pulse wave shaping principles

pulse wave shaping principles
IM649
Wave DesignerTM
May, 1999
This manual covers equipment which is no
longer in production by The Lincoln Electric Co.
Specifications and availability of optional
features may have changed.
Safety Depends on You
Lincoln arc welding and cutting
equipment is designed and built
with safety in mind. However, your
overall safety can be increased by
proper installation ... and thoughtful operation on your part. DO
NOT INSTALL, OPERATE OR
REPAIR THIS EQUIPMENT
WITHOUT READING THIS
MANUAL AND THE SAFETY
PRECAUTIONS CONTAINED
THROUGHOUT. And, most
importantly, think before you act
and be careful.
Wave Designer Pro Off Line - pulse.swf
File
Tools
Print
Help
Pulse Waveform Editor
50
Wire Feed Speed
Edit
700
600
Ramp Up Rate
600
500
Ramp Overshoot %
-20
400
Peak Amps
250
300
Peak Time ms
1.2
Tailout Time
3.0
200
100
Tailout Speed
.100
Stepoff Amps
40
0
Backgrd Time
33.4
Frequency
26.4
Start
Adapt
Short
3
6
21
Backgrd Amps
0
End
15
18
21
24
27
30
Off Line
Stand by
Adaptive
SOFTWARE OPERATOR’S MANUAL
World's Leader in Welding and Cutting Products
AC.sco loaded
12
About
Status
9
Premier Manufacturer of Industrial Motors
• Sales and Service through Subsidiaries and Distributors Worldwide •
Cleveland, Ohio 44117-1199 U.S.A. TEL: 216.481.8100 FAX: 216.486.1751 WEB SITE: www.lincolnelectric.com
i
i
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
License Information ..................................................................................................... ii
Introduction .................................................................................................... Section 1
1.1 Product Overview .......................................................................................... 1-1
1.2 User Responsibility ....................................................................................... 1-1
1.3 Computer System Requirements .................................................................. 1-1
1.4 Software Release Data ................................................................................. 1-2
1.5 Welding Equipment Requirements ................................................................ 1-2
Software Installation ...................................................................................... Section 2
2.1 File Storage Locations ................................................................................. 2-1
2.2 Software Installation Procedure .................................................................... 2-1
2.3 Equipment Interface Connections ................................................................. 2-2
2.4 Equipment/Software Startup ......................................................................... 2-4
2.5 Upgrade Firmware ........................................................................................ 2-4
Software Operation ........................................................................................ Section 3
3.1 Synergic Welding and Workpoints ................................................................ 3-1
3.2 Working in Wave Designer ............................................................................ 3-2
3.3 Wave Design Process ................................................................................. 3-11
3.4 Downloading Wave Shapes ........................................................................ 3-12
3.5 Autosave ..................................................................................................... 3-13
ArcScope ........................................................................................................ Section 4
4.1 Introduction ................................................................................................... 4-1
Troubleshooting ............................................................................................ Section 5
5.1 Overview ....................................................................................................... 5-1
5.2 Wave Designer Troubleshooting Procedure ................................................. 5-1
Pulse Wave Shaping Principles ............................................................... Appendix A
A.1 Appendix Overview ...................................................................................... A-1
A.2 GMAW Pulse Overview ................................................................................ A-2
A.3 Adaptive and Non-Adaptive Mode ................................................................ A-4
A.4 Pulse Wave Design Process ........................................................................ A-5
A.5 Primary Pulse Waveform Components ...................................................... A-14
A.6 Secondary Waveform Parameters ............................................................. A-16
A.7 Application Exercise ................................................................................... A-17
STT Wave Shaping Principles .................................................................. Appendix B
B.1 Appendix Overview ...................................................................................... B-1
B.2 STT Overview ............................................................................................... B-2
B.3 STT (Surface Tension Transfer) ................................................................... B-4
B.4 STT Wave Design Process .......................................................................... B-6
B.5 Primary STT Waveform Components ........................................................ B-12
B.6 Secondary STT Waveform Components .................................................... B-14
B.7 Application Exercise ................................................................................... B-15
WAVE DESIGNER
ii
LICENSE INFORMATION
ii
By clicking the acceptance button or installing the software, you are consenting to be bound by and are becoming
a party to this agreement. If you do not agree to all of the terms of this agreement, click the button that indicates
you do not accept the terms and do not install the software. (If applicable, you may return the product to the place
of purchase for a full refund.) If the copy of the software you received was accompanied by a printed or other
form of "hard-copy" end user license agreement whose terms vary from this agreement, then the hard-copy end
user license agreement governs your use of the software.
WAVE DESIGNER SOFTWARE LICENSE AGREEMENT
LICENSE:
Lincoln grants you the right to use the Wave Designer Software ("the Software"). You will not use, copy, modify, rent, sell or transfer this
Software, or any portion thereof, except as provided for in this Agreement. The Software includes and utilizes Java Runtime software owned
by Sun Microsystems, Inc. and this license is conditioned upon your agreement to the Sun Microsystems Binary Code License which is
attached and made a part of this license. There is no legal or commercial association between Lincoln and Sun Microsystems, Inc.
You may use the Software on a single computer and with any Lincoln arc welding equipment which you own or lease. If the software is
installed on a networked computer, only one (1) copy can be used at a time.
RESTRICTIONS: You may not:
1) Use the Software on more than one computer or with non-Lincoln arc welding equipment.
2) Sub-license the Software.
3) Reverse engineer, de-compile, disassemble, modify, or extract archived files from the Software.
4) Copy the Software, except for backup purposes.
5) Sell, license, or patent welding applications, waveforms, or other know how developed with this Software.
NON-DISCLOSURE:
You agree that the Software is and shall remain the property of Lincoln Electric, and that you will hold the Software in confidence for Lincoln.
You agree to make reasonable efforts to prevent unauthorized use of the Software, and to prevent disclosure to third parties.
ROYALTY-FREE:
Provided you have paid the initial license fee, you will be under no obligation to pay Lincoln a royalty for the use of the Software when used as
permitted under this license.
WARRANTY:
Lincoln warrants to the original purchaser that the Software will perform substantially as described in the Software documentation for a period
of 90 days from the date of purchase. Lincoln's liability under this warranty shall not exceed the amount you paid for the Software. No
warranty is made by Lincoln that the Software is free of errors or limitations. No warranty is made by Lincoln with respect to the Java Runtime
software.
THE ABOVE WARRANTIES ARE THE ONLY WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING
WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. LINCOLN SHALL NOT BE LIABLE FOR ANY
LOSS OF PROFITS, LOSS OF USE, INTERRUPTION OF BUSINESS, NOR FOR INDIRECT, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR
CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OF ANY KIND WHICH RELATE TO USE OF THE SOFTWARE. SELECTION AND APPLICATION OF THE
SOFTWARE IS YOUR SOLE RESPONSIBILITY AND NO WARRANTY IS GIVEN WITH REGARD TO WELDING CHARACTERISTICS
DESIGNED USING THIS SOFTWARE OR THE SUITABILITY OF WELDS PRODUCED USING SUCH CHARACTERISTICS.
TRANSFER:
You may transfer the Software, subject to this license, to another party if the receiving party also purchases from you the Invertec Power
Wave power source with which this Software is used. Prior to any such transfer, the transferee must agree to the terms of this license and
you must notify Lincoln, in writing, of the name and address of the party to whom the Software has been transferred. You must retain no
copies of the Software and accompanying documentation. Transfer of the license terminates your right to use the Software. This Software
may not be exported except as permitted by the export laws of the United States.
IMPROVEMENTS:
From time-to-time, Lincoln may make improvements in the Software. You agree that there is no obligation on the part of Lincoln to provide
you with or notify you of any improvements. Such improvements may be purchased by you from Lincoln under the terms of a separate
License Agreement or Maintenance Agreement for that Software. Additional charges for installing and trouble-shooting may apply.
POST-TERMINATION OBLIGATIONS:
If this Agreement is terminated, you must stop using the Software and, except in the case of transfer, destroy all copies. Your confidentiality
obligation shall survive termination and remain in effect for a period of five years following termination.
APPLICABLE LAW:
This License Agreement shall be interpreted and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of Ohio, and any litigation brought under
this License Agreement shall be filed in the State or Federal Courts in the State of Ohio. The United Nations Convention for the International
Sales of Goods is expressly excluded. Any claim arising out of this License Agreement will first be submitted for resolution by arbitration.
TERM AND TERMINATION:
This Agreement shall remain in effect for so long as the Wave Designer Software is in use as permitted under this license. The license may
be terminated by you at any time by removing and returning to Lincoln all copies of the Software.
WAVE DESIGNER
iii
LICENSE INFORMATION
iii
JAVA RUNTIME ENVIRONMENT, VERSION 1.1.6, BINARY CODE LICENSE
This binary code license ("License") contains rights and restrictions associated with use of the accompanying Java Runtime Environment
software and documentation ("Software"). Read the License carefully before using the Software. By using the Software you agree to the
terms and conditions of this License.
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distributes the Software complete and unmodified (except for the specific files identified as optional in the Software README file), only as
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incorporated; (ii) does not distribute additional software intended to replace any component(s) of the Software; (iii) agrees to incorporate
the most current version of the Software that was available 180 days prior to each production release of the Program; (iv) does not
remove or alter any proprietary legends or notices contained in the Software; (v) includes the provisions of Sections 2, 3, 5, 6, 8 and 9 in
Licensee's license agreement for the Program; and (vi) agrees to indemnify, hold harmless, and defend Sun and its licensors from and
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10. Governing Law. Any action related to this License will be governed by California law and controlling U.S. federal law. No choice of law
rules of any jurisdiction will apply.
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such provisions are herewith waived or amended to the extent necessary for the License to be otherwise enforceable in such jurisdiction.
However, if in Sun's opinion deletion or amendment of any provisions of the License by operation of this paragraph unreasonably
compromises the rights or increase the liabilities of Sun or its licensors, Sun reserves the right to terminate the License.
WAVE DESIGNER
iv
LICENSE INFORMATION
WAVE DESIGNER
iv
INTRODUCTION
Section 1
1-1
KEY TOPICS
This symbol indicates the location of key concepts throughout this manual.
1.1 PRODUCT OVERVIEW
Wave Designer is a visual, interactive software application used to modify wave shapes for use
with programmable waveform-controlled welding machines such as the Power Wave 455. The
Wave Designer software package includes a standard set of waveforms commonly used in
commercial and industrial welding applications.
The Wave Designer software package is intended for use by a weld application engineer in
concert with a skilled welding technician properly trained in welding applications.
This Instruction Manual guides you through the installation and operation of Wave Designer to
modify selected standard wave shapes and produce pulsed waveforms tailored to your specific
welding applications. The resulting custom waveforms automatically adjust your welding machine
to produce consistent weld transfers throughout a range of wire feed speeds and arc lengths.
1.2 USER RESPONSIBILITY
Because design, fabrication, erection, and welding variables affect the results obtained in
applying this type of information, the serviceability of a product or structure is the
responsibility of the user. Variations such as plate chemistry, plate surface condition (oil,
scale), plate thickness, preheat, quench, joint fit-up, gas type, gas flow rate, and
equipment may produce results different than those expected. Some adjustments to
procedures may be necessary to compensate for unique individual conditions. When
possible, test all procedures, duplicating actual field conditions.
1.3 COMPUTER SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS
Wave Designer software is intended for use on Windows 95, Windows 98, or Windows NT 4.0.
It will not work with Windows NT 3.51, Windows 3.1, or Windows for Workgroups. The core of
this product is architecture-neutral (operating system independent). If you would like to have
Wave Designer on Solaris SPARC, Solaris x86, MAC OS, AIX, OS/2, or Linux, please notify us
at wavedesigner@lincolnelectric.com. With Java Internationalization, Wave Designer can
support numerous European and Asian languages. Send your foreign language request to
wavedesigner@lincolnelectric.com.
We recommend a Pentium processor, 32 MB of RAM, and 6 MB of hard drive disk space for
efficient program operation. When running, Wave Designer occupies at least 10 MB of RAM. If
your computer is low in memory, we suggest you close other programs that consume large
memory. If you have less than 32 MB RAM, you may be able to run Wave Designer with “virtual
memory”. Set up virtual memory with one of the following command sequences.
In Windows 95 or 98
Start | Settings | Control Panel | System | Performance
Virtual Memory | Let me specify my own virtual memory settings
Minimum 100 | OK | Are you sure you want to continue? Yes | Close
Do you want to restart your computer now? Yes
WAVE DESIGNER
INTRODUCTION
1-2
In Windows NT 4.0
Section 1
log on as Administrator
Start | Settings | Control Panel | System | Performance
Virtual Memory Change... | Initial Size (MB): 100 | Set | OK
Do you want to restart your computer now? Yes
An RS-232 serial communication cable is required to use Wave Designer software with Power
Wave power sources. The Power Wave requires an RS-232 DB25 male connector. Most
computers feature an RS-232 DB-9 female connector as the COM serial port. (e.g. Radio Shack
cat no. 26-269 serial cable connects to this combination). Verify the set up on your computer as
it may differ.
We recommend using an 800 x 600 pixel or larger display monitor. A 640 x 480 display will not
show all the features of the Wave Designer Editor Screens.
1.4 SOFTWARE RELEASE DATA
Wave Designer is a product of The Lincoln Electric Company. Please send your comments,
questions, suggestions, and problem reports to wavedesigner@lincolnelectric.com.
Refer to the Wave Designer Welcome screen for the applicable release version of the Wave
Designer software package. Wave Designer is a JAVA (TM) application (applet) and it comes
bundled with Java Runtime Environment (JRE Version 1.1.6) from SUN Microsystems. You may
directly download JRE from http://java.sun.com/products/jdk/1.1/jre/index.html. More information
about JAVA technology can be found at the http://java.sun.com web site.
1.5 WELDING EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS
Wave Designer works only with the Power Wave 455 or similar Lincoln Electric Company
Programmable Waveform Controlled welding systems. The following welding equipment is
required to interface with Wave Designer and to produce sample welds.
•
power source (Power Wave 455 or similar)
•
wire feeder and associated gears and drive rolls (Power Feed 10 or similar)
•
welding gun
•
regulated supply of shielding gas
•
continuous-feed electrode
•
interconnecting hoses and cables
•
sample weld materials
•
oscilloscope (optional)
WAVE DESIGNER
SOFTWARE INSTALLATION
Section 2
2-1
2.1 FILE STORAGE LOCATIONS
The Wave Designer default home directory is C:\Program Files\WaveDesigner.
Subdirectories included with Wave Designer are as follows:
• arcScope - user data file for ArcScope traces (Wave Designer Pro option only)
• bin - system executables and support files, do not tamper with these files
• export - user waveform data table in ASCII text and html format
• firmware - bundled system firmware for PW455 machines
• jre - bundled Java Runtime Environment 1.1.6 from Sun Microsystems
• map - waveform editor template map files, do not tamper with them
• pictures - image files for GMAW droplet transfer movies
• systemWeldFile - user custom waveform files
• weldModeFile - copies of the weld mode directory (weld files for the welding machine)
2.2 SOFTWARE INSTALLATION PROCEDURE
Standard installation (CD ROM version): Start | Run | Browse; Run D:\setup.exe
Install the Wave Designer program as you would any Windows application. Select the Wave
Designer program icon from your START window to start up the program. Refer to Table 2-1 for
alternate installation procedures. On startup, the Wave Designer screens in Figure 2-1 will be
displayed.
