Microscopic Dentistry A Practical Guide Microscopic Dentistry A Practical Guide Publisher Editors Carl Zeiss Dr. Tony Druttman Dr. Greg Finn Authors Dr. José Aranguren Cangas Coordination Dr. Kristina Badalyan Slaven Sestic Dr. Rino Burkhardt Dr. Annett Burzlaff Dr. Maciej Goczewski Dr. Manor Haas Oscar Freiherr von Stetten Dr. Bijan Vahedi Dr. Maxim Stosek Dr. Claudia Cia Worschech Dr. Tony Druttman Foreword Dear Reader, Enhancing the visualization of medical The authors have succeeded in providing a most professionals is a core focal point for us at the valuable guide to using the surgical microscope in a Medical Technology Business of ZEISS. We strive range of dental applications. The articles were written to help our users across a broad range of medical with the idea in mind that they shall enable a step-by- disciplines see more. Seeing more can help step implementation that unlocks the full potential of clinicians to generate better outcomes, master even surgical microscopy in your daily practice: highly complex cases, to gain greater enjoyment and satisfaction from their work and finally - but How can the surgical microscope support an most importantly - improve patients’ lives. ergonomically correct, upright working position which is health promoting for the dentist over the long term? Since its inception in 1921, surgical microscopy has been crucial for the advancement of several surgical How can the surgical microscope broaden your clinical fields, such as brain tumour surgery, vascular scope and increase your efficiency - as key to the neurosurgery, cataract or retinal surgery. realization of a return on your investments? As Pioneer in Surgical Microscopes, we have constantly pushed the boundaries of visualization. How can the use of the surgical microscope add crucial Today, a large number of the mentioned surgical benefit to specific procedural steps in every major procedures would not be conceivable without the dental application? use of a surgical microscope. How can documentation with the surgical microscope In dental visualization we are at an earlier stage of increase patients’ involvement in the treatment and this journey. Even though the surgical microscope demonstrate your skills? has become the standard of care in endodontics, today only a single-digit percentage of all dentists I am confident that implementing some of the precious worldwide enjoy the benefits of working with insights of this book in your daily practice will change this tool. We firmly believe that this will change your professional life for the better. as the surgical microscope will pave the way to accelerated medical progress in many applications in dentistry by giving the clinician a greater degree Sincerely, of control in a range of delicate procedural steps. In endodontics, the surgical microscope is already an integral part of the postgraduate curriculum. For other dental applications, we are not there yet. Therefore many dentists are seeking guidance on how to integrate microscopy into their daily Dr. Christian Schwedes practice, beyond endodontics. To help fill this gap, Director Business Sector Dental & Office, we asked leading clinical specialists in different Carl Zeiss Meditec AG disciplines of micro-dentistry to contribute to this publication. Table of contents 1 The OPMI 2 Ergonomics 3 OPMI in Endodontics 4 OPMI in Periodontology and Implantology 5 OPMI in Restorative and Prosthodontics 6 Documentation 7 Practice Management 25 Why use a surgical microscope? 26 Benefits 27 How the OPMI differs from medical loupes and the intra-oral camera 55Definitions of ergonomics 73Introduction 105 Do we need an OPMI in periodontal and implant therapy? 135 Why use the surgical microscope in restorative and prosthodontic dentistry? 181 Why? 191 106 What are the advantages and disadvantages of the use of an OPMI in periodontology and implantology? 136 Prevention and diagnosis 110 What does the “microsurgical concept” consist of? 142 Fractured line – “cracks” 122 Which are the first steps to getting used to working with the OPMI? 150 Matrix adaptation 28 The human eye – how it works and why it is limited Accommodation 29 Stereoscopy 30 31 32 34 35 36 37 38 40 The components of an OPMI Objective lens Varioscope Magnification changer Zoom system Binocular tube Eyepieces Set-up OPMI – Quick Guide Co-observation 41Optics Correction for chromatic aberration 42 High transmission of light Depth of field 44 Field of view 45 How to calculate end magnification 46 Ergonomics and workflow Varioscope 47 Looking around the corner – MORA interface and angled optics 48Light Light sources 49 Filters and pinhole diaphragm 56Overloads 58 Minimizing overloads 60 Position of dentist 61 Operator range of 9-12 o’clock working positions 62 Position of the patient 64 OPMI position 66 Functional design 67 OPMI assistance 74 Magnification in endodontics Working magnification 75 Uses of the OPMI in endodontics 76 Microendodontic instruments 77 Ultrasonics Ultrasonics tips Uses of ultrasonics in endodontics 78 Mirrors Micro instruments Files with a handle Stropko syringe 79Burs Dyes 80 82 83 84 85 86 88 91 92 93 95 Examination of the external surface of the tooth Identification of the floor of the pulp chamber Removal of coronal restorations Preservation of tooth structure Assessement of canal cleanliness after preparation Identification of internal cracks Canal location Calcified canals Evaluation and management of perforations Obturation of the canal Non-surgical retreatment Uses of the OPMI in non-surgical retreatment: Apical plug with MTA File evaluation 94 Endodontic root-end surgery 126 How can you acquire expertise in periodontal and peri-implant microsurgery? 182How? Photo/video 186 Practical advice 137 Bacterial plaque 138Caries 148 Preparation control The benefits of the OPMI extend far beyond the obvious and well-proven clinical benefits. 192 Integration into clinical practice 193 The OPMI as a communication tool Dento-legal aspects 194 Marketing the OPMI 195 Health benefits to the dentist 153 Rubber dam applications in anterior and posterior areas 196 Financials of the OPMI 154 Cervical lesions 156 Finishing and polishing 128 Which are the common errors in the use of the OPMI in surgical practice? 160 Possibilities for analyzing the surgical field at different magnifications 130References 164 Replacements – avoiding wear 166 The Tunnel preparation technique 168 Indirect restorations 172Instruments 174 Excellence in operative and prosthetic dentistry with regard to communication with patients 176References 50 Free floating system – balanced system and magnetic brakes 51Maintenance 6 OPMI and Varioskop are registered trademarks of Carl Zeiss 7 The moment you see a hidden detail reveal a visible success. This is the moment we work for. // DENTAL OPTICS MADE BY ZEISS Key benefit 1 // Magnification with OPMI* You can only treat what you can see… *OPMI – Operation Microscope Key benefit 1 // Magnification with OPMI INSTRUMENT REMOVAL RETREATMENT CALCIFIED CANALS CRACKS AND FRACTURES SOFT TISSUE MANAGEMENT TUNNEL PREPARATION TOOTH PRESERVATION CARIES 8.5X …or you see more and treat more 13.6X Key benefit 2 // Ergonomics 8 hours of spine strain… 14 15 Key benefit 2 // Ergonomics …or 8 hours of working in comfort 16 17 Key benefit 3 // Visualization and Documentation A picture is worth a thousand words… 18 19 Key benefit 3 // Visualization and documentation …for better communication 20 21 1 1 The OPMI Author: Dr. Annett Burzlaff 25 Why use a surgical microscope? 26 Benefits 27 How the OPMI differs from medical loupes and intra-oral camera 28 The human eye – how it works and why it is limited Accommodation 29 Stereoscopy 30 31 32 34 35 36 37 38 40 The components of an OPMI Objective lens Varioscope Magnification changer Zoom system Binocular tube Eyepieces Set-up OPMI – Quick Guide Co-observation 41Optics Correction for chromatic aberration 42 High transmission of light Depth of field 44 Field of view 45 How to calculate end magnification 46 Ergonomics and workflow Varioscope 47 Looking around the corner – MORA interface and angled optics 48Light Light sources 49 Filters and pinhole diaphragm 50 Free floating system – balanced system and magnetic brakes 51Maintenance 23 1 The OPMI Why use an OPMI? Can you still remember the first time you looked through a Beginning in 1990, many innovative dentists from numerous microscope or magnifying glass? Perhaps the first thing you countries pressed for the use of OPMIs in dentistry: this saw was a daisy which you thought you knew well, but which drive towards microdentistry was led by Dr. Syngcuk Kim then under the OPMI opened up a new world for you. We (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) and Dr. Clifford Ruddle (Santa are not only drawn into the microcosm by our curiosity, but Barbara, California) in the USA, as well as Dr. Peter Velvart we also benefit from the insight we can gain into intricate (Zurich, Switzerland) in Europe, among others. While details and structures. Microscopy is an integral part of many endodontics is the main discipline in which OPMIs are surgical disciplines nowadays. Doctors first used the surgical used in dentistry, other disciplines such as periodontology, microscope for microsurgical operations in the ENT area in implantology or restorative dentistry are adopting the use 1921. Ophthalmologists then attached lighting technology to of magnification technology. The dentist benefits from the surgical microscope and used it to perform eye operations. several advantages of OPMIs, regardless of the discipline. In the mid-1960s, neurosurgeons recognized the advantages Magnification enhances the visual acuity and supports more of using OPMIs for operations. Neurosurgery is today no precise treatment. However, no light means no information. longer imaginable without documentation and navigation OPMIs are therefore designed in such a way that they combine systems. The OPMI had been undergoing development for the magnifying lens and the light source. No matter whether around 60 years before finding its way into the world of they are working with low or high magnification, the dentists dentistry. benefit from shadow-free, direct light. It is natural for us to orientate ourselves visually in our surroundings. That is how we judge distances and perceive size and space. We are able to do this thanks to stereoscopic vision. An OPMI provides the conditions required for stereoscopic vision and therefore for depth orientation. This, in turn, enables the safe, precise use of instruments and improves ergonomics. Relaxed eye muscles and being able to sit upright during treatment prevent fatigue and posture impairments. 24 25 1 The OPMI 3.5 X 5.1 X 8.5 X 21.25 X 13.6 X How the OPMI differs from medical Benefits loupes and the intra-oral camera When working with instruments on a A correctly configured OPMI can prevent patient, a certain distance is required symptoms of fatigue. On the following In dentistry, the first introduction enables the dentist to switch between Intra-oral cameras also provide between the object, i.e. the tooth in pages you will find detailed information into the world of magnification is overview to detailed view in a matter magnified images, but they are only the oral cavity, and the front lens of about the components of an OPMI, generally a medical loupe. of seconds. The working distance of a two-dimensional and do not provide the OPMI. This is what is referred to what makes a good image and how to A medical loupe fulfills some of the medical loupe is fixed. Since a medical any depth information. When looking as the working distance. In dentistry, best configure the microscope. aforementioned requirements and loupe is worn on the dentist’s head, it through the OPMI, the dentist has the working distance with an OPMI is benefits, but compared to an OPMI follows every movement of the wearer. three-dimensional vision which is usually between 200 and 300 mm to is somewhat limited in its options. For the duration of the movement, the important for orientation and perception ensure that enough space is provided Medical loupes are available with a field of view is blurred to a greater or of spatial dimensions. This is necessary, to handle the instruments over the fixed magnification between 2 - 5 lesser extent. The dentist has to find the for example, to correctly position the patient. The correct working distance times. If the dentist wishes to have a correct working distance to enjoy a fully dental instruments. In addition, when depends on the height of the dentist. different magnification, this requires focused image again. The OPMI on the using the intra-oral camera the dentist The taller the dentist, the longer the using a different pair of loupes. The other hand, is mounted on a stand, is has to interrupt the workflows to record working distance. Using the correct magnification factor of an OPMI is moved into position by the dentist and images. Video recording of treatment individual working distance on an OPMI variable between approximately 1.5 - then remains stable. Special optics allow has to be done by a third party. is crucial for a correct working posture. 30 times and can be altered by using the working distance to be changed Conversely with an integrated camera Using an OPMI supports the ergonomics the magnification changer or zoom to ensure a comfortable working or with still or video cameras attached of the dentist as the microscope can system, depending on the model of posture of the dentist. The higher the to the OPMI, images or video recordings more or less look “around the corner”. OPMI. While an overview of the mouth magnification of loupes, the heavier of exceptional quality can be obtained Therefore, the dentist can sit upright can be seen at lower magnifications, they become and therefore potentially while treatment is being carried out. and benefits from good ergonomics. detailed structures can be viewed more uncomfortable. Modern loupes better using the higher magnification also have a battery operated headlight of an OPMI, e.g. to locate a root canal, which needs to be recharged or to find additional root canals. This periodically. 26 27 1 The OPMI The human eye – how it works and why it is limited Optical axis Small working distance Large working distance Large angle of view Small angle of view Figure 1.1: The focused object is on the optical axis. The farther the object is removed from the eye, the smaller the angle at which it is projected on the retina. Finer details can be recognized only if the object is closer to the eye and thus the angle to the retina is greater Accommodation Stereoscopy The human eye is a flexible optical depicted on the retina with a small angle near objects. The ability to see detailed The fact that we have two eyes that an instrument is in front of, next to or system that can adapt to various of view. To be able to see fine details, structures also begins to deteriorate. An are adjacent to one another forms the behind an anatomical structure. In order requirements. It can produce an image we have to bring the object closer to OPMI overcomes these natural limitations. basis of stereoscopic vision. The left and to enable this orientation, OPMIs are of objects at a great distance, but we the eye. As a result, the angle of view On the one hand, it magnifies detailed right eyes perceive a particular object designed as stereomicroscopes. This can also read a text that is only increases and we can break down the structures, and the fine structures can from two different angles (parallax). enables the left and right eyes to view 30 cm away. The eye adjusts to various individual structures (Figure 1.1). This is then be distinguished. On the other hand, The brain then puts these two slightly an object from slightly different angles. distances. In order to focus objects at why a dentist has to bend down over the the eye can adjust almost to infinity when different sets of visual information We can then retain three-dimensional various distances, a system of muscles patient’s oral cavity in order to be able to looking through an OPMI. This relaxes the together to form a 3D image. This vision and this depth perception when generates the required refractive power see details at a distance of approximately ciliary muscles and fatigue symptoms are allows us to see the third dimension, to looking through the OPMI. for the lenses of the eyes. If we look 30 cm. The easiest type of magnification reduced. estimate distance, size and position and at a landscape, the ciliary muscle is is therefore to bring an object closer to to orientate ourselves. We also require relaxed and the lens is flat. However, the eye. However, the eye’s abilities are three-dimensional image information if we read text, the ciliary muscles limited. A baby can clearly see objects when looking at a treatment area. Only contract, causing the lens to become that are 7 cm away, a 30 year-old person with three-dimensional vision are we convex. The refractive power is thus at 30 cm. On reaching the age of 40, able to determine whether the tip of increased and we can clearly recognize most people become presbyopic and small letters. Extended contraction of the distance between the object and the ciliary muscle can cause fatigue. In the eye becomes increasingly bigger. order to relax the eyes, we look to a The eye’s ability to accommodate to more distant scene. If we look at a small short distances deteriorates, meaning object from a greater distance, it is that we can no longer focus as well on 28 29 1 The OPMI The components of an OPMI Before going into greater detail about the individual components of an OPMI, let us first look at the optical paths (Figure 1.2). Image plane on the retina Eyepiece Intermediate image plane Tube Head If the treatment field is in the focal Objective lens plane of the objective lens, the objective The objective lens is the first optical the focal distance, i.e. the working component that the image information distance of the lens, the greater the crosses on its path from the object to end magnification (for calculation of the eye. The lenses vary in their focal the end magnification, see Section beam splitter can be inserted. The distance (= focal length). This influences 4.5) and the greater the resolution. magnification changer magnifies or the working distance (i.e. the distance The lens should be equipped with a minimizes the image by a given factor. between the object in the treatment fine-focus knob. That means that even The binocular tube head is placed on field and the surface of the lens), the at high magnification levels, images lens creates an image at infinity. Behind the main objective lens the optical paths are parallel. Different components like the magnification changer or the OPMI body with magnfication changer magnification and the resolution. These can be precisely focused over a short eyepieces for the left and right eyes. three criteria influence one another. distance (e.g. when viewing root canals The two optical paths provide slightly The most common working distances in great detail). To change the working different viewing angles, which creates are 200, 250 and 300 mm. The focal distance, the lens must be unscrewed distance of e.g. f = 250 mm is engraved and replaced with an lens with a from the object. The left and right optical paths in on the lens mount. This roughly equates different focal distance. However, this is is referred to as the stereo base. The the OPMI view different angles of the object and to the working distance of the lens. impractical in practice and interrupts the stereo base is essential for producing a thus create the impression of a three-dimensional In order to view the image clearly, the workflow. A varioscope is useful in this image depending on the selected position. The OPMI lens ( e.g. f = 250 mm) must have event and offers much more flexibility tube creates an intermediate image tube lens of the binocular tube head creates an a working distance of approximately as it can change the working distance which is magnified by the eyepiece and intermediate image of the object, which is projec- 250 mm to the object. The object is continuously. the OPMI body and contains the two the stereoscopic image impression. The distance between the two optical paths three-dimensional image. The binocular projected onto the exit pupils. The lens of the eye then receives the image and focuses it on the retina. Lens Figure 1.2: The lens collects the image information image. The magnification changer magnifies the ted into the eye, magnified with the eyepiece. The the right way. The tube head allows adjustment of The OPMI can be raised or lowered the pupil distance, so that the pupils of the viewer to focus the object, provided the lens match the OPMI‘s exit pupils 30 then within the focal point of the lens. prisms in the binocular tube head rotate the image Object plane has been set to a distance of e.g. 250 mm from the object. The shorter 31 1 The OPMI Internal displacement of the lens system Figure 1.4: The working distance can be changed according to the internal displacement of the varioscope’s second lens system. There are motorized varioscopes which focus on the image at the press of a button. Therefore, the dentist can focus Large working distance without changing his or her own seated position. The height of the OPMI can be set in a range from Small working distance 200 to 415 mm, e.g. above the patient‘s oral cavity. This allows the dentist to adjust the OPMI to suit his or her individual ergonomic needs Object plane Figure 1.3: Using Varioskop 100 of OPMI pico the dentist can focus continuously, for example, from the incisors to the molars in the patient‘s oral cavity Varioscope without changing the position of the OPMI. The height of OPMI pico can be set in a range from 200 to 300 mm above the patient‘s oral cavity allowing Unlike an objective lens with fixed focal adaptation to the personal ergonomic needs of the length, a varioscope has a variable dentist. focal length. Therefore, it can be set to a range of working distances to meet different application and ergonomic requirements. The focal range of a up and down results in much more motorized varioscope of OPMI PROergo, Figures 1.5a, 1.5b: OPMI PROergo varioscope can be varied from 200 to precise focusing and speeds up the it can be controlled by pressing a comes with a motorized varioscope. 300 mm or even from 200 to 415 mm workflow. How is this possible? The lens button on the handgrip (Figure. 