9.1.3.p-American Red Cross Lifeguarding Training Manual

9.1.3.p-American Red Cross Lifeguarding Training Manual
Lifeguarding
Lifeguarding
INSTRUCTOR’S MANUAL
Lifeguarding
INSTRUCTOR’S MANUAL
Stock No. 655736
American Red Cross
Lifeguarding
INSTRUCTOR’S MANUAL
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This instructor’s manual is part of the American Red Cross Lifeguarding program.
Visit redcross.org to learn more about this program.
The emergency care procedures outlined in this book reflect the standard of knowledge
and accepted emergency practices in the United States at the time this book was published. It is the
reader’s responsibility to stay informed of changes in emergency care procedures.
PLEASE READ THE FOLLOWING TERMS AND CONDITIONS BEFORE AGREEING
TO ACCESS AND DOWNLOAD THE AMERICAN RED CROSS MATERIALS. BY
DOWNLOADING THE MATERIALS, YOU HEREBY AGREE TO BE BOUND BY THE
TERMS AND CONDITIONS.
The downloadable electronic materials, including all content, graphics, images, and
logos, are copyrighted by and the exclusive property of The American National Red Cross
(“Red Cross”). Unless otherwise indicated in writing by the Red Cross, the Red Cross
grants you (“recipient”) the limited right to download, print, photocopy and use the electronic
materials, subject to the following restrictions:
■■
The recipient is prohibited from selling electronic versions of the materials.
■■
The recipient is prohibited from revising, altering, adapting, or modifying the materials.
■■
The recipient is prohibited from creating any derivative works incorporating, in part or in
whole, the content of the materials.
■■
The recipient is prohibited from downloading the materials and putting them on their own
website without Red Cross permission.
Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by the Red Cross. The Red Cross does not
permit its materials to be reproduced or published without advance written permission from the
Red Cross. To request permission to reproduce or publish Red Cross materials, please submit your
written request to The American National Red Cross.
© 2012 American National Red Cross. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
The Red Cross emblem, American Red Cross® and the American Red Cross logo are trademarks of
The American National Red Cross and protected by various national statutes.
Published by Krames StayWell Strategic Partnerships Division.
Printed in the United States of America.
ISBN: 978-1-58480-488-8
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This manual is dedicated to the thousands of employees and volunteers of the American Red Cross who contribute
their time and talent to supporting and teaching lifesaving skills worldwide and to the thousands of course
participants and other readers who have decided to be prepared to take action when an emergency strikes.
This manual reflects the 2010 Consensus on Science for CPR and Emergency Cardiovascular Care and the
Guidelines 2010 for First Aid. These treatment recommendations and related training guidelines have been
reviewed by the American Red Cross Scientific Advisory Council, a panel of nationally recognized experts in fields
that include emergency medicine, occupational health, sports medicine, school and public health, emergency
medical services (EMS), aquatics, emergency preparedness and disaster mobilization. This manual also reflects the
United States Lifeguarding Standards: A Review and Report of the United States Lifeguard Standards Coalition, a
collaborative effort of the American Red Cross, the United States Lifesaving Association and the YMCA of the USA.
Many individuals shared in the development and revision process in various supportive, technical and creative
ways. The American Red Cross Lifeguarding Instructor’s Manual was developed through the dedication of both
employees and volunteers. Their commitment to excellence made this manual possible.
The American Red Cross team for this edition included:
Jean Erdtmann
Senior Director
Program Development and Sales Support
Gina Gunn
Mark Schraf
Senior Associate
Business Planning
Kamenna Lee
Project Manager, Aquatics Sales
Support
Sales Support
Vice President
Business Marketing
Tom Heneghan
Associate
Program Development
Jennifer Deibert
Senior Associate, Business Planning
Business Planning
Stephanie Shook, CPRP
Manager
Program Development
Don Lauritzen
Senior Associate
Program Development
Connie Harvey
Senior Associate
Operations
John Thompson
Stephen Lynch
Senior Associate
Program Administration
Senior Analyst
Retail Product Development and Distribution
Joy Zukauskas
Stacey Ryan
Senior Associate
Divisional Support
Manager, Aquatics Program
Development
Project Manager
Kara L. Desmarais, MPA
Project Manager
Information Technology
Charles Snyder
Director, Service Delivery
Division 6
Denise González Hensal
Business Analyst
Information Technology
The following individuals provided guidance and support:
Jack McMaster
Steven Glockenmeier
Don Vardell
President
Preparedness and Health and Safety Services
Vice President
Preparedness and Health and Safety Services
National Chair
Preparedness and Health and Safety Services
Acknowledgments
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The StayWell team for this edition included:
Nancy Monahan
Ellen Beal
Bryan Elrod
Senior Vice President
Executive Director
Content and Delivery Platforms
Senior Developmental Editor
Paula Batt
Kate Plourde
Vice President
Sales and Client Services
David Cane
Reed Klanderud
Danielle DiPalma
Vice President
Marketing and Communications
Senior Content Manager
Marketing Manager
Managing Editor
Shannon Bates
Senior Production Manager
Michelle Clark
Senior Graphic Designer
The following members of the American Red Cross Scientific Advisory Council also
provided guidance and review:
David Markenson, MD, FAAP,
EMT-P
Roy R. Fielding
Francesco A. Pia, PhD
Chair, American Red Cross Scientific
Advisory Council
Chief, Pediatric Emergency Medicine
Maria Fareri Children’s Hospital
Westchester Medical Center
Valhalla, New York
Member, American Red Cross
Scientific Advisory Council
University of North Carolina—Charlotte
Department of Kinesiology
Coordinator, Exercise Science/Director of
Aquatics
Charlotte, North Carolina
Member, American Red Cross
Scientific Advisory Council
Water Safety Films, Inc.
President, Pia Consulting Services
Larchmont, New York
Peter Wernicki, MD
Terri Lees
Aquatics Chair, American Red Cross
Scientific Advisory Council
Sports Medicine Orthopedic Surgeon
International Lifesaving Federation Medical
Committee Past Chair
U.S. Lifesaving Association
Medical Advisor
Vero Beach, Florida
Member, American Red Cross
Scientific Advisory Council
Aquatic Supervisor
North Kansas City Community Center
North Kansas City, Missouri
Member, American Red Cross
Scientific Advisory Council
University of Pittsburgh
Center for Emergency Medicine
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
S. Robert Seitz, M.Ed., RN,
NREMT-P
The Sounding Board for this edition included:
Joyce A. Bathke
Scott E. Gerding
Joetta R. Jensen
Chief Administrative Officer
American Red Cross St. Louis Area Chapter
St. Louis, Missouri
Sales Manager
Mid-East Division
American Red Cross
Columbus, Ohio
Assistant Professor and Director of
Aquatics
Hampton University
Hampton, Virginia
Juliene R. Hefter
Rhonda Mickelson
Deputy Director
Wisconsin Park & Recreation Association
Owner, Safety First Aquatics, LLC
Greendale, Wisconsin
Director of Standards
American Camp Association
Estes Park, Colorado
David W. Bell, PhD
National Aquatic Committee
National Health and Safety Committee
Boy Scouts of America
Ponca City, Oklahoma
Pete DeQuincy
Aquatic Supervisor
East Bay Regional Park District
Oakland, California
Billy Pounds
Carolyn Hollingsworth-Pofok
Director of Recreation and Events
Millcreek MetroParks
Canfield, Ohio
Shawn DeRosa, JD, EMT-B
Manger of Aquatic Facilities and
Safety Officer for Intercollegiate
Athletics
The Pennsylvania State University
University Park, Pennsylvania
Aquatics Manager
City of Pearland
Pearland, Texas
Clayton D. Shuck
William A.J. Kirkner, JD
Aquatics Director
JCC of Greater Baltimore
Reisterstown, Maryland
Deputy Manager of Recreation
South Suburban Parks and Recreation
Centennial, Colorado
Thomas C. Werts
President
Aquatics Safety Consulting
Kissimmee, Florida
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The following individuals participated as Waterpark and Waterfront Working Group
members:
Adam Abajian
Robert E. Ogoreuc
Danial Llanas
Recreation Program Manager/
Lakefront Operations
City of Evanston
Evanston, Illinois
Assistant Professor
Slippery Rock University
Slippery Rock, Pennsylvania
Director of Support Services
Busch Entertainment Corporation
San Antonio, Texas
William J. Frazier
Scott Mersinger
Aquatic Operations Manager
Massanutten Resort
McGaheysville, Virginia
Aquatics Director
Lost Rios Waterpark
Wisconsin Dells, Wisconsin
Darwin DeLappa
Director of Water Safety
New York State Parks and Recreation
Queensbury, New York
Lee Hovis
Luiz A. Morizot-Leite
Captain, Ocean Rescue Lifeguard,
Miami-Dade
Fire Rescue Department
Miami-Dade County, Florida
Director of Recreation Operations
Nocatee Waterpark Recreation
Ponte Vedra Beach, Florida
The following individuals provided external review:
Alex Antoniou
Director of Educational Programs
National Swimming Pool Foundation
Colorado Springs, Colorado
Jerome H. Modell, MD, D Sc
(Hon.)
Emeritus Professor of Anesthesiology
Courtesy Professor of Psychiatry
Courtesy Professor of Large Animal Clinical
Sciences
Colleges of Medicine & Veterinary Medicine
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida
The American Red Cross thanks Jorge
L. Olaves H., Ed S, Florida A&M University,
for his contributions to this manual, as well
as Pat Bennett and Lindsay O’Donnell for
their assistance in writing the instructor’s
manual and supplementary materials.
Acknowledgments
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CONTENTS
SECTION
A |
CHAPTER
1
ADMINISTRATION
INTRODUCTION _____________________________________________________________ 1
Course Purpose _____________________________________________________________ 1
Course Objectives ___________________________________________________________ 1
Course Participants __________________________________________________________ 1
Instructor’s Responsibilities __________________________________________________ 2
CHAPTER
2
COURSE DESIGN____________________________________________________________ 3
Course Content _____________________________________________________________ 3
Participant Resources ________________________________________________________ 3
Lifeguarding Manual ______________________________________________________ 3
Instructor Resources _________________________________________________________ 3
Lifeguarding Instructor’s Manual _____________________________________________ 3
Video Segments___________________________________________________________ 4
Materials, Equipment and Supplies ___________________________________________ 5
Course Presentation _______________________________________________________ 5
Activity Worksheets ________________________________________________________ 6
Instructor’s Corner ________________________________________________________ 6
Additional Resources for Instructors and Participants ___________________________ 6
Training Equipment and Red Cross Retail Products _____________________________ 6
Additional Red Cross Courses ______________________________________________ 6
Refresher Program ________________________________________________________ 6
CHAPTER
3
SETTING UP AND RUNNING THIS COURSE ____________________________________ 7
Recommended Class Size ____________________________________________________ 7
Course Length ______________________________________________________________ 7
Classroom Space ____________________________________________________________ 7
Swimming Area ______________________________________________________________ 7
Setting Up and Running Skills Sessions ________________________________________ 8
Class Safety _________________________________________________________________ 9
Health Precautions for Course Participants ____________________________________ 10
Participants With Disabilities and Special Health Considerations _________________ 10
CHAPTER
4
REQUIREMENTS FOR SUCCESSFUL COURSE COMPLETION ____________________ 11
Criteria for Course Completion and Certification _______________________________ 11
Final Written Exams _________________________________________________________ 11
Final In-Water Skill Scenarios ________________________________________________ 11
Exam Security _____________________________________________________________ 12
Reporting Procedures _______________________________________________________ 12
Participant Course Evaluation ________________________________________________ 12
Contents
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Awarding Certificates _______________________________________________________ 12
Continuing Education Units for Professionals __________________________________ 12
SECTION
B |
THE LIFEGUARDING AND SHALLOW WATER
LIFEGUARDING COURSES
Lifeguarding Course Outline _________________________________________________ 13
Shallow Water Lifeguarding Course Outline ____________________________________ 19
Precourse Session _________________________________________________________ 26
LESSON 1: The Professional Lifeguard and Facility Safety _______________________ 32
LESSON 2: Facility Safety, Patron Surveillance and Injury Prevention _____________ 48
LESSON 3: Injury Prevention and Rescue Skills, Part 1 __________________________ 62
LESSON 4: Rescue Skills, Part 2 ______________________________________________ 72
LESSON 5: Before Providing Care, Victim Assessment and Breathing Emergencies 79
LESSON 6: Cardiac Emergencies and Using an Automated External Defibrillator___ 99
LESSON 7: First Aid ________________________________________________________ 114
LESSON 8: Head, Neck and Spinal Injuries in the Water ________________________ 133
LESSON 9: Final Written Exam and Final In-Water Skill Scenarios _______________ 141
Activity Worksheets ________________________________________________________ 145
ACTIVITY WORKSHEET 1.1—Reasons for the Rules _________________________ 145
ACTIVITY WORKSHEET 2.1—Guarding Special Attractions ___________________ 148
ACTIVITY WORKSHEET 3.1—Strategies for a Safe Group Visit ________________ 149
ACTIVITY WORKSHEET 6.1—Using an AED in Unique Situations—Fact or Fiction 150
SECTION
C |
WATERFRONT SKILLS
Module Outline ____________________________________________________________ 151
Waterfront Skills Module Lesson Plan ________________________________________ 154
SECTION
D |
WATERPARK SKILLS
Module Outline ____________________________________________________________ 175
Waterpark Skills Module Lesson Plan ________________________________________ 178
SECTION
E |
LIFEGUARDING FINAL WRITTEN EXAMS
Lifeguarding _______________________________________________________________ 191
SECTION 1—CPR/AED for the Professional Rescuer and First Aid,
Exams A and B _____________________________________________ 193
SECTION 2—Lifeguarding Skills Exams A and B _____________________________ 206
Shallow Water Lifeguarding _________________________________________________ 219
SECTION 2—Shallow Water Lifeguarding Skills Exams A and B ________________ 220
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Waterfront Skills Module ____________________________________________________ 232
Waterfront Skills Module Exam, Exams A and B ______________________________ 233
Waterpark Skills Module ____________________________________________________ 239
Waterpark Skills Module Exam, Exams A and B _______________________________ 240
Final Written Exam Answer Sheets __________________________________________ 247
Index _____________________________________________________________________ 253
Final Written Exam Answer Keys
Contents
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SECTION
A | ADMINISTRATION
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
This manual is intended to serve as a resource for
instructors of the American Red Cross Lifeguarding
program. The information and teaching strategies
it provides will help you to teach the program. You
should be familiar with the material in the American
Red Cross Lifeguarding Manual (Stock No. 655735)
and in this instructor’s manual before you teach
the course.
COURSE PURPOSE
The purpose of the American Red Cross Lifeguarding
course is to provide entry-level lifeguard participants
with the knowledge and skills to prevent, recognize
and respond to aquatic emergencies and to provide
care for breathing and cardiac emergencies, injuries
and sudden illnesses until emergency medical services
(EMS) personnel take over.
The purpose of the Shallow Water Lifeguarding course
is to learn the knowledge and skills needed to prevent
and to respond to aquatic emergencies in shallow water
up to 5 feet deep. The purpose of the Waterfront Skills
module is to teach lifeguards the skills and knowledge
needed to prevent and respond to emergencies in
nonsurf, open-water areas found at public parks,
resorts, summer camps and campgrounds. The
purpose of the Waterpark Skills module is to teach
lifeguards the skills and knowledge needed to prevent
and respond to emergencies in aquatic facilities with
waterpark features.
The care steps outlined within this product are
consistent with the Guidelines 2010 for First Aid and
the 2010 Consensus on Science for Cardiopulmonary
Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular
Care. This manual also reflects the United States
Lifeguarding Standards: A Review and Report of
the United States Lifeguard Standards Coalition, a
collaborative effort of the American Red Cross, the
United States Lifesaving Association and the YMCA of
the USA.
The course content and activities will prepare
participants to make appropriate decisions about
the care to provide in an aquatic emergency and a
medical emergency.
COURSE OBJECTIVES
It is your responsibility as an instructor to see
that participants meet the learning objectives
listed at the beginning of each lesson in this
instructor’s manual.
COURSE PARTICIPANTS
Many of the course participants will be in, or preparing
for, positions that require a background in lifeguarding.
Participants may include camp counselors, water safety
instructors, swim coaches, public safety personnel,
adult youth leaders and the general public. Participants
may represent a broad range of backgrounds and
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differ in levels of education and experience. They may
be taking courses in the Lifeguarding program to
fulfill employment requirements, to complete
requirements for a major area of study or certification
or for personal satisfaction.
Prerequisites for each course or module are listed
in the Precourse Session in this instructor’s manual.
Before having the participants break to change into
their swimsuits for the prerequisite swimming skills
evaluation, orient them to the locker rooms and the
pool area where they are to meet.
INSTRUCTOR RESPONSIBILITIES
Your responsibilities as a certified Red Cross instructor
include:
■
Providing participants an opportunity to evaluate
the course.
■
■
Adapting your teaching approach to match the
experience and abilities of the participants,
identifying participants who are having difficulty
and developing effective strategies to help them
meet course objectives.
■
Supervising participants while they are practicing
course skills and providing timely, positive and
corrective feedback as they learn.
■
Evaluating participants as they perform skills,
focusing on critical performance steps as described
in the skill charts.
■
Administering and scoring the final written exams.
■
Conducting courses in a manner consistent with
course design.
■
Submitting completed course records and reports
to the Red Cross representative within 10 working
days from course completion.
■
Being familiar with and informing participants of
other Red Cross courses and programs.
■
Being prepared to answer participants’ questions
or knowing where to find the answers.
■
Providing a positive example by being neat in
appearance and not practicing unhealthy behaviors
while conducting American Red Cross courses.
■
Identifying potential instructor candidates and
referring them to the appropriate Red Cross
representatives.
■
Abiding by the obligations in the Instructor
Agreement and Code of Conduct and, if applicable,
the Authorized Provider Agreement.
■
Representing the Red Cross in a positive manner.
■
Promoting volunteer opportunities available
through the Red Cross.
Providing for the health and safety of participants
by always ensuring:
|
Manikins have been properly cleaned
according to “Recommendations on
Manikin Decontamination,” which is
available on Instructor’s Corner.
|
Other course equipment (medical and first aid
supplies) is clean and in good working order.
|
Participants are aware of health
precautions and guidelines concerning
the transmission of infectious diseases.
|
All participants have the physical
ability to perform the skills and know
to consult you if they have concerns
about their physical ability to do so.
|
The classroom, aquatic facility and all
practice areas are free of hazards.
■
Being familiar with and knowing how to effectively
use program materials and training equipment.
■
Ensuring there are lifeguards on duty during
the in-water skill sessions with the proper safety
equipment, and that the swimming area is the
proper water quality.
■
Maintaining adequate supervision at all times
during in-water skill sessions.
■
Foreseeing hazards and taking steps to eliminate or
control them before participants arrive or step into
the water.
■
■
Planning, coordinating and managing training with
the Red Cross, including advising the Red Cross in
advance of any classes you are scheduled to teach.
Informing participants about knowledge and skills
evaluation procedures and course completion
requirements.
■
Creating a non-threatening environment that is
conducive to achieving the learning objectives.
■
Preparing participants to meet the course
objectives.
2
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CHAPTER 2
COURSE DESIGN
COURSE CONTENT
The course is designed to be flexible in delivery.
You should not modify course content, but you have
flexibility to select teaching methods to meet the
needs and interests of the participants as long as these
participants can meet the course objectives. You may
wish to emphasize certain aspects of the content.
PARTICIPANT RESOURCES
Lifeguarding Manual
The manual has been designed to simplify learning and
understanding of the material. The manual reinforces
key points from the lecture portions of the course and
contains skill sheets. It also serves as a reference after
the course. The manual is available for purchase (Stock
No. 655735) or as a downloadable digital version, which
can be printed. Participants must have a Lifeguarding
Manual at the start of the course.
Free electronic versions are available on redcross.org.
INSTRUCTOR RESOURCES
Lifeguarding Instructor’s Manual
This instructor’s manual contains all the information
necessary to conduct the American Red Cross
Lifeguarding program. The manual is divided into
five parts—Section A: Administration, Section B: The
Lifeguarding and Shallow Water Lifeguarding Courses,
Section C: The Waterfront Skills Module, Section D:
The Waterpark Skills Module and Section E: Final
Written Exams, Answer Sheets and Answer Keys.
■
■
■
Section A: Administration contains information
needed to conduct the course and provides a course
overview, explains how to set up and teach the
course, gives requirements for successful course
completion and describes what to do when the
course is completed.
Sections B–D include the course outline and the
lesson plans to teach the Lifeguarding and Shallow
Water Lifeguarding courses and the Waterfront
Skills and Waterpark Skills modules. The lesson
plans provide the instructor with the primary
points to be covered in each lesson and with
guidelines for classroom activities.
Section E: Final Written Exams, Answer Sheets
and Answer Keys includes the final written
exams for CPR/AED for the Professional Rescuer
and First Aid and the final written exams for
Lifeguarding/Shallow Water Lifeguarding Skills.
It also includes the final written exams for the
Waterfront Skills and Waterpark Skills modules.
The instructor’s manual can also be viewed online on
Instructor’s Corner (redcross.org/instructorscorner).
Lesson Plans
Several items in the lesson plans can help you conduct
the course. These include the following:
Lesson Objectives
The knowledge and skill objectives are presented at the
beginning of each lesson.
Lecture Points
The lecture points summarize the critical material from
the lesson that is most important for the participants
to understand. They also represent the information
participants need to meet the objectives, successfully
complete the skill sessions and pass the written exams.
Activities
The activities that are part of the lesson plans
involve participants in guided discussion, viewing
video segments and course presentations, activity
worksheets and scenarios. Most lessons contain at
least one activity.
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Where the lesson has an alternate activity, the
instructor should use these when conducting the
Shallow Water Lifeguarding course as they apply to
water less than 5 feet deep.
Skill Drills
Skill drills are used to help reinforce the skills learned
up to that point in the lesson and require participants
to perform multiple skills in succession. Skill drills
provide an immediate opportunity to put the “total
picture” into practice.
Assignments
At the end of each lesson is an assignment for the next
lesson.
Skills Assessment Tools
In addition to performing the steps listed in the
skill chart in the correct order, participants must
meet the criteria listed at the proficient level on the
skill assessment tools to be checked off for a skill.
Assessment criteria that are general for the category of
skills, as well as specific to the skill, must be met.
Scenarios
Scenarios help to reinforce learning by drawing on
participants’ skills and decision-making abilities in
various situations. They also are included as a review
during which participants can recall and apply the
information learned in the course.
Final Written Exams
Land-Based Skills Practice
In some of the land-based skill practice sessions,
participants practice the skill on one another and/or on
manikins. Practice on a “real-life” victim is important to
give participants experience in handling a real person.
Skills that require mouth-to-mouth contact, such as
giving ventilations and performing CPR, however, are
practiced only on manikins. Suctioning and airway
insertion also should be done only on manikins.
Request that participants with special needs, including
medical conditions or physical disabilities, bring these
to your attention privately to determine if reasonable
accommodations can be made while still accomplishing
the course objectives.
In-Water Skill Practice
The in-water rescue skills performed in the
Lifeguarding courses and modules have multiple
actions occurring simultaneously. If a skill is only
demonstrated from one side or angle, the secondary
actions may be missed and the total picture will
be incomplete. This is true for skills that involve
actions both above and below water. For example, in
demonstrating how to turn a victim face-up using the
head splint, participants may clearly see the rescuer’s
hand and arm position above the water, but may
not notice the rescuer’s leg action. Since supporting
the victim and avoiding unnecessary movement are
important when performing the rescue, the rescuer’s
underwater actions are significant elements in the
total skill.
4
Two exams, Section 1—CPR/AED for the Professional
Rescuer and First Aid and Section 2—Lifeguarding
Skills are included in Section E of this manual. Two
versions are available for each exam. Participants must
pass each exam with a minimum score of 80 percent
as part of the requirements for receiving American Red
Cross course completion certificates.
Additional exams for the Waterfront Skills and
Waterpark Skills modules are also included in
Section E of this manual.
Video Segments
The Lifeguarding DVD Set (Stock No. 655739) is
designed specifically for use during the courses in the
Lifeguarding program. The video segments can also be
viewed on Instructor’s Corner. Instructors are required
to use the video segments because they contain model
demonstrations that combine real-life scenarios with
studio-based skill segments to help ensure lesson
objectives are met. The course cannot be conducted if
the video segments are not available. A detailed menu
of the Lifeguarding DVD Set and running times is
included on Instructor’s Corner.
Instructors can also use the Lifeguarding DVD Set
to teach the Administering Emergency Oxygen and
Bloodborne Pathogens Training: Preventing Disease
Transmission courses and the asthma inhaler and
epinephrine auto-injector trainings.
Lifeguarding Instructor’s Manual
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if fewer backboards are available, additional
time may be required
Materials, Equipment and Supplies
Specific materials, equipment and supplies needed for
each lesson are included at the beginning of the lesson.
Instructors should have the specific equipment needed
for the lessons ready prior to the start of the lesson.
■
■
■
For the course, instructors must have the following:
|
Newsprint and marker pens, easel or tape
|
Equipment for viewing the video segments
and/or the course presentation, including a
DVD player and monitor or LCD projector,
extension cord and grounded plug adaptor
if needed, Lifeguarding DVD Set and
the applicable course presentation
|
Diving bricks and a stopwatch or pace clock
|
Rescue tubes (one for every two participants)
|
Hip packs
For the Lessons 5, 6 and 9, each class must have
the following:
|
Manikin decontamination supplies
including decontamination solution,
4-inch x 4-inch gauze pads, soap and
water, brush, basins or buckets, and any
accessories that may be recommended
by the manufacturer of the manikin
|
Blankets or mats (one for every
two participants)
|
Adult and infant manikins (one of each
for every two participants)
|
Child manikins are optional (one for every
two participants)
|
Adult and pediatric bag-valve-mask
resuscitators
|
AED training devices (one for every
two participants)
|
Adult AED training pads (one set for each
training device)
|
Pediatric AED training pads (one set for
each training device)
|
A towel
For the Lessons 7 and 8, each class must have the
following:
|
External bleeding control materials
for each pair of participants, including
two 3-inch roller bandages and four
nonsterile dressings or gauze pads
|
Splinting materials for each pair of
participants, including four triangular
bandages, one 3-inch roller bandage, a
blanket or pillow and a rigid splint such as a
magazine, cardboard or long and short boards
|
Spinal immobilization materials
|
Backboards, each equipped with 3 straps
and head immobilizers (one backboard for
every three participants is recommended);
For each lesson, lifeguard candidates must have the
Lifeguarding Manual and should have a pencil or
pen, a name tag, the activity worksheets, non-latex
disposable gloves in multiple sizes and a resuscitation
mask (adult and pediatric). For the final lesson, each
candidate should have a final written exam and answer
sheet for the applicable course and/or module.
Instructors must have American Red Cross
identification; the Lifeguarding Manual; the
Lifeguarding Instructor’s Manual; a name tag; answer
keys for the course and/or module exams; extra
manikin lungs, airways and faces; Course Record and
Course Record Addendum; Participant Progress Log;
and extra pens or pencils.
Course Presentation
Another resource for instructors is the Lifeguarding
course presentations. Similar to a PowerPoint
presentation, the course presentation is an in-class
visual aid that is projected onto a screen or viewing
area. Instructors click through the presentation slides
as they progress through the lessons.
The course presentation is designed to include all
the visual information necessary to conduct the
Lifeguarding courses. The course presentation
includes lecture points, video segments and
selected skill sheets. Cross-references appear in
this manual to assist in teaching along with the
course presentation.
Before conducting the course, become familiar with the
presentation software and test the display of the system
to be used. It is recommended you have backup copies
of the presentation in case technical difficulties occur.
Course Presentation System Requirements:
■
Adobe Reader 9
■
Flash Player 8, 9 for Windows and Mac
■
Flash Player 9 for Linux and Solaris
Equipment Requirements:
Laptop/desktop computer
■
■
Power source
■
Projector
■
Projection screen/area
■
Computer speakers
The presentation is available to download on
Instructor’s Corner. The presentation is saved in PDF
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format. To view the presentation, save the file to your
computer and double click on the PDF icon to open it.
Additional directions for using the course presentation
are available on Instructor’s Corner.
Activity Worksheets
The Lifeguarding program uses activity worksheets in
some of the lessons to help reinforce course material.
Activity worksheets for participants can be found at
the end of Section B. The activity worksheets should
be given to each participant during the appropriate
lessons. Answers to the activity worksheets are
included in the appropriate lessons within the course.
■
Administrative Terms and Procedures.
■
Course Fact Sheets.
■
Sample Letter to Lifeguarding course participants.
■
Course Record and Course Record Addendum.
■
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Resource
Guide.
■
Lifeguarding DVD Menu and Run Times.
■
Teaching Strategies.
■
Participant Progress Log.
Additional resources on Instructor’s Corner:
■
Administrative forms and policies, including
the Instructor Agreement and Code of Conduct
and the Manual of Administrative Policies and
Procedures (MAPP)
■
Information about other Red Cross training and
education programs
■
Frequently asked questions and expert answers to
your technical questions
■
Link to the Learning Center Web site
■
Links to redcrossstore.org and shopstaywell.com
for training supplies and Red Cross retail products
Instructor’s Corner
As an instructor, it is very important that you register
on Instructor’s Corner (redcross.org/instructorscorner)
and visit the site regularly for program information
and updates. Once you have completed the brief
registration process, you will have free access to many
important resources for instructors.
Lifeguarding program materials on Instructor’s Corner
include:
ADDITIONAL RESOURCES FOR INSTRUCTORS
AND PARTICIPANTS
Training Equipment and Red Cross
Retail Products
Refer participants to the Red Cross for more
information about scheduled courses in their
community.
Equipment used during the course, such as CPR
breathing barriers, first aid kits and a wide range of
Red Cross retail products, are available through the
Red Cross or the Red Cross store at redcrossstore.org.
Refresher Program
Additional Red Cross Courses
A wide range of additional training opportunities in
safety and preparedness are offered through the Red
Cross. Additional Red Cross programs include:
■
Swimming and Water Safety.
■
Babysitter’s Training.
■
Family Caregiving.
■
Nurse Assistant Training.
■
CPR/AED for Professional Rescuers and Health
Care Providers.
■
Wilderness and Remote First Aid.
6
CPR and AED knowledge and skills begin to decline
within as little as 3 months after training. That is why
refreshers—a series of short, online learning exercises
and quizzes—are included in the Lifeguarding program.
Refreshers help skills retention by giving participants
opportunities to test and reaffirm CPR, AED and
lifeguarding knowledge and skills learned in class. The
goal of the refresher program is to keep the knowledge
and skills learned in class fresh in participants’ minds.
Participants will receive an e-mail with the link to their
first refresher about 3 months after class. From then,
they will receive additional refreshers throughout the
certification period. While participation in the refresher
program is voluntary, all participants are strongly
encouraged to complete the refreshers on schedule.
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CHAPTER 3
SETTING UP AND RUNNING THIS COURSE
This chapter explains how to organize the American
Red Cross Lifeguarding program.
RECOMMENDED CLASS SIZE
The course outline and lesson plans have been
developed for a class of approximately 10 participants.
If your class is larger, you probably will need to allow
more time or have co-instructors or instructor aides
help you. The amount of available equipment and
assistance from additional instructors may limit class
size. Personal supervision is necessary to ensure
effective practice and the safety of participants. If
the class is too large, you may not be able to provide
proper supervision or complete class activities in the
allotted time. It is strongly recommended that you
have additional instructors help during skill practice
sessions.
COURSE LENGTH
The course length varies depending on which
Lifeguarding course is taught. The Lifeguarding course
is designed to be taught in approximately 25 hours,
20 minutes. The Shallow Water Attendant course is
designed to be taught in approximately 24 hours. The
Waterfront Skills module will add 5 hours, 40 minutes
to the core Lifeguarding course. The Waterpark Skills
module will add 3 hours, 40 minutes to the core
Lifeguarding course.
You must carefully consider the issues of time when
planning each class session. The lesson plans in this
instructor’s manual should be followed as closely as
possible, but facility constraints, specific instructor-toparticipant ratios, equipment-to-participant ratios, as
well as participant needs such as breaks, may increase
course length.
Other factors that may influence lesson planning
include:
■
Classroom availability and layout.
■
Aquatic facility availability and layout.
■
Equipment availability.
■
Number of participants.
■
Skill level of participants.
■
Instructor experience.
■
Number of instructors.
CLASSROOM SPACE
The lessons described in this instructor’s manual
require classroom space suitable for lecture, class
discussions, small group activities, DVD presentations
and skill practice sessions. The classroom should
provide a safe, comfortable and appropriate learning
environment. The room should be well lit and well
ventilated and have a comfortable temperature. If
the practice area is not carpeted, provide some knee
protection, such as folded blankets or mats, for use
by participants or allow them to bring their own
padding materials.
SWIMMING AREA
A pool is recommended for skill practice, in-water
activities and skills evaluation. The pool must meet the
requirements needed to conduct the following:
■
Prerequisite swimming skills evaluation
■
Submerged victim rescue (7-10 feet)
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■
Caring for head, neck and spinal injuries in
deep water
■
Final In-Water Skill Scenarios 1-3
When teaching the Lifeguarding course, if the pool has
a maximum depth of 6 feet, an alternate timed event
can be used as part of the prerequisite swimming
skills evaluation. All other class activities must be
taught in water depth as described in the activity or
skill session directions.
For pools with maximum water depth of 6 feet deep,
candidates should complete the following timed event
within 1 minute, 40 seconds.
■
Starting in the water, swim 20 yards. The face
may be in or out of the water. Swim goggles are
not allowed.
■
Surface dive to a depth of 6 feet, swim 10 to 15 feet
along the bottom to retrieve a 10-pound object.
■
Return to the surface and swim on the back to the
starting point with both hands holding the object
at the surface and the face remaining at or near the
surface or able to get a breath. Candidates should
not swim the distance underwater.
If a waterfront or waterpark facility is used for teaching
the Lifeguarding course, a swimming area should be
chosen that is free from surf or obstructions and has
sufficient space and depth (7-10 feet) for skill practice,
in-water activities and skills evaluation. The facility
must meet the same standards as listed above for
swimming pools.
To ensure consistency in course delivery, facilities must
be used that meet the guidelines for conducting the
course activities. More than one facility can be used to
accommodate the lesson plan activities.
SETTING UP AND RUNNING SKILL SESSIONS
The instructions in the skills practice sessions are
condensed for ease of use. However, during every
skill practice session, circulate among groups to
monitor progress and provide assistance when
necessary. Lifeguards should practice the skills
until they are able to meet performance criteria.
Observe each participant’s performance of the skill
and provide corrective feedback using the skill
charts and skill assessment tools. Record their
progress on the Participant Progress Log
(redcross.org/instructorscorner).
In some cases, this may not be possible, such as with
an entry from a lifeguard stand. However, the more
participants can see, the better they will conceptualize
a skill.
Training to the Standard but Testing
to the Objective
Instructors must focus on the successful completion of
an objective as opposed to perfecting every individual
skill. For example:
■
A person with one arm may not be able to perform
a front crawl or breaststroke approach. However,
he or she may be able to perform a modified
sidestroke to reach a victim in distress. If the
“objective” is for the lifeguard to reach a victim,
the person with one arm will fully satisfy that
objective even though he or she has not performed
a conventional approach stroke in the process.
■
A person may not be able to support the head and
neck in the standard way for manual stabilization,
but if the person is able to hold the victim’s head
stable, the objective is met.
■
A person may not be able to perform either a
compact jump or a stride jump perfectly and may
have to modify the skill to enter the water in a safe
way. It is not essential that a lifeguard enter the
water in a specific manner during a rescue, only
that he or she can do it safely.
Land-Based Skill Practice
The skill sessions are conducted in one of two ways.
Some skills are learned via the Watch-Then-Practice
instructional method while others offer a choice of how
the skill session is conducted (Practice-While-YouWatch or Watch-Then-Practice). Skill charts and skill
assessment tools are located in the instructor’s manual
at the end of the lessons that include skill sessions.
In-Water Skill Practice
Whenever possible, the skill should be demonstrated,
and then practiced, on land first. Demonstrations
should be performed as slowly as possible without
losing the integrity of the skill. Whenever possible,
skills should be demonstrated in exactly the same
manner from the front, back and both sides. This allows
participants to see all sides and angles of a sequence.
8
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In all these situations, the participant may continue
the course and still receive certification, since he
or she is capable of performing the function of a
lifeguard during a rescue. Additional information
on adjustments to training can be found in the
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Accommodation
Resource Guide found on Instructor’s Corner at
www.redcross.org/instructorscorner.
CLASS SAFETY
As a Red Cross instructor, it is important for you to
make the teaching environment as safe as possible.
Participants who feel they are at risk for injury or
illness may become distracted. These same feelings
may also affect your ability to teach. There are several
steps you can take to help increase class safety:
■
Instructor Preparation: Consider possible hazards
and manage safety concerns before a course starts.
Often, you can foresee hazards and take steps to
eliminate or control them long before participants
arrive.
■
Assisting Instructors and Co-Instructors: Assisting
instructors and co-instructors can help decrease
risks by giving more supervision and reducing the
instructor-to-participant ratio. They also increase
participation and learning by providing more
one-on-one attention to participants. When using
assisting instructors or co-instructors, clearly
define their roles and responsibilities. Doing so will
help eliminate confusion and lapses in supervision.
Remember that you are ultimately responsible
for your participants’ safety. To determine your
staffing needs, consider the different ages and the
individual abilities of participants. If your course
has a large number of participants, you will need
additional help.
■
Instructor Aides: Individuals who express an
interest in becoming an instructor but do not, for
example, meet the minimum age, can participate
as an instructor aide. Instructor aides must always
be under the direct supervision of an instructor
and should never be left alone to supervise course
participants. Instructor aides may not evaluate
or certify a participant’s skill performance.
An instructor aide must possess a basic-level
certificate(s) in the applicable program or course
for which he or she wishes to assist. Lifeguarding
instructors can train instructor aide candidates.
Contact the Red Cross to get further information
about instructor aide training. In general, duties
and responsibilities of instructor aides include:
|
Handling registration and record keeping.
|
Setting up classrooms and handing
out supplies.
|
Assisting with equipment (e.g., setup,
cleaning and distribution of materials).
|
Helping participants with skill practice
or small group activities.
HEALTH PRECAUTIONS FOR COURSE PARTICIPANTS
As a Red Cross instructor, one of your responsibilities is
to protect participants from health risks. The materials and
procedures for teaching these courses are designed to:
■
Limit the risk of disease transmission.
■
Limit the risk of one participant injuring another
when practicing with a partner.
■
Limit the risk that the activity involved in skill
practice could cause injury or sudden illness.
When possible, prospective participants should be
provided information about health requirements and
safety before enrolling in the course. The Sample Letter
to Lifeguarding Program Participants on Instructor’s
Corner is one way to communicate that information.
Ask participants to talk with you before any practice
session if they doubt they can participate.
People with certain health conditions may be
hesitant to take part in the practice sessions. These
could include a history of heart attack or other heart
conditions or respiratory problems. Suggest that these
participants check with their health care provider
before participating in practice sessions involving
physical activity. Inform participants who take the
course, but cannot demonstrate the skills taught in the
practice sessions, that they cannot receive an American
Red Cross course completion certificate. Encourage
them, however, to participate to whatever extent
possible. The Red Cross advocates that, whenever
possible, the instructor adjust participants’ activity
levels as necessary to facilitate learning and help
participants meet course objectives.
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PARTICIPANTS WITH DISABILITIES AND SPECIAL
HEALTH CONSIDERATIONS
People with disabilities and other conditions may be
able to perform first aid, CPR and other EMR skills.
Some skills may need to be modified, but the result
is the same. Instructors should focus on the critical
components of a skill that are needed to successfully
meet the objective.
10
Detailed guidance on these topics is included in the
Health Precautions and Guidelines During Training
and the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
Resource Guide, both of which are available on
Instructor’s Corner (redcross.org/instructorscorner).
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CHAPTER 4
REQUIREMENTS FOR SUCCESSFUL
COURSE COMPLETION
CRITERIA FOR COURSE COMPLETION
AND CERTIFICATION
On successful completion of the Lifeguarding course,
participants receive American Red Cross certificate
for Lifeguarding/First Aid/CPR/AED. On successful
completion of the Shallow Water Lifeguarding course,
participants receive an American Red Cross certificate
for Shallow Water Lifeguarding/First Aid/CPR/AED.
To successfully complete the Lifeguarding/Shallow
Water Lifeguarding course, the participant must:
■
Attend and participate in all class sessions.
■
Demonstrate competency in all required skills
and activities.
■
Demonstrate competency in all required final
rescue skill scenarios.
■
Pass both the Section 1—CPR/AED for the
Professional Rescuer and First Aid and Section 2—
Lifeguarding/Shallow Water Lifeguarding Skills
final written exams with minimum grades of
80 percent.
Participants should be told of the requirements
when they enroll for the course and again during the
course introduction. For successful completion of the
Waterfront Skills module, participants must pass the
Waterfront Skills Final Written Exam as well. For
successful completion of the Waterpark Skills module,
participants also must pass the Waterpark Skills Final
Written Exam.
FINAL WRITTEN EXAMS
Two exams, Section 1—CPR/AED for the Professional
Rescuer and First Aid and Section 2—Lifeguarding/
Shallow Water Lifeguarding Skills, are included in
Section E of this manual. Two versions are available
for each exam. Participants must pass each exam
with a minimum score of 80 percent as part of the
requirements for receiving American Red Cross course
completion certificates.
Additional exams for the Waterfront Skills and
Waterpark Skills modules are also included in Section
E of this manual. Participants must pass the exam
with a minimum score of 80 percent as part of the
requirement for receiving an American Red Cross
course completion certificate for the corresponding
module.
FINAL IN-WATER SKILLS SCENARIO
Participant skills are evaluated and feedback given
throughout the course. The purpose of the final inwater skills scenarios is to ensure that participants have
achieved a level of competency and retention of the
skills learned in the course.
■
Participants will have to demonstrate competency in
the following areas for the Lifeguarding course:
■
Head, Neck or Spinal Injury in Shallow Water
■
Active Victim in Shallow Water
■
Head, Neck or Spinal Injury in Shallow Water
■
■
Active Victim in Deep Water
Submerged Victim in Shallow Water—
Timed Response
Submerged Victim in Deep Water—
Timed Response
Participants will have to demonstrate competency in
the following areas for the Shallow Water Lifeguarding
course:
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There are not separate final in-water skills scenarios
for the Waterfront Skills module or the Waterpark
Skills module. Participants must successfully complete
the final in-water skills scenario as outlined in the
Lifeguarding course.
Lifeguarding instructors are encouraged to use
additional instructors to help administer the final
skills evaluation.
EXAM SECURITY
Exam security is your responsibility. It is not
recommended that participants be allowed to see the
written exam before it is distributed. As participants
hand in their answer sheets, you may quickly grade
the exam and return it to the participant. This way, the
participant can review any incorrect answers. Be sure to
collect all answer sheets and exams before participants
leave the class.
REPORTING PROCEDURES
You must submit a completed course record to the Red
Cross within 10 working days of course completion.
While the course record can be submitted in hard copy,
the Red Cross encourages instructors to submit their
course records electronically through the Learning
Center (https://classes.redcross.org/Saba/Web/Main).
Check with the Red Cross for procedures to submit
course records.
PARTICIPANT COURSE EVALUATION
Gaining feedback from participants is an important
step in any evaluation process. Participants should
have an opportunity to tell you what they thought about
the course. Have participants complete evaluations
each time you teach this course. This information will
provide you with feedback concerning the course and
its instruction and help the Red Cross maintain the
high quality of the course. A copy of the evaluation
form is available on Instructor’s Corner.
AWARDING CERTIFICATES
Discuss with the Red Cross the procedures for
obtaining American Red Cross course completion
certificates. Sign the certificates before giving them to
participants. If you receive certificates after the course
is over, make arrangements to get them to participants.
CONTINUING EDUCATION UNITS FOR PROFESSIONALS
Many course takers are professionals who need
continuing education units to maintain a license and/
or certification. The American Red Cross is approved as
an authorized provider by the International Association
of Continuing Education and Training (IACET)
12
(Iacet.org). IACET’s Criteria for Quality Continuing
Education and Training Programs are the standards
by which hundreds of organizations measure their
educational offerings. For additional information,
contact the Red Cross.
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SECTION
B | THE LIFEGUARDING AND SHALLOW
WATER LIFEGUARDING COURSES
LIFEGUARDING COURSE OUTLINE
PRECOURSE SESSION
Activity
Time
Introduction to the Precourse Session
10 minutes
Verification of Age Prerequisite
5 minutes
Prerequisite Swimming Skills Evaluation
40 minutes
Wrap-Up
5 minutes
Precourse Session, Total Time
60 minutes
LESSON 1—THE
PROFESSIONAL LIFEGUARD AND
FACILITY SAFETY
Activity
Time
Introduction to the Course
15 minutes
The Professional Lifeguard
15 minutes
Video: The Professional Lifeguard
Decision Making
5 minutes
Legal Considerations
10 minutes
Continuation of Training
10 minutes
Being Part of a Team
15 minutes
Facility Safety
10 minutes
Weather Conditions
5 minutes
Rules and Regulations
20 minutes
Entries and Approaches
10 minutes
Video: Entries and Approaches
In-Water Skill Session: Entries and Approaches
40 minutes
Skill: Slide-in Entry and Walking Approach
Skill: Slide-in Entry and Swimming Approach
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Skill: Stride Jump and Swimming Approach
Skill: Compact Jump and Swimming Approach
Putting It All Together
10 minutes
Lesson 1, Total Time
2 hours 45 minutes
LESSON 2—FACILITY
SAFETY, PATRON SURVEILLANCE
AND INJURY PREVENTION
Activity
Time
Management and Facility Safety
10 minutes
The Drowning Process
10 minutes
Effective Surveillance—Victim Recognition
10 minutes
Video: Surveillance
Effective Surveillance—Scanning
10 minutes
Video: Scanning
Effective Surveillance—Zones of Surveillance Responsibility
10 minutes
Video: Zones of Surveillance
Injury Prevention Strategies
15 minutes
Video: Injury Prevention
Guarding a Variety of Activities
10 minutes
Guarding Play Structures, Special Attractions and Water Slides
20 minutes
In-Water Skill Session: Review Skills, Victim Recognition and Lifeguard Rotation
45 minutes
Putting It All Together
25 minutes
Lesson 2, Total Time
2 hours 45 minutes
LESSON 3—INJURY
PREVENTION AND RESCUE SKILLS,
PART 1
Activity
Time
Guarding for Organized Recreational Swim Groups
20 minutes
Emergency Action Plans
20 minutes
Video: Emergency Action Plans
Rescue Skills, Part 1: Distressed and Active Victim Rescues
10 minutes
Video: Water Rescue Skills—Rescues At or Near the Surface
In-Water Skill Session—Rescue Skills, Part 1
85 minutes
Skill: Reaching Assist from the Deck
Skill: Simple Assist
Skill: Active Victim Front Rescue
Skill: Active Victim Rear Rescue
Skill: Passive Victim Rear Rescue
Skill: Multiple Victim Rescue
Putting It All Together
35 minutes
Lesson 3, Total Time
2 hours 50 minutes
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LESSON 4—RESCUE
SKILLS, PART 2
Activity
Time
Surveillance Activity I
10 minutes
Video: Review—Surveillance Activity I
Rescue Skills, Part 2: Submerged Victim Rescues
10 minutes
Video: Water Rescue Skills—Submerged Victim Rescues
In-Water Skill Session: Rescue Skills, Part 2
70 minutes
Skill: Submerged Passive Victim in Shallow Water
Skill: Feet-First Surface Dive in Deep Water
Skill: Head-First Surface Dive in Deep Water
Skill: Submerged Victim in Deep Water
Skill: Two-Person Removal from the Water Using a Backboard
Putting It All Together
45 minutes
Lesson 4, Total Time
2 hours 15 minutes
LESSON 5—BEFORE
PROVIDING CARE, VICTIM
ASSESSMENT AND BREATHING
EMERGENCIES
Activity
Time
Standard Precautions
10 minutes
Video: Standard Precautions
Skill: Removing Disposable Gloves
General Procedures for an Emergency on Land
5 minutes
Performing a Primary Assessment
50 minutes
Video: Primary Assessment—Adult
Skill: Performing a Primary Assessment—Adult, Child and Infant
Video: Primary Assessment—Child and Infant
Skill: Using a Resuscitation Mask
Skill: Performing a Primary Assessment—Child or Infant
Moving a Victim
5 minutes
Recognizing and Caring for Breathing Emergencies
5 minutes
Giving Ventilations
15 minutes
Video: Giving Ventilations—Adult, Child and Infant
Skill: Giving Ventilations—Adult
Skill: Giving Ventilations—Child or Infant
Giving Ventilations Using a Bag-Valve-Mask Resuscitator
15 minutes
Video: Using a Bag-Valve-Mask Resuscitator—Two Rescuers
Skill: Giving Ventilations Using a BVM—Two Rescuers
Airway Obstruction
30 minutes
Video: Conscious Choking—Adult and Child
Skill: Conscious Choking—Adult and Child
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Video: Conscious Choking—Infant
Skill: Conscious Choking—Infant
Video: Unconscious Choking—Adult, Child and Infant
Skill: Unconscious Choking—Adult and Child
Skill: Unconscious Choking—Infant
In-Water Skill Session: Putting It All Together
30 minutes
Lesson 5, Total Time
2 hours 45 minutes
LESSON 6—CARDIAC
EMERGENCIES AND USING AN
AUTOMATED EXTERNAL DEFIBRILLATOR
Activity
Time
Recognizing and Caring for a Heart Attack
15 minutes
Cardiac Arrest
5 minutes
Video: Heart Attack and the Cardiac Chain of Survival
CPR
40 minutes
Video: CPR—Adult and Child
Skill: CPR—Adult and Child
Video: CPR—Infant
Skill: CPR—Infant
Two-Rescuer CPR
15 minutes
Video: Two-Rescuer CPR—Adult and Child
Skill: Two-Rescuer CPR—Adult and Child
Video: Two-Rescuer CPR—Infant
Skill: Two-Rescuer CPR—Infant
When the Heart Stops and AEDs
5 minutes
Using an AED
15 minutes
Video: Using an AED
Skill: Using an AED
Video: Using an AED—CPR in Progress
AED Precautions and Maintenance
10 minutes
Putting It All Together: Multiple-Victim Response
5 minutes
Video: Putting It All Together: Multiple-Rescuer Response—CPR in Progress
In-Water Skill Session: Putting It All Together
40 minutes
Lesson 6, Total Time
2 hours 30 minutes
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LESSON 7—FIRST
AID
Activity
Time
Review—Surveillance Activities
5 minutes
Video: Review—Surveillance Activity 2
Secondary Assessment
5 minutes
Sudden Illness
10 minutes
Video: Responding to Sudden Illnesses
Responding to Injuries
45 minutes
Video: Responding to Injuries
Skill: Controlling Bleeding
Skill: Splinting
Putting It All Together—First Aid Scenarios
20 minutes
Caring for Head, Neck and Spinal Injuries on Land
10 minutes
Video: Head, Neck and Spinal Injuries on Land
Skill: Caring for a Nonstanding Victim of a Suspected Head, Neck or
Spinal Injury on Land
Skill: Caring for a Standing Victim of a Suspected Head, Neck or
Back Injury on Land
When Things Do Not Go as Practiced
5 minutes
Video: When Things Do Not Go as Practiced
In-Water Skill Session: When Things Do Not Go as Practiced
30 minutes
In-Water Skill Session: Rescue Skill Review
30 minutes
Lesson 7, Total Time
2 hours 40 minutes
LESSON 8—HEAD,
NECK AND SPINAL INJURIES
IN THE WATER
Activity
Time
Final Written Exam: Section 1—CPR/AED for the Professional
Rescuer and First Aid
40 minutes
Caring for Head, Neck and Spinal Injuries in the Water
10 minutes
Video: Head, Neck and Spinal Injuries in the Water
In-Water Skill Session: Head, Neck and Spinal Injuries
140 minutes
Skill: Head Splint—Face-Up Victim At or Near the Surface in Shallow Water
Skill: Head Splint—Face-Down Victim At or Near the Surface in Shallow Water
Skill: Head Splint—Submerged Victim in Shallow Water
Skill: Spinal Backboarding Procedure―Shallow Water
Skill: Head Splint—Face-Up and Face-Down Victim At or Near the Surface in
Deep Water
Skill: Head Splint—Submerged Victim in Deep Water
Skill: Spinal Backboarding Procedure—Deep Water
Lesson 8, Total Time
3 hours 10 minutes
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LESSON 9—FINAL
WRITTEN EXAM AND FINAL IN-WATER
SKILL SCENARIOS
Activity
Time
Review of the Final Written Exam: Section 1—CPR for the
Professional Rescuer and First Aid
5 minutes
Final Written Exam: Section 2—Lifeguarding Skills
30 minutes
In-Water Skill Session: General Skills Review
30 minutes
Final In-Water Skill Scenarios
90 minutes
Skill: Final Scenario: Head, Neck or Spinal Injury in Shallow Water
Skill: Final Scenario: Active Victim in Deep Water
Skill: Final Scenario: Submerged Passive Victim in Deep Water—Team Response
Closing
5 minutes
Lesson 9, Total Time
2 hours 40 minutes
TOTAL COURSE TIME
25 hours 20 minutes
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SHALLOW WATER LIFEGUARDING
COURSE OUTLINE
PRECOURSE SESSION
Activity
Time
Introduction to the Precourse Session
10 minutes
Verification of Age Prerequisite
5 minutes
Prerequisite Swimming Skills Evaluation
40 minutes
Wrap-Up
5 minutes
Precourse Session, Total Time
60 minutes
LESSON 1—THE
PROFESSIONAL LIFEGUARD AND
FACILITY SAFETY
Activity
Time
Introduction to the Course
15 minutes
The Professional Lifeguard
15 minutes
Video: The Professional Lifeguard
Decision Making
5 minutes
Legal Considerations
10 minutes
Continuation of Training
10 minutes
Being Part of a Team
15 minutes
Facility Safety
10 minutes
Weather Conditions
5 minutes
Rules and Regulations
20 minutes
Entries and Approaches
10 minutes
Video: Entries and Approaches
In-Water Skill Session: Entries and Approaches
40 minutes
Skill: Slide-in Entry and Walking Approach
Skill: Slide-in Entry and Swimming Approach
Skill: Compact Jump and Swimming Approach
Putting It All Together
10 minutes
Lesson 1, Total Time
2 hours 45 minutes
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LESSON 2—FACILITY
SAFETY, PATRON SURVEILLANCE
AND INJURY PREVENTION
Activity
Time
Management and Facility Safety
10 minutes
The Drowning Process
10 minutes
Effective Surveillance—Victim Recognition
10 minutes
Video: Surveillance
Effective Surveillance—Scanning
10 minutes
Video: Scanning
Effective Surveillance—Zones of Surveillance Responsibility
10 minutes
Video: Zones of Surveillance
Injury Prevention Strategies
15 minutes
Video: Injury Prevention
Guarding a Variety of Activities
10 minutes
Guarding Play Structures, Special Attractions and Water Slides
20 minutes
In-Water Skill Session: Review Skills, Victim Recognition and Lifeguard Rotation
45 minutes
Putting It All Together
25 minutes
Lesson 2, Total Time
2 hours 45 minutes
LESSON 3—INJURY
PREVENTION AND RESCUE SKILLS,
PART 1
Activity
Time
Guarding for Organized Recreational Swim Groups
20 minutes
Emergency Action Plans
20 minutes
Video: Emergency Action Plans
Rescue Skills, Part 1: Distressed and Active Victim Rescues
10 minutes
Video: Water Rescue Skills—Rescues At or Near the Surface
In-Water Skill Session—Rescue Skills, Part 1
85 minutes
Skill: Reaching Assist From the Deck
Skill: Simple Assist
Skill: Active Victim Front Rescue
Skill: Active Victim Rear Rescue
Skill: Multiple Victim Rescue
Putting It All Together
35 minutes
Lesson 3, Total Time
2 hours 50 minutes
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LESSON 4—RESCUE
SKILLS, PART 2
Activity
Time
Surveillance Activity 1
10 minutes
Video: Review—Surveillance Activity 1
Rescue Skills, Part 2: Submerged Victim Rescues
10 minutes
Video: Water Rescue Skills—Submerged Victim Rescues
In-Water Skill Session: Rescue Skills, Part 2
30 minutes
Skill: Submerged Passive Victim in Shallow Water
Skill: Two-Person Removal from the Water Using a Backboard
Putting It All Together
45 minutes
Lesson 4, Total Time
1 hour 35 minutes
LESSON 5—BEFORE
PROVIDING CARE, VICTIM
ASSESSMENT AND BREATHING
EMERGENCIES
Activity
Time
Standard Precautions
10 minutes
Video: Standard Precautions
Skill: Removing Disposable Gloves
General Procedures for an Emergency on Land
5 minutes
Performing a Primary Assessment
50 minutes
Video: Primary Assessment—Adult
Skill: Performing a Primary Assessment—Adult, Child and Infant
Video: Primary Assessment—Child and Infant
Skill: Using a Resuscitation Mask
Skill: Performing a Primary Assessment—Child or Infant
Moving a Victim
5 minutes
Recognizing and Caring for Breathing Emergencies
5 minutes
Giving Ventilations
15 minutes
Video: Giving Ventilations—Adult, Child and Infant
Skill: Giving Ventilations—Adult
Skill: Giving Ventilations—Child or Infant
Giving Ventilations Using a Bag-Valve-Mask Resuscitator
15 minutes
Video: Using a Bag-Valve-Mask Resuscitator—Two Rescuers
Skill: Giving Ventilations Using a BVM—Two Rescuers
Airway Obstruction
30 minutes
Video: Conscious Choking—Adult and Child
Skill: Conscious Choking—Adult and Child
Video: Conscious Choking—Infant
Skill: Conscious Choking—Infant
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Video: Unconscious Choking—Adult, Child and Infant
Skill: Unconscious Choking—Adult and Child
Skill: Unconscious Choking—Infant
In-Water Skill Session: Putting It All Together
30 minutes
Lesson 5, Total Time
2 hours 45 minutes
LESSON 6—CARDIAC
EMERGENCIES AND USING AN
AUTOMATED EXTERNAL DEFIBRILLATOR
Activity
Time
Recognizing and Caring for a Heart Attack
15 minutes
Cardiac Arrest
5 minutes
Video: Heart Attack and the Cardiac Chain of Survival
CPR
40 minutes
Video: CPR—Adult and Child
Skill: CPR—Adult and Child
Video: CPR—Infant
Skill: CPR—Infant
Two-Rescuer CPR
15 minutes
Video: Two-Rescuer CPR—Adult and Child
Skill: Two-Rescuer CPR—Adult and Child
Video: Two-Rescuer CPR—Infant
Skill: Two-Rescuer CPR—Infant
When the Heart Stops and AEDs
5 minutes
Using an AED
15 minutes
Video: Using an AED
Skill: Using an AED
Video: Using an AED―CPR in Progress
AED Precautions and Maintenance
10 minutes
Putting It All Together: Multiple-Victim Response
5 minutes
Video: Putting It All Together: Multiple-Rescuer Response—CPR in Progress
In-Water Skill Session: Putting It All Together
40 minutes
Lesson 6, Total Time
2 hours 30 minutes
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LESSON 7—FIRST
AID
Activity
Time
Review—Surveillance Activities
5 minutes
Video: Review—Surveillance Activity 2
Secondary Assessment
5 minutes
Sudden Illness
10 minutes
Video: Responding to Sudden Illnesses
Responding to Injuries
45 minutes
Video: Responding to Injuries
Skill: Controlling Bleeding
Skill: Splinting
Putting It All Together—First Aid Scenarios
20 minutes
Caring for Head, Neck and Spinal Injuries on Land
10 minutes
Video: Head, Neck and Spinal Injuries on Land
Skill: Caring for a Nonstanding Victim of a Suspected Head,
Neck or Spinal Injury on Land
Skill: Caring for a Standing Victim of a Suspected Head,
Neck or Back Injury on Land
When Things Do Not Go as Practiced
5 minutes
Video: When Things Do Not Go as Practiced
In-Water Skill Session: When Things Do Not Go as Practiced
30 minutes
Skill: Front Head—Hold Escape in Shallow Water
Skill: Rear Head—Hold Escape in Shallow Water
Skill: In-Water Ventilations—Shallow Water
In-Water Skill Session: Rescue Skill Review
30 minutes
Lesson 7, Total Time
2 hours 40 minutes
LESSON 8—HEAD,
NECK AND SPINAL INJURIES
IN THE WATER
Activity
Time
Final Written Final Exam: Section 1—CPR/AED for the Professional
Rescuer and First Aid
40 minutes
Caring for Head, Neck and Spinal Injuries in the Water
10 minutes
Video: Head, Neck and Spinal Injuries in the Water
In-Water Skill Session: Head, Neck and Spinal Injuries
100 minutes
Skill: Head Splint—Face-Up Victim At or Near the Surface in Shallow Water
Skill: Head Splint—Face-Down Victim At or Near the Surface in Shallow Water
Skill: Head Splint—Submerged Victim in Shallow Water
Skill: Spinal Backboarding Procedure
Lesson 8, Total Time
2 hours 30 minutes
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LESSON 9—FINAL
WRITTEN EXAM AND FINAL IN-WATER
SKILL SCENARIOS
Activity
Time
Review of the Final Written Exam: Section 1—CPR for the Professional
Rescuer and First Aid
5 minutes
Final Written Exam: Section 2—Shallow Water Lifeguarding Skills
30 minutes
In-Water Skill Session: General Skills Review
30 minutes
Final In-Water Skill Scenarios
90 minutes
Skill: Final Scenario: Head, Neck or Spinal Injury in Shallow Water
Skill: Final Scenario: Active Victim in Deep Water
Skill: Final Scenario: Submerged Passive Victim in Deep Water―Team Response
Closing
5 minutes
Lesson 9, Total Time
2 hours 40 minutes
TOTAL COURSE TIME
24 hours
24
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PRECOURSE SESSION
¡
Session Length: 1 hour
MATERIALS, EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLIES
■
■
■
A 10-pound object (a diving brick or weight; one for every five participants)
Stopwatch
Lifeguarding Precourse Skills Checklist (redcross.org/instructorscorner)
TOPIC:
Activity
INTRODUCTION TO THE
PRECOURSE SESSION
Time: 10 minutes
■
Welcome prospective participants and introduce yourself. Identify yourself as an
American Red Cross instructor. Briefly tell about your background in aquatics.
Include co-instructors and aides, if applicable.
■
Review facility policies, including emergency procedures. Give the locations of
restrooms, locker rooms, water fountains and details unique to your facility. Also,
identify the location of the automated external defibrillator (AED) and first aid kit.
■
Have participants briefly introduce themselves.
■
Explain the purpose of the Lifeguarding course is to teach the knowledge and skills
needed to help prevent and respond to aquatic emergencies. This includes land and
water rescue skills as well as first aid and CPR/AED.
SHALLOW WATER LIFEGUARDING
■
For the Shallow Water Lifeguarding course, explain that the purpose of the course
is to teach the knowledge and skills needed to help prevent and respond to aquatic
emergencies in water up to 5 feet deep.
■
Explain to prospective participants that this precourse session is designed to evaluate
their swimming skills. Participants who successfully complete the precourse skills
evaluation should be able to participate in the Red Cross Lifeguarding course.
Instructor’s Note: Review the prerequisite skills only for the course and/or modules
you are teaching.
■
Review the prerequisite skills to be performed for their course and/or module:
|
Lifeguarding course or Waterpark Skills module prerequisite skills:
1.
Swim 300 yards continuously demonstrating breath control and rhythmic
breathing. Candidates may swim using the front crawl, breaststroke or a
combination of both but swimming on the back or side is not allowed. Swim
goggles may be used.
2.
Tread water for 2 minutes using only the legs. Candidates should place their
hands under the armpits.
3.
Complete a timed event within 1 minute, 40 seconds.
■
Starting in the water, swim 20 yards. The face may be in or out of the
water. Swim goggles are not allowed.
■
Surface dive, feet-first or head-first, to a depth of 7 to 10 feet to retrieve
a 10-pound object.
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Return to the surface and swim 20 yards on the back to return to the
starting point with both hands holding the object and keeping the face
at or near the surface so they are able to get a breath. Candidates should
not swim the distance under water.
■
Exit the water without using a ladder or steps.
Waterfront Skills module prerequisite skills:
1.
Swim 550 yards continuously demonstrating breath control and rhythmic
breathing. Candidates may swim using the front crawl, breaststroke or a
combination of both but swimming on the back or side is not allowed. Swim
goggles are allowed.
2.
Tread water for 2 minutes using only the legs. Candidates should place their
hands under the armpits.
3.
4.
|
■
Complete a timed event within 1 minute, 40 seconds.
■
Starting in the water, swim 20 yards. The face may be in or out of the
water. Swim goggles are not allowed.
■
Surface dive, feet-first or head-first, to a depth of 7 to 10 feet to retrieve
a 10-pound object.
■
Return to the surface and swim 20 yards to return to the starting point
with both hands holding the object and keeping the face at or near the
surface so they are able to get a breath. Candidates should not swim the
distance under water.
■
Exit the water without using a ladder or steps.
Swim 5 yards, submerge and retrieve three dive rings placed 5 yards apart in
4 to 7 feet of water, resurface and continue to swim another 5 yards to
complete the skill sequence.
Shallow Water Lifeguarding course prerequisite skills:
1.
Swim 100 yards continuously demonstrating breath control and rhythmic
breathing. Candidates may swim using the front crawl, breaststroke or a
combination of both but swimming on the back or side is not allowed. Swim
goggles are allowed.
2.
Tread water for 2 minutes using only the legs. Candidates should place their
hands under the armpits.
3.
Complete a timed event within 50 seconds.
■
Starting in the water, swim 20 yards using the front crawl or
breaststroke. The face may be in or out of the water. Swim goggles are
not allowed.
■
Submerge to a depth of 4 to 5 feet to retrieve a 10-pound object.
■
Return to the surface and walk or swim 20 yards to return to the
starting point with both hands holding the object at the surface of the
water.
■
Exit the water without using a ladder or steps.
Instructor’s Notes:
26
■
When teaching the Lifeguarding course, if the maximum water depth is 6 feet, an
alternate timed event is permitted as described in the swimming skills evaluation
section below.
■
If a Waterfront Skills module is scheduled to immediately follow the Lifeguarding
course and all candidates are enrolled in both the Lifeguarding course and
Waterfront Skills module, you should conduct the precourse session for the
Waterfront Skills module instead of the Lifeguarding precourse session.
■
If the prerequisite evaluation for Waterfront Lifeguarding is not completed at
this time, then it must be completed as a precourse session for the Waterfront
Skills module.
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TOPIC:
VERIFICATION OF AGE
PREREQUISITE
Activity
TOPIC:
Time: 5 minutes
■
Tell prospective participants that to participate in any Red Cross Lifeguarding course
or module they must be at least 15 years of age on or before the final scheduled
session of this course.
■
Verify the eligibility of participants to participate in the course by checking their
proof of age, which can be a driver’s license, state identification, birth certificate or
passport.
■
If an individual does not meet the age requirements for course participation,
suggest that he or she enroll in the next available Lifeguarding course once the age
requirement is met.
■
Orient them to the locker rooms and the pool area where they are to meet for the
prerequisite swimming skills evaluation.
PREREQUISITE SWIMMING SKILLS
EVALUATION
Time: 40 minutes
Instructor’s Note: Have participants perform the prerequisite skills only for the
course and/or module you are teaching.
Activity
■
Explain to prospective participants that they must successfully complete three
swimming prerequisites to continue in the Lifeguarding course.
■
Refer to the Skill Assessment Chart to evaluate performance of each prospective
participant. Record completion of each skill on the Lifeguarding Precourse Skills
Checklist.
Lifeguarding Course and Waterpark Skills Module
Prerequisite 1—
300-Yard Swim
■
Explain to prospective participants that they must perform a 300-yard continuous
swim using the front crawl, breaststroke or a combination of both. Swimming on the
back or side is not permitted. Swim goggles are allowed.
Prerequisite 2—
Tread Water
■
Explain to prospective participants that they must tread water for 2 minutes without
support and without stopping. When treading, only the legs can be used. Candidates
should place their hands under the armpits. The head must remain above the surface
of the water.
Prerequisite 3—
Timed Event
■
Arrange the swim distance of 20 yards and place a 10-pound object at a depth of 7 to
10 feet.
■
Explain that goggles are not allowed for this event.
