161 S THERMAL ARC

161 S THERMAL ARC
161 S
THERMAL ARC
®
Inverter Arc Welder
Art#:A-09901
Operating Manual
Revision: AA
Issue Date: January 30, 2011
Operating Features:
Manual No.: 0-5183
50Hz
60
WE APPRECIATE YOUR BUSINESS!
Congratulations on your new Thermal Arc product. We are proud
to have you as our customer and will strive to provide you with
the best service and reliability in the industry. This product
is backed by our extensive warranty and world-wide service
network. To locate your nearest distributor or service agency call
+44 (0) 1257 261 755, or visit us on the web at www.Thermalarc.
com.
This Operating Manual has been designed to instruct you on the
correct use and operation of your Thermal Arc product. Your
satisfaction with this product and its safe operation is our ultimate
concern. Therefore please take the time to read the entire manual,
especially the Safety Precautions. They will help you to avoid potential
hazards that may exist when working with this product.
YOU ARE IN GOOD COMPANY!
The Brand of Choice for Contractors and Fabricators Worldwide.
Thermal Arc is a Global Brand of Arc Welding Products for Thermadyne
Industries Inc. We manufacture and supply to major welding industry
sectors worldwide including; Manufacturing, Construction, Mining,
Automotive, Aerospace, Engineering, Rural and DIY/Hobbyist.
We distinguish ourselves from our competition through marketleading, dependable products that have stood the test of time. We
pride ourselves on technical innovation, competitive prices, excellent
delivery, superior customer service and technical support, together
with excellence in sales and marketing expertise.
Above all, we are committed to develop technologically advanced
products to achieve a safer working environment within the welding
industry.
!
WARNINGS
Read and understand this entire Manual and your employer’s safety practices before installing,
operating, or servicing the equipment.
While the information contained in this Manual represents the Manufacturer’s best judgment, the
Manufacturer assumes no liability for its use.
Operating Manual Number 0-5183 for:
Thermal Arc 161 S Power Source Arc Welder
Thermal Arc 161 S System with Stick Kit & Case Part No. W1003604
Part No. W1003605
Published by:
Thermadyne Europe
Europa Building
Chorley Industrial Park
Chorley, Lancaster,
England, PR6 7BX
www.thermalarc.com
Copyright © 2010 by
Thermadyne Industries Inc.
® All rights reserved.
Reproduction of this work, in whole or in part, without written permission of the publisher is prohibited.
The publisher does not assume and hereby disclaims any liability to any party for any loss or damage
caused by any error or omission in this Manual, whether such error results from negligence, accident, or
any other cause.
Publication Date: January 30, 2011
Record the following information for Warranty purposes:
Where Purchased:
_____________________________________
Purchase Date:
_____________________________________
Equipment Serial #:
_____________________________________
i
TABLE OF CONTENTS
SECTION 1:SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS AND WARNINGS................................................. 1-1
1.01
1.02
1.03
1.04
1.05
Arc Welding Hazards........................................................................................ 1-1
General Safety Information for Victor CS Regulator........................................... 1-4
Principal Safety Standards.....................................................................................
Symbol Chart................................................................................................... 1-6
Declaration Of Conformity............................................................................... 1-7
SECTION 2:INTRODUCTION................................................................................ 2-1
2.01
2.02
2.03
2.04
2.05
2.06
2.07
How to Use This Manual.................................................................................. 2-1
Equipment Identification.................................................................................. 2-1
Receipt of Equipment....................................................................................... 2-1
Description...................................................................................................... 2-1
Transportation Methods................................................................................... 2-1
Duty Cycle........................................................................................................ 2-1
Specifications.................................................................................................. 2-2
SECTION 3:INSTALLATION................................................................................. 3-1
3.01
3.02
3.03
3.04
3.05
3.06
3.07
Environment.................................................................................................... 3-1
Location........................................................................................................... 3-1
Electrical Input Connections............................................................................ 3-1
Electromagnetic Compatibility......................................................................... 3-3
Setup for Welding............................................................................................ 3-4
STICK (MMA) Setup........................................................................................ 3-5
LIFT TIG (GTAW) Setup................................................................................... 3-6
TABLE OF CONTENTS
SECTION 4:OPERATION..................................................................................... 4-1
4.01
4.02
4.03
4.04
4.05
4.06
4.07
4.08
4.09
4.10
4.11
4.12
4.13
4.14
4.15
4.16
4.17
4.18
4.19
4.20
4.21
4.22
Front Panel...................................................................................................... 4-1
Welding Current Control Explanation............................................................... 4-2
STICK (MMA) Electrode Polarity...................................................................... 4-2
Effects of Stick Welding Various Materials....................................................... 4-3
GTAW Electrode Polarity.................................................................................. 4-4
Guide for Selecting Filler Wire......................................................................... 4-4
Tungsten Electrode Current Ranges................................................................. 4-4
Shielding Gas Selection................................................................................... 4-4
Tungsten Electrode Types................................................................................ 4-4
TIG Welding Parameters for Steel.................................................................... 4-5
Arc Welding Practice........................................................................................ 4-5
Welding Position.............................................................................................. 4-6
Joint Preparations............................................................................................ 4-7
Arc Welding Technique.................................................................................... 4-8
The Welder....................................................................................................... 4-8
Striking the Arc................................................................................................ 4-8
Arc Length....................................................................................................... 4-8
Rate of Travel................................................................................................... 4-8
Making Welded Joints...................................................................................... 4-9
Distortion....................................................................................................... 4-11
The Cause of Distortion................................................................................. 4-11
Overcoming Distortion Effects....................................................................... 4-12
SECTION 5:SERVICE........................................................................................ 5-1
5.01
5.02
5.03
5.04
Maintenance and Inspection............................................................................ 5-1
STICK (MMA) Welding Problems ................................................................... 5-2
TIG Welding Problems . .................................................................................. 5-3
Power Source Problems ................................................................................. 5-4
APPENDIX 1: OPTIONS AND ACCESSORIES............................................................. A-1
APPENDIX 2: REPLACEMENT PARTS..................................................................... A-2
APPENDIX 3: SYSTEM SCHEMATIC ...................................................................... A-4
LIMITED WARRANTY & WARRANTY SCHEDULE
Thermal Arc 161S Stick System
Part Number W1003605
•
Thermal Arc 161S power supply in toolbox
•
Electrode holder, 5m (16.4ft)
•
Work lead, 5m (16.4ft)
•
4 GP 3.2mm (1/8") dia stick electrodes
•
Operating manual
Art# A-09913
SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS
THERMAL ARC 161 S
SECTION 1:
SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS AND WARNINGS
!
WARNING
PROTECT YOURSELF AND OTHERS FROM POSSIBLE SERIOUS INJURY OR DEATH. KEEP CHILDREN AWAY. PACEMAKER WEARERS
KEEP AWAY UNTIL CONSULTING YOUR DOCTOR. DO NOT LOSE THESE INSTRUCTIONS. READ OPERATING/INSTRUCTION MANUAL
BEFORE INSTALLING, OPERATING OR SERVICING THIS EQUIPMENT.
Welding products and welding processes can cause serious injury or death, or damage to other equipment or property, if the operator does
not strictly observe all safety rules and take precautionary actions.
Safe practices have developed from past experience in the use of welding and cutting. These practices must be learned through study and
training before using this equipment. Some of these practices apply to equipment connected to power lines; other practices apply to engine
driven equipment. Anyone not having extensive training in welding and cutting practices should not attempt to weld.
Safe practices are outlined in the American National Standard Z49.1 entitled: SAFETY IN WELDING AND CUTTING. This publication and other
guides to what you should learn before operating this equipment are listed at the end of these safety precautions. HAVE ALL INSTALLATION,
OPERATION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR WORK PERFORMED ONLY BY QUALIFIED PEOPLE.
1.01 Arc Welding Hazards
8. Do not use worn, damaged, undersized, or poorly spliced
cables.
9. Do not wrap cables around your body.
10. Ground the workpiece to a good electrical (earth) ground.
11. Do not touch electrode while in contact with the work (ground)
circuit.
WARNING
ELECTRIC SHOCK can kill.
12. Use only well-maintained equipment. Repair or replace damaged
parts at once.
Touching live electrical parts can cause fatal shocks
or severe burns. The electrode and work circuit is
electrically live whenever the output is on. The input
power circuit and machine internal circuits are also
live when power is on. In semi-automatic or automatic
wire welding, the wire, wire reel, drive roll housing, and
all metal parts touching the welding wire are electrically live. Incorrectly installed or improperly grounded
equipment is a hazard.
13. In confined spaces or damp locations, do not use a welder with
AC output unless it is equipped with a voltage reducer. Use
equipment with DC output.
14. Wear a safety harness to prevent falling if working above floor
level.
15. Keep all panels and covers securely in place.
1. Do not touch live electrical parts.
2. Wear dry, hole-free insulating gloves and body protection.
WARNING
3. Insulate yourself from work and ground using dry insulating
mats or covers.
4. Disconnect input power or stop engine before installing or
servicing this equipment. Lock input power disconnect switch
open, or remove line fuses so power cannot be turned on
accidentally.
ARC RAYS can burn eyes and skin; NOISE can damage
hearing. Arc rays from the welding process produce
intense heat and strong ultraviolet rays that can
burn eyes and skin. Noise from some processes can
damage hearing.
5. Properly install and ground this equipment according to its
Owner’s Manual and national, state, and local codes.
1. Wear a welding helmet fitted with a proper shade of filter (see
ANSI Z49.1 listed in Safety Standards) to protect your face and
eyes when welding or watching.
6. Turn off all equipment when not in use. Disconnect power to
equipment if it will be left unattended or out of service.
2. Wear approved safety glasses. Side shields recommended.
3. Use protective screens or barriers to protect others from flash
and glare; warn others not to watch the arc.
7. Use fully insulated electrode holders. Never dip holder in water
to cool it or lay it down on the ground or the work surface. Do
not touch holders connected to two welding machines at the
same time or touch other people with the holder or electrode.
4. Wear protective clothing made from durable, flame-resistant
material (wool and leather) and foot protection.
5. Use approved ear plugs or ear muffs if noise level is high.
Manual 0-5183
1-1
Safety Instructions
THERMAL ARC 161 S
SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS
WARNING
WARNING
WELDING can cause fire or explosion.
FUMES AND GASES can be hazardous to your
health.
Welding produces fumes and gases. Breathing these
fumes and gases can be hazardous to your health.
1. Keep your head out of the fumes. Do not breathe the fumes.
2. If inside, ventilate the area and/or use exhaust at the arc to
remove welding fumes and gases.
3. If ventilation is poor, use an approved air-supplied respirator.
4. Read the Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs) and the
manufacturer’s instruction for metals, consumables, coatings,
and cleaners.
5. Work in a confined space only if it is well ventilated, or while
wearing an air-supplied respirator. Shielding gases used for
welding can displace air causing injury or death. Be sure the
breathing air is safe.
6. Do not weld in locations near degreasing, cleaning, or spraying
operations. The heat and rays of the arc can react with vapours
to form highly toxic and irritating gases.