NOTE: If upgrading a previous software release, save your data files (waveforms, scope traces,
etc.) and uninstall the previous software release before installing the new version.
TABLE 2-1. ALTERNATE INSTALLATION PROCEDURES.
Operation
Application/
Drive
Install Floppy Disk Version
A
Start | Run | Browse; Run setup.exe
Install Java Runtime
Executable Version
All
Create shortcut: <dir>\jrew.exe -ms12000000 -cp .\*.jar Pwgui
Start Program: <dir>\Program Files\WaveDesigner\bin
Install Wave Designer
Icon
Windows NT 4.0
Start Wave Designer in a
DOS Window
C
Uninstall Program
All
Command Sequence
Create Start Menu Shortcut; set icon for “All Users”
Open C:\Program Files\WaveDesigner\bin
Type: jre -ms12000000 -cp .\*.jar Pwgui
or:..\jre\bin\jre -ms12000000 -cp .\*.jar Pwgui
Start | Settings | Control Panel | Add/Remove Programs
Select Wave Designer in scroll window and click on
Add/Remove button. Use Windows Explorer or File Manager to
remove Wave Designer folder.
WAVE DESIGNER
2-2
SOFTWARE INSTALLATION
Section 2
FIGURE 2-1. WAVE DESIGNER STARTUP SCREEN.
Welcome to Wave Designer
Lincoln Electric Wave Designer Version 1.0
Copyright © 1998 The Lincoln Electric Company
All Rights Reserved
Wave Designer
WARNING: This computer program is protected by copyright law
and international treaties. Unauthorized reproduction or
distribution of this program, or any part of it, may be prosecuted to
the maximum extent possible under the law.
United States Patent Pending
Comments? Write to wavedesigner@lincolnelectric.com
Initializing ... Please wait
27850002
2.3 EQUIPMENT INTERFACE CONNECTIONS
Wave Designer communicates welding parameter changes to the welding machine controller in
real time (on-the-fly). To enable communication with Wave Designer, reconfigure the welding
machine settings as follows:
1. Disconnect the electrical power to the welding machine.
2. Remove the control box LED display panel, Figure 2-2. Be careful not to pull hard on the
panel wiring harness.
3. Locate the bottom DIP switch block (SW2) on the user interface control board. Move the last
DIP switch (position #8) up and reinstall the LED display panel.
4. Toggle the control box SELECT switch up and down until the Weld Mode indicator lights up.
Toggle the SET switch to get an OFF readout on the LED display.
5. An RS-232 serial communication cable is required to use Wave Designer software with
Power Wave power sources. The Power Wave requires an RS-232 DB25 male connector.
Most computers feature an RS-232 DB-9 female connector as the COM serial port. (e.g.
Radio Shack cat no. 26-269 serial cable connects to this combination). Verify the set up on
your computer as it may differ.
6. Connect the RS-232 cable between the COM1 port of your computer and the mating
connector behind the front center panel of the power source, Figure 2-3.
WAVE DESIGNER
Section 2
SOFTWARE INSTALLATION
2-3
PLEASE NOTE: Some IBM ThinkPads® by default have the serial port disabled and instead the port is used for infrared. The
following information describes the procedure to disable the infrared feature and enable the serial port. Follow the instructions
below to use COM1 to communicate with the PowerWave. More instructions at the end discuss how to use other ports, if
necessary.
The following information can also be found at the IBM website at http://www.pc.ibm.com/qtechinfo/DSHY-3P5QW4.html
How to enable the external serial port on your ThinkPad
SYMPTOM:
The ThinkPad is not communicating with the PowerWave serial device.
CONFIGURATION:
Any ThinkPad trying to utilize the external serial port using any applicable operating systems.
RESOLUTION:
By default, currently available ThinkPads come with the external serial port disabled and Infrared enabled on COM 1. To use
the serial port on COM 1 you must either disable infrared or change infrared so that it uses alternate resources. If you are not
using infrared for printing or file sharing it is recommended that it be disabled.
To disable infrared and enable the serial port on COM 1 do the following:
1. Double-click your ThinkPad Features or ThinkPad Configuration icon located in the ThinkPad folder on your desktop.
2. Locate the Infrared button located on the left-hand side of this configuration screen and click it once.
(Note: If you hold your mouse pointer over any of the icons in this configuration screen the button will be identified at the
bottom in the status window.)
3. Change Infrared from "Enable" to "Disable" and click "OK".
4. Locate the serial port icon and click it once.
5. Select serial port "enable" and insure that the COM PORT setting is "COM 1" and click "OK".
6. Shut down and restart the computer.
More Information:
There are many different combinations of port settings that are possible. The following table indicates the standard settings for
the four available COM Ports:
COM 1 03F8 4
COM 2 02F8 3
COM 3 03E8 4
COM 4 02E8 3
Please note that COM 1 and 3 share IRQ 4 and COM 2 and 4 share IRQ 3. You can not configure multiple devices to the
same IRQ.
If not successful, try to use COM3. Follow the instructions above while substituting COM1 with COM3. Configure Wave
Designer by changing the properties of the Wave Designer icon (right click mouse when pointing to the icon), add "-port com3"
to the command line.
FIGURE 2-2. CONTROL BOARD DIP SWITCH SETTING.
FIGURE2-3. INTERFACE CONNECTION.
SW1 ON 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
SW2 ON 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
CONTROL
BOX
POWER
SOURCE
RS232
CABLE
FRONT
PANEL
CONTROL
BOARD
COMPUTER
SYSTEM
27850004
27850003
WAVE DESIGNER
SOFTWARE INSTALLATION
2-4
Section 2
2.4 EQUIPMENT/SOFTWARE STARTUP
When the Wave Designer software installation is complete, Wave Designer is listed among the
programs you can start up from the Windows startup screen. Click on START, point to the
programs option, then click on the Wave Designer option. The Wave Designer Welcome
screen is displayed followed by the Pulse Waveform Editor screen. When the Pulse Waveform
Editor screen is displayed, the software is ready for use.
Wave Designer Pro Off Line - pulse.swf
File
Tools
Print
Help
Pulse Waveform Editor
Edit
50
Wire Feed Speed
700
600
Ramp Up Rate
600
500
Ramp Overshoot %
-20
400
Peak Amps
250
300
1.2
Peak Time ms
200
3.0
Tailout Time
100
Tailout Speed
.100
Stepoff Amps
40
Backgrd Amps
21
0
Backgrd Time
33.4
Frequency
26.4
Start
Adapt
Short
0
3
6
End
12
15
18
21
24
27
30
About
Status
9
AC.sco loaded
Off Line
Stand by
Adaptive
27850001
2.5 UPGRADE FIRMWARE
An ArcScope application is provided with Wave Designer Pro. In order to run the ArcScope
application, it may be necessary to upgrade the welding machine firmware. If the old firmware
does not support ArcScope, the ArcScope application will display garbled data rather than
waveforms. Wave Designer will automatically detect the firmware version and prompt you to
upgrade the firmware if required.
WAVE DESIGNER
SOFTWARE OPERATION
Section 3
3-1
3.1 SYNERGIC WELDING AND WORKPOINTS
Prior to using Wave Designer it is important to have a good understanding of the concepts of
synergic welding and workpoints. Synergic welding is basically “one knob control” of a welding
process; all other variables of the process are adjusted by the power source based on the single
controlling variable. This single controlling variable is known as a workpoint. For example, in
synergic pulse welding (GMAW-P), the operator can adjust the wire feed speed (WFS). The
WFS is the workpoint. The synergic power source will then set all other GMAW-P variables
based on the WFS by “looking up” the other variables from a pre-programmed weld table. See
Figure 3-1.
Wave Designer is a program that lets you develop a customized weld procedure by letting you
program each variable for multiple workpoints into a weld “look up” table.
Power Wave power sources go even a step further than simply “looking up” pre-programmed
variables from a weld table. If a selected WFS is between two pre-programmed workpoints, the
Power Wave will interpolate values for each of the welding variables. The result is a precise and
continuous range of welding control.
Refering to Figure 3-1, lets examine how this interpolation works by looking at one welding
variable — background amps. The operator selects a wire feed speed of 175 in/min. This value is
between the pre-programmed workpoints of 150 and 200 in/min. The Power Wave interpolates
between the pre-programmed background amp values of 80 and 60 and adjusts the background
amps to 70.
FIGURE 3-1. WFS ENCODER AND WELD DATA TABLE.
WFS/AMPS
ENCODER
NOTE: WFS ENCODER SETTING
DETERMINES WELDING
PROCESS VARIABLES PER
RELATED WELD TABLE.
INTERPOLATED
PARAMETER VALUE
C
EN
U
EQ
FR
280
1.2
20
50
100
280
1.2
40
60
150
280
1.2
60
80
200
280
1.2
80
90
250
280
1.2
100
100
90
80
INTERPOLATED
BACKGROUND AMPS
70
60
50
WFS = 175
Y
N
U
O
80
BACKGROUND AMPS
D
100
R
KG
BA
C
LS
E
PU
C
AK
PE
WORKPOINTS
(WFS)
U
R
W
ID
R
TH
EN
T
AM
PS
PRE-PROGRAMMED WELDING PROCESS VARIABLES
40
30
20
10
0
0
50
100
150
WIRE FEED SPEEDS
WAVE DESIGNER
200
27850005
SOFTWARE OPERATION
3-2
Section 3
3.2 WORKING IN WAVE DESIGNER
3.2.1 WAVEFORM EDITOR WINDOW
Refer to the Waveform Editor window in Figure 3-2 and the related usage instructions.
FIGURE 3-2. WAVEFORM EDITOR WINDOW.
1
4
Wave Designer Pro Off Line - pulse.swf
File
2
Tools
Print
Help
Pulse Waveform Editor
50
Wire Feed Speed
3
Edit
700
600
Ramp Up Rate
600
500
Ramp Overshoot %
-20
400
Peak Amps
250
300
Peak Time ms
1.2
Tailout Time
3.0
200
100
Tailout Speed
.100
Stepoff Amps
40
Backgrd Amps
21
0
5
Backgrd Time
33.4
Frequency
26.4
Start
Adapt
Short
0
3
6
End
12
15
18
21
24
27
30
7
About
Status
9
AC.sco loaded
Off Line
6
Stand by
Adaptive
27850006
1. Tool Bar Tool bar menus access alternate windows, open and save files, etc. Detailed
instructions are provided in paragraph 3.2.2.
2. Workpoint Selector/Editor The workpoint selector includes a pulldown window for
selecting a workpoint and an edit window for changing the listing of workpoint values. For
the Pulse Waveform Editor, the workpoints are wire feed speeds. The workpoint parameter
(peak voltage, current, etc.) varies with the welding mode (pulse, STT, etc.). Refer to
paragraph 3.2.3 for more detail on selecting and editing workpoints.
3. Variable Parameters The listing of variable parameters display the active parameter
values for the selected WFS. The parameter values are changed (edited) with the related
arrows and slide bars or by moving parameter nodes in the waveform graphic editor. See
paragraph 3.2.4 for more details on editing variable parameters and the wave shape.
4. Graphic Editor The graphic editor displays the active wave shape. The wave shape
changes when the parameter values are changed. The displayed wave parameter nodes
(boxes) can be selected with your mouse to edit the variable parameters. Pressing the
<F1> key will also toggle from one selected node to another. See paragraph 3.2.4 for more
details on editing variable parameters and the wave shape.
WAVE DESIGNER
Section 3
SOFTWARE OPERATION
3-3
5. Optional Windows The optional window buttons open additional windows used during
wave shaping. Optional windows in the pulse Waveform Editor include Start, Adapt, Short,
End, and About. Details about the use of most optional windows is covered in the applicable
appendix (i.e. Appendix A for Pulse Wave Shaping). We use the About window shown in
Figure 3-3 to record descriptive weld application data for custom wave shape files. This
information is stored with the program in the computer and in the Power Wave.
FIGURE 3-3. THE “ABOUT” EDIT WINDOW.
About the Procedure
About the Procedure
GMAW
Process Type
Wire Type
Other
Wire Size
Process Name
Procedure
Gas
6.3mm
Steel Pulse A
.035 Steel
super GAS
27850007
6. Wave Designer Status Bar This status bar provides a scrolled listing of recent program
events, error conditions, etc. Use the arrow keys ∂ ƒ to scroll through the listings. The status
bar includes three system status indicators: on line/off line, standby/welding, and
adaptive/non-adapt. The adaptive indicator is also a button that toggles between the
adaptive and non-adaptive mode.
7. Volts/Amps Display The Volts/Amps display, Figure 3-4, provides real time, oscilloscope
type displays of the voltage and amperage outputs from the connected power source.
Smaller display monitors (640 x 480 pixels or less) will not show the volts/amps display.
FIGURE 3-4. TYPICAL VOLTS/AMPS DISPLAY.
On Line
Welding
Adaptive
27850008
WAVE DESIGNER
3-4
SOFTWARE OPERATION
Section 3
3.2.2 WAVEFORM EDITOR TOOL BAR
There are four menu selections available on the pulse waveform editor tool bar. The following
describes how to use the File, Tools, and Print menus. The Help menu is self explanatory.
3.2.2.1 FILE MENU
File
The File menu provides options for accessing
and managing waveform data files. The File
menu options include the following:
Open Waveform
Ctrl+O
Use the Open Waveform option to open a
Wave Designer waveform or an in-house
custom waveform you created and saved
earlier.
Save Waveform As ...
Use the Save Waveform As ... option to save
an open waveform under a different filename.
Save Waveform
Ctrl+S
The Save Waveform option saves all recent
changes to an open waveform file.
Tools
Print
Open Waveform
Help
Ctrl+O
Save Waveform As ...
Save Waveform
Ctrl+S
Open Scope Trace
Save Scope As ...
Save Scope
Export to Text File
Export to HTML Web Pages
Import Text File
Quit
Ctrl+Q
27850009
Open Scope Trace (Wave Designer Pro option only)
Use the Open Scope Trace option to open a graphical display of oscilloscope type waveforms
(volts, ohms, amps, etc.) for any stored waveform (.swf) file.
Save Scope As ... (Wave Designer Pro option only)
Use this option to save an open Scope Trace file under a different filename.
Save Scope (Wave Designer Pro option only)
The Save Scope option saves changes to the parameters in a .sco file caused by recent changes
to an open waveform file. Failure to actively open and save the Scope Trace file may result in an
inaccurate parameter record for a waveform undergoing design changes.
Export to Text File
Use the Export to Text File option to save a tabular record of the waveform variables data at
each of its design (Wire Feed Speed) workpoints.