■
Evaluate each prospective participant on the following skill to be performed within
1 minute and 40 seconds.
|
Starting in the water, swim 20 yards. The face may be in or out of the water.
|
Surface dive, feet-first or head-first, to a depth of 7 to 10 feet to retrieve a
10-pound object.
|
Return to the surface and swim 20 yards to return to the starting point with both
hands holding the object and keeping the face at or near the surface so they are
able to get a breath. The participants should not swim the distance under water.
|
Exit the water without using a ladder or steps.
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Waterfront Skills Module
Prerequisite 1—
550-Yard Swim
■
Explain to prospective participants that they must perform a 550-yard continuous
swim using the front crawl, breaststroke or a combination of both. Swimming on the
back or side is not permitted. Swim goggles are allowed.
Prerequisite 2—
Tread Water
■
Explain to prospective participants that they must tread water for 2 minutes without
support and without stopping. When treading, only the legs can be used. Candidates
should place their hands under the armpits. The head must remain above the surface
of the water.
Prerequisite 3—
Timed Event
■
Arrange the swim distance of 20 yards and place a 10-pound object at a depth of 7 to
10 feet.
■
Explain that goggles are not allowed for this event.
■
Evaluate each participant on the following skill to be performed within 1 minute and
40 seconds.
Prerequisite 4—
Underwater
Swim
|
Starting in the water, swim 20 yards using the front crawl or breaststroke. The
face may be in or out of the water.
|
Surface dive, feet-first or head-first, to a depth of 7 to 10 feet to retrieve a 10pound object.
|
Return to the surface and swim 20 yards to return to the starting point with
both hands holding the object and keeping the face at or near the surface so they
are able to get a breath. The participants should not swim the distance under
water.
|
Exit the water without using a ladder or steps.
■
Arrange the swim distance area, placing three dive rings 5 yards apart in 4 to 7 feet
of water.
■
Explain that goggles are not allowed for this event.
■
Evaluate each participant on the following skill.
|
Starting in the water, swim 5 yards. The face may be in or out of the water.
|
Submerge, swim under water and retrieve three dive rings placed 5 yards apart
in 4 to 7 feet of water.
|
Return to the surface after picking up all three dive rings and continue to swim
another 5 yards to complete the skill sequence.
Shallow Water Lifeguarding Course
Prerequisite 1—
100-Yard Swim
■
Explain to prospective participants that they must perform a 100-yard continuous
swim using the front crawl, breaststroke or a combination of both. Swimming on the
back or side is not permitted. Swim goggles are allowed.
Prerequisite 2—
Tread Water
■
Explain to prospective participants that they must tread water for 2 minutes without
support and without stopping. When treading, only the legs can be used. Candidates
should place their hands under the armpits. The head must remain above the surface
of the water.
Prerequisite 3—
Timed Event
■
Arrange the swim distance of 20 yards and place a 10-pound object at a depth of 4 to
5 feet.
■
Explain that goggles are not allowed for this event.
■
Evaluate each participant on the following skill to be performed within 50 seconds.
28
|
Starting in the water, swim 20 yards using the front crawl or breaststroke or a
combination of both. The face may be in or out of the water.
|
Submerge to a depth of 4 to 5 feet to retrieve a 10-pound object.
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■
|
Return to the surface and walk or swim 20 yards to return to the starting point
with both hands holding the object at the surface of the water.
|
Exit the water without using a ladder or steps.
For pools with maximum water depth of 6 feet deep, candidates should complete the
following alternate timed event:
|
Starting in the water, swim at the surface for 20 yards. The face may be in or out
of the water. Swim goggles are not allowed.
|
Surface dive to a depth of 6 feet, swim 10 to 15 feet along the bottom and
retrieve a 10-pound object.
|
Return to the surface and swim on the back to the starting point with both
hands holding the object at the surface and the face remaining at or near
the surface or able to get a breath. Candidates should not swim the
distance underwater.
Instructor’s Note: When determining a participant’s ability to pass the prerequisite
swimming skills evaluation and successfully participate in the course, the instructor
must evaluate the individual’s overall performance. The prerequisite swimming skills
evaluation is designed to assess the individual’s strength, endurance and comfort in the
water. The individual should not be judged on stroke mechanics, but rather on his or
her overall demonstration of swimming strength, endurance, comfort in the water and
ability to meet the time requirements.
If a candidate is not successful on the first attempt, he or she has only one opportunity
to reattempt the prerequisites after sufficient rest. If the candidate does not successfully
perform the prerequisites, ask him or her to see the instructor after class to schedule a
retest to take place before the first scheduled class session, time permitting.
TOPIC:
WRAP-UP
Time: 5 minutes
■
Respond to participants’ questions.
■
Provide participants with information on the first class session, including the time
of the class and location. Review the full course schedule and basic course outline,
including test dates.
■
Provide participants who have passed the precourse evaluation with a copy of the
American Red Cross Lifeguarding Manual. All participants must have a copy of
the manual—digital or print—for use during the course. Instruct participants to
read Chapter 1, The Professional Lifeguard, and Chapter 2, Facility Safety, in the
Lifeguarding Manual before the first class session.
Counseling After the Precourse Session
■
On an individual basis, after the precourse session has ended, advise each
participant who did not meet the prerequisites that:
|
Entry into the Red Cross Lifeguarding course is strictly limited to those who
meet the minimum age requirement and have successfully completed the
prerequisite swimming skills evaluation.
|
Failure to have attained the appropriate skill level could pose a safety threat to
themselves and to others in the class.
■
Suggest appropriate developmental training opportunities and explain the specific
skills that the individual needs to improve to be eligible to take the Lifeguarding
course in the future.
■
Direct individuals to contact the local Red Cross chapter for more information.
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SKILL ASSESSMENT TOOL
Participants must meet the criteria listed at the proficient level to be checked off as passing the prerequisite skill
evaluation.
SKILL ASSESSMENT TOOL: LIFEGUARDING AND SHALLOW WATER
LIFEGUARDING COURSES AND WATERFRONT AND WATERPARK SKILLS
MODULES PREREQUISITES
Criteria
Proficient
Not Proficient
Continuous swim
■
■
Cannot swim designated
distance continuously
■
Swims on the back or side
■
Stops to rest during a turn at
a wall
■
Stops swimming, stands on
the bottom or clings to rope,
lane line or other support
■
Refuses to swim in deep water
■
Swims with head or face out of
the water
■
Does not demonstrate breath
control or rhythmic breathing
■
Body position is near vertical
■
Uses underwater arm recovery
for the front crawl
■
No leg action or leg action that
does not contribute to forward
momentum
■
Unable to tread water for
2 minutes
■
Body position is near
horizontal—prone or supine
■
Stands on the bottom or clings
to rope, lane line or other
support
■
Swims rather than treads
■
Mouth sinks below the surface
■
Uses arms while treading
Tread water
30
Swims designated distance
continuously using front crawl,
breaststroke or a combination of
both without stopping to rest
■
Demonstrates comfort in deep
water
■
Swims with face in the water
and demonstrates breath
control (slight hesitation during
breathing acceptable)
■
Maintains body position that is
nearly horizontal to the surface
■
Uses above-water arm recovery
for the front crawl
■
Leg action contributes to
forward momentum
■
Treads water for 2 minutes
■
Body position is near vertical
■
Head remains above the surface
■
Uses legs only
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Timed event
■
Completes the prerequisite
event within the designated
time
■
Does not complete the
prerequisite event within the
designated time
■
Submerges and retrieves a 10pound object
■
Does not submerge far enough
to reach the 10-pound object
■
Swims back to the side, holding
the object in both hands while
keeping the face at or near the
surface of the water (Note:
Shallow Water Lifeguarding
candidates can swim or walk)
■
Does not locate the 10-pound
object
■
Does not lift the 10-pound
object and return to the
surface
■
Returns to the side holding the
object in one hand
■
Returns to the side
underwater with the object
and without taking a breath
■
Unable to exit the water
without ladder or stairs
■
Exits the water without using
ladder or stairs
Waterfront Skill Module Only
■
Swims 5 yards
■
Walks along the bottom
Underwater swim event
■
Submerges, swims and retrieves
three dive rings
■
Does not submerge enough to
reach the dive ring(s)
■
Swims to the side with three
dive rings
■
Surfaces before retrieving all
three dive rings
■
Does not retrieve all three dive
rings
■
Does not swim back with three
dive rings
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LESSON
1
THE PROFESSIONAL LIFEGUARD AND
FACILITY SAFETY
¡
Session Length: 2 hours, 45 minutes
LESSON OBJECTIVES
After completing this lesson, participants will be able to:
Describe the characteristics and responsibilities of a professional lifeguard.
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Define certain legal considerations and apply them to situations that might be encountered in lifeguarding.
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Describe ongoing training for lifeguards.
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Describe what it means to work as part of a lifeguard and safety team.
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Describe the role lifeguards play in ensuring facility safety.
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Identify how to ensure the safety of patrons when weather conditions create safety concerns.
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Explain the reasons for common rules and regulations at aquatic facilities.
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Demonstrate how to safely and effectively enter the water and approach a victim.
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ADDITIONAL MATERIALS, EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLIES
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Activity Worksheet 1.1—Reasons for the Rules
TOPIC:
INTRODUCTION TO THE COURSE
Time: 15 minutes
Welcome and Introduction to the Course
Activity
■
Welcome participants and introduce yourself, including your background in aquatics
and certification as an American Red Cross instructor. Include co-instructors and
aides if applicable.
■
Have participants introduce themselves.
■
Review facility policies and procedures, and give locations of restrooms, water
fountains, break areas and details unique to your facility. Also, point out where the
exits are located as well as where the automated external defibrillators (AEDs) are
located.
■
Review the course schedule and basic outline, including written exam dates.
■
Explain to participants that the primary purpose of the Lifeguarding course is
to learn the knowledge and skills needed to prevent and to respond to aquatic
emergencies. The course content and activities prepare participants to recognize and
respond quickly and effectively to emergencies and prevent drowning and injuries.
SHALLOW WATER LIFEGUARDING
32
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When conducting the Shallow Water Lifeguarding course, explain to participants
that the primary purpose of the course is to learn the knowledge and skills needed to
prevent and to respond to aquatic emergencies in shallow water up to 5 feet deep.
■
Explain the requirements for successful completion of the course:
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Attend and participate in all class sessions.
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Demonstrate competency in all required skills and activities.
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Demonstrate competency in all required final rescue skill scenarios.
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■
Correctly answer at least 80 percent of the questions in each of the two sections
of the final written exam.
Explain that upon successful completion of the Lifeguarding course, each participant
will receive an American Red Cross Universal Certificate for Lifeguarding/First Aid/
CPR/AED, which is valid for 2 years.
SHALLOW WATER LIFEGUARDING
■
Explain that upon successful completion of the Shallow Water Lifeguarding course,
each participant will receive an American Red Cross Universal Certificate for Shallow
Water Lifeguarding (up to 5 feet)/First Aid/CPR/AED, which is valid for 2 years.
■
Explain the ground rules for the course.
|
TOPIC:
Participants must demonstrate a professional attitude and mature behavior,
including, but not limited to:
●
Being prepared for all class activities, including appropriate swimwear
for all in-water skill sessions.
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Completing reading assignments.
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Behaving appropriately during activities.
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Making an effort to improve skills during practice sessions.
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Treating others with respect.
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Following all pool safety rules and any additional safety precautions as
explained throughout the course.
●
Demonstrating respect for the facility and equipment used in the course.
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Ask participants to turn off or silence cell phones and refrain from using
electronic devices during all class sessions, with the exception of accessing
digital course materials.
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Explain that participants should secure any items of value or avoid bringing
them to class if possible.
THE PROFESSIONAL LIFEGUARD
Time: 15 minutes
PRESENTATION: THE PROFESSIONAL LIFEGUARD
Video Segment
■
Explain to participants that as they begin their training as lifeguards it is important
to understand that they:
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Must take responsibility to help protect the lives of people in a variety of
aquatic activities.
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Must maintain a high level of knowledge and skills for being a professional
rescuer.
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Will have the legal responsibility to act in an emergency.
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Will need to develop skills for effective communication with the public.
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Must be willing to be a leader as well as a good team member.
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Will need to demonstrate maturity, professionalism and competence in
specialized rescue techniques.
■
Explain to participants that the following video segment will introduce them to the
professional aspects of lifeguarding.
■
Show the video segment, “The Professional Lifeguard.”
■
Answer participants’ questions about the video segment.
LESSON
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Guided
Discussion
■
Ask participants: What characteristics of a professional lifeguard were
discussed or illustrated in the video segment?
Answers: Responses should include the following:
■
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Knowledgeable
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Able to perform appropriate skills
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Reliable
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Mature
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Courteous and consistent
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Positive
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Professional
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Healthy and fit
Ask participants: What behaviors would demonstrate a lack of
professionalism?
Answers: Responses should include the following:
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Leaving lifeguard station while on surveillance duty
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Using mobile phones or other electronic devices while on duty
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Slouching posture
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Talking with others while on surveillance duty
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Eating while on surveillance duty
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Your primary responsibility as a lifeguard is to help ensure patron safety
and protect lives.
■
Ask participants: What are some tasks that should be the lifeguard’s
primary responsibility?
Answers: Responses should include the following:
■
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Monitoring activities in and near the water through patron surveillance
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Preventing injuries by minimizing or eliminating hazardous situations or
behaviors
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Enforcing facility rules and regulations and educating patrons about them
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Recognizing and responding quickly and effectively to all emergencies
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Administering first aid and CPR or using an AED in an emergency
and, if trained, administering emergency oxygen when necessary
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Working as a team with other lifeguards, facility staff and management
Ask participants: What are some examples of secondary tasks that a
lifeguard might be asked to perform while not responsible for primary
responsibilities?
Answers: Responses should include the following:
■
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Testing pool water chemistry
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Assisting patrons (e.g., conducting safety orientations, administering swim
tests and fitting life jackets)
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Cleaning or performing maintenance
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Completing records and reports
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Performing opening duties, closing duties or facility safety checks and
inspections.
Ask participants: What are the different places shown in the video where a
person might work as a lifeguard?
Answers: Responses should include the following:
34
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Swimming pools
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Multi-attraction aquatic facilities
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TOPIC:
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Waterfronts with nonsurf swimming areas
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Waterparks
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Shallow Water Lifeguarding is available for lifeguards who plan to work
at shallow water facilities only with a water depth not to exceed 5 feet
deep.
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Additional training, such as the Waterfront Skills or Waterpark Skills
modules, are required for work in some of the environments
shown in the video.
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Lifeguards who plan to work in a waterpark or waterfront setting
should complete the appropriate additional module to be equipped
with the additional skills needed.
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The prerequisites for the Waterpark Skills module are the same as
for the Lifeguarding course.
|
The Waterfront Skills module includes additional
prerequisites that must be completed prior to participating in the
module.
DECISION MAKING
Time: 5 minutes
PRESENTATION: DECISION MAKING
Lecture
TOPIC:
■
Decision making is an important component of lifeguarding. In an
emergency, such as a situation requiring a water rescue or performing
CPR, your facility should have established emergency action plans
(EAPs) that enable you to act quickly.
■
In a non-emergency situation, such as working with your manager or
deciding how to address inappropriate patron behaviors, you can take
more time in deciding how best to respond.
LEGAL CONSIDERATIONS
Time: 10 minutes
PRESENTATION: LEGAL CONSIDERATIONS
Guided
Discussion
■
Refer participants to Chapter 1, The Professional Lifeguard, in the Lifeguarding
Manual to answer the questions in the guided discussion activity and to apply the
legal considerations to the scenario.
■
As a lifeguard, you need to understand the legal principles involved in
being a professional rescuer.
Scenario: You are the lifeguard on duty when you see a young boy running on the
deck.
■
You have a duty to act to prevent injuries. What should you do to prevent
the child from slipping and falling?
Answer: Tell the child to walk on the deck and explain that he could get hurt by
slipping and falling.
■
If you had not tried to stop the child from running and then the child got
hurt, what legal principle could be a problem for you?
Answer: Negligence. Lifeguards have a duty to help prevent patron behaviors that
place them at risk of injury.
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Scenario (cont.): After you warn the child about the dangers, he once again runs and
now slips and falls on the deck. His knee is bleeding and he complains that it hurts. His
mother arrives on the scene.
■
What must you do before you can provide care for this child?
Answer: Ask the mother for her consent to allow you to help the child.
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What should be stated when asking for consent?
Answers: Responses should include the following:
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State your name.
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State your level of training.
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Ask the mother if you may help her son.
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Explain to the mother what you think may be wrong.
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Explain what you plan to do to provide care (clean the wound, apply ice, etc.).
Scenario (cont.): The child is very frightened so the mother takes the child in her
arms and refuses the lifeguard’s offer to care for the child’s injury.
■
How should you respond to the mother at this point since she has
refused care?
Answers: Responses should include the following:
■
|
You should explain why he needs care.
|
You should let the mother know that you are there to help if she changes her
mind.
What should you do if the mother continues to refuse care for her son?
Answer: You must document any refusal of care. Someone else, such as another
lifeguard, should witness the person’s refusal of care and sign the incident report as
a witness to the refusal of care. If the person who refuses is willing, have him or her
sign the report as well.
Scenario (cont.): The mother decides to allow you to care for the child’s injury
after all.
■
If you failed to provide the proper care or provided care that was beyond
your level of training, and as a result, the boy suffers further injury, what
legal principle could be a problem for you?
Answer: Negligence.
Scenario (cont.): You are treating the injury and realize it is time for your shift
to end.
■
What legal problem could come about if you stop caring for the young
boy?
Answer: Abandonment, which is a type of negligence.
TOPIC:
CONTINUATION OF TRAINING
Time: 10 minutes
PRESENTATION: CONTINUATION OF TRAINING
Lecture
and Guided
Discussion
36
■
Successfully completing the Lifeguarding course does not guarantee
employment. You can expect that employers will require their own
evaluation of your swimming and rescue skills before deciding whether
to hire you as a lifeguard.
■
The skills learned in the Lifeguarding course need to be practiced
frequently.
■
Ask participants: What do you think should be included in an orientation
session for new lifeguards at a facility?
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Answers: Responses should include the following:
■
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Features of the facility that might differ from the place where the lifeguard was
trained
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Job responsibilities
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Facility operations
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Management’s expectations
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Facility rules that need to be enforced
Annual or preseason orientation and training often occurs prior to
the summer season since summer typically the busiest season for
aquatic facilities. This training should include a review of knowledge
and skills for:
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Lifeguarding.
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CPR/AED.
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First aid.
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Facility-specific protocols.
■
Facility management also must provide training to meet government
requirements for occupational safety, including yearly bloodborne
pathogen training.
■
A policies and procedures manual provides you with important
information, including:
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Administrative policies and procedures, such as job descriptions.
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Personnel policies and guidelines, such as uniform requirements,
scheduling information and job performance evaluation procedures.
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Standard operating procedures, such as facility rules and
emergency procedures.
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In-service training should take place on a regular basis at the facility
where you work. It is designed to help you maintain your knowledge
and skills at a professional level. It also provides an opportunity for
lifeguards to practice working as a team in emergencies.
■
It is a best practice of many well-managed facilities that lifeguards
participate in a minimum of 4 hours of in-service training each month.
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Topics that might be covered during in-service training include:
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Surveillance and recognition.
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Water and land rescue skills.
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Emergency response drills.
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Decision-making protocols.
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Facility rules and regulations.
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Customer service.
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Records and reports.
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Physical conditioning.
■
Periodic lifeguard evaluations may be performed by your employer or
through a contracted agency, such as the Red Cross, or a combination
of both. The evaluations may be announced or unannounced and may
include observation of lifeguards performing patron surveillance,
skills evaluations and a check of the aquatic facility related to
lifeguard operations.
■
Facilities also may offer lifeguards the opportunity to pursue further
training for other jobs in the area of aquatics as well as preparation for a
full-time career. For example:
|
The Red Cross Lifeguarding Instructor course, for ages 17 and up,
provides training for teaching Lifeguarding courses.
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TOPIC:
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The Red Cross Lifeguard Management course provides training for
head lifeguards and managers of an aquatic facility.
|
The Red Cross Water Safety Instructor course, for ages 16 and up,
provides training for teaching Red Cross swim lessons and water
safety courses.
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Various organizations offer pool operator training for those that will
be responsible for the actual mechanical and chemical operations of
the pool.
BEING PART OF A TEAM
Time: 15 minutes
PRESENTATION: BEING PART OF A TEAM
Human Knot Team-Building Activity
Activity
Guided
Discussion
■
Divide the class into teams of six to eight people. Have each team move to a location
that allows them to stand shoulder to shoulder in a small circle.
■
Instruct members of each team to form a human pretzel by having each person
extend the left hand across the circle and grasp the left hand of someone else not
directly next to him or her. Then have each person extend his or her right hand
across the circle and grasp the right hand of another, different person.
■
Inform the teams that their task is to unravel their interlocking arms without letting
go of anyone’s hands and without causing injury. If group members break the chain,
they must repair the break the way it was or start over.
■
Stop the activity after about 8 minutes if the group is unsuccessful at making the
circle without breaking the chain of hands. It is sometimes impossible to get to a
single circle.
■
Ask participants the following:
|
How did it feel to be successful or unsuccessful?
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What strategy did your team use to complete the task?
|
Who were the leaders in this activity?
|
Did the team reach consensus on a plan of action or take action
without a plan?
|
How well did your team communicate during this activity?
|
If you could do it again, what would you change?
■
Just as in the human-knot activity, the lifeguard team must communicate
and work together effectively when responding to emergencies.
■
Effective communication, trust, mutual respect, commitment and
cooperation are crucial elements for working effectively as a team.
■
Ask participants: In your job as a lifeguard, aside from being a team
player while responding to emergencies, what can you do as an
individual to have a positive effect on the team?
Answers: Responses should include the following:
38
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Arriving to work on time
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Rotating stations on time
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Attending in-service trainings
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Enforcing safety rules in a consistent manner
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Communicating clearly while treating others with respect
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Being prepared by maintaining knowledge, skills and physical fitness
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Completing secondary responsibilities in a timely and acceptable fashion
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TOPIC:
■
As lifeguards, you should be given an EAP that guides the actions of
lifeguards and other team members in emergencies. The EAP describes
what needs to be done and who does it in the event of an emergency.
EAPs are discussed in more detail later in the course.
■
The lifeguard team is part of the broader facility safety team.
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The safety team includes management and maintenance staff who
provide assistance in maintaining a safe environment and providing
emergency care.
|
Local emergency response personnel also are part of the safety team.
FACILITY SAFETY
Time: 10 minutes
PRESENTATION: FACILITY SAFETY
Lecture
and Guided
Discussion
■
Aquatic facilities must have the appropriate rescue equipment available
and in proper working order at all times for emergency response.
■
As a lifeguard, you must always wear or carry certain equipment so
that it is instantly available in an emergency, including a rescue tube,
resuscitation mask and gloves. You also must have a whistle to signal
an emergency.
Activity
■
Ask a volunteer to come forward to demonstrate how to wear the rescue tube while in
an elevated lifeguard station and a ground-level station.
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■
The demonstration should include the following:
●
Keep the strap of the rescue tube over the shoulder and neck.
●
Hold or gather the excess line to keep it from getting caught in the chair or
other equipment when you move or start a rescue.
●
Hold the rescue tube across the thighs in an elevated station.
●
Hold the rescue tube across the stomach when standing.
Ask participants: Why should you wear the hip pack at all times, whether or
not you are on surveillance duty?
Answer: To be prepared to respond to an emergency at all times, whether or not
performing surveillance duty.
Activity
■
Explain that the type of rescue equipment, such as backboards, can vary among
facilities and they will need to be trained to use the specific pieces of equipment at
the facility where they will be employed.
■
Explain that rescue equipment can be expensive to purchase and maintain and
should be treated respectfully.
■
Explain to participants that one of their most important responsibilities as a
lifeguard will be to help ensure that the aquatic facility is safe.
■
Lead participants through the following scenarios to review what they should do
during a facility safety check when an issue or problem is found.
Scenario 1: You are conducting an opening facility safety check and you find a loose
bolt on a pool ladder.
■
Ask participants: What should you do?
Answers: Responses should include the following:
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Document and report the loose bolt to management staff, identifying the
specific ladder and bolt.
|
Fix the problem by seeing that the bolt is tightened properly before the facility
is opened.
|
If the bolt cannot be tightened, block off the ladder so that it cannot be used
until it is repaired.
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Scenario 2: You are on duty conducting patron surveillance and a patron reports to
you that someone spilled shampoo in the locker room and the floor is very slippery.
■
Ask participants: What should you do?
Answers: Responses should include the following:
TOPIC:
|
Thank the patron for bringing it to your attention.
|
Clarify the specific location.
|
Signal for assistance from another staff member who is not performing patron
surveillance so they can take care of it.
■
Remind participants that facility safety checks are a secondary responsibility and
must not be done while performing patron surveillance.
■
Explain that if during your surveillance you observe problems with equipment or
other problems are rported to you, you should notify a member of the safety team, a
lifeguard supervisor or another lifeguard who is not performing surveillance.
WEATHER CONDITIONS
Time: 5 minutes
PRESENTATION: WEATHER CONDITIONS
Lecture
■
Weather affects the safety of swimmers both outdoors and indoors.
■
Facility management should monitor weather alerts using a weather
radio or other electronic communications. Management should keep
lifeguards informed when there are severe weather alerts, and lifeguards
should keep management informed when they see indications of
severe weather.
■
You will need to know and follow facility procedures to clear patrons
from the water and deck before an impending storm.
■
If thunder or lightning occur:
|
■
40
Clear everyone from the water at the first sound of thunder or first
sight of lightning.
●
If you are in an elevated station, get down immediately.
●
Move everyone to a safe area free from contact with water,
plumbing or electrical circuits.
●
For outdoor facilities, move everyone inside, if possible.
|
Keep patrons and staff out of showers and locker rooms during
a thunderstorm as water and metal can conduct electricity.
|
Do not use a telephone connected to a landline except in an
emergency.
|
Keep everyone away from windows and metal objects.
|
Watch for more storms and monitor weather reports on a radio or
TV broadcast, weather radio or website.
|
The National Lightning Safety Institute recommends waiting
30 minutes after the last lightning sighting or sound of thunder
before resuming activities.
If caught outside in a thunderstorm and there is not enough time to
reach a safe building:
|
Keep away from tall trees standing alone and any tall structures.
|
Keep away from water and metal objects.
|
Keep as low to the ground as possible but do not lie on the ground:
squat or crouch with the knees drawn up, both feet together and
hands off the ground.
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TOPIC:
■
Other weather conditions, such as fog, wind or heavy rain, also may
cause safety concerns. Clear the pool or waterfront if visibility is
impaired by waves or increased turbidity.
■
In the event of a power failure, you should clear the pool because
circulation and filtration of pool water will not be possible. If weather
conditions cause safety concerns, you also should clear the deck.
RULES AND REGULATIONS
Time: 20 minutes
PRESENTATION: RULES AND REGULATIONS
Activity
■
Explain that each aquatic facility establishes its own set of rules and regulations.
Some are required by the state or local health department, whereas others are
determined by the facility itself. Lifeguards must know and enforce all facility rules.
■
Explain that rules are communicated to patrons by signage as well as verbally when
lifeguards enforce the rules.
■
Divide the class into small groups. Distribute Activity Worksheet 1.1—Reasons for the
Rules. Assign each group different sections of the worksheet.
■
Refer participants to Chapter 2, Facility Safety, in the Lifeguarding Manual for
information to help them with this activity. Explain that there are five common rules
for each category or type of facility or attraction. These are not the “most important”
rules, but rather common rules. The intent of this activity is to provide a wide range
of rules so that participants gain an understanding of the rationale for different types
of rules.
■
Allow approximately 5 minutes for groups to discuss the reasoning behind the
assigned rules.
■
Reassemble the class and call on group leaders to share their answers.
Activity Worksheet 1.1—Reasons for the Rules
Answers: Responses should include the following:
Aquatic Facilities—General
Reason
1.
Swim only when a lifeguard is on duty.
There are inherent risks in aquatic environments,
and lifeguards are trained to respond to aquatic
emergencies. Statistics indicate that survival
rates after emergencies are higher in areas where
lifeguards are present.
2.
No running, pushing or rough play.
Running, pushing and rough play can result in
injuries, especially in an aquatic environment
with slippery surfaces, such as the tile deck of an
indoor pool.
3.
Dive only in designated areas.
Diving head-first in shallow water can result in head,
neck and spinal injuries.
4.
No diving in shallow water (water up to 5 feet
deep).
Diving head-first in shallow water can result in head,
neck and spinal injuries.
5.
No glass containers in the pool area and locker
rooms.
Broken glass poses several dangers, including
bleeding injuries and exposure to infectious
body fluids.
6.
No alcoholic beverages or other drug use allowed.
The use of alcohol and drugs can impair a patron’s
judgment, balance and motor skills.
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Waterfront Facilities
1.
No playing or swimming under piers, rafts,
platforms or play structures.
Lifeguards cannot see under these structures. Patrons
may surface quickly and injure themselves on these
structures without the lifeguard observing them.
2.
No running and diving head-first into shallow
water.
Diving head-first in shallow water or under a
breaking wave can result in a head, neck or
spinal injury.
3.
No fishing near swimming areas.
Fishing hooks and tackle left in swimming areas can
present a risk of injury.
4.
No umbrellas at the waterline.
Beach umbrellas positioned close to the shoreline may
obstruct the view of the lifeguard.
5.
No swimming in unauthorized areas.
Unauthorized areas are not protected by lifeguards,
and may have hidden hazards, such as drop-offs or
underwater obstructions. Watercraft could be present
in unauthorized areas, posing a danger to swimmers.
Waterpark Facilities, including Winding Rivers and Waterslides
1.
Designated age, height or weight requirements for
using an attraction
Age, height or weight requirements are designated
to help ensure that patrons can safely enjoy the
attraction. For example, some attractions require a
certain minimum weight for it to function properly,
whereas others are designed only for persons with the
small build of young children.
2.
Enter and exit the winding river only at
designated places.
Entrance and exit areas typically are recessed from
the winding river, creating an area where the water
current is minimized and patrons can enter and exit
without interfering with patrons in the main current.
3.
Stay in tubes at all times.
Stray tubes obstruct a lifeguard’s view of patrons
who are not riding on tubes. Lifeguards are trained
to suspect problems when tubes are floating
without riders.
4.
No metal objects, locker keys, jewelry, metal
snaps/zippers, eyewear or watches, including metal
rivets, buttons or fasteners on swimsuits or shorts.
These items can cause injury to the person riding the
waterslide. Sharp objects also can scratch or gouge
the waterslide, causing rough edges that then could
hurt others using the slide.
5.
No running, stopping, standing, kneeling, rotating
or tumbling on the slides.
These behaviors can cause a patron to become more
disoriented when riding in the slide or entering the
catch pool, creating the potential for injury.
Diving Areas
1.
Patrons must demonstrate their swimming ability
before entering deep water.
Anyone swimming in deep water should be competent,
comfortable and able to swim to the side of the pool
from any spot in the deep area.
2.
Only one patron on the diving board at a time.
By maintaining orderly use of the diving board, such
as allowing only one patron on the diving board itself
and one patron on the ladder at a time, lifeguards
help to create a safer environment. Patrons can get
restless waiting in line, which can result in rough play
on either the ladder or the diving board; a patron
could slip on either the board or ladder, causing injury
to him- or herself or others. Allowing multiple patrons
on a diving board also may affect its spring, which
may result in injury for the patron using the diving
board.
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3.
Only one bounce allowed on the diving board.
Multiple bounces on the diving board can impact
balance or body control and can result in a patron
slipping on the board, possibly hitting the diving
board on the way in.
4.
Dive or jump forward, straight out from the
diving board.
The areas to each side of the diving board must
remain clear to prevent injury. Jumping to the side
could result in striking the side of the pool or colliding
with another patron.
5.
Swim immediately to the closest ladder or wall.
Clearing the area immediately allows the next patron
to use the diving board without danger to the patron
in the water.
Spas, Hot Tubs and Therapy Pools
1.
Shower with soap and water before entering the
water.
The temperature of the hot tub creates an
environment where germs can thrive. Washing with
soap and water can help keep the hot tub clean and
safe for all.
2.
People with certain medical conditions are not
allowed to use the spa or hot tub.
High temperatures can stress a person’s circulatory
and energy systems and also can cause problems for
some neurological conditions.
3.
Pregnant women and young children should seek
The potential for hyperthermia is a danger for
their doctor’s approval before using a spa or hot tub. pregnant women and young children because they are
less able to tolerate heat.
4.
Do not allow anyone to sit or play near the drain or
suction fittings.
The suction has the potential for entrapment (i.e.,
holding a patron to the drain).
5.
Limit time in the spa to 10 minutes. Patrons then
may shower, cool down and return briefly.
A prolonged stay in the hot tub can cause the internal
body temperature to elevate to a range that can result
in nausea, dizziness, fainting or hyperthermia.
TOPIC:
ENTRIES AND APPROACHES
Time: 10 minutes
PRESENTATION: ENTRIES AND APPROACHES
Video Segment
■
Explain that the video segment will illustrate skills for entering the water and
approaching a victim, which will be practiced in the pool.
■
Refer participants to the skills sheets in Chapter 6, Water Rescue Skills, in the
Lifeguarding Manual.
■
Show the video segment, “Entries and Approaches.”
■
Answer participants’ questions about the video segment.
IN-WATER SKILL SESSION: ENTRIES AND
APPROACHES
Time: 40 minutes
PRESENTATION: NEXT STEPS
Skill Practice
■
Explain to participants that during the water rescue skill sessions you will
demonstrate skills and guide them through practice.
■
For each skill, be sure to review key points from the text and video, including
instructions on how to perform each skill and reminders about when each entry or
approach is appropriate.
LESSON
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■
Explain that every rescue should begin by activating the EAP. Participants should
simulate this during each practice session.
■
Explain that the signals used to activate the EAP may vary among facilities. Define
the method that will be used in skill sessions, including the following:
■
|
Announce the activation of the EAP with a loud signal either mimicking a whistle
or making a verbal announcement.
|
Point to the victim that is in need of help.
Lead them through the following skills using a rescue tube:
|
Slide-in entry and walking approach
●
|
Slide-in entry and swimming approach
●
|
Especially useful in shallow water, crowded pools or when a victim with a
head, neck or spinal injury is close to the side of the pool
Stride jump and swimming approach
●
|
Especially useful in shallow water, crowded pools or when a victim with a
head, neck or spinal injury is close to the side of the pool
When you are less than 3 feet above the water and the water is at least
5 feet deep
Compact jump and swimming approach
●
When you are more than 3 feet above the water and the water is at least
5 feet deep
●
Jump from the deck into the water.
SHALLOW WATER LIFEGUARDING
Skill Drill—
Entries and
Approaches
44
■
When conducting the Shallow Water Lifeguarding course, omit the stride jump and
swimming approach. The compact jump should be performed when the lifeguard is 3
feet or less above the water.
■
Remind participants that if the tube slips out or if they need to swim a longer
distance, let the tube trail behind. They should reposition the tube as appropriate
before making contact with the victim.
■
Observe each participant’s performance of the skill several times and provide
corrective feedback.
■
Participants should practice the skills several times. Time permitting, participants
should practice the skills until they are able to meet performance criteria.
Participants who cannot meet the performance criteria should be counseled to
practice outside of class times if possible.
■
Observe each participant’s performance of the skill and provide corrective feedback.
■
Explain to participants that they now are going to practice the entry and approach
skills to make decisions as to when it is appropriate to use the different entries and
approaches and build fitness.
■
Keep participants moving throughout these activities to develop conditioning for
speed and endurance:
|
Have participants simulate activating the EAP, perform a designated entry
and then swim an approach stroke with a rescue tube as fast as they can for a
significant distance, 25 yards if possible, climb out without using the ladder
and walk quickly back to the starting point. Repeat until participants have done
this several times, sometimes swimming the approach stroke with the rescue
tube under their armpits and sometimes with the rescue tube trailing behind.
|
Continue to follow the skill drill using the same pattern but give
participants a scenario and let them decide what entry to use, such as:
●
The water is murky and they cannot see the bottom. Slide-in entry
●
They are guarding on the deck and the water is 4-feet deep. Compact jump
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●
The pool is crowded and swimmers are directly in front of them.
Slide-in entry
●
They are in an elevated lifeguard station that is 4 feet above the level of the
water and the water is 7-feet deep. Compact jump
●
They are in an elevated guard chair that is not suitable for a jump so they
must climb down to enter the water. The chair could be situated in a shallow
water area or not secured adequately to allow the lifeguard to jump from it.
Simulate stepping down from the stand and perform a compact jump or
slide-in entry
●
They suspect a spinal injury close to the edge of the pool. Slide-in entry
●
They are guarding a deep water area on the deck and suspect a spinal injury
at the far side of the pool. Compact jump, stride jump or slide-in entry
PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER
Activity
■
Time: 10 minutes
Gather participants in the deep end to tread water. Explain that you are going to lead
them through three scenarios. Have participants tread water with both hands in the
air if they agree with the lifeguard’s actions.
SHALLOW WATER LIFEGUARDING
■
For the Shallow Water Lifeguarding course, have participants gather at one end
of the pool. Explain that you are going to lead them through three scenarios. Have
participants perform a breaststroke rescue approach using a rescue tube if they agree
with the lifeguard’s actions.
■
For each scenario, ask several participants to share their reasons for agreeing or
disagreeing.
■
In between each scenario, allow participants an opportunity to rest while you
facilitate a brief review of the lifeguard’s actions. Then have participants tread water
again while presenting the next scenario.
Scenario 1: You are lifeguarding when your friend comes to the pool to swim with
her little brother. The friend stops to talk to you about last night’s soccer game. You
talk with your friend for several minutes, believing that you are demonstrating
professionalism in this situation because you are being friendly with a customer. Do
you agree or disagree with the lifeguard’s actions?
■
Ask participants about the importance of providing undivided attention to the
job, the perception of other customers who may have observed this behavior
and suggestions for how the lifeguard could have handled this situation more
professionally. Review other aspects of professionalism that should be demonstrated
by a lifeguard.
Scenario 2: You are lifeguarding and there are only two people in the pool, a father
and his child. Although you still need to inventory the first aid supplies and the father
and child are in shallow water, you decide that your primary responsibility is to watch
the swimmers to make sure they are safe. Do you agree or disagree with the lifeguard’s
actions?
■
Ask participants about the primary and secondary responsibilities of a lifeguard and
how to accomplish the inventory of the first aid supplies, such as completing it at a
later time or having another lifeguard do it.
LESSON
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The Professional Lifeguard and Facility Safety
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10/13/11 2:01 PM
Scenario 3: You are at work getting ready for your lifeguard shift when another
lifeguard comments on the in-service reminder posted on the bulletin board that states
that the focus of the in-service will be customer service. You state that you do not need
to go because you already know how to make customers happy by letting them do what
they want. Do you agree or disagree with the lifeguard’s actions?
■
Ask participants about the importance of enforcing rules as well as other types of
ongoing training needed by lifeguards. Discuss what constitutes good customer
service. Is it just making customers happy? Emphasize that in-service training allows
lifeguards to be part of the solution to problems since they can share and discuss
customers’ complaints. The team of lifeguards and management personnel then can
develop strategies to resolve the issues.
■
Read Chapter 2, Facility Safety, Chapter 3, Surveillance and Recognition, and
Chapter 4, Injury Prevention, in their Lifeguarding Manual before the next class
session.
ASSIGNMENT
SKILL CHARTS AND ASSESSMENT TOOLS
In addition to performing the steps listed in the skill chart in the correct order, participants must meet the criteria
listed at the proficient level to be checked off for this skill.
ENTRIES
SKILL CHART: SLIDE-IN ENTRY
1.
Sit down on the edge facing the water. Place the rescue tube next to you or in the water.
2.
Lower your body into the water feet-first.
3.
Retrieve the rescue tube.
4.
Place the rescue tube across your chest with the tube under your armpits, focus on the victim and begin the
approach.
SKILL CHART: STRIDE JUMP (Lifeguarding Course only)
1.
Squeeze the rescue tube high against your chest with the tube under your armpits.
2.
Hold the excess line to keep the line from getting caught on something when jumping into the water.
3.
Leap into the water with one leg forward and the other leg back.
4.
Lean slightly forward, with your chest ahead of your hips, and focus on the victim when you enter the water.
5.
Squeeze or scissor your legs together right after they make contact with the water for upward thrust.
6.
Focus on the victim and begin the approach.
SKILL CHART: COMPACT JUMP
1.
Squeeze the rescue tube high against your chest with the tube under your armpits.
2.
Hold the excess line to keep it from getting caught on the lifeguard chair or other equipment when jumping
into the water.
3.
Jump out and away from the lifeguard chair, pool deck or pier. In a wave pool, time the jump to land on the
crest (top) of a wave.
4.
Bend your knees and keep your feet together and flat to absorb the shock if you hit the bottom. Do not point
your toes or keep your legs straight or stiff.
5.
Let the buoyancy of the rescue tube bring you back to the surface.
6.
Focus on the victim when surfacing and begin the approach.
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SKILL ASSESSMENT TOOL: ENTRIES
Criteria
Proficient
Not Proficient
Equipment is properly positioned
for the appropriate entry
■
Control of the rescue tube
maintained
■
Contact with the rescue tube
not maintained
■
Tube held securely to the chest
for the compact jump and stride
jump
■
Tube not held securely to the
chest for the compact jump
and stride jump
■
Excess line held to keep it from
getting caught on the lifeguard
stand or other equipment
■
Excess line not held
Appropriate entry is selected for the
situation
Entry is safe for the rescuer, victim
and surrounding persons
Entry causes a safety hazard
Focus on the victim is maintained
Upon entering (or resurfacing after a
compact jump), focus on the victim
or the site where the victim was last
seen is maintained
Fails to look toward the victim or
site where the victim was last seen
RESCUE APPROACHES
SKILL CHART: WALKING APPROACH
1.
Walk to the victim.
2.
Hold the rescue tube at your side and walk quickly toward the victim.
3.
If necessary, position the tube in front of you before contacting the victim.
SKILL CHART: SWIMMING APPROACH
1.
Swim to the victim using a modified front crawl or breaststroke.
2.
Keep the rescue tube under your armpits or torso and swim toward the victim with your head up, keeping the
rescue tube in control at all times.
3.
For longer distances, or if the rescue tube slips out from under your arms or torso while you are swimming, let
the tube trail behind.
4.
If necessary, reposition the rescue tube in front of you before contacting the victim.
SKILL ASSESSMENT TOOL: APPROACHES
Criteria
Proficient
Not Proficient
Approaches victim safely and
quickly
Effective propulsion used for safe
approach
■
No effective propulsion
■
Approach causes a safety
hazard
Focus on the victim is maintained
Focus on the victim or the site
where the victim was last seen is
maintained
Fails to look toward the victim or
site where the victim was last seen
Equipment is properly positioned
for the appropriate approach
■
Control of rescue tube is
maintained during approach
■
Fails to maintain contact with
the rescue tube
■
Tube is strapped on during
approach
■
Does not strap on tube during
approach
■
Tube remains in position or is
repositioned as needed before
contact with victim
■
Tube is not in position for the
selected rescue before contact
with victim
LESSON
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LESSON
2
FACILITY SAFETY, PATRON SURVEILLANCE
AND INJURY PREVENTION
¡
Session Length: 2 hours, 45 minutes
LESSON OBJECTIVES
After completing this lesson, participants will be able to:
Describe the role that facility management plays in facility safety.
■
Describe the drowning process.
■
Identify the behaviors of a swimmer, distressed swimmer, and an active and a passive victim.
■
Identify and define elements of effective surveillance.
■
Explain proper scanning techniques and identify tactics to overcome scanning challenges.
■
Identify various types of zones of surveillance.
■
Explain how communication with patrons plays a role in preventing injuries.
■
Explain patron surveillance techniques for various activities.
■
Explain patron surveillance techniques for facilities with special attractions.
■
Explain and demonstrate lifeguard rotations.
■
Demonstrate how to perform effective surveillance including scanning, victim recognition and
lifeguard rotations.
■
ADDITIONAL MATERIALS, EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLIES
■
■
■
Activity Worksheet 2.1—Guarding Special Attractions
Diving brick(s)
Stopwatch or pace clock
TOPIC:
MANAGEMENT AND
FACILITY SAFETY
Time: 10 minutes
PRESENTATION: MANAGEMENT AND FACILITY SAFETY
Lecture
■
As a lifeguard, your job is to follow and enforce your facility’s rules and
regulations. The job of your facility’s management team is to ensure
that the facility is in compliance with the law and to make sure you are
enforcing facility rules correctly.
■
Management is responsible for:
■
|
Creating, reviewing and revising facility policies and procedures,
rules and regulations and emergency action plans (EAPs) as needed.
|
Addressing unsafe conditions.
|
Complying with federal, state and local laws and regulations for
facility operations and employment.
|
Maintaining records regarding the facility and its employees.
|
Assisting after an emergency.
Ask participants: What can you do, as a lifeguard, to assist management in
addressing unsafe conditions?
Answer: Report any unsafe conditions and take action to limit use of an unsafe
area or help correct the unsafe conditions.
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■
Federal, state and local regulations affect the operation of aquatic
facilities. Your employer should inform you as to regulations that affect
your facility, such as:
|
Lifeguard certification requirements.
|
Facility design and safety features.
|
Pool capacities.
|
Staff training requirements and lifeguard competencies.
|
Ratio of lifeguards to patrons.
|
Water sanitation procedures.
|
First aid equipment and supplies.
|
Lifeguarding equipment.
|
Diving depths.
■
Federal and state labor laws affect which tasks lifeguards younger
than 18 years may perform, including the hours they may work. These
regulations generally are more stringent for 15-year-old lifeguards than
for 16- and 17-year-old lifeguards.
■
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) established
regulations designed to keep employees safe while on the job.
■
The purpose of the Hazard Communication Standard is to inform
and protect employees from exposure to hazardous chemicals in the
workplace.
■
Each chemical has an information sheet called a Material Safety Data
Sheet (MSDS), which describes special precautions to take when storing
or using the chemical in addition to safety precautions needed when
cleaning up chemical spills. The MSDS also explains what to do should
you come into contact with the chemical.
■
These documents must be easy to find and use. Be sure to know where
MSDSs are kept and how to find the information.
■
Employees have a right to know:
■
|
Which hazardous chemicals are in the facility.
|
Where those chemicals are stored in the facility.
|
The specific dangers of those chemicals.
|
How to identify chemical hazards in the facility.
|
How to protect themselves and others from being exposed to
hazardous chemicals.
|
What to do if they or others are exposed to such hazards.
The Bloodborne Pathogens Standard is an OSHA regulation designed to
reduce the risk of disease transmission while on the job. Your employer
must provide an exposure control plan to help protect employees from
being exposed to disease-causing bacteria and viruses, called bloodborne
pathogens, and instruct employees about what to do if an exposure
occurs.
LESSON
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TOPIC:
THE DROWNING PROCESS
Time: 10 minutes
PRESENTATION: THE DROWNING PROCESS
Lecture
■
Your primary responsibility as a lifeguard is to help ensure patron safety
and protect lives.
■
You will spend most of your time on patron surveillance—keeping a close
watch over the people in the facility and intervening when necessary.
■
For effective patron surveillance, you must understand the drowning
process and be alert and attentive at all times.
■
Drowning is a continuum of events that begins when a victim’s airway
becomes submerged under the surface of the water. The process can be
stopped, but if not, it will end in death.
■
The process of drowning begins when water enters the victim’s airway.
|
This causes involuntary breath holding and then laryngospasm (a
sudden closure of the larynx or windpipe). When this occurs, air
cannot reach the lungs. During this time, the victim is unable to
breathe but may swallow large quantities of water into the stomach.
|
As oxygen levels are reduced, the laryngospasm begins to subside and
the victim may gasp for air but instead inhales water into the lungs.
■
Due to inadequate oxygen to body tissues, the victim may suffer cardiac
arrest. This can occur in as little as 3 minutes after submerging. Brain
damage or death can occur in as little as 4 to 6 minutes.
■
Many intervening variables can affect the outcome, including underlying
medical conditions of the victim, and the time until advanced medical
care intervenes.
■
In general giving ventilations often will resuscitate the victim if they are
given within 1½ to 2 minutes of submerging .
■
When you are providing care, an unconscious victim may have isolated
or infrequent gasping in the absence of other breathing, called agonal
gasps.
■
|
Agonal gasps can occur even after the heart has stopped beating.
|
Normal, effective breathing is regular, quiet and effortless. Agonal
gasps are not breathing—care for the victim as though he or she
is not breathing at all by giving ventilations or providing CPR.
Ask participants: What does this understanding of the drowning process
mean for you as a lifeguard?
Answers: Responses should include the following:
■
50
|
Practice preventive lifeguarding and enforce rules to keep patrons safe.
|
Stay alert to recognize when a patron is drowning.
|
Respond with urgency.
|
Get the victim’s airway out of the water and provide care for a breathing
emergency as quickly as possible.
|
If a victim is in cardiac arrest, begin CPR as quickly as possible.
|
Practice emergency care skills frequently to be ready to respond quickly and
with confidence.
To give a victim the greatest chance for normal survival, you must
recognize when a person needs help or is in danger of drowning. The
sooner the drowning process is stopped by getting the victim’s airway
out of the water, opening the airway and providing resuscitation
(ventilations or CPR), the better is the chance for survival without
permanent brain damage.
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TOPIC:
EFFECTIVE SURVEILLANCE—
VICTIM RECOGNITION
Time: 10 minutes
PRESENTATION: EFFECTIVE SURVEILLANCE—VICTIM RECOGNITION
Video Segment
Guided
Discussion
■
Tell participants: Effective surveillance involves not only recognizing
behaviors or situations that might lead to life-threatening emergencies,
such as drowning or injuries to the head, neck or spine, but also taking
effective action to modify the behavior or control the situation.
■
Explain that swimmers and nonswimmers, adults and children, all can become
victims very quickly.
■
Show the video segment, “Surveillance.”
■
Answer participants’ questions about the video segment.
■
Ask participants: What are some situations that could lead to trouble for a
weak or nonswimmer?
Answers: Responses should include the following:
■
|
Bobbing in or near water over his or her head
|
Hand-over-hand wall crawling
|
Being beyond arm’s reach of a supervising adult, even if wearing inflatable
water wings or swim rings
|
Clinging to something or struggling to grab something to stay afloat
|
Wearing a life jacket improperly
Ask participants: What are some situations that could lead to trouble for a
swimmer?
Answers: Responses should include the following:
|
Breath-holding or swimming underwater for an extended period after
hyperventilating
|
Participating in a high-risk/high-impact activity, such as diving
|
Experiencing a medical emergency, such as a sudden illness
■
Refer participants to Table 3-1: Behaviors of Distressed Swimmers and Drowning
Victims in the Lifeguarding Manual.
■
Ask participants: What are the characteristics of a distressed swimmer?
Answers: Responses should include the following:
■
|
Able to keep his or her face out of the water
|
Able to call for help
|
Able to wave for help
|
Horizontal, vertical or diagonal body position, depending on what the person is
using for support
|
Floating, sculling or treading water
Ask participants: What instinctive drowning response behaviors would you
see in a drowning victim who is struggling at or near the surface?
Answers: Responses should include the following:
|
Cannot call out for help/his or her efforts are on getting a breath
|
Struggles to keep the face above water in an effort to breathe
|
Has arms extended to the side or in front, pressing down for support
|
Has a vertical body position in the water with no supporting kick
|
Might continue to struggle underwater
|
Might eventually lose consciousness and stop moving
LESSON
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10/21/11 2:52 PM
■
Ask participants: In some cases, what might a very small child look like
when in trouble in the water?
Answers: Responses should include the following:
■
|
Appears to be doing the “doggy paddle” but is not making forward progress
|
In a horizontal position at the surface but not able to raise the face up out of the
water
|
Underwater, struggling to get to the surface
Ask participants: What are some conditions that could lead to a patron
becoming a drowning victim who appears to be unconscious?
Answers: Responses should include the following:
TOPIC:
|
Lack of timely rescue of an active victim
|
Heart attack or stroke
|
Seizure
|
Head injury
|
Heat-related illness
|
Hypothermia (below-normal body temperature)
|
Hyperventilation and prolonged underwater breath-holding activities
|
Use of alcohol and other drugs
EFFECTIVE SURVEILLANCE—
SCANNING
Time: 10 minutes
PRESENTATION: EFFECTIVE SURVEILLANCE—SCANNING
Video Segment
Guided
Discussion
52
■
Explain that effective surveillance also includes scanning, a visual technique for
deliberately observing patron behaviors and actively looking for signals that someone
in the water needs help.
■
Show the video segment, “Scanning.”
■
Answer participants’ questions about the video segment.
■
Ask participants: What are some important factors for effective scanning?
Answers: Responses should include:
|
Know what to look for to determine if a victim is in trouble in the water.
|
Deliberately and actively observe swimmer’s behavior.
|
Scan the entire volume of water: bottom, middle and surface.
|
Move your eyes and head while scanning and look directly at the patron’s body
movements.
|
Maintain an active, rescue-ready posture.
■
Refer participants to Table 3-2: Scanning Challenges in the Lifeguarding Manual to
see some of the challenges for effective scanning.
■
Tell participants that you will present some challenges for scanning and they are to
provide you with what tactics could help to overcome the challenge.
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Answers: Responses should include the following:
Challenge
Tactic
Monotony
■
Stay fully engaged in what you are seeing—do not let your attention drift.
■
Change body position and posture periodically.
■
Sit upright and slightly forward.
■
Rotate stations.
■
Request additional lifeguard coverage.
■
Keep hydrated, cool off and get out of the sun when on break.
■
Exercise during one of your breaks.
■
Stay focused on patron surveillance.
■
Do not daydream, have conversations with co-workers or patrons or watch events
outside of your area.
■
Keep patron activities safe and orderly. Signal for an additional lifeguard or
supervisor if assistance is needed.
■
Adjust your location or body position or stand up.
■
Check all potential blind spots: under the stand, at play features or any part of the
zone.
Glare (from the
sun or overhead
lighting)
■
Use polarized sunglasses.
■
Change body position—stand up and look around and through glare spots.
■
Reposition your lifeguard station with permission of your supervisor.
Water movement
and surface
distortion of the
water
■
Adjust your body position.
■
Be aware of the normal appearance of the bottom of the pool; know the appearance
of drains, colored tiles or painted depth markings.
■
Scan the bottom carefully.
Murky water
■
Adjust your location or body position.
■
Stay alert for high-risk activities.
■
Signal for additional assistance to get extra coverage for the area.
Heavy patron
loads
■
Stand up frequently.
■
Signal for additional assistance to get extra coverage for your area.
Low patron loads
■
Change body position and posture frequently.
■
Change to a ground-level station, if appropriate.
■
Use fans to cool the surrounding air in an indoor setting.
■
Stay in the shade; use umbrellas.
■
Cool off by getting wet during your break.
■
Rotate more frequently.
■
Stay in cooler areas during breaks.
■
Stay hydrated by drinking plenty of water.
Fatigue
Distraction
Blind spots
Hot air
temperature
LESSON
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TOPIC:
EFFECTIVE SURVEILLANCE—
ZONES OF SURVEILLANCE
RESPONSIBILITY
Time: 10 minutes
PRESENTATION: EFFECTIVE SURVEILLANCE—ZONES OF
SURVEILLANCE RESPONSIBILITY
Video Segment
Guided
Discussion
■
Explain that another element of effective surveillance involves the assignment of
zones of surveillance responsibility. The video segment will introduce participants
to various types of zone coverage, including zone coverage, total coverage and
emergency back-up coverage in various types of facilities.
■
Show the video segment, “Zones of Surveillance.”
■
Answer participants’ questions about the video segment.
■
Ask participants: What should you do if the number of patrons increases in
your zone and you feel unable to adequately provide surveillance?
Answer: Signal for assistance for another lifeguard to help cover the zone.
■
Ask participants: You are seated in an elevated lifeguard station and there
is a glare on the surface of the water making it difficult for you to see.
What should you do?
Answer: While maintaining surveillance, get down from the chair and adjust your
position so you can see all areas of your zone or reposition your lifeguard station
with permission from your supervisor.
■
Ask participants: A group of preschool-aged children enter your zone. They
are all weak swimmers. Although there are not many children, you feel
that you are not able to watch the area adequately. What should you do?
Answer: Signal for assistance for another lifeguard to help cover the zone.
TOPIC:
INJURY PREVENTION
STRATEGIES
Time: 15 minutes
PRESENTATION: INJURY PREVENTION STRATEGIES
Lecture
■
Aquatic injury prevention is part of your facility’s risk management
program.
■
Risk management involves identifying dangerous conditions or
behaviors that can cause injuries and then taking steps to minimize
or eliminate them. Even though lifeguarding requires performing
emergency rescues, one of your goals is preventive lifeguarding, trying to
make sure emergencies do not happen in the first place.
■
Ask participants: What are some examples of life-threatening conditions?
Answers: Responses should include the following:
■
|
Unconsciousness
|
Breathing and cardiac emergencies
|
Severe bleeding
|
Drowning
Ask participants: What could be some causes of non-life-threatening
conditions?
Answers: Responses should include the following:
54
|
Diving in shallow water could result in a spinal injury.
|
Slipping and falling on the deck could result in wounds, fractures, dislocations,
joint sprains or muscle strains.
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■
Lecture
and Guided
Discussion
|
Exposure to sun could result in sunburn.
|
Exposure to heat could result in dehydration.
It is important to understand how injuries occur so you can help prevent
them. As a lifeguard you need to:
|
Increase your awareness of risks and hazards.
|
Help patrons avoid risky behavior.
|
Help develop a safety-conscious attitude at your facility.
■
Communicating with patrons is an important injury-prevention strategy.
It requires you to inform and educate patrons about inappropriate
behavior and the potential for injury. Communication also includes
enforcing rules and regulations.
■
Facilities use a variety of strategies to inform patrons of potential risks.
■
|
Signs are displayed listing the rules. Universal symbols may be used
on signs in place of or in addition to words. For example, an
illustration of a person diving with a circle around it and a line
through it is a universal symbol for “No Diving.”
|
Patrons may be given printed material listing rules when entering
the facility or as part of membership.
|
As a lifeguard, you also are a part of the communication strategy
since it is your job to inform patrons of the possible consequences
if they are not following the rules.
Ask participants: What information do patrons need to know concerning
risky behaviors?
Answers: Responses should include the following:
■
|
Why the behavior is dangerous
|
Possible consequences of the risky behavior
|
Safe options
Ask participants: How can you politely get a patron’s attention?
Answers: Responses should include the following:
Video Segment
and Guided
Discussion
|
Blowing a whistle
|
Saying, “Excuse me,” to the patron
|
Using a visual signal, such as a nod of the head or a hand signal, if you have
the attention of the patron
■
Your whistle is a communication tool to get the attention of patrons. It
also is a communication tool that can be used to activate the EAP.
■
Your facility’s EAP should specify a certain number and type of whistle
blasts to indicate certain emergency situations. For example, one long,
loud blast might signal to clear the pool, whereas three loud, short blasts
might signal a water rescue.
■
You will need to practice using your whistle blowing so you can blow it
loud enough to be heard above the surrounding noise and others can
distinguish which specific signal you are trying to communicate.
■
Use your whistle cautiously since it might be ignored by staff and patrons
if you use it too frequently.
■
Explain to participants that the following video segment will provide them with some
strategies to use to help keep their facility safe.
■
Show the video segment, “Injury Prevention.”
■
Pause the video for discussion of the thunder scenario—rule enforcement and
customer service.
■
Ask participants: What did the lifeguard do to protect patrons when
thunder was heard?
LESSON
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Facility Safety, Patron Surveillance and Injury Prevention
55
11/21/11 11:33 AM
Answers: Responses should include the following:
■
|
Cleared the pool.
|
Got down from the guard chair once the zone was cleared to get the patron’s
attention rather than just continue to blow the whistle.
Ask participants: What strategies did the lifeguard use to try to get the
resistant man to understand the importance of clearing the pool?
Answers: Responses should include the following:
■
TOPIC:
|
Spoke with the man, explaining that thunder had been heard in the area.
|
Used a rescue tube to get the attention of the man and stop him at the wall.
|
Explained that the need to exit the pool was a safety issue.
|
Requested help from management.
|
Explained firmly that if he did not comply with the request the consequence
could be that he could lose his membership at the pool.
Answer participants’ questions about the video segment.
GUARDING A VARIETY OF
ACTIVITIES
Time: 10 minutes
PRESENTATION: GUARDING A VARIETY OF ACTIVITIES
Lecture
and Guided
Discussion
■
Answers: Responses should include the following:
■
■
56
Ask participants: What types of activities might take place when you are
lifeguarding?
|
Open or recreational swimming
|
Water exercise, such as water walking and lap swimming
|
Instructional classes, such as swim lessons, water therapy, water exercise
and SCUBA lessons
|
Team practices, such as swim team, water polo or synchronized swimming
|
Competitive events, such as swim meets and triathlons.
|
Special events such as movie nights, pool parties and after-hours rentals.
Open or recreational swimming typically involves patrons of various
ages and swimming abilities. Challenges in guarding recreational
swimming are numerous, and may include:
|
Young children who are not adequately supervised.
|
Patrons engaging in risky behaviors in or out of the water.
|
A child who has wandered off from parents or caretakers.
|
Nonswimmers who have ventured into water that is too deep.
|
A patron that suffers a sudden illness.
When guarding for organized activities, it is helpful to understand
the unique aspects and risks of the activity. Questions that need to be
answered for effective guarding include:
|
What things could go wrong that are unique about this activity?
|
What is the swimming ability or comfort level in the water of patrons
involved in this activity?
|
Are there any unique challenges or obstacles to recognizing an
emergency, approaching a victim or performing a rescue?
|
Do participants have any medical conditions that increase the
chances for sudden illness or injury due to the nature of the activity?
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■
Instructional classes have the benefit of additional supervision by
trained personnel, including instructors for swim lessons, lifeguarding
or fitness classes and coaches for competitive sports, such as swimming
and diving, water polo or synchronized swimming.
■
Facility management should consider instructors or coaches to be part of
the safety team and provide them with training to help ensure the safety
of participants.
■
Instructors and coaches are responsible for the safety of their classes or
teams but this does not in any way relieve you of your responsibilities.
You are expected to recognize inappropriate behavior that could lead to
injury and emergencies. You still must scan every person in the water
and enforce rules for participants and instructional staff, perform
rescues and provide first aid as appropriate.
■
Ask participants: What might be some unique risks of participants in a
water exercise class for older adults?
Answers: Responses should include the following:
■
|
Participants may have risks associated with exercise such as over-exertion
and possibly heat illness.
|
Participants may have risks associated with medical problems such as
hypertension, diabetes or arthritis.
|
Participants may be using water exercise or therapy to rehabilitate from
surgery or injury and may have less balance or stamina.
Ask participants: What might be some unique risks of participants in swim
lessons?
Answers: Responses should include the following:
|
Participants who do not know how to swim may be unaware of dangers and
slip into water that is too deep for them.
|
Participants may not follow the instructions of the instructor and attempt
to leave the class.
|
Participants may attempt skills that are too difficult for them in an effort to
please the instructor or the parent or to impress peers.
|
Participants may have fears that overcome their ability to react in an
emergency situation. A participant might suddenly panic when discovering
that he or she is in deep water.
■
Participants in competitive aquatic sports, such as swimming and diving,
water polo or synchronized swimming, or participants in open water
swimming events, such as triathlons, typically are skilled swimmers but
are not exempt from potentially needing assistance, particularly after
suffering sudden illness or injury. Some participants may be novice
swimmers who could become tired when swimming longer distances.
■
Ask participants: What might be some unique risks of participants in
competitive sports?
Answers: Responses should include the following:
|
Swimmers may have exercise-related risks from overexertion or dehydration
during practice or a competition, such as a triathlon.
|
Injuries can occur in overcrowded lap lanes during practice or warm-ups for
a competition, from being hit by a ball during water polo, or from being hit by
the springboard when diving.
|
Swimmers may hyperventilate when trying to swim longer distances without
breathing.
LESSON
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TOPIC:
GUARDING SPECIAL
ATTRACTIONS
Time: 20 minutes
PRESENTATION: GUARDING SPECIAL ATTRACTIONS
Lecture
Activity
■
Many facilities have special attractions that create challenges for
lifeguarding, such as:
|
Water-play areas specifically for young children.
|
Play structures, such as sprays, fountains and dumping buckets;
floating obstacle courses; inflatable play structures or sports
structures for volleyball or basketball.
|
Special rides and attractions, such as bowl slides, multiperson raft
rides, uphill water coasters, high-speed water slides; or other
attractions including diving platforms, cable swings, and hand-overhand rope, nets and rings.
|
Water slides, including open and enclosed slides, drop slides and
speed slides.
|
Winding rivers.
|
Wave pools.
■
Divide the participants into small groups and provide each group with Activity
Worksheet 2.1—Guarding Special Attractions.
■
Refer participants to Chapter 4, Injury Prevention, in the Lifeguarding Manual for
information to help them with this activity.
■
Instruct groups to list unique concerns for guarding each of the special attractions
listed on the worksheet or assign specific topics to individual groups.
■
Allow up to 5 minutes for the group work. Circulate among groups to monitor
progress and provide assistance when necessary.
■
Reassemble the class and call on group leaders to share their answers to
the questions.
Activity Worksheet 2.1—Guarding Special Attractions
Answers: Responses should include the following:
■
Areas Specifically for Young Children
Answers: Responses should include the following:
■
|
Enforce height and age requirements since older children may be too large for some structures or
too rough for young children.
|
Ask adults to actively supervise their children.
|
Watch out for young children using the pool as a toilet.
|
Watch children for sunburn or signs of overexposure to cold or heat.
Play Structures
Answers: Responses should include the following:
58
|
Do not let a play structure become overcrowded.
|
Do not allow patrons to swim underneath structures.
|
Watch that patrons return to the surface after dropping into the water.
|
Pay close attention to children playing in and around sprays, fountains and interactive water-play
structures. Excited children may run and fall and be injured.
|
Pay close attention to patrons in moving water. They might lose their balance and be unable to stand
up again.
|
Watch for overcrowding and horseplay on floating structures.
|
Keep play safe and orderly.
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■
Special Rides and Attractions
Answers: Responses should include the following:
■
|
Watch patrons as they enter and exit an attraction. Dispatch patrons safely on a ride at set intervals.
|
Carefully watch both the water below and the activities overhead.
|
Keep patrons in view as long as possible.
|
Ensure that patrons who fall off a structure return to the surface.
|
Be aware of any special risks.
|
Enforce rules for safe behaviors allowed on the attraction.
Water Slides
Answers: Responses should include the following:
■
|
Check that patrons are tall enough to use the slide.
|
Instruct riders how to ride down the slide and make sure they are in the correct position.
|
Help riders with the equipment.
|
Confirm that the riders are ready to go and signal them to start.
|
If assisting riders to take off, use tube handles when available. Avoid pushing or pulling riders by their
shoulders, arms or legs.
|
Dispatch next riders at the proper intervals.
|
Signal the lifeguard at the bottom when a rider has been dispatched. If the lifeguard at the bottom can
be seen, you can use a hand signal or a whistle.
|
Watch for riders who stop, slow down, stand up or form a chain.
|
Watch for riders who lose their mat, tube or raft or have trouble getting down the slide.
|
Watch for riders who hit their heads on the side of the slide.
|
Observe all riders exit the slide into the catch pool.
|
Assist riders who appear off balance or get caught under water in the strong downward flow of water
in the catch pool.
|
Ensure that riders do not cross in front of any slide when getting out of the runout or catch pool.
|
Help riders, if needed, from the runout or catch pool.
|
Signal the lifeguard at the top when each rider has moved out of the catch pool or runout and it is clear
to send the next rider.
Winding Rivers
Answers: Responses should include the following:
■
|
Ensure that patrons enter and exit at designated locations.
|
Watch for inexperienced swimmers falling off their inner tubes or inflatable rafts.
|
Watch carefully for, and correct, risky behavior.
Wave Pools
Answers: Responses should include the following:
|
Ensure that patrons enter only in the shallow end.
|
When the waves are on, stand up to get a better view of patrons.
|
Watch for swimmers who get knocked over by the waves or carried into deeper water by the
undercurrent.
|
Do not let patrons dive into the waves.
|
Keep the areas around ladders and railings clear so that patrons can exit from the pool quickly.
|
Keep other swimmers out of the pool during special activities, such as surfing.
|
Before performing an emergency rescue, turn the waves off using the emergency stop button.