7. Do not weld on coated metals, such as galvanized, lead, or
cadmium plated steel, unless the coating is removed from the
weld area, the area is well ventilated, and if necessary, while
wearing an air-supplied respirator. The coatings and any metals
containing these elements can give off toxic fumes if welded.
Sparks and spatter fly off from the welding arc.
The flying sparks and hot metal, weld spatter, hot
workpiece, and hot equipment can cause fires and
burns. Accidental contact of electrode or welding
wire to metal objects can cause sparks, overheating,
or fire.
1. Protect yourself and others from flying sparks and hot metal.
2. Do not weld where flying sparks can strike flammable
material.
3. Remove all flammables within ������������������������������
10.7 m �����������������������
(����������������������
35 ft�����������������
) of the welding
arc. If this is not possible, tightly cover them with approved
covers.
4. Be alert that welding sparks and hot materials from welding
can easily go through small cracks and openings to adjacent
areas.
5. Watch for fire, and keep a fire extinguisher nearby.
6. Be aware that welding on a ceiling, floor, bulkhead, or partition
can cause fire on the hidden side.
7. Do not weld on closed containers such as tanks or drums.
8. Connect work cable to the work as close to the welding area
as practical to prevent welding current from travelling long,
Eye protection filter shade selector for welding or cutting
(goggles or helmet), from AWS A6.2-73.
Welding or Cutting
Operation
Electrode Size
Metal Thickness
or Welding Current
Torch soldering
Torch brazing
Oxygen Cutting
Light
Under 1 in., 25 mm
Medium 1 to 6 in., 25-150 mm
Heavy
Over 6 in., 150 mm
Gas welding
Light
Under 1/8 in., 3 mm
Medium 1/8 to 1/2 in., 3-12 mm
Heavy
Over 1/2 in., 12 mm
Shielded metal-arc
welding
Under 5/32 in., 4 mm
(stick) electrodes
5/32 to 1/4 in.,
4 to 6.4 mm
Over 1/4 in., 6.4 mm
Safety Instructions
Filter
Shade
No.
2
3 or 4
3 or 4
4 or 5
5 or 6
4 or 5
5 or 6
6 or 8
10
Welding or Cutting
Operation
Gas metal-arc
welding (MIG)
Non-ferrous base metal
Non-ferrous base metal
Gas tungsten arc welding
(TIG)
Atomic hydrogen welding
Carbon arc welding
Plasma arc welding
Carbon arc air gouging
Light
Electrode Size Filter
Metal Thickness Shade
No.
or Welding
All
All
All
All
All
All
Heavy
11
12
12
12
12
12
12
14
Plasma arc cutting
12
14
Light Under 300 Amp
Medium 300 to 400 Amp
Heavy Over 400 Amp
1-2
9
12
14
Manual 0-5183
SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS
THERMAL ARC 161 S
possibly unknown paths and causing electric shock and fire
hazards.
9. Do not use welder to thaw frozen pipes.
WARNING
10. Remove stick electrode from holder or cut off welding wire at
contact tip when not in use.
ENGINE EXHAUST GASES can kill.
Engines produce harmful exhaust gases.
1. Use equipment outside in open, well-ventilated areas.
WARNING
2. If used in a closed area, vent engine exhaust outside and away
from any building air intakes.
FLYING SPARKS AND HOT METAL can cause injury.
Chipping and grinding cause flying metal. As welds
cool, they can throw off slag.
WARNING
1. Wear approved face shield or safety goggles. Side shields
recommended.
ENGINE FUEL can cause fire or explosion.
2. Wear proper body protection to protect skin.
Engine fuel is highly flammable.
1. Stop engine before checking or adding fuel.
WARNING
2. Do not add fuel while smoking or if unit is near any sparks or
open flames.
CYLINDERS can explode if damaged.
3. Allow engine to cool before fuelling. If possible, check and add
fuel to cold engine before beginning job.
Shielding gas cylinders contain gas under high
pressure. If damaged, a cylinder can explode. Since
gas cylinders are normally part of the welding process,
be sure to treat them carefully.
4. Do not overfill tank — allow room for fuel to expand.
5. Do not spill fuel. If fuel is spilled, clean up before starting
engine.
1. Protect compressed gas cylinders from excessive heat,
mechanical shocks, and arcs.
2. Install and secure cylinders in an upright position by chaining
them to a stationary support or equipment cylinder rack to
prevent falling or tipping.
3. Keep cylinders away from any welding or other electrical
circuits.
WARNING
MOVING PARTS can cause injury.
Moving parts, such as fans, rotors, and belts can cut fingers and
hands and catch loose clothing.
4. Never allow a welding electrode to touch any cylinder.
5. Use only correct shielding gas cylinders, regulators, hoses, and
fittings designed for the specific application; maintain them and
associated parts in good condition.
1. Keep all doors, panels, covers, and guards closed and
securely in place.
2. Stop engine before installing or connecting unit.
6. Turn face away from valve outlet when opening cylinder
valve.
3. Have only qualified people remove guards or covers for
maintenance and troubleshooting as necessary.
7. Keep protective cap in place over valve except when cylinder is
in use or connected for use.
4. To prevent accidental starting during servicing, disconnect
negative (-) battery cable from battery.
8. Read and follow instructions on compressed gas cylinders,
associated equipment, and CGA publication P-1 listed in Safety
Standards.
5. Keep hands, hair, loose clothing, and tools away from
moving parts.
!
6. Reinstall panels or guards and close doors when servicing
is finished and before starting engine.
WARNING
Engines can be dangerous.
WARNING
SPARKS can cause BATTERY GASES TO EXPLODE;
BATTERY ACID can burn eyes and skin.
Manual 0-5183
1-3
Safety Instructions
THERMAL ARC 161 S
SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS
Batteries contain acid and generate explosive gases.
1. Always wear a face shield when working on a battery.
2. Stop engine before disconnecting or connecting battery
cables.
3. Do not allow tools to cause sparks when working on a
battery.
4. Do not use welder to charge batteries or jump start vehicles.
5. Observe correct polarity (+ and –) on batteries.
!
ABOUT PACEMAKERS:
The above procedures are among those also normally
recommended for pacemaker wearers. Consult your
doctor for complete information.
1.02 General Safety Information for
Victor CS Regulator
A Fire Prevention
Welding and cutting operations use fire or combustion as a basic
tool. The process is very useful when properly controlled. ­ However,
it can be extremely destructive if not performed cor­rectly in the
proper environment.
WARNING
STEAM AND PRESSURIZED HOT COOLANT can burn
face, eyes, and skin.
1. The work area must have a fireproof floor.
The coolant in the radiator can be very hot and under
pressure.
2. Work benches or tables used during welding or cutting
operations must have fireproof tops.
1. Do not remove radiator cap when engine is hot. Allow engine
to cool.
3. Use heat resistant shields or other approved material to
protect nearby walls or unprotected flooring from sparks and
hot metal.
2. Wear gloves and put a rag over cap area when removing cap.
3. Allow pressure to escape before completely removing cap.
NOTE
Considerations About Welding And The Effects of Low
Frequency Electric and Magnetic Fields
5. Move combustible materials away from the work site. If you
­can not move them, protect them with fireproof covers. ­
The following is a quotation from the General Conclusions Section
of the U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment, Biological
Effects of Power Frequency Electric & Magnetic Fields - Background
Paper, OTA-BP-E-63 (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing
Office, May 1989): “...there is now a very large volume of scientific
findings based on experiments at the cellular level and from studies
with animals and people which clearly establish that low frequency
magnetic fields interact with, and produce changes in, biological
systems. While most of this work is of very high quality, the results
are complex. Current scientific understanding does not yet allow
us to interpret the evidence in a single coherent framework. Even
more frustrating, it does not yet allow us to draw definite conclusions about questions of possible risk or to offer clear science-based
advice on strategies to minimize or avoid potential risks.”
To reduce magnetic fields in the workplace, use the following
procedures.
1. Keep cables close together by twisting or taping them.
2. Arrange cables to one side and away from the operator.
3. Do not coil or drape cable around the body.
4. Keep welding power source and cables as far away from
body as practical.
Safety Instructions
4. Keep an approved fire extinguisher of the proper size and
type in the work area. Inspect it regularly to ensure that
it is in proper working order. Know how to use the fire
extin­guisher.
1-4
!
WARNING
NEVER perform welding, heating, or cutting operations
on a container that has held toxic, combustible
or flammable liq­uids, or vapours. NEVER perform
welding, heating, or cutting operations in an area
containing combustible vapours, flam­mable liquids,
or explosive dust.
B Housekeeping
!
WARNING
NEVER allow oxygen to contact grease, oil, or other
flam­mable substances. Although oxygen by itself will
not burn, these substances become highly explosive.
They can ignite and burn violently in the presence of
oxygen.
Keep ALL apparatus clean and free of grease, oil and other flammable substances.
Manual 0-5183
SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS
THERMAL ARC 161 S
C Ventilation
!
!
WARNING
Cylinders are highly pressurized. Handle with care.
Serious accidents can result from improper handling
or mis­use of compressed gas cylinders DO NOT drop
the cylinder, knock it over, or expose it to excessive
heat, flames or sparks. DO NOT strike it against other
cylinders. Contact your gas supplier or refer to CGA
P-1 “Safe Handling of Compressed Gases in Containers” publication.
Ade­quately ventilate welding, heating, and cutting
work areas to prevent accumulation of explosive or
toxic concen­trations of gases. Certain combinations
of metals, coatings, and gases generate toxic fumes.
Use respiratory protection equipment in these circumstances. When welding/brazing, read and understand
the Material Safety Data Sheet for the welding/brazing
alloy.
NOTE
D Personal Protection
CGA P-1 publication is available by writing the Compressed Gas Association, 4221 Walney Road, 5th
Floor, Chantilly,VA 20151-2923
Gas flames produce infrared radiation which may have a harm­ful
effect on the skin and especially on the eyes. Select goggles or a
mask with tempered lenses, shaded 4 or darker, to protect your eyes
from injury and provide good visibility of the work.
2. Place the valve protection cap on the cylinder whenever
mov­ing it, placing it in storage, or not using it. Never drag
or roll cylinders in any way. Use a suitable hand truck to
move cylin­ders.
Always wear protective gloves and flame-resistant clothing to protect
skin and clothing from sparks and slag. Keep collars, sleeves, and
pockets buttoned. DO NOT roll up sleeves or cuff pants.
3. Store empty cylinders away from full cylinders. Mark them
“EMPTY” and close the cylinder valve.
When working in a non-welding or cutting environment, always wear
suitable eye protection or face shield.
!
WARNING
4. NEVER use compressed gas cylinders without a pressure
reducing regulator attached to the cylinder valve. ­
5. Inspect the cylinder valve for oil, grease, and damaged
parts.
WARNING
Practice the following safety and operation precautions
EVERY TIME you use pressure regulation equipment.
Deviation from the following safety and operation
instructions can result in fire, explosion, damage to
equipment, or injury to the operator.
!
WARNING
DO NOT use the cylinder if you find oil, grease or damaged parts. Inform your gas supplier of this condition
immediately.
E Compressed Gas Cylinders
The Department of Transportation (DOT) approves the design and
manufacture of cylinders that contain gases used for welding or
cutting operations.