1.5). depending on the OPMI. This ensures system of a varioscope is composed of This makes the workflow more efficient a wide range of working distances for two lens groups. To focus at a selected and contributes significantly to the a comfortable working position, even working distance, the upper lens group ergonomics of the OPMI. Automatic for hours at a time. Unlike an OPMI is repositioned along the optical axis focus is even more convenient. with a fixed focal length lens, it is not (Figure 1.4). The adjustment of the By pressing a single button, the ZEISS necessary to raise or lower an OPMI focal plane within the working distance SpeedFocus system of the OPMI with a varioscope to focus it within its range can be performed manually PROergo focuses the OPMI in a matter focal range. For example, it is possible (S100 / OPMI pico with Varioskop 100) of seconds by analyzing live images to focus by turning the focus knob of or motorized (S7 / OPMI PROergo). recorded by a camera. the varioscope from the incisors to When using a manual Varioskop 100 the molars in the patient’s oral cavity on OPMI pico, it can be controlled without moving the OPMI. Using the by manually turning the knob on the varioscope instead of moving the OPMI varioscope (Figure 1.3). When using a 32 The dentist can vary the working distance over a range of 200 – 415 mm by using the control button of the handgrip 33 1 The OPMI Figure 1.6: A five-step magnification changer is composed of a turret with two telescopes and one position without a lens. Depending on the position of the magnification changer in the optical path, there are different magnification factors. The factor in the lens-free position is 1. Zoom system Magnification changer During treatment it is important empty position without optics that The advantage of step magnification Zoom systems allow the magnification A zoom system shows its full that the magnification factor can be provides a magnification factor of 1. changers is their compact construction of the overall system to be set as potential when motorized as in altered to gain an overview at lower Therefore, a total of 5 magnification with low technical complexity, yet required by the treatment. The dentist S7 / OPMI PROergo: magnifications and to view in more factors are available. Usually the high optical quality and efficiency. The can continuously change between • stepless zoom detail at higher magnifications. There magnification factors are 0.4, 0.6, limitation is that magnification can overview and a detailed view. As with • faster adjustment of magnification are two technical solutions for this 1.0, 1.6, 2.5. (Please note that these only be selected in steps, and the view the magnification changer, the zoom • control via multi-functional handgrip purpose: the magnification changer numbers are not the end magnifications. of the treatment area is blocked while ratio (1:6) can be calculated by dividing • control via foot switch. If the dentist (= Galilean changer) and the stepless To calculate the end magnification, the turret is being turned. Turning the highest magnification factor (2.4) by uses a foot switch, he or she can zoom system. The majority of OPMIs are further optical parameters must be the magnification factor must be the smallest (0.4). The zoom system is adjust the zoom factor without having fitted with a magnification changer. The considered, as described in Section 4.5). performed manually. Zoom systems are composed of several optical elements, to take their hands off the instrument. most common magnification changer The ratio between the largest and the considerably more convenient. of which two are adjustable. By altering has 5 steps. The optical principle is smallest magnification factor gives the the position of the two adjustable checked: in combination with an an astronomical telescope, called the extension range of the magnification elements over a precisely calculated internal video camera, the end Galilean telescope after its inventor. changer: 2.5 / 0.4 = 6.25 curve, the various magnification factors magnification or a scale bar can be The magnification ratio is 1:6.25. can be achieved smoothly along the • the magnification level can be displayed on the monitor. • For the purposes of documentation, The magnification changer is composed magnification range. In order to achieve of a turret with two telescope systems the stereoscopic effect, there are two the image section can be optimally of different magnification factors parallel optical paths in the zoom system adjusted to the size of the camera (Figure 1.6). By turning the turret the that must behave absolutely identical sensor, so that a tooth, for example, telescopic systems can be viewed in with regard to their optics and precision. can be displayed to fill the whole either direction to achieve different photo or monitor. magnification factors. There is a total of four magnification factors plus one 34 35 1 The OPMI Figure 1.7a: For more user comfort, the distance to the Figure 1.7b: The foldable tube f170 / f260 head accommodates easily to the various ergonomics of surgical field can be adjusted as needed with the different operators. Both dentists can work with the same working distance as the different eye levels of multi-link design of the foldable tube f170/f260 head. the dentists are compensated for by the adjustable foldable tube f170 / f260 head. The foldable tube head can be mounted to OPMI pico or OPMI PROergo Eyepieces Binocular tube OPMIs are used in an almost long reach and multilink design this Just like a magnifying glass, the two ability is limited and the dentist needs perpendicular position above the tube head accommodates different eyepieces magnify the intermediate to be able to see normally when not patient in dentistry. In order to provide ergonomics of different operators or image produced in the tube. looking through the OPMI. Certain eye the dentist with a comfortable and different positions of the patient. problems, e.g. astigmatism, cannot The magnification factor (10x or 12.5x) be corrected by the eyepiece. If the Figure 1.8: The blue circle corresponds to the inclinable or foldable tube head is The tube head also uses the stereoscopic is labeled on the eyepieces. Thus, the refractive error of the eye is corrected field of view of a 10x eyepiece and the red mounted to the OPMI body and directs principle of the left and right optical eyepieces have an effect on the end by prescription lenses, the dioptric circle corresponds to the field of view of a the optical path to the eyes of the path for a three dimensional image. magnification. Anyone requiring as high correction of the eyepiece should be dentist. A 45° inclined tube head is The binocular tube head contains a lens a magnification as possible (e.g. for set to 0. The dentist’s eyes must be at fixed at an angle of 45° and offers and has a defined focal distance endodontics) will choose eyepieces with a certain distance to the eyepieces so that, conversely, the maximum final magnification limited ergonomics. A inclinable tube (e.g. f=170 mm as shown on the tube 12.5x magnification. Eyepieces with 10x that they are in the exit pupils of the is higher when using a 12.5x eyepiece head (0-180°) allows the dentist to head). Prisms inside the tube head magnification do, however, provide a eyepieces and can see the entire field of alter the angle of the eyepiece holders create an upright, accurate image. The considerably larger field of view, and can view. Eyecups or distancing rings should by 180°. That means that the viewing eyepieces in the binocular tube head are therefore provide a better overview of be extended when using the OPMI angle of the tube can be adjusted to the the interface between the OPMI and the the entire treatment area (Figure 1.8). without glasses. Dentists who wear position of the OPMI in such a way that dentist’s eyes. The distance between the the dentist’s head can remain upright pupils varies from person to person and Eyepieces are fitted with a ring for rings as the glasses already function and the dentist does not have to lean ranges from 54 to 76 mm. It is essential dioptric adjustment. This means that as a spacer. Figure 1.9 (next page) backwards or forwards - an important to set the correct individual distance, dentists with perfect or impaired vision shows the individual steps for personal requirement for relaxed, ergonomic otherwise the eyes quickly become can use the OPMI. Ametropia can be configuration of the OPMI. work. Even more flexible and adaptable fatigued and 3D perception is lost. The corrected to a limited extent. Dentists to different body heights and working setting of the eyepieces is described in with impaired vision should wear their postures of the dentist is the foldable Section 3.6. glasses or contact lenses when using the ergonomic view into the OPMI, a tube head (Figure 1.7). Thanks to its 36 12.5x eyepiece. An eyepiece with 10x magnification provides about 20 percent more field of view than an eyepiece with a factor of 12.5x. This means glasses should retract the distancing OPMI, because the OPMI’s corrective 37 1 The OPMI Set-up of OPMI Quick Guide 1 3 Initial setting Adjusting the eyepieces Set the OPMI to the lowest Eyecups Dioptre correction magnification. Select the Adjust the eyecups in such a way that Set the diopter setting ring on the OPMI magnification factor 0.4 on the the entire field of view can be seen. to 0 dioptres. Figure 1.12a Viewing without eyeglasses: screw out Figure 1.12b Viewing without eyeglasses: set dioptre the eyecups until 2-3 silver rings are visible correction according to your correction value of the magnification changer (Figure 1.9). Focus: To focus the image move the OPMI up and down to achieve the correct working distance in accordance with the focal length of the objective lens (e.g. 250 mm). Figure 1.9 magnification changer eye (e.g. -1) 2 Adjusting the interpupillary distance Start from the widest position of the eyepieces and use knob of the tube head to adjust the distance of the eyepieces to your interpupillary distance (Figure1.11) so that the two eyepiece Figure 1.12c Viewing with eyeglasses: screw in Figure 1.12d Viewing with eyeglasses: set dioptre the eyecups all the way (no silver ring visible) setting ring on the OPMI to 0 dioptres images merge into one (Fig 1.10a - c) 4 Adjusting magnification and focus Figure 1.10a Widest position Figure 1.10b Adjusting the distance Figure 1.10c Correct distance Select the maximum magnification and focus: focus on the object by lifting and lowering the OPMI and/ or using the focusing dial (Fig 1.13). Select the magnification required. The focal plane is retained. Figure 1.11 Interpupillary distance in mm at 38 ∞ Figure 1.13 Adjusting the focus dial 39 1 The OPMI Optics In order to see fine detail on the treatment field, good image quality is essential. But what exactly is good image quality? The most important criteria are discussed here in more detail. Longitudinal chromatic aberration, red-blue Figure 1.14: The stereo co-observation tube Without correction is coupled with the OPMI via a beam splitter and can be put in the required position using pivot joints. Object Co-observation Image Correction of chromatic aberration Co-observation means that a second operator can look down the binocular the stereo base is smaller. The If you hold a prism in the sunlight, the person (e.g. assistant) or even more tube and the co-observer, e.g. the stereoscopic co-observer tube can white light is split up into its separate persons (e.g. students, colleagues) can assistant, or assistant surgeon can look be tilted and turned, thus providing colors - we see the colors of the follow the treatment under the OPMI. down the co-observation tube. The co- convenient viewing. An image spectrum. This happens because the Usually a camera is used to show the observation tube can be connected via rotation prism places the image shorter-wave blue light is refracted more live image on a monitor. The advantage an optical splitter between the OPMI in the desired position. The stereo strongly than the longer-wave red light. of a camera-based co-observation is body and the binocular tube. The optical co-observation tube adds weight A similar phenomenon occurs when that one or more persons can follow splitter splits the image information from to the OPMI. Before mounting a light passes through a lens. The focal the treatment without directly looking one of the observation optical paths co-observation tube to the OPMI it distance of the blue light is shorter than through the OPMI. At the same time it is and redirects it into the co-observation is important to check whether the the focal distance of the red light. The possible to record videos or to make still tube. The co-observer therefore has the suspension system of the OPMI can focal point of the blue light is therefore images for documentation. same view of the treatment area as the carry the additional weight. closer to the lens than that of the red dentist. An integrated camera is built into the 2. The monocular co-observation tube. light. As a consequence, the back focal This offers the co-observer a view point becomes blurred, which leads to Apochromatic correction Object Longitudinal chromatic aberration, red-blue (within the resolution limit) Image blue color spectrum green color spectrum red color spectrum OPMI body and does not add much There are two kinds of co-observa- with only one eye. This can be used, poor contrast, chromatic aberration and weight to the system, which makes tion tubes: for example, for workshop OPMIs if low resolution (Figure 1.15). Correction the handling of the OPMI easy. On the 1. The stereoscopic co-observation tube. the teacher would like to co-observe of these chromatic effects is essential other hand, the video image on the With this tube, the co-observer looks the student’s work under the OPMI. for brilliant image quality. OPMIs that screen is two-dimensional and has no into a binocular tube with both contain apochromatically corrected depth. To achieve 3D perception for eyes and sees a stereo image lens systems stand out because of their the co-observer it is possible to mount (Figure 1.14), although the increased resolution and high contrast, a co-observation tube on the OPMI. A stereoscopic effect is slightly reduced even at the periphery of the viewing co-observation tube enables a second for the co-observer compared to area. No chromatic aberrations can be colors. After apochromatic correction, the different colour components of light are nearly person to look into the OPMI. Thus, the that of the main observer because seen. focused at a single point. The result is brilliant image quality without visible chromatic aberration. 40 Figure 1.15: When white light passes through a lens, it is broken into its spectral components. Blue light is refracted more than red and thus focuses closer to the lens. Therefore, there is no single focal point for all 41 1 The OPMI aperture closed aperture open aperture closed small working distance large Object Figure 1.16: The depth of field is the area above and below the focal plane, which appears in focus to the viewer. The smaller the selected magnification and the larger the working distance, High transmission of light Depth of field When light crosses the optical elements When focusing an object in the OPMI, of the OPMI, it can cause reflections on we focus on a particular focal plane. the surfaces of the lenses. These reduce We can also see an area above and the clarity of the image and can lead below the focused area with equal to a loss of light. Coating all lenses and clarity. These areas are referred to as 2. Working distance: the greater the individual basis, which is why OPMI prisms reduces reflections within the the depth of field. Needless to say, it is working distance, the greater the manufacturers generally do not state OPMI. Light transmission and image most comfortable to work with as high depth of field. the depth of field. However, depth contrast are then higher. a depth of field as possible as this allows the greater the depth of field becomes. If a doubleiris aperture is included in the light path, you can better spatial orientation. However, From the first two of the three double iris aperture therefore depends magnification, the greater the depth parameters stated, depth of field can on the desired effect with a particular of field. indeed be calculated. The biological application. Usually the double iris is component does however vary on an used for high-end photography 1. Magnification: the lower the close this to increase the depth of field of field can be increased by inserting 3. Aperture of the objective lens: a double iris aperture in the optical depth of field is an optical property that the aperture determines at what path. If it is closed, the depth of field is influenced by several parameters. angle light beams are still captured increases, especially in the medium by the lens. The lower the angular magnification range (Figure 1.16). aperture of the lens, the greater the The disadvantage is that light is lost depth of field. in this process and therefore the light intensity has to be increased. Closing 4. Adaptability of the observer: this the aperture reduces the resolution, is where biology comes into play. meaning that the resolution of very A younger dentist‘s eyes generally small structures is reduced. If the double adapt better, and can therefore make iris aperture is opened, the image out depth of field over a longer area. becomes brighter and the resolution With increasing age, the adaptability of fine details increases. The use of a of the eyes decreases, as does the depth of field. 42 43 1 The OPMI a) b) Figure 1.18a OPMI pico with fixed focal length lens with 250 mm focal length covers a field of view of 75 mm. Figure 1.18b OPMI pico with Varioskop 100 covers Working distance 415 mm, 12.5x eyepiece a field of view of 95 mm at same magnification. Working distance 200 mm, 12.5x eyepiece Zoom factor 0.4 Zoom factor 2.4 Zoom factor 0.4 Zoom factor 2.4 End magnification 1.9x End magnification 10.9x End magnification 3x End magnification 18.2x Field of view 116 mm (diameter) Field of view 20 mm (diameter) Field of view 73 mm (diameter) Field of view 12 mm (diameter) (a and b with 10x eyepiece, magnification factor 75 mm 0.4, binocular tube f=170 mm) 95 mm Figure 1.17: The S7 / OPMI PROergo manufactured by ZEISS reaches up to a 116 mm field of view at It can be calculated easily with the following formula: the lowest magnification, a 12.5x eyepiece, a tube focal distance of 170 mm and a working distance of 415 mm. The diameter of the field of view End magnification = and magnification depend on the working Tube focal distance Lens focal distance x Magnification changer factor x Eyepiece factor distance. If the working distance is shortened (e.g. to 200 mm), then the field of view decreases and the magnification increases Field of view The following applies: The field of view is the area of the 1. Magnification: the lower the treatment field that can be seen magnification, the larger the field of view. How to calculate end Example 1: Example 2: Focal distance tube: Focal distance tube: f = 170mm f = 170mm magnification through the OPMI. For the purposes The magnification with which we can see a structure in the eyepiece is the end of orientation, it is most convenient to 2. Working distance: the greater the magnification. It is the end result of the Focal distance of lens: Focal distance of lens: work with as large a field of view as working distance, the larger the field of various optical components of an OPMI. f = 250 mm f = 250 mm possible. view. The formula for the calculation of the Magnification changer factor: Magnification changer factor: 3. Lens system: the size of the fields of end magnification applies to OPMIs with 0.4x 2.5 x view depends on the lens design. fixed focal distance. This formula cannot be used for OPMIs with a varioscope Eyepiece factor: Eyepiece factor: because the working distance does not 12.5x 12.5x equate to the focal distance. The best way to find out the end magnification in 170 x 0.4 x 12.5 = 3.4 170 x 2.5 x 12.5 = 21.25 this case is to ask the manufacturer. 250 250 3.4x is the lowest 21.25x is the highest magnification magnification at a in this example. magnification factor of 2.5, with the other parameters identical to those in example 1. 44 45 1 The OPMI Ergonomics and workflow Surgical microscope provides proper ergonomics for the eyes and for the back. If a dentist works on a patient without magnification, his or her eyes accommodate to a distance of about 30 cm and tire easily. However, if he or she looks through an OPMI, the eyes accommodate almost to infinity, which serves to prevent fatigue. An OPMI supports the dentist‘s ergonomic sitting position. Normally, the dentist leans over the mouth of the patient, which can lead to back problems. If the dentist works with an OPMI, then he or she sits upright and looks straight ahead into the eyepieces of the OPMI. Inclinable tubes allow the viewing angle to be adjusted in line with the working height and seating position of the dentist. Figure 1.20: The MORA interface allows the OPMI to be tilted to the left or right. The eyepieces retain their horizontal position, so that the dentist has a straight, ergonomic seating position when looking into the OPMI. Varioscope Looking around the corner – MORA interface and angled optics A varioscope contributes significantly to ergonomics, as it allows you to change If the OPMI is equipped with a MORA balance of the OPMI. This is especially the working distance within a range interface, the microscope body can be important when it comes to external of e.g. 200 – 300 mm or even 200 to moved to the left or the right by hand camera attachments. 415 mm without requiring the dentist without changing the position of the A MORA interface can be combined to change his or her working position. binocular tube head (Figure 1.20). The with a documentation output port, and Motorized zoom and focus at the push dentist‘s head and upper body remain the camera is thus directly attached of a button on the handgrip of the upright and relaxed. The OPMI looks to the MORA interface. Therefore, OPMI accelerate the workflow. “around the corner”. As an alternative the camera attachment is not moved to the MORA interface, angled optics when the OPMI body is swung. Angled can be used, which also serve to guide optics, on the other hand, require the the image to the viewer‘s eyes. An entire OPMI to be moved, including the angled optic is usually combined with external camera. This is less ergonomic. Figure 1.19a: The Varioskop 100 of S100 / OPMI Figure 1.19b: The motorized varioscope of a rotatable dovetail mount. Therefore, pico allows focussing in the range from 200 - 300 S7 / OPMI PROergo provides a focusing range of mm by turning the focus knob manually. 200 - 415 mm and can be controlled by the dentist can swing the OPMI to the autofocus or by the push of button. side and bring the tube into a nearly straight position with a second hand motion. In contrast to the MORA interface, this way of working requires two hand movements instead of one, thus providing a less efficient workflow. Another advantage of the MORA interface over an angled optic consists of the better weight distribution and 46 47 1 The OPMI Light Light is the eye‘s information medium. But the light situation is difficult in the patient‘s oral cavity. Surgery lamps are good for illuminating the area being treated, but a root canal or fracture can often be in shadowed areas. In an OPMI, the light is integrated coaxially via the lens (Figure 1.21), thus ensuring optimum illumination of cavities (e.g. root canals). Figure 1.22a: Halogen Figure 1.22b: LED Figure 1.22c: Xenon Figure 1.21: The light coming from Figure 1.22a -1.22c: Compared to halogen light the light guide on the rear side of source, LED and xenon show light that resembles the OPMI is reflected by an internal natural daylight. Xenon light features the highest mirror through the lens onto the intensity of all three light sources and enables short treatment area. The coaxial light exposure times for sharp image documentation. provides shadow-free illumination and illuminates cavities like root canals Light sources Filters and pinhole diaphragm Xenon light has the advantage that then the intensity of light at the object usually specified at 70000 hours (based In order to prevent premature curing of This makes sense for two reasons: its color temperature is similar to that is reduced to a quarter. With increasing on average use of the light intensity composite material, OPMIs are equipped 1. The contrast of the microscopic of daylight. In other words, it is white magnification, brightness also decreases similar to maximum halogen light). with an orange filter. This can be image increases, because light is light. White light gives the viewer at the viewer‘s eye. Compared to LED and xenon, halogen placed in the light path when working reflected off fewer structures (e.g. has a lower color temperature and with composite material. A green filter instruments) and thus less diffused natural and also provides true-color High-end OPMIs like OPMI PROergo thus appears yellowish to the eye. In increases the contrast between the light is produced. reproduction for documentation (Figure automatically compensate for this addition to this, the color temperature blood-filled and bloodless tissue, thus 1.21). The intensity of xenon lamps is by adapting the light intensity to the changes when the intensity is regulated. making details more visible. OPMI 180 watts for example, and is therefore selected magnification (e.g. increasing If the intensity is adjusted to a low PROergo is equipped with a pinhole at higher levels of magnification and higher than that of conventional 100- it at higher levels of magnification). setting using a potentiometer, then the diaphragm in the lighting unit, which therefore the field of view is brightly watt halogen lights. Light intensity The life of a xenon lamp is defined by spectrum of the halogen lamp becomes reduces the size of the illuminated illuminated. The bright light and is particularly important when the the manufacturer (e.g. 500 hours). even more reddish. The life of a halogen area. This is useful at higher levels reflective instruments could impair dentist works with high magnification The xenon lamp should be replaced lamp (e.g. 50 hours) is also much shorter of magnification because the field of the assistant ’s ability to see properly. for example on root canals and for so as not to pose the risk of flare than that of a xenon lamp or LED. view is smaller. It is not necessary to The pinhole diaphragm can be closed documentation. Especially those dentists or non-homogeneous illumination. illuminate a large area. Therefore, the to the extent that the field of view is working with SLR cameras depend on a An alternative to xenon light is LED diameter of the illuminated area can be illuminated, but annoying reflections high level of intensity to keep exposure light. LED light comes close to a color reduced using the pinhole diaphragm. are reduced. times short and thus minimize the risk temperature similar to that of daylight. of camera movement affecting the The intensity of an LED light source is image. The larger the working distance lower compared to xenon. Currently LED when using an OPMI the further light lighting cannot yet replace traditional has to travel. If the working distance is xenon lighting in terms of intensity. The doubled (e.g. if a working distance of big advantage of LED is its considerably 400 mm is selected instead of 200 mm), longer lifetime. The service life of LED is the impression that the object looks 48 2. The dentist increases light intensity 49 1 The OPMI Free floating system Balanced system and magnetic brakes Maintenance There are several ways to mount an While working, it should be easy to Smudged optical surfaces dramatically brush. For cleaning of objective lenses OPMI: position the OPMI above the patient and reduce image quality. Image quality is and eyepieces, it is recommended to it should require no effort to move it out impaired by even slight soiling of the use optical cleaning solutions and a Movable floor stand of the way after completing treatment. optics or by a fingerprint. Spatter on the microfiber cloth. Wall mount The stands are equipped with a balance lens reduces contrast and sharpness. In Ceiling mount system for easy and precise OPMI order to protect optical surfaces of an The mechanical surfaces of the OPMI positioning. Depending on the weight OPMI from dirt, it is advisable to cover can be cleaned by wiping with a damp The choice of suspension system of the OPMI, the balance system can the microscope when not in use. During cloth. Clean off any residue using a depends on the conditions at hand. be set, so that the OPMI seems almost use, the lens can be covered with a mixture of 50 percent ethyl alcohol and A floor stand allows you to roll the OPMI weightless when moving. Magnetic splash guard. This prevents splashing 50 percent distilled water plus a dash of from one treatment room to another. brakes are advantageous because they of the lens with blood and aqueous household dishwashing liquid. Ceiling and wall mounts are firmly fix the position of the OPMI (S7 / OPMI solutions and can be easily cleaned. anchored in place and require no floor PROergo). If the OPMI has to be moved, Clean the exterior surfaces of the optical space. When planning wall and ceiling then the brakes are released by pushing components (eyepieces, objective lenses) mounts, it is essential a button, the device is repositioned only when necessary. Do not use any to test the sturdiness of the wall and and the brakes are applied again by aggressive or abrasive agents. Remove ceiling as well as possible sources releasing the control buttons. If you dust from the optical surfaces using a of vibration (such as elevators, air change the weight of the OPMI system, squeeze blower or a clean, grease-free conditioners, intensive heavy traffic on for example, by adding or removing the road). Vibrations can be transferred an external camera, then you have to to the stand and affect the image balance the device again. quality. 