previously displayed lines:
Select [MENU] Connect Settings and press [F4] (Advance). Press [ALT]+[S] to
move to the Scroll box.
Type a number from 0 to 99 to set the size of the scroll-back buffer.
Press [F10] [F10] (OK OK).
Page 363
Capturing data in a file
To capture data in a file:
In Datacomm, press [F5] (Capture).
Type a file name with no extension. Your file will automatically be given the
extension .CAP and will be in the C:\_DAT directory (unless you specify
another directory).
Tab to the Control code option box and arrow to highlight a filtering option:
Omit, Map to letters, or Capture as is. See the table below.
Press [F10] (OK). All characters received on the serial port will be stored in the
specified capture file.
Press [F5] (StopCap) to stop the capturing.
Capture File Filtering Options
Option Description
Omit ASCII control codes are filtered out, not captured.
Map
Control codes are mapped to displayable characters in
the capture file. For example, control code 1
is written as ^A, 2 as ^B, 3 as ^C, and so on.
Capture No filtering. No changes to control codes.
Automating datacomm procedures
A script file enables you to automate a logon procedure.
When you include a script file name as part of your
configuration, the script is executed when a remote connection
is made. Here is a sample script file that would log L.
Harrington on to his e-mail system:
Hello |
{Enter your login name:}
L. Harrington |
{Enter your password:}
Cougar |
Once you know the host system’s requirements for logging on,
use the Memo application to create a script file using these
script characters:
Page 364
Special Characters for Script Files
Character Description
{…}
The left and right braces are used to enclose a string
of characters that comes from the remote
system. A string in braces instructs the
palmtop to wait until an exact match of that
string is received and then continue with the
script. If a matching string is not received
within 30 seconds, the script quits execution.
^
Indicates that the uppercase character following it is
a control character. For example, ^A
represents control-A. If you want to represent
the character ^, use ^^. If you want to
represent control-, use #1E.
#
Interprets the two characters following it as the hex
number to represent an 8-bit character. For
example, #1E represents control-. If you
want to represent the character #, use ##.
|
Represents a carriage return.
~
Causes a 1-second pause.
@e
Turns echo pacing on. Echo pacing requires the
remote system to “echo” back each sent
character before another one is sent.
@n
Turns echo pacing off.
@b
Sends a break signal for 1 second.
@@
Sends a single @ character.
@f[path] Sends the file identified by the DOS path as is—no
characters are translated, including control
characters. You must include the square
brackets around the path, which includes the
Page 365
file name.
The script starts after the modems have connected and the
message Connect nnnn (where nnnn is the baud rate) appears.
Use the Memo Editor to create your ASCII script file (no
special formatting), and save it in C:\_DAT with a .LCF file
extension.
To specify an existing script file for a logon
procedure:
Select [MENU] Connect Settings and press [F4] [F7] (Advance
Logon).
Specify your .LCF file.
Press [F10] [F10] [F10] to return to Datacomm’s opening display.
To use a script file while a Datacomm connection is
active:
Complete your logon.
At the point in the connection process where you want your script file to take
effect, press [MENU] [C] [R] [TAB], arrow to the script file you want, and
press [F10].
To cancel script file execution, press [CTRL]+[BREAK] ([CTRL]+[MENU].
Transferring files
The easiest method for file transfer involves using the
Connectivity Pack. However, the Datacomm application gives
you other methods for file transfer using XMODEM,
YMODEM, ZMODEM, or Kermit protocols.
Start and end the communication session as described earlier in
this chapter.
Use the File Protocol command ([MENU] [F] [P]) to select the
file transfer protocol you want for send and receive
operations.
Use File Send, File Receive, and File Kermit-Get commands to
send, receive, and get files.
Page 366
To put the palmtop in Kermit Server mode use the Connect
Kermit-Commands command, select Put HP100LX in
server mode, and press [F10]. Putting the palmtop in Server
mode is appropriate if you have previously initiated a Kermit
send operation from the host.
When you complete a Kermit transfer and the host has been put
in Server mode, press [MENU] [C] [K] and select Finish with
Remote Server. When you complete a Kermit transfer and
the palmtop has been put in Server mode, press [CTRL]
[BREAK].
When X-, Y-, and ZMODEM transfer protocols are selected,
Datacomm will automatically select 8 bits, no parity, and
turn software flow control off. These settings may cause
problems on some communication networks. Previous
values for these configuration settings are restored when the
transfer is completed. Also, 57600 and 115,200 baud are not
recommended for X-, Y-, and ZMODEM transfers.
XMODEM does not allow multiple-file transfers. YMODEM,
ZMODEM, and Kermit do allow transferring more than one
file at a time using wildcards.
To send multiple files, enter wildcards when you use File Send,
and then press [ALT]+[S] to enable Send All.
You can change the default download directory for receiving
files using [MENU] [C] [S] [F4] [F6].
Do not transfer multiple files using the Kermit protocol unless
you move them to the default directory, C:\_DAT. If you move
multiple files to another directory, the first file moved will be
placed in that other directory, and the remaining files will be
transferred to the default directory, C:\_DAT.
Character translation between code pages
If a remote system sending you information doesn’t use the
code page that your palmtop application uses, you may need to
Page 367
translate some of the characters you receive. For instance, if the
sending system transmitted character 150 on code page 860 (Ú)
to your palmtop that was using code page 850, you probably
would want to translate it into character 233 on code page 850
(Ú). A Character Translation Facility (CTF) file enables you to
translate characters into meaningful characters the palmtop can
display and print. The CTF is for displaying characters on the
screen or for capturing characters from the screen into a file.
Note
CTF files do not translate characters when you use XMODEM,
YMODEM, ZMODEM, or Kermit protocols or when you receive files as
ASCII text.
To enable character translation:
Create a CTF file and specify it in your configuration settings.
To create a CTF file:
Identify the characters causing the problem and determine their decimal or
hexadecimal character numbers on both the palmtop and the remote
system. Appendix C contains the palmtop character sets. Since the
character sets on both the palmtop and remote system may not be the same,
the receiving system may have to choose a character that is a close but not
exact match.
Use the Memo Editor to create an ASCII file similar to the sample shown
below. Use the formatting rules and the table of CTF commands on the
next pages for reference. Save the file with a .CTF extension in the C:\_DAT
directory.
Sample CTF file
# This is a partial code page 850 to 860 translation.#
Values
# from codes 128 to 143 that need translation will be
# performedodes received will display exact character
# matches
RADIX 10
Page 368
RCONV 132 198
RCONV 134 181
RCCONV 137 210
RCONV 139 214
RCONV 140 226
RCCONV 142 199
RCONV 143 182
# Codes transmitted are nearest equivalent characters
TCONV 132 160
TCONV 134 131
TCCONV 137 136
TCONV 139 161
TCONV 140 161
# End of example Character Translation File
Formatting Rules Used in the Above Sample File
You must start the file with the RADIX command.
Each command must be on a line by itself. Blank lines are
ignored, so you can add them between commands to enhance
readability.
At least one space is necessary between the command and each
input. Multiple blank spaces are ignored, so they can be used
for additional readability.
Lines with just numbers assume the previous command.
Lines starting with # are ignored and treated as comment lines.
The complete set of CTF commands is found on the next page.
To make a CTF file part of the current configuration:
Before the settings in a CTF file become active, the file must
be made part of the current configuration.
In Datacomm, press [MENU] [C] [S] (Connect Settings), then [F4] [F8]
(Advance, Remap).
Specify your .CTF file. If necessary, tab to the Directories list box and arrow
to the correct directory, then tab to the Files list box and arrow to the .CTF
file you want.
Page 369
Press [F10] [F10] [F10] to return to Datacomm’s opening display.
Descriptions of CTF File Commands
CommandDescription
#
RADIX
RCONV
TCONV
RTCONV
Indicates a comment line, which is ignored in the file.
Indicates whether the numbers used as input for the rest of the commands are
interpreted as decimal codes or hexadecimal codes. You must use
either RADIX 10 (decimal) or RADIX 16 (hexadecimal). The
examples in this table assume RADIX 10.
Specifies that a character received by the palmtop is to be converted to
another character. It takes two inputs: the first number is the
character code that should be translated, and the second is the code
to be substituted. For example, using code page 850, RCONV 36
156 causes character code 36 ($) to be translated to 156 (£) when
it’s received.
Specifies that a palmtop character is to be translated before it is transferred. It
takes two inputs: the first number is the character code to be
translated, and the second is the code to be substituted. For
example, TCONV 124 132 causes the palmtop “|” character (code
124 in code page 850) to be translated so that the receiving system
gets code 132.
Combines related RCONV and TCONV commands by specifying both the
receive and transmit conversions in a single command. It takes
three inputs: the first number is the character code to translate
when it’s received by the palmtop; the second is the code to
substitute for that character; and the third is the palmtop character
to translate into the first number for transmission. For example,
RCONV 131 140 and TCONV 140 131 can be combined
intoRTCONV 131 140 140. This command causes character code
131 to be translated into code 140 whenever it’s received by your
palmtop; and whenever the palmtop code 140 is to be transmitted,
it is first converted back to code 131 for the remote system.
Descriptions of CTF File Commands
CommandDescription
MTCONV
Specifies that a keystroke is to be translated into multiple characters. It takes
from 2 to 11 inputs, one key code to be translated and up to 10
codes of the characters into which the first key code is to be
translated. Such a translation is used in special circumstances, such
as mapping a single keystroke in the “erase field” sequence
expected by an IBM protocol. Each of as many as 20 palmtop
keystrokes may be translated into as many as 10 characters.
Example: Using MTCONV to Send Escape Sequences for IBM
PROFS. The IBM PROFS electronic mail system can interpret
Page 370
escape codes from the palmtop to carry out functions not on the
palmtop keyboard. For instance, a PROFS system might define
the meaning of “ESC O p” as “Clear screen” and the meaning
of “ESC =“ as “PF12”.
The MTCONV command converts a specified palmtop
character code to a specified escape sequence. This three-line
example remaps the à on the palmtop (code 133 on code page
850) to ESC O p, which is codes 027 079 112. It also remaps
the ß (code 225) to ESC (codes 027 242).
Command
Description
RADIX 10
MTCONV 133 027 079 112
MTCONV 225 027 242
Interprets codes as decimal.
Maps à ([FN] a) to mean “Clear screen.”
Maps ß ([FN] s) to mean the key “PF12.”
Page 371
27
Using a modem with your
palmtop PC
Equipment you need
Your palmtop.
A modem, either serial or card.
For a serial modem only:
• The HP F1015A cable (see the figure below) . This cable
is available separately or as part of the Connectivity Pack.
A serial modem adapter. This is available in the HP F1023
Connector/Adapter Kit and in the Connectivity Pack . The 25pin modem adapter is gray and has a telephone symbol. The
printer adapter is white and the 9-pin adapter is black.
For information on the hardware needed for a modem
connection, see chapter 26. For the pin assignments for the
palmtop serial port and the pin numbers for the 10-pin
connector on the serial cable, see chapter 26.
Page 372
Connecting to a serial modem
Refer to your modem instructions to make the communications
settings (baud rate, etc) on your modem agree with the settings
in your palmtop communication application.
Connect the modem adapter to your modem.
Connect a phone line to your modem.
Connect power to your modem.
Connect the 9-pin end of the HP 1015A cable to the modem adapter.
Connect the 10-pin end of the HP 1015A cable to the serial connector on your
palmtop. Make sure the HP logo faces up when you insert it.
Test your connection by typing at [ENTER]. The response should be OK.
Connecting to a card modem
Caution
Attempts to use an incompatible modem card may result in data loss.
Before attempting to use a specific modem card,
In the U.S.: Call (800) 443-1254 for a current list of compatible
modems.
In other countries: Check with your HP dealer to ensure that a specific
modem is compatible
An important difference between a serial modem and a card
modem used with the palmtop is the way the ports to which
they connect receive their port definitions. A serial modem
plugs into a port that is hard-wired as Com1. A card modem
plugs into a port that normally serves as drive A. For this
plug-in slot to serve as Com2, a special TSR (Terminate and
Stay Resident) program, CIC100, configures the slot and the
just-inserted card modem as Com2.
The CIC100 program is built in your palmtop, and it is installed
by default as a TSR program.
Page 373
Using a card modem in the plug-in slot
When you insert a modem card into the plug-in slot, CIC100
will sense that a modem card has been inserted and will
configure both card and slot as Com2. When the card modem is
removed, CIC100 will sense that change also, and will redefine
the slot for memory cards.
Be aware that if you’re running your communication program
from the DOS prompt, you’ll need to reconfigure the card
modem by restarting the communication program whenever
power turns off and then returns during a communication
session.
About batteries and card modems
Card modems often have relatively high power requirements—
even when they’re plugged in but not in use—so using one
when your palmtop is being powered by the batteries would
likely drain the batteries very quickly.
Try to use your AC adapter to power your palmtop whenever a
card modem is plugged into your palmtop.
Remove a modem card when not in use.
Page 374
28
Using a printer with your
palmtop PC
Your palmtop has a built-in serial connector that enables you to
connect and use a serial printer.
