161 S THERMAL ARC ® Inverter Arc Welder Art#:A-09901 Operating Manual Revision: AA Issue Date: January 30, 2011 Operating Features: Manual No.: 0-5183 50Hz 60 WE APPRECIATE YOUR BUSINESS! Congratulations on your new Thermal Arc product. We are proud to have you as our customer and will strive to provide you with the best service and reliability in the industry. This product is backed by our extensive warranty and world-wide service network. To locate your nearest distributor or service agency call +44 (0) 1257 261 755, or visit us on the web at www.Thermalarc. com. This Operating Manual has been designed to instruct you on the correct use and operation of your Thermal Arc product. Your satisfaction with this product and its safe operation is our ultimate concern. Therefore please take the time to read the entire manual, especially the Safety Precautions. They will help you to avoid potential hazards that may exist when working with this product. YOU ARE IN GOOD COMPANY! The Brand of Choice for Contractors and Fabricators Worldwide. Thermal Arc is a Global Brand of Arc Welding Products for Thermadyne Industries Inc. We manufacture and supply to major welding industry sectors worldwide including; Manufacturing, Construction, Mining, Automotive, Aerospace, Engineering, Rural and DIY/Hobbyist. We distinguish ourselves from our competition through marketleading, dependable products that have stood the test of time. We pride ourselves on technical innovation, competitive prices, excellent delivery, superior customer service and technical support, together with excellence in sales and marketing expertise. Above all, we are committed to develop technologically advanced products to achieve a safer working environment within the welding industry. ! WARNINGS Read and understand this entire Manual and your employer’s safety practices before installing, operating, or servicing the equipment. While the information contained in this Manual represents the Manufacturer’s best judgment, the Manufacturer assumes no liability for its use. Operating Manual Number 0-5183 for: Thermal Arc 161 S Power Source Arc Welder Thermal Arc 161 S System with Stick Kit & Case Part No. W1003604 Part No. W1003605 Published by: Thermadyne Europe Europa Building Chorley Industrial Park Chorley, Lancaster, England, PR6 7BX www.thermalarc.com Copyright © 2010 by Thermadyne Industries Inc. ® All rights reserved. Reproduction of this work, in whole or in part, without written permission of the publisher is prohibited. The publisher does not assume and hereby disclaims any liability to any party for any loss or damage caused by any error or omission in this Manual, whether such error results from negligence, accident, or any other cause. Publication Date: January 30, 2011 Record the following information for Warranty purposes: Where Purchased: _____________________________________ Purchase Date: _____________________________________ Equipment Serial #: _____________________________________ i TABLE OF CONTENTS SECTION 1:SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS AND WARNINGS................................................. 1-1 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 Arc Welding Hazards........................................................................................ 1-1 General Safety Information for Victor CS Regulator........................................... 1-4 Principal Safety Standards..................................................................................... Symbol Chart................................................................................................... 1-6 Declaration Of Conformity............................................................................... 1-7 SECTION 2:INTRODUCTION................................................................................ 2-1 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 How to Use This Manual.................................................................................. 2-1 Equipment Identification.................................................................................. 2-1 Receipt of Equipment....................................................................................... 2-1 Description...................................................................................................... 2-1 Transportation Methods................................................................................... 2-1 Duty Cycle........................................................................................................ 2-1 Specifications.................................................................................................. 2-2 SECTION 3:INSTALLATION................................................................................. 3-1 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 3.07 Environment.................................................................................................... 3-1 Location........................................................................................................... 3-1 Electrical Input Connections............................................................................ 3-1 Electromagnetic Compatibility......................................................................... 3-3 Setup for Welding............................................................................................ 3-4 STICK (MMA) Setup........................................................................................ 3-5 LIFT TIG (GTAW) Setup................................................................................... 3-6 TABLE OF CONTENTS SECTION 4:OPERATION..................................................................................... 4-1 4.01 4.02 4.03 4.04 4.05 4.06 4.07 4.08 4.09 4.10 4.11 4.12 4.13 4.14 4.15 4.16 4.17 4.18 4.19 4.20 4.21 4.22 Front Panel...................................................................................................... 4-1 Welding Current Control Explanation............................................................... 4-2 STICK (MMA) Electrode Polarity...................................................................... 4-2 Effects of Stick Welding Various Materials....................................................... 4-3 GTAW Electrode Polarity.................................................................................. 4-4 Guide for Selecting Filler Wire......................................................................... 4-4 Tungsten Electrode Current Ranges................................................................. 4-4 Shielding Gas Selection................................................................................... 4-4 Tungsten Electrode Types................................................................................ 4-4 TIG Welding Parameters for Steel.................................................................... 4-5 Arc Welding Practice........................................................................................ 4-5 Welding Position.............................................................................................. 4-6 Joint Preparations............................................................................................ 4-7 Arc Welding Technique.................................................................................... 4-8 The Welder....................................................................................................... 4-8 Striking the Arc................................................................................................ 4-8 Arc Length....................................................................................................... 4-8 Rate of Travel................................................................................................... 4-8 Making Welded Joints...................................................................................... 4-9 Distortion....................................................................................................... 4-11 The Cause of Distortion................................................................................. 4-11 Overcoming Distortion Effects....................................................................... 4-12 SECTION 5:SERVICE........................................................................................ 5-1 5.01 5.02 5.03 5.04 Maintenance and Inspection............................................................................ 5-1 STICK (MMA) Welding Problems ................................................................... 5-2 TIG Welding Problems . .................................................................................. 5-3 Power Source Problems ................................................................................. 5-4 APPENDIX 1: OPTIONS AND ACCESSORIES............................................................. A-1 APPENDIX 2: REPLACEMENT PARTS..................................................................... A-2 APPENDIX 3: SYSTEM SCHEMATIC ...................................................................... A-4 LIMITED WARRANTY & WARRANTY SCHEDULE Thermal Arc 161S Stick System Part Number W1003605 • Thermal Arc 161S power supply in toolbox • Electrode holder, 5m (16.4ft) • Work lead, 5m (16.4ft) • 4 GP 3.2mm (1/8") dia stick electrodes • Operating manual Art# A-09913 SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS THERMAL ARC 161 S SECTION 1: SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS AND WARNINGS ! WARNING PROTECT YOURSELF AND OTHERS FROM POSSIBLE SERIOUS INJURY OR DEATH. KEEP CHILDREN AWAY. PACEMAKER WEARERS KEEP AWAY UNTIL CONSULTING YOUR DOCTOR. DO NOT LOSE THESE INSTRUCTIONS. READ OPERATING/INSTRUCTION MANUAL BEFORE INSTALLING, OPERATING OR SERVICING THIS EQUIPMENT. Welding products and welding processes can cause serious injury or death, or damage to other equipment or property, if the operator does not strictly observe all safety rules and take precautionary actions. Safe practices have developed from past experience in the use of welding and cutting. These practices must be learned through study and training before using this equipment. Some of these practices apply to equipment connected to power lines; other practices apply to engine driven equipment. Anyone not having extensive training in welding and cutting practices should not attempt to weld. Safe practices are outlined in the American National Standard Z49.1 entitled: SAFETY IN WELDING AND CUTTING. This publication and other guides to what you should learn before operating this equipment are listed at the end of these safety precautions. HAVE ALL INSTALLATION, OPERATION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR WORK PERFORMED ONLY BY QUALIFIED PEOPLE. 1.01 Arc Welding Hazards 8. Do not use worn, damaged, undersized, or poorly spliced cables. 9. Do not wrap cables around your body. 10. Ground the workpiece to a good electrical (earth) ground. 11. Do not touch electrode while in contact with the work (ground) circuit. WARNING ELECTRIC SHOCK can kill. 12. Use only well-maintained equipment. Repair or replace damaged parts at once. Touching live electrical parts can cause fatal shocks or severe burns. The electrode and work circuit is electrically live whenever the output is on. The input power circuit and machine internal circuits are also live when power is on. In semi-automatic or automatic wire welding, the wire, wire reel, drive roll housing, and all metal parts touching the welding wire are electrically live. Incorrectly installed or improperly grounded equipment is a hazard. 13. In confined spaces or damp locations, do not use a welder with AC output unless it is equipped with a voltage reducer. Use equipment with DC output. 14. Wear a safety harness to prevent falling if working above floor level. 