Export to HTML Web Pages
Use the Export to Web Pages option to copy a custom waveform to a web page for transmission
of the waveform to Lincoln Electric for review.
Quit
Ctrl+Q
Use the Quit option to exit the Wave Designer program.
WAVE DESIGNER
Section 3
SOFTWARE OPERATION
3.2.2.2 TOOLS MENU
Tools
The Tools menu includes waveform display
options and other tools required to operate
Wave Designer. The Tools menu options
include the following:
3-5
Print
Help
Pulse Editor
Ctrl+P
STT Editor
Ctrl+E
Simplify Editor
Ctrl+A
ArcScope
Pulse Editor
Ctrl+P
Display the Pulse Waveform Editor screen.
Flash Custom Waveform Ctrl+F
Browse Mode Directory
STT Editor
Ctrl+E
Display the STT Waveform Editor screen.
Ctrl+B
Upgrade Firmware
Go Offline
Simplify Editor
Display the primary wave shaping parameters
only. (See page A-1.)
27850010
ArcScope
Ctrl+A
(Wave Designer Pro option only)
Display the Scope Trace screen for the currently displayed waveform.
Flash Custom Waveform
Ctrl+F
Transmit selected waveforms to the welding
machine. This option requires that the
equipment interconnections are made and
that the welding machine is on-line
(communicating).
Browse Mode Directory
Ctrl+B
Display the Weld Mode Directory screen. The
Weld Mode Directory lists the waveforms that
are presently downloaded into the welding
machine controller memory. You can
download up to ten custom waveforms to the
weld mode directory, memory slots (Modes)
155 through 164.
Wave Designer Pro Off Line - pulse.swf
File
Tools
Print
Help
Search Weld Mode Directory
Search for:
Mode 12:
Mode 20:
Mode 21:
Mode 22:
Mode 24:
Mode 25:
Mode 26:
Mode 31:
Mode 32:
Mode 41:
Mode 42:
Mode 71:
Mode 72:
Mode 73:
Mode 74:
Mode 75:
Mode 76:
Mode 77:
Mode 78:
Mode 81:
Mode 82:
Mode 90:
Mode 91:
Mode 200:
Mode 201:
Mode 202:
Mode 203:
Mode 204:
Mode 205:
Mode 206:
Search
Browse All
NST3510C.SWG: Steel Pulse, .035 Steel, Argon CO2 Blends
N45ST00C.SWG: Mig 3, .045 Steel, CO2
N45ST10C.SWG: Mig 3, .045 Steel, Argon CO2 Blends
NST4510C.SWG: Steel Pulse, .045 Steel, Argon CO2 Blends
N52ST00C.SWG: Mig 3, .052 Steel, CO2
N52ST10C.SWG: Mig 3, .052 Steel, Argon CO2 Blends
NST5210C.SWG: Steel Pulse, .052 Steel, Argon CO2 Blends
N35SS02.SWG: Mig 3, .035 Stainless, Argon Oxy Blends
NSS3502.SWG: Stainless Pulse2, .035 Stainless, Argon Oxy Blends
N45SS02.SWG: Mig 3, .045 Stainless, Argon Oxy Blends
NSS4502.SWG: Stainless Pulse2, .045 Stainless, Argon Oxy Blends
N48AL43.SWG: MIG 1, 3/64 4043, 100% Argon
NAL4843.SWG: Aluminum Pulse, 3/64 4043, 100% ARGON
N62AL43.SWGL MIG 1, 1/16 4043, 100% Argon
NAL6243.SWG: Aluminum Pulse, 1/16 4043, 100% Argon
N48AL56.SWG: MIG 1, 3/64 5356, 100% Argon
NAL4856.SWG: Aluminum Pulse, 3/64 5356, 100% Argon
N62AL56.SWG: MIG 1, 1/16 5356, 100% Argon
NAL6256.SWG: Aluminum Pulse, 1/16 5356, 100% Argon
N45MC10C.SWG: FCAW_GS, .045 MC-710, Argon CO2 Blends
NMC4510C.SWG: Pulse Metal Core, .045 MC-710, Argon CO2 Blends
N45OS00C.SWG: FCAW_GS, .045 FCAW-GS, 100% CO2
N45OS20C.SWG: FCAW_GS, .045 FCAW-GS, Argon CO2 Blends
mode200.SWG: CC TEST USING WP, 25A-600A,
MODE201.SWG: CV TEST USING WP, 10V-35V,
MODE202.SWG: CC TEST, NO WP, FIXED AT 10A,
MODE203.SWG: CC TEST, NO WP, FIXED AT 355A,
MODE204.SWG: CC TEST, NO WP, FIXED AT 455A,
MODE205.SWG: CC TEST, NO WP, FIXED AT 550A,
MODE206.SWG: CV TEST, NO WP, FIXED AT 30V,
Upload from Machine
Status
weldfile uploaded
0% done
Off Line
Stand by
Adaptive
27850011
Upgrade Firmware
Use this option when installing new firmware on your welding machine. The new firmware is
required to run this Wave Designer software release. When later software releases are issued,
they may or may not include firmware upgrades. If firmware upgrades are included, you will use
the Upgrade Firmware option to install the upgrades.
Go Offline
Use the Go Offline option to temporarily interrupt and re-establish communications between the
welding machine / wire feeder and Wave Designer.
WAVE DESIGNER
SOFTWARE OPERATION
3-6
Section 3
3.2.2.3 PRINT MENU
Print menu options enable you to print out a waveform display, ArcScope screen, or tabular
waveform data listing as shown below. The Print menu options include the following:
Wave Designer Pro Waveform Editor
Printed on Thu Jul 09 07:24:50 EDT 1998
..\systemWeldFile\pulse.swf
For Wire Feed Speed 150 inch / min
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
0
3
6
9
12
1
5
18
2
1
2
4
27
3
0
Wave Designer ArcScope
Ramp Up Rate
Tailout Time
Peak Amps
Stepoff Amps
Backgrd Amps
Peak Time ms
Backgrd Time
Frequency
Tailout Speed
Ramp Overshoot %
Peak Voltage
Adaptive Type
Inductance
Short Detect Volt
Pinch Current Rise Rate
Arc Restablish Volt
End Amp
End Time
Open Circuit Volt
Strike Peak Time
Strike Peak Amps
Start Volt
Start Time
Start Amps
600
1.5
280
25
20
1.4
8.7
83.3
.100
-7
30.0
Fresa
2.625
5.0
55
15.0
550
2.5
48.0
2.5
550
28.0
87.5
172
Printed on Thu Jul 09 07:25:58 EDT 1998
50
--Volt
25
0
700
--Amp
350
0
100
.00
dV/dt
0
-100
1
Print
Help
Waveform
Ctrl+W
ArcScope Capture
Ctrl+C
Variable Table
Ctrl+T
1.0
Ohm
.5
0
10000
7840
Watt
5000
0
0
Wave Designer Pro Data Table Created on Thu Jul 09 07:26:41 EDT 1998
..\systemWeldFile\pulse.swf
Weld Process: SMAW
Wire Type: Other
Wire Size: 6.3mm
Process Name: Steel Pulse A
Procedure: .035 Steel
Gas: super GAS
WireFeed inch / min
50
80
110
Ramp Up Rate
Tailout Time
Peak Amps
Stepoff Amps
Backgrd Amps
Peak Time ms
Backgrd Time
Frequency
Tailout Speed
Ramp Overshoot %
Peak Voltage
Adaptive Type
Inductance
Short Detect Volt
Pinch Current Rise Rate
Arc Restablish Volt
End Amp
End Time
Open Circuit Volt
Strike Peak Time
Strike Peak Amps
Start Volt
Start Time
Start Amps
600
3.0
250
40
21
1.2
33.4
26.4
.100
-20
24.00
Mora
2.999
5.0
55
15.0
550
2.5
48.0
1.5
550
28.0
50.0
50
600
3.0
250
45
28
1.4
20.2
40.2
.100
-17
26.0
Naranja
2.251
5.0
55
15.0
550
2.5
48.0
2.5
550
28.0
50.0
83
600
600
3.0
1.5
260
280
25
25
20
20
1.5
1.4
9.1
8.7
71.9
83.3
.100
.100
-23
-7
27.00
30.0
ManzanaFresa
2.251
2.625
5.0
5.0
55
55
15.0
15.0
550
550
2.5
2.5
48.0
48.0
2.5
2.5
550
550
28.0
28.0
75.0
87.5
145
172
150
205
300
400
600
700
850
1000
1200
600
1.5
300
30
25
1.4
4.7
125.0
.250
-12
31.0
Sandia
2.999
5.0
55
15.0
550
2.5
48.0
2.5
550
28.0
100.0
200
600
1.5
350
70
45
.8
3.8
151.5
.250
-1
34.00
Mora
1.499
5.0
55
15.0
550
2.5
48.0
2.5
550
28.0
75.0
250
800
1.5
420
60
60
.8
3.0
175.4
.250
-10
39.50
Mora
-0.00
5.0
55
15.0
550
2.5
48.0
2.5
550
28.0
50.0
325
800
1.0
470
90
90
.8
2.3
222.2
.250
-13
41.0
Mora
-0.00
5.0
55
15.0
550
2.5
48.0
2.5
550
28.0
50.0
350
800
1.0
500
150
150
.8
2.2
227.3
.250
-6
41.50
Mora
-0.00
5.0
55
15.0
550
2.5
48.0
2.5
550
28.0
50.0
425
800
1.0
535
190
190
.8
2.0
238.1
.250
-5
43.0
Mora
-0.00
5.0
55
15.0
550
2.5
48.0
2.5
550
28.0
50.0
438
800
1.0
520
230
230
.9
1.7
256.4
.250
-10
43.5
Mora
-0.00
5.0
55
15.0
550
2.5
48.0
2.5
550
28.0
50.0
450
800
1.0
540
270
270
.9
1.7
256.4
.250
-6
44.00
Mora
-0.00
5.0
55
15.0
550
2.5
48.0
2.5
550
28.0
50.0
475
10
20
30
40
0 Amp
0.0 Volt
0.0 KW
0.0 KJ
0.0 Sec
Measured: N/A
27850012
WAVE DESIGNER
SOFTWARE OPERATION
Section 3
3-7
3.2.3 EDITING AND SELECTING WORKPOINTS
For each custom welding application, unique wave shapes are developed for specific workpoints
within the range of workpoints defined for the application. In Wave Designer the range of
workpoints and the specific workpoint values are defined in a Workpoint Editor window. After the
workpoints are defined, we use a workpoint pulldown menu to select a specific workpoint for
wave shaping. The following describes how workpoints are defined (edited) and selected for a
Pulse (GMAW) mode welding application.
Wave Designer Pro Off Line - pulse.swf
File
Tools
Print
Help
Pulse Waveform Editor
Edit
50
Wire Feed Speed
80
600110
150
205
-20300
400
250600
700
Ramp Up Rate
Ramp Overshoot %
Peak Amps
600
500
400
WorkPoint Editor
3.0
WORKPOINT
200 0
80
8
700
1
80
9
700
2
110
10
700
3
150
11
4
205
Tailout Time
PULLDOWN
Tailout Speed .100
MENU
100
0
40
Stepoff Amps
Backgrd Time
33.4
Frequency
26.4
Start
Adapt
Short
0
21
Backgrd Amps
WorkPoint Editor
300
1.2
Peak Time ms
700
End
3
5
300
6
400
7
600
9
12
15
18
21
24
27
30
700
350
350
0
inch / min
0
0
700
meter / min
60
30
Go Figure
30
WORKPOINT
EDITOR WINDOW
About
0
0
60
0
0
Status
700
6
10
AC.sco loaded
20
Off Line
30
40
Stand by
50
60
Adaptive
27850013
WAVE DESIGNER
SOFTWARE OPERATION
3-8
Section 3
3.2.3.1 EDITING WORKPOINTS
Clicking on the Edit button in the waveform Editor window opens a Workpoint Editor window. The
Workpoint Editor window displays a listing of workpoints for the selected standard waveform. Use
the Workpoint Editor window according to the following descriptions and guidelines:
•
•
•
•
WorkPoint Editor
Each workpoint value must be equal to or greater
than the preceding workpoint value.
WorkPoint Editor
The workpoints range is from the lowest defined
workpoint to the highest.
Successive workpoint boxes can share the same
value. Equivalent workpoints will share the same
wave shape. Wave Designer selects the last
workpoint of equal value as the controlling
workpoint.
0
80
8
700
1
80
9
700
2
110
10
700
3
150
11
700
4
205
5
300
6
400
7
600
inch / min
meter / min
Go Figure
You can click on the related check box to lock (fix)
the wave shape variables for a developed
workpoint.
28750014
WorkPoint Editor
•
•
WorkPoint Editor
You can click on the Go Figure button to
extrapolate/interpolate fixed workpoint parameter
values for all non-checked workpoints.
When only one workpoint is fixed (checked), Go
Figure copies the workpoint (sets the wave shape
parameters for all other defined workpoints equal
to those of the fixed workpoint). This function
should be used just after the wave shape for the
first workpoint is fully developed.
0
80
8
700
1
80
9
700
2
110
10
700
3
150
11
700
4
205
5
300
6
400
7
600
inch / min
When two or more workpoints are developed and
fixed, selecting Go Figure performs a linear
interpolation of the wave shape parameters
between checked workpoints and extrapolation to
unchecked workpoints outside the checked ones.
WorkPoint Editor
0
80
8
700
1
80
9
700
2
110
10
700
3
150
11
700
4
205
5
300
6
400
7
600
inch / min
meter / min
meter / min
Go Figure
28750015
FIXED VALUE
INTERPOLATED/
EXTRAPOLATED VALUE
WorkPoint Editor
WORKPOINT VARIABLE
•
WP8, 9, 10, 11
WP7
WP4
WP2
WP6
WP5
WP3
WP0, 1
Go Figure
WORKPOINT
WAVE DESIGNER
28750016
SOFTWARE OPERATION
Section 3
3-9
3.2.3.2 SELECTING WORKPOINTS
Clicking on the workpoint display box in the waveform Editor window opens a Workpoint
pulldown menu. The pulldown menu displays the listing of workpoints defined for the active
waveform. Use the pulldown menu according to the following descriptions and guidelines:
•
Click on any one of the listed workpoints
to access the related waveform.
Wave Designer Pro Off
File
Tools
Print
Help
Pulse Waveform Editor
•
The related welding machine control
must be set to the selected parameter
value. If the welding machine setting is
not equal to the selected workpoint
value, changes to the wave shape will
be applied to the workpoint value
nearest the welding machine setting.
Ramp Up Rate
Ramp Overshoot %
Peak Amps
Peak Time ms
•
50
Wire Feed Speed
The welding machine Trim encoder must
be set to 1.00; the Arc control to “OFF”,
and the Mode control to “OFF”. Failure
to verify these welding machine
settings will defeat all wave shaping
efforts.