Equipment you need
Your palmtop and a serial printer.
The HP F1015A serial cable for IBM and IBM-compatible
computers. This cable is alsoavailable as part of the
HP F1021 Connectivity Pack
printer adapter. Available in the HP F1021 Connectivity Pack
and in the HP F1023 Connector/Adapter Kit—the printer
adapter is the white adapter in the set. A serial-printer adapter
may also come with your serial printer.
Page 375
Preparing to print
Set up your serial printer to be compatible with the Epson FX80, HP LaserJet, or IBM Proprinter. You also may need to set
switches on the printer to select 8-bit data length, 1 stop bit, no
parity, and XON/XOFF software handshaking—see the printer
manual for information.
On the palmtop press [&É] [S] [MENU] [O] [P].
Select Baud Rate, Interface and your choice of printer.
Press [F10].
Connect the serial cable to the palmtop’s serial port. Make sure the HP logo
faces up when you insert the 10-pin end.
Attach the HP 5181-6640 white printer adapter to the 9-pin connector of the
cable and connect the adapter’s other side to your printer.
After you set the configuration in step 3 above, you can
optionally save that configuration in a file by pressing [F8]
(Save As). Use [F7] (Open) to open a previously saved
configuration file.
Printing
Once your printer and palmtop are properly configured and
connected, you’re ready to print.
Page 376
For Lotus 1-2-3, you print files from your palmtop just like you
would print 1-2-3 files from your desktop PC.
For the other built-in applications, you use the File Print
command (press [MENU] [F] [P]). The printing interface varies
a little between applications, but is usually self-explanatory. If
you need help after pressing [MENU] [F] [P], press [F1] (Help)
to see a description of the print options and procedures.
Printing from PIM applications
You can print PIM items (from Appointment Book, Phone
Book, Database, World Time, and Note Taker) one at a time or
in groups. There are two styles of print-out:
List Style: a simple list of entries.
Custom Style: all the fields (or the ones you choose) of each
record. You can customize this using Smart Clip.
Phone Book Printed in List Style, All Items
To print items in a list (List Style):
The procedure varies for Appointment Book items.
Page 377
Display the appropriate application and, if necessary, the appropriate file and
subset. You can print from the currently displayed subset or list only.
Display the list of items (records) that you want to print or print from. Select
the desired items (highlight, [SPACEBAR]), unless you want to print all of the
items in the current application.
Press [MENU] [F] [P] (File Print).
In the Print box, select Selected Items to print one or more records or All Items
to print all records in the current list.
In the Style box, select List.
In the Print to box, select Printer.
Press [F10].
Page 378
Appointment Records Printed in Custom Style, All Fields
Page 379
Symbols for Printed To-Do Lists
Printed Symbol
Equivalent
Meaning
Symbol
#
✔
Completed item (checked off).
!
>
<
+
!
S
f
U
Item due today (and not yet checked off).
Item new today (its first occurrence).
Item past-due (and not yet checked off).
Item includes Note.
fSUTo print records (details) of items (Custom Style):
Prepare to print as in the previous two procedures for items or appointments.
Only the Style box will be different.
In the Style box, select (arrow to) Custom.
To print each record on its own page, tab to and check “1 item per page”.
Tab to the list box to select the fields to print for each record. The choices are
from the current Smart Clip list. Press [J] to scroll through the list. To print
a complete record, select All Fields.
When done, press [F10].
To add Custom field choices:
The Custom list box has one or more built-in field choices,
such as All Fields and Business Phone in the Phone Book
application. These are actually Smart Clip definitions. You can
add more Custom field choices for printing by creating new
Smart Clip definitions for a particular application. Refer to
Smart Clip: copying multiple data fields from multiple records,
see chapter 1.
Printing to a file (creating an ASCII data file)
Printing to a file ([MENU] File Print) creates an ASCII version
of the palmtop PIM information and saves it in a file. This does
not apply to the Memo Editor. The ASCII file can then be
interpreted by other editing software besides the original
application. You can insert this ASCII file into any other file, or
transfer it to another computer for printing or editing.
Setting up printing information (setup)
Use [MENU] File Print ~Setup~~ ([MENU] [F] [P] [F3]) to
specify:
Page 380
How much printing should appear on a page: Page Length, Top
Margin, Bottom Margin.
Starting and/or ending the print-out with special information in
initialization and/or termination strings of up to 128 characters
each. The exact codes and meanings of these printer-control
sequences depend on the printer.
Page 381
29
cc:Mail
About cc:Mail
cc:Mail is an electronic mail (e-mail) program that enables you
to send and receive messages on an HP 200LX. The design of
cc:Mail is based on a common metaphor—paper mail. Your
“mail” can be text, graphics, files, or even facsimiles, and you
can send it through your local “post office” to any cc:Mail user
in the world.
What you need to make it work
An HP 200LX.
A modem for your HP 200LX.
A home post office maintained by your department or
company. Your Post Office is managed by your Post Office
Administrator, who is your local cc:Mail expert. To set up a
cc:Mail Post Office, contact cc:Mail, below.
For information and technical support on the Post Office,
contact:
cc:Mail, A Division of Lotus
2141 Landings Drive
Mountain View, CA 94043
Phone: 800-448-2500
FAX: 415/960-0840
For information and technical support on the cc:Mail software
in the HP 200LX, contact Hewlett-Packard (see the inside back
cover).
Page 382
Starting cc:Mail the first time
Before you use cc:Mail, you must fill out the Connect Settings
dialog box. Press [&É] [I] to start cc:Mail, and then press
[MENU] [C] [S].
Connect Settings Dialog Box
Use [TAB] to move among the fields and type in the text boxes
and use [J] in the scroll boxes. If you need help filling in the
fields, press [F1] for help or see your Post Office Administrator.
With the correct Connect Settings, you have two types of
connections to your Post Office:
Batch Transfer, which is an intermittent connection to your
Post Office that you control. All cc:Mail Post Offices allow
this type of connection. Whenever you connect in this way,
you automatically receive any messages waiting for you at
your Post Office and send any messages you’ve written. As
soon as the two-way transfer is complete, the connection is
cut.
Interactive Connection, which is a continuous connection to
your Post Office that you can make if your Post Office meets
certain conditions—ask your Post Office Administrator.
Most procedures in this chapter describe batch transfers.
Interactive Connections are covered at the end of the chapter.
Page 383
Receiving and reading messages
If you have messages waiting for you at the Post Office,
connect a modem to your HP 200LX and you’re ready to
receive and read your messages.
To receive and read a message:
In cc:Mail, press [F10] to display the Connect dialog box. The Connect to Host
scroll box shows cc:Mail, unless you’ve changed the default host name.
Connect Dialog Box
If it’s not selected, tab to the Connection Type field and select Copy unread
mail and disconnect for a batch transfer.
Press [ENTER]. At this point you automatically connect to the specified Post
Office, send messages ready to be sent, receive messages waiting to be read,
and then disconnect from the Post Office.
Press any key to display a summary of the messages received. An asterisk (*)
tells you a message has not been read.
Highlight a message to read and press [ENTER].
When you’re finished, press [F8] or [F9] to read the previous or next message,
or press [ESC] to return to the In Box.
Replying to messages
To reply to a message:
Display the message you want to reply to (highlight it, press [ENTER]).
Press [F6] (Reply).
Fill out the Reply dialog box by checking/unchecking desired boxes. Press [F1]
if you need help.
Press [F10].
Tab to the message field and type your reply.
Press [F5].
Page 384
Fill out the Send Message dialog box and press [ENTER].
Press [F10] and Connect to the host for a batch transfer (select Copy unread
mail and disconnect).
You forward a message in a similar way. Use [F7] (Forward)
when the message is displayed.
Creating and sending messages
To create and send a message:
From cc:Mail, press [F4] to display the Create Message form.
Address the message by typing the person’s cc:Mail name. You can type more
than one name by separating names by a comma. Additional addressing
options are described later in this chapter.
Tab to the cc: and bcc: fields, if you want, and enter names in these fields.
Tab to Subject: and type an optional subject.
Tab to the first line of the message field and type your message. cc:Mail uses
the same text editor as the Note Taker (see chapter 8).
Press [F5] to display the Send Message dialog box.
Press [ENTER] to accept both Save and Mail. A copy of your message will be
saved in the Saved Message Folder and the original will be sent to your
Outbox, waiting to be sent to your Post Office during a Batch Transfer.
Press [F10] to display the Connect dialog box. The Connection Type option box
should have Copy unread mail and disconnect (Batch Transfer) selected.
Press [ENTER] to start sending your message. The Connection Summary box
gives you progress reports.
When prompted, press any key to return to your Inbox.
About folders
There are three different HP 200LX folders provided by
cc:Mail: in which you can store messages.
Inbox: This folder holds messages you’ve received from other
cc:Mail users. Once you’ve read a message, you can leave it
in the Inbox, move it to another folder, or delete it.
Outbox: When you send a message, it’s temporarily held in the
Outbox folder until it’s transmitted to your Post Office. Once
the message is transmitted, you no longer have a copy unless
you specified that a copy be saved in the Saved Message
Page 385
folder.
Saved Message: This folder holds messages that you have
chosen to save during the send message procedure.
You can also create additional folders for your own use.
To move a message to another folder:
Display the folder containing the message you want to move.
For the Inbox folder, press [MENU] [V] [I] (View Inbox).
For another folder, press [MENU] [V] [F] (View Folders).
Highlight the folder name and press [ENTER].
Highlight the message to move and press [F3] (Move).
Highlight the name of the destination folder or tab to the New Folder field and
type in a new folder name.
Press [F10]. Then press [MENU] [V] [F] (View Folders) to see the name of your
new folder in the folder list.
About address books and mailing lists
Types of Address Books or Lists
You have three address books and one directory available for
use when you address messages. The Remote Directory,
maintained by your Administrator, lists all those names you can
address directly from your Post Office.
In the following table, Local means it can be used without an
Interactive Connection, and Remote means it can be used
during an Interactive Connection.
Available Address Books
Type of
When
Used
Where
Who
Address Book
Local
Remote
Located
Maintains
Local
X
X
HP 200LX
You
Directory
X
Post Office
Administrator
Private
X
Post Office
You
Public
X
Post Office
Administrator
Page 386
To add individual names to your Local Address Book:
Press [MENU] [M] [M] (Mail Add/Modify-Names).
Add/Modify Names Dialog Box
Press [ALT]+[N] and type last name, first name.
If a mail address other than the name is needed, tab to User Address and type
the address. Your Post Office Administrator can help you compose a correct
address.
Press [ENTER] to copy the name to the Users list box.
You can enter another name and press [ENTER].
Press [F10] when done adding names.
To capture a name from a piece of mail and add it to
your Local Address Book:
Highlight a message to read and press [ENTER].
Press [F2] (Capture).
Press [F6] (Add) to add the sender to your Local Address Book.
If the name contains the word “at”, the part before the “at” will
be stored in the Name field and the entire address will be stored
in the Address field in your Local Address Book.
To delete an individual’s name from your Local
Address Book:
Press [MENU] [M] [M].
Arrow to the name you want to delete in the Users list box.
Press [F7] [ENTER] to delete the name. If this name was also included in a
mailing list, the mailing list will still contain the name.
Page 387
To Automatically Update Your Local Address Book:
The cc:Mail Automatic Directory Exchange (ADE) utility
enables you to update your Local Address Book using update
files sent from your Post Office Administrator.
If you can, plug in your AC adaptor.
Quit cc:Mail ([MENU] [Q]).
Press [&É] [:] to start the ADE utility.
Follow the displayed instructions to either process all ADE update files in your
Inbox or process a selected ADE file.
The time it takes to process an update file is directly related to
the size of the update. Large updates could take several minutes
to process; very large updates could conceivably take more than
an hour. When you see the process-complete message, you can
open cc:Mail and use your updated Local Address Book.
What is a User Address and a User Name?
When you first chose your User Name with the help of your
Post Office Administrator, what you actually chose was your
cc:Mail address. This is the name your Post Office recognizes.
When you complete the Add/Modify Names dialog box, you
can leave the Address box blank as long as you enter User
Names known by your Post Office.
When you enter a name in the User Name text box that is not
known to your Post Office, you must then enter the person’s
official cc:Mail name in the User Address box in the Add/
Modify Names dialog box. When you send your message to
your Post Office, the Post Office fails to recognize the User
Name, so it looks at the User Address. Since it recognizes that
name, it accepts your message. If you use this method to make
the User Name an “alias” for a longer address, addressing
messages could be simplified.
Another use of the User Address text box is to enter a name
that includes a cc:Mail Post Office name, for a person
registered at another Post Office. Say that person’s name is
Betsey Harrington and her home Post Office name is LBCC.
Page 388
You would type in the User Address text box Betsey
Harrington at LBCC. When your Post Office received a
message addressed to her, it would not recognize Betsey
Harrington, but it would recognize another cc:Mail Post Office
name. So it would send the message to the LBCC Post Office.
That Post Office would recognize Betsey Harrington as one of
its own, and would accept the message.