15. Keep all panels and covers securely in place. 1. Do not touch live electrical parts. 2. Wear dry, hole-free insulating gloves and body protection. WARNING 3. Insulate yourself from work and ground using dry insulating mats or covers. 4. Disconnect input power or stop engine before installing or servicing this equipment. Lock input power disconnect switch open, or remove line fuses so power cannot be turned on accidentally. ARC RAYS can burn eyes and skin; NOISE can damage hearing. Arc rays from the welding process produce intense heat and strong ultraviolet rays that can burn eyes and skin. Noise from some processes can damage hearing. 5. Properly install and ground this equipment according to its Owner’s Manual and national, state, and local codes. 1. Wear a welding helmet fitted with a proper shade of filter (see ANSI Z49.1 listed in Safety Standards) to protect your face and eyes when welding or watching. 6. Turn off all equipment when not in use. Disconnect power to equipment if it will be left unattended or out of service. 2. Wear approved safety glasses. Side shields recommended. 3. Use protective screens or barriers to protect others from flash and glare; warn others not to watch the arc. 7. Use fully insulated electrode holders. Never dip holder in water to cool it or lay it down on the ground or the work surface. Do not touch holders connected to two welding machines at the same time or touch other people with the holder or electrode. 4. Wear protective clothing made from durable, flame-resistant material (wool and leather) and foot protection. 5. Use approved ear plugs or ear muffs if noise level is high. Manual 0-5183 1-1 Safety Instructions THERMAL ARC 161 S SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS WARNING WARNING WELDING can cause fire or explosion. FUMES AND GASES can be hazardous to your health. Welding produces fumes and gases. Breathing these fumes and gases can be hazardous to your health. 1. Keep your head out of the fumes. Do not breathe the fumes. 2. If inside, ventilate the area and/or use exhaust at the arc to remove welding fumes and gases. 3. If ventilation is poor, use an approved air-supplied respirator. 4. Read the Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs) and the manufacturer’s instruction for metals, consumables, coatings, and cleaners. 5. Work in a confined space only if it is well ventilated, or while wearing an air-supplied respirator. Shielding gases used for welding can displace air causing injury or death. Be sure the breathing air is safe. 6. Do not weld in locations near degreasing, cleaning, or spraying operations. The heat and rays of the arc can react with vapours to form highly toxic and irritating gases. 7. Do not weld on coated metals, such as galvanized, lead, or cadmium plated steel, unless the coating is removed from the weld area, the area is well ventilated, and if necessary, while wearing an air-supplied respirator. The coatings and any metals containing these elements can give off toxic fumes if welded. Sparks and spatter fly off from the welding arc. The flying sparks and hot metal, weld spatter, hot workpiece, and hot equipment can cause fires and burns. Accidental contact of electrode or welding wire to metal objects can cause sparks, overheating, or fire. 1. Protect yourself and others from flying sparks and hot metal. 2. Do not weld where flying sparks can strike flammable material. 3. Remove all flammables within ������������������������������ 10.7 m ����������������������� (���������������������� 35 ft����������������� ) of the welding arc. If this is not possible, tightly cover them with approved covers. 4. Be alert that welding sparks and hot materials from welding can easily go through small cracks and openings to adjacent areas. 5. Watch for fire, and keep a fire extinguisher nearby. 6. Be aware that welding on a ceiling, floor, bulkhead, or partition can cause fire on the hidden side. 7. Do not weld on closed containers such as tanks or drums. 8. Connect work cable to the work as close to the welding area as practical to prevent welding current from travelling long, Eye protection filter shade selector for welding or cutting (goggles or helmet), from AWS A6.2-73. Welding or Cutting Operation Electrode Size Metal Thickness or Welding Current Torch soldering Torch brazing Oxygen Cutting Light Under 1 in., 25 mm Medium 1 to 6 in., 25-150 mm Heavy Over 6 in., 150 mm Gas welding Light Under 1/8 in., 3 mm Medium 1/8 to 1/2 in., 3-12 mm Heavy Over 1/2 in., 12 mm Shielded metal-arc welding Under 5/32 in., 4 mm (stick) electrodes 5/32 to 1/4 in., 4 to 6.4 mm Over 1/4 in., 6.4 mm Safety Instructions Filter Shade No. 2 3 or 4 3 or 4 4 or 5 5 or 6 4 or 5 5 or 6 6 or 8 10 Welding or Cutting Operation Gas metal-arc welding (MIG) Non-ferrous base metal Non-ferrous base metal Gas tungsten arc welding (TIG) Atomic hydrogen welding Carbon arc welding Plasma arc welding Carbon arc air gouging Light Electrode Size Filter Metal Thickness Shade No. or Welding All All All All All All Heavy 11 12 12 12 12 12 12 14 Plasma arc cutting 12 14 Light Under 300 Amp Medium 300 to 400 Amp Heavy Over 400 Amp 1-2 9 12 14 Manual 0-5183 SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS THERMAL ARC 161 S possibly unknown paths and causing electric shock and fire hazards. 9. Do not use welder to thaw frozen pipes. WARNING 10. Remove stick electrode from holder or cut off welding wire at contact tip when not in use. ENGINE EXHAUST GASES can kill. Engines produce harmful exhaust gases. 1. Use equipment outside in open, well-ventilated areas. WARNING 2. If used in a closed area, vent engine exhaust outside and away from any building air intakes. FLYING SPARKS AND HOT METAL can cause injury. Chipping and grinding cause flying metal. As welds cool, they can throw off slag. WARNING 1. Wear approved face shield or safety goggles. Side shields recommended. ENGINE FUEL can cause fire or explosion. 2. Wear proper body protection to protect skin. Engine fuel is highly flammable. 1. Stop engine before checking or adding fuel. WARNING 2. Do not add fuel while smoking or if unit is near any sparks or open flames. CYLINDERS can explode if damaged. 3. Allow engine to cool before fuelling. If possible, check and add fuel to cold engine before beginning job. Shielding gas cylinders contain gas under high pressure. If damaged, a cylinder can explode. Since gas cylinders are normally part of the welding process, be sure to treat them carefully. 4. Do not overfill tank — allow room for fuel to expand. 5. Do not spill fuel. If fuel is spilled, clean up before starting engine. 1. Protect compressed gas cylinders from excessive heat, mechanical shocks, and arcs. 2. Install and secure cylinders in an upright position by chaining them to a stationary support or equipment cylinder rack to prevent falling or tipping. 3. Keep cylinders away from any welding or other electrical circuits. WARNING MOVING PARTS can cause injury. Moving parts, such as fans, rotors, and belts can cut fingers and hands and catch loose clothing. 4. Never allow a welding electrode to touch any cylinder. 5. Use only correct shielding gas cylinders, regulators, hoses, and fittings designed for the specific application; maintain them and associated parts in good condition. 1. Keep all doors, panels, covers, and guards closed and securely in place. 2. Stop engine before installing or connecting unit. 6. Turn face away from valve outlet when opening cylinder valve. 3. Have only qualified people remove guards or covers for maintenance and troubleshooting as necessary. 7. Keep protective cap in place over valve except when cylinder is in use or connected for use. 4. To prevent accidental starting during servicing, disconnect negative (-) battery cable from battery. 8. Read and follow instructions on compressed gas cylinders, associated equipment, and CGA publication P-1 listed in Safety Standards. 5. Keep hands, hair, loose clothing, and tools away from moving parts. ! 6. Reinstall panels or guards and close doors when servicing is finished and before starting engine. WARNING Engines can be dangerous. WARNING SPARKS can cause BATTERY GASES TO EXPLODE; BATTERY ACID can burn eyes and skin. Manual 0-5183 1-3 Safety Instructions THERMAL ARC 161 S SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS Batteries contain acid and generate explosive gases. 1. Always wear a face shield when working on a battery. 2. Stop engine before disconnecting or connecting battery cables. 3. Do not allow tools to cause sparks when working on a battery. 4. Do not use welder to charge batteries or jump start vehicles. 5. Observe correct polarity (+ and –) on batteries. ! ABOUT PACEMAKERS: The above procedures are among those also normally recommended for pacemaker wearers. Consult your doctor for complete information. 1.02 General Safety Information for Victor CS Regulator A Fire Prevention Welding and cutting operations use fire or combustion as a basic tool. The process is very useful when properly controlled. However, it can be extremely destructive if not performed correctly in the proper environment. WARNING STEAM AND PRESSURIZED HOT COOLANT can burn face, eyes, and skin. 1. The work area must have a fireproof floor. The coolant in the radiator can be very hot and under pressure. 2. Work benches or tables used during welding or cutting operations must have fireproof tops. 1. Do not remove radiator cap when engine is hot. Allow engine to cool. 3. Use heat resistant shields or other approved material to protect nearby walls or unprotected flooring from sparks and hot metal. 2. Wear gloves and put a rag over cap area when removing cap. 3. Allow pressure to escape before completely removing cap. NOTE Considerations About Welding And The Effects of Low Frequency Electric and Magnetic Fields 5. Move combustible materials away from the work site. If you can not move them, protect them with fireproof covers. The following is a quotation from the General Conclusions Section of the U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment, Biological Effects of Power Frequency Electric & Magnetic Fields - Background Paper, OTA-BP-E-63 (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, May 1989): “...there is now a very large volume of scientific findings based on experiments at the cellular level and from studies with animals and people which clearly establish that low frequency magnetic fields interact with, and produce changes in, biological systems. While most of this work is of very high quality, the results are complex. Current scientific understanding does not yet allow us to interpret the evidence in a single coherent framework. Even more frustrating, it does not yet allow us to draw definite conclusions about questions of possible risk or to offer clear science-based advice on strategies to minimize or avoid potential risks.” To reduce magnetic fields in the workplace, use the following procedures. 1. Keep cables close together by twisting or taping them. 2. Arrange cables to one side and away from the operator. 3. Do not coil or drape cable around the body. 4. Keep welding power source and cables as far away from body as practical. Safety Instructions 4. Keep an approved fire extinguisher of the proper size and type in the work area. Inspect it regularly to ensure that it is in proper working order. Know how to use the fire extinguisher. 