50 51 2 2 Ergonomics Author: Dr. Bijan Vahedi Dr. Maciej Goczewski Oscar Freiherr von Stetten 55Definitions of ergonomics 56Overloads 58 Minimizing overloads 60 Position of dentist 61 Operator range of 9-12 o’clock working positions 62 Position of the patient 64 OPMI position 66 Functional design 67 OPMI assistance 53 2 Ergonomics Definition of ergonomics Ergonomics is the scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of interactions between humans and other elements of a system. Ergonomics is also the science that applies theory, principle, data and methods to design in order to optimise human wellbeing and overall system performance. The word ergonomics comes from the Greek. It stems from two separate words – ergon, which means work, and nomos, which means correctness. In short, we can say that ergonomics means working correctly. Figure 2.1 54 55 2 Ergonomics Overload Figure 2.3 Figure 2.4 If the settings of the System Operator- In order to minimize overload, we have OPMI are not set correct, an advert to work ergonomically, which means affect in terms of Back/Neck-Discomforts that we have to eliminate incorrect can appear. posture and alter our technique accordingly. There are two types of This phenomenon stems mainly from muscle overload - static and dynamic. muscle overload that cannot be eliminated entirely, but can be reduced Static overload results from prolonged to such an extent, that it no longer periods of work in one position, causes any discomfort. immobility and muscle cramp. Dynamic overload results from frequent repetition the same movements. Figure 2.2 56 57 2 Ergonomics Minimizing overload 2.6 a Rotating hips 2.6 b 2.6 c Raised shoulders 2.6 d 2.6 e Rotating torso 2.6 f 2.6 g Tilted neck 2.6 h The following basic positions should be used to reduce overload. First, the dentist should assume an adequate seated position. Second, the patient should be placed in the correct position. Third, the OPMI should be positioned comfortably. Figure 2.5 58 59 2 Ergonomics Figure 2.7 Figure 2.8a 9 o´clock position Position of dentist Operator range of 9-12 o'clock Figure 2.8b 12 o´clock position working positions Standard dental treatment often results Avoiding overload for the treating in tension in the shoulders and neck. dentist, particularly in the critical The position of the dentist in relation to The 12 o'clock position behind the head This is due to a statically overloaded shoulder-neck area, requires an the patient is ideal at a range from 9-12 of the supine patient is the ergonomical seated position. adequately supported seated position. o'clock. However, when using an OPMI, position for most dental procedures. the position during most treatments A chair featuring individually adjustable moves from the 9 to the 12 o'clock armrests and support for the lower back position. area is recommended as seen in figure 2.7. When the dentist sits in this supported and comfortable position, this reduces static overload and enables more precise motor coordination during work. 60 61 2 Ergonomics Figure 2.9 Figure 2.10a Figure 2.10b Figure 2.11a Head rest adjusted for indirect (mirror) view of mandible where Figure 2.11b Head rest positioned for indirect view of the maxillary teeth with the mandibular occlusal plane is vertical. maxillary occlusal plane vertical. Figure 2.12a Figure 2.12b Figure 2.12c Position of the patient Once the dentist is seated correctly, the Most treatments can be performed on When indirect viewing via a mirror is In order to obtain a good view of the patient must be moved into a suitable the upper jaw when the patient is lying required and visibility is poor, it is often treatment field, it is often unnecessary treatment position. flat or slightly inclined. necessary to lower the patient or their for the dentist to move into a different head backwards in order to generate a position or to move the OPMI. Often, it better viewing angle. is enough to simply move the patient's For the patient, a comfortable, supine For the lower jaw, most treatments can position should be found. This can be be performed when the patient is lying improved through special padding and flat. head-and-neck supports. head to the left or right. In many Endodontic treatments are usually cases, this provides a direct view of the performed by indirect vision using a treatment field. mirror. Here, moving the patient's head 10°-20° degrees backwards is a good approach. 62 63 2 Ergonomics Figure 2.13 Figure 2.14 Figure 2.15 OPMI position The S100 / OPMI pico with MORA After establishing the basic position of To ensure that the dentist can work Tilting it along the vertical axis changes interface is unique in this context: it the dentist and the patient, the OPMI in an ergonomically correct position, the support position of the dentist, enables tilting of the OPMI body in needs to be positioned. the OPMI must be set to the right which results in less support for the the lateral axis via the Mora interface working distance or be equipped with a pectoral girdle. Tilting the OPMI along without also moving the eyepieces. varioscope. the lateral axis leads to a lateral tilt of the head and thus to static overload of In general, the OPMI is positioned at the cervical spine. an angle of 90° to the floor. Several If the OPMI must be moved, it is treatment situations require the OPMI to possible to correctly configure the be moved from this position. eyepieces horizontally via a rotary plate. Figure 2.16 64 65 2 Ergonomics Functional design OPMI assistance Figure 2.18 Figure 2.17 Figure 2.19 As 12 o’clock is the most frequent To enable efficient treatment, it is To enable the work to be carried This aspect must not be underestimated seated position for the dentist during advisable to position all necessary out ergonomically, assistance because it contributes to efficient treatment, the treatment room must instruments, materials and devices tailored specifically to the needs of workflow during a procedure. be configured so that ample space is around the dentist and the assistant microdentistry is essential. available behind the patient to ensure in order to ensure that they are easily not only that the dentist can sit there, accessible. For this reason, the use Instruments are frequently changed but also that enough room is provided of a cart is ideal. All instruments and during a dental procedure. Because for assistants to move to and fro. materials required for a procedure can dentists constantly look through the be placed on them and made ready for eyepieces, they cannot see the required a procedure in advance. instruments and materials, making it necessary for the assistant to hand them over. 66 67 2 Ergonomics Figure 2.20 Figure 2.22 The assistant must be able to see It is important to point out two Second, the correct and precise their view away from the OPMI and thus what the dentist sees in order to aspects in regards to the hand over of handover of the instrument from the interrupts the workflow and leads to adequately support him or her in the instruments. assistant to the dentist is vital. Because fatigue. respective treatment situation. While the handover position is outside the co-observation tubes, are available in First, to clearly communicate when dentist's field of view, the instrument Because assistants have to carry out the vast majority of cases, it is better to a used instrument is being returned, must be given to the dentist with multiple procedures including aspiration have a monitor with the video image which new instrument is needed and the correct orientation relative to the of the patient’s mouth, it is beneficial if from a video camera connected to the when it should be handed to the dentist. treatment field and with the right grip they can receive and pass an instrument OPMI. This ensures that the assistant This can be verbal communication, position. If not, there is a certain risk of with the same hand at the same time. can optimally use the OPMI image to or increasingly non-verbal when the injury to the patient as a result of sharp provide adequate support while keeping dentists and the assistant have gained or pointed instruments. Dentists often experience in working as a team. have to change their grip, which draws the treatment field in view. Figure 2.21 68 69 3 3 OPMI in endodontics Author: Prof. Dr. José Aranguren Cangas Dr. Manor Haas Dr. Tony Druttman 73Introduction 74 Magnification in endodontics Working magnification 75 Uses of the OPMI in endodontics 76 Microendodontic instruments 77 Ultrasonics Ultrasonics tips Uses of ultrasonics in endodontics 78 Mirrors Micro instruments Files with a handle Stropko syringe 79Burs Dyes 80 82 83 84 85 86 88 91 92 93 95 Examination of the external surface of the tooth Identification of the floor of the pulp chamber Removal of coronal restorations Preservation of tooth structure Assessement of canal cleanliness after preparation Identification of internal cracks Canal location Calcified canals Evaluation and management of perforations Obturation of the canal Non-surgical retreatment Uses of the OPMI in non-surgical retreatment: Apical plug with MTA File evaluation 94 Endodontic root-end surgery 71 3 OPMI in endodontics 1:1 Introduction In the 21st century the OPMI plays a vital role in endodontics and endodontists have led the way in embracing the OPMI into daily clinical practice. Endodontic treatments can be very challenging due to the complexity of the anatomy of the root canal system. In the past root canal treatment was performed predominantly by feel. With the aid of the OPMI, structures can be seen that remain hidden to the naked eye and treatment can be carried out with far greater precision and predictably than ever before. Microscopy in endodontics has become a way of life. Figure 3.1 72 73 3 OPMI in endodontics Magnification in endodontics Figure 3.2a magnification 3.5x Figure 3.2b magnification 5.1x Working magnification Figure 3.2c magnification 8.5x Figure 3.2d magnification 13.6x Figure 3.2e magnification 21.25x In endodontics we are used to working with 8.5x magnification. However, if we have to work in the canal or we want to record the treatment we need 13.6x or 21.25x magnification. Uses of the OPMI in endodontics 1. Examination of the external surface of the tooth 2. Removal of coronal restorations Magnification factors 3. Preservation of tooth structure 4. Identification of the floor of the pulp chamber 0.4x - 0.6x 5. Location of sclerosed canals This is used mainly for periapical surgery 6. Identification and orientation of curvatures in the radicular access 7. Identification of internal cracks, ledges and blockages in the root canal 1.0x More common magnification 1.6x - 2.5x Used to visualize fine details and for documentation. 8. Evaluation of canal cleanliness after preparation 9. Ensure optimal obturation 10. Assessment of existing root fillings 11. Identification and management of perforations 12. Assessment of coronal leakage 13. Evaluation of endodontic instruments after use 14. Removal of root filling materials in non surgical re-treatment 15. Management of soft and hard tissues in surgical re-treatment 74 75 3 OPMI in endodontics Micro endodontic instruments 1:1 Figure 3.3 Accurate positioning of an LN bur (0.5mm dia) while working with indirect vision Figure 3.4 Ultrasonic preparation of the isthmus in a lower molar under an OPMI using ultrasonic k-files Figure 3.5a EndoSuccess™ ET 25 Figure 3.5b EndoSuccess™ ET 25 ultrasonic tip straight ultrasonic tip curved Ultrasonics Ultrasonic tips Ultrasonic instrumentation is a vital There are many different ultrasonic tips part of the armamentarium needed on the market. Some have a smooth in primary and re-treatment cases, surface, others diamond coated. Some both surgical and non surgical. For are rigid, while others are flexible to endodontic uses, ultrasonic devices have improve visibility. Even K-files can be to be set at a lower power range than used ultrasonically. The tips can be used for other applications such as scaling, with irrigant or dry. The advantage of otherwise the delicate tips can fracture ultrasonic instruments over conventional easily. handpieces is one of visual access. Uses of ultrasonics in endodontics 1. to refine access cavities Because of the level of precision that 2. canal location (especially where can be achieved when using the OPMI, canals are sclerosed) special instruments are required. These 3. refinement of canal preparation include instruments that help to identify 4. removal of fractured instruments structures and allow the more accurate from canals removal of tooth tissue by improving 5. post removal visual access. 6. root end preparation in endodontic surgery 76 77 3 OPMI in endodontics Figure 3.7 06 handfile attached through the hole in the handle using Hu Friedy Figure 3.6 Fig HR mirrors in Size 000, 0, 4 and 8 Figure 3.8a Fucsin Figure 3.8b Methylene blue Burs Dyes Figure 3.8c Fluorescein DP18L locking tweezers Micro-instruments Files Mirrors with a handle: Mirrors are essential to the use of the for documentation as the mirror can be Special instruments for working with Very few standard burs can be used The dyes are used to find fractures, or OPMI because there are very few areas rested against a rubber dam clamp for the OPMI include the micro-opener and with the OPMI, because usually the cracks and hidden canals. is a red-orange dye mainly used in of the mouth that can be viewed by stabilization. Small diameter mirrors are the micro-debrider. Both instruments shank is too short and visual access is The two most important dyes are calcified canals. With the xenon direct vision. It is therefore important very useful where access is limited as the are very useful as they allow working in impaired by the head of the handpiece. Fluorescein and methylene blue. source, organic tisue is dyed that silver fronted mirrors are used mirrors can be moved further away from the canal with unimpaired visual access. It is important therefore to use long Fucsin can also be used. fluorescent green. so that there is no distortion of the the operating filed. Size 000 (10mm) reflected image. Because it is necessary and size 0 (14mm) are very useful for The micro - opener is used to look to have the maximum amount of light to upper second and third molars. Micro for the entrance of the canal It may is used in crack diagnosis and apical illuminate the depths of the root canal, mirrors of different shapes are used in also be useful in the identification of surgery, is a blue dye (from light-dark), it is also important that as little light as surgical endodontics to examine the cut a bifurcation or a ledge. The micro- and dyes the surface of the fractured possible is absorbed by the surface of root face and crypt. debrider which is based on a Hedstrom organic tissue dark-blue. It is very file is used to remove tissue from the useful in apical surgery as it dyes the wall of the canal or root filling material. perimeter of the root and the different the mirror. •Fluorescein shank burs so that tip of the bur can be controlled precisely. There are three different mirror •Methylene blue apical foramina. surfaces: Regular hand instruments can also •Standard be used by attaching them to locking •Rhodium tweezers (Figure 3.11). •HR mirrors Stropko syringe: This instrument is really useful for drying To work with the OPMI, we need at least rhodium mirrors, these reflect 75% of the light. Standard mirrors result in Figure 3.9a rhodium mirror the canal at a precise point. It is used in micro apical surgery for drying the canal before obturation. double images and a loss in definition. Figure 3.10 A selection of slow and high speed burs used for endodontic access cavity preparation HR mirror have the highest reflectivity Figure 3.11 Hu Friedy DP18L locking tweezers on the market today (99.9%). inserted into a standard hand file Mirror size is also important. While size 4, the standard size (22mm dia) are used in most situations, other sizes are available. Size 8 (30mm) is very useful Figure 3.9b HR mirror 78 79 3 OPMI in endodontics Examination of the external surface of the tooth Figure 3.12 crack through mesial marginal ridge (arrow) Figure 3.13 vertical root fracture seen through the microscope while retracting Figure 3.14 vertical root fracture seen below crown margin Figure 3.15 external resorption gingival margin Prior to starting endodontic treatment the OPMI is particularly useful for examination of the external surface of the tooth. Caries can be identified in areas that are difficult to see without magnification and illumination. Vertical and horizontal cracks, root fractures and external root resorptions are more easily identified with an OPMI Figure 3.16 Examination of crown margin 80 81 3 OPMI in endodontics Figure 3.17 Sclerosed pulp chamber in lower left first molar due to a Figure 3.18a View of a pulp stone as seen via the OPMI. deep restoration and recurrent caries Note the rough pulp floor surface, indicative of pulp stones Figure 3.19a Radiograph of lower left second molar in figure 3.19b and 3.19c Figure 3.18b This is the view of the above access after the pulp stones were Figure 3.19b Composite is partially removed to expose the floor of Figure 3.19c The floor of the pulp chamber has been revealed removed with micro-ultrasonics or slow-speed, surgical-length, round burs. the pulp chamber in an endodontic re-treatment case in the distal half of the access cavity Removal of coronal restorations Preservation of tooth structure Increasingly composite is replacing The removal of excessive amounts Note the smooth floor Identification of the floor of the pulp chamber Insult to the pulp (caries, cracks, between calcifications in the pulp amalgam as the material of choice for of tooth structure, both coronal and restorations) can make the floor of the chamber (i.e. pulp stones) and the coronal restorations. As the colour of radicular leads to weakening of the pulp chamber difficult to identify floor of the pulp chamber can be composite can be very similar to that tooth. This can result in fracture of (Figure 3.17). Using the OPMI it is distinguished by colour and texture. of dentine, its removal can be difficult either the coronal restoration or possible to distinguish between pulp Medium to high magnification is without a microscope (Figures 3.19a root fracture. The OPMI allows for stones, reparative dentine and the true recommended. and 3.19b). the strategic removal of tooth tissue floor of the pulp chamber. Differences during preparation and refinement of the access cavity, the removal of core materials in re-treatment cases and the preparation of canals with a non-circular cross section. 82 83 3 OPMI in endodontics Figure 3.20a Pre-operative radiograph of lower left Figure 3.20c debris left in the distal canal of a lower first molar after instrumentation with first molar rotary instruments and irrigation. Figure 3.20b Post-operative radiograph of lower left Figure 3.20d distal canal obturated Figure 3.21 Radicular crack first molar Assessment of canal cleanliness Identification of internal cracks after preparation The dentist should always look for Not all canals are circular in cross section preparation and post instrumentation internal vertical coronal and radicular and when oval canals are prepared irrigation and any remaining debris cracks and fractures when using the with rotary instruments, debris can removed before obturation (Figure OPMI. These would be difficult or easily be left behind. The OPMI can be 3.20c). impossible to detect without the high used to evaluate canal cleanliness after magnification and illumination provided by the OPMI. 84 85 3 OPMI in endodontics Figure 3.22a Upper central incisor with unusual Figure 3.22b Pre-operative radiograph of tooth 21 Figure 3.22c Post-operative radiograph showing Figure 3.24a Pre-operative radiograph of lower Figure 3.24b The lingual canal has been identified Figure 3.24c Lingual canal preparation started canal anatomy. The canals could be identified shown in fig 3.22a the intricacies of the canal anatomy left first premolar rotated through 90 deg. after the buccal canal preparation has been with pre-curved hand files, at 90 deg to the buccal using the OPMI at high power and maximum Note the bifurcation of the canal on the middle completed, an 06 hand file has been precurved canal, and the angle reduced with ultrasonically illumination third of the root and positioned into the lingual canal with the aid energised k-files and preparation completed with of the OPMI nickel titanium rotary files Figure 3.23 Floor of the pulp chamber viewed through an OPMI. Note how easy it is to locate the calcification over the MB2 canal. Canal location •Small canals can be located using the OPMI at higher magnification and The root canal anatomy of teeth can with medium to high illumination. be very variable and missed canals are •MB2 canals are often sclerosed in a major cause of failure of root canal the pulp chamber and require small treatment. The OPMI plays a vital role in diameter, surgical-length, slow- speed helping to identify accessory canals at and round burs or ultrasonic tips. whatever level they may be. Commonly For improved precision the tip of the missed canals are the MB2 canal in Figure 3.24d Post-operative radiograph showing Figure 3.24e Both canals obturated using warm bur or ultrasonic instrument should maxillary molars and to a lesser degree, how the lingual canal has been straightened vertically compacted gutta percha be visible at all times during canal the mid-mesial canal in mandibular location. Flexible ultrasonic tips which molars, buccal canals of lower incisors have been pre-curved are particularly and second and third canals in premolars. useful in these situations. •Once the canals are located, very small hand files should be used to negotiate canals. 