LESSON
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Facility Safety, Patron Surveillance and Injury Prevention
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10/21/11 2:53 PM
IN-WATER SKILL SESSION: REVIEW SKILLS,
VICTIM RECOGNITION AND LIFEGUARD
ROTATION
Time: 45 minutes
PRESENTATION: NEXT STEPS
Skill Review
Activity
■
Explain to participants that they are going to participate in a review session for
entries and approaches.
■
Lead a brief review discussion of the entries they learned in Lesson 1, asking
participants when they would use them and why.
|
Slide-in entry
|
Stride jump
|
Compact jump
■
Have participants practice each of the entries, including approach strokes
several times.
■
Clearly observe each participant’s performance of the skill and provide corrective
feedback.
Effective Scanning and Lifeguard Rotations
Activity
60
■
Explain to participants that they are going to participate in an activity to experience
effective scanning and lifeguard rotations.
■
Two participants will be positioned on deck as lifeguards, equipped with rescue
tubes and hip packs. The remaining participants will be in the water as if it were a
recreational swim time.
■
Assign each participant a number and record it with their name to avoid calling the
number of one of those playing the lifeguard role. When their number is called, they
will know it is their turn to play the role of either a distressed swimmer, an active
victim or a passive victim. The victim should not react immediately but should allow
the lifeguards some time to scan the pool before presenting them with the challenge
of victim recognition.
■
Assign zones of coverage for the lifeguards. When a victim is recognized, the
lifeguard should activate (or simulate) the EAP, point to the victim and state what
type of victim they observe.
■
Place an extra rescue tube and hip pack on the deck for the incoming lifeguard. Explain
that the participant who was the victim will exit the water, put on a rescue tube and
hip pack and rotate into the position of one of the lifeguards. The lifeguard who is
being replaced will rotate to the position of the other lifeguard; afterward, he or she
will place the rescue tube and hip pack on the deck and enter the water to join the
recreational swim group. Follow the same pattern of rotation throughout the activity.
■
Remind participants that they need to follow rotation procedures that maintain
patron surveillance.
|
Each lifeguard should carry his or her own rescue tube during the rotation.
|
The incoming lifeguard should be aware of the patrons and activity level of the
zone and begin scanning while walking toward the station, checking all areas of
the water from the surface to the bottom.
|
The outgoing lifeguard should inform the incoming lifeguard of any situations
that need special attention. The exchange of information should be brief, and
patron surveillance must be maintained throughout the entire rotation.
|
Once in position, with the rescue tube strapped on, the incoming lifeguard
makes any adjustments needed, such as removing shoes or adjusting an
umbrella, before confirming to the outgoing lifeguard that he or she “owns the
zone.” The outgoing lifeguard should continue scanning as he or she is walking
toward the next station.
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■
Begin the activity with the lifeguards that have been assigned to be on deck. Call out
a number that has been assigned to one of the participants that is in the water.
■
Provide guidance as needed for both victim recognition and for the lifeguard rotation.
■
Continue the activity until everyone has had the opportunity to play the role of a
lifeguard.
PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER
Time: 25 minutes
Activity
■
Gather participants and explain that they will be participating in two activities to
challenge their physical fitness, entries and approaches.
Activity 1: Round
Robin Brick Drill
■
Have participants form a circle in deep water and begin treading.
■
Hand one participant a brick and have him or her tread water while holding the
brick at the surface of the water with both hands for 20 seconds. At your signal,
have him or her pass it to the person on the right. Participants who are not currently
supporting the brick will alternate between treading water by kicking only, then
using their arms and legs each time you signal.
■
Anyone who drops the brick must retrieve it.
■
Continue this activity for about 7 to 10 minutes.
■
You can vary this activity adding additional items to the circle, such as another brick
and a tennis ball.
SHALLOW WATER LIFEGUARDING
Activity 2:
Rescue Tube
Relay
■
For the Shallow Water Lifeguarding course, place three bricks on the bottom of
the shallow end of the pool, starting at the edge of the pool; there should be 5 feet
between each brick.
■
At your signal, have participants swim under water to the first brick, pick up the
brick and stand up, bringing the brick to the surface of the water.
■
After placing the brick back on the bottom of the pool, have participants swim to the
next brick and repeat the drill.
■
Continue this activity until every participant has retrieved all three bricks two times.
■
Explain to participants that this is a swimming relay activity to practice entries and
approach strokes combined with speed.
■
Divide the group into two or more teams with an equal number of participants.
■
Each team member, wearing a hip pack, must either do a stride jump or compact
jump into the water and swim to the other side using a modified front crawl or
breaststroke while keeping the rescue tube under his or her armpits.
SHALLOW WATER LIFEGUARDING
■
For the Shallow Water Lifeguarding course, participants should use the compact
jump to enter the water.
■
When each team member reaches the other end of the pool, he or she should hand
off the rescue tube and hip pack to the next person in line. The next person in line
performs a stride jump or compact jump into the water and swims with the rescue
tube back to the starting point.
■
Continue this process until each team member has participated or continue for about
7 to 10 minutes.
■
You can vary this activity by changing the type of entry, approach stroke or letting the
tube trail behind.
■
Review Chapter 4, Injury Prevention, and Chapter 5, Emergency Action Plans, in the
Lifeguarding Manual before the next class session.
ASSIGNMENT
LESSON
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|
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10/21/11 2:53 PM
LESSON
3
INJURY PREVENTION AND RESCUE SKILLS,
PART 1
¡
Session Length: 2 hours, 50 minutes
LESSON OBJECTIVES
After completing this lesson, participants will be able to:
Explain patron surveillance techniques for organized groups.
■
Explain the purpose and general procedures of an emergency action plan (EAP).
■
Demonstrate how to safely and effectively assist a distressed swimmer, rescue an active and passive victim
and rescue multiple victims.
■
Demonstrate the ability to implement an EAP and perform a rescue.
■
ADDITIONAL MATERIALS, EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLIES
■
Activity Worksheet 3.1—Strategies for a Safe Group Visit
TOPIC:
GUARDING FOR ORGANIZED
RECREATIONAL SWIM GROUPS
Time: 20 minutes
PRESENTATION: GUARDING FOR ORGANIZED RECREATIONAL SWIM GROUPS
Lecture
62
■
Organized groups, such as day care groups, camps and youth
organizations, may visit your facility. These groups may be a part of your
organization or may be outside groups.
■
Groups should be accompanied by leaders, such as camp counselors or
chaperones.
■
Groups may reserve the entire facility for a specific activity.
■
Facility management can contribute to the safety of groups by putting in
place strategies such as:
|
Gathering important information as part of the booking procedure
when the group schedules their visit.
|
Ensuring a safety orientation with all members of the visiting group
to explain the rules and expectations.
|
Developing a classification system based on swimming ability that
easily identifies patron swim levels, such as using color-coded wrist
bands or swim caps.
|
Designating the swimming areas based on ability and intended use.
|
Orienting the group as to the design of the swimming area, including
water depth, and identifying where groups may swim.
|
Using an identification system for group leaders or adult chaperones,
such as laminated lanyard or a brightly colored baseball cap or
T-shirt.
|
Pairing swimmers of like ability as buddies to watch one another.
|
Implementing periodic buddy checks so that leaders can identify and
account for all of their group members.
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Activity
■
Assign participants to small groups and assign each group one of the scenarios in
Activity Worksheet 3.1—Strategies for a Safe Group Visit to each group. Give groups
5 minutes to develop a list of strategies for a safe group visit.
■
Have each group present their strategies to the class.
■
Upon completion, discuss any considerations for group visits that were not
addressed.
Activity Worksheet 3.1—Strategies for a Safe Group Visit
Answers: Responses should include the following:
■
Scenario 1: You are guarding multiple activities using the pool in addition to an organized group of 30
preschool-aged children with four group leaders. In general, what should you ensure and be aware of while
guarding the activity?
Answers: Responses should include the following:
■
|
Ensure that swimming areas are clearly marked according to their predetermined swimming abilities.
|
Ensure that patrons stay in the sections appropriate for their swimming abilities. Be aware that weak
or nonswimmers, excited to be together enjoying a recreational activity, may attempt to venture into
areas that are beyond their swimming ability.
|
Provide U.S. Coast Guard-approved life jackets for weak or nonswimmers.
|
Know how to identify group leaders or chaperones.
|
Ensure that chaperones are actively supervising the members of their group and that the appropriate
swimmer-to-chaperone ratio is being met. If it appears that they are not doing so, alert your facility’s
manager.
|
Signal for additional lifeguard coverage, such as a roving lifeguard, if you feel you cannot effectively
guard your zone. You may need to do this at the beginning of the swim time while the group gets
adjusted to the facility’s rules or if large groups are concentrated in one area.
Scenario 2: You are tasked with giving a quick safety orientation to a camp group that will be using the
diving boards. Group members took the facility swim test, and all are approved to swim in deep water. List
some common rules that you will review for the safe use of the diving boards and briefly describe how you
would cover the information.
Answers: Responses should include:
|
Only one person on the diving board at a time.
|
Only one person on the ladder at a time.
|
Look before diving or jumping to make sure the diving area is clear.
|
Only one bounce allowed on the diving board.
|
Dive or jump forward and straight out from the diving board.
|
Swim immediately to the closest ladder or wall.
|
Start by asking what the group members already know about the diving area rules to gauge their level
of understanding and then explain any rules that the group did not understand.
Note to instructors teaching the Shallow Water Lifeguarding course: While shallow water lifeguards
may not work in a deep-water environment, this scenario can still be used in the Shallow Water Lifeguarding
course so participants can understand common rules for all areas of swimming facilities.
■
Scenario 3: You will be working a private rental at your facility for families with children of all ages from
your local athletic association. You will be doing a safety orientation for the group. Who will you be instructing
during the orientation and what items will you be sure to cover?
Answers: Responses should include the following:
|
The safety orientation will be given to all members of the group, including the adults. It should cover the
following:
●
General aquatic safety rules
●
Swimming area sections
●
Water depths
LESSON
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Injury Prevention and Rescue Skills, Part 1
63
12/19/11 10:07 AM
●
Features or play structures
●
Equipment
●
How to use approved floatation devices
●
Rule signage locations
●
Operational information, such as buddy checks or breaks
TOPIC:
EMERGENCY ACTION PLANS
Time: 20 minutes
PRESENTATION: EMERGENCY ACTION PLANS
Video Segment
Lecture
and Guided
Discussion
■
Explain to participants that the importance of activating an EAP already has been
discussed as a part of performing a rescue. In this lesson, they will learn more details
about EAPs.
■
Show the video segment, “Emergency Action Plans.”
■
Explain that a new hire orientation should include their assigned responsibilities in
the facility’s EAP. Regular in-service training and simulation drills to practice EAP
procedures also should occur throughout their employment.
■
Answer participants’ questions about the video segment.
■
Ask participants: What is the purpose of an EAP?
Answer: The purpose of an EAP is to describe everyone’s responsibility in an
emergency.
■
During orientation, in-service training and in simulation drills, you will
learn and practice your assigned EAP responsibilities.
■
Aquatic facilities often have a general plan for water or land rescues, as
well as additional plans designed to address specific situations, such as
an active victim, a passive victim, a spinal injury, a missing person or an
injury or illness. Activate your facility’s EAP whenever you recognize an
emergency.
■
Refer participants to Chapter 5, Emergency Action Plans, in the Lifeguarding
Manual and discuss the sample EAP flow charts.
■
In a water emergency, the rescuing lifeguard should:
■
64
|
Signal: Activate the EAP
|
Rescue: Perform an appropriate rescue by following the general
procedures for a water emergency.
|
Care: Provide emergency care as needed
|
Report, advise and release: Complete a report of the incident and
advise the victim as to precautions they should take to prevent the
situation from occurring again. If the victim is a minor, he or she
should be released to the appropriate person. Gather information
that is needed from the victim and complete the report after
releasing the victim.
During the emergency, assisting lifeguards or other members of the
safety team should:
|
Provide back-up surveillance coverage or clear the area.
|
Assist with the rescue and emergency care if needed.
|
Summon EMS personnel if needed.
|
Bring additional rescue equipment if needed.
|
Assist with crowd control.
|
Meet and direct EMS personnel.
Lifeguarding Instructor’s Manual
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■
Ask participants: What other situations at a facility may require
different EAPs?
Answers: Responses should include the following:
■
|
Evacuations
|
The need to shelter in place
|
Severe weather
|
Chemical spills or leaks
|
Power failures
|
Violence
Ask participants: What information should be communicated when calling
9-1-1 or the local emergency number?
Answers: Responses should include the following:
■
|
Identify yourself.
|
Explain the situation briefly (e.g., unconscious child pulled from the water).
|
Explain the purpose of the call (e.g., need an ambulance, need police).
|
Give the location.
|
Answer questions to the best of your knowledge.
|
Do not hang up until the emergency medical services (EMS) call-taker tells
you to do so.
Ask participants: Outside of the immediate aquatic area, where might you
be needed in an emergency?
Answers: Responses should include the following:
TOPIC:
|
Locker rooms
|
Concession areas
|
Entrance or lobby areas
|
Adjacent recreational facilities, such as exercise facilities or playgrounds
|
Mechanical rooms
|
Parking lots
RESCUE SKILLS, PART 1—
RESCUES AT OR NEAR
THE SURFACE
Time: 10 minutes
PRESENTATION: WATER RESCUE SKILLS—RESCUES AT OR NEAR THE SURFACE
Video Segment
■
Explain to participants that the following video segment will provide
demonstrations of the first set of rescue skills they will learn for distressed and
active victims.
■
Refer participants to the skill sheets in Chapter 6, Water Rescue Skills, in the
Lifeguarding Manual.
■
Show the video segment, “Water Rescue Skills—Rescues At or Near the Surface.”
■
Answer participants’ questions about the video segment.
LESSON
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IN-WATER SKILL SESSION—RESCUE
SKILLS, PART 1
Time: 1 hour, 25 minutes
PRESENTATION: NEXT STEPS
Skill Practice
■
Explain to participants that during water rescue skill sessions you will demonstrate
skills and guide them through practice.
■
Pair up participants and explain that they will take turns as a victim and rescuer for
each skill. For the multiple victim rescuer, reassign participants into groups of three.
■
For each skill, organize participants so that they can clearly see and hear. Be sure
to provide any instructions related to their position in the water or how they should
behave as victims.
■
Lead them through the following skills for victims at or near the surface:
|
|
|
|
|
|
■
Reaching assist from the deck
●
Lifeguards: on the edge of the deck
●
Victims: about 3 feet from the edge of the pool; distressed swimmer
Simple assist
●
Lifeguards: standing in shallow water
●
Victims: standing in shallow water; losing balance
Active victim front rescue
●
Lifeguards: in the water
●
Victims: at least 10 yards from the edge of the pool facing the lifeguard;
struggling in deep water
Active victim rear rescue
●
Lifeguards: in the water
●
Victims: at least 10 yards from the edge of the pool facing away from the
lifeguard; struggling in deep water
Passive victim rear rescue
●
Lifeguards: on the edge of the deck
●
Victims: in deep water, passive
Multiple victim rescue
●
Lifeguards: lifeguard in the water
●
Victims: Two victims per rescuer in deep water. When playing the role of the
victims they should face each other, one victim holding securely to the other
victim.
Observe each participant’s performance of the skill and provide corrective feedback.
SHALLOW WATER LIFEGUARDING
Skill Drill—
Active Victim
Rescues
66
■
For the Shallow Water Lifeguarding course, practice the simple assist and reaching
as noted above.
■
For the active victim front rescue, active victim rear rescue and multiple victim
rescue, practice in water up to 5 feet deep.
■
For the passive victim rear rescue, the victim should be at or near the surface of the
water.
■
Explain to participants that they are going to participate in an activity to practice
recognizing a victim, simulating activating the EAP, entering the water, approaching
a victim, performing a rescue and returning the victim safely to the side of the pool.
This is designed to allow participants to practice rescuing a variety of victims in rapid
succession.
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■
■
Divide the class in half and assign one group as lifeguards and the other group as
victims. Line up lifeguards stationed on the deck, one per victim in the water:
VICTIMS
X X X X X
LIFEGUARDS
O O O O O
Explain that when you say, “Go!” (all victims and lifeguards will go at the same time):
|
The victims will simulate an active victim facing the lifeguard.
|
The lifeguards will simulate the EAP signal, enter the water, rescue the victim
and return the victim to a point of safety at the wall where the rescuer started
the rescue.
|
Lifeguards exit the water and the victims will return to their same spot in the
water to be victims again.
|
Once out of the water and standing in front of their victims again, have each
lifeguard move one spot down so they are stationed in front of the next victim
in line. Have the last rescuer in line move to the first position so that each
lifeguard has a new victim in front of them. On your instruction to go, lifeguards
will repeat the front active victim rescue with the new victim.
■
Continue until all lifeguards have rotated down the line to rescue each victim and
they are back in front of the victim they started with.
■
Repeat the drill with the victim facing away from the rescuer.
■
After the lifeguards have performed both types of active victim rescues on each
victim in the line, switch the groups—the victim group becomes the lifeguard group
and the lifeguard group becomes the victim group—and repeat the activity.
PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER
Activity
Time: 35 minutes
■
Explain to participants that they are going to participate in an activity to practice an
EAP for an active victim or distressed swimmer.
■
Assign one lifeguard who is performing patron surveillance and one back-up
lifeguard who is not on surveillance duty. Assign the zone and have the lifeguard go
to the lifeguard station and have the back-up lifeguard go to an area on the deck
where he or she can see the lifeguard station.
■
Explain to participants that upon recognizing a victim, the lifeguard will:
|
Activate the EAP.
|
Enter the water using the appropriate entry.
|
Perform the appropriate rescue.
|
Bring the victim to a point of safety at the side of the pool.
■
Explain to participants that when the EAP signal is activated, the back-up lifeguard
will get a rescue tube, go to the lifeguard station and assume coverage of the zone.
■
Gather the rest of the group so that the lifeguards cannot hear. Assign someone to
simulate a victim (active or distressed) after a prearranged signal from you, such as a
head nod.
■
Begin the activity by allowing the swimmers to swim and play until you give the
signal and the drowning simulation begins.
■
Once the rescue is complete, gather the group and discuss how it went and what the
next steps of the EAP would be.
■
Repeat the activity until all participants have had the opportunity to be a lifeguard or
back-up lifeguard.
ASSIGNMENT
Review Chapter 5, Emergency Action Plans, in the Lifeguarding Manual.
LESSON
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SKILL CHARTS AND ASSESSMENT TOOLS
In addition to performing the steps listed in the skill chart in the correct order, participants must meet the criteria
listed at the proficient level to be checked off for this skill. Assessment criteria that are general for the category of
skills, as well as specific to, the skill must be met.
ASSISTS
SKILL CHART: REACHING ASSIST FROM THE DECK
1.
2
3.
Extend the tube to the victim, keeping your body weight on your back foot and crouching to avoid being
pulled into the water.
|
Remove the rescue strap from your shoulder if necessary to reach the victim and hold the shoulder strap
in one hand and extend the tube to the victim with the other hand.
Tell the victim to grab the rescue tube.
Slowly pull the victim to safety.
SKILL CHART: SIMPLE ASSIST
1.
2.
3.
Approach the person who needs help while keeping the rescue tube between you and that person.
Reach across the tube and grasp the person at the armpit to help the person maintain his or her balance.
|
If the person is under water, grasp under the person’s armpits with both hands and help him or her
stand up.
Assist the person to the exit point, if necessary.
SKILL ASSESSMENT TOOL: ASSISTS
Criteria
Proficient
Not Proficient
Communicates with the victim
Victim is reassured and told what
to do
No attempted verbal
communication with the victim
Maintains balance
Assumes a sturdy posture and stable
footing
Stumbles, falls or knocks victim
under the water
Equipment is properly positioned
for the assist
Control of the rescue tube is
maintained between victim and
rescuer
Rescue tube is not kept between
victim and rescuer
Maintains support until victim is
safe
■
Supports the victim so that the
mouth and nose are above water
■
Victim’s mouth or nose is
under water
■
Assists the victim to a safe
position
■
Lets go of victim without
ensuring that the victim is at a
position of safety
■
Does not assist the victim out
of the water if needed
RESCUES AT OR NEAR THE SURFACE
SKILL CHART: ACTIVE VICTIM FRONT RESCUE
1.
2.
3.
4.
68
Approach the victim from the front.
As you near the victim, grab the rescue tube from under your arms with both hands and begin to push the
tube out in front of you. Continue kicking to maintain momentum.
Thrust the rescue tube slightly under water and into the victim’s chest, keeping the tube between you and the
victim. Encourage the victim to grab the rescue tube and hold onto it.
Keep kicking, fully extend your arms and move the victim to a safe exit point. Change direction, if needed.
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SKILL CHART: ACTIVE VICTIM REAR RESCUE
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Approach the victim from behind with the rescue tube across your chest.
With both arms, reach under the victim’s armpits and grasp the shoulders firmly. Tell the victim that you are
there to help and continue to reassure the victim throughout the rescue.
Using your chest, squeeze the rescue tube between your chest and the victim’s back.
Keep your head to one side to avoid being hit by the victim’s head if it moves backwards.
Lean back and pull the victim onto the rescue tube.
Use the rescue tube to support the victim so the victim’s mouth and nose are out of the water.
Tow the victim to a safe exit point.
SKILL CHART: PASSIVE VICTIM REAR RESCUE
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Approach a face-down victim from behind with the rescue tube across your chest.
With both arms, reach under the victim’s armpits and grasp the shoulders firmly. You may be high on the
victim’s back when doing this.
Using your chest, squeeze the rescue tube between your chest and the victim’s back.
Keep your head to one side to avoid being hit by the victim’s head if it moves backwards.
Roll the victim over by dipping your shoulder and rolling onto your back so that the victim is face-up on top
of the rescue tube. Keep the victim’s mouth and nose out of the water. Place the tube under the victim below
the shoulders so that the victim’s head naturally falls back to an open-airway position.
Tow the victim to a safe exit point. For greater distances, use one hand to stroke. For example, reach your
right arm over the victim’s right shoulder and grasp the rescue tube. Then use the left hand to stroke.
Remove the victim from the water, assess the victim’s condition and provide appropriate care.
SKILL ASSESSMENT TOOLS: RESCUES AT OR NEAR THE SURFACE
Criteria
Proficient
Not Proficient
Communicates with the victim
Victim is reassured and told what
to do
No attempted verbal
communication with the victim
Equipment is properly positioned
for the appropriate rescue
■
Rescue tube is kept between the
lifeguard and the victim
■
■
Rescue tube is positioned to
support the victim at the surface
of the water
Rescue tube is not maintained
between the victim and the
rescuer
■
The victim is not supported by
the rescue tube
Victim’s mouth and nose above
water
Victim’s mouth and nose are
maintained above water
Victim’s mouth or nose is under
water
Tows the victim to a safe exit point
Victim is towed to a safe exit point
using the rescue tube to support the
victim
■
Unable to tow the victim to a
safe exit point
■
Victim is not supported by the
rescue tube
■
Releases contact with the
victim
LESSON
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ACTIVE VICTIM FRONT RESCUE
Rescue tube is placed to provide
support for the victim and safety for
the rescuer
Move the victim to a safe exit point
■
Rescue tube is slightly
submerged and thrust into the
victim’s chest to provide support
■
Lifeguard’s arms are extended
with elbows locked
Forward momentum and kick are
used to move the victim to a safe
exit point
■
Rescue tube is thrust above
victim’s armpits or in the
stomach area and does not
provide support
■
Lifeguard’s arms are not fully
extended
■
Little to no forward movement
■
Unable to move the victim to a
safe exit point
■
Rescue tube slips out and is
not supporting the victim at
the surface
■
Is not successful in
repositioning the rescue tube
ACTIVE VICTIM REAR RESCUE
Lifeguard squeezes the rescue tube
against the victim’s back to provide
support for the victim and safety for
the rescuer
Rescue tube remains in place and is
repositioned if it slips out
PASSIVE VICTIM REAR RESCUE
Maintain head in an open airway
position at the surface
Rescue tube is placed under the
victim’s back so that the victim’s
head falls back to an open airway
position
Victim’s head is tilted forward
(chin toward chest)
Turn the victim to a face-up
position
■
Rescue tube is squeezed
between rescuer’s chest and
victim’s back
■
Rescue tube is not maintained
between the victim and the
rescuer
■
Leans back to pull victim
face-up
■
Unable to reposition the tube
if it slips out
■
Unable to pull victim to a
face-up position
70
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MULTIPLE-VICTIM RESCUE
SKILL CHART: MULTIPLE-VICTIM RESCUE
If you are the only one rescuing two victims who are clutching each other:
1. Approach one victim from behind.
2. With both arms, reach under the victim’s armpits and grasp the shoulders. Squeeze the rescue tube between
your chest and the victim’s back, keeping your head to one side of the victim’s head.
3. Use the rescue tube to support both victims with their mouths out of the water. Talk to the victims to help
reassure them.
4. Support both victims until other lifeguards arrive or the victims become calm enough to move to a safe exit.
SKILL ASSESSMENT TOOLS: MULTIPLE VICTIM RESCUE
Criteria
Proficient
Not Proficient
Communicates with the victim
Victim is reassured and told what
to do
No attempted verbal
communication with the victim
Equipment is properly positioned
for the appropriate rescue
■
Rescue tube is kept between the
lifeguard and the victim
■
■
Rescue tube positioned to
support the victim at the surface
of the water
Rescue tube is not maintained
between the victim and the
rescuer
■
Victim is not supported by the
rescue tube
Victim’s mouth and nose above
water
Victim’s mouth and nose are
maintained above water
Mouth or nose are under water
Tows the victim to safety
Victim is towed to safety using the
rescue tube to support the victim
■
Unable to tow the victim to
safety
■
Victim is not supported by the
rescue tube
■
Releases contact with the
victim
Rescue tube is placed to provide
support for victims and safety for
rescuer
Maintains firm hold of one victim
and rescue tube effectively supports
both victims’ heads above water
LESSON
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Both victims are not supported
Injury Prevention and Rescue Skills, Part 1
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LESSON
4
RESCUE SKILLS, PART 2
¡
¡
Session Length: 2 hours, 15 minutes
Shallow Water Lifeguarding Session Length: 1 hour, 35 minutes
LESSON OBJECTIVES
After completing this lesson, participants will be able to:
Demonstrate how to safely and effectively rescue a submerged victim in shallow or deep water.
■
Demonstrate how to safely and effectively perform feet-first and head-first surface dives.
(Lifeguarding course only)
■
Demonstrate how to safely and effectively perform a two-person removal of a victim from the water using
a backboard.
■
TOPIC:
SURVEILLANCE ACTIVITY I
Time: 10 minutes
PRESENTATION: REVIEW—SURVEILLANCE ACTIVITY
Video Segment
and Activity
TOPIC:
■
Explain that this activity provides an opportunity to practice their surveillance skills.
■
Show the video segment, “Review—Surveillance Activity I.”
■
Lead a discussion of what they see in each segment.
|
Are there any hazards that could cause an injury?
|
Are there any patrons who would be of special concern?
|
Are there any rules being broken that could lead to an injury or
emergency situation?
|
Are there any distracting situations for the lifeguard?
RESCUE SKILLS, PART 2:
SUBMERGED VICTIM RESCUES
Time: 10 minutes
PRESENTATION: WATER RESCUE SKILLS—SUBMERGED VICTIM RESCUES
Video Segment
72
■
Explain to participants that the following video segment will cover rescue skills for
passive victims.
■
Refer participants to the skill sheets in Chapter 6, Water Rescue Skills, in the
Lifeguarding Manual.
■
Show the video segment, “Water Rescue Skills—Submerged Victim Rescues.”
■
Answer participants’ questions about the video segment.
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IN-WATER SKILL SESSION: RESCUE
SKILLS, PART 2
Time: 1 hour, 10 minutes
Shallow Water Lifeguarding Time: 30 minutes
PRESENTATION: NEXT STEPS
Safety Tips: For practicing rescues of victims submerged in deep water:
■
Instruct participants that if they experience difficulty when playing the role of a
victim, they should signal “let go” to the lifeguard by a predetermined signal, such
as a tap or gentle pinch.
■
Explain that ear and sinus squeeze can be uncomfortable and for those with
congestion, it can be painful or even cause damage to the ear. In this course, when
practicing rescues of submerged victims, participants are required only to go to a
depth of 7 to 10 feet. However, when hired to work at a facility with deeper water,
they would be expected to be able to go all the way to the bottom.
SHALLOW WATER LIFEGUARDING
Skill Practice
■
For the Shallow Water Lifeguarding course, participants are required only to go to
a maximum depth of 5 feet.
■
Explain that swim goggles may not be used for rescues of submerged victims since
they have no mechanism for pressure relief, which could result in injury to the eyes
when swimming in deeper water. They will be expected to open their eyes under
water to perform rescues.
■
Explain to participants that during the water rescue skill sessions you will
demonstrate skills and guide them through practice.
■
Pair up participants and explain that they will take turns as victim and rescuer
for each skill. For the two-person removal from the water using a backboard skill,
participants should form groups of three.
■
For each skill, organize participants so that they can clearly see and hear. Be sure
to provide any instructions related to their position in the water or how they should
behave as victims.
■
Explain to them that for each rescue skill, they should begin by simulating the
activation of the emergency action plan (EAP) (except when learning the surface
dives).
■
Lead them through the following skills for submerged victims:
|
Submerged passive victim in shallow water
●
Lifeguards: on the edge of the deck
●
Victims: at least 10 yards from the edge of the pool submerged in shallow
water; passive
|
Feet-first surface dive in deep water
|
Head-first surface dive in deep water
|
Submerged victim in deep water
●
Lifeguards: on the edge of the deck
●
Victims: at least 10 yards from the edge of the pool submerged in deep
water; passive
LESSON
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SHALLOW WATER LIFEGUARDING
■
For the Shallow Water Lifeguarding course, omit the feet-first and head-first
surface dives and the submerged victim in deep water rescue unless necessary to
get to the bottom.
|
|
Two-person removal from the water using a backboard
●
Lifeguard 1: bringing victim to the edge of the pool after a passive victim
rescue
●
Lifeguard 2: on deck with backboard
●
Victim: passive
Observe each participant’s performance of the skill and provide corrective
feedback
PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER
Time: 45 minutes
Skill Drill
■
Assemble the participants on the deck and explain they will be practicing team
rescues for a submerged passive victim in deep water, removing the victim from the
water on a backboard and preparing to provide care by putting on disposable gloves.
Part 1
■
Explain that they will be practicing how to put on gloves in a wet environment. They
will learn the method for glove removal in lesson 5.
■
Explain that putting on gloves with wet hands can be challenging.
■
Lead them through the skill of putting on gloves with wet hands. One method is to
dip the glove in the pool and fill with water and insert your hand in the glove.
■
Participants should practice the skill until they are comfortable doing it quickly.
SHALLOW WATER LIFEGUARDING
Part 2
■
For the Shallow Water Lifeguarding course, have teams practice rescues for a
submerged passive victim in shallow water, removing the victim from the water on a
backboard and preparing to provide care by putting on disposable gloves.
■
Participants will complete part 1 as it is described above. For part 2, the victim
will submerge to the bottom in shallow water at the same time as the rescuer. The
rescuing lifeguard will rescue a victim who is submerged in shallow water and
passive.
■
Divide the participants into groups of four and assign one rescuing lifeguard, one
victim and two assisting lifeguards for each group. Have each lifeguard wear a hip
pack with gloves inside.
■
Explain for each group:
■
74
|
The rescuing lifeguard will simulate activating the EAP and enter the water.
|
The victim will submerge to the bottom in deep water at the same time as the
rescuer. The rescuing lifeguard will rescue a victim who is submerged in deep
water and passive.
|
While the rescuing lifeguard supports the victim at the edge, the two assisting
lifeguards will bring the backboard and then will remove the victim from the
water, demonstrating team communication skills between all three lifeguards.
|
Once removed from the water, the victim will remain passive on the backboard
until all three lifeguards have put on their gloves.
Repeat the drill until each person in the group has performed as a rescuing lifeguard
and an assisting lifeguard at least once.
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ASSIGNMENT
■
Read Chapter 7, Before Providing Care and Victim Assessment, and Chapter 8,
Breathing Emergencies, in the Lifeguarding Manual before the next class session.
SKILL CHARTS AND ASSESSMENT TOOLS
In addition to performing the steps listed in the skill chart in the correct order, participants must meet the criteria
listed at the proficient level to be checked off for this skill. Assessment criteria that are general for the category of
skills, as well as specific to the skill, must be met.
SUBMERGED VICTIMS
SKILL CHART: PASSIVE SUBMERGED VICTIM IN SHALLOW WATER
1.
Swim or quickly walk to the victim’s side. Let go of the rescue tube but keep the strap around your shoulders.
2.
Submerge and reach down to grab the victim under the armpits.
3.
Simultaneously, pick up the victim, move forward and roll the victim face-up upon surfacing.
4.
Grab the rescue tube and position it under the victim’s shoulders. The victim’s head should naturally fall back
into an open-airway position. If an assisting lifeguard is there with the backboard, skip this step and proceed
to remove the victim from the water.
5.
Move the victim to a safe exit point, remove the victim from the water, assess the victim’s condition and
provide appropriate care.
SKILL CHART: SUBMERGED VICTIM IN DEEP WATER
(LIFEGUARDING COURSE ONLY)
1.
Release the rescue tube, perform a feet-first surface dive and position yourself behind the victim.
2.
Reach one of your arms under the victim’s arm (your right arm under their right arm or your left arm under
their left arm) and across the victim’s chest. Hold firmly onto the victim’s opposite side.
3.
Once you have hold of the victim, reach up with your free hand and grasp the towline. Pull it down and feed
the line to the hand that is holding the victim. Keep feeding the towline this way until nearing the surface.
4.
As you surface, tilt the victim back so he or she is face-up. Grasp and position the rescue tube so it is squeezed
between your chest and the victim’s back. For a passive victim, place the tube below the victim’s shoulders so
the victim’s head naturally falls back into an open-airway position. A victim may begin to struggle, requiring
you to grasp tighter.
5.
Reach under the victim’s armpits and grasp the shoulders.
6.
Tow the victim to a safe exit point. Remove the victim from the water, assess the victim’s condition and
provide appropriate care.
Note: As you descend into deep water, be sure to equalize pressure early and often. If you are unable to equalize
pressure, return to the surface.
SKILL ASSESSMENT TOOL: SUBMERGED VICTIM RESCUES
Criteria
Proficient
Not Proficient
Equipment is properly positioned
to provide support for the victim
upon rolling over or surfacing
Rescue tube is positioned under the
victim’s back and is supporting the
victim at the surface
■
Victim slides off tube
■
Victim’s head submerges
Victim is face-up upon surfacing
Victim is quickly brought to a
face-up position
■
Victim is face-down
■
Unable to turn victim to
a face-up position upon
surfacing
Victim’s mouth and nose are
maintained above water.
Victim’s mouth or nose is under
water.
Victim’s mouth and nose are above
water.
LESSON
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Rescue Skills, Part 2
75
10/13/11 8:48 AM
Maintain head in an open airway
position at the surface
Rescue tube is placed under the
victim’s back so that the victim’s
head falls back to an open airway
position
Victim’s head is tilted forward
(chin toward chest)
Tow the victim to safety
Victim is towed to a safe exit point
using the rescue tube to support the
victim
■
Unable to make progress in
the water to move the victim
to a safe exit point
■
Victim is not supported by the
rescue tube and slips off or
submerges
■
Tries to submerge with the
rescue tube
■
Rescue tube strap is not worn
over the shoulder
SUBMERGED PASSIVE VICTIM IN SHALLOW WATER
Equipment is properly positioned
to start the rescue
Victim brought to the surface
Rescue strap is around the shoulder
of the rescuer
■
Submerges to grasp victim
■
Unable to submerge
■
Maintains grasp of the victim
and brings to the surface
■
Does not make contact with
victim
■
Drops victim
■
Unable to return to the surface
with victim
SUBMERGED VICTIM IN DEEP WATER (LIFEGUARDING COURSE ONLY)
Equipment is properly positioned
appropriate to the rescue
Victim brought to the surface
■
Rescuer releases rescue tube so
it remains at the surface
■
Tries to submerge with the
rescue tube
■
Rescue tube strap is worn
around the shoulder
■
■
For water deeper than the tube
strap length, strap is removed
from the shoulder and held
Loses contact with the rescue
tube strap—not worn around
the shoulder or not held
■
Unable to grasp rescue tube
once returned to the surface to
place under the victim’s back
■
Submerges to grasp the victim
■
Unable to submerge
■
Maintains grasp of the victim
and brings to the surface
■
Cannot grasp the victim
■
Does not make contact with
the victim
■
Drops the victim
■
Unable to return to the surface
with the victim
■
Unable to grasp or place
rescue tube under the victim
upon surfacing
■
Rescue tube placed under the
victim’s back upon surfacing
SURFACE DIVES
SKILL CHART: FEET-FIRST SURFACE DIVE (LIFEGUARDING COURSE ONLY)
1.
Swim to a point near and above the victim. Release the rescue tube but keep the strap around your shoulders.
2.
Position your body vertically, then at the same time press both hands down to your sides and kick strongly to
raise your body out of the water.
3.
Take a breath then let your body sink under water as you begin to extend your arms outward with palms
upward pushing against the water to help you move downward. Keep your legs straight and together with toes
pointed. Tuck your chin and turn your face to look down toward the bottom.
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4.
As downward momentum slows, repeat the motion of extending your arms outward and sweeping your hands
and arms upward and overhead to go deeper.
5.
Repeat this arm movement until deep enough to reach the victim.
If you must swim under water, such as for a deep-water line search, also perform these steps:
1.
When deep enough, tuck your body and roll to a horizontal position.
2.
Extend your arms and legs and swim under water.
Note: As you descend into deep water, be sure to equalize pressure early and often. If you are unable to equalize
pressure, return to the surface.
SKILL CHART: HEAD-FIRST SURFACE DIVE (LIFEGUARDING COURSE ONLY)
1.
Swim to a point near the victim and release the rescue tube.
2.
Gain momentum using a swimming stroke.
3.
Take a breath, sweep your arms backwards to your thighs and turn them palms-down.
4.
Tuck your chin to your chest and flex at the hip sharply while your arms reach downward toward the bottom.
5.
Lift your legs upward, straight and together so that their weight above the water helps the descent. Get in a
fully extended, streamlined body position that is almost vertical.
6.
If you need to go deeper, such as in a diving well, do a simultaneous arm pull with both arms to go deeper,
then level out and swim forward under water.
Tip: If the depth of the water is unknown or the water is murky, hold one or both arms extended over the head
toward the bottom or use a feet-first surface dive.
Note: As you descend into deep water, be sure to equalize pressure early and often. If you are unable to equalize
pressure, return to the surface.
SKILL ASSESSMENT TOOL: SURFACE DIVES
Criteria
Proficient
Not Proficient
Submerge to appropriate depth
Submerges to appropriate depth
Unable to submerge to appropriate
depth
Look toward bottom while
descending
Face is looking down toward bottom
while descending
Face is looking forward or upward
while descending
FEET-FIRST SURFACE DIVE (LIFEGUARDING COURSE ONLY)
Body descends feet-first in a
streamlined position
■
Legs are held together
■
■
Arms are fully extended
overhead
Legs are apart and impede
descent
■
Arm positioning impedes
descent
HEAD-FIRST SURFACE DIVE (LIFEGUARDING COURSE ONLY)
Body descends head-first in a
streamlined position
■
■
Legs are held together and lifted
upward toward the surface to
aide descent
■
Legs are apart
■
Body is not nearly vertical
during descent
Arms reach downward toward
the bottom
■
Arms are not in front reaching
downward
REMOVAL FROM THE WATER
SKILL CHART: TWO-PERSON REMOVAL FROM THE WATER USING A BACKBOARD
1.
The primary lifeguard brings the victim to the side and turns him or her to face the wall. Another lifeguard
brings a backboard with the head immobilizer and the straps removed, if possible.
2.
The assisting lifeguard on land crosses his or her own hands to grab the victim’s wrists and pulls the victim up
slightly to keep the head above the water and away from the wall. Support the victim’s head so that the head
does not fall forward.
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4
|
Rescue Skills, Part 2
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3.
The primary lifeguard ensures that the victim’s face is out of the water and then climbs out of the water,
removes the rescue tube and gets the backboard.
4.
The primary lifeguard guides the backboard, foot-end first, down into the water along the wall next to the
victim. The second lifeguard immediately begins to turn the victim onto the backboard. Each lifeguard then
quickly grasps one of the victim’s wrists and one of the handholds of the backboard.
5.
When the primary lifeguard gives the signal, both lifeguards pull the backboard and victim onto land,
until the underside of the board is safely away from the edge. (Remember to lift with the legs and not with
the back.) The lifeguards step backward and then carefully lower the backboard onto the ground. If other
lifeguards or additional help is available, they can provide assistance by pulling or pushing the backboard.
6.
Lifeguards provide immediate and appropriate care based on the victim’s condition. Continue care until
emergency medical services (EMS) personnel arrive and assume control over the victim’s care.
Tips:
■
It may be easier to submerge the board initially if the board is angled, foot-end first, toward the wall.
■
As soon as the board is submerged, turn the victim onto the board then allow the board to float up beneath
the victim.
■
Once the board is submerged, the second lifeguard can help to stabilize the board against the wall, placing
his or her foot against the backboard, if necessary.
SKILL ASSESSMENT TOOL: TWO-PERSON REMOVAL FROM THE WATER USING
A BACKBOARD
Criteria
Proficient
Not Proficient
Victim is brought to a position
facing the side of the pool with the
head out of the water
Victim is facing the side of the pool
with head tipped back, out of the
water
■
Victim is not facing the side of
the pool
■
Victim’s head is leaning
forward
■
Victim’s face is in the water
Lifeguards communicate with each
other
Lifeguard(s) communicates what,
how and/or when actions happen
Lifeguards cannot proceed with
removing the victim from the
water
Victim’s head remains above the
surface of the water
Victim’s mouth and nose are
maintained out of the water
Victim’s mouth or nose is in the
water
Assisting lifeguard(s) maintains
contact with the victim
Assisting lifeguard(s) maintains grip
of the victim’s wrists
Assisting lifeguard(s) loses grip of
the victim
Backboard is submerged into
position
Backboard is submerged along the
wall next to the victim
■
Unable to submerge the
backboard
■
Backboard cannot be placed
under the victim
Victim is placed onto the board
Victim is pulled out on the
backboard in a safe manner for
rescuers and victim
Lifeguard(s) move into position to
start a primary assessment of the
victim
78
■
Victim is turned onto backboard
■
■
Each lifeguard grasps one of
the victim’s wrists and has a
handhold of the backboard
Unable to place victim on the
backboard
■
Loses contact with backboard
or victim
■
Lifeguards pull the backboard
and victim onto land
■
Unable to remove the
backboard and the victim
■
Backboard is carefully lowered
to the ground
■
Victim’s body is hanging off
the board, which may cause
injury
■
Backboard is dropped on land
Lifeguard(s) open the victim’s
airway
Lifeguard(s) does not open the
victim’s airway
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LESSON
5
BEFORE PROVIDING CARE, VICTIM
ASSESSMENT AND BREATHING EMERGENCIES
¡
Session Length: 2 hours, 45 minutes
LESSON OBJECTIVES
After completing this lesson, participants will be able to:
■
Describe what standard precautions to take to prevent disease transmission when providing care.
■
Demonstrate proper removal of disposable gloves.
■
Describe the general procedures for injury or sudden illness on land.
■
Identify items of concern when conducting a scene size-up.
■
Demonstrate how to perform a primary assessment and place a victim in the H.A.IN.E.S. recovery position.
■
Identify victim conditions that indicate the need to summon emergency medical services (EMS) personnel.
■
Understand how to safely and effectively move a victim on land.
■
Demonstrate how to use a resuscitation mask.
■
Recognize and care for a breathing emergency.
■
Demonstrate how to safely and effectively give ventilations.
■
Demonstrate how to safely and effectively use a bag-valve-mask (BVM) resuscitator with two rescuers.
■
Demonstrate how to safely and effectively care for an obstructed airway for a conscious and an unconscious
victim.
■
Demonstrate the ability to work as a team to implement an EAP, perform a rescue and perform emergency
care.
ADDITIONAL MATERIALS, EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLIES
■
■
■
■
Manikins (one adult and one infant manikin per two participants, child manikins optional)
Pediatric resuscitation masks (one per participant)
Bag-valve-mask (BVM) resuscitators (one per two participants)
Decontamination supplies
TOPIC:
STANDARD PRECAUTIONS
Time: 10 minutes
PRESENTATION: STANDARD PRECAUTIONS
Video Segment
■
Remind participants that they have already discussed disease transmission related to
safety and explain that in this lesson they will learn more about the specific diseases
of concern and how they are transmitted.
■
Show the video segment, “Standard Precautions.”
■
Answer participants’ questions about the segment.
■
Ask participants: What are the diseases that are of primary concern for you
as a lifeguard?
Answers: Responses should include the following:
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|
Hepatitis B
|
Hepatitis C
|
HIV
5
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Removing Disposable Gloves
Skill Practice
Lecture
TOPIC:
■
Provide all participants with disposable non-latex gloves.
■
Explain that participants will have many opportunities to practice glove removal
since they will be following these procedures each time they remove gloves
throughout the remainder of this course.
■
Lead participants through the skill of Removing Disposable Gloves.
■
Observe each participant’s performance of the skill and provide corrective feedback.
■
Facility management should abide by Occupational Safety and Health
Administration (OSHA) requirements regarding job-related exposure to
bloodborne pathogens, which are designed to protect you from disease
transmission.
■
You should participate in annual bloodborne pathogens training to
learn and review the procedures that protect you from exposure at your
worksite.
■
Standard precautions are safety measures that combine universal
precautions and body substance isolation (BSI) precautions by assuming
that all body fluids may be infectious.
■
Standard precautions can be applied through the use of:
|
Personal protective equipment (PPE), such as non-latex disposable
gloves and a resuscitation mask.
|
Good hand hygiene, which includes washing your hands thoroughly
after removing gloves or after any direct or indirect contact with
body fluids.
|
Engineering controls, such as the use of biohazard bags to dispose of
items that may be contaminated with body fluids.
|
Work practice controls, such as using the proper procedure for
removing disposable gloves that protect you from exposure to body
fluids.
|
Proper steps for cleaning equipment that will be re-used following an
incident involving body fluids.
|
Spill clean-up procedures, such as cleaning up blood spills from the
pool deck.
GENERAL PROCEDURES FOR
AN EMERGENCY ON LAND
Time: 5 minutes
PRESENTATION: GENERAL PROCEDURES FOR AN EMERGENCY ON LAND
Lecture
■
If someone is suddenly injured or becomes ill, activate the facility’s
emergency action plan (EAP) for an emergency on land and follow these
general procedures.
|
|
Size up the scene to:
●
Check for hazards that could present a danger to you or the
victim.
●
Determine what caused the injury or the nature of the illness.
●
Determine the number of victims to prioritize care.
●
Determine what additional help may be needed.
●
Put on the appropriate PPE.
Perform a primary assessment to determine life-threatening
conditions.
●
80
Be sure to obtain consent if the victim is conscious.
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|
Summon emergency medical services (EMS), if needed.
|
Perform a secondary assessment if no life-threatening conditions
are found.
|
Provide care for the conditions found.
|
Complete follow-up reports, advise the victim, if warranted, and
release the victim.
Scene Size-Up
Guided
Discussion
■
Tell participants that the first step in the general procedures is the scene size-up. A
scene size-up is the careful and systematic approach of a scene to get a full picture of
the emergency situation.
■
Ask participants: Using your senses, what information can you gather
about the scene of an emergency?
Answers: Responses should include the following:
■
|
Sight: Hazardous conditions, number of victims, number of bystanders
|
Smell: Odors that might suggest chemical release, intoxication, diabetic
emergency or burning objects
|
Hearing: Unusual sounds, cries for help, splashing
Ask participants: Why else is a scene size-up necessary?
Answers: Responses should include the following:
TOPIC:
|
To ensure scene safety for the rescuers, the victims and any bystanders
|
To identify necessary PPE
|
To determine the mechanism of injury or nature of the illness
|
To determine the number of victims
|
To identify what additional help may be required
PERFORMING A PRIMARY
ASSESSMENT
Time: 50 minutes
PRESENTATION: PERFORMING A PRIMARY ASSESSMENT
Lecture
■
A primary assessment is done to identify any life-threatening conditions.
■
The steps for a primary assessment include the following:
LESSON
LGI_SecB_p079-098.indd 81
|
Check the victim for responsiveness.
|
Open the victim’s airway and check for breathing and a pulse.
●
If the victim is alert and speaking, the airway is open.
●
If the victim is unconscious and you do not suspect a head, neck
or spinal injury, use the head-tilt/chin-lift technique to open the
airway. If you suspect a head, neck or spinal injury, use the jawthrust (without head extension) maneuver to open the airway.
●
Agonal gasps, which are irregular, gasping or shallow breaths,
may occur. These gasps are not considered normal breathing. If
you detect agonal gasps, care for the victim as though he or she is
not breathing.
●
Check for a carotid pulse in an adult and a child. Check for a
brachial pulse in an infant.
●
For a child or an infant, give 2 initial ventilations if the victim is
not breathing. For an adult, give 2 initial ventilations only if he or
she is not breathing because of drowning or another respiratory
cause.
|
Scan for severe bleeding.
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|
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■
In general, if a person is unconscious but breathing, leave that person
in a face-up position and maintain an open airway, especially if there
is a suspected spinal injury. However, if you are alone and must leave
the person (e.g., to call for help), or you cannot maintain an open and
clear airway because of fluids or vomit, place the person in a modified
high arm in endangered spine (H.A.IN.E.S.) recovery position. Do this
whether or not a spinal injury is suspected.
Performing a Primary Assessment—Adult
Video Segment
Skill Practice
■
Explain to participants that the video segment demonstrates the procedures used
for a primary assessment for an adult to identify life-threatening conditions. These
procedures also are followed for any victim of a witnessed sudden collapse.
■
Show the video segment, “Primary Assessment—Adult.”
■
Answer participants’ questions about the segment.
■
Ask participants to take their participant’s manual and disposable gloves to the
practice area.
■
Ask participants to find a partner. One person will be the responder while the other
person will be the injured or ill person, then they will switch roles.
■
Guide participants through the steps listed on the Performing a Primary
Assessment—Adult skill chart. Once participants have completed the primary
assessment, have them practice the modified H.A.IN.E.S. recovery position.
Guide them through the steps listed on the Modified H.A.IN.E.S. Recovery Position
skill chart.
■
Observe each participant’s performance of the skill and provide corrective feedback.
■
Be sure to point out any common errors, such as failing to size up the scene, failing
to determine consciousness, failing to follow standard precautions, improperly
opening the airway, checking an inappropriate pulse site or pressing the pulse site
too hard.
Performing a Primary Assessment—Child and Infant
Video Segment
■
Explain to participants that there are some differences in technique in the primary
assessment for children and infants. Remind them that for children and infants
as well as for any victim of a drowning or another respiratory cause, the primary
assessment also includes giving 2 ventilations.
■
Explain that since the skill for this age victim includes giving ventilations, this
segment covers the primary assessment skill as well as how to give ventilations using
a resuscitation mask. It shows how to use the resuscitation mask from different
positions and for different situations.
■
Show the video segment, “Primary Assessment—Child and Infant.”
■
Answer participants’ questions about the segment.
■
Ask participants: What are the differences to be aware of when performing
a primary assessment on a child versus an infant?
Answers: Responses should include the following:
■
|
The position of the head should be slightly past the neutral position for a child
and in the neutral position for an infant.
|
For an infant, feel for the brachial pulse on the inside of the upper arm,
between the elbow and the shoulder.
Ask participants: In what circumstances do you give 2 ventilations when
performing a primary assessment?
Answers: Responses should include the following:
82
|
For a child or infant that is not responsive and not breathing
|
For an adult victim of a drowning or other respiratory cause
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Using a Resuscitation Mask
Skill Practice
■
Ask participants to bring their participant’s manual, disposable gloves and
resuscitation masks to the practice area.
■
Using a manikin, guide participants through the three methods for giving
ventilations using each of the following methods:
|
Head-tilt/chin-lift technique
|
Jaw-thrust (with head extension) maneuver
|
Jaw-thrust (without head extension) maneuver
■
Observe each participant’s performance of the skill and provide corrective feedback.
■
Be sure to point out any common errors, such as improperly opening the airway, not
obtaining a seal with the resuscitation mask, or not making the chest rise and fall.
Primary Assessment—Child or Infant
Skill Practice
■
Using a manikin, guide participants through the steps listed on the Primary
Assessment—Child and Infant skill chart.
■
Once participants have completed the primary assessment, have them practice the
modified H.A.IN.E.S. recovery position. Guide participants through the steps listed
on the Modified H.A.IN.E.S. Recovery Position skill chart.
■
Observe each participant’s performance of the skills and provide corrective feedback.
Summoning EMS Personnel
Lecture
■
■
Summon EMS personnel for any of the following conditions:
|
Unconsciousness or altered level of consciousness (LOC)
|
Breathing problems
|
Chest pain, discomfort or pressure lasting more than a few minutes
or that goes away and comes back or that radiates to the shoulder,
arm, neck, jaw, stomach or back
|
Persistent abdominal pain or pressure
|
No pulse
|
Severe external bleeding (bleeding that spurts or gushes steadily
from a wound)
|
Vomiting blood or passing blood
|
Severe (critical) burns
|
Suspected poisoning
|
Seizures on land, unless the person is known to have periodic
seizures
|
Stroke
|
Painful, swollen, deformed areas or an open fracture
|
Victim’s physical condition is unclear or is worsening
Ask participants: What other conditions that may occur in the aquatic
environment might require summoning EMS personnel?
Answers: Responses should include the following:
LESSON
LGI_SecB_p079-098.indd 83
|
Any victim recovered from underwater who may have inhaled water
|
Seizures in the water
|
Suspected or obvious injuries to the head, neck or spine
5
|
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TOPIC:
MOVING A VICTIM
Time: 5 minutes
PRESENTATION: MOVING A VICTIM
Lecture
■
Moving a victim needlessly or improperly can lead to further pain and
injury.
■
Ask participants: What factors should be considered when deciding
whether or not to move a victim?
Answers: Responses should include the following:
|
You are faced with immediate danger.
|
You need to get to other victims who have more serious injuries or illnesses.
|
It is necessary to provide appropriate care (e.g., moving a victim to the top or
bottom of a flight of stairs to perform CPR).
■
If you must leave a scene to ensure your personal safety, you should
make reasonable attempts to move the victim to safety as well.
■
Ask participants: If the decision is made to move a victim, what factors
should be considered in deciding what method to use?
Answers: Responses should include the following:
TOPIC:
|
The victim’s height and weight
|
Your physical strength
|
Obstacles, such as stairs and narrow passages
|
The distance to be moved
|
Whether others are available to assist
|
The victim’s condition
|
Whether aids to transport are readily available
RECOGNIZING AND CARING FOR
BREATHING EMERGENCIES
Time: 5 minutes
PRESENTATION: RECOGNIZING AND CARING FOR BREATHING EMERGENCIES
Guided
Discussion
■
In a breathing emergency, a person’s breathing can become so impaired
that life is threatened. As a lifeguard, it is important for you to know how
to recognize and care for these emergencies.
■
Hypoxia is a condition in which insufficient oxygen reaches the cells.
■
Ask participants: What are possible causes of hypoxia?
Answers: Responses should include the following:
84
|
Obstructed airway
|
Shock
|
Inadequate breathing
|
Fatal and nonfatal drowning
|
Strangulation
|
Choking
|
Suffocation
|
Cardiac arrest
|
Head trauma
|
Carbon monoxide poisoning
|
Anaphylactic shock
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■
There are two types of breathing (also referred to as respiratory)
emergencies:
|
Respiratory distress is a condition in which breathing becomes
difficult.
|
Respiratory arrest is a condition in which breathing stops.
■
Respiratory distress may lead to respiratory arrest.
■
Ask participants: What signs and symptoms might indicate that a person is
experiencing respiratory distress?
Answers: Responses should include the following:
■
|
Slow or rapid breathing
|
Unusually deep or shallow breathing
|
Shortness of breath or noisy breathing
|
Dizziness, drowsiness or light-headedness
|
Changes in level of consciousness
|
Increased heart rate
|
Chest pain or discomfort
|
Skin that is flushed, pale, ashen or bluish
|
Unusually moist or cool skin
|
Gasping for breath
|
Wheezing, gurgling or high-pitched noises
|
Inability to speak in full sentences
|
Tingling in the hands, feet or lips
|
Apprehensive or fearful feelings
Caring for respiratory distress includes:
|
Maintaining an open airway.
|
Summoning EMS personnel.
|
Helping the victim to rest in a comfortable position that makes
breathing easier.
|
Reassuring and comforting the victim.
|
Assisting the victim with taking any of his or her prescribed
medication.
|
Keeping the victim from getting chilled or overheated.
|
Administering emergency oxygen, if it is available and you are
trained to do so.
■
Someone with asthma or emphysema who is in respiratory distress may
try to do pursed-lip breathing.
■
To assist with this, have the person assume a position of comfort. After
he or she inhales, have the person slowly exhale through the lips, pursed
as though blowing out candles.
■
The use of emergency oxygen can help a conscious person who is in
respiratory distress or may be used for an unconscious victim who is not
breathing. Additional American Red Cross training is available to teach
you how to administer emergency oxygen.
■
Refer participants to Chapter 8, Breathing Emergencies, in the Lifeguarding
Manual. Point out the sidebars on asthma and anaphylaxis. Explain that if they will
be required to administer epinephrine, they may need to undergo additional training
conducted at their facility.
Instructor’s Note: Training information and skill sheets for the administration
of epinephrine and for the administration of inhalers can be found on
redcross.org/instructorscorner.
LESSON
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|
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TOPIC:
GIVING VENTILATIONS
Time: 15 minutes
PRESENTATION: GIVING VENTILATIONS—ADULT, CHILD AND INFANT
Giving Ventilations—Adult
Skill Practice
■
Choose either the practice-while-you-watch or watch-then-practice method for this
skill practice.
■
Observe each participant’s performance of the skill and provide corrective feedback.
■
Be sure to point out any common errors, such as tilting the head too far back, failing
to reassess for breathing and pulse, not leaving the victim in a face-up position with
return of breathing, not obtaining a seal with the resuscitation mask or using an
improperly sized mask for the victim.
Practice-While-You-Watch
|
Ask participants to take their disposable gloves and resuscitation masks to the
practice area.
|
Explain to the participants that, for this skill, they will follow along with and
practice the steps for giving ventilations as they are guided by the video.
|
Show the video segment, “Giving Ventilations—Adult, Child and Infant.”
|
Do not interrupt this skill session to lecture or communicate anything other than
guidance related to skill practice. In general, answering questions should occur
after the video segment (and skill session) has ended.
|
Tell participants that, for this skill, they will watch the video segment without
practicing until you pause it, even though the narration may say to follow along.
|
Show the video segment, “Giving Ventilations—Adult, Child and Infant.”
|
Ask participants to take their disposable gloves and resuscitation masks to the
practice area.
|
Guide participants through the steps of the skill.
Watch-Then-Practice
Giving Ventilations—Child or Infant
Skill Practice
86
Instructor’s Notes: Participants need only demonstrate how to provide ventilations
for either a child or infant and be able to point out the differences for the other, such as
how far to tilt the head or using a pediatric resuscitation mask for a child.
■
Guide participants through the steps of the skill.
■
Observe each participant’s performance of the skill and provide corrective feedback.
■
Point out any common errors for giving ventilations, such as tilting the head too far
back, failing to recheck for breathing and a pulse, giving ventilations that are too
hard or too fast, not properly sealing the resuscitation mask or using an improperly
sized mask for the victim.
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TOPIC:
GIVING VENTILATIONS USING
A BAG-VALVE-MASK
RESUSCITATOR
Time: 15 minutes
PRESENTATION: GIVING VENTILATIONS USING A BVM—TWO RESCUERS
Activity
Video Segment
■
Briefly show participants a BVM and point out the three parts—bag, valve and
mask— demonstrating how squeezing the bag opens the one-way valve, forcing air
into the lungs, and how releasing the bag closes the valve, allowing environmental air
to refill it.
■
Emphasize the need for two rescuers: one to position and seal the mask and one to
squeeze the bag.
■
Explain to participants that the video segment demonstrates how to use a BVM.
■
Show the video segment, “Using a Bag-Valve-Mask Resuscitator—Two Rescuers.”
■
Answer participants’ questions about the segment.
Giving Ventilations Using a Bag-Valve-Mask Resuscitator—Two Rescuers
Skill Practice
TOPIC:
■
Divide participants into pairs and guide them through the steps listed on the Giving
Ventilations Using a Bag-Valve-Mask Resuscitator—Two Rescuers skill chart.
■
Guide participants through the steps of the skill.
■
Observe each participant’s performance of the skill and provide corrective feedback.
■
Point out any common errors for giving ventilations using a BVM, such as not
maintaining a seal with the resuscitation mask, not squeezing the bag hard enough or
squeezing the bag too hard.
AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION
Time: 30 minutes
PRESENTATION: AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION
Conscious Choking—Adult and Child
Video Segment
Lecture
Skill Practice
■
Explain to participants that the video segment will demonstrate how to care for a
conscious choking adult or child.
■
Show the video segment, “Conscious Choking—Adult and Child.”
■
Answer participants’ questions about the segment.
■
The most common cause of respiratory emergencies is airway
obstruction.
■
Mechanical obstructions result from a foreign body lodged in the airway,
generally food or other small objects.
■
Anatomical obstructions are caused mostly by the tongue. When a
person becomes unconscious, the tongue loses muscle tone and falls
back, blocking the airway.
■
The universal sign for choking in a conscious person is clutching the
throat.
■
Encourage coughing as long as the person can cough forcefully.
■
If the person cannot cough, speak, cry or breathe, immediate action is
needed.
■
Divide participants into two lines facing the same direction or have them partner and
arrange each pair so you can see all groups. Designate victims and lifeguards.
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12/13/11 3:18 PM
■
Instruct participants not to give actual back blows or abdominal thrusts to their
partners.
■
Guide them through the steps listed on the Conscious Choking—Adult and Child skill
chart.
■
Have participants change roles and repeat the guided skill practice.
■
Observe each participant’s performance of the skill and provide corrective feedback.
■
Point out any common errors, such as failing to obtain the victim’s consent,
performing abdominal thrusts before back blows, positioning the hands improperly
or not using the thumb side of the fist to give abdominal thrusts.
■
Participants only need to demonstrate how to care for either a conscious choking
adult or a child and be able to point out the differences for the other, such as kneeling
if the victim is shorter.
■
Remind participants that if a conscious choking victim is too large to reach around
or if the victim is obviously pregnant or known to be pregnant, back blows and chest
thrusts are used.
Conscious Choking—Infant
Video Segment
Skill Practice
■
Explain that the video segment will demonstrate how to care for a conscious choking
infant.
■
Show the video segment, “Conscious Choking—Infant.”
■
Answer participants’ questions about the segment.
■
Ask participants to return to the practice area.
■
Divide participants into pairs and guide them through the steps listed on the
Conscious Choking—Infant skill chart.
■
Have each participant practice clearing the airway of a conscious choking infant on a
manikin while the other participants use their skill sheets to give feedback.
■
Follow the same steps as in the previous skill session:
|
Have participants practice the skill.
|
Observe each participant’s performance of the skill and provide
corrective feedback.
|
Point out any errors, such as not keeping the infant’s head lower than the chest,
not supporting the head and neck securely when turning the infant, not placing
the fingers correctly for chest thrusts or the hand for back blows.
Unconscious Choking—Adult and Child
Lecture
Video Segment
Skill Practice
88
■
A drowning victim may likely present a complication with an obstructed
airway.
■
If there is a white or pink froth in and around the victim’s mouth, wipe it
away and proceed with care.
■
If there is vomit or heavy mucus, use chest compressions to try to clear
the obstruction.
■
More advanced skills, such as suctioning and the use of airway adjuncts,
may help to clear an obstructed airway. These methods require
additional training.
■
Explain that the video segment demonstrates how to clear an obstruction from the
airway for an unconscious choking adult, child and infant
■
Show the video segment, “Unconscious Choking—Adult, Child and Infant.”
■
Answer participants’ questions about the segment.
■
Ask participants to take their disposable gloves and resuscitation masks to the
practice area.
■
Divide participants into pairs and guide them through the steps listed on the
Unconscious Choking—Adult and Child skill chart.
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■
Have each participant practice clearing the airway of an unconscious choking
adult or child on a manikin while the other participants use their skill sheets to
give feedback.
■
Observe each participant’s performance of the skill and provide corrective feedback.
■
Point out any common errors, such as using abdominal thrusts instead of chest
thrusts, failing to check the mouth for an object, compressing too little or too much,
failing to give ventilations or using the wrong finger to clear the object from
the mouth.
■
Participants only need to demonstrate care for an airway obstruction for either an
unconscious adult or child and be able to point out the differences, such as how far to
tilt the head and how deep to compress the chest.
Unconscious Choking—Infant
Skill Practice
■
Guide participants through the steps listed on the Unconscious Choking—Infant
skill chart.
■
Follow the same steps as in the previous skill session:
|
Have participants practice the skill.
|
Observe each participant’s performance of the skill and provide
corrective feedback.
|
Point out any common errors for caring for an unconscious choking infant, such
as not keeping the infant’s head lower than the chest, not supporting the head
and neck securely when turning the infant, not placing the fingers correctly for
chest thrusts or the hand for back blows, or failing to give ventilations.
IN-WATER SKILL SESSION: PUTTING IT
ALL TOGETHER
Time: 30 minutes
PRESENTATION: NEXT STEPS
Skill Drill
■
Assemble the participants on the pool deck and explain they will be practicing team
rescues for a submerged passive victim in deep water, removing the victim from the
water on a backboard, doing a primary assessment and caring for a victim who is not
breathing but has a pulse.
SHALLOW WATER LIFEGUARDING
■
For the Shallow Water Lifeguarding course, participants will practice rescuing a
submerged passive victim in shallow water.
■
Divide the participants into groups of three and assign one rescuing lifeguard, one
assisting lifeguard and one victim for each group. Have each lifeguard wear a hip
pack containing gloves and a resuscitation mask.
■
Have a manikin available to substitute into the drill once the primary assessment is
complete.
■
Explain that for each group:
LESSON
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The rescuing lifeguard will simulate activating the EAP and enter the water.
|
The victim will get into position and submerge as the rescuing lifeguard gets
near. The rescuing lifeguard will perform a submerged passive victim rescue.
|
The assisting lifeguard will bring the backboard and assist the rescuing lifeguard
in removing the victim from the water, demonstrating team communication
skills between the lifeguards.
|
Once removed from the water, the lifeguards should do a primary assessment on
the victim (simulating breaths) and then provide care for a victim who is not
breathing but has a pulse on the manikin. The lifeguards should give ventilations
using a BVM.
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|
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■
Repeat the drill until each person in the group has performed as a rescuing lifeguard
and an assisting lifeguard.
■
Read Chapter 9, Cardiac Emergencies, in the Lifeguarding Manual before the next
class session.
ASSIGNMENT
SKILL CHARTS AND ASSESSMENT TOOLS
In addition to performing the steps listed in the skill chart in the correct order, participants must meet the criteria
listed at the proficient level to be checked off for this skill. Assessment criteria that are general for the category of
skills, as well as specific to the skill, must be met.
REMOVING DISPOSABLE GLOVES
SKILL CHART: REMOVING DISPOSABLE GLOVES
1.
2.
3.
4.
Pinch the glove.
|
Pinch the palm side of one glove near your wrist.
|
Carefully pull the glove off so that it is inside out.
Slip two fingers under the glove.
|
Hold the glove in the palm of your gloved hand.
|
Slip two fingers under the glove at the wrist of the remaining gloved hand.
Pull the glove off.
|
Pull the glove until it comes off, inside out.
|
The first glove should end up inside the glove you just removed.
Dispose of gloves and wash hands.
|
Dispose of gloves and other PPE in a proper biohazard container.
|
Wash your hands thoroughly with soap and running water, if available. Otherwise, rub hands thoroughly
with an alcohol-based sanitizer if hands are not visibly soiled.
SKILL ASSESSMENT TOOL: REMOVING DISOSABLE GLOVES
Criteria
Proficient
Not Proficient
Removes gloves
Bare skin does not come into contact
with outside surface of gloves
Bare skin comes into contact with
outside surface of glove(s)
PRIMARY ASSESSMENT
SKILL CHART: PRIMARY ASSESSMENT—ADULT
Size up the scene for safety and then:
1.