WAVE DESIGNER
Tailout Time
80
600110
150
205
-7 300
400
280600
700
1.4
Edit
700
600
500
400
300
200
3.0
100
Tailout Speed
.100
0
0
2
4
27850017
3-10
SOFTWARE OPERATION
Section 3
3.2.4 EDITING VARIABLE PARAMETERS
The following is a summary of the different methods available for changing (editing) parameter
values on the Waveform Editor screen and other display screens accessible through Wave
Designer. Read the following information carefully before making parameter changes on the
Waveform Editor screen.
• The variable editor and wave shape graphic functions are interrelated.
EDIT PARAMETER
ARROWS
• Click once on an edit parameter arrow to increase or
decrease the parameter value by one unit; click and
hold the arrow to ramp the value up or down.
Peak Amps
• Click on and drag the parameter display scroll bar to
scroll through the value range.
• Select (highlight) the parameter value. Select and
use the up/down keys ∂ ƒ to change the value. Hold
down the Ctrl key while using the up/down keys to
change the value 10 times faster. You may directly
type in the desired value.
• Click on a node (hot spot) on the waveform graphic
and use the parameter arrows or drag the node with
your mouse as needed to achieve the desired
parameter value readout. Use the keyboard arrow
keys ∂ ƒ ß © to move the hot spot. Press Ctrl and an
arrow key to move the hot spot 10 times faster. Use
the F1 key to jump to the next hot spot.
250
PARAMETER
VALUE
SCROLL
BAR
27850018
NODES
300
200
CONTRACT
GRAPHIC
100
0
0
3
6
EXPAND
GRAPHIC
27850019
CAUTION
Uncontrolled drag with the mouse can result in large changes to the welding
machine output. Large changes can result in unexpected and undesired results.
We recommend using the edit arrows or keyboard entry to change parameter
values on-line.
• The expand and contract graphic arrows change the time scale on the X-axis to expand or
contract the wave shape.
To select a Waveform Editor parameter for edit, click on
the parameter check boxes as needed to erase the
checkmarks for all other parameters.
If a parameter has a visible checkmark, the related
parameter value will remain fixed; you cannot change it.
PARAMETER
CHECK BOX
Peak Amps
250
27850020
When a parameter is known to be set properly, you may
wish to leave it fixed while adjusting other parameters. However, the variables are interrelated;
changing parameters while one or more is fixed may unpredictably effect other variables.
WAVE DESIGNER
Section 3
SOFTWARE OPERATION
3-11
3.3 WAVE DESIGN PROCESS
The wave design process is a series of operations that allows you to quickly modify a standard
waveform to fit your specific welding application. The following process flowchart applies to a
pulse waveform, but is similar to the process used to modify STT and other waveforms.
Examples of each process step can be found in the listed reference paragraphs.
PROCESS FLOW:
REFERENCE
PARAGRAPH:
(SEE APPENDIX A)
Select a Waveform
from Memory
Mode = OFF
A-4.1
Select Workpoint
Set Powerwave WFS
Set Trim = 1.00
Set Arc Control = OFF
A-4.2 Step 1
Save File to Disk; Develop Next Workpoint
Set NO-ADAPT
Adjust Pulse
Variables at
Fixed Stickout
Set ADAPT
Adjust Peak Volts
and
Adaptive Type
Adjust Optional
Variables
(if needed)
GO FIGURE
GO FIGURE
A-4.2 Step 2
A-4.2 Steps 3 & 4
A-4.2 Steps 5, 6, & 7
A-4.2 Step 8
Save File to Disk
Download File to Welding
Machine Memory
Section 3, paragraph 3.4
27850021
WAVE DESIGNER
SOFTWARE OPERATION
3-12
Section 3
3.4 DOWNLOADING WAVE SHAPES
The Power Wave stores wave shapes in the welding machine controller memory. The memory
structure does not allow an upload or download of individual wave shapes. When downloading
wave shapes to the welding machine, the entire welding machine memory must be overwritten.
Each wave shape must be re-selected for download to the flash memory. Two methods are
available to access desired weld files; use the “Upload From Machine” option in the Weld Mode
Directory window or (if the weld files are all factory default files) select the “Bundled Factory
Default” option from the Flash Custom Waveform window. Any custom wave shapes not
specifically selected for download will not be re-written to the welding machine’s flash memory.
When downloading files to a new Power Wave welding machine, be aware that the bundled
factory default files in the Wave Designer software may be out of date, but needed for use with
older welding machines. Save the old factory default files in a new, “old weld files” directory and
access the latest factory default files from the Lincoln Electric web site for use on the newer
Power Wave machine(s).
Weld files can be corrupted during upload from a welding machine. If a weld file is corrupted, you
will not be able to upload the machine’s weld mode directory.
You can download up to ten custom waveforms to the weld mode directory. The assigned
memory slots are Modes 155 through 164. When all ten slots are in use, the only way to install
another custom waveform is to overwrite one of the ten allocated memory slots. Use the
following procedure to download acceptable wave shapes to the allocated welding machine
memory.
1. Select the Flash Custom Waveform option from the Tools menu to display the Flashing
PowerWave Custom Weld Files screen.
Wave Designer Pro Off Line - pulse.swf
File
Tools
Print
Help
Flashing PowerWave Custom Weld Files
This procedure re-programs the custom weld files in permanent memor y (flash) storage
It allows welding with custom weld files without Wave Designer in production
This will erase existing custom weld files. It will take a few minutes to complete.
Mode 155
Choose...
Desc
Size
Mode 156
Choose...
Desc
Size
Mode 157
Choose...
Desc
Size
Mode 158
Choose...
Desc
Size
Mode 159
Choose...
Desc
Size
Mode 160
Choose...
Desc
Size
Mode 161
Choose...
Desc
Size
Mode 162
Choose...
Desc
Size
Mode 163
Choose...
Desc
Size
Mode 164
Choose...
Desc
Size
Custom Weld File Storage Space Left:
Merge your files into:
Save t
Status
AC.sco loaded
Bundled factory default
Bundled factory default
Last uploaded files
Newly uploaded files
Off Line
Stand by
0% done
No Adapt
27850022
WAVE DESIGNER
SOFTWARE OPERATION
Section 3
3-13
2. Select a blank Mode or a defined Mode for overwrite by clicking on a box to the left of the
Modes listing. When the Mode is selected, a checkmark appears in the Mode box.
3. Enter the file name of the desired waveform in the box to the right of the selected Mode
number. Click on the Choose button to find the exact name of the weld file(s) you wish to
download. Click on the weld file name to select the file for download.
4. Use steps 2 and 3 to assign up to ten new file names to the weld Modes list. If a good weld
file was already stored in the welding machine’s memory, you must re-enter the name of the
stored weld file to download it to the welding machine.
5. Click on one of the three “Merge your files into:” options. Select the desired option per the
following descriptions.
a.
Bundled factory default — Merges selected files with factory default files for download.
b.
Last uploaded files — Merges selected files with weld mode directory last uploaded
from a welding machine. Overwrites modes 155 through 164 if like mode I.D.
number(s) are assigned to selected file(s).
c.
Newly uploaded files — Merges selected files with directory of connected welding
machine. Overwrites modes 155 through 164 if like I.D. number(s) are assigned to
selected file(s).
6. Click on the
button at the bottom of the screen to download the selected
files to the welding machine’s Weld Mode Directory.
3.5 AUTOSAVE
When working in Wave Designer, the autosave function will automatically back up the waveform
in a file called ‘backup.swf’ every 5 minutes. In case of a program or computer glitch, exit and
restart the program, open the ‘backup.swf’ file, and use the Save As ... file menu option to save
the backup file under a different file name. When you modify a waveform, but fail to manually
save it, the waveform title will change to ‘Wave Designer Pro – xxx.swf [modified]’, thereby
indicating that the waveform has not been manually saved.
WAVE DESIGNER
3-14
SOFTWARE OPERATION
WAVE DESIGNER
Section 3
ARCSCOPE
Section 4
4-1
4.1 INTRODUCTION
The following describes the ArcScope application included with Wave Designer Pro. The
ArcScope application provides oscilloscope type displays of power source output waveforms on
your computer monitor.
4.1.1 USING THE ARC SCOPE WINDOW
Refer to the ArcScope window in Figure 4-1 and the related window usage instructions.
FIGURE 4-1. ARC SCOPE WINDOW.
Wave Designer Pro Off Line - pulse.swf
1
File
Tools
Print
Help
ARC SCOPE
Live Update
2
Condense
3
25
0
700
350
Browse >
Browse <
4
Let Go
Configure ...
0.0 Volt
0 Amp
0.0 KW
30
2000
0
7
-2000
1
.5
0
15000
7500
0.0 Hz
0
0
10
20
30
40
0.0 KJ
MEASUREMENT
LINE
0.0 Sec
3.5 ms, 285.7 Hz
5
1077.6 Joule
Status
AC.sco loaded
Off Line
Stand by
No Adapt
27850023
6
1. Tool Bar The tool bar is the same tool bar displayed in the waveform editor window. The
Tools and Print menus provide ArcScope capture and print options for storage and printout
of the active ArcScope graphics.
2. Toggle Options Live Update and Condense are toggled on and off with the mouse.
Additional information about the Live Update and Condense options is provided in
paragraph 4.1.2.
3. Measurement Scroll Bar Use the measurement scroll bar to move the vertical blue
measurement line left and right in the waveform display area. The measurement line
indicates where the data values are being taken among the various waveforms. Use the
scroll bar arrows to move the line incrementally. You can also click and drag the scroll bar or
measurement line.
4. Optional Windows The optional window buttons select ArcScope windows and options to
tailor the ArcScope data sample and display. Refer to paragraph 4.1.2 for additional
information about the optional windows.
5. Sample Statistics With the blue measurement line at the zero reference point, you can
click on any point to the right of the line to get a sample readout of the time period (ms),
pulse frequency (Hz), and weld system heat input (kJ) between the reference line and the
selected points measured: N/A is shown when no measurement has been taken.
WAVE DESIGNER
ARCSCOPE
4-2
Section 4
6. Status Bar The status bar provides a scrolled listing of recent Wave Designer program
operations, error conditions, etc., and three operational status indicators. The adaptive
indicator is also a button that toggles between the Adaptive and Non-Adaptive mode.
7. Graphical Display Area The graphical display provides refreshed displays of the selected
waveforms from the output of the connected power source. The power source sampling rate
is 10kHz, unless the Condense option is selected.
4.1.2 OTHER ARC SCOPE OPTIONS
Live Update: The Live Update option is normally on (checked) to display changing output data
during the weld application. To maintain an existing display for study while welding, turn the Live
Update option off.
Condense: The Condense option is normally off (not checked). When turned on, the Condense
option forces the welding machine to sample data only during weld state transitions. This extends
the length (time) of the sample stored in the welding machine buffer and records only what
happens during weld state transitions.
Browse: The Browse left/right options allow you to display the contents of the welding machine
storage buffer following a weld application. The buffer stores the last 300 milliseconds of
sampling data when the Condense option is off. (Longer samples are stored when the Condense
option is on.)
Pause/Let Go: The Pause option allows you to freeze an ArcScope display while the welding
application is running. The Let Go option disables the Pause function.
Configure: Use the Scope Configuration window to select the power source measurements for
the graphical display area.
Centerline: Select the Centerline option to place a
gray centerline in each of the displays.
Available measurement/display options include:
Volt:
Amp:
GSF:
State:
Watt:
dv/dt:
dI/dt:
dp/dt:
ohm:
dr/dt:
Scope Configuration
Scope Configuration
Name
Channel 1
Minimum
Volt
.0
average power source output voltage
0
Channel 2
Amp
average arc current
(Global Scale Factor) correction factor
-100
Channel 3
dV/dt
forcing the weld application to the desired
.0
Channel 4
Ohm
arc length
0
Channel 5
Watt
the state progression of the welding
application (ramp-up, peak, tailout, etc.)
Reverse Polarity State
instantaneous power output
Waveform Start State
rate of voltage change per unit time
calculated at a 10 kHz sampling rate
Centerline
rate of amperage change per unit time @
10 kHz
OK
rate of power change per unit time @ 10
kHz
arc impedance
rate of resistance change per unit time @ 10 kHz
Maximum
50.0
700
100
1.0
10000
0
8
27850024
Reverse Polarity State: For machines with an AC welding option, Reverse Polarity State
selects the State (0 to 19) for electrode negative.
Waveform Start State: Specifies which Power Wave state (0 to 19) is used to calculate the
actual frequency displayed on the bottom left side of the ArcScope window. Wave Designer
counts the elapsed time between the start of this state to calculate the frequency. The Waveform
Start State is set to 8 by default. Call Lincoln Electric for more details.
WAVE DESIGNER
Section 4
ARCSCOPE
File | Save Scope: Use the Save Scope option to
save the scope trace data in ASCII text format for use
in a word editor or spreadsheet data processing
application.
File | Open Scope Trace: Use the Open Scope
Trace option to open a saved scope trace data file.
4-3
File
Tools
Print
Open Waveform
Help
Ctrl+O
Save Waveform As ...
Save Waveform
Ctrl+S
Open Scope Trace
Save Scope As ...
Save Scope
Export to Text File
Export to HTML Web Pages
Import Text File
Quit
Ctrl+Q
27850009
WAVE DESIGNER
4-4
ARCSCOPE
WAVE DESIGNER
Section 4
TROUBLESHOOTING
Section 5
5-1
5.1 OVERVIEW
Wave Designer troubleshooting is limited to the software application. If the welding machine
does not respond, recheck the interface connection and communication setup requirements in
section 2 of this manual. Refer to the welding machine service manuals for troubleshooting
suspected equipment malfunctions.
5.2 WAVE DESIGNER TROUBLESHOOTING PROCEDURE
If you believe the Wave Designer software program is malfunctioning, use the following
procedure to launch the Wave Designer program with a DOS console window for diagnostic
messages in the background.
a. From your Windows™ Start screen, move the mouse over the Wave Designer icon.
b. Right click the mouse, and select Properties.
c. Select Shortcut and change ‘jrew.exe’ to read ‘jre.exe’, then select OK.
d. Start up the program from the Wave Designer icon. The opening screen should display a
DOS window titled ‘jre’. Copy down any abnormal message displayed in the ‘jre’ window,
especially messages with the word ‘Exception’ in them.
e. Send the message(s) via E-mail on the world wide web to:
wavedesigner@lincolnelectric.com.
We will respond to your problem as quickly as possible.
WAVE DESIGNER
5-2
TROUBLESHOOTING
WAVE DESIGNER
Section 5
PULSE WAVE SHAPING PRINCIPLES
Appendix A
A-1
A.1 APPENDIX OVERVIEW
This appendix provides a series of discussions on pulse wave shaping principles and the
development of custom GMAW pulse waveforms. The contents of this appendix are arranged as
follows:
Paragraph No./Title
Contents Description
A.2
GMAW Pulse Overview
How the pulse waveform transfers weld droplets to the
weld surface
A.3
Adaptive and Non-Adaptive
Mode
How WFS and primary wave shape parameters effect
welding
A.4
Pulse Wave Design Process
Flowchart and step by step descriptions of the pulse
wave design process
A.5
Primary Pulse Waveform
Components
How peak current, peak time, frequency, and
background current effect weld droplet transfer
A.6
Secondary Pulse Waveform
Components
How ramp up rate, % ramp overshoot, tailout speed,
tailout time, stepoff amperage, and background time
effect weld droplet transfer
A.7
Application Exercise
Sample development of a power wave welding program
using Wave Designer
WAVE DESIGNER
A-2
PULSE WAVE SHAPING PRINCIPLES
Appendix A
A.2 GMAW PULSE OVERVIEW
Figure A-1 illustrates the variables of the GMAW-P welding process. Each of these variables can
be programmed into a weld table using the Wave Designer software. Figure A-2 shows how the
pulse waveform and the primary variables shape, detach and propel a weld droplet across the
arc.