86 87 3 OPMI in endodontics Figure 3.25a MB2 Figure 3.26a visible as a white spot, MB2 and MB3 too small for a 0.06 file canals identified to enter during access cavity preparation Figure 3.25b MB2 canal has been MB2 chased with a 0.5mm rosehead bur and MB3 prepared with rotary files Figure 3.25c MB1 has been obturated and sealer has been forced MB1 into the MB2 canal indicating that MB1 and MB2 canals join Figure 3.25a Figure 3.26b Radicular access into MB2 and MB3 canals prepared with Calcified canals 0.5 mm rosehead Figure 3.25b bur MB2 One of the greatest challenges in endodontics is locating canals, especially MB3 calcified canals. Canals sclerose from coronal to apical and several millimetres MB1 of sclerotic dentine may have to be removed before the canal is found. The OPMI tremendously facilitates this important part of endodontic treatment. Use medium to high magnification and maximum illumination when searching for small canals. Figure 3.25c 88 89 3 OPMI in endodontics Figure 3.29a Figure 3.27a Upper left first molar with sclerosed canals, pre-operative Figure 3.28a Sclerosed canal in lower incisor radiograph Figure 3.29b Figure 3.27b Tooth above post-operative radiograph Figure 3.28b The gradual removal of tertiary dentine reveals the entrance to the canal Figure 3.29c Figure 3.29a Canal and perforation after post removal Evaluation and management Figure 3.29b Root filling and of perforations collagen matrix (indicated by arrow) Figure 3.29c MTA perforation repair The ability to visualize and determine the exact extent of a perforation helps determine treatment options and Figure 3.27c Tooth above showing sclerosed tertiary dentine in the coronal prognosis and makes it possible to repair part of the palatal root canal. 4-5mm of tissue had to be removed before an entrance into the canal could be found 90 Figure 3.28c sclerosed lower right central incisor the site. 91 3 OPMI in endodontics Figure 3.30 Obturation of circular canals Figure 3.32a Fig Pre-operative radiograph of upper right first premolar showing metal posts Figure 3.33a Pulp stone in the palatal canal adjacent to the root filling Figure 3.33b Pulp stone partially removed from canal Figure 3.34 Removal of tissue from the isthmus Figure 3.35 Failed root treatment where the floor between the mesial canals of a lower molar of the pulp chamber has not been exposed Figure 3.36 MB2 canal has been missed using ultrasonically energised K-files Figure 3.31 Obturation of oval canal Figure 3.32b Intracoronal removal of the post and core while retaining the crown. The post is being removed with ultrasonics Uses of the OPMI in non-surgical re-treatment: Obturation of the canal Non-surgical re-treatment Most canals are not circular in cross Endodontic re-treatment is considered section and obturating them under the to be one of the most challenging control of the OPMI ensures that the procedures in endodontics. In these •location of missed canals canals are filled with the root filling situations the OPMI is essential. •removal of existing root filling •removal of existing restorations, posts material in all dimensions. and core materials (especially useful for removal of composite cores materials •evaluation of the condition of the •evaluation of the canal walls for cracks canals after removal of root filling •overcoming ledges and blockages materials •removing fractured instruments •removal of necrotic tissue and •evaluation and repair of perforations residual root filling materials after re-preparation of the root canals 92 93 3 OPMI in endodontics Figure 3.37a Pre-operative radiograph of Figure 3.37b Post-operative radiograph of the Figure 3.37c Endo Success ET 25 ultrasonic tip has upper right first molar tooth with two fractured same tooth with the instruments removed using been pre-curved to improve visual access for the instruments ultrasonic instruments controlled under the removal of fractured instruments OPMI. Note that the canals were curved in a bucco-palatal direction. Figure 3.39 apical plug with MTA Figure 3.40 a distorted rotary file viewed at high magnification under the OPMI Figure 3.38a Pre-operative radiograph of two lower Figure 3.38b Post-operative radiograph of lower Figure 3.38c The OPMI was used to position and incisors with apically placed silver point root fillings incisors with silver points removed engage two Hedstrom files around the silver points Apical plug with MTA File evaluation MTA is an excellent material for Evaluation of stainless steel hand and repairing perforations and sealing NiTi rotary files under magnification and large apical foramina. The material enhanced illumination is an excellent can be placed with a great deal of and quick way to determine if files are control when using the OPMI to weakening and are at risk of separating. ensure that there are no voids The dentist should look for overwound (Figure 3.36). file flutes (flutes too close to each other) or unwinding flutes (the space between the flutes increases, which makes it appear shiny under enhanced lighting). Identifying this helps reduce the chance of file separation. It is much easier to identify these weak points in a file under magnification. 94 95 3 OPMI in endodontics Endodontic root-end surgery 1:1 Figure 3.41b Complex anatomy of Figure 3.41c X-ray after surgery root canal system Thanks to the improved visualization to diagnose/locate root-end micro- microsurgical instruments, this fractures. procedure can be performed much more done more precisely and conservatively of apical bone removal/osteotomy size with use of micro-ultrasonic tips made does not need to be large when using specifically for surgery. For this, one the OPMI. Hence, the procedure could should use high magnification and be considered as minimally invasive. high illumination. improves hard-tissue healing and isthmuses can be visualized under the optical magnification •Root-end canal preparation can be conservatively. For instance, the amount •The smaller apical osteotomy / access Figure 3.41a After root-end resection, •Using an OPMI enables the dentist provided by the OPMI along with success rates. •The OPMI enables the dentist to locate •Flaps are improved with the ability to make incisions more precisely with micro-scalpels. •Suturing under the OPMI should be isthmuses (often infected) joining more precise and less traumatic. This adjacent canals (ie isthmus between is made possible since very fine sutures MB1 and MB2 in maxillary molars or (i.e. 6-0) could be better visualized MB and ML canals in lower molars) under the OPMI. This is especially •The OPMI enables the identification of important in the aesthetic area. fractured instruments at the root apex. 96 97 3 OPMI in endodontics Figure 3.42 Periapical lesions in 21 22 (computer tomography) Figure 3.45 Incision line Figure 3.46Intrabony defect found after flap elevation Figure 3.43 Fistula in 22 area Figure 3.44 Micro-scalpel for atraumatic incision with tissue preservation Figure 3.47 Purulent discharge Figure 3.48 Maxillary left lateral incisor apicoectomy (after enucleation of lesion) 98 99 3 OPMI in endodontics Figure 3.49 Checking with micro mirror Figure 3.50 Ultrasonic instrumentation Figure 3.51 Obturation of the canal by MTA ProRoot Figure 3.52 Suturing the wound and 3 days after surgery. Note debris over mucoae due to heavy smoking Figure 3.53 First intention healing is a fast healing process of a small wound Figure 3.54 7 days after surgery Figure 3.55 1 year after surgery Figure 3.56 X-ray after 1 year because of atraumatic re-approximation of the incision edges 100 101 4 4 OPMI in periodontology and implantology Authors: Dr. Kristina Badalyan & Dr. Rino Burkhardt 105 Do we need an OPMI in periodontal and implant therapy? 106 What are the advantages and disadvantages of the use of an OPMI in periodontology and implantology? 110 What does the “microsurgical concept” consist of? 122 Which are the first steps to getting used to working with the OPMI? 126 How can you acquire expertise in periodontal and peri-implant microsurgery? 128 Which are the common errors in the use of the OPMI in surgical practice? 130References 103 4 OPMI in periodontology and implantology 1:1 Do we need an OPMI in periodontal and implant therapy? Undoubtedly, microscopic enhanced periodontal and implant visual rather than tactile control. This altered clinical situation, therapies have reshaped clinical practice and created a combined with the impaired manoeuvrability of the OPMI, potential for higher standard of care. Throughout the world, requires a process of readjustment by the surgeon, which in the benefits of the OPMI in these specialties are clearly evident turn can only be achieved by the appropriate training. from the positive feedback from clinicians and patients alike. Additionally, the advantages are supported by several high It is the aim of the chapter ranking clinical studies in the evidence hierarchy. •to describe the use of the OPMI in periodontology and implantology for diagnostic as well as therapeutic reasons Despite the positive results in prospective comparative •to list the benefits of an OPMI-enhanced treatment studies, the OPMI is experiencing a slow acceptance in the for patients and clinicians periodontology and implantology specialties. •to give practical recommendations for beginners and those who are interested in working with magnifying eyeglasses to What then can be the reason for the delay in taking encourage clinicians to take advantage of the use of an advantage of such microsurgically modified therapies? The OPMI in daily clinical practice. main reason is that most of the surgeons do not adapt to the use of the OPMI and those who have been using OPMIs successfully, have not made adequate in-depth practical recommendations to help other colleagues to overcome their initial problems. Working with magnification requires the clinician to adjust to a small field of view and learning to look in one direction whilst the hands are working in another direction. Additionally, the minimal size of tissue structures and suture threads requires a guidance of movements by Figure 4.1 104 105 4 OPMI in periodontology and implantology What are the advantages and disadvantages of the use of an OPMI in periodontology and implantology? Figure 4.2 Figure 4.3 Recession coverage: Macro- and microsurgery in comparison* Microsurgical recession coverage (B). B1) immediately after the Macrosurgical recession coverage (A). A1) immediately after the surgical intervention, B2) corresponding angiographic evaluation surgical intervention, A2) corresponding angiographic evaluation after the intervention, B3) healing after 7 days, B4) angiographic after the intervention, A3) healing after 7 days, A4) angiographic evaluation after 7 days evaluation after 7 days To ensure proper diagnosis and and biofilm, the evaluation of furcation suture diameters. The latter is not only It has been shown that the incidence therapeutic purposes. From a practical treatment planning which are entries of molars, the recording of root less traumatic, but also reduces the and severity of complications and pain point of view, there a few areas of fundamental requirements in all kinds of surface characteristics (enamel pearls, tension which can be applied to the following periodontal surgery are the oral cavity which may be difficult periodontal and implant therapies, the concavities, grooves) and many other tissue margins during wound closure. correlated well with the duration of the to access with an OPMI, limiting its required information must be obtained findings which are essential for a proper However, finer threads are more prone surgical procedure, an argument used application. Under these circumstances by clinical examination and additional diagnosis. to breakage than thicker ones and may by opponents of periodontal and peri- and in surgical interventions which rupture before tissues are torn. implant microsurgery. require a frequent change of position, appropriate image-guided diagnostics. Regarding the former we can only Another enormous advantage record what we see. Accordingly, the of an OPMI-supported approach These advantages are especially useful Studies comparing micro- and better we see, the more precise our data in periodontology relates to the when dealing with fragile tissues with a macrosurgical approaches show no for the diagnostic result will be. enhanced visual acuity associated with limited vascular network such as difference in this respect. magnification and illumination while the interdental mucosa. The use of In a recent experiment the use of an performing clinical interventions such as an OPMI greatly improves the surgical In view of this situation, there are no OPMI enabled dentists to find a greater defect debridement, root planing or any access to interdental or interimplant clinical contraindications for the use number of defects than with either other surgical procedure which requires spaces. These delicate and narrow soft of an OPMI in periodontal and implant magnifying loupes or the naked eye. a controlled manipulation of the delicate tissues can be sharply dissected and surgery, for diagnostic as well as Additionally, the OPMI users profited oral soft tissues. preserved using microblades with the use of loupes may be preferable. the aid of clear magnified vision, most from an ergonomic posture and did not report any neck or back A microsurgical approach improves thus reducing trauma and facilitating pain. This comparative study clearly tissue preservation and handling while accurate wound closure (Figure demonstrated the beneficial effects of using specific flap designs to access 4.4). It is generally recognized that using an OPMI as a diagnostic tool. the defects. It optimizes flap mobility wound healing is improved in a sealed It may be of value in the location and in order to achieve primary closure environment with minimal levels of visualization of a variety of substances or to cover mucosal recession, and bacterial contamination and optimal and defects. These include, for example it reduces the trauma caused to the stability of the wound margins. the detection of subgingival calculus tissues by enabling the use of smaller 106 107 4 OPMI in periodontology and implantology Figure 4.4 Left: Buccal view of primary wound closure with fine suture threads after modified papilla preservation flap Right: Occlusal view of the same site. Note the intact mucosal surface of the delicate col area 108 109 4 OPMI in periodontology and implantology What does the “microsurgical concept” consist of? A Correct instrument handling Incorrect instrument handling B C D Figure 4.5 Left: Microsurgical instrument which can be precisely rotated by the thumb, index and middle Figure 4.6 a Basic kit of microsurgical instruments for E periodontal and peri-implant surgery: A) needle finger holder, B) scissor, C) surgical forceps, D) anatomical Right: Conventional instrument without rounded forceps and E) blade holder handle. Its rotation can only be performed by turning the wrist, which is a less precise movement The ongoing development of OPMIs, neurosurgery and are therefore, a precise lock that features a locking between the needle holder jaws. This when the instrument lies in the hand the refinement of surgical instruments, inappropriate for the use in periodontal force of no more than 50 g (0.5 N). benefit must be weighted against without any pressure. Before purchasing the production of improved suture and implant plastic surgery. As the High locking forces generate tremor, the potential damaging effects of the a set of microsurgical instruments, materials and the emergence instruments are primarily manipulated and low locking forces reduce the teeth on suture material. Smooth jaws appropriate time should be allowed for of suitable training laboratories have by the thumb, index and middle fingers, security of the lock. Appropriate sets without teeth cause no demonstrable selection and clinical testing. Ill-fitted, played a decisive role in the worldwide their handles should be rounded, yet of steel or titanium instruments for damage to 6-0 monofilament nylon imprecise or damaged instruments will establishment of microsurgical provide traction so that finely controlled periodontal surgery are available from sutures, whereas needle holder jaws negatively influence the performance techniques. The three elements, rotating movements can be executed. different manufacturers. with teeth (7000/sq.in) markedly and make a microsurgical procedure magnification, illumination and The rotating movement of the hand reduced the suture breaking strength. almost impossible. It is recommended instrumention, are called the from two o’clock to seven o’clock A basic set comprises a needle holder, Additionally, the sharp outer edges of to choose an instrument brand from a microsurgical triad, the combined use of (for right-handed persons) is the most micro-scissors, micro-scalpel holder, the needle holder jaws must be rounded company which is already familiar with which is the prerequisite for improved precise movement that the human body anatomical and surgical forceps and a to avoid breakage of fine suture the production of dental or oral surgical accuracy in surgical interventions. is able to perform. The instruments set of various elevators (Figure 4.6a - materials. When the needle holder jaws instruments. These manufacturers Without any of these, microsurgery is should be approximately 18 cm long 4.6b). In order to avoid sliding of the are closed, no light must pass through are more likely to be familiar with the not possible. The first two have already and lie on the saddle between the thread when tying the knot, the tips of the tips. Locks aid in the execution of typical aspects of an intra-oral mucosal been described at the beginning of this operator’s thumb and the index finger the forceps have flat surfaces or can be controlled rotation movements on the surgery and incorporate the above- book, so let us now focus directly on and simultaneously be slightly top-heavy finely coated with a diamond grain instrument handles without pressure. mentioned instrument characteristics in the instruments. to facilitate accurate handling (Figure that improves the grip by which the The tips of the forceps should be their production (Hu-Friedy, Chicago, 4.5). In order to avoid unfavorable needle holder holds a surgical needle. approximately 1 mm to 2 mm apart, USA). Such basic instrument kits metallic glare under the OPMI The configuration of the needle holder Technical aspects of instruments Proper instrumentation is of illumination, the instruments often have jaw has considerable influence on fundamental importance for a a coloured coating surface. The weight needle holding security. The presence microsurgical intervention. While of each instrument should not exceed of teeth in the tungsten carbide inserts various manufacturers have sets of 15 g to 20 g (0.15- 0.20 N) in order to provides the greatest resistance to microsurgical instruments, they are avoid hand and arm muscle fatigue. The either twisting or rotation of the needle generally designed for vascular and needle holder should be equipped with 110 can be recommended for all kinds Figure 4.6b Rounded handle of the blade holder allows a finely rotating movement of the fingers and of periodontal and implant surgical interventions. precise guidance of the surgical microblade 111 4 OPMI in periodontology and implantology A Macrosurgical blade, No 15 B Macrosurgical blade, No 15c C Periodontal microblade straight D Periodontal microblade curved Figure 4.7 Figure 4.8 Clincial situation represents the preparation of the buccal mucosa in Figure 4.10 Papilla preservation technique. Macro- and microsurgical scalpel types from different ma- the area of the root prominence. Note the specific curved shaft of the scalpel to Primary closure of palatal papillae with fine nufacturers (A & B Swann Morton Ltd., Sheffield, UK; reduce the risk of accidental mucosal penetration suture materials (7-0 polypropylene) C & D Sharpoint™ by ©Angiotech, Inc., Vancouver, BC, Canada) Various shapes and sizes of micro- In order to prevent damage, micro- scalpels from the disciplines of instruments are stored in a sterile ophthalmology or plastic surgery container or tray. The tips of the (Figure 4.7) can be used and instruments must not touch each complement the periodontal other during sterilization procedures or basic instrument sets, additionally transportation. The practice staff should supplemented with fine chisels, be thoroughly trained in the cleaning raspatories, elevators, hooks and and maintenance of such instruments, suction tips (Figure 4.9). as cleaning in a thermo disinfector without instrument fixation can irreparably damage the tip of these delicate microsurgical instruments Figure 4.9 Fine working end of a microsurgical elevator. The underlying stamp illust- Figure 4.11 rates the small size of the instrument Example of container or tray system to store the fragile microsurgical instruments and to prevent them from damage during washing, sterilization and transportation 112 113 4 OPMI in periodontology and implantology Figure 4.12 Before microsurgical crown lengthening Figure 4.14 After microsurgical crown lengthening (two months postoperatively) Suture materials Suture materials and techniques a wound may significantly enhance are essential factors to consider in the susceptibility to infection. Hence, microsurgery. Wound closure is a key it is obvious that needle and thread prerequisite for healing following characteristics also influence the wound surgical interventions and most healing and surgical outcome. important to avoid complications. The most popular technique for wound closure is the use of sutures that stabilizes the wound margins sufficiently and ensures a proper closure over a defined period of time. However, the Figure 4.13 Microsurgical wound 114 penetration of a needle through the closure with 8-0 sutures provides a soft tissue in itself causes trauma and precise flap adaptation the presence of foreign materials in 115 4 OPMI in periodontology and implantology Figure 4.15 Figure 4.16 Figure 4.17 Surgical site before Flattened needle body ensures a firm seat of the Left: Sharp tip (spatula) of a microsurgical needle microsurgical wound closure needle in the needle holder and prevents the (200x magnification) needle from twisting to either one or the other side Right: Damaged needle tip after touching the enamel surface of a neighbouring tooth Indications Suture Needle characteristics strength Buccal releasing incisions 7-0 3/8 curvature, cutting needle, length 7mm DSM 7 polyamide Resolon® 7-0 3/8 curvature, cutting needle, length 7mm DSM 7 polypropylene Mopylen® 10-0 3/8 curvature needle, cutting needle, length 6mm DSM 6 polyamide Nylon 6-0 3/8 curvature, cutting needle, length 11mm, DSMF 11 polypropylene Mopylen® 7-0 3/8 curvature, cutting needle, length 11mm, DSMF 11 polypropylene Mopylen® 6-0 3/8 curvature, cutting needle, length 13mm DSMF 13 polypropylene Mopylen® 6-0 3/8 curvature, cutting needle, length 13mm DSMF 13 polyamide Resolon® Characteristics of the needle Thread materials Product name Needles consist of a swage, body and tip or less traumatic penetrations. In order in the anterior aspect requires needle and differ in their material, length, size, to minimize tissue trauma in periodontal lengths of 10 mm to 13 mm, and for tip configuration, body diameter and the microsurgery the sharpest needles, closing a buccal releasing incision, needle manner of connection between needle namely reverse cutting needles with lengths of 5 mm to 8 mm are adequate. and thread. In atraumatic sutures the precision tips or spatula needles with To guarantee perpendicular penetration thread is firmly connected to the needle micro tips are preferred (Figure 4.16). The through the soft tissues that prevents through a press-fit swage or inserted shape of the needle can be straight or tearing an asymptotic curved needle is in a laser-drilled opening. There is no bent to various degrees. For periodontal advantageous in areas where narrow difference concerning stability between microsurgery the 3/8” circular needle penetrations are required (e.g. margins of Interdental suture, molar area 6-0 3/8 curvature, cutting needle, length 16mm DSM 16 /DSMF 16 polyamide Resolon® the two attachment modalities. The body generally ensures optimum results. The gingivae, basis of papillae). To fulfill these Crestal incisions 7-0 polypropylene Mopylen® of the needle should be flattened to lengths, as measured along the needle prerequisites for ideal wound closure at 3/8 curvature, cutting needle, length 11mm DSMF 11 prevent twisting or rotation in the needle curvature from the tip to the proximal least two different sutures are used in 6-0 3/8 curvature, cutting needle, length 13mm DSMF 13 polyamide Resolon® holder (Figure 4.15). The needle tips end of the needle lock, extend over a most surgical interventions. differ widely depending on the specialty wide range. For papillary sutures in the Table 4.1 serves as a basic guide to select 7-0 3/8 curvature, cutting needle, length 7mm DSM 7 polypropylene Mopylen® in which they are used. Tips of cutting posterior area needle lengths of 14 mm the appropriate suture material. 