Check for responsiveness.
|
Tap the shoulder and ask, “Are you okay?”
2.
If no response, summon EMS personnel.
3.
Open the airway and quickly check for breathing and a pulse for no more than 10 seconds.
|
|
90
If the victim is face-down, roll the victim onto his or her back while supporting the head, neck and back.
To open the airway:
●
From the side, use the head-tilt/chin-lift technique.
●
From above the victim’s head, use the jaw-thrust (with head extension) maneuver.
●
If a head, neck or spinal injury is suspected, use the jaw-thrust (without head extension) maneuver.
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|
Look, listen and feel for breathing.
|
Feel for a carotid pulse by placing two fingers in the middle of the victim’s throat and then sliding them
into the groove at the side of the neck closest to you. Press lightly.
Note: For a breathing emergency (e.g., drowning, hypoxia), give 2 ventilations before scanning for severe
bleeding. If at any time the chest does not rise, the airway might be blocked. Provide care for an unconscious
choking victim.
4.
Quickly scan for severe bleeding.
5.
Provide care as needed.
|
If no breathing or pulse, perform CPR.
|
If no breathing but there is a pulse, give 1 ventilation about every 5 seconds.
|
If there is severe bleeding and the victim is breathing, provide first aid care for the bleeding.
|
If unconscious but breathing, leave the victim in a face-up position. Place in a modified H.A.IN.E.S.
recovery position only if you:
●
Are alone and must leave the victim (e.g., to call for help).
●
Cannot maintain an open and clear airway because of fluids or vomit.
SKILL CHART: PRIMARY ASSESSMENT—CHILD AND INFANT
Size up the scene for safety and then:
1.
Check for responsiveness.
|
For a child, tap the shoulder and shout, “Are you okay?”
|
For an infant, tap the shoulder or flick the underside of the foot and shout.
2.
If no response, summon EMS personnel.
3.
Open the airway and check for breathing and a pulse for no more than 10 seconds.
|
|
If the victim is face-down, roll the victim onto his or her back while supporting the head, neck and back.
To open the airway:
●
From the side, use the head-tilt/chin-lift technique.
●
From above the victim’s head, use the jaw-thrust (with head extension) maneuver.
●
If you suspect a head, neck or spinal injury, use the jaw-thrust (without head extension) maneuver.
|
Look, listen and feel for breathing.
|
Check for a pulse.
●
For a child, feel for a carotid pulse by placing two fingers in the middle of the victim’s throat
and then sliding them into the groove at the side of the neck closest to you. Press in lightly.
●
For an infant, feel for the brachial pulse on the inside of the upper arm between the infant’s elbow
and shoulder. Press lightly.
Note: If you witnessed a child or an infant suddenly collapse, skip Step 4.
4.
If no breathing, give 2 ventilations. Each ventilation should last about 1 second and make the chest clearly rise.
|
The chest should fall before the next ventilation is given.
Note: If at any time the chest does not rise during Step 4, the airway might be blocked. Provide care for an
unconscious choking victim.
5.
Quickly scan for severe bleeding.
6.
Provide care as needed.
|
If no breathing or pulse, perform CPR.
|
If no breathing but there is a pulse, give 1 ventilation about every 3 seconds.
|
If there is severe bleeding and the victim is breathing, provide first aid care for the bleeding.
|
If unconscious but breathing, leave the victim in a face-up position. Place in a modified H.A.IN.E.S
recovery position only if you:
●
Are alone and have to leave the victim (e.g., to call for help).
●
Cannot maintain an open and clear airway because of fluids or vomit.
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SKILL ASSESSMENT TOOL: PRIMARY ASSESSMENT—ADULT, CHILD AND INFANT
Criteria
Proficient
Not Proficient
Open the airway
■
Tilts head back so that jaw line
is at an angle of 80° to 100° to
the floor
■
Tilts head back so that jaw line
is at an angle less than 80° or
greater than 100° to the floor
■
Maintains open airway
throughout primary assessment
■
Does not maintain an open
airway throughout primary
assessment
■
For adult or child, feels for
carotid pulse
■
Feels for pulse in incorrect
location
■
For infant, feels for brachial
pulse
■
Feels for a pulse for less than 5
or more than 10 seconds
■
Feels for a pulse for more than
5, but no more than 10 seconds
■
Gives 2 ventilations that make
the chest clearly rise and last
about 1 second each
■
■
Allows the chest to fall between
ventilations
Gives 2 ventilations that do
not make the chest clearly rise
and last 2 or more seconds
each
■
Does not allow chest to fall
between ventilations
Feel for a pulse
Give ventilations (child or infant, or
in cases of a breathing emergency
[e.g., drowning or hypoxia] in an
adult)
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RECOVERY POSITIONS
SKILL CHART: FACE-UP POSITION
If unconscious but breathing, leave the victim in a face-up position.
SKILL CHART: MODIFIED H.A.IN.E.S. RECOVERY POSITION
1.
2.
Kneel at the victim’s side.
Roll the victim away from you.
|
Reach across the victim’s body, lift up the arm farthest from you and place it next to the head with the
palm facing up.
|
Take the person’s arm closest to you and place it next to his or her side.
|
Grasp the leg farthest from you and bend it up.
|
Using your hand that is closest to the victim’s head, cup the base of the victim’s skull in the palm of your
hand and carefully slide your forearm under the victim’s shoulder closest to you. Do not lift or push the
head or neck.
|
Place your other hand under the arm and hip closest to you.
|
Using a smooth motion, roll the victim away from you by lifting with your hand and forearm. Keep the
victim’s head in contact with his or her extended arm and be sure to support the head and neck with
your hand.
|
Stop all movement when the victim is on his or her side.
3.
Place the top leg on the other so that both knees are in a bent position.
4.
Make sure the arm on top is in line with the upper body.
|
If you must leave the person to get help, place the hand of the upper arm palm side down with the fingers
under the armpit of the extended lower arm.
SKILL CHART: INFANT RECOVERY POSITION (ALTERNATE)
1.
Carefully position the infant face-down along your forearm.
2.
Support the infant’s head and neck with your other hand while keeping the infant’s mouth and nose clear.
SKILL ASSESSMENT TOOL: RECOVERY POSITIONS
Criteria
Proficient
Not Proficient
Victim is breathing, lying face-up
and head is tilted in an open airway
position
Head is not tilted back in an open
airway position
Maintain an open airway
Rolls victim onto side
Victim is vomiting but left lying
face-up
Support head, neck and spine
Rolls victim in a smooth motion
until on his or her side
Lifts or pushes the head or neck
Maintain an open airway
Mouth and nose are clear
Infant’s mouth or nose is blocked
by forearm or hand
Support head and neck
■
Infant face-down along the
rescuer’s forearm
Infant’s head or body is sideways
or dangling from forearm
■
Head and neck supported by
other hand
Face-Up Position
Maintain an open airway
H.A.IN.E.S Recovery Position
Infant (Alternate)
LESSON
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10/13/11 2:24 PM
USING A RESUSCITATION MASK
SKILL CHART: HEAD-TILT/CHIN-LIFT TECHNIQUE
1.
Kneel to the side of the victim’s head.
2.
Position the mask.
3.
|
Place the rim of the mask between the victim’s lower lip and chin.
|
Lower the mask until it covers the victim’s mouth and nose.
Seal the mask.
|
Place the thumb and fingers of one hand around the top of the mask.
|
Place the thumb of your other hand on the bottom of the mask and slide your first two fingers onto the
bony part of the victim’s chin.
|
Press downward on the mask with your top hand and the thumb of your lower hand to seal the top and
bottom of the mask.
4.
Tilt the victim’s head back and lift the chin to open the airway.
5.
Blow into the mask.
|
Each ventilation should last about 1 second and make the chest clearly rise. The chest should fall before
the next ventilation is given.
SKILL CHART: JAW-THRUST (WITH HEAD EXTENSION) MANEUVER
1.
2.
3.
Position the mask.
|
Kneel above the victim’s head.
|
Place the rim of the mask between the lower lip and chin.
|
Lower the resuscitation mask until it covers the victim’s mouth and nose.
To seal the mask and open the airway:
|
Using the elbows for support, place your thumbs and index fingers along each side of the resuscitation
mask to create a “C.”
|
Slide your 3rd, 4th and 5th fingers into position to create an “E” on both sides of the victim’s jawbone.
|
Hold the mask in place while you tilt the head back and lift the jaw into the mask.
Blow into the mask.
|
Each ventilation should last about 1 second and make the chest clearly rise. The chest should fall
before the next ventilation is given.
SKILL CHART: JAW-THRUST (WITHOUT HEAD EXTENSION) MANEUVER
1.
2.
3.
Position the mask.
|
Kneel above the victim’s head.
|
Place the rim of the mask between the lower lip and chin.
|
Lower the resuscitation mask until it covers the victim’s mouth and nose
To seal the mask and open the airway:
|
Place your thumbs and index fingers along each side of the resuscitation mask to create a “C.”
|
Slide your 3rd, 4th and 5th fingers into position to create an “E” on both sides of the victim’s jawbone.
|
Without moving or tilting the head back, lift the lower jaw up with your fingers along the jawbone to seal
the mask to the face.
Blow into the mask.
|
94
Each ventilation should last about 1 second and make the chest clearly rise. The chest should fall
before the next ventilation is given.
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SKILL ASSESSMENT TOOL: USING A RESUSCITATION MASK
Criteria
Proficient
Not Proficient
Open the airway:
■
Head-tilt/chin-lift or jaw
thrust (with head extension)
maneuver
Tilts the head back so that the jaw
line is at an angle of 80° to 100° to
the floor
Tilts head back so that jaw line is
at an angle less than 80° or greater
than 100° to the floor
■
Jaw thrust (without head
extension) maneuver
Lifts the victim’s jaw to open the
airway
Tilts the victim’s head back
Gives ventilations that make the
chest clearly rise and last about 1
second each
■
Ventilations do not make the
chest clearly rise
■
Ventilation lasts 2 or more
seconds
Give ventilations
GIVING VENTILATIONS USING A BAG-VALVE-MASK RESUSCITATOR
SKILL CHART: GIVING VENTILATIONS USING A BAG-VALVE-MASK
RESUSCITATOR—TWO RESCUERS
1.
Rescuer 1 kneels behind the victim’s head and positions the mask over the victim’s mouth and nose.
2.
Rescuer 1 seals the mask.
3.
4.
5.
Rescuer 1 opens the airway using the jaw-thrust (with head extension) maneuver.
|
Using the elbows for support, place your thumbs and index fingers along each side of the resuscitation
mask to create a “C.”
|
Slide your 3rd, 4th and 5th fingers into position to create an “E” on both sides of the victim’s jawbone.
|
Hold the mask in place while you tilt the head back and lift the jaw into the mask.
Rescuer 2 gives ventilations.
|
Squeeze the bag slowly with both hands.
|
For an adult, give 1 ventilation about every 5 seconds.
|
For a child or infant, give 1 ventilation about every 3 seconds.
|
Each ventilation should last about 1 second and make the chest clearly rise. The chest should fall before
the next breath is given.
Rescuer 2 rechecks for breathing and a pulse about every 2 minutes.
|
Remove the mask and look, listen and feel for breathing and a pulse for no more than 10 seconds.
SKILL ASSESSMENT TOOL: GIVING VENTILATIONS USING A BVM—TWO
RESCUERS
Criteria
Proficient
Not Proficient
Open airway
Performs a jaw-thrust (with head
extension) maneuver
■
Tilts the head from the side
■
Unable to open the airway
Squeezes the bag to give ventilations
that make the chest clearly rise
Victim’s chest does not rise
Deliver the appropriate volume of
air with each ventilation
LESSON
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11/2/11 9:32 AM
Give ventilations at the correct ratio
for the victim
Adult ratio: Squeezes the bag to give
1 ventilation about every 5 seconds
Child or Infant ratio: Squeezes the
bag to give 1 ventilation about every
3 seconds
■
■
Gives ventilations too slow or
too fast:
|
Less than 1 ventilation
every 3 seconds
|
Greater than 1 ventilation
every 7 seconds
Gives ventilations too slow or
too fast:
|
Less than 1 ventilation
every second
|
Greater than 1 ventilation
every 5 seconds
AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION
SKILL CHART: CONSCIOUS CHOKING—ADULT AND CHILD
If the victim cannot cough, speak or breathe:
1.
2.
Give 5 back blows.
|
Position yourself slightly behind the victim.
|
Place one arm diagonally across the victim’s chest and bend the victim forward at the waist. The victim’s
upper airway should be at least parallel to the ground.
|
Firmly strike the victim between the shoulder blades with the heel of your hand.
|
Each thrust should be a distinct attempt to dislodge the object.
Give 5 abdominal thrusts.
|
Stand behind the victim.
|
For a child, stand or kneel behind the child, depending on the child’s size. Use less force on a child than
you would on an adult.
|
Place the thumb side of your fist against the middle of the abdomen, just above the navel.
|
Grab your fist and give quick, upward thrusts.
|
Each thrust should be a distinct attempt to dislodge the object.
SKILL CHART: CONSCIOUS CHOKING—INFANT
If the victim cannot cough, speak or breathe:
1. Carefully position the infant face-down along your forearm.
|
2.
|
Lower the infant onto your thigh, keeping the infant’s head lower than his or her chest.
Give 5 back blows.
|
3.
Support the infant’s head and neck with your hand.
Give back blows with the heel of your hand between the infant’s shoulder blades.
|
Each back blow should be a distinct attempt to dislodge the object.
Position the infant face-up along your forearm.
|
Position the infant between both of your forearms, supporting the infant’s head and neck.
|
Turn the infant face-up.
Lower the infant onto your thigh with the infant’s head lower than his or her chest.
Give 5 chest thrusts.
|
4.
96
|
Put two or three fingers on the center of the chest just below the nipple line and compress the chest about
1½ inches.
|
Each chest thrust should be a distinct attempt to dislodge the object.
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SKILL ASSESSMENT TOOL: CONSCIOUS CHOKING—ADULT OR CHILD
Criteria
Proficient
Not Proficient
Bend the person forward at the
waist for back blows
Positions person with upper
airway (person’s head and neck)
parallel to the ground or angled
slightly downward
Positions person with upper
airway (person’s head and neck)
angled upward
Give 5 back blows
■
Strikes the back with heel of one
hand
■
Strikes the back with closed
hand
■
Strikes the center of the back
between shoulder blades
■
Strikes the back with palm
■
■
Each back blow is a separate
and distinct attempt to dislodge
the object
Strikes the back more than 2
inches from the center of both
shoulder blades
■
Each back blow is not a
separate and distinct attempt
to dislodge the object
Give 5 abdominal thrusts
■
Places fist within 2 inches of
navel
■
Places fist more than 2 inches
from navel
■
Places fist 1 inch or more away
from lower tip of breastbone
■
■
Each abdominal thrust is a
separate and distinct attempt to
dislodge the object
Places fist less than 1
inch from the lower tip of
breastbone (too close to
breastbone)
■
Each abdominal thrust is not a
separate and distinct attempt
to dislodge the object
SKILL ASSESSMENT TOOL: CONSCIOUS CHOKING—INFANT
Criteria
Proficient
Not Proficient
Keep the head lower than the chest
Positions infant with upper airway
(infant’s head and neck) angled
downward, lower than chest
Positions infant with upper airway
(infant’s head and neck) parallel to
ground or angled upward
Support the head and neck securely
Places thumb and fingers on
infant’s jaw
■
Places thumb on front of
infant’s neck
■
Places fingers on front of
infant’s neck
■
Drops infant
■
Loses control of infant
Maintain firm support
Holds infant securely
Give back blows
■
Strikes the back with the heel of
one hand
■
Strikes the back with a
closed hand
■
Strikes the center of the back
between the shoulder blades
■
Strikes the back with a palm
■
Strikes the back more than 1
inch from the center of both
shoulder blades
Places fingers in line with
the breastbone (not across/
perpendicular to the
breastbone)
■
Places fingers perpendicular to
breastbone
■
Places fingers outside center
of chest
Places fingers in center of chest
not more than 1 inch below
nipple line
■
Places fingers more than 1
inch below nipple line
■
Places fingers more than 1
inch above nipple line
■
Give chest thrusts
■
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UNCONSCIOUS CHOKING
SKILL CHART: UNCONSCIOUS CHOKING
If at any time the chest does not rise:
1.
Re-tilt the head and give another ventilation.
2.
If the chest still does not clearly rise, give 30 chest compressions.
|
Place the heel of one hand on the center of the chest.
|
Place the other hand on top of the first hand and compress the chest 30 times.
|
For an adult, compress the chest at least 2 inches.
|
For a child, compress the chest about 2 inches.
|
Compress at a rate of about 100 compressions per minute.
3.
Look for an object inside the mouth.
4.
If you see an object, remove it.
|
|
5.
Grasp the tongue and lower jaw between your thumb and fingers and lift the jaw.
Slide your finger along the inside of the victim’s cheek using a hooking motion to sweep the object out.
Give 2 ventilations.
|
Replace the resuscitation mask and give 2 ventilations.
SKILL ASSESSMENT TOOL: UNCONSCIOUS CHOKING—ADULT, CHILD AND
INFANT
Criteria
Proficient
Not Proficient
Responds to the chest not rising
Re-tilts the head and attempts
another ventilation
■
Does not re-tilt the head
■
Continues to attempt
ventilations without the chest
rising
Compress the chest
Compresses the chest 30 times
Does not compress the chest
Look inside the mouth and remove
an object if seen
Grasps the tongue and lower jaw
between the thumb and fingers and
lifts the jaw.
■
Does not open mouth
■
Does not look in mouth
■
Does not remove an object
After compressions or removing an
object, re-attempts 2 ventilations
that make the chest clearly rise and
that last about 1 second each
Does not attempt ventilations that
make the chest clearly rise and
lasts 2 seconds or more
Re-attempt 2 ventilations
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LESSON
6
CARDIAC EMERGENCIES AND USING AN
AUTOMATED EXTERNAL DEFIBRILLATOR
¡
Session Length: 2 hours, 30 minutes
LESSON OBJECTIVES
After completing this lesson, participants will be able to:
Identify the four links in the Cardiac Chain of Survival and identify the importance of each.
■
Recognize the signs of a heart attack.
■
Identify the steps for caring for a victim of a heart attack.
■
Identify signs and symptoms of cardiac arrest.
■
Demonstrate how to safely and effectively perform one-rescuer CPR and two-rescuer CPR.
■
Demonstrate how to use an automated external defibrillator (AED).
■
Identify precautions for using an AED.
■
ADDITIONAL MATERIALS, EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLIES
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
Activity Worksheet 6.1—Using an AED in Unique Situations—Fact or Fiction
Manikins (one adult and one infant manikin per two participants, child manikins optional)
Pediatric resuscitation masks (one per participant)
Decontamination supplies
Automated external defibrillator (AED) training devices (one per two participants)
AED training pads (one set of adult and one set of pediatric training pads per two participants)
Stopwatch or pace clock
Additional items for scenarios:
{ Two hip packs
{ Adult and pediatric bag-valve-mask (BVM) resuscitators
TOPIC:
RECOGNIZING AND CARING
FOR A HEART ATTACK
Time: 15 minutes
PRESENTATION: RECOGNIZING AND CARING FOR A HEART ATTACK
Video Segment
Lecture
and Guided
Discussion
■
Explain to participants that the video segment will provide important information to
help them recognize and provide care for a victim experiencing a heart attack.
■
Show the video segment, “Heart Attack and the Cardiac Chain of Survival.”
■
Answer participants’ questions about the segment.
■
Present the following scenario: A patron walking on the pool deck suddenly
collapses.
■
Ask participants: What four links in the Cardiac Chain of Survival are
necessary to improve this victim’s chance for survival?
Answers: Responses should include the following:
|
Early recognition and early access to the emergency medical services (EMS)
system
|
Early cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)
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|
Early defibrillation
|
Early advanced medical care
■
Present the following scenario: You are on duty at a first aid station when an
adult male patron comes to you for help. He is sweating profusely and is
having trouble breathing. He is complaining of pain in his chest and arm
that comes and goes.
■
Ask participants: What condition does he appear to be experiencing?
Answer: Heart attack
■
Ask participants: What care should you provide for a victim possibly having
a heart attack?
Answers: Responses should include the following:
TOPIC:
|
Take immediate action and summon EMS personnel.
|
Have the victim stop any activity and rest in a comfortable position.
|
Loosen any tight or uncomfortable clothing on the victim.
|
Closely monitor the victim until EMS personnel take over, noting any changes
in appearance or behavior.
|
Comfort the victim.
|
Assist the victim with prescribed medication, such as nitroglycerin, and
administer emergency oxygen, if available and trained to do so.
|
Be prepared to perform CPR and use an AED.
|
Ask questions to get information that relates to the victim’s condition, such as
what happened, whether he has any medical conditions or is taking any
medications or when was the last time he had anything to eat or drink.
■
Aspirin can help the victim of a heart attack if taken soon after the
symptoms begin.
■
If your facility allows you to dispense aspirin, you will need to follow
procedures to assess if a victim of a heart attack should be given aspirin.
CARDIAC ARREST
Time: 5 minutes
PRESENTATION: CARDIAC ARREST
Lecture
and Guided
Discussion
■
Cardiac arrest is a life-threatening situation in which the heart stops
beating or beats too irregularly or too weakly to circulate blood
effectively.
■
Heart attack, electrocution, respiratory arrest, drowning or other
conditions may cause cardiac arrest.
■
Signs of cardiac arrest include:
■
|
Sudden collapse.
|
Unconsciousness.
|
Absence of breathing.
|
Absence of a pulse.
Ask participants: What is the difference between a heart attack and cardiac
arrest?
Answers: Responses should include the following:
100
|
A heart attack occurs when the heart muscle experiences a loss of oxygenated
blood.
|
Cardiac arrest occurs when the heart stops beating or the heart is beating too
irregularly or too weakly to circulate blood effectively. The victim is
unconscious, is not breathing and does not have a pulse. A heart attack may
cause cardiac arrest.
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TOPIC:
CPR
Time: 40 minutes
PRESENTATION: CPR
Lecture
and Guided
Discussion
■
CPR is a combination of chest compressions and ventilations to circulate
blood that contains oxygen to the brain and other vital organs of a
person whose heart and breathing have stopped. CPR should be
performed on a firm, flat surface.
■
CPR is used in combination with an AED according to local protocols
until EMS personnel take over.
■
Ask participants: How can you make sure that your chest compressions are
effective?
Answers: Responses should include the following:
■
■
|
Placing the victim on a firm, flat surface
|
Correctly positioning the hands
|
Compressing the chest in a straight-down manner to the proper depth
|
Performing compressions at the proper rate
|
Making sure the chest recoils fully between each compression
|
Minimizing interruptions in CPR
Once started, do not stop CPR except in one of these situations:
|
You notice an obvious sign of life, such as breathing.
|
An AED is available and ready to use.
|
Another trained responder takes over.
|
EMS personnel take over.
|
You are too exhausted to continue.
|
The scene becomes unsafe.
Ask participants: What should you do if, at any time, you notice breathing?
Answer: Stop CPR and continue to monitor the victim’s condition. Be prepared to
resume care if necessary.
■
Even with the best of preparation and effort, complications can arise,
including broken ribs, separation of cartilage, vomiting, frothing at the
mouth and chaos at the scene. Despite your best efforts to provide
quality care, not all victims of cardiac arrest survive.
■
Even so, you can and should continue to provide care.
CPR—Adult and Child
Skill Practice
■
Choose either the practice-while-you-watch or watch-then-practice method for this
skill practice.
■
Participants need only demonstrate adult CPR and be able to point out how one
differs from performing CPR on a child, such as compressing the chest to a depth less
than that for an adult.
■
Observe each participant’s performance of the skill and provide corrective feedback.
■
Be sure to point out any common errors, such as compressions that are too shallow
or too deep, interrupting compressions for too long or too frequently, incorrect hand
position, failure to allow full recoil after each compression or inappropriate rate
(speed) of compressions.
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Practice-While-You-Watch
|
Ask participants to take their disposable gloves and resuscitation masks to the
practice area.
|
Explain to the participants that, for this skill, they will follow along with and
practice the steps for performing CPR as they are guided by the video segment.
|
Show the video segment, “CPR—Adult and Child.”
|
Do not interrupt this skill session to lecture or communicate anything other than
guidance related to skill practice. In general, answering questions should occur
after the video segment (and skill session) has ended.
|
Tell participants that, for this segment, they will watch the video segment
without practicing until you pause it, even though the narration may say to
follow along.
|
Show the video segment, “CPR—Adult and Child.”
|
Ask participants to take their disposable gloves and resuscitation masks to the
practice area.
|
Guide participants through the steps of the skill and evaluate completion of the
skill using the skill chart.
Watch-Then-Practice
CPR—Infant
Video Segment
Skill Practice
TOPIC:
■
If using the Practice-While-You-Watch method, move to the skill practice and show
the video segment as you conduct the skill practice.
■
Explain to participants that the video segment will demonstrate the procedures for
one-rescuer CPR for an infant.
■
Show the video segment, “CPR—Infant.”
■
Answer participants’ questions about the video segment.
■
Follow the same steps as in the previous skill practice:
|
Have participants practice the skill.
|
Observe and evaluate each participant’s performance of the skill.
|
Point out any common errors, such as compressions that are too shallow or too
deep, interrupting compressions for too long or too frequently, incorrect hand
position and failure to allow full recoil after each compression or inappropriate
rate (speed) of compressions.
TWO-RESCUER CPR
Time: 15 minutes
PRESENTATION: TWO-RESCUER CPR
Two-Rescuer CPR—Adult and Child
Lecture
102
■
Two-rescuer CPR is used when two rescuers arrive on the scene at
the same time or when one rescuer arrives on the scene when CPR is
in progress.
■
In two-rescuer CPR, one rescuer gives ventilations while the other
performs chest compressions.
■
Rescuers switch positions about every 2 minutes.
■
When CPR is in progress by one rescuer and a second rescuer arrives,
the second rescuer should confirm whether EMS personnel have been
summoned. If not, the second rescuer does so before getting the AED or
assisting with care.
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Video Segment
Skill Practice
■
Explain to participants that the video segment will demonstrate the procedures for
Two-Rescuer CPR for an adult or child.
■
Show the video segment, “Two-Rescuer CPR—Adult and Child.”
■
Answer participants’ questions about the video segment.
■
Pair up participants and, using a manikin and a resuscitation mask, conduct the
skill practice.
■
Participants only need to demonstrate either adult two-rescuer CPR or child tworescuer CPR and be able to point out how one differs from the other, such as depth of
compressions and ratio of compressions to ventilations.
■
Guide participants through the steps of the skill.
■
Observe and evaluate each participant’s performance of the skill.
■
Point out any common errors, such as compressions that are too shallow or at an
inappropriate rate, compressing and ventilating at the same time, failing to call for a
position change or using an incorrect cycle of compressions and ventilations.
Two Rescuer CPR—Infant
Video Segment
Skill Practice
TOPIC:
■
Explain to participants that the video segment will demonstrate the procedures for
Two-Rescuer CPR for an infant.
■
Show the video segment, “Two-Rescuer CPR—Infant.”
■
Answer participants’ questions about the video segment.
■
Pair up participants and, using a manikin and a resuscitation mask, conduct the skill
practice.
■
Guide participants through the steps of the skill.
■
Observe and evaluate each participant’s performance of the skill.
■
Point out any common errors, such as compressions that are too shallow or at an
inappropriate rate, compressing and ventilating at the same time, failing to call for a
position change or using an incorrect cycle of compressions and ventilations.
WHEN THE HEART STOPS
AND AEDs
Time: 5 minutes
PRESENTATION: WHEN THE HEART STOPS AND AEDS
Lecture
■
Any damage to the heart muscle from disease or injury can disrupt the
heart’s electrical system.
■
The two most common treatable abnormal rhythms associated with
sudden cardiac arrest are ventricular fibrillation (V-fib) and ventricular
tachycardia (V-tach).
■
With V-fib, the ventricles quiver without any organized rhythm, the
electrical impulses fire at random, creating chaos, and the heart is
unable to pump and circulate blood.
■
V-tach occurs when an abnormal electrical impulse originates in the
ventricles instead of at the sinoatrial (SA) node. The impulse fires
rapidly, preventing the chambers from filling, and the heart is not able to
pump effectively.
■
AEDs are portable electronic devices that analyze the heart’s rhythm and
provide an electrical shock.
■
Defibrillation is the delivery of an electrical shock that may help
re-establish an effective rhythm.
■
Each minute that CPR and defibrillation are delayed, the victim’s chance
for survival is reduced by about 10 percent.
LESSON
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TOPIC:
USING AN AED
Time: 15 minutes
PRESENTATION: USING AN AED
Lecture Points
Video Segment
Skill Practice
■
When cardiac arrest occurs, use an AED as soon as it is ready to use.
■
If the AED advises that a shock is needed, follow protocols to provide
1 shock followed by about 2 minutes of CPR.
■
If CPR is in progress, do not interrupt chest compressions until the AED
is turned on, the AED pads are applied and the AED is ready to analyze
the heart rhythm.
■
AEDs may be equipped with pediatric AED pads; however, pediatric pads
are appropriate only for use on infants and children up to 8 years of age
or weighing less than 55 pounds.
|
If pediatric-specific equipment is not available and local protocols
allow, you can use an AED designed for adults.
|
If the AED pads risk touching each other because of the smaller chest
size, use the anterior (front)/posterior (back) method of pad
placement.
■
Explain to participants that the video segment will demonstrate the procedures for
using an AED.
■
Show the video segment, “Using an AED.”
■
Answer participants’ questions about the segment.
■
Using manikins, resuscitation masks and training AEDs with the appropriately sized
AED training pads, have participants work in pairs with their Using an AED skill
sheets to lead each other as they practice the skill.
■
Participants only need to demonstrate how to use an AED on either an adult, a child
or an infant and be able to point out the differences in the use of an AED for the
other two age groups.
■
Observe each participant’s performance of the skill and provide corrective feedback.
■
Be sure to point out any common errors, such as not wiping the victim’s chest, using
pediatric AED pads on an adult or failing to resume CPR after delivery of a shock.
Using an AED—CPR in Progress
Lecture Points
Video
■
When one rescuer is on the scene, that rescuer begins CPR and instructs
someone to summon EMS personnel and obtain the AED, if one is
available.
■
When the second rescuer arrives, that rescuer prepares the AED for use
while the first rescuer continues CPR.
■
If at any time either rescuer notices an obvious sign of life, such as
breathing, he or she should stop CPR and monitor the victim’s condition
and administer emergency oxygen, if it is available and you are trained
to do so.
■
Show the video segment, “Using an AED—CPR in Progress.”
Answer participants’ questions about the segment.
■
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TOPIC:
AED PRECAUTIONS AND AED
MAINTENANCE
Time: 10 minutes
PRESENTATION: AED PRECAUTIONS AND AED MAINTENANCE
Lecture
and Guided
Discussion
■
Ask participants: What are the general precautions to take when using an
AED?
Answer: Responses should include the following:
■
|
Do not use alcohol to wipe the victim’s chest dry.
|
Do not use an AED and/or pads designed for adults on an infant or child
younger than 8 years of age or weighing less than 55 pounds, unless pediatric
pads specific to the device are not available.
|
Do not use pediatric AED pads on an adult older than 8 years of age or
weighing more than 55 pounds.
|
Do not touch the victim while the AED is analyzing.
|
Before shocking a victim with an AED, make sure that no one is touching or is
in contact with the victim or any resuscitation equipment.
|
Do not touch the victim while the device is defibrillating.
|
Do not administer defibrillation to someone when around flammable or
combustible materials.
|
Do not use an AED in a moving vehicle.
|
Do not use an AED on a victim who is in contact with water.
|
Do not use an AED on a victim wearing a nitroglycerin patch or other patch on
the chest.
|
Do not use a mobile phone or radio within 6 feet of an AED.
Ask participants: What precautions would you take when using an AED
around water?
Answers: Responses should include the following:
Activity
|
Remove the victim from freestanding water.
|
Make sure there are no puddles of water around the rescuer, victim and AED.
|
Remove the victim’s wet clothing.
|
Dry the victim’s chest.
|
Keep the victim as dry as possible.
|
Shelter the victim from the rain (if raining).
■
AEDs require minimal maintenance; however, responders should be
familiar with the various visual and audible prompts to warn of
malfunction or low battery.
■
Read the operator’s manual thoroughly.
■
Periodically check equipment; have a fully charged backup battery and
properly sealed, unexpired and correct AED pads available; replace all
used accessories; and make sure the machine is in proper working order
before placing it back in service.
■
Divide the participants into small groups and provide each group with Activity
Worksheet 6.1—Using an AED in Unique Situations—Fact or Fiction.
■
Refer participants to Chapter 9, Cardiac Emergencies, for information to help them
with this activity. Circulate among the groups to monitor progress and provide
assistance when necessary.
■
Instruct groups to indicate if each statement is fact or fiction and provide a rationale
for their answer along with any other important information regarding the
statement.
■
Allow up to 5 minutes for the group work. Re-assemble the class and call on group
leaders to share their answer to the questions; offer corrections when needed.
LESSON
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Activity Worksheet 6.1—Using an AED in Unique Situations—
Fact or Fiction
Answers: Responses should include the following:
Fact
Fiction
1.
It is safe to use an AED in rain or snow.
It is safe to use AEDs in all weather conditions. However, if possible, move the victim
to a shelter to protect him or her from rain or snow.
Fact
Fiction
■
If the victim is lying in water, move him or her to a relatively dry area. Be sure
there are no puddles of water around you, the victim or the AED.
■
Remove the victim’s wet clothing and wipe the chest dry before placing the AED
pads.
■
Do not delay defibrillation when taking steps to provide for a dry environment.
■
Check the manufacturer’s instructions for specific information about the AED you
will be using.
2. An AED cannot be used on a pregnant woman.
Defibrillation shocks transfer no significant electrical current to the fetus. Local
protocols and medical direction should be followed.
Fact
Fiction
3. If someone has chest hair, you should shave it before using the AED.
Because the time to delivery of the first shock is critical, and chest hair rarely interferes
with pad adhesion, press firmly on the pads to attach them to the victim’s chest. If you
get the “Check pads” message, remove the first set of AED pads, shave the victim’s chest
and attach new pads to the victim’s chest.
Fact
Fiction
4. If a victim has a body piercing or is wearing jewelry, you should remove
the item before using an AED.
Jewelry and body piercings do not need to be removed when you use an AED.
However, do not place the AED pads directly over metallic jewelry or body piercings.
Fact
Fiction
5. Never shock someone who has an implantable cardioverterdefibrillator (ICD) or pacemaker device.
If the implanted device is visible, or you know that the victim has one, do not place the
AED pads directly over the device.
Fact
Fiction
6. If you see a transdermal medication patch you should use a gloved hand
to remove it.
Avoid wasting time trying to identify patches. Since you might absorb nitroglycerin or
other medications, remove any patch you see on the victim’s chest with a gloved hand.
Fact
Fiction
7.
Never shock a person who is suffering from traumatic injuries.
If a victim is in cardiac arrest resulting from traumatic injuries, you may still use
an AED.
Fact
Fiction
8. Never shock a victim on a metal surface.
It is safe to deliver a shock to a victim in cardiac arrest on a metal surface. Care should
be taken that AED pads do not contact the conductive (metal) surface and that no one
is touching the victim when the shock button is pushed.
Fact
Fiction
9. Never shock a victim suffering from hypothermia.
During your primary assessment of a victim suffering from hypothermia, you may
have to check for breathing and a pulse for up to 30 to 45 seconds. If the victim is not
breathing and does not have a pulse, begin CPR until an AED becomes available,
according to local protocols.
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PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER:
MULTIPLE-RESCUER RESPONSE
Time: 5 minutes
PRESENTATION: MULTIPLE-RESCUER RESPONSE
Video Segment
■
Explain to participants that the video segment will demonstrate the procedures for a
multiple-rescuer response with CPR in progress.
■
Show the video segment, “Putting It All Together: Multiple-Rescuer Response—CPR
in Progress.”
■
Answer participants’ questions about the segment.
IN-WATER SKILL SESSION:
PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER
Time: 40 minutes
PRESENTATION: NEXT STEPS
Skill Drill—Timed Response
■
Assemble the participants on the deck and explain they will be practicing rescuing a
submerged passive victim in deep water, removing the victim from the water on a
backboard, performing a primary assessment and caring for a victim who is not
breathing and does not have a pulse.
■
Note to instructor: because this person is a drowning victim, lifeguards will have to
give 2 ventilations as part of their primary assessment.
SHALLOW WATER LIFEGUARDING
■
For the Shallow Water Lifeguarding course, participants will practice rescuing a
submerged passive victim in shallow water, removing the victim from the water on a
backboard, performing a primary assessment and caring for a victim who is not
breathing and does not have a pulse.
■
Explain that this is a timed scenario, with 2 minutes allotted for the water rescue and
removal of the victim from the water, followed by 3 minutes of one-rescuer CPR.
■
Divide the participants in groups of three and assign one rescuing lifeguard, one
assisting lifeguard to help with removal from the water, one victim and one manikin
for each group.
■
Explain that for each group:
|
The rescuing lifeguard, wearing a hip pack containing gloves, will simulate
activating the EAP and enter the water. Once the EAP has been activated, the
stopwatch must be started.
|
The victim will get into position about 30 feet from the edge and submerge as the
rescuing lifeguard gets near. The rescuing lifeguard will perform a submerged
passive victim rescue.
|
The assisting lifeguard will bring the backboard and assist the rescuing lifeguard
in removing the victim from the water, demonstrating team communication
skills between the lifeguards.
|
Once removed from the water, the rescuing lifeguard will do a primary
assessment on the victim, then switch to a manikin and provide one-person CPR
for 3 minutes. Once the rescuer begins CPR, the stopwatch must be started.
■
Repeat the drill until each person in the group has performed as a rescuing lifeguard
and an assisting lifeguard at least once.
■
Inform each participant of his or her time and provide feedback for improvement, as
necessary.
LESSON
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Skill Drill—Multiple-Rescuer Response
■
Assemble the participants on the deck and explain that they will now put their
multiple-rescuer response skills into practice.
■
Divide participants into groups of five: four lifeguards and one victim.
■
Conduct the scenarios and ensure that lifeguards provide care according to the Flow
Chart: Example of a Multiple-Rescuer Response in Chapter 9.
■
Have a manikin available to substitute into the scenario once the primary assessment
is complete.
■
Explain that for each group:
|
Four lifeguards will be equipped with hip packs containing their gloves and
resuscitation masks.
|
One victim will get into position and submerge as the rescuing lifeguard
approaches. The rescuing lifeguard will perform a submerged passive victim
rescue.
|
Two assisting lifeguards will assist with removal from the water.
|
Another assisting lifeguard will provide the supplemental equipment (BVM and
AED).
|
Once the victim is removed from the water, the lifeguards should communicate
as a team and perform a primary assessment on the victim (simulating
ventilations) and then provide care for a victim who is not breathing and does
not have a pulse on the manikin.
■
Repeat the drill three times ensuring each person in the group has rotated to
different roles at least once. Be sure to change the situations slightly each time so
that lifeguards are required to practice their decision-making skills each time. For
example, at one time you could state the victim is vomiting; another time, the initial
breaths do not make the chest rise. The intent is for participants to apply what they
are learning through the class; it is not intended to make it complicated or
convoluted.
■
Read Chapter 10, First Aid, and Chapter 11, Caring for Head, Neck and Spinal
Injuries, in the Lifeguarding Manual.
ASSIGNMENT
SKILL CHARTS AND ASSESSMENT TOOLS
In addition to performing the steps listed in the skill chart in the correct order, participants must meet the criteria
listed at the proficient level to be checked off for this skill. Assessment criteria that are general for the category of
skills, as well as specific to the skill, must be met.
ONE-RESCUER CPR
SKILL CHART: ONE-RESCUER CPR—ADULT, CHILD AND INFANT
If the victim is not breathing and has no pulse:
1.
Give 30 chest compressions.
|
|
108
Push hard, push fast.
●
Compress the chest at least 2 inches for an adult, about 2 inches for a child and about 1½ inches for
an infant at a rate of at least 100 per minute.
●
Let the chest rise completely before pushing down again.
For an adult or a child:
●
Place the heel of one hand on the center of the chest with the other hand on top.
●
Keep your arms as straight as possible and shoulders directly over your hands.
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|
For an infant:
●
Place one hand on the infant’s forehead.
●
Place two or three fingers on the center of the chest just below the nipple line (toward the infant’s
feet).
2.
Give 2 ventilations.
3.
Perform cycles of 30 compressions and 2 ventilations.
Do not stop CPR except in one of the following situations:
■
You see an obvious sign of life, such as breathing.
■
An AED is ready to use.
■
Another trained responder takes over.
■
More advanced medical personnel take over.
■
You are too exhausted to continue.
■
The scene becomes unsafe.
SKILL ASSESSMENT TOOL: CPR—ADULT OR CHILD
Criteria
Proficient
Not Proficient
Victim is on a flat, firm surface
If necessary, moves victim to a flat,
firm surface
Attempts CPR on a soft surface
Compresses the chest straight down
at least 2 inches for at least 24 of the
30 compressions
Compresses the chest less than
2 inches for 7 or more times per
30 compressions
Compresses the chest straight down
about 1¾ inches for at least 24 of
the 30 compressions
Compresses the chest less than
1¾ inches for 7 or more times per
30 compressions
Let chest rise completely before
pushing down again
Compresses and fully releases the
chest without pausing or taking
hands off chest for 24 of the
30 compressions
Pauses while compressing or
releasing the chest for 7 or more
times per 30 compressions
Compress chest at a rate of at least
100 times per minute
(30 compressions in about
18 seconds)
Compresses center of the chest
24–36 times in about 18 seconds
Compresses the chest less than 24
or more than 36 times in about
18 seconds
Give ventilations
Gives 2 ventilations that make the
chest clearly rise and that last about
1 second each
Gives 2 ventilations that do not
make the chest clearly rise and
that last 2 or more seconds each
Return to compressions
Gives ventilations and returns
to chest compressions within
3–6 seconds
Gives ventilations and returns to
compressions but takes 7 or more
seconds
ADULT:
Compress chest at least 2 inches
deep for an adult
CHILD:
Compress chest about 2 inches
deep for a child
SKILL ASSESSMENT TOOL: CPR—INFANT
Criteria
Proficient
Not Proficient
Victim is on a flat, firm surface
If necessary, moves victim to a flat,
firm surface
Attempts CPR on a soft surface
Compress chest about 1½ inches
deep for an infant
Compresses the chest straight down
at least 1¼ inches for at least 24 of
the 30 compressions
Compresses the chest less than
1¼ inches for 7 or more times per
30 compressions
Let chest rise completely before
pushing down again
Compresses and releases the chest
without pausing for 24 of the
30 compressions
Pauses while compressing or
releasing the chest for 7 or more
times per 30 compressions
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Compress chest at a rate of at
least 100 times per minute
(30 compressions in about
18 seconds)
Compresses center of the chest
24–36 times in about 18 seconds
Compresses the chest less than 24
or more than 36 times in about
18 seconds
Give ventilations
Gives 2 ventilations that make the
chest clearly rise and that last about
1 second each
Gives 2 ventilations that do not
make the chest clearly rise and
that last 2 or more seconds each
Return to compressions
Gives ventilations and returns to
chest compressions within
3–6 seconds
Gives ventilations and returns to
compressions but takes 7 or
more seconds
TWO-RESCUER CPR
SKILL CHART: TWO-RESCUER CPR—ADULT AND CHILD
If the victim is not breathing and has no pulse:
1.
Rescuer 2 finds the correct hand position to give chest compressions.
|
2.
Place two hands on the center of the chest.
Rescuer 2 gives chest compressions.
|
Push hard, push fast.
●
3.
4.
5.
Rescuer 1 gives 2 ventilations.
Perform about 2 minutes of compressions and ventilations.
|
Adult: Perform cycles of 30 compressions and 2 ventilations.
|
Child: Perform cycles of 15 compressions and 2 ventilations.
Rescuers change positions about every 2 minutes.
|
6.
Compress the chest at least 2 inches for an adult and about 2 inches for a child at a rate of at least
100 per minute.
Rescuer 2 calls for a position change by using the word “change” at the end of the last compression cycle:
●
For an adult, use the word “Change” in place of saying “30.”
●
For a child, use the word “Change” in place of saying “15.”
|
Rescuer 1 gives 2 ventilations.
|
Rescuer 2 quickly moves to the victim’s head with his or her own mask.
|
Rescuer 1 quickly moves into position at the victim’s chest and locates correct hand position on the chest.
|
Changing positions should take less than 5 seconds.
Rescuer 1 begins chest compressions.
|
Continue cycles of compressions and ventilations.
SKILL CHART: TWO-RESCUER CPR—INFANT
If the victim is not breathing and has no pulse:
1.
Rescuer 2 finds the correct hand position to give chest compressions.
|
|
2.
Use the two-thumbs-encircling technique on the infant’s chest.
●
Place thumbs next to each other on the center of the chest just below the nipple line.
●
Place both hands underneath the infant’s back and support the infant’s back with your fingers.
●
Ensure that your hands do not compress or squeeze the side of the ribs.
If available, a towel or padding can be placed under the infant’s shoulders to help maintain the head in
the neutral position.
Rescuer 2 gives chest compressions.
|
Push hard, push fast.
●
110
Compress the chest about 1½ inches for an infant at a rate of at least 100 per minute.
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3.
4.
Rescuer 1 gives 2 ventilations.
Perform about 2 minutes of compressions and ventilations.
|
5.
6.
Perform cycles of 15 compressions and 2 ventilations.
Rescuers change positions about every 2 minutes.
|
Rescuer 2 calls for a position change by using the word “change” in place of saying “15” at the end of the
last compression cycle.
|
Rescuer 1 gives 2 ventilations.
|
Rescuer 2 quickly moves to the victim’s head with his or her own mask.
|
Rescuer 1 quickly moves into position at the victim’s chest and locates correct hand position on the chest.
|
Changing positions should take less than 5 seconds.
Rescuer 1 begins chest compressions.
|
Continue cycles of compressions and ventilations.
Do not stop CPR except in one of the following situations:
■
You see an obvious sign of life, such as breathing.
■
An AED is ready to use.
■
Another trained responder takes over.
■
EMS personnel take over.
■
You are too exhausted to continue.
■
The scene becomes unsafe.
SKILL ASSESSMENT TOOL: TWO-RESCUER CPR—ADULT, CHILD AND INFANT
Criteria
Proficient
Not Proficient
Change positions
Changes positions in 5–7 seconds
Changes positions but takes more
than 7 seconds
Compress the chest and give
ventilations at the appropriate rate
ADULT:
Cycles consist of 30 compressions
and 2 ventilations
ADULT:
Cycles consist of less or more
than 30 compressions and
2 ventilations
CHILD AND INFANT:
Cycles consist of 15 compressions
and 2 ventilations
CHILD AND INFANT:
Cycles consist of less or more than
15 compressions and 2 ventilations
AED
SKILL CHART: USING AN AED
If the victim is not breathing and has no pulse:
1.
Turn on the AED and follow the voice and/or visual prompts.
2.
Wipe the victim’s bare chest dry.
Tip: Remove any medication patches with a gloved hand.
3.
Attach the AED pads to the victim’s bare, dry chest.
|
Place one pad on the victim’s upper right chest and the other pad on the left side of the chest.
●
4.
5.
For a child or an infant: Use pediatric AED pads, if available. If the pads risk touching each other,
place one pad in the middle of the child’s chest and the other pad on the child’s back, between the
shoulder blades.
Plug in the connector, if necessary.
Stand clear.
|
Make sure no one, including you, is touching the victim.
|
Say, “Everyone, stand clear!”
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6.
Analyze the heart rhythm.
7.
Deliver a shock or perform CPR based on the AED recommendation.
|
|
|
Push the “Analyze” button, if necessary. Let the AED analyze the heart rhythm.
If a shock is advised:
●
Make sure no one, including you, is touching the victim.
●
Say, “Everyone, stand clear!”
●
Deliver the shock by pushing the “Shock” button, if necessary.
●
After delivering the shock, perform about 2 minutes of CPR.
●
Continue to follow the prompts of the AED.
If no shock is advised:
●
Perform about 2 minutes of CPR.
●
Continue to follow the prompts of the AED.
SKILL ASSESSMENT TOOL: USING AN AED—ADULT, CHILD OR INFANT
Criteria
Proficient
Not Proficient
Attach AED pads to bare chest
Places one pad on the upper right
chest and one on the left side of the
chest
■
Places one pad on the upper
left chest
■
Places one pad on the lower
right side of the chest
■
Places one or more pads on a
location other than the chest
■
Places pads on the chest, but
pads touch each other
■
Places the center of one pad
more than 2 inches from the
center of the chest
■
Places the center of one pad
more than 2 inches from the
center of both shoulder blades
■
Does not say, “Everyone, stand
clear!”
■
Pushes the “Analyze” button if
necessary, before saying,
“Everyone, stand clear!”
■
Pushes the “Shock” button, if
necessary, before saying,
“Everyone, stand clear!”
Make sure that pads do not touch
(child or infant)
Make sure that no one is touching
the victim
After delivering the shock, or if no
shock is advised, perform about 2
minutes of CPR
112
■
Places pads on the chest so that
they are separated from each
other
■
Places one pad in the middle of
the chest and one on the back
centered between the shoulder
blades
■
Places pads so that the heart is
between the two pads
■
Says, “Everyone, stand clear!”
before pushing the “Analyze”
button, if necessary
■
Says, “Everyone stand clear!”
before pushing the “Shock”
button, if necessary
Returns to chest compressions
within 5 seconds
Returns to chest compressions
after 6 or more seconds
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FLOW CHART
EXAMPLE OF A MULTIPLE-RESCUER RESPONSE
Instructor’s Note: This example assumes that the EAP has been activated, EMS personnel have been called
and a primary assessment has been done. The victim is not breathing and has no pulse. Additional rescuers are
coming in to support the efforts of the initial rescuers and are bringing equipment.
1.
2.
The initial rescuers begin two-rescuer CPR.
|
Rescuers 1 and 2 perform two-rescuer CPR.
|
Rescuer 1 gives ventilations while Rescuer 2 gives chest compressions.
An additional rescuer arrives with the AED. CPR continues until the AED pads are placed on the victim and it
is ready to begin analyzing.
|
Rescuer 3:
●
Turns on the AED and follows the prompts.
●
Attaches the pads to the victim’s bare chest.
●
Plugs in the connector, if necessary.
●
Says, “Everyone, stand clear!”
●
Pushes the “Analyze” button, if necessary.
●
If a shock is advised, delivers the shock by pressing the “Shock” button, if necessary.
3.
After the shock or if no shock is advised, Rescuers 1, 2 and 3 perform about 2 minutes of CPR.
4.
An additional rescuer arrives with the BVM and assists with care.
|
Rescuer 4 assembles the BVM, if necessary. Administer emergency oxygen if trained to do so.
|
Rescuer 1 places and seals the mask of the BVM and maintains an open airway.
|
Rescuer 4 provides ventilations by squeezing the bag.
|
Rescuer 2 performs compressions.
●
●
●
If the victim vomits:
■
Rescuers quickly roll the victim onto the side.
■
After vomiting stops, a rescuer on the side of the victim clears the victim’s mouth using a finger
sweep and suction, if necessary.
■
Turn the victim onto the back and continue providing care.
If ventilations do not make the chest clearly rise:
■
Rescuer 1 re-tilts the head.
■
Rescuer 3 attempts 1 ventilation.
If ventilation attempt still does not make the chest clearly rise:
■
Rescuer 2 gives 30 chest compressions.
■
Rescuer 3 looks inside the mouth and removes any visible large debris from the mouth using a
finger sweep and suction, if necessary.
|
Rescuer 4 replaces the mask.
|
Rescuer 1 opens the airway and seals the mask.
|
Rescuer 4 provides ventilations.
|
Rescuer 2 performs compressions.
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10/24/11 1:28 PM
LESSON
7
FIRST AID
¡
Session Length: 2 hours, 40 minutes
LESSON OBJECTIVES
After completing this lesson, participants will be able to:
Demonstrate how to perform a secondary assessment.
■
Identify how to recognize and care for a victim of sudden illness, injuries and shock.
■
Demonstrate how to control external bleeding.
■
Identify how to recognize and care for a victim of poisoning, heat-related illnesses and cold-related
emergencies.
■
Demonstrate how to immobilize muscle, bone and joint injuries.
■
Demonstrate the ability to work as a team to implement an EAP, perform a secondary assessment and provide
first aid care.
■
Identify possible causes of head, neck or spinal injuries on land.
■
Identify signs and symptoms of head, neck or spinal injuries.
■
Demonstrate how to care for victims with head, neck or spinal injuries on land.
■
Demonstrate how to perform front and rear head-hold escapes.
■
Demonstrate how to give in-water ventilations.
■
Demonstrate how to perform a quick removal of a victim from the water.
■
ADDITIONAL MATERIALS, EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLIES
■
■
■
Non-latex disposable gloves (one pair per participant)
Backboards, each equipped with 3 straps and head immobilizers (one backboard for every three participants
is recommended; if fewer backboards are available, additional time may be required)
Dressing and bandages (one per every two participants)
TOPIC:
REVIEW—SURVEILLANCE
ACTIVITIES
Time: 5 minutes
PRESENTATION: REVIEW—SURVEILLANCE ACTIVITIES
Video Segment
114
■
Explain that you will be giving them an opportunity to see how their surveillance
skills should be used to detect an emergency situation. Explain that they should
watch each video segment and note the problems they see developing.
■
Show the video segment, “Review—Surveillance Activity 2.”
■
Lead a discussion of what they see in each segment.
|
Are there any hazards that could cause an injury?
|
Does it appear that all the required equipment is available for the
lifeguard?
|
Are there any patrons who could be of special concern?
|
Are there any rules being broken that could lead to an injury or
emergency situation?
|
Are there any customer service issues to be addressed?
|
Are there any distracting situations for the lifeguard?
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TOPIC:
SECONDARY ASSESSMENT
Time: 5 minutes
PRESENTATION: SECONDARY ASSESSMENT
Guided
Discussion
■
After you have completed a primary assessment and determined that
there are no life-threatening conditions, perform a secondary
assessment to determine if there are any additional non-life-threatening
conditions that would require you to provide care.
■
Ask participants: What information should you check for when using
SAMPLE to take a brief history related to the injury or illness?
Answers: Responses should include the following:
■
|
S = Signs and symptoms
|
A = Allergies
|
M = Medications
|
P = Pertinent past medical history
|
L = Last oral intake
|
E = Events leading up to the incident
Ask participants: What should be included when performing a
secondary assessment?
Answers: Responses should include the following:
|
Visually inspect the person’s body looking carefully for any bleeding, cuts,
bruises and obvious deformities.
|
Look for a medical identification (ID) tag, necklace or bracelet on the person’s
wrist, neck or ankle.
|
Check the person’s ability to move body parts. Caution the person to not move
any parts if he or she experiences discomfort or pain. If the person is unable to
move a body part or is experiencing dizziness or pain on movement:
●
Help the person rest in a comfortable position.
●
Keep the person from getting chilled or overheated.
●
Reassure the person.
●
Determine whether to summon emergency medical services (EMS)
personnel.
●
Continue to watch for changes in the level of consciousness (LOC) and
breathing.
LESSON
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|
First Aid
115
11/2/11 9:33 AM
TOPIC:
SUDDEN ILLNESSES
Time: 10 minutes
PRESENTATION: SUDDEN ILLNESSES
Video Segment
Lecture
■
Explain to participants that the video segment will provide important information
regarding sudden illnesses.
■
Show the video segment, “Responding to Sudden Illnesses.”
■
Answer participants’ questions about the segment.
■
In most cases, it is not necessary to know the cause or type of sudden
illness because the care that you provide will be the same with few
exceptions.
■
What are the general steps to take to care for a sudden illness?
Answer: Responses should include the following:
TOPIC:
|
Care for any life-threatening conditions first.
|
Monitor the victim’s condition and watch for changes in LOC.
|
Keep the victim comfortable and reassure him or her.
|
Keep the victim from getting chilled or overheated.
|
Do not give the victim anything to eat or drink unless the victim is fully
conscious and is not in shock.
|
Care for any other problems that develop, such as vomiting.
■
If you think something is wrong, check the victim and look for a medical
ID bracelet or necklace. Do not be afraid to ask questions.
■
Remember that the victim’s condition may worsen rapidly if care is
not provided.
RESPONDING TO INJURIES
Time: 45 minutes
PRESENTATION: RESPONDING TO INJURIES
Video Segment
■
Explain to participants that the video segment will provide important information
regarding injuries.
■
Show the video segment, “Responding to Injuries.”
■
Answer participants’ questions about the segment.
Controlling Bleeding
Lecture
Skill Practice
116
■
An injury to soft tissue, such as the skin, fat, or muscle, is called
a wound.
■
The first aid supplies needed to care for most wounds should be carried
in the lifeguard’s hip pack.
■
Closed wounds occur beneath the surface of the skin.
■
Internal bleeding may occur when the skin’s surface is not broken and
damage to soft tissue and blood vessels happens below the surface of
the skin.
■
The four main types of open wounds are abrasion, laceration, avulsion
and puncture.
■
Pair up participants. One participant will be the lifeguard and the other will be the
victim; they will switch roles for the second scenario.
■
Provide each participant with a pair of non-latex disposable gloves.
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■
Provide a bandage and dressing for each pair of the participants.
■
Guide participants through the steps listed on the Controlling External Bleeding skill
sheet in Chapter 10, First Aid, in the Lifeguarding Manual.
■
Have participants switch roles and repeat the skill practice.
■
Clearly observe each participant’s performance and provide corrective feedback.
■
Any serious injury or illness can cause the condition known as shock.
■
Shock is a natural reaction by the body. It usually signals that the victim’s
condition is serious.
■
Signs and symptoms of shock include:
Shock
Lecture
■
■
|
Restlessness or irritability.
|
Altered LOC.
|
Pale or ashen, cool, moist skin.
|
Nausea or vomiting.
|
Rapid breathing and pulse.
|
Excessive thirst.
To minimize the effects of shock:
|
Make sure that EMS personnel have been summoned.
|
Monitor the victim’s condition and watch for changes in LOC.
|
Control any external bleeding.
|
Keep the victim from getting chilled or overheated.
|
Have the victim lie flat on his or her back.
|
Cover the victim with a blanket to prevent loss of body heat. Do not
overheat the victim—your goal is to maintain a normal body
temperature.
|
Comfort and reassure the victim until EMS personnel take over.
|
Administer emergency oxygen, if available and trained to do so.
Do not give food or drink to a victim of shock, even if the victim asks for
them.
Common Injuries
Activity
■
Explain that Chapter 10, First Aid, of the Lifeguarding Manual is a resource for first
aid care for many specific types of injuries.
■
Divide the participants into small groups. Assign each group one of the following
types of injury:
|
Nosebleeds
|
Mouth and Teeth Injuries (No Head, Neck or Spinal Injury Suspected)
|
Knocked-Out Tooth
|
Animal or Human Bites
|
Insect Stings
|
Burns
■
Ask participants to research and report their findings to the class as to what care
should be provided for their assigned type of injury.
■
Allow up to 3 to 5 minutes for the group work. Circulate among groups to monitor
progress and provide assistance when necessary.
■
Re-assemble the class and call on group leaders to share the group’s findings.
LESSON
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|
First Aid
117
10/13/11 11:38 AM
Answers: Responses should include the following:
Injury or Illness
Care Steps
Nosebleeds
■
Have the victim sit leaning slightly forward to prevent swallowing or choking on
the blood.
■
Pinch the nostrils together for about 5 to 10 minutes or until the bleeding stops.
■
After the bleeding stops, have the victim avoid rubbing, blowing or picking the nose.
■
Medical attention is needed if the bleeding persists or recurs or if the victim says the
nosebleed was a result of high blood pressure.
■
If the victim loses consciousness, place the victim on his or her side to allow blood to
drain from the nose. Summon EMS personnel immediately.
Mouth and Teeth
Injuries (No
Head, Neck or
Spinal Injury
Suspected)
■
Rinse the victim’s mouth with cold tap water, if available.
■
Have the victim lean slightly forward or place the victim on his or her side to
prevent the victim from swallowing the blood, which could cause nausea
or vomiting.
■
Apply a dressing.
Knocked-Out
Tooth
■
Rinse the victim’s mouth with cold tap water, if available.
■
Have the victim bite down on a rolled sterile dressing in the space left by the tooth
(or teeth).
■
Save any displaced teeth.
■
Carefully pick up the tooth by the crown (white part), not the root.
■
Rinse off the root of the tooth in water if it is dirty. Do not scrub it or remove any
attached tissue fragments.
■
Place the tooth in milk. If milk is not available, place the tooth in clean water and
keep it with the victim.
■
Advise the victim to get to a dentist with the tooth as soon as possible.
■
Summon EMS personnel if the wound bleeds severely or if the animal is suspected
to have rabies.
■
For severe bleeding, control the bleeding first. Do not clean the wound. It will be
properly cleaned at the hospital.
■
If the bleeding is minor:
Animal or Human
Bites
Burns
118
|
Wash the wound with large amounts of clean water.
|
Control the bleeding.
|
Cover with a sterile bandage.
■
Stop the burning by removing the person from the source of the burn.
■
Cool the burned area with large amounts of cold tap water at least until pain is
relieved.
■
Cover the burned area loosely with a sterile dressing.
■
Take steps to minimize shock, such as by keeping the victim from getting chilled or
overheated.
■
Comfort and reassure the victim.
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Poisoning
Lecture
■
■
■
To determine how to care for a victim of poisoning:
|
Call Poison Control Center at 1-800-222-1222.
|
Refer to the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for information
regarding the poisonous substances used at your facility if exposure
to one of these is believed to be the cause.
|
If the victim was exposed to a chemical poison at your facility and is
showing signs of life-threatening conditions, send the MSDS with the
victim to the doctor or the hospital.
To care for a victim of an inhaled poison:
|
Size-up the scene to be sure it is safe for you to help the victim.
|
Summon EMS personnel.
|
Move the victim to fresh air.
|
Care for life-threatening conditions.
|
Monitor the victim’s condition and watch for changes in the LOC.
|
If conscious, keep the victim comfortable.
To care for a victim of an absorbed poison:
|
Remove exposed clothing and jewelry and immediately rinse the
exposed area thoroughly with water for 20 minutes, using a shower
or garden hose if possible.
|
If a rash or wet blisters develop, advise the victim to see his or her
health care provider.
|
If the condition spreads to large areas of the body or face, have the
victim seek medical attention.
Heat-Related Illnesses
Guided
Discussion
■
Ask participants: What is the least serious type of heat-related illness?
Answer: Heat cramps
■
Ask participants: What are some signs that a person has progressed to the
stage of heat exhaustion?
Answer: Responses should include the following:
■
|
Cool, moist, pale, ashen or flushed skin
|
Headache, nausea, dizziness
|
Weakness, exhaustion
|
Heavy sweating
Ask participants: What care should be provided for a person experiencing
heat stroke?
Answer: Responses should include the following:
|
Summon EMS personnel.
|
Move the victim to a cool place.
|
Loosen tight clothing and remove perspiration-soaked clothing.
|
Cool the victim by spraying with cool water or applying cool, wet towels to the
skin.
|
Fan the victim.
|
Encourage the victim to drink small amounts of a commercial sports drink,
milk or water if the victim is conscious and able to swallow.
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Cold-Related Emergencies
Lecture
■
It does not have to be very cold for someone to suffer a cold-related
emergency. Cold water, air temperature and windy conditions can
contribute to hypothermia.
■
The victim’s skin color may appear waxy, cold to the touch or discolored
(flushed, white, yellow or blue).
■
It is important to dry off the victim. Remove wet clothing and warm the
victim gradually.
■
The victim’s heart rate may be slowed. If the victim is unconscious and
you are performing a primary assessment, check for a pulse for 30 to
45 seconds.
Injuries to Muscles, Bones and Joints
■
Guided
Discussion
Ask participants: What are the four types of injuries that can occur to
muscles, bones and joints?
Answers: Responses should include:
|
Fracture—A complete break, a chip or a crack in a bone. Fractures can be open
or closed.
|
Dislocation—Displacement of a bone away from its normal position at a joint.
|
Sprain—Tearing of ligaments at a joint.
|
Strain—Stretching and tearing of muscles or tendons.
Splinting
Skill Practice
TOPIC:
■
Refer participants to the skill sheet in Chapter 10, First Aid, in the Lifeguarding
Manual and have them bring their book to the practice area.
■
Pair up participants and provide each participant with a pair of disposable gloves.
■
For every pair of participants you will need:
|
Two triangular bandages for the arm injury skill.
|
Four triangular bandages for the leg injury skill.
|
Three triangular bandages and one large towel or blanket for the foot injury skill.
■
Guide participants through the steps listed on the skill sheet for an arm injury and
either the leg or the foot injury.
■
Have participants switch roles and repeat the skills.
■
Observe each participant’s performance and provide corrective feedback.
PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER—
FIRST AID SCENARIOS
Time: 20 minutes
PRESENTATION: FIRST AID SCENARIOS
Activity
120
■
Tell participants that they will now participate in two first aid scenarios that will
require them to perform a secondary assessment.
■
Explain that they will work in groups of three for each scenario. Some of the
scenarios require one lifeguard, a child victim and a parent whereas others assume
that two lifeguards are providing care to one victim.
■
Assign the scenarios randomly, such as through a drawing. A total of six scenarios
are provided. It is acceptable for more than one group to complete the same scenario.
■
Allow a few minutes for those playing the role of victim to review the signs and
symptoms of the condition assigned using the Lifeguarding Manual.
■
Explain that lifeguards should perform a secondary assessment and provide care for
the conditions found.
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■
Be sure to have the appropriate equipment and supplies available for use in the
scenarios, including personal protective equipment (PPE) and first aid supplies.
■
After they have completed two scenarios, re-assemble the group and discuss the
activity. Each group should:
|
Explain the scenario.
|
Describe initial steps taken, such as calling for backup coverage, if necessary.
|
Describe the injury or illness, including signs and symptoms.
|
Explain the care steps provided, including summoning EMS personnel, if
appropriate.
|
Explain any follow-up instructions given to the victim.
Scenario 1: You are on duty lifeguarding at an outdoor pool. A child comes to you saying that she was
just in the concession area eating a snack when she was stung by a bee. Her parent is swimming laps
in the adult lap swim lane.
Answers: Responses should include the following:
Initial Steps
Signs and Symptoms
Care Steps
Follow-Up
■
Signal to obtain backup coverage for your zone.
■
Get the attention of the child’s parent and obtain consent.
■
Ask if the child has a known allergy to bee stings.
■
Pain
■
Redness or swelling
■
Possible presence of a stinger
■
Signals of an allergic reaction:
|
Rash or hives
|
Feeling of tightness in the chest and throat
|
Shortness of breath
|
Swelling of the face, neck or tongue
■
Examine the sting site to see if the stinger is in the skin. If it is still present,
remove the stinger by scraping it away with the edge of a plastic card, such as a
credit card.
■
Wash the wound with soap and water.
■
Cover the site with a dressing and keep the wound clean.
■
Apply a cold pack to the site to reduce pain and swelling.
■
Watch the victim for signals of an allergic reaction.
■
Monitor the victim’s condition and look for changes in LOC.
■
Keep the victim comfortable.
■
Summon EMS personnel for any life-threatening conditions, such as a
breathing emergency.
■
Have the child remain in the first aid area for a few minutes and watch the child for
signs of an allergic reaction.
■
Tell the child and parent to alert a lifeguard or other staff member if symptoms get
worse.
Scenario 2: You are on break when an adult tells you that his friend is not feeling well and needs
help. The patron tells you that he is wearing a diabetic ID bracelet.
Answers: Responses should include the following:
Initial Steps
■
Obtain consent from the patron who is not feeling well.
Signs and Symptoms
■
The patron told you he is not feeling well and his medical ID bracelet tells you of
the condition.
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Care Steps
Follow-Up
■
If the person is conscious and can safely swallow fluids or food, give him sugar.
Give glucose paste, tablets or sugar in liquid form (e.g., 12 oz of orange juice), milk
or nondiet soft drink, or table sugar, either dry or dissolved in a glass of water.
■
Summon EMS personnel if:
|
The person is unconscious or about to lose consciousness.
|
The person is conscious but unable to swallow.
|
The person does not feel better within about 5 minutes after taking the sugar.
|
A sugar source cannot be found immediately. Do not spend time looking for it.
■
Ask the patron to remain there until he clearly feels better, at least 5 minutes.