6. Momentarily open and close (called “cracking”) the cylinder
valve to dislodge any dust or dirt that may be present in the
valve.
1. Place the cylinder (Figure 1-1) where you will use it. Keep
the cylinder in a vertical position. Secure it to a cart, wall, work
bench, post, etc.
CAUTION
Open the cylinder valve slightly. If you open the valve
too much, the cylinder could tip over. When cracking
the cylinder valve, DO NOT stand directly in front of
the cylinder valve. Always perform cracking in a well
ventilated area. If an acetylene cylinder sprays a mist
when cracked, let it stand for 15 minutes. Then, try to
crack the cylinder valve again. If this problem persists,
contact your gas supplier.
Figure 1-1: Gas Cylinders
Manual 0-5183
1-5
Safety Instructions
THERMAL ARC 161 S
SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS
1.04 Symbol Chart
Note that only some of these symbols will appear on your model.
On
Single Phase
Wire Feed Function
Off
Three Phase
Wire Feed Towards
Workpiece With
Output Voltage Off.
Dangerous Voltage
Three Phase Static
Frequency ConverterTransformer-Rectifier
Welding Gun
Increase/Decrease
Remote
Purging Of Gas
Duty Cycle
Continuous Weld
Mode
Percentage
Spot Weld Mode
Circuit Breaker
AC Auxiliary Power
115V 15A
X
%
Fuse
Panel/Local
Amperage
Shielded Metal
Arc Welding (MMA)
Voltage
Gas Metal Arc
Welding (GMAW)
Hertz (cycles/sec)
Gas Tungsten Arc
Welding (GTAW)
Frequency
Air Carbon Arc
Cutting (CAC-A)
Negative
Constant Current
Positive
Constant Voltage
Or Constant Potential
Direct Current (DC)
High Temperature
Protective Earth
(Ground)
Fault Indication
Line
Arc Force
Line Connection
Touch Start (GTAW)
Auxiliary Power
Variable Inductance
Receptacle RatingAuxiliary Power
Safety Instructions
V
t
Spot Time
Preflow Time
t1
t2
Postflow Time
2 Step Trigger
Operation
Press to initiate wirefeed and
welding, release to stop.
4 Step Trigger
Operation
Press and hold for preflow, release
to start arc. Press to stop arc, and
hold for preflow.
t
Burnback Time
IPM
Inches Per Minute
MPM
Meters Per Minute
Voltage Input
Art # A-09917
1-6
Manual 0-5183
SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS
THERMAL ARC 161 S
1.05 Declaration Of Conformity
Manufacturer:
Address:
Thermadyne Corporation
82 Benning Street
West Lebanon, New Hampshire 03784
USA
The equipment described in this manual conforms to all applicable aspects and regulations of the ‘Low Voltage Directive’ (European
Council Directive 73/23/EEC as amended by Council Directive 93/68/EEC) and to the National legislation for the enforcement of this
Directive.
The equipment described in this manual conforms to all applicable aspects and regulations of the “EMC Directive” (European Council
Directive 89/336/EEC) and to the National legislation for the enforcement of this Directive.
Serial numbers are unique with each individual piece of equipment and details description, parts used to manufacture a unit and date of
manufacture.
National Standard and Technical Specifications
The product is designed and manufactured to a number of standards and technical requirements. Among them are:
• CENELEC EN50199 EMC Product Standard for Arc Welding Equipment.
• ISO/IEC 60974-1 (BS 638-PT10) (EN 60 974-1) (EN50192) (EN50078) applicable to welding equipment and associated
accessories.
• For environments with increased hazard of electrical shock, Power Supplies bearing the S mark conform to EN50192 when used
in conjunction with hand torches with exposed cutting tips, if equipped with properly installed standoff guides.
• Extensive product design verification is conducted at the manufacturing facility as part of the routine design and manufacturing
process. This is to ensure the product is safe, when used according to instructions in this manual and related industry standards,
and performs as specified. Rigorous testing is incorporated into the manufacturing process to ensure the manufactured product
meets or exceeds all design specifications.
Thermadyne has been manufacturing products for more than 30 years, and will continue to achieve excellence in our area of
manufacture. Manufacturers responsible representative:
Steve Ward
Operations Director
Thermadyne Europe
Europa Building
Chorley N Industrial Park
Chorley, Lancashire,
England PR6 7BX
Manual 0-5183
1-7
Safety Instructions
THERMAL ARC 161 S
SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS
This page left blank intentionally.
Safety Instructions
1-8
Manual 0-5183
INTRODUCTIONtHERMAL ARC 161 S
SECTION 2:
INTRODUCTION
2.01 How to Use This Manual
2.04 Description
This Operating Manual usually applies to the part numbers listed on page i. If none are underlined, they are
all covered by this manual. To ensure safe operation,
read the entire manual, including the chapter on safety
instructions and warnings. Throughout this manual, the
word WARNING, CAUTION and NOTE may appear. Pay
particular attention to the information provided under
these headings. These special annotations are easily
recognized as follows:
This compact inverter welding machine has infinitely
adjustable welding current from 10 to 160 amps. It uses
standard general purpose STICK (MMA) ��������������
2.5mm���������
(�������
3/32”��)
electrodes for light gauge work, generally less than
1/8” (3.2mm) thick and STICK (MMA) 1/8” (3.2mm)
electrodes for heavier material. The unit also has a
LIFT TIG (GTAW) welding mode that offers stable TIG
welding characteristics when used with a suitable TIG
torch and shielding gas.
!
WARNING
2.05 Transportation Methods
Gives information regarding possible personal injury. Warnings will be enclosed in a
box such as this.
WARNING
ELECTRIC SHOCK can kill. DO NOT TOUCH
live electric parts. Disconnect input power
conductors from de-energized supply line
before moving the welding power source.
CAUTION
Refers to possible equipment damage. Cautions will be shown in bold type.
!
NOTE
Offers helpful information concerning certain
operating procedures. Notes will be shown
in italics
2.02 Equipment Identification
The unit’s identification number (specification or part
number), model, and serial number usually appear
on a nameplate attached to the machine. Equipment
which does not have a nameplate attached to the
machine is identified only by the specification or part
number printed on the shipping container. Record these
numbers for future reference.
2.03 Receipt of Equipment
When you receive the equipment, check it against the
invoice to make sure it is complete and inspect the
equipment for possible damage due to shipping. If there
is any damage, notify the carrier immediately to file a
claim. Furnish complete information concerning damage
claims or shipping errors to the location in your area
listed in the inside back cover of this manual. Include
all equipment identification numbers as described above
along with a full description of the parts in error.
Manual 0-5183
WARNING
FALLING EQUIPMENT can cause serious
personal injury and equipment damage.
Lift unit with handle on top of case. Use handcart or
similar device of adequate capacity. If using a fork
lift vehicle, place secure unit on a proper skid before
transporting.
2.06 Duty Cycle
The rated duty cycle of a Welding Power Source, is
the percentage of a ten minute time period that it
may be operated at its rated output current without
exceeding the temperature limits of the insulation of the
component parts. To explain the 10 minute duty cycle
period, suppose a Welding Power Source is designed to
operate with a 35% duty cycle at 160 amperes and 26.4
volts. This means that it has been designed and built
to provide the rated amperage (160A) for 3.5 minutes,
i.e. arc welding time, out of every 10 minute period
(35% of 10 minutes is 3.5 minutes). During the other
6.5 minutes of the 10 minute period the Welding Power
Source must idle and be allowed to cool.
2-1
Introduction
THERMAL ARC 161 S
INTRODUCTION
2.07 Specifications
Power Source Part Number
W1003604
Mains Power
Nominal Supply Voltage
AC 110V
AC 230V
Number of Phases
Single Phase
Single Phase
Input Voltage Range
AC 104- 127V
AC 187- 253V
Nominal Supply Frequency
50/60 Hz
50/60 Hz
Effective Input Current (l1eff)
17.8 Amps
14.7 Amps
Maximum Input Current (l1 max)
∆ 35.5 Amps
∆ 23.2 Amps
Single Phase Generator Requirements [Continuous rating
5 KVA
6 KVA
at nominal supply voltage with maximum output for STICK
(MMA) welding]
Welding Output
Welding Current Range
10 - 125 Amps
10 - 160 Amps
Nominal DC Open Circuit Voltage (OCV)
71V
71V
Welding Output, 104º F (40º C), 10 min.
125A @ 20%, 25.0V 160A @ 35%, 26.4V
(Quoted figures refer to STICK (������������
MMA���������
) output)
80A @ 60%, 23.2V 100A @ 60%, 24.0V
60A @ 100%, 22.4V 80A @ 100%, 23.2V
Rated Input Current (A)
35.5A
23.2A
for STICK (������������
MMA���������
) Welding
Io = 125A @ 25.0V
Io = 160A @ 26.4V
Rated Input Current (A)
21.3A
14.4A
for LIFT TIG (GTAW) Welding
Io = 125A @ 15V
Io = 160A @ 16.4V
Rated Output for STICK (������������
MMA���������
) Welding
25.0V, 125A @ 20% 26.4V, 160A @ 35%
Rated Output for LIFT TIG (GTAW) Welding
15V, 125A @ 50%
16.4V, 160A @ 40%
Duty Cycle (%)
20% @ 125A
35% @ 160A
Welder Type
Inverter Power Source
Output Terminal Type
Heavy Duty DinseTM 50
Classification
Protection Class
IP23S
Standards
EN 60974-1
EN50199
Cooling Method
Fan Cooled
Dimensions and Weight
Welding Power Source Mass
7.9 kg�����������
(���������
17.4 lb.�)
Welding Power Source Dimensions (Height x Width x
H230mm x W135mm x D393mm
Depth)
(���������������������������
H 9.0” x W 5.3” x D 15.5” )�
∆ The recommended time delay fuse or circuit breaker size is 32 amp for 110V and 32 amp for 230V.
Thermal Arc continuously strives to produce the best product possible and therefore reserves the right to change, improve or revise the
specifications or design of this or any product without prior notice. Such updates or changes do not entitle the buyer of equipment previously sold or shipped to the corresponding changes, updates, improvements or replacement of such items.
The values specified in the table above are optimal values, your values may differ. Individual equipment may differ from the above specifications due to in part, but not exclusively, to any one or more of the following; variations or changes in manufactured components, installation
location and conditions and local power grid supply conditions..
Introduction 2-2
Manual 0-5183
INSTALLATION
THERMAL ARC 161 s
SECTION 3:
INSTALLATION
3.01 Environment
These units are designed for use in environments with increased hazard of electric shock. Examples of environments
with increased hazard of electric shock are:
A. In locations in which freedom of movement is restricted, so that the operator is forced to perform the work in
a cramped (kneeling, sitting or lying) position with physical contact with conductive parts.
B. In locations which are fully or partially limited by conductive elements, and in which there is a high risk of
unavoidable or accidental contact by the operator.
C. In wet or damp hot locations where humidity or perspiration considerably reduces the skin resistance of the
human body and the insulation properties of accessories.
Environments with increased hazard of electric shock do not include places where electrically conductive parts in
the near vicinity of the operator, which can cause increased hazard, have been insulated.