To create mailing lists:
Press [MENU] [M] [L] (Mail Add/Modify-Lists).
Add/Modify Lists Dialog Box
Select either “Local” (for your Local Address Book used for Batch Transfers) or
“Private Remote” (for your Remote Address Book used during an
Interactive Connection).
Tab to the List Name box and type a name as you would like it to appear in the
list.
Tab to the List Members box and do one of the following:
Add new names to the list:
Type first names first.
Separate different members with commas.
Press [F6] (Add).
Press [F10] (OK) when done adding mailing lists.
Copy names from your address list:
Press [F5] (Address).
Highlight a name you want (a person or a mailing list) and
press [F8] (Select).
Repeat for all names you want, then press [F10] (OK).
Press [F6] (Add).
Press [F10] (OK) when done adding mailing lists.
Page 389
To delete a name from a mailing list:
Use [DEL] carefully to delete only the characters of the name.
Use [F8] (Update) to change an existing list.
To delete an entire mailing list:
In cc:Mail, press [MENU] [M] [L].
Arrow to the name of the mailing list you want to delete.
Press [F7].
Read the warning message, then either press [F9] to cancel the delete operation
or press [ENTER] to delete the entire mailing list.
Press [F10].
To find a name in a list (speed-locate):
In a mailing list, just start typing a name. As each subsequent
letter is typed, the highlight moves to the first matching name.
Addressing options
When you address your message, you have two options:
Address originals, copies (cc:), and blind copies (bcc:) of your
message.
Address your message to names of users and to mailing lists
(distribution lists). When you address a message to a mailing
list, the names of the individual users in that list are
automatically added to your message address.
To address your message:
In cc:Mail:, press [MENU] [M] [C] or press [F4] (Create).
In the To:, cc:, or bcc: box, do one of the following:
Type the cc:Mail name of a person or mailing list understood
by your Post Office (a name that exists in the Post Office’s
Directory or in one of the three Address Books—Local,
Private, or Public). Separate multiple names with commas.
Select an address as follows:
Press [F2].
Page 390
Press [ALT]+[LETTER], where “letter” is “L”, “D”, “P”, or “U”,
to select the list or directory you want.
Press [ALT]+[N].
Highlight (use the arrow keys or just start typing) the name of
the person or mailing list you want, and then press [ENTER].
Repeat to add additional names.
Press [F10].
When finished addressing, you’re ready to create the body of your message.
Managing your messages
To save a message you’ve just completed:
After completing your message, press [F5].
Check the Save box and press [ENTER]. If you check both the Save and Send
boxes the message will be sent and saved.
The message will be saved in your saved-messages folder. To
view saved messages, press [F7] (Folders) from your Inbox.
To save a message in an MS-DOS file:
In either your Inbox or another folder, highlight the message you want to save.
Press [MENU] [F] [A].
Select a path and file where your message will be saved. This can replace an
existing file or create a new file.
Press [ENTER].
Attachments are not saved; only the text of the message is
saved in a text file format.
To copy an attached DOS file from a received
message:
To copy an attached DOS file, the message to which the file is
attached must be in a local folder (like your local Inbox).
Display the local message that contains an attached MS-DOS file. If the
message is in your Remote Inbox (Interactive Connection), move it to your
Local Inbox, then display it.
Press [F3].
Page 391
If the Attachments list box shows more than one attachment, arrow to
highlight the one you want to detach.
Press [ENTER] or [F4] (Detach).
Specify a path and file name for the copy of the attached file.
Press [F10].
To move or copy a message:
Note
When NOT using an Interactive Connection:
You cannot move or copy a message to the Inbox.
You cannot copy a message from the Inbox, you can only move it.
Note
When USING an Interactive Connection:
You cannot move or copy a message to the Inbox.
You can copy a message from the Inbox, but only to a folder within the
HP 200LX.
Display a folder containing the message you want to copy or move.
Highlight the message you want to copy or move.
Press either [F2] (Copy) or [F3] (Move).
Do one of the following:
Highlight the folder to receive your message.
Tab to New Folder and type a name for your new folder.
Press [F10].
Press [ESC] to display the list of folders.
To delete a message:
You can delete a message from any folder.
Display the folder containing the message you want to delete.
Highlight the message you want to delete. Press [SPACEBAR] to select it and
highlight another if you want to delete more than one.
Press [DEL].
Page 392
Printing in cc:Mail
See chapter 28 for information on connecting a printer.
To print a list of all the messages in a folder:
Display the folder with the message list you want to print.
Press [MENU] [F] [P].
Highlight Print list of messages in this folder.
Press [F10].
To print the text of selected messages in a folder:
Display the folder containing the messages you want to print.
Highlight the message you want to print. Press [SPACEBAR] and highlight
another if you want to print several messages at once.
Press [MENU] [F] [P].
Highlight Print text of selected messages.
Press [F10].
Importing and attaching files to a message
You can import an MS-DOS text file to be a part of your
message, or you can attach to your message one or more
MS-DOS files of any type.
To insert (import) text files to your message:
Place the cursor at the point in your message text where you
want the imported text file inserted.
Press [F4] (Import) and select the file to be imported.
Press [F10] (OK).
To attach MS-DOS files to your message:
You cannot attach a file to a message during an interactive
connection.
When you have finished writing the text of your message, press [F3] (Attach).
This shows a list of any previous attachments.
Press [F3] (Attach) to attach a new file to the message.
Select a file name and press [F10] (OK).
To attach another file, repeat step 2.
When you’re finished attaching files, press [F10] (OK).
Page 393
To detach an MS-DOS file from a message before
sending:
If you attach a DOS file to a message, then decide you do not
want to send that file with the message, follow this procedure
to detach it.
Open the message.
Press [F3] (Attach).
Highlight the name of the file you want to detach.
Press [F4] (Detach) [F10] (Yes).
Press [F10] (OK) when done.
Changing your communication settings
To change the directory that contains your mail messages:
You can change the default directory that contains your folder
messages from C:\_DAT\MAIL to another directory. If you
change that directory, you cannot access the messages stored in
C:\_DAT\MAIL from the cc:Mail application. But you could
access those messages by changing the directory back to
C:\_DAT\MAIL.
Press [MENU] [F] [L].
Press [ENTER] to confirm you decision.
Type the path and directory where your new mail messages will be located.
Press [F10].
To change your password:
Press [MENU] [C] [P].
If the host you’re using is not selected in the Select Host list box, arrow to the
host you’re using.
Tab to the Enter Old Password text box and type your old password. The
characters will display as gray blocks.
Tab to the Reenter Old Password box and again type your old password.
Press [F10]. You’ll be told that your old password was accepted.
Press [F10] again to display another Change Password dialog box.
Type your new password, press [TAB], then reenter you new password.
Press [F10] to see New password accepted.
Press [F10].
Page 394
Understanding cc:Mail’s host
The group of settings identified by the host name in your
Connect Settings dialog box initializes cc:Mail for your use.
The default Host name is “cc:Mail.” If you have several groups
of settings, each group is identified by a different host name.
You might want several different hosts if you use cc:Mail in
different locations, requiring different Post Offices, passwords,
phone numbers, etc.
Each host name and the settings each name represents are
saved in the ASCII file C:\_DAT\CCMAIL.INI. You can view
the contents of that file from theFiler (highlight the file name,
then press [F8]).
Understanding cc:Mail’s prefix
The name of your local Outbox is given by cc:Mail’s Prefix.
Your current Prefix is displayed when you press [MENU] [C] [S]
and, if necessary, select the host name you want. Your default
Prefix (the name of your default Outbox) is “CCMAIL”.
Your Outbox contains the messages to be transmitted to your
local Post Office during a Batch Transfer. If you worked for
some weeks in a location served by Post Office A and at other
times worked in Post Office B’s area, you would want two
different Outboxes (two different Prefixes); call them A and B.
When not using an Interactive Connection, you would want to
send your messages to Outbox (Prefix) A when in Post Office’s
A area, and to Outbox B when in Post Office B’s area. To avoid
updating your Connect Settings each time you moved between
A and B, you could define two different Hosts, one containing
Prefix A, the other Prefix B. Before creating messages, you
would specify Host A or B depending on your location (A or
B). Then when the connection was made, messages in the
specified outbox would be sent.
Page 395
To modify your Host (your current set of Connect
Settings):
Press [MENU] [C] [S].
Arrow to the name of the Host whose setting you want to change.
Press [F10].
Change the settings as desired. NOTE: When entering a new file name for your
Modem File, type the entire path and name, like D:\_DAT\HAYES.MDM.
To save your new settings under the present Host name, press [ENTER].
To create a new Host (a new set of Connect Settings):
Press [MENU] [C] [S].
If possible, arrow to the name of the Host whose settings are closest to those of
your new Host and press [F10].
Type the new Host name in the Host text box.
Change any settings as desired. NOTE: When entering a new file name for
your Modem File, type the entire path and name, like D:\_DAT\HAYES.MDM.
To save your new settings under your new Host name, press [F6] (Add).
To delete a host:
Press [MENU] [C] [S].
Arrow to the name of the Host you want to delete.
Press [F10]
Press [F7].
Press [ENTER].
Creating another modem file
If your modem does not work satisfactorily using the supplied
modem file (D:\_DAT\HAYES.MDM), you can create a new
modem file.
To create a new modem file:
This procedure shows you how to modify the supplied modem
file and to specify that modified file in your Create Settings
dialog box. Use your modem manual as a source of
information. See also chapter 27, Using a modem with the HP
200LX.
In the Memo Editor (press [F]), press [MENU] [F] [O].
Page 396
Type d:\_dat\hayes.mdm and press [F10] to display the contents of the default
modem file.
Change the text following the first line MODELS= to the name of your modem.
Continue editing this file as necessary to show the commands required by your
modem.
Press [MENU] [F] [A].
Type a file name as C:\_DAT\filename.MDM, where filename is a name you
supply.
Press [F10] to save your new modem file.
Enter the name of your new modem file into the Connect Settings dialog box.
Except for backslash (\) and circumflex (^), the modem
commands youenter are sent to the modem without change.
The two exceptions are described as follows:
Backslash: The\ character is used to specify an 8-bit
value.The three characters immediately following\ must be
characters between 0 and 7, and together they are treated as a 3digit octal integer. For example,\015 is treated as octal 15,
decimal 13, hex 0D, and is equivalent to the carriage return
character.
There are two exceptions to the 4-character backslash
sequence:
The actual backslash character is represented by\\.
The actual circumflex character is represented by\^.
Circumflex: The ^ character is used to specify commonly
used values, such as ^M, which becomes the carriage return
character.
Page 397
Examples of \ and ^ in a Modem Command Line
Command
What’s Sent
Comment
ATZ
AT\132
ATZ
ATZ
No special characters used.
132 is octal for Z.
Page 398
AT\\Q3
AT\^B1
AT^M
AT\\N0\\Q3
AT\Q3
AT^B1
AT
AT\N0\Q3
AT\134N0\134Q3 AT\N0\Q3
\\ is used for\.
\^ is used for ^.
^M = carriage return.
\\ is used twice here.
\134 is used instead of\\.
Using an interactive connection to the post
office
While connected interactively to your Post Office, you have
direct access to your Post Office Inbox, the Public List of
mailing lists, your Private List of mailing lists, and the Post
Office’s Directory of names (which contains the names of all
users you can address directly).
Most cc:Mail procedures are the same whether you intend to
connect to the Post Office via a batch transfer or an interactive
connection. Here are some procedures specific to interactive
connections.
To open an Interactive Connection:
With a modem connected to your HP 200LX and cc:Mail open,
press [MENU] [C] [C] or [F10].
Press [TAB] and arrow to Interactive Connection to Post Office.
Press [ENTER] to initiate the connection. It will take some seconds to complete
the connection.
Note
When an Interactive Connection is active, you can open and use other
applications without breaking the cc:Mail connection, provided you do
not attempt to make another connection from another application.
To close an Interactive Connection:
In cc:Mail, press [MENU] [C] [D] or press [F10].
Press [ENTER].
Page 399
To read a new message when using an Interactive
Connection:
If your Remote Inbox is not displayed after you open an
Interactive Connection, press [F6]. Then, if necessary, press
[F7] (Inbox).
Arrow to the message you want to read and press [ENTER]. It will take some
seconds for the message to display, depending on the length of the message
and the baud rate.
To view selected messages during an Interactive
Connection:
When you first use your HP 200LX during an Interactive
Connection and view the contents of the Inbox or another
folder using one of the [MENU] View choices, all the messages
in that folder are displayed. This procedure allows you to
restrict the messages you view in the Inbox to meet certain
criteria.
In cc:Mail, press [MENU] [C] [R], then do one of the following:
To restrict a message list to only unread messages, select
Unread Messages.
To restrict a message list to only messages with a particular
subject, arrow to Messages Re:, then press [TAB] and type
the subject. The subject you type is case insensitive.
To restrict a message list to those from a particular person,
arrow to Messages From:, then press [TAB] and type the
person’s name.
To restrict a message list to those written during a certain date
range, arrow to Message Date:, press [TAB] and type the first
date in the current format (see the upper-right corner of your
display), then press [TAB] and type the last date in the range.