6-0 polypropylene Mopylen® needles are appropriate for coarse tissues to 16 mm are appropriate. The same task 3/8 curvature, cutting needle, length 7mm DSM 7 116 Interdental sutures, front area Interdental sutures, premolar area Papilla basis incisions Table 4.1 Ideal needle-thread combinations (non resorbable) for the use in periodontal and peri-implant microsurgery (Resorba GmbH, 90475 Nuremberg, Germany) 117 4 OPMI in periodontology and implantology Figure 4.18 Example of a suture package with explanation of the relevant notations, abbreviations, symbols and signs (A Product name of specific suture, often referring to the suture material, B diameter of the suture thread, see Table 2, C suture material, D curvature and length of the needle, E colour code of the suture (facilitates the identification), F configuration of the needle tip, G composition of the thread (monofilament / polyfilament), H pictogram for absorbability / non absorbability and composition of the thread, I thread characteristics (text), K needle length (measured from the tip to the end of the needle), L configuration of the needle (manufacturer specific) The characteristics of needle and thread configurations are marked on each suture package (Figure 4.18). Suturing threads are classified according to their thickness European pharmacopoe All suturing materials, resorbable and nonresorbable metric no. mm-scale American pharmacopoe Figure 4.19 Surgical site three days post- All suturing materials, except collagen USP no. Collagenous suturing materials mm-scale (Table 4.2). Depending on the 0.1 0.010-0.019 11-0 0.010-0.019 manufacturers, it is important to 0.2 0.020-0.029 10-0 0.020-0.029 note that either the European or the 0.3 0.030-0.039 9-0 0.030-0.039 American nomenclature will apply. 0.4 0.040-0.049 8-0 0.040-0.049 USP no. While the former follows a metric, the 0.5 0.050-0.069 7-0 0.050-0.069 latter follows an arbitrary classification 0.7 0.070-0.099 6-0 0.070-0.099 7-0 1 0.100-0.149 5-0 0.100-0.149 6-0 1.5 0.150-0.199 4-0 0.150-0.199 5-0 reveal the thickness of the thread. 2 0.200-0.249 3-0 0.200-0.249 4-0 However, the American products do 3 0.300-0.349 2-0 0.300-0.349 3-0 3.5 0.350-0.399 0 0.350-0.399 2-0 4 0.400-0.499 1 0.400-0.499 0 5 0.500-0.599 2 0.500-0.599 1 6 0.600-0.699 3+4 0.600-0.699 2 7 0.700-0.799 5 0.700-0.799 3 8 0.800-0.899 6 0.800-0.899 4 Table 4.2. Classification of suturing 9 0.900-0.999 7 0.900-0.999 5 materials (diameter of the threads) 10 1.000-1.099 8 1.000-1.099 6 system. European products strictly comply with the European system and not follow the classification according to the diameter of the threads. operatively before suture removal Figure 4.20: In thicker tissues detected suture filaments, bright colored alcian blue in the absence of inflammatory reactions in the surrounding tissue. The suture in the gingival tissues. No pronounced inflammatory reaction. Alcian blue coloration. Increase x50 (top) x 400 (below) 118 119 4 OPMI in periodontology and implantology Characteristics of the thread Figure 4.21 High magnification of suture placed to Figure 4.22 Microclips as an alternative to mi- close a skin wound crosutures no mention of microclips in the text tissue trauma. During suturing the a distinct infiltrate. For that reason versions and in monofilament versions After suturing the thread will be to the various types of suture materials coating will break and the properties of natural resorbable threads are generally for finer suture materials. The capillary encapsulated in connective tissues and suturing techniques available in The thread may be classified into either the pseudomonofilament thread then obsolete. Synthetic threads, however, effect is limited and hardly exists for and keep its stability for a longer order to help obtain optimal wound resorbable or nonresorbable materials. corresponds to that of the polyfilament are advantageous due to their constant polyglactin sutures. period. In 5-0 and thicker sutures the closure and stability. Despite the many Within these two categories the threads. Additionally fragments of the physical and biological properties. monofilament threads are relatively stiff technical solutions available on the materials can be further divided into coating may invade the surrounding The materials used belong to the and for that reason may impair the market, there are no true alternatives monofilament and polyfilament threads. tissues and elicit a foreign body reaction. polyamides, the polyolefines or the patient’s comfort. to suture threads which could prove The bacterial load of the oral cavity also requires special attention in the choice Resorbable sutures Nonresorbable sutures polyesters that disintegrate by hydration Polyamide is a commonly used material into alcohol and acid. Polyester threads for fine monofilament threads (0.1 mm A substance with similar biological, tissue adhesives are difficult to apply their benefit in clinical practice. While are mechanically stable and based on to 0.01 mm) that show adequate tissue but improved handling properties in aqueous environments and critical oral cavity the wound healing processes Resorbable threads may be categorized their different hydrolytic properties, properties. Tissue reactions seldom is polytetrafluoroethylene. Due to to withstand wound margin tensions, is uneventful thereby reducing the risk as natural or synthetic. Natural threads lose their firmness in different, but occur except after errors in the its porous surface structure the the indication of microclips (Fig. 4.22) monofilament threads should only be is limited to the wound closure of of the suture material. Generally, in the of infection caused by contamination (i.e. surgical gut) are produced from constant times. A 50 percent reduction polymerization process. Polyolefines, as of the thread. As polyfilament threads intestinal mucosa of sheep or cattle. of breaking resistance can be expected an alternative, are inert materials that used with restriction in the bacterially releasing or crestal incisons. Even if they are characterized by a high capillarity, The twisted and polished thread loses after two to three weeks for polyglycolic remain in the tissues without hydrolytic loaded oral cavity (we recommend are easy and fast to apply, the closing monofilament qualities are to be its stability within six to fourteen acid and polyglactin threads, four weeks degradation. Materials with excellent avoiding the zone of aesthetic priority). forces cannot be influenced by the preferred. Pseudomonofilament sutures days by enzymatic breakdown. for polyglyconate and five weeks for tissue properties are polypropylene With the sophisticated surgical surgeon and no sling or mattress sutures are coated polyfilament threads with Histological examinations confirmed polydioxanone threads. The threads and its most recent enhancement, procedures applied today, there is a can be executed. the aim of reducing the mechanical the inflammatory tissue reactions with are available in twisted polyfilament polyhexafluoropropylene. greater need for knowledge with regard 120 121 4 OPMI in periodontology and implantology Which are the first steps in getting used to working with the OPMI? There is no doubt that, by using an surgery, magnifications of 4x to 5x for one can classify the familiarization exercises, the second stage confronts perform almost all surgeries under OPMI the operating team is confronted loupes and 8x to 20x for OPMIs appear process with an OPMI into four different the trainee with several new aspects the OPMI with the highest accuracy with a completely new environment to be ideal depending on the kind stages: 1) forming, 2) storming, which in turn impair fluent clinical possible. If there are not many positional changes required during the and the surgeons and assistants first of intervention. As the depth of field 3) norming and 4) performing. The work (storming phase). These include have to adjust to the changed situation. decreases with increasing magnification, initial stage includes the first steps in the inclusion of the assistant in the surgery, such high-performing teams Before starting with the clinical work the maximum magnification for a the training laboratory with the goal to surgical procedure and the more can accomplish a surgical intervention on the patients the clinicians should surgical intervention is limited to automate the instrument handling dynamic environment. The storming within the same time or even faster than become familiar with the impaired about 12x to 15x, when dealing with a and get used to the new conditions. phase is necessary for the growth of the without the use of an OPMI. manoeuvrability of the OPMI, the localized problem such as the coverage It is important to allow enough time for treatment team. It can be unpleasant new requirements for hand-eye co- of a single soft tissue recession or the this initial familiarization process. and exhausting and the speed of For acquiring clinical expertise ordination and the initial difficulties interdental wound closure after guided It should take place beyond the daily progress in the familiarization process in periodontal and peri-implant which can arise from the new task- tissue regeneration of an infrabony busy schedule with patient treatments with the OPMI may decrease. Some microsurgery, time and training sharing conditions between surgeon and defect. A magnification range of 6x to and not exceed the duration of 30 teams will never develop past this stage. play an important role. Therefore, clinical assistant. Without appropriate 8x seems appropriate to 40 minutes per session. As an training, periodontal surgery cannot for clinical inspections or surgical approximate guideline, a frequency of Those that have successfully managed automatically become better over be performed with ease in a stress-free interventions when the entire three to four training units per week the problems of the storming phase time, which is just partly true. Once a quadrant is under operation. Higher is ideal to get familiar with the new and found their workflow, now enter daily routine is achieved and a surgical magnifications of 15x to 25x are technical equipment and the related the norming phase. It is characterized procedure can be performed with ease Acquaintance with the OPMI in more likely limited to the visual restrictions regarding manoeuvrability. by a mutual plan between the surgeon, (performing stage), ongoing training clinical practice examination of clinical details, such as Over and above the mere hours of the chairside assistant and other team is mandatory to further improve the environment. most clinicians believe that they furcation morphologies or root surface training, the structure of the exercises members involved to further improve dexterity of the surgeon’s hands. The A substantial number of periodontists pathologies. It is highly questionable if is of the utmost importance to ensure the workflow smoothly and effectively. finely orchestrated sequential finger have already adopted the use of the previous use of loupe magnification that maximum benefit can be gained The norming phase consists of task- movements need a stimulus coming low magnification in their practices and may help the beginner to get acquainted and that the user’s expertise is improved sharing and working for a common from the brain. Otherwise, no further recognize its great benefits. Loupes to the OPMI. We strongly believe that accordingly. This initial stage can last goal. All of the team members have apparent improvements in the micro have the advantage over the OPMI in it will not substantially shorten the from one to several months and may their allocated responsibilites and, more hand movements can be expected (see that they have a reduced technique learning curve as other influencing also include first clinical examinations on importantly than in a conventional below). sensitivity, they cost less and a shorter factors play a more important role patients. surgical approach, the well-organized, learning curve can be expected before than magnification. Working under the they can be used as a matter of routine. OPMI does not only mean working with When the trainee is able to manage surgeon and chairside assistant At present, it can only be speculated higher magnification within an even the basic clinical procedures with the makes the team function. After a how significantly the selection of more restricted field of view, but it also OPMI under laboratory conditions and corresponding period of clinical magnification influences the result requires the user to become acquainted they are increasingly becoming a matter training, it is possible for some teams of the operation. The magnification with a totally new technical setup. of routine, the learned skills can be to reach the performing stage. These recommended for surgical interventions Similar to the formation of a new team transferred to actual clinical practice. teams are able to function efficiently ranges from 2.5x to 20x. In periodontal (Tuckman’s group development model), Despite the previous familiarization and effectively as a treatment unit and 122 interdependent relationship between 123 4 OPMI in periodontology and implantology Figure 4.23 Clinical set-up for a surgical periodontal intervention with the OPMI. Note the opposite position of the assistant when working with the co-observer tubes (OPMI without sterile drape to demonstrate the position of the OPMI components) The importance of the hand-eye- visual perception, including the ability to At first sight it is not self-evident Task-sharing between surgeon and assistant due to the restricted peripheral Therefore, it is recommended to get brain coordination for fluent see important patterns buried in visual that the human hand is capable of assistant (teamwork) view. used to working in the centre of the surgery clutter and the ability to solve maze performing finer movements than movement of the OPMI can be field of view. That way an upcoming problems; they tested spatial memory; the naked eye is able to control. In In microdentistry, many clinical In periodontal microsurgery, where the Our lives are so full of commonplace they tested the ability to perform under macrosurgery, movements are controlled procedures are performed with a surgeon has very poor access, retraction anticipated by the assisting person, experience in which our hands are stress. The tests were subdivided into by the proprioceptive tactility of the minimum number of position changes is absolutely vital. The retraction should which in turn facilitates the workflow. so skillfully and silently involved that three major headings: psychomotor fingers and the palm. Since the adductor of the operators. Focusing can easily be done in different positions and must Working with a co-observer tube is a we rarely consider how dependent abilities, complex visuospatial and abductor finger muscles are be achieved by moving the mirror be devoid of all tremor or movement. team approach and requires specific upon them we actually are. One hand organization and stress tolerance. After relatively coarse, microsurgical training towards or away from the objective This is an exceptionally strenuous task training of all included persons in a consists of 27 bones and 39 muscles processing their data, they looked attempts to improve the fine-tuning lenses. In periodontal and peri-implant as the assistant is expected to maintain simulated clinical environment. which are responsible for the control to see what the highest achievers in of the motor muscles of the hand and surgery both hands are used to hold the same posture for a period of time of the finger joints and the wrist. The the programme had, that the lesser arm and the training of the clinician’s the instruments. Position changes are which can extend to one hour or even number of muscles exceeds by far the surgeons lacked, or had less of, based cognitive abilities as mentioned above. more frequently required, increasing the more. As flap retraction is extremely number of degrees of freedom which on the psychological tests. Guess what? are provided by the finger joints - from a The eyes have it! biomechanical point of view a complete demands on the operating team and energy-consuming, the fatigue A thread of a 10-0 suture has a diameter necessitating ideal cooperation between experienced by the assistant would of only 20 μm to 29 μm. Therefore, surgeon and assistant. increase the chances of tremor as time goes by. This is not to imply that manual tying a knot can only be controlled dexterity is not important to visually. When working under the OPMI In all surgeries at least two operators But likewise, for a dexterous microsurgeons in performing their with 10x through 20x magnification, are involved, a surgeon and an For an optimal workflow, magnification manipulation, the role of the sensory activities - they obviously are quite just the instrument tips are visible and assistant who supports the surgeon is also required for the assisting person. feedback in controlling the induced significant, but the distinguishing the appropriate suture material has a in the most rudimentary tasks in the motion must not be underestimated. features of the superior practitioner diameter five times smaller than a single operation. However, the tasks that the Only co-observer tubes allow the Which are now the key issues for are his/her ability to see the relevant human hair. assistant constantly repeats in almost same view for surgeon and assistant, precise hand and finger movements? anatomical structures of the operative all operations with varying levels of allowing the assistant to direct the Which body parts can and should be site, even when this might not be It is surprising, and not so obvious, how skill are considered. These tasks include suction tube accurately and keep the trained? How do we become good immediately visible, to quickly identify much almost all physical skill flows from flap retraction, suction, rinsing and field of view clear (Figure 4.23). This surgeons? The questions are serious important landmarks in the incision the maturation of motor skills under the cutting the sutures. To guarantee a also becomes an issue during suturing ones and of intense interest to the and to mentally organize multisensory guidance of both visual and kinesthetic continuous workflow during the surgical when the air intake of the suction tube people responsible for training surgeons data and actions at any given point of monitoring. Both the hand and the intervention, a second assistant who can easily aspirate the fine threads. and microsurgeons. The Loyola Medical the procedure so as to allow a smooth eye develop as sense organs through arranges the instruments is frequently One disadvantage of this working Center has investigated several aspects and efficient sequence of responses. practise, which means that the brain desirable. Additionally, this second configuration that must be mentioned, of prospective surgeons related to From this data we can conclude that teaches itself to synthesize visual and assistant monitors the well-being of is the impaired manoeuvrability of the their predictive value to become good appropriate microsurgical training must tactile perceptions by making the hand the patient. Depending on the working operating team, since each movement surgeons. They looked at manual not only focus on the pure psychomotor and eye learn to work together. configuration (loupe, video screen or of the surgeon must be compensated speed, fine motor coordination, and skills but also on the perceptual abilities co-observer tubes), this task might be for by the same movement of the bimanual sequencing; they looked at of the trainee. difficult to perform by the chairside assistant in the opposite direction. overconstruction! 