3.02 Location
Be sure to locate the welder according to the following guidelines:
• In areas, free from moisture and dust.
• Ambient temperature between 0°C (32°F) to 40°C (104° F).
• In areas, free from oil, steam and corrosive gases.
• In areas, not subjected to abnormal vibration or shock.
• In areas, not exposed to direct sunlight or rain.
• Place at a distance of 300mm (12”) or more from walls or similar that could restrict natural air flow for
cooling
!
WARNING
Thermal Arc advises that this equipment be electrically connected by a qualified electrician.
3.03 Electrical Input Connections
WARNING
ELECTRIC SHOCK can kill; SIGNIFICANT DC VOLTAGE is present after removal of input power.
DO NOT TOUCH live electrical parts.
SHUT DOWN welding power source, disconnect input power employing lockout/tagging procedures. Lock-out/
tagging procedures consist of padlocking line disconnect switch in open position, removing fuses from fuse box,
or shutting off and red-tagging circuit breaker or other disconnecting device.
Manual 0-5183����
3-1������������
Installation
THERMAL ARC 161 S
INSTALLATION
• Electrical Input Requirements
Operate the welding power source from a single-phase 50/60 Hz, AC power supply. The input voltage must match
one of the electrical input voltages shown on the input data label on the unit nameplate. Contact the local electric
utility for information about the type of electrical service available, how proper connections should be made, and
inspection required. The line disconnect switch provides a safe and convenient means to completely remove all
electrical power from the welding power supply whenever necessary to inspect or service the unit.
Do not connect an input ((BROWN or BLUE)) conductor to the ground terminal.
Do not connect the ground ((GREEN or GREEN/YELLOW)) conductor to an input line terminal.
1. Connect end of ground (GREEN or GREEN/YELLOW) conductor to a suitable ground. Use a grounding method
that complies with all applicable local electrical codes.
2. Connect ends of line Active (BROWN) and Neutral (BLUE) input conductors to a suitable power supply system
that complies with all applicable local electrical codes.
3. Use Table 3-1 as a guide to select line fuses for the disconnect switch.
Input Voltage
Circuit Breaker or Fuse Size
110V
32A
230V
32A
Table 3-1: Fuse Guide
CAUTION
The time-delay fuses or circuit breaker of an individual branch circuit may have nuisance tripping when
welding with this product due to the amperage rating of the time-delay fuses or circuit breaker.
Input Power
Each unit incorporates an INRUSH circuit. When the MAIN CIRCUIT SWITCH is turned on, the inrush circuit
provides pre-charging for the input capacitors. A relay in the Power Control Assembly (PCA) will turn on after the
input capacitors have charged to operating voltage (after approximately 5 seconds)
NOTE
Damage to the PCA could occur if 253 VAC or higher is applied to the Primary Power Cable.
Model
Thermal Arc
161 S
Primary Supply Lead Minimum Primary
Current & Duty Cycle
Size (Factory Fitted) Current Circuit Size LIFT TIG (GTAW) STICK (MMA)
(Vin/Amps)
110V/35.5A
125A @ 20%
110V/21.3A
125A @ 50%
H07RN-F 3x1.5mm²
230V/23.2A
160A @ 35%
230V/14.4A
160A @ 40%
Table 3-2: Primary Circuit Sizes to Achieve Maximum Current
Installation����
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Manual 0-5183
INSTALLATION
THERMAL ARC 161 s
3.04 Electromagnetic Compatibility
WARNING
Extra precautions for Electromagnetic
Compatibility may be required when this
Welding Power Source is used in a domestic
situation.
The size of the surrounding area to be considered
will depend on the structure of the building and other
activities that are taking place. The surrounding area
may extend beyond the boundaries of the premises.
C. Methods of Reducing Electromagnetic Emissions
1. Mains Supply
A. Installation and Use - Users Responsibility
The user is responsible for installing and using the
welding equipment according to the manufacturer’s
instructions. If electromagnetic disturbances are
detected then it shall be the responsibility of the user
of the welding equipment to resolve the situation with
the technical assistance of the manufacturer. In some
cases this remedial action may be as simple as earthing
the welding circuit, see NOTE below. In other cases it
could involve constructing an electromagnetic screen
enclosing the Welding Power Source and the work,
complete with associated input filters. In all cases,
electromagnetic disturbances shall be reduced to the
point where they are no longer Trouble-some.
2. Maintenance of Welding Equipment
B. Assessment of Area
Before installing welding equipment, the user shall make
an assessment of potential electromagnetic problems
in the surrounding area. The following shall be taken
into account.
1. Other supply cables, control cables, signalling and
telephone cables; above, below and adjacent to the
welding equipment.
2. Radio and television transmitters and receivers.
3. Computer and other control equipment.
4. Safety critical equipment, e.g. guarding of industrial
equipment.
5. The health of people around, e.g. the use of pacemakers and hearing aids.
6. Equipment used for calibration and measurement.
7. The time of day that welding or other activities are
to be carried out.
8. The immunity of other equipment in the environment:
the user shall ensure that other equipment being
used in the environment is compatible: this may
require additional protection measures.
Welding equipment should be connected to the
mains supply according to the manufacturer’s
recommendations. If interference occurs, it may
be necessary to take additional precautions such
as filtering of the mains supply. Consideration
should be given to shielding the supply cable
of permanently installed welding equipment in
metallic conduit or equivalent. Shielding should be
electrically continuous throughout its length. The
shielding should be connected to the Welding Power
Source so that good electrical contact is maintained
between the conduit and the Welding Power Source
enclosure.
The welding equipment should be routinely
maintained according to the manufacturer’s
recommendations. All access and service doors and
covers should be closed and properly fastened when
the welding equipment is in operation. The welding
equipment should not be modified in any way
except for those changes and adjustments covered
in the manufacturer’s instructions. In particular, the
spark gaps of arc striking and stabilizing devices
should be adjusted and maintained according to the
manufacturer’s recommendation
3. Welding Cables
The welding cables should be kept as short as
possible and should be positioned close together,
running at or close to the floor level.
4. Equipotential Bonding
Bonding of all metallic components in the welding
installation and adjacent to it should be considered.
However, metallic components bonded to the work
piece will increase the risk that the operator could
receive a shock by touching the metallic components
and the electrode at the same time. The operator
should be insulated from all such bonded metallic
components.
Manual 0-5183����
3-3������������
Installation
THERMAL ARC 161 S
5. Earthing of the Work Piece
Where the work piece is not bonded to earth for
electrical safety, nor connected to earth because
of its size and position, e.g. ship’s hull or building
steelwork, a connection bonding the work piece
to earth may reduce emissions in some, but not
all instances. Care should be taken to prevent the
earthing of the work piece increasing the risk of injury
to users, or damage to other electrical equipment.
Where necessary, the connection of the work piece
to earth should be made by direct connection to
the work piece, but in some countries where direct
connection is not permitted, the bonding should be
achieved by suitable capacitance, selected according
to national regulations.
6. Screening and Shielding
Selective screening and shielding of other cables
and equipment in the surrounding area may alleviate
problems of interference. Screening the entire
welding installation may be considered for special
applications.
INSTALLATION
3.05 Setup for Welding
NOTE
Conventional operating procedures apply
when using the Welding Power Source, i.e.
connect work lead directly to work piece
and electrode lead is used to hold electrode.
Wide safety margins provided by the design
ensure that the Welding Power Source will
withstand short-term overload without
adverse effects. The welding current range
values should be used as a guide only.
Current delivered to the arc is dependent
on the welding arc voltage, and as welding
arc voltage varies between different classes
of electrodes, welding current at any one
setting would vary according to the type of
electrode in use. The operator should use
the welding current range values as a guide
then fine tune the welding current to suit
the application.
WARNING
Before connecting the work clamp to the
work and inserting the electrode in the
electrode holder make sure the Primary
power supply is switched off.
CAUTION
Remove any packaging material prior to use.
Do not block the air vents at the front or rear
of the Welding Power Source.
Installation����
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Manual 0-5183
INSTALLATION
THERMAL ARC 161 s
3.06 STICK (MMA) Setup
Set Process Selection
Switch to STICK (MMA)
Set Welding Current
as specified by the
Electrode Manufacturer.
Negative Output
Terminal
(Dinse™ 50)
Positive Output
Terminal
(Dinse™ 50)
200A
Art #: A-09914
Figure 3-2: Setup for STICK (MMA) Welding
STICK (MMA) Mode Sequence of Operation
CAUTION
Before any welding is to begin, be sure to wear all
appropriate and recommended safety equipment.
3. Connect the ground clamp to your workpiece.
4. Plug the power cable into the appropriate outlet,
and turn the switch to the “ON” position. The power
L.E.D light should illuminate.
5. Set the “Process Selection Switch” to STICK.
1. Switch the ON/OFF Switch (located on the rear panel)
to OFF.
6. Set the weld current control knob to the desired
amperage.
2. Connect the ground clamp cable to the negative
output terminal, and the electrode holder cable to
the positive output terminal.
7. Install a stick electrode in the electrode holder.
NOTE
This set up is known as DC Electrode Positive or
reverse polarity. Please consult with the stick electrode
manufacturer for specific polarity recommendations.
8. You are now ready to begin STICK Welding
NOTE
Gently strike the electrode on the work piece to
generate a welding arc, and slowly move along the
work piece while holding a consistent arc length
above base metal.
Manual 0-5183����
3-5������������
Installation
THERMAL ARC 161 S
INSTALLATION
3.07 LIFT TIG (GTAW) Setup
Set Process Selection
Switch to LIFT TIG (GTAW).
Secure the gas cylinder in an
upright position by chaining it
to a stationary support to prevent
falling or tipping.
Set Welding Current
as specified by the
Electrode Manufacturer.
Negative
Output
Terminal
(Dinse™ 50)
Positive Output
Terminal
(Dinse™ 50)
Art #: A-09915
Figure 3-3: Setup for LIFT TIG (GTAW) Welding
LIFT TIG (GTAW) Sequence of Operation
CAUTION
Before any welding is to begin, be sure to wear all
appropriate and recommended safety equipment.
1. Switch the ON/OFF Switch (located on the rear panel)
to OFF.
2. Connect the ground clamp cable to positive output
terminal, and the TIG torch cable to the negative
output terminal.
NOTE
This set up is known as Straight Polarity or DC
Electrode Negative. This is commonly used for DC
TIG welding on most materials such as steel and
stainless steel.
3. Using a secured Argon cylinder, slowly crack open
then close the cylinder valve while standing off to
the side of the valve. This will remove any debris that
may be around the valve & regulator seat area.
4. Install the regulator as per the manufacturers
instructions.
5. Connect the gas hose to the outlet of the Argon
regulator, and tighten with a spanner.
6. Be sure the gas valve on the torch is closed, and
slowly open the Argon Cylinder Valve to the fully
open position.
7. Connect the ground clamp to your workpiece.
8. Plug the power cable into the appropriate outlet,
and turn the switch to the “ON” position. The power
L.E.D. light should illuminate.
Installation����
3-6�������������
Manual 0-5183
INSTALLATION
9. Set the “Process Selection Switch” to LIFT TIG
THERMAL ARC 161 s
10.Set the weld current control knob to the desired
amperage.