To receive only messages sent on a single date, make both
dates the same.
To cancel all message list restrictions, arrow to All Messages.
Press [F10].
Page 400
30
Using Laplink Remote
Access
LapLink® Remote Access provides a redirector connection
between two computers. In a redirector connection, you access
the disk drives on one computer (the server) through additional drive letters on another computer (the client). For example,
drives E and F on your desktop PC (the client) could be
mapped to drives A and C on your palmtop. This makes
copying, merging, or otherwise manipulating files between
your palmtop and another computer quick and easy.
What you need to make it work
To use LapLink Remote Access in the palmtop, most users will
need the Connectivity Pack running on their PCs. The
Connectivity Pack contains the software, cable, adapters, and
instructions for making it work.
However, LapLink Remote Access in the palmtop also works
with HP OmniBook computers, which have LapLink Remote
built in, and with any PC running the CommWorks™ LapLink
Remote Access product from Traveling Software, Inc. To
connect with those products, users need to use an infrared
connection or a serial connection (requiring the HP 1015A
Serial Interface Cable). See the manuals that come with those
products for instructions.
Page 401
Running Laplink Remote Access on your
palmtop
Press [&É] [R] to start LapLink Remote Access on your
palmtop. Here is the status screen you’ll see:
The default settings should work without modification for most
PCs running the Connectivity Pack. See the Connectivity Pack
user’s guide for [&É] setup instructions.
If you need to change settings not found on the function keys,
use [F10] (Set). Use [F1] (Help) if you need descriptions of any
fields.
About server mode
When you start LapLink Remote Access by pressing [&É] [R],
the palmtop can only be a server. This means that all commands and file manipulations must be done from the other PC.
The Connectivity Pack contains much [&É] information on
how to use LapLink Remote Access with your palmtop.
Page 402
A
Warranty, support, and
service
Limited one-year warranty
What is covered
Your HP palmtop PC (except for the batteries, or damage caused by the
batteries) and accessories are warranted by Hewlett-Packard against defects in
materials and workmanship for one year from the date of original purchase. If
you sell your unit or give it as a gift, the warranty is automatically transferred
to the new owner and remains in effect for the original one-year period. During
the warranty period, we will repair or, at our option, replace at no charge a
product that proves to be defective, provided you return the product, shipping
prepaid, to a Hewlett-Packard service center. Replacement may be made with
a new or reconditioned product, or with a newer model of equal or better
functionality.
This warranty gives you specific legal rights, and you may also have other
rights that vary from state to state, province to province, or country to country.
What is not covered
Batteries, and damage caused by the batteries, are not covered by the HewlettPackard warranty. Check with the batter y manufacturer about battery and
battery leakage warranties.
This warranty does not apply if the product has been damaged by accident or
misuse or as the result of service or modification by other than an authorized
Hewlett-Packard service center.
Page 403
No other express warranty is given. The repair or replacement of a product is
your exclusive remedy. ANY OTHER IMPLIED WARRANTY OF
MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS IS LIMITED TO THE ONE-YEAR
DURATION OF THIS WRITTEN WARRANTY. Some states, provinces, or
countries do not allow limitations on how long an implied warranty lasts, so
the above limitation may not apply to you. IN NO EVENT SHALL
HEWLETT-PACKARD COMPANY BE LIABLE FOR CONSEQUENTIAL
DAMAGES. Some states, provinces, or countries do not allow the exclusion or
limitation of incidental or consequential damages, so the above limitation or
exclusion may not apply to you.
Products are sold on the basis of specifications applicable at the time of
manufacture. Hewlett-Packard shall have no obligation to modify or update
products, once sold.
Consumer Transactions in Australia and the United
Kingdom
The above disclaimers and limitations shall not apply to consumer transactions
in Australia and the United Kingdom and shall not affect the statutory rights of
consumers.
Customer support
In the United States
If you have questions that this User’s Guide doesn’t answer (see the contents
and index first), you can contact Hewlett-Packard’s Mobile Computing
Customer Support department at the address or phone number on the inside
back cover of this manual.
Outside the United States
Your authorized Hewlett-Packard dealer is committed to provide full after-sale
support. Authorized dealers are able to provide local, personal, and uniquelyresponsive support, and they are backed by the full resources of HewlettPackard.
If your palmtop requires ser vice
Contact Hewlett-Packard for service information, shipping instructions, and
out-of-warranty service charges before you send your unit in for repair.
Page 404
In the United States
Call the Customer Support telephone number listed on the inside of the back
cover. Do not ship the unit for service without first contacting a HewlettPackard office.
In Europe
Contact your Hewlett-Packard dealer or sales office for the location of the
nearest service center. Do not ship the unit for service without first contacting
a Hewlett-Packard office.
In other Countries
Contact your Hewlett-Packard dealer or sales office for the location of other
service centers.
Repairs are warranted against defects in materials and workmanship for 90
days from the date of service.
HP marketing headquarters outside the U.S.
Should you need to contact Hewlett-Packard, check your local telephone
directory for the HP Sales and Service Office near you. If you cannot locate an
HP office, contact one of the Worldwide HP Marketing Headquarters listed
here.
ASIA
L ATIN AMERICA
Far East Sales Region Hdqtrs
Hewlett-Packard Asia Ltd.
22nd Floor West Tower,
Bond Centre GPO Box 863
Hewlett-Packard Latin Am. Hdqtrs
Monte Pelvoux 111
Lomas de Chapultepec
11000 Mexico D.F.
Hong Kong
EUROPE
OTHER AREAS
European Operations Hdqtrs
Hewlett-Packard S.A.
150, route du Nant-d’Avril P.O. Box
CH-1217 Meyrin 2 Geneva
Switzerland
Intercon Operations Hdqtrs
Hewlett-Packard Company
3495 Deer Creek Road P.O. Box 10495
Palo Alto, CA 94303-0896
USA
Page 405
B
Batteries and
environmental limits
When to Replace Batteries
When you see a low-battery message in the display, replace the
indicated batteries as soon as possible. If the display beeps and
turns off immediately after you turn it on, replace the main
batteries.
The backup battery, which prevents data loss when the main
batteries are dead or out of the unit, should be changed a year
after it’s installed even if a low backup-battery message doesn’t
appear.
Battery Types and Battery Life
Main battery type
Any brand of 1.5-volt, size AA Alkaline batteries or NickelCadmium rechargeable batteries.
Backup battery type
3-volt CR2032 lithium coin cell. If fresh main batteries are
maintained, the backup battery should last a year before you
replace it.
The battery life you get with your palmtop depends on
the type and quality of batteries you use.
How you use your palmtop. Things like IR and serial
communications, modems, and flash-disk memory cards all
require higher current and therefore drain your batteries
faster.
Whether you use the AC adapter.
For typical use without the AC adapter, fresh Alkaline batteries
Page 406
should last from 2 to 8 weeks. Rechargeable batteries used
without the AC adapter will get less life than Alkalines—how
much less depends on the quality of the Nickel-Cadmium
rechargeable batteries you use.
The best way to extend battery life is to use the AC adapter
whenever possible.
Removing and installing batteries
Caution
Do not remove the main batteries if the backup battery is dead—
complete memor y loss will result. Replace the backup battery first
in this case.
Warning
Do not mutilate, puncture, or dispose of batteries in fire. The
batteries can burst or explode, releasing hazardous chemicals.
Replace batteries with only the types r ecommended in this manual.
Discard used batteries accor ding to the manufacturer ’s
instructions. The back-up (lithium) batter y can explode if it is
inserted incorr ectly.
Varning
Explosionsfara vid felaktigt batteribyte. AnvÌnd samma batterityp
eller en ekvivalent typ som rekommenderas av apparattillverkaren.
K assera anvÌnt batteri enligt fabrikantens instruktion.
Page 407
Advarsel
Eksplosionsfare ved fejlagtig handtering. Udskiftning ma kun ske
med batteri af samme fabrikat og type. Lever det brugte batteri
tilbage til leverandoren.
To change the main batteries:
Close all open applications before changing batteries.
Important: Turn your palmtop off and close the case.
Remove the battery cover and old batteries.
Install two fresh AA batteries, orienting them as shown by the symbols in the
battery compartment.
Replace the cover and turn your palmtop on. If the palmtop won’t turn on after
you replace the batteries, go back over the procedure and check the
orientation of the batteries as shown in step 3—you may have put the
batteries in backwards.
If you replaced rechargeable batteries (either with Alkalines or another set of
Nickel-Cadmium rechargeables) be sure to go into Setup and set or verify
your battery type and charging setting. Battery charging is automatically
disabled whenever you remove rechargeable batteries.
Page 408
To change the backup battery:
Caution
Do not remove both the main batteries and the backup battery at the
same time—complete memory loss will result.
Important: Turn the palmtop off.
Remove the backup-battery cover and pull out the battery tray.
Remove the old battery from the tray and insert a fresh, 3-volt CR2032 coin
cell. Be sure the „+“ on the battery is facing down in the tray.
Insert the battery tray back into the palmtop and replace the cover.
Turn the palmtop on. If the battery-low message is still present in the display,
go back over the procedure and check the battery orientation as shown in
step 3—you may have put the battery in the tray upside down.
Rechargeable batteries
If you use the HP F1011A adapter, you can recharge
rechargeable batteries while they’re inside the palmtop.
Warning
The palmtop recharging system was designed to operate only with
Nickel-Cadmium rechargeable batteries. Because of potential
hazards, we recommend that you do not recharge other types of
r echargeable batteries in the palmtop.
Page 409
To charge rechargeable batteries inside the palmtop:
Connect the HP F1011A adapter to the palmtop and a power outlet.
Press [&É] [S] to start the Setup utility.
Press [MENU] [O] [B] to select the Battery Type dialog box.
Use [J] to select the Nickel-Cadmium battery type.
Tab to the recharging field and press [SPACEBAR] to select it.
Caution
Charging should be enabled only for Nickel-Cadmium rechargeable
batteries. If you select it when Alkaline batteries are installed, permanent damage to your palmtop could result.
Press [F10]. Now the batteries will be charged whenever the adapter is plugged
in. The palmtop display will stay on whenever it is recharging.
If you take out your rechargeable batteries, battery charging is
automatically disabled. It’s good practice to go into Setup and
verify your battery type and charging setting whenever you
change batteries.
Most Nickel-Cadmium rechargeable batteries will recharge in
about 8 to 12 hours. Here are the charging rates in the palmtop:
Time
Continuous Charge Rates
Rate of Char ging
The first 6 hours
100 mA
After 6 hours
45 mA
AC adapter information
Because of special palmtop power requirements, you need to
use theHP F1011A adapter. This adapter is a regulated AC to
DC converter with these specifications:
Page 410
DC Power Supply Output Specifications
Polarity:
Minimum voltage:
Nominal voltage:
Maximum voltage:
Minimum current:
Negative (center contact on adapter is
ground, outer contact is positive)
+9.6 V
+12 V
+14.4 V
750 mA
Using this adapter whenever possible significantly extends
battery life because the palmtop doesn’t use battery power
while the adapter is plugged in.
Also, the adapter can be used to recharge Nickel-Cadmium
rechargeable batteries. See the previous section for information,
including the charge rate for the adapter.
Environmental limits for your palmtop and
plug-in cards
To maintain product reliability, avoid getting the equipment wet
and observe the following temperature and humidity limits for
the palmtop and Hewlett-Packard plug-in cards:
Operating temperature: 0º to 50ºC (32º to 122ºF).
Storage temperature with data retention: 0º to 60ºC (32º to
140ºF).
Operating and storage humidity: 90% relative humidity at 40ºC
(104ºF) maximum.
You will likely lose data below 0ºC (32ºF), but you can have
storage temperatures down to -20ºC (-4ºF) without damaging
the hardware.
Page 411
C
Character set
This appendix contains tables defining your palmtop character
set as well as instructions for generating special characters.
Your palmtop supports code pages 850 and 437.
The built-in applications (except 1-2-3) and System-Managercompliant applications (see chapter 24 for a description) use
code page 850.
1-2-3 uses LICS, the Lotus International Character Set. Most
LICS characters are included in code page 850; the few that are
not included will not display on the palmtop.
Any DOS applications you load and run will by default use
code page 437. If an application requires code page 850, you
can select it using the Setup Utility (see chapter 21).
Character set tables
The following two pages contain the 437 and 850 code-page
tables.
Page 412
Page 413
Page 414
Generating special characters
There are two primary ways to generate special characters:
By holding down [ALT], then holding down [MENU], and then
typing a character code. For example, in the code-page 850
table on the previous page you can see that the character code
for the ® symbol is 169. So, to generate ® on your palmtop,
you would press and hold down [ALT], press and hold down
[MENU], and then type 169.
By pressing [FN] and then another key. For example, pressing
[FN] [B] generates £. Many, but not all special characters in the
palmtop character set can be generated this way. Here is the
keyboard with those available for code-page 850:
Note that a few keys have shifted [FN] definitions in addition to
regular [FN] definitions. For example, pressing [FN] [5]
generates Ì, while pressing [L] [FN] [5] generates Ä.