1-4 ! WARNING NEVER perform welding, heating, or cutting operations on a container that has held toxic, combustible or flammable liquids, or vapours. NEVER perform welding, heating, or cutting operations in an area containing combustible vapours, flammable liquids, or explosive dust. B Housekeeping ! WARNING NEVER allow oxygen to contact grease, oil, or other flammable substances. Although oxygen by itself will not burn, these substances become highly explosive. They can ignite and burn violently in the presence of oxygen. Keep ALL apparatus clean and free of grease, oil and other flammable substances. Manual 0-5183 SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS THERMAL ARC 161 S C Ventilation ! ! WARNING Cylinders are highly pressurized. Handle with care. Serious accidents can result from improper handling or misuse of compressed gas cylinders DO NOT drop the cylinder, knock it over, or expose it to excessive heat, flames or sparks. DO NOT strike it against other cylinders. Contact your gas supplier or refer to CGA P-1 “Safe Handling of Compressed Gases in Containers” publication. Adequately ventilate welding, heating, and cutting work areas to prevent accumulation of explosive or toxic concentrations of gases. Certain combinations of metals, coatings, and gases generate toxic fumes. Use respiratory protection equipment in these circumstances. When welding/brazing, read and understand the Material Safety Data Sheet for the welding/brazing alloy. NOTE D Personal Protection CGA P-1 publication is available by writing the Compressed Gas Association, 4221 Walney Road, 5th Floor, Chantilly,VA 20151-2923 Gas flames produce infrared radiation which may have a harmful effect on the skin and especially on the eyes. Select goggles or a mask with tempered lenses, shaded 4 or darker, to protect your eyes from injury and provide good visibility of the work. 2. Place the valve protection cap on the cylinder whenever moving it, placing it in storage, or not using it. Never drag or roll cylinders in any way. Use a suitable hand truck to move cylinders. Always wear protective gloves and flame-resistant clothing to protect skin and clothing from sparks and slag. Keep collars, sleeves, and pockets buttoned. DO NOT roll up sleeves or cuff pants. 3. Store empty cylinders away from full cylinders. Mark them “EMPTY” and close the cylinder valve. When working in a non-welding or cutting environment, always wear suitable eye protection or face shield. ! WARNING 4. NEVER use compressed gas cylinders without a pressure reducing regulator attached to the cylinder valve. 5. Inspect the cylinder valve for oil, grease, and damaged parts. WARNING Practice the following safety and operation precautions EVERY TIME you use pressure regulation equipment. Deviation from the following safety and operation instructions can result in fire, explosion, damage to equipment, or injury to the operator. ! WARNING DO NOT use the cylinder if you find oil, grease or damaged parts. Inform your gas supplier of this condition immediately. E Compressed Gas Cylinders The Department of Transportation (DOT) approves the design and manufacture of cylinders that contain gases used for welding or cutting operations. 6. Momentarily open and close (called “cracking”) the cylinder valve to dislodge any dust or dirt that may be present in the valve. 1. Place the cylinder (Figure 1-1) where you will use it. Keep the cylinder in a vertical position. Secure it to a cart, wall, work bench, post, etc. CAUTION Open the cylinder valve slightly. If you open the valve too much, the cylinder could tip over. When cracking the cylinder valve, DO NOT stand directly in front of the cylinder valve. Always perform cracking in a well ventilated area. If an acetylene cylinder sprays a mist when cracked, let it stand for 15 minutes. Then, try to crack the cylinder valve again. If this problem persists, contact your gas supplier. Figure 1-1: Gas Cylinders Manual 0-5183 1-5 Safety Instructions THERMAL ARC 161 S SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS 1.04 Symbol Chart Note that only some of these symbols will appear on your model. On Single Phase Wire Feed Function Off Three Phase Wire Feed Towards Workpiece With Output Voltage Off. Dangerous Voltage Three Phase Static Frequency ConverterTransformer-Rectifier Welding Gun Increase/Decrease Remote Purging Of Gas Duty Cycle Continuous Weld Mode Percentage Spot Weld Mode Circuit Breaker AC Auxiliary Power 115V 15A X % Fuse Panel/Local Amperage Shielded Metal Arc Welding (MMA) Voltage Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) Hertz (cycles/sec) Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) Frequency Air Carbon Arc Cutting (CAC-A) Negative Constant Current Positive Constant Voltage Or Constant Potential Direct Current (DC) High Temperature Protective Earth (Ground) Fault Indication Line Arc Force Line Connection Touch Start (GTAW) Auxiliary Power Variable Inductance Receptacle RatingAuxiliary Power Safety Instructions V t Spot Time Preflow Time t1 t2 Postflow Time 2 Step Trigger Operation Press to initiate wirefeed and welding, release to stop. 4 Step Trigger Operation Press and hold for preflow, release to start arc. Press to stop arc, and hold for preflow. t Burnback Time IPM Inches Per Minute MPM Meters Per Minute Voltage Input Art # A-09917 1-6 Manual 0-5183 SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS THERMAL ARC 161 S 1.05 Declaration Of Conformity Manufacturer: Address: Thermadyne Corporation 82 Benning Street West Lebanon, New Hampshire 03784 USA The equipment described in this manual conforms to all applicable aspects and regulations of the ‘Low Voltage Directive’ (European Council Directive 73/23/EEC as amended by Council Directive 93/68/EEC) and to the National legislation for the enforcement of this Directive. The equipment described in this manual conforms to all applicable aspects and regulations of the “EMC Directive” (European Council Directive 89/336/EEC) and to the National legislation for the enforcement of this Directive. Serial numbers are unique with each individual piece of equipment and details description, parts used to manufacture a unit and date of manufacture. National Standard and Technical Specifications The product is designed and manufactured to a number of standards and technical requirements. Among them are: • CENELEC EN50199 EMC Product Standard for Arc Welding Equipment. • ISO/IEC 60974-1 (BS 638-PT10) (EN 60 974-1) (EN50192) (EN50078) applicable to welding equipment and associated accessories. • For environments with increased hazard of electrical shock, Power Supplies bearing the S mark conform to EN50192 when used in conjunction with hand torches with exposed cutting tips, if equipped with properly installed standoff guides. • Extensive product design verification is conducted at the manufacturing facility as part of the routine design and manufacturing process. This is to ensure the product is safe, when used according to instructions in this manual and related industry standards, and performs as specified. Rigorous testing is incorporated into the manufacturing process to ensure the manufactured product meets or exceeds all design specifications. Thermadyne has been manufacturing products for more than 30 years, and will continue to achieve excellence in our area of manufacture. Manufacturers responsible representative: Steve Ward Operations Director Thermadyne Europe Europa Building Chorley N Industrial Park Chorley, Lancashire, England PR6 7BX Manual 0-5183 1-7 Safety Instructions THERMAL ARC 161 S SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS This page left blank intentionally. Safety Instructions 1-8 Manual 0-5183 INTRODUCTIONtHERMAL ARC 161 S SECTION 2: INTRODUCTION 2.01 How to Use This Manual 2.04 Description This Operating Manual usually applies to the part numbers listed on page i. If none are underlined, they are all covered by this manual. To ensure safe operation, read the entire manual, including the chapter on safety instructions and warnings. Throughout this manual, the word WARNING, CAUTION and NOTE may appear. Pay particular attention to the information provided under these headings. These special annotations are easily recognized as follows: This compact inverter welding machine has infinitely adjustable welding current from 10 to 160 amps. It uses standard general purpose STICK (MMA) �������������� 2.5mm��������� (������� 3/32”��) electrodes for light gauge work, generally less than 1/8” (3.2mm) thick and STICK (MMA) 1/8” (3.2mm) electrodes for heavier material. The unit also has a LIFT TIG (GTAW) welding mode that offers stable TIG welding characteristics when used with a suitable TIG torch and shielding gas. ! WARNING 2.05 Transportation Methods Gives information regarding possible personal injury. Warnings will be enclosed in a box such as this. WARNING ELECTRIC SHOCK can kill. DO NOT TOUCH live electric parts. Disconnect input power conductors from de-energized supply line before moving the welding power source. CAUTION Refers to possible equipment damage. Cautions will be shown in bold type. ! NOTE Offers helpful information concerning certain operating procedures. Notes will be shown in italics 2.02 Equipment Identification The unit’s identification number (specification or part number), model, and serial number usually appear on a nameplate attached to the machine. Equipment which does not have a nameplate attached to the machine is identified only by the specification or part number printed on the shipping container. Record these numbers for future reference. 2.03 Receipt of Equipment When you receive the equipment, check it against the invoice to make sure it is complete and inspect the equipment for possible damage due to shipping. If there is any damage, notify the carrier immediately to file a claim. Furnish complete information concerning damage claims or shipping errors to the location in your area listed in the inside back cover of this manual. Include all equipment identification numbers as described above along with a full description of the parts in error. Manual 0-5183 WARNING FALLING EQUIPMENT can cause serious personal injury and equipment damage. Lift unit with handle on top of case. Use handcart or similar device of adequate capacity. If using a fork lift vehicle, place secure unit on a proper skid before transporting. 2.06 Duty Cycle The rated duty cycle of a Welding Power Source, is the percentage of a ten minute time period that it may be operated at its rated output current without exceeding the temperature limits of the insulation of the component parts. To explain the 10 minute duty cycle period, suppose a Welding Power Source is designed to operate with a 35% duty cycle at 160 amperes and 26.4 volts. This means that it has been designed and built to provide the rated amperage (160A) for 3.5 minutes, i.e. arc welding time, out of every 10 minute period (35% of 10 minutes is 3.5 minutes). During the other 6.5 minutes of the 10 minute period the Welding Power Source must idle and be allowed to cool. 2-1 Introduction THERMAL ARC 161 S INTRODUCTION 2.07 Specifications Power Source Part Number W1003604 Mains Power Nominal Supply Voltage AC 110V AC 230V Number of Phases Single Phase Single Phase Input Voltage Range AC 104- 127V AC 187- 253V Nominal Supply Frequency 50/60 Hz 50/60 Hz Effective Input Current (l1eff) 17.8 Amps 14.7 Amps Maximum Input Current (l1 max) ∆ 35.5 Amps ∆ 23.2 Amps Single Phase Generator Requirements [Continuous rating 5 KVA 6 KVA at nominal supply voltage with maximum output for STICK (MMA) welding] Welding Output Welding Current Range 10 - 125 Amps 10 - 160 Amps Nominal DC Open Circuit Voltage (OCV) 71V 71V Welding Output, 104º F (40º C), 10 min. 125A @ 20%, 25.0V 160A @ 35%, 26.4V (Quoted figures refer to STICK (������������ MMA��������� ) output) 80A @ 60%, 23.2V 100A @ 60%, 24.0V 60A @ 100%, 22.4V 80A @ 100%, 23.2V Rated Input Current (A) 35.5A 23.2A for STICK (������������ MMA��������� ) Welding Io = 125A @ 25.0V Io = 160A @ 26.4V Rated Input Current (A) 21.3A 14.4A for LIFT TIG (GTAW) Welding Io = 125A @ 15V Io = 160A @ 16.4V Rated Output for STICK (������������ MMA��������� ) Welding 25.0V, 125A @ 20% 26.4V, 160A @ 35% Rated Output for LIFT TIG (GTAW) Welding 15V, 125A @ 50% 16.4V, 160A @ 40% Duty Cycle (%) 20% @ 125A 35% @ 160A Welder Type Inverter Power Source Output Terminal Type Heavy Duty DinseTM 50 Classification Protection Class IP23S Standards EN 60974-1 EN50199 Cooling Method Fan Cooled Dimensions and Weight Welding Power Source Mass 7.9 kg����������� (��������� 17.4 lb.