For more details on each of these variables, refer to Primary Pulse Waveform Components
and Secondary Pulse Waveform Components in paragraphs A.5 and A.6 of this appendix.
FIGURE A-1. PULSE WAVEFORM PARAMETERS.
TAILOUT
TIME
PEAK TIME
% OVERSHOOT
PR
AT
E
TAILOUT
SPEED
MP
-U
STEP-OFF
AMPS
RA
PEAK
AMPS
BACKGROUND AMPS
BACKGROUND
TIME
1/FREQUENCY
27850026
Wave Designer Pro Off Line - pulse.swf
File
Tools
Print
Help
Pulse Waveform Editor
50
Wire Feed Speed
Edit
700
600
Ramp Up Rate
600
500
Ramp Overshoot %
-20
400
Peak Amps
250
300
Peak Time ms
1.2
Tailout Time
3.0
200
100
Tailout Speed
.100
Stepoff Amps
40
Backgrd Amps
21
0
Backgrd Time
33.4
Frequency
26.4
Start
Adapt
Short
0
3
6
End
12
15
18
21
24
27
30
About
Status
9
AC.sco loaded
Off Line
Stand by
Adaptive
27850027
WAVE DESIGNER
PULSE WAVE SHAPING PRINCIPLES
Appendix A
A-3
FIGURE A-2. WELD DROPLET TRANSFER.
SPRAY TRANSITION
CURRENT
RAM
P-UP
R
ATE
PEAK AMPS
TAILOUT
BACKGROUND AMPS
T1
T2
T3
T4
T5
WELD
DROPLET
TRANSFER
27850028
•
From time T1 to T2:
Background current maintains an arc, and a weld bead starts to
form.
•
From time T2 to T3:
Ramp-up current forms the weld droplet at the tip of the electrode.
•
From time T3 to T4:
Peak current and peak time separate the droplet and propel it
toward the weld surface. The arc width and transfer force are
controlled by peak current and peak time.
•
From time T4 to T5:
Tailout current controls the heat input to and agitation of the weld
puddle. Shorter tailout contributes less heat to the weld. (The level of
background current also affects the weld heat.)
•
After time T5:
The waveform repeats to start the weld droplet transfer process over
again.
EACH PULSE DELIVERS ONE DROPLET OF WELD MATERIAL
WAVE DESIGNER
27850029
A-4
PULSE WAVE SHAPING PRINCIPLES
Appendix A
A.3 ADAPTIVE AND NON-ADAPTIVE MODE
To proficiently develop welding procedures using Wave Designer, the key concept of Adaptive
versus Non-Adaptive welding must be understood. Wave Designer allows the user to set the
machine into either adaptive or non-adaptive mode. During the wave design process both modes
will be used depending upon the step.
A.3.1 ADAPTIVE MODE
In normal synergic welding the Power Wave welds in the adaptive mode. As the stickout changes
due to variations in the workpiece or operator hand motion, the Power Wave “adapts” or changes
the pulse variables to maintain a constant arc length. This is illustrated in Figure A-3.
Since adaptive mode attempts to maintain a fixed arc length, this is the mode that you will use
when adjusting an optimal arc length. Refer to steps 3 and 4 “Adjust the Peak Volts” in the flow
chart of paragraph A.4. Note: This step must be performed with the Trim set equal to 1.0 on the
Power Wave machine.
A.3.2 NON-ADAPTIVE MODE
In non-adaptive mode, the Power Wave does not adapt the pulse variables to maintain a
constant arc length as the stickout varies. This is illustrated in Figure A-3.
Therefore, the non-adaptive mode is the mode that you use to develop the proper waveform
variables. If this is attempted in the adaptive mode, you will get erroneous results since the
machine will be attempting to change (adapt) these variables. Refer to step 2 “Adjust Pulse
Variables at Fixed Stickout” in the process flow chart, Figure A-4.
NOTE: During this step of the wave design process, it is important to manually hold a constant
stickout.
FIGURE A-3. FIXED STICKOUT (NON-ADAPTIVE) VS.
OPTIMAL ARC LENGTH (ADAPTIVE).
ADAPTIVE
STICKOUT2
STICKOUT 1
ARC
LENGTH 1
ARC LENGTH2
=
ARC
LENGTH 2
ARC LENGTH1
NONADAPTIVE
STICKOUT2
STICKOUT 1
ARC
LENGTH 1
ARC LENGTH2
=
ARC
LENGTH 2
ARC LENGTH1
27850031
WAVE DESIGNER
Appendix A
PULSE WAVE SHAPING PRINCIPLES
A-5
A.4 PULSE WAVE DESIGN PROCESS
The Wave Designer software interfaces with the welding machine controller to permit real time
communication of pulse wave design changes. Refer to paragraph 2.3 for equipment interface
connections.
Use the following wave design process to customize a standard wave shape. The process is
summarized in the following flowchart. The flowchart is followed by a detailed process
description. To ensure that the design process creates a wave shape suitable for your weld
application, we recommend that you perform all editing functions in the order presented. Where
an editing function is described as optional and you choose not to perform the edit function,
proceed to the next edit function in the design process.
FIGURE A-4. PROCESS FLOWCHART.
PROCESS FLOW:
REFERENCE
PARAGRAPH:
(SEE APPENDIX A)
Select a Waveform
from Memory
Mode = OFF
A-4.1
Select Workpoint
Set Powerwave WFS
Set Trim = 1.00
Set Arc Control = OFF
A-4.2 Step 1
Save File to Disk; Develop Next Workpoint
Set NO-ADAPT
Adjust Pulse
Variables at
Fixed Stickout
Set ADAPT
Adjust Peak Volts
and
Adaptive Type
Adjust Optional
Variables
(if needed)
GO FIGURE
GO FIGURE
A-4.2 Step 2
A-4.2 Steps 3 & 4
A-4.2 Steps 5, 6, & 7
A-4.2 Step 8
Save File to Disk
Download File to Welding
Machine Memory
Section 3, paragraph 3.4
27850021
WAVE DESIGNER
A-6
PULSE WAVE SHAPING PRINCIPLES
Appendix A
A.4.1 SELECTING A STARTING WAVE SHAPE
When customizing a waveform for a specific welding application, we recommend that you use a
waveform in an existing weld file. An existing weld file can be selected from the systemWeldFiles
folder in the Wave Designer directory as follows:
a. Click on a standard wave shape from the systemWeldFiles folder. Use the load file option in
the File menu to download the selected file to the Pulse Waveform Editor.
NOTE: The welding machine’s controller memory is allocated 10 weld mode slots (modes 155 to
164) for the storage of custom weld designs. No more than ten custom weld modes can
be downloaded to the welding machine. You cannot upload a custom weld from the
welding machine, but you can overwrite any or all of your allotted weld file memory
locations.
b. In Waveform Editor, select the Save Waveform As ... option from the File menu.
CAUTION
Failure to use the Save Waveform As... option to copy the standard wave shape
will result in changes to the standard wave shape. Make sure you assign a
unique file name to a copy of the standard wave shape before making any
waveform changes. Make backup copies of all original wave shape files as well
as the custom wave shapes you create.
c. When prompted, type in a unique filename for the new waveform. Select OK to assign the
new file name to the waveform.
WAVE DESIGNER
Appendix A
PULSE WAVE SHAPING PRINCIPLES
A-7
A.4.2 CUSTOMIZING THE WAVE SHAPE
If customizing your first wave shape, perform the wave shaping exercises provided at the back of
this section to get thoroughly acquainted with wave shaping. Thereafter, refer to the following
wave shaping procedure.
1. Select a Workpoint
a. Select a workpoint from the Wire Feed Speed pulldown menu. The first workpoint selected
should be in the midrange of the expected Wire Feed Speeds to be used for the weld
application. If you are uncertain of the WFS range, we recommend selecting 150 or 200
in./min. as a first workpoint.
NOTE: You can edit one or more workpoints to values other than the defaults.
However, the listing of wire feed speeds displayed must be the same or
increasing from top to bottom. All twelve wire feed speeds must be assigned
values, but multiple workpoints can share the same value.
The reason you would edit multiple workpoints to the same value would be to
limit the range of WFS or to develop fewer than twelve workpoints.
WorkPoint Editor
WorkPoint Editor
0
50
8
700
1
80
9
850
2
110
10
1000
3
150
11
1200
4
205
5
300
6
400
7
600
inch / min
meter / min
Go Figure
28750032
b. Set the welding machine’s wire feed speed equal to the selected workpoint setting.
c. Verify that the power source control box Weld Mode is set for an OFF readout at the LED
display and that the arc control is OFF.
WAVE DESIGNER
PULSE WAVE SHAPING PRINCIPLES
Appendix A
2. Open the Adaptive Loop / Find the Optimal Arc Characteristics
Use the following weld trials and adjustment sequence to tune the selected waveform for your
weld application at the designated workpoint (wire feed speed). Weld trials and adjustments are
more easily performed with one person welding while you adjust the waveform parameters at the
computer terminal.
a. Click on the
button to open the Adapting
Stickout screen. Select the No Adapt option to open
the adaptive loop of the welding machine. The
adaptive indicator on the editor screen will change to
No Adapt, indicating that the welding machine is in an
open-loop, non-adaptive, condition.
Adapting Stickout
Adapting Stickout
For Wire Feed Speed
150
No Adapt: Maintain constant wire extension
Adaptive: Maintain constant arc length
NOTE: The adaptive loop must be open to prevent the
welding machine from making adaptive responses
to the wave shape changes. If the adaptive loop is
closed, observations of how the welding machine
responds to the wave shape changes will be false.
Failure to open the adaptive loop of the welding
machine will inhibit the development of a
successful waveform for your welding application.
Fresa
Adaptive Type
PeakAmp 10%, Stepoff 30%, Background 30%, Freq 45%
Peak Voltage
30.0
Inductance
2.625
27850033
b. Set the PowerFeed Trim control for a readout of 1.00. This will ensure that the wave shape
is designed at the midrange of the trim adjustment capability. The welding machine’s trim
control allows the welder to adjust the arc length between 0.5 to 1.5 (50% to 150%) times
the established arc length adjustment factor.
c. Maintain a constant stickout. The stickout should be equal to the expected average of the
welding application. We recommend about 5/8 in. to 3/4 in. (16 mm to 19 mm) electrical
stickout.
d. While welding a trial weld bead, adjust the pulse variables (peak current, peak time,
background current, frequency, etc.) to achieve a desired droplet transfer with a fixed 5/8 in.
to 3/4 in. (16 mm to 19 mm) stickout at the selected wire feed speed. Refer to paragraph
A.5.
e. With the stickout at a fixed setting, make trail welds during each adjustment so you can
directly observe the effect of the adjustments in the arc and resulting weld. Adjust the
variables as needed to achieve the desired weld transfer at the fixed stickout.
PEAK TIME
TAILOUT
TIME
% OVERSHOOT
PR
AT
E
TAILOUT
SPEED
STEP-OFF
AMPS
-U
MP
RA
A-8
PEAK
AMPS
BACKGROUND AMPS
BACKGROUND
TIME
1/FREQUENCY
27850034
WAVE DESIGNER
PULSE WAVE SHAPING PRINCIPLES
Appendix A
A-9
3. Close the Adaptive Loop / Adjust the Peak Voltage
a. If the adaptive stickout window is not open, click on the
button to open the
window. Select the adaptive option to close the adaptive loop. Verify that the adaptive
button lights up.
NOTE: When on-line with the adaptive loop closed, the wave shape parameters will be adapted
(change) to maintain constant arc length. Adjusting one parameter in Wave Designer
often forces the adaptive feature to modify other wave shape parameters. The adaptive
nature of the program may be noticed when editing the parameters; changing one
parameter value causes other parameter values to change in response. We recommend
not changing pulse variables in the adaptive mode.
b. While the adaptive loop is closed, the peak voltage value displayed in the adaptive stickout
window is adjustable. While welding a trial bead, adjust the peak voltage for an optimal arc
length.
c. If desired, adjust the inductance value to achieve the desired weld pinch. If the inductance
value is set too high, it will limit the rate of current change and may limit the ramp-up rate
and tailout speed.
4. Select an Adaptive Type (Optional)
a. Click on the
button on the Waveform Editor screen to view the Adapting Stickout
screen. Click on the arrow in the adaptive type box to display the adaptive types listing.
b. Select each adaptive type in-turn and perform a trial weld. After performing a trial weld for
each adaptive type, select the adaptive type best suited to the wire feed speed. A brief
summary of the adaptive type characteristics is presented in Table A-1.
TABLE A-1. ADAPTIVE TYPE CHARACTERISTICS.
Adaptive Type
*Characteristics
Application
Sandia
Stepoff and background
30%, frequency 45%
lower wire feed speeds and where consistent
pulse values for droplet detachment are
required
Fresa
Peak current 10%, stepoff
and background 30%,
frequency 45%
intermediate wire feed speeds
Manzana
Peak current 20%, stepoff
and background 10%,
frequency 30%
high wire feed speeds; peak current is the
controlling variable
Naranja
Peak current and time 10%,
stepoff and background
10%, frequency 30%
where highest range of peak adaptive control
is required
Mora
Frequency 60%
typical for most pulse GMAW welding
machines
*Each adaptive type specifies which parameters are being adapted and the sensitivity of adaptiveness for
each parameter. For example, Mora type adapts only one parameter — frequency — at a sensitivity level
of 60%. In developing waveforms, try each adaptive type to determine the most desired result.
WAVE DESIGNER
A-10
PULSE WAVE SHAPING PRINCIPLES
Appendix A
5. Adjust the Start Control Parameters (Optional)
The start control parameters can be adjusted to define how the welding machine will respond
when the arc is struck.
To view the start control window, click on the
button on the Waveform Editor screen.
Adjust the start control parameters to accommodate your welding application and per the
following parameter descriptions.
Start Control - Pulse
Start Control
For Wire Feed Speed
STRIKE
PEAK AMPS
OPEN
CIRCUIT
VOLTS
STRIKE
PEAK TIME
Stage 1 : Wire Run In
Open Circuit Volt
AVERAGE
START
AMPS
@
START
VOLTS
START TIME
150
48.0
Stage 2 : Striking Pulse
Strike Peak Time
Strike Peak Amps
2.0
550.0
Stage 3 : Arc Length Control
Start Volt
Start Time
28.0
50
Stage 4 : Current Control
ARC
STRIKE
Start Amps
50
27850035
Open circuit voltage: Sets the power source output voltage for the torch idle condition (the
welding machine is on, but not welding).