■
Tell the person to alert a lifeguard or staff member if symptoms recur.
Scenario 3: You are on a break in the lifeguard room. Through the window, you notice a patron on
the deck who appears to be having a seizure.
Answers: Responses should include the following:
Initial Steps
■
Activate the EAP.
Signs and Symptoms
■
May last 1 to 3 minutes and can produce a wide range of signs and symptoms
■
May lose consciousness and fall
■
May become rigid and then experience sudden, uncontrollable muscular
convulsions lasting several minutes
■
Breathing may become irregular and even stop temporarily
■
Protect the person from injury by moving nearby objects away from the person.
■
Position the person on his or her side, if possible, after the seizure passes so that
fluids (saliva, blood, vomit) can drain from the mouth.
■
Check to see if the person was injured during the seizure.
■
Stay with the person until he or she is fully conscious and aware of his or her
surroundings.
■
Offer to let the person remain in a first aid area to rest.
Care Steps
Follow-Up
Scenario 4: You are hosing down a section of the deck as part of your secondary responsibilities. A
regular patron approaches and tries to ask you a question. Her speech seems impaired and you
cannot understand what she is saying.
Answers: Responses should include the following:
Initial Steps
Signs and Symptoms
122
■
Activate the EAP.
■
Obtain consent if able to do so.
■
Sudden change in how the body is working or feeling, such as sudden weakness or
numbness of the face, an arm or a leg; often only on one side of the body
■
Difficulty with speech (trouble speaking and being understood and difficulty
understanding others)
■
Blurred or dimmed vision
■
Sudden, severe headache; dizziness; or confusion
■
Loss of balance or coordination
■
Trouble walking
■
Ringing in the ears
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Care Steps
Follow-Up
■
Summon EMS personnel immediately.
■
Think FAST:
|
Face—Ask the person to smile. This will show if there is drooping or weakness
in the muscles on one side of the face. Does one side of the face droop?
|
Arm—Ask the person to raise both arms to find out if there is weakness in the
limbs. Does one arm drift downward?
|
Speech—Ask the person to speak a simple sentence to listen for slurred or
distorted speech. Example: “The sky is blue.” Can the victim repeat the sentence
correctly?
|
Time—Note the time that the signs and symptoms began and summon EMS
personnel immediately.
■
Comfort and reassure the person until EMS personnel arrive.
■
Collect any of the person’s belongings and give to EMS.
Scenario 5: You are on duty as a lifeguard. Your guard station is on the deck at the shallow end of the
pool. An adult is exiting the pool using the ladder, then slips and hits his mouth on the railing. When
you approach the victim, you notice that he is missing a tooth, which he holding in his hand, and
bleeding from the mouth.
Answers: Responses should include the following:
Initial Steps
■
Activate the EAP.
Signs and Symptoms
■
Tooth is missing and he has it in his possession
■
Bleeding from the area
■
Rinse the victim’s mouth with cold tap water, if available.
■
Have the victim bite down on a rolled sterile dressing in the space left by the tooth.
■
Save the displaced tooth.
■
Carefully pick up the tooth by the crown (white part), not the root.
■
Rinse off the root of the tooth in water if it is dirty. Do not scrub it or remove any
attached tissue fragments.
■
Place the tooth in milk. If milk is not available, place the tooth in clean water and
keep it with the victim.
■
Advise the victim to get to a dentist with the tooth as soon as possible.
Care Steps
Follow-Up
Scenario 6: You are on break when a concession worker comes to you and tells you help is needed.
Another concession worker has been burned by hot oil from the popcorn machine.
Answers: Responses should include the following:
Initial Steps
■
Obtain consent.
Signs and Symptoms
■
Burned area on an arm and hand—red skin with blisters beginning to form
Care Steps
■
Stop the burning by removing the person from the source of the burn.
■
Cool the burned area with large amounts of cold tap water at least until pain is
relieved.
■
Cover the burned area loosely with a sterile dressing.
■
Take steps to minimize shock, such as by keeping the victim from getting chilled or
overheated.
■
Comfort and reassure the victim.
■
Advise the person to follow up with a doctor.
Follow-Up
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TOPIC:
CARING FOR HEAD, NECK AND
SPINAL INJURIES ON LAND
Time: 10 minutes
PRESENTATION: CARING FOR HEAD, NECK AND SPINAL INJURIES ON LAND
Guided
Discussion
■
When deciding whether a person may have a head, neck or spinal injury,
first think about what caused the injury.
■
Head, neck or spinal injuries can happen on land or in the water.
■
In aquatic environments, examples of injuries on land include:
■
Video Segment
Skill Practice—
On Land
124
|
Tripping or falling on a pool deck.
|
Slipping in a locker room.
|
Falling from greater than a standing height
|
Falling off pool features, such as a diving board ladder.
Ask participants: What signs and symptoms might indicate a possible head,
neck or spinal injury?
Answers: Responses should include the following:
|
Unusual bumps, bruises or depressions on the head, neck or back
|
Heavy external bleeding of the head, neck or back
|
Bruising of the head, especially around the eyes and behind the ears
|
Blood or other fluids in the ears or nose
|
Seizures
|
Changes in level of consciousness
|
Impaired breathing or vision
|
Nausea or vomiting
|
Partial or complete loss of movement of any body area
|
Loss of balance
|
Victim holds the head, neck or back
|
Behavior resembling intoxication
|
Severe pain or pressure in the head, neck or back
|
Back pain, weakness, tingling or loss of sensation in the hands, fingers, feet or toes
|
Persistent headache
■
Explain to participants that the video segment demonstrates backboarding a victim
of a spinal injury on land.
■
Show the video segment, “Head, Neck and Spinal Injuries on Land.”
■
Answer participants’ questions about the segment.
■
Explain to participants that during the skill session you will demonstrate skills and
guide them through practice.
■
Pair up participants for the first skill and explain that they will take turns as victim
and lifeguard. For the second skill, divide participants into groups of four—three are
in the role of lifeguards and one as a victim.
■
For each skill, organize them so that they can clearly see and hear. Be sure to provide
any instructions related to their position in the water or how they should behave as
victims.
■
Lead them through the following skills:
|
Caring for a nonstanding victim
|
Caring for a standing victim
■
Participants should practice the skills until they are able to meet performance criteria.
■
Observe each participant’s performance of the skill and provide corrective feedback.
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TOPIC:
WHEN THINGS DO NOT GO
AS PRACTICED
Time: 5 minutes
PRESENTATION: WHEN THINGS DO NOT GO AS PRACTICED
Video Segment
■
Explain to participants that the video segment will provide important information
regarding the techniques to use when things do not go as practiced. The skills in this
video will be practiced later in the water. They include:
|
Front and rear head-hold escapes.
|
Quick removal from shallow water for a small victim.
|
In-water ventilations.
■
Refer participants to the skill sheets in Chapter 6, Rescue Skills, in the Lifeguarding
Manual.
■
Show the video segment, “When Things Do Not Go as Practiced.”
■
Answer participants’ questions about the video segment.
IN-WATER SKILL SESSION—WHEN THINGS
DO NOT GO AS PRACTICED
Time: 30 minutes
PRESENTATION: NEXT STEPS
Activity
■
Explain to participants that during the skill session you will demonstrate skills and
guide them through practice.
■
Pair up participants and explain that they will take turns as a victim and a rescuer for
each skill.
■
For each skill, organize them so that they can clearly see and hear. Be sure to provide
any instructions related to their position in the water or how they should behave as
victims.
■
Lead them through the following skills:
|
|
|
|
Front head-hold escape
●
Lifeguards: deep water, facing victim
●
Victims: deep water
Rear head-hold escape
●
Lifeguards: deep water, back to victim
●
Victims: deep water
In-water ventilations—shallow water
●
Lifeguards: standing in shallow water
●
Victims: passive
In-water ventilations—deep water
●
Lifeguards: treading in deep water
●
Victims: passive
SHALLOW WATER LIFEGUARDING
■
For the Shallow Water Lifeguarding course, participants will practice the front and
rear head-hold escapes in shallow water.
■
Omit the in-water ventilations—deep water when teaching the Shallow Water
Lifeguarding course.
■
Participants should practice the skills until they are able to meet performance
criteria.
■
Observe each participant’s performance of the skill and provide corrective feedback.
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IN-WATER SKILL SESSION—RESCUE
SKILLS REVIEW
Activity
Time: 30 minutes
■
Designate three stations for review skills and divide participants into three groups.
Count off participants as “ones” and “twos” so that you can easily assign roles at each
station and for each skill practice.
■
Participants will practice the rescues as many times as possible in about a 5-minute
period.
■
Rotate groups every 5 to 7 minutes.
■
Observe participants and provide feedback.
■
Stations:
|
|
|
Shallow Water
●
Simple Assist for a Distressed Swimmer
●
Submerged Passive Victim
●
Reaching Assist from the Deck for a Distressed Swimmer
Deep Water
●
Active Victim on the Surface—Front Approach
●
Passive Victim on the Surface—Rear Approach
Deep Water
●
Submerged Passive Victim
●
Two-Person Removal Using a Backboard
SHALLOW WATER LIFEGUARDING
■
For the Shallow Water Lifeguarding course, designate three stations for review skills
and divide participants into three groups.
■
Participants will practice the rescues as many times as possible in about a 5-minute
period.
■
Rotate groups every 5 to 7 minutes.
■
Stations:
|
|
|
Passive Victim
●
Submerged Passive Victim
●
Passive Victim on the Surface—Rear Approach
●
Two-Person Removal Using a Backboard
Distressed Swimmer
●
Simple Assist for a Distressed Swimmer
●
Reaching Assist from the Deck for a Distressed Swimmer
Active Victim
●
Active Victim on the Surface—Front Approach
●
Active Victim on the Surface—Rear Approach
●
Multiple Active Victim Rescue
ASSIGNMENT
126
■
Remind participants to prepare for the final written exam on CPR/AED and first aid
by reviewing Chapters 7 through 10.
■
Read Chapter 11, Caring for Head, Neck and Spinal Injuries, of the Lifeguarding
Manual before the next class session.
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SKILL CHARTS AND ASSESSMENT TOOLS
In addition to performing the steps listed in the skill chart in the correct order, participants must meet the criteria
listed at the proficient level to be checked off for this skill. Assessment criteria that are general for the category of
skills, as well as specific to the skill, must be met.
SECONDARY ASSESSMENT
SKILL CHART: USING SAMPLE TO TAKE A BRIEF MEDICAL HISTORY
Take a brief history using SAMPLE:
1.
2.
Signs and symptoms:
|
What happened?
|
Where do you feel any pain or discomfort?
|
Do you have any numbness or loss of sensation? If so, where?
Allergies:
|
3.
4.
5.
6.
Do you have any allergies, such as to medications or food? If so, what type of reactions have you
experienced when you were exposed?
Medications:
|
Do you have any medical conditions or are you taking any medications? If so, what conditions do you
have or what medications are you taking?
|
Have you taken any medications in the past 12 hours?
Pertinent past medical history:
|
Have you recently been ill?
|
Do you have any medical conditions?
|
Have you experienced any recent falls, accidents or blows to the head?
|
Have you had surgery, been in a traumatic accident or had a medical emergency?
Last oral intake:
|
When did you last eat or drink?
|
What did you last eat or drink?
Events leading up to the incident:
|
What were you doing before the incident occurred?
|
What were you doing when the incident occurred?
SKILL CHART: CHECKING A CONSCIOUS PERSON
1.
2.
3.
4.
Check the head.
|
Look at the scalp, face, ears, eyes, nose and mouth for cuts, bumps, bruises and depressions.
|
Note if the victim has any changes in the level of consciousness, such as dizziness, or feels light-headed.
Check skin appearance and temperature.
|
Feel the victim’s forehead with the back of your hand and note if the skin is cold or hot.
|
Look at the coloring of the victim’s face and lips.
|
Look at the victim’s skin and note if the skin is moist or dry or if it is red, pale, flushed or ashen.
Check the neck.
|
Ask the victim to move his or her head from side to side if there is no discomfort and if an injury to the
neck is not suspected.
|
Note pain, discomfort or inability to move.
Check the shoulders.
|
Ask the victim to shrug his or her shoulders.
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5.
6.
7.
Check the chest and abdomen.
|
Ask the victim to take a deep breath and blow air out.
|
Listen for difficulty or changes in breathing.
|
Ask the victim if he or she is experiencing pain during breathing.
Check the arms.
|
Check one arm at a time.
|
Ask the victim to move his or her hand and fingers and to bend the arm.
Check the legs.
|
Check one leg at a time.
|
Ask the victim to move his or her foot and toes and to bend the leg.
8.
Provide care for any conditions found.
9.
Have the victim rest in a comfortable position if he or she can move all body parts without pain or discomfort
and has no other apparent signs or symptoms of injury or illness. Continue to watch for changes in
consciousness and breathing.
SKILL ASSESSMENT TOOL: USING SAMPLE TO TAKE A BRIEF MEDICAL HISTORY
Criteria
Proficient
Not Proficient
Ask questions to determine a brief
history
Gathers information about what
happened, possible signs and
symptoms or brief medical history
■
Does not ask any questions
■
Does not ask questions about
what happened, possible signs
and symptoms or brief
medical history
Visual inspection from head to toe
looking carefully for any bleeding,
cuts, bruises and obvious
deformities
■
Does not perform an
assessment
■
Does not recognize obvious
signs or symptoms
Check for medical conditions that
may need to be considered
Visual inspection looking for a
medical ID tag, necklace or bracelet
Does not look for medical ID tag,
necklace or bracelet
Monitor the person’s condition
Watches for changes in
consciousness or breathing
Does not look at victim
Checking a Conscious Person
Check for signs and symptoms of
injuries or sudden illnesses
CONTROLLING EXTERNAL BLEEDING
SKILL CHART: CONTROLLING EXTERNAL BLEEDING
To control external bleeding:
1.
Cover the wound with a dressing, such as a sterile gauze pad.
2.
Apply direct pressure firmly against the wound until bleeding stops.
3.
Cover the dressing with a roller bandage and secure it directly over the wound.
4.
Check for circulation beyond the injury (check for pulse, skin temperature and feeling).
If the bleeding does not stop:
■
Apply additional dressings and bandages on top of the first ones and continue to apply direct pressure.
■
Take steps to minimize shock.
■
Summon EMS personnel.
■
Follow local protocols when considering other methods of bleeding control, such as applying a tourniquet.
128
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SKILL ASSESSMENT TOOL: CONTROLLING EXTERNAL BLEEDING
Criteria
Proficient
Not Proficient
Use personal protective equipment
Puts on disposable gloves before
covering wound
■
Does not put on disposable
gloves
■
Puts on disposable gloves after
covering wound
■
Places dressing away from
wound area
■
Does not apply pressure
■
Uses pressure points instead
of direct pressure
■
Roller gauze does not stay in
place
■
Removes initial dressing
■
Does not add additional
dressings
■
Does not apply pressure
Cover the wound with a (sterile)
dressing and apply direct pressure
until bleeding stops
Apply additional dressings and
more direct pressure (if bleeding
does not stop)
■
Places dressing over wound
■
Applies pressure to wound
■
Secures dressing in place with
roller gauze
■
Adds additional dressings to
initial dressing
■
Applies pressure to wound
SPLINTING
SKILL CHART: ARM INJURIES
1.
Leave the arm in the position in which it was found or in the position in which the victim is holding it.
2.
Place a triangular bandage under the injured arm and over the uninjured shoulder to form a sling.
3.
Tie the ends of the sling at the side of the neck. Place gauze pads under the knots to make it more comfortable
for the victim.
4.
Secure the arm to the chest with a folded triangular bandage.
SKILL CHART: LEG INJURIES
1.
Place several folded triangular bandages above and below the injured body area.
2.
Place the uninjured leg next to the injured leg.
3.
Tie triangular bandages securely with knots.
SKILL CHART: FOOT INJURIES
1.
Place several folded triangular bandages above and below the injured area.
2.
Gently wrap a soft object (pillow or folded blanket) around the injured area.
3.
Tie bandages securely with knots.
SKILL CHART: RIB AND BREASTBONE INJURIES
1.
Place a pillow or folded towel between the victim’s injured ribs and arm.
2.
Bind the arm to the body to help support the injured area.
SKILL CHART: HAND AND FINGER INJURIES
1.
For a hand injury, place a bulky dressing in the palm of the victim’s hand and wrap with a roller bandage.
2.
For a possible fractured or dislocated finger, tape the injured finger to the finger next to it.
SKILL ASSESSMENT TOOL: SPLINTING
Criteria
Proficient
Not Proficient
Immobilize the injured part
Secures splint with sufficient
tension to prevent injured part from
moving more than 1 inch from
splinted position
Secures splint with insufficient
tension—injured part can move
more than 1 inch from splinted
position
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Ensure the splint is not too tight
(except for a sling)
■
■
Secures splint without causing
skin to discolor or become cool
to touch or creating a tingling
sensation beyond the injury
■
Secures splint causing skin to
discolor
■
Secures splint causing skin to
become cool to the touch
Checks pulse, skin temperature
and feeling
■
Secures splint creating a
tingling sensation beyond the
injury
■
Does not check pulse, skin
temperature and feeling
CARING FOR HEAD, NECK OR SPINAL INJURY ON LAND
SKILL CHART: CARING FOR A STANDING VICTIM WHO HAS A SUSPECTED HEAD,
NECK OR SPINAL INJURY ON LAND
1.
Lifeguard 1 approaches the victim from the front and performs manual stabilization of the victim’s head and
neck by placing one hand on each side of the head.
2.
Lifeguard 2 retrieves a backboard and places it against the victim’s back, being careful not to disturb
stabilization of the victim’s head. Lifeguard 3 helps to position the backboard so that it is centered behind
the victim.
3.
While Lifeguard 3 holds the backboard, Lifeguard 2 secures the victim to the backboard by placing and
securing straps across the victim’s chest, under the armpits, and across the hips and thighs. Lifeguard 2
rechecks the straps to be sure that they are secure, then secures the victim’s head to the backboard using a
head immobilizer and strap across the victim’s forehead.
4.
The lifeguards at the victim’s side each place their inside hands underneath the victim’s armpit, in between
the victim’s arm and torso, and grasp the backboard at a handhold at the victim’s armpit level or higher.
5.
When the victim is secured to the board, the other lifeguard grasps the top. Lifeguard 1 informs the victim
that they will lower him or her to the ground. When ready, signal to the other two lifeguards to begin. While
lowering the victim, the lifeguards at the victim’s sides should walk forward and bend at the knees to avoid
back injury.
If the position of head immobilizer cannot be adjusted to the height of a victim, consider one of
the following options:
■
Place the blocks on either side of the victim’s head flush against the backboard. Place an additional strap
across the victim’s forehead.
|
■
If this is not possible, have another lifeguard provide manual stabilization from the head of the board. At
the beginning, this lifeguard stands behind the board and reaches around to provide stabilization. As the
board is lowered, this lifeguard steps back, while maintaining stabilization, until the board is on the
ground.
If the victim is taller than the backboard, place an object, such as a folded blanket or towel, under the foot of
the backboard so that the victim’s head does not extend beyond the end of the board.
SKILL CHART: MANUAL STABILIZATION FOR A NONSTANDING VICTIM OF A
HEAD, NECK OR SPINAL INJURY ON LAND
1.
Minimize movement by placing your hands on both sides of the victim’s head.
2.
Support the head in the position found.
|
Do not align the head and neck with the spine if the head is sharply turned to one side, there is pain on
movement or if you feel any resistance when attempting to align the head and neck with the spine.
3.
Maintain an open airway.
4.
Keep the victim from getting chilled or overheated.
Note: Gently position the victim’s head in line with the body if you cannot maintain an open airway.
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SKILL ASSESSMENT TOOL: CARING FOR A STANDING VICTIM WHO HAS A
SUSPECTED HEAD, NECK OR SPINAL INJURY ON LAND
Criteria
Proficient
Not Proficient
Maintain stabilization
Primary lifeguard maintains
stabilization while backboard is
being positioned
■
Loss of stabilization during the
rescue
■
Loss of contact with the victim
■
Lack of communication
between lifeguards as needed
Position the backboard behind the
victim
Secure straps
■
Backboard is placed to support
the victim’s head, neck and body
■
Victim’s head is not supported
against the backboard
■
Backboard is against the
victim’s body
■
Victim is not aligned and
against the backboard
■
Strapping begins with chest
strap, then the strap over the
hips and then the strap over the
thighs
■
Strapping is done in some
other order
■
Hands are not strapped inside
the strap
Hip strap is placed across the
hips with the hands secured
underneath the strap
Straps are tight and once all
straps are secured, they are rechecked
■
Straps are loose and victim
can easily fall
■
Straps are not re-checked for
tightness
■
Straps are not tightened if
loose
■
Head immobilizer is not used
■
Head immobilizer is placed
and moves victim’s head or
neck
■
No strap is used across the
victim’s forehead
■
No verbal communication
■
Communication does not
result in effective actions
■
Backboard is dropped
■
Victim falls
■
■
Immobilize the victim’s head
(Options described on page 130 are
permitted if the head immobilizer
cannot be adjusted to the height of
the victim.)
■
Head immobilizer is placed to
immobilize the victim’s head
■
Head strap is secured across the
victim’s forehead
Lower the victim to the ground
■
Lifeguards communicate what,
how or when actions happen
■
Backboard is lowered carefully
to the ground
SKILL ASSESSMENT TOOL: MANUAL STABILIZATION FOR A NONSTANDING
VICTIM OF A HEAD, NECK OR SPINAL INJURY ON LAND
Criteria
Proficient
Not Proficient
Stabilize the victim’s head
■
Places one hand on each side of
the victim’s head and applies
gentle pressure
■
Places only one hand on the
side of victim’s head
■
Does not stabilize the head
■
Victim’s head remains in the
position found
■
Moves the victim’s head in line
with body
LESSON
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7
|
First Aid
131
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WHEN THINGS DO NOT GO AS PRACTICED
SKILL CHART: FRONT HEAD-HOLD ESCAPE
1.
As soon as the victim grabs hold, take a quick breath, tuck your chin down, turn your head to either side, raise
your shoulders and submerge with the victim.
2.
Once under water, grasp the victim’s elbows or the undersides of the victim’s arms just above the elbows.
Forcefully push up and away. Keep your chin tucked, your arms fully extended and your shoulders raised
until you are free.
3.
Quickly swim under water, out of the victim’s reach. Surface and reposition the rescue tube and try the rescue
again.
SKILL CHART: REAR HEAD-HOLD ESCAPE
1.
Take a quick breath, tuck your chin down, turn your head to either side, raise your shoulders and submerge
with the victim.
2.
Once under water, grasp the victim’s elbows or the undersides of the victim’s arms just above the elbows.
Forcefully push up and away while twisting your head and shoulders. Keep your chin tucked, your arms fully
extended and your shoulders raised until you are free.
3.
Quickly swim under water out of the victim’s reach. Surface and reposition the rescue tube and try the rescue
again.
SKILL ASSESSMENT TOOL: ESCAPES
Criteria
Proficient
Not Proficient
Lifeguard releases the victim’s hold
Lifeguard presses victim’s arms up
and pushes victim away
Does not release the victim’s hold
Lifeguard swims away to safety
Lifeguards swims under water to a
safe distance from the victim
Victim grabs rescuer again
Lifeguard re-attempts the rescue
Lifeguard repositions the rescue
tube and attempts to rescue the
victim again
Does not re-attempt a rescue
IN-WATER VENTILATIONS
SKILL CHART: IN-WATER VENTILATIONS
1.
Ensure that the rescue tube is placed under the victim so the victim’s head naturally falls back to an openairway position.
2.
From behind the victim’s head, position the resuscitation mask, seal the mask and open the airway.
3.
Give ventilations.
4.
Remove the victim from the water as soon as conditions allow, then immediately resume providing care.
Instructor’s note: Remind participants not to give ventilations but rather to simulate ventilations on
their partner.
SKILL ASSESSMENT TOOL: IN-WATER VENTILATIONS
Criteria
Proficient
Not Proficient
Open the airway
Performs a jaw-thrust maneuver
Does not open the airway by using
a jaw-thrust maneuver
Seal mask and give
simulated ventilations
Properly seals mask and simulates
ventilations
■
Mask is not properly sealed
■
Simulated ventilations are
not given
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LESSON
8
HEAD, NECK AND SPINAL
INJURIES IN THE WATER
¡
¡
Session Length: 3 hours, 10 minutes
Shallow Water Lifeguarding Session Length: 2 hours, 30 minutes
LESSON OBJECTIVES
After completing this lesson, participants will be able to:
Demonstrate how to care for victims with head, neck and spinal injuries in shallow and deep water.
■
Demonstrate how to care for victims with head, neck and spinal injuries in shallow water only.
(Shallow Water Lifeguarding)
■
ADDITIONAL MATERIALS, EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLIES
■
■
■
■
■
Final Written Exam: Section 1, Exams A and B, and answer sheets (one for each participant)
Answer keys for Final Written Exam: Section 1
Non-latex disposable gloves (one pair per participant)
Rescue tubes (one for every three participants)
Backboards, each equipped with 3 straps and head immobilizers (one backboard for every three participants
is recommended; if fewer backboards are available, additional time may be required)
FINAL WRITTEM EXAM: SECTION 1—
CPR/AED FOR THE PROFESSIONAL
RESCUER AND FIRST AID
Activity
■
Tell participants that they will now take Section 1 of the final written exam on the
information covered in Lessons 5, 6 and 7. They may not use their manual or notes to
find the answers.
■
Hand out an exam and answer sheet to each participant. Tell participants to write
only on the answer sheet and mark answers clearly.
■
Tell participants to come to you or raise their hands when they have finished the
exam or if they have questions.
■
Once exams are completed, collect all exams and answer sheets. Before the next
lesson, grade the exam using the answer key.
■
At the beginning of Lesson 9, hand back the exam and review it with participants.
Make arrangements for those participants who score less than 80 percent to review
the material and retake the opposite version of the exam.
LESSON
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Time: 40 minutes
8
|
Head, Neck and Spinal Injuries in the Water
133
12/14/11 8:13 AM
TOPIC: CARING FOR HEAD, NECK AND
SPINAL INJURIES IN THE WATER
Time: 10 minutes
PRESENTATION: CARING FOR HEAD, NECK AND SPINAL INJURIES IN THE WATER
Video Segment
Lecture
■
Show the video segment, “Head, Neck and Spinal Injuries in the Water.”
■
Answer participants’ questions about the segment.
■
Head, neck or spinal injuries often are caused by high-impact/high-risk
activities. In aquatic environments, examples of these activities include:
|
Entering head-first into shallow water.
|
Entering the water from a height, such as a diving board, water slide,
an embankment, cliff or tower.
|
Striking a submerged or floating object.
|
Receiving a blow to the head.
|
Colliding with another swimmer.
|
Striking the water with high impact, such as falling while water
skiing or surfing.
■
When a head, neck or spinal injury is suspected, the goal is to
minimize movement.
■
If you suspect a head, neck or spinal injury, tell the victim to say “yes” or
“no” in response to your questions instead of nodding or shaking his or
her head.
■
Whether on land or in the water, care for life-threatening conditions is
the number one priority. If a spinal injury is suspected and the victim is
not breathing, remove the nonbreathing victim from the water and
resuscitate him or her by the fastest means available. Do not delay
removal from the water by strapping the victim to the board or using a
head immobilizer device.
■
If the victim is in the water and is breathing, immobilize him or her using
a backboard equipped with straps and a head-immobilizer device. This
needs to be done quickly but carefully.
■
The type of care that you provide to a victim with an injury to the head,
neck or spine depends on:
|
The victim’s condition, including whether he or she is conscious and
breathing.
|
The location of the victim (shallow or deep water, at the surface of
the water, submerged or not in the water).
|
The availability of additional help, such as other lifeguards,
bystanders, fire fighters, police or emergency medical services (EMS)
personnel.
|
The facility’s specific procedures.
|
The air and water temperature.
Team Spinal Backboarding
Lecture
134
■
Team spinal backboarding requires communication by all lifeguards
involved and an understanding of each person’s role in the process.
■
A minimum of two lifeguards is needed to place and secure a victim on a
backboard, but additional lifeguards also should help, if available.
■
Throughout the backboarding process, you or another lifeguard must
maintain stabilization of the victim’s head and neck.
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■
Rescue tubes can be used to aid in flotation of the backboard. Additional
lifeguards also can assist in keeping the board afloat.
■
Communication with the victim also is important. Let the victim know
what you are doing and reassure him or her along the way. Instruct the
victim to avoid moving his or her head, such as by nodding, when
communicating with you.
■
Once the victim is secured onto the backboard, remove the victim from
the water.
■
After the victim is out of the water, assess his or her condition and
provide the appropriate care. Place a towel or blanket on the victim to
keep him or her warm if needed.
IN-WATER SKILL SESSION:
Time: 2 hours, 20 minutes
HEAD, NECK AND
Shallow Water Lifeguarding Time: 1 hour, 40 minutes
SPINAL INJURIES
PRESENTATION: NEXT STEPS
Skill Practice—
Shallow Water
■
Explain to participants that during the skill session you will demonstrate skills and
guide them through practice.
■
For the first three skills, pair up participants and explain that they will take turns as
victim and rescuer for each skill. For the shallow water backboarding procedure,
divide participants into groups of three—two are in the role of lifeguard and one as a
victim. Each group should practice the backboarding procedure at least two times so
that all participants have the opportunity be in the role of lifeguard.
■
For each skill, organize participants so that they can clearly see and hear. Be sure to
provide any instructions related to their position in the water or how they should
behave as victims.
■
Lead them through the following shallow water skills:
|
|
|
|
Skill Practice—
Deep Water
Head splint—face-up victim at or near the surface in shallow water
●
Lifeguards: in shallow water
●
Victims: face-up in shallow water, responsive
Head splint—face-down victim at or near the surface in shallow water
●
Lifeguards: in shallow water
●
Victims: face-down in shallow water, responsive once face-up at surface
Head splint—submerged victim in shallow water
●
Lifeguards: in shallow water
●
Victims: submerged in shallow water, responsive once face-up at surface
Spinal backboarding procedure
●
Lifeguards: in shallow water
●
Victims: face-down in shallow water, responsive once face-up at surface
■
Participants should practice the skills until they are able to meet
performance criteria.
■
Observe each participant’s performance of the skill and provide corrective feedback.
■
Explain to participants that during the skill session you will demonstrate skills and
guide them through practice.
■
For the first two skills, pair up participants and explain that they will take turns as
victim and rescuer for each skill. For the deep water backboarding procedure, divide
participants into groups of five—four are in the role of lifeguard and one as a victim.
Each group should practice the backboarding procedure at least two times so that all
participants have the opportunity to be in the role of lifeguard.
LESSON
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|
Head, Neck and Spinal Injuries in the Water
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12/14/11 8:13 AM
■
Reinforce to them that the mechanics of the skills are essentially the same in deep
water as in shallow water. The skills are more challenging, however, because lifeguards
are unable to stand to accomplish the skills. Rescue tubes can provide support to
lifeguards as well as the victim. Additional lifeguards also can provide assistance.
■
Prior to the spinal backboarding procedure, remind participants that backboards,
straps and head immobilizers may vary at different facilities. When employed as a
lifeguard, they should expect to be trained on the use of the backboard as part of a
new employee orientation and in-service training.
■
Ask participants: What are the steps they will use to secure a victim to a
backboard?
Answers: Responses should include:
■
|
Position the backboard under the victim.
|
Secure the chest strap high into the armpits.
|
Secure the hip strap with the hands also secured in the strap.
|
Secure the strap across the thighs.
|
Place the head blocks next to the head.
|
Secure the head blocks with the head strap.
For each skill, organize participants so that they can clearly see and hear. Be sure to
provide any instructions related to their position in the water or how they should
behave as victims.
SHALLOW WATER LIFEGUARDING
■
For the Shallow Water Lifeguarding course, omit the skill practice in deep water.
■
However, before giving participants the assignment for the next lesson, ask
participants, What are the steps you will use to secure a victim to a
backboard?
Answers: Responses should include:
■
|
Position the backboard under the victim.
|
Secure the chest strap high into the armpits.
|
Secure the hip strap with the hands also secured in the strap.
|
Secure the strap across the thighs.
|
Place the head blocks next to the head.
|
Secure the head blocks with the head strap.
Lead them through the following deep water skills:
|
|
|
Head splint—face-down victim at or near the surface in deep water
●
Lifeguards: in deep water
●
Victims: face-down in deep water, responsive once face-up at surface
Head splint—submerged victim in deep water
●
Lifeguards: in deep water
●
Victims: submerged in deep water, responsive once face-up at surface
Spinal backboarding procedure
●
Lifeguards: in deep water
●
Victims: face-down in deep water, responsive once face-up at surface
■
Participants should practice the skills until they are able to meet performance criteria.
■
Observe each participant’s performance of the skill and provide corrective feedback.
■
Remind participants to prepare for the final written exam on lifeguarding skills by
reviewing Chapters 1 to 6 and Chapter 11 of the Lifeguarding Manual before the next
class session.
ASSIGNMENT
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SKILL CHARTS AND ASSESSMENT TOOLS
In addition to performing the steps listed in the skill chart in the correct order, participants must meet the criteria
listed at the proficient level to be checked off for this skill. Assessment criteria that are general for the category of
skills, as well as specific to the skill, must be met.
IN-LINE STABILIZATION—IN-WATER
SKILL CHART: HEAD SPLINT—FACE-UP VICTIM AT OR NEAR THE SURFACE
1.
Approach the victim’s head from behind or stand behind the victim’s head.
|
In shallow water, lower your body so that the water level is at your neck.
|
In deep water, use the rescue tube under both of your arms for support.
2.
Grasp the victim’s arms midway between his or her shoulder and elbow. Grasp the victim’s right arm with
your right hand and the victim’s left arm with your left hand. Gently move the victim’s arms up alongside the
head. Position yourself to the victim’s side while trapping the victim’s head with his or her arms.
3.
Slowly and carefully squeeze the victim’s arms against his or her head to help hold the head in line with the
body. Do not move the victim any more than necessary.
4.
Position the victim’s head close to the crook of your arm, with the head in line with the body.
5.
Check for consciousness and breathing.
6.
|
If the victim is not breathing, immediately remove the victim from the water using a technique, such as
the two-person-removal-from-the-water, and provide resuscitative care. Do not delay removal from the
water by strapping the victim in or using the head immobilizer.
|
If the victim is breathing, hold the victim with the head in line with the body and move toward safety
until the backboard arrives. In deep water, move the victim to shallow water, if possible.
Continuously monitor for consciousness and breathing. If at any time the victim stops breathing, immediately
remove the victim from the water and then provide appropriate care.
SKILL CHART: HEAD SPLINT—FACE-DOWN VICTIM AT OR NEAR THE SURFACE
1.
Approach the victim from the side.
2.
Grasp the victim’s arms midway between the shoulder and elbow. Grasp the victim’s right arm with your right
hand and the victim’s left arm with your left hand. Gently move the victim’s arms up alongside the head.
3.
Squeeze the victim’s arms against his or her head to help hold the head in line with the body.
4.
Glide the victim slowly forward.
|
In deep water, use the rescue tube under both of your arms for support.
|
In shallow water, lower your body to shoulder depth before gliding the victim forward.
|
Continue moving slowly and turn the victim until he or she is face-up. To do this, push the victim’s arm
that is closest to you under the water while pulling the victim’s other arm across the surface toward you.
5.
Position the victim’s head in the crook of your arm, with the head in line with the body.
6.
Check for consciousness and breathing.
7.
|
If the victim is not breathing, immediately remove the victim from the water using a technique, such as
the two-person-removal-from-the-water, and provide resuscitative care. Do not delay removal from the
water by strapping the victim in or using the head immobilizer device.
|
If the victim is breathing, hold the victim with the head in line with the body and move toward safety
until the backboard arrives. In deep water, move the victim to shallow water, if possible.
Continuously monitor for consciousness and breathing. If at any time the victim stops breathing, immediately
remove the victim from the water and then provide appropriate care.
LESSON
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|
Head, Neck and Spinal Injuries in the Water
137
12/14/11 8:13 AM
SKILL CHART: HEAD SPLINT—SUBMERGED VICTIM
1.
Approach the victim from the side. In deep water, release the rescue tube if the victim is more than an arm’s
reach beneath the surface.
2.
Grasp the victim’s arms midway between the shoulder and elbow. Grasp the victim’s right arm with your right
hand and the victim’s left arm with your left hand. Gently move the victim’s arms up alongside the head.
3.
Squeeze the victim’s arms against his or her head to help hold the head in line with the body.
4.
Turn the victim face-up while bringing the victim to the surface at an angle. To turn the victim face-up, push
the victim’s arm that is closest to you down and away from you while pulling the victim’s other arm toward
you. The victim should be face-up just before reaching the surface or at the surface.
5.
Position the victim’s head close to the crook of your arm, with the head in line with the body. Another
lifeguard can place a rescue tube under your armpits to help support you and the victim.
6.
7.
Check for consciousness and breathing.
|
If the victim is not breathing, immediately remove the victim from the water using a technique, such as
the two-person-removal-from-the-water, and provide resuscitative care. Do not delay removal from the
water by strapping the victim in or using the head immobilizer device.
|
If the victim is breathing, hold the victim with the head in line with the body and move toward safety
until the backboard arrives. In deep water, move the victim to shallow water, if possible.
Continuously monitor for consciousness and breathing. If at any time the victim stops breathing, immediately
remove the victim from the water and then provide appropriate care.
Note: If the victim is submerged but face-up, approach the victim from behind and follow the same steps for a
Face-Up Victim At or Near the Surface while you bring the victim to the surface.
SKILL ASSESSMENT TOOL: HEAD SPLINT—IN-LINE STABILIZATION FOR A VICTIM
IN THE WATER
Criteria
Proficient
Not Proficient
Provide in-line stabilization
■
Moves victim’s arms to a secure
position against the victim’s
head
■
Does not move victim’s arms
against the victim’s head or
maintain pressure
■
Equal pressure on both arms is
maintained throughout rescue
■
One arm is pressed against
head and one is not
■
Victim’s face does not submerge
■
■
Mouth and nose are above water
Victim’s face submerges under
water
■
Victim’s mouth or nose is
under water
■
Does not move to shallow
water to stand up if it is safe
and possible
■
Remains in moving water
when access to a sheltered
area is possible
Victim’s face remains out of the
water
Move victim to a safe location to
prepare for backboarding
■
Moves victim to shallow water if
safe and possible
■
If rescue involves moving water,
moves victim to a sheltered area
SPINAL BACKBOARDING AND REMOVAL FROM WATER
SKILL CHART: SPINAL BACKBOARDING PROCEDURE—SHALLOW WATER
1.
The first lifeguard (primary rescuer) provides in-line stabilization until another lifeguard arrives with the
backboard.
2.
The assisting lifeguard removes the head-immobilizer device, enters the water, submerges the backboard and
positions the board under the victim so that it extends slightly beyond the victim’s head. The victim’s head
should be centered on the backboard’s head space.
3.
While an assisting lifeguard raises the backboard into place, the primary rescuer moves the elbow that is
under the victim toward the top of the backboard while continuing to apply pressure on both of the victim’s
arms, using the victim’s arms as a splint.
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4.
Once the backboard is in place, an assisting lifeguard then stabilizes the victim by placing one hand and arm
on the victim’s chin and chest, the other hand and arm under the backboard. The primary rescuer then
releases his or her grip on the victim’s arms.
5.
The primary rescuer lowers the victim’s arms, moves behind the victim’s head and places the rescue tube
under the head of the backboard to aid in flotation of the board.
6.
The primary rescuer balances the backboard on the rescue tube with his or her forearms and stabilizes the
victim’s head by placing his or her hands along each side of the victim’s head.
7.
An assisting lifeguard secures the victim on the backboard with a minimum of three straps: across the victim’s
chest, hips and thighs. Secure the straps in the following order:
|
Strap high across the chest and under the victim’s armpits. This helps to prevent the victim from sliding
on the backboard during the removal.
|
Strap across the hips with the victim’s arms and hands secured under the straps.
|
Strap across the thighs.
|
Recheck straps to be sure that they are secure.
8.
The rescuers secure the victim’s head to the backboard using a head immobilizer and a strap across the
victim’s forehead.
9.
If not done already, bring the victim to the side of the pool.
SKILL CHART: SPINAL BACKBOARDING PROCEDURE—DEEP WATER
(LIFEGUARDING COURSE ONLY)
1.
The first lifeguard (primary rescuer) provides in-line stabilization. If the victim is face-down, the primary
rescuer turns the victim into a face-up position. If necessary, an assisting lifeguard retrieves the primary
rescuer’s rescue tube and inserts it under the primary rescuer’s armpits.
2.
The primary rescuer moves the victim to the side, if possible, toward a corner. An assisting lifeguard places a
rescue tube under the victim’s knees to raise the legs. This makes it easier to place the backboard under the
victim.
3.
An assisting lifeguard places the backboard under the victim while the primary rescuer maintains
stabilization.
4.
As an assisting lifeguard raises the backboard into place, the primary rescuer moves the elbow that is under
the victim toward the top of the backboard while continuing to apply pressure on both of the victim’s arms.
An assisting lifeguard stabilizes the victim with one hand and arm on the victim’s chin and chest, and the
other hand and arm under the backboard.
5.
Once the backboard is in place, the primary rescuer then lowers the victim’s arms, moves behind the victim’s
head and places a rescue tube under the head of the backboard. The primary rescuer balances the board on
the rescue tube with his or her forearms and stabilizes the victim’s head by placing his or her hands along
each side of the victim’s head. The assisting rescuer moves to the foot of the board and removes the rescue
tube under the victim’s knees by sliding the rescue tube toward him or herself.
6.
An assisting lifeguard secures the victim on the backboard by placing straps at least across the victim’s chest,
hips and thighs. After all the straps have been checked and properly secured, the rescuers secure the victim’s
head using a head immobilizer and a strap across the victim’s forehead.
SKILL CHART: SPINAL INJURY REMOVAL FROM THE WATER ON A BACKBOARD
1.
Once the victim is properly secured to the backboard, position the backboard with the head end by the side of
the pool and the foot end straight out into the water.
2.
With one lifeguard at each side, lift the head of the backboard slightly and place it on the edge. Use one or two
rescue tubes if needed to support the foot end of the board.
3.
One lifeguard gets out of the pool while the other maintains control of the backboard. Once out of the water,
the lifeguard on land grasps the head of the backboard while the other gets out of the water.
4.
Together the lifeguards stand and step backward, pulling the backboard and sliding it up over the edge and
out of and away from the water. If available, an assisting lifeguard remains in the water to help push the
board.
5.
If available, additional lifeguards can help to guide and remove the backboard out of the water and onto land,
then begin to assess the victim’s condition and provide the appropriate care.
LESSON
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8
|
Head, Neck and Spinal Injuries in the Water
139
12/27/11 10:12 AM
SKILL ASSESSMENT TOOL: SPINAL BACKBOARDING PROCEDURE
Criteria
Proficient
Not Proficient
Maintain in-line stabilization
■
Primary lifeguard maintains
in-line stabilization while
backboard is being positioned.
■
Loss of in-line stabilization
during the rescue
■
Loss of contact with the victim
■
Assisting lifeguard maintains
in-line stabilization while victim
is being strapped to the board
and while head immobilizers
are being secured.
■
Lifeguards do not
communicate as needed when
switching
■
Victim’s face does not submerge
■
■
Mouth and nose are above water
Victim’s face submerges under
water
■
Victim’s mouth or nose is
under water
■
Victim’s head is not aligned on
the backboard’s head space
■
Victim is not aligned and on
the backboard.
Victim’s face remains out of the
water
Position the victim on the
backboard
Secure straps
Immobilize the victim’s head
■
Backboard is raised to support
the victim’s head with the head
aligned with the backboard’s
head space
■
Victim’s body is on the
backboard
■
Strapping begins with chest
strap, then the strap over the
hips and then the strap over the
thighs
■
Strapping is done in some
other order
■
Hands are not strapped inside
the strap
■
Hip strap is placed across the
hips with the victim’s hands
secured underneath the strap
■
Straps are loose so that victim
can easily slide
■
Straps are tight, and once all
straps are secured, they are
rechecked
■
Straps are not rechecked for
tightness
■
Straps are not tightened if
discovered to be loose
■
Head immobilizer is not used
■
Head immobilizer is placed
but moves victim’s head or
neck
■
No strap is used across the
victim’s forehead
■
Head immobilizer is placed to
immobilize the victim’s head
■
Head strap is secured across the
victim’s forehead
SPINAL INJURY REMOVAL FROM THE WATER ON A BACKBOARD
Lifeguards communicate as a team
to remove the victim from the water
Lifeguards communicate what, how
or when actions happen
■
No verbal communication
■
Communication does not
result in effective actions
Victim’s face remains out of the
water
■
Victim’s face does not submerge
■
■
Mouth and nose are above water
Victim’s face submerges under
water
■
Victim’s mouth or nose is
under water
■
Backboard is lifted in the air,
causing the victim to move or
slide
■
Backboard is near vertical, and
victim is slipping or moving
■
Backboard is jerking or
rocking from side to side
Lifeguards remove the backboard
and victim from the water
140
■
Backboard removed from the
water by sliding it along the edge
■
Backboard held steady during
removal
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12/14/11 8:13 AM
LESSON
9
FINAL WRITTEN EXAM AND FINAL
IN-WATER SKILL SCENARIOS
¡
Session Length: 2 hours, 40 minutes
LESSON OBJECTIVES
After completing this lesson, participants will be able to:
■
Demonstrate how to care for a victim with a head, neck or spinal injury in shallow water.
■
Demonstrate how to rescue an active victim in deep water.
■
Demonstrate how to rescue a submerged passive victim in deep water and provide care.
■
Demonstrate how to rescue an active victim in shallow water. (Shallow Water Lifeguarding only)
■
Demonstrate how to rescue a submerged passive victim in shallow water and provide care.
(Shallow Water Lifeguarding only)
ADDITIONAL MATERIALS, EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLIES
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
Final Written Exam: Section 2, Exams A and B, and answer sheets (one for each participant)
Answer keys for Final Written Exam: Section 2
Backboards (one for each test group and at least one for practice)
Adult manikins (at least two so they can be rotated and decontaminated)
Decontamination supplies
Towel (to dry the manikin when using the AED training device)
Bag-valve-mask resuscitator (BVM) (one for each test group; one for practice)
AED training devices (one for each test group)
AED training pads (one set for each AED training device)
TOPIC:
Activity
REVIEW OF FINAL WRITTEN
EXAM: SECTION 1—CPR/AED
FOR THE PROFESSIONAL
RESCUER AND FIRST AID
■
Return the final written exam and answer sheets for Section 1—CPR/AED for the
Professional Rescuer and First Aid to participants for them to review.
■
Answer participants’ questions about the exam.
■
Make arrangements for those participants who need to retake the exam.
■
Collect the exams and answer sheets.
LESSON
LGI_SecB_p141-144.indd 141
Time: 5 minutes
9
|
Final Written Exam and Final In-Water Skill Scenarios
141
10/13/11 11:55 AM
FINAL WRITTEM EXAM: SECTION 2—
LIFEGUARDING SKILLS
Activity
Time: 30 minutes
■
Tell participants that they will now take Section 2 of the final written exam on the
information covered in Lessons 1 through 4 and Lesson 8. They may not use their
manual or notes to find the answers.
■
Hand out an exam and answer sheet to each participant. Tell participants to write
only on the answer sheet and mark answers clearly.
SHALLOW WATER LIFEGUARDING
TOPIC:
Activity
■
If teaching the Shallow Water Lifeguarding course, hand out Final Written Exam:
Section 2—Shallow Water Lifeguarding Skills and answer sheet to each participant.
■
Tell participants to come to you or raise their hand when they have finished the exam
or if they have questions.
■
Once exams are completed, collect all exams and answer sheets. Before the next
lesson, grade the exam using the answer key.
■
Hand back the exam and review it with participants. Collect all exams, as the exam is
a standard exam that participants should not be allowed to keep. Make arrangements
for those participants who score less than 80 percent to review the material and
retake the opposite version of the exam.
IN-WATER SKILL SESSION:
GENERAL SKILLS REVIEW
■
Time: 30 minutes
This time is allotted for general skills review to meet the needs of each class. As the
instructor, you should set up and facilitate a session to help participants practice
skills before the final skill scenarios.
SHALLOW WATER LIFEGUARDING
■
If teaching the Shallow Water Lifeguarding course, pre-assign the groups for the
Skills Scenario 3: Submerged Passive Victim in Shallow Water Timed Response.
FINAL IN-WATER SKILL SCENARIOS
Activity
■
Tell participants that there are three skill scenarios.
■
All skills must be performed according to the proficiency requirements to meet the
objective of the skills.
■
Each participant has only two opportunities to complete each scenario
successfully.
■
If a participant does not successfully complete a scenario during the first attempt,
options include:
■
142
Time: 1 hour, 30 minutes
|
Reattempting the scenario during the normal lesson after a brief consultation on
the corrective actions needed to complete the scenario successfully.
|
If additional practice is needed and time and resources permit, asking the
participant to see you after class to schedule a re-evaluation of the unsuccessful
scenarios at a later time.
To set up each scenario:
|
Assign one participant to simulate drowning victim behaviors as instructed.
|
Instruct the rescuing lifeguard to simulate activating an emergency action plan
(EAP) and perform the appropriate rescue based on the type of victim observed.
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12/15/11 2:29 PM
|
Provide each rescuing lifeguard a rescue tube and hip pack containing non-latex
disposable gloves and a resuscitation mask.
|
Have a manikin available to substitute into the scenario for a passive victim once
the primary assessment is complete.
Final Scenario 1: Head, Neck or Spinal Injury in Shallow Water
Instructor’s Note: This scenario does not include immobilizing the victim on a
backboard or removal from the water.
■
Assign a primary lifeguard to a ground-level station for a shallow water zone.
■
Assign a participant to be a victim of a suspected head, neck or spinal injury in
shallow water and face-down at the surface. The victim will be responsive when
turned face-up.
■
Begin the scenario by prompting the victim to simulate a spinal injury victim in
shallow water.
■
Repeat the scenario until each participant has performed in-line stabilization for a
spinal injury in shallow water.
Final Scenario 2: Active Victim in Deep Water
Instructor’s Note: The lifeguard must use the appropriate active victim rescue
depending on the direction the active victim is facing. This scenario does not include
removal from the water.
■
Assign a primary lifeguard to an elevated or ground-level station for a deep water
zone.
■
Assign a victim to role-play an active victim in deep water facing any direction he or
she chooses.
■
Begin the scenario by prompting the victim to begin simulating an active victim.
■
Repeat the scenario until each participant has performed an active victim rescue.
SHALLOW WATER LIFEGUARDING
■
For the Shallow Water Lifeguarding course, follow the directions for the Active
Victim in Deep Water with the exception of having the lifeguard and victim stationed
in shallow water.
Final Scenario 3: Submerged Passive Victim in Deep Water—Timed
Response
■
Explain to participants that this is a timed scenario, with 2 minutes allotted for the
water rescue and removal of the victim from the water (with an assisting lifeguard
who will bring the backboard), followed by 3 minutes of one-rescuer CPR.
Note:
■
Divide the participants into groups of three and assign one rescuing lifeguard, one
assisting lifeguard to help with removal from the water, one victim and one
manikin for each group.
■
Tell the victim to get into position about 30 feet from the edge and submerge as the
rescuing lifeguard gets near.
■
Start the stopwatch once the EAP has been activated, and again once the rescuer
begins CPR.
■
Repeat the drill until each person in the group has performed as a rescuing
lifeguard.
SHALLOW WATER LIFEGUARDING
■
For the Shallow Water Lifeguarding course, follow the directions for the Submerged
Passive Victim in Shallow Water—Timed Response with the exception of having the
lifeguard and victim stationed in shallow water.
LESSON
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9
|
Final Written Exam and Final In-Water Skill Scenarios
143
10/13/11 11:55 AM
TOPIC:
Activity
CLOSING
Time: 5 minutes
■
Thank all participants for attending the course.
■
Congratulate participants on successful completion.
■
Explain that they will receive a certificate that indicates Lifeguarding/First Aid and
CPR/AED for Lifeguard, all valid for 2 years.
SHALLOW WATER LIFEGUARDING
144
■
For the Shallow Water Lifeguarding course, explain that participants will receive a
certificate that indicates Shallow Water Lifeguarding (up to 5 ft)/First Aid and CPR/
AED for Lifeguard, all valid for 2 years.
■
Make arrangements to retest any participants who did not pass the final written
exam(s) or scenario(s).
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Activity Worksheet 1.1—Reasons for the Rules
Aquatic Facilities—General
1.
Swim only when a lifeguard is on duty.
2.
No running, pushing or rough play.
3.
Dive only in designated areas.
4.
No diving in shallow water (water up to 5 feet
deep).
5.
No glass containers in the pool area and locker
rooms.
6.
No alcoholic beverages or other drug use allowed.
Reason
Waterfront Facilities
1.
No playing or swimming under piers, rafts,
platforms or play structures.
2.
No running and diving head-first into shallow
water.
3.
No fishing near swimming areas.
4.
No umbrellas at the waterline.
ACTIVITY WORKSHEET
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1.1
|
Reasons for the Rules
145
10/13/11 11:56 AM
5.
No swimming in unauthorized areas.
Waterpark Facilities, Including Winding Rivers and Waterslides
1.
Designated age, height or weight requirements for
using an attraction.
2.
Enter and exit the winding river only at designated
places.
3.
Stay in tubes at all times.
4.
No metal objects, locker keys, jewelry, metal
snaps/zippers, eyewear or watches, including metal
rivets, buttons or fasteners on swimsuits or shorts.
5.
No running, stopping, standing, kneeling, rotating
or tumbling on the slides.
Diving Areas
1.
Patrons must demonstrate their swimming ability
before entering deep water.
2.
Only one patron on the diving board at a time.
3.
Only one bounce allowed on the diving board.
4.
Dive or jump forward, straight out from the diving
board.
5.
Swim immediately to the closest ladder or wall.
146
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10/13/11 11:56 AM
Spas, Hot Tubs and Therapy Pools
1.
Shower with soap and water before entering the
water.
2.
People with certain medical conditions are not
allowed to use the spa or hot tub.
3.
Pregnant women and young children should seek
their doctor’s approval before using a spa or hot tub.
4.
Do not allow anyone to sit or play near the drain or
suction fittings.
5.
Limit time in the spa to 10 minutes. Patrons then
may shower, cool down and return briefly.
ACTIVITY WORKSHEET
LGI_SecB_Wrksht_p145-150.indd 147
1.1
|
Reasons for the Rules
147
10/13/11 11:56 AM
Activity Worksheet 2.1—Guarding Special Attractions
Attractions
Issues for Guarding the Special Attraction
Areas Specifically for Young Children
Play Structures
Special Rides and Attractions
Water Slides
Winding Rivers
Wave Pools
148
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10/13/11 11:56 AM
Activity Worksheet 3.1—Strategies for a Safe Group Visit
Scenarios
Guarding Strategies
Scenario 1: You are guarding multiple activities
using the pool in addition to an organized group of
30 preschool-aged children with four group leaders. In
general, what should you ensure and be aware of while
guarding the activity?
Scenario 2: You are tasked with giving a quick safety
orientation to a camp group that will be using the
diving boards. Group members took the facility swim
test, and all are approved to swim in deep water. List
some common rules that you will review for the safe
use of the diving boards and briefly describe how you
would cover the information.
Scenario 3: You will be working a private rental
at your facility for families with children of all ages
from your local athletic association. You will be doing
a safety orientation for the group. Who will you be
instructing during the orientation and what items will
you be sure to cover?
ACTIVITY WORKSHEET
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3.1
|
Strategies for a Safe Group Visit
149
10/13/11 11:56 AM
Activity Worksheet 6.1—Using an AED in Unique Situations—
Fact or Fiction
Fact
Fiction
1.
Fact
Fiction
2. An AED cannot be used on a pregnant woman.
Fact
Fiction
3. If someone has chest hair, you should shave it before using the AED.
Fact
Fiction
4. If a victim has a body piercing or is wearing jewelry, you should remove
the item before using an AED.
Fact
Fiction
5. Never shock someone who has an implantable cardioverterdefibrillator (ICD) or pacemaker device.
Fact
Fiction
6. If you see a transdermal medication patch you should use a gloved hand
to remove it.
Fact
Fiction
7.
Fact
Fiction
8. Never shock a victim on a metal surface.
Fact
Fiction
9. Never shock a victim suffering from hypothermia.
150
It is safe to use an AED in rain or snow.
Never shock a person who is suffering from traumatic injuries.
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SECTION
C | WATERFRONT SKILLS
MODULE OUTLINE
Activity
Time
Introduction to the Waterfront Skills Module
10 minutes
Verification of Certification Prerequisite
5 minutes
Verification of Swimming Skills
40 minutes
Unique Aspects of Waterfront Lifeguarding
45 minutes
Waterfront Rescue Skills
10 minutes
Video: Waterfront Rescue Skills
In-Water Skill Session: Waterfront Rescue Skills
180 minutes
Skill: Run-and-Swim Entry
Skill: Walking Assist
Skill: Beach Drag
Skill: Front-and-Back Carry
Skill: Head Splint—Face-Down in Extremely Shallow Water
Skill: Searching Shallow-Water Areas
Skill: Entering the Water While Wearing Mask and Fins
Skill: Feet-First Surface Dive with Mask and Fins
Skill: Head-First Surface Dive with Mask and Fins
Skill: Searching Deep-Water Areas
Skill: Approaching a Victim on a Rescue Board
Skill: Rescuing an Active Victim with a Rescue Board in Deep Water
Skill: Rescuing a Passive Victim with a Rescue Board in Deep Water
Putting It All Together
20 minutes
Final Written Exam: Waterfront Skills Module
25 minutes
Closing
5 minutes
Total Time
5 hours 40 minutes
SECTION
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C
|
Waterfront Skills Module
151
11/2/11 1:35 PM
WATERFRONT SKILLS MODULE
MODULE NOTES
The purpose of the Waterfront Skills module is to teach lifeguards the knowledge and skills needed to prevent
and respond to emergencies in nonsurf, open-water areas found at public parks, resorts, summer camps
and campgrounds.
MODULE PREREQUISITES
■
Age Prerequisite: Candidates must be 15 years old by the last day of the module.
■
Certification Prerequisite: Candidates must have a current American Red Cross Lifeguarding/First Aid/CPR/AED.
■
Skill Prerequisites: Candidates must successfully complete the following:
1. Swim 550 yards continuously in a prone position demonstrating breath control and rhythmic breathing.
Swimming on the back is not allowed. Swim goggles are allowed.
2. Tread water for 2 minutes using only the legs. Candidates should place their hands under the armpits.
3. Complete a timed event within 1 minute, 40 seconds.
●
Starting in the water, swim 20 yards using front crawl or breaststroke. The face may be in or out of
the water. Swim goggles are not allowed.
●
Surface dive, feet-first or head-first, to a depth of 7 to 10 feet to retrieve a 10-pound object.
●
Return to the surface and swim 20 yards to return to the starting point with both hands holding the
object and keeping the face at or near the surface so they are able to get a breath. Candidates should
not swim the distance under water.
●
Exit the water without using a ladder or steps.
4. Swim 5 yards, submerge and retrieve three dive rings placed 5 yards apart in 4 to 7 feet of water,
resurface, and swim 5 yards to the side of the pool.
■
If conducting this module immediately following a full or review Lifeguarding, it is recommended that
participants perform the prerequisites for the Waterfront Skills module at the start of the Lifeguarding course.
If the prerequisite evaluation for Waterfront Skills module is not completed at this time, then it must be
completed as a precourse session for the Waterfront Skills module.
MODULE LENGTH
This module is designed to be taught in approximately 5 hours, 40 minutes, which includes the minimum time
needed for conducting the prerequisites, presenting information, practicing skills and conducting written exams.
This estimate is based on:
■
Ten participants per instructor.
■
The recommended equipment needed to conduct the module. If working with a limited amount of equipment,
build additional practice time into the module.
CLASS SIZE
It is recommended that there be one instructor for every 10 participants. If the class has more than 10
participants, you should have a co-instructor or aide or extend the class length.
152
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11/21/11 11:36 AM
FACILITY REQUIREMENTS
Classroom space should be equipped with the ability to show video segments. The swimming area must be free of
surf and obstructions and meet requirements to perform skills. A zero-depth or gradual sloping area is ideal for
practicing entry and exit skills; however, shallow water can be used. An extreme shallow water area is required for
practicing care for spinal injuries.
ADDITIONAL MATERIALS, EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLIES
■
Waterfront Skills Module Course Presentations
■
Waterfront Skills segment on the Lifeguarding DVD Set
■
DVD player and monitor
■
A 10-pound object (a diving brick or weight; one for every five participants)
■
Stopwatch
■
Three diving rings
■
Masks, assorted sizes, one per participant
■
Fins, assorted sizes, one pair per participant
■
Rescue board (one for every five participants)
■
Waterfront Skills Checklist
■
Copies of Waterfront Skills Written Exams (exams A and B) and answer sheets (one for each participant)
■
Answer keys for Waterfront Skills Written Exams
TESTING AND CERTIFICATES
■
To receive the module completion certificate for American Red Cross Waterfront Skills, the participant must:
|
Demonstrate competency in all required skills and activities.
|
Correctly answer at least 80 percent of the questions of the written exam.
■
Upon successful completion of the module, participants will receive an American Red Cross certificate
indicating Waterfront Skills that is valid for no more than 2 years. The Waterfront Skills certificate is only
valid when accompanied by a current Lifeguarding/First Aid/CPR/AED certificate.
■
Skills in the module include the following:
|
Run-and-swim entry
|
Walking assist
|
Beach drag
|
Front-and-back carry
|
Head splint—face-down in extremely shallow water
|
Searching shallow-water areas
|
Proper use of mask and fins
|
Feet-first surface dive with mask and fins
|
Head-first surface dive with mask and fins
|
Searching deep-water areas
|
Approaching a victim on a rescue board
|
Rescuing an active victim with a rescue board
|
Rescuing a passive victim with a rescue board
SECTION
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C
|
Waterfront Skills Module
153
10/13/11 12:29 PM
WATERFRONT SKILLS MODULE LESSON PLAN
¡
Session Length: 5 hours, 40 minutes
LESSON OBJECTIVES
After completing this lesson, participants will be able to:
Describe the unique aspects of waterfront lifeguarding.
■
Demonstrate how to perform the waterfront rescue skills safely and effectively.
■
TOPIC:
Activity
154
INTRODUCTION TO THE
WATERFRONT SKILLS MODULE
Time: 10 minutes
■
Welcome participants and introduce yourself, including your background in aquatics
and certification as a Red Cross instructor. Include co-instructors and aides if
applicable.
■
Have participants introduce themselves.
■
Review facility policies, including emergency procedures. Give the locations of
restrooms, locker rooms, water fountains and details unique to your facility. Also,
identify the location of the AED and first aid kit.
■
Explain that the purpose of the Waterfront Skills module is to teach lifeguards the
skills and knowledge needed to prevent and respond to emergencies in nonsurf,
open-water areas found at public parks, resorts, summer camps and campgrounds.
■
Explain the requirements to pass the module:
|
Demonstrate competency in all required skills and activities.
|
Correctly answer at least 80 percent of the questions in the written exam.
■
Explain that upon successful completion of the module, participants will receive an
American Red Cross certificate indicating Waterfront Skills that is valid for no more
than 2 years. The Waterfront Skills certificate is only valid when accompanied by a
current Lifeguarding/First Aid/CPR/AED certificate.
■
If a Waterfront Skills module is immediately following the Lifeguarding course and
all candidates are enrolled in both the Lifeguarding course and Waterfront Skills
module, the precourse session for the Waterfront Skills module should have been
used instead of the Lifeguarding precourse session. If this is the case, then it is not
necessary to repeat the Waterfront Skills swimming prerequisites. If the prerequisite
evaluation for Waterfront Skills was not completed during the Lifeguarding
precourse session, then it must be completed at this time.
■
Explain to participants that they must successfully complete the swimming
prerequisites to verify swimming ability to continue in the Red Cross Waterfront
Skills module:
1.
Swim 550 yards continuously demonstrating breath control and rhythmic
breathing. Candidates must demonstrate the ability to swim both the front crawl
and breaststroke. Swimming on the back or side is not allowed. Swim goggles are
allowed.
2.
Tread water for 2 minutes using only the legs. Candidates should place their
hands under the armpits.
3.
Complete a timed event within 1 minute, 40 seconds.
●
Starting in the water, swim 20 yards using front crawl or breaststroke. The
face may be in or out of the water for this. Swim goggles are not allowed.
●
Surface dive, feet-first or head-first, to a depth of 7 to 10 feet to retrieve a
10-pound object.
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4.
TOPIC:
Activity
TOPIC:
Activity
●
Return to the surface and swim 20 yards to return to the starting point with
both hands holding the object.
●
Exit the water without using a ladder or steps.
Swim 5 yards, submerge and retrieve three dive rings placed 5 yards apart in 4 to
7 feet of water, resurface, and swim 5 yards to the side of the pool.
VERIFICATION OF
CERTIFICATION PREREQUISITE
■
Time: 5 minutes
Check the eligibility of participants to participate in the module by checking their
American Red Cross Lifeguarding/First Aid/CPR/AED certification.
VERIFICATION OF
SWIMMING SKILLS
Time: 40 minutes
■
Explain to prospective participants that they must successfully complete four
swimming prerequisites to continue in the Waterfront Skills module.
■
Refer to the Skill Assessment Chart to evaluate performance of each prospective
participant. Record completion of each skill on the Waterfront Skills Checklist.
Waterfront Skills
Activity 1—550-Yard Swim
■
Explain to prospective participants that they must perform a 550-yard continuous
swim using the front crawl, breaststroke or a combination of both. Swimming on the
back or side is not permitted. Swim goggles are allowed.
Activity 2—Tread Water
■
Explain to prospective participants that they must tread water for 2 minutes without
support and without stopping. When treading, only the legs can be used. Candidates
should place their hands under the armpits. The head must remain above the surface
of the water.
Activity 3—Timed Event
■
Arrange the swim distance of 20 yards and place a 10-pound object at a depth of 7 to
10 feet.
■
Explain that swim goggles are not allowed for this event.
■
Evaluate each prospective participant on the following skill to be performed within
1 minute and 40 seconds.
|
Starting in the water, swim 20 yards using the front crawl or breaststroke. The
face may be in or out of the water.
|
Surface dive, feet-first or head-first, to a depth of 7 to 10 feet to retrieve a
10-pound object.
|
Return to the surface and swim 20 yards to return to the starting point with both
hands holding the object and keeping the face at or near the surface so they are
able to get a breath. The participants should not swim the distance under water.
|
Exit the water without using a ladder or steps.
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Activity 4—Underwater Swim Event
■
Arrange the swim distance area, placing three dive rings 5 yards apart in 4 to 7 feet
of water.
■
Explain that swim goggles are not allowed for this event.
■
Evaluate each participant on the following skill.
|
Starting in the water, swim 5 yards. The face may be in or out of the water.
|
Submerge, swim under water and retrieve three dive rings placed 5 yards apart
in 4 to 7 feet of water.
|
Return to the surface after picking up all three dive rings and continue to swim
another 5 yards to complete the skill sequence.
Instructor’s Note: If any participant is unable to complete the verification of
swimming ability, he or she is not eligible to continue in the Waterfront Skills module.
Privately advise any participant who did not successfully demonstrate the skills that he
or she may not continue.
TOPIC:
UNIQUE ASPECTS OF
WATERFRONT LIFEGUARDING
Time: 45 minutes
PRESENTATION: UNIQUE ASPECTS OF WATERFRONT LIFEGUARDING
Lecture
and Guided
Discussion
■
The Waterfront Skills module builds on the knowledge and skills learned
in the Lifeguarding course. Because many aquatic facilities now have a
variety of features and attractions, much of the knowledge and skills
were covered in that course.
■
The purpose of the Waterfront Skills module is to teach lifeguards the
knowledge and skills needed to prevent and respond to emergencies in
nonsurf, open-water areas found at public parks, resorts, summer
camps and campgrounds.
■
Remember, your primary responsibility is to help ensure patron safety
and protect lives. The main tool used to accomplish this is patron
surveillance—keeping a close watch over the people in the facility and
intervening when necessary.
■
Ask participants: What are the elements of effective surveillance?
Answers: Responses should include the following:
■
156
|
Recognition of dangerous behaviors
|
Victim recognition
|
Effective scanning
|
Zone of surveillance responsibility
|
Lifeguard stations
When considering the unique challenges for lifeguarding at a waterfront,
consider what is unique to waterfront facilities:
|
Underwater hazards, including plant and marine life.
|
Physical structures, such as piers and docks.
|
Changing water conditions.
|
Water quality.