�) Welding Power Source Dimensions (Height x Width x H230mm x W135mm x D393mm Depth) (��������������������������� H 9.0” x W 5.3” x D 15.5” )� ∆ The recommended time delay fuse or circuit breaker size is 32 amp for 110V and 32 amp for 230V. Thermal Arc continuously strives to produce the best product possible and therefore reserves the right to change, improve or revise the specifications or design of this or any product without prior notice. Such updates or changes do not entitle the buyer of equipment previously sold or shipped to the corresponding changes, updates, improvements or replacement of such items. The values specified in the table above are optimal values, your values may differ. Individual equipment may differ from the above specifications due to in part, but not exclusively, to any one or more of the following; variations or changes in manufactured components, installation location and conditions and local power grid supply conditions.. Introduction 2-2 Manual 0-5183 INSTALLATION THERMAL ARC 161 s SECTION 3: INSTALLATION 3.01 Environment These units are designed for use in environments with increased hazard of electric shock. Examples of environments with increased hazard of electric shock are: A. In locations in which freedom of movement is restricted, so that the operator is forced to perform the work in a cramped (kneeling, sitting or lying) position with physical contact with conductive parts. B. In locations which are fully or partially limited by conductive elements, and in which there is a high risk of unavoidable or accidental contact by the operator. C. In wet or damp hot locations where humidity or perspiration considerably reduces the skin resistance of the human body and the insulation properties of accessories. Environments with increased hazard of electric shock do not include places where electrically conductive parts in the near vicinity of the operator, which can cause increased hazard, have been insulated. 3.02 Location Be sure to locate the welder according to the following guidelines: • In areas, free from moisture and dust. • Ambient temperature between 0°C (32°F) to 40°C (104° F). • In areas, free from oil, steam and corrosive gases. • In areas, not subjected to abnormal vibration or shock. • In areas, not exposed to direct sunlight or rain. • Place at a distance of 300mm (12”) or more from walls or similar that could restrict natural air flow for cooling ! WARNING Thermal Arc advises that this equipment be electrically connected by a qualified electrician. 3.03 Electrical Input Connections WARNING ELECTRIC SHOCK can kill; SIGNIFICANT DC VOLTAGE is present after removal of input power. DO NOT TOUCH live electrical parts. SHUT DOWN welding power source, disconnect input power employing lockout/tagging procedures. Lock-out/ tagging procedures consist of padlocking line disconnect switch in open position, removing fuses from fuse box, or shutting off and red-tagging circuit breaker or other disconnecting device. Manual 0-5183���� 3-1������������ Installation THERMAL ARC 161 S INSTALLATION • Electrical Input Requirements Operate the welding power source from a single-phase 50/60 Hz, AC power supply. The input voltage must match one of the electrical input voltages shown on the input data label on the unit nameplate. Contact the local electric utility for information about the type of electrical service available, how proper connections should be made, and inspection required. The line disconnect switch provides a safe and convenient means to completely remove all electrical power from the welding power supply whenever necessary to inspect or service the unit. Do not connect an input ((BROWN or BLUE)) conductor to the ground terminal. Do not connect the ground ((GREEN or GREEN/YELLOW)) conductor to an input line terminal. 1. Connect end of ground (GREEN or GREEN/YELLOW) conductor to a suitable ground. Use a grounding method that complies with all applicable local electrical codes. 2. Connect ends of line Active (BROWN) and Neutral (BLUE) input conductors to a suitable power supply system that complies with all applicable local electrical codes. 3. Use Table 3-1 as a guide to select line fuses for the disconnect switch. Input Voltage Circuit Breaker or Fuse Size 110V 32A 230V 32A Table 3-1: Fuse Guide CAUTION The time-delay fuses or circuit breaker of an individual branch circuit may have nuisance tripping when welding with this product due to the amperage rating of the time-delay fuses or circuit breaker. Input Power Each unit incorporates an INRUSH circuit. When the MAIN CIRCUIT SWITCH is turned on, the inrush circuit provides pre-charging for the input capacitors. A relay in the Power Control Assembly (PCA) will turn on after the input capacitors have charged to operating voltage (after approximately 5 seconds) NOTE Damage to the PCA could occur if 253 VAC or higher is applied to the Primary Power Cable. Model Thermal Arc 161 S Primary Supply Lead Minimum Primary Current & Duty Cycle Size (Factory Fitted) Current Circuit Size LIFT TIG (GTAW) STICK (MMA) (Vin/Amps) 110V/35.5A 125A @ 20% 110V/21.3A 125A @ 50% H07RN-F 3x1.5mm² 230V/23.2A 160A @ 35% 230V/14.4A 160A @ 40% Table 3-2: Primary Circuit Sizes to Achieve Maximum Current Installation���� 3-2������������� Manual 0-5183 INSTALLATION THERMAL ARC 161 s 3.04 Electromagnetic Compatibility WARNING Extra precautions for Electromagnetic Compatibility may be required when this Welding Power Source is used in a domestic situation. The size of the surrounding area to be considered will depend on the structure of the building and other activities that are taking place. The surrounding area may extend beyond the boundaries of the premises. C. Methods of Reducing Electromagnetic Emissions 1. Mains Supply A. Installation and Use - Users Responsibility The user is responsible for installing and using the welding equipment according to the manufacturer’s instructions. If electromagnetic disturbances are detected then it shall be the responsibility of the user of the welding equipment to resolve the situation with the technical assistance of the manufacturer. In some cases this remedial action may be as simple as earthing the welding circuit, see NOTE below. In other cases it could involve constructing an electromagnetic screen enclosing the Welding Power Source and the work, complete with associated input filters. In all cases, electromagnetic disturbances shall be reduced to the point where they are no longer Trouble-some. 2. Maintenance of Welding Equipment B. Assessment of Area Before installing welding equipment, the user shall make an assessment of potential electromagnetic problems in the surrounding area. The following shall be taken into account. 1. Other supply cables, control cables, signalling and telephone cables; above, below and adjacent to the welding equipment. 2. Radio and television transmitters and receivers. 3. Computer and other control equipment. 4. Safety critical equipment, e.g. guarding of industrial equipment. 5. The health of people around, e.g. the use of pacemakers and hearing aids. 6. Equipment used for calibration and measurement. 7. The time of day that welding or other activities are to be carried out. 8. The immunity of other equipment in the environment: the user shall ensure that other equipment being used in the environment is compatible: this may require additional protection measures. Welding equipment should be connected to the mains supply according to the manufacturer’s recommendations. If interference occurs, it may be necessary to take additional precautions such as filtering of the mains supply. Consideration should be given to shielding the supply cable of permanently installed welding equipment in metallic conduit or equivalent. Shielding should be electrically continuous throughout its length. The shielding should be connected to the Welding Power Source so that good electrical contact is maintained between the conduit and the Welding Power Source enclosure. The welding equipment should be routinely maintained according to the manufacturer’s recommendations. All access and service doors and covers should be closed and properly fastened when the welding equipment is in operation. The welding equipment should not be modified in any way except for those changes and adjustments covered in the manufacturer’s instructions. In particular, the spark gaps of arc striking and stabilizing devices should be adjusted and maintained according to the manufacturer’s recommendation 3. Welding Cables The welding cables should be kept as short as possible and should be positioned close together, running at or close to the floor level. 4. Equipotential Bonding Bonding of all metallic components in the welding installation and adjacent to it should be considered. However, metallic components bonded to the work piece will increase the risk that the operator could receive a shock by touching the metallic components and the electrode at the same time. The operator should be insulated from all such bonded metallic components. Manual 0-5183���� 3-3������������ Installation THERMAL ARC 161 S 5. Earthing of the Work Piece Where the work piece is not bonded to earth for electrical safety, nor connected to earth because of its size and position, e.g. ship’s hull or building steelwork, a connection bonding the work piece to earth may reduce emissions in some, but not all instances. Care should be taken to prevent the earthing of the work piece increasing the risk of injury to users, or damage to other electrical equipment. Where necessary, the connection of the work piece to earth should be made by direct connection to the work piece, but in some countries where direct connection is not permitted, the bonding should be achieved by suitable capacitance, selected according to national regulations. 6. Screening and Shielding Selective screening and shielding of other cables and equipment in the surrounding area may alleviate problems of interference. Screening the entire welding installation may be considered for special applications. INSTALLATION 3.05 Setup for Welding NOTE Conventional operating procedures apply when using the Welding Power Source, i.e. connect work lead directly to work piece and electrode lead is used to hold electrode. Wide safety margins provided by the design ensure that the Welding Power Source will withstand short-term overload without adverse effects. The welding current range values should be used as a guide only. Current delivered to the arc is dependent on the welding arc voltage, and as welding arc voltage varies between different classes of electrodes, welding current at any one setting would vary according to the type of electrode in use. The operator should use the welding current range values as a guide then fine tune the welding current to suit the application. WARNING Before connecting the work clamp to the work and inserting the electrode in the electrode holder make sure the Primary power supply is switched off. CAUTION Remove any packaging material prior to use. Do not block the air vents at the front or rear of the Welding Power Source. Installation���� 3-4������������� Manual 0-5183 INSTALLATION THERMAL ARC 161 s 3.06 STICK (MMA) Setup Set Process Selection Switch to STICK (MMA) Set Welding Current as specified by the Electrode Manufacturer. Negative Output Terminal (Dinse™ 50) Positive Output Terminal (Dinse™ 50) 200A Art #: A-09914 Figure 3-2: Setup for STICK (MMA) Welding STICK (MMA) Mode Sequence of Operation CAUTION Before any welding is to begin, be sure to wear all appropriate and recommended safety equipment. 3. Connect the ground clamp to your workpiece. 