Generating accented characters
The keys [R], [T], [Y], [U], and [I] represent accent marks
when used with the [FN] key. When you press one of these
Page 415
keys, it prepares the palmtop to generate an accented form of
the next key you press. For example, pressing [FN] [Y]
followed by pressing [O] generates Ô.
Page 416
D
South and East European
Page 417
language support
How to access character sets and keyboard
layouts
The KEYBEZ program enables you to select a South East
European language and load its corresponding character set,
keyboard layout, and national settings. Here are the available
languages:
Language
Code Page
Keyboard
Byelorussian (BL) 866
Cyrillic
Croatian (CR)
852
Slavic
Czech (CZ)
852
Slavic
Greek (GK)
437G
Greek
Hungarian (HU)
852
Hungarian
Polish (PL)
852
Polish
Romanian (RO)
852
Slavic
Russian (RU)
866
Cyrillic
Slovak (SL)
852
Slavic
Slovene (SV)
852
Slavic
Turkish (TK)
437T
Turkish
Ukrainian (UR)
866
Cyrillic
The various code pages and keyboard layouts are found at the
end of this appendix.
Note
1-2-3 supports only CP 850. If another code page is loaded, you may
have trouble displaying or printing certain characters within 1-2-3.
Page 418
Running KEYBEZ
Modify your AUTOEXEC.BAT file to include the KEYBEZ
command (with language option) on the line immediately
preceding the 100 line.
SYNTAX: KEYBEZ
[BL|CR|CZ|GK|HU|PL|RO|RU|SL|SV|TK|UR]
Example: Implementing Russian Language Support
Use the Memo Editor to open your AUTOEXEC.BAT file (located in the root
directory of C:\ or D:\)
Add the line KEYBEZ RU just before the 100 line.
Save your new version of the AUTOEXEC.BAT file in the root directory C:\.
Ensure that your CONFIG.SYS file is in the root directory C:\. Copy it from D:\
if necessary.
Close all open applications in preparation to reboot.
Reboot by pressing [CTRL]+[ALT]+[DEL].
When you see the Topcard screen, the Cyrillic Code Page (CP
866) and keyboard are ready to use. Press [CTRL] to toggle the
keyboard back and forth between English and Cyrillic. For
positions of the Cyrillic characters, see the Cyrillic.
Accessing the characters
You access characters in one of two ways, depending on which
keyboard layout is implemented.
For the Cyrillic and Greek keyboards, the characters on the
overlay become the primary keys, replacing the English key
definitions. For example, when the Greek keyboard is
implemented and you press [U], you generate a θ.
However, you can switch back and forth between Cyrillic or
Page 419
Greek and English by pressing the [CTRL] key—press it once
and you have the Cyrillic or Greek keys, press it again and
you’re back to English.
Note that while in Cyrillic mode, you may access numbers and
punctuation symbols by using the [FN] followed by the number
or [FN] [L] followed by the desired punctuation. For
example, to access the ‘;’ character while in Cyrillic mode,
press [FN] [L] [4].
For the other keyboards (Hungarian, Polish, Slavic, and
Turkish), the special characters are an extension of the English
keyboard and are accessed using the [FN] key. For example, to
generate Ö when the Hungarian keyboard is implemented, you
press [FN] [K].
Some of the keys shown on the overlays for these keyboards
show two characters above the primary key (see pages D-5 and
D-6). In these cases the left character is the [L] key definition
and the right character is the [FN] key definition. For example,
above [8] on the Slavic keyboard are the characters ] and |. To
generate ] you press [L] [8], and to generate ¦ you press [FN]
[8].
Printing considerations
In order to print the character sets implemented by KEYBEZ,
you must have a printer that supports the character set you want
to print.
For example, before you can print a file containing CP 866
(Cyrillic) characters, you must first configure your printer to
support this character set. See the documentation for your
particular printer.
Page 420
Keyboard overlays & code page tables
The following pages illustrate the keyboard overlays and code
pages KEYBEZ implements. A set of all six overlays (HP Part
No. B2539A) is available. Contact your Hewlett-Packard sales
office or dealer, or Hewlett-Packard’s South East European
Sales headquarters (address below), for information on where
to purchase this set of overlays.
Hewlett-Packard Ges.m.b.H.
Lieblgasse 1
A-1222 Vienna/Austria
Telephone: +43 1 2500-0
FAX: +43 1 2500-444
Note
If calling from the United States, dial 1 011 43 1 2500-0.
For FAX’s from the U.S. dial 1 011 43 1 2500-444.
Page 421
Greek and Cyrillic overlays
Page 422
Hungarian and Polish overlays
Page 423
Slavic and Turkish overlays
Page 424
CP 437G (PC Latin/Greek)
Page 425
CP 437T (PC Turkish)
Page 426
CP 852 (PC Latin-2)
Page 427
CP 866 (PC Cyrillic)
Page 428
E
Regulatory information
U.S.A.:
This PC generates and uses radio frequency energy and may interfere with radio and television
reception. It complies with the limits for a Class B computing device as specified in Part 15 of
FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against harmful
interference in a residential area. Operation of this device is subject to the following two
conditions: (1) It may not cause harmful interference, and (2) it must accept any interference
received, including interference that may cause undesired operation. In the unlikely event that
there is interference to radio or television reception (which can be determined by turning the
palmtop off and on), try the following:
Reorienting or relocating the receiving antenna (radio or television).
Relocating the palmtop with respect to the receiver.
Any changes or modifications not expressly approved by the Hewlett-Packard Company could
void the authority to operate this equipment.
For more information, consult your dealer, an experienced radio/television technician, or the
following booklet, prepared by the Federal Communications Commission: How to Identify
and Resolve Radio-TV Interference Problems. This booklet is available from the U.S.
Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402, Stock Number 004-000-00345-4. At
the first printing of this manual, the telephone number was (202) 783-3238.
The HP F1015A Serial Interface Cable must be used to connect the palmtop to printers,
computers, and other peripheral devices to ensure compliance with the Class B emission limits
for residential use.
Canada:
This PC apparatus does not exceed the Class B limits for radio noise emissions from digital
apparatus as set out in the radio interference regulations of the Canadian Department of
Communications. Le présent appareil numérique n’émet pas de bruits radioélectriques
dépassant les limites applicables aux appareils numériques de Classe B prescrites dans le
règlement sur le brouillage radioélectrique édicté par le Ministère des Communications du
Canada.
Page 429
Europe:
Declaration of Conformity (according to ISO/IEC
Guide 22 and EN 45014)
Manufacturer:
Address:
Hewlett-Packard Company
Hewlett-Packard Co.
Hewlett-Packard Co.
Corvallis Division
Singapore (PTE) Ltd.
1000 NE Circle Blvd.
72 Bendemeer Rd.
Corvallis, OR 97330
01/01-07/07
Singapore 1233
declares that the following product
Product name:
Model Number:
Options:
Palmtop Personal Computer
HP 200LX
All
conforms to the following product specifications
Safety:
IEC 950:1986+A1,A2 / EN 60950 (1988)+A1,A2
EMC:
CISPR 22:1985 / EN 55022 (1988): Class B (2)
IEC 801-2:1991 / prEN 55024-2 (1992): 3kV CD, 8kV AD
IEC 801-3:1984 / prEN 55024-3 (1991): 3V/m
IEC 801-4:1988 / prEN 55024-4 (1992): 0.5kV signal lines, 1.0kV
power lines
Supplementary Information:
Page 430
F
Games
Your palmtop has two games built in for your entertainment.
The games are:
Hearts & Bones, where you try to capture hearts without
stepping on bones.
Lair of Squid, where you try to escape an underwater maze
while being pursued by deadly squid.
Games can drain batteries at a higher than normal rate. So, to
get your best battery life, use the AC adapter when you play.
To start Hearts & Bones:
Press [&É] [+] to see the Hearts & Bones opening screen.
Press [F4] (Help) to see information on how to play the game. Use [J] to move
through the tutorial screens.
When you’ve finished the tutorial screens, press [F1] to start the game.
To quit the game, press [ESC].
To start Lair of Squid:
Press [&É] [U] to see the Lair of Squid opening screen.
Press [F1] (Help) to see information on how to play the game. Use [J] to move
through the tutorial screens.
When you’ve finished the tutorial screens, press [ESC] to exit the tutorial and
then press [SPACEBAR] to start the game.
To quit the game, press [ESC].
The product herewith complies with the requirements of the Low Voltage Directive 73/23/EEC
and the EMC Directive 89/336/EEC. (1) The product was tested in a typical configuration
with Hewlett-Packard personal computer peripherals.
Quality Department
Hewlett-Packard Company
Corvallis Division
Page 431
Index
Symbole
– (minus) in World Time 107
% 179
%TOTAL function key 194
( 35, 58, 66, 77, 107, 380
(HR function key 190
(M function key 184
(X,Y) function key 282
+ in World Time 107
[(] 177, 178
[+/-] 178
[1/x] 177
[alt]-arrow keys 343
[CTRL]+[alt]+[del] 22
[f1] 18
[f11] 33, 350
[f12] 33, 350
[last] 178
[rcl] 178, 182
[sto] 178, 182
[XWY] 177
_DAT 306
1-2-3 46
1-2-3 function key 250
1-Var annunciator 176
1-Var function key 235
2-Var annunciator 176
2-Var function key 235
360/365 method 210
A
absolute value 188
AC adapter 23, 410
charging rates 410
jack 17
accented characters 415
accessing DOS 334
account register 153
accounts
Quicken 145
transferring between 158
types 145
accounts in brackets 159
ACCUM function key 203
ACOS function key 189
adapter 410
charging rates 410
adapters
connecting 360
ADB file extension 314, 337
Add function key 103, 109, 138
Add Transaction screen 154
adding a new category 149
adding applications 327
adding city records 109
tips on 110
adding database fields 83
adding earlier transactions 168
adding note records 138
adding transactions 156
address book updates 388
address books 386
ADE Utility 388
Adjust function key 203
adjustable rate mortgage (ARM)
205
adjusting audio volume 298
adjusting display contrast 299
Alarm Clock 118, 119
Alarm field 52
alarm leadtime 53
Page 432
alarms
changing settings 70
in Stopwatch 119
snooze 56
without appointments 119
ALG annunciator 176
algebraic expression 270
All format 293
All function key 116
allocating memory 300
ALT interface (Datacomm) 357
Amort function key 197
amortization 201
ARM 203, 205
Canadian mortgages 213
data to 1-2-3 208
GPM 206
mortgage 204
printing 207
procedure 203
angle conversions 190
ANGLE function key 190
angle mode 189
annual percentage rate (APR) 215
annunciators 27, 175, 351
application keys 17, 24, 33, 328
application lists 25
Application Manager 328, 329
applications list 330
Icons View 330
List View 330
application records 25, 26
application screen 24
application views 25
applications
adding 327
DOS 327, 330
file name extensions 313
HP 100LX 327
installing 327
quitting 24
run from drive A 351
run from drive E 351
SMC 330
starting 24
System-Manager-Compliant 327
appointment alarms 54
Appointment Book 51
configuring 69, 70
new 68
settings 69
Appointment Book files 68
translating from HP 95LX 68
appointment duration 70
appointment lists 58, 70
appointment record 51
appointment settings 70
appointments
backing up 64
changing date 61
changing settings 70
daily 58
deleting 63, 64
displaying events only 60
extracting 64
moving around 60
next and previous 60
printing 377
repeat options 52
running programs 64
searching for text 39
without times 60
Arabic numerals in outlining 131
area conversions 230
argument separators 301
arrow keys 33
ASCII control codes
filtering 364
map to characters. 364
ASCII files 123
Page 433
HP 95LX to HP 200LX transfer
319
printing (PIM) 380
saving notes as 139
viewing 308
ASIN function key 189
ATAN function key 189
ATT file extension 314, 337
attaching file to mail 393
audio volume 298
Auto function key 289
auto-lock mode 19
auto-saving memos 124
AUTOEXEC.BAT
editing 353
automatic constant 180
Automatic DST setting 113
Automatic Redial (Datacomm) 358
automating Datacomm 364
available system memory 332
B
B/E function key 197
backing up appointments 64
backing up data 21
backing up files 313
backing up memory 306
backing up memos 122
backslash (), in modem command
397
backsolving 250
backspace in Calculator 176
backup battery 409
BAK file extension 314, 337
BAL function key 203
balances reports 171
balancing accounts 163
problems 166
bank accounts 145
BAT file extension 308, 328, 337
Batch Transfers 383, 384
batteries 306, 406
backup 409
charging 410
power level 296
rechargeable 409
saving power 23, 304
types 406
battery power 304
baud rate 357
for IR communication 317
boldface text 124
Boolean operators (SSL) 101
boot options 353
breaking IR connection 319
business expense reports 172
business phone list 97
C
cable, HP F1015A (PC) 372, 375
cable, serial (PC) 372, 375
cables, connecting 360
Calc function key 250
calc line 175
clearing 176
editing 176
recalling numbers 181
Calculator
angle conversions 190
angle mode 189
automatic constant 180
chain calculations 178
clearing memory 186
configuring 293
Custom application 294
customizing 293
date calculations 241
full precision 176
hour conversions 190
keyboard 176
Page 434