Strike peak amps: Adjust this parameter to set the peak level for the arc-strike current spike.
Strike peak time: Adjust this parameter to set the duration of peak current for the arc-strike
current spike.
Starting volts: Adjust this parameter to set the gun voltage to be maintained during the arc
starting routine.
Starting time: Adjust this parameter to set the duration of the arc starting routine.
Starting amps: Adjust this parameter to set the average current level during starting.
WAVE DESIGNER
PULSE WAVE SHAPING PRINCIPLES
Appendix A
A-11
6. Adjust the Shorting Control Parameters (Optional)
The shorting control parameters can be adjusted to define how the welding machine will respond
when the arc shorts to the weld puddle.
To view the shorting control window, click on the
button on the Waveform Editor screen.
Adjust the shorting control parameters to accommodate your welding application and per the
following parameter descriptions.
PINCH CURRENT
RISE PLATE
Shorting Control
Shorting Control
For Wire Feed Speed
50
AMPS
Short Detect Volt
VOLTS
SHORT
DETECT
VOLTS
ARC
REESTABLISH
VOLTS
Pinch Current Rise Rate
Arc Restablish Volt
5
55.18
15
27850036
Short detect voltage: Adjust this parameter to set the detect voltage level that will start the
shorting response.
Pinch current rise rate (shorting response): Adjust this parameter to set the current rise rate that
will be used to clear a short.
Arc reestablish volts: Adjust this parameter to set the detect voltage level that will end the
shorting response.
WAVE DESIGNER
A-12
PULSE WAVE SHAPING PRINCIPLES
Appendix A
7. Adjust the End Condition Parameters (Optional)
The end condition parameters can be adjusted to define how the welding machine will respond at
the end of a weld application.
To view the end condition window, click on the
button on the Waveform Editor screen.
Adjust the end condition parameters to accommodate your welding application and per the
following parameter descriptions.
End Conditioning
END AMPS
End Conditioning
For Wire Feed Speed
END
TIME
50
End Amp
550.0
End Time
2.5
Amp * Time
1375.0
27850037
End amps: Adjust this parameter to establish the peak amperage of the wire conditioning pulse.
The wire conditioning pulse knocks the last weld droplet from the electrode at the end of a weld.
End time: Adjust this parameter to set the duration of the ending pulse.
Amp • Time: This parameter indicates the power of the ending pulse.
WAVE DESIGNER
PULSE WAVE SHAPING PRINCIPLES
Appendix A
A-13
8. “Go Figure” / Make the Waveform Synergic
Weld synergy is established by shaping the 2nd and all subsequent workpoints. Being synergic,
the waveform parameters automatically adjust to programmed data table values. The data table
values are unique for selected wire feed speeds. Thereby, the output of the power source
changes in response to changes in the wire feed speed, as controlled by the PowerWave’s WFS
encoder setting. The process of making the waveform synergic involves two procedures;
developing the 2nd workpoint and workpoints interpolation.
Developing the 2nd Workpoint
Develop the second workpoint in the same manner as the first.
FIXED VALUE
INTERPOLATED/
EXTRAPOLATED VALUE
WorkPoint Editor
0
80
8
700
1
80
9
700
2
110
10
700
3
150
11
700
4
205
5
300
6
400
7
600
inch / min
meter / min
WORKPOINT VARIABLE
WorkPoint Editor
WP8, 9, 10, 11
WP7
WP5
WP6
WP3
WP4
WP2
WP0, 1
Go Figure
WIRE FEED SPEEDS
28750038
NOTE: In the workpoint window where workpoints 9 through 11 are not selected, they are
assigned the value of workpoint 8. This sets 700 as the upper limit on the operative
wire feed speeds.
Workpoints Interpolation
After shaping the second waveform, open the workpoint editor and click on the
button. Wave Designer interpolates the waveform parameters for each unchecked (not
selected) wire feed speed. These steps can be repeated multiple times to fine tune all the
workpoints. The set (fixed) wire feed speeds are those indicated (checked) in the workpoints
listing. Go Figure will interpolate/extrapolate between/from set workpoints.
WAVE DESIGNER
A-14
PULSE WAVE SHAPING PRINCIPLES
Appendix A
A.5 PRIMARY PULSE WAVEFORM COMPONENTS
The following paragraphs describe how peak current, peak time, frequency, and background
current effect weld droplet transfer.
A.5.1 PEAK CURRENT AND PEAK TIME
A combination of peak current and peak time, Figure A-6, applies a force to detach the weld
droplet from the electrode and propel it across the arc. Transition current is the current level
required to achieve weld droplet formation. In order to achieve weld droplet transfer, the peak
current must always be above the spray transition current.
FIGURE A-6. PEAK CURRENT AND PEAK TIME.
PEAK TIME
PEAK
FIXED
STICKOUT
PEAK TIME
PEAK
SMALLER
DROPLET
LARGER
DROPLET
LONGER
ARC
SHORTER
ARC
27850039
WAVE DESIGNER
Appendix A
PULSE WAVE SHAPING PRINCIPLES
A-15
A.5.2 FREQUENCY
Frequency, Figure A-7, is the number of pulses per second or, in theory, the number of weld
droplets per second. Since increasing the frequency generates more pulses in a given time
period, higher frequencies generate higher average current levels.
FIGURE A-7. FREQUENCY.
AVERAGE
CURRENT
BACKGROUND
CURRENT
T1
T2
T3
T2
T3
LARGER
DROPLETS
SHORTER
ARC
AVERAGE
CURRENT
BACKGROUND
CURRENT
T1
SMALLER
DROPLETS
LONGER
ARC
27850040
A.5.3 BACKGROUND CURRENT
The background current, Figure A-7, is set to maintain a desired plasma arc between weld
droplet transfers and to control the heat input to the weld system.
WAVE DESIGNER
A-16
PULSE WAVE SHAPING PRINCIPLES
Appendix A
A.6 SECONDARY WAVEFORM PARAMETERS
A.6.1 RAMP-UP RATE
The ramp-up rate is the speed of current climb from the background current level to the peak
current level. Faster ramp-up rates tend to produce a plasma plume that quickly surrounds the
end of the next droplet.
A.6.2 RAMP OVERSHOOT %
The ramp overshoot % can be set from -100% to +100% of the peak amps value. Positive %
overshoot is commonly used to harden the arc. Negative % overshoot (undershoot) is used to
soften the arc for welding. Ramp overshoot can also be used to compensate for variations in the
length of the ground lead which alters the output inductance of the power source.
A.6.3 TAILOUT SPEED
The tailout speed is the rate of amperage decrease from the peak current level to the step-off
current level. Tailout speed decreases exponentially. Tailout speed affects the amount of heat
put into the system just after droplet transfer. Slow tailout speeds (near 0) apply more heat to the
weld system. Rapid tailouts are more likely to short circuit the electrode to the work.
A.6.4 TAILOUT TIME
The tailout time is the duration of tailout. Longer tailout times maintain the system heat longer.
Shorter tailout times can force the output to reach the background current level. Note that the
adaptive loop can not force the wave period (1/pulse frequency) into the tailout region. We
recommend setting the background time long enough to allow the adaptive loop to work.
A.6.5 STEP-OFF AMPERAGE
Step-off amperage is the target current level reached during tailout. The step-off amperage must
be higher than the background current.
A.6.6 BACKGROUND TIME
Background time is the duration of background current. Background time is equal to the
waveform period minus the duration of ramp up, peak time, and tailout. Increasing the
background time decreases the pulse frequency. We recommend setting the background time
long enough to allow the adaptive loop to work.
FIGURE A-8. PULSE WAVEFORM PARAMETERS.
TAILOUT
PEAK TIME
TIME
% OVERSHOOT
PR
AT
E
TAILOUT
SPEED
RA
MP
-U
STEP-OFF
AMPS
PEAK
AMPS
BACKGROUND AMPS
BACKGROUND
TIME
1/FREQUENCY
27850034
WAVE DESIGNER
Appendix A
PULSE WAVE SHAPING PRINCIPLES
A-17
A.7 APPLICATION EXERCISE
This application exercise steps the user through the development of a basic PowerWave welding
program using Wave Designer. Your application most likely will vary from this example but the
concepts outlined are recommended for all development work.
If you would like to follow along with this example, use the following set up:
Machine:
PowerWave 455, PowerFeed 10, Magnum 400 gun and cable, miscellaneous other
parts to complete welding cell
Wire:
0.035 L-56
Gas:
90% Argon 10% CO2
Computer: See Section 2 of this manual for minimum requirements and connection diagrams.
Click on the Wave Designer icon to start the program.
For this example, we developed a program to run wire feed speeds between 150 in/min. and
300 in/min. The user may want to develop more workpoints for practice.
Before starting the waveshape development process, confirm that the consumables are working
properly with the welder. We recommend using a standard waveshape such as mode 5 to
confirm that the welding system performs under normal conditions before attempting to develop
waveshapes.
1. Select a wave shape. (From the tool bar, select
‘File’, ‘Open Waveform’.) For this exercise, select
the “pulse.swf” wave shape. This wave shape is
automatically loaded when the Wave Designer
program is first used. Generally, the user should
choose a waveshape file that has the closest
welding performance to the intended application.
2. Pick a wire feed speed from the Wire Feed
Speed pulldown menu. We started with the 150
in/min. WFS. Also, be sure to set the PowerFeed’s
wire feed speed to the same WFS as the selected
workpoint and set the trim to 1.00. (In this exercise,
the WFS is 150 in/min.)
File
Tools
Print
Open Waveform
Help
Ctrl+O
Save Waveform As ...
Save Waveform
Ctrl+S
27850041
File
Tools
Print
Help
Pulse Waveform Editor
Wire Feed Speed
Ramp Up Rate
Ramp Overshoot %
Peak Amps
50
80
110
600
150
205
-7 300
400
280600
700
27850047
WAVE DESIGNER
A-18
PULSE WAVE SHAPING PRINCIPLES
3. Using the adaptive stickout window or the green
adaptive button on the status bar, select ‘No
Adapt’. The status bar at the bottom of the
screen should read:
. Close the “adapt” window (if
opened).
Appendix A
Adapting Stickout
Adapting Stickout
For Wire Feed Speed
150
No Adapt: Maintain constant wire extension
Adaptive: Maintain constant arc length
4. While welding, adjust the pulse variables to
improve welding performance. Maintain a
constant 5/8 in. stickout (torch tip to work
distance.)
Fresa
Adaptive Type
PeakAmp 10%, Stepoff 30%, Background 30%, Freq 45%
Start
Peak Voltage
30.0
Inductance
2.625
Adapt
Short
End
27850042
Our Experiment: We found multiple droplet detachment with an arc length that was too long
at these waveform settings. To attain the proper droplet detachment, we reduced the peak
current value to 250 amps and found improved weld droplet transfer. But reducing the peak
current also caused the arc to be shorter.
Then we needed to lengthen the arc. We reduced the background time to 8.5 milliseconds,
thereby increasing the frequency. The result was a good arc length set at the fixed stickout
of 5/8 in. The droplet transfer was now acceptable and the arc length correct for this stick
out. With the pulse variables set, we could now proceed to make the PowerWave adaptive
(maintain a set arc length over a range of stickouts).
This was a simple application. It shows that the variables interact with each other. The
right solution for a given application may not be the right solution for another. Wave
Designer features great flexibility to manipulate the waveshape to suit specific applications.
5. Click on the
button and select the
‘Adaptive’ mode. (The status bar now
reads:
.)
While making weld, set the ‘Peak Voltage’ to
obtain the desired arc length at the 1.00 trim
setting.
Adapting Stickout
Adapting Stickout
For Wire Feed Speed
No Adapt: Maintain constant wire extension
Adaptive: Maintain constant arc length
Adaptive Type
Our Experiment: We found that a peak
voltage of 27.0 volts resulted in a useable arc
length. (In the “No Adapt” mode, welding with
a fixed 5/8 in. stickout, the actual voltage on
the PowerWave’s voltmeter read about 19
volts. When setting the peak voltage, the
average volts was also about 19 volts. Note
that the actual voltage readouts at the
welding machine will not be the same as the
peak voltage.)
WAVE DESIGNER
150
Fresa
PeakAmp 10%, Stepoff 30%, Background 30%, Freq 45%
Start
Peak Voltage
30.0
Inductance
2.625
Adapt
Short
End
27850043
Appendix A
PULSE WAVE SHAPING PRINCIPLES
6. The “Start”, “Short”, and “End” windows can
be adjusted at this time to optimize the
starting, shorting, and ending routines.
A-19
Start Control - Pulse
Start Control
150
For Wire Feed Speed
Our Experiment: We needed to adjust the
starting variables. With the feeder’s run-in
WFS set at 65 in/min, we set the starting
variables to control the starting routine. With
the assistance of ArcScope, we found good
settings with these values: start volt 21.0,
start time 35 milliseconds, and start current
180 amps. The OCV strike peak time and
amps were acceptable as set.
Stage 1 : Wire Run In
Open Circuit Volt
48.0
Stage 2 : Striking Pulse
Strike Peak Time
2.0
Strike Peak Amps
550
Stage 3 : Arc Length Control
Start Volt
Start Time
21.0
88
Stage 4 : Current Control
Start Amps
172
27850044
7. Click on the
button to display the
WorkPoint Editor window. Check only those
wire feed speed points that have been
developed (only 150 in/min. at this point). The
WorkPoint Editor can also be used to change
the wire feed speed value of a workpoint.
Workpoints can have the same value but must
be in numerical order.
Select the
button to set the wave
shape parameters for all workpoints equal to
the wave shape parameters of the 150 in/min.
workpoint. Close the WorkPoint Editor window.
WorkPoint Editor
WorkPoint Editor
0
50
8
700
1
80
9
850
2
110
10
1000
3
150
11
1200
4
205
5
300
6
400
7
600
inch / min
meter / min
Go Figure
28750032
WAVE DESIGNER
A-20
PULSE WAVE SHAPING PRINCIPLES
Appendix A
8. For a second workpoint we went to 300 in/min. Select the 300 in/min. wire feed speed
from the pulldown menu in Waveform Editor window. Reset the PowerFeed for 300 in/min.
with a 1.00 trim.
9. Open the adapting stickout window and select
the ‘No Adapt’ mode; close the window.
10. At lower wire feed speed settings, some users
like to fix the values of the peak variables. To
do this, check the boxes next to the peak
variables (ramp up rate, ramp overshoot %,
peak amps, peak time, and tailout). Perform
weld trials and adjust the pulse wave shape
variables.
Our Experiment: At the higher wire feed
speed, we needed more heat to melt the
added wire. We took the background up to
75 amps and the background time down to
3.8 milliseconds. (The frequency also
changed due to the change to the
background time.) Welding trials indicated
that the droplets were transferring properly
and that the arc length was correct for the
5/8 in. (16 mm) stickout.