4. Plug the power cable into the appropriate outlet, and turn the switch to the “ON” position. The power L.E.D light should illuminate. 5. Set the “Process Selection Switch” to STICK. 1. Switch the ON/OFF Switch (located on the rear panel) to OFF. 6. Set the weld current control knob to the desired amperage. 2. Connect the ground clamp cable to the negative output terminal, and the electrode holder cable to the positive output terminal. 7. Install a stick electrode in the electrode holder. NOTE This set up is known as DC Electrode Positive or reverse polarity. Please consult with the stick electrode manufacturer for specific polarity recommendations. 8. You are now ready to begin STICK Welding NOTE Gently strike the electrode on the work piece to generate a welding arc, and slowly move along the work piece while holding a consistent arc length above base metal. Manual 0-5183���� 3-5������������ Installation THERMAL ARC 161 S INSTALLATION 3.07 LIFT TIG (GTAW) Setup Set Process Selection Switch to LIFT TIG (GTAW). Secure the gas cylinder in an upright position by chaining it to a stationary support to prevent falling or tipping. Set Welding Current as specified by the Electrode Manufacturer. Negative Output Terminal (Dinse™ 50) Positive Output Terminal (Dinse™ 50) Art #: A-09915 Figure 3-3: Setup for LIFT TIG (GTAW) Welding LIFT TIG (GTAW) Sequence of Operation CAUTION Before any welding is to begin, be sure to wear all appropriate and recommended safety equipment. 1. Switch the ON/OFF Switch (located on the rear panel) to OFF. 2. Connect the ground clamp cable to positive output terminal, and the TIG torch cable to the negative output terminal. NOTE This set up is known as Straight Polarity or DC Electrode Negative. This is commonly used for DC TIG welding on most materials such as steel and stainless steel. 3. Using a secured Argon cylinder, slowly crack open then close the cylinder valve while standing off to the side of the valve. This will remove any debris that may be around the valve & regulator seat area. 4. Install the regulator as per the manufacturers instructions. 5. Connect the gas hose to the outlet of the Argon regulator, and tighten with a spanner. 6. Be sure the gas valve on the torch is closed, and slowly open the Argon Cylinder Valve to the fully open position. 7. Connect the ground clamp to your workpiece. 8. Plug the power cable into the appropriate outlet, and turn the switch to the “ON” position. The power L.E.D. light should illuminate. Installation���� 3-6������������� Manual 0-5183 INSTALLATION 9. Set the “Process Selection Switch” to LIFT TIG THERMAL ARC 161 s 10.Set the weld current control knob to the desired amperage. 11.The tungsten must be ground to a blunt point in order to achieve optimum welding results. It is critical to grind the tungsten electrode in the direction the grinding wheel is turning. 12.Install the tungsten with approximately 3.2mm (1/8”) to 6.4mm (¼”) sticking out from the gas cup, ensuring you have correct sized collet. 13.Tighten the back cap then open the valve on the torch. 14.You are now ready to begin TIG Welding. Manual 0-5183���� 3-7������������ Installation THERMAL ARC 161 S INSTALLATION This page is left blank intentionally. Installation���� 3-8������������� Manual 0-5183 OPERATION THERMAL ARC 161 s SECTION 4: OPERATION Conventional operating procedures apply when using the Welding Power Source, i.e. connect work lead directly to work piece and electrode lead is used to hold the electrode. The welding current range values should be used as a guide only. Current delivered to the arc is dependent on the welding arc voltage, and as welding arc voltage varies between different classes of electrode, welding current at any one setting would vary according to the type of electrode in use. The operator should use the welding current range values as a guide then fine tune the welding current to suit the specific application. Refer to the electrode manufacture's literature for further information. (C) Warning Indicator 4.01 Front Panel If the Warning Indicator lights up continuously then the primary current into the main transformer has been exceeded. Switch off the power supply, and have an Accredited Thermal Arc Service Provider inspect then repair the welder. Front Panel The welding power source is protected by a self re-setting thermostat. The indicator will illuminate if the duty cycle of the power source has been exceeded. If the Over Heat light illuminates wait for the Over Heat light to extinguish before resuming welding. (A) Process Selection Switch Switches between LIFT TIG and STICK Welding modes. (B) Power On Indicator The Power ON Indicator illuminates when the ON/OFF switch is in the ON position and the nominal mains voltage is present. The welding power source is protected by a self resetting thermostat and over primary current protection devices. Welding can not take place if the Warning Indicator lights up or lights up continuously. Thermostat Protection If the Warning Indicator lights up then the duty cycle of the power source has been exceeded, Leave the power on and wait for the Warning Indicator to extinguish before resuming welding. Over Primary Current Protection (D) Welding Current Control The welding current is increased by turning the Weld Current control knob clockwise or decreased by turning the Weld Current control knob counterclockwise. The welding current should be set according to the specific application. Refer to the electrode manufacture's literature for further information. (E) ON/OFF Switch (located on rear panel - not shown) This switch controls the Mains Supply Voltage to the Power Source. FAULT PROCESS /,)7 7,* (A) Process Selection Switch 67,&. 32A OUTLET STICK 32A OUTLET 110V TIG TIG/STICK 16A OUTLET 230V Art#:A-09902 Figure 4-1: Thermal Arc 161 S Controls Manual 0-5183���� 4-1���������� Operation THERMAL ARC 161 S 4.02 Welding Current Control Explanation 32 Amp Outlet The mains power 32 Amp circuit breaker or fuse should not trip at this Weld Current value when STICK welding. The environmental conditions that may cause the mains power 32 Amp circuit breaker or fuse to trip are: a) High ambient temperature b) Worn parts in circuit breaker OPERATION LIFT TIG Mode:A 32 Amp outlet is capable of supplying enough input power for all LIFT TIG output weld current values. Nuisance tripping should not occur on a 32 Amp outlet. Output Scale for 230V The outside number scale identifies the available output weld current for STICK or LIFT TIG weld modes. Nuisance tripping should not occur on a 32A 230V outlet for both STICK & LIFT TIG Modes. 4.03 STICK (MMA) Electrode Polarity c) Using an extension cable Stick electrodes are generally connected to the "+" Positive Output Terminal and the work lead to the "−" Negative Output Terminal but if in doubt consult the electrode manufacturers literature for further information. d) Low line mains power voltage Output Scale for 110V The inside number scale identifies the available output weld current for STICK or LIFT TIG weld modes. STICK Mode: Identifies the STICK weld point for 32 Amp outlet. Exceeding these points will cause nuisance tripping of the circuit breaker or fuse. FAULT PROCESS /,)7 7,* 32 Amp Outlet Output Scale for 110V 67,&. Output Scale for 230V Art#:A-09903 32A OUTLET STICK 32A OUTLET 110V TIG TIG/STICK 16A OUTLET 230V Figure 4-2: Current Control Operation���� 4-2������������� Manual 0-5183 OPERATION THERMAL ARC 161 s 4.04 Effects of Stick Welding Various Materials High Tensile and Alloy Steels The two most prominent effects of welding these steels are the formation of a hardened zone in the weld area, and, if suitable precautions are not taken, the occurrence in this zone of under-bead cracks. Hardened zone and under-bead cracks in the weld area may be reduced by using the correct electrodes, preheating, using higher current settings, using larger electrodes sizes, short runs for larger electrode deposits or tempering in a furnace. Manganese Steels The effect on manganese steel of slow cooling from high temperatures is to embrittle it. For this reason it is absolutely essential to keep manganese steel cool during welding by quenching after each weld or skip welding to distribute the heat. malleable, due to the porosity caused by gas held in this type of iron. Copper and Alloys The most important factor is the high rate of heat conductivity of copper, making pre-heating of heavy sections necessary to give proper fusion of weld and base metal. Types of Electrodes Arc Welding electrodes are classified into a number of groups depending on their applications. There are a great number of electrodes used for specialized industrial purposes which are not of particular interest for everyday general work. These include some low hydrogen types for high tensile steel, cellulose types for welding large diameter pipes, etc The range of electrodes dealt with in this publication will cover the vast majority of applications likely to be encountered; are all easy to use. Cast Iron Most types of cast iron, except white iron, are weldable. White iron, because of its extreme brittleness, generally cracks when attempts are made to weld it. Trouble may also be experienced when welding white-heart Metal Being Joined Mild Steel Electrode E6011 Mild Steel E6013 Mild Steel E7014 Mild Steel E7018 Cast Iron Stainless Steel Eni-Cl E318L-16 Comments This electrode is used for all-position welding or for welding on rusty, dirty, less-than-new metal. It has a deep, penetrating arc and is often the first choice for repair or maintenance work. This all-position, electrode is used for welding clean, new sheet metal. Its soft arc has minimal spatter, moderate penetration and an easy-to-clean slag. All positional, ease to use electrode for use on thicker steel than E6013. Especially suitable sheet metal lap joints and fillet welds, general purpose plate welding. A low-hydrogen, all-position electrode used when quality is an issue or for hard-to-weld metals. It has the capability of producing more uniform weld metal, which has better impact properties at low temperatures. Suitable for joining all cast irons except white cast iron. High corrosion resistances. Ideal for dairy work etc. Manual 0-5183���� 4-3���������� Operation THERMAL ARC 161 S OPERATION 4.05 GTAW Electrode Polarity Connect the TIG torch to the "-" Negative Output Terminal and the work lead to the "+" Positive Output Terminal for direct current straight polarity. Direct current straight polarity is the most widely used polarity for DC TIG welding. It allows limited wear of the electrode since 70% of the heat is concentrated at the work piece. 4.06 Guide for Selecting Filler Wire Filler Wire Diameter DC Current (Amps) 1.6mm (1/16") 20 - 90 2.4mm (3/32") 65 - 115 3.2mm (1/8") 100 - 165 4.07 Tungsten Electrode Current Ranges Electrode Diameter 1.0mm (.040” ) 1.6mm (1/16”) 2.4mm (3/32”) DC Current 25 - 85 50 - 160 135 - 235 4.08 Shielding Gas Selection Alloy Carbon Steel Stainless Steel Nickel Alloy Copper Titanium Shielding Gas Welding Argon Welding Argon Welding Argon Welding Argon Welding Argon 4.09 Tungsten Electrode Types Electrode Type (Ground Finish) Welding Application Features Colour Code Thoriated 2% DC welding of mild steel, stainless steel and copper. Excellent arc starting, long life, high current carrying capacity. Red Ceriated 2% AC & DC welding of mild steel, stainless Longer life, more stable arc, easier steel, copper, aluminium, magnesium and starting, wider current range, their alloys. narrower & more concentrated arc. Grey Operation���� 4-4������������� Manual 0-5183 OPERATION THERMAL ARC 161 s 4.10 TIG Welding Parameters for Steel DC Current Stainless Steel Electrode Diameter Filler Rod Diameter Argon Gas Flow Rate 35-45 20-30 40-50 25-35 1.0mm (.