List Stat 231
M register 183
margin 194
markup 194
moving values to 1-2-3 184
number formats 293
Number of Digits 293
percentages 193
point and shoot 185
polar/rectangular conversions
190
registers 182
startup application 294
statistics 231
storing numbers 182
trigonometric functions 189
ZOOM 176
calendar
display 70
six-month 60
Calendr function key 61
Canadian mortgages 213
canceling dialog boxes 32
canceling editing changes (Memo)
127
CAP file extension 314, 337
Caps Lock (Memo) 130
CAPS lock key 34
capturing data 364
card modems 373
card-eject switch 17
cards
plug-in memory 312
cards, plug-in 21
carry-forward setting
changing the default 71
cases (TVM) 197
cash accounts 145
cash flow calculations 221
examples 223
plotting 227
categories 148
adding 149
deleting 150
demoting 150
merging 150
moving 150
renaming 150
Category field 95
limits 138
Note Taker 138
World Time 109
Category field choices
limits 96, 138
category field, editing 156
category fields 96
category list 149
category list boxes 96
category reports 172
cc
Made 388
Mail 382
address update 388
ADE Utility 388
updating address books 388
CCM file extension 337
CCMAIL.INI 395
Cents symbol, displaying 302
CFL file extension 223, 314, 337
chain calculations 178
chaining system macros 324
changing a Phone Book 76
changing appointments 62
changing argument separator 301
changing category names 150
changing current date in
Appointment Book 61
changing directories 311
changing display size (Datacomm)
363
Page 435
changing entry preferences 159
changing memos 126
changing punctuation 301
changing the group title 151
changing thousands separator 301
changing typefaces 124
character codes 415
character set 412
changing 346
character size
changing in display 129
character size, enlarging 352
character translation 367
Character-Size command (Memo)
129
charging batteries 410
charging rates 410
check boxes 29
adding to database 84
in Smart Clips 43
in subset definitions 94
selecting 30
testing for subset definitions 101
checking accounts 145
checking off to-do items 67
CHK file extension 337
choosing a Quicken file 148
CIC100 command 342
circumflex (^), in modem command
397
cities
adding to World Time 109
around the world 107
list of 107
viewing on a map 112
city lists
adding to 109
creating a new 111
Custom 111
limitations 115
searching 108
subsets of 114
city, local 108
City Prefix field 109
city records
built-in 111
copying to Custom list 111
deleting 111
editing 111
maximum number 115
opening 108
removing from Custom list 111
restoring deleted 111
viewing 108
class group 151
clearing a note 140
clearing Calculator memory 186
clearing memory 22
clearing system macros 325
clearing the calc line 176
client 401
client group 151
Clip function key 41, 104, 127
Clipboard 39
memory allocation 300
using in memos 126
clipping database information 41
clipping information to a memo
127
clipping memos
example 128
clock display (Appt Book) 70
clock setting 108, 298
closing built-in applications 24
closing DOS applications 331
closing SMC applications 331
closing System Manager 333
code page selections (DOS) 346
code page support 344
code page vs. file name 348
Page 436
code pages 367
437 412
437G 426
437T 427
850 412
852 428
866 428
Cyrillic 428
default 301
Latin-2 428
Latin/Greek 426
Turkish 427
codes, printing 135
collating sequence for 1-2-3 303
collation sequence 344
Columns function key 104, 143
COM file extension 308, 337
Com1
closing and opening 304
disabling and enabling 304
Com1 interface (Datacomm) 357
Com1 port 360
pin connections 361
Com2 interface (Datacomm) 357
command buttons 29, 31
commands
DOS 339, 340
File overview 37
Help 44
menu 28
unavailable (dimmed) 28
communication port
power 344
compounding interest 210
compounding periods 211
CompuServe 363
conditional expressions 266
CONFIG.SYS,editing 353
configuration
Appointment Book 69
Datacomm defaults 360
configuration files 357
choosing 359
for information services 363
saving 359
script file name 364
configuring 1-2-3 49
configuring for Datacomm 360
configuring for IR communication
317
configuring the Appt Book 70
configuring the Calculator 293
connecting adapters 360
connecting cables 360
connecting to CompuServe 363
connecting to modems 360, 372
connecting to Post Office 383
Connectivity Pack 160, 372, 375
printing 133
Connector/Adapter Kit 375
constants (Solver) 257
contrast of display 299
control characters in memos 130
control codes
filtering 364
map to characters 364
Conv function key 266
conversions
area 230
coordinates 190
currency 228
interest rates 210
length 230
mass 230
temperature 230
volume 230
Convert function key 112
converter 410
converting times
across time zones 112
Page 437
coordinate conversions 190
COPY 126
COPY key 39
copying attached mail file 391
copying city records to Custom list
111
copying database fields 41
copying databases 89
copying directories 307
copying directories (split screen)
315
copying fields to a memo 127
copying files 307
copying files (split screen) 315
copying files to a card 312
copying in memos 126
copying items in a list 40
copying items or text 39
copying mail 392
copying memos 128
copying note fields 139
copying note records 139
copying records 41
COS function key 189
Countdown Timer 118
counter variable 270
counting to zero 119
countries, supported (NLS) 346
COUNTRY command 346
country defaults, NLS 344
country settings 301
CP 437 412
CP 437G 426
CP 437T 427
CP 850 412
CP 852 428
CP 866 428
creating a picture display 303
creating a Topcard 303
creating memos 120
creating new Appt Books 68
creating new Note Taker files 142
creating new Phone Books 79
creating system macros 322
credit card accounts 145
CTF file extension 314, 337
CTF files 367
creating 368
formatting rules 369
remap 358
Ctrl Characters command 130
currency conversions 228
currency exchange rates 228
currency settings
1-2-3 vs. other applications 302
currency symbols 301
currency symbols, displaying 302
current date
Appointment Book 61
current directory 320
changing 311
current position 29
cursor 33
cursor movement 29
cursor position (Memo) 130
cursor tracking 343
curve fitting 236
Custom
printing style 380
repeat option (Appt) 52
Custom calculator application 294
Custom Cities list 111
Custom function key 111, 116
Custom List check box (World
Time) 109
custom style
printing 380
Customize Appointments View 70
Customize ToDo List View 70
customizing palmtop operation 353
Page 438
customizing the Calculator 293
CUT 126
CUT key 39
Cx,y function key 192
Cyrillic code page 428
D
daily appointment list 51
daily appointments 58
Daily repeat option (Appt) 52
data
backing up 21
capturing (Datacomm) 364
filtering (Datacomm) 364
saving 21
sharing in Quicken 160
data bits 357
data card 77, 89, 140
Data Edit screen 232
data fields 81
data lists 25
data records 26
database
defining new 82
definition 80
printing 377
searching 78
Database application 81
Database data card 89
database definition 83
creating 82
data card 89
example 86
modifying 88
naming 86
saving 86
database fields
adding 83
changing size 84
clipping (copying) 41
defining 83
deleting 85
editing 85
hidden 84
moving 84
redefining 85
renaming 85
shortcut keys for 85
types of 83
database lists
limitations of 103
subsets of 92
database pages 84
database records
maximum number 103
database structure
creating 83
data card 89
defining 82
duplicating 89
modifying 88
naming 86
saving 86
database subsets 92
Datacomm 355
advanced configuration settings
357
automating 364
capturing data 364
character translation 367
configuration 359
ending a session 362
hardware connection 360
starting a session 362
date arithmetic 241
date calculations 241
date, default setting 301
Date field
appointment 61
Database 83
Page 439
date formats 297
Calculator 258
date print fields (Memo) 126
date setting 297
date stamping 34, 121, 138
Day Graph 70
day of the week 70
day-long appointments 60
Daylight Savings field (World
Time) 110
daylight savings time 113
daylight savings time schedules 113
DC adapter 410
charging rates 410
DCF file extension 314, 337, 359
de-selecting items 35
Decimal numeration in outlining
131
decimal point, changing symbol
301
default appointment settings
changing 70
default configuration settings
(Datacomm) 356
default country settings 301
default drive options 354
default to-do settings
changing 71
Define function key
subset 100
Define New Database command 81
Define Subset screen 98
compared with SSL 102
defining subsets
example 98
DELETE function key 250
Delete function key 103
delete line (Memo) 121
deleted directory, recovering 308
deleted file, recovering 308
deleted text in memos
restoring 127
deleting
items in a list 36
items or text 39
text 41
deleting added applications 331
deleting appointments 63, 64
deleting categories 150
deleting city records 111
deleting city records from Custom
list 111
deleting database fields 85
deleting directories 307
deleting files 307
deleting in memos 126
deleting memos 128
deleting messages 392
deleting note records 140
deleting phone records 77
deleting Quicken accounts 147
deleting subset definitions 99
deleting system macros 325
deleting transactions 156
delimiters
time 298
Demote function key 131, 132
demoting categories 150
demoting outlined text 132
Description field
appointment 52
detaching file from mail 391
detaching messages from mail 394
determining memory use 332
dialog boxes 29
canceling 32
completing 32
exiting 32
fields 30
specifying file name in 37
Page 440
digit separators 301
changing symbol 301
digitizing 283
dimmed commands 28
directories
changing 311
copying 307
copying (split screen) 315
deleting 307
Directory Tree view 310
displaying 311
File List view 310
finding names 311, 312
higher-level 311
lower-level 312
mail 394
moving 307
moving (split screen) 315
names, finding 312
recovering 308
renaming 308
selecting 309
specifying 38
subset, viewing 311
Sync view 311
transferring (HP 200LX to HP
95LX) 320
transferring (IR connection) 317
transferring between HP 200LXs
318
valid names 336
viewing subset 311
directory
current 320
Directory Tree view 310
disconnecting IR connection 319
discounting cash flows 221
DISPCTL 343
display
changing character size in 129
changing spacing in (Memo) 129
split (two-window) 315
switching between split and full
315
display colors 352
display contrast 299
display size 17
display size (Datacomm) 363
displaying complete directory 311
displaying currency symbols 302
displaying events only 60
displaying your name, etc. 303
displays
canceling 29
distribution lists 390
dividing transactions 158
division of memory 296
DOC file extension 337
DOS
accessing 334
changing gray shades 352
code page selections 346
code pages 301
command syntax 339
commands 339
FON files 346
inverting display colors 352
memory allocating 300
memory allocation 300
prompt 339
quitting 331
reserved file names 336
saving power 304
special file extensions 337
valid directory names 336
valid file names 336
zooming the display 352
DOS & IR port power 344
DOS applications 327
closing 331
Page 441
installing 348
opening 330
running 329, 349
starting 334
DOS commands 346
description 340
online help 339
DOS communications applications
running 329, 349
DOS exit message 329, 349
DOS memory
allocating 329, 349
DOS prompt 334
DOS vs. System Manager
applications 301
download (Datacomm) 358
drive A 305, 312, 351
drive C 305
drive D 331
drive E 351
drives, specifying 38
DRV file extension 314, 337
E
e-mail 382
echo, local (Datacomm) 358
Edit function key 103
Calculator 250
Edit menu 36
editing a Phone Book 76
editing applications list 330
editing appointments 62
editing AUTOEXEC.BAT 353
editing category field 156
editing city records 111
editing CONFIG.SYS 353
editing database fields 85
editing databases 88
editing group field 156
editing memos 121, 126
editing note records 139
editing Quicken accounts 146
editing subset definitions 99
editing system macros 323
editing the calc line 176
editing transactions 156
edits, canceling 127
effective interest rates 210
electronic mail 382
End Time field (Appt) 52
ending data communication 362
ending value 270
Engineering format 293
Enq-Ack flow control 358
entering system macros 322
entering transactions 154, 156
entry preferences 159
ENV file extension 314, 337
environmental limits 411
Epson FX-80 printer 376
EQN file extension 314, 337
equation list 244
erasing
all notes 140
the Note field 140
erasing Calculator data 186
escape key 33
European DST setting 113
even parity 357
events 56
displaying weekly 60
examples
Appointment Book 53
Filer 307
exclamation point (to-dos) 67
EXE file extension 308, 328, 337
executable file 308, 328
executing files 308
EXM file extension 314, 328, 337
expense reporting 152
Page 442
expense reports
printing 172
exporting Quicken data 161
extensions, file name 313, 336
extracting file from mail 391
extremum (Solver) 284
F
F1015 cable (PC) 372, 375
F1023 Connector/Adapter Kit 372
FCF file extension 314, 337
field
current 29
move to a 30
fields in dialog boxes 29
File commands 81
file extension 337
file extensions 313, 337
reserved 337
File Insert command (Memo) 128
File List view 310
file management 305
File menu 36
overview 37
file name extensions 38, 336
changing (Memo) 124
file names
extensions 313
in dialog boxes 37
specifying 37
file names vs. code page 348