11.The tungsten must be ground to a blunt point in order
to achieve optimum welding results. It is critical
to grind the tungsten electrode in the direction the
grinding wheel is turning.
12.Install the tungsten with approximately 3.2mm
(1/8”) to 6.4mm (¼”) sticking out from the gas cup,
ensuring you have correct sized collet.
13.Tighten the back cap then open the valve on the
torch.
14.You are now ready to begin TIG Welding.
Manual 0-5183����
3-7������������
Installation
THERMAL ARC 161 S
INSTALLATION
This page is left blank intentionally.
Installation����
3-8�������������
Manual 0-5183
OPERATION
THERMAL ARC 161 s
SECTION 4:
OPERATION
Conventional operating procedures apply when using
the Welding Power Source, i.e. connect work lead directly to work piece and electrode lead is used to hold
the electrode. The welding current range values should
be used as a guide only. Current delivered to the arc is
dependent on the welding arc voltage, and as welding
arc voltage varies between different classes of electrode,
welding current at any one setting would vary according
to the type of electrode in use. The operator should use
the welding current range values as a guide then fine
tune the welding current to suit the specific application. Refer to the electrode manufacture's literature for
further information.
(C) Warning Indicator
4.01 Front Panel
If the Warning Indicator lights up continuously then
the primary current into the main transformer has been
exceeded. Switch off the power supply, and have an
Accredited Thermal Arc Service Provider inspect then
repair the welder.
Front Panel
The welding power source is protected by a self re-setting thermostat. The indicator will illuminate if the duty
cycle of the power source has been exceeded. If the
Over Heat light illuminates wait for the Over Heat light
to extinguish before resuming welding.
(A) Process Selection Switch
Switches between LIFT TIG and STICK Welding
modes.
(B) Power On Indicator
The Power ON Indicator illuminates when the ON/OFF
switch is in the ON position and the nominal mains
voltage is present.
The welding power source is protected by a self resetting thermostat and over primary current protection
devices. Welding can not take place if the Warning
Indicator lights up or lights up continuously.
Thermostat Protection
If the Warning Indicator lights up then the duty cycle of
the power source has been exceeded, Leave the power
on and wait for the Warning Indicator to extinguish
before resuming welding.
Over Primary Current Protection
(D) Welding Current Control
The welding current is increased by turning the Weld
Current control knob clockwise or decreased by turning
the Weld Current control knob counterclockwise. The
welding current should be set according to the specific
application. Refer to the electrode manufacture's literature for further information.
(E) ON/OFF Switch (located on rear panel - not
shown)
This switch controls the Mains Supply Voltage to the
Power Source.
FAULT
PROCESS
/,)7 7,*
(A) Process
Selection
Switch
67,&.
32A OUTLET
STICK
32A OUTLET 110V
TIG
TIG/STICK 16A OUTLET 230V
Art#:A-09902
Figure 4-1: Thermal Arc 161 S Controls
Manual 0-5183����
4-1����������
Operation
THERMAL ARC 161 S
4.02 Welding Current Control
Explanation
32 Amp Outlet
The mains power 32 Amp circuit breaker or fuse should
not trip at this Weld Current value when STICK welding.
The environmental conditions that may cause the mains
power 32 Amp circuit breaker or fuse to trip are:
a) High ambient temperature
b) Worn parts in circuit breaker
OPERATION
LIFT TIG Mode:A 32 Amp outlet is capable of supplying
enough input power for all LIFT TIG
output weld current values.
Nuisance tripping should not occur on a 32 Amp outlet.
Output Scale for 230V
The outside number scale identifies the available output
weld current for STICK or LIFT TIG weld modes.
Nuisance tripping should not occur on a 32A 230V outlet
for both STICK & LIFT TIG Modes.
4.03 STICK (MMA) Electrode Polarity
c) Using an extension cable
Stick electrodes are generally connected to the "+" Positive Output Terminal and the work lead to the "−" Negative
Output Terminal but if in doubt consult the electrode
manufacturers literature for further information.
d) Low line mains power voltage
Output Scale for 110V
The inside number scale identifies the available output weld current for STICK or LIFT TIG weld
modes.
STICK Mode:
Identifies the STICK weld point for
32 Amp outlet.
Exceeding these points will cause nuisance tripping of the circuit breaker or
fuse.
FAULT
PROCESS
/,)7 7,*
32 Amp Outlet
Output Scale for 110V
67,&.
Output Scale for 230V
Art#:A-09903
32A OUTLET
STICK
32A OUTLET 110V
TIG
TIG/STICK 16A OUTLET 230V
Figure 4-2: Current Control
Operation����
4-2�������������
Manual 0-5183
OPERATION
THERMAL ARC 161 s
4.04 Effects of Stick Welding Various
Materials
High Tensile and Alloy Steels
The two most prominent effects of welding these steels
are the formation of a hardened zone in the weld area,
and, if suitable precautions are not taken, the occurrence
in this zone of under-bead cracks. Hardened zone and
under-bead cracks in the weld area may be reduced by
using the correct electrodes, preheating, using higher
current settings, using larger electrodes sizes, short
runs for larger electrode deposits or tempering in a
furnace.
Manganese Steels
The effect on manganese steel of slow cooling from
high temperatures is to embrittle it. For this reason it
is absolutely essential to keep manganese steel cool
during welding by quenching after each weld or skip
welding to distribute the heat.
malleable, due to the porosity caused by gas held in
this type of iron.
Copper and Alloys
The most important factor is the high rate of heat
conductivity of copper, making pre-heating of heavy
sections necessary to give proper fusion of weld and
base metal.
Types of Electrodes
Arc Welding electrodes are classified into a number
of groups depending on their applications. There are
a great number of electrodes used for specialized
industrial purposes which are not of particular interest
for everyday general work. These include some low
hydrogen types for high tensile steel, cellulose types
for welding large diameter pipes, etc The range of
electrodes dealt with in this publication will cover the
vast majority of applications likely to be encountered;
are all easy to use.
Cast Iron
Most types of cast iron, except white iron, are weldable.
White iron, because of its extreme brittleness, generally cracks when attempts are made to weld it. Trouble
may also be experienced when welding white-heart
Metal Being Joined
Mild Steel
Electrode
E6011
Mild Steel
E6013
Mild Steel
E7014
Mild Steel
E7018
Cast Iron
Stainless Steel
Eni-Cl
E318L-16
Comments
This electrode is used for all-position welding or for welding on
rusty, dirty, less-than-new metal. It has a deep, penetrating arc
and is often the first choice for repair or maintenance work.
This all-position, electrode is used for welding clean, new sheet
metal. Its soft arc has minimal spatter, moderate penetration and
an easy-to-clean slag.
All positional, ease to use electrode for use on thicker steel than
E6013. Especially suitable sheet metal lap joints and fillet welds,
general purpose plate welding.
A low-hydrogen, all-position electrode used when quality is an
issue or for hard-to-weld metals. It has the capability of producing
more uniform weld metal, which has better impact properties at
low temperatures.
Suitable for joining all cast irons except white cast iron.
High corrosion resistances. Ideal for dairy work etc.
Manual 0-5183����
4-3����������
Operation
THERMAL ARC 161 S
OPERATION
4.05 GTAW Electrode Polarity
Connect the TIG torch to the "-" Negative Output Terminal and the work lead to the "+" Positive Output Terminal for
direct current straight polarity. Direct current straight polarity is the most widely used polarity for DC TIG welding.
It allows limited wear of the electrode since 70% of the heat is concentrated at the work piece.
4.06 Guide for Selecting Filler Wire
Filler Wire Diameter
DC Current (Amps)
1.6mm (1/16")
20 - 90
2.4mm (3/32")
65 - 115
3.2mm (1/8")
100 - 165
4.07 Tungsten Electrode Current Ranges
Electrode Diameter
1.0mm (.040” )
1.6mm (1/16”)
2.4mm (3/32”)
DC Current
25 - 85
50 - 160
135 - 235
4.08 Shielding Gas Selection
Alloy
Carbon Steel
Stainless Steel
Nickel Alloy
Copper
Titanium
Shielding Gas
Welding Argon
Welding Argon
Welding Argon
Welding Argon
Welding Argon
4.09 Tungsten Electrode Types
Electrode Type
(Ground Finish)
Welding Application
Features
Colour Code
Thoriated 2%
DC welding of mild steel, stainless steel
and copper.
Excellent arc starting, long life, high
current carrying capacity.
Red
Ceriated 2%
AC & DC welding of mild steel, stainless Longer life, more stable arc, easier
steel, copper, aluminium, magnesium and starting, wider current range,
their alloys.
narrower & more concentrated arc.
Grey
Operation����
4-4�������������
Manual 0-5183
OPERATION
THERMAL ARC 161 s
4.10 TIG Welding Parameters for Steel
DC Current
Stainless
Steel
Electrode
Diameter
Filler Rod
Diameter
Argon Gas Flow
Rate
35-45
20-30
40-50
25-35
1.0mm
(.�����
040"�)
1.6mm
(������
1/16"�)
5 LPM
45-55
30-45
50-60
35-50
1.0mm
(������
.040"�)
1.6mm
(������
1/16"�)
6 LPM
60-70
40-60
70-90
50-70
1.6mm
(������
1/16"�)
1.6mm
(������
1/16"�)
7 LPM
80-100
65-85
90-115
90-110
115-135
100-125
140-165
125-150
160-175
135-160
170-200
160-180
Base Metal
Mild Steel
Thickness
1.0mm�
(������
.040"�)
1.2mm�
(������
.045"�)
1.6mm
(������
1/16"�)
3.2mm
(�����
1/8"�)
4.8mm
(������
3/16"�)
6.4mm�
(�����
1/4"�)
1.6mm �������
(������
1/16"�) 2.4mm���������
(�������
3/32"�)
7 LPM
2.4mm��������
(������
3/32"�)
3.2mm�������
(�����
1/8"�)
10 LPM
3.2mm ������
(�����
1/8"�)
4.0mm �������
(������
5/32"�)
10 LPM
Joint / Type
Butt/Corner
Lap/Filler
Butt/Corner
Lap/Filler
Butt/Corner
Lap/Filler
Butt/Corner
Lap/Filler
Butt/Corner
Lap/Filler
Butt/Corner
Lap/Filler
4.11 Arc Welding Practice
The techniques used for arc welding are almost identical regardless of what types of metals are being joined.
Naturally enough, different types of electrodes would be used for different metals as described in the preceding
section.
Manual 0-5183�4-5�
���
Operation
���������
THERMAL ARC 161 S
OPERATION
4.12 Welding Position
The electrodes dealt with in this publication can be used in most positions, i.e. they are suitable for welding in
flat, horizontal, vertical and overhead positions. Numerous applications call for welds to be made in positions
intermediate between these. Some of the common types of welds are shown in Figures 4-2 through 4-9.