����� 040"�) 1.6mm (������ 1/16"�) 5 LPM 45-55 30-45 50-60 35-50 1.0mm (������ .040"�) 1.6mm (������ 1/16"�) 6 LPM 60-70 40-60 70-90 50-70 1.6mm (������ 1/16"�) 1.6mm (������ 1/16"�) 7 LPM 80-100 65-85 90-115 90-110 115-135 100-125 140-165 125-150 160-175 135-160 170-200 160-180 Base Metal Mild Steel Thickness 1.0mm� (������ .040"�) 1.2mm� (������ .045"�) 1.6mm (������ 1/16"�) 3.2mm (����� 1/8"�) 4.8mm (������ 3/16"�) 6.4mm� (����� 1/4"�) 1.6mm ������� (������ 1/16"�) 2.4mm��������� (������� 3/32"�) 7 LPM 2.4mm�������� (������ 3/32"�) 3.2mm������� (����� 1/8"�) 10 LPM 3.2mm ������ (����� 1/8"�) 4.0mm ������� (������ 5/32"�) 10 LPM Joint / Type Butt/Corner Lap/Filler Butt/Corner Lap/Filler Butt/Corner Lap/Filler Butt/Corner Lap/Filler Butt/Corner Lap/Filler Butt/Corner Lap/Filler 4.11 Arc Welding Practice The techniques used for arc welding are almost identical regardless of what types of metals are being joined. Naturally enough, different types of electrodes would be used for different metals as described in the preceding section. Manual 0-5183�4-5� ��� Operation ��������� THERMAL ARC 161 S OPERATION 4.12 Welding Position The electrodes dealt with in this publication can be used in most positions, i.e. they are suitable for welding in flat, horizontal, vertical and overhead positions. Numerous applications call for welds to be made in positions intermediate between these. Some of the common types of welds are shown in Figures 4-2 through 4-9. Art # A-07687 Figure 4-3: Flat position, down hand butt weld Art A-07691 Figure 4-7: Vertical position, butt weld Art # A-07688 Figure 4-4: Flat position, gravity fillet weld Art # A-07692 Figure 4-8: Vertical position, fillet weld Art # A-07689 Figure 4-5: Horizontal position, butt weld Art# A-07693 Figure 4-9: Overhead position, butt weld Art # A-07690 Figure 4-6: Horizontal - Vertical (HV) position Art # A-07694 Figure 4-10: Overhead position, fillet weld Operation���� 4-6������������� Manual 0-5183 OPERATION THERMAL ARC 161 s 4.13 Joint Preparations In many cases, it will be possible to weld steel sections without any special preparation. For heavier sections and for repair work on castings, etc., it will be necessary to cut or grind an angle between the pieces being joined to ensure proper penetration of the weld metal and to produce sound joints. In general, surfaces being welded should be clean and free of rust, scale, dirt, grease, etc. Slag should be removed from oxy-cut surfaces. Typical joint designs are shown in Figure 4-10. Single Vee Butt Joint Open Square Butt Joint Not less than 70° 1.6mm (1/16”) max Gap varies from 1.6mm (1/16”) to 4.8mm (3/16”) depending on plate thickness 1.6mm (1/16”) Single Vee Butt Joint Not less than 45° Double Vee Butt Joint Lap Joint Fillet Joint Corner Weld Plug Weld Not less than 70° 1.6mm (1/16”) max 1.6mm (1/16”) Tee Joints (Fillet both sides of the joint) Edge Joint Plug Weld Art # A-09916 Figure 4-11: Typical joint designs for arc welding Manual 0-5183���� 4-7���������� Operation THERMAL ARC 161 S 4.14 Arc Welding Technique A Word to Beginners For those who have not yet done any welding, the simplest way to commence is to run beads on a piece of scrap plate. Use mild steel plate about 6.4mm (��� ���� 1/4") thick and a ������ 3.2mm� (1/8") electrode. Clean any paint, loose scale or grease off the plate and set it firmly on the work bench so that welding can be carried out in the downhand position. Make sure that the work clamp is making good electrical contact with the work, either directly or through the work table. For light gauge material, always clamp the work lead directly to the job, OPERATION Another difficulty you may meet is the tendency, after the arc is struck, to withdraw the electrode so far that the arc is broken again. A little practice will soon remedy both of these faults. Art # A-07696 Figure 4-12: Striking an arc otherwise a poor circuit will probably result. 4.17 Arc Length 4.15 The Welder The securing of an arc length necessary to produce a neat weld soon becomes almost automatic. You will find that arc produces a crackling or spluttering noise and the weld metal comes across in large, irregular blobs. The weld bead is flattened and spatter increases. A short arc is essential if a high quality weld is to be obtained although if it is too short there is the danger of it being blanketed by slag and the electrode tip being solidified in. If this should happen, give the electrode a quick twist back over the weld to detach it. Contact or “touch-weld” electrodes such as E7014 electrode do not stick in this way, and make welding much easier. Place yourself in a comfortable position before beginning to weld. Get a seat of suitable height and do as much work as possible sitting down. Don’t hold your body tense. A taut attitude of mind and a tensed body will soon make you feel tired. Relax and you will find that the job becomes much easier. You can add much to your peace of mind by wearing a leather apron and gauntlets. You won’t be worrying then about being burnt or sparks setting alight to your clothes. Place the work so that the direction of welding is across, rather than to or from, your body. The electrode holder lead should be clear of any obstruction so that you can move your arm freely along as the electrode burns down. If the lead is slung over your shoulder, it allows greater freedom of movement and takes a lot of weight off your hand. Be sure the insulation on your cable and electrode holder is not faulty, otherwise you are risking an electric shock. 4.16 Striking the Arc Practice this on a piece of scrap plate before going on to more exacting work. You may at first experience difficulty due to the tip of the electrode “sticking” to the work piece. This is caused by making too heavy a contact with the work and failing to withdraw the electrode quickly enough. A low amperage will accentuate it. This freezing-on of the tip may be overcome by scratching the electrode along the plate surface in the same way as a match is struck. As soon as the arc is established, maintain a 1.6mm���������������������������������������� ��������������������������������������������� (�������������������������������������� 1/16" )������������������������������� to �������������������������� 3.2mm��������������������� (������������������� 1/8" )�������������� gap between the burning electrode end and the parent metal. Draw the electrode slowly along as it melts down. 4.18 Rate of Travel After the arc is struck, your next concern is to maintain it, and this requires moving the electrode tip towards the molten pool at the same rate as it is melting away. At the same time, the electrode has to move along the plate to form a bead. The electrode is directed at the weld pool at about 20° from the vertical. The rate of travel has to be adjusted so that a well-formed bead is produced. If the travel is too fast, the bead will be narrow and strung out and may even be broken up into individual globules. If the travel is too slow, the weld metal piles up and the bead will be too large. Operation���� 4-8������������� Manual 0-5183 OPERATION THERMAL ARC 161 s 4.19 Making Welded Joints Having attained some skill in the handling of an electrode, you will be ready to go on to make up welded joints. A. Butt Welds Set up two plates with their edges parallel, as shown in Figure 4-12, allowing 1.6mm ������������������������������� (������������������������ ������������������������� 1/16"������������������� ) to 2.4mm �������������� (������� �������� 3/32"��) gap between them and tack weld at both ends. This is to prevent contraction stresses from the cooling weld metal pulling the plates out of alignment. Plates thicker than ������������������������������������������������ 6.4mm������������������������������������������� (����������������������������������������� 1/4"������������������������������������� ) should have their mating edges bevelled to form a 70° to 90° included angle. This allows full penetration of the weld metal to the root. Using a 3.2mm ����������������������������������������������� (���������������������������������������������� 1/8"������������������������������������������ ) E7014 electrode at 120 amps, deposit a run of weld metal on the bottom of the joint. Do not weave the electrode, but maintain a steady rate of travel along the joint sufficient to produce a well-formed bead. At first you may notice a tendency for undercut to form, but keeping the arc length short, the angle of the electrode at about 20° from vertical, and the rate of travel not too fast, will help eliminate this. The electrode needs to be moved along fast enough to prevent the slag pool from getting ahead of the arc. To complete the joint in thin plate, turn the job over, clean the slag out of the back and deposit a similar weld. Art # A-07697 Figure 4-13: Butt weld Heavy plate will require several runs to complete the joint. After completing the first run, chip the slag out and clean the weld with a wire brush. It is important to do this to prevent slag being trapped by the second run. Subsequent runs are then deposited using either a weave technique or single beads laid down in the sequence shown in Figure 4-13. The width of weave should not be more than three times the core wire diameter of the electrode. When the joint is completely filled, the back is either machined, ground or gouged out to remove slag which may be trapped in the root, and to prepare a suitable joint for depositing the backing run. If a backing bar is used, it is not usually necessary to remove this, since it serves a similar purpose to the backing run in securing proper fusion at the root of the weld. B. Fillet Welds These are welds of approximately triangular cross-section made by depositing metal in the corner of two faces meeting at right angles. Refer to Figure 4-5. A piece of angle iron is a suitable specimen with which to begin, or two lengths of strip steel may be tacked together at right angles. Using a ������������������� 3.2mm ������������� (������������ 1/8"�������� ) E7014 electrode at 120 amps, position angle iron with one leg horizontal and the other vertical. This is known as a horizontal-vertical (HV) fillet. Strike the arc and immediately bring the electrode to a position perpendicular to the line of the fillet and about 45° from the vertical. Some electrodes require to be sloped about 20° away from the perpendicular position to prevent slag from running ahead of the weld. Refer to Figure 4-14. Do not attempt to build up much larger than �������������������������� 6.4mm �������������������� (������������������� 1/4"��������������� ) width with a 3.2mm (������������������������������������������������ ������������������������������������������������� 1/8"�������������������������������������������� ) electrode, otherwise the weld metal tends to sag towards the base, and undercut forms on the vertical leg. Multi-runs can be made as shown in Figure 4-15. Weaving in HV fillet welds is undesirable. Art # A-07698 Figure 4-14: Weld build up sequence Art # A-07699 Figure 4-15: Electrode position for HV fillet weld Manual 0-5183���� 4-9���������� Operation THERMAL ARC 161 S OPERATION Art # A-07702 Art # A-07700 Figure 4-16: Multi-runs in HV fillet weld C. Vertical Welds Figure 4-18: Multi run vertical fillet weld 1. Vertical Up Tack weld a three feet length of angle iron to your work bench in an upright position. Use a ������ 3.2mm (������������������������������������������������� 1/8"��������������������������������������������� ) E7014 electrode and set the current at 120 amps. Make yourself comfortable on a seat in front of the job and strike the arc in the corner of the fillet. The electrode needs to be about 10° from the horizontal to enable a good bead to be deposited. Refer Figure 4-16. Use a short arc, and do not attempt to weave on the first run. When the first run has been completed de-slag the weld deposit and begin the second run at the bottom. This time a slight weaving motion is necessary to cover the first run and obtain good fusion at the edges. At the completion of each side motion, pause for a moment to allow weld metal to build up at the edges, otherwise undercut will form and too much metal will accumulate in the centre of the weld. Figure 4-17 illustrates multi-run technique and Figure 4-18 shows the effects of pausing at the edge of weave and of weaving too rapidly. Art # A-07701 Figure 4-17: Single run vertical fillet weld Art # A-07703 Figure 4-19: Examples of vertical fillet welds 2. Vertical Down The E7014 electrode makes welding in this position particularly easy. Use a ������������� 3.2mm ������� (������ 1/8"��) electrode at 120 amps. The tip of the electrode is held in light contact with the work and the speed of downward travel is regulated so that the tip of the electrode just keeps ahead of the slag. The electrode should point upwards at an angle of about 45°. 