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Facility Safety
Lecture
and Guided
Discussion
■
Ask participants: What underwater hazards might present concerns for
waterfront facility safety?
Answers: Responses should include the following:
|
Holes in the swimming area.
|
Sudden drop-offs.
|
Submerged objects, such as rocks, tree stumps and underwater plants.
|
Bottom conditions (sand, rock, silt, weeds and mud).
|
Slope of the bottom and water depth.
|
Shells and barnacles.
|
Broken glass or other sharp objects.
|
Marine life.
■
You should check for and, if possible, remove underwater hazards. If
hazards cannot be removed, swimming areas should be positioned away
from them. Floating buoys can be used to mark underwater hazards to
warn patrons of their danger.
■
Physical structures in the water, such as piers or docks, are often used
for different activities.
■
Ask participants: What precautions should be taken with physical
structures?
Answers: Responses should include the following:
■
|
Ensure that floating piers, docks and rafts are anchored securely.
|
Adjust attachment points between floating sections to minimize hazards.
|
Be aware of and take steps to eliminate blind spots (obstructed views) caused
by physical structures.
|
Ensure that patrons dive only in designated areas. Check the water depth daily.
Be aware of bottom and tidal changes before allowing head-first entries.
|
Prohibit swimming in fishing areas around piers or docks or adjacent to boat
activity.
Many factors can influence water conditions, which in turn can affect
patron safety including:
|
Water depth and currents.
|
Water quality.
|
Debris or cloudiness in the water.
|
Water temperature.
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■
Ask participants: What occurrences might cause changes in water depth
and water currents?
Answers: Responses should include the following:
■
|
A dam that releases water, causing the water depth above the dam to drop and
the river depth below the dam to rise.
|
Heavy rainfall that makes a lake or river rise, or a long, dry period that makes
it too shallow for diving.
|
Tidal changes.
|
A seiche in a large lake. The danger from a seiche comes from rapidly rising
and falling lake levels and can sweep people off piers and breakwaters and pull
swimmers far away from shore.
|
Sand bars that can move and shift from season to season or from heavy rain
that produces strong currents. These changes in the waterfront floor can create
unexpected drops or new shallow-water features.
Ask participants: What might cause concerns with water quality?
Answers: Responses should include the following:
■
■
|
Insufficient flow may lead to stagnant water and compromise water quality.
|
Pollutants, such as waste and storm water runoff.
|
Periods during and after heavy rain.
When dealing with changing water conditions:
|
Warn patrons of hazards by using signs, buoys and safety
announcements.
|
Check for objects that may have washed into the area.
|
Check for changes in bottom conditions, water depth and water
quality.
|
Alert patrons to cold water, and watch for potential signs of
hypothermia.
|
Check and document scheduled high and low tides in the daily log
each morning before opening, and plan for depth changes.
Ask participants: What aspects of a facility safety check may be unique to a
waterfront facility?
Answers: Responses should include the following:
158
|
Bottom is free of hazards.
|
Shoreline is free of sharp objects, broken glass, rocks, litter and
wildlife droppings.
|
Sand in front of and around lifeguard stands is clear of objects.
|
Docks and piers are stable—no protruding nails, rotting wood or weak or
frayed anchor lines.
|
Rescue craft, such as rescue boards, rowboats and kayaks, are in proper
operating condition and contain appropriate rescue equipment.
|
Communication devices, such as phones, two-way radios, air horns and
megaphones, are in good working order.
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■
Ask participants: What rules might a waterfront facility adopt that would
be specific to safety at waterfronts?
Answers: Responses should include the following:
|
No playing or swimming under structures, such as docks, piers, rafts,
platforms or play structures.
|
No boats, sailboards, or personal water craft in swimming areas.
|
No running or diving head-first into shallow water.
|
No fishing near swimming areas.
|
No umbrellas at the waterline (umbrellas present a surveillance obstruction).
|
No swimming in unauthorized areas.
Additional Facility Safety Concerns at Waterfronts
Lecture
■
Additional safety concerns at waterfront facilities can include cold water
and rip currents.
■
Body heat can be lost much faster in cold water than in cold air.
■
Be aware of signs and symptoms of hypothermia in swimmers, which
can occur in situations, such as:
■
|
In the spring and early summer, when water temperatures are
cooler.
|
After rain.
|
Extended periods of time in cooler water, cooler temperatures and/
or windy conditions.
|
Sudden immersion in cold water.
To perform a rescue in cold water, remove a victim from the water as
quickly as possible. Because you will also be affected by cold water, you
should attempt the rescue without entering the water.
|
You can extend a rescue tube to reach the victim, but the victim
might not be able to maintain a hold on the equipment due to the
cold.
|
If you must enter the water as a last resort, take a rescue tube and try
to keep your head out of the water while swimming.
|
When the victim is out of the water, assess his or her condition.
Victims who have been submerged in cold water may still be alive
even with:
|
●
A decreased or undetectable pulse rate.
●
No detectable breathing.
●
Bluish skin that is cold to the touch.
●
Muscle rigidity.
Begin giving ventilations or CPR, as needed, and provide first aid for
hypothermia as soon as possible. If not done so already, summon
emergency medical services personnel immediately. The sooner the
victim receives advanced medical care, the better the chances are for
survival.
■
If you are lifeguarding at a facility where sudden immersion in cold
water is possible, you should receive specialized training in cold water
rescue.
■
Another potential safety concern at some waterfront facilities are rip
currents.
■
A rip current is a strong channel of water that flows seaward beginning
near the shore and often extending well beyond the breakers. They are
often associated with underwater features, such as sand bars, and also
commonly occur near physical structures, such as piers, groins and
natural outcroppings.
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■
According to the National Weather Service, common indicators of a rip
current include:
|
A channel of churning, choppy water,
|
An area having a noticeable difference in water color.
|
A line of foam, seaweed or debris moving steadily away from shore.
|
A break in the incoming wave pattern.
■
Although these are good indicators, they are not always present.
Consequently, it is not always possible even for an experienced lifeguard
or surfer to spot a rip current.
■
All swimmers should swim near a lifeguard—this includes other
lifeguards and experienced swimmers.
■
On many beaches, color coded flags are flown to indicate the presence of
hazardous surf and rip currents. Anytime you see a red or double red
flag stay out of the water; use extreme caution when there is a yellow
flag.
■
If caught in a rip current:
■
|
Do not panic.
|
Never attempt to swim against the current—fighting the current will
cause you to become exhausted and possibly drown.
|
Allow the current to take you away from shore.
|
Once the current weakens, swim parallel to the beach then back to
shore at an angle. Try to swim in the direction of least resistance to
the current.
|
If you are too exhausted to swim to shore, signal by calling and
waving for help.
If you are lifeguarding on a waterfront where there is the possibility of
rip currents, it is critical to receive specialized training in the specific
conditions and hazards that exist in your area and to learn how to
identify rip currents and to help someone who is caught in them.
Patron Surveillance
Lecture
■
Waterfront activities vary and can include swimming, boating, water
skiing, sailing, canoeing, as well as use of personal watercraft and
SCUBA diving.
■
Patron surveillance at a waterfront can be challenging due to water
conditions that can cause visibility to be difficult.
■
The swimming area should have a buffer zone of no boating buoys. In
addition to watching your zone of surveillance, you may need to warn
people on boats, personal watercraft or water skiers to stay out of the No
Boating area.
■
Ask participants: What unique challenges for effective scanning might you
experience at a waterfront facility?
Answers: Responses should include the following:
■
160
|
Blind spots underneath or around structures, such as docks, piers and floating
rafts.
|
Water movement (i.e., waves).
|
Murky water.
When a drowning victim submerges at a waterfront, you may not be able
to see the location of the victim as you approach. A sighting or a crossbearing is used to keep track of where the victim went underwater.
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■
If a person is reported as missing in or near the water, or you have
attempted and are unable to locate a victim after submersion, a search is
necessary.
■
In many waterfront facilities, additional lifeguards are stationed to
watch swimmers from a watercraft, typically patrolling the outer edge of
a swimming area. Often, someone in trouble in the water can be reached
more quickly from watercraft than from a lifeguard station on the shore.
■
In a small, calm area, a rescue board, kayak or flat-bottom rowboat
might be used while conducting patron surveillance. In rough water,
rowboats might be used. Powerboats, inflatable boats and personal
watercraft also can be used as rescue watercraft.
■
If stationed on watercraft in water with a current, you might have to row
or paddle to stay in position. Some watercrafts use a special anchor line
with a quick release for making a rescue. In some larger watercraft, one
lifeguard maintains the craft’s position while a second watches the
swimming area.
■
Make sure you are well trained in operating the facility’s watercraft
before using it for surveillance or to make a rescue. Use caution with
motorized watercraft to avoid injuring swimmers or damaging lifelines
when crossing into the swimming area to make a rescue.
■
Most states require that boat operators pass a boating education course.
In motorized craft, operators must have a state-approved boating
education certificate.
■
For personal watercraft, operators should have additional training in the
operation and use as a rescue craft.
Injury Prevention
Lecture
■
Organizations, such as day cares or youth camps, may bring groups to
waterfront facilities for recreation. These groups may be based out of
your facility and swim regularly or visit one or more times as a field trip.
■
Group leaders, chaperones or camp counselors may assist with
discipline but do not take the place of lifeguards.
■
Some youth camps operate their own waterfront facilities. Youth camps
may implement additional layers of safety precautions. These additional
layers are not a replacement for continuous scanning of your area.
■
Additional supervision may be provided by camp staff that have been
trained to serve as spotters or lookouts. These staff members should
never take the place of lifeguards.
■
Swim tests may be used to identify the swimming ability of both campers
and staff and assign them to designated swimming areas.
■
Buddy systems with buddy boards and buddy checks may be used to help
account for swimmers by having buddies look out for one another.
|
Buddies are paired according to swimming ability as much as
possible. If buddies do not have similar swimming skills, they should
remain in the swimming area that is suitable for the weakest
swimmer’s ability. Buddies are to stay together and be responsible
for each other, informing a lifeguard at any time that their buddy is
in trouble or missing.
|
Buddy checks are used to account for all swimmers and to teach
buddies to continuously monitor their partners. Buddy checks are
often set for specific timed intervals. A lifeguard, lookout or
supervisor gives a pre-arranged signal, such as a whistle blast. The
buddies grasp each other’s hands, raise their arms over their heads
and hold still while the staff confirms that everyone has a buddy and
is accounted for.
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|
■
Buddy boards provide a system of checking campers in and out of the
water.
●
A lifeguard or other staff member is stationed at the buddy board
to make sure the tags are placed correctly and that no one enters
or leaves the swimming area without moving their tags
appropriately.
●
Each swimmer has a tag that may designate swimming ability,
camp group or the name of the individual camper.
●
The buddy board has an “in” area and an “out” area. The “in”
area may be divided according to specific sections of the
swimming area. Before buddies enter the water they hang their
tags next to each other on the board in the designated area for
where they will be in the water.
●
When buddy checks are done, a count of people in the water is
verified with the number of tags on the buddy board.
●
If buddies move to another swimming area or leave the
swimming area they are to change their tags on the buddy board
accordingly.
In general, when guarding groups, you should:
|
Ensure that swimming areas are clearly marked and determined by
swimming abilities.
|
Ensure that patrons stay in the sections appropriate for their
swimming abilities.
|
Provide U.S. Coast Guard-approved life jackets for weak or
nonswimmers.
|
Know how to identify group leaders or chaperones.
|
Ensure that chaperones are actively supervising the members of
their group and that the appropriate swimmer-to-chaperone ratio is
being met.
|
Signal for additional lifeguard coverage, such as a roving lifeguard, if
you feel you cannot effectively guard your zone.
Emergency Action Plans
Lecture
■
Ask participants: What communication systems might lifeguards use at a
waterfront facility?
Answers: Responses should include the following:
162
|
Two-way radios
|
Whistles
|
Hand signals or signals using rescue equipment
|
Public address systems
|
Telephones
|
Flags
|
Horns
|
Megaphones
|
Electronic devices (buttons or switches) that must be triggered
■
Be sure you understand the methods of communication used at your
facility.
■
Include communication systems in daily facility safety checks, including
battery charge for battery-operated equipment.
■
EAPs may include additional steps because of the environment, weather,
the size of the waterfront and its surroundings and possibly a longer
response time for EMS personnel.
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TOPIC:
■
It is important to understand the role played by other members of the
safety team including camp staff, which may include medical personnel,
park rangers, as well as maintenance and security personnel.
■
Refer participants to Chapter 5: Emergency Action Plans in the Lifeguarding
Manual to review the sample missing person procedure.
WATERFRONT RESCUE SKILLS
Time: 10 minutes
PRESENTATION: WATERFRONT RESCUE SKILLS
Video Segment
■
Explain that the video segment will demonstrate skills for rescues at waterfronts.
■
Show the video segment, “Waterfront Rescue Skills.”
■
Answer participants’ questions about the segment.
IN–WATER SKILL SESSION: WATERFRONT
RESCUE SKILLS
Time: 3 hours
PRESENTATION: NEXT STEPS
Skill Practice—
Entries, Assists
and Head, Neck
and Spinal Injury
■
Explain to participants that during the skill session you will demonstrate skills and
guide them through practice.
■
For each skill, organize participants so that they can clearly see and hear. Be sure to
provide any instructions related to their position in the water or how they should
behave as victims.
■
Pair up participants and explain that they will take turns as victim and rescuer for
each skill.
|
For the run-and-swim entry, have participants line up along the edge of a zerodepth area or simulated shoreline and have them perform the run-and-swim
entry. If simulating this skill, have participants perform the skill on dry land in a
suitable area with a dry surface that is free of obstructions or have the
participants perform the entry in a shallow water area.
|
For the beach drag and front-and-back carry, reorganize participants into groups
of three and have them perform the skills as a team of two lifeguards.
■
Remind participants to simulate activating the emergency action plan before
entering the water.
■
Lead them through the following skills:
|
Run-and-swim entry
●
|
|
|
Lifeguards: on the edge of a zero-depth area
Walking assist
●
Lifeguards: in the water
●
Victims: in shallow water about 5 yards from the edge of the zero-depth
area, distressed swimmer
Beach drag—one person and two person
●
Lifeguards: in the water
●
Victims: in shallow water about 5 yards from the edge of the zero-depth
area, face-up passive victim
Front-and-back carry
●
Lifeguards: in the water
●
Victims: in shallow water about 5 yards from the edge of the zero-depth area
or simulated shoreline, face-up passive victim
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|
Skill Practice—
Searches and
Using Masks
and Fins
●
Lifeguards: in the water
●
Victims: face down in extremely shallow water, approximately one foot deep
■
Participants should practice the skills until they are able to meet performance
criteria.
■
Observe each participant’s performance of the skill and provide corrective feedback.
■
Organize participants into a group and lead them through the skill of searching a
shallow water area. Be sure to cover how to shift the line or turn.
■
Next, explain that the next several skills deal with rescues in deep water.
■
Explain that as they descend into deep water, water pressure increases and presses
against the empty spaces in your skull, especially those inside the ears. This can
cause pain or even injury. To relieve this pressure, they need to equalize the pressure
by forcing more air into the empty spaces so that the air pressure matches the water
pressure. Explain that they should equalize early and often.
■
Guide them through the steps of equalizing by simulating the following:
■
■
■
■
164
Head splint—face-down in extremely shallow water
1.
Place your thumb and finger on your nose.
2.
Pinch your nose and keep your mouth shut. Try to exhale gently through your
nose until the pressure is relieved.
3.
Repeat this as needed to relieve ear pressure. If your ears hurt, do not attempt to
go deeper until successfully equalizing the pressure.
Have each participant put on a mask and ensure that it properly fits. To check that it
properly fits, have them:
1.
Place the mask against his or her face without using the strap.
2.
Inhale slightly through the nose to create a slight suction inside the mask. This
suction should keep the mask in pace without being held.
3.
Adjust the strap so the mask is comfortable. The mask should be placed on the
crown of the head for a proper fit.
4.
Try to mask in the water. Make adjustments as needed.
Guide them through the steps of equalizing while wearing a mask by simulating the
following:
1.
Place your thumb on finger on the nosepiece of the mask.
2.
Pinch your nose and keep your mouth shut. Try to exhale gently through your
nose until the pressure is relieved.
3.
When descending, the increased water pressure will cause the mask to squeeze
your face. To relieve the squeezing, exhale a small amount of air through your
nose into the mask.
Have each participant put on a pair of fins then practice swimming with fins. Have
them practice the following:
|
Use a modified flutter kick: the kicking action is deeper and slower, with a little
more knee bend than the usual flutter kick.
|
Swim with the legs only; keep the arms relaxed at the side.
Lead participants through the following skills:
|
Entering the water while wearing mask and fins
|
Feet-first surface dive with mask and fins
|
Head-first surface dive with mask and fins
■
Organize participants into a group and lead them through the skill of searching a
deep water area.
■
Participants should practice the skills until they are able to meet performance
criteria.
■
Observe each participant’s performance of the skill and provide corrective feedback.
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Skill Practice—
Using a Rescue
Board
■
Lead participants through the following skills using a rescue board.
■
Approaching a victim on a rescue board
■
■
|
Lifeguards: on edge of zero-depth, going out to deep water
|
Victims: on the surface in deep water, active victim
Rescuing an active victim with a rescue board
|
Lifeguards: on the rescue board in deep water
|
Victims: on the surface in deep water, active victim
Rescuing a passive victim with a rescue board
|
Lifeguards: on the rescue board in deep water
|
Victims: on the surface in deep water, passive victim
■
Participants should practice the skills until they are able to meet performance
criteria.
■
Observe each participant’s performance of the skill and provide corrective feedback.
PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER
Time: 20 minutes
Skill Drill—Timed Response
■
Assemble the participants on the shoreline and explain they will be practicing
rescuing a submerged passive victim in shallow water, removing the victim from the
water, doing a primary assessment and caring for a victim who is not breathing and
does not have a pulse.
■
Explain that the goal of this water rescue and removal of the victim from the water is
to be completed within 2 minutes. Timing starts once the lifeguard simulates the
EAP. One-rescuer CPR should be performed for 3 minutes.
■
Divide the participants into groups of three and assign one rescuing lifeguard, one
assisting lifeguard to help with removal from the water, one victim and one manikin
for each group. Explain that for each group:
■
|
The rescuing lifeguard, wearing a hip pack with gloves inside, will simulate
activating the EAP and enter the water. Once the EAP has been activated, the
stopwatch must be started.
|
The victim will get into position about 30 feet from the rescuer and submerge as
the rescuing lifeguard gets near. The rescuing lifeguard will perform a
submerged passive victim rescue.
|
The assisting lifeguard will assist the rescuing lifeguard in removing the victim
from the water demonstrating team communication skills between the
lifeguards.
|
Once removed from the water, the rescuing lifeguard will perform a primary
assessment on the victim, then switch to a manikin and provide one-person CPR
for 3 minutes. Once the rescuer begins CPR, the stopwatch must be started.
Repeat the drill until each person in the group has performed as a rescuing lifeguard
and an assisting lifeguard at least once.
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FINAL WRITTEM EXAM:
WATERFRONT SKILLS MODULE
TOPIC:
Time: 25 minutes
■
Tell participants that they will now take a final written exam on the information
covered in the module. They may not use their manual or notes to find the answers.
■
Hand out an exam and answer sheet to each participant. Tell participants to write
only on the answer sheet and mark answers clearly.
■
Tell participants to come to you or raise their hands when they have finished the
exam or if they have questions.
■
Once exams are completed, collect all exams and answer sheets. Before the next
lesson, grade the exam using the answer key.
■
Hand back the exam and review it with participants. Collect all exams as the exam is
a standard exam that participants should not be allowed to keep. Make arrangements
for those participants who score less than 80 percent to review the material and retake the opposite version of the exam.
CLOSING
Time: 5 minutes
■
Thank all participants for attending the course.
■
Congratulate participants on successful completion.
■
Explain that they will receive an American Red Cross certificate indicating
Waterfront Skills that is valid for no more than 2 years. The Waterfront Skills
certificate is only valid when accompanied by a current Lifeguarding/First Aid/CPR/
AED certificate.
■
Make arrangements to retest any participants who did not pass the final written
exam(s).
SKILL CHARTS AND ASSESSMENT TOOLS
In addition to performing the steps listed in the skill chart in the correct order, participants must meet the criteria
listed at the proficient level to be checked off for this skill.
ENTRIES
SKILL CHART: RUN-AND-SWIM ENTRY
1.
Hold the rescue tube and the excess line and run into the water, lifting your knees high to avoid falling. Swing
your legs wide as you run.
2.
When you can no longer run, either put the rescue tube across your chest and lean forward or drop the tube to
the side and start swimming, letting the rescue tube trail behind. Do not dive or plunge head-first into the
water; this could cause a serious head, neck or spinal injury.
SKILL ASSESSMENT TOOL: RUN-AND-SWIM ENTRY
Criteria
Proficient
Not Proficient
Properly positions equipment for
the entry
■
Control of the rescue tube is
maintained
■
Contact with the rescue tube
not maintained
■
Excess line held to keep it from
getting caught on the lifeguard
stand or other equipment
■
Excess line not held
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Uses appropriate entry for the
situation
Entry is safe for the rescuer, victim
and surrounding persons
Entry causes a safety hazard
Maintains balance while running in
the water
Lifts knees high to step over the
water
■
Fails to lifts knees high enough
to step over the water
■
Loses balance when entering
the water
■
Dives forward when entering
the water
Begins swimming when no longer
able to run
Leans forward into water with head
up to begin swimming
Does not keep head up while
swimming toward victim
Maintains focus on the victim
Upon entering, focus on the victim
or the site where the victim was last
seen is maintained
Fails to look toward the victim or
site where the victim was last seen
REMOVAL FROM THE WATER
SKILL CHART: WALKING ASSIST
1.
Place one of the victim’s arms around your neck and across your shoulder.
2.
Grasp the wrist of the arm that is across your shoulder. Wrap your free arm around the victim’s back or waist
to provide support.
3.
Hold the victim firmly and assist him or her in walking out of the water.
4.
Have the victim sit or lie down while you monitor his or her condition.
SKILL ASSESSMENT TOOL: WALKING ASSIST
General Criteria
Proficient
Not Proficient
Communicates with the victim
Victim is reassured and told what
to do
No attempted verbal
communication with victim
Maintains balance
Assumes a sturdy posture and stable
footing
Stumbles, falls or knocks victim
under the water
Assists victim with balance and
bearing weight to walk out of water
■
Holds victim’s hand securely
with arm across shoulders to
bear weight.
■
Fails to hold victim’s hand
securely with arm across
shoulders
■
Supports victim across the back
for balance and stability.
■
Fails to support victim’s
weight
■
Fails to provide balance and
stability to victim while exiting
the water
SKILL CHART: BEACH DRAG
1.
Stand behind the victim and grasp him or her under the armpits, supporting the victim’s head as much as
possible with your forearms. Let the rescue tube trail behind, being careful not to trip on the tube or line. If
another lifeguard is available to assist, each of you should grasp the victim under an armpit and support the
head.
2.
Walk backward and drag the victim to the shore. Use your legs and not your back.
3.
Remove the victim completely from the water then assess his or her condition and provide appropriate care.
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SKILL ASSESSMENT TOOL: BEACH DRAG
General Criteria
Proficient
Not Proficient
Securely holds victim
Grasps victim securely under the
armpits
Does not grasps victim securely
under the armpits
Supports victim’s head
Forearms held close together to
support victim’s head if possible
■
Fails to attempt to support
victim’s head between
forearms
■
Forearms are positioned so
victim’s head falls back
Keeps victim’s head above the
surface of the water
Mouth and nose of victim
maintained out of the water
Mouth or nose of victim is in the
water
SKILL CHART: FRONT-AND-BACK CARRY
1.
From behind the victim, one lifeguard reaches under the victim’s armpits. This lifeguard grasps the victim’s
right wrist with his or her right hand and the victim’s left wrist with his or her left hand. Then the lifeguard
crosses the victim’s arms across the victim’s chest.
2.
The second lifeguard stands between the victim’s legs, facing the victim’s feet. This lifeguard bends down and
grasps the victim under the knees. On signal, both lifeguards lift the victim and carry him or her out of the
water while walking forward.
SKILL ASSESSMENT TOOL: FRONT-AND-BACK CARRY
General Criteria
Proficient
Not Proficient
Securely holds victim
■
Lifeguard 1 grasps victim
securely under the armpits
■
■
Lifeguard 1 grasps wrists
Lifeguards fail to support
victim under the armpits or
knees
■
Lifeguard 2 grasps victim
securely under the knees
■
Victim is dropped
SUSPECTED SPINAL INJURIES
SKILL CHART: HEAD SPLINT—FACE-DOWN IN EXTREMELY SHALLOW WATER
1.
Approach the victim from the side. Grasp the victim’s right arm with your right hand and the victim’s left arm
with your left hand, trapping the victim’s head between his or her arms.
2.
After the victim’s head is trapped between his or her arms, begin to roll the victim toward you.
3.
While rolling the victim, step from the victim’s side toward the victim’s head and begin to turn the victim face-up.
4.
Lower your arm on the victim’s side that is closest to you so that the victim’s arms go over the top of your arm
as you step toward the victim’s head. Maintain arm pressure against the victim’s head, since your hand rotates
during this maneuver. You are now positioned above and behind the victim’s head.
5.
Check for consciousness and breathing.
6.
|
If the victim is not breathing, immediately remove the victim from the water and give the appropriate
care.
|
If the victim is breathing, hold the victim in this position. Place a towel or blanket on the victim to keep
him or her from getting chilled.
Continuously monitor for consciousness and breathing. If at any time the victim stops breathing, immediately
remove the victim from the water then provide appropriate care.
Note: If unable to keep the victim from getting chilled and there are enough assisting lifeguards, follow the care
steps for Spinal Backboarding Procedure and Removal from Water—Speed Slide.
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SKILL ASSESSMENT TOOL: HEAD SPLINT—FACE-DOWN IN EXTREMELY SHALLOW
WATER
General Criteria
Proficient
Not Proficient
Provides in-line stabilization
■
Moves victim’s arms to a secure
position against the victim’s
head
■
Does not move victim’s arms
against the victim’s head or
maintain pressure
■
Equal pressure on both arms is
maintained throughout rescue
■
One arm is pressed against
head and one is not
■
Victim’s face does not submerge
■
■
Mouth and nose are above water
Victim’s face submerges under
water
■
Victim’s mouth or nose is
under water
■
Does not move victim to a safe
location
■
Fails to check victim’s
condition
Keep victim’s face out of the water
Moves victim to a safe location to
prepare for backboarding
■
If victim’s condition is lifethreatening, moves victim out of
water quickly to perform care as
needed
■
If victim is conscious, monitors
victim’s condition
■
Follows facility procedures for
backboarding
IN-WATER SEARCHES
SKILL CHART: SEARCHING SHALLOW-WATER AREAS
1.
Have a lifeguard oversee the search.
2.
Ask adult volunteers and staff to link their arms and hold hands to form a line in the water. The shortest
person should be in the shallowest water, and the tallest person should be in water no more than chest deep.
3.
Have the whole line slowly move together across the area, starting where the missing person was last seen.
4.
As the line moves forward, have searchers sweep their feet across the bottom with each step. If there is a
current, walk downstream.
SKILL ASSESSMENT TOOL: SEARCHING SHALLOW-WATER AREAS
General Criteria
Proficient
Not Proficient
Lead lifeguard organizes search
Communication is clear so searchers
know what to do and function as a
team.
Lifeguards cannot proceed with
removing the victim from the
water
Bottom of shallow-water area
searched thoroughly
■
Line moves slowly to allow time
to sweep their feet across the
bottom.
■
Lifeguards move too quickly
or become out of line
■
■
If the search does not result in
finding the victim, the line
searches the area again moving
at a different angle.
Lifeguards fail to sweep the
bottom with their feet
■
Lifeguards do not move to
search at a different angle if
victim not found
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ENTRIES WITH MASK AND FINS
SKILL CHART: ENTERING THE WATER WITH MASK AND FINS
1.
Put one hand over the mask to hold it in place, keeping your elbow close to your chest.
2.
Make sure no swimmers or other objects are below.
3.
Step out with a long stride over the water, but do not lean forward. While entering the water, the fins will slow
your downward motion.
4.
Swim keeping the arms at the side and face in the water or hold your arms out in front to protect your head.
SKILL ASSESSMENT TOOL: ENTERING THE WATER WITH MASKS AND FINS
General Criteria
Proficient
Not Proficient
Holds mask place
Holds the mask against the face with
elbow tucked by side
■
Fails to hold mask in place
■
Mask slips off from face when
entering
Stands upright while stepping out in
a stride position while entering the
water
■
Does not enter water in a
vertical position
■
Does not use stride position to
enter water
Enters water feet-first, vertical with
legs in a stride position
SURFACE DIVES WITH MASK AND FINS
SKILL CHART: FEET-FIRST SURFACE DIVE WITH MASK AND FINS
1.
Swim to a point near the victim. Release the rescue tube but keep the strap around your shoulders.
2.
Position your body vertically, then at the same time press both hands down to your sides and kick strongly to
raise your body out of the water.
3.
Take a breath then let your body sink underwater as you begin to extend your arms outward with palms
upward pushing against the water to help you move downward. Keep your legs straight and together with toes
pointed. Tuck your chin and turn your face to look down toward the bottom.
4.
As downward momentum slows, repeat the motion of extending your arms outward and sweeping your hands
and arms upward and overhead to go deeper.
5.
Repeat this arm movement until deep enough to reach the victim.
If you must swim underwater, such as for a deep-water line search, also perform these steps:
6.
When deep enough, tuck your body and roll to a horizontal position.
7.
Extend your arms and legs and swim underwater.
Note: As you descend into deep water, be sure to equalize pressure early and often. If you are unable to
equalize pressure, return to the surface.
SKILL CHART: HEAD-FIRST SURFACE DIVE WITH MASK AND FINS
1.
Swim to a point near the victim and release the rescue tube.
2.
Gain momentum using a swimming stroke.
3.
Take a breath, sweep your arms backwards to your thighs and turn them palms down.
4.
Tuck your chin to your chest and flex at the hip sharply while your arms reach downward toward the bottom.
5.
Lift your legs upward, straight and together so that their weight above the water helps the descent. Get in a
fully extended, streamlined body position that is almost vertical.
6.
If you need to go deeper, such as for a deep-water line search, do a simultaneous arm pull with both arms to
go deeper, then level out and swim forward underwater.
Note: As you descend into deep water, be sure to equalize pressure early and often. If you are unable to
equalize pressure, return to the surface.
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SKILL ASSESSMENT TOOL: SURFACE DIVES WITH MASK AND FINS
Criteria
Proficient
Not Proficient
Submerges to appropriate depth
Submerges to appropriate depth
Unable to submerge to appropriate
depth
Feet-First Surface Dive with Mask and Fins
Kick and arm press to raise out of
the water
Kick and arm press are effective at
lifting the shoulders and upper chest
out of the water
Ineffective kick or arm pull results
in inability to lift shoulders and
upper chest out of water
Body descends feet-first in a
streamlined position
■
Legs are held together
■
■
Arms are fully extended
overhead
Legs are apart and impede
descent
■
Arm positioning impedes
descent
Head-First Surface Dive with Mask and Fins
Head position directs upper body
down into the water
Chin is tucked to lower head into the
water
Does not tuck chin on descent
Arms assist in pulling body into
head-first position
Arms pull to hips then toward
tucked head to pull head deeper into
the water.
Does not use an arm pull to
descend
Legs rise out of the water
From either a tuck or pike position,
legs are lifted out of the water
■
Fails to use either a tuck or
pike position
■
Fails to lift legs out of water
Legs are held together and lifted
upward toward the surface to
aid descent
■
Legs are apart
■
Body is not nearly vertical
during descent
Arms reach downward toward
the bottom
■
Arms are not in front reaching
downward
Body descends head-first in a
streamlined position
■
■
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SEARCHES
SKILL CHART: SEARCHING DEEP-WATER AREAS
1.
Wearing masks and fins, several lifeguards form a straight line an arm’s length from each other.
2.
One lifeguard should serve as the safety lookout above the water level on a dock, pier, raft or watercraft with
rescue equipment in case a searcher gets in trouble or the missing person is found.
3.
On command from the lead lifeguard, all lifeguards do the same type of surface dive (feet-first or head-first) to
the bottom and swim forward a predetermined number of strokes—usually three. If the water is murky,
searchers check the bottom by sweeping their hands back and forth in front of them, making sure to cover the
entire area. To keep the water from becoming cloudier, try to avoid disturbing silt and dirt on the bottom. Do
not miss any areas on the bottom when diving and resurfacing.
4.
Lifeguards return to the surface as straight up as possible.
5.
The lead lifeguard accounts for all searchers, reforms the line at the position of the person farthest back and
backs up the line one body length. On command, the team dives again.
6.
Lifeguards repeat this procedure until the victim is found or the entire area has been searched.
7.
If the missing person is not found, lifeguards expand the search to nearby areas. Consider whether currents
may have moved the victim.
8.
Lifeguards continue to search until the person is found, emergency personnel take over or the search has been
called off by officials.
9.
If a lifeguard finds the victim, the lifeguard should bring the victim up by grasping the victim under the
armpits and returning to the surface. Swim the victim to safety, keeping the victim on his or her back, with his
or her face out of the water. A lifeguard with equipment should take over to maintain an open airway while
moving the victim to safety. Remove the victim from the water, assess the victim’s condition and provide
appropriate care.
Note: As you descend into deep water, be sure to equalize pressure early and often. If you are unable to equalize
pressure, return to the surface.
SKILL ASSESSMENT TOOL: SEARCHING DEEP WATER AREAS
General Criteria
Proficient
Not Proficient
Lead lifeguard organizes the search
Communication is clear so searchers
know what to do and function as a
team
Unclear communication by lead
lifeguard, delaying search
Bottom of deep-water area
thoroughly searched
■
Searchers use masks and fins to
surface dive to get to the bottom
■
■
Lead lifeguard re-positions the
line after each surface dive to
make sure the area is covered
thoroughly
Searchers fails to reach
appropriate depth or fail to
descend quickly or in a
streamlined position
■
Lifeguards move too quickly or
become out of line
■
Lifeguards fail to sweep the
bottom with their hands
■
Lifeguards do not move to a
different angle if victim not
found
Safety of searchers is monitored
172
■
Lifeguard stationed as a look-out
observes searchers for safety
concerns
■
Lead lifeguard verifies that all are
OK after each surface dive.
Lead lifeguard fails to verify that all
other lifeguards return to surface
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USING A RESCUE BOARD
SKILL CHART: APPROACHING A VICTIM ON A RESCUE BOARD
1.
Hold onto the sides about mid-board when entering the water.
2.
When the water is knee-deep, lay the rescue board on the water and push it forward. Climb on just behind the
middle and lie down in the prone position. For better balance, place a foot on either side of the rescue board in
the water.
3.
Paddle with the front of the board toward the victim, using either a front-crawl or a butterfly arm stroke. To
change to a kneeling position, which may provide better visibility in some situations, paddle a few strokes first.
4.
Continue paddling with your head up and the victim in your sight until you reach the victim. Place your foot
into the water to help steer if necessary.
SKILL ASSESSMENT TOOL: APPROACHING A VICTIM ON A RESCUE BOARD
General Criteria
Proficient
Not Proficient
Uses quick approach
Uses rescue board proficiently with
balance and speed
■
Fails to reach victim quickly
■
Slips off rescue board
Focus on the victim is maintained
during approach
■
Upon entering, focus on the
victim or the site where the
victim was last seen is
maintained
Fails to look toward the victim or
site where the victim was last seen
■
Holds head up while paddling on
rescue board to keep victim in
sight
Properly positions board for the
rescue when reaching victim
Aims the board to a spot beside
victim
Fails to place board in proper
position beside victim
SKILL CHART: RESCUING AN ACTIVE VICTIM WITH A RESCUE BOARD
1.
Approach the victim from the side so that the side of the rescue board is next to the victim.
2.
Grasp the victim’s wrist and slide off the rescue board on the opposite side.
3.
Help the victim reach his or her arms across the rescue board. Encourage the victim to relax while you kick to
turn the board toward shore.
4.
Hold the rescue board stable and help the victim onto the board.
5.
Tell the victim to lie on his or her stomach facing the front of the board.
6.
Carefully climb onto the board from the back with your chest between the victim’s legs. Be careful not to tip the
rescue board, and keep your legs in the water for stability.
7.
Paddle the rescue board to shore.
8.
Slide off the board and help the victim off the board and onto shore with a walking assist.
SKILL ASSESSMENT TOOL: RESCUING AN ACTIVE VICTIM WITH A RESCUE
BOARD
General Criteria
Proficient
Not Proficient
Makes contact with victim
Grasps victim’s wrist while sliding off
the board on the opposite side
Grasps victim’s arm or shoulder
Communicates with victim
Reassures victim and gives direction
as to how to get on the rescue board
No attempted verbal
communication with the victim
Climbs onto board from the back
■
Gets on back of board and brings
board to a safe exit point
Unable to climb on board to return
to safe exit point
■
Removes victim from the water
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SKILL CHART: RESCUING A PASSIVE VICTIM WITH A RESCUE BOARD
To rescue someone who is unconscious or cannot hold or climb onto the rescue board:
1.
Approach the victim from the side. Position the rescue board so that the victim is slightly forward of the middle
of the rescue board.
2.
Grasp the victim’s hand or wrist and slide off the board on the opposite side, flipping the rescue board over
toward you. Hold the victim’s arm across the board with the victim’s chest and armpits against the far edge of
the board.
3.
Grasp the far edge of the rescue board with the other hand.
4.
Kneel on the edge of the rescue board using your own body weight to flip the board toward you again. Catch
the victim’s head as the rescue board comes down.
5.
Position the victim lying down lengthwise in the middle of the rescue board with the victim’s head toward the
front of the rescue board.
6.
Kick to turn the board toward shore. Carefully climb onto the board from the back with your chest between the
victim’s legs. Be careful not to tip the rescue board, and keep your legs in the water for stability.
7.
Paddle the rescue board to shore.
8.
Help the victim to safety with the beach drag or other removal technique.
SKILL ASSESSMENT TOOL: RESCUING A PASSIVE VICTIM WITH A RESCUE
BOARD
General Criteria
Proficient
Makes contact with victim
Grasps victim’s wrist while sliding off ■
the board on the opposite side.
■
Positions victim so mouth and nose
are above water
Climbs onto board from the back
and returns to safe exit point
174
Not Proficient
Grasps victim’s arm or shoulder
Releases contact with the
victim
Uses technique of flipping rescue
board to get victim onto the board
with his or her face out of the water.
■
Victim’s mouth and nose are in
the water
■
Fails to place victim on board
■
Gets on back of board and brings
board to a safe exit point
Unable to climb on board to return
to safe exit point
■
Removes victim from water
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SECTION
D | WATERPARK SKILLS
MODULE OUTLINE
Activity
Time
Introduction to the Waterpark Skills Module
10 minutes
Verification of Certification Prerequisite
5 minutes
Verification of Swimming Skills
20 minutes
Unique Aspects of Waterpark Lifeguarding
35 minutes
Waterpark Rescue Skills
10 minutes
Video: Waterpark Rescue Skills
In-Water Skill Session: Waterpark Rescue Skills
90 minutes
Skill: Run-and-Swim Entry
Skill: Walking Assist
Skill: Beach Drag
Skill: Front-and-Back Carry
Skill: Head Splint—Face-down in Extremely Shallow Water
Skill: Head Splint—Moving Water (winding river or catch pool)
Skill: Suspected Spinal Injury—Moving Water: Speed Slide Runout
Putting It All Together
20 minutes
Final Written Exam: Waterpark Skills Module
25 minutes
Closing
5 minutes
Total Time
3 hours 40 minutes
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WATERPARK SKILLS MODULE
MODULE NOTES
The purpose of the Waterpark Skills module is to teach lifeguards the knowledge and skills needed to prevent and
respond to emergencies in aquatic facilities with waterpark features.
MODULE PREREQUISITES
■
Age Prerequisite: Candidates must be 15 years old by the last day of the module.
■
Certification Prerequisite: Candidates must possess and present a current American Red Cross Lifeguarding/
First Aid/CPR/AED.
■
Skill prerequisites: Candidates must successfully complete the following:
|
Swim 300 yards continuously demonstrating breath control and rhythmic breathing. Candidates must
demonstrate the ability to swim both the front crawl and breaststroke. Swimming on the back or side
is not allowed. Swim goggles may be used.
|
Tread water for 2 minutes using only the legs. Candidates should place their hands under the armpits.
|
Complete a timed event within 1 minute, 40 seconds.
●
Starting in the water, swim 20 yards. The face may be in or out of the water. Swim goggles are
not allowed.
●
Surface dive, feet-first or head-first, to a depth of at least 5 feet (but no more than 10 feet) to
retrieve a 10-pound object.
●
Return to the surface and swim 20 yards on the back to return to the starting point with both hands
holding the object and keeping the face at or near the surface so they are able to get a breath.
Candidates should not swim the distance under water.
●
Exit the water without using a ladder or steps.
■
If conducting this module immediately following a full or review Lifeguarding course, the skill prerequisites
do not need to be repeated as part of this module.
MODULE LENGTH
This module is designed to be taught in approximately 3 hours, 40 minutes, which includes the minimum time
needed for conducting prerequisites, presenting information, practicing skills and conducting written exams. This
estimate is based on:
■
Ten participants per instructor.
■
The recommended equipment needed to conduct the module. If working with a limited amount of equipment,
build additional practice time into the module.
CLASS SIZE
It is recommended that there be 1 instructor for every 10 participants. If the class has more than 10 participants,
you should have a co-instructor or aide or extend the class length.
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FACILITY REQUIREMENTS
Classroom space should be equipped with the ability to show video segments. The swimming area meet
requirements to perform skills. A zero-depth area is ideal for practicing entry and exit skills; however, shallow
water can be used. An extreme shallow water area as well as moving water are required, such as a winding river or
water slide with a catch pool, for practicing care for spinal injuries. A speed slide runout is preferred for practicing
backboarding in the confined space; however, this can be practiced/simulated on land.
ADDITIONAL MATERIALS, EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLIES
■
Waterpark Skills Module Course Presentations
■
Waterpark Skills segment on the Lifeguarding DVD Set
■
DVD player and monitor
■
A 10-pound object (a diving brick or weight; one for every five participants)
■
Stopwatch
■
Waterpark Skills Checklist
■
Copies of Waterpark Skills Final Written Exam (exams A and B) and answer sheets (one for each participant)
■
Answer keys for Waterpark Skills Final Written Exam
TESTING AND CERTIFICATES
■
To receive the module completion certificate for American Red Cross Waterpark Skills, the participant must:
|
Demonstrate competency in all required skills and activities.
|
Correctly answer at least 80 percent of the questions of the written exam.
■
Upon successful completion of the module, participants receive an American Red Cross certificate indicating
Waterpark Skills that is valid for no more than 2 years. The Waterpark Skills certificate is only valid when
accompanied by a current Lifeguarding/First Aid/CPR/AED certificate.
■
Skills in this module include the following:
|
Run-and-swim entry
|
Walking assist
|
Beach drag
|
Front-and-back carry
|
Suspected spinal injury:
●
In-line stabilization: Head splint—face-down in extremely shallow water
●
In-line stabilization: Head splint—face-up in moving water (winding river or catch pool)
●
Backboarding and removal from the water: Speed slide
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WATERPARK SKILLS MODULE LESSON PLAN
¡
Session Length: 3 hours, 40 minutes
LESSON OBJECTIVES
After completing this lesson, participants will be able to:
Describe the unique aspects of waterpark lifeguarding.
■
Demonstrate how to perform the waterpark rescue skills safely and effectively.
■
TOPIC:
Activity
INTRODUCTION TO THE
WATERPARK SKILLS MODULE
■
Welcome participants and introduce yourself, including your background in aquatics
and certification as a Red Cross instructor. Include co-instructors and aides if
applicable.
■
Have participants introduce themselves.
■
Review facility policies, including emergency procedures. Give the locations of
restrooms, locker rooms, water fountains and details unique to your facility. Also,
identify the location of the AED and first aid kit.
■
Explain that the purpose of the Waterpark Skills module is to teach lifeguards the
skills and knowledge needed to prevent and respond to emergencies in aquatic
facilities with waterpark features.
■
Explain the requirements to pass the module:
|
Demonstrate competency in all required skills and activities.
|
Correctly answer at least 80 percent of the questions in the written exam.
■
Explain that upon successful completion of the module, participants receive an
American Red Cross certificate indicating Waterpark Skills that is valid for no more
than 2 years. The Waterpark Skills certificate is only valid when accompanied by a
current Lifeguarding/First Aid/CPR/AED certificate.
■
Explain to participants that they must successfully complete the swimming
prerequisites to verify swimming ability to continue in the Red Cross Waterpark
Skills module.
■
178
Time: 10 minutes
1.
Swim 300 yards continuously demonstrating breath control and rhythmic
breathing. Candidates must demonstrate the ability to swim both the front crawl
and breaststroke. Swimming on the back or side is not allowed. Swim goggles
may be used.
2.
Tread water for 2 minutes using only the legs. Candidates should place their
hands under the armpits.
3.
Complete a timed event within 1 minute, 40 seconds.
●
Starting in the water, swim 20 yards. The face may be in or out of the water.
Swim goggles are not allowed.
●
Surface dive, feet-first or head-first, to a depth of at least 5 feet (but no more
than 10 feet) to retrieve a 10-pound object.
●
Return to the surface and swim 20 yards on the back to return to the
starting point with both hands holding the object and keeping the face at or
near the surface so they are able to get a breath. Candidates should not swim
the distance under water.
●
Exit the water without using a ladder or steps.
If conducting this module in conjunction with a Lifeguarding review course or
challenge, it is not necessary to repeat these prerequisites.
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TOPIC:
Activity
TOPIC:
Activity
VERIFICATION OF
CERTIFICATION PREREQUISITE
■
Time: 5 minutes
Check the eligibility of participants to participate in the module by checking their
American Red Cross Lifeguarding/First Aid/CPR/AED certification.
VERIFICATION OF SWIMMING
SKILLS
Time: 20 minutes
■
Explain to prospective participants that they must successfully complete three
swimming prerequisites to continue in the Waterpark Skills module.
■
Refer to the Skill Assessment Chart to evaluate performance of each prospective
participant. Record completion of each skill on the Waterpark Skills Checklist.
Waterpark Skills
Activity 1—300-Yard Swim
■
Explain to prospective participants that they must perform a 300-yard continuous
swim using the front crawl and breaststroke. Swimming on the back or side is not
permitted. Swim goggles are allowed.
Activity 2—Tread Water
■
Explain to prospective participants that they must tread water for 2 minutes without
support and without stopping. When treading, only the legs can be used. Candidates
should place their hands under the armpits. The head must remain above the surface
of the water.
Activity 3—Timed Event
■
Arrange the swim distance of 20 yards and place a 10-pound object at a depth of 7 to
10 feet.
■
Explain that goggles are not allowed for this event.
■
Evaluate each prospective participant on the following skill to be performed within 1
minute and 40 seconds.
|
Starting in the water, swim 20 yards. The face may be in or out of the water.
|
Surface dive, feet-first or head-first, to a depth of at least 5 feet (but no more
than 10 feet) to retrieve a 10-pound object.
|
Return to the surface and swim 20 yards to return to the starting point with both
hands holding the object and keeping the face at or near the surface so they are
able to get a breath. The participants should not swim the distance under water.
|
Exit the water without using a ladder or steps.
Instructor’s Note: If any participant is unable to complete the verification of
swimming ability, he or she is not eligible to continue in the Waterpark Skills module.
Privately advise any participant who did not successfully demonstrate the skills that he
or she may not continue.
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TOPIC:
UNIQUE ASPECTS OF
WATERPARK LIFEGUARDING
Time: 35 minutes
PRESENTATION: UNIQUE ASPECTS OF WATERPARK LIFEGUARDING
Lecture
and Guided
Discussion
■
The Waterpark Skills module builds on the knowledge and skills learned
in the Lifeguarding course. Because many aquatic facilities now have a
variety of features and attractions, much of the knowledge and skills
were covered in that course.
■
Remember, your primary responsibility is to help ensure patron safety
and protect lives. The main tool used to accomplish this is patron
surveillance—keeping a close watch over the people in the facility and
intervening when necessary.
■
Ask participants: What are the elements of effective surveillance?
Answers: Responses should include the following:
|
Recognition of dangerous behaviors
|
Victim recognition
|
Effective scanning
|
Zone of surveillance responsibility
|
Lifeguard stations
■
The purpose of the Waterpark Skills module is to teach lifeguards the
knowledge and skills needed to prevent and respond to emergencies in
aquatic facilities with waterpark features.
■
When considering the unique challenges for lifeguarding at a waterpark,
consider what is unique to waterpark facilities, such as:
|
Variety and number of attractions and features.
|
Where and how lifeguards are positioned, especially related to the
various attractions and features.
|
Patrons’ familiarity with the facility (i.e., they are often first time
visitors).
|
Water depth and movement throughout the facility.
Facility Safety
Lecture
and Guided
Discussion
■
Ask participants: What types of features might you encounter when
working at a waterpark?
Answers: Responses should include the following:
|
Play areas for young children.
|
Play structures, such as lily pads and rope swings.
|
Water slides with and without rafts, drop slides, “toilet bowl/tornado” slides,
speed slides, free-fall slides.
|
Winding rivers.
|
Wave pools.
|
Wave rides.
■
Facilities should follow the manufacturer’s guidelines for installation,
safe inspection, maintenance, operations and use of its various
attractions and features.
■
Ask participants: Even if an attraction or feature has been inspected during
the facility safety check, what types of problems may develop that you
should stay alert for?
Answers: Responses should include the following:
180
|
Loose or rusted bolts.
|
Cracks.
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■
|
Broken or missing pieces.
|
Frayed, loose or mildewed safety nets.
|
Unusual noises.
|
Increased frequency of injury to patrons.
At waterparks, rules and regulations should be posted, but they may also
be played over a public address system as recorded messages. Rules may
vary based on the type of attractions available.
|
■
Waterparks should have signage at every attraction stating the water
depth, height or age requirements and how to use the attraction safely.
This is to prevent patrons from finding themselves in water that is
deeper or shallower than they expected.
|
■
■
For example, U.S. Coast Guard-approved life jackets may be required
on certain attractions but not allowed on others.
For example, some pools at the end of a slide are shallow so patrons
can stand up, but others are very deep. Without signage to warn
them, patrons may expect a shallow catch pool and be surprised to
find themselves in deep water.
Additional rules for each attraction typically cover:
|
The minimum or maximum number of people allowed on an
attraction or a tube at a time.
|
The maximum height or age requirements in some areas designated
for small children for safety reasons.
|
The minimum patron height or weight requirements for using an
attraction.
Ask participants: What are some common rules for safety in winding
rivers?
Answers: Responses should include the following:
■
|
Enter and exit the winding river only at designated places.
|
No jumping or diving into the water. No people on shoulders.
|
Stay in tubes at all times, if tubes are used.
|
No walking or swimming in the winding river if tubes are used.
|
Only one properly fitted life jacket per patron.
|
No stacking of tubes or life jackets.
|
No forming chains of tubes or life jackets.
|
Only one patron allowed per tube, except for an adult holding a small child.
The child must be wearing a U.S. Coast Guard-approved life jacket in case the
adult tips over.
Ask participants: What are some common rules for safety in water slides?
Answers: Responses should include the following:
|
Enter, ride and exit the slide feet-first.
|
No stopping in the slide.
|
No running, standing, kneeling, rotating or spinning on the slides.
|
No metal objects, locker keys, jewelry, metal snaps/zippers, eyewear or
watches, including metal rivets, buttons or fasteners on swimsuits or shorts.
|
No aqua socks or aqua shoes.
|
No eyeglasses, sunglasses or goggles.
|
Keep hands and feet inside the slide.
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■
There are other rules for specific equipment and structures. These rules
depend on the facility and may include:
|
One person at a time on a ladder or attraction.
|
Do not sit or hang on lifelines or lane lines.
|
Do not climb on lifeguard stands or towers.
|
Starting blocks may be used only by swim team members in
scheduled practices, competitions and instruction when supervised
by a certified coach or instructor.
Injury Prevention
Lecture
and Guided
Discussion
■
As part of patron surveillance, you may have specific responsibilities
based on the facility’s activities or features to help prevent injuries.
■
Ask participants to think of specific waterpark features and attractions. Explain to
participants that you will state a responsibility of the lifeguard’s that is intended to
prevent injuries, and they are to identify the waterpark attraction or feature to which
the rule could apply.
Responsibility
Feature and Attraction
Enforce maximum height and age requirements.
Areas specifically for young children, such as small
slides or water play structures, including sprays,
fountains and dumping buckets
Watch for overcrowding and horseplay
Play structures, such as floating obstacle courses or
inflatable structures
Watch patrons as they enter and exit an attraction.
Special rides and attractions, such as bowl slides,
multi-person raft rides, uphill water coasters,
high-speed water slides
Have a process or cues for stopping ride usage in the
event of an incident requiring your attention.
Special rides and attractions, such as bowl slides,
multi-person raft rides, uphill water coasters,
high-speed water slides
Instruct riders how to ride and make sure they are in
the correct position.
Water slides, such as open and enclosed slides, drop
slides and speed slides
Enforce minimum height requirements.
Water slides, such as open and enclosed slides, drop
slides and speed slides
Assist riders who appear off balance or become caught
underwater in the strong downward flow of water in
the catch pool.
Water slides, such as open and enclosed slides, drop
slides and speed slides
Ensure that patrons enter and exit at designated
locations.
Winding rivers
Stand up to get a better view of patrons.
Wave pools and winding rivers
Watch for swimmers who are knocked over by
the waves or carried into deeper water by the
undercurrent.
Wave pools
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■
Organizations such as day cares or youth camps may bring groups to
waterpark facilities for recreation. These groups may be based out of
your facility and swim regularly or visit one or more times as a field trip.
■
Groups are often supervised by leaders, chaperones or camp counselors.
These supervisors may assist with discipline but do not take the place of
lifeguards. Group leaders may be in the water with the group, on the
deck or shore, or a combination of both. Group leaders should know how
to alert lifeguards in an emergency.
■
In general, when guarding groups, you should:
|
Ensure that swimming areas are clearly marked and determined by
swimming abilities.
|
Ensure that patrons stay in the sections appropriate for their
swimming abilities.
|
Provide U.S. Coast Guard-approved life jackets for weak or
nonswimmers.
|
Know how to identify group leaders or chaperones.
|
Ensure that chaperones are actively supervising the members of
their group and that the appropriate swimmer-to-chaperone ratio is
being met.
|
Signal for additional lifeguard coverage, such as a roving lifeguard, if
you feel you cannot effectively guard your zone.
Emergency Action Plans
■
Lecture
TOPIC:
In a waterpark setting there may be additional tasks to perform,
including:
|
Stopping the wave generator in a wave pool by pushing the
emergency stop (e-stop) button.
|
Stopping the dispatch of riders in an attraction.
|
Shutting off the flow of water in a slide, winding river or attraction.
■
Emergency plans may include EMS personnel that are stationed on-site
at the waterpark.
■
Waterparks may have plans designed to address specific situations that
occur at each attraction.
■
Practicing EAPs should be an integral part of the facility’s in-service
training program.
WATERPARK RESCUE SKILLS
Time: 10 minutes
PRESENTATION: WATERPARK RESCUE SKILLS
Video Segment
■
Explain that the video segment will demonstrate skills for rescues at waterparks.
■
Show the video segment, “Waterpark Rescue Skills.”
■
Answer participants’ questions about the segment.
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IN–WATER SKILL SESSION:
WATERPARK RESCUE SKILLS
Time: 1 hour, 30 minutes
PRESENTATION: NEXT STEPS
Skill Practice
■
Explain to participants that during the skill session you will demonstrate the skills
and guide them through practice.
■
For each skill, organize participants so that they can clearly see and hear. Be sure to
provide any instructions related to their position in the water or how they should
behave as victims.
■
Pair up participants and explain that they will take turns as victim and rescuer for
each skill. For the two-person beach drag, reassign participants into groups of three.
■
Lead them through the following skills:
|
Run-and-swim entry
|
Walking assist
|
|
Lifeguards: in the water
●
Victims: in shallow water about 5 yards from the edge of the pool or zerodepth area; distressed swimmer
Beach drag—one person and two person
●
Lifeguards: in the water
●
Victims: in shallow water about 5 yards from the edge of the pool or zerodepth area; face-up passive victim
Front-and-back carry
●
Lifeguards: in the water
●
Victims: in shallow water about 5 yards from the edge of the pool or zerodepth area; face-up passive victim
■
Explain to participants that caring for head, neck and spinal injuries in waterpark
features and attractions require modification of the techniques used for in-line
stabilization learned in the Lifeguarding course.
■
Lead participants through the following skills:
|
|
■
184
●
Head splint—face-down in extremely shallow water
●
Lifeguards: in the water
●
Victims: face-down in extremely shallow water, approximately one foot
deep, or lying on the deck if simulating the extremely shallow water,
responsive once face-up
Head splint—moving water (winding river or catch pool)
●
Lifeguards: on the edge of a winding river or catch pool
●
Victims: face-up in shallow water
With participants performing as a team, lead them through the backboarding
procedure and removal from the water for a suspected spinal injury in a speed slide
runout.
|
Lifeguards: on the edge of a speed slide runout
|
Victims: face-up in shallow water
■
Participants should practice the skills until they are able to meet performance
criteria.
■
Observe each participant’s performance of the skill and provide corrective feedback.
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PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER
Time: 20 minutes
Skill Drill—Timed Response
■
Assemble the participants on the deck and explain they will be practicing rescuing a
submerged passive victim in shallow water, removing the victim from the water on a
backboard, doing a primary assessment and caring for a victim who is not breathing
and does not have a pulse.
■
Explain that the goal of this skill practice is to complete it within 2 minutes. Timing
starts once the lifeguard simulates the EAP. One-rescuer CPR should be performed
for 3 minutes.
■
Divide the participants into groups of three and assign one rescuing lifeguard, one
assisting lifeguard to help with removal from the water, one victim and one manikin
for each group. Explain that for each group:
■
|
The rescuing lifeguard, wearing a hip pack with gloves inside, will simulate
activating the EAP and enter the water. Once the EAP has been activated, the
stopwatch must be started.
|
The victim will get into position about 30 feet from the edge and submerge as the
rescuing lifeguard gets near. The rescuing lifeguard will perform a submerged
passive victim rescue.
|
The assisting lifeguard will bring the backboard and assist the rescuing lifeguard
in removing the victim from the water demonstrating team communication skills
between the lifeguards.
|
Once removed from the water, the rescuing lifeguard will do a primary
assessment on the victim, then switch to a manikin and provide one-person CPR
for 3 minutes. Once the rescuer begins CPR, the stopwatch must be started.
Repeat the drill until each person in the group has performed as a rescuing lifeguard
and an assisting lifeguard at least once.
FINAL WRITTEM EXAM:
WATERPARK SKILLS MODULE
Time: 25 minutes
■
Tell participants that they will now take a final written exam on the information
covered in the module. They may not use their manual or notes to find the answers.
■
Hand out an exam and answer sheet to each participant. Tell participants to write
only on the answer sheet and mark answers clearly.
■
Tell participants to come to you or raise their hands when they have finished the
exam or if they have questions.
■
Once exams are completed, collect all exams and answer sheets. Before the next
lesson, grade the exam using the answer key.
■
Hand back the exam and review it with participants. Collect all exams as the exam is
a standard exam that participants should not be allowed to keep. Make arrangements
for those participants who score less than 80 percent to review the material and retake the opposite version of the exam.
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|
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TOPIC:
CLOSING
Time: 5 minutes
■
Thank all participants for attending the course.
■
Congratulate participants on successful completion.
■
Explain the process for how certificates are issued through the Red Cross.
■
Explain that they will receive an American Red Cross certificate indicating Waterpark
Skills that is valid for no more than 2 years. The Waterpark Skills certificate is only
valid when accompanied by a current Lifeguarding/First Aid/CPR/AED certificate.
■
Make arrangements to retest any participants who did not pass the final written
exam(s) or scenario(s).
SKILL CHARTS AND ASSESSMENT TOOLS
In addition to performing the steps listed in the skill chart in the correct order, participants must meet the criteria
listed at the proficient level to be checked off for this skill.
ENTRIES
SKILL CHART: RUN-AND-SWIM ENTRY
1.
Hold the rescue tube and the excess line and run into the water, lifting your knees high to avoid falling.
2.
When you can no longer run, either put the rescue tube across your chest and lean forward or drop the tube to
the side and start swimming, letting the rescue tube trail behind. Do not dive or plunge head-first into the
water; this could cause a serious head, neck or spinal injury.
SKILL ASSESSMENT TOOL: RUN-AND-SWIM ENTRY
Criteria
Proficient
Not Proficient
Properly position equipment for the
entry
■
Control of the rescue tube is
maintained
■
Contact with the rescue tube
not maintained
■
Excess line held to keep it from
getting caught on the lifeguard
stand or other equipment
■
Excess line not held
Appropriate entry selected for the
situation
Entry is safe for the rescuer, victim
and surrounding persons
Entry causes a safety hazard
Maintain balance while running in
the water
Lifts knees high to step over the
water
■
Fails to lifts knees high enough
to step over the water
■
Loses balance when entering
the water
■
Dives forward when entering
the water
Begin swimming when no longer
able to run
Leans forward into water with head
up to begin swimming
Does not keep head up while
swimming toward victim
Maintain focus on the victim
Upon entering, focus on the victim
or the site where the victim was last
seen is maintained
Fails to look toward the victim or
site where the victim was last seen
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REMOVAL FROM THE WATER
SKILL CHART: WALKING ASSIST
1.
Place one of the victim’s arms around your neck and across your shoulder.
2.
Grasp the wrist of the arm that is across your shoulder. Wrap your free arm around the victim’s back or waist
to provide support.
3.
Hold the victim firmly and assist him or her in walking out of the water.
4.
Have the victim sit or lie down while you monitor his or her condition.
SKILL ASSESSMENT TOOL: WALKING ASSIST
General Criteria
Proficient
Not Proficient
Communicate with the victim
Victim is reassured and told what
to do
No attempted verbal
communication with the victim
Maintain balance
Assumes a sturdy posture and stable
footing
Stumbles, falls or knocks victim
under the water
Assist victim with balance and
bearing weight to walk out of water
■
Holds victim’s hand securely
with arm across shoulders to
bear weight.
■
Fails to hold victim’s hand
securely with arm across
shoulders
■
Supports victim across the back
for balance and stability.
■
Fails to support victim’s
weight
■
Fails to provide balance and
stability to victim while exiting
the water
SKILL CHART: BEACH DRAG
1.
Stand behind the victim and grasp him or her under the armpits, supporting the victim’s head as much as
possible with your forearms. Let the rescue tube trail behind, being careful not to trip on the tube or line. If
another lifeguard is available to assist, each of you should grasp the victim under an armpit and support
the head.
2.
Walk backward and drag the victim to the shore. Use your legs and not your back.
3.
Remove the victim completely from the water then assess his or her condition and provide appropriate care.
SKILL ASSESSMENT TOOL: BEACH DRAG
General Criteria
Proficient
Not Proficient
Securely hold victim
Grasps victim securely under the
armpits
Does not grasp victim securely
under the armpits
Securely hold victim’s head
Forearms held close together to
support victim’s head.
■
Fails to support victim’s head
securely between forearms
■
Forearms are positioned so
victim’s head falls back
Keep victim’s head above the
surface of the water
Mouth and nose of victim
maintained out of the water
Mouth or nose of victim is in the
water
SKILL CHART: FRONT-AND-BACK CARRY
1.
From behind the victim, one lifeguard reaches under the victim’s armpits. This lifeguard grasps the victim’s
right wrist with his or her right hand, and the victim’s left wrist with his or her left hand. Then the lifeguard
crosses the victim’s arms across the victim’s chest.
2.
The second lifeguard stands between the victim’s legs, facing the victim’s feet. This lifeguard bends down and
grasps the victim under the knees. On signal, both lifeguards lift the victim and carry him or her out of the
water while walking forward.
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SKILL ASSESSMENT TOOL: FRONT-AND-BACK CARRY
General Criteria
Proficient
Not Proficient
Securely hold victim
■
Lifeguard 1 grasps victim
securely under the armpits
■
■
Lifeguard 1 grasps wrists
Lifeguards fail to support
victim under the armpits or
knees
■
Lifeguard 2 grasps victim
securely under the knees
■
Victim is dropped
SUSPECTED SPINAL INJURIES
SKILL CHART: HEAD SPLINT—FACE-DOWN IN EXTREMELY SHALLOW WATER
1.
Approach the victim from the side. Grasp the victim’s right arm with your right hand and the victim’s left arm
with your left hand, trapping the victim’s head between his or her arms.
2.
After the victim’s head is trapped between his or her arms, begin to roll the victim toward you.
3.
While rolling the victim, step from the victim’s side toward the victim’s head and begin to turn the victim
face-up.
4.
Lower your arm on the victim’s side that is closest to you so that the victim’s arms go over the top of your arm
as you step toward the victim’s head. Maintain arm pressure against the victim’s head, since your hand rotates
during this maneuver. You are now positioned above and behind the victim’s head.
5.
6.
Check for consciousness and breathing.
|
If the victim is not breathing, immediately remove the victim from the water and give the appropriate
care.
|
If the victim is breathing, hold the victim in this position. Place a towel or blanket on the victim to keep
him or her from becoming chilled.
Continuously monitor for consciousness and breathing. If at any time the victim stops breathing, immediately
remove the victim from the water then provide appropriate care.
Note: If unable to keep the victim from becoming chilled and there are enough assisting lifeguards, follow the
care steps for Spinal Backboarding Procedure and Removal from Water—Speed Slide.
SKILL ASSESSMENT TOOL: HEAD SPLINT—FACE-DOWN IN EXTREMELY SHALLOW
WATER
General Criteria
Proficient
Not Proficient
Provide in-line stabilization
■
Moves victim’s arms to a secure
position against the victim’s
head
■
Does not move victim’s arms
against the victim’s head or
maintain pressure
■
Equal pressure on both arms is
maintained throughout rescue
■
One arm is pressed against
head and one is not
■
Victim’s face does not submerge
■
■
Mouth and nose are above water
Victim’s face submerges under
water
■
Victim’s mouth or nose is
under water
■
Does not move victim to a safe
location
■
Fails to check victim’s
condition
Keep victim’s face out of the water
Move victim to a safe location to
prepare for backboarding
188
■
If victim’s condition is lifethreatening, moves victim out of
water quickly to perform care as
needed
■
If victim is conscious, monitors
victim’s condition
■
Follows facility procedures for
backboarding
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SKILL CHART: HEAD SPLINT—FACE-UP VICTIM IN MOVING WATER
■
Activate the EAP and, if applicable, signal to stop the flow of water and stop sending riders.
■
Keep people or objects away from the rescuer and victim.
1.
Approach the victim’s head from behind, or stand behind the victim’s head.
|
In shallow water, lower your body so that the water level is at your neck.
|
In deep water, use the rescue tube under both of your arms for support.
2.
Grasp the victim’s arms midway between his or her shoulder and elbow. Grasp the victim’s right arm with
your right hand and the victim’s left arm with your left hand. Gently move the victim’s arms up alongside the
head. Position yourself to the victim’s side while trapping the victim’s head with his or her arms.
3.
Slowly and carefully squeeze the victim’s arms against his or her head to help hold the head in line with the
body. Do not move the victim any more than necessary.
4.
Position the victim’s head close to the crook of your arm, with the head in line with the body.
5.
Check for consciousness and breathing.
6.
7.
|
If the victim is not breathing, immediately remove the victim from the water using the two-personremoval-from-the water technique and provide resuscitative care. Do not delay removal from the water
by strapping the victim in or using the head immobilizer device.
|
If the victim is breathing, hold the victim with the head in line with and move toward safety until the
backboard arrives.
Once in-line stabilization is achieved:
|
In a winding river, do not let the current press sideways on the victim or force the victim into a wall. This
would twist the victim’s body. Keep the victim’s head pointed upstream into the current.
|
In a catch pool, move the victim to the calmest water if water is still flowing. If there is only one slide, the
calmest water is usually at the center of the catch pool. If several slides empty into the same catch pool,
calmer water is usually between two slides.
Continuously monitor for consciousness and breathing. If at any time the victim stops breathing, immediately
remove the victim from the water then provide appropriate care.