Art # A-07687
Figure 4-3: Flat position, down hand butt weld
Art A-07691
Figure 4-7: Vertical position, butt weld
Art # A-07688
Figure 4-4: Flat position, gravity fillet weld
Art # A-07692
Figure 4-8: Vertical position, fillet weld
Art # A-07689
Figure 4-5: Horizontal position, butt weld
Art# A-07693
Figure 4-9: Overhead position, butt weld
Art # A-07690
Figure 4-6: Horizontal - Vertical (HV) position
Art # A-07694
Figure 4-10: Overhead position, fillet weld
Operation����
4-6�������������
Manual 0-5183
OPERATION
THERMAL ARC 161 s
4.13 Joint Preparations
In many cases, it will be possible to weld steel sections without any special preparation. For heavier sections and
for repair work on castings, etc., it will be necessary to cut or grind an angle between the pieces being joined to
ensure proper penetration of the weld metal and to produce sound joints.
In general, surfaces being welded should be clean and free of rust, scale, dirt, grease, etc. Slag should be removed
from oxy-cut surfaces. Typical joint designs are shown in Figure 4-10.
Single Vee Butt Joint
Open Square Butt
Joint
Not less than
70°
1.6mm (1/16”) max
Gap varies from
1.6mm (1/16”) to 4.8mm (3/16”)
depending on plate thickness
1.6mm (1/16”)
Single Vee Butt Joint
Not less than
45°
Double Vee Butt Joint
Lap Joint
Fillet Joint
Corner Weld
Plug Weld
Not less than
70°
1.6mm (1/16”) max
1.6mm (1/16”)
Tee Joints
(Fillet both sides of the
joint)
Edge Joint
Plug Weld
Art # A-09916
Figure 4-11: Typical joint designs for arc welding
Manual 0-5183����
4-7����������
Operation
THERMAL ARC 161 S
4.14 Arc Welding Technique
A Word to Beginners
For those who have not yet done any welding, the simplest way to commence is to run beads on a piece of
scrap plate. Use mild steel plate about 6.4mm (���
����
1/4")
thick and a ������
3.2mm� (1/8") electrode. Clean any paint,
loose scale or grease off the plate and set it firmly on
the work bench so that welding can be carried out in
the downhand position. Make sure that the work clamp
is making good electrical contact with the work, either
directly or through the work table. For light gauge material, always clamp the work lead directly to the job,
OPERATION
Another difficulty you may meet is the tendency, after
the arc is struck, to withdraw the electrode so far that
the arc is broken again. A little practice will soon remedy
both of these faults.
Art # A-07696
Figure 4-12: Striking an arc
otherwise a poor circuit will probably result.
4.17 Arc Length
4.15 The Welder
The securing of an arc length necessary to produce a
neat weld soon becomes almost automatic. You will find
that arc produces a crackling or spluttering noise and
the weld metal comes across in large, irregular blobs.
The weld bead is flattened and spatter increases. A short
arc is essential if a high quality weld is to be obtained
although if it is too short there is the danger of it being
blanketed by slag and the electrode tip being solidified
in. If this should happen, give the electrode a quick twist
back over the weld to detach it. Contact or “touch-weld”
electrodes such as E7014 electrode do not stick in this
way, and make welding much easier.
Place yourself in a comfortable position before beginning to weld. Get a seat of suitable height and do as
much work as possible sitting down. Don’t hold your
body tense. A taut attitude of mind and a tensed body
will soon make you feel tired. Relax and you will find
that the job becomes much easier. You can add much
to your peace of mind by wearing a leather apron and
gauntlets. You won’t be worrying then about being burnt
or sparks setting alight to your clothes.
Place the work so that the direction of welding is across,
rather than to or from, your body. The electrode holder
lead should be clear of any obstruction so that you
can move your arm freely along as the electrode burns
down. If the lead is slung over your shoulder, it allows
greater freedom of movement and takes a lot of weight
off your hand. Be sure the insulation on your cable and
electrode holder is not faulty, otherwise you are risking
an electric shock.
4.16 Striking the Arc
Practice this on a piece of scrap plate before going on
to more exacting work. You may at first experience difficulty due to the tip of the electrode “sticking” to the
work piece. This is caused by making too heavy a contact with the work and failing to withdraw the electrode
quickly enough. A low amperage will accentuate it. This
freezing-on of the tip may be overcome by scratching
the electrode along the plate surface in the same way
as a match is struck. As soon as the arc is established,
maintain a 1.6mm����������������������������������������
���������������������������������������������
(��������������������������������������
1/16" )�������������������������������
to ��������������������������
3.2mm���������������������
(�������������������
1/8" )��������������
gap between
the burning electrode end and the parent metal. Draw
the electrode slowly along as it melts down.
4.18 Rate of Travel
After the arc is struck, your next concern is to maintain
it, and this requires moving the electrode tip towards
the molten pool at the same rate as it is melting away.
At the same time, the electrode has to move along the
plate to form a bead. The electrode is directed at the
weld pool at about 20° from the vertical. The rate of
travel has to be adjusted so that a well-formed bead
is produced.
If the travel is too fast, the bead will be narrow and
strung out and may even be broken up into individual
globules. If the travel is too slow, the weld metal piles
up and the bead will be too large.
Operation����
4-8�������������
Manual 0-5183
OPERATION
THERMAL ARC 161 s
4.19 Making Welded Joints
Having attained some skill in the handling of an electrode, you will be ready to go on to make up welded
joints.
A. Butt Welds
Set up two plates with their edges parallel, as shown in
Figure 4-12, allowing 1.6mm
�������������������������������
(������������������������
�������������������������
1/16"�������������������
) to 2.4mm
��������������
(�������
��������
3/32"��)
gap between them and tack weld at both ends. This is
to prevent contraction stresses from the cooling weld
metal pulling the plates out of alignment. Plates thicker
than ������������������������������������������������
6.4mm�������������������������������������������
(�����������������������������������������
1/4"�������������������������������������
) should have their mating edges bevelled to form a 70° to 90° included angle. This allows
full penetration of the weld metal to the root. Using a
3.2mm �����������������������������������������������
(����������������������������������������������
1/8"������������������������������������������
) E7014 electrode at 120 amps, deposit a
run of weld metal on the bottom of the joint.
Do not weave the electrode, but maintain a steady rate of
travel along the joint sufficient to produce a well-formed
bead. At first you may notice a tendency for undercut
to form, but keeping the arc length short, the angle of
the electrode at about 20° from vertical, and the rate of
travel not too fast, will help eliminate this. The electrode
needs to be moved along fast enough to prevent the slag
pool from getting ahead of the arc. To complete the joint
in thin plate, turn the job over, clean the slag out of the
back and deposit a similar weld.
Art # A-07697
Figure 4-13: Butt weld
Heavy plate will require several runs to complete the
joint. After completing the first run, chip the slag out
and clean the weld with a wire brush. It is important
to do this to prevent slag being trapped by the second
run. Subsequent runs are then deposited using either
a weave technique or single beads laid down in the
sequence shown in Figure 4-13. The width of weave
should not be more than three times the core wire
diameter of the electrode. When the joint is completely
filled, the back is either machined, ground or gouged
out to remove slag which may be trapped in the root,
and to prepare a suitable joint for depositing the backing
run. If a backing bar is used, it is not usually necessary
to remove this, since it serves a similar purpose to the
backing run in securing proper fusion at the root of
the weld.
B. Fillet Welds
These are welds of approximately triangular cross-section made by depositing metal in the corner of two faces
meeting at right angles. Refer to Figure 4-5.
A piece of angle iron is a suitable specimen with which
to begin, or two lengths of strip steel may be tacked
together at right angles. Using a �������������������
3.2mm �������������
(������������
1/8"��������
) E7014
electrode at 120 amps, position angle iron with one leg
horizontal and the other vertical. This is known as a horizontal-vertical (HV) fillet. Strike the arc and immediately
bring the electrode to a position perpendicular to the
line of the fillet and about 45° from the vertical. Some
electrodes require to be sloped about 20° away from
the perpendicular position to prevent slag from running
ahead of the weld. Refer to Figure 4-14. Do not attempt
to build up much larger than ��������������������������
6.4mm ��������������������
(�������������������
1/4"���������������
) width with a
3.2mm (������������������������������������������������
�������������������������������������������������
1/8"��������������������������������������������
) electrode, otherwise the weld metal tends
to sag towards the base, and undercut forms on the
vertical leg. Multi-runs can be made as shown in Figure
4-15. Weaving in HV fillet welds is undesirable.
Art # A-07698
Figure 4-14: Weld build up sequence
Art # A-07699
Figure 4-15: Electrode position for HV fillet weld
Manual 0-5183����
4-9����������
Operation
THERMAL ARC 161 S
OPERATION
Art # A-07702
Art # A-07700
Figure 4-16: Multi-runs in HV fillet weld
C. Vertical Welds
Figure 4-18: Multi run vertical fillet weld
1. Vertical Up
Tack weld a three feet length of angle iron to your
work bench in an upright position. Use a ������
3.2mm
(�������������������������������������������������
1/8"���������������������������������������������
) E7014 electrode and set the current at 120
amps. Make yourself comfortable on a seat in
front of the job and strike the arc in the corner
of the fillet. The electrode needs to be about 10°
from the horizontal to enable a good bead to be
deposited. Refer Figure 4-16. Use a short arc,
and do not attempt to weave on the first run.
When the first run has been completed de-slag
the weld deposit and begin the second run at
the bottom. This time a slight weaving motion
is necessary to cover the first run and obtain
good fusion at the edges. At the completion of
each side motion, pause for a moment to allow
weld metal to build up at the edges, otherwise
undercut will form and too much metal will
accumulate in the centre of the weld. Figure
4-17 illustrates multi-run technique and Figure
4-18 shows the effects of pausing at the edge
of weave and of weaving too rapidly.
Art # A-07701
Figure 4-17: Single run vertical fillet weld
Art # A-07703
Figure 4-19: Examples of vertical fillet welds
2. Vertical Down
The E7014 electrode makes welding in this
position particularly easy. Use a �������������
3.2mm �������
(������
1/8"��)
electrode at 120 amps. The tip of the electrode
is held in light contact with the work and the
speed of downward travel is regulated so that
the tip of the electrode just keeps ahead of the
slag. The electrode should point upwards at an
angle of about 45°.
3. Overhead Welds
Apart from the rather awkward position necessary, overhead welding is not much more difficult that downhand welding. Set up a specimen
for overhead welding by first tacking a length
of angle iron at right angles to another piece of
angle iron or a length of waste pipe. Then tack
this to the work bench or hold in a vice so that
the specimen is positioned in the overhead position as shown in the sketch. The electrode is held
at 45° to the horizontal and tilted 10° in the line
of travel (Figure 4-19). The tip of the electrode
may be touched lightly on the metal, which
helps to give a steady run. A weave technique
is not advisable for overhead fillet welds. Use
a 3.2mm�������������������������������������
������������������������������������������
(�����������������������������������
1/8"�������������������������������
) E6012 electrode at 120 amps,
and deposit the first run by simply drawing the
electrode along at a steady rate. You will notice
Operation�����
4-10�������������
Manual 0-5183
OPERATION
THERMAL ARC 161 s
that the weld deposit is rather convex, due to
the effect of gravity before the metal freezes.
Art # A-07704
Figure 4-20: Overhead fillet weld
4.20 Distortion
Distortion in some degree is present in all forms of
welding. In many cases it is so small that it is barely
perceptible, but in other cases allowance has to be made
before welding commences for the distortion that will
subsequently occur. The study of distortion is so complex that only a brief outline can be attempted hear.