3. Overhead Welds Apart from the rather awkward position necessary, overhead welding is not much more difficult that downhand welding. Set up a specimen for overhead welding by first tacking a length of angle iron at right angles to another piece of angle iron or a length of waste pipe. Then tack this to the work bench or hold in a vice so that the specimen is positioned in the overhead position as shown in the sketch. The electrode is held at 45° to the horizontal and tilted 10° in the line of travel (Figure 4-19). The tip of the electrode may be touched lightly on the metal, which helps to give a steady run. A weave technique is not advisable for overhead fillet welds. Use a 3.2mm������������������������������������� ������������������������������������������ (����������������������������������� 1/8"������������������������������� ) E6012 electrode at 120 amps, and deposit the first run by simply drawing the electrode along at a steady rate. You will notice Operation����� 4-10������������� Manual 0-5183 OPERATION THERMAL ARC 161 s that the weld deposit is rather convex, due to the effect of gravity before the metal freezes. Art # A-07704 Figure 4-20: Overhead fillet weld 4.20 Distortion Distortion in some degree is present in all forms of welding. In many cases it is so small that it is barely perceptible, but in other cases allowance has to be made before welding commences for the distortion that will subsequently occur. The study of distortion is so complex that only a brief outline can be attempted hear. 4.21 The Cause of Distortion Distortion is cause by: A. Contraction of Weld Metal: Molten steel shrinks approximately 11 per cent in volume on cooling to room temperature. This means that a cube of molten metal would contract approximately 2.2 per cent in each of its three dimensions. In a welded joint, the metal becomes attached to the side of the joint and cannot contract freely. Therefore, cooling causes the weld metal to flow plastically, that is, the weld itself has to stretch if it is to overcome the effect of shrinking volume and still be attached to the edge of the joint. If the restraint is very great, as, for example, in a heavy section of plate, the weld metal may crack. Even in cases where the weld metal does not crack, there will still remain stresses “locked-up” in the structure. If the joint material is relatively weak, for example, a butt joint in ����������� 2.0mm������ (���� 5/64") sheet, the contracting weld metal may cause the sheet to become distorted. B. Expansion and Contraction of Parent Metal in the Fusion Zone: While welding is proceeding, a relatively small volume of the adjacent plate material is heated to a very high temperature and attempts to expand in all directions. It is able to do his freely at right angles to the surface of the plate (i.e., “through the weld”), but when it attempts to expand “across the weld” or “along the weld”, it meets considerable resistance, and to fulfil the desire for continued expansion, it has to deform plastically, that is, the metal adjacent to the weld is at a high temperature and hence rather soft, and, by expanding, pushes against the cooler, harder metal further away, and tends to bulge (or is “upset”). When the weld area begins to cool, the “upset” metal attempts to contract as much as it expanded, but, because it has been “upset”, it does not resume its former shape, and the contraction of the new shape exerts a strong pull on adjacent metal. Several things can then happen. The metal in the weld area is stretched (plastic deformation), the job may be pulled out of shape by the powerful contraction stresses (distortion), or the weld may crack, in any case, there will remain “locked-up” stresses in the job. Figures 4-20 and 4- 21 illustrate how distortion is created. Art # A-07705 Figure 4-21: Parent metal expansion Art # A-07706 Figure 4-22: Parent metal contraction Manual 0-5183����� 4-11���������� Operation THERMAL ARC 161 S OPERATION 4.22 Overcoming Distortion Effects There are several methods of minimizing distortion effects. Art # A-07708 B Preheat C Weld Preheat A. Peening This is done by hammering the weld while it is still hot. The weld metal is flattened slightly and because of this the tensile stresses are reduced a little. The effect of peening is relatively shallow, and is not advisable on the last layer. Dotted lines show effect if no preheat is used Figure 4-24: Reduction of distortion by preheating B. Distribution of Stresses Art # A-07709 Distortion may be reduced by selecting a welding sequence which will distribute the stresses suitably so that they tend to cancel each other out. See Figures 4-25 through 4-28 for various weld sequences. Choice of a suitable weld sequence is probably the most effective method of overcoming distortion, although an unsuitable sequence may exaggerate it. Simultaneous welding of both sides of a joint by two welders is often successful in eliminating distortion. C. Restraint of Parts Forcible restraint of the components being welded is often used to prevent distortion. Jigs, positions, and tack welds are methods employed with this in view. Figure 4-25: Examples of distortion D. Presetting It is possible in some cases to tell from past experience or to find by trial and error (or less frequently, to calculate) how much distortion will take place in a given welded structure. By correct pre-setting of the components to be welded, constructional stresses can be made to pull the parts into correct alignment. A simple example is shown in Figure 4-22. Art # A-07710 Figure 4-26: Welding sequence E. Preheating Suitable preheating of parts of the structure other than the area to be welded can be sometimes used to reduce distortion. Figure 4-23 shows a simple application. By removing the heating source from b and c as soon as welding is completed, the sections b and c will contract at a similar rate, thus reducing distortion. Art # A-07711 Figure 4-27: Step back sequence Art # A-07707 Figure 4-23: Principle of presetting Operation����� 4-12������������� Manual 0-5183 OPERATION THERMAL ARC 161 s Art # A-07712 Figure 4-28: Chain intermittent welding Art # A-07713 Figure 4-29: Staggered intermittent welding Manual 0-5183����� 4-13���������� Operation THERMAL ARC 161 S OPERATION This Page Intentionally Blank. Operation����� 4-14������������� Manual 0-5183 SERVICE THERMAL ARC 161 s SECTION 5: SERVICE 5.01 Maintenance and Inspection The only routine maintenance required for the power supply is a thorough cleaning and inspection, with the frequency depending on the usage and the operating environment. To clean the unit, open the enclosure and use a vacuum cleaner to remove any accumulated dirt and dust. The unit should also be wiped clean, if necessary; with solvents that are recommended for cleaning electrical apparatus. CAUTION WARNING Do not blow air into the power supply during cleaning. Blowing air into the unit can cause metal particles to interfere with sensitive electrical components and cause damage to the unit. There are extremely dangerous voltages and power levels present inside this product. Disconnect primary power at the source before opening the enclosure. Wait at least two minutes before opening the enclosure to allow the primary capacitors to discharge. Warning! Disconnect input power before maintaining. Maintain more often if used under severe conditions Each Use Visual check of torch Consumable parts Visual check of regulator and pressure Weekly Visually inspect the torch body and consumables Visually inspect the cables and leads. Replace as needed 3 Months Replace all broken parts Clean exterior of power supply 6 Months Art # A-08549_AC Bring the unit to an authorized Thermal Arc Service Centre to remove any accumulated dirt and dust from the interior. This may need to be done more frequently under exceptionally dirty conditions. Manual 0-5183���� 5-1������� Service THERMAL ARC 161 S SERVICE 5.02 STICK (MMA) Welding Problems Description Possible Cause Remedy 1. Gas pockets or voids in weld metal A. Electrodes are damp. A. Dry electrodes before use. (Porosity). B. Welding current is too high. B. Reduce welding current. C. Surface impurities such as C. Clean joint before welding oil, grease, paint, etc. 2. Crack occurring in weld metal soon A. Rigidity of joint. A. Redesign to relieve weld joint after solidification commences. of severe stresses or use crack resistance electrodes. B. Insufficient throat thickness. B. Travel slightly slower to allow greater build up in throat. C. Cooling rate is too high. 3. A gap is left by failure of the weld A. Welding current is too low. metal to fill the root of the weld. B. Electrode too large for joint. Art # A-05866_AC Incorrect Sequence C. Preheat plate and cool slowly. A. Increase welding current B. Use smaller diameter electrode. C. Insufficient gap. C. Allow wider gap. D. Incorrect sequence. D. Use correct build-up sequence. Insufficient Gap 4. Portions of the weld run do not fuse A. Small electrodes used on to the surface of the metal or edge heavy cold plate. of the joint B. Welding current is too low. C. Wrong electrode angle. Lack of fusion caused by dirt, electrode angle incorrect, rate of travel too high Art # A-05867_AC Lack of side fusion, scale dirt, small electrode, amperage too low Lack of inter-run fusion Lack of root fusion A. Use larger electrodes and preheat the plate. B. Increase welding current C. Adjust angle so the welding arc is directed more into the base metal D. Travel speed of electrode is D. Reduce travel speed of electrode too high. E. Clean surface before welding. E. Scale or dirt on joint surface. 5. Non-metallic particles are trapped A. Non-metallic particles may A. If bad undercut is present, clean in the weld metal (slag inclusion). be trapped in undercut from slag out and cover with a run from a previous run. smaller diameter electrode. B. Joint preparation too restricted. B. Allow for adequate penetration and room for cleaning out the slag. Not cleaned, or incorrect electrode Slag trapped in undercut D. Lack of penetration with slag D. Use smaller electrode with sufficient trapped beneath weld bead. current to give adequate penetration. Use suitable tools to remove all slag from corners. Art # A-05868_AB Slag trapped in root C. Irregular deposits allow slag C. If very bad, chip or grind out to be trapped. irregularities. E. Rust or mill scale is preventing E. Clean joint before welding. full fusion. F. Wrong electrode for position F. Use electrodes designed for position in which welding is done. in which welding is done, otherwise proper control of slag is difficult. Service���� 5-2������������� Manual 0-5183 SERVICE THERMAL ARC 161 s 5.03 TIG Welding Problems Weld quality is dependent on the selection of the correct consumables, maintenance of equipment and proper welding technique. Description 1. Excessive bead build-up or poor penetration or poor fusion at edges of weld. 2. Weld bead too wide and flat or undercut at edges of weld or excessive burn through. 