124 125 4 OPMI in periodontology and implantology How can expertise be acquired in periodontal and peri-implant microsurgery? Most microsurgical training programmes few tenths of a milimeter can make a incisor to the last molar and the three are related to beginners, focusing on the surgical intervention impossible. dimensionality of the oral mucosa. For forming phase (mentioned above). They Its physiological basis is uncertain, completion of the initial phase, the are designed to give an insight into the but it is important to be aware of the trainee is given a booklet with exercises world of magnification, accompanied by causes in order to prevent them. The based on increasing levels of difficulty. technical information about the OPMI body posture must be natural, with This serves as a basic guideline for and personal recommendations of the the spinal column straight and the training at home and includes several lecturer. These courses mainly consist forearms and hands fully supported. tests for self-evaluation. of basic exercises and cover topics An adjustable chair, preferably with such as how to pick up the needles, tie wheels is recommended for the surgeon After the corresponding training in Figure 4.24a Folded cloth rolls on the patient‘s shoul- Figure 4.24b Clinical situation with a sterile the knots and suture under the OPMI. who should place him/herself in the the lab and before starting with the ders provide an excellent hand support to avoid an drape covering the hand rests and the face of Usually, after the course the student is most comfortable position. Tremor first microsurgeries on the patient, unfavourable tremor the patient abandoned to his fate. varies with individuals and even in the the trainee attends a second course same individual it varies under different that lasts one day. It is the aim of the This is somewhat surprising as most conditions. In some people, coffee, tea course to control the learned hand and courses last only one or two days, or alcohol may increase the tremor; in finger movements for their correctness and just communicating the message others, emotions, physical exercise or and to instruct the clinician about the is simply not enough! No matter how the carrying of heavy weights. ergonomic aspects that may facilitate one’s life in clinical practice. These During this phase an expert can just deal with difficult situations. For that practise and a special kind of practise During the basic course a number of include good hand support during support with advice or recommendations reason, after several years of clinical is necessary for real understanding. exercises are shown and practised. microsurgical interventions, which while the new treatment team forms by practice, and to become an expert, the This is no drawback, since many people These are the same for all the different can easily be achieved by positioning itself. Following the learning curve and microsurgeon may attend a third course currently invest large amounts of motor microsurgical specialties. The exercises folded cloth rolls on the shoulders of acquiring expertise, the apprentice gains which is focused on specific exercises skill practise time with no noticeable should be adjusted individually the patient before placing the sterile proficiency. The team is now qualified at the highest level of difficulties. Such results. depending on the progress of each drape (Figure 4.24a/Figure 4.24b). After to manage well-known procedures a course can just present the suitable single participant. This guarantees the this second instruction, the trainee successfully under the OPMI without exercises and provide the participants We recommend a three step training best learning effect. The initial training is provided with all the necessary any increase in duration. Intuitively, one with the appropriate training models. programme: In the first course, the lasts two days and the models used are theoretical information and manual might suppose that practise pays off by We are convinced that even a master in trainee is initiated into the world of mainly two dimensional ones. skills to start with the first surgical making movements increasingly more periodontal microsurgery must undergo microdentistry. Basic aspects such as The third day of the basic course is interventions, thus turning into an precise as time passes by. That, however, lab training from time to time and that positioning for an ergonomic posture dedicated to the specific periodontal apprentice. turns out to be a terrible mistake, the lifetime training is a prerequisite to and how to reduce natural hand tremor and peri-implant exercises. These are because the hand needs a new, more constantly improve manual skills. are taught. The latter is of the utmost performed on models which mimic the In the following period, the young difficult task as a stimulus for further importance as even normal tremor restricted access area of the oral cavity, microsurgical team must acquire clinical improvement. In other words, getting of the fingertips with excursions of a the depth of the working field from the routine and eliminate small errors. better means improving one’s ability to sincere the inquiry, a great deal of 126 127 4 OPMI in periodontology and implantology Which are the most common errors made in the use of the OPMI in surgical practice? The three most common errors in the High magnification Changing techniques too rapidly Lack of Practise use of the OPMI are: There is a tendency to use magnification It may take six months or more One unfortunate aspect in the use of the Working with high magnification (12- To acquire expertise in periodontal 1) using magnification that is that is too high. One of the basic for surgeons to be familiar with OPMI is the failure to define its purpose 20x) the surgeon has to adjust to being and peri-implant microsurgery, correct principles of optics is the higher the magnification of 12x, which usually is clearly. Many scientific publications a “prisoner” within a narrow field of implementation of the exercises is more too high magnification, the narrower the field the maximum used in plastic periodontal on the use of the OPMI in periodontal view. A new co-ordination has to be important than time exposure (further 2) changing techniques too rapidly of view and the smaller its depth. and implant surgery. A point of and implant surgery emphasize new sought between the surgeon’s eyes and information: www.swiss-perio.com). This concept is important because diminishing returns will eventually be techniques or technological advances, hands – an adjustment which can come 3) lack of practise high magnification causes surgery to reached at the point of magnification some of which are mainly for research after much regular practice with simple become more difficult, especially when where the advantages of magnification while others are so sophisticated that surgical procedures only. If periodontal it involves considerable movement. In are outweighed by the disadvantages of they are beyond the scope of most surgeons say that they use the OPMI these circumstances low magnification a narrower field of view. clinicians in practice. only for difficult procedures, such as guided tissue regeneration or recession of 4x to 7x should be used. On the other hand, higher magnification of 10x There has thus been a consistent coverage, it is likely that they have not to 15x may be useful when dissecting failure on the part of microsurgeons adjusted to the OPMI. The same applies within a small area requiring less to stress the advantage of the OPMI. if their operating time is significantly movement, e.g. in papilla preservation The OPMI is not only useful in research increased or if they are not using the techniques (Figure 1). In general, the and for periodontal specialists, but OPMI for all their surgeries, at the least magnification should be chosen to allow also helps a general practitioner to those that do not require positional the surgeons to operate with ease and perform conventional periodontal and changes. without increasing their usual operating peri-implant operations with greater time required for a particular surgical precision and accuracy. It follows that Once the periodontal surgeons are able procedure. Surgical time does not have with the use of the OPMI, surgeons do to do more difficult procedures and to be increased once the surgeon has not need to change their techniques suture the wounds with very fine suture adapted fully to the OPMI necessarily, but should continue materials (8-0, 9-0, 10-0) as a matter The more experienced and skilled the with those with which they are most of routine, the standard of their basic surgeons are with the OPMI, the higher familiar. Changing techniques should surgeries will also improve even if these the magnification they can use with be deliberately resisted until the initial are performed with lower magnification. ease. adjustment difficulties have been However, this progress can only be overcome. attained with regular practise, which seems to be one of the key factors in becoming an experienced microsurgeon. 128 129 4 OPMI in periodontology and implantology References ABIDIN, M.R., TOWLER, M.A., THACKER, J.G., ADHESION. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SURGERY 147: MANAGEMENT OF WOUNDS FROM THE POINT OF NOCHIMSON, G.D, MCGREGOR, W. & EDLICH, 197-204. VIEW OF PLASTIC SURGERY OPERATIONS IN GYNECOLOGY. GYNÄKOLOGE 14: 2-13. R.F. (1989) NEW ATRAUMATIC ROUNDED-EDGE SURGICAL NEEDLE HOLDER JAWS. THE AMERICAN CORTELLINI, P. & TONETTI, M.S. (2001) MICROSUR- JOURNAL OF SURGERY 157: 241-242. GICAL APPROACH TO PERIODONTAL REGENERATION. POSTLETHWAIT, R.W. & SMITH, B. (1975) A NEW INITIAL EVALUATION IN A CASE COHORT. JOURNAL SYNTHETIC ABSORBABLE SUTURE. SURGERY, GYNE- OF PERIODONTOLOGY 72: 559-569. COLOGY AND OBSTETRICS 140: 377-380. EDLICH, R.F. (1990) METALLURGICALLY BONDED CURTIS, J. W., MCLAIN, J. B. & HUTCHINSON, R.A. ROTHENBURGER, S., SPANGLER, D., BHENDE, S. NEEDLE HOLDER JAWS. A TECHNIQUE TO ENHANCE (1985) THE INCIDENCE AND SEVERITY OF & BURKLEY, D. (2002) IN VITRO ANTIMICROBIAL NEEDLE HOLDING SECURITY WITHOUT SUTURAL COMPLICATIONS AND PAIN FOLLOWING PERIODON- EVALUATION OF COATED VICRYL PLUS ANTIBAC- DAMAGE. THE AMERICAN SURGEON 56: 643-647. TAL SURGERY. JOURNAL OF PERIODONTOLOGY 10: TERIAL SUTURE (COATED POLYGLACTIN 910 WITH 597–601. TRICLOSAN) USING ZONE OF INHIBITION ASSAYS. ABIDIN, M.R., DUNLAPP, J.A., TOWLER, M.A., BECKER, D.G., THACKER, J.G., MCGREGOR, W. & SURGICAL INFECTIONS 3 (SUPPL 1): 79 – 87. BERGENHOLTZ, A. & ISAKSSON, B. (1967) TISSUE REACTIONS IN THE ORAL MUCOSA TO CATGUT, SILK DE CAMPOS, G.V., BITTENCOURT, S., SALLUM, A.W., AND MERSILENE SUTURES. ODONTOLOGISK REVY NOCITI JR., F.H., SALLUM, E.A. & CASATI, M.Z. SALTHOUSE, T.N. (1980). BIOLOGIC RESPONSE TO 18: 237-250. (2006) ACHIEVING PRIMARY CLOSURE AND ENHAN- SUTURES. OTOLARYNGOLOGICAL HEAD AND NECK CING AESTHETICS WITH PERIODONTAL MICROSUR- SURGERY 88: 658-664. BLOMSTEDT, B., ÖSTERBERG, B. & BERGSTRAND, A. GERY. PRACTICAL PROCEDURES AND AESTHETIC (1977) SUTURE MATERIAL AND BACTERIAL TRANS- DENTISTRY 18: 449-454. SCHEUNEMANN, A. & PICKLEMAN, J. (1993) NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF SURGICAL SKILL. PORT. AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY. ACTA CHIRURGICA HELPAP, B., STAIB, I., SEIB, U., OSSWALD, J. & IN: STARKES, J.L. & ALLARD, F. EDS. COGNITIVE HARTUNG, H. (1973) TISSUE REACTION OF PAREN- ISSUES IN MOTOR EXPERTISE, P 189. AMSTERDAM: BURKHARDT, R. & HUERZELER, M. B. (2000) UTI- CHYMATOUS ORGANS FOLLOWING IMPLANTATION ELSEVIER SCIENCE PUBLISHER B.V. LIZATION OF THE OPMI FOR ADVANCED PLASTIC OF CONVENTIONALLY AND RADIATION STERILIZED PERIODONTAL SURGERY. PRACTICAL PERIODONTICS CATGUT. BRUN’S BEITRÄGE FÜR KLINISCHE CHIRUR- SHANELEC, D.A. & TIBBETTS, L.S. (1994) PERIODON- AND AESTHETIC DENTISTRY 12: 171–180. GIE 220: 323-333. TAL MICROSURGERY. PERIODONTAL INSIGHTS 1: 4-7. BURKHARDT, R. & LANG, N.P. (2005) COVERAGE OF LEVIN, M.R. (1980). PERIODONTAL SUTURE MATERI- SHANELEC, D.A. & TIBBETTS, L.S. (1996) A PERSPEC- LOCALIZED GINGIVAL RECESSIONS: COMPARISON ALS AND SURGICAL DRESSINGS. DENTAL CLINICS OF TIVE ON THE FUTURE OF PERIODONTAL MICROSUR- OF MICRO- AND MACROSURGICAL TECHNIQUES. NORTH AMERICA 24: 767-781. GERY. PERIODONTOLOGY 2000 11: 58-64. SCANDINAVICA 143: 71-73. JOURNAL OF PERIODONTOLOGY 32: 287-293. MACHT, S.D. & KRIZEK, T.J. (1978). SUTURES AND THACKER, J.G., RODEHEAVER, G.T. & TOWLER, M.A. BURKHARDT, R., PREISS, A., JOSS, A. & LANG, N.P. SUTURING – CURRENT CONCEPTS. JOURNAL OF (1989) SURGICAL NEEDLE SHARPNESS. AMERICAN (2008) INFLUENCE OF SUTURE TENSION TO THE TE- ORAL SURGERY 36: 710-712. JOURNAL OF SURGERY 157: 334-339. IN VITRO EXPERIMENT. CLINICAL ORAL IMPLANTS MEYER, R.D. & ANTONINI, C.J. (1989) A REVIEW OF VON FRAUNHOFER & J.A., JOHNSON, J.D. (1992) RESEARCH 19: 314-319. SUTURE MATERIALS, PART I. COMPENDIUM OF CON- A NEW SURGICAL NEEDLE FOR PERIODONTOLOGY. TINUING EDUCATION IN DENTISTRY 10: 260-265. GENERAL DENTISTRY 5: 418- 420. PRINCIPLES IN PERIODONTAL PLASTIC SURGERY AND MICHAELIDES, P.L. (1996) USE OF THE OPERATING ZAUGG, B., STASSINAKIS, A. & HOTZ, P. (2004) MUCOSAL AUGMENTATION - A NARRATIVE REVIEW. MICROSCOPE IN DENTISTRY. JOURNAL OF THE CALI- INFLUENCE OF MAGNIFICATION TOOLS ON THE JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PERIODONTOLOGY (ACCEP- FORNIAN DENTAL ASSOCIATION 24: 45-50. RECOGNITION OF SIMULATED PREPARATION AND TED FOR PUBLICATION). MOUZAS, G.L. & YEADON, A. (1975) DOES THE FILLING ERRORS. SCHWEIZERISCHE MONATSSCHRIFT CHOICE OF SUTURE MATERIAL AFFECT THE INCI- FÜR ZAHNMEDIZIN 114:890-896. ARING CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SOFT TISSUES: AN BURKHARDT, R. & LANG, N.P. (2014) FUNDAMENTAL CHU, C.C. & WILLIAMS, D.G. (1984) EFFECTS DENCE OF WOUND INFECTION? BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CONFIGURATION AND CHEMICAL OF SURGERY 62: 952-955. STRUCTURE OF SUTURE MATERIALS ON BACTERIAL NOCKEMANN, P.F. (1981) WOUND HEALING AND 130 131 5 5 Restorative and prosthodontic Dentistry Author: Prof. Dr. Claudia Cia Worschech Dr. Maxim Stosek 135 Why use the surgical microscope in restorative and prosthodontic dentistry? 136 Prevention and diagnosis 137 Bacterial plaque 138Caries 142 Fractured line – “cracks” 148 Preparation control 150 Matrix adaptation 153 Rubber dam applications in anterior and posterior areas 154 Cervical lesions 156 Finishing and polishing 160 Possibilities for analyzing the surgical field at different magnifications 164 Replacements – avoiding wear 166 The Tunnel preparation technique 168 Indirect restorations 172Instruments 174 Excellence in operative and prosthetic dentistry with regard to communication with patients 176References 133 5 Restorative and prosthodontics 1:1 Why use the OPMI in Restorative and Prosthetic Dentistry? This is one of the first questions asked by the dentists who are The OPMI can be used for the whole spectrum of not endodontists. restorative procedures. Nowadays, the OPMI is an “innovative” way to see and to do dentistry. It enhances Modern dentistry is based on precision, and precision is an the quality of the treatment procedure by permitting absolute must to achieve high quality standards. Why was the enhanced viewing of the surgical field thanks to the use of the OPMI use in dentistry limited to the endodontic quality, direction and intensity of the light as well as specialty for many years? No other specialty has made the magnification process. It is much easier to achieve such intensive use of the OPMI as this branch of dentistry. excellent results if the surgical area is clear. The current However some form of magnification is indicated in all fields treatment philosophy is to prevent and detect dental of dentistry and should be utilized by all dentists, in all areas. disease at the earliest stage in order to avoid invasive All restorative procedures have become more complex, more treatment. sophisticated and require more focus and attention. New materials and techniques have been developed in recent years With the current understanding of the nature of dental and are continuing to improve on a daily basis. In conjunction disease and its process, the treatment philosophy is now with the development of new materials and techniques changing to a more conservative approach, and the there has been a massive incorporation of technology in the concept of minimal intervention is gaining popularity in profession. modern dentistry throughout the world. When intervention is indicated, the less invasive techniques such as preventive Dentistry today demands the intensive utilization of computers resin restoration and minimal cavity preparation are and many other new technologies to aid the management of utilized. Early diagnosis can allow minimally invasive all the clinical information, digital documentation and record- treatments to be performed, thus preserving tooth keeping generated during the diagnosis and execution of structure. In the long term, this conservative approach clinical cases. As a direct consequence of all this technological should lead to fewer complications such as tooth fracture development and the incorporation of new materials and and pulpitis. techniques, dentistry today demands a multidisciplinary approach in contrast to the unilateral perspective of the Besides caries detection and the minimally invasive past. Different treatment modalities can be presented and approach using resin or other kinds of materials such performed for the resolution of one specific clinical situation as ionomers, many points are important to allow the due to the many valuable treatment options available. maximum longevity of the restorations. Direct or indirect and marginal integrity is the first point to be analyzed for measuring this success. If margins display gaps and excessive material, longevity could be affected due to microleakage. During this chapter we will show you how you can view every step in operative dentistry and prosthodontics and show you that magnification is the way Figure 5.1 134 to the future. 135 5 Restorative and prosthodontics Prevention and diagnosis Bacterial plaque Careful examination and correct diagnosis are the prerequisite of any dental professional. This requires clear visualization of the both hard and soft tissues. The OPMI is very helpful in many different specialties including restorative dentistry and prosthodontics. Figures 5.1 to 5.8 illustrate how every detail becomes very sharp and clear. Figure 5.2: Plaque in the labial area. Many imperfect surfaces provide a Achieving a smooth tooth restoration favorable site for residue and plaque interface clinically to aid the cooperative deposition. This process promotes the motivated patient in biofilm removal development of caries and periodontal is an essential prerequisite to prevent diseases. Imperfect surfaces like rough further secondary caries and improve or overcontoured surfaces can shorten the longevity of all restorations. the longevity of direct or indirect restorations. The cavity preparations, restorative procedures and finishing process adopted are considered “key factors” for the long-term success and aesthetic outcomes for all restorations. 136 137 5 Restorative and prosthodontics Caries Figure 5.2: Occlusal caries viewed at high magnification in lower molar Figure 5.3: Approximal and secondary caries Figure 5.4: Approximal caries on distal wall, first upper molar plaque accumulation 138 Figure 5.5: Caries opening Figure 5.6: After the caries removal and matrix adaptation 139 5 Restorative and prosthodontics 1:1 Figure 8a, 8b,8c: Non-caries stain at different magnifications ( low, medium and high) Figure 5.8a Figure 5.8b 140 Figure 5.8c 141 5 Restorative and prosthodontics Fractured line – “cracks” Figure 5.9a Figure 5.9b Clinicians have had the ability to observe Without the information provided by cracks under extreme magnification for microscopic inspection at high power, nearly a decade. Patterns have become many teeth with structurally significant clear that can lead to appropriate cracks would have been treated only treatment prior to symptoms or before when they were symptomatic. This can devastation of tooth structure occurs. result in more complicated, involved Conversely, many cracks are not treatment, or even a catastrophic event structural and can lead to misdiagnosis that leads to tooth loss. and overtreatment. Most of these superficial fractures Methodical microscopic examination, are relatively undetectable without an understanding of crack progression, magnification, but when viewed under and an appreciation of the types of high power, hairline cracks appear as cracks will guide the dentist to making crevasses. appropriate decisions. Teeth can have structural cracks at various stages. To date, diagnosis and treatment have very often been made at a late stage of the crack. Figures 5.9a, 5.9b and 5.9c: Fractured premolar viewed at low, medium and high magnification Figure 5.9c 142 143 5 Restorative and prosthodontics Figure 5.10 Fractured premolar Many fractures like this are not observed without high quality light and magnification. Cracks can occur in teeth restored with amalgam due to the physical and chemical properties of the restorative material (setting expansion, corrosion, coefficient of thermal expansion etc). The forces on the remaining tooth structure can cause deflection of the cusps, cracking and ultimately fracture of the cusps. Figure 5.11 Molar presenting crack under the cusp (low magnification; medium magnification and high magnification). 144 145 5 Restorative and prosthodontics Figure 5.13: This image demonstrates the ability of the OPMI to Figure 5.14: Cracked tooth syndrome. show a verical root fracture Note the enamel crack disto-palatally Figures 5.15a Mesio-distal crack viewed with the aid of the operating light of Figure 5.15b The same crack viewed using the OPMI transillumination Figure 5.12 Fracture line in the floor of the cavity and under the cusp visible in high magnification. 146 147 5 Restorative and prosthodontics Preparation control Figures 5.16a Figures 5.16b Figure 5.17a Without OPMI Figures 5.16a and 5.16b: Note recurrent caries reaching the dento-enamel junction and leakage around the restoration in the adjacent tooth. Magnification is really useful to avoid unnecessary destruction of healthy dental tissue because it is possible to see the boundaries between the restorative material and dental tissue in great detail. Without magnification, this cannot be seen with the same clarity leading to more extensive tooth preparation, loss of healthy tissue and potential damage to the pulp Preparation for indirect restorations are vastly enhanced with the aid of the OPMI as prepared surfaces can be finished with greater accuracy leading to better fitting restorations. Figure 5.17b With OPMI 148 149 5 Restorative and prosthodontics Matrix adaptation Figure 5.19a: situation before the Figure 5.19b: subgingival calculus Figure 5.19c: Correct matrix adaption Figure 5.19d: Correct right matrix matrix placement. Note the small obstructing the correct placement of but note the decalcified enamel at adaptation, after the final enamel space between the rubber dam the matrix the marginal line preparation slightly not adapted to the mesial wall of the cavity When direct restorations are made, The simple fact of working with cavities special attention needs to be on opposite walls from dissimilar paid to margins, especially dentine tissues like dentine and enamel creates margins. intrinsic problems in itself. Managing their completely different adhesive The biggest problems continue to be the behavior is one aspect that should not adequate sealing of the margins and the be overlooked. correct contact point, for most kinds of restorations and independently of the Any excess or roughness of restorative materials used. material should be avoided. Plaque (See Figures 5.18a - 5.19d). retention, gingival inflammation, and occurrence of carious lesions represent Eliminating or reducing the gap not only a failure of the restoration but formation on the gingival floor is a also a creation of new problems to the challenge. patient. Techniques with minimum need of finishing and polishing are ideal, but properly contoured restorations are seldom achieved without the need to remove excess of material. Figures 5.18a and 5.18b: Note the image on the left where the matrix band is not adapted Figure 5.18a 150 Figure 5.18b 151 5 Restorative and prosthodontics Rubber dam applications in anterior and posterior areas Figure 5.20: Note the poor cervical adaptation of the matrix and incorrectly shaped contact point Figure 5.23 Figure 5.24 Figures 5.23 and 5.24 the correct insertion of The cervical adaptation of the Another critical factor associated with restoration is important. This defect restorations in general and with indirect can be illustrated with the scanning aesthetics restorations in particular is electron microscope image (fig 5.21), periodontal health, and for longevity of which shows us the imperfection on the restorations the precision of the margins approximal wall. A gap often results if at the periodontal-restorative interface Rubber dam can be used to achieve the matrix is not correctly adapted. is required. Improper margins can cause more effective isolation of the surgical Clinically, we deduce why the overhangs and over-contouring that may field or for better insertion of a restoration has failed. Because the ultimately result in caries, periodontal interface between the tooth and the inflammation and breakdown, and Figure 5.21: Through a scanning electron composite resin is not sealed, a gap compromised aesthetics. In order to microscope it is possible to see a gap between the emerges and the patient may feel pain prevent pathology at the restorative or sensitivity. Sometimes the restoration tooth interface, each phase of the has to be replaced. aesthetic treatment must be performed rubber dam applications. In fact, the OPMI can be used during all procedures related to restorative and prosthodontics retraction cord, thus avoiding bleeding. Figures 5.23 and 5.24. resin restoration and the tooth surface, probably because of incorrect matrix position and poor adaptation of resin against the matrix with precision and care. Cervical enamel has an important impact on the performance of Class II composite restorations by improving strength and adhesive properties of the restoration. Figure 5.22: This image shows current lack of adaptation of resin restoration in mesial surface of molar Figure 5.25 Note the imperfect application of the Figure 5.26 rubber dam, clearly visible under magnification 152 153 5 Restorative and prosthodontics Cervical lesion Figure 5.28 Figure 5.29 Figure 5.30 Figure 5.26 Cervical lesion can be viewed perfectly Proper rubber dam isolation is very Figures 5.26 - 5.31: Non-carious lesions through the OPMI - from minimal to difficult, sometimes impossible, were viewed at low, medium and high pronounced lesions involving pulp when lesions extend aproximally or inflammation. Attention should be given subgingivally. Sometimes part of the cervical surface. This calculus should to non-carious lesions in cervical areas. structure cannot be isolated and the be removed before the resin insertion. Cervical restorations need to be very dam promotes accumulation of the well adapted because they can lead to restorative material. Access is also an increase in the level of plaque, limited, causing problems related to potentially resulting in secondary caries insertion of the restoration. When and periodontal disease. adequate rubber dam isolation is not possible, an alternative method of isolation (i.e. cotton rolls) has to be magnifications. Note the presence of calculus around the lesion on the Magnification was essential to allow correct viewing and removal Figure 5.27 Figure 5.31 employed. See Figures 5.26 - 5.31 154 155 5 Restorative and prosthodontics Finishing and polishing 1:1 Figure 5.32a Figures 5.35a and 5.35b: This clinical case exemplifies the resin restoration which was polished without an OPMI Figure 5.32b Figure 5.33 Figure 5.35a Figure 5.32a - 5.32b: These images showed direct restorations after polishing, without OPMI usage. Note that a certain amount of resin was kept over the surface, toughening the gingival margin. This could not be seen without magnification, but was clearly visible under the OPMI Figure 5.34 Through the scanning electron microscope this excess of material is viewed easily and concur with the images provide through the OPMI The clinical case below showed how or when dental floss remains jammed to improve the appearance and important it is to remove and clean between the teeth. Here, the OPMI can health aspects. In many cases, these residues around composite resins. help dentists and technicians to achieve restorations have to be either replaced, Gingival irritation and marginal tissue precision in restoration margins of direct resulting in the potential further inflammation could be avoided using or indirect restorations. destruction of healthy tissues, or adjusted to improve the existing simple procedures and thanks to the high-precision view of the surgical field When adhesive material accumulates result. Adjustment can be very enjoyed by the dentist. near gingival tissue, inflammation may challenging especially in areas where result, and pain and discomfort could the access is difficult. A good gingival Most of the time, patients are not as require replacement of the restoration. displacement and the use of enhancing discriminating in their ability to Aesthetic restorations can be harmful optical devices are indicated. See Figures identify small color differences between due to imperfect finishing of margins, 5.32 - 5.41 for images showing perfect composite restoration and tooth as resulting in pigment retention and an and imperfect polishing, reflecting light dental professionals. On the other hand, unattractive appearance. In most clinical zone, etc. all patients notice when restorations cases of this kind, these restorations are not accurate, when there is a gap, have to be replaced in an attempt 156 Figure 5.35b 157 5 Restorative and prosthodontics Figure 5.36 Figure 5.37 Figure 5.39 Figure 5.40 Figures 5.36 and 5.37: At high magnification Figures 5.39 and 5.40: Close-up of texture and you can see details of irregular surfaces after polishing on the left. On the right you can see polishing (left). The image through a scanning the image captured though a scanning electron electron microscope shows the rough surface microscope on an incisal area Figures 38a and 38b: Restoration was Figures 5.41a and 5.41b: Note the polishing after re-polished. Note the much smoother bracket removal. All resin used to bracket fixation surface was removed without damage to the enamel Figure 5.38a Figure 5.41a Figure 5.38b 158 Figure 5.41b 159 5 Restorative and prosthodontics Possibilities for analyzing the surgical field at different magnifications Figure 5.42a Figure 5.42b Working with the OPMI provides many possibilities for viewing the surgical field. This is one of the most important advantages offered by OPMIs, besides excellent quality of light. See Figures 5.42a - 5.42c. In restorative and prosthodontic dentistry it is very important because the dentist can see much more than the tooth that is being treated. Figures 5.42a, 5.42b and 5.42c: Surgical field at low, medium and high magnifications 160 Figure 5.42c 161 5 Restorative and prosthodontics 1:1 Figure 5.43b Figure 5.43a Figures 5.43a, 5.43b and 5.43c: Surgical field at low, medium and high magnifications Figure 5.43c 162 163 5 Restorative and prosthodontics Replacements - avoiding impairment Figure 5.44 - 5.46: captured with an OPMI and scanning electron microscope exemplify the most common occurrence during restoration replacement without any kind of magnification Figure 5.45 Figure 5.46 When we replace restorations (aesthetic Improved lighting coupled with Adhesive restoration eliminates the or non-aesthetic) due to a recurrent magnification provide a clear distinction need for more extensive and retentive carious lesion, or because of superficial between surfaces that may look similar preparations. Enamel - like composites or intrinsic discolorations of resin which in color or texture under traditional offer long-lasting replacement of tooth damage the aesthetic restoration’s working conditions, but look very structure with minimum requirements quality, healthy tooth material is different under the OPMI. Decay, for restorative bulk; little or no healthy often also removed at the same time. dentine, enamel, composite, and tooth material needs to be removed Recognizing the limits between teeth porcelain are easily discernible from simply to allow for an adequate thickness and restorations, seeing these structures one another and can be viewed with of the filling materials. Aesthetic and with magnification and high quality unprecedented detail under the scrutiny cosmetic procedures calling for invisible light, means greater preservation of of the OPMI. margins and tooth / restorative interface tooth tissue. (Figures 5.44 - 5.46.) The images above exemplify how an transitions are far easier and less stressful amount of resin that can remain around when size enhanced visualization is the cavity preparation if dentists cannot available. see the boundaries of the preparation in detail. Conversely, teeth may be over prepared by the removal of healthy tooth tissue at the margins of the restoration. The replacement of an amalgam or aesthetic restoration often leads to ever larger restorations that have shorter life spans than their predecessors, and the replacement procedures themselves may often cause damage to adjacent healthy teeth. Figure 5.44 164 165 5 Restorative and prosthodontics The Tunnel preparation technique Figure 5.47a Initial access to the decay Figure 5.47b Initial view of the tunnel preparation and removal of decay Figure 5.47c Detailed view of the tunnel preparation and inspection Figure 5.47d Inserted matrix to seal the tunnel of the marginal ridge for cracks Figure 5.47e 1st layer of flowable composite to seal the tunnel under visual Figure 5.47f Completed restoration Figure 5.47g Detailed view of the finished restoration and the marginal ridge The Tunnel preparation technique is a method in which Contraindicaton of this technique is where the marginal approximal demineralised enamel is partially or completely approximal caries is accessed and prepared through the ridge is undermined with decay or demonstrates cracks. It is removed and then smoothed. occlusal surface preserving the marginal ridge intact with advisable to maintain at least 2.5 mm of tooth tissue between occlusal centric contacts. This method allows less removal of the crest of the marginal ridge and the cavity margin. The failure risks include fracture of the marginal ridge, enamel and dentine compared to a traditional class II cavity. The efficacy of caries removal is the main problem. It is incomplete removal of caries and secondary caries. This minimally invasive approch to approximal decay is limited by the size of the occlusal access – it may be too These risks are reduced by the control given by the OPMI. indicated in cases of approximal lesions and intact occlusal small to see all the undermined areas. Combination of higher surface, or a pre-existing occlusal restoration which is removed magnification, caries detector dye and transillumination to gain the access. In the teeth with an intact occlusal surface techniques improves the effectiveness of caries removal. the ideal position of entry is the fossa next to the marginal Cavity design varies from the tunnel in which the approximal ridge. enamel is maintained to a partial or total tunnel where Figure 5.47h After polishing the restoration and rewetting of the tooth control and transformation of the class II cavity into a class I cavity 166 167 5 Restorative and prosthodontics Indirect restorations Figure 5.48 Figure 5.49 Figures 5.48 and 5.49: Note the excess of resin cement, after cementation. This kind of material can damage the surrounding soft tissue and should therefore be removed Figures 5.50 and 5.51 Note the exact definition of preparation on the cervical area through the use of magnification. At low magnification it is also possible to check the smoothness of preparation in each tooth involved in the restorative procedure Figure 5.50 Figure 5.51 Note the excess of cement in the In order to avoid overhangs during boundary between the tooth and ceramic bonding, marginal adjustments the ceramic restoration. Without any are made using small burs and rubbers. magnification this is difficult to see The smoother and more regular they and remove adequately. These OPMI are, the better the adaptation of the images show us the exact point where indirect restoration. See Figures 5.50 finishing and polishing must be done. and 5.51. See Figures 5.48 - 5.49. Figure 5.52: Thanks to the high magnification and clear light Other important considerations include provided by the OPMI, it is possible the correct removal of the retraction to see residues of the retractor cord cord after cementation of laminates. used during cementation procedure. These residues must be removed to Parts of the cord often remain in the prevent plaque retention and gingival cervical area. If the dentist does not use recession either magnification or clear light, these residues cannot be seen(Figure 5.52). 168 169 5 Restorative and prosthodontics Figure 5.53a Figure 5.53b Figure 5.55: Note the accurate impression of the preparation Figure 5.54a Figure 5.54b Figure 5.56a The aim of clinicians and technicians. is to achieve excellent margins and perfect adaptation. Clear visibility of the Another important aspect concerning Figures 5.53a and 5.53b: Note the perfect adapta- indirect restorations is the visualization tion of ceramic microlaminates when treatment of impressions, and not only the surgical field and high magnification is carried out with the aid of the operating micro- visualization of the impression material, are very important to reach that goal. scope... The ceramic microlaminates were made by but also the adaptation of the material If excellence is achieved the results are Marcos Celestrino TPD – BRAZIL highly satisfying for both the patient and the clinician and also longlasting. See images 5.53a, 5.53b and 5.54a and 5.54b. to the teeth. See Figures 5.55, 5.56a and 5.56b. Figures 5.54a and 5.54b: Note the excellent tissue response to the ceramic microlaminates after 5 years in the mouth. Figure 5.56b Figures 5.56a and 5.56b: There is perfect adaptation of the coping to the papilla margin; however, there is incorrect adaptation through the cervical contour 170 171 5 Restorative and prosthodontics Instruments Figure 5.57 Figure 5.58 Figure 5.59 Figure 5.60 Restorative dentistry under the microscope requires modified instrumentation to take full advantage of this treatment modality. Microburs, micro-mirrors and flexible mirrors are available for this type of high precision clinical work. The high quality illumination only 200-300 mm from the mouth provides vastly superior light than the overhead operating light used by most clinicians. See Figures 5.57, 5.58, 5.59, 5.60 and 5.61. Figure 5.61 Figures 5.57 - 5.61: Note the differences between these instruments. Working under magnification requires delicate instruments, small mirrors, small burs and brushes. 172 173 5 Restorative and prosthodontics Excellence in operative and prosthodontic dentistry with regard to communication with patients Figure 64: Dentist and assistant working in perfect harmony using the OPMI and shooting and recording images at the same time Figure 5.62 The use of video and still photography enable documentation of clinical cases. The images can be used to explain findings to patients in perfect detail The ease of communication with the patient is, without doubt, another Figure 5.63 Figure 5.64 Figure 5.65 Figure 5.66 great benefit inherent in the use of the OPMI. All clinical images can be recorded by cameras or camcorders and all the details of each clinical case can be shown at the same time for the patient. The OPMI accessories provide exact recording of the images, with high quality and sharpness. See Figures 5.62 - 5.66. 174 175 5 Restorative and prosthodontics References WORSCHECH CC et al: Micro-operative dentistry: FREEDMAN G, GOLDSTEP F, SEIF T: Ultraconservative N – SPEAR F, HOLLOWAY J: Which all-ceramic profissional com o paciente. R.Dental Press Estética D K Ratledge, E A M Kidd & E T Treasure- The tunnel Why do it? QDT 2007, 199-205 resin restorations “watch and wait” is not system is optimal for anterior esthetics? J. Am Dent – Maringá, v.4, n.3, p.24-33, julho/agost/set 2007 restoration, British Dental Journal 193, (2002) acceptable treatment. Dentistry Today, Assoc, vol 139, No suppl_4, 19S-24S, 2008) Diagnosis of secondary caries in esthetic restoraX-ray beam. Braz Dent J. 2011;22(2): 129-33 WORSCHECH CC, MURGEL CAF: Micro-odontologia: Strand GV, Tveit AB Effectivenesss of caries removal HORN HR: A new lamination: porcelain bonded to visão e precisão em tempo real. Maringá-Dental by the partial tunnel preparation method. enamel. NY State Dent J 1983; 49(6): 401-403 Press Editora, 2008, 482p Scand J Dent Res 1993; 101: 270–273. SIMONSEN RJ, CALAMIA JR: Tensile bond strengths MAGNE P, VERSLUIS A, DOUGLAS WP: Effect of Pyk N, Mejàre I Tunnel restorations. Influence of of etched porcelain. Abstract 1099. J.Dent Res, luting composite srinkage and thermal loads on the some of the clinical variables on the success rate. 1983:62 stress distribution in porcelain laminate veneers. Acta Odont Scand 1999; 57: 149–154. january 2000 tions: influence of the incidence vertical angle of FRIEDMAN M, MORA A, SCHMIDT R. Microscopeassisted precision dentistry. Compend Contin Educ BRAGA MM, CHIAROTTI AP, IMPARATO JC, MENDES Dent 1999; 20:723–735 FM. Braz Oral Res, 2010 Jan-Mar; 24(1): 102-7 Microscope-assisted precision (MAP) dentistry. SHEETS CG: The periodontal-restorative interface: A challenge for new knowledge. enhancement through magnification. Pract perio- J Calif Dent Assoc 1998;26:900–905 dont Aesthet Dent 1999; 11(8): 925-931 FREEDMAN G, GOLDSTEP F, SEIF T: Ultraconservative J. Prosth Dent 1999, 81: 335-344 CALAMIA JR: Etched porcelain facial venners : KINA S, BRUGUERA A: Invisível: Restaurações clinical evidence. N Y J Dent 1983; 53(6): 255-259 estéticas cerâmicas. Maringá – Dental Press Editora, 2007, 420p) resin restorations “watch and wait” is not acceptaFRIEDMAN M, MORA A, SCHMIDT R ble treatment. Dentistry Today, january 2000 Microscope-assisted precision dentistry. Compend Contin Educ Dent 1999; 20:723–735 CLARK DJ, SHEETS CG, PAQUETTE JM: Definitive di- Knight GM The tunnel restoration. Dent Outlook a new treatment modality based on scientific and NAKABAYASHI N, NAKAMURA M, YASUDA N: Hybrid 1984; 10: 53–57 Nicolaisen S, von der Fehr FR, Lunder N, Thomsen I. Performance of tunnel restorations at 3-6 years. layer as a dentin-bonding mechanism. J Esthet Dent MAGNE P, PERROUD R, HODGES JS, BELSER UC.: 1991; 3 (4): 133-138 Clinical performance of novel design porcelain J Dent 2000; 28: 383-7. veneers for the recovery of coronal volume and Kinomoto Y, Inoue Y, Ebisu S. A two-year DALLI M, ÇOLAK H, MUSTAFA HAMIDI on microscopic evaluation. J. Esthet Restor Dent POSPIECH P: All-ceramic crowns : bonding or length. Int J. Periodontics Restorative. Dent 2000; comparison of resin-based composite tunnel and Minimal intervention concept: a new paradigm for 2003;15:391–401 cementing? Clin Oral Investig 2002; 6(4): 189-197 20: 441-457 class ii restorations in a randomized controlled trial. GARCIA A: Dental magnification: a clear view of the N – SPEAR F, HOLLOWAY J: Which all-ceramic LESAGE B: Finishing and Polishing criteria for mini- present and close-up view of the future. Compendi- system is optimal for anterior esthetics? J. Am Dent mally invasive composite restorations. Gen Dent. um, June 2005, 459-453 Assoc, vol 139, No suppl_4, 19S-24S, 2008) 2011 Nov-Dec; 59 (6): 422-8; quiz 429-30 JOHANSSON AK. Class II composite restorations: ARENS DE: Introduction to magnification in endo- SIMON H, MAGNE P: Clinically based diagnostic HUYSMANS MC, ROETERS FJ, OPDAM NJ: Cariology importance of cervical enamel in vitro dontics. J. Esthet Restor Dent 15: 426-439, 2003 wax up for optimal esthetics: the diagnostic mock and restorative dentistry: old and new risks. Ned up. J. Calif Dent Assoc, 2008, May; 36(5): 355-62 Tijdschr Tandheelkc, 2009 Jun; 116 (6): 291-7 agnosis of early enamel and dentinal cracks based operative dentistry. J.Investig Clin Dent 2012 Aug; 3(3): 167-175. doi: 10.111/j 2041-1626.2012.00117.x.Epud 2012 Feb 8. Am J Dent 2004; 17: 253-6. LAEGREID T, GJERDET NR, VULT VON STEYERN P, SHEETS CG: The periodontal-restorative interface: RAGAIN J, JOHNSTON WM: Minimum color differen- enhancement through magnification. Pract perio- ces for discriminating mismatch between composite TERRY DA, MORENO C, GELLER W, ROBERTS M: PEREIRA AC, EGGERTSSON H, MARTINEZ-MIER EA, dont Aesthet Dent 1999; 11(8):925-931 and tooth color. J. Esthet Restor Dent 13: 41-48, The importance of laboratory communication in MIALHE FL, ECKERT GJ, ZERO DT 2001 modern dental practice: stone models without Validity of caries detection on occlusal surfaces and faces. Pract Periodontics Aesthet Dent, 1999, treatment decisions based on results from multiple NOV-DEC; 1125-32; quiz 1134 caries detection methods. EUR J Oral Sci. 2009 Feb; PERES CR, GONZALEZ MR, PRADO NAS, MIRANDA MSF, MACEDO MA, FERNANDES BMP: Restoration BAUMANN RR.: How may the dentist benefit of noncarious cervical lesions: when, why , and from the operating microscope? Quintessence Int how. Int J Dent 2012;2012: 687058. Published on- 1977;5:17–18 117 (1): 51-7. WORSCHECH CC, Microdentistry: A Path to excellence. QDT 2008, 179-187 line2011 December 18.doi: 10.1155/2012/687058 10.1111/j.1600-0722.2008.00586x. SWENSON E, HENNESSY B: Detection of occlusal GONDIM E JR, MURGEL CAF, SOUSA FILHO FJ FRIEDMAN MJ, LANDESMAN HM: Microscope-assis- Microscópio cirurgico: lanueva frontera de la WORSCHECH CC: Microscopia Operatoria na carious lesions: an in vitro comparison of clinicians` ted precision (MAP) dentistry. A challenge for new Odontología clínica Del siglo. Fola/ Medicina Dentária. Aesthetic&Implant diagnostic abilities at varying levels of experience knowledge. J Calif Dent Assoc 1998;26:900–905 Oral1997;3:147–152 Dentistry Out. Nov. Dez. 2008 WORSCHECH CC: Replacement of esthetic restora- TERRY DA; GELLER W: Selection defines design. WORSCHECH CC: Microscopia Operatória na approximal carious lesions. J Am Dent Ass 1990; tions: Can we see the limits? R. Dental Press Estet, J. Esthet Restor Dent, 2004; 16(4): 213-25; Odontologia: Como a magnificação pode 120: 37–40. Maringá, v.3, n.4, p.77-90, out/Nov/dez. 2006 discussion 226 aprimorar a habilidade técnica e a comunicação do Hunt PR Microconservative restorations for 176 177 6 6 Documentation Author: Oscar Freiherr von Stetten 181 Why? 182How? Photo/video 186 Practical advice 179 6 Documentation Why documentation? The increasing use of magnifying devices in the dentist’s practice is also leading to a need to document the diagnosis and treatment, whether for forensic purposes, for the dentist’s own documentation needs, patient education, training or case presentations. Figure 6.1 180 181 6 Documentation How? Figure 6.3 Photo/video The optical beam path contains a beam different sizes. When purchasing, it to exchange the camera hardware splitter that routes a certain percentage is important not to simply choose the without any immediate need for a new of the incident light to the camera by model with the lowest price – this tube. The prefabricated optics of the means of prismatic lenses with defined reflects the optical quality and of the consumer grade cameras are eliminated, transmission properties. camera lens – and ensure that a filter resulting in considerably more light and thread is present. better optics. In addition, these devices have been optimized to meet the needs Video Figure 6.2 The biggest benefit of the video A further benefit of the video solution of their intended application, i.e. certain solution is that very little light is needed is the weight. The less weight there parameters have been adapted to usage (approximately 10%). is on the OPMI head, the less weight on the OPMI. also has to be moved when setting the Various manufacturers offer different OPMI. In addition, the camera hardware should first ask themselves for what In addition, video solutions may be very OPMI, making it more stable and less One drawback of video systems is the documentation solutions. Unfortunately, used does not play a really decisive purpose the images or videos are to suitable for generating high-quality sensitive to vibrations or imbalance. still enormous file sizes they involve. it is often the case that the dentist does role, despite the many beliefs to the be utilized and then make a decision in photos if high-quality cameras are used The other class of video cameras with Considerable time and skill is also not realize until after several weeks of contrary that often lead to unnecessary favor of one particular solution. for documentation. Consumer cameras a separate camera head – the medical required for the editing process, use that the usually expensive solution expenditure. Documentation is subject may be interesting from the price grade cameras – are more expensive although a few more intuitive solutions does not fulfill the intended purpose and to the laws of physics that cannot be perspective, but they have drawbacks than consumer grade cameras, but have already been established on the market. that the quality is not of the standard overcome. As impressively shown in when it comes to quality. However, their feature special benefits. One advantage normally associated with normal Chapter 1, the depth of field of OPMI attachment is very simple. of the medical grade devices is their photography or video recordings. optics is limited by the principles of ZEISS has developed the FlexioMotion standardized interface, the c-mount, It is important to note that the physics, as are light conduction and light adapter for this purpose. This allows which require smaller optics with smaller experience gained in everyday output. Nevertheless, it is subjective easy, uncomplicated attachment via focal length, which provides better photography cannot be transferred perception that ultimately determines filter threads that are available in three optical quality. This makes it possible one-to-one to documentation with the what technology is used. Dentists 182 183 6 Documentation External Camera Adaptation Recommended for full size chip cameras • Sensor: Full size 24 x 36mm e.g. Canon EOS 5D Mark II • Sensor APS ~15 x 22mm e.g. Canon EOS 600D Camera chip size too small in relation Camera chip size correct in relation to Camera chip size too big in relation to focal length of photo adapter focal length of photoadapter to focal length of adapter Image looks “cropped“ Image has full resolution, no blackcorners Black corners, fine structures might not be resolved Figure 6.4 At the IDS 2013, ZEISS presented a desired image section has been focused Full Frame What light? In addition, the mirror should be free To compensate for this, the device showing what such a system sharply and at the right point. In the past a recommendation for the For photography, it is important that from scratches and/or spray, but that installation of a co-observation tube is could look like. However, the same As human beings tend to accommodate use of full-frame cameras could not be enough light intensity is installed in the goes without saying. It is recommended recommended to make it possible to quality should not be expected from with their eyes, it may well be that justified. They were expensive, heavy OPMI. At the moment (2013) only xenon to have a dedicated photo mirror for check whether what you want to image a still frame extracted from a video although we see the image sharply and too complicated to use on the can be used for photodocumentation. this purpose. really is in focus, or whether the image stream as from a photo taken with image (transmitted to the camera OPMI. LED technology is not yet advanced enough to replace xenon. is in focus or if corrective action has to Fine focusing be taken. The best way is to use the As the depth of field range continues to “live- view” function, which allows for a much higher degree of focus control. a digital single reflex camera (DSLR) through the beam splitter) is not sharp. Now, with the further development camera. 2.1MP is available compared In other words, we perform a of the mirror-less class of camera, to 10 MP upwards; the resolution alone readjustment with our eyes, something Sony offers a mirror-less full-frame Mirrors decrease as a function of the increasing makes a direct comparison impossible. that the camera cannot do due to the camera system which can be fully Mirrors play a key role in photography. OPMI magnification, fine focusing Nevertheless, the benefits of higher absence of the required possibilities recommended for the use with the Even the highest light intensity from the becomes necessary to obtain a “sharp” speed combined with low image (no objective lens with focusing). It has OPMI. It is light weight, easy to use illumination apparatus is worthless if the image of the structure to be treated and noise open up new approaches to the further benefit that the preview and offers some useful functions like mirror cannot reflect enough light. hence imaged. documentation. image does indeed correspond to the built-in Wi-Fi. Together with the proven mounted on the OPMI was the Canon Zeiss Phototube f=340 adaptor, it is Photography 300D with 6 MP. Today entry class possible to get high quality pictures The first question to be asked is what DSLRs come up with 16 MP. Even the with ease. Due to the light weight camera type should be selected. Should electronics are better and faster than and the small size of the camera body, it be a DSLR, a compact or a mirrorless 2004, it makes no sense to get more the manoeuverability of the OPMI camera? As we, unlike laboratory than 10-14 MP in terms of quality. In is not impeded. If using the LED in microscopy, deal with moving objects 90% of the quality regarding the picture conjunction with the Varioscope, an (patient movement, vibrations of the is influenced by the optics, it makes external documenatiaton system can OPMI), we must accept no sense to invest in a very expensive not be recommended. For these cases A live video image plays a major role in camera, as there will be no significant the integrated HD-Recording provides a focusing. Only a preview monitor makes increase in quality. better suitability. it possible to really see whether the 184 Figure 6.5 185 6 Documentation Figure 6.6 Practical advice Stabilization ISO setting “band of sharpness” is used. The art RAW images are very big and definitely not done regularly, allocating the right a reliant archiving solution to hold all In documentation with the OPMI This is achieved indirectly through is how to bring all important areas of require post-processing with special images to the right patient can become the data for the particular patient in one sufficient stabilization is a must. Patients’ amplification of the image signal. the region to be documented into the software. This means that more time problematic. place with easy access. Without a post- movement due to breathing, swallowing Here, both the useful (amplified) data image plane. The target eyepiece and and effort is required to save the file, and muscle tremor are an additional and unwanted data (noise, crosstalk, the focusing monitor are of excellent but also for user familiarization with the There are several Media-Workflow- with the OPMI can easily become a time interfering and destabilizing factors. etc.) are amplified. This in turn leads assistance here. RAW workflow. The advantage of the Software solutions available. In consuming and frustrating task. RAW format is the broad spectrum of conjunction with wireless technology processing workflow, documentation Here it is important to achieve maximum to digital picture images having a very stability in the overall system comprising grainy appearance at high ISO settings, Remote release editing possibilities that it offers. The like the Eye-Fi-Card a smooth, easy Attachment: the dentist, instrument and patient. A i.e. they display a high level of noise. As any instability of the OPMI, combined dynamic potential offered by the sensor and user-friendly workflow is possible. For the attachment of a camera, it is with involuntary movement of the can be utilized to the full (an important The Recording-Solution from Zeiss important that the adapter is computed direct support should be sought, e.g. a rubber dam on a tooth. It is important Depth of field patient, involve the risk of system aspect), and the editing takes place streams live video into the network for the correct image circle. The most that adequate stability is achieved and The term “depth of field” is used to tremor, any unnecessary manipulations under the full control of the user instead for viewing through various devices common sensor format in the consumer that the area to be documented must be describe the extent that an object that of the camera should be avoided. Only of in the black box of the camera. Here, such as computer, iPad or similar. The market is currently APS-C. Full-frame clearly visible. can be see as “sharp” in the image infrared or radio remote releases are once again, it is the personal taste software record onto shared network cameras do not offer any real benefit for plane. The maximum depth-of-field suitable for this. and requirements of the user that are or USB devices as well as facilitate easy OPMIs, but can be attached if desired. decisive. transfer on still images and HD videos Pixel size of camera ranges are defined by the OPMI optics Another important subject is the (Table 1). If we bear in mind that the RAW or JPEG? sensor or pixel size, not only because maximum magnification has a depth- The discussion about the right file Workflow this software is not usable with external it indirectly influences the depth of of-field range of only 0.9 mm, it quickly format would appear to be endless. Once the picture has been taken, an documentation solutions. Depending on field, but also because noise increases becomes obvious that documenting at Both have their merits, but also their efficient workflow must be established the country, there are many solutions with decreasing pixel size and the light maximum magnification does not make drawbacks. to take full advantage of the modern available on the market. As an additional sensitivity drops. A combination would any sense. JPEG is small, and in most cases does documentation systems. In 2014 it benefit, most of the media-administering not need any editing and is immediately seems like an anachronism to remove softwares are able to import literally all be desirable: a small sensor size for the to patient management software, but depth of field, large pixels for detail and Band of sharpness available. One of its drawbacks is the the memory card from the camera and media, including CBCT-data With the modern sensor and signal processing Due to the restricted depth-of-field tricky setting of the image parameters wait for the computer to import the further growth of media data available it technology. range of the OPMI optics, the term and the limited editing possibilities. images. This is time consuming and if gets more and more important to have 186 187 7 7 Practice Management Author: Dr. Manor Haas 191 The benefits of the OPMI extend far beyond the obvious and well-proven clinical benefits. 192 Integration into clinical practice 193 The OPMI as a communication tool Dento-legal aspects 194 Marketing the OPMI 195 Health benefits to the dentist 196 Financials of the OPMI 189 7 Practice Management The benefits of the OPMI extend far beyond the obvious and well-proven clinical benefits. As well as the multiple clinical benefits that have been explained in earlier chapters, the OPMI offers enormous potential for growth and ultimately can pay for itself many times over. Many of the procedures highlighted could not be performed without the OPMI and therefore it enables the clinician to offer many more treatments than would otherwise be possible. Having more control of the clinical environment can lead to greater efficiency (i.e. reduced time looking for sclerosed canals), less stress and more predictable outcomes. Patients rapidly come to understand that a dentist using the OPMI is working at the very highest standards of the profession and with the ability to document, this greatly increases acceptance of treatments. Figure 7.1 190 191 7 Practice Management Integration into clinical practice Figure 7.2 Dentist and his assistant getting Figure 7.3 Dentist and his assistant trained in four-handed training in a clinical environment dentistry/assistance The OPMI as a communication tool Figure 7.6 The patient‘s dental condition explained with the aid of the OPMI and camera. Figure 7.4 Note the low magnification, seen in the Figure 7.5 Dental assistants who are new to monitor, used while this dentist is in training OPMIs are receiving instructions from experienced assistants The use of the image capturing capabilities of the OPMI provides a powerful communication tool. Whether it is with still or video images, showing The dentist and staff need to appreciate When first using the OPMI, the dentist patients the state of their oral health Figure 7.7 This is what patients see Figure 7.8 What patients see when the fact that there is a learning curve should work under low (or lower) makes it easier for them to understand looking through a hand-held mirror shown an image captured with the to using the OPMI. In turn, a little bit magnification. As proficiency and the problem at hand. It is easier for of extra time should be set aside for comfort levels improve, magnification patients to agree to treatment when, treatments in the initial period until they could be increased. OPMI for instance, they are shown a close- Dento-legal aspects become proficient in its use. up of a faulty restoration margin and A picture is worth a thousand words Dental assistants should be trained in are recommended to have it replaced. and this is very significant when it true four (or six)-handed assisting under Acceptance of treatment would be comes to record keeping. For instance, the OPMI prior to the introduction of reduced if it were only discussed not only is it easy to diagnose hairline the OPMI. This will help the dentist verbally. The OPMI can therefore help fractures, but it is also easy to record tremendously in practising efficiently to increase acceptance rates and them in the patient’s chart. The more and ergonomically. treatment fees. documentation, the lower the dentolegal risks to the dentist. The more patients understand their dental condition, the less likely they are to misunderstand and complain. 192 193 7 Practice Management Marketing the OPMI The mere use of the OPMI impresses There is no shame in educating your patients and demonstrates the high level patients and the general population of treatment offered by the dentist. It about the benefits of the OPMI and of is beneficial to the dental practice that the fact that your dental practice uses it. marketing material includes information Doing so becomes a win-win situation on the use of the OPMI. This could be for patients and dentists: patients get done by means of various media such better treatment and practices become as paper print (i.e. office brochures and more profitable. Health benefits to the dentist newsletters), a practice website and the social media. Informing patients of the fact the practice uses OPMIs also underlines to them that the practice stands out above and beyond other practices and is very advanced. For dentists who have taken OPMI training courses, it is recommended that they display any certificates they obtained for patients to see and Figure 7.9 A dentist being trained in appreciate their dentist’s proficiency in the use of an OPMI demonstrates good posture. the use of the OPMI. Improved ergonomics and posture with Better health results in the following: the OPMI become more obvious as the •Ability to provide more treatments dentist becomes more proficient in its use. Improved ergonomics also means health benefits for the dentist. This may be in the form of reduced back and neck problems. throughout the day/week. This also means increased patient throughput. •Reduced downtimes due to injuries that plague many dentists leading to a better quality of life. •Potentially longer dental career. Better health makes for better work and better business!! 194 195 7 Practice Management Financials of the OPMI Return on Investment – Example Patient fee $1,000 1 per week 500,000 400,000 average price of an OPMI 300,000 Patient fee $500 1 per week 200,000 Patient fee $1,000 1 per month 100,000 Patient fee $500 1 per month The increase in acceptance rates, 1 23 4 5678 910 improved quality of treatment, greater efficiency and enhanced reputation that may come with the use of the OPMI can result in financial benefits. Procedure Patient fee For instance, performing one root canal Frequency of procedure Income from procedure in 1 year Income from procedure over 10 years (more after inflation) 1 per month $6,000 $60,000 ++ 1 per week $24,000 $240,000 ++ per month that the dentist is not able to perform without the magnification of an OPMI, may make it possible to pay Molar root canal $500 for the OPMI or the loan of an OPMI (calcified) in only a few years. This is only one example of how easy it is to justify the $500 financial investment needed to purchase (48 weeks) an OPMI. $1,000 1 per month $12,000 $120,000 ++ $1,000 1 per week $48,000 $480,000 ++ (48 weeks) Table 7.1: The table demonstrates the return on investment of one common procedure (example fees), which the dentist may now be able to perform thanks to the OPMI: Patient perception of the dentist, their office and their dental work can be Percent increase enhanced with the OPMI. With proper to dental fees Increased income Increased income over 10 years in 1 year (more after inflation) patient understanding of the benefits 1 percent ($400,000) $4,000 $40,000++ of the OPMI, it is easier to justify an $8,000 $80,000++ increase to your dental fees. ($800,000) 2 percent ($400,000) $8,000 $80,000++ ($800,000) $16,000 $160,000++ 5 percent ($400,000) $20,000 $200,000++ $40,000 $400,000++ ($800,000) Table 7.2: The table demonstrating the financial returns of increasing procedure fees in practices that, for example, gross $400,000 and $800,000 annually. Quite simply, when used regularly, the OPMI pays for itself very easily and quickly. 196 The Authors Dr. José Aranguren Cangas Dr. Kristina Badalyan Dr. Rino Burkhardt Dr. Annett Burzlaff Dr. Maciej Goczewski Dr. Manor Haas Oscar Freiherr von Stetten Dr. Bijan Vahedi Dr. Maxim Stosek Dr. Claudia Cia Worschech Associate Professor of Graduated from the Yerevan Graduated from University Graduated from the Free Graduated from the Medical Graduated from the State examination at the Graduated from University Graduated from the UPJS Graduated from UNICAMP, Endodontics at the Rey Juan State Medical University, of Zurich and received his University of Berlin in University of Gdansk in University of Toronto, FU Berlin. Own practice of Leipzig and received University in Kosice, Slovakia where also received her Carlos University in Madrid. Armenia specializing in doctorate from the cell biology in 1995. As 1999. Experience working Faculty of Dentistry in since 2001, featuring OPMI doctorate from the Medical in 2000. masters, doctorate and Dentistry in 1996. Attended Medical Faculty of the postdoctoral research at GKT, King‘s College, 1997. Immediately invited support and specialization Faculty of University of Ulm. Since 2003, has run postgraduate degrees. Coordinator Professor a postgraduate programme same university. fellow, specialized in light London, UK and Académie to teach at the University in endodontics, as well as Specialist in endodontics of own practice limited to Currently President of of Adult Comprehensive in Endodontic Surgery at EFP (European Federation and electron microscopy in Internationale pour of Toronto Restorative and minimally invasive dentistry. DGET (German Association microscopic restorative Brazilian Academy of Dentistry UEM (2008-2010). Central Institute of Scientific of Periodontology) certified cell biology at the German Implantologie Orale, Paris, Prosthodontic Departments. Own endodontics referral of Endodontology an Dental dentistry in Presov, Microscope Dentistry / Research in Dentistry, specialist in periodontology. Cancer Research Center France. He has earned his Alongside his teaching practice since 2006. Traumatology), certified Slovakia, spreading idea ABRAMO from 2014 to Professor of the Moscow, Russia, where she Received his master’s degree and managed the Central Ph.D. title in 2010. positions, practiced general member of ESE (European of microinvasive treatment 2017 Postgraduate Programme in gained her Ph. D. Continues from the Medical Faculty Laboratory for Microscopy For most of his career, he dentistry and pursued Numerous lectures Society of Endodontology) succesfully not only in Endodontics and Restorative to work at the Institute of the University of Berne at the University of has worked at his private endodontic research. and publications on and international member patients but also and mainly Active member of Editorial Dentistry at the Rey Juan and runs private practice (MAS in Periodontology). Stuttgart. documentation with an of the AAE (American among dental community in Board at ESTETICA, an Carlos University. in Moscow, where she Slovakia. important journal about Title degree in dentistry clinic and presided at the Polish Society of Microscopic Pursued his endodontic OPMI, as well as working Association of Endodontics) Dentistry. and microsurgical specialty ergonomically correct in a Runs a private practice in team with the OPMI Augsburg / Germany limited Lectures and publishes to endodontics. nationally and internationally specializes in implantology Has maintained a private In 2002, started as and oral surgery. practice in Zurich limited professional trainer for Main fields of interest are training in the Graduate to periodontology and microscopy and imaging ergonomics and microscopic Endodontics Programme at implantology since 1995. systems at Olympus Life and dentistry; six-handed and the Albert Einstein Medical Key Opinion Leader for Currently vice-president of on composite layering Owner and scientific four-handed variants in Centre in Philadelphia, multiple dental companies DGET. techniques, endodontics director of GENIO: center of both. Shares his experience Pennsylvania. regarding the development Speaker at congresses, and nowadays mainly OPMI excellence for microdentistry of new products. Worked lectures, courses and master based dentistry and dental in Brazil. from the Universidad aesthetic dentistry in Brazil, published by Dental Press. Europea de Madrid (UEM Has held numerous 1995-2000). courses, master classes Material Science and Sirona and congresses in ten Dental Services. Manager Specialist in endodontics, largest cities of Russia and for training, application organizing numerous courses Specialty Certified in internationally. and support in dental and and attending conferences Has run a private specialty for ZEISS as KOL for classes nationally and ergonomics. Has held numerous Endodontics, University of Active Member of NAED ophthalmic microscopy at as a speaker. practice in Toronto, limited documentation with an internationally. Parttime teacher at the UPJS courses, master classes Southern Mississippi (USM) (National Academy of Carl Zeiss Meditec AG since to dental implantology, OPMI. University in Kosice, Slovakia. and congresses all over the (2000-2002). Aesthetic Dentistry) and 2008. microsurgery and world, including lectures In private practice limited to Opinion Leader of Dentsply endodontics. Gained decade in Japan, USA, Lithuania, endodontics in Madrid and Camlog. Also scientific of experience incorporating Portugal, Argentina and editor of Quintessence the OPMI exclusively into his Brazil. Russia. practice. Has run private practice in Sao Paulo, Brazil, since 1993. 198 199 The Editors Dr. Tony Druttman Dr. Greg Finn Slaven Sestic 1981 Qualified B.Ch.D. Leeds Qualified as a dentist in Brisbane in Carl Zeiss Meditec AG University, 1987 M.Sc. Conservative 1982, specialist prosthodontist with a Field Education Manager Dentistry, Eastman Dental Hospital, referral practice in London, as well as ZEISS ACADEMY London University. Since 1999 a a clinical lecturer at the UCL Eastman registered specialist and practice Dental Institute. He runs courses on limited to endodontics. His principal microscopes in dentistry at EDI with area of interest is non surgical re- Dr. Tony Druttman treatment. He has been a member of the British Endodontic Society for over Our Authors TEAM in Barcelona, Spain in 2013 30 years and was President of the Society in 1994. He is also a Certified Member of the European Society of Endodontology. Inspiration is one thing and you can’t He is a visiting specialist teacher control it, but hard work is what keeps at the Eastman Dental Institiute, where he teaches endodontics and the ship moving. There are no secrets to runs courses with Dr Greg Finn on success. It is the result of preparation, microscopes in dentistry. hard work, and learning from failure. He has lectured both in the UK We would like to thank you sincerely and at international meetings on endodontics and radiography in for all your enthusiasm and hard work, endodontics. thank you for all good times, days filled He is on the editorial board of with pleasure and great memories. Endodontic Practice Journal and is a contributing author. 200 Your ZEISS Team 201 Pictures credits Page 11,13 Dr. Claudia Cia Worschech Page 152 5.20 Dr. Maxim Stosek Page 14-17 Carl Zeiss Meditec AG 5.21, 5.22 Dr. Claudia Cia Worschech Page 18-19 Dr. Rino Burkhardt Page 153 5.23, 5.24 Dr. Claudia Cia Worschech Page 20-21 Carl Zeiss Meditec AG 5.25, 5.26 Dr. Maxim Stosek Page 24 Carl Zeiss Meditec AG Page 154-165 Dr. Claudia Cia Worschech Page 25 Carl Zeiss Meditec AG, Fotolia Page 166-167 Dr. Maxim Stosek Page 26-27 Dr. Claudia Cia Worschech Page 168-172 Dr. Claudia Cia Worschech Page 28 Fotolia Page 173 Carl Zeiss Meditec AG Page 30-36 Carl Zeiss Meditec AG Page 174-175 Dr. Claudia Cia Worschech Page 37 1.8 Oscar von Stetten Page 180 Dr. Bijan Vahedi Page 38-51 Carl Zeiss Meditec AG Page 182-183 Oscar von Stetten Page 54-67 Carl Zeiss Meditec AG Page 184 Dr. Kristina Badalyan Page 68 Dr. Maciej Goczewski Page 185 Oscar von Stetten Page 69 Oscar von Stetten Page 186 Carl Zeiss Meditec AG Page 72-73 Dr. Kristina Badalyan Page 190 Carl Zeiss Meditec AG Page 74-75 Dr. José Aranguren Cangas Page 192 Dr. Manor Haas Page 76-78 Dr. Tony Druttman Page 193 7.5 Carl Zeiss Meditec AG, Page 79 3.8a, 3.8b, 3.8c Dr. José Aranguren Cangas 7.6, 7.7 Dr. Manor Haas 3.10, 3.11 Oscar von Stetten Page 195 Carl Zeiss Meditec AG Page 80-81 Dr. Tony Druttman Page 197 Carl Zeiss Meditec AG Page 82 3.17 Dr. Tony Druttman, 3.18a, 318b Dr. José Aranguren Cangas Page 83-85 Dr. Tony Druttman Page 86 3.22a, 3.22b, 3.22c Dr. Tony Druttman 3.23 Oscar von Stetten Page 87-90 Dr. Tony Druttman Page 91 Oscar von Stetten Page 92 3.27, 3.28 Dr. José Aranguren Cangas 3.29a, 3.29b Dr. Tony Druttman Page 93-94 Dr. Tony Druttman Page 95 3.39 Dr. Tony Druttman 3.40 Carl Zeiss Meditec AG Goeschwitzer Straße 51-52 Page 96-101 Dr. Kristina Badalyan 07745 Jena, Germany Page 104-121 Dr. Rino Burkhardt Page 125-127 Dr. Rino Burkhardt Telefon: +49 3641 220-0 Page 134-137 Dr. Claudia Cia Worschech [email protected] Page 138-139 5.2; Dr. Claudia Cia Worschech 5.3; 5.4; 5.5; 5.6 Dr. Maxim Stosek Page 140-145 Dr. Claudia Cia Worschech Page 146 Dr. Maxim Stosek All rights reserved. No part of this book may be Page 147 5.13 Dr. Claudia Cia Worschech reproduced or transmitted in any form by any 5.14, 5.15a, 5.15b Dr. Maxim Stosek means, electronic , mechanical, photocopying, Page 148 Dr. Claudia Cia Worschech recording, or otherwise, without the prior Page 149 Carl Zeiss Meditec AG written permission of the publisher. Page 150-151 Dr. Maxim Stosek For Information, contact Carl Zeiss Meditec AG 202 Carl Zeiss Meditec AG Copyright©2014 Carl Zeiss Meditec AG Download the Microscopic Dentistry Practical Guide under: www.zeiss.com/dental-book EN_30_200_0149 I Printed in Germany AW-CZ-VII/2013 Koo International Edition: Not for use in the United States. The contents of the brochure may differ from the current status of approval of the product in your country. Please contact our regional representative for more information. Subject to change in design and scope of delivery and as a result of ongoing technical development. Printed on elemental chlorine-free bleached paper. OPMI, Varioskop and VisionGuard are registered trademarks of ZEISS. PROMAG, FlexioStill and FlexioMotion are trademarks of ZEISS. © 2014 by Carl Zeiss Meditec AG. All copyrights reserved.
* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project