Pulse Waveform Editor
150
Wire Feed Speed
Ramp Up Rate
Ramp Overshoot %
Peak Amps
Edit
600
.0
250
Peak Time ms
1.4
Tailout Time
1.5
Tailout Speed
.100
Stepoff Amps
25
Backgrd Amps
20
Backgrd Time
8.3
27850045
11. Set the mode to ‘Adaptive’. Make a trial weld to check the peak voltage setting.
Our Experiment: While welding we found that 27 volts was about right for the peak voltage.
Since the peak variables did not change, the peak voltage will remain about the same as
well. We also noticed that the average voltage increased from the value observed at
150 in/min. This increase is due to the higher frequency required for the higher wire feed
speeds.
WAVE DESIGNER
PULSE WAVE SHAPING PRINCIPLES
Appendix A
12. Open the “Edit” screen and select only those
workpoints that have been developed (150 and
300 in/min.). Select the
button to
interpolate the remaining workpoints. The
function gives a estimation of the
values needed for the other wire feed speeds.
Each useable workpoint should be developed
separately.
Our Experiment: We tested the 205 in/min.
workpoint to confirm that its operation was
good. We checked the pulse variables in the
no adapt mode and the peak voltage in the
adaptive mode. The 205 in/min. workpoint
was acceptable without modifications. The
other workpoints in the program can be
developed in a similar fashion. After we
completed developing the program, we
checked its performance across the range of
wire feed speeds.
A-21
WorkPoint Editor
WorkPoint Editor
0
50
8
700
1
80
9
850
2
110
10
1000
3
150
11
1200
4
205
5
300
6
400
7
600
inch / min
meter / min
Go Figure
28750046
13. The specific wire feed speed points of the program are now developed in the range of
150 in/min to 300 in/min. Check the full range of the program to confirm its synergic
operation.
Our Experiment: We started at 150 in/min. and while welding, ran the wire feed speed up to
300 in/min. The arc looked consistent across the range.
14. If desired, our new custom waveform could be ‘Saved As’ another file name and
downloaded into the PowerWave’s weld mode directory.
The new program is complete. To summarize, we performed the following sequence of tasks:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Set up the equipment.
Selected a program close to our application needs.
Selected a wire feed speed.
Make program “No Adapt” and set pulse variables.
Make program “Adapt” and set arc length.
Adjust the starting, shorting, ending routines as needed.
Use
to interpolate and extrapolate values for the other wire feed speeds.
Choose the next wire feed speed to develop and go back to step 4.
Weld with the range of the program to confirm operation performance.
WAVE DESIGNER
A-22
PULSE WAVE SHAPING PRINCIPLES
WAVE DESIGNER
Appendix A
STT WAVE SHAPING PRINCIPLES
Appendix B
B-1
B.1 APPENDIX OVERVIEW
This appendix provides a series of discussions on STT wave shaping principles and the
development of custom STT waveforms. The contents of this appendix are arranged as follows:
Paragraph No./Title
Contents Description
B.2
STT Overview
How the STT waveform transfers weld droplets to the
weld surface
B.3
STT (Surface Tension Transfer)
How WFS and wave shape parameters effect welding
B.4
STT Wave Design Process
Flowchart and step by step descriptions of the STT
wave design process
B.5
Primary STT Waveform
Components
How peak current, background current, and tailout
speed effect weld droplet transfer
B.6
Secondary STT Waveform
Components
How pinch start, pinch/peak, peak time, and dV/dt
detect effect weld droplet transfer
B.7
Application Exercise
Sample development of an STT welding program using
Wave Designer.
WAVE DESIGNER
STT WAVE SHAPING PRINCIPLES
B-2
Appendix B
B.2 STT OVERVIEW
Figure B-1 illustrates the variables of the STT welding process. Each of these variables can be
programmed into a weld table using the Wave Designer software. Figure B-2 shows how the
STT waveform and the primary variables produce a weld.
For more details on each of these variables, refer to Primary STT Waveform Components and
Secondary STT Waveform Components in paragraphs B.5 and B.6 of this appendix.
FIGURE B-1. STT WAVEFORM PARAMETERS.
PEAK TIME
AMPERES
PEAK AMPS
TAILOUT
SPEED
dV/dt CALCULATE
PINCH START
BACKGROUND AMPS
TIME
Wave Designer Pro Off Line - stt.swf
File
Tools
Print
Help
500
STT Waveform Editor
400
300
200
Peak Amps
Backgrd Amps
Tailout Speed
Pinch Start
Edit
90
Wire Feed Speed
60
200
.500
100
140
0
Pinch | Peak
Peak Time
dV | dt detect
Start
1
2
.70
1.0
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
About
Status
3
14.00
Explain
0
read template2.map
Off Line
Stand by
27850057
WAVE DESIGNER
STT WAVE SHAPING PRINCIPLES
Appendix B
B-3
FIGURE B-2. WELD DROPLET TRANSFER.
AM
PS
PEAK
AMPS
PI
NC
H
TAILOUT
BACKGROUND AMPS
T0
T1
T2
T3
T5
T6
T7
27850060
•
From time T0 to T1:
Background current is a steady-state current level, between 50 and
(Background Current) 100 Amps that maintains an arc to form a weld bead.
•
From time T1 to T2:
(Ball Time)
An arc voltage detector indicates that the arc is shorted; background
current is reduced for approximately 0.75 milliseconds.
•
From time T2 to T3:
(Pinch)
High current is applied to speed the transfer of molten metal to the
weld puddle. A dV/dt calculation indicates when fuse separation is
about to occur; current is reduced to 50 Amps.
•
Time T4:
(Fuse Separation)
Fuse separation occurs at low current. Time T4 is a function of
voltage, and not indicated on the amperage waveform.
•
From time T5 to T6:
(Plasma Boost)
A period of high arc current that melts the electrode back.
•
From time T6 to T7:
(Plasma)
Arc current is reduced from Peak Amps to the Background current
level.
WAVE DESIGNER
STT WAVE SHAPING PRINCIPLES
B-4
Appendix B
B.3 STT (SURFACE TENSION TRANSFER)
The Invertec STT power source is a high-frequency, current-controlled machine that delivers
power to the arc based on immediate arc requirements. The Invertec STT produces large
electrode current changes within microseconds. It operates in the short-circuiting welding mode.
The electrode current supplied by the power source is guided by the arc voltage state. An
ordered sequence of events controls the current throughout the droplet transfer process. The
electrode current and voltage waveforms for a typical welding cycle are shown in Figure B-3.
Following Figure B-3 are detailed descriptions of the STT welding cycle events.
FIGURE B-3. ELECTRODE CURRENT AND VOLTAGE WAVEFORMS
FOR A TYPICAL STT WELDING CYCLE.
p
Surface Tension Transfer™
Electrode
Electrode to
work volts
Electrode
Amperes
T0
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6
T7
Time
27850063
T0 – T1
A background current between 50 and 100 Amps is delivered to the arc prior
to shorting of the electrode to the weld puddle. Background current is a steadystate current level that serves two purposes. First, the background current
supplies power to the arc to maintain the fluidity of the molten drop at the end of
the electrode. (Failure to supply the minimum required current causes the upper
portion of the molten ball to freeze. As more of the ball solidifies, arc instability
and finally stubbing occurs.) Secondly, the background current level greatly
effects plate heating.
T1 – T2
Ball time occurs when the electrode initially shorts at the background current
level. When the Invertec’s arc voltage detector circuit signals that the “arc” is
shorting out, the background current is immediately reduced for approximately
0.75 milliseconds. The rapid current drop promotes good electrical contact and
“wetting” of the ball to the weld puddle. Wetting prevents an “incipient short”,
wherein the ball is violently repelled from the weld puddle, breaking apart and
causing spatter.
WAVE DESIGNER
STT WAVE SHAPING PRINCIPLES
Appendix B
B-5
T2 – T3
The pinch mode applies an increasing, dual-slope ramp of current to the
shorted electrode. The dual slope ramp of current accelerates the transfer of
molten metal by the electric pinch forces. The pinch force is directly proportional
to the square of the pinch current.
T3 – T5
dV/dt is the rate of shorted-electrode voltage change per unit time. On-going
dV/dt calculations are performed electronically during the pinch mode. Due to the
high resistance of molten iron, the electrode-to-work voltage never reaches zero.
Near fuse separation at T4 raises the dV/dt value to a designated maximum. The
power source immediately reduces the arc current to 50 Amps. The current drop
occurs before the shorted electrode separates. The T4 event indicates that fuse
separation has occurred, but at a very low current.
T5 – T6
Immediately following separation of the electrode from the weld puddle, peak
current occurs. Peak current is a period of high arc current. The electrode is
quickly saturated by this current and melts back. The jet forces acting upon the
weld puddle (cathode) depress the molten surface, increasing the arc length and
thereby minimizing the possibility of the electrode shorting prematurely. Peak
current is maintained for approximately 1 to 2 milliseconds. Excessive power
would melt too much electrode and cause weld spatter. Even at low power, the
shape of the melted electrode at this point is very irregular.
T6 – T7
Plasma is the final period when the arc current is reduced exponentially from the
peak current level to the background Ievel. The exponential current drop
mechanically dampens the weld pool agitation produced during peak current.
WAVE DESIGNER
B-6
STT WAVE SHAPING PRINCIPLES
Appendix B
B.4 STT WAVE DESIGN PROCESS
The Wave Designer software interfaces with the welding machine controller to permit real time
communication of STT wave design changes. Refer to paragraph 2.3 for equipment interface
connections.
Use the wave design process to customize a standard wave shape. The process is summarized
in Figure B-4. The flowchart is followed by a detailed process description. To ensure that the
process creates a wave shape suitable for your weld application, we recommend that you
perform all editing functions in the order presented. Where an editing function is described as
optional and you choose not to perform the edit function, proceed to the next edit function in the
design process.
FIGURE B-4. PROCESS FLOWCHART.
PROCESS FLOW:
REFERENCE
PARAGRAPH:
(SEE APPENDIX B)
B-4.1
Select Workpoint
Set Invertec = WFS
Trim = 1.00
B-4.2 Step 1
Save File to Disk; Develop Next Workpoint
Select a Waveform
from Memory
Mode = OFF
STT Variables
ADJUST
Adjust Optional
Variables
GO FIGURE
GO FIGURE
B-4.2 Step 2
B-4.2 Step 3
B-4.2 Step 4
Save File to Disk
Download File to Welding
Machine Memory
Section 3, paragraph 3.4
27850061
WAVE DESIGNER
Appendix B
STT WAVE SHAPING PRINCIPLES
B-7
B.4.1 SELECTING A STARTING WAVE SHAPE
When customizing a waveform for a specific welding application, we recommend that you use a
waveform in an existing weld file. An existing weld file can be selected from the systemWeldFiles
folder in the Wave Designer directory as follows:
a. Click on a standard wave shape from the systemWeldFiles folder. Use the load file option in
the File menu to download the selected file to the STT Waveform Editor.
NOTE: The welding machine’s controller memory is allocated 10 weld mode slots (modes 155 to
164) for the storage of custom weld designs. No more than ten custom weld modes can
be downloaded to the welding machine. You cannot upload a custom weld from the
welding machine, but you can overwrite any or all of your allotted weld file memory
locations.
b. In Waveform Editor, select the Save Waveform As ... option from the File menu.
CAUTION
Failure to use the Save Waveform As... option to copy the standard wave shape
will result in changes to the standard wave shape. Make sure you assign a
unique file name to a copy of the standard wave shape before making any
waveform changes. Make backup copies of all original wave shape files as well
as the custom wave shapes you create.
c. When prompted, type in a unique filename for the new waveform. Select OK to assign the
new file name to the waveform.
WAVE DESIGNER
B-8
STT WAVE SHAPING PRINCIPLES
Appendix B
B.4.2 CUSTOMIZING THE WAVE SHAPE
If customizing your first wave shape, perform the wave shaping exercises provided at the back of
this section to get thoroughly acquainted with wave shaping. Thereafter, refer the following wave
shaping procedure.
1. Select a Workpoint
a. Select a workpoint from the Wire Feed Speed pulldown menu. The first workpoint selected
should be in the midrange of the expected Wire Feed Speeds to be used for the weld
application. If you are uncertain of the WFS range, we recommend selecting 150 or 200
in/min. as a first workpoint.
NOTE: You can edit one or more workpoints to values other than the defaults.
However, the listing of wire feed speeds displayed must be the same or
increasing from top to bottom. All four wire feed speeds must be assigned
values, but multiple workpoints can share the same value.
The reason you would edit multiple workpoints to the same value would be to
limit the range of WFS or to develop fewer than four workpoints.
WorkPoint Editor
WorkPoint Editor
0
90
1
170
2
200
3
225
inch / min
meter / min
Go Figure
28750048
b. Set the welding machine’s wire feed speed equal to the selected workpoint setting.
c. Verify that the control box Weld Mode is set for an OFF readout at the LED display and that
the arc control is OFF.
WAVE DESIGNER
STT WAVE SHAPING PRINCIPLES
Appendix B
B-9
2. Find the Optimal Arc Characteristics
Use the following weld trials and adjustment sequence to tune the selected waveform for your
weld application at the designated workpoint (wire feed speed). Weld trials and adjustments are
more easily performed with one person welding while you adjust the waveform parameters at the
computer terminal.
a. Set the Invertec Trim control for a readout of 1.00. This will ensure that the wave shape is
designed at the midrange of the trim adjustment capability. The welding machine’s trim
control allows the welder to adjust the arc length between 0.5 to 1.5 (50% to 150%) times
the established arc length adjustment factor.
b. Maintain a constant stickout. The stickout should be equal to the expected average of the
welding application. We recommend about 5/8 in. to 3/4 in. (16 mm to 19 mm) electrical
stickout.
c. While welding a trial weld bead, adjust the waveform variables (peak current, background
current, tailout, etc.) to achieve a desired droplet transfer with a fixed 5/8 in. to 3/4 in.
(16 mm to 19 mm) stickout at the selected wire feed speed. Refer to paragraph B.5.
d. With the stickout at a fixed setting, make trail welds during each adjustment so you can
directly observe the effect of the adjustments in the arc and resulting weld. Adjust the
variables as needed to achieve the desired weld transfer at the fixed stickout.
NOTE: Wire feed speed controls the deposition rate. Peak current controls the arc length.
Background current controls the bead contour, and tailout adjusts power (heat) in the
arc. For optimum spatter control, the arc should be focused on the weld puddle.
PEAK TIME
AMPERES
PEAK AMPS
BACKGROUND AMPS
TAILOUT
SPEED
dV/dt CALCULATE
PINCH START
TIME
WAVE DESIGNER
27850059
STT WAVE SHAPING PRINCIPLES
B-10
Appendix B
3. Adjust the Start Control Parameters (Optional)
The start control parameters can be adjusted to define how the welding machine will respond
when the arc is struck.
To view the start control window, click on the
button on the Waveform Editor screen.
Adjust the start control parameters to accommodate your welding application and per the
following parameter descriptions.