4.21 The Cause of Distortion
Distortion is cause by:
A. Contraction of Weld Metal:
Molten steel shrinks approximately 11 per cent in volume on cooling to room temperature. This means that
a cube of molten metal would contract approximately
2.2 per cent in each of its three dimensions. In a welded
joint, the metal becomes attached to the side of the joint
and cannot contract freely. Therefore, cooling causes
the weld metal to flow plastically, that is, the weld itself
has to stretch if it is to overcome the effect of shrinking
volume and still be attached to the edge of the joint. If
the restraint is very great, as, for example, in a heavy
section of plate, the weld metal may crack. Even in
cases where the weld metal does not crack, there will
still remain stresses “locked-up” in the structure. If the
joint material is relatively weak, for example, a butt joint
in �����������
2.0mm������
(����
5/64") sheet, the contracting weld metal may
cause the sheet to become distorted.
B. Expansion and Contraction of Parent Metal in the
Fusion Zone:
While welding is proceeding, a relatively small volume
of the adjacent plate material is heated to a very high
temperature and attempts to expand in all directions.
It is able to do his freely at right angles to the surface
of the plate (i.e., “through the weld”), but when it attempts to expand “across the weld” or “along the weld”,
it meets considerable resistance, and to fulfil the desire
for continued expansion, it has to deform plastically, that
is, the metal adjacent to the weld is at a high temperature and hence rather soft, and, by expanding, pushes
against the cooler, harder metal further away, and tends
to bulge (or is “upset”). When the weld area begins to
cool, the “upset” metal attempts to contract as much as
it expanded, but, because it has been “upset”, it does
not resume its former shape, and the contraction of
the new shape exerts a strong pull on adjacent metal.
Several things can then happen.
The metal in the weld area is stretched (plastic deformation), the job may be pulled out of shape by the
powerful contraction stresses (distortion), or the weld
may crack, in any case, there will remain “locked-up”
stresses in the job. Figures 4-20 and 4- 21 illustrate
how distortion is created.
Art # A-07705
Figure 4-21: Parent metal expansion
Art # A-07706
Figure 4-22: Parent metal contraction
Manual 0-5183�����
4-11����������
Operation
THERMAL ARC 161 S
OPERATION
4.22 Overcoming Distortion Effects
There are several methods of minimizing distortion
effects.
Art # A-07708
B
Preheat
C
Weld
Preheat
A. Peening
This is done by hammering the weld while it is still hot.
The weld metal is flattened slightly and because of this
the tensile stresses are reduced a little. The effect of
peening is relatively shallow, and is not advisable on
the last layer.
Dotted lines show effect if no preheat is used
Figure 4-24: Reduction of distortion by preheating
B. Distribution of Stresses
Art # A-07709
Distortion may be reduced by selecting a welding sequence which will distribute the stresses suitably so
that they tend to cancel each other out. See Figures
4-25 through 4-28 for various weld sequences. Choice
of a suitable weld sequence is probably the most effective method of overcoming distortion, although an
unsuitable sequence may exaggerate it. Simultaneous
welding of both sides of a joint by two welders is often
successful in eliminating distortion.
C. Restraint of Parts
Forcible restraint of the components being welded is
often used to prevent distortion. Jigs, positions, and
tack welds are methods employed with this in view.
Figure 4-25: Examples of distortion
D. Presetting
It is possible in some cases to tell from past experience or to find by trial and error (or less frequently,
to calculate) how much distortion will take place in a
given welded structure. By correct pre-setting of the
components to be welded, constructional stresses
can be made to pull the parts into correct alignment. A
simple example is shown in Figure 4-22.
Art # A-07710
Figure 4-26: Welding sequence
E. Preheating
Suitable preheating of parts of the structure other than
the area to be welded can be sometimes used to reduce
distortion. Figure 4-23 shows a simple application. By
removing the heating source from b and c as soon as
welding is completed, the sections b and c will contract
at a similar rate, thus reducing distortion.
Art # A-07711
Figure 4-27: Step back sequence
Art # A-07707
Figure 4-23: Principle of presetting
Operation�����
4-12�������������
Manual 0-5183
OPERATION
THERMAL ARC 161 s
Art # A-07712
Figure 4-28: Chain intermittent welding
Art # A-07713
Figure 4-29: Staggered intermittent welding
Manual 0-5183�����
4-13����������
Operation
THERMAL ARC 161 S
OPERATION
This Page Intentionally Blank.
Operation�����
4-14�������������
Manual 0-5183
SERVICE
THERMAL ARC 161 s
SECTION 5:
SERVICE
5.01 Maintenance and Inspection
The only routine maintenance required for the power
supply is a thorough cleaning and inspection, with the
frequency depending on the usage and the operating
environment.
To clean the unit, open the enclosure and use a vacuum
cleaner to remove any accumulated dirt and dust. The
unit should also be wiped clean, if necessary; with
solvents that are recommended for cleaning electrical
apparatus.
CAUTION
WARNING
Do not blow air into the power supply during
cleaning. Blowing air into the unit can cause
metal particles to interfere with sensitive
electrical components and cause damage
to the unit.
There are extremely dangerous voltages and
power levels present inside this product.
Disconnect primary power at the source
before opening the enclosure. Wait at least
two minutes before opening the enclosure to
allow the primary capacitors to discharge.
Warning!
Disconnect input power before maintaining.
Maintain more often
if used under severe
conditions
Each Use
Visual check of torch
Consumable parts
Visual check of
regulator and pressure
Weekly
Visually inspect
the torch body
and consumables
Visually inspect the
cables and leads.
Replace as needed
3 Months
Replace all
broken parts
Clean
exterior
of power supply
6 Months
Art # A-08549_AC
Bring the unit to an authorized
Thermal Arc Service Centre
to remove any accumulated dirt
and dust from the interior.
This may need to be done more
frequently under exceptionally
dirty conditions.
Manual 0-5183����
5-1�������
Service
THERMAL ARC 161 S
SERVICE
5.02 STICK (MMA) Welding Problems
Description
Possible Cause
Remedy
1. Gas pockets or voids in weld metal A. Electrodes are damp.
A. Dry electrodes before use.
(Porosity).
B. Welding current is too high. B. Reduce welding current.
C. Surface impurities such as C. Clean joint before welding
oil, grease, paint, etc.
2. Crack occurring in weld metal soon A. Rigidity of joint.
A. Redesign to relieve weld joint
after solidification commences.
of severe stresses or use crack
resistance electrodes.
B. Insufficient throat thickness. B. Travel slightly slower to allow greater
build up in throat.
C. Cooling rate is too high.
3. A gap is left by failure of the weld A. Welding current is too low.
metal to fill the root of the weld.
B. Electrode too large for joint.
Art # A-05866_AC
Incorrect Sequence
C. Preheat plate and cool slowly.
A. Increase welding current
B. Use smaller diameter electrode.
C. Insufficient gap.
C. Allow wider gap.
D. Incorrect sequence.
D. Use correct build-up sequence.
Insufficient Gap
4. Portions of the weld run do not fuse A. Small electrodes used on
to the surface of the metal or edge
heavy cold plate.
of the joint
B. Welding current is too low.
C. Wrong electrode angle.
Lack of fusion caused by dirt,
electrode angle incorrect,
rate of travel too high
Art # A-05867_AC
Lack of side fusion,
scale dirt, small electrode,
amperage too low
Lack of
inter-run fusion
Lack of root fusion
A. Use larger electrodes and preheat
the plate.
B. Increase welding current
C. Adjust angle so the welding arc is
directed more into the base metal
D. Travel speed of electrode is D. Reduce travel speed of electrode
too high.
E. Clean surface before welding.
E. Scale or dirt on joint surface.
5. Non-metallic particles are trapped A. Non-metallic particles may A. If bad undercut is present, clean
in the weld metal (slag inclusion).
be trapped in undercut from
slag out and cover with a run from a
previous run.
smaller diameter electrode.
B. Joint preparation too restricted. B. Allow for adequate penetration and
room for cleaning out the slag.
Not cleaned,
or incorrect
electrode
Slag
trapped in
undercut
D. Lack of penetration with slag D. Use smaller electrode with sufficient
trapped beneath weld bead.
current to give adequate penetration.
Use suitable tools to remove all slag
from corners.
Art # A-05868_AB
Slag trapped in root
C. Irregular deposits allow slag C. If very bad, chip or grind out
to be trapped.
irregularities.
E. Rust or mill scale is preventing E. Clean joint before welding.
full fusion.
F. Wrong electrode for position F. Use electrodes designed for position
in which welding is done.
in which welding is done, otherwise
proper control of slag is difficult.
Service����
5-2�������������
Manual 0-5183
SERVICE
THERMAL ARC 161 s
5.03 TIG Welding Problems
Weld quality is dependent on the selection of the correct consumables, maintenance of equipment and proper
welding technique.
Description
1. Excessive bead build-up or poor
penetration or poor fusion at
edges of weld.
2. Weld bead too wide and flat or
undercut at edges of weld or
excessive burn through.
3. Weld bead too small or insufficient
penetration or ripples in bead are
widely spaced apart.
4. Weld bead too wide or excessive
bead build up or excessive
penetration in butt joint.
5. Uneven leg length in fillet joint.
6. Electrode melts when arc is
struck.
7. Dirty weld pool.
Possible Cause
Welding current is too low
Remedy
Increase weld current and/or
change joint preparation.
Welding current is too high.
Decrease welding current.
Travel speed too fast.
Reduce travel speed.
Travel speed is too slow.
Increase travel speed.
Wrong placement of filler rod.
Electrode is connected to the "+"
Positive Output Terminal.
A. Electrode contaminated through
contact with work piece or filler
rod material.
B. Gas contaminated with air.
8. Poor weld finish.
Inadequate shielding gas.
9. Arc flutters during TIG welding.
Tungsten electrode is too large
for the welding current.
10. W e l d i n g a r c c a n n o t b e
established.
A. Work clamp is not connected
to the work piece or the work/
torch leads are not connected to
the correct welding terminals.
B. Torch lead is disconnected.
11. Electrode melts or oxidizes when
an arc is struck.
C. Gas flow incorrectly set,
cylinder empty or the torch
valve is off.
A. No gas is flowing to welding
region.
B. Torch is clogged with dust.
C. Gas hose is cut.
D. Gas passage contains impurities.
E. Gas regulator turned off.
F. Torch valve is turned off.
G. The electrode is too small for
the welding current.
Re-position filler rod.
Connect the electrode to the
"-" Negative Output Terminal.
A. Clean the electrode by
grinding contaminates off.
B. Check gas lines for cuts and loose
fitting or change gas cylinder.
Increase gas flow or check gas
line for problems
Select the right size electrode.
Refer to section Tungsten
Electrode Current Ranges.
A. Connect the work clamp to the
work piece or connect the work/
torch leads to the correct welding
terminals.
B. Connect it to the "-" Negative
Output Terminal.
C. Select the right flow rate, change
cylinder or turn torch valve on.
A. Check the gas lines for kinks or
breaks or cylinder contains gas.