3. Weld bead too small or insufficient penetration or ripples in bead are widely spaced apart. 4. Weld bead too wide or excessive bead build up or excessive penetration in butt joint. 5. Uneven leg length in fillet joint. 6. Electrode melts when arc is struck. 7. Dirty weld pool. Possible Cause Welding current is too low Remedy Increase weld current and/or change joint preparation. Welding current is too high. Decrease welding current. Travel speed too fast. Reduce travel speed. Travel speed is too slow. Increase travel speed. Wrong placement of filler rod. Electrode is connected to the "+" Positive Output Terminal. A. Electrode contaminated through contact with work piece or filler rod material. B. Gas contaminated with air. 8. Poor weld finish. Inadequate shielding gas. 9. Arc flutters during TIG welding. Tungsten electrode is too large for the welding current. 10. W e l d i n g a r c c a n n o t b e established. A. Work clamp is not connected to the work piece or the work/ torch leads are not connected to the correct welding terminals. B. Torch lead is disconnected. 11. Electrode melts or oxidizes when an arc is struck. C. Gas flow incorrectly set, cylinder empty or the torch valve is off. A. No gas is flowing to welding region. B. Torch is clogged with dust. C. Gas hose is cut. D. Gas passage contains impurities. E. Gas regulator turned off. F. Torch valve is turned off. G. The electrode is too small for the welding current. Re-position filler rod. Connect the electrode to the "-" Negative Output Terminal. A. Clean the electrode by grinding contaminates off. B. Check gas lines for cuts and loose fitting or change gas cylinder. Increase gas flow or check gas line for problems Select the right size electrode. Refer to section Tungsten Electrode Current Ranges. A. Connect the work clamp to the work piece or connect the work/ torch leads to the correct welding terminals. B. Connect it to the "-" Negative Output Terminal. C. Select the right flow rate, change cylinder or turn torch valve on. A. Check the gas lines for kinks or breaks or cylinder contains gas. B. Clean torch. C. Replace gas hose. D. Disconnect gas hose from torch then raise gas pressure and blow out impurities. E. Turn on. F. Turn on. G. Increase electrode diameter or reduce the welding current. Manual 0-5183���� 5-3������� Service THERMAL ARC 161 S SERVICE TIG Welding Problems (Continued) Description 12. Arc start is not smooth. Possible Cause Remedy A. Tungsten electrode is too large for the welding current. B. The wrong electrode is being used for the welding job. C. Gas flow rate is too high. A. Refer to section Tungsten Electrode Current Ranges for the correct size. B. Refer to section Tungsten Electrode Types for the correct electrode type. C. Select the correct flow rate for the welding job. D. Use 100% argon for TIG welding. D. Incorrect shield gas is being used. E. Poor work clamp connection to work piece. E. Improve connection to work piece. WARNING There are extremely dangerous voltages and power levels present inside this product. Do not attempt to repair unless you are an Accredited Thermal Arc Service Agent and you have had training in power measurements and troubleshooting techniques. If major complex subassemblies are faulty, then the Welding Power Source must be returned to an Accredited Thermal Arc Service Agent for repair. 5.04 Power Source Problems Description 1. The welding arc cannot be established. Possible Cause A. The Primary supply voltage has not been switched ON. B. The Welding Power Source switch is switched OFF. C. Loose connections internally. 2. The welding arc cannot be established when the Warning Indicator lights up continuously 3. Maximum output welding current cannot be achieved with nominal Mains supply voltage. 4. Welding current reduces when welding. The machines duty cycle has been exceeded Remedy A. Switch ON the Primary supply voltage. B. Switch ON the Welding Power Source. C. Have an Accredited Thermal Arc Service Provider repair the connection. Wait for the ��������������������� Warning ������������� Indicator to extinguish before resuming welding Defective control circuit Have an Accredited Thermal Arc Service Provider inspect then repair the welder. Poor work lead connection to the work piece. Ensure that the work lead has a positive electrical connection to the work piece. 5. Circuit breaker (or fuse) trips during welding. The circuit breaker (or fuse) is under size. 6.����������������������� The welding arc cannot be established when Fault Indicator is flashing. The input current to the main transformer has been exceeded. The recommended circuit breaker (or fuse) size is 32 amp for 110V or 32 amp for 230V that complies with all applicable local electrical codes. Have an Accredited Thermal Arc Service Provider inspect then repair the welder. Service���� 5-4������������� Manual 0-5183 APPENDIX THERMAL ARC 161 s APPENDIX 1: OPTIONS AND ACCESSORIES Description USA Graphics Auto-Darkening welding helmet, spare cover lens and operating manual Canadian Graphics Auto-Darkening welding helmet, spare cover lens and operating manual Claret Colour Auto-Darkening welding helmet, spare cover lens and operating manual Black Graphics Auto-Darkening welding helmet, spare cover lens and operating manual Manual 0-5183 A-1 Part Number W4011700 W4011800 W4011900 W4012000 Appendix THERMAL ARC 161S APPENDIX APPENDIX 2: REPLACEMENT PARTS Item No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Description Part No. Handle,161S,201TS Panel,Cover, 161S Resistor, 4 ohm, 60W Rectifier Bridge, 700V,50A Thermistor,161S PCB Control,161S PCB,Power,161S PCB,Front Control,161S Insulation Sheet,161S Panel,Front,161S Label,Front Controls,161S Knob,control,Red,20 ODx6 ID Boot,Rubber,Mode Switch Terminal,Output,50mm Dinse Panel,Base,161S Fan,24V DC,161,201TS Panel,Rear,161S Switch,On/Off,161S Capacitor,10uF,300VAC Current Sensor,161S,201TS W7003040 W7003051 W7003055 W7003010 W7003016 W7003091 W7003061 W7003047 W7003060 W7003092 W7003093 W7003079 W7003064 W7003020 W7003073 W7003009 W7003054 W7003053 W7003094 W7003076 Reference Designator R1 THC1, THC2 PCB2 PCB1 PCB3 SW1 WARNING There are extremely dangerous voltages and power levels present inside this product. Do not attempt to repair unless you are an Accredited Thermal Arc Service Agent and you have had training in power measurements and troubleshooting techniques. If major complex subassemblies are faulty, then the Welding Power Source must be returned to an Accredited Thermal Arc Service Agent for repair. Appendix A-2 Manual 0-5183 APPENDIX THERMAL ARC 161 s 1 2 19 3 18 4 5 6 17 7 16 9 10 8 11 12 13 14 Art # A-09931_AB Manual 0-5183 15 20 A-3 Appendix Live (Brown) Neutral (Blue) Earth (Green / Yellow) SHEETMETAL COVER 60W4Ω ACOUT J10-2 RX J10-1 1 J2,J3 J6 ACOUT BLACK 4 DC DC + RED G PFC CIRCUIT 1 J7 2 8 3 FAN 2 APPENDIX 3: SYSTEM SCHEMATIC J8-2 J8-1 GND -24V IFB J6 J3 MBIN IMOUT J4 J5 GND N/A J4-3 J4-4 J4-5 J4-6 J11-3 J11-2 J11-1 J11-5 J11-4 Fault J4-2 MBIN J4-1 Process Switch - NEG +15V Current Sensor POS + POT WIPER IFB +15V CONNECTOR LAYOUT DIAGRAM WVIN WVIN GND OT J7 J3-8 FJ J8 J2-8 FJ J3-7 Over Current Signal GND J3-6 J2-7 J7-3 J2-6 J7-2 J1 JC J3-5 GND Over Current Signal VRD OFF 1 J2-5 +15V J3-4 IGBT Driver B OT J2-4 ON J3-3 IGBT Driver A Control PCB2 IMOUT J3-2 J2-3 ON BLACK IN J3-1 J2-2 J7-1 JC RED G G J2-1 +15V 115VAC STICK --1.5VDC 115VAC LIFT TIG --4.5VDC 230VAC --0.5VDC JC 6 2 -24V GND BLACK RED 1 J10,J5 Main Power PCB1 1 J4,J11 1 J1,J8,J9 FAULT STICK LIFT TIG CURRENT CONTROL AC PROCESS SELECTOR Front Panel PCB3 Art # A-09196 -15V Current Feedback J6-4 GRAY J6-3 WHITE J6-2 YELLOW J5-2 RED J5-1 BLACK J6-1 RED J1-1 J9-2 J1-2 J9-1 C1 1 VIEWED FROM COMPONENT SIDE OF BOARD PCB MOUNTED HARNESS CONNECTORS PIN OUT D S D S Manual 0-5183 A-4 Appendix D S APPENDIX THERMAL ARC 161S LIMITED WARRANTY & WARRANTY SCHEDULE In accordance with the warranty periods stated below, Thermadyne guarantees the proposed product to be free from defects in material or workmanship when operated in accordance with the written instructions as defined in this operating manual. Thermadyne welding products are manufactured for use by commercial and industrial users and trained personnel with experience in the use and maintenance of electrical welding and cutting equipment. Thermadyne will repair or replace, at its discretion, any warranted parts or components that fail due to defects in material or workmanship within the warranty period. The warranty period begins on the date of sale to the end user. Welding Equipment - Limited Warranty Period Product Period Thermal Arc 161S Electrode holder and work lead 2 Years 30 Days If warranty is being sought Thermadyne must be notified in writing within 30 days of the failure and at such time we will make arrangements to fulfil the warranty claim. Please contact your Thermadyne product supplier for the warranty repair procedure. Thermadyne warranty will not apply to: • Equipment that has been modified by any other party other than Thermadyne’s own service personnel or with prior written consent obtained from Thermadyne service department (UK). • Equipment that has been used beyond the speciﬁcations established in the operating manual. • Installation not in accordance with the installation/operating manual. • Any product that has been subjected to abuse, misuse, negligence, accident, improper care and/or maintenance including lack of lubrication, maintenance and protection, will be refused warranty. • Failure to clean and maintain the machine as set forth in the operating, installation or service manual. Within this operating manual are details regarding the maintenance necessary to ensure trouble free operation. This manual also offers basic troubleshooting, operational and technical details including application usage. Using this manual correctly will ensure the quickest time possible for resolving any technical questions, application issues or defects with your Thermadyne product. You may also wish to visit our web site www.thermadyne.com select your product class and then select literature. Here you will find documentation including: • Operator manuals • Service manuals • Product guides Alternatively please contact your Thermadyne distributor and speak with a technical representative. NOTE Warranty repairs must be performed by either a Thermadyne Service Centre, a Thermadyne distributor or an Authorised Service Agent approved by the Company. Customer Care UK: +44 (0)1257 261 755 / Fax: +44 (0)1257 224 800 Customer Care Italy +39 02 36546801 / Fax: +39 02 36546480 www.thermadyne.com A Global Cutting & Welding Market Leader™ WORLD HEADQUARTERS: THE AMERICAS Denton, TX USA U.S. Customer Care Ph: 1-800-426-1888 (tollfree) Fax: 1-800-535-0557 (tollfree) International Customer Care Ph: 1-940-381-1212 Fax: 1-940-483-8178 16052 Swingley Ridge Road, Suite 300 EUROPE ASIA/PACIFIC Miami, FL USA Sales Office, Latin America Ph: 1-954-727-8371 Fax: 1-954-727-8376 Chorley, United Kingdom Customer Care Ph: +44 1257-261755 Fax: +44 1257-224800 Cikarang, Indonesia Customer Care Ph: 6221-8990-6095 Fax: 6221-8990-6096 Oakville, Ontario, Canada Canada Customer Care Ph: 1-905-827-4515 Fax: 1-800-588-1714 (tollfree) Milan, Italy Customer Care Ph: +39 0236546801 Fax: +39 0236546840 Rawang, Malaysia Customer Care Ph: +603 6092-2988 Fax: +603 6092-1085 Form No. 0-5183 (01/30/2011) © 2010 Thermadyne Industries, Inc. • St. Louis, Missouri 63017 Melbourne, Australia Australia Customer Care Ph: 1300-654-674 (tollfree) Ph: 61-3-9474-7400 Fax: 61-3-9474-7391 International Ph: 61-3-9474-7508 Fax: 61-3-9474-7488 www.thermadyne.com U.S.A. Shanghai, China Sales Office Ph: +86 21-64072626 Fax: +86 21-64483032 Singapore Sales Office Ph: +65 6832-8066 Fax: +65 6763-5812 Printed in U.S.A.
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