File New command 81
file order 311
file passwords 38
File Save-As command (Memo)
122, 123, 128
file sorting 311
Filer 305
files
attaching to mail 393
backing up 313
copying 307
copying (split screen) 315
Datacomm configuration 359
deleting 307
executable 308, 328
extracting from mail 391
listing 311
listing order 311
managing 37
merging in Quicken 160
moving 307
moving (split screen) 315
names 336
number in root directory 336
ordering 311
protecting (backing up) 313
Quicken 145
recovering 308
renaming 308
reserved names 336
running 308
searching for text 309
selecting 309
sorting 311
transferring (HP 200LX to HP
95LX) 320
transferring (IR connection) 317
transferring between computers
316
transferring between HP 200LXs
318
valid names 336
filtering received data 364
Fin function key 266
Find 78
Find function key
39, 104, 129, 141, 250
finding a note 141
finding and replacing (Memo) 129
Page 443
finding city in list 108
finding memory use 332
finding text in a memo 129
finding text in note records 141
finding text in PIM 39
FindNxt function key 129
Fixed point format 293
flash disks 21
FLD file extension 314, 337
flow control 358
FN key 34
Fnd&&Rep function key 129
folders
creating 386
deleting mail in 392
FON file 346
FON file extension 314, 337, 346
footers 125
forecasting 236
Format commands 132
formats
date in Calculator 258
setting for date 297
setting for time 298
formatted memo files 123
formatting a memo 120
formatting memory cards 312
formatting memos 124
fractional part 188
Frcast function key 237
free RAM 332
full precision 176
full vs. split screen 315
function keys 25, 28, 29, 33
Database 103
defining databases 103
Memo Editor 136
Note Taker 142
Phone Book 103
World Time 116
function plotting 281
displaying coordinates 282
extremum 284
function keys 289
how it works 287
interactive graphics 289
plot conditions 288
zoom 281
function shift key 34
functions (Solver) 257, 258
FV function key 197
G
games 431
GDB file extension 314, 337
General function key 99
GO function key 203
Goto a record 78
Goto city in list 108
Goto function key (Appt Book) 73
Goto Line Number command 129
Goto note in list 141
GRAD annunciator 176
graduated payment mortgage
(GPM) 206
Graph function key 250
graphing
models 240
Solver 281
statistics 240
gray shades in DOS 352
green keys 17
Group box (Database) 83
adding to database 84
group field, editing 156
group options 151
grouped cash flows 224
grouped standard deviation 236
groups 148
adding 151
Page 444
changing the field title 151
class 151
client 151
for expense reporting 152
list 151
project 151
trip 151
Guilder symbol, displaying 302
HP F1023A Connector/Adapter Kit
375
HP LaserJet 376
HP OmniGo 700
applications 327
HP100LX.FON 346
HP100LX.KIT 346
humidity limits 411
H
I
hangup command (Datacomm) 362
hard reset 23, 331
hardware features 17
headers 125
Hearts & Bones 431
help
availability 18
for DOS 339
menu 44
hierarchical numbering in memos
131
higher-level directory 311
highlight bar 33
moving between split windows
315
highlighting text range 40
history stack 181
clearing 186
home base 146
home up/down 29
hour conversions 190
hour of the day 70
HP 100LX files 68, 79
HP 95LX
translating files 68, 79
HP 95LX files in the HP 200LX
320
HP F1015A cable (PC) 372, 375
HP F1023 Connector/Adapter Kit
372
I%YR function key 197
I%YR’ function key 203
IBM numeric keypad 350
IBM ProPrinter 376
ICN file extension 329, 337
icon, program 328
Icons View 330
Iconv function key 197
IDX file extension 314, 337
IF function (Solver) 266
importing Quicken data 161
importing text file to mail 393
information services 363
connecting to 363
infrared port 17
INI file extension 314, 337
initialization string 135
Insert command (Memo) 128
INSERT function key 250
Insert function key (Note Taker)
139
insert line (Memo) 121
Insert mode (Memo) 121, 130
inserting a memo into a note 139
inserting memos 128
inserting text file in mail 393
installing applications 327
installing DOS programs 329, 349
installing SMC applications 327
INT function key 203
Page 445
integer part 188
Interactive Connection 383
closing 399
opening 399
reading mail 400
interactive graphics 289
interest rates 210
Internal Rate of Return (IRR%)
221
international
keyboard characters 415
International Prefix field (World
Time) 109
inverting display colors 352
IR
connection broken 319, 321
IR & DOS port power 344
IR communication
configuring for 317
IR connection
positioning computers 317
transferring files 317
turning off 319
IR interface (Datacomm) 357
IR port 17
file transfer 318
file/directory transfer 320
items
copying 40
deleting 36, 40
moving 40
selecting 35
K
KEYB command 346
KEYBEZ 301, 344, 418
how to use 346
KEYBEZ.FON 346
KEYBEZ.KIT 346
keyboard 33
accented characters 415
Calculator 176
international characters 415
special characters 415
Keyboard Information Table file
(KIT) 346
keyboard overlays (South East
European) 421
keyboard remapping 344
keys
application 24, 328
meanings of 33
shortcut 328
KIT (Keyboard Information Table
File) 346
KIT file extension 314, 337, 344
L
Label field (Database) 83
labels
function key 28
Lair of Squid 431
LapLink 401
LaserJet printer 376
Latin-2 code page 428
Latin/Greek code page 426
latitude and longitude of city 110
launching DOS 334
LCF file extension 314, 337, 366
leadtime for alarms 53
lease 200
leaving DOS applications 331
leaving SMC applications 331
length conversions 230
limits
Database 103
humidity 411
Note Taker 142
Phone Book 103
temperature 411
Page 446
World Time 115
line spacing in memos 129
line wrap (Datacomm) 358
list boxes 29
category 96
open 29, 31
scrolling in 31
using 31
list of categories 149
list of directories 310, 311
list of files 310, 311
list of groups 151
List Stat 231
examples 234
list style, printing 377
List View 330
listing files 311
listing order of files 311
lists 25
appointment 58
note 137
sorting 90
Local Address Book
updating 388
Local City 108
local city, specifying 108
local echo 358
local window 319
Locate function key 110
Location field
appointment 52
World Time 110
logon script files 358, 364, 366
Lotus 1-2-3 46
Lotus cc
Mail 382
low-battery message 406
lower-level directory 312
M
M register 183
M+ function key 184
M- function key 184
MAC file extension 314, 337
macro record 322
Mail
user name 388
mail
attaching DOS file 393
mailing lists 390
making transactions 154, 156
managing your applications 327
manual-lock mode 19
Map function key 112
map, locating cities 110, 112
margin 194
margins 125
marketing headquarters (outside
U.S.) 405
marking directories 309
marking files 309
markup 194
mass conversions 230
mass storage cards 21
matching text in appointments 39
Math function key 266
maximizing RAM 333
MDM file extension 314, 337
Memo Editor 120
compared to Note Taker 137
memo file
transferring 123
memory
allocation 300
clearing 22
clearing in Calculator 186
management 20
RAM disk 331
ROM 331
Page 447
system RAM 331
types 331
usage 332
used by 1-2-3 332
memory allocation 300
DOS 329, 349
specifying 299
memory cards 21
copying to 312
environmental limits 411
formatting 312
memory division 296
memory limitations
Database 103
Note Taker 142
Phone Book 103
World Time 115
memos
backing up 122
clipping from other applications
to 127, 128
copying 128
creating 120
deleting 128
editing 121, 126
formatting 124
inserting 128
inserting into notes 139
moving around 121
opening one of the last two 126
outlining 131
password protecting 124
printing 133
printing specifications for 134
reading 126
renaming 128
saving 122
searching for text in 129
menu bar 25
menu commands 28
dimmed 28
standard PIM 36
menu key 34, 36
menus 28
canceling 29
pull-down 28
scanning 28
top-level 36
using 28
merging Appt Book files 68
merging categories 150
merging equation lists 250
merging Note Taker files 142
merging Phone Book files 79
merging Quicken files 160
message directories 394
messages
Alarm Clock 119
attaching DOS file 393
copying 392
Countdown Timer 119
deleting 392
detaching from mail 394
extracting file from 391
inserting text file 393
moving 386, 392
saving 391
sending 391
viewing 400
MODE command 346
modem cards 342
modem commands
backslash () 397
circumflex (^) 397
modem init (Datacomm) 358
modems 342
connecting 372
plug-in cards 373
serial 373
Modify Database command 81, 88
Page 448
modifying palmtop operation 353
month-at-a-glance 52
monthly appointment lists
changing the default 70
monthly appointments 59
Monthly repeat option (Appt) 52
MORE key 18
mortgage with balloon 199
moving categories 150
moving cursor to line number
(Memo) 129
moving database fields 84
moving directories 307
moving directories (split screen)
315
moving files 307
moving files (split screen) 315
moving items in a list 40
moving note fields 139
moving window in display
(Datacomm) 363
MSG file extension 314, 337
MTCONV 370
multiple equation lists 250
N
N function key 197
N! function key 192
naming databases 86
NDB file extension 314, 337
negative numbers 176
Net Future Value (NFV) 221
Net Present Value (NPV) 221
Net Uniform Series (NUS) 221
Next Appointment 70
Next function key 104, 143
Nickel-Cadmium batteries 409
NLS
supported countries 346
utility 346
NLS (National Language Support)
344
NLSFUNC command 346
No DST setting 113
No Repeat option (Appt) 52
nominal interest rates 210
Northern DST setting 113
Note fields
appointment 52
clearing (Note Taker) 140
copying 139
Database 83
moving 139
World Time 110
Note function key 52, 104, 143
note lists 137
adding to 138
limitations 142
searching 141
note records
adding 138
copying 139
deleting 140
editing 139
maximum number 142
opening 137
saving 138
saving as ASCII files 139
searching for text in 141
viewing 137
Note Taker 137
compared to Memo Editor 137
data card 140
erasing files 140
files 142
new 142
printing 377
subsets 142
notes
Full Screen 137
Page 449
inserting memos 139
length 138
restoring deleted 140
NUM( function key 266
Number Consecutive Days field
appointment 52
Number field (Database) 83
Number Format 293
Number of Digits 293
Number, phone (Datacomm) 358
number precision 176
numeric keypad 350
O
odd parity 357
OFF key 17
OLD function key 194
ON/OFF key 17
online help 44, 339
Open function key 104, 143
opening a memo file again (last two)
126
opening DOS 334
opening DOS applications 330
opening note records 137
opening SMC applications 330
opening System Manager 333
operator priority
Solver 257
option buttons 29
adding to database 84
in Smart Clips 43
in subset definitions 94
selecting 30
testing for subset definitions 101
Option buttons (Database) 83
Options
Group 151
Quickfill 158
Options menu 36
Appointment Book 69
ordering files 311
Other function key 266
outbox, Prefix 395
Outline command (Memo) 132
outline indentation 132
outline numeration 132
outlined text
changing the level of 132, 133
demoting 132, 133
promoting 132, 133
removing a number 133
stopping 133
without numbers 132
outlining memos 131
overlays (South East European)
421
OVL file extension 337
P
P/YR function key 197
page breaks 125
page numbers
for memos 125
page up/down 33
pages of a database 84
parity 357
PART function key 194
password, changing 394
passwords
auto-lock 19
changing 19
for files 38
in Quicken 38
manual-lock 19
setting 19
passwords for files 38
PASTE 126
PASTE key 39
path name 38
Page 450
PBK files 79
PCF file extension 314, 337
PCMCIA modem cards 342
PCMCIA standard 21
PCX file extension
303, 304, 314, 337
PDB file extension 314, 337
PDB files 79
PDT file extension 314, 337
percent change 194
percent of total 194
percentages 193
Personal Information Management
25
menus for 36
personal phone list 97
Phone Book 75
new 79
printing 377
searching 78
Phone Book data card 77
Phone Book field
adding or deleting 77
Phone Book files 79
translating from HP 95LX 79
Phone Book structure
altering 77
phone configuration options
(Datacomm) 357
phone lists
limitations of 103
phone numbers
dialing with Datacomm 363
phone records 76
maximum number 103
Phone Settings dialog box 357
PI function key 189
PIC file extension 314, 337
picture display 303
pin connections 361
pipe for DOS memory 329, 349
plot conditions 288
plotting
cash flows 227
in Solver 281
NPV vs. I%/YR 227
statistics 240
plug-in card slot 305
plug-in cards
environmental limits 411
PMT function key 197
PMT’ function key 203
point and shoot 185
polar/rectangular conversions 190
Popul annunciator 176
population standard deviation 235
ports
IR 17
serial 17
positioning computers for IR
connection 317
Pound symbol, displaying 302
power adapter 410
charging rates 410
power level of battery 296
power saving 304
power supply 410
power to ports 344
precision 176
preferences
entry 159
group 151
Quickfill 158
Prefix outbox 395
Prev function key 104, 143
PRIN function key 203
print parameters
Memo 134
print to file (PIM) 380
printed symbols 380
Page 451
printer configuration 50
printer connection
Epson FX-80 376
HP LaserJet 376
IBM ProPrinter 376
printer, current type 296
printers
Epson FX-80 376
HP LaserJet 376
IBM ProPrinter 376
using 375
printing 377
account balances 171
categories 172
expense reports 172
Quicken reports 170
registers 170
splits 170
printing amortization tables 207
printing codes (memos) 135
printing date and time fields 126
printing from other computers 133
printing lists (PIM) 377
printing memos 133