SKILL ASSESSMENT TOOL: HEAD SPLINT—FACE-UP VICTIM IN MOVING WATER
General Criteria
Proficient
Not Proficient
Provide in-line stabilization
■
Moves victim’s arms to a secure
position against the victim’s
head
■
Does not move victim’s arms
against the victim’s head or
maintain pressure
■
Equal pressure on both arms is
maintained throughout rescue
■
One arm is pressed against
head and one is not
■
Victim’s face does not submerge
■
■
Mouth and nose above water
Victim’s face submerges
underwater
■
Victim’s mouth or nose are
underwater
Victim’s face remains out of the
water
Move victim to a safe location to
prepare for backboarding
■
Moves victim to an area least
affected by movement or
current
■
Remains in moving water
when calmer area is possible
Move victim to a safe location to
prepare for backboarding
■
If condition of victim is lifethreatening, moves victim out of
water quickly to perform care as
needed
■
Does not move victim to a safe
location
■
Fails to check victim’s level of
consciousness and breathing
■
If victim is conscious, monitors
victim’s condition
SECTION
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Waterpark Skills Module
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SKILL CHART: SPINAL BACKBOARDING PROCEDURE AND REMOVAL FROM
WATER—SPEED SLIDE
1.
The primary rescuer performs in-line stabilization by placing his or her hands on both sides of the victim’s
head while the victim is on the slide.
2.
Other lifeguards carefully lift the victim and slide the backboard into place from the feet to the head.
3.
Lifeguards lower the victim onto the backboard.
4.
Lifeguards secure the victim to the backboard and immobilize the head.
5.
Lifeguards lift the backboard and victim out of the slide.
SKILL ASSESSMENT TOOL: SPINAL BACKBOARDING PROCEDURE AND
REMOVAL FROM WATER—SPEED SLIDE
General Criteria
Proficient
Not Proficient
Maintain in-line stabilization
Lifeguard maintains in-line
stabilization while backboard is
being positioned
■
Loss of in-line stabilization
during the rescue
■
Loss of contact with the victim
Victim’s face remains out of the
water
Mouth and nose above water
Victim’s mouth or nose are
underwater
Position the victim on the
backboard
■
Victim is lifted and the
backboard is slid in place
■
Victim’s head is not aligned on
the backboard’s head space
■
Victim’s body is on the
backboard
■
Victim is not aligned and on
the backboard
■
Strapping begins with chest
strap, then the strap over the
hips and then the strap over the
thighs
■
Strapping is done in some
other order
■
Hands are not strapped inside
the strap
■
Hip strap is placed across the
hips with the hands secured
underneath the strap
■
Straps are loose and victim
can easily slide
■
Straps are tight and once all
straps are secured, they are rechecked
■
Straps are not re-checked for
tightness
■
Straps are not tightened if
discovered loose
■
Head immobilizer is not used
■
Head immobilizer is placed
and moves victim’s head or
neck
■
No strap is used across the
victim’s forehead
Secure straps
Immobilize the victim’s head
■
■
Head immobilizer is placed to
immobilize the victim’s head
Head strap is secured across the
victim’s forehead
Lifeguards communicate as a team
to remove the victim from the water
Lifeguards communicate what, how
or when actions happen
■
No verbal communication
■
Communication does not
result in effective actions
Lifeguards remove the backboard
and victim from the water
■
Backboard and victim is
removed by lifting it out of the
slide
■
Backboard is lifted causing the
victim to move or slide
■
■
Backboard is steady during
removal
Backboard is jerking or
rocking from side to side
190
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SECTION
E |
LIFEGUARDING FINAL
WRITTEN EXAMS
SECTION 1—CPR/AED FOR THE PROFESSIONAL RESCUER AND
FIRST AID
■
Final Written Exam A
■
Final Written Exam B
SECTION 2—LIFEGUARDING SKILLS
■
Final Written Exam A
■
Final Written Exam B
SECTION 2—SHALLOW WATER LIFEGUARDING SKILLS
■
Final Written Exam A
■
Final Written Exam B
WATERFRONT SKILLS MODULE
■
Final Written Exam A
■
Final Written Exam B
WATERPARK SKILLS MODULE
■
Final Written Exam A
■
Final Written Exam B
ANSWER SHEETS
■
Section 1—CPR/AED for the Professional Rescuer and First Aid
■
Section 2—Lifeguarding Skills
■
Section 2—Shallow Water Lifeguarding Skills
■
Waterfront Skills Module
■
Waterpark Skills Module
SECTION
LGI_SecE_p191-252.indd 191
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Lifeguarding Final Written Exams
191
12/16/11 10:42 AM
ANSWER KEYS
■
■
192
Answer Key—Final Written Exam A
{
Section 1—CPR/AED for the Professional Rescuer and First Aid
{
Section 2—Lifeguarding Skills
{
Section 2—Shallow Water Lifeguarding Skills
{
Waterfront Skills Module
{
Waterpark Skills Module
Answer Key—Final Written Exam B
{
Section 1—CPR/AED for the Professional Rescuer and First Aid
{
Section 2—Lifeguarding Skills
{
Section 2—Shallow Water Lifeguarding Skills
{
Waterfront Skills Module
{
Waterpark Skills Module
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FINAL WRITTEN EXAM: SECTION 1—
CPR/AED FOR THE PROFESSIONAL
RESCUER AND FIRST AID
■
Final Written Exam A
■
Final Written Exam B
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Lifeguarding Final Written Exams
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—DO NOT WRITE ON THIS EXAM—
Section 1—CPR/AED for the Professional Rescuer
and First Aid
Exam A
IMPORTANT: Read all instructions before beginning the exam.
INSTRUCTIONS: Mark all answers in pencil on a separate answer sheet. Do not write on this exam. The
questions on this exam are multiple choice. Read each question carefully. Then choose the best answer and fill in
that circle on the answer sheet. If you wish to change an answer, erase your first answer completely. Return this
exam to your instructor when you are finished.
EXAMPLE
ANSWER SHEET
xx.
a
b
c
XX. Why does the American Red Cross teach this course?
194
a.
To help people stay calm in emergencies.
b.
To help people make appropriate decisions when they are confronted with an emergency.
c.
To help people in an emergency keep a victim’s injuries from getting worse until emergency medical
services (EMS) personnel arrive and take over.
d.
All of the above
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10/17/11 12:00 PM
—DO NOT WRITE ON THIS EXAM—
Section 1—CPR/AED for the Professional Rescuer
and First Aid
1.
How can you best protect yourself from possible
bloodborne pathogen transmission when
providing care?
a.
Ask the victim first if he or she has any
communicable diseases.
b.
Thoroughly wash your hands before
providing care.
c.
d.
4.
3.
You and another lifeguard find an unconscious
adult on the floor in the locker room. You activate
your facility’s EAP, size-up the scene and perform
a primary assessment. You find the victim is not
moving or breathing, but has a pulse. You should
summon EMS personnel, then:
a.
Give 1 rescue breath about every 5 seconds.
Use first aid supplies, such as dressings and
bandages, as a barrier when in contact with
the victim.
b.
Give back blows and chest thrusts.
c.
Give quick breaths at the rate of 20 to 40
a minute.
Use personal protective equipment (PPE),
such as disposable gloves and a breathing
barrier, when providing care.
d.
Perform CPR.
5.
2.
A 12-year-old boy at a swim meet grabs his chest
and begins to make wheezing noises. After you
obtain consent to provide care, his mother informs
you that he has a history of asthma, but does not
have his inhaler nearby. What care should
you provide?
a.
Give 5 back blows.
b.
Summon more advanced medical personnel
and place the victim into a position that
helps breathing.
c.
Tell the victim to use an inhaler borrowed
from a bystander.
d.
Wait 20 minutes to see if the breathing
difficulty goes away.
While having a snack in the concession area, a
child suddenly clutches his throat with both hands.
You ask him if he is choking and he frantically nods
yes. You activate your facility’s emergency action
plan (EAP). You identify yourself as a lifeguard and
obtain consent from the parents. What should you
do next?
6.
7.
You come upon a scene where a patron appears to
be injured. Before approaching the victim, which of
the following will you not do as you size-up
the scene?
a.
Use all your senses to determine if the scene
is safe.
b.
Determine what happened and how many
victims there are.
c.
Begin the primary assessment.
d.
Put on appropriate PPE.
When providing care during an emergency, which
of the following should you do first?
a.
Check for responsiveness.
b.
Perform a primary assessment.
c.
Size-up the scene.
d.
Summon more advanced medical personnel.
As the first lifeguard on the scene, you are
performing CPR on an adult. When performing
chest compressions, how deeply should you
compress the chest?
a.
Check the victim’s carotid pulse and then give
5 back blows and 5 abdominal thrusts.
b.
Give 30 chest compressions followed by
2 ventilations.
a.
About ½ inch
b.
About 1½ inches
c.
Lie the victim down and try to give
2 ventilations.
c.
At least 1 inch
d.
At least 2 inches
d.
Stand or kneel behind the victim and give
5 back blows and 5 abdominal thrusts.
SECTION
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Exam A
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Lifeguarding Final Written Exams
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12/16/11 10:42 AM
—DO NOT WRITE ON THIS EXAM—
8. CPR should be performed on which of the
following victims?
a.
9.
One who is conscious and has an
airway obstruction
13. You are performing CPR on a victim and a second
lifeguard arrives. Which of the following is most
appropriate for the second lifeguard to do first?
a.
Begin giving ventilations to the victim.
b.
One who is experiencing difficulty breathing
b.
Call for a change in position to assist with CPR.
c.
One who is in cardiac arrest
c.
d.
One who responds to painful stimuli
Check to see whether EMS personnel have
been called.
d.
Have the first lifeguard stop CPR to allow for
victim reassessment.
What is the first step of the Cardiac Chain
of Survival?
a.
Early CPR
b.
Early defibrillation
c.
Early more advanced medical care
d.
Early recognition and access to the emergency
medical services (EMS) system
14. Which of the following is most essential to use
when giving ventilations to protect you and the
victim from disease transmission?
a.
CPR breathing barriers
b.
Protective clothing
c.
Gowns
d.
Protective eye wear
10. You are providing care to a victim having a heart
attack. Which of the following would you do first?
a.
Loosen any tight clothing.
b.
Monitor the victim’s appearance.
c.
Provide comfort to the victim.
d.
Summon EMS personnel.
11. Once you have turned on the automated external
defibrillator (AED), you should:
a.
Apply the pads and allow the AED to analyze
the heart rhythm.
b.
Check for breathing.
c.
Give abdominal thrusts.
d.
Give chest compressions.
12. To ensure effective chest compressions during
CPR, which of the following is most appropriate?
196
15. You are providing care to a facility maintenance
worker who has fallen off the top of a ladder. The
victim is conscious. Which of the following should
you do first?
a.
Ask the victim what happened when he or
she fell.
b.
Check the victim’s pulse.
c.
Obtain consent from the victim to
provide care.
d.
Question the victim about any complaints
of pain.
16. For which of the following should you summon
EMS personnel?
a.
A victim with a minor cut on the forearm that
is lightly bleeding
b.
a.
Allowing the chest to fully recoil
between compressions
A victim with an airway obstruction who is
forcefully coughing
c.
A victim with intermittent abdominal pressure
b.
Compressing the chest to a shallow depth
d.
c.
Placing the victim on a soft, flat surface
A victim with an open leg wound with the
bone protruding
d.
Positioning the hands at the upper part of the
victim’s chest
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17. You pull an unconscious adult from the water who
is taking infrequent gasps. During the primary
assessment you find that the victim has a pulse.
Which of the following should you do next?
21. You are preparing to give ventilations to a
5-year-old boy using a resuscitation mask. You
should give 1 ventilation about every:
a.
1 second.
a.
Begin CPR.
b.
2 seconds.
b.
Check for severe bleeding.
c.
3 seconds.
c.
Continue to monitor the victim’s
breathing closely.
d.
5 seconds.
d.
Give 2 initial ventilations.
18. If there is a risk of the AED pads touching each
other, such as with a small child or an infant,
you should:
a.
Place one pad in the middle of the chest and
the other on the back.
b.
Place one pad on the stomach and one pad on
the chest.
c.
Place them as usual. It does not matter if the
pads touch each other.
d.
Reverse the pads’ position on the chest.
19. You have sized up the scene and determined
the scene is safe. When performing a primary
assessment, which of the following would you
do next?
a.
Check for responsiveness.
b.
Summon EMS personnel.
c.
Open the victim’s airway.
d.
Check for breathing and a pulse.
20. Which of the following statements about
bag-valve-mask resuscitators (BVMs) is
most accurate?
22. When compressing a child’s chest during CPR, you
should compress at a rate of at least how many
compressions per minute?
a.
80
b.
100
c.
120
d.
140
23. An AED has advised that a shock should be given.
Which of the following is appropriate?
a.
Apply new AED pads to the victim’s chest.
b.
Begin chest compressions immediately.
c.
Cover the AED pads with a blanket.
d.
Tell everyone to stand clear of the victim.
24. You are about to apply AED pads to a victim’s chest
when you notice that the victim has several body
piercings with jewelry on his chest. Which of the
following should you do?
a.
Apply the pads to the chest, making sure to
avoid the jewelry.
b.
Remove the jewelry before applying the pads.
c.
Use one pad, applying it directly over
the jewelry.
d.
Wipe the chest, including the jewelry,
with alcohol.
a.
BVMs are readily available at all
emergency scenes.
b.
Monitoring the victim for full exhalation is
not required.
c.
Two rescuers need to operate the BVM.
a.
15 chest compressions and 1 ventilation.
d.
When used by a single rescuer, BVMs allow
easy coordination with chest compressions.
b.
15 chest compressions and 2 ventilations.
c.
30 chest compressions and 1 ventilation.
d.
30 chest compressions and 2 ventilations.
25. The cycle of chest compressions and ventilations in
two-rescuer CPR for an infant is:
SECTION
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26. You are positioned above the child’s head and are
using a resuscitation mask to give ventilations.
After you position the mask, which of the following
should you do next?
a.
Blow into the mask.
b.
Lower the mask over the mouth.
c.
Open the airway.
d.
Seal the mask.
27. You are providing care to a patron who started
choking on some food. The victim becomes
unconscious. Which of the following should you
do first?
a.
Attempt to give ventilations to the victim.
b.
Lower the victim carefully to the ground and
open his airway.
c.
Give 5 chest compressions.
d.
Look inside the victim’s mouth.
28. Where should you place your hands when giving
chest compressions to an infant during CPR?
a.
One hand on the chin and one hand on
the chest
b.
One hand on the chin and two or three fingers
on the center of the chest
c.
One hand on the forehead and one hand on
the chest
d.
One hand on the forehead and two or three
fingers on the center of the chest
29. When giving abdominal thrusts to an adult, where
should you position your fist?
198
a.
In the center of the breastbone
b.
In the middle of the abdomen, just above
the navel
c.
In the middle of the abdomen, just below
the navel
d.
On the rib cage
30. When providing care to a conscious infant
who is choking, which of the following is
most appropriate?
a.
Giving 10 chest thrusts then 10 back blows
b.
Positioning the infant so the head is lower than
the chest
c.
Standing slightly behind the infant with one
arm around the chest
d.
Using the heel of your hand to give the
chest thrusts
31. A person has been injured and is conscious.
You should:
a.
Have the victim walk with you to the first
aid station so you can obtain consent and
provide care.
b.
Obtain consent, check the victim for
life-threatening conditions and speak with
the victim to find out what happened.
c.
Provide care immediately based on the
victim’s condition.
d.
Speak with the victim to find out
what happened and check for
non-life-threatening conditions.
32. The purpose of the secondary assessment is to:
a.
Determine if the victim is bleeding severely.
b.
Identify and care for conditions that are not
life threatening.
c.
Look for other victims you may not have
noticed at first.
d.
Verify the victim has medical insurance.
33. An injured patron is conscious and bleeding
severely. After summoning EMS personnel,
obtaining consent and putting on disposable
gloves, what is your next care step?
a.
Treat the victim for shock by lying the
victim down.
b.
Elevate the wound if you can do so without
causing further pain.
c.
Let the wound bleed until it stops on its own.
d.
Press firmly against the wound with a sterile
dressing and bandage.
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34. A way to remember the questions to ask when
taking a brief history is to use the acronym
SAMPLE. What does the A in SAMPLE stand for?
38. When caring for musculoskeletal injuries, what
does RICE stand for?
a.
Rest, immobilize, cold, elevate
a.
Age
b.
Remove, immobilize, care, elevate
b.
Airway
c.
Rest, ice, care, evaluate
c.
Allergies
d.
Remove, ice, care, evaluate
d.
Ankle
35. What is the first step you should take in caring for
a victim with burns?
39. Signs and symptoms of sudden illness do
not include:
a.
Nausea or vomiting.
a.
Cool the burned area to stop the burning.
b.
Loss of vision or blurred vision.
b.
Keep the victim comfortable.
c.
Bruising or rigidness of the abdomen.
c.
Remove the victim from the source of
the burn.
d.
Changes in skin condition.
d.
Take steps to minimize shock.
36. If a victim is having a seizure in the water:
40. When checking a victim during a secondary
assessment you notice changes in her LOC. What
does the C stand for in LOC?
a.
Immediately get him or her out of the water.
a.
Condition.
b.
Immediately move the victim to shallow
water until the seizure ends, if the victim is in
deep water.
b.
Comprehension.
c.
Consciousness.
d.
Complication.
c.
Secure the victim onto a backboard.
d.
Support the victim with his or her head above
water until the seizure ends.
37. During a swim meet, the bleachers behind your
guard station suddenly collapse. As you check
the scene, you notice several people who appear
injured. Who should you approach first?
a.
A mother holding a crying infant.
b.
A man who appears unconscious.
c.
A woman who is bleeding lightly from an
injury on her leg.
d.
A child who is holding his arm, which appears
to be injured.
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12/16/11 10:42 AM
—DO NOT WRITE ON THIS EXAM—
Section 1—CPR/AED for the Professional Rescuer
and First Aid
Exam B
IMPORTANT: Read all instructions before beginning the exam.
INSTRUCTIONS: Mark all answers in pencil on a separate answer sheet. Do not write on this exam. The
questions on this exam are multiple choice. Read each question carefully. Then choose the best answer and fill in
that circle on the answer sheet. If you wish to change an answer, erase your first answer completely. Return this
exam to your instructor when you are finished.
EXAMPLE
ANSWER SHEET
xx.
a
b
c
XX. Why does the American Red Cross teach this course?
200
a.
To help people stay calm in emergencies.
b.
To help people make appropriate decisions when they are confronted with an emergency.
c.
To help people in an emergency keep a victim’s injuries from getting worse until emergency medical
services (EMS) personnel arrive and take over.
d.
All of the above
Lifeguarding Instructor’s Manual
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10/17/11 12:00 PM
—DO NOT WRITE ON THIS EXAM—
Section 1—CPR/AED for the Professional Rescuer
and First Aid
1.
2.
You come upon a scene where someone seems
to be hurt. During the primary assessment, you
should check for all of the following EXCEPT:
Bleeding.
a.
Fist of the hand
b.
Breathing.
b.
Heel of the hand
c.
Consciousness.
c.
Two hands
d.
Swelling.
d.
Two or three fingers
How can you best protect yourself from possible
bloodborne pathogen transmission when
providing care?
b.
4.
You are providing care to a conscious infant who is
choking. When giving chest thrusts, which of the
following would you use?
a.
a.
3.
5.
6.
Ask the victim first if he or she has any
communicable diseases.
Thoroughly wash your hands before
providing care.
c.
Use protective equipment, such as disposable
gloves and a breathing barrier, when
providing care.
d.
Use first aid supplies, such as dressings and
bandages, as a barrier when in contact with
the victim.
7.
You determine that a victim is unconscious but
breathing. While waiting with the victim for EMS
personnel, you would position the victim:
a.
Face-up.
b.
In a modified high arm in endangered spine
(H.A.IN.E.S.) recovery position.
c.
On his or her abdomen.
d.
On his or her side.
While preparing to use an automated external
defibrillator (AED) on a victim, you notice a
medication patch on the victim’s chest. Which
action is most appropriate?
a.
Which of the following would you identify as the
universal sign that a conscious person is choking?
Applying one of the pads directly over
the patch
b.
Removing the patch with a gloved hand
a.
Clutching the throat
c.
b.
Coughing
Placing one pad on the victim’s chest and the
other on his or her back
c.
Inability to speak or cry
d.
d.
Yelling out “I’m choking”
Wiping the victim’s chest dry, avoiding
the patch
As you are giving ventilations with a resuscitation
mask, the victim vomits. Which of the following
would you do first?
a.
Clear the airway of the vomit immediately.
b.
Reposition the victim’s head to reopen
the airway.
c.
Turn the victim as a unit onto his or her side.
d.
Use greater force when ventilating to bypass
the vomit.
8. You are giving ventilations to a 5-year-old child
using a resuscitation mask. You should give
1 ventilation about every:
a.
1 second.
b.
2 seconds.
c.
3 seconds.
d.
5 seconds.
SECTION
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Exam B
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Lifeguarding Final Written Exams
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—DO NOT WRITE ON THIS EXAM—
9.
Which of the following statements about
bag-valve-mask resuscitators (BVMs) is
most accurate?
a.
BVMs are readily available at all
emergency scenes.
a.
Begin giving ventilations to the victim.
b.
Call for a change in position to assist with CPR.
b.
Monitoring the victim for full exhalation is
“not required.
c.
Check to see whether EMS personnel have
been called.
c.
Two rescuers need to operate the BVM.
d.
d.
When used by a single rescuer, BVMs allow
easy coordination with chest compressions.
Have the first lifeguard stop CPR to allow for
victim reassessment.
10. When giving chest compressions to an adult, how
would you position your hands?
a.
Side-by-side at the middle of the victim’s chest
b.
Encircling the chest with the thumbs centered
at the nipple line
c.
Heel of one hand on the center of the chest
with the other hand on top
d.
Three fingers of one hand on the chest with the
palm of the other on top
11. You are performing CPR on a victim and you notice
that the victim’s chest begins to rise and fall. Which
of the following would you do first?
a.
Continue to perform CPR.
b.
Place the victim face-down to maintain
the airway.
c.
Stop chest compressions but
continue ventilations.
d.
14. Which of the following findings would lead you to
determine that an infant’s airway is open?
a.
The infant is crying uncontrollably.
b.
The infant is not breathing.
c.
The infant is unable to speak.
d.
The infant’s chest fails to rise and fall.
15. During a primary assessment, which of the
following should you evaluate first?
a.
Airway
b.
Breathing
c.
Circulation
d.
Check the victim for responsiveness
16. You are walking on the pool deck when the swim
team coach suddenly collapses in front of you.
During your primary assessment you do not find a
pulse, you should:
a.
Suspect he is an unconscious choking victim
and give 2 ventilations.
b.
Suspect he is in cardiac arrest and immediately
begin CPR.
c.
Suspect he has had a stroke and care for shock
and maintain an open airway.
d.
Suspect he may have a head, neck or spinal
injury and send someone to call EMS.
Stop CPR and monitor the victim’s condition.
12. When using a resuscitation mask, which of the
following should you do?
202
13. You are performing CPR on a victim and a second
lifeguard arrives. Which of the following is most
appropriate for the second lifeguard to do first?
a.
Blow into the mask for at least 2 seconds to
give ventilations.
b.
Cover the nose completely with the mask with
the bottom edge at the upper lip.
c.
Hold the mask at the one-way valve to seal it.
d.
Place the broad end of the mask between the
lower lip and chin.
17. Based on which of the following signs and
symptoms would you determine that a victim is
experiencing respiratory distress?
a.
Audible high-pitched gurgling
b.
Complaints of feeling “really thirsty”
c.
Sneezing with watery eyes
d.
Yellowish skin
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18. You and another lifeguard find an unconscious
adult on the locker room floor. The other lifeguard
goes to summon EMS personnel. You complete a
primary assessment and find that the victim has a
pulse but is not breathing. Which of the following
should you do next?
a.
Give 1 ventilation about every 5 seconds.
b.
Give the victim back blows and chest thrusts.
c.
Perform a finger sweep of the victim’s mouth.
d.
Perform CPR.
19. As the only lifeguard performing CPR on a
7-year-old child, you would perform cycles of:
a.
15 chest compressions and 1 ventilation.
b.
20 chest compressions and 1 ventilation.
c.
25 chest compressions and 1 ventilation.
d.
30 chest compressions and 2 ventilations.
20. An AED indicates that “No shock is advised.”
Which of the following is most appropriate to
do next?
a.
Monitor the victim’s airway and breathing.
b.
Perform CPR for about 2 minutes.
c.
Readjust the pad placement on the victim.
d.
Turn off the AED for 5 seconds and try again.
21. You are providing care to an adult who is
unconscious and not breathing. You give 1
ventilation during CPR and notice that the chest
does not rise. Which of the following should you
do next?
a.
Change the position of the mask and then look
for chest movement.
b.
Blow into the mask more forcefully and then
look for the chest to rise.
c.
Give 5 back blows and then check the
victim’s mouth.
d.
Retilt the head and then attempt
another ventilation.
22. You and a fellow lifeguard are giving ventilations
using a BVM. You position the mask over the
victim’s mouth and nose. What should the other
lifeguard do?
a.
Ensure that the mask is sealed.
b.
Open the airway with the thumbs.
c.
Position fingers behind the jawbone.
d.
Squeeze the bag with both hands.
23. You and another lifeguard are preparing for CPR
on an adult who collapsed in the locker room. You
determine that there is no breathing or pulse and
state, “Victim has no pulse. Begin CPR.” Which of
the following should the other lifeguard do next?
a.
Check for breathing.
b.
Begin chest compressions.
c.
Give 2 ventilations.
d.
Open the airway.
24. Which of the following is most essential to use
when giving ventilations to protect you and the
victim from disease transmission?
a.
CPR breathing barriers
b.
Protective clothing
c.
Gowns
d.
Protective eyewear
25. Which of the following should you do first when
approaching the scene of an emergency?
a.
Complete a primary assessment.
b.
Obtain the victim’s consent to provide care.
c.
Size-up the scene.
d.
Summon EMS personnel.
26. To ensure effective chest compressions during
CPR, which of the following is most appropriate?
a.
Allowing the chest to fully recoil
between compressions
b.
Compressing the chest to a shallow depth
c.
Placing the victim on a soft, flat surface
d.
Positioning the hands at the upper part of the
victim’s chest
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27. When using an AED, which of the following should
you do immediately after attaching the AED pads
to the victim’s chest?
a.
Push the “Analyze” button.
a.
Becomes restless and irritable.
b.
Tell everyone to stand clear.
b.
Has a red rash.
c.
Turn on the AED.
c.
Has dry skin.
d.
Wipe the victim’s chest dry.
d.
Is calm and quiet.
28. A person has been injured and is conscious.
You obtain consent to check the victim for
life-threatening conditions. What life-threatening
condition would require you to immediately
summon EMS personnel?
a.
Minor cuts and scrapes
b.
Minor headache
c.
Persistent chest pain
d.
Swollen ankle
29. You and a patron enter the locker room and find an
unconscious person lying on the floor. You size-up
the scene and then you begin performing a primary
assessment. The patron asks, “Should we move
him to the first aid room?” What should you
do next?
32. The purpose of a secondary assessment is to:
a.
Determine if the victim is bleeding severely.
b.
Identify and care for conditions that are not
life threatening.
c.
Look for other victims you may not have
noticed at first.
d.
Verify the victim has medical insurance.
33. An injured patron is conscious and bleeding
severely. After summoning EMS personnel,
obtaining consent and putting on disposable
gloves, what is your next care step?
a.
Clean the wound and area of bodily fluids to
minimize contamination.
b.
a.
Help the patron move the victim to the first
aid room.
Elevate the wound if you can do so without
causing further pain.
c.
Let the wound bleed until it stops on its own.
b.
Splash the victim’s face with cold water.
d.
c.
Tell the patron the victim should not be moved
since there is no immediate danger.
Press firmly against the wound with a sterile
dressing and apply bandage.
d.
Tell the patron to move the victim while you
get other lifeguards to help.
30. A 12-year-old boy at a swim meet grabs his chest
and begins to make wheezing noises. After you
obtain consent to provide care, his mother informs
you that he has a history of asthma, but does not
have his inhaler nearby. What care should you
provide?
204
31. A patron has cut her leg on the edge of the
bleachers and is bleeding heavily. You think the
patron is in shock because she:
a.
Give 5 back blows.
b.
Summon EMS personnel and place the victim
into a position that helps breathing.
c.
Tell the victim to use an inhaler borrowed
from a bystander.
d.
Wait 20 minutes to see if the breathing
difficulty goes away.
34. When immobilizing an injured patron’s arm:
a.
Leave the arm in the position you find it or in
the position the patron is holding it.
b.
Loosely apply a sling so the patron can move
the arm around.
c.
Secure the injured arm to the patron’s
uninjured arm.
d.
Straighten the arm and place a folded towel
between the injured arm and the patron’s ribs.
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35. A way to remember the questions to ask when
taking a brief history is to use the acronym
SAMPLE. What does the S in SAMPLE stand for?
a.
Safety techniques
b.
Secondary assessment
c.
Signs and symptoms
d.
Spinal injury assessment
38. A victim is having a seizure in the water, what
should you do?
a.
Immediately get him or her out of the water.
b.
Immediately move the victim to shallow water
until the seizure ends, if the victim is in
deep water.
c.
Secure the victim onto a backboard.
d.
Support the victim with his or her head above
water until the seizure ends.
36. A patron seems to be having a diabetic emergency.
You should:
a.
Have the victim drink a diet soda.
b.
Have the victim drink a fruit juice.
c.
Have the victim drink a glass of water.
d.
Have the victim lie down and cover him or her
with a blanket.
37. A patron has slurred speech, is unable to lift her
right arm level with her left arm and is unable to
smile without one side of her face drooping. You
make note of the time the symptoms started. These
are symptoms of:
a.
A head, neck or spinal injury.
b.
A stroke.
c.
Internal bleeding.
d.
Poisoning.
39. During a swim meet, the bleachers behind your
guard station suddenly collapse. As you check
the scene you notice several people who appear
injured. Who should you approach first?
a.
A mother holding a crying infant
b.
A man who appears unconscious
c.
A woman who is bleeding lightly from an
injury on her leg
d.
A child who is holding his arm, which appears
to be injured
40. When caring for musculoskeletal injuries, what
does RICE stand for?
a.
Rest, immobilize, cold, elevate
b.
Remove, immobilize, care, elevate
c.
Rest, ice, care, evaluate
d.
Remove, ice, care, evaluate
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FINAL WRITTEN EXAM: SECTION 2—
LIFEGUARDING SKILLS
■
Final Written Exam A
■
Final Written Exam B
206
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Section 2—Lifeguarding Skills
Exam A
IMPORTANT: Read all instructions before beginning the exam.
INSTRUCTIONS: Mark all answers in pencil on a separate answer sheet. Do not write on this exam. The
questions on this exam are multiple choice. Read each question carefully. Then choose the best answer and fill in
that circle on the answer sheet. If you wish to change an answer, erase your first answer completely. Return this
exam to your instructor when you are finished.
EXAMPLE
ANSWER SHEET
xx.
a
b
c
XX. Why does the American Red Cross teach this course?
a.
To help people stay calm in emergencies.
b.
To help people make appropriate decisions when they are confronted with an emergency.
c.
To help people in an emergency keep a victim’s injuries from getting worse until emergency medical
services (EMS) personnel arrive and take over.
d.
All of the above
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Section 2—Lifeguarding Skills
1.
2.
You notice a patron that is swimming laps who
suddenly slips under water without a struggle and
does not resurface. This person is probably:
a.
A distressed swimmer who needs help.
b.
A passive victim who needs help.
c.
An active victim who needs help.
d.
An intermediate swimmer who does not
need help.
a.
Fixing the pool rope and lane lines and
ensuring the changing rooms are clean.
b.
Following the health codes, answering a
patron’s question and making sure patrons
shower before using the pool.
d.
208
4.
Which of the following is a primary responsibility
of a lifeguard?
a.
Enforcing facility rules and regulations and
educating patrons about them
b.
Filling out required records and reports on
schedule and submitting them to the proper
person or office
c.
Monitoring the performance of the other
lifeguards on duty
d.
Performing opening duties, closing duties or
facility safety checks and inspections
Primary responsibilities of a lifeguard include:
c.
3.
Exam A
5.
Inspecting the pool and rescue equipment
before the facility opens and paying close
attention to patrons in the water by actively
scanning the assigned area.
For a head, neck or spinal injury in deep water:
a.
Minimize movement of the victim’s head and
neck using the head splint technique.
b.
Move the victim directly onto a backboard.
c.
Remove the victim from the water without
wasting time trying to stabilize the victim’s
head and neck until you have the victim out of
the water.
d.
Remove your rescue tube and use the head
hold technique.
Passing out the pool rules to all the patrons.
A man is unexpectedly pushed from behind and
falls from the deck into the water and is in distress.
After you activate the emergency action plan
(EAP), what are included in your next steps.
a.
Clear the pool and alert management of
the emergency.
b.
Encourage him to stay calm and swim back to
the edge of the pool.
c.
Use an ease in entry, approach the victim and
remove him from the water.
d.
Extend a rescue tube to him while remaining
on deck, then provide any additional care.
6.
While scanning your zone, you notice a person
motionless in the water. The steps you follow
in a water emergency are performed in the
following order:
a.
Perform a secondary assessment, perform
a primary assessment, size-up the scene,
activate the emergency action plan (EAP), and
summon EMS personnel.
b.
Perform a primary assessment, activate the
EAP, summon EMS personnel, perform a
secondary assessment and size-up the scene.
c.
Activate the EAP, enter the water, perform an
appropriate rescue, move the victim to a safe
exit point, remove the victim from the water
and provide emergency care as needed.
d.
Size-up the scene, activate the EAP, summon
EMS personnel, perform a primary assessment
and perform a secondary assessment.
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7.
While scanning the pool, you witness a patron
struggling while swimming and then go under
water. Which of the following applies?
a.
A topic that should be covered during an inservice meeting and new-hire orientation.
a.
You have duty to act and perform the
appropriate rescue.
b.
b.
You would use the RID factor to determine
what to do.
One of the primary responsibilities of
a lifeguard.
c.
Part of the facility’s EAP.
c.
You should continue to scan the pool until
emergency back-up coverage is available.
d.
Solely the role of facility management.
d.
You should notify off duty lifeguards to provide
care for the victim.
8. A lifeguard can no longer see some of the patrons
at one side of the swimming area from his
station because of glare from the afternoon sun.
To maintain effective patron surveillance, the
lifeguard should:
9.
11. Working with other lifeguards, facility staff and
supervisors as a team is:
12. You are a lifeguard on surveillance duty during a
busy family swim session. It is important to:
a.
Have a first aid kit, an automated external
defibrillator (AED) and a backboard
immediately available to you on the pool deck
next to your station.
b.
Scan all areas in your assigned zone of
coverage and carry your rescue tube with you
at all times.
a.
Adjust his position slightly to remove the glare
spot from his surveillance area.
b.
Document the issue and present it at next
month’s staff meeting.
c.
Rope off and close all areas of the facility that
have water over 5-feet deep.
c.
Leave the area to find the supervisor
for assistance.
d.
Have enough lifejackets on hand and require
all non-swimmers to use them.
d.
Stay in the same position since the patrons are
strong swimmers.
A patron starts running on the deck. You blow your
whistle to get her attention. Next, you enforce the
rules and regulations by:
a.
Calling your supervisor.
b.
Giving her a warning.
c.
Telling her she could slip or fall and she must
walk on the deck.
d.
Telling her she might be asked to leave and
demanding she stop it now.
10. When caring for a suspected head, neck or
spinal injury in water, proper manual in-line
stabilization is:
a.
Less important than on land due to the
support provided by the water.
b.
Provided using the head splint technique.
c.
The only necessary technique needed if EMS
personnel are close by.
d.
Provided by bystanders if the lifeguard needs
to clear the pool.
13. A head, neck or spinal injury rarely happens:
a.
In deep water at a supervised facility.
b.
When someone strikes a properly inflated
inner tube.
c.
In shallow water that is clearly signed
No Diving.
d.
From collisions between swimmers.
14. Which of the following is true about accidental
fecal releases (AFRs)?
a.
AFRs do not require immediate attention.
b.
Managers only need to be concerned
with AFRs.
c.
Require water treatment, temporary pool
closure and immediate lifeguard attention.
d.
It is part of the routine daily operation of a
pool that must be done for safety.
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15. You are lifeguarding during a family swim session
when you notice a swimmer swimming full lengths
of the pool under water. What should you do?
a.
Activate the facility EAP, clear the pool and
remove him from the pool.
b.
Immediately get the attention of the swimmer
and instruct him to leave the pool for breaking
pool rules.
c.
d.
a.
Have the mother transport him to the
emergency room since he is already walking.
b.
Immediately stop him from continuing the
activity and explain the dangers of the activity.
Bring him to the pool office to sit down and
provide manual stabilization.
c.
Alert the pool manager of the situation once
your shift is over and document the event.
Have him lie down on the pool deck until EMS
personnel arrive.
d.
Provide manual stabilization while the other
lifeguards prepare to backboard him.
16. After removing a conscious victim you suspect has
a spinal injury from the water, you should do all
the following except:
a.
Watch for and care for signs of shock.
b.
Protect the victim from becoming cold.
c.
Dry the victim off and apply the pads of
an AED.
d.
Reassure the victim and perform a
secondary assessment.
17. Two lifeguards are on surveillance duty during a
public swim. You are on a break. One lifeguard
activates the facility’s EAP for a submerged passive
victim and enters the water. Which steps should
you take next to assist in the rescue?
a.
Notify the manager to assist.
b.
Bring the backboard to the lifeguard and assist
in removing the victim from the water as the
other lifeguard clears the pool.
c.
Provide emergency total zone coverage while
other lifeguards assist the victim.
d.
Instruct bystanders how to assist the
lifeguards, document witness accounts and
provide crowd control.
18. A lifeguard keeps an eye on the patrons of the pool,
checking the bottom, middle and surface of the
water. He is demonstrating:
210
19. A mother and her son walk over to you; she states
that he fell on the pool deck and hit his head. You
notice he has blood and fluid running from his ear
and he is feeling dizzy. What steps should you
take next?
a.
Effective communication.
b.
Effective scanning.
c.
Implied consent.
d.
The RID factor.
20. The lifeguard supervisor expects the pool to be
very busy in the afternoon. For effective patron
surveillance, she sets up multiple lifeguard stations
to reduce the number of patrons watched by each
lifeguard. This type of coverage is called:
a.
Back-up coverage.
b.
Rescue coverage.
c.
Total coverage.
d.
Zone coverage.
21. To effectively scan, you must:
a.
Count all the patrons in your zone.
b.
Focus primarily on blind spots.
c.
Keep your head still but use your eyes to scan
your area.
d.
Move your head and eyes as you scan to look
directly at each area rather than staring in a
fixed direction.
22. When providing care to a conscious person you
suspect of having a head, neck or spinal injury and
who was injured from a fall on the pool deck:
a.
You do not check the scene since the person
needs immediate attention.
b.
Consent is implied because the victim needs
manual stabilization to keep from being
further injured.
c.
You do not need to do a secondary assessment
since head, neck and spinal injuries are the
most serious.
d.
You do not move the victim unless the scene
becomes unsafe.
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23. A woman collides with another swimmer while
diving into the pool and asks the lifeguard for
help. Without doing an assessment, the lifeguard
tells the woman she can continue swimming.
The woman leaves the facility and seeks medical
attention from a hospital after she begins to feel
tingling sensations in her arms and legs. The
lifeguard may be:
a.
A Good Samaritan.
b.
Following the refusal-of-care principle.
c.
Negligent.
d.
Using the RID factor.
24. During a weather-related power failure at a facility,
you should:
a.
Clear everyone from the pool.
b.
Let patrons continue swimming.
c.
Let patrons sit on the edge with their feet in
the water.
d.
Monitor weather reports while patrons
continue to swim.
25. During in-service training, lifeguards practice
the steps of recognizing a distressed swimmer,
rescuing an active victim, informing management
and speaking with witnesses. The lifeguards are
practicing parts of a(n):
a.
Communication plan.
b.
Emergency action plan.
c.
Secondary assessment.
d.
Staff debriefing.
26. You enter the mechanical room and find a
maintenance worker lying on his back on the
floor next to a ladder. You check the scene and
determine it is safe to enter. During your primary
assessment, you find the victim is unconscious but
breathing. You must leave to get help, what should
you do?
a.
Move him into the H.A.IN.E.S. position.
b.
Leave him just as he is.
c.
Do not leave him since he is breathing,
monitor his condition and wait for additional
help to come.
d.
Use a clothes drag to move him to where you
can summon more help.
27. Which of the following is true if the manager of
the facility has assigned you as the only lifeguard
conducting patron surveillance?
a.
You have been assigned to total coverage.
b.
You have been assigned to back-up coverage.
c.
You have been assigned to zone coverage.
d.
You have been assigned to a lifeguard station.
28. Which of the following pieces of equipment need to
be easily accessible for emergency use:
a.
Rescue tube, manual suction device
b.
Backboard, AED
c.
Resuscitation mask, bag-valve-mask
resuscitator
d.
Gloves, first aid kit
29. A technique to minimize movement for a victim
with a suspected head, neck or spinal injury who is
face-down, at the surface and in water less than
3 feet deep is the:
a.
Arm splint technique.
b.
Head splint technique.
c.
Head support technique.
d.
Modified jaw-thrust technique.
30. If three lifeguards are on duty, emergency back-up
coverage takes place:
a.
When a lifeguard is unable to show up to work
for their shift.
b.
Whenever the facility EAP is activated.
c.
When a lifeguard enters the water for a rescue.
d.
When the facility has more patrons than its
designed capacity allows.
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31. Which of the following is the least important for a
safe group visit to a pool?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Knowing how to identify the group’s leaders
or chaperones
34. The hazard communication standard includes
having MSDS information available. What is
included in this information?
a.
Having appropriate number of lifeguards
available to cover all zones
Contains information about what first aid and
rescue equipment is required to have on hand
b.
Ensuring there are multiple activities planned
for the group
Contains information about what type of
chemicals are in use at the facility
c.
Ensuring that patrons stay in the sections of
the pool that are appropriate for their
swim ability
Contains information about areas of the
facility that have unsafe conditions, which
require repairs
d.
Contains information that is only important
for the facility manager is required to know
32. While caring for someone with a suspected spinal
injury, you secure the straps on a backboard in the
following order:
35. A patron dives into the shallow end of the lap pool.
You suspect she has a head, neck or spinal injury
because she has:
a.
Feet, thighs, arms, head
b.
Hands, legs, upper chest
a.
An elevated body temperature.
c.
Head, upper chest, hands, thighs
b.
An irregular heartbeat.
d.
Upper chest, hips, thighs
c.
Blood in the ears and nose.
d.
Impaired hearing.
33. It is the primary responsibility of facility
management to provide all but which of
the following?
212
a.
Creating and reviewing policy and procedures
b.
Addressing unsafe conditions
c.
Training staff
d.
Educating patrons about and enforcing
facility rules
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Section 2—Lifeguarding Skills
Exam B
IMPORTANT: Read all instructions before beginning the exam.
INSTRUCTIONS: Mark all answers in pencil on a separate answer sheet. Do not write on this exam. The
questions on this exam are multiple choice. Read each question carefully. Then choose the best answer and fill in
that circle on the answer sheet. If you wish to change an answer, erase your first answer completely. Return this
exam to your instructor when you are finished.
EXAMPLE
ANSWER SHEET
xx.
a
b
c
XX. Why does the American Red Cross teach this course?
a.
To help people stay calm in emergencies.
b.
To help people make appropriate decisions when they are confronted with an emergency.
c.
To help people in an emergency keep a victim’s injuries from getting worse until emergency medical
services (EMS) personnel arrive and take over.
d.
All of the above
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Section 2—Lifeguarding Skills
1.
During a morning adult lap swim, you notice a
swimmer who slows down and is no longer able to
make any forward progress. Which of the following
is true?
Exam B
4.
3.
When a lifeguard is unable to show up to work
for their shift.
She has become a passive victim.
b.
b.
She is in danger of becoming an active victim if
not assisted.
Whenever the facility emergency action plan
(EAP) is activated.
c.
When a lifeguard enters the water for a rescue.
c.
She is an active victim.
d.
d.
You should continue to scan the pool and
watch to see if her condition worsens.
When the facility has more patrons than its
designed capacity allows.
The hazard communication standard includes
having MSDS information available. What is
included in this information?
A patron comes up to you complaining of neck
pain. He says his hands and feet are tingling. What
injury might you suspect, and what care would
you provide?
a.
Contains information about what first aid and
rescue equipment is required to have on hand.
a.
b.
Contains information about what type of
chemicals are in use at the facility.
You should suspect a head, neck or spinal
injury. Have the victim move his head in either
direction to confirm this before applying
manual stabilization.
c.
Contains information about areas of the
facility that have unsafe conditions, which
require repairs.
b.
d.
Contains information that is only important
for the facility manager to know.
You should suspect a head, neck or spinal
injury. Immediately provide manual
stabilization of the victim’s head and neck and
summon EMS personnel.
c.
You should suspect a seizure. Have the victim
lie down immediately.
d.
You should suspect a sprained neck. Have
the victim lie down and apply ice to the
affected area.
For a head, neck or spinal injury in the water:
a.
Minimize movement of the victim’s head and
neck using the head splint technique.
b.
Move the victim directly onto a backboard
using the two person removal from
water technique.
c.
Remove the victim from the water without
wasting time trying to stabilize the victim’s
head and neck until you have the victim out of
the water.
d.
214
a.
a.
5.
2.
If three lifeguards are on duty, emergency back-up
coverage takes place:
Remove your rescue tube and use the head
hold technique.
6.
Which of the following is the least important for a
safe group visit to a pool?
a.
Knowing how to identify the group’s leaders
or chaperones
b.
Having appropriate number of lifeguards
available to cover all zones
c.
Ensuring there are multiple activities planned
for the group
d.
Ensuring that patrons stay in the sections of
the pool that are appropriate for their
swim ability
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7.
Which of the following is true about accidental
fecal releases (AFRs)?
a.
AFRs do not require immediate attention.
a.
Rescue tube, bag valve mask, AED
b.
Managers only need to be concerned
with AFRs.
b.
Rescue board, ring buoy, resuscitation mask
c.
Backboard, first aid supplies, oxygen
c.
Require water treatment, temporary pool
closure and immediate lifeguard attention.
d.
Gloves, resuscitation mask, rescue tube
d.
It is part of the routine daily operation of a
pool that must be done for safety.
8. A technique used in the water to minimize
movement of the victim’s head and neck is the:
9.
11. Which of the following pieces of equipment must a
lifeguard have instantly accessible at all times.
a.
Beach drag.
b.
Head and body support.
c.
Head splint.
d.
Rigid splint.
Which of the following is true if the manager of
the facility has assigned you as the only lifeguard
conducting patron surveillance?
a.
You have been assigned to total coverage.
b.
You have been assigned to back-up coverage.
c.
You have been assigned to zone coverage.
d.
You have been assigned to a lifeguard station.
10. You enter the mechanical room and find a
maintenance worker lying on his back on the
floor next to a ladder. You check the scene and
determine it is safe to enter. During your primary
assessment, you find the victim is unconscious but
breathing. You must leave to get help, what should
you do?
12. During an in-service training, lifeguards practice
the steps of an emergency action plan, such as:
a.
Conducting safety checks before, during and
after pool hours.
b.
Following rescue procedures, informing
management and conducting staff debriefings.
c.
Getting a patron’s attention, explaining unsafe
behaviors and discussing safe activities.
d.
Telling patrons the rules and regulations.
13. You are lifeguarding during a family swim session
when you notice a swimmer swimming full lengths
of the pool under water. What should you do?
a.
Activate the facility EAP, clear the pool and
remove him from the pool.
b.
Immediately get the attention of the swimmer
and instruct him to leave the pool for breaking
pool rules.
c.
Immediately stop him from continuing the
activity and explain the dangers of the activity.
d.
Alert the pool manager of the situation once
your shift is over and document the event.
14. Which of the following is true of a submerged
unconscious victim in deep water that you suspect
has a spinal injury?
a.
Move him into the H.A.IN.E.S. position.
b.
Leave him just as he is.
a.
c.
Do not leave him since he is breathing,
monitor his condition and wait for additional
help to come.
If the victim is not breathing, you would
remove the victim from the water.
b.
You must keep your rescue tub e on
throughout the rescue.
c.
To minimize movement, you should keep them
in the deep end of the pool during the rescue.
d.
You should provide in-water ventilations
while other lifeguards strap the victim to
the backboard.
d.
Use a clothes drag to move him to where you
can summon more help.
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15. You are walking through the park on your way to
the pool to report for duty and witness an adult
suddenly collapse while playing catch with his son.
You check the scene to be sure it is safe and then
decide to perform CPR on the adult victim. Which
legal consideration applies?
a.
Duty to act
b.
Standard of care
c.
Good Samaritan law
d.
Negligence
16. When caring for a suspected head, neck or
spinal injury in water, proper manual in-line
stabilization is:
a.
Less important than on land due to the
support provided by the water.
b.
Provided using the head splint technique.
c.
The only necessary technique needed if EMS
personnel are close by.
d.
Provided by bystanders if the lifeguard needs
to clear the pool.
17. Two lifeguards are on surveillance duty during a
public swim. You are on a break. One lifeguard
activates the facility’s EAP for a submerged passive
victim and enters the water. Which steps should
you take next to assist in the rescue?
a.
Notify the manager to assist.
b.
Bring the backboard to the lifeguard and assist
in removing the victim from the water as the
other lifeguard clears the pool.
c.
d.
216
Provide emergency total zone coverage while
other lifeguards assist the victim.
Instruct bystanders how to assist the
lifeguards, document witness accounts, and
provide crowd control.
18. A lifeguard keeps an eye on the patrons of the pool,
checking the bottom, middle and surface of the
water. He is demonstrating:
a.
Effective communication.
b.
Effective scanning.
c.
Implied consent.
d.
The RID factor.
19. Signs and symptoms of a person you suspect of a
head, neck, or spinal injury include:
a.
Changes in skin color, temperature and feel.
b.
Back pain or tingling.
c.
Pressure or pain in the chest.
d.
Rigid, tender, or bruised abdomen.
20. A man is unexpectedly pushed from behind and
falls from the deck into the water and is in distress.
After you activate the emergency action plan
(EAP), what are included in your next steps.
a.
Clear the pool and alert management of
the emergency.
b.
Encourage him to stay calm and swim back to
the edge of the pool.
c.
Use an ease in entry, approach the victim and
remove him from the water.
d.
Extend a rescue tube to him while remaining
on deck, then provide any additional care.
21. Before providing care to a conscious person you
suspect of having a head, neck or spinal injury who
is injured from a fall on the pool deck:
a.
You do not check the scene since the person
needs immediate attention.
b.
Consent is implied because the victim needs
manual stabilization to keep from being
further injured.
c.
You do not need to do a secondary assessment
since head, neck and spinal injuries are the
most serious.
d.
You do not move the victim unless the scene
becomes unsafe.
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22. While scanning your zone, you notice a person
motionless in the water. The steps you follow
in a water emergency are performed in the
following order:
a.
b.
c.
d.
Perform a secondary assessment, perform
a primary assessment, size-up the scene,
activate the emergency action plan (EAP), and
summon EMS personnel.
Perform a primary assessment, activate the
EAP, summon EMS personnel, perform a
secondary assessment and size-up the scene.
Activate the EAP, enter the water, perform an
appropriate rescue, move the victim to a safe
exit point, remove the victim from the water
and provide emergency care as needed.
Size-up the scene, activate the EAP, summon
EMS personnel, perform a primary assessment
and perform a secondary assessment.
23. A mother and her son walk over to you; she states
that he fell on the pool deck and hit his head. You
notice he has blood and fluid running from his ear
and he is feeling dizzy. What steps should you
take next?
a.
Have the mother transport him to the
emergency room since he is already walking.
b.
Bring him to the pool office to sit down and
provide manual stabilization.
c.
Have him lie down on the pool deck and
provide manual stabilization until EMS
personnel arrive.
d.
Provide manual stabilization while the other
lifeguards prepare to backboard him.
24. Which of the following is a primary responsibility
of a lifeguard?
a.
Enforcing facility rules and regulations and
educating patrons about them
b.
Filling out required records and reports on
schedule and submitting them to the proper
person or office
c.
Monitoring the performance of the other
lifeguards on duty
d.
Performing opening duties, closing duties or
facility safety checks and inspections
25. While actively scanning the pool, you witness a
patron struggling while swimming and then go
under water. Which of the following applies?
a.
You have duty to act and perform the
appropriate rescue.
b.
You would use the RID factor to determine
what to do.
c.
You should continue to scan the pool until
emergency back-up coverage is available.
d.
You should notify off duty lifeguards to provide
care for the victim.
26. A lifeguard can no longer see some of the patrons
at one side of the swimming area from his
station because of glare from the afternoon sun.
To maintain effective patron surveillance, the
lifeguard should:
a.
Adjust his position slightly to remove the glare
spot from his surveillance area.
b.
Document the issue and present it at next
month’s staff meeting.
c.
Leave the area to find the supervisor
for assistance.
d.
Stay in the same position since the patrons are
strong swimmers.
27. A large number of patrons are swimming at the
facility. For effective patron surveillance, your
supervisor decides to add another lifeguard station
and tells you to modify the zone coverage based on
the new station to:
a.
Allow the lifeguards to take turns scanning the
good swimmers.
b.
Allow the lifeguards to take turns walking up
and down the deck.
c.
Increase the number of patrons watched by
each lifeguard.
d.
Reduce the number of patrons watched by
each lifeguard.
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28. A patron starts running on the deck. You blow your
whistle to get her attention. Next, you enforce the
rules and regulations by:
a.
Calling your supervisor.
b.
Giving her a warning.
c.
Telling her she could slip or fall and she must
walk on the deck.
d.
Telling her she might be asked to leave and
demanding she stop it now.
29. A woman collides with another swimmer while
diving into the pool and asks the lifeguard for
help. Without doing an assessment, the lifeguard
tells the woman she can continue swimming.
The woman leaves the facility and seeks medical
attention from a hospital after she begins to feel
tingling sensations in her arms and legs. The
lifeguard may be:
a.
A Good Samaritan
b.
Following the refusal-of-care principle
c.
Negligent
d.
Using the FIND model
30. During in-service training, lifeguards practice
the steps of recognizing a distressed swimmer,
rescuing a victim who is drowning, informing
management and speaking with witnesses. The
lifeguards are practicing parts of a(n):
a.
Communication plan.
b.
Emergency action plan.
c.
Secondary assessment.
d.
Staff debriefing.
32. The lifeguard supervisor expects the pool to be
very busy in the afternoon. For effective patron
surveillance, she sets up multiple lifeguard stations
to reduce the number of patrons watched by each
lifeguard. This type of coverage is called:
a.
Back-up coverage.
b.
Rescue coverage.
c.
Total coverage.
d.
Zone coverage.
33. You are responsible for a zone of the pool. To
effectively scan, you must:
a.
Count all the patrons in your area
of responsibility.
b.
Focus primarily on blind spots.
c.
Keep your head still but use your eyes to scan
your area.
d.
Move your head and eyes as you scan to look
directly at each area rather than staring in a
fixed direction.
34. You notice a patron that is swimming laps who
suddenly slips under water without a struggle and
does not resurface. This person is probably:
a.
A passive victim who needs help.
b.
A distressed swimmer who needs help.
c.
An active victim who needs help.
d.
An intermediate swimmer who does not
need help.
35. A head, neck or spinal injury rarely happens:
31. In the event of thunder and lightning at an outdoor
facility, lifeguards should:
a.
218
Clear everyone from the water and send them
into the locker room to take showers during
the thunderstorm.
b.
Clear everyone from the water at the first
sound of thunder or first sighting of lightning.
c.
Keep watching for lightning strikes near the
facility while patrons continue to swim.
d.
Keep watching for more storms and monitor
weather reports while patrons continue
to swim.
a.
In deep water at a supervised facility.
b.
When someone strikes a properly inflated
inner tube.
c.
In shallow water that is clearly signed
No Diving.
d.
From collisions between swimmers.
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FINAL WRITTEN EXAM: SECTION 2—
SHALLOW WATER LIFEGUARDING SKILLS
■
Final Written Exam A
■
Final Written Exam B
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Section 2—Shallow Water Lifeguarding Skills
Exam A
IMPORTANT: Read all instructions before beginning the exam.
INSTRUCTIONS: Mark all answers in pencil on a separate answer sheet. Do not write on this exam. The
questions on this exam are multiple choice. Read each question carefully. Then choose the best answer and fill in
that circle on the answer sheet. If you wish to change an answer, erase your first answer completely. Return this
exam to your instructor when you are finished.
EXAMPLE
ANSWER SHEET
xx.
a
b
c
XX. Why does the American Red Cross teach this course?
220
a.
To help people stay calm in emergencies.
b.
To help people make appropriate decisions when they are confronted with an emergency.
c.
To help people in an emergency keep a victim’s injuries from getting worse until emergency medical
services (EMS) personnel arrive and take over.
d.
All of the above
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Section 2—Shallow Water Lifeguarding Skills
1.
2.
3.
A child falls backwards from a water play structure
in extremely shallow water. She can not stand up.
You suspect a head, neck or spinal injury.
You should:
4.
A mother walks her son over to you stating that he
fell on the pool deck and hit his head. You notice
he has blood and fluid running from his ear, he is
feeling dizzy. What steps should you take next?
a.
Wait for other lifeguards to assist in lifting the
child out of the water and onto the pool deck.
a.
Have the mother transport him to the
emergency room since he is already walking.
b.
Provide manual in-line stabilization by placing
your hands on either side of her head until
more help arrives.
b.
Bring him to the pool office to sit down and
provide manual stabilization.
c.
c.
Use the head splint technique from the victim’s
side and gently move her to deeper water.
Have him lie down on the pool deck and
provide manual stabilization until EMS
personnel arrive.
d.
Get consent from a parent then quickly
backboard her and remove her from the water.
d.
Provide manual stabilization while the other
lifeguards prepare to backboard him.
After removing a conscious victim you suspect has
a spinal injury from the water, you should do all
the following except:
a.
Watch for and care for signs of shock.
b.
Protect the victim from becoming cold.
c.
Dry the victim off and apply the automated
external defibrillator (AED) pads.
d.
Reassure the victim and perform a
secondary assessment.
5.
A large number of patrons are swimming at the
facility. For effective patron surveillance, your
supervisor decides to add another shallow water
lifeguard station and tells you to modify the zone
coverage based on the new station to:
a.
Allow the lifeguards to take more
frequent rotations.
b.
Allow the lifeguards to take turns walking up
and down the deck.
c.
Increase the number of patrons watched by
each lifeguard.
d.
Reduce the number of patrons watched by
each lifeguard.
6.
A patron comes up to you complaining of neck
pain. He says his hands and feet are tingling. What
injury might you suspect, and what care would
you provide?
a.
You should suspect a head, neck or spinal
injury. Have the victim move his head in either
direction to confirm this before applying
manual stabilization.
b.
You should suspect a head, neck or spinal
injury. Immediately provide manual
stabilization of the victim’s head and neck and
summon EMS personnel.
c.
You should inspect the head, neck and spine
for injury. Have the victim move his head in
either direction to confirm this before applying
manual stabilization.
d.
You should suspect a sprained neck. Have
the victim lie down and apply ice to the
affected area.
A patron starts running on the deck. You blow your
whistle to get her attention. Next, you enforce the
rules and regulations by:
a.
Calling your supervisor.
b.
Giving her a warning.
c.
Telling her she could slip or fall and she must
walk on the deck.
d.
Telling her she might be asked to leave and
demanding she stop it now.
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7.
A shallow water lifeguard:
a.
Is a part of the lifeguard team and can
supervise areas at an aquatic facility that have
diving boards, drop slides or other attractions.
b.
Is prepared to recognize and respond to
aquatic emergencies where water is up to
5 feet deep.
c.
d.
Is prepared to recognize and respond to
aquatic emergencies at an attraction where the
water is up to 10 feet deep.
Is separate from the lifeguard team because of
his or her different training and skills.
8. A shallow water lifeguard keeps an eye on the
patrons of the pool, checking the bottom, middle
and surface of the water. He is demonstrating:
9.
a.
Effective communication.
b.
Effective scanning.
c.
Implied consent.
d.
The RID factor.
A shallow water lifeguard may expect to have
total coverage surveillance responsibility
assigned when:
a.
There is a 5-foot plunge slide over 8 feet
of water.
b.
There is only one diving board in use.
c.
There is a winding river with a current where
adults are walking and some children are
using lifejackets.
d.
The lap pool depth varies from 3 feet to 7 feet
in depth.
10. A shallow water lifeguard would most likely
prevent patron injuries by:
222
a.
Enforcing facility rules and regulations and
educating patrons about them.
b.
Filling out required records and reports on
schedule and submitting them to the proper
person or office.
c.
Monitoring the performance of the other
lifeguards on duty.
d.
Ensuring that the entire assigned zone of
surveillance can be effectively scanned and is
free of hazards.
11. A shallow water lifeguard is scanning his zone and
can no longer see some of the patrons on the other
side of the swimming area from his station because
of the afternoon sun. To maintain effective patron
surveillance, the lifeguard should:
a.
Adjust his position slightly to remove the glare
spot from his surveillance area.
b.
Document the issue and present it at next
month’s staff meeting.
c.
Leave the area to find the supervisor
for assistance.
d.
Stay in the same position since the patrons are
strong swimmers.
12. A child is in distress and is near the side of the
pool. When using the reaching assist with a rescue
tube to help the child, you should:
a.
Extend a rescue tube to the child and pull the
child to safety.
b.
Enter the water and slide the child onto
a backboard.
c.
Kneel on the pool deck, extend a ring buoy to
the child and pull the child to safety.
d.
Throw a rescue tube to the child and have the
child swim to safety.
13. A technique to minimize movement for a victim
with a suspected head, neck or spinal injury who is
face-down, at the surface and in water less than
3 feet deep is the:
a.
Arm splint technique.
b.
Head splint technique.
c.
Head support technique.
d.
Anatomical splint technique.
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14. A woman collides with another swimmer while
diving into the pool and asks the lifeguard for
help. Without doing an assessment, the lifeguard
tells the woman she can continue swimming.
The woman leaves the facility and seeks medical
attention from a hospital after she begins to feel
tingling sensations in her arms and legs. The
lifeguard may be:
a.
A Good Samaritan.
b.
Following the refusal-of-care principle.
c.
Negligent.
d.
Using the RID factor.
15. A woman falls off her inner tube when exiting into
a catch pool and needs help. To use the simple
assist to help her, you should:
a.
Extend a reaching pole to the woman and pull
her to safety.
b.
Reach across the rescue tube, grasp the woman
under her armpits and help her get her balance
to stand up.
c.
Rest the rescue tube under the woman’s knees,
help her grab onto the side of the deck and lift
her out of the water.
d.
Throw a rescue tube to the woman and have
her swim to safety.
16. While scanning your zone, you notice a person
motionless in the water. The steps you follow
in a water emergency are performed in the
following order:
a.
Perform a secondary assessment, perform
a primary assessment, size-up the scene,
activate the emergency action plan (EAP), and
summon EMS personnel.
b.
Perform a primary assessment, activate the
EAP, summon EMS personnel, perform a
secondary assessment and size-up the scene.
c.
Activate the EAP, enter the water, perform an
appropriate rescue, move the victim to a safe
exit point, remove the victim from the water
and provide emergency care as needed.
d.
Size-up the scene, activate the EAP, summon
EMS personnel, perform a primary assessment
and perform a secondary assessment.
17. It is the primary responsibility of the facility
management to provide all but which of
the following?
a.
Creating and reviewing policy and procedures.
b.
Addressing unsafe conditions.
c.
Training staff.
d.
Educating patrons about and enforcing
facility rules.
18. Primary responsibilities of a shallow water
lifeguard include:
a.
Fixing the pool rope and lane lines and
ensuring the changing rooms are clean.
b.
Following the health codes, answering a
patron’s question and making sure patrons
shower before using the pool.
c.
Inspecting the pool and rescue equipment
before the facility opens and paying close
attention to patrons in the water by actively
scanning the assigned area.
d.
Passing out the pool rules to all the patrons.
19. While caring for someone with a suspected spinal
injury, you secure the straps on a backboard in the
following order:
a.
Feet, thighs, arms, head.
b.
Hands, legs, upper chest.
c.
Head, upper chest, hands, thighs.
d.
Upper chest, hips, thighs.
20. The hazard communication standard includes
having MSDS information available. What is
included in this information?
a.
Contains information about what first aid and
rescue equipment is required to have on hand
b.
Contains information about what type of
chemicals are in use at the facility
c.
Contains information about areas of the
facility that have unsafe conditions, which
require repairs
d.
Contains information that is only important
for the facility manager is required to know
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21. You notice a patron that is swimming laps who
suddenly slips under water without a struggle and
does not resurface. This person is probably:
a.
A distressed swimmer who needs help.
b.
A passive victim who needs help.
c.
An active victim who needs help.
d.
An intermediate swimmer who does not
need help.
22. You recognize that there is an emergency. You
size-up the scene, alert other lifeguards, perform
the appropriate rescue, conduct a primary
assessment, care for the victim and perform a
secondary assessment. You most likely are:
a.
Participating in an in-service training.
b.
Providing a demonstration during a
safety presentation.
c.
Following the steps of the facility’s EAP.
d.
Preparing to give care to passive victim.
23. Three shallow water lifeguards are on duty,
emergency back-up coverage takes place when:
a.
A lifeguard is unable to show up to work for
their shift.
b.
Whenever the facility EAP is activated.
c.
When a lifeguard enters the water for a rescue.
d.
The facility has more patrons than its designed
capacity allows.
24. When caring for a suspected head, neck or
spinal injury in water, proper manual in-line
stabilization is:
224
a.
Less important than on land due to the
support provided by the water.
b.
Provided using the head splint technique.
c.
The only necessary technique needed if EMS
personnel are close by.
d.
Provided by bystanders if the lifeguard needs
to clear the pool.
25. When providing care to a conscious person you
suspect of a having head, neck or spinal injury and
who was injured from a fall on the pool deck:
a.
You do not survey the scene since the person
needs immediate attention.
b.
Consent is implied because the victim needs
manual stabilization to keep from being
further injured.
c.
You do not need to do a secondary assessment
since head, neck and spinal injuries are the
most serious.
d.
You do not move the victim unless the scene
becomes unsafe.
26. Which of the following is the least important for a
safe group visit to a pool?
a.
Knowing how to identify the group’s leaders
or chaperones
b.
Having appropriate number of lifeguards
available to cover all zones
c.
Ensuring there are multiple activities planned
for the group
d.
Ensuring that patrons stay in the sections
of the pool that are appropriate for their
swim ability
27. Which of the following is true about accidental
fecal releases (AFRs)?
a.
AFRs do not require immediate attention.
b.
Managers only need to be concerned
with AFRs.
c.
Require water treatment, temporary pool
closure and immediate lifeguard attention.
d.
It is part of the routine daily operation of a
pool that must be done for safety.
28. Which of the following is true if the manager of
the facility has assigned you as the only lifeguard
conducting patron surveillance?
a.
You have been assigned to total coverage.
b.
You have been assigned to back-up coverage.
c.
You have been assigned to zone coverage.
d.
You have been assigned to a lifeguard station.
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29. Which of the following pieces of equipment only
needs to be easily accessible for emergency use:
a.
Rescue tube, manual suction device
b.
Backboard, AED
c.
Resuscitation mask, bag-valve-mask
resuscitator
d.
33. You are responsible for a part of the kiddie pool for
total zone coverage. To effectively scan, you must:
a.
Count all the patrons in your area
of responsibility.
b.
Focus primarily on blind spots.
c.
Keep your head still but use your eyes to scan
your area.
d.
Move your head and eyes as you scan to look
directly at each area rather than staring in a
fixed direction.
Gloves, first aid kit
30. While actively scanning the pool, you witness a
patron struggling while swimming and then go
under water. Which of the following applies?
a.
You have duty to act and perform the
appropriate rescue.
b.
You would use the RID factor to determine
what to do.
c.
You should continue to scan the pool until
emergency back-up coverage is available.
d.
You should notify off duty lifeguards to provide
care for the victim.
31. While you are conducting a safety check, you find
a section of the pool gutter cover is missing.
You should:
a.
Clear the winding river and close for the day.
b.
Close off the area and tell the lifeguard
supervisor right away.
c.