B. Clean torch.
C. Replace gas hose.
D. Disconnect gas hose from torch
then raise gas pressure and blow
out impurities.
E. Turn on.
F. Turn on.
G. Increase electrode diameter or
reduce the welding current.
Manual 0-5183����
5-3�������
Service
THERMAL ARC 161 S
SERVICE
TIG Welding Problems (Continued)
Description
12. Arc start is not smooth.
Possible Cause
Remedy
A. Tungsten electrode is too large
for the welding current.
B. The wrong electrode is being
used for the welding job.
C. Gas flow rate is too high.
A. Refer to section Tungsten Electrode
Current Ranges for the correct size.
B. Refer to section Tungsten Electrode
Types for the correct electrode type.
C. Select the correct flow rate for the
welding job.
D. Use 100% argon for TIG welding.
D. Incorrect shield gas is being
used.
E. Poor work clamp connection
to work piece.
E. Improve connection to work piece.
WARNING
There are extremely dangerous voltages and power levels present inside this product. Do not attempt
to repair unless you are an Accredited Thermal Arc Service Agent and you have had training in power
measurements and troubleshooting techniques. If major complex subassemblies are faulty, then the
Welding Power Source must be returned to an Accredited Thermal Arc Service Agent for repair.
5.04 Power Source Problems
Description
1. The welding arc cannot be
established.
Possible Cause
A. The Primary supply voltage has
not been switched ON.
B. The Welding Power Source
switch is switched OFF.
C. Loose connections internally.
2. The welding arc cannot
be established when the
Warning Indicator lights up
continuously
3. Maximum output welding
current cannot be achieved
with nominal Mains supply
voltage.
4. Welding current reduces
when welding.
The machines duty cycle has been
exceeded
Remedy
A. Switch ON the Primary supply
voltage.
B. Switch ON the Welding Power
Source.
C. Have an Accredited Thermal
Arc Service Provider repair the
connection.
Wait for the ���������������������
Warning �������������
Indicator to
extinguish before resuming welding
Defective control circuit
Have an Accredited Thermal Arc Service
Provider inspect then repair the welder.
Poor work lead connection to the
work piece.
Ensure that the work lead has a positive
electrical connection to the work piece.
5. Circuit breaker (or fuse)
trips during welding.
The circuit breaker (or fuse) is under
size.
6.�����������������������
The welding arc cannot
be established when Fault
Indicator is flashing.
The input current to the main
transformer has been exceeded.
The recommended circuit breaker (or
fuse) size is 32 amp for 110V or 32 amp
for 230V that complies with all applicable
local electrical codes.
Have an Accredited Thermal Arc Service
Provider inspect then repair the welder.
Service����
5-4�������������
Manual 0-5183
APPENDIX
THERMAL ARC 161 s
APPENDIX 1: OPTIONS AND ACCESSORIES
Description
USA Graphics Auto-Darkening welding helmet, spare cover lens and operating
manual
Canadian Graphics Auto-Darkening welding helmet, spare cover lens and operating
manual
Claret Colour Auto-Darkening welding helmet, spare cover lens and operating manual
Black Graphics Auto-Darkening welding helmet, spare cover lens and operating
manual
Manual 0-5183
A-1
Part Number
W4011700
W4011800
W4011900
W4012000
Appendix
THERMAL ARC 161S
APPENDIX
APPENDIX 2: REPLACEMENT PARTS
Item
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
Description
Part No.
Handle,161S,201TS
Panel,Cover, 161S
Resistor, 4 ohm, 60W
Rectifier Bridge, 700V,50A
Thermistor,161S
PCB Control,161S
PCB,Power,161S
PCB,Front Control,161S
Insulation Sheet,161S
Panel,Front,161S
Label,Front Controls,161S
Knob,control,Red,20 ODx6 ID
Boot,Rubber,Mode Switch
Terminal,Output,50mm Dinse
Panel,Base,161S
Fan,24V DC,161,201TS
Panel,Rear,161S
Switch,On/Off,161S
Capacitor,10uF,300VAC
Current Sensor,161S,201TS
W7003040
W7003051
W7003055
W7003010
W7003016
W7003091
W7003061
W7003047
W7003060
W7003092
W7003093
W7003079
W7003064
W7003020
W7003073
W7003009
W7003054
W7003053
W7003094
W7003076
Reference Designator
R1
THC1, THC2
PCB2
PCB1
PCB3
SW1
WARNING
There are extremely dangerous voltages and power levels present inside this product. Do not attempt
to repair unless you are an Accredited Thermal Arc Service Agent and you have had training in power
measurements and troubleshooting techniques. If major complex subassemblies are faulty, then the
Welding Power Source must be returned to an Accredited Thermal Arc Service Agent for repair.
Appendix
A-2
Manual 0-5183
APPENDIX
THERMAL ARC 161 s
1
2
19
3
18
4
5
6
17
7
16
9
10
8
11
12
13
14
Art # A-09931_AB
Manual 0-5183
15
20
A-3
Appendix
Live (Brown)
Neutral (Blue)
Earth (Green / Yellow)
SHEETMETAL COVER
60W4Ω
ACOUT
J10-2
RX
J10-1
1
J2,J3
J6
ACOUT
BLACK
4
DC DC +
RED
G
PFC CIRCUIT
1
J7
2
8
3
FAN
2
APPENDIX 3: SYSTEM SCHEMATIC
J8-2
J8-1
GND
-24V
IFB
J6
J3
MBIN
IMOUT
J4
J5
GND
N/A
J4-3
J4-4
J4-5
J4-6
J11-3
J11-2
J11-1
J11-5
J11-4
Fault
J4-2
MBIN
J4-1
Process Switch
-
NEG
+15V
Current
Sensor
POS
+
POT WIPER
IFB
+15V
CONNECTOR LAYOUT DIAGRAM
WVIN
WVIN
GND
OT J7
J3-8
FJ J8
J2-8
FJ
J3-7
Over Current Signal
GND
J3-6
J2-7
J7-3
J2-6
J7-2
J1 JC
J3-5
GND
Over Current Signal
VRD OFF
1
J2-5
+15V
J3-4
IGBT Driver B
OT
J2-4
ON
J3-3
IGBT Driver A
Control PCB2
IMOUT
J3-2
J2-3
ON
BLACK
IN
J3-1
J2-2
J7-1
JC
RED
G
G
J2-1
+15V
115VAC STICK
--1.5VDC
115VAC LIFT TIG --4.5VDC
230VAC
--0.5VDC
JC
6
2
-24V
GND
BLACK
RED
1
J10,J5
Main Power PCB1
1
J4,J11
1
J1,J8,J9
FAULT
STICK
LIFT TIG
CURRENT
CONTROL
AC
PROCESS SELECTOR
Front Panel PCB3
Art # A-09196
-15V
Current Feedback
J6-4
GRAY
J6-3
WHITE
J6-2
YELLOW
J5-2
RED
J5-1
BLACK
J6-1
RED
J1-1
J9-2
J1-2
J9-1
C1
1
VIEWED FROM COMPONENT SIDE OF BOARD
PCB MOUNTED HARNESS CONNECTORS PIN OUT
D
S
D
S
Manual 0-5183
A-4
Appendix
D
S
APPENDIX
THERMAL ARC 161S
LIMITED WARRANTY & WARRANTY SCHEDULE
In accordance with the warranty periods stated below, Thermadyne guarantees the proposed product to be
free from defects in material or workmanship when operated in accordance with the written instructions as
defined in this operating manual.
Thermadyne welding products are manufactured for use by commercial and industrial users and trained
personnel with experience in the use and maintenance of electrical welding and cutting equipment.
Thermadyne will repair or replace, at its discretion, any warranted parts or components that fail due to
defects in material or workmanship within the warranty period. The warranty period begins on the date of
sale to the end user.
Welding Equipment - Limited Warranty Period
Product
Period
Thermal Arc 161S
Electrode holder and work lead
2 Years
30 Days
If warranty is being sought Thermadyne must be notified in writing within 30 days of the failure and at
such time we will make arrangements to fulfil the warranty claim. Please contact your Thermadyne product
supplier for the warranty repair procedure.
Thermadyne warranty will not apply to:
• Equipment that has been modified by any other party other than Thermadyne’s own service personnel
or with prior written consent obtained from Thermadyne service department (UK).
• Equipment that has been used beyond the specifications established in the operating manual.
• Installation not in accordance with the installation/operating manual.
• Any product that has been subjected to abuse, misuse, negligence, accident, improper care and/or
maintenance including lack of lubrication, maintenance and protection, will be refused warranty.
• Failure to clean and maintain the machine as set forth in the operating, installation or service manual.
Within this operating manual are details regarding the maintenance necessary to ensure trouble free
operation. This manual also offers basic troubleshooting, operational and technical details including
application usage.
Using this manual correctly will ensure the quickest time possible for resolving any technical questions,
application issues or defects with your Thermadyne product.
You may also wish to visit our web site www.thermadyne.com select your product class and then select
literature. Here you will find documentation including:
• Operator manuals
• Service manuals
• Product guides
Alternatively please contact your Thermadyne distributor and speak with a technical representative.
NOTE
Warranty repairs must be performed by either a Thermadyne Service Centre, a Thermadyne distributor
or an Authorised Service Agent approved by the Company.
Customer Care UK: +44 (0)1257 261 755 / Fax: +44 (0)1257 224 800
Customer Care Italy +39 02 36546801 / Fax: +39 02 36546480
www.thermadyne.com
A Global Cutting & Welding Market Leader™
WORLD HEADQUARTERS:
THE AMERICAS
Denton, TX USA
U.S. Customer Care
Ph: 1-800-426-1888 (tollfree)
Fax: 1-800-535-0557 (tollfree)
International Customer Care
Ph: 1-940-381-1212
Fax: 1-940-483-8178
16052 Swingley Ridge Road, Suite 300
EUROPE
ASIA/PACIFIC
Miami, FL USA
Sales Office, Latin America
Ph: 1-954-727-8371
Fax: 1-954-727-8376
Chorley, United Kingdom
Customer Care
Ph: +44 1257-261755
Fax: +44 1257-224800
Cikarang, Indonesia
Customer Care
Ph: 6221-8990-6095
Fax: 6221-8990-6096
Oakville, Ontario, Canada
Canada Customer Care
Ph: 1-905-827-4515
Fax: 1-800-588-1714 (tollfree)
Milan, Italy
Customer Care
Ph: +39 0236546801
Fax: +39 0236546840
Rawang, Malaysia
Customer Care
Ph: +603 6092-2988
Fax: +603 6092-1085
Form No. 0-5183 (01/30/2011)
© 2010 Thermadyne Industries, Inc.
•
St. Louis, Missouri 63017
Melbourne, Australia
Australia Customer Care
Ph: 1300-654-674 (tollfree)
Ph: 61-3-9474-7400
Fax: 61-3-9474-7391
International
Ph: 61-3-9474-7508
Fax: 61-3-9474-7488
www.thermadyne.com
U.S.A.
Shanghai, China
Sales Office
Ph: +86 21-64072626
Fax: +86 21-64483032
Singapore
Sales Office
Ph: +65 6832-8066
Fax: +65 6763-5812
Printed in U.S.A.
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