printing page numbers (Memo) 125
printing PIM files 377
printing records (PIM) 380
printing setup
Memo 134
printing specifications (memos)
134
printing to file 133
printing to-do items 380
printing with Smart Clips 380
priority setting
changing the default 71
PRN file extension 314, 337
PrntFld function key
125, 126, 136
Prob function key 266
program icon 328
programs
running by appointment 64
running from drive A 351
running from drive E 351
starting in DOS 334
project group 151
Promote function key 131, 132
promoting outlined text 132
promoting subcategories 150
protecting (backing up) files 313
punctuation setting 301
punctuation settings
1-2-3 vs. other applications 302
PV function key 197
Px,y function key 192
Q
QIF files 161
Quicken
accounts 145
accounts in brackets 159
adding categories 149
adding earlier transactions 168
adding groups 151
balancing accounts 163
balancing problems 166
basics 145
beeping preference 159
categories 148
category list 149
changing category names 150
choosing a file 148
class 151
client 151
concepts 145
data organization 145
deleting accounts 147
deleting categories 150
demoting categories 150
Page 452
editing accounts 146
entry preferences 159
expense reporting 152
exporting files 161
files 145
group title 151
groups 148, 150
home base 146
importing files 161
merging categories 150
merging files 160
moving categories 150
password protection 38
printing 170
project 151
promoting subcategories 150
QIF files 161
QuickFill 157
QuickKeys 157
reconciling accounts 163
register 153
selecting accounts 146
setting up accounts 145
setting up files 147
sharing data 160
splitting transactions 158
subcategories 149
subgroups 151
transactions 154
transferring between accounts
158
trimming files 147
trip 151
QuickFill 157
QuickKeys 157
Quit command 36
quitting applications 24, 306
quitting data communication 362
quitting Datacomm 362
quitting dialog boxes 32
quitting DOS 331
quitting DOS applications 331
quitting SMC applications 331
quitting System Manager 333
R
RAD annunciator 176
radio interference 429
RADIUS function key 190
RAM 299, 331
available 332
disk 20, 299, 331
disk, allocation 299
division 296
managing 20
maximizing 333
system 20
total 332
used by 1-2-3 332
RAN# function key 192
ranges, deleting or copying 39
RCF file extension 314
RCL annunciator 176
reading mail
Interactive Connection 400
reboot options 353
rebooting the system 22, 331, 353
REC file extension 337
recalling numbers to calc line 181
rechargeable batteries 409
recharging rates 410
reciprocal 177
Reconcile Problem screen 166
Reconcile Register screen 164
reconciling accounts 163
problems 166
record fields 30
recording system macros 322
records 25, 26, 51, 76
city 108
Page 453
printing 380
selecting subsets of 93, 98
recovering deleted directories 308
recovering deleted files 308
redirector 401
register (Quicken) 153
registers 182
regulatory information 429
relational operators
SSL 100
remap (CTF file) 358
remapping, keyboard 344
remote
connection broken 319, 321
system 360
window 319
removing city records from Custom
list 111
renaming directories 308
renaming files 308
repair 404
Repeat function key 52
Repeat options (Appt) 52
repeat status 55
repeating appointments 52
repeating events 56
Replace function key 129
Replace mode (Memo) 121, 130
replacing batteries 406
replacing mail directory 394
replacing specified text 129
reserved file names 336
reset options 353
resetting the system 22, 331, 353
restaurant database 81
restoring a deleted note 140
restoring deleted city records 111
restoring deleted text in memos 127
restoring deletions 63, 77
RM function key 184
ROM 331
definition 20
ROM cards, environmental limits
411
ROM city 111
Roman numerals in outlining 131
root directories
files in 336
root directory 306
RPN annunciator 176
ruler (Memo) 130
Ruler command 130
rules for Solver equations 256
running DOS 334
running files 308
running programs
by appointment 64
from drive A 351
from drive E 351
running system macros 323
S
S function (Solver) 268
sad face (to-dos) 67
Sample annunciator 176
sample statistics 235
Save As command 122, 123, 128
Save As function key (Note Taker)
144
Save function key 127
Saved Message folder 385
saving accounts 145
saving battery power 304
saving cash-flow data 223
saving data 21
saving database definitions 86
saving Datacomm configurations
359
saving mail 391
saving memos 122
Page 454
saving memos automatically 124
saving received data (Datacomm)
364
saving system macros 325
savings account 200
scheduling appointments 52
Scientific format 293
screen
split (two-window) 315
switching between local and
remote 319
switching between split and full
315
screen annunciators 27
script files 358, 364
logon 366
special characters 366
use during connection 366
scrolling in boxes 31
Search menu 36
searching a database 78
searching a memo file 129
searching for text in files 309
searching for text in PIM 39
searching the note list 141
SEED function key 192
selecting directories 309
selecting files 309
selecting items 35
selecting Quicken accounts 146
selecting subsets of data 93, 98
selecting text in memos 126
selecting text range 40
sending mail 391
SERCTL 344
serial cable
pin connections 361
serial cable (PC) 372, 375
serial interface (Datacomm) 357
serial modems 373
serial port 17
server 401
service 404
setting 1-2-3 sorting order 303
setting audio volume 298
setting currency symbol 301
setting display contrast 299
setting memory allocation 299
setting the date 297
setting the date format 297
setting the time 298
setting the time format 298
setting up Quicken accounts 145
setting up Quicken files 147
settings
Appointment Book 69
country default 301
Setup
starting 296
vs. KEYBEZ 301
Setup command (Memo) 124
setup printing information
Memo 134
shared Solver variables 248
sharing Quicken data 160
shift key 17, 34
shortcut keys 28, 328
in databases 85
Show DataCard 89, 141
SIN function key 189
Size function key 103
size of display (Datacomm) 363
sizing database fields 84
Smart Clip 41, 127
definitions 85
printing using 380
SMC applications 327
closing 331
installing 327
leaving 331
Page 455
opening 330
quitting 331
snooze alarms 56
Solve Catalog 243
function keys 250
solve cell 250
Solver
algebraic expression 270
backsolving 250
catalog 243
clearing variables 248
conditional expressions 266
constants 257
counter variable 270
date formats 258
deleting equations 248
editing equations 247
ending value 270
entering equations 244
entering guesses 255
equation length 256
equation list 244
equation rules 256
examples 271
function plotting 281
functions 257, 258
functions listing 259
graphing 281
how it works 254
in 1-2-3 250
interactive graphics 289
iterative search 255
multiple equation lists 250
multiple equations 268
operator priority 257
rules 256
shared variables 248
solve cell 250
starting value 270
step size 270
summing function 270
TVM functions 269
variables 247, 256
worksheet 251
Solver examples 271
Sort function key 104, 143
sort order 344
setting for 1-2-3 303
sorting data lists 90
sorting files 311
sorting order in data lists
changing 90
sorting orders in data lists
examples 91
Southern DST setting 113
spacing in memos 129
speaker volume 298
special characters 415
specifying a picture display 303
specifying a Topcard 303
specifying audio volume 298
specifying display contrast 299
specifying memory allocation 299
speed-locate 78
city list 108
in list boxes 31
note list 141
split screen 315
file transfer 318
file/directory transfer 320
switching from split to full 315
splitting transactions 158
square root 177
SSL 99
compared with Define Subset
screen 102
SSL operators 100, 101
SSL statements 99
examples 102
STA file extension 314, 337
Page 456
stack 181
clearing 186
stamping date and time 34
standard deviation 235
Start Date field
appointment 52
Start Time field 52
starting DOS applications 330
starting Setup 296
starting SMC applications 330
starting System Manager 333
starting value (Solver) 270
startup application 294
statistics 231
calculating 233
curve fitting 236
data entry 232
examples 234
forecasting 236
graphing 240
models 240
plotting 240
summations 239
Stats function key 233
status bar (Memo) 130
Status command 130
step size 270
sticky shift key 17
STO annunciator 176
stop bits 357
stopping data communication 362
Stopwatch 118
storage cards 21
storing numbers (Calc) 182
structure of a database 82
subcategories 149
promoting 150
subdirectories 306, 336
subgroups 151
subset
current directory 311
subset definitions 92
comparing methods of 102
deleting 85, 99
editing 99
examples 98, 102
logical operators 98
operators for 100, 101
subset definitions with multiple
criteria 97
Subset function key
92, 104, 114, 142
subsets 92, 99
defining 93, 98, 99
defining database (example) 95
defining with operators 97
of city list 114
of note list 142
viewing 93
summation statistics 239
summing function (Solver) 270
Sums function key 239
support 404
switching between local and remote
windows 319
switching between split and full
screen 315
Sync view 311
syntax symbols 339
SYS file extension 337
system date 61
system macro examples 326
system macros 322
System Manager
closing 333
restarting 333
System Manager applications 346
System Manager vs. DOS
applications 301
system RAM 20, 299, 331, 332
Page 457
system reset 22
System time
offset from (World Time) 109
system time 108
T
tab key 34
tabs 125
tagging files 309
TAN function key 189
temperature conversions 230
temperature limits 411
termination string 135
testing criteria for subsets 98
text
copying 40
deleting 41
moving 40
searching for in files 309
text boxes 29
Text field (Database) 83
text files
formatted and unformatted 123
inserting in messages 393
viewing 308
text range highlighting 35, 40
thousands separator, changing
symbol 301
time
around the world 107
converting across time zones 112
default setting 301
delimiters 298
interpreting (Appt Book) 70
intervals in appointments 70
local 108
setting 298
setting format 298
stamping 34, 138
zones 112
time fields
appointment 52, 61
Database 83
time intervals in appointments 70
Time Offset From field (World
Time) 109
time print fields (Memo) 126
time stamping 121
timeline option 70
Timeout (Datacomm) 358
title bar 25
Title field 138
TMP file extension 337
to-do items
symbols for 380
to-do lists 65
components 70
to-do record 66
to-do settings 71
to-dos
symbols for 66
ToDo Defaults 71
Topcard 303
TOTAL function key 194
total RAM 332
transaction reports 170
transactions 154
adding 156
deleting 156
editing 156
entering 156
making 156
splitting 158
voiding 157
transferring between accounts 158
transferring directories (IR
connection) 317
transferring directories between HP
200LXs 318
transferring directories HP 200LX
Page 458
to HP 95LX 320
transferring files 316
HP 100LX to HP 200LX 319
transferring files (IR connection)
317
transferring files between HP
200LX and HP 95LX 320
transferring files between HP
200LXs 318
transferring files, HP 95LX to HP
200LX 319
transferring Quicken data 160
translating 100LX files 79
translating characters (Datacomm)
367
translating HP 95LX Appt Books
320
translating HP 95LX files 68, 79
translating HP 95LX Phone Books
320
Tree View 310, 311
Trig function key 266
trigonometric functions 189
trimming data files 147
trip group 151
trout fishing 56
TSRs 351
Turkish code page 427
TV interference 429
TVM
amortization 201
cases 197
clearing data 197
discounted mortgage 214
erasing data 197
interest rate conversions 210
interest-only loan 216
lease 200
loan with fees 215
mortgage with balloon 199
procedure 197
savings account 200
screen 195
Solver functions 269
tax-free account 217
taxable retirement account 219
variables 197
two-window display 315
TXT file extension 314
typefaces 124
types of accounts 145
types of memory 331
U
undelete 63, 77
underlined text 124
Undo command 44, 88, 99
Clipboard 39
uneven cash flows 221
examples 223
plotting 227
unit conversions
area 230
currency 228
length 230
mass 230
temperature 230
volume 230
Universal time, offset from 109
Unsync view 311
updating address books 388
use of memory 332
using printers 375
V
valid characters, file names 336
VALUE function key 251
values, moving between Calculator
and 1-2-3 184
variables (Solver) 247, 256
Page 459
View menu 36
viewing complete directory 311
viewing directory subset 311
viewing full precision 176
viewing messages 400
viewing note records 137
viewing zoomed display 352
Views field (Appt) 52
views in PIM applications 25
voiding transactions 157
volume conversions 230
volume of sound 298
W
Yearly repeat option (Appt) 52
Yen symbol, displaying 302
Yes DST setting 113
YVALUE function key 237
Z
Z-Out function key 282
ZOOM 34
Appointment Book 70
Calculator 176
in Datacomm 363
in DOS 352
in memos 129
warranty 403
WDB file extension 314, 337
week-at-a-glance 52
weekly appointment lists
changing the default 70
Weekly repeat option (Appt) 52
weighted mean 236
wildcards 38
window moving in display
(Datacomm) 363
WK1 file extension 314, 337
worksheets in Solver 251
world map 112
World Time 107
function keys 116
printing 377
writing system macros 322
X
XCOORD function key 190
XINE utility 347
XON-XOFF flow control 358
XVALUE function key 237
Y
YCOORD function key 190
Page 460
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement