English Manual
HELMETS
SAVE
LIVES !!!
ALWAYS WEAR A PROPERLY
FITTED HELMET WHEN
YOU RIDE YOUR BICYCLE.
DO NOT RIDE AT NIGHT.
AVOID RIDING IN WET
CONDITIONS.
CORRECT FITTING - MAKE
SURE YOUR HELMET COVERS
YOUR FOREHEAD.
INCORRECT FITTING. FOREHEAD
IS EXPOSED AND VULNERABLE
TO SERIOUS INJURY.
Please Retain your Sales Receipt
as Proof of Purchase.
Notes:
_______________________________________________________________
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The following manual is only a guide to assist you and is not a complete or comprehensive manual of all aspects of
maintaining and repairing your bicycle. The bicycle you have purchased is a complex object. We recommend that you
consult a bicycle specialist if you have doubts or concerns as to your experience or ability to properly assemble, repair, or
maintain your bicycle. You will save time and the inconvenience of having to go back to the store if you choose to write or
call us concerning missing parts, service questions, operating advice, and/or assembly questions.
SERVICE
CALL TOLL FREE 1.800.626.2811
Monday - Friday 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Central Time
Serial Number Location
Bike Shown Upside Down
####
PACIFICCYCLE
4902 Hammersley Road
Madison, WI 53711
Customer Service 1.800.626.2811
www.pacific-cycle.com
Serial Number
?
Parts Identification ...................................................... 02-05
PART 2
Before You Ride ........................................................... 06-21
PART 3
Assembly ..................................................................... 22-62
PART 4
Servicing ...................................................................... 63-65
PART 5
Detailed Maintenance.................................................. 66-97
PART 6
How Things Work .......................................................98-110
PART 7
Purchase Record and Warranty .............................. 111-112
Warning / Important
Take notice of this symbol throughout this manual and pay particular
attention to the instructions blocked off and preceded by this symbol.
PACIFICCYCLE
P.O. Box 344 · 4730 E. Radio Tower Ln. · Olney, IL 62450
Customer Service 1.800.626.2811 www.pacific-cycle.com
DIRECTORY
PART 1
1. PARTS IDENTIFICATION
Mountain Bicycles
BMX Bicycles
Tools Required
01
2-5
2
3
4
2. BEFORE YOU RIDE
Correct Frame Size
Riding Position
-Saddle Height
-Reach
-Handlebar Height
6-21
6
7
7
7
8
Safety Checklist
-Brakes
-Wheels & Tires
-Steering
-Chain
-Bearings
-Cranks & Pedals
-Derailleurs
-Frame & Fork
-Accessories
9-10
9
9
9
10
10
10
10
10
10
Helmets
Reflectors
11
12-13
Riding Safely
-General Rules
-Wet Weather Riding
-Night Riding
-Pedaling Technique
-Hill Technique
-Cornering Technique
-Rules for Children
14-16
14
15
15
15
16
16
16
Gears - How to Operate
-Derailleur Gears
-Operating Principles
-Hand Grip Shifters
-Thumb Shifters
-Below the Bar Shifters
17-19
17
17
18
19
19
Bicycle Care
-Basic Maintenance
-Storage
-Security
20-21
20
21
21
3. ASSEMBLY
22-62
Derailleur Geared Bicycle
Handlebars, Stems and Shifters
-Aheadset
-Sunken Stem
-Shifters
22-45
22-25
23
24
25
Forks
Seat and Seat Post
Pedals & Crank Set
Front Wheel
Quick Release Axle
26
27
28
29
29-30
Front Brake
-Cantilever with Link Wire
-Cantilever with Straddle Cable
-V-Style
-Check your Brakes
-Disc Brakes
30-37
30-31
32
32-34
35
36-37
Derailleur
-Rear Derailleur
-Front Derailleur
38-39
38
39
Dual Suspension
Rear Pivots
Accessories
Reflectors
Fenders
-Front Fender
-Rear Fender
Final Check
40
41
42
42
43-44
43
44
45
Single Speed & BMX
Handlebars
Seat
Pedals & Crank Set
Front wheel
46-62
46
47
47
48
Front Brake
Side Pull Brake
Cantilever with Link Wire
Cantilever with Straddle Cable
V-Brake
U-Brake
-Front U-Brake
-Rear U-Brake
Blake Lever
Check your Brakes
48
49
49-50
51
52-53
54
54
54
55
55
Rotors
Axle Peg Assembly
-Non-Threaded Axle Peg
-Threaded Axle Peg
Training Wheels
-Wheels to Brace
-Brace to Bicycle
-C-Shape Brace
-Flat Brace
-Stabilizer Bracket
Final Check
56-57
58
58
58
59-61
59
60
60
60
61
62
4. SERVICING
Schedule 1 - Lubrication
Schedule 2 - Service Checklist
Tools Required
63-65
63
64
65
5. DETAILED MAINTENANCE
Wheel Inspection
Tire Inspection
Tire Pressures
Hub Bearing Adjustment
Flat Tire Repair
Handlebar Stem
Handlebars
66-97
66
67
67
68
68-69
70-71
71
Grip Shift Installation
72
Cables & Cable Housing
73
Headset
-Inspection
-Adjustment
74
74
74
Saddle & Seat Post
-Inspection
-Lubrication
-Adjustment
75-76
75
75
76
Brakes
-Inspection
-Lubrication
-Adjustment Sidepull Calipers
-Adjustment Cantilever Calipers
77-80
77-78
78
78-79
79-80
Drivetrain
-Pedals
-Inspection
-Lubrication & Adjustment
-Attachment
81-89
81-82
81
82
82
-Crank Set
-Inspection
-Lubrication & Adjustment
(one piece cranks)
-Lubrication & Adjustment
(cotterless cranks)
83-86
83
-Chain
-Inspection
-Lubrication
-Adjustment & Replacement
-Freewheel
-Inspection
-Lubrication
87-88
87
87
87-88
88-89
88
89
-Coaster Hub
84
85-86
89
Derailleur Systems
-Inspection
-Lubrication
-Adjustment (Rear)
-Adjustment (Front)
90-92
90
91
91
92
Quick Release Levers
Reflectors
Miscellaneous Accessories
-Basket Assembly
Troubleshooting
93
93
94
94
95-97
6. HOW THINGS WORK
-A. Wheel Quick Release
-B. Seatpost Quick Release
-C. Brakes
-D. Shifting
-E. Toeclips & Straps
-F. Clipless (“step-in”) pedals
-G. Tires and Tubes
-H. Bicycle Suspension
98-110
98-102
102
103-104
104-107
107
108
108-110
110
7. PURCHASE RECORD
& WARRANTY
111-112
Mountain Bicycles . Mountain bicycles are designed to give maximum comfort over a wide variety of road surfaces. The
wider handlebars and convenient shift lever position make them very easy to control. Wider rims and tires give them a softer
ride with more traction on rough surfaces. The frame and fork on mountain style bicycles are generally much sturdier than those on
racing style bicycles.
Shift Lever
Brake Lever
Seat
Seat Post
Quick Release
Seat Stay
Brake Control Cables
Handlebar Stem
Front Reflector
Head Set
Front Brake
Head Tube
Front Fork
Rear Reflector
Rear Brake
Wheel Reflector
Freewheel
Wheel Reflector
Seat Tube
Front Hub
Down Tube
Spokes
Gear Control Cable
Front Derailleur
Bottom
Bracket Axle
Rim
Tire
Chain Wheel
Crank Arm
PA R T 1 - PA R T S I D E N T I F I C AT I O N
Handlebar
Top Tube
Pedal
Gear Control
Cable
Rear Derailleur
Chain Stay
Tire Valve
Chain
02
BMX Bicycles . BMX style bicycles are a popular general purpose type most suited for young riders. They are
valued because of their sturdy and simple construction, and low maintenance.
Front Brake Lever
Handlebar
Seat
Handlebar Grip
Seat Post
Handlebar Stem
Seat Post Binder Bolt or
Quick-Release Skewer
Brake Control Cable
Head Set
Seat Stay
Rear Reflector
Front Reflector
Head Tube
Front Brake
Top Tube
Brake Pad
Front Fork
Wheel Reflector
Wheel Reflector
Front Hub
Spokes
Seat Tube
Down Tube
Chain Wheel
Crank Arm
Chain
Chain Stay
Rear Sprocket
Training Wheel
03
Pedal
Rim
Tire
Tire Valve
Your new bicycle was assembled and tuned in the factory and then partially disassembled for shipping. You
may have purchased the bicycle already fully assembled and ready to ride OR in the shipping carton in the partially disassembled form. The following instructions will enable you to prepare your bicycle for years of enjoyable cycling. For more details on inspection, lubrication, maintenance and adjustment of any area please refer
to the relevant sections in this manual. If you have questions about your ability to properly assemble this unit,
please consult a qualified specialist before riding. If you need replacement parts or have questions pertaining to
assembly of your bicycle, call the service line direct at:
SERVICE AND TECHNICAL SUPPORT:
1.800.626.2811
Monday - Friday 8:00 a.m. - 5:00 p.m. Central Time.
Tools Required:
• Phillips head screw driver
• 4mm, 5mm 6mm & 8mm Allen keys
• Adjustable wrench or a 9mm, 10mm,
14mm & 15mm open and box
end wrenches
• A pair of pliers with cable cutting ability
To avoid injury, this product must be properly assembled before use. If your bicycle was
obtained assembled, we strongly recommend that you review the complete assembly
instructions and perform checks specified in this manual before riding.
04
ABOUT THIS MANUAL
It is important for you to understand your new bicycle. By reading this manual before you go out on your first ride, you’ll know how to get
better performance, comfort, and enjoyment from your new bicycle.
It is also important that your first ride on your new bicycle is taken in a controlled environment, away from cars, obstacles, and other
cyclists.
GENERAL WARNING
Bicycling can be a hazardous activity even under the best of circumstances. Proper maintenance of your bicycle is your responsibility as
it helps reduce the risk of injury. This manual contains many “Warnings” and “Cautions” concerning the consequences of failure to maintain or inspect your bicycle. Many of the warnings and cautions say “you may lose control and fall.” Because any fall can result in serious injury or even death, we do not repeat the warning of possible injury or death whenever the risk of falling is mentioned.
A SPECIAL NOTE FOR PARENTS
It is a tragic fact that most bicycle accidents involve children. As a parent or guardian, you bear the responsibility for the activities and
safety of your minor child. Among these responsibilities are to make sure that the bicycle which your child is riding is properly fitted to the
child; that it is in good repair and safe operating condition; that you and your child have learned, understand and obey not only the applicable local motor vehicle, bicycle, and traffic laws, but also the common sense rules of safe and responsible bicycling. As a parent, you
should read this manual before letting your child ride the bicycle. Please make sure that your child always wears an approved bicycle
helmet when riding.
05
CORRECT FRAME SIZE
When selecting a new bicycle, the correct choice of frame size is a very important safety consideration. Most full sized
bicycles come in a range of frame sizes. These sizes usually refer to the distance between the center of the bottom bracket
and the top of the frame seat tube.
The ideal clearance will vary between types of bicycles and rider preference. This makes straddling the frame when off the
saddle easier and safer in situations such as sudden traffic stops. Women can use a men’s style bicycle to determine the
correct size women’s model.
The following chart and diagram will help you make the correct choice. Rider leg length refers to approximate pant inseam.
Frame Sizing Guide
1-2in.
Approximate Rider Leg
Length
Suggested Frame Size for
Racing/Touring Bicycle
Suggested Frame Size for
Mountain or Hybrid Bicycle
61-69cm / 24-27 inches
-
37cm / 14.5 inches
66-76cm / 26-30 inches
-
43cm / 17 inches
71-79cm / 28-31 inches
50cm / 19.5 inches
45cm / 18 inches
76-84cm / 30-33 inches
55cm / 21.5 inches
50cm / 19.5 inches
79-86cm / 31-34 inches
57cm / 22.5 inches
52cm / 20.5 inches
81-89cm / 32-35 Inches
60cm / 23.5 Inches
53-56cm / 21-22 Inches
86-94cm / 34-37 inches
63cm / 25 inches
58-60cm / 23-23.5 inches
PART 2 - BEFORE YOU RIDE
For safe and comfortable riding there should be clearance of no less than 1 - 2 inches between
the groin area of the intended rider and the top tube of the bicycle frame, while the rider straddles the
bicycle with both feet flat on the ground.
06
RIDING POSITION
Saddle Height
In order to obtain the most comfortable riding position and offer the
best possible pedaling efficiency, the seat height should be set
correctly in relation to the rider’s leg length. The correct saddle height
should not allow leg strain from over-extension, and the hips should
not rock from side to side when pedaling. While sitting on the bicycle
with one pedal at its lowest point, place the ball of your foot on that
pedal. The correct saddle height will allow the knee to be slightly
bent in this position. If the rider then places the heel of that foot on
the pedal, the leg should be almost straight.
Maximum Height /
Minimum Insertion Mark
(Should not be visible)
Arms not overextended
Handlebar stem
height about the
same as
seat height
Under no circumstances should the seat post project
from the frame beyond its “Minimum Insertion” or
“Maximum Extension” mark. If your seat post projects
from the frame beyond these markings, the seat post
or frame may break, which could cause you to lose
control and fall. Prior to your first ride, be sure to tighten the
saddle adjusting mechanism properly. A loose saddle clamp or
seat post binder can cause damage to the bicycle or can cause
you to lose control and fall. Periodically check to make sure that
the saddle adjusting mechanism is properly tightened.
Reach
To obtain maximum comfort, the rider should not overextend his or her
reach when riding.
Pedal at
bottom position
07
To adjust this distance, the position of the seat can be altered in
relation to the seat pillar. (Refer to p. 27 on how to adjust the seat
clamp.)
Handlebar Height
Stem Wedge Bolt
Handlebar Binder Bolt
Exceeds 2 1/2”
(64mm)
Maximum comfort is usually obtained when the handlebar height is
equal to the height of the seat. You may wish to try different heights
to find the most comfortable position.
Maximum Height/
Minimum Insertion
Mark
Threadless headsets and clamp-on stems are not adjustable. Please refer to page 23
for instructions on installation.
The stem’s “Minimum Insertion” mark must not be visible above the top of the headset.
If the stem is extended beyond this mark, the stem may break or damage the fork’s
steerer tube, which could cause you to lose control and fall.
Failure to properly tighten the stem binder bolt, the handlebar binder bolt, or the bar
end extension clamping bolts may compromise steering action, which could cause
you to lose control and fall. Place the front wheel of the bicycle between your legs and
attempt to twist the handlebar/stem assembly using a reasonable amount of force. If
you can twist the stem in relation to the front wheel, turn the handlebars in relation to
the stem, or turn the bar end extensions in relation to the handlebar, you must tighten
the appropriate bolts accordingly.
08
SAFETY CHECKLIST
Before every ride, it is important to carry out the following safety checks:
1. Brakes
-
Ensure
Ensure
Ensure
Ensure
front and rear brakes work properly.
brake shoe pads are not over worn and are correctly positioned in relation to the rims.
brake control cables are lubricated, correctly adjusted and display no obvious wear.
brake control levers are lubricated and tightly secured to the handlebar.
2. Wheels and Tires
-
Ensure tires are inflated to within the recommended limit as displayed on the tire sidewall.
Ensure tires have tread and have no bulges or excessive wear.
Ensure rims run true and have no obvious wobbles or kinks.
Ensure all wheel spokes are tight and not broken.
Check that axle nuts are tight. If your bicycle is fitted with quick release axles, make sure locking levers
are correctly tensioned and in the closed position.
3. Steering
-
09
Ensure handlebar and stem are correctly adjusted and tightened, and allow proper steering.
Ensure that the handlebars are set correctly in relation to the forks and the direction of travel.
Check that the headset locking mechanism is properly adjusted and tightened.
If the bicycle is fitted with handlebar end extensions, ensure they are properly positioned and tightened.
4. Chain
- Ensure chain is oiled, clean and runs smoothly.
- Extra care is required in wet or dusty conditions.
5. Bearings
- Ensure all bearings are lubricated, run freely and display no excess movement, grinding or rattling.
- Check headset, wheel bearings, pedal bearings and bottom bracket bearings.
6. Cranks and Pedals
- Ensure pedals are securely tightened to the cranks.
- Ensure cranks are securely tightened to the axle and are not bent.
7. Derailleurs
- Check that front and rear mechanisms are adjusted and function properly.
- Ensure control levers are securely attached.
- Ensure derailleurs, shift levers and control cables are properly lubricated.
8. Frame and Fork
- Check that the frame and fork are not bent or broken.
- If either are bent or broken, they should be replaced.
9. Accessories
- Ensure that all reflectors are properly fitted and not obscured.
- Ensure all other fittings on the bike are properly and securely fastened, and functioning.
- Ensure the rider is wearing a helmet.
10
Helmets
It is strongly advised that a properly fitting, ANSI or SNELL approved,
bicycle safety helmet be worn at all times when riding your bicycle. In
addition, if you are carrying a passenger in a child safety seat, they
must also be wearing a helmet.
The correct helmet should:
- be comfortable
- be lightweight
- have good ventilation
- fit correctly
- cover forehead
Always wear a properly fitted helmet which covers the forehead when riding a bicycle. Many states
require specific safety devices. It is your responsibility to familiarize yourself with the laws of the state
where you ride and to comply with all applicable laws, including properly equipping yourself and your
bike as the law requires. Reflectors are important safety devices which are designed as an integral part
of your bicycle. Federal regulations require every bicycle to be equipped with front, rear, wheel, and
pedal reflectors. These reflectors are designed to pick up and reflect street lights and car lights in a
way that helps you to be seen and recognized as a moving bicyclist. Check reflectors and their mounting brackets regularly to make sure they are clean, straight, unbroken and securely mounted. Have your
dealer replace damaged reflectors and straighten or tighten any that are bent or loose.
11
Reflectors
Your bicycle is supplied with one front (white), one rear (red), two wheel (white), and four pedal (orange)
reflectors. (Please Note: Sidewalk bikes, 12” and under, may not have reflectors.) These are an important safety and legal
requirement, and should remain securely fitted and in good, clean condition at all times. Periodically, inspect all reflectors,
brackets and mounting hardware for signs of wear or damage. Replace immediately if damage is found. Some bicycles will
require you to install your reflectors onto your bicycle. Please refer to the following section for instructions on all the types of
bicycle reflectors.
Fork Mount Reflector Bracket Assembly
First insert one washer onto the hex bolt and insert hex bolt through the reflector
bracket and then through the fork. Next, insert a second washer onto the bolt and
thread a hex nut onto the bolt behind the fork. Tighten bolts until snug, making sure
the reflector is in an upright position. See diagram at the right.
Front Reflector Mount with Caliper Brake Assembly
First remove the hex nut from the back of the fork and pull the brake from the fork.
Insert a spacer, washer and the reflector bracket on to the caliper bolt. Insert the
caliper bolt back into the fork and secure firmly with a concave spacer, washer and
the hex nut. Finally, adjust the reflector such that it is in an upright position. See diagram at the right.
12
Seat and Handlebar Mounting Reflectors
First attach the reflector to the reflector bracket with the reflector screw, see the top
diagram. Next, remove the clamp screw and open the clamping reflector bracket.
Place clamping reflector bracket around the handlebar or seatpost. If the clamp
is too loose, insert the shim inside of the clamp. Tighten the clamp screw to hold
reflector assembly in place, see the second diagram. Finally, adjust the reflector
assembly in place and ensure that it is upright and facing away from the bike.
Seatstay Mount Reflector Bracket Assembly
First insert one washer onto the hex bolt and insert hex bolt through the reflector
bracket and then through the seatstay bridge. Next, insert a second washer onto the
bolt and thread a hex nut onto the bolt behind the seatstay bridge. Tighten bolts until
snug, making sure the reflector is in an upright position. See diagram at the right.
13
RIDING SAFELY
General Rules
When riding obey the same road laws as all other road vehicles, including giving way to
pedestrians, and stopping at red lights and stop signs.
For further information, contact the Road Traffic Authority in your State.
Ride predictably and in a straight line. Never ride against traffic.
Use correct hand signals to indicate turning or stopping.
Ride defensively. To other road users, you may be hard to see.
Concentrate on the path ahead. Avoid pot holes, gravel, wet road markings, oil, curbs, speed
bumps, drain grates and other obstacles.
Cross train tracks at a 90 degree angle or walk your bicycle across.
Expect the unexpected such as opening car doors or cars backing out of concealed driveways.
Be extra careful at intersections and when preparing to pass other vehicles.
Familiarize yourself with all the bicycle's features. Practice gear shifts, braking, and the use of
toe clips and straps, if fitted.
If you are wearing loose pants, use leg clips or elastic bands to prevent them from being caught
in the chain. Wear proper riding attire and avoid open toe shoes.
Don't carry packages or passengers that will interfere with your visibility or control of the bicycle.
Don't use items that may restrict your hearing.
Do not lock up the brakes. When braking, always apply the rear brake first, then the front. The
front brake is more powerful and if it is not correctly applied, you may lose control and fall.
Maintain a comfortable stopping distance from all other riders, vehicles and objects.
Safe braking distances and forces are subject to the prevailing weather conditions.
14
Wet Weather
IT IS RECOMMENDED TO NOT RIDE IN WET WEATHER
- In wet weather you need to take extra care.
- Brake earlier, you will take a longer distance to stop.
- Decrease your riding speed, avoid sudden braking and take corners with additional
caution.
- Be more visible on the road.
- Wear reflective clothing and use safety lights.
- Pot holes and slippery surfaces such as line markings and train tracks all become more
hazardous when wet.
Night Riding
IT IS RECOMMENDED TO NOT RIDE AT NIGHT
-
Ensure bicycle is equipped with a full set of correctly positioned and clean reflectors.
Refer to p. 12-13 and p. 93 of this manual.
Use a properly functioning lighting set comprising of a white front lamp and a red rear lamp.
If using battery powered lights, make sure batteries are well charged.
Some rear lights available have a flashing mechanism which enhances visibility.
Wear reflective and light colored clothing.
Ride at night only if necessary. Slow down and use familiar roads with street lighting, if possible.
Pedaling Technique
- Position the ball of your foot on the center of the pedal.
- When pedaling, ensure your knees are parallel to the bicycle frame.
- To absorb shock, keep your elbows slightly bent.
- Learn to operate the gears properly. (Refer to p. 17-19)
15
Hill Technique
- Gear down before a climb and continue gearing down as required to maintain pedaling speed.
- If you reach the lowest gear and are struggling, stand up on your pedals. You will then obtain more power from
each pedal revolution.
- On the descent, use the high gears to avoid rapid pedaling.
- Do not exceed a comfortable speed; maintain control and take additional care.
Cornering Technique
Brake slightly before cornering and prepare to lean your body into the corner. Maintain the inside pedal at the 12 o'clock
position and slightly point the inside knee in the direction you are turning. Keep the other leg straight, don't pedal through
fast or tight corners.
Please refer to pages 103-4 for braking techniques and pages 104-7 for gear shifting techniques.
Rules for Children
To avoid accidents, teach children good riding skills with an emphasis on safety from an early age. Children should be supervised by an adult.
1. Always wear a properly fitted helmet.
2. Do not play in driveways or the road.
3. Do not ride on busy streets.
4. Do not ride at night.
5. Obey all the traffic laws, especially stop signs and red lights.
6. Be aware of other road vehicles behind and nearby.
7. Before entering a street: Stop, look right, left, and right again for traffic. If there's no traffic, proceed into the roadway.
8. If riding downhill, be extra careful. Slow down using the brakes and maintain control of the steering.
9. Never take your hands off the handlebars, or your feet off the pedals when riding downhill.
The Consumer Protection Safety Commission advises that the riding of small wheel diameter
bicycles at excessive speeds can lead to instability and is not recommended.
Children should be made aware of all possible riding hazards and correct riding behavior before they take to the streets.
- Do not leave it up to trial and error.
16
Drivetrain
Freewheel
Cogs
Guide Pulley
Rear Derailleur
Front Derailleur
Front Chainwheels
Crank Arm
Pedal
Derailleur Control
Cable
GEARS - HOW TO OPERATE
Derailleur Gears
Most multi-speed bicycles today are equipped with what are known
as derailleur gears. They operate using a system of levers and mechanisms to move the drive chain between different sized driving gears
or cogs. The purpose of gears is to let you maintain a constant, steady
pedaling pace under varying conditions. This means your riding will
be less
tiring without unnecessary straining up hills or fast pedaling down
hill. Bicycles come with a variety of gear configurations from 5 to 27
speeds. A 5-6 speed bicycle will have a single front chainwheel, a
rear derailleur, and 5 or 6 cogs on the rear hub. Bicycles with more
gears will also have a front derailleur, a front chainwheel with
2-3 cogs, and up to 9 cogs on the rear hub.
Operating Principles
No matter how many gears, the operating principles are the same.
The front derailleur is operated by the left shift lever and the rear
derailleur by the right. To operate you must be pedaling forward. You
can not shift derailleur gears when you are stopped or when pedaling
backwards. Before shifting ease up on your pedaling pressure. For
a smooth gear change when approaching a hill, shift to a lower gear
BEFORE your pedaling speed slows down too much. When coming
to a stop, shift to a lower gear first so it will be easier when you start
riding again. If, after selecting a new gear position, you hear a slight
rubbing noise from the front or rear gears, gently adjust the appropriate
shifter using the barrel adjusters until the noise goes away. For optimal performance and extended chain life, it is recommended that you
avoid using the extreme combinations of gear positions (diagram p.
18) for extended periods.
17
4
6 5
1
3 2
3
High
4
6 5
2
1
Middle
Low
These combinations are
NOT RECOMMENDED
for optimal performance.
1
3 2
2
High
1
Low
These combinations are
NOT RECOMMENDED
for optimal performance.
Recommended Chainwheel/Rear Sprocket Gear Combinations
Front Low Gear
Rear Low Gear
Front High Gear
Rear High Gear
Hand Grip Shifters
Some bicycles are now being equipped with a shifting
mechanism called Grip Shift™, which is built into the handlebar grips
and does not make use of separate levers. The actuating mechanism
is built into the inside part of the grip that the web of the thumb and
index finger closes around. To select a lower gear, twist the right shifter toward you to engage a larger rear cog. You can shift one gear at
a time by moving the Grip Shift™ one click, or through multiple gears
by continued twisting. By twisting the left shifter forward or away from
you, a smaller chainwheel can be selected. To select a higher gear,
twist the right shifter forward or away from you to engage a smaller
rear cog. To engage a larger front chainwheel, twist the left shifter
towards you. Single shifts can be achieved by twisting one click at a
time and multiple shifts by larger twists.
18
Left hand lever
Right hand lever
Thumb Shifters (Top Mounted)
Most mountain style bicycles are equipped with shifters
mounted on the top of the handlebars and operated by the thumbs.
To select a lower, easier gear, shift to a bigger rear cog and a small
chainwheel. Pull the left shifter back to operate the front derailleur,
and push the right shifter forward to operate the rear derailleur. To
select a higher, harder gear, shift to a smaller rear cog and a larger
chainwheel. Push the left shifter forward for the front, and pull the
right lever back for the rear.
Top Gear
(Harder)
Small rear sprocket
Large chainwheel
Bottom Gear
(Easier)
Large rear sprocket
Small chainwheel
Left hand lever forward
Right hand lever back
Left hand lever back
Right hand lever forward
Below the Bar Shifters
Left hand lever
19
Right hand lever
Many mountain style bicycles now use a shift lever arrangement
mounted on the underside of the handlebars, which use two levers
operated by the thumb and index finger. To select a lower gear push
the larger (lower) right shifter with your thumb to engage a larger rear
cog. One firm push shifts the chain one cog, continuing to push will
move the chain over multiple cogs. Pulling the smaller (upper) left
shifter with your index finger moves the chain from a larger to a smaller
chainwheel. To select a higher gear pull the smaller (upper) right
lever with your index finger to engage a smaller rear cog. Pushing
the larger (lower) left lever with your thumb will move the chain from a
smaller to a larger chainwheel. Please refer to page 98 for additional
instructions in “How Things Work”.
BICYCLE CARE
Basic Maintenance
The following procedures will help you maintain your bicycle for years of enjoyable riding.
For painted frames, dust the surface and remove any loose dirt with a dry cloth. To clean, wipe with a damp cloth
soaked in a mild detergent mixture. Dry with a cloth and polish with car or furniture wax. Use soap and water to clean
plastic parts and rubber tires. Chrome plated bikes should be wiped over with a rust preventative fluid.
Store your bicycle under shelter. Avoid leaving it in the rain or exposed to corrosive materials.
Riding on the beach or in coastal areas exposes your bicycle to salt which is very corrosive. Wash your bicycle
frequently and wipe or spray all unpainted parts with an anti-rust treatment. Make sure wheel rims are dry so braking
performance is not affected. After rain, dry your bicycle and apply anti-rust treatment.
If the hub and bottom bracket bearings of your bicycle have been submerged in water, they should be taken out and
re-greased. This will prevent accelerated bearing deterioration.
If paint has become scratched or chipped to the metal, use touch up paint to prevent rust. Clear nail polish can also be
used as a preventative measure.
Regularly clean and lubricate all moving parts, tighten components and make adjustments as required. (Refer to Parts
4 and 5 of this manual for further details).
The use of alloy components and BED, SATIN and TITANIUM surface treatments minimizes the number of places
where rust can surface.
20
Storage
Keep your bicycle in a dry location away from the weather and the
sun. Ultraviolet rays may cause paint to fade or rubber and plastic
parts to crack. Before storing your bicycle for a long period of time,
clean and lubricate all components and wax the frame. Deflate the
tires to half pressure and hang the bicycle off the ground. Don't store
near electric motors as ozone emissions may effect the rubber and
paint. Don't cover with plastic as "sweating” will result which may
cause rusting. Please notice that your bicycle warranty does not
cover paint damage, rust, corrosion, dry rot or theft.
Security
It is advisable that the following steps be taken to prepare for and help
prevent possible theft.
1. Maintain a record of the bicycle’s serial number, generally located
on the frame underneath the bottom bracket.
2. Register the bicycle with the local police.
3. Invest in a high quality bicycle lock that will resist hack saws and
bolt cutters. Always lock your bicycle to an immovable object if it
is left unattended.
21
DERAILLEUR GEARED BICYCLES
Includes 20", 24” and 26" Wheel Mountain Bikes
Assembly is the same for men’s
and women’s bikes.
Getting Started
Open the carton from the top and remove the bicycle. Remove the
straps and protective wrapping from the bicycle. Inspect the bicycle
and all accessories and parts for possible shortages. It is recommended
that the threads and all moving parts in the parts package be lubricated
prior to installation. Do not discard packing materials until assembly is
complete to insure that no required parts are accidentally discarded.
Assemble your bicycle following the steps that pertain to your model.
Note: Your bicycle may be equipped with different style components
than the ones illustrated.
Binder Bolt
Stem Bolt
Top Nut
Minimum Insertion
Mark
Wedge
Head Tube
PART 3 - ASSEMBLY
We recommend that you consult a bicycle specialist
if you have doubts or concerns as to your experience or ability to properly assembly, repair, or maintain your bicycle.
Handlebars
Remove the protective cap from the handlebar stem wedge and loosen
the Allen key bolt using the 6mm Allen key. Some models may use a
13mm hexagonal bolt instead of an Allen key bolt. Place the handlebar
stem into the top of the head tube, ensuring that all cables are free of
tangles. Tighten the stem bolt observing the minimum insertion mark and
checking that the forks and the handlebars are facing forward. Check
the headset for smooth rotation and that the top nut is secured tightly.
Loosen the 6mm Binder Bolt and rotate the handlebar forward so the
levers are at a 45 degree angle below the handlebar. Retighten the
Binder Bolt to ensure the handlebar does not rotate in the stem.
Warning: Over tightening the stem bolt or headset
assembly may cause damage to the bicycle and/or
injury to the rider.
22
NOTE: Comfort Series (CS) bicycles may be equipped with a stem that has an adjustable angle.
In addition to the normal assembly, these stems will require angling the stem to the desired position,
and securely tightening the 6mm angle bolt located in front of the stem bolt.
Failure to do this may cause loss of steering control.
Tightening/Preloading Aheadset
Compression Bolt
Handlebar
Top Cap
Stem Cap
Bolts
Stem Clamp Bolts
Spacer
Headset Wedge
Bearing Race
Bearing Dust Cover
Bearing Retainer
Installed
by
factory
Upper Headset Cup
Steerer Tube
Star Nut
(Inside Steerer Tube)
Headtube
Lower Headset Cup
Bearing Retainer
Bearing Dust Cover
Headset Crown Race
fork
23
Stem Cap
Stem Installation (Should be assembled on the
bike already)
1. Insert the compression bolt through the top
cap and the stem. Begin threading into the
star nut.
2.Tighten compression bolt so it removes all
play from the fork, but allows the fork to rotate
smoothly.
3. Align the stem with the front wheel. Tighten
the stem clamp bolts to secure the stem to the
steerer tube.
Handlebar Installation
1. Remove the stem cap bolts and stem cap.
2. Insert handlebar into the stem cap.
3. Tighten the stem cap bolts equally. Note
the distance between the stem and stem cap:
It should be equal on the top and bottom of the
stem cap. A must be equal distance.
Sunken Stem Bolt System
1. Remove the protective shipping cap from the stem wedge.
2. Remove the Stem Plug from the stem. Loosen the Stem Bolt
with a 6mm allen wrench.
3. Insert the stem into the headtube of the bicycle. Ensure that the
Minimum Insertion Line is below the top nut of the headset.
4. Align the stem and handlebar so it is in line with the front wheel.
5. Tighten the Stem Bolt with the 6mm allen wrench. Reinsert the
Stem Plug into the stem.
WARNING: MINIMUM INSERTION LINE MUST BE HIDDEN WITHIN
THE HEADTUBE OF THE BICYCLE.
If the stem is not inserted into the top nut to at least the “Minimum Insertion” mark, it is
possible to over-tighten the stem bolt and damage the fork steerer tube. If these instructions are not followed, it could cause an unsafe condition and risk injury to the rider.
Check steering tightness prior to riding by straddling the front wheel. Try turning the handlebar. If you can turn it without turning the front wheel, the stem is too loose. Re-align
the handlebar with the front wheel and re-tighten the stem bolt.
24
Shifter binder bolt
(2.5 Allen key)
1.
Brake lever binder bolt
(5mm Allen key)
Bar end (5mm Allen key)
Shifters
Tighten all bolts that clamp the shifters, brake levers and bar ends to
the handlebar using a 5mm Allen key or Phillips head screwdriver.
(Figure 1) Handlebar with Grip Shifter.
(Figure 2) Top mounted thumb shifter.
Failure to properly tighten clamping bolts may
cause sudden movement of the component
resulting in loss of steering control.
25
Shift binder
bolt (Phillips
head or 5mm
Allen key)
2.
Forks
Steering Tube
Brake Boss
Drop-out
Crown
Blade
1.
Do not attempt to disassemble a suspension
fork yourself. Consult a professional bicycle
repair technician.
Brake Bridge
Crown
Brake Boss
Drop-out
Steering Tube
Fork Blade
2.
There are two different types of forks that vary in styles and
dimensions. One type is a rigid fork (Figure 1) consisting of
stationary tubing with curved blades. The other type is a
suspension fork (Figure 2) consisting of stanchion tubes
riding on elastomers or springs inside of a straight fork leg.
This mechanism acts as a shock absorber with a specified
amount of travel that varies between models. Some suspension forks are not adjustable and are very difficult to disassemble. If service is needed on a suspension fork, consult a
professional bicycle repair technician.
Check the tightness of the headset and the fork. Rotate the
fork checking for smoothness. If it feels like the fork is
binding, then an adjustment will need to be made to the
headset. Move the fork in a push/pull manner checking for
tightness. If any play is detected, loosen the top nut, adjust
the bearing cup, and retighten the top nut. Recheck the
rotation and tightness. If necessary, readjust until a smooth
rotation is achieved without backward or forward movement. If your bike is equipped with a suspension fork, check
that the fork compresses and rebounds smoothly. To do
this, place the fork dropouts against the ground, push and
release the handlebar. The fork will generally compress 1-2”
and rebound quickly. Most elastomer type forks will gradually
soften with use.
26
Seat and Seat Post
Seat
Clamp
Seat
Post
Adjusting
Nut
Quick
Release
Attach
Seat Here
Boot
Attach the seat to the seat post by loosening the nuts on the seat clamp. Insert the
tapered end of the seat post into the seat clamp until it is at the top of the clamp.
Partially tighten the nuts on the seat clamp until the seat is snug, but can still be
turned. Insert the seat assembly into the frame of the bicycle and adjust the seat to
the proper height. The seat post must be inserted to at least the “Minimum Insertion” line marked on the seat post. If equipped with a quick release skewer; tighten
the adjusting nut by hand and move the quick release lever to the closed position.
You should feel considerable resistance while moving the lever. If not, re-open and
re-tighten the lever, then move it to the closed position so it is in line with the frame
as pictured. If equipped with a binder clamp; Insure the lip on the binder clamp is
fitted completely against the top of the seat tube of the frame. With the seat post
inserted, tighten the binder bolt securely. Position the top of the seat parallel with
the ground. Push the front of the seat up and down to firmly mesh the serrations
together. The serrations must mesh completely together to insure a stabilized riding position. Securely tighten the nut on the seat clamp. If there is a nut on both
sides of the clamp, tighten each one by alternating from one to the other. Check for
tightness by twisting the seat from side to side, and from front to back. If the seat
moves at the seat clamp or quick release, reposition and re-tighten the appropriate
clamping mechanism.
NOTE: Comfort Series (CS) bicycles may be equipped with a suspension
seat post (See Diagram-bottom left). Some suspension posts can be adjusted for stiffness using the preload adjusting screw. Turning the 6mm Allen screw Clockwise will
decrease travel and make the suspension stiffer, while turning the 6mm Allen screw
Counter-clockwise will increase travel and make the suspension less rigid.
Minimum
Insertion
Mark
Preload adjusting
screw on underside
27
Insert this
end into
frame
Note: In addition to normal assembly, please be aware that the preload adjusting
screw must be flush with the bottom of the post. Some bicycles may come equipped
with a shim that should be positioned over the lower half of the seat post and inserted
into the seat tube of the frame. Failure to do this may cause irreparable damage.
The seat post must be inserted so that the minimum insertion
mark cannot be seen. The quick release mechanism must be
tightened securely to prevent a sudden shift of the seat when
riding. Failure to do this may cause loss of bicycle control.
Pedals & Crank Set
Dust
Cap
Look for the letters “R” for right, and “L” for left, stamped on each pedal
spindle. Start each pedal spindle by hand to avoid stripping the threads.
Tighten with a 15mm narrow open ended wrench. Note that the right
hand pedal attaches to the chainwheel side crank arm with a right-hand
(clockwise) thread. The left pedal attaches to the other crank arm and has
a left-hand (counter-clockwise) thread. It is very important that you check
the crank set for correct adjustment and tightness before riding your
bicycle. New cranks may become loose with initial use, refer to p. 83-86
for proper crank set adjustment and maintenance. Once the pedals have
been installed, remove the dust caps from the center of each crank arm.
Using a 14mm socket wrench, tighten the spindle nuts securely (approx.
350 in. lbs.) and replace the dust caps.
Attachment of an incorrect pedal into a crank arm can
strip pedal threads and cause irreparable damage. Before
your first ride, please check to insure your pedals are
attached correctly.
28
Front Wheel
Quick Release
Adjusting Axle
Nut
Hub
Axle
Quick
Release
Lever
Hub
Closed Position
Spring
Check the wheel hub before attaching it to the fork by rotating the
threaded axle. It should be smooth with no lateral movement. Insert
the front wheel into the fork dropouts. Tighten the wheel nuts using
the appropriate 14mm or 15mm wrench. Spin the wheel checking for
trueness. Some bicycles have wheel axles that incorporate a Quick
Release (QR) mechanism. This allows easy wheel removal without
the need for tools. The mechanism uses a long bolt with an adjusting
nut on one end, and a lever operating a cam-action tensioner on the
other. If the wheel is fitted with a Quick Release type axle, turn the
adjusting nut so that the locking lever is moved to the closed position
with a firm action. At the halfway closed position of the quick release
lever, you should start to feel some resistance to this motion. Do not
tighten the quick release by using the quick release lever like a wing
nut. If the quick release lever is moved to the closed position with no
resistance, clamping strength is insufficient. Move the quick release
lever to the open position, tighten the quick release adjusting nut,
and return the quick release lever to the closed position.
Correct Quick Release Axle Setting
1.
2.
Open Position
3.
4.
29
To set, turn the lever to the open position so that the curved
part faces away from the bicycle.
While holding the lever in one hand, tighten the adjusting nut
until it stops.
Pivot the lever towards the closed position. When the lever is
halfway closed, there must be firm resistance to turn it
beyond that point. If resistance is not firm, open the lever and
tighten the adjusting nut in a clockwise direction.
Continue to pivot the lever all the way to the closed position
so that the curved part of the lever faces the bicycle.
5. The wheel is tightly secured when the serrated surfaces of the
quick release clamping parts actually begin to cut into the
bicycle frame/fork surfaces.
6. Note that the same procedure applies when operating a quick
release seat post binder mechanism.
7. Turn the bicycle upright using the kickstand to support it.
If you can fully close the quick release without wrapping your
fingers around the fork blade for leverage, and the lever does
not leave a clear imprint in the palm of you hand, the tension is
insufficient. Open the lever, turn the adjusting, and try again.
Continue until the QR lever closes properly. Secondary retention
devices are not a substitute for a correct quick release adjustment. Failure to properly adjust the quick release mechanism
can cause the wheel to wobble or disengage, which could cause
you to lose control and fall, resulting in serous injury or death.
Cantilever
Brakes
1. Install the cable into
Front Brake
Determine which type of brake your bike is equipped with and refer to
the appropriate assembly instructions. For more information on brake
adjustment and maintenance, refer to p. 77-80.
Cable
End
Cantilever Brakes - Utilizing a Link Wire
2. Set the cable into
2
1
If fitted with cantilever type brakes, insert the brake cable into the link
wire lead, and notch the cable end into the slot of the left brake arm.
Loosen the anchor bolt on the right brake arm and slide the brake cable
under the tabbed washer. Squeeze both brake arms together so the
brake shoes hit the rim, pull all slack out of the brake cable, and tighten
the anchor bolt. With the cable fitted, the straddle holder should sit
10-20mm above the reflector bracket. Adjust the brake shoes using a
10mm wrench so that they are parallel with the rim and are positioned
1-2mm away from the rim. Several adjustments may be necessary to
achieve the correct brake position.
30
3. Temporarily tighten the cable so
that the link wire is at the position in
the illustration.
5. Secure one of the shoes at a time.
The adjustment of the shoe clearance is
not necessary at this time.
Shoe fixing nut tightening torque:
7.84 - 8.82 Nm (70 - 78 in. lbs.)
3
Link Wire
10 mm wrench
To u c h i n g
5 mm Allen key
Cable Anchor Bolt
Spring tension
adjustment screw
1 mm
6. If balance adjustment is necessary,
adjust with the spring tension
adjustment screw.
Cable Casing Holder
1
2
4. Turn the spring tension
adjustment screw so that the link
wire comes to a position directly
below the cable casing holder.
1
Cut off any unnecessary cable, attach an end
cap, and hook it onto the
notched part of the nut
which secures the shoe.
2
End cap
2
1
2
31
1
Cantilever Brakes - Utilizing a Straddle Cable
Straddle
Cable
Brake
Brake Cable
Straddle Hanger
Pinch Bolt
Straddle Cable
90o
Cable
Anchor
Caliper Arm
Pivot
V-Style Brakes
Outer
Cable
Lead
Brake
Cable
Boot
Brake
Noodle
Anchor
Bolt
Brake
Arm
Pivot
Bolt
The length of the straddle cable, the height of the straddle hanger,
and the brake pad-to-caliper arm position all have an effect on braking power. Generally, the straddle cable bridge is set low and close
to the tire for maximum braking force. The straddle cable should be
high enough, however, to adequately clear the tire (and any debris
that may stick to the tire) or to fit over the front reflector hanger. In the
event of brake cable failure, the front reflector hanger would prevent
the straddle cable from catching in the tire and locking up the front
wheel. The straddle cable length (when adjustable) is set to transfer
as much force to the brake pads as possible. For the most efficient
transfer of force, the straddle cable and the line between the cantilever
pivot and the cable anchor should form a right angle (90 degrees). If
the force is not at a right angle, part of the force gets wasted in pulling
on the brake post, which has no effect on braking.
Brake
Shoe
Tension
Screw
If not already assembled, take the brake noodle from the parts box
and slide the cable through the larger opening. The cable housing
will then seat into the end of the noodle. Slide the cable through the
cable lead on the end of the left brake arm, this will cause the noodle
to fit into the lead. Slip the brake cable boot over the cable and position it between both brake arms. Next, loosen the 5mm anchor bolt
at the end of the right brake arm and slide the cable under the retaining washer. Pull the slack out of the cable making sure a distance of
39mm or more remains between the end of the lead and the start of
the anchor bolt. Once the cable is secured to the brake arms, engage
the brake lever several times, checking the position of the brake
shoes at the rim. The brake shoes should be 1mm away from the
rim when in a relaxed position. When the brake lever is engaged, the
brake shoe should hit the rim flush (never the tire) with the front brake
pad touching the rim slightly before the rear. This is called “toeing-in”
your brake shoe. If this position is not achieved, adjustments to the
brake shoe are required. Loosen the brake shoe hardware and reposition the brake shoe. It may take several shoe and cable adjustments
before the required position is accomplished.
32
V - Brake
1. If fitted with V-Brakes, insert the brake body
into the center spring hole in the frame mounting boss, and then secure the brake body to the
frame with the link fixing bolt.
2. While holding the shoe against the rim, adjust the
amount of shoe protrusion by interchanging the
position of the B washers (i.e. 6 mm and 3 mm) so that
dimension A is kept at 39 mm or more.
39 mm or more
A
5 mm Allen key
3 mm washer B
6 mm washer B
Shoe fixing nut
Washer
Link
fixing
bolt
Spring
hole
Stopper pin
33
Washer
Washer A
Shoe fixing link
Washer A
3. While holding the shoe against the
rim, tighten the shoe fixing nut.
5. Adjust the balance with the spring
tension adjustment screws.
shoe fixing nut
1mm
5 mm Allen key
1 mm
Spring tension
adjustment screw
4. Pass the inner cable through the inner
cable lead. Set the cable with a clearance
of 1mm between each brake pad and the
rim, tighten the cable fixing bolt.
1 mm
Spring tension
adjustment screw
6. Depress the brake lever about 10 times as
far as the grip to check that everything is
operating correctly and that the shoe
clearance is correct before using the brakes.
Depress about
10 times
5 mm Allen key
1mm 1mm
34
Check your Brakes
Press each brake lever to make sure that there is no binding and that the brake pads press hard enough on the rims to
stop the bike. The brake pads should be adjusted so they are 1 mm to 2 mm away from the rim when the brakes are
not applied. Brake pads should be centered on the rim and “toed-in” so the rear portion of each brake pad is about 0.5
- 1.0 mm farther from the rim than the front portion of the brake pad.
Brake pad aligned with the rim surface
Pad and rim should be parallel.
Direction of rim
rotation
1- 2 mm
0.5 - 1.0 mm
Do not ride the bicycle until the brakes are functioning
properly. To test, apply the brakes while trying to push
the bike forward to make sure they will stop the bicycle.
Never ride a bicycle that is not functioning properly.
35
Do not lock up brakes. Sudden or excessive application
of the front brake may pitch the rider over the handlebars,
causing serious injury or death. When braking, always
apply the rear brake first, then the front.
Disc Brakes
Brake Cable
Housing
Barrel Adjuster
Lock Nut
Brake Lever
Cable
Insertion
Slot
Brake Cable
“C” Clip
Cable End
Holder
Brake Type
Selector
Rotating Rod
Caliper
Mounting
Bolt with
spacers
Next, attach the cable to the brake lever by inserting the cable
end into the cable end holder after the barrel adjuster and lock
nut slots have been aligned with the cable end holder. After
the cable is secured to the lever, rotate the barrel adjuster and
lock nut so the slots no longer line up. Ensure the cable housing seats appropriately into the end of the barrel adjuster and
check for any kinks or damage.
Slide the exposed brake cable through the rotating rod located
on the caliper body and seat the housing into the same stop.
Insert the cable into the spring and spring boot.
Actuating Arm
Brake Pads
Caliper
Mounting
Bolt with
spacers
If fitted with a front disc brake, the components should already
be attached. However, please check all connections before
attempting to ride the bicycle. Secure tightly the 6 bolts that
hold the disc to the front wheel hub and the 2 bolts that hold
the brake mechanism to the fork. Insert the front wheel into the
fork dropouts ensuring that the disc fits into the brake mechanism between the enclosed brake pads. Secure the front wheel
to the bicycle by tightening the quick release mechanism and
clamping the lever to the closed position. Please refer to section 6 for further instruction on quick release mechanisms.
Cable Anchor
Bolt
Next, slide the cable through the cable anchor and pull all the
slack out. Secure the cable in place by tightening the bolts that
comprise the anchor assembly. Some disc brakes will have a
centering devise while others are a free-floating mechanism.
If your caliper body is equipped with centering bolts, apply the
brake lever after the cable has been connected. While engaging
the lever, tighten the centering bolts securely. This will center
the caliper body on the disc.
DISC GETS HOT! Severe injury could result from
contact with the hot disc! Mind your legs, as well
as your hands.
36
Hub
Fork Leg
Centering Bolt
Disc Mounting
Bolts
Brake Cable
Housing
Rotating
Rod
Caliper
Body
Disc
Cable Boot
with Spring
inside
Centering Bolt (inside)
Actuating
Arm
Fork Drop Out
Quick Release
lever
Caliper Mounting
Bolts with spacers
These brakes require breaking in! Ride and use the brakes gently for 13
miles before using the brakes in downhill conditions, for sudden stops,
or any other serious braking. Please be aware that your brake system will
change in performance throughout the wear-in process. The disc brake
should be cleaned before the first ride using rubbing alcohol. NEVER use oil
or similar products to clean your disc brake system.
37
Cable Anchor
Bolt
Derailleur
Freewheel
Outer side of Top Gear
Pulley Adjustment
Screw
Guide Pulley
Adjustment
Screws
Tension Pulley
SIS Cable Adjuster
High Gear
Adjustment Screw
Low Gear
Adjustment
Screw
H
L
Although the front and rear derailleurs are initially adjusted at
the factory, you will need to inspect and readjust both before
riding the bicycle.
Rear Derailleur
Begin by shifting the rear shifter to largest number indicated,
disconnect the cable from the rear derailleur cable anchor bolt,
and place the chain on the smallest sprocket.
Adjust the High limit screw so the guide pulley and the
smallest sprocket are lined up vertically. Reconnect the cable,
pull out any slack, and retighten the anchor bolt securely. Shift
through the gears, making sure each gear achieved is done
quietly and without hesitation. If necessary, use the barrel
adjuster to fine tune each gear by turning it the direction you
want the chain to go. For example, turning clockwise will loosen the cable tension and move the chain away from the wheel,
while turning counter-clockwise will tighten cable
tension and direct the chain towards the wheel. Shift the rear
shifter to the gear one and place the chain on the largest cog.
Adjust the Low limit screw in quarter turn increments until the
guide pulley and the largest cog are aligned vertically. Again,
shift through each gear several times, checking that each gear
is achieved smoothly. It may take several attempts before the
rear derailleur and cable is adjusted properly.
Ensure all bolts are secured tightly and the chain
does not fall off in either direction.
Barrel
Adjuster
Rear Derailleur Side View
38
Low Adjusting Screw
Cable Anchor Bolt
Outer Chainguide
Inner Chainguard
High Adjusting
Screw
Chainguide
clearance of
1-3mm
Front Derailleur
Shift both shifters to the smallest number indicated and place
the chain on the corresponding cog and chainwheel. Disconnect the front derailleur cable from the cable anchor bolt.
Check the position of the front derailleur; it should be parallel
with the outer chainwheel and clear the largest chainwheel by
1-3mm when fully engaged.
With the chain on the smallest chainwheel in front and the
largest cog in back, adjust the Low limit screw so the chain is
centered in the front derailleur cage. Reconnect the cable, pull
any slack out, and tighten the anchor bolt securely. Shift the
front shifter to the largest chainwheel. If the chain does not go
onto the largest chainwheel, turn the high limit screw in 1/4 turn
increments counter-clockwise until the chain engages the largest
chainwheel. If the chain falls off the largest chainwheel, and
into the pedals, you will need to turn the High limit screw in 1/4
turn increments clockwise until the chain no longer falls off.
Shift through every gear, using the barrel adjusters to fine tune
each transition. The barrel adjuster for the front derailleur is
located on the front shifter where the cable comes out of the
shifter. Clockwise will loosen the cable tension and direct the
chain closer to the frame while counter-clockwise will tighten
the cable tension and direct the chain away from the frame.
Do not ride a bicycle that is not shifting properly. Overlooking proper adjustments may cause
irreparable damage to the bicycle and/or bodily
injury. Never move the shifter while pedaling
backward, nor pedal backwards after having
moved the shifter. This could jam the chain
and cause serious damage to the bicycle
and/or rider.
39
Dual Suspension
Dual Suspension bikes (DS) are equipped with a front fork as
well as a rear suspension generally located below the seat.
The piston works in conjunction with a spring to allow the bike
to rotate on a pivot point. Ensure all attaching hardware is
secured and there is no lateral movement of the rear triangle.
The amount of Rear Suspension travel can be adjusted by
turning the adjusting plate. Clockwise will increase spring
tension and decrease travel, while turning counter-clockwise
will decrease spring tension and increase travel. There are
many different types of suspension systems-too many to deal
with individually in this manual.
Spring plate
Spring
Anchor bolt
Adjusting plate
Piston
There must be enough tension on the spring to hold
the spring plate in place. Failure to do this may cause
the mechanism to fail. Failure to maintain, check and
properly adjust the suspension system may result in
suspension malfunction, which can cause you to lose
control and fall. Changing suspension adjustment
can change the handling and braking characteristics
of you bicycle. Never change suspension adjustment
unless you are thoroughly familiar with the suspension system, manufacturer’s instructions and recommendations, and always check for changes in the
performance of your bicycle by taking a careful test
ride in a hazard free area. If your bike has suspension equipment, the increased speed you may develop
also increases your risk. When braking, the front of a
suspended bike dips. You could lose control and fall
if your skill is not up to handling this system. Get to
know how to handle your suspension system safely
before trying any downhill or very fast biking.
40
3
1
Rear Pivots
2
1.
2.
3.
2
Attaching Bolt
Bushing
Shaft
3
1
1
The pivot assembly is a simple mechanism that allows
the rear triangle to move up and down in combination
with a rear suspension. Size, shape, and compounds
will vary between models; however, operating principles
are the same. A shaft will pivot inside of two bushings
secured in place with bolts. Pivots should be kept clean
and free from grime and should be disassembled and regreased at least once every riding season. Please note
the drive side crank arm must be removed from the spindle before attempting to work on the pivot. Some models
have two, small (2.5mm) Allen bolts on the underside of
the bottom bracket shell. These must be removed before
attempting to disassemble the pivot. After disassembling
and cleaning, the shaft of the pivot assembly should be
lightly coated with lithium-based grease, as well as the
bushings and the threads of the attaching hardware.
Please remember: Never use WD-40™ to grease components. It is a degreaser that will not provide required
lubrication and has a tendency to attract dust.
3
1.
2.
3.
2
41
Pivot Assembly
Bottom Bracket Cup & Lockring
Rear Triangle
Accessories
Saddle Bag
Frame Bag
Reflector
Reflector
Reflector
Water bottle and cage
If your bike is supplied with a water bottle and cage, attach the
cage to the bicycle using the Allen bolts provided.
Some bikes come equipped with a saddle bag or frame bag.
The saddle bag installs under the seat with the zipper facing
the rear wheel. Undo the straps that wrap around the bag,
thread them through the rails underneath the seat and secure
around the bag. The smaller strap wraps around the seat
post. Frame bags install at the apex of the top and seat tubes.
Secure the straps around each tube.
NOTE: The frame bag straps must not bind the cables. The
straps must go around the frame only.
Other: Some 20” and 24” model bicycles come with a rear
derailleur guard to protect the rear derailleur from damage. To
install, remove the the rear wheel axle nut on the drive side,
install the rear derailleur guard over the axle with the U-shaped
guard pointing down, and retighten the axle nut. The guard will
sit between the frame and the axle nut.
Reflectors
Tighten both rear wheel axle nuts or the
quick release mechanism securely. Failure
to do this may cause the rear wheel to
dislodge from the frame dropouts resulting
in serious damage or injury.
Attach the white reflector to the front reflector bracket and
secure to the fork or handlebar using the hardware provided.
Attach the red reflector to the rear reflector bracket and secure
to the frame or seat post, depending on the bracket style, with
the hardware provided.
42
figure 1
Fenders
Front Fender
The front fender is mounted at the fork crown. There are two
ways in which to mount your front fender. The first is the caliper
brake mounting system (see figure 1), and the second is the
10mm nut and bolt system (see figure 2). Identify the mounting
system used on your bicycle and follow the given instructions for
that particular type of mounting system.
1. Caliper Brake Mounting System
First remove the front wheel from your bicycle. Remove the
hex nut from the caliper brake bolt on the rear of the fork,
and slide the brake assembly from the fork. Place the fender assembly onto the fork making sure the attachment holes
and fender bracket holes line up. Reattach the caliper
brake making sure that the brake arms are on each side of
the fender. Tighten the bolt until secure.
figure 2
43
2. 10mm Nut and Bolt Mounting System
First remove the front wheel from your bicycle. Place the
fender assembly onto the fork making sure the attachment
holes and fender bracket holes line up. Attach the fender
with the 10mm hex bolt and nut. Tighten the bolt until secure.
Rear Fender
The rear fender is mounted at the seatstay brace. There are two
ways in which to mount your rear fender. The first is the screw
mounting system (see figure 3), and the second is the 10mm bolt
and screw system (see figure 4). Identify the mounting system used
on your bicycle and follow the given instructions for that particular
type of mounting system.
figure 3
1. Screw Mounting System
First remove the rear wheel. Place the fender assembly
between the stays, making sure the fender bracket holes
line up with those in the frame. Attach the fener by using
two screws to directly mount the fender onto the frame.
The mounts are located below the seat post and near the
rear of the crank. Tighten all screws until snug.
2. 10mm Bolt and Screw System
First remove the rear wheel. Place the fender assembly
between the stays, making sure the fender bracket holes
line up with those in the frame. Attach the fender by using
one screw to directly mount the fender onto the frame near
the crank. Next, use the 10mm hex bolt and nut to attach
the fender to the brace between the seat stays, near the
seat post. Tighten all bolts and screws until snug.
figure 4
44
Final Check
-
After all adjustments have been made, shift through every
gear several times at varying speeds. This will ensure all
your adjustments are correct and will allow you to pinpoint
any trouble areas. If you encounter any problems, refer to
the appropriate section and make any necessary adjustments.
-
Check the tire pressure and inflate each tube to the recommended
psi as stated on the sidewall of the tire.
-
Check that the kickstand operates smoothly and the
kickstand bolt is secured tightly.
-
Finally, examine the bicycle. Make sure all accessories are
attached and all quick releases, nuts and bolts have been
tightened securely.
-
Correct maintenance of your bicycle will ensure many years
of happy riding. Service your bicycle regularly by referring
to the relevant sections of this manual, OR take it to a
professional bicycle shop.
Remember: Always wear a helmet and obey all
traffic laws.
Never inflate a tire beyond the maximum
pressure marked on the tire’s sidewall.
Exceeding the recommended pressure
may blow the tire off the rim, which
could cause damage to the bicycle and
injury to the rider and bystanders.
Tighten both rear wheel axle nuts or the
quick release mechanism securely. Failure
to do this may cause the rear wheel to
dislodge from the frame dropouts resulting
in serious damage or injury.
45
SINGLE SPEED & BMX
Includes 16" and 20" BMX Bikes
Assembly is the same for boy’s and girl’s bikes.
Foreword: Assembling a bicycle is an important responsibility. Proper
assembly not only gives the rider more enjoyment of the bicycle; it
also offers an important measure of safety.
Getting Started
Stem Cap Binder Bolts
Open the carton from the top and remove the bicycle. Remove the
straps and protective wrapping from the bicycle. Inspect the bicycle and
all accessories and parts for possible shortages. It is recommended that
the threads and all moving parts in the parts package be lubricated prior to
installation. Do not discard packing materials until assembly is complete
to insure that no required parts are accidentally discarded. Assemble
your bicycle following the steps that pertain to your model.
Note: Your bicycle may be equipped with different style components than
the ones illustrated.
Stem
Bolt
Handlebars
Minimum
Insertion Mark
Stem Wedge
Head
Tube
Four Bolt
Face
Plate
Six Bolt
Face
Plate
four bolt
face plate
six bolt face plate
Remove the protective cap from the stem wedge and loosen the stem
bolt using the 6mm Allen key. Some models may use a 13mm
hexagonal bolt instead of an Allen key bolt. Place the handlebar stem
into the head tube, observing the minimum insertion mark on the
handlebar stem and ensuring that all cables are free of tangles. Check
that the fork and the handlebar are facing forward, and that they are
properly aligned with the front wheel. Tighten the stem bolt. Rotate the
handlebar to the desired position. Tighten stem cap bolt 1 (see picture)
two turns, tighten stem cap bolt 2 two turns and so on. Repeat until
handle bar is secure to the stem. See picture for a 4 or 6-bolt system.
Also check that the stem binder bolts are tightened equally and securely.
The handlebar must be inserted so that the minimum insertion
mark cannot be seen. WARNING: Over tightening the stem
bolt or headset assembly may cause damage to the bicycle and/
or injury to the rider.
46
Seat
Loosen nut on the seat clamp and add 3 or 4 drops of oil onto the
threads of the bolt. Place the smaller end of the seat post into the seat
clamp until it stops with the bolt to the rear of the seat post. Thread the
nut on the seat clamp loosely. Insert the larger end of the seat post into
the seat tube of the bicycle frame observing the minimum insertion mark
on the seat post. Position the top surface of the seat parallel with the
ground. The serrations on the seat clamp must mesh completely with
the seat frame serrations, push the front of the seat up and down to align the
serrations. Securely tighten the seat clamp. Securely tighten the bolts on
the seat post clamp. Turn the bicycle upside down and rest it on the seat
and handlebars.
The seat pillar must be inserted so that the minimum
insertion mark cannot be seen.
Pedals & Crank Set
Look for the letters “R” for right, and “L” for left, stamped on each pedal
spindle. Start each pedal spindle by hand to avoid stripping the threads.
Tighten with a 15mm narrow open ended wrench. Note that the right hand
pedal attaches to the chainwheel side crank arm with a right-hand (clockwise)
thread. The left pedal attaches to the other crank arm and has a left-hand
(counter-clockwise) thread. It is very important that you check the crank set for
correct adjustment and tightness before riding your bicycle. New cranks may
become loose with initial use, refer to p. 83-86 for proper crank set adjustment
and maintenance. Once the pedals have been attached, check that the crank
arm rotates smoothly and that there is no lateral movement.
Attachment of an incorrect pedal into a crank arm will
cause irreparable damage.
47
Axle Nut
Front Wheel
Retaining
Washer
Axle
Hub
Cone Nuts
Fork Drop Out
Step
Retaining
Washer
1. Make sure the brakes are loose enough to allow the wheel to
pass through the brake pads easily.
2. Place wheel into fork drop outs.
3. Install retaining washers with raised lip pointed towards the fork,
and insert into the small hole of the fork blade. NOTE: Some bikes
may have step retaining washers in place of the retaining washer
(shown in dotted box). If so, install the step retaining washer,
raised portion sliding in to the fork dropouts.
4. Install axle nut and tighten. Make sure the wheel is centered
between the fork blades.
5. Spin the wheel to make sure that it is centered and clears the
brake shoes. Tighten the brakes if necessary.
6. Turn the bicycle upright using the kickstand to support it.
It is very important to check the front wheel
connection to the bicycle. Failure to properly tighten
may cause the front wheel to dislodge.
Brake Lever
Grip
Nipple
Handlebar
Ferrule
Cable
Adjusting
Barrel
Front Brake
Determine which type of brake your bike is equipped with and refer
to the appropriate assembly instructions. For more information on
brake adjustment and maintenance, refer to p. 77-80. A greater force
is required to activate the rear brake due to longer cable length. It is
advisable to mount the rear brake on the side of the stronger hand.
It is important to become familiar with the use of hand brakes. When
properly adjusted, hand brakes are an efficient braking system. Keep
the rim and brake shoes clean and free from wax, lubricants and dirt
at all times. Keep brakes properly adjusted and in good working
condition at all times.
Open the brake lever and place the nipple end of the short brake
cable into the lever, then close the lever. Secure the ferrule against
the lever using the cable adjusting barrel.
48
Side Pull
Brakes
Cable
Adjusting
Barrel
Center Bolt
Brake
Arm
Cable
Anchor
Nut
Fixing Nut
in Back
Side Pull Brake
Loosen the cable anchor nut and thread the brake cable through it.
Tighten the nut by hand until it holds the cable in place. Squeeze the
brake arms together against the rim of the wheel. Loosen the nuts on
the brake shoes and turn until they match the angle of the rim. Tighten the nuts securely. Pull down on the end of the brake cable with pliers, hold taut and securely tighten the cable anchor nut.
Spin the wheel, the brake shoes should not contact the rim at any
point and should be an equal distance from the rim on both sides.
Make sure all nuts and bolts are securely tightened. Test the brake
levers 20-25 times to take care of any initial cable stretch. Be sure to
tightly secure the brake fixing nut behind the fork.
Brake Shoe
Cantilever
Brakes
1. Install the cable into
the cable carrier.
Cable
End
2. Set the cable onto
the straddle holder.
49
When assembling or adjusting the brakes, make
sure the cable anchor is tight. Failure to securely
tighten the nut could result in brake failure and
personal injury.
Cantilever Brakes - Utilizing a Link Wire
2
1
If fitted with cantilever type brakes, insert the brake cable into the link
wire lead, and notch the cable end into the slot of the left brake arm.
Loosen the anchor bolt on the right brake arm and slide the brake
cable under the tabbed washer. Squeeze both brake arms together
so the brake shoes hit the rim, pull all slack out of the brake cable,
and tighten the anchor bolt. With the cable fitted, the straddle holder
should sit 10-20mm above the reflector bracket. Adjust the brake
shoes using a 10mm wrench so that they are parallel with the rim and
are positioned 1-2mm away from the rim. Several adjustments may
be necessary to achieve the correct brake position.
3. Temporarily tighten the cable so
that the link wire is at the position in
the illustration.
5. Secure one of the shoes at a time.
The adjustment of the shoe clearance is
not necessary at this time.
Shoe fixing nut tightening torque:
7.84 - 8.82 Nm (70 - 78 in. lbs.)
3
Link Wire
10 mm wrench
To u c h i n g
5 mm Allen key
Cable Anchor Bolt
Spring tension
adjustment screw
1 mm
6. If balance adjustment is necessary,
adjust with the spring tension
adjustment screw.
Cable Casing Holder
1
2
4. Turn the spring tension
adjustment screw so that the link
wire comes to a position directly
below the cable casing holder.
1
Cut off any unnecessary cable, attach an end
cap, and hook it onto the
notched part of the nut
which secures the shoe.
2
End cap
2
1
2
1
50
Cantilever Brakes - Utilizing a Straddle Cable
Straddle
Cable
Brake
Brake Cable
Straddle Hanger
Pinch Bolt
Straddle Cable
90o
Cable
Anchor
Pivot
Caliper Arm
Brake pad aligned with the rim surface
The length of the straddle cable, the height of the straddle hanger,
and the brake pad-to-caliper arm position all have an effect on braking power. Generally, the straddle cable bridge is set low and close
to the tire for maximum braking force. The straddle cable should be
high enough, however, to adequately clear the tire (and any debris
that may stick to the tire) or to fit over the front reflector hanger. In the
event of brake cable failure, the front reflector hanger would prevent
the straddle cable from catching in the tire and locking up the front
wheel. The straddle cable length (when adjustable) is set to transfer
as much force to the brake pads as possible. For the most efficient
transfer of force, the straddle cable and the line between the cantilever
pivot and the cable anchor should form a right angle (90 degrees). If
the force is not at a right angle, part of the force gets wasted in pulling
on the brake post, which has no effect on braking.
Pad and rim should be parallel
Pad should be “toed-in”
1- 2 mm
0.5 - 1.0 mm
51
V - Brake
1. If fitted with V-Brakes, insert the brake body
into the center spring hole in the frame mounting boss, and then secure the brake body to the
frame with the link fixing bolt.
2. While holding the shoe against the rim, adjust the
amount of shoe protrusion by interchanging the
position of the B washers (i.e. 6 mm or 3 mm) so that
dimension A is kept at 39 mm or more.
39 mm or more
A
5 mm Allen key
3 mm washer B
6 mm washer B
Shoe fixing nut
Washer
Link
fixing
bolt
Spring
hole
Stopper pin
Washer
Washer A
Shoe fixing link
Washer A
52
3. While holding the shoe against
the rim, tighten the shoe fixing nut.
5. Adjust the balance with the spring
tension adjustment screws.
5 mm Allen key
1 mm
1 mm
Spring tension
adjustment screw
4. Pass the inner cable through the inner
cable lead. Set the cable with a clearance
of 1mm between each brake pad and the
rim, tighten the cable fixing bolt.
1 mm
Spring tension
adjustment screw
6. Depress the brake lever about 10 times as
far as the grip and check that everything is
operating correctly and that the shoe clearance
is correct before using the brakes.
Depress about
10 times
5 mm Allen key
B C
B + C = 2 mm
53
Front U-Brake
Rear U-Brake
Option 1
Rear U-Brake
Option 2
U-Brakes
Begin by adjusting the pads of the U-brakes using a 10mm wrench. Make sure the
pad is hitting the rim and not the tire. Ideally the front of the pad should hit the rim
approximately 1mm before the rear pad.
Front U-Brake
Slide the brake cable and housing through the Housing Barrel and through the
cable anchor bolt. Set the cable clearance of 1mm between the brake pads and the
rim. Tighten the cable anchor bolt. All instructions shown are if you are looking at
the bike from the front. For brake adjustments, use a 13mm box end wrench and
a 5mm allen wrench. Loosen the 5mm allen bolt. For the drive side (left) of the
bike turn the spring tension nut with a 13mm box end wrench counter-clockwise to
increase tension on the spring. For the non-drive side (right), turn spring tension
nut with a box end wrench clockwise to increase tension on the spring. When the
desired tension is achieved hold the tension nut with the 13mm wrench and tighten
the 5mm allen bolt. The tension on each side should be equal so that the brake
arms move the same distance when the brake is activated.
Rear U-Brake
Option 1: Next, tighten the Cable Carrier to the brake cable approximately 20mm
from the brake arms when they are closed against the rim. Attach the Straddle
cable to the carrier. Hook cable end into the brake slot, pull excess straddle cable
through the cable anchor and tighten the cable anchor. Continue with “For Both
Options” below. Option 2: Place brake housing into the frame housing stops. Pull
brake cable tightly and thread across through the opposite cable anchor bolt. Tighten cable. Repeat for other side. Continue with “For Both Options” below.
For Both Options: For brake adjustments, use a 13mm open end wrench and a
5mm allen wrench and loosen the 5mm allen bolt. For the drive side (right) of the
bike turn the spring tension nut with a 13mm open end wrench counter clockwise to
increase tension on the spring. For the non-drive side (left), turn the spring tension
nut with a box end wrench clockwise to increase tension on the spring. When the
desired tension is achieved, hold the tension nut with the 13mm wrench and tighten
the 5mm allen bolt. The tension on each side should be equal so that the brake
arms move the same distance when the brake is activated. PLEASE NOTE that
some BMX frames have the U-Brake flipped and mounted below the seatstays. The
direction to tension the springs will still be oriented to how the picture is oriented.
54
Blake Lever™ Cable Installation
1. Slide the covering plate back towards the brake lever. (Figure
1). Squeeze the brake lever so the cable roller is exposed.
2. Rotate out the cable roller. Push the lower cable roller assembly down towards the hinge assembly. The top plate should
not move.
3. With one index finger hold the top plate and with the other
index finger separate the lower cable roller assembly with the
top plate.
4. Insert the brake cable around the lower cable roller assembly.
(Figure 2). Reassemble the lower cable roller assembly with
the top plate. Be sure to pull the lower cable assembly up
away from the hinge assembly. Make sure the cable roller is
locked into place with the top plate.
5. Install the adjuster barrels into the proper slots.
6. Reattach the covering plate.
Figure 1
The rest of the assembly will follow the Rotor assembly procedures
(page 56, beginning at the Upper Cable Section, Part 2).
Figure 2
Check your Brakes
Press each brake lever to make sure that there is no binding and that the brake pads press hard enough on the rims to stop
the bike. The brake pads should be adjusted so they are 1mm to 2 mm away from the rim when the brakes are not applied.
Brake pads should be centered on the rim and the rear portion of each brake pad should be about 0.5 - 1.0 mm farther from
the rim than the front portion of the brake pad.
Do not ride the bicycle until the brakes are functioning properly. To
test, apply the brakes while trying to push the bike forward to make
sure they will stop the bicycle.
55
Rotors
Some freestyle BMX bicycles come equipped with a detangler
system that will allow the handlebar to spin 360-degrees without
binding the cables. It is very important that this system is adjusted
correctly. Installation should only be done by a qualified bicycle
mechanic with the correct tools.
Upper Cable
1. First connect the barrel end of the upper cable to the
rear brake lever. Make sure the long cable casing is on
top of the short cable casing; otherwise, the upper cable
will have a twist in it.
2. Route the upper cable through the handlebars (below
the crossbar) with the short cable casing on the same
side as the rear brake lever.
3. Connect the upper cable to the upper plate by passing
the football ends of the upper cable through the threaded
holes in the upper plate and connecting them to the bearing.
4. Screw the adjusting barrels into the upper plate. Don’t
tighten the locknuts at this time.
Lower Cable
1. Slide the cable casing through the cable guide on the frame.
2. Connect the lower cable to the lower plate by passing
the football ends of the lower cable through the threaded
holes in the lower plate and connecting them to the bearing.
3. Screw the adjusting barrels into the lower plate. Don’t
tighten the locknuts at this time.
4. Connect the lower cable to the rear brake. Don’t adjust
the rear brake at this time.
NOTE: Check to make sure all 11 cable casing ends on
the upper and lower cables are seated correctly, and that
the spring tension of the rear brake is pulling the bearing down.
Adjustment
1. Screw the cable adjusters on the rear brake lever and the
upper cable splitter all the way in.
2. Screw the adjusting barrels in the upper plate in (or out)
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
to set the bearing for maximum travel. The bearing should
be as far down as it can go without resting on the lower
plate or the adjusting barrels screwed into the lower plate.
Use the adjusting barrels that are screwed into the
upper plate to make the bearing parallel to the upper
plate. Use a 10mm wrench to tighten the locknut on the
left adjusting barrel of the upper cable. Leave the right
adjusting barrel loose.
Screw the lower cable adjusting barrel into (or out of)
the lower plate until they are as close to the bearing as
they can get without touching it.
Screw the cable adjuster on the upper cable splitter out
until all slack is removed from the upper cable. Then
screw the cable adjuster out one more turn to raise the
bearing an additional 1mm away from the lower cable
adjusting barrels.
CAUTION: Don’t screw the cable adjuster on the upper
cable splitter out more than 8mm. Use the cable adjuster
on the rear brake lever if more adjustment is needed.
Check for bearing flop by placing the handlebars in the
normal riding position, then quickly rotate the handlebars
back and forth. Perform the following steps to eliminate
bearing flop.
NOTE: The bearing should never be allowed to rest on
the lower plate or lower cable adjusting barrels.
a) Screw the lower cable adjusting barrels out of (or
into) the lower plate until all bearing flop is eliminated.
b) Tighten the locknut of the right adjusting barrel on the
lower cable.
c) Rotate the handlebars 180 degrees and recheck for
bearing flop. If there is any bearing flop, use the
“loose” adjusting barrels on the upper and lower cable to
remove it.
d) Repeat steps (6a) and (6c) until the handlebars can be
rotated 360 degrees without any bearing flop.
Finish adjusting the rear brakes.
56
Failure to adjust correctly may result in
loss of braking power and personal injury.
Single Cable Casing
Cable Adjuster
Cable Splitter
Upper Cable
(long casing)
Barrel End
Upper Cable
(short casing)
Adjusting Barrel
Upper Plate
37mm + or - 1mm
Bearing
Football Ends
Lower Plate
Lower Cable
57
Locknut
Set for Max. Travel
Keyed Washer
Minimum 1mm (1/32”)
Locknut
Adjusting Barrel
Non-Threaded
Axle Peg Assembly Instructions
Non-Threaded
First remove the axle nut from the wheel. There will be either
a retaining washer or a step retaining washer included. Place
this washer between the peg and the frame of the bicycle. Slide
the peg onto the axle, followed by a flat washer and lastly the
axle nut. Tighten the axle nut clockwise until the peg fits snugly
against the frame or fork. Repeat for all the remaining pegs.
Threaded
Threaded
This style of peg is threaded to fit the axle. Make sure the axle
nut is tight with a 15mm wrench. Place a screw driver through
the mounting holes of the peg and attach the peg to the axle by
turning clockwise. Tighten against the frame or fork for a snug fit.
Repeat for all the remaining pegs.
PLEASE NOTE: Not all axles are able to accept axle pegs.
Please consult the Pacific Cycle Service Department if you
have any questions. Some BMX bicycles come with two or
four pegs. If your bicycle is a Dirt Jumping style bicycle,
you will receive only two pegs. These are designed for the
front wheel. Freestyle bicycles come with four pegs, two for
each wheel.
58
Training Wheels
There are two options when attaching the training wheels to
the wheel brace. Determine which option is used on your
bicycle and follow the given instructions for that option.
Option 1
First attach the training wheels to the wheel brace. Position
a washer on the shoulder bolt. Next, insert the shoulder
bolt through the wheel. Follow with another flat washer
then completely thread a hex nut onto the shoulder bolt.
Insert the shoulder bolt through the wheel brace and set the
washer on the shoulder bolt. Lock the training wheel into
place by screwing another hex nut onto the shoulder bolt.
Repeat for both training wheels.
Option 1
Option 2
59
Option 2
First attach the training wheels to the wheel brace. Insert
the shoulder bolt through the wheel. Follow with a flat
washer. Insert the shoulder bolt through the wheel brace
and set the washer on the shoulder bolt. Lock the training wheel into place by screwing another hex nut onto the
shoulder bolt. Repeat for both training wheels.
It is very important to check the training
wheel connection to the bicycle. Failure
to properly tighten may cause the training wheel to dislodge. Please contact
Pacific Cycle Service with any questions.
Attaching Training Wheel Brace to Bicycle
There are two different braces used to attach the training
wheels to the bicycle: the C-Shape Brace and the Flat Brace.
Determine which brace was included with your bicycle and follow the given instructions for that particular brace.
C-Shape
C-Shape Brace
Remove the axle nut and washer from the rear wheel axle.
Place the brace stabilizer washer onto the axle and align the
washer so that the notch on the washer fits into the rear frame
drop out. Next, place the C-shaped wheel brace onto the axle
and replace the washer and axle nut. Tighten the axle nut
securely, making sure that the wheel brace stays in the proper
vertical position. The elongated hole on the wheel brace
allows the training wheel height to be adjusted for proper fit.
Flat Brace
Remove the axle nut and washer from the rear wheel axle.
Place the flat wheel brace onto the axle. Next place the brace
stabilizer washer onto the axle and align it so that the notch
fits into the rear frame drop out. Replace the washer and axle
nut. Tighten the axle nut securely, making sure that the wheel
brace stays in the proper vertical position. The elongated
hole on the wheel brace allows the training wheel height to be
adjusted for proper fit.
Flat
60
Training Wheel Stabilizer Bracket
Your bicycle may include a stabilizer bracket to attach the training wheel to the bicycle.
First remove the nut and washer from the rear wheel axle.
Align the stabilizer bracket onto the brace. Align the brace and
stabilizer bracket on the wheel axle. Replace the axle nut and
washer, secure tightly. The elongated hole on the brace allows
for raising and lowering the training wheel to the proper height.
NOTICE: Not all bicycles will accept training wheels. If your
bike did not come stock with training wheels, please call Pacific
Cycle to help determine if after-market training wheels can be
attached.
It is very important to check the training wheel connection to the bicycle. Failure to properly tighten
may cause the training wheel to dislodge. Please contact Pacific Cycle Service with any questions.
61
Final Check
Pads
Front
Reflector
(White)
Rear
Reflector
(Red)
Install any additional parts that are supplied with your bike.
NOTE: Your bicycle may be equipped with different style
components than the ones illustrated.
Reflectors: Attach the white reflector to the front bracket and the
red reflector to the rear bracket using an 8mm wrench or a Phillips head screwdriver. Attach the brackets to the bicycle using
the hardware provided. For some models, the front reflector bracket
will be mounted on the front brake assembly bolt that fits
through the fork. It is important to make sure all connections are
tightened securely and that the reflectors are properly angled.
Pads: If your bike is supplied with pads, wrap the foam inner
cushion around the appropriate bar. Place the outer cover over
the inner cushion and press the velcro together securely. Turn
the pad so the velcro faces the ground.
Chainguards: If not already attached, attach the chainguard to
the bicycle frame using the clamps provided. Secure in place
making sure the guard does not bind or get caught on the
chain.
Tire Pressure: Check tire pressure, inflate to the range
recommended on the tire sidewalls.
Pegs: There are many different types of pegs-too many to deal
with individually in this manual. Please see your dealer for specific information regarding peg installation.
Before riding, ensure all nuts, bolts and fittings
on the bicycle have been correctly tightened.
Chainguard
62
Correct routine maintenance of your new bike will ensure:
PART 4 - SERVICING
Smooth running - Longer lasting components - Safer riding - Lower running costs
Every time you ride your bicycle, its condition changes. The more you ride, the more frequently maintenance will be
required. We recommend you spend a little time on regular maintenance tasks. The following schedules are a useful guide
and by referring to Part 5 of this manual, you should be able to accomplish most tasks. If you require assistance, we
recommend you see a bicycle specialist.
Schedule 1 - Lubrication
Frequency
Component
Lubricant
How to Lubricate
Weekly
chain
derailleur wheels
derailleurs
brake calipers
brake levers
shift levers
chain lube or light oil
chain lube or light oil
oil
oil
oil
lithium based grease
brush on or squirt
brush on or squirt
oil can
3 drops from oil can
2 drops from oil can
disassemble
freewheel
brake cables
bottom bracket
pedals
derailleur cables
wheel bearings
headset
seat pillar
oil
lithium
lithium
lithium
lithium
lithium
lithium
lithium
2 squirts from oil can
disassemble
disassemble
disassemble
disassemble
disassemble
disassemble
disassemble
Monthly
Every Six Months
Yearly
63
based
based
based
based
based
based
based
grease
grease
grease
grease
grease
grease
grease
Note: The frequency of maintenance should increase with use in wet or dusty conditions. Do not over
lubricate - remove excess lubricant to prevent dirt build up. Never use a degreaser to lubricate your chain (WD-40™)
Schedule 2 - Service Checklist
Frequency
Before every ride
After every ride
Weekly
Monthly
Every Six Months
Yearly
Task
Check tire pressure
Check brake operation
Check wheels for loose spokes
Make sure nothing is loose
Quick wipe down with damp cloth
Lubrication as per schedule 1
Lubrication as per schedule 1
Check derailleur adjustment
Check brake adjustment
Check brake and gear cable adjustment
Check tire wear and pressure
Check wheels are true and spokes tight
Check hub, head set and crank bearings for looseness
Check pedals are tight
Check handlebars are tight
Check seat and seat post are tight and comfortably adjusted
Check frame and fork for trueness
Check all nuts and bolts are tight
Lubrication as per schedule 1
Check all points as per monthly service
Check and replace brake pads, if required
Check chain for excess play or wear
Lubrication as per schedule 1
Page Reference
67
77-80
66
66
20
63
63
90-92
77-80
73, 90
67
66
68, 74, 83
81
70-71
75-76
10
63
64
77-78
87
63
64
Tools Required
1. Open ended wrench or ring
wrenches: 8mm, 9mm, 10mm,
12mm, 13mm, 14mm, 15mm
2. Open end or pedal wrench 15mm
3. Allen key wrenches: 4mm, 5mm,
6mm, 8mm
4. Adjustable wrench
5. Standard flat head screwdriver
6. Standard Phillips head screwdriver
7. Standard slip joint pliers
8. Tire pump
9 Tube repair kit
10. Tire levers
Travel Tools
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
65
Spare Tube
Patch kit
Pump
Tire levers
Multi-tool
Change (phone call)
WHEELS AND TIRES
Wheel Inspection
It is most important that wheels are kept in top condition. Properly maintaining your bicycle's wheels will help braking
performance and stability when riding. Be aware of the following potential problems:
•Wheels not straight:
Lift each wheel off the ground and spin them to see if they are crooked or out of true. If wheels are not straight, they
will need to be adjusted. This is quite difficult and is best left to a bicycle specialist.
•Broken or loose spokes:
Check that all spokes are tight and that none are missing or damaged.
Caution: Such damage can result in severe instability and possibly an accident if not corrected.
Again, spoke repairs are best handled by a specialist.
•Loose hub bearings:
Lift each wheel off the ground and try to move the wheel from side to side.
Caution: If there is movement between the axle and the hub, do not ride the bicycle. Adjustment is required.
•Axle nuts:
Check that these are tight before each ride.
PART 5 - DETAILED MAINTENANCE
•Dirty or greasy rims:
Caution: These can render your brakes ineffective. Do not clean them with oily or greasy materials. When
cleaning, use a clean rag or wash with soapy water, rinse and air dry. Don't ride while they're wet.
When lubricating your bicycle, don't get oil on the rim braking surfaces.
•Quick release:
Check that these are set to the closed position and are properly tensioned before each ride.
Caution: Maintain the closed position and the correct adjustment. Failure to do so may result in serious injury.
66
Tire Inspection
Tires must be maintained properly to ensure road holding and stability. Check the following areas:
Inflation:
Bead
Seating:
Ensure tires are inflated to the pressure indicated on the tire sidewalls. It is better to use a tire gauge
and a hand pump than a service station pump.
Caution: If inflating tires with a service station pump, take care that sudden over inflation does not cause
tire to blow out.
When inflating or refitting tire, make sure that the bead is properly seated in the rim.
Tread:
Check that the tread shows no signs of excessive wear or flat spots, and that there are no cuts or other damage.
Caution: Excessively worn or damaged tires should be replaced.
Valves:
Make sure valve caps are fitted and that valves are free from dirt. A slow leak caused by the entry of the dirt can
lead to a flat tire, and possibly a dangerous situation.
Recommended Tire pressures:
The recommended pressure molded on the sidewall of your bicycle tires should match the following chart.
Use this as a general guide.
BMX
MTB
Road Touring
Road Racing
Hybrid/Crossbike
67
35-50 p.s.i.
40-65 p.s.i.
70-90 p.s.i.
110-125 p.s.i.
60-100 p.s.i.
Ball Bearings
Lock
Washer
Hub Body
Bearing
Cone
Axle
Lock Nut
Washer
Axle Nut
Hub Bearing Adjustment
When checked, the hub bearings of either wheel will require
adjustment if there is any more than slight side play.
1. Check to make sure neither locknut is loose.
2. To adjust, remove wheel from bicycle and loosen the locknut on
one side of the hub while holding the bearing cone on the same
side with a flat open end wrench.
3. Rotate the adjusting cone as needed to eliminate free play.
4. Re-tighten the locknut while holding the adjusting cone in position.
5. Re-check that the wheel can turn freely without excessive side play.
How To Fix a Flat Tire
If you need to repair a tire, follow these steps:
Push tire bead
into the center
of the rim.
1. Remove the wheel from the bicycle.
2. Deflate the tire completely via the valve.
Loosen the tire bead by pushing it inward all the way around.
3. Press one side of the tire bead up over the edge of the rim.
Note: Use tire levers, not a screwdriver, otherwise you may
damage the rim.
4. Remove the tube, leaving the tire on the rim.
5. Locate the leaks and patch using a tube repair kit, carefully
following the instructions, or replace the tube.
Note: Ensure that the replacement tube size matches the size
stated on the tire sidewall and that the valve is the correct type
for your bicycle.
68
Remove tire bead from the rim.
6.
Match the position of the leak in the tube with the tire to locate the possible
cause and mark the location on the tire.
7.
Remove the tire completely and inspect for a nail, glass, etc. and remove if
located. Also inspect the inside of the rim to ensure there are no protruding
spokes, rust or other potential causes. Replace the rim tape which covers the
spoke ends, if damaged.
8.
Remount one side of the tire onto the rim.
9.
Using a hand pump, inflate the tube just enough to give it some shape.
10.
Place the valve stem through the hole in the rim and work the tube into the
tire. Note: Do not let it twist.
11.
Using your hands only, remount the other side of the tire by pushing the edge
toward the center of the rim. Start on either side of the valve and work around
the rim.
12.
Before the tire is completely mounted, push the valve up into the rim to make
sure the tire can sit squarely in position.
13.
Fit the rest of the tire, rolling the last, most difficult part on using your thumbs.
Note: Avoid using tire levers as these can easily puncture the tube or damage
the tire.
14.
Check that the tube is not caught between the rim and the tire bead at any point.
15.
Using a hand pump, inflate the tube until the tire begins to take shape, and check
that the tire bead is evenly seated all the way around the rim. When properly
seated, fully inflate the tire to the pressure marked on the sidewall. Use a tire air
pressure gauge to check.
16.
Replace the wheel into the frame checking that all gears, brakes and quick
release levers are properly adjusted.
Pull tire back onto the rim.
69
HANDLEBARS AND STEM
Handlebar Stem
Max. Height/
Minimum Insertion
Mark
Handlebar Binder Bolt
Handlebar Clamp Bolts
Stem Bolt
Max. Height/
Min. Insertion Mark
The handlebar stem fits into the steering column and is held firm by
the action of a binder bolt and expander wedge which, when tightened,
binds with the inside of the fork steerer tube.
When removing the stem, loosen the stem bolt two or three turns,
then give it a tap to loosen the wedge inside.
Lubricate by first wiping off any old grease and grime, then applying a
thin film of grease to the part, including the wedge, that will be inserted
into the frame.
The height of the handlebar can be adjusted to suit your
comfort preference.
If the stem is removed from the steering column, you will notice a
mark about 65mm up from the bottom with the words “max. height” or
“minimum insertion".
Never ride a bicycle if the stem has
been raised so that the max. height/
minimum insertion line can be seen.
Warning: Over tightening the stem
bolt or headset assembly may cause
damage to the bicycle and/or injury
to the rider.
Stem Bolt Wedge
70
When re-fitting the stem, make sure the handlebars are correctly
aligned and tightened using the appropriate hex wrench or allen key.
Grip
Do not over tighten.
Handlebar
Stem Bolt
Handlebar Stem
Test the security of the handlebar within the stem, and the stem
within the fork steerer tube, by clamping the front wheel between your
knees and trying to move the handlebar up and down, and from side
to side. The handlebar should not move when applying turning pressure.
Stem Bolt Wedge
Handlebars
MTB Handlebar Assembly
Make sure
handlebars and
fork are facing
forward
Note, curved rake of
fork faces forward
The exact positioning of the handlebar is a matter of personal
comfort. For MTB bicycles, the bar should be approximately
horizontal, with the ends pointing back and slightly up. On BMX
bicycles, the handlebar should remain in an approximately upright
position but can be angled back or forward slightly for comfort. On
MTB and racing style bicycles, the handlebar is usually tightened in
the stem by a single allen key bolt or hexagonal bolt. On BMX style
bicycles there may be four clamping bolts.
Please note that if you need to replace the fork on your bicycle at any
time, please consult a qualified bicycle technician.
Never ride unless the handlebar clamping
mechanism has been securely tightened.
71
Grip
7/8” Plastic Washers
Barrel Adjuster
Cable
GRIP SHIFTERS
Grip Shift™ - Installation
1. Slide front Grip Shift™ assembly over left side of handlebar leaving proper clearance for handlebar grip.
If necessary, move the brake lever to accommodate Grip Shift™ and handlebar grip.
2. Rotate assembly until cable exits beneath brake lever with adequate clearance for brake lever movement.
3. Firmly tighten recessed clamp screw. Installation torque should be 20 in.-lbs.
4. Slide the two 7/8” plastic washers over handlebar. The washers prevent the grip from interfering with Grip Shift™ rotation.
5. Slide handlebar grip over handlebar. Thread the cable inner wire through cable housings and frame, and attach to
derailleur. Make sure that the cable is in the V groove at the derailleur attachment bolt. If trimming the cable housing is
necessary, be sure to replace the housing end cap.
6. Adjust indexing.
7. Slide rear Grip Shift™ over right side of handlebar and repeat steps 2 - 6.
8. Actuate front and rear brake levers to be certain of proper operation. If Grip Shift™ interferes with brake lever movement,
rotate brake lever or Grip Shift™. Check for proper brake lever operation again.
72
Cables and Cable Housing
Cables and housing are one of the most overlooked parts on the bicycle. The first indication that
your cables and housing need to be replaced is an
increased amount of pressure needed to operate the
brakes or shifters. Before every ride, check that there
are no kinks or frays in the cables and housing. Also
check that the housing is seated properly into each
cable stop of the bicycle. It is recommended
that the cables and housing are replaced at least
every riding season to prolong the life of your bike.
good cable
Do not ride a bicycle that is not
operating properly.
fray
73
kink
HEADSET
Standard Headset
Inspection
The headset bearing adjustment should be checked every month.
This is important as it is the headset which locks the fork into the
frame, and if loose, can cause damage or result in an accident.
While standing over the frame top tube with both feet on the ground,
apply the front brake firmly and rock the bicycle back and forth; if you
detect any looseness in the headset, it will need adjustment. Check
that the headset is not over tight by slowly rotating the fork to the right
and left. If the fork tends to stick or bind at any point, the bearings
are too tight.
Note: If your bike is equipped with a threadless headset, please see
a qualified specialist for repairs and adjustments.
Lock Nut
Lock Washer
Adjusting Cup/Cone
Ball Retainer
Adjustment
Loosen the headset top locknut or remove it completely along with the
reflector bracket, if fitted. Turn the adjusting cup clockwise until finger
tight. Replace the lock washer or reflector bracket and re-tighten the
lock nut using a suitable wrench.
Note: Do not over tighten or bearing damage will occur.
Always make sure that the headset is properly
adjusted and that the headset locknut is fully
tightened before riding.
Top Head Cup
Bottom Head Cup
Ball Retainer
Crown Race
Warning: Over tightening the stem bolt or headset
assembly may cause damage to the bicycle and/or
injury to the rider.
74
SADDLE AND SEAT POST
Inspection
The seat fixing bolt and the seat post binder bolt should be checked
for tightness and adjustment every month. On removing the seat post
from the frame, you will notice a mark about 65mm up from the
bottom with the words “max. height” or “minimum insertion”.
Seat Fixing Bolt
Micro Adjustable
Seat Post
Seat Post
Binder Bolt
To avoid damage to either the seat post, the frame
or possibly the rider, the minimum insertion mark
must be inside the frame.
Lubrication
Remove the seat post from the frame and wipe off any grease, rust or
dirt. Then apply a thin film of new grease to the part that will be inserted
into the frame. Re-insert, adjust and tighten the seat post in the frame.
Seat Clamp Nut
Standard
Seat Post
75
Adjustment
As mentioned in Part 2, the seat can be adjusted in height, angle and distance from the handlebars to suit the
individual rider.
Saddle angle is a matter of personal preference but the most comfortable position will usually be found when the top
of the seat is almost parallel to the ground, or slightly raised at the front.
The saddle can also be adjusted by sliding it forward or back along the mounting rails to obtain the most
comfortable reach to the handlebars.
When fitting, position the seat post into the clamp under the seat and place it in the frame without
tightening. Adjust it to the desired angle and position, and tighten the clamping mechanism.
There are two types of seat clamps commonly in use. The most common employs a steel clamp with hexagonal
nuts on either side to tighten. The other type, known as a micro-adjustable clamp, uses a single vertically mounted
Allen head fixing bolt to tighten. After fixing the seat to the desired position on the post, adjust the height to the
required level and tighten the binder bolt.
Note that the type of binder bolt may be either a hexagonal bolt, an Allen head bolt or a quick release mechanism.
The operation of a seat post quick release mechanism is the same as for quick release hubs.
Refer to p. 27.
Test the security by grasping the seat and trying to turn it sideways. If it moves, you will need to further tighten the
binder bolt.
Note: Remember that the minimum insertion mark must remain inside the frame assembly.
76
BRAKES
The correct adjustment and operation of your bicycle's brakes is extremely important for safe operation. Brakes should be
checked for effective operation before every ride. Frequent checking of adjustment is necessary as the control cables will
stretch and the brake pads will become worn with use.
Never ride a bicycle unless the brakes are functioning properly.
There are two types of hand operated bicycle brakes in common use: sidepull calipers and cantilever calipers.
Both utilize a handlebar mounted lever which controls a cable to operate the brake. Sidepull brakes are mounted to the
frame or fork via a single pivot point. Cantilever brakes use two brake pivot arms, each mounted on separate pivots on
either side of the frame/fork.
Inspection
Brake Cable
Brake Arm
Straddle Cable
Cantilever Brakes
77
Brake levers should be checked for tightness at least every three
months. They should be set in a comfortable position within easy
reach of the rider's hands, and must not be able to move on the
handlebar. Some brake levers make use of a reach adjustment screw,
which can be altered to the distance between the handlebar grip and
the lever, as required. The brake pads should be checked for correct
positioning and tightness before every ride, and the various bolts and
nuts at least every three months. Squeeze each brake lever to make
sure they operate freely and that the brake pads press hard enough
on the rims to stop the bike. There should be about 1mm - 2mm
clearance between each pad and the rim when the brakes are not
applied. The brake pads must be properly centered for maximum
contact with the rim. Replace the brake pads if they are over worn so
that the grooves or pattern cannot be seen. The brake cable wires
should be checked for kinks, rust, broken strands or frayed ends. The
outer casing should also be checked for kinks, stretched coils and
other damage. If the cables are damaged, they should be replaced.
Some brakes have a quick release mechanism to allow easier wheel removal. Whenever you adjust the brakes,
make sure the quick release mechanism is in the closed position.
Never ride unless the quick release is firmly locked in the closed position.
Lubrication
Cable Adjusting Barrel
The brake lever and brake caliper pivot points should be oiled with
2-3 drops of light oil at least every three months to ensure smooth
operation and to reduce wear. Cables should be greased along
their entire length, after removing them from their casings, at least
every six months. Always grease new cables before fitting.
Lock nut
Brake Lever
Brake Lever Housing
Adjustment - Sidepull Calipers
Cable Adjusting Barrel
Center Bolt
Brake Shoe
Cable
Anchor
Bolt
Fixing Nut
in Back
Side-Pull Brakes
Minor brake adjustment can be made via the cable adjusting barrel, usually located at the upper cable arm. To adjust, squeeze
the brake pads against the rim, loosen the lock nut and turn the
adjuster Brake pad clearance should be a maximum 2mm from
the rim. When correct, re-tighten the lock nut. If the pads cannot
be set close enough to the rim in this manner, you may have to
adjust the cable length. Screw the barrel adjuster 3/4 of the way in,
squeeze the pads against the rim, undo the cable anchor bolt and
pull the cable through with pliers. Re-tighten the cable anchor bolt
and apply full force to the brake lever to test, then fine tune using
the barrel adjuster. If one pad is closer to the rim than the other,
loosen the fixing nut at the back of the brake, apply the brake to
hold it centered, and re-tighten the fixing nut.
Ensure the Brake fixing nut is secured tightly.
Failure to do this may cause the Brake assembly
to dislodge from the fork.
78
Some brakes have a special mechanism which enables you to set the
clearance on either side of the rim using a screwdriver. Brake pads
should finally be adjusted so that the leading edge of the pad makes
first contact with the rim. Some brakes have special curved washers
to allow this, but on less complex models it will be necessary to apply
a little force to the pad and its mounting.
Adjustment - Cantilever Calipers
2mm clearance
Fully Adjustable Brake Shoes
Curved
Adjustment
Washer
Parallel
Curved
Adjustment
Washer
Minor brake adjustment can be made via the barrel cable adjusters
which are located on each brake lever. To adjust, squeeze the brake
pads against the rim, loosen the lock nut, and turn the adjuster to pull
the brake pads closer to, or spread them away from the rim as required.
Brake pad clearance should be a maximum 2mm from the rim.
When correct, re-tighten the lock nut. If the pads cannot be set close
enough to the rim in this manner, you may have to adjust either the
length of the straddle cable or the length of the brake cable.
If the brakes use a separate brake cable and straddle cable, adjust
the straddle length by first screwing the barrel adjuster 3/4 of the way
in, then loosening the straddle cable fixing bolt, then pulling or pushing
the cable through the fixing bolt to adjust the length, and finally
re-tightening the fixing bolt.
Check that the straddle bridge is in the middle of the cable to ensure
even brake pad contact. Apply full force to the brake lever to test,
then fine tune using the barrel adjuster.
To adjust the brake cable length, loosen the brake cable fixing bolt on
the cable straddle bridge, adjust the length until the brake shoes are
the correct distance from the rim, then re-tighten and test.
Parallel
79
Tread
Usable Brake Shoe
Tread Worn Off
Worn Out Brake Shoe (Replace)
On some newer type cantilever brakes, the main brake cable
continues through the central cable carrier to an anchor bolt on one
of the brake arms. A shorter link cable reaches from the carrier and
the hook on the other brake arm. Adjustment of the cable length is
made after loosening the anchor bolt on the brake arm.
Adjust the brake pad position so that it is parallel to the wheel rim
and so that the leading edge makes first contact. To do this, fit an
Allen key into the brake pad holding bolt, loosen the fixing nut and
adjust. Move the brake pad along its mounting post to alter the distance from the rim, and move the curved adjustment washer to alter
the angle of the pad.
On some models there is a spring-force adjustment screw on the
brake arm which allows further fine tuning of the brake shoe position.
Align brake shoe with rim surface
Direction of rim
rotation
Brake Shoe Holding Nut
Bicycles with cantilever brakes must be fitted with safety devices
to prevent a possible accident in the event of the brake control
cable or the straddle bridge becoming loose or breaking while riding. These are usually the reflector brackets, and must be fitted in
the front and rear. The bracket will prevent the straddle cable from
interfering with the wheel should the cable become disconnected
from the control cable. If the reflector brackets are not fitted in this
position, then alternative emergency cable safety stops must still be fitted.
0.5 - 1.0 mm
80
DRIVETRAIN
The drivetrain of a bicycle refers to all parts that transmit power to the
rear wheel including the pedals, chain, chainwheel, crank set, and
freewheel.
PEDALS
Pedals are available in a variety of shapes, sizes and materials, and
each are designed with a particular purpose in mind. Some pedals
can be fitted with toe clips and straps. These help to keep the feet
correctly positioned and allow the rider to exert pulling force, as well
as downward pressure, on the pedals. Use of toe clips with straps
requires practice to acquire the necessary skill to operate them safely.
Inspection
Pedals should be inspected every month, taking note of the
following areas:
- Check correct tightness into the crank arms. If pedals are allowed
to become loose, they will not only be dangerous but will also
cause irreparable damage to the cranks.
- Check that pedal bearings are properly adjusted. Move the pedals
up and down, and right to left, and also rotate them by hand. If
you detect any looseness or roughness in the pedal bearings then
adjustment, lubrication or replacement is required.
- Ensure that the front and rear pedal reflectors are clean and
securely fitted.
- Also ensure that the toe clips, if fitted, are securely tightened
to the pedals.
L = Left
Turn counter-clockwise
to tighten.
R = Right
Turn clockwise
to tighten.
81
Never ride with loose pedals.
Lubrication and Adjustment
Many pedals cannot be disassembled to allow access to the
internal bearings and axle. However, it is usually possible to inject
a little oil onto the inside bearings, and this should be done every
six months. If the pedal is the type that can be fully disassembled,
then the bearings should be removed, cleaned and greased every
six to twelve months. Because of the wide variety of pedal types
and their internal complexity, disassembly procedures are beyond
the scope of this manual and further assistance should be sought
from a specialist.
Never ride in traffic with fully tightened toe straps.
Pedal with toe clip and strap attached
Attachment
Note: The right and left pedals of a bicycle each have a different thread and are not interchangeable.
Never force a pedal into the incorrect crank arm.
The right pedal, which attaches to the chainwheel side, is marked 'R' on the end of the axle, and screws in with a clockwise thread. The left pedal, which attaches to the other crank arm, is marked 'L' on the axle, and screws in with a counter-clockwise thread.
Insert the correct pedal into the crank arm and begin to turn the thread with your fingers only. When the axle is screwed
all the way in, securely tighten using a 15mm wrench.
If removing a pedal, remember that the right pedal axle must be turned counter clockwise, i.e. the reverse of when fitting.
If replacing the original pedals with a new set, make sure the size and the axle thread is compatible with the cranks on
your bicycle. Bicycles use one of two types of cranks and these use different axle threads. Your bike may be equipped
with cranks that are a one piece design with no separate axle. These operate with pedals that have a 1/2"(12.7mm)
thread. Bikes equipped with three piece crank sets with a separate axle, left crank and right crank, use a slightly larger
9/16"(14mm) thread.
Note: Never try and force a pedal with the wrong thread size into a bicycle crank.
82
CRANK SET
The crank set refers to the bottom bracket axle and bearings, the
crank arms, and chainrings.
Your bike may be fitted with either a one piece crank, where the crank
arms and bottom bracket are a single component, or cotterless cranks,
where the crank arms bolt onto the bottom bracket axle without using
old fashioned type cotterpins. The one piece system is simpler and
requires less maintenance, while the cotterless system requires a little
extra care.
Never ride your bike if the cotterless cranks are loose.
This may be dangerous and will damage the crank
arms beyond repair.
Cotterless Crank
Inspection
Fixed Cup
Ball Bearing
Lockring
Axle
Adjusting
Cup
Standard Bottom Bracket Assembly (Cotterless)
83
The crank set should be checked for correct adjustment and tightness
every month. Cotterless crank axle nuts must be kept tight, and the
bottom bracket bearings must be properly adjusted.
Remove the chain and try to move the cranks from side to side with
your hands. The cranks should not move on the axle, and there
should be only very slight movement in the bottom bracket. Next,
spin the cranks. If they don't spin freely without grinding noise, then
adjustment or lubrication will be needed. Also check that there are no
broken teeth on the chainrings, and wipe off excess dirt and grease
that may have built up on them.
Lubrication and Adjustment - One Piece Cranks
To adjust the free play in a one piece type bottom bracket, loosen the locknut on the left side by turning it clockwise
and tighten the adjusting cone counter-clockwise using a screwdriver in the slot. When correctly adjusted, re-tighten
the locknut counter-clockwise.
To disassemble:
1. Remove the chain from the chainwheel.
2. Remove the left pedal by turning the spindle clockwise.
3. Remove the left side locknut by turning it clockwise and remove the keyed lockwasher.
4. Remove the adjusting cone by turning it clockwise with a screwdriver.
5. Remove the left ball retainer, slide the crank assembly out of the frame to the right, and remove the right ball retainer.
Clean and inspect all bearing surfaces and ball retainers, and replace any damaged parts. Pack the ball bearing
retainers with grease, then re-assemble in the reverse of the above procedure.
Bearing Cup
Locknut
Fixed Cone
Lockwasher
Adjusting Cone
Bearing Cup
Ball Retainer
Ball Retainer
Crank
Chainwheel
One Piece Crank Assembly
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Bottom Bracket
Lubrication and Adjustment
- Cotterless Cranks
To adjust the free play in a three piece type bottom bracket, loosen
the lockring on the left side by turning it counter-clockwise, then turn
the adjusting cup as required. Re-tighten the lockring taking care not
to alter the cup adjustment.
Fixed Cup
Cotterless Crank removing tool
Ball Retainer
Adjusting Cup
Bottom Bracket
Shell
Lockring
Axle
Remove the dust cap.
Loosen and remove
the flange nut.
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To disassemble:
1. Remove the cranks from the axle.
2. Remove the left side lockring by turning it counter-clockwise.
3. Remove the adjusting cup by turning it counter-clockwise.
4. Remove the left ball retainer and slide the axle out of the frame to
the left.
5. Remove the right side fixed cup by turning it counter-clockwise and
remove the right ball retainer. Clean and inspect all bearing surfaces
and ball retainers, and replace any damaged parts. Pack the ball
bearing retainers with grease, then re-assemble in reverse of
the above procedure.
Cotterless Crank Removal
To remove cotterless cranks use the following procedure.
Note that a special tool will be required.
1. Remove the dust cap with a coin or screwdriver.
2. Loosen the flange nut or bolt and washer, and remove.
Screw in the removal tool.
Turn the screw bolt
clockwise.
Position the crank on the axle.
Lightly tap the crank
onto the axle.
3. Screw the removing tool into the crank and tighten.
4. Turn the screw bolt down until the crank comes away from
the axle.
Cotterless Crank Replacement:
1. Replace the crank arm onto the axle.
2. Tap the crank arm lightly with a mallet.
3. Refit the washer and tighten flange nut or bolt securely to a
torque of 27Nm.
4. Replace the dust cover
Adjustment After Use:
1. Remove dust cap.
2. Tap the crank arm lightly with a mallet.
3. Re-tighten the flange nuts, and refit the dust caps.
New cotterless cranks may become loose with initial
use. Perform the following task after several hours of
riding, and repeat it two or three times after further
use. Cranks should then remain tight.
Tighten the flange nut.
Replace the dust cap.
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Rear Sprocket
Front Chainwheel
CHAIN
Inspection
The chain must be kept clean, rust free and frequently lubricated in
order to extend its life as long as possible. It will require replacement
if it stretches, breaks, or causes inefficient gear shifting. Make sure
that there are no stiff links, they must all move freely.
Pull up
10 mm
Straightedge
Lubrication
The chain should be lubricated with light oil at least every month, or after use in wet, muddy, or dusty conditions.
Take care to wipe off excess oil, and not to get oil on the tires or rim braking surfaces.
Adjustment and Replacement
On derailleur geared bicycles the rear derailleur automatically tensions the chain.
To adjust the chain on single speed freewheel, coaster hub braked or 3-speed hub geared bicycles:
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1. Loosen the rear axle nuts (and coaster brake arm clip if fitted) and move the wheel forward to loosen, or backward to
tighten, in the frame.
2. When correctly adjusted, the chain should have approximately 10mm of vertical movement when checked in the center
between the chainwheel and rear sprocket. Center the wheel in the frame and re-tighten the axle nuts after any
adjustment. Bicycles which have a single speed freewheel, coaster hub brake or 3-speed hub, generally use a wider
type chain than derailleur geared bicycles. These chains can be disconnected by way of a special U-shape joining link,
that can be pried off of the master link with a screwdriver. To replace, feed the chain around the chainwheel and rear
sprocket, fit the master link into the rollers into each end of the chain, position the master link side plate, and slip on the
U-shaped snap-on plate. Make sure the open end of the U-shaped plate is trailing as the link approaches the
chainwheel when pedaling forward.
Derailleur geared bicycles use narrower chains and require a
special tool to fit and remove chain links, or to change the length.
To remove, fit the rivet tool so that the punch pin is centered over
any one of the chain rivets. Push the rivet almost all the way out,
then back out the punch and remove the tool. Holding the chain
on both sides of the punched rivet, bend it slightly to release
link from the rivet. To install, feed chain around chainwheel, rear
sprocket and derailleur cage with rivet facing away from the bicycle.
Bring the two ends together within the special tool and punch the
rivet into place. Be sure not to push rivet too far through side plate.
Chain Rivet Tool
FREEWHEEL
Inspection
Like the chain, the freewheel must be kept clean and well
lubricated. If the chain has become worn and needs replacing,
then it is likely that the freewheel will also have become worn and
should also be replaced. Take the chain off the freewheel and
rotate it with your hand. If you hear a grinding noise or the
freewheel stops suddenly after spinning it, it may need adjustment
or replacement. Such action is beyond the scope of this manual
and you should consult a specialist.
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Lubrication
Brake Arm Clip
Brake Arm
Sprocket
Remove any accumulated dirt from the freewheel with a brush
and a degreaser. Disassembly of the freewheel is a complicated
procedure requiring special tools, and should be left to a
specialist. Apply oil to the freewheel whenever you lubricate the
chain, taking care to wipe off any excess.
COASTER HUB
Many BMX style and other children's bicycles are fitted with a
coaster hub brake in the rear wheel. This type of brake offers
the advantages of reliability and easy operation. The brake is
operated by applying back pedal pressure and allows the rider
to 'coast' without pedaling, if desired. There are several models
of coaster hubs available, and the internal mechanisms are very
complex. They require infrequent attention as far as lubrication, adjustment or replacement of internal parts; if needed, this
should be left to a specialist.
Keep the coaster hub sprocket clean and oil it along with the chain.
Make sure the brake arm is correctly attached to
the chainstay with the brake arm clip. The brake
will not operate otherwise.
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DERAILLEUR SYSTEMS
The derailleur system includes the front and rear derailleurs, the shift levers, and the derailleur control cables, all of which
must function correctly for smooth gear shifting to occur. There are several different types of derailleur systems but all
operate using similar principles. Your new bicycle may be fitted with a standard 'friction' type system where you will need
to feel each gear shift into position. It may be fitted with an ‘index’ system (e.g. SIS) which links each different gear position
to a positive click mechanism in the shifter, and makes shifting very simple and precise. A further development of SIS is
the fully integrated system (e.g. STI) where the shift lever and brake lever mechanisms form an integrated unit with the
system allowing both gear shifting and braking to occur at the same time.
Inspection
Pre-stretch the derailleur
cables to remove slack
Stretch
The operation of the derailleur system should be checked at
least every month. Check the operation of the rear derailleur
first, then the front. The rear derailleur should shift the chain
cleanly from one cog to the next without hesitation. On SIS
equipped bicycles, each notched position in the shifter must
equate to a new gear position. After shifting, the rear derailleur
should not rub on the chain. The derailleur should never cause
the chain to fall off the inner or outer freewheel cogs.
The front derailleur should also shift the chain cleanly and
without hesitation between each chainring. If your bicycle is
equipped with front SIS, then each click or stop in the shifter
should equate exactly to a new gear position. When the chain
has been positioned onto a new chainring, it should not rub
on the front derailleur. The chain should not fall off a chainring
at any time. Derailleur control cables are a critical component
that must be well maintained for accurate shifting performance.
Check them for any sign of rust, fraying, kinks, broken strands
and any damage to the cable housing. If you find any
problems, the cables may need replacing before you ride.
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Outer side of Top Gear
Freewheel
Pulley Adjustment
Screw
Lubrication
All the pivoting points of the front and rear derailleurs should be
lubricated with light oil at least every month. Be sure to wipe off any
excess oil to prevent attraction of dirt into the mechanisms. The shifting cables should be cleaned and re-coated with a thin layer of grease
every six months, or whenever new cables are being installed.
Adjustment - Rear Derailleur
Adjustment
Screws
SIS Cable Adjuster
Guide Pulley
Tension Pulley
Rear Derailleur Rear View
High Gear
Adjustment Screw
Low Gear
Adjustment Screw
SIS Cable
Adjuster
Rear Derailleur Side View
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The Low limit screw determines how far the rear derailleur will travel toward the
wheel of the bicycle, while the High limit screw determines how far the cage will
travel toward the frame.
1. Shift the rear shifter to the largest number indicated, disconnect the
rear derailleur cable from the cable anchor bolt and place the chain
on the smallest sprocket.
2. Adjust the High limit screw so the chain and the smallest sprocket
are lined up vertically. Remove any slack in the cable by pulling it
taut, then re-connect the cable and tighten the cable anchor bolt securely.
3. Shift up through the gears making sure that each gear is achieved quietly
and without hesitation.
If noise occurs, use the barrel adjuster to fine-tune the cable tension.
Turning the barrel adjuster clockwise will decrease cable tension and
allow the derailleur cage to move farther away from the bicycle in small
increments. Turning counter-clockwise will increase cable tension and
bring the cage closer to the bicycle. This will micro-adjust the positioning
of the derailleur cage in relation to the freewheel. Simply put; turn the
barrel adjuster the direction you want the chain to go.
4. Shift the chain onto the largest sprocket; adjust the low limit screw so the
chain and the largest cog are lined up vertically. If you are unable to get
the chain to the largest cog, turning the Low limit screw counter-clockwise
will enable the chain to move towards the wheel.
5. Shift through the gears ensuring each gear is achieved quietly and without
hesitation.
NOTE: It may take several adjustments to achieve the desired positioning.
Please refer to the troubleshooting section for more assistance.
Low Adjusting Screw
Cable Fixing Bolt
High Adjusting
Screw
Outer Chainguide
Chainguide
clearance of
1-3 mm
Inner Chainguide
Adjustment - Front Derailleur
1. Shift the rear shifter to the smallest number indicated, then shift
the front shifter to the smallest number indicated. Disconnect the
front derailleur cable from the cable anchor bolt and place the
chain on the smallest chainwheel.
2. Make sure the front derailleur cage is parallel with the outer
chainwheel on the crankset. There must be a 1-3mm gap between
the bottom of the derailleur cage and the top of the outer chainwheel
teeth to ensure the derailleur will clear the chainwheel when shifting.
3. Adjust the Low limit screw so the chain is centered in the middle of
derailleur cage. Pull all slack out of the cable by pulling it taut, then
reconnect the cable and tighten the cable anchor bolt securely.
4. Shift the front shifter into the largest gear and pedal the bike so the
chain jumps to the largest chainwheel. If the chain does not shift
onto the largest chainwheel, you will need to turn the High limit
screw counter-clockwise until the chain moves to the largest
chainwheel. If the chain falls into the pedals, the High limit screw has
been turned too far. You will need to readjust the High screw
clockwise in 1/4 turn increments until the chain no longer falls off.
5. Shift through each gear ensuring all are achieved quietly and without
hesitation.
6. The barrel adjuster for the front derailleur is located on the shift
mechanism. Turning clockwise will decrease cable tension and
allow the front derailleur cage to move away from the bike, while
turning counter-clockwise will increase tension and bring the cage
closer to the bike. If you are experiencing problems shifting between
gears, use the barrel adjuster to fine-tune the cable tension.
NOTE: It may take several adjustments to achieve the desired positioning.
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QUICK RELEASE LEVERS
It is important to check the quick release levers before every ride to ensure all connections are made properly
and securely. Periodically, disassemble the mechanism from the bicycle and inspect for any wear or damage
and replace if necessary. When reinstalling, it is very important to ensure the connections are made properly.
Please refer to page 29-30 for the appropriate assembly instructions.
REFLECTORS
Your bicycle is supplied with one front (white), one rear (red), two wheel (white), and two pedal (orange)
reflectors. These are an important safety and legal requirement, and should remain securely fitted and in good,
clean conditions at all times. Periodically, inspect all reflectors, brackets and mounting hardware for signs of
wear or damage. Replace immediately if damage is found. Please see pages 12-13 for more information.
Wear reflective clothing
when riding.
Reflectors
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Reflectors
Attach a light to your
bike if you ride at night.
MISCELLANEOUS ACCESSORIES
Your bicycle might be shipped with accessories that can be added onto you new bicycle. The following will detail how and
where to attach your micilanious accessories.
Basket Assembly
Your bicycle may be supplied with an attachable front
basket. You must make sure that the basket is attached
properly.
First insert the washer onto the 10mm hex head bolt.
Then insert hex head bolt through the basket, and
through the basket bracket assembly (on bike). Next,
insert a second washer onto the bolt and thread a 10mm
nylox nut onto the bolt behind the basket bracket assembly. Tighten bolts until snug. Repeat for second bolt.
See diagram at the right.
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Problem
Possible Cause
Remedy
Gear shifts not working properly
-
Derailleur cables
sticking/stretched/damaged
Front or rear derailleur not adjusted
properly
Indexed shifting not adjusted properly
-
Lubricate/tighten/replace cables
-
Adjust derailleurs
-
Adjust indexing
Excessively worn/chipped chainring
or freewheel sprocket teeth
Chain worn/stretched
Stiff link in chain
Non compatible chain/chainring/
freewheel
-
Replace chainring, sprockets and
chain
Replace chain
Lubricate or replace link
Seek advice at a bicycle shop
Slipping chain
-
Chain jumping off freewheel
sprocket or chainring
-
Chainring out of true
Chainring loose
Chainring teeth bent or broken
Rear or front derailleur side-to-side
travel out of adjustment
-
Re-true if possible, or replace
Tighten mounting bolts
Repair or replace chainring/set
Adjust derailleur travel
Constant clicking noises when
pedaling
-
Stiff chain link
Loose pedal axle/bearings
Loose bottom bracket axle/bearings
Bent bottom bracket or pedal axle
-
-
Loose crankset
-
Lubricate chain / Adjust chain link
Adjust bearings/axle nut
Adjust bottom bracket
Replace bottom bracket axle or
pedals
Tighten crank bolts
-
Pedal bearings too tight
Bottom bracket bearings too tight
Chain fouling derailleurs
Derailleur jockey wheels
dirty/binding
-
Adjust bearings
Adjust bearings
Adjust chain line
Clean and lubricate jockey wheels
Grinding noise when pedaling
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Problem
Possible Cause
Remedy
Freewheel does not rotate
-
Freewheel internal pawl pins are
jammed
- Lubricate. If problem persists,
replace freewheel
Brakes not working effectively
-
- Replace brake blocks
- Clean blocks and rim
-
Brake blocks worn down
Brake blocks/rim greasy, wet or dirty
Brake cables are
binding/stretched/damaged
Brake levers are binding
Brakes out of adjustment
When applying the brakes
they squeal/squeak
-
Brake
Brake
Brake
Brake
-
Knocking or shuddering when
applying brakes
-
Bulge in the rim or rim out of true
-
Brake mounting bolts loose
Brakes out of adjustment
-
Fork loose in head tube
Wobbling wheel
blocks worn down
block toe-in incorrect
blocks/rim dirty or wet
arms loose
- Axle broken
- Wheel out of true
- Hub comes loose
- Headset binding
- Hub bearings collapsed
- QR mechanism loose
- Clean/adjust/replace cables
- Adjust brake levers
- Center brakes
Replace blocks
Correct block toe-in
Clean blocks and rim
Tighten mounting bolts
- True wheel or take to a bike shop
for repair
- Tighten bolts
- Center brakes and/or adjust brake
block toe-in
- Tighten headset
-
Replace axle
True wheel
Adjust hub bearings
Adjust headset
Replace bearings
Adjust QR mechanism
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Problem
Possible Cause
Remedy
Steering not accurate
-
Wheels not aligned in frame
Headset loose or binding
Front forks or frame bent
-
Align wheels correctly
Adjust/tighten headset
Take bike to a bike shop for possible
frame realignment
Frequent punctures
-
Inner tube old or faulty
Tire tread/casing worn
Tire unsuited to rim
Tire not checked after previous
puncture
Tire pressure too low
Spoke protruding into rim
-
Replace Inner tube
Replace tire
Replace with correct tire
Remove sharp object embedded
in tire
Correct tire pressure
File down spoke
-
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-
6. How Things Work
It’s important to your performance, enjoyment and safety to understand how things work on your bicycle. Even if you’re an
experienced bicyclist, don’t assume that the way things work on your new bike is the same as how they work on older bikes.
Be sure to read and to understand this section of the Manual. If you have even the slightest doubt as to whether you understand something, talk to a qualified specialist.
WARNING: Riding with an improperly adjusted wheel quick release can allow the wheel to wobble or disengage from the bicycle, causing damage to the bicycle, and serious injury or death to the rider. Therefore, it is essential that you:
1. Make sure you know how to install and remove your wheels safely.
2. Understand and apply the correct technique for clamping your wheel in place with a quick release.
3. Each time, before you ride the bike, check that the wheel is securely clamped.
Invented in the 1930s to allow quick, easy wheel removal without the need for tools, the bicycle wheel quick release has
become standard equipment on most recreational, sports and competition bicycles. While it looks like a long bolt with a lever
on one end and a nut on the other, the wheel quick release uses a cam action to clamp the bike’s wheel in place. Because of
its adjustable nature, it is critical that you understand how it works and how to use it properly.
CAUTION: The full force of the cam action is needed to clamp the wheel securely. Holding the nut with one hand and turning
the lever like a wing nut with the other hand until everything is as tight as you can get it will not clamp the wheel safely in the
dropouts.
1. Adjusting the quick release mechanism
PART 6 - HOW THINGS WORK
A. Wheel Quick Release
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The wheel hub is clamped in place by the force of the quick release cam pushing against one dropout and pulling the tension adjusting nut, by way of the skewer, against the other dropout. The amount of clamping force is controlled by the tension
adjusting nut. Turning the tension adjusting nut clockwise while keeping the cam lever from rotating increases clamping force;
turning it counterclockwise while keeping the cam lever from rotating reduces clamping force. Less than half a turn of the tension adjusting nut can make the difference between safe clamping force and unsafe clamping force.
NOTE: Once the quick release is installed in the hub axle by the manufacturer or the dealer, it never needs to be removed
unless the hub itself requires servicing. If the hub requires servicing, consult a qualified specialist.
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2. Front Wheel Secondary Retention Devices
Many bicycles have front forks which utilizes a secondary wheel retention device to keep the wheel from disengaging if the
quick release is incorrectly adjusted. Secondary retention devices are not a substitute for correct quick release adjustment.
Secondary retention devices fall into two basic categories:
a) The clip-on type is an accessory part which the manufacturer adds to the front wheel hub or front fork.
b) The integral type is molded, cast or machined into the outer faces of the front fork dropouts.
Ask your dealer to explain the particular secondary retention device on your bike.
WARNING: Removing or disabling the secondary retention device is extremely dangerous and may lead to serious injury or
death. It also may void the warranty.
3. Removing or Installing Quick Release Wheels
a) Removing a Quick Release Front Wheel
(1) Open up the brake shoes.
(2) Rotate the wheel’s quick-release lever from the locked or CLOSED position to the OPEN position.
(3) If your front fork does not have a secondary retention device go to step 5.
(4) If your front fork has a clip-on type secondary retention device, disengage it and go to step (5). If your
front fork has an integral secondary retention device, loosen the tension adjusting enough to allow removing
the wheel; then go to step (5).
(5) Raise the front wheel a few inches off the ground and tap the top of the wheel with the palm of your
hand to knock the wheel out of the front fork.
b) Installing a Quick Release Front Wheel
(1) Rotate the quick-release lever so that it curves away from the wheel. This is the OPEN position.
(2) With the steering fork facing forward, insert the wheel between the fork blades so that the axle seats
firmly at the top of the slots which are at the tips of the fork blades — the fork drop-outs. The quick-release
lever should be on the left side of the bicycle. If your bike has a clip-on type secondary retention device,
engage it.
(3) Holding the quick-release lever in the OPEN position with your right hand, tighten the tension adjusting
nut with your left hand until it is finger tight against the fork dropout.
(4) While pushing the wheel firmly to the top of the slots in the fork dropouts, and at the same time centering
the wheel rim in the fork, rotate the quick-release lever upwards and push it into the CLOSED position (see
pages 29-30). The lever should be parallel to the fork blade and curved toward the wheel.
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CAUTION: If you can fully close the quick release without wrapping your fingers around the fork blade for
leverage, and the lever does not leave a clear imprint in the palm of your hand, the tension is insufficient.
Open the lever; turn the tension adjusting nut clockwise a quarter turn; then try again.
(5) If the lever cannot be pushed all the way to a position parallel to the fork blade, return the lever to the
OPEN position. Then turn the tension adjusting nut counterclockwise one-quarter turn and try tightening
the lever again.
(6) Close the brake shoes; then spin the wheel to make sure that it is centered in the frame and clears
the brake shoes.
WARNING: Secondary retention devices are not a substitute for correct quick release adjustment. Failure
to properly adjust the quick release mechanism can cause the wheel to wobble or disengage, which could
cause you to lose control and fall, resulting in serious injury or death.
c. Removing a Quick Release Rear Wheel
(1) Shift the rear derailleur to high gear (the smallest, outermost rear sprocket).
(2) Open up the brake shoes.
(3) Pull the derailleur body back with your right hand.
(4) Rotate the quick-release lever to the OPEN position.
(5) Lift the rear wheel off the ground a few inches and, with the derailleur still pulled back, push the wheel
forward and down until it comes out of the rear dropouts.
d. Installing a Quick Release Rear Wheel
(1) Shift the rear derailleur to its outermost position
(2) Pull the derailleur body back with your right hand.
(3) Rotate the quick-release lever to the OPEN position. The lever should be on the side of the wheel
opposite the derailleur and freewheel sprockets.
(4) Put the chain on top of the smallest free wheel sprocket. Then, insert the wheel into the frame
dropouts and pull it all the way in to the dropouts.
(5) Tighten the adjusting nut until it is finger tight against the frame dropout; then rotate the lever toward
the front of the bike until it is parallel to the frame’s chainstay or seatstay and is curved toward the wheel.
CAUTION: If you can fully close the quick release without wrapping your fingers around the fork blade for
leverage, and the lever does not leave a clear imprint in the palm of your hand, the tension is insufficient.
Open the lever; turn the tension adjusting nut clockwise a quarter turn; then try again.
(6) If the lever cannot be pushed all the way to a position parallel to the chainstay or seatstay tube, return
the lever to the OPEN position. Then turn the adjusting nut counterclockwise one-quarter turn and try
tightening again.
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(7) Push the rear derailleur back into position.
(8) Close the brake shoes; then spin the wheel to make sure that it is centered in the frame and clears the
brake shoes.
4. Removing and Installing Bolt-On Wheels
a. Removing a Bolt-On Front Wheel
(1) Open up the brake shoes.
(2) With a 15mm box wrench or a six inch adjustable wrench, loosen the two axle nuts.
(3) If your front fork has a clip-on type secondary retention device, disengage it and go to step (4). If your
front fork has an integral seondary retention device, loosen the axle nuts about six full turns; then go to
step (4).
(4) Raise the front wheel a few inches off the ground and tap the top of the wheel with the palm of your
hand to knock the wheel out of the fork ends.
b. Installing a Bolt-On Front Wheel
(1) With the steering fork facing forward, insert the wheel between the fork blades so that the axle seats
firmly at the top of the slots which are at the tips of the fork blades. The axle nut washers should be on the
outside, between the fork blade and the axle nut. If your bike has a clip-on type secondary retention
device, engage it.
(2) While pushing the wheel firmly to the top of the slots in the fork dropouts, and at the same time center
ing the wheel rim in the fork, use a six-inch adjustable wrench or a 15mm box wrench to tighten the axle
nuts as tight as you can.
(3) Close the brake shoes; then spin the wheel to make sure that it is centered in the frame and clears the
brake shoes.
c. Removing a Bolt-On Rear Wheel
(1) Open the rear brake shoes.
(2) Shift the rear derailleur to high gear (the smallest rear sprocket) and pull the derailleur body back with
your right hand
(3) With a 15mm box wrench or a six-inch adjustable wrench, loosen the two axle nuts.
(4) Lift the rear wheel off the ground a few inches and, with the derailleur still pulled back, push the wheel
forward and down until it comes out of the rear dropouts.
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d. Installing a Bolt-On Rear Wheel
(1) Shift the rear derailleur to its outermost position and pull the derailleur body back with your right hand.
(2) Put the chain on to the smallest sprocket. Then, insert the wheel into the frame dropouts and pull it all
the way in to the dropouts. The axle nut washers should be on the outside, between the frame and the axle
nut.
(3) Tighten the axle nuts as tightly as you can, using a six-inch adjustable wrench or a 15mm box wrench.
(4) Push the rear derailleur back into position.
(5) Close the brake; then spin the wheel to make sure that it is centered in the frame and clears the brake
shoes.
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B. Seatpost Quick Release
Many mountain bikes are equipped with quick-release seat post skewers. The seatpost quick-release skewer works exactly like
the wheel quick-release. While a quick release looks like a long bolt with a lever on one end and a nut on the other, the quick
release uses a cam action to firmly clamp the seat post.
WARNING: Riding with an improperly tightened seat post can allow the saddle to turn or move and cause you to lose control
and fall. Therefore:
1. Make sure you know how to correctly clamp your seat post.
2. Understand and apply the correct technique for clamping your seat post quick release.
3. Before you ride the bike, first check that the seatpost is securely clamped.
Adjusting the quick release mechanism
The action of the quick release cam squeezes the seat collar around the seat post to hold the seat post securely in place. The
amount of clamping force is controlled by the tension adjusting nut. Turning the tension adjusting nut clockwise while keeping
the cam lever from rotating increases clamping force; turning it counterclockwise while keeping the cam lever from rotating
reduces clamping force. Less than half a turn of the tension adjusting nut can make the difference between safe clamping force
and unsafe clamping force.
CAUTION: The full force of the cam action is needed to clamp the seatpost securely. Holding the nut with one hand and turning
the lever like a wing nut with the other hand until everything is as tight as you can get it will not clamp the seatpost safely.
CAUTION: If you can fully close the quick release and the lever does not leave a clear imprint in the palm of your hand, the
tension is insufficient. Open the lever; turn the tension adjusting nut clockwise a quarter turn; then try again.
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C. Brakes
NOTE: For most effective braking, use both brakes and apply them simultaneously.
WARNING: Sudden or excessive application of the front brake may pitch the rider over the handlebars, causing serious
injury or death.
1. How brakes work
It’s important to your safety that you instinctively know which brake lever controls which brake on your bike. In the U.S., bikes
are required to be set up with the right brake lever controlling the rear brake, and the left lever controlling the front brake.
The braking action of a bicycle is a function of the friction between the brake surfaces -- usually the brake shoes and the
wheel rim. To make sure that you have maximum friction available, keep your wheel rims and brake shoes clean and free of
lubricants, waxes or polishes.
Make sure that your hands can reach and squeeze the brake levers comfortably. If your hands are too small to operate the
levers comfortably, consult your dealer before riding the bike. The lever reach may be adjustable; or you may need a different brake lever design.
Most brakes have some form of quick release mechanism to allow the brake shoes to clear the tire when a wheel is removed
or reinstalled. When the brake quick release is in the open position, the brakes are inoperative. Make sure that you understand the way the brake quick release works on your bike and check each time to make sure both brakes work correctly
before you get on the bike.
Brakes are designed to control your speed, not just to stop the bike. Maximum braking force for each wheel occurs at the
point just before the wheel “locks up” (stops rotating) and starts to skid. Once the tire skids, you actually lose most of your
stopping force and all directional control. You need to practice slowing and stopping smoothly without locking up a wheel.
The technique is called progressive brake modulation. Instead of jerking the brake lever to the position where you think you’ll
generate appropriate braking force, squeeze the lever, progressively increasing the braking force. If you feel the wheel begin
to lock up, release pressure just a little to keep the wheel rotating just short of lockup. It’s important to develop a feel for the
amount of brake lever pressure required for each wheel at different speeds and on different surfaces. To better understand
this, experiment a little by walking your bike and applying different amounts of pressure to each brake lever, until the wheel
locks.
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WARNING: Some bicycle brakes, such as linear-pull and disc brakes, are extremely powerful. You should take extra care in
becoming familiar with these brakes and exercise particular care when using them. Applying these brakes too hard or too suddenly can lock up a wheel, which could cause you to lose control and fall.
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When you apply one or both brakes, the bike begins to slow, but your body wants to continue at the speed at which it was
going. This causes a transfer of weight to the front wheel (or, under heavy braking, around the front wheel hub, which could
send you flying over the handlebars). A wheel with more weight on it will accept greater brake pressure before lockup; a wheel
with less weight will lock up with less brake pressure. So, as you apply brakes and your weight shifts forward, you need to shift
your body toward the rear of the bike, to transfer weight back on to the rear wheel; and at the same time, you need to both
decrease rear braking and increase front braking force. This is even more important on steep descents, because descents shift
weight forward. The keys to effective speed control and safe stopping are controlling wheel lockup and weight transfer. Practice braking and weight transfer techniques where there is no traffic or other hazards and distractions.
Everything changes when you ride on loose surfaces or in wet weather. Tire adhesion is reduced, so the wheels have less
cornering and braking traction and can lock up with less brake force. Moisture or dirt on the brake shoes reduces their ability to
grip. The way to maintain control on loose or wet surfaces is to go more slowly to begin with.
2. Adjusting your brakes
If either brake lever on your bike fails the Mechanical Safety Check you can restore brake lever travel by turning the brake
cable adjusting barrel counterclockwise, then lock the adjustment in by turning the barrel’s lock nut clockwise as far as it will
go. If the lever still fails the Mechanical Safety Check, or you have any question about whether your brakes are working properly have your dealer check the brakes.
D. Shifting
Your multi-speed bicycle will have a derailleur drivetrain, an internal gear hub drivetrain or, in some special cases, a combination of the two.
1. Why all those gears?
You will get the greatest fitness benefit, produce the greatest sustained power and have the greatest endurance if you learn to
spin the pedals at high revolutions per minute (called cadence) against low resistance. You will get the least fitness benefit and
have the least endurance by pushing hard on the pedals against heavy resistance.
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The purpose of having multiple gears on a bicycle is to let you chose the gear that allows you to maintain your optimum
cadence under the widest range of riding conditions. Depending on your fitness level and experience (the more fit, the higher
the cadence), optimum cadence is between 60 and 90 pedal revolutions per minute.
2. Shifting a derailleur drivetrain
If your bicycle has a derailleur drivetrain, the gear-changing mechanism will consist of:
• a rear sprocket cluster, called a freewheel or freewheel cassette
• a rear derailleur
• usually a front derailleur
• one or two shifters
• one or two control cables
• one, two or three front sprockets called chainrings
• a drive chain
The number of possible gear combinations (“speeds”) is the product of multiplying the number of sprockets at the rear of the
drivetrain by the number of sprockets at the front (6 x 2 = 12, 6 x 3 = 18, 7 x 3 = 21 and so on).
a. Shifting Gears
There are many different types of shifter mechanisms, each preferred for specific types of application
because of its ergonomic, performance and price characteristics. The designers of your bike have selected
the shifter design which they believe will give the best results on your bike.
The vocabulary of shifting can be pretty confusing. A downshift is a shift to a “slower” gear, one which is
easier to pedal. An upshift is a shift to a “faster”, harder to pedal gear. What’s confusing is that what’s hap
pening at the front derailleur is the opposite of what’s happening at the rear derailleur (for details, read the
instructions on Shifting the Rear Derailleur and Shifting the Front Derailleur below). For example, you can
select a gear which will make pedaling easier on a hill (make a downshift) in one of two ways: shift the
chain down the gear “steps” to a smaller gear at the front, or up the gear “steps” to a larger gear at the
rear. So, at the rear gear cluster, what is called a downshift looks like an upshift. The way to keep things
straight is to remember that shifting the chain in towards the centerline of the bike is for accelerating and
climbing and is called a downshift. Moving the chain out or away from the centerline of the bike is for
speed and is called an upshift.
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Whether upshifting or downshifting, the bicycle derailleur system design requires that the drive chain be
moving forward and be under at least some tension. A derailleur will shift only if you are pedaling forward.
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1) Shifting the Rear Derailleur
The rear derailleur is controlled by the right shifter. The function of the rear derailleur is to move the drive chain from one gear
to another on the rear gear cluster, thereby changing gear drive ratios. The smaller sprockets on the gear cluster produce
higher gear ratios. Pedaling in the higher gears requires greater pedaling effort, but takes you a greater distance with each
revolution of the pedal cranks. The larger sprockets produce lower gear ratios. Using them requires less pedaling effort, but
takes you a shorter distance with each pedal crank revolution. Moving the chain from a smaller sprocket of the gear cluster to
a larger sprocket results in a downshift. Moving the chain from a larger sprocket to a smaller sprocket results in an upshift. In
order for the derailleur to disengage the chain from one sprocket and move it on to another, the chain must be moving forward
(i.e. the rider must be pedaling forward).
2) Shifting the Front Derailleur:
The front derailleur, which is controlled by the left shifter, shifts the chain between the larger and smaller chainrings. Shifting
the chain onto a smaller chainring makes pedaling easier (a downshift). Shifting to a larger chainring makes pedaling harder
(an upshift).
b) Which gear should I be in?
The combination of largest rear, smallest front gears is for the steepest hills. The smallest rear, largest front
combination is for the greatest speed. It is not necessary to shift gears in sequence. Instead, find the “starting gear” which is right for your level of ability -- a gear which is hard enough for quick acceleration but easy
enough to let you start from a stop without wobbling — and experiment with upshifting and downshifting to
get a feel for the different gear combinations. At first, practice shifting where there are no obstacles, hazards
or other traffic, until you’ve built up your confidence. Once you’ve learned the basics, experience will teach
you which gear is appropriate for which condition, and practice will help you shift smoothly and at precisely
the optimum moment.
3. Shifting an internal gear hub drivetrain
If your bicycle has an internal gear hub drivetrain, the gear changing mechanism will consist of:
• a 3, 5, 7 or possibly 12 speed internal gear hub
• one, or sometimes two, shifters
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• one or two control cables
• one front sprockets called chainrings
• a drive chain
a) Shifting internal gear hub gears
Shifting with an internal gear hub drivetrain is simply a matter of moving the shifter to the indicated position for the
desired gear. After you have moved the shifter to the gear position of your choice, ease the pressure on the pedals
for an instant to allow the hub to complete the shift.
b) Which gear should I be in?
The numerically lowest gear (1) is for the steepest hills. The numerically largest gear (3, 5, 7 or 12, depending on
the number of speeds of your hub) is for the greatest speed. Shifting from an easier, “slower” gear (like 1) to a hard
er, “faster” gear (like 2 or 3) is called an upshift. Shifting from a harder, “faster” gear to an easier, “slower” gear is
called a downshift. It is not necessary to shift gears in sequence. Instead, find the “starting gear” for the conditions - a gear which is hard enough for quick acceleration but easy enough to let you start from a stop without wobbling -and experiment with upshifting and downshifting to get a feel for the different gears. At first, practice shifting where
there are no obstacles, hazards or other traffic, until you’ve built up your confidence. Once you’ve learned the
basics, experience will teach you which gear is appropriate for which condition, and practice will help you shift
smoothly and at precisely the optimum moment.
E. Toeclips & Straps
Toeclips and straps are the traditional means which experienced cyclists use to keep their feet correctly positioned and
engaged with the pedals. The toeclip positions the ball of the foot over the pedal spindle, which gives maximum pedaling
power. The toe strap, when tightened, keeps the foot engaged throughout the rotation cycle of the pedal. While toeclips and
straps give some benefit with any kind of shoe, they work most effectively with cycling shoes designed for use with toeclips.
Your dealer can explain how toeclips and straps work.
WARNING: Getting into and out of pedals with toeclips and straps requires skill which can only be acquired with practice.
Until it becomes a reflex action, the technique requires concentration which can distract the rider’s attention, causing you to
lose control and fall. Practice the use of toeclips and straps where there are no obstacles, hazards or traffic. Keep the straps
loose, and don’t tighten them until your technique and confidence in getting in and out of the pedals warrants it. Never ride in
traffic with your toe straps tight.
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F. Clipless (“step-in”) pedals
Clipless pedals (sometimes called “step-in pedals”) are the means most racers use to keep their feet securely in the correct
position for maximum pedaling efficiency. They work like ski bindings ... a plate on the sole of the shoe clicks into a springloaded fixture on the pedal. Clipless pedals require shoes specifically designed for the make and model pedal being used.
Many clipless pedals are designed to allow the rider to adjust the amount of force needed to engage or dis-engage the foot.
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WARNING: Clipless pedals are intended for use with shoes specifically made to fit them and are designed to firmly keep the
foot engaged with the pedal. Practice is required to learn to engage and disengage the foot safely. Until engaging and disengaging the foot becomes a reflex action, the technique requires concentration which can distract the rider’s attention, causing
the rider to lose control and fall. Practice engaging and disengaging clipless pedals in a place where there are no obstacles,
hazards or traffic; and be sure that you follow the setup and service instructions and warnings which came with your pedals.
G. Tires and Tubes
1. Tires
Bicycle tires are available in many designs and specifications, ranging from general-purpose designs to tires designed to
perform best under very specific weather or terrain conditions. Your bicycle has been equipped with tires which the bike’s
manufacturer felt were the best balance of performance and value for the use for which the bike was intended. If, once you’ve
gained experience with your new bike, you feel that a different tire might better suit your riding needs, your dealer can help
you select the most appropriate design.
The size, pressure rating, and on some high-performance tires the specific recommended use, are marked on the sidewall of
the tire. The part of this information which is most important to you is Tire Pressure.
WARNING: Never inflate a tire beyond the maximum pressure marked on the tire’s sidewall. Exceeding the recommended
maximum pressure may blow the tire off the rim, which could cause damage to the bike and injury to the rider and bystanders.
The best way to inflate a bicycle tire to the correct pressure is with a bicycle pump.
CAUTION: Gas station air hoses move a large volume of air very rapidly, and will raise the pressure in your tire very rapidly.
To avoid overinflation when using a gas station air hose, put air into your tire in short, spaced bursts.
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Tire pressure is given either as maximum pressure or as a pressure range. How a tire performs under different terrain or
weather conditions depends largely on tire pressure. Inflating the tire to near its maximum recommended pressure gives the
lowest rolling resistance; but also produces the harshest ride. High pressures work best on smooth, dry pavement. Very low
pressures, at the bottom of the recommended pressure range, give the best performance on smooth, slick terrain such as
hard-packed clay, and on deep, loose surfaces such as deep, dry sand. Tire pressure that is too low for your weight and the
riding conditions can cause a puncture of the tube by allowing the tire to deform sufficiently to pinch the inner tube between
the rim and the riding surface.
CAUTION: Pencil type automotive tire gauges and gas station air hose pressure settings can be inaccurate and should not
be relied upon for consistent, accurate pressure readings. Instead, use a high quality dial gauge.
Check inflation as described in you’ll know how correctly inflated tires should look and feel. Some tires may need to be
brought up to pressure every week or two.
Some special high-performance tires have unidirectional treads: their tread pattern is designed to work better in one direction
than in the other. The sidewall marking of a unidirectional tire will have an arrow showing the correct rotation direction. If your
bike has unidirectional tires, be sure that they are mounted to rotate in the correct direction.
2. Tire Valves
The tire valve allows air to enter the tire’s inner tube under pressure, but doesn’t let it back out unless you want it to. There
are primarily two kinds of bicycle tube valves (actually, there are other designs, but they are seldom seen in the US any
more): The Schraeder Valve and the Presta Valve. The bicycle pump you use must have the fitting appropriate to the valve
stems on your bicycle.
The Schraeder is like the valve on a car tire. To inflate a Schraeder valve tube, remove the valve cap and push the air hose
or pump fitting onto the end of the valve stem. To let air out of a Schraeder valve, depress the pin in the end of the valve
stem with the end of a key or other appropriate object.
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The Presta valve has a narrower diameter and is only found on bicycle tires. To inflate a Presta valve tube using a Presta
headed bicycle pump, remove the valve cap; unscrew (counterclockwise) the valve stem lock nut; and push down on the valve
stem to free it up. Then push the pump head on to the valve head, and inflate. To inflate a Presta valve with a gas station air
hose, you’ll need a Presta adapter (available at your bike shop) which screws on to the valve stem once you’ve freed up the
valve. The adapter fits the end of the air hose fitting. Close the valve after inflation. To let air out of a Presta valve, open up the
valve stem lock nut and depress the valve stem.
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H. Bicycle Suspension
Some Mountain Bikes come equipped with suspension systems which are designed to smooth out some of the shocks encountered in off-road riding. There are many different types of suspension systems — too many to deal with individually in this
Manual. If your bicycle has a suspension system of any kind, consult a qualified specialist to provide you with the appropriate
adjustment and maintenance instructions.
WARNING: Failure to maintain, check and properly adjust the suspension system may result in suspension malfunction, which
may cause you to lose control and fall.
CAUTION: Changing suspension adjustment can change the handling and braking characteristics of your bicycle. Never
change suspension adjustment unless you are thoroughly familiar with the suspension system manufacturer’s instructions and
recommendations, and always check for changes in the handling and braking characteristics of the bicycle after a suspension
adjustment by taking a careful test ride in a hazard-free area.
CAUTION: Not all bicycles can be safely retrofitted with some types of suspension systems. Before retrofitting a bicycle with
any suspension, check with the bicycle’s manufacturer to make sure that what you want to do is compatible with the bicycle’s
design.
WARNING: If your bike has suspension, the increased speed you may develop also increases your risk. When braking, the
front of a suspended bike dips. You could lose control and fall if your skill is not up to handling this system. Get to know how to
handle your suspension system safely before trying any downhill or very fast mountain biking.
Suspension can increase the handling capabilities and comfort of your bicycle. This enhanced capability may
allow you to ride faster; but you must not confuse the enhanced capabilities of the bicycle with your own
capabilities as a rider. Increasing your skill will take time and practice. Proceed carefully until you are sure
you are competent to handle the full capabilities of your bike. Never ride at a speed or on terrain which is
not suitable for your personal riding skill and experience. Always proceed cautiously in areas where you are
not familiar with the terrain. If you exceed your limitations, serious injury or death could occur.
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Purchase Record Card
Fill in Immediately and retain as a record of your purchase.
PART 7 - PURCHASE RECORD
*Please retain your sales receipt for any possible warranty claims.
Your Name: ______
Address: _____________________________________________________
Date Purchased: _______________ Place of Purchase: _____________
Model & Brand Information: _____________________________________
Wheel Size: ____________________
Color: _________________________
####
Serial Number: __________________
Serial Number Location
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LIMITED WARRANTY
AND POLICY ON REPLACEMENT PROCEDURES AND RESPONSIBILITIES
Your purchase includes the following warranty which is in lieu of all other express warranties. This warranty is extended only to the initial consumer purchaser. No
warranty registration is required. This warranty gives you specific legal rights and you may have other rights which vary from state to state.
FRAME
Steel frames are guaranteed against faulty materials and workmanship for as long as the initial consumer purchaser has the bicycle, subject to the condition of the warranty listed
below. Aluminum and dual suspension frames are guaranteed against manufacturing defects for a period of 5 years. If frame failure should occur due to faulty materials or workmanship during the guarantee period, the frame will be replaced. For frame replacement under this Pacific Limited Warranty, contact us, stating the nature of the failure, model number,
date received and the name of the store from which the bike was received, at the address given on this page. Frame must be returned for inspection at customer's expense. Please
note: the fork is not part of the frame. A lifetime warranty on your frame does not guarantee that the product will last forever. The length of the useful life cycle will vary depending on
the type of bike, riding conditions and care the bicycle receives. Competition, jumping, downhill racing, trick riding, trial riding, riding in severe conditions or climates, riding with heavy
loads or any other non-standard use can substantially shorten the useful product life cycle. Any one or a combination of these conditions may result in an unpredictable failure that
is not covered by this warranty. All bicycles and frame sets should be periodically checked by an authorized dealer for indications of potential problems, inappropriate use or abuse.
These are important safety checks and are very important to help prevent accidents, bodily injury to the rider and shortened useful product life cycle.
PARTS
All other parts of the unit except Normal Wear Parts are warranted against defective materials and workmanship for a period of 1 year from the date of purchase by the initial consumer
purchaser, subject to the Terms and Conditions of the warranty listed below. If failure of any part should occur due to faulty materials or workmanship during the warranty period, the
part will be replaced. All warranty claims must be submitted to the address below and must be shipped prepaid and accompanied by proof of purchase. Any other warranty claims
not included in this statement are void. This especially includes installation, assembly, and disassembly costs. This warranty does not cover paint damage, rust, or any modifications
made to the bicycle. Normal Wear Parts are defined as grips, tires, tubes, cables, brake shoes and saddle covering. These parts are warranted to be free from defects in material
and workmanship as delivered with the product. Any claim for repair or replacement of Normal Wear Parts (grips, tubes, tires, cables, brake shoes and saddle covering) and missing
parts must be made within thirty (30) days of the date of purchase. The warranty does not cover normal wear and tear, improper assembly or maintenance, or installation of parts or
accessories not originally intended or compatible with the bicycle as sold. The warranty does not apply to damage or failure due to accident, abuse, misuse, neglect, or theft. Claims
involving these issues will not be honored.
CONDITIONS OF WARRANTY
1. Your bicycle has been designed for general transportation and recreational use, but has not been designed to withstand abuse associated with stunting and jumping.
This warranty ceases when you rent, sell, or give away the bicycle, ride with more than one person, or use the bicycle for stunting or jumping.
2. This warranty does not cover ordinary wear and tear or anything you break accidentally or deliberately.
3. It is the responsibility of the individual consumer purchaser to assure that all parts included in the factory-sealed carton are properly installed, all functional parts are
initially adjusted properly, and subsequent normal maintenance services and adjustments necessary to keep the bicycle in good operating condition are properly made.
This warranty does not apply to damage due to improper installation of parts or failure to properly maintain or adjust the bicycle. NOTICE: Bicycle specifications
subject to change without notice.
PACIFIC CYCLE INC
4902 Hammersley Road
Madison, WI 53711
Call Toll Free 1.800.626.2811
Monday -Friday 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Central Time
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