Make a note of it or come back to it during
your next break.
d.
Watch the area closely so nobody gets hurt.
32. Two lifeguards are on surveillance duty during a
public swim. You are on a break. One lifeguard
activates the facility’s EAP for a submerged passive
victim and enters the water. Which steps should
you take next to assist in the rescue?
a.
Notify the manager to assist.
b.
Bring the backboard to the lifeguard and assist
in removing the victim from the water as the
other lifeguard clears the pool.
c.
Provide emergency total coverage while the
other lifeguards assist the victim.
d.
Instruct bystanders how to assist the lifeguard,
document witness accounts and provide
crowd control.
34. You enter the mechanical room and find a
maintenance worker lying on his back on the
floor next to a ladder. You check the scene and
determine it is safe to enter. During your primary
assessment, you find the victim is unconscious but
breathing. You must leave to get help, what should
you do?
a.
Move him into the H.A.IN.E.S. position.
b.
Leave him just as he is.
c.
Do not leave him since he is breathing,
monitor his condition and wait for additional
help to come.
d.
Use a clothes drag to move him to where you
can summon more help.
35. You notice a patron in the water whose body
is diagonal and who is waving to attract your
attention. The arms and legs are moving to keep
the person’s head above water, but there is no
forward progress. This person
is probably:
a.
A distressed swimmer who needs help.
b.
A passive victim who needs help.
c.
An active victim who needs help.
d.
An intermediate swimmer who does not
need help.
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Section 2—Shallow Water Lifeguarding Skills
Exam B
IMPORTANT: Read all instructions before beginning the exam.
INSTRUCTIONS: Mark all answers in pencil on a separate answer sheet. Do not write on this exam. The
questions on this exam are multiple choice. Read each question carefully. Then choose the best answer and fill in
that circle on the answer sheet. If you wish to change an answer, erase your first answer completely. Return this
exam to your instructor when you are finished.
EXAMPLE
ANSWER SHEET
xx.
a
b
c
XX. Why does the American Red Cross teach this course?
226
a.
To help people stay calm in emergencies.
b.
To help people make appropriate decisions when they are confronted with an emergency.
c.
To help people in an emergency keep a victim’s injuries from getting worse until emergency medical
services (EMS) personnel arrive and take over.
d.
All of the above
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Section 2—Shallow Water Lifeguarding Skills
1.
2.
3.
4.
A child falls backwards from a water play structure
in extremely shallow water. She can not stand
up. You suspect a head, neck or spinal injury,
you should:
5.
A mother walks her son over to you stating that he
fell on the pool deck and hit his head. You notice
he has blood and fluid running from his ear and he
is feeling dizzy. What steps should you take next?
a.
Wait for other lifeguards to assist in lifting the
child out of the water and onto the pool deck.
a.
Have the mother transport him to the
emergency room since he is already walking.
b.
Provide manual stabilization placing your
hands on either side of her head until more
help arrives.
b.
Bring him to the pool office to sit down and
provide manual stabilization.
c.
c.
Use the head splint technique from the victim’s
side and gently move her to deeper water.
Have him lie down on the pool deck and
provide manual stabilization until EMS
personnel arrive.
d.
Get consent from a parent then quickly
backboard her and remove her from the water.
d.
Provide manual stabilization while the other
lifeguards prepare to backboard him.
A child is in distress and is near the side of the
pool. When using the reaching assist with a rescue
tube to help the child, you should:
a.
Extend a rescue tube to the child and pull the
child to safety.
b.
Enter the water and slide the child onto
a backboard.
c.
Kneel on the pool deck, extend a ring buoy to
the child and pull the child to safety.
d.
Throw a rescue tube to the child and have the
child swim to safety.
A head, neck or spinal injury rarely happens:
6.
7.
A shallow water lifeguard may expect to have
total coverage surveillance responsibility
assigned when:
a.
There is a 5-foot plunge slide over 8 feet
of water.
b.
There are diving boards in use.
c.
There is a winding river with a current with
adults walking and children using lifejackets.
d.
The lap pool depth varies from 3 feet to 7 feet
in depth.
A simple assist may be used by a shallow water
lifeguard when:
a.
In deep water at a supervised facility.
b.
When someone strikes a properly inflated
inner tube.
a.
A passive victim is submerged in 2 feet
of water.
c.
In shallow water that is clearly signed
No Diving.
b.
Two victims are clutching each other in 5 feet
of water.
d.
From collisions between swimmers.
c.
A child has fallen on the pool deck and is
lightly bleeding from a scraped knee.
d.
A second lifeguard is rescuing a passive victim
and requires assistance.
A shallow water lifeguard keeps an eye on the
patrons of the pool, checking the bottom, middle
and surface of the water. He is demonstrating:
a.
Effective communication.
b.
Effective scanning.
c.
Implied consent.
d.
The RID factor.
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8. A technique used for a victim with a suspected
head, neck or spinal injury who is face-down, at the
surface and in water less than 3 feet deep is the:
9.
a.
Arm splint technique.
b.
Head splint technique.
c.
Head support technique.
d.
Anatomical splint technique.
During an in-service training, lifeguards practice
the steps of an emergency action plan, such as:
a.
Conducting safety checks before, during and
after pool hours.
b.
Following rescue procedures, informing
management and conducting staff debriefings.
c.
Getting a patron’s attention, explaining unsafe
behaviors and discussing safe activities.
d.
Telling patrons the rules and regulations.
10. While scanning your zone, you notice a person
motionless in the water. The steps you follow in a
water emergency are performed in the following
order:
a.
b.
c.
d.
228
Perform a secondary assessment, perform
a primary assessment, size-up the scene,
activate the emergency action plan (EAP), and
summon EMS personnel.
Perform a primary assessment, activate the
EAP, summon EMS personnel, perform a
secondary assessment and size-up the scene.
Activate the EAP, enter the water, perform an
appropriate rescue, move the victim to a safe
exit point, remove the victim from the water
and provide emergency care as needed.
Size-up the scene, activate the EAP, summon
EMS personnel, perform a primary assessment
and perform a secondary assessment.
11. In the event of thunder and lightning at an outdoor
facility, lifeguards should:
a.
Clear everyone from the water and send them
into the locker room to take showers during
the thunderstorm.
b.
Clear everyone from the water at the first
sound of thunder or first sighting of lightning.
c.
Keep watching for lightning strikes near the
facility while patrons continue to swim.
d.
Keep watching for more storms and monitor
weather reports while patrons continue
to swim.
12. It is the primary responsibility of the facility
management to provide all but which of
the following?
a.
Creating and reviewing policy and procedures
b.
Addressing unsafe conditions
c.
Training staff
d.
Educating patrons about and enforcing
facility rules
13. One of the primary responsibilities of a shallow
water lifeguard includes:
a.
Filling out required records and reports on
schedule and submitting them to the proper
person or office.
b.
Working with other lifeguards, facility staff
and supervisors as a team.
c.
Monitoring the performance of the other
lifeguards on duty.
d.
Performing maintenance or other tasks
assigned by his or her supervisor.
14. While caring for someone with a suspected spinal
injury, you secure the straps on a backboard in the
following order:
a.
Feet, thighs, arms, head.
b.
Hands, legs, upper chest.
c.
Head, upper chest, hands, thighs.
d.
Upper chest, hips, thighs.
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15. Signs and symptoms of a person you suspect of a
head, neck or spinal injury include:
19. When performing patron surveillance at a pool
with play structures:
a.
It is necessary to have at least one lifeguard for
every three slides.
Pressure or pain in the chest.
b.
It is not necessary to wear your rescue tube.
Rigid, tender, or bruised abdomen.
c.
Pay close attention to nonswimmers or
weak swimmers.
d.
Pay less attention to sprays and fountains.
a.
Changes in skin color, temperature and feel.
b.
Back pain or tingling.
c.
d.
16. The failure to recognize a victim who is drowning,
the intrusion of secondary duties on a lifeguard’s
primary responsibility of patron surveillance and
the distraction from patron surveillance duties are
elements of:
a.
A policies and procedures manual.
b.
An aquatic safety team.
c.
The FIND model.
d.
The RID factor.
17. Three shallow water lifeguards are on duty,
emergency back-up coverage takes place:
a.
When a lifeguard is unable to show up to work
for their shift.
b.
Whenever the facility EAP is activated.
c.
When a lifeguard enters the water for a rescue.
d.
When the facility has more patrons than its
designed capacity allows.
18. When caring for a suspected head, neck or spinal
injury in water, proper manual in-line
stabilization is:
a.
Less important than on land due to the
support provided by the water.
b.
Provided using the head splint technique.
c.
Is only necessary if EMS personnel are not
close by.
d.
Provided by bystanders if the lifeguard needs
to clear the pool.
20. When providing care to a conscious person you
suspect of having a head, neck or spinal injury and
who was injured from a fall on the pool deck:
a.
You do not survey the scene since the person
needs immediate attention.
b.
Consent is implied because the victim needs
manual stabilization to keep from being
further injured.
c.
You do not need to do a secondary assessment
since head, neck and spinal injuries are the
most serious.
d.
You do not move the victim unless the scene
becomes unsafe.
21. Which of the following is the least important for a
safe group visit to a pool?
a.
Knowing how to identify the group’s leaders
or chaperones
b.
Having appropriate number of lifeguards
available to cover all zones
c.
Ensuring there are multiple activities planned
for the group
d.
Ensuring that patrons stay in the sections
of the pool that are appropriate for their
swim ability
22. Which of the following is true if the manager of
the facility has assigned you as the only lifeguard
conducting patron surveillance?
a.
You have been assigned to total coverage.
b.
You have been assigned to back-up coverage.
c.
You have been assigned to zone coverage.
d.
You have been assigned to an elevated
lifeguard station.
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23. Which of the following pieces of equipment must a
lifeguard have instantly accessible at all times.
a.
Rescue tube, bag-valve-mask resuscitator, an
automated external defibrillator (AED)
b.
Rescue board, ring buoy, resuscitation mask
c.
Backboard, first aid supplies, oxygen
d.
Gloves, resuscitation mask, rescue tube
24. While performing patron surveillance during a
beginner swim class, you would prevent patron
injuries by:
a.
Helping the instructor teach the class when the
students practice floating skills.
b.
Monitoring only the students who are at a
distance from the side of the pool.
c.
Scanning the students in your area
of responsibility.
d.
Showing the students the simple assist skill.
25. While actively scanning the pool, you witness a
patron struggling while swimming and then go
under water. Which of the following applies?
a.
You have duty to act and perform the
appropriate rescue.
b.
You would use the RID factor to determine
what to do.
c.
You should continue to scan the pool until
emergency back-up coverage is available.
d.
You should notify off duty lifeguards to provide
care for the victim.
26. While you are conducting a safety check, you find
a section of the pool gutter cover is missing.
You should:
230
a.
Clear the winding river and close for the day.
b.
Close off the area and tell the lifeguard
supervisor right away.
c.
Make a note of it or come back to it during
your next break.
d.
Watch the area closely so nobody gets hurt.
27. Two lifeguards are on surveillance duty during a
public swim. You are on a break. One lifeguard
activates the facility’s EAP for a submerged passive
victim and enters the water. Which steps should
you take next to assist in the rescue?
a.
Notify the manager to assist.
b.
Bring the backboard to the lifeguard and assist
in removing the victim from the water as the
other lifeguard clears the pool.
c.
Provide emergency back-up coverage while the
other lifeguards assist the victim.
d.
Instruct bystanders how to assist the
lifeguards, document witness accounts, and
provide crowd control.
28. You are assigned zone coverage of a shallow
water attraction. To provide adequate patron
surveillance, you should:
a.
Follow the facility’s EAP.
b.
Make sure that other lifeguards have total
coverage of the area.
c.
Check patrons in all areas of the facility during
your rotation.
d.
Provide effective scanning of your
assigned zone.
29. You are responsible for a part of the pool that can
be easily viewed from your lifeguard station. To
effectively scan, you must:
a.
Count all the patrons in your area
of responsibility.
b.
Focus primarily on blind spots.
c.
Keep your head still but use your eyes to scan
your area.
d.
Move your head and eyes as you scan to look
directly at each area rather than staring in a
fixed direction.
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30. You are the lifeguard on duty at the spa therapy
pool when you notice a patron holding her breath
repeatedly for extended periods of time. What
should you do?
a.
b.
Activate the facility EAP, clear the area and
remove her from the pool.
Immediately get the attention of the patron
and instruct her to leave the pool for breaking
pool rules.
c.
Immediately stop her from continuing the
activity and explain the dangers of the activity.
d.
Alert the pool manager of the situation once
your shift is over and document the event.
31. You are walking through the park on your way to
the pool to report for duty and witness an adult
suddenly collapse while playing catch with his son.
You survey the scene to be sure it is safe and then
decide to perform CPR on the adult victim. Which
legal consideration applies?
a.
Duty to act
b.
Standard of care
c.
Good Samaritan law
d.
Negligence
32. You can remain alert and reduce fatigue during
your shift by:
a.
Practicing entries and rescue approaches while
on surveillance duty.
b.
Practicing risk-management techniques.
c.
Rotating from station to station.
d.
Staying at one station.
33. You enter the mechanical room and find a
maintenance worker lying on his back on the floor
next to a ladder. During your primary assessment,
you find the victim unconscious but breathing. You
must leave to get help, what should you do?
a.
Move him into the H.A.IN.E.S. position.
b.
Leave him just as he is.
c.
Do not leave him since he is breathing,
monitor his condition and wait for additional
help to come.
d.
Use a clothes drag to move him to where you
can summon more help.
34. You find a patron lying on the locker room floor.
You suspect she has a head, neck or spinal injury
because she has:
a.
An elevated body temperature.
b.
An irregular heartbeat.
c.
Blood in the ears and nose.
d.
Impaired hearing.
35. You notice a patron who is swimming laps
suddenly slips underwater without a struggle and
does not resurface. This person is probably:
a.
A passive victim who needs help.
b.
A distressed swimmer who needs help.
c.
An active victim who needs help.
d.
An intermediate swimmer who does not
need help.
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FINAL WRITTEN EXAM: WATERFRONT
SKILLS MODULE
■
Final Written Exam A
■
Final Written Exam B
232
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—DO NOT WRITE ON THIS EXAM—
Waterfront Skills Module
Exam A
IMPORTANT: Read all instructions before beginning the exam.
INSTRUCTIONS: Mark all answers in pencil on a separate answer sheet. Do not write on this exam. The
questions on this exam are multiple choice. Read each question carefully. Then choose the best answer and fill in
that circle on the answer sheet. If you wish to change an answer, erase your first answer completely. Return this
exam to your instructor when you are finished.
EXAMPLE
ANSWER SHEET
xx.
a
b
c
XX. Why does the American Red Cross teach this course?
a.
To help people stay calm in emergencies.
b.
To help people make appropriate decisions when they are confronted with an emergency.
c.
To help people in an emergency keep a victim’s injuries from getting worse until emergency medical
services (EMS) personnel arrive and take over.
d.
All of the above
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Waterfront Skills Module
1.
You are a lifeguard on duty at a waterfront facility
and notice a swimmer in distress 100 feet outside
the designated swim area. You should:
a.
2.
3.
4.
234
Exam A
5.
Ignore distractions that are outside the
designated swim area and your assigned zone
of coverage.
b.
Initiate the facility EAP and use the available
rowboat to rescue the distressed swimmer.
c.
Alert other nearby lifeguards and monitor
the situation.
d.
Prepare to use the available backboard for
a two-person removal from the water and
initiate the facility EAP.
6.
Which of the following is not a strategy to be used
while on duty at a waterfront facility?
a.
Assigning buddy pairs and calling for periodic
buddy checks
b.
Monitoring water and weather conditions
c.
Classifying swimmers and designating
swimming areas based on swimmer abilities
d.
Clearing the facility for frequent facility
safety checks
A lifeguard at a waterfront needs to have which of
the following pieces of equipment only accessible
to him or her while on duty?
a.
Mask, snorkel, and fins
b.
Whistle, rescue tube and resuscitation mask
c.
Rescue tube, gloves and emergency oxygen
d.
Gloves, resuscitation mask and an automated
external defibrillator
A lifeguard on duty should keep which of the
following in mind when working at a
waterfront area:
7.
Lifeguards are conducting a deep-water line search
to locate a submerged victim. To see more clearly
and cover more distance with less effort, the
lifeguards should:
a.
Ask patrons to participate in the search.
b.
Use a watercraft.
c.
Use extra oars and paddles.
d.
Wear a mask and fins.
At a summer youth camp, lifeguards may use swim
classifications as an injury-prevention strategy to:
a.
Allow campers to only enter areas appropriate
to their swimming capability.
b.
Familiarize campers with water safety rules
and regulations prior to in-water activities.
c.
Pair camp participants with different
swimming abilities.
d.
Teach campers to continuously monitor
their partners.
During a safety check at a waterfront facility, you
find an area with a large amount of debris in the
water. You should close off the area, inform your
supervisor and:
a.
Alert patrons by using signs, buoys and
safety announcements.
b.
Expect the other lifeguards in the area to tell
the patrons.
c.
Move your lifeguard station away from
the area.
d.
Wait to see if any patrons swim in the area
before alerting the patrons.
8. During a safety check, you determine the water
temperature of the lake is very cold due to a recent
rain. You should:
a.
a.
The in-water stabilization care for head, neck
and spinal injuries is significantly modified.
Alert patrons to the cold water and watch for
signs of hypothermia.
b.
Expect the other lifeguards to warn patrons.
b.
The RID factor.
c.
c.
Specialized rescue equipment may be present.
Focus on water depth since the water
temperature is safe.
d.
There are not a maximum number of people in
his/her assigned zone of coverage.
d.
Wait to see if any swimmers notice the water
temperature before alerting the other patrons.
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9.
At a summer youth camp, lifeguards use
injury-prevention strategies, such as:
a.
Back-up coverage.
b.
Buddy pairs.
c.
The FIND model.
d.
The RID factor.
10. High winds are creating large waves and impairing
visibility at a waterfront facility. You should:
a.
Clear the patrons from the waterfront and
move indoors.
b.
Let patrons continue swimming.
c.
Let patrons sit on the edge of the floating
platform with their feet in the water.
d.
Monitor weather reports while patrons
continue to swim.
11. When you are performing patron surveillance at
the outer edge of a waterfront swimming area, you
may be watching swimmers from a:
a.
Ground-level position.
b.
Rescue tube.
c.
Rescue watercraft.
d.
An elevated station.
12. While performing patron surveillance at a
waterfront facility during a summer youth camp,
you would prevent patron injuries by:
a.
Helping the staff organize a swimming game
when the campers move to deep water.
b.
Monitoring only the campers who are not
wearing life jackets.
c.
Scanning the campers in your area
of responsibility.
d.
Showing the campers the simple assist skill.
13. While you are conducting a safety check, you find
several nails sticking out from the pier. You should:
a.
Clear the lake and close the entire swimming
area for the day.
b.
Close off the area and tell the lifeguard
supervisor right away.
c.
Make a note of it or come back to it during
your next break.
d.
Watch the area closely so nobody gets hurt.
14. You see a distressed swimmer in the outer
boundaries of a swimming area. To approach the
victim using a motorized watercraft, you should:
a.
Approach quickly to reach the victim promptly.
b.
Point the bow toward the victim.
c.
Approach from downwind and down current.
d.
Approach the victim from the side with the
engine in neutral and at idle.
15. When launching a rescue board, you should:
a.
Climb on just behind the middle of the rescue
board and lie down.
b.
Hold the rescue board in the air until the water
reaches your waist.
c.
Lay the rescue board on the shoreline and
push it forward before you enter the water.
d.
Straddle the end of the rescue board and
remain in a seated position.
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Waterfront Skills Module
Exam B
IMPORTANT: Read all instructions before beginning the exam.
INSTRUCTIONS: Mark all answers in pencil on a separate answer sheet. Do not write on this exam. The
questions on this exam are multiple choice. Read each question carefully. Then choose the best answer and fill in
that circle on the answer sheet. If you wish to change an answer, erase your first answer completely. Return this
exam to your instructor when you are finished.
EXAMPLE
ANSWER SHEET
xx.
a
b
c
XX. Why does the American Red Cross teach this course?
236
a.
To help people stay calm in emergencies.
b.
To help people make appropriate decisions when they are confronted with an emergency.
c.
To help people in an emergency keep a victim’s injuries from getting worse until emergency medical
services (EMS) personnel arrive and take over.
d.
All of the above
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—DO NOT WRITE ON THIS EXAM—
Waterfront Skills Module
1.
Which of the following statements is true for
waterfront lifeguarding?
a.
3.
4.
Water and weather conditions usually change
slowly and only need to be checked at the
beginning of the day.
As you are lifeguarding a youth group using the
buddy system, one of the youth tells you his buddy
is missing. You should:
a.
Initiate the facility EAP and immediately
perform a deep-water line search.
Motorized watercraft, rowboats and rescue
boards are available at most waterfront
facilities for emergency use.
b.
Signal for a buddy check.
c.
Initiate the facility EAP and perform a passive
victim rescue.
c.
Lifeguards need specialized training during
orientation and in-service training on the use
of equipment and procedures specific to
the facility.
d.
Clear the area and perform a facility
safety check.
d.
Patrons at waterfronts tend to be
generally better swimmers than those at
swimming pools.
b.
2.
Exam B
5.
You are on duty at a waterfront facility and notice
lightning in approaching storm clouds. You should:
a.
Immediately locate and inform the waterfront
director of the situation and wait for
further instruction.
b.
Initiate the facility EAP, clear the area and
direct participants to areas of safety indoors.
c.
Alert other staff, monitor the situation, wait
until you hear thunder or see lightening to
clear the area.
d.
Initiate the facility EAP, post signs stating
lifeguards are no longer on duty and inform
patrons that they may continue to swim at
their own risk.
You approach a patron standing still in waist-deep
water at a waterfront facility. The victim is shaking,
not speaking clearly and has blue lips. You should
most likely care for:
a.
Seizure.
b.
Choking.
c.
Hypothermia.
d.
Stroke.
6.
7.
Which of the following is not a strategy to be used
while on duty at a waterfront facility?
a.
Assigning buddy pairs and calling
buddy checks
b.
Monitoring water and weather conditions
c.
Classifying swimmers and designating
swimming areas based on abilities
d.
Clearing the facility for frequent facility
safety checks
A lifeguard at a waterfront needs to have which of
the following pieces of equipment only accessible
to him or her while on duty?
a.
Whistle, rescue tube, and resuscitation mask
b.
Rescue tube, gloves, and backboard
c.
Mask, snorkel, and fins
d.
Gloves, rescue board, AED
An item of special concern at a waterfront that a
lifeguard should consider is:
a.
The in-water care for head, neck and spinal
injuries is significantly modified.
b.
The RID factor.
c.
Specialized rescue equipment may be present.
d.
There are not a maximum number of people in
his/her assigned zone of coverage.
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8. Lifeguards are conducting a deep-water line search
to locate a submerged victim. To see more clearly
and cover more distance with less effort, the
lifeguards should:
9.
12. To enter the water with a mask and fins, it is
important to:
a.
Put both hands over the mask and keep your
elbows away from your chest.
b.
Put one hand over the mask and keep your
elbow close to your chest.
a.
Ask patrons to participate in the search.
b.
Use a watercraft.
c.
Use extra oars and paddles.
c.
Step out and lean forward over the water.
d.
Wear a mask and fins.
d.
Swim, keeping your arms extended and your
face above water.
A man starts to fish in the swimming area. You
blow your whistle to get his attention. Next, you
enforce the rules and regulations by:
a.
Ask bystanders to swim toward the victim
along their sight lines.
Giving him a warning.
b.
Telling him he cannot fish in the swimming
area and suggesting other areas where he
can fish.
Swim toward the victim based on where
bystanders last remember seeing the victim
from one angle.
c.
Take a sighting on the spot where the victim
was last seen based on who was closest to
the victim.
d.
Take a sighting from two different angles on
the spot where the victim was last seen
going underwater.
a.
Calling your supervisor.
b.
c.
d.
13. To take a cross bearing, two lifeguards should:
Telling him he might be asked to leave the
campground and demanding he stop it now.
10. If the water is murky during a deep-water line
search, you should:
a.
Check the bottom by sweeping your hands
back and forth in front of you, making sure to
cover the entire area.
b.
Move the search to shallow water.
c.
Perform a different surface dive than the
lifeguard next to you and increase the number
of swimming strokes.
d.
Return to the surface at an angle.
11. Several lifeguards start a deep-water line search for
a missing swimmer in a lake. The first step is to:
238
14. You are searching for a missing swimmer in
shallow water, but cannot see the bottom.
You should:
a.
Conduct a deep-water line search.
b.
Conduct a shallow-water line search.
c.
Move to water that is greater than chest depth.
d.
Wear a mask and fins.
15. When launching a rescue board, you should:
a.
a.
Form a straight line an arm’s length from each
other, wearing masks and fins.
Climb on just behind the middle of the rescue
board and lie down.
b.
b.
Have a lifeguard on a watercraft search
the area.
Hold the rescue board in the air until the water
reaches your waist.
c.
c.
Take turns diving in different directions.
Lay the rescue board on the shoreline and
push it forward before you enter the water.
d.
Take turns diving to the bottom and returning
to the surface at a 90-degree angle.
d.
Straddle the end of the rescue board and
remain in a seated position.
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FINAL WRITTEN EXAM: WATERPARK
SKILLS MODULE
■
Final Written Exam A
■
Final Written Exam B
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—DO NOT WRITE ON THIS EXAM—
Waterpark Skills Module
Exam A
IMPORTANT: Read all instructions before beginning the exam.
INSTRUCTIONS: Mark all answers in pencil on a separate answer sheet. Do not write on this exam. The
questions on this exam are multiple choice. Read each question carefully. Then choose the best answer and fill in
that circle on the answer sheet. If you wish to change an answer, erase your first answer completely. Return this
exam to your instructor when you are finished.
EXAMPLE
ANSWER SHEET
xx.
a
b
c
XX. Why does the American Red Cross teach this course?
240
a.
To help people stay calm in emergencies.
b.
To help people make appropriate decisions when they are confronted with an emergency.
c.
To help people in an emergency keep a victim’s injuries from getting worse until emergency medical
services (EMS) personnel arrive and take over.
d.
All of the above
Lifeguarding Instructor’s Manual
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10/17/11 12:00 PM
—DO NOT WRITE ON THIS EXAM—
Waterpark Skills Module
1.
2.
A safety check at a waterpark may include which of
the following?
4.
Which statement is true about rules at
a waterpark?
a.
Unusual noises, missing pieces or mildewed
safety netting
a.
Rules do not need to be posted when
announced over a public address system.
b.
Checking the facility grounds for a lost child
b.
c.
Posting rules and closing attractions because
of a shortage of lifeguards
Rules should only be posted in the changing
room since that is the one place
everyone visits.
d.
Checking to confirm a patron meets height
restrictions for an attraction
c.
There should be limited number of rules
posted so visitors will take the time to
read them.
d.
Rules should be posted near each attraction
providing specific information about
that attraction.
When assigned to roving station on the zero-depth
area of a wave pool, a lifeguard should:
a.
3.
Exam A
Use the head and chin support for manual inline stabilization for a suspected neck injury in
extremely shallow water.
b.
Use a run-and-swim entry during a rescue.
c.
Be assigned to total coverage for a large
number of patrons.
d.
Assist non-swimmers with the proper fitting of
lifejackets provided by the waterpark.
5.
Some of the unique challenges of a waterpark
facility compared with other aquatic facilities are:
a.
The number of patrons visiting and their ages.
b.
The types of rescue equipment and
supplies required.
c.
The variety and number of attractions and
features at the facility.
d.
The availability of concessions stands
provides greater chance of food and drinks
on the pool deck.
6.
Every waterpark lifeguard should have which of
the following equipment immediately available to
them at all times?
a.
A rescue tube, gloves and resuscitation mask
b.
Personal protective equipment, bodily fluid
cleanup and first aid supplies
c.
Radio, rescue tube and bag-valve-mask
resuscitator
d.
An automated external defibrillator,
emergency oxygen and manual
suction device
A person is lying in the run out area of a speed
slide and does not sit up. You approach the victim
and he states that his toes, feet and legs are
tingling. You should:
a.
Have him rest in place and see if the
condition changes.
b.
Notify the dispatch lifeguard and have staff
proceed with a safety check of the attraction.
c.
Prepare to care for the victim for a head, neck
or spinal injury.
d.
Ask him for consent to help and immediately
perform a secondary assessment.
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7.
You are assigned a zone at the deep end of a
crowded wave pool. You see an active adult victim
in your zone. You should:
a.
b.
c.
d.
Activate the facility’s emergency action plan
(EAP), wait for all the wave action to stop and
enter the water.
Time your entry for the trough of the next
wave, rescue the victim and signal other
lifeguards for assistance if needed.
Activate the facility’s EAP, motion to other
lifeguards the victim’s location and toss the
victim a ring buoy.
Activate the facility’s EAP, time you entry for
the crest of the next wave, use a compact jump
entry and make the appropriate rescue.
8. A lifeguard is responsible for the splash down area
of a waterslide. She notices an adult patron exit the
slide and collide with a child patron moving toward
the slide exit. Both victims are now submerged.
The lifeguard might:
9.
242
a.
Expect the child to have a head, neck or
spinal injury.
b.
Activate the facility’s EAP, retrieve the
backboard and request assistance.
c.
Activate the facility’s EAP, approach the
victims and perform a multiple victim rescue.
d.
Monitor the victims to see if they appear to be
injured or need assistance prior to taking any
other action.
A large number of patrons are swimming in the
wave pool. For effective patron surveillance, your
supervisor decides to add another lifeguard station
and tells you to modify the zone coverage based on
the new station to:
a.
Allow the lifeguards to take turns scanning the
good swimmers.
b.
Allow the lifeguards to take turns walking up
and down the deck.
c.
Increase the number of patrons watched by
each lifeguard.
d.
Reduce the number of patrons watched by
each lifeguard.
10. A lifeguard starts to rescue a patron in the deepwater section of a wave pool. For effective patron
surveillance, the other lifeguards should stand in
their chairs and adjust their zone coverage to:
a.
Decrease the number of lifeguards
with fatigue.
b.
Exclude the rescuing lifeguard’s area
of responsibility.
c.
Include the rescuing lifeguard’s area
of responsibility.
d.
Increase the number of safety checks at
each attraction.
11. A man exits from a drop-off slide into the catch
pool. He surfaces and is in distress. You activate
the EAP and then extend a rescue tube to the man.
The next steps include:
a.
Completing a report and discussing the
emergency with bystanders.
b.
Completing a report and talking to the media.
c.
Pulling him to safety and checking the rescue
tube for damage.
d.
Pulling him to safety and providing
additional care.
12. You are responsible for a part of the wave pool that
can be easily viewed from your lifeguard station.
To effectively scan, you must:
a.
Count all the patrons in your area
of responsibility.
b.
Focus primarily on blind spots.
c.
Keep your head still but use your eyes to scan
your area.
d.
Move your head and eyes as you scan to look
directly at each area rather than staring in a
fixed direction.
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13. You are the dispatch lifeguard on a slide at a
waterpark and notice the handrail has become
detached. Which of the following statements
is true?
a.
You should close the attraction as soon as
those currently in line have had their turn.
b.
You should immediately close the attraction
and notify the facility management.
c.
You can ignore the issue since it will be
corrected during the next facility safety check.
d.
You should use signs and ropes to alert
patrons of the hazard and continue operating
the attraction.
15. At a waterpark, one step of an EAP may include:
a.
Assisting with in-service trainings.
b.
Monitoring the water chemistry.
c.
Opening the facility.
d.
Stopping the slide dispatch.
14. During an in-service training, which of the
following would not be part of a facility’s EAP?
a.
Stopping the wave machine by pushing the
emergency stop button.
b.
Stopping the dispatch of riders on a slide.
c.
Stopping the flow of water creating a current
in a winding river.
d.
Stopping patrons from exiting the wave pool.
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Lifeguarding Final Written Exams
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—DO NOT WRITE ON THIS EXAM—
Waterpark Skills Module
Exam B
IMPORTANT: Read all instructions before beginning the exam.
INSTRUCTIONS: Mark all answers in pencil on a separate answer sheet. Do not write on this exam. The
questions on this exam are multiple choice. Read each question carefully. Then choose the best answer and fill in
that circle on the answer sheet. If you wish to change an answer, erase your first answer completely. Return this
exam to your instructor when you are finished.
EXAMPLE
ANSWER SHEET
xx.
a
b
c
XX. Why does the American Red Cross teach this course?
244
a.
To help people stay calm in emergencies.
b.
To help people make appropriate decisions when they are confronted with an emergency.
c.
To help people in an emergency keep a victim’s injuries from getting worse until emergency medical
services (EMS) personnel arrive and take over.
d.
All of the above
Lifeguarding Instructor’s Manual
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10/17/11 12:00 PM
—DO NOT WRITE ON THIS EXAM—
Waterpark Skills Module
1.
A person is lying in the run out area of a speed
slide and does not sit up. You approach the victim
and he states that his toes, feet and legs are
tingling. You should:
Exam B
4.
Use the head and chin support for manual inline stabilization for a suspected neck injury in
extremely shallow water.
Have him rest in place and see if the
condition changes.
b.
Use a run-and-swim entry during a rescue.
b.
Notify the dispatch lifeguard and have staff
proceed with a safety check of the attraction.
c.
Be assigned to total coverage for a large
number of patrons.
c.
Prepare to care for the victim for a head, neck
or spinal injury.
d.
Assist non-swimmers with the proper fitting of
lifejackets provided by the waterpark.
d.
Ask him for consent to help and immediately
perform a secondary assessment.
During an in-service training, which of the
following would not be part of a facility’s
emergency action plan (EAP)?
a.
Stopping the wave machine by pushing the
emergency stop button
b.
Stopping the dispatch of riders on a slide
c.
Stopping the flow of water creating a current
in a winding river
d.
3.
a.
a.
5.
2.
When assigned to a roving station on the zero
depth area of a wave pool a lifeguard should:
You are assigned a zone at the deep end of a
crowded wave pool. You see an active adult victim
in your zone. You should:
a.
Activate the facility’s emergency action plan
(EAP), wait for all the wave action to stop and
enter the water.
b.
Time you entry for the trough of the next wave,
rescue the victim and signal other lifeguards
for assistance if needed.
c.
Activate the facility’s EAP, motion to other
lifeguards the victim’s location and toss the
victim a ring buoy.
d.
Activate the facility’s EAP, time your entry for
the crest of the next wave, use a compact jump
entry and make the appropriate rescue.
Stopping patrons from exiting the wave pool
You are the dispatch lifeguard on a slide at a
waterpark and notice the handrail has become
detached. Which of the following statements
is true?
a.
You should close the attraction as soon as
those currently in line have had their turn.
b.
You should immediately close the attraction
and notify the facility management.
c.
You can ignore the issue since it will be
corrected during the next facility safety check.
d.
You should use signs and ropes to alert
patrons of the hazard and continue operating
the attraction.
6.
A lifeguard is responsible for the splash down area
of a waterslide. She notices an adult patron exit the
slide and collide with a child patron moving toward
the slide exit. Both victims are now submerged.
The lifeguard might:
a.
Activate the facility’s EAP, retrieve the
backboard, and request assistance.
b.
Activate the facility’s EAP, approach the
victims and perform a multiple victim rescue.
c.
Monitor the victims to see if they appear to be
injured or need assistance prior to taking any
other action.
d.
Expect the child to have a head, neck or
spinal injury.
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7.
A conscious patron needs help getting out of a
pool that has a zero-depth exit. He does not have a
head, neck or spinal injury. To effectively remove
the patron from the water, you should:
a.
Have the patron swim to the closest railing.
b.
Perform the head and chin support.
c.
Slide the patron onto a backboard.
d.
Use the walking assist.
8. A lifeguard starts to rescue a patron in a shallowwater attraction at a waterpark. For effective
patron surveillance, the lifeguard nearby should:
a.
9.
Cover both his or her area of responsibility and
the rescuing lifeguard’s area of responsibility.
b.
Focus only on the rescuing lifeguard’s area
of responsibility.
c.
Leave his or her area of responsibility and find
other lifeguards to assist with the rescue.
d.
Signal the other lifeguards to rotate stations.
A man exits from a drop-off slide into the catch
pool. He surfaces and is in distress. You activate
the EAP and then extend a rescue tube to the man.
The next steps include:
a.
Assisting with in-service trainings.
b.
Monitoring the water chemistry.
c.
Opening the facility.
d.
Stopping the slide dispatch.
12. During a weather-related power failure, you hear
thunder in the distance you should:
a.
Clear everyone from the water and move them
to a safe area.
b.
Let patrons continue swimming.
c.
Let patrons sit on the edge with their feet in
the water.
d.
Monitor weather reports while patrons
continue to swim.
13. The lifeguard supervisor expects the wave pool to
be very busy in the afternoon. For effective patron
surveillance, she sets up multiple lifeguard stations
to reduce the number of patrons watched by each
lifeguard. This type of coverage is called:
a.
Back-up coverage.
b.
Rescue coverage.
c.
Total coverage.
d.
Zone coverage.
a.
Completing a report and discussing the
emergency with bystanders.
b.
Completing a report and talking to the media.
c.
Pulling him to safety and checking the rescue
tube for damage.
a.
It is necessary to have at least one lifeguard for
every three slides.
d.
Pulling him to safety and providing
additional care.
b.
It is not necessary to wear your rescue tube.
c.
You should pay close attention to nonswimmers or weak swimmers.
d.
Pay less attention to sprays and fountains.
10. At a waterpark, lifeguards can remain alert and
reduce fatigue during their shift by:
246
11. At a waterpark, one step of an EAP may include:
a.
Completing records and reports at their
lifeguard stations
b.
Performing light cleaning tasks when stationed
in the water for surveillance duty
14. When performing patron surveillance at a child
play structure at a waterpark:
15. While you are conducting a safety check, you find
a section of the pool gutter cover is missing. You
should:
a.
Close the entire facility for the day.
c.
Rotating through different attractions or
positions at an attraction
b.
Close off the area and tell the lifeguard
supervisor right away.
d.
Staying at one station or position at
an attraction
c.
Make a note of it or come back to it during
your next break.
d.
Watch the area closely so nobody gets hurt.
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ANSWER SHEET: CPR/AED for the Professional Rescuer and
First Aid
Name: ______________________________________________ Date: __________
A
Exam
B
1.
a
b
c
d
15.
a
b
c
d
28.
a
b
c
d
2.
a
b
c
d
16.
a
b
c
d
29.
a
b
c
d
3.
a
b
c
d
17.
a
b
c
d
30.
a
b
c
d
4.
a
b
c
d
18.
a
b
c
d
31.
a
b
c
d
5.
a
b
c
d
19.
a
b
c
d
32.
a
b
c
d
6.
a
b
c
d
20.
a
b
c
d
33.
a
b
c
d
7.
a
b
c
d
21.
a
b
c
d
34.
a
b
c
d
8.
a
b
c
d
22.
a
b
c
d
35.
a
b
c
d
9.
a
b
c
d
23.
a
b
c
d
36.
a
b
c
d
10.
a
b
c
d
24.
a
b
c
d
37.
a
b
c
d
11.
a
b
c
d
25.
a
b
c
d
38.
a
b
c
d
12.
a
b
c
d
26.
a
b
c
d
39.
a
b
c
d
13.
a
b
c
d
27.
a
b
c
d
40.
a
b
c
d
14.
a
b
c
d
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ANSWER SHEET: Lifeguarding Skills
Name: ______________________________________________ Date: __________
A
Exam
B
1.
a
b
c
d
13.
a
b
c
d
25.
a
b
c
d
2.
a
b
c
d
14.
a
b
c
d
26.
a
b
c
d
3.
a
b
c
d
15.
a
b
c
d
27.
a
b
c
d
4.
a
b
c
d
16.
a
b
c
d
28.
a
b
c
d
5.
a
b
c
d
17.
a
b
c
d
29.
a
b
c
d
6.
a
b
c
d
18.
a
b
c
d
30.
a
b
c
d
7.
a
b
c
d
19.
a
b
c
d
31.
a
b
c
d
8.
a
b
c
d
20.
a
b
c
d
32.
a
b
c
d
9.
a
b
c
d
21.
a
b
c
d
33.
a
b
c
d
10.
a
b
c
d
22.
a
b
c
d
34.
a
b
c
d
11.
a
b
c
d
23.
a
b
c
d
35.
a
b
c
d
12.
a
b
c
d
24.
a
b
c
d
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ANSWER SHEET: Shallow Water Lifeguarding Skills
Name: ______________________________________________ Date: __________
A
Exam
B
1.
a
b
c
d
13.
a
b
c
d
25.
a
b
c
d
2.
a
b
c
d
14.
a
b
c
d
26.
a
b
c
d
3.
a
b
c
d
15.
a
b
c
d
27.
a
b
c
d
4.
a
b
c
d
16.
a
b
c
d
28.
a
b
c
d
5.
a
b
c
d
17.
a
b
c
d
29.
a
b
c
d
6.
a
b
c
d
18.
a
b
c
d
30.
a
b
c
d
7.
a
b
c
d
19.
a
b
c
d
31.
a
b
c
d
8.
a
b
c
d
20.
a
b
c
d
32.
a
b
c
d
9.
a
b
c
d
21.
a
b
c
d
33.
a
b
c
d
10.
a
b
c
d
22.
a
b
c
d
34.
a
b
c
d
11.
a
b
c
d
23.
a
b
c
d
35.
a
b
c
d
12.
a
b
c
d
24.
a
b
c
d
SECTION
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E
|
Lifeguarding Final Written Exams
249
12/27/11 1:16 PM
ANSWER SHEET: Waterfront Skills Module
Name: ______________________________________________ Date: __________
A
Exam
250
B
1.
a
b
c
d
2.
a
b
c
d
3.
a
b
c
d
4.
a
b
c
d
5.
a
b
c
d
6.
a
b
c
d
7.
a
b
c
d
8.
a
b
c
d
9.
a
b
c
d
10.
a
b
c
d
11.
a
b
c
d
12.
a
b
c
d
13.
a
b
c
d
14.
a
b
c
d
15.
a
b
c
d
Lifeguarding Instructor’s Manual
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ANSWER SHEET: Waterpark Skills Module
Name: ______________________________________________ Date: __________
A
Exam
B
1.
a
b
c
d
2.
a
b
c
d
3.
a
b
c
d
4.
a
b
c
d
5.
a
b
c
d
6.
a
b
c
d
7.
a
b
c
d
8.
a
b
c
d
9.
a
b
c
d
10.
a
b
c
d
11.
a
b
c
d
12.
a
b
c
d
13.
a
b
c
d
14.
a
b
c
d
15.
a
b
c
d
SECTION
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E
|
Lifeguarding Final Written Exams
251
10/17/11 12:00 PM
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INDEX
A
Active victim rescues, 66–70, 77–78, 143, 173
Activities, 3–4
Activity worksheets, 6, 145–150
Adults
choking by, 87–90, 96, 97
CPR on, 101–102, 108–109
giving ventilations to, 86
primary assessment of, 82, 90–91
AED. See Automated external defibrillator (AED)
Age prerequisite, 27
Agonal gasps, 50, 81
Airway obstructions, 87–89, 96–98
American Red Cross Lifeguarding program, 1–11
courses, 6
refresher program, 6
reporting procedures, 11
retail products, 6
American Red Cross Universal Certificate, 10, 33
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Accommodation
Resource Guide, 8, 9
Approaches, 43–44, 47
Aquatic facilities
rules and regulations of, 41–43, 49, 145–147
See also specific types of facilities
Aquatic sports, 57
Aspirin in cardiac emergencies, 100
Assignments, 4
Assisting and Co-Instructors, 8
Asthma, 85
Automated external defibrillator (AED), 16, 21
activity worksheet, 150
maintenance of, 105–106
precautions with, 105–106
skill assessment tool, 112
skill chart for, 111–112
use of, 103–106, 111–112
written exam for, 193–209
B
Backboards, 134–136
Bag-valve-mask (BVM) resuscitator, 87, 95–96
Beach drag, 163, 167–168, 187
Bites, 118
Bleeding, control of, 116–117, 128
Blind spots, 53
Bloodborne pathogens, 80
Bloodborne Pathogens Standard, 49
Body substance isolation (BSI), 80
Bone injuries, 120
Breastbone injuries, 129
Breathing emergencies, 15–16, 20–21, 84–85, 87–89
Buddy systems, 161–162
Burns, 118, 123
C
Cardiac arrest, 50, 100, 103
Cardiac Chain of Survival, 99–100
Cardiac emergencies, 16, 21, 99–113
Certificates, awarding completion, 11
Certification prerequisite, 155, 176, 179
Chest compressions, 101
Children
choking by, 87–89, 96, 97
CPR on, 101–102, 108–109
giving ventilations to, 86
primary assessment of, 82–83, 91
Choking, 87–89, 96–98
Classroom space, 7
Class safety, 8–9
Class size, 7, 152, 176
Co-instructors, 8
Cold water, 159
Communication systems, 162
Compact jump, 44, 46
Continuing education units, 11
Continuous swim, 30
Course length, 7, 152, 176
Course presentation, 5–6
CPR, 101–102
final written exam for, 193–209
skill assessment tool for, 109–110
skill chart for, 108–109, 110–111
two-rescuer, 102–103, 110–111
D
Decision making, 35
Defibrillation, 103
Diabetes, 121
Disease transmission, 79–80
Disposable gloves, removal of, 80, 90
Distraction, 53
Distressed swimmers, characteristics of, 51–52
Diving areas, rules and regulations of, 42–43, 146
Drowning process, 50
Drowning response behaviors, 51–52
E
EAPs. See Emergency action plans (EAPs)
Effective surveillance, 51–54, 156, 180
Emergencies
breathing, 15–16, 20–21, 84–85, 87–89
cardiac, 99–113
cold-related, 119, 159
on land, 80–81
Emergency action plans (EAPs), 43, 64–65, 162–163, 183
Index
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1/6/12 3:38 PM
Emergency medical services (EMS), 1, 83
Emphysema, 85
Entries, 43–44, 46–47, 163, 166–167, 170, 186
Equipment, 5, 6, 153, 177
Escapes, 131–132
Exams. See Final written exams
F
Face-up position, 93
Facility
safety, 13–14, 18–19, 39–40, 48–49, 157–160, 180–182
management of, 48–49
FAST, 122
Fatigue, 53
Final In-Water Skill Scenarios, 4, 143
Final written exams, 4, 10, 18, 23
answer sheets and keys for, 262–285
for CPR/AED for the professional rescuer, 133, 141,
193–209
for first aid, 133, 141, 193–209
for head, neck and spinal injuries, 142, 210–243
for lifeguarding skills, 210–243
security of, 11
for Waterfront Skills module, 166, 244–252
for Waterpark Skills module, 185, 253–261
Final written exam answer sheets and
keys, 262–285, A1–A20
Finger injuries, 129
Fins, 164, 170–171
First aid, 17, 22, 114–132
final written exam for, 193–209
scenarios, 120–123
Foot injuries, 129
Front-and-back carry, 163, 168, 187–188
G
Glare, 53, 54
Group visits, 62–64, 149, 161–162, 183
H
Hand injuries, 129
Hazard Communication Standard, 49
Head-hold escape, 125, 131
Head injuries
caring for, 123–124, 129–131, 133–140
final written exam for, 210–243
in-water scenario for, 143
Head splints, 136–138, 164, 168–169, 188–189
Health precautions, 9
Heart attack, 99–100
Heat, 53
Heat cramps, 119
Heat stroke, 119
Hot tubs, rules and regulations of, 43, 147
Human-knot activity, 38
Hypothermia, 119, 159
Hypoxia, 84
I
IACET. See Internet Association of Continuing Education
and Training (IACET)
Illnesses
heat-related, 119
sudden, 116
Infants
choking by, 88, 89, 96–98
CPR on, 102, 103, 109–111
giving ventilations to, 86
primary assessment of, 82, 83, 91
254
recovery position for, 93
Injuries
common, 117–118
foot, 129
hand and finger, 129
head, neck and spinal, 17, 22, 123–124, 129–131, 133–
140, 143
leg, 129
muscle, bone, and joint, 120
responding to, 116–120
rib and breastbone, 129
Injury prevention, 14, 19, 35
strategies for, 54–56
at waterfront facilities, 161–162
at waterpark facilities, 182–183
In-service training, 37, 45
Instructional classes, 57
Instructor aids, 8–9
Instructors
resources and materials for, 3–6
responsibilities, 2
video segments for training of, 4
Instructor’s Corner, 6
Internet Association of Continuing Education and
Training (IACET), 11
In-water skills scenarios, 10–11, 18,
142–143
In-water skills sessions
breathing emergency, 89
drowning victim, 107–108
entries and approaches, 43–44
head, neck and spinal injuries, 135–137
lifeguard rotations, 60–61
rescue skills, 73–74, 89, 125–126
scanning, 60–61
skills review, 60, 125–126, 142
waterfront rescue skills, 163–165
waterpark rescue skills, 184
for when things do not go as practiced, 124–125
In-water ventilations, 125
J
Jaw-thrust (with head extension) maneuver, 94
Jaw-thrust (without head extension) maneuver, 94
Joint injuries, 120
L
Labor laws, 49
Laryngospasm, 50
Lecture points, 3
Legal considerations, 35–36
Leg injuries, 129
Lessons
objectives, 3
plans, 3–4
See also individual topics
Lifeguard evaluations, 37
Lifeguarding
organized groups, 62–64, 149, 161–162, 183
special attractions, 58–59, 148
variety of activities, 56–57
waterfront, 156–163
waterpark, 180–183
Lifeguarding course
completion criteria, 10–11
design of, 3–6
introduction to, 32–33
objectives of, 1
outline, 13–18
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11/2/11 9:30 AM
participants in, 1–2
precourse session, 25–26
purpose of, 1
setting up and running, 7–9
swimming skills evaluation, 27
written exam for, 210–226
Lifeguarding DVD Set, 4
Lifeguarding Instructor’s Manual, 3–4
Lifeguarding Manual, 3
Lifeguard rotations, 60–61
Life-threatening conditions, 54, 81–83
Lightning, 40, 55–56
M
Masks, 164, 170–171
Materials, equipment and supplies
for the class, 5
for the instructor, 5
for participants, 5
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS), 49, 118
Medical history, 126–127, 128
Modified H.A.IN.E.S. recovery position, 93
Monotony, 53
Mouth injuries, 118, 123
MSDS. See Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)
Multiple-rescuer response, 107–108, 113
Multiple victim rescues, 71
Murky water, 53
Muscle injuries, 120
N
Neck injuries
caring for, 123–124, 129–131, 133–140
in-water scenario for, 143
written exam for, 210–243
Negligence, 36
Non-life-threatening conditions, 54–55
Nosebleeds, 118
O
Objectives, testing, 8
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA),
49, 80
Open swimming, 56
Organized activities, 56
Orientation sessions, 36–37
Oxygen, 85
P
Participants
course evaluation form, 11
with disabilities and special health considerations, 9
health precautions for, 9
resources for, 3, 6
Passive victim rescues, 69–70, 76, 143, 173–174
Patron loads
heavy, 53, 54
low, 53
Patrons, communication with, 55
Patron surveillance, 14, 19, 50–54, 160–161,
180, 182
Personal protective equipment (PPE), 80
Physical structures, in water, 157
Play structures, 58
Poison Control Center, 118
Poisoning, 118–119
Policies and procedures manual, 37
Power failures, 40
Precourse session, 13, 18, 25–31
age prerequisite verification, 27
counseling after, 29
introduction to, 25–26
swimming skills evaluation, 27–29
wrap-up, 29
Prerequisite skills, 25–26, 30–31,
154–155, 176
Primary assessments, 81–83, 90–92
Professionalism, 34, 45
Professional lifeguards, 13, 18–19, 33–35
characteristics of, 33–34
continuation of training for, 36–37
responsibilities of, 34, 45
R
Recovery positions, 93
Recreational swimming, 56
Rescue boards, 165, 173–174
Rescue equipment, 39
Rescues
active victim front, 66, 68, 70
active victim rear, 66, 69–70
in cold water, 159
deep water, 75, 76, 164, 172–174
multiple-rescuer response, 107–108, 113
multiple victim, 71
at or near surface, 65–69
passive victim, 69, 70, 76, 143, 173–174
simple assist, 68
submerged victim, 73–76, 160–161
two-person removals, 74, 77–78
Rescue skills, 14–15, 19–20
in-water skill session for, 65–67, 73–74, 125–126
waterfront, 163–165
waterpark, 183–184
Rescue tube, 39
Rescue Tube Relay, 61
Respiratory arrest, 85
Respiratory distress, 85
Resuscitation masks, using, 83, 94–95
Rib injuries, 129
Rides and attractions, 59
Rip currents, 159–160
Risk behaviors, 55
Risk management, 54
Round Robin Brick Drill, 61
Rules and regulations, 41–43, 181–182
Run-and-swim entries, 163, 166–167, 186
S
Safety orientation, for organized groups, 63–64
Scanning, 52–53, 60–61, 160–161
Scenarios, 4
Scene size-up, 81
Searches, 164, 169, 172
Secondary assessment, 115, 126–127
Seizures, 122
Shallow Water Lifeguarding course
introduction to, 32–33
outline, 18–23
precourse session, 25–26
prerequisite skills, 26
purpose of, 1
rescue skills, 74
swimming skills evaluation, 28–29
written exam for, 227–243
Shock, 117
Skill charts and assessment tools
active victim front and rear rescues, 68–69
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10/17/11 11:49 AM
Skill charts and assessment tools (cont)
approaches, 47
assessment tools, 4
assists, 68
beach drag, 167–168, 187
checking conscious person, 127
choking, 96, 98
compact jump, 46
control of bleeding, 128
CPR, 108–111
disposal glove removal, 90
entries, 46–47
escapes, 132
foot injuries, 129
front-and-back carry, 168, 187–188
giving ventilations, 95–96
hand and finger injuries, 129
head, neck and spinal injuries, 129–131
head-hold escape, 131
head splints, 137–138, 168, 188–189
in-water ventilations, 132
jaw-thrust (with head extension) maneuver, 94
jaw-thrust (without head extension) maneuver, 94
leg injuries, 129
masks and fins, 170–171
medical history, 128
multiple-victim rescues, 71
passive victim rescues, 69, 70
primary assessment, 90–92
reaching assist from deck, 68
recovery positions, 93
rescues at or near surface, 69
rescue board use, 173–174
resuscitation masks, 94, 95
rib and breastbone injuries, 129
run-and-swim entry, 166, 167, 186
searches, 169, 172
secondary assessment, 126–127
simple assist, 68
slide-in entry, 46
spinal backboarding, 138–140, 190
splinting, 129
stride jump, 46
submerged victim rescues, 75, 76
surface dives, 76–77, 170–171
swimming approach, 47
two-person removals, 77–78
using an AED, 111–112
walking approach, 47
walking assist, 167, 187
Skill drills, 4
Skills practice
entries and approaches, 43–44
in-water, 4, 8
land-based, 4, 8
setting up and running, 7–8
Slide-in entry, 43–44, 46
Spas, rules and regulations of, 43, 147
Special attractions, 58–59, 148
Spinal backboarding, 134–135, 138–140, 190
Spinal injuries
caring for, 123–124, 129–131, 133–140
final written exam for, 210–243
in-water scenario for, 143
suspected, 168–169, 188–190
Splinting, 120, 129
256
Stabilization, in-line, 137, 138
Standard precautions, 79–80
Stings, 121
Stride jump, 44, 46
Submerged victim rescues, 73–76,
160–161
Supplies, 5, 153, 177
Surface distortion, 53
Surface dives, 76–77, 170–171
Surveillance, 160–161
Surveillance skills, 72, 114–115, 156, 180
Swim lessons, 57
Swimming approach, 47
Swimming prerequisites, 154–155, 176, 178
Swimming skills evaluation, 27–29, 155–156, 179
Swim tests, 161
T
Team-building activity, 38
Teeth injuries, 118, 123
Therapy pools, rules and regulations of, 43, 147
Thunderstorms, 40
Timed event, 31, 155, 179
Training equipment, 6
Tread water, 30, 155, 179
U
Underwater hazards, 157
Underwater swim event, 31, 156
V
Ventilations
giving, 86–87, 95–96
in-water, 125, 132
Ventricular fibrillation (V-fib), 103
Ventricular tachycardia (V-tach), 103
Victim assessment, 15, 20
Victim recognition, 51–52, 60–61
Victims, moving, 84
Video segments, 4
W
Walking approach, 47
Walking assists, 163, 167, 187
Water conditions, 157–158
Watercraft, 161
Water currents, 158
Water depth, 158
Water exercise classes, 57
Waterfront facilities
rules and regulations of, 41–42, 145–146
safety issues, 157–160
Waterfront lifeguarding, unique aspects of, 156–163
Waterfront skills
deep water searches, 164
rescue, 163–165
rescue board use, 165
skill drill, 165
verification of, 155–156
Waterfront Skills module
class size for, 152
facility requirements for, 153
final written exam for, 166, 244–252
introduction to, 154–155
length of, 152
lesson plan for, 154–174
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11/2/11 9:30 AM
materials, equipment and supplies for, 153
outline of, 151
prerequisites for, 26, 152, 176
purpose of, 1, 152, 156
skill charts and assessment tools for, 166–174
swimming skills evaluation for, 28
testing and certificates for, 153
Water movement, 53
Waterpark facilities
group visits to, 183
injury prevention at, 182–183
rules and regulations of, 42, 146, 181–182
safety issues at, 180–182
types of features in, 180
Waterpark lifeguarding, unique aspects of, 180–183
Waterpark rescue skills, 183–184
final written exam for, 185
skill drill, 185
verification of, 179
Waterpark Skills module
class size for, 176
facility requirements for, 177
final written exam for, 253–261
introduction to, 178
length of, 176
lesson plan for, 178–190
materials, equipment, and supplies for, 177
outline of, 175
prerequisites for, 25, 178, 179
purpose of, 1, 176
skill charts and assessment tools for, 186–190
swimming skills evaluation for, 27, 179
testing and certificates for, 177
Water quality, 158
Water slides, 59, 181, 190
Wave pools, 59
Weather conditions, 40
Whistle blowing, 55
Winding rivers, 59, 181
Y
Youth camps, 161–162
Z
Zones of surveillance responsibility, 54
Index
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10/18/11 9:27 AM
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ANSWER KEY: CPR/AED for the Professional Rescuer and
First Aid
A
Exam
1.
a
b
c
d
15.
a
b
c
d
28.
a
b
c
d
2.
a
b
c
d
16.
a
b
c
d
29.
a
b
c
d
3.
a
b
c
d
17.
a
b
c
d
30.
a
b
c
d
4.
a
b
c
d
18.
a
b
c
d
31.
a
b
c
d
5.
a
b
c
d
19.
a
b
c
d
32.
a
b
c
d
6.
a
b
c
d
20.
a
b
c
d
33.
a
b
c
d
7.
a
b
c
d
21.
a
b
c
d
34.
a
b
c
d
8.
a
b
c
d
22.
a
b
c
d
35.
a
b
c
d
9.
a
b
c
d
23.
a
b
c
d
36.
a
b
c
d
10.
a
b
c
d
24.
a
b
c
d
37.
a
b
c
d
11.
a
b
c
d
25.
a
b
c
d
38.
a
b
c
d
12.
a
b
c
d
26.
a
b
c
d
39.
a
b
c
d
13.
a
b
c
d
27.
a
b
c
d
40.
a
b
c
d
14.
a
b
c
d
LGI_SecE_Ans_Key_A-1-A-20.indd A-1
10/17/11 12:47 PM
LGI_SecE_Ans_Key_A-1-A-20.indd A-2
10/17/11 12:47 PM
ANSWER KEY: CPR/AED for the Professional Rescuer and
First Aid
B
Exam
1.
a
b
c
d
15.
a
b
c
d
28.
a
b
c
d
2.
a
b
c
d
16.
a
b
c
d
29.
a
b
c
d
3.
a
b
c
d
17.
a
b
c
d
30.
a
b
c
d
4.
a
b
c
d
18.
a
b
c
d
31.
a
b
c
d
5.
a
b
c
d
19.
a
b
c
d
32.
a
b
c
d
6.
a
b
c
d
20.
a
b
c
d
33.
a
b
c
d
7.
a
b
c
d
21.
a
b
c
d
34.
a
b
c
d
8.
a
b
c
d
22.
a
b
c
d
35.
a
b
c
d
9.
a
b
c
d
23.
a
b
c
d
36.
a
b
c
d
10.
a
b
c
d
24.
a
b
c
d
37.
a
b
c
d
11.
a
b
c
d
25.
a
b
c
d
38.
a
b
c
d
12.
a
b
c
d
26.
a
b
c
d
39.
a
b
c
d
13.
a
b
c
d
27.
a
b
c
d
40.
a
b
c
d
14.
a
b
c
d
LGI_SecE_Ans_Key_A-1-A-20.indd A-3
10/17/11 12:47 PM
LGI_SecE_Ans_Key_A-1-A-20.indd A-4
10/17/11 12:47 PM
ANSWER KEY: Lifeguarding Skills
A
Exam
1.
a
b
c
d
13.
a
b
c
d
25.
a
b
c
d
2.
a
b
c
d
14.
a
b
c
d
26.
a
b
c
d
3.
a
b
c
d
15.
a
b
c
d
27.
a
b
c
d
4.
a
b
c
d
16.
a
b
c
d
28.
a
b
c
d
5.
a
b
c
d
17.
a
b
c
d
29.
a
b
c
d
6.
a
b
c
d
18.
a
b
c
d
30.
a
b
c
d
7.
a
b
c
d
19.
a
b
c
d
31.
a
b
c
d
8.
a
b
c
d
20.
a
b
c
d
32.
a
b
c
d
9.
a
b
c
d
21.
a
b
c
d
33.
a
b
c
d
10.
a
b
c
d
22.
a
b
c
d
34.
a
b
c
d
11.
a
b
c
d
23.
a
b
c
d
35.
a
b
c
d
12.
a
b
c
d
24.
a
b
c
d
LGI_SecE_Ans_Key_A-1-A-20.indd A-5
12/16/11 9:52 AM
LGI_SecE_Ans_Key_A-1-A-20.indd A-6
10/17/11 12:47 PM
ANSWER KEY: Lifeguarding Skills
B
Exam
1.
a
b
c
d
13.
a
b
c
d
25.
a
b
c
d
2.
a
b
c
d
14.
a
b
c
d
26.
a
b
c
d
3.
a
b
c
d
15.
a
b
c
d
27.
a
b
c
d
4.
a
b
c
d
16.
a
b
c
d
28.
a
b
c
d
5.
a
b
c
d
17.
a
b
c
d
29.
a
b
c
d
6.
a
b
c
d
18.
a
b
c
d
30.
a
b
c
d
7.
a
b
c
d
19.
a
b
c
d
31.
a
b
c
d
8.
a
b
c
d
20.
a
b
c
d
32.
a
b
c
d
9.
a
b
c
d
21.
a
b
c
d
33.
a
b
c
d
10.
a
b
c
d
22.
a
b
c
d
34.
a
b
c
d
11.
a
b
c
d
23.
a
b
c
d
35.
a
b
c
d
12.
a
b
c
d
24.
a
b
c
d
LGI_SecE_Ans_Key_A-1-A-20.indd A-7
12/16/11 9:52 AM
LGI_SecE_Ans_Key_A-1-A-20.indd A-8
10/17/11 12:47 PM
ANSWER KEY: Shallow Water Lifeguarding Skills
A
Exam
1.
a
b
c
d
13.
a
b
c
d
25.
a
b
c
d
2.
a
b
c
d
14.
a
b
c
d
26.
a
b
c
d
3.
a
b
c
d
15.
a
b
c
d
27.
a
b
c
d
4.
a
b
c
d
16.
a
b
c
d
28.
a
b
c
d
5.
a
b
c
d
17.
a
b
c
d
29.
a
b
c
d
6.
a
b
c
d
18.
a
b
c
d
30.
a
b
c
d
7.
a
b
c
d
19.
a
b
c
d
31.
a
b
c
d
8.
a
b
c
d
20.
a
b
c
d
32.
a
b
c
d
9.
a
b
c
d
21.
a
b
c
d
33.
a
b
c
d
10.
a
b
c
d
22.
a
b
c
d
34.
a
b
c
d
11.
a
b
c
d
23.
a
b
c
d
35.
a
b
c
d
12.
a
b
c
d
24.
a
b
c
d
LGI_SecE_Ans_Key_A-1-A-20.indd A-9
12/16/11 10:44 AM
LGI_SecE_Ans_Key_A-1-A-20.indd A-10
10/17/11 12:47 PM
ANSWER KEY: Shallow Water Lifeguarding Skills
B
Exam
1.
a
b
c
d
13.
a
b
c
d
25.
a
b
c
d
2.
a
b
c
d
14.
a
b
c
d
26.
a
b
c
d
3.
a
b
c
d
15.
a
b
c
d
27.
a
b
c
d
4.
a
b
c
d
16.
a
b
c
d
28.
a
b
c
d
5.
a
b
c
d
17.
a
b
c
d
29.
a
b
c
d
6.
a
b
c
d
18.
a
b
c
d
30.
a
b
c
d
7.
a
b
c
d
19.
a
b
c
d
31.
a
b
c
d
8.
a
b
c
d
20.
a
b
c
d
32.
a
b
c
d
9.
a
b
c
d
21.
a
b
c
d
33.
a
b
c
d
10.
a
b
c
d
22.
a
b
c
d
34.
a
b
c
d
11.
a
b
c
d
23.
a
b
c
d
35.
a
b
c
d
12.
a
b
c
d
24.
a
b
c
d
LGI_SecE_Ans_Key_A-1-A-20.indd A-11
12/16/11 9:52 AM
LGI_SecE_Ans_Key_A-1-A-20.indd A-12
10/17/11 12:47 PM
ANSWER KEY: Waterfront Skills Module
A
Exam
LGI_SecE_Ans_Key_A-1-A-20.indd A-13
1.
a
b
c
d
2.
a
b
c
d
3.
a
b
c
d
4.
a
b
c
d
5.
a
b
c
d
6.
a
b
c
d
7.
a
b
c
d
8.
a
b
c
d
9.
a
b
c
d
10.
a
b
c
d
11.
a
b
c
d
12.
a
b
c
d
13.
a
b
c
d
14.
a
b
c
d
15.
a
b
c
d
10/17/11 12:47 PM
LGI_SecE_Ans_Key_A-1-A-20.indd A-14
10/17/11 12:47 PM
ANSWER KEY: Waterfront Skills Module
B
Exam
LGI_SecE_Ans_Key_A-1-A-20.indd A-15
1.
a
b
c
d
2.
a
b
c
d
3.
a
b
c
d
4.
a
b
c
d
5.
a
b
c
d
6.
a
b
c
d
7.
a
b
c
d
8.
a
b
c
d
9.
a
b
c
d
10.
a
b
c
d
11.
a
b
c
d
12.
a
b
c
d
13.
a
b
c
d
14.
a
b
c
d
15.
a
b
c
d
10/17/11 12:47 PM
LGI_SecE_Ans_Key_A-1-A-20.indd A-16
10/17/11 12:47 PM
ANSWER KEY: Waterpark Skills Module
A
Exam
LGI_SecE_Ans_Key_A-1-A-20.indd A-17
1.
a
b
c
d
2.
a
b
c
d
3.
a
b
c
d
4.
a
b
c
d
5.
a
b
c
d
6.
a
b
c
d
7.
a
b
c
d
8.
a
b
c
d
9.
a
b
c
d
10.
a
b
c
d
11.
a
b
c
d
12.
a
b
c
d
13.
a
b
c
d
14.
a
b
c
d
15
a
b
c
d
10/17/11 12:47 PM
LGI_SecE_Ans_Key_A-1-A-20.indd A-18
10/17/11 12:47 PM
ANSWER KEY: Waterpark Skills Module
B
Exam
LGI_SecE_Ans_Key_A-1-A-20.indd A-19
1.
a
b
c
d
2.
a
b
c
d
3.
a
b
c
d
4.
a
b
c
d
5.
a
b
c
d
6.
a
b
c
d
7.
a
b
c
d
8.
a
b
c
d
9.
a
b
c
d
10.
a
b
c
d
11.
a
b
c
d
12.
a
b
c
d
13.
a
b
c
d
14.
a
b
c
d
15.
a
b
c
d
10/17/11 12:47 PM
LGI_SecE_Ans_Key_A-1-A-20.indd A-20
10/17/11 12:47 PM
Lifeguarding
Lifeguarding
INSTRUCTOR’S MANUAL
Lifeguarding
INSTRUCTOR’S MANUAL
Stock No. 655736
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