Start Control - STT
STT Start Control
STRIKE
PEAK I
STRIKE
TIME
For Wire Feed Speed
STRIKE I
Stage 1: Wire Run In
Open Circuit Volt
AVERAGE
START
AMPS
@
START
VOLTS
OPEN
CIRCUIT
VOLTS
90
42.00
Stage 2: Striking Pulse
Strike Peak I
750
Strike Time
1.0
Strike |
700
START TIME
Stage 3: Molten Ball Formation
Start Volt
ARC
STRIKES
Start Time
23.00
20.0
27850058
Open circuit voltage: Sets the power source output voltage for the torch idle condition (the
welding machine is on, but not welding).
Strike time: Adjust this parameter to set the duration of peak current for the arc-strike current
spike.
Strike Peak I & Strike I: Adjust these parameters to set the peak current level for the arc-strike
current spike.
The Strike Peak I is set to some level (e.g. 50 amps) higher than the Strike I to improve current
step responsiveness. In other words, the actual current has a tendency of lagging behind in rapid
stepping of commanded current. A higher initial Strike Peak I is designed to overcome this
problem.
Starting volts: Adjust this parameter to set the gun voltage to be maintained during the arc
starting routine.
Starting time: Adjust this parameter to set the duration of the arc starting routine.
WAVE DESIGNER
STT WAVE SHAPING PRINCIPLES
Appendix B
B-11
4. “Go Figure” / Make the Waveform Synergic
Weld synergy is established by shaping the 2nd and all subsequent workpoints. Being synergic,
the waveform parameters automatically adjust to programmed data table values. The data table
values are unique for selected wire feed speeds. Thereby, the output of the power source
changes in response to changes in the wire feed speed, as controlled by the Invertec’s WFS
encoder setting. The process of making the waveform synergic involves two procedures;
developing the 2nd workpoint and workpoints interpolation.
Developing the 2nd Workpoint
Develop the second workpoint in the same manner as the first.
FIXED VALUE
INTERPOLATED/
EXTRAPOLATED VALUE
WorkPoint Editor
0
90
1
170
2
200
3
225
WORKPOINT VARIABLE
WorkPoint Editor
inch / min
WP3
WP2
WP1
meter / min
WP0
Go Figure
WIRE FEED SPEEDS
28750056
Workpoints Interpolation
After shaping the second waveform, open the workpoint editor and click on the
button. Wave Designer interpolates the waveform parameters for each selected wire feed
speed between the first and second developed workpoints. These steps can be repeated multiple
times to fine tune all the workpoints. The set (fixed) wire feed speeds are those indicated
(checked) in the workpoints listing. Go Figure will interpolate/extrapolate between/from set
workpoints.
WAVE DESIGNER
B-12
STT WAVE SHAPING PRINCIPLES
Appendix B
B.5 PRIMARY STT WAVEFORM COMPONENTS
The following paragraphs describe how peak current, background current, and tailout effect weld
droplet transfer.
B.5.1 PEAK CURRENT
The peak current control acts similar to an “arc pinch” control. Peak current serves to establish
the arc length and promote good fusion. Higher peak current levels will cause the arc to broaden
momentarily while increasing the arc length. If set too high, long arc lengths will inhibit travel
speed. Setting this level too low will cause instability and wire stubbing. In practice, this current
level should be adjusted for minimum spatter and puddle agitation.
ADJUST ARC LENGTH WITH PEAK CURRENT
LOW
OPTIMUM
HIGH
27850064
NOTE: In 100% CO2 shielding gas applications, the peak current level should be set greater
than in a similar application using a high percentage Argon blend. Longer initial arc
lengths with 100% CO2 are required to reduce spatter.
WAVE DESIGNER
Appendix B
STT WAVE SHAPING PRINCIPLES
B-13
B.5.2 BACKGROUND CURRENT
The Background current controls the overall heat input to the weld. Adjusting this level too high
will form a large droplet resulting in globular type transfer and increased spatter. Adjusting this
level too low will cause wire stubbing and poor wetting of the weld metal.
ADJUST BEAD SHAPE USING BACKGROUND CURRENT
LOW
OPTIMUM
HIGH
24850065
NOTE: Applications using 100% CO2 require less background current than similar procedures
using high Argon blends. This is due to greater heat generated in the 100% CO2 arc.
CONTACT TIP TO WORK DISTANCE
LONG
OPTIMUM
SHORT
27850065
B.5.3 TAILOUT
The tailout provides additional heat without the molten droplet becoming too large. Increase
tailout as needed to add heat to the arc without increasing arc length. (This will allow for faster
travel speeds and improved wetting). As tailout is increased, the peal and/or background current
is usually reduced.
WAVE DESIGNER
B-14
STT WAVE SHAPING PRINCIPLES
Appendix B
B.6 SECONDARY STT WAVEFORM COMPONENTS
NOTE: The Invertec STT power source circuitry automatically establishes proper values for most
primary and secondary waveform components. The values can be adjusted, but should
not be set far from their automatically set values.
B.6.1 PINCH START
The pinch start is the amperage setting that begins the ramp up to the maximum pinch current.
Pinch start current must exceed background current.
B.6.2 PINCH/PEAK
Pinch/Peak is the ratio of maximum pinch current to peak current. This parameter is used to
establish the desired maximum pinch current value.
B.6.3 PEAK TIME
Peak time is the duration of the plasma boost period (peak amps) in milliseconds. The duration of
peak time is typically set from 1 to 2 milliseconds. Longer peak times may cause weld spatter.
B.6.4 dV/dt DETECT
The dV/dt detect setting determines at what point in the necking down process pinch current will
be discontinued.
WAVE DESIGNER
STT WAVE SHAPING PRINCIPLES
Appendix B
B-15
B.7 APPLICATION EXERCISE
This application exercise steps the user through the development of a basic PowerWave/STT
welding program using Wave Designer. Your application most likely will vary from this example
but the concepts outlined are recommended for all development work.
If you would like to follow along with this example, use the following set up:
Machine:
PowerWave/STT, PowerFeed 10, Magnum 400 gun and cable, miscellaneous other
parts to complete welding cell (The standard PowerWave does not have an STT
capability. Be sure to use the STT output stud on the STT power source.)
Wire:
0.045 L-56
Gas:
CO2
Computer: See Section 2 of this manual for minimum requirements and connection diagrams.
Click on the Wave Designer icon to start the program.
For this example, we developed a program to weld 16 gauge fillets and lap welds at 130 in/min
wire feed speed. The user may want to develop more workpoints for practice.
Before starting the waveshape development process, confirm that the consumables are working
properly with the welder. We recommend using a standard waveshape such as mode 5 to
confirm that the welding system performs under normal conditions before attempting to develop
waveshapes.
1. Select a wave shape. (From the tool bar, select
‘File’, ‘Open Waveform’.) For this exercise, select
the “AST452CF STT Fillet Steel 045 CO2
mode.swf” (Wave Designer with Windows 95/NT
supports long file names.) The STT Waveform
Editor window is automatically displayed. Generally,
the user should choose a waveshape file that has
the closest welding performance to the intended
application.
File
Tools
Print
Open Waveform
Help
Ctrl+O
Save Waveform As ...
Save Waveform
Ctrl+S
27850041
Wave Designer Pro Off Line - AST452CF STT Fillet Steel 045 CO2 mode 117.swf
File
Tools
Print
Help
500
STT Waveform Editor
400
200
Wire Feed Speed
Peak Amps
Backgrd Amps
Tailout Speed
Pinch Start
Edit
300
350
55
200
.080
100
245
0
Pinch | Peak
.70
Peak Time
1.0
dV | dt detect
Start
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
13.00
Explain
0
About
27850069
WAVE DESIGNER
B-16
STT WAVE SHAPING PRINCIPLES
2. Pick a wire feed speed from the Wire Feed
Speed pulldown menu. We wanted to start
with a 130 in/min. WFS. But 130 is not a
workpoint in the selected wave shape
application. Use the Workpoint Editor window
to change the second workpoint (170 in/min.)
to 130.
Appendix B
WorkPoint Editor
WorkPoint Editor
0
90
1
130
2
200
3
225
inch / min
meter / min
Go Figure
28750067
3. Select 130 from the Wire Feed Speed
pulldown menu. Also, be sure to set the
PowerFeed’s wire feed speed to the same
WFS as the selected workpoint and set the
trim to 1.00. (In this exercise, the WFS is 130
in/min.) Set the PowerWave mode and Arc
Control settings to ‘OFF’.
STT Waveform Editor
Wire Feed Speed
Peak Amps
200
Edit
90
130
350200
225
27850068
4. If you are using the expanded STT Editor window, check the box next to the pinch/peak
variable. This will fix the ratio of pinch start to peak amps. Selecting the Simplify Editor
option (see the tools menu) automatically fixes this ratio.
NOTE: The STT process reacts to changes in the arc. When a short occurs, the STT routine
responds to the short in a controlled fashion. The STT process does not use an adaptive
loop. The process adapts to changes in stickout only by changes in the number of times
shorts occur.
5. While welding, adjust the STT variables to improve welding performance. Maintain a
constant 5/8 in. stickout (torch tip to work distance.)
Our Experiment: The weld produced by this setting is too hot. We burned through the 16
gauge fillet. The arc is too long and is producing too much spatter.
First, we reduced the peak current to 250 amps. Welding again shows that the arc length is
now correct, but there is still too much heat in the arc.
Second, we reduced tailout from .100 to .140 (increasing tailout reduces the heat input). We
welded again and found there was still too much heat in the arc.
Next, we reduced the background to 35 amps. This resulted in very good fillet welds on 16
gauge steel.
The starting screen can be adjusted at this time if needed. The STT waveform incorporates
a soft start feature. The initial pulse to start the arc can be adjusted as necessary to achieve
excellent results on a wide variation of applications.
Our goal was to optimize the welding at only one workpoint. The 130 in/min. workpoint is fully
developed. If desired, you can save the new application, select the next workpoint and optimize
the welding at that wire feed speed in a similar fashion as the first. The Go Figure function can
assist in interpolating/extrapolating the variables at the next workpoint.
WAVE DESIGNER
Index-1
INDEX
A
Adaptive Loop ..........................................................................................................
Adaptive Types ........................................................................................................
Adaptive and Non-Adaptive Mode ...........................................................................
Amp • Time ..............................................................................................................
Application Exercise, STT ........................................................................................
Application Exercise, Wave Shaping, Pulse ............................................................
Arc Length (Pulse) ...................................................................................................
Arc Reestablish Volts ...............................................................................................
ArcScope .................................................................................................................
A-4
A-9
A-4
A-12
B-15
A-17
A-4
A-11
4-1
B
Background Current, Pulse ...................................................................................... A-15
Background Current, STT ................................................................................. B-4, B-13
Background Time ..................................................................................................... A-16
Ball Time .................................................................................................................. B-4
C
Computer System Requirements ............................................................................. 1-1
Control Board Dip Switch Settings ........................................................................... 2-2
Current,
Background....................................................................................... A-15, B-4, B-13
Peak.................................................................................................. A-14, B-5, B-12
Transition........................................................................................................... A-14
D
Data Table, Waveform ............................................................................................. 3-6
Dip Switch Settings, Control Board .......................................................................... 2-2
Downloading Wave Shapes ..................................................................................... 3-12
Droplet Transfer, Pulse Weld ................................................................................... A-3
dV/dt.................................................................................................................. B-4, B-14
E
Editor Window, Waveform ....................................................................................... 3-2
End Amps ................................................................................................................ A-12
End Time.................................................................................................................. A-12
Equipment Interface Connections ............................................................................ 2-2
Equipment Startup ................................................................................................... 2-4
F
File Menu ................................................................................................................ 3-4
File Storage Locations ............................................................................................ 2-1
Firmware .................................................................................................................. 2-4
Frequency ................................................................................................................ A-15
G
Go Figure ........................................................................................................ A-13, B-11
I
Inductance .............................................................................................................. A-16
WAVEDESIGNER
Index-2
INDEX
M
Making the Waveform Synergic .............................................................................. A-13
O
Open Circuit Voltage ................................................................................................ A-10
Operation, Software ................................................................................................ 3-2
P
Peak Current .......................................................................................... A-14, B-5, B-12
Peak Current and Time (Pulse) .............................................................................. A-14
Peak Time ................................................................................................................ A-14
Peak Voltage............................................................................................................ A-9
Pinch Current Rise Rate .......................................................................................... A-14
Pinch Mode .............................................................................................................. B-5
Pinch/Peak .............................................................................................................. B-14
Pinch Start .............................................................................................................. B-14
Plasma .................................................................................................................... B-5
Principles, Pulse Wave Shaping .............................................................................. A-1
Primary Waveform Components, Pulse .................................................................. A-14
Print Menu................................................................................................................ 3-6
Process, STT Wave Design .................................................................................... B-6
Process, Wave Design ............................................................................................ 3-11
Product Overview .................................................................................................... 1-1
Pulse Frequency ...................................................................................................... A-15
Pulse Wave Design Process.................................................................................... 3-11
Pulse Wave Shaping Principles .............................................................................. A-1
R
Ramp-Up Rate ........................................................................................................ A-16
S
Secondary Waveform Parameters, Pulse ................................................................
Short Detect Voltage ................................................................................................
Software Installation ................................................................................................
Software Operation ..................................................................................................
Software Release Data ............................................................................................
Start Time ................................................................................................................
Start Volts ................................................................................................................
Startup ....................................................................................................................
Strike Peak Amps ....................................................................................................
Strike Peak Time......................................................................................................
Surface Tension Transfer ........................................................................................
A-16
A-11
2-1
3-2
1-2
A-10
A-10
2-4
A-10
A-10
B-4
T
Tailout, STT ............................................................................................................ B-13
Time,
Background ...................................................................................................... A-16
Ball .................................................................................................................... B-4
End .................................................................................................................... A-12
Peak ........................................................................................................ A-14, B-14
Start .................................................................................................................. A-10
Tool Bar .................................................................................................................. 3-2
Tools Menu .............................................................................................................. 3-5
Troubleshooting ...................................................................................................... 5-1
WAVEDESIGNER
Index-3
INDEX
U
Upgrade Firmware ..................................................................................................
User Responsibility ..................................................................................................
2-5
1-1
V
Voltage,
Arc Reestablish ................................................................................................
Open Circuit ......................................................................................................
Peak ..................................................................................................................
Short Detect ......................................................................................................
Start ..................................................................................................................
A-11
A-10
A-9
A-11
A-10
W
Wave Design Process, Pulse .................................................................................. 3-11
Wave Design Process, STT .................................................................................... B-6
Wave Shaping, Pulse .............................................................................................. A-1
Wave Shaping, STT ................................................................................................ B-1
Wave Designer Operation........................................................................................ 3-2
Waveform Data Table .............................................................................................. 3-6
Waveform Editor Window ........................................................................................ 3-2
Weld Droplet Transfer, Pulse .................................................................................. A-3
Weld Droplet Transfer, STT .................................................................................... B-3
Welding Equipment Requirements .......................................................................... 1-2
WAVEDESIGNER
Index-4
INDEX
WAVEDESIGNER
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