Aquion S-Line and M-Line Technical Manual

Aquion S-Line and M-Line Technical Manual
S-Line and M-Line
Technical Manual
Battery Stack Models S20-P08F, S20-P080
Battery Module Models M100-LS82P, M100-L082P
Aquion Energy, Inc.
32 39th Street
Pittsburgh, PA 15201
+1 412.904.6400
www.aquionenergy.com
AQ-OP-00013_C.01
© 2015 Aquion Energy, Inc.
The information in this document is subject to periodic updates and changes. Upon any updates or
changes to the above-described material, Aquion Energy will provide new drawings and/or associated
documentation that will supersede those contained in this document. Contents are subject to change
without notice.
For the latest product documentation, visit http://info.aquionenergy.com/customer-portal or email
us at info@aquion-energy.com.
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Table of Contents
1
Introduction ____________________________________________________________________ 1
1.1 About This Manual
1.2 Contact Information
2
Product Information _____________________________________________________________ 1
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
3
5
Product Overview
Product Specification
UL Recognition
Cradle to Cradle Certification
M100-LS82P Electromagnetic Compatibility
2.5.1 FCC
2.5.2 CE
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
Safety Information ______________________________________________________________ 3
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
4
1
1
Electrical Hazards
Electrical Safety
Chemical Hazards
Gas Emissions
Weight Hazards
Ingress Protection
Decommissioning Hazards
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
Transportation and Receipt of Product _____________________________________________ 5
4.1 Shipping
4.1.1 Shipping Hazards
4.1.2 Shipping Requirements
5
5
5
4.2 Disassembly Hazards
4.3 Packaging
4.4 Delivery Inspection
5
5
5
Installation _____________________________________________________________________ 6
5.1 Unpacking
5.2 Site Requirements
5.2.1 Exposure and Enclosure
5.2.2 Size and Weight
5.2.3 Ventilation
5.2.4 Dryness
5.2.5 Ambient Temperature
6
6
6
6
6
6
7
5.3 Moving
5.4 Placement
7
7
i
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6
Electrical Integration_____________________________________________________________ 8
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
7
Electrical Interfaces and Connections
Product Wiring Diagrams
Racking/Scaling Systems
Cabling Requirements
Parallel Wiring
6.5.1 Monitoring
6.5.2 Fuses and Breakers
6.5.3 Grounding
8
11
14
14
14
15
15
16
Commissioning ________________________________________________________________ 16
7.1 Initial Charge
7.2 Voltage Matching
7.3 Configuring Inverters and Charge Controllers
8
9
16
17
17
Operation _____________________________________________________________________ 17
8.1 Operational Limits
8.1.1 Current
8.1.2 Voltage
8.1.3 Ambient Temperature
8.1.4 Configuration
17
17
17
17
17
8.2 Recommended Charge Profile
8.3 State of Charge
8.3.1 Partial State of Charge
8.3.2 Determining State of Charge
18
19
19
19
8.4
8.5
8.6
8.7
8.8
19
19
20
20
20
Discharging
Self-Discharge
Long-Term Storage
Recycling and Disposal
Record Keeping
Warranty _____________________________________________________________________ 20
10 Troubleshooting _______________________________________________________________ 20
10.1 No Stack Voltage
10.2 Voltage Drop Issues
20
21
11 Technical Support ______________________________________________________________ 21
Appendix A: Operational Settings for Power Control Electronics ___________________________ 22
A.1
A.2
A.3
A.4
Definitions
Voltage Limits vs. Temperature
How to Charge Aquion Batteries
Temperature Compensation
22
22
23
23
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A.5 Device-Specific Settings by Manufacturer
A.5.1 Morningstar
A.5.2 MidNite
A.5.3 Outback
A.5.4 SMA
A.5.5 Schneider
A.5.6 Studer
iii
23
24
24
25
26
26
26
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1 Introduction
1.1 About This Manual
This manual is intended to provide technical information and safe practices regarding receiving,
installing, and operating the Aquion Energy S20-P080 and S20-P08F Battery Stacks and the Aquion
Energy M100-LS82P and M100-L082P Battery Modules. For complete safety information, refer to the
Safety Data Sheet (SDS) included with your product shipment.
NOTICE: Failure to follow the instructions in this document could result in fire, electric
shock, and/or other injury or damage.
1.2 Contact Information
Mail: Aquion Energy
32 39th Street
Pittsburgh, PA 15201
Telephone: +1 412.904.6400
Web: www.aquionenergy.com
2 Product Information
2.1 Product Overview
Aqueous Hybrid Ion (AHITM) batteries use non-toxic, non-corrosive materials to make the world’s only
clean and sustainable electrochemical storage solution. The S-Line Battery Stacks and M-Line Battery
Modules provide long-duration, stationary storage for residential solar, off-grid and microgrid, and
energy management applications.
S-Line Battery Stack
The S-Line Battery Stack is the base component of Aquion Energy’s scalable energy solutions.
The S-Line battery stack connects eight Aquion batteries in series for a 48 V product. Aquion
offers two S-Line Battery Stack models:
Battery Stack Model
In-Line Fusing
S20-P08F
20 A
S20-P080
None
M-Line Battery Module
The M-Line Battery Module is a palletized energy storage module that serves as a stand-alone
system or as a building block for larger systems. The battery module connects 12 S20-P08F
Battery Stacks in parallel. Aquion offers two M-Line Battery Module models:
Battery Module Model
On-Board Sensing
M100-LS82P
Voltage, current, temperature (VIS board)
M100-L082P
None
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2.2 Product Specification
For more information on the products, including voltage curves, operational efficiency, and capacity
by charge and discharge currents, please consult the Product Specification Sheets, available at
http://info.aquionenergy.com/download-specs.
2.3 UL Recognition
The S20-P08F and S20-P080 Battery Stacks are UL recognized. The following UL certification tests
have been completed:
+
+
+
+
+
UL 1973-13 Overcharge
UL 1973-14 Short Circuit
UL 1973-16 Temperature and Operating Limits
UL 1973-17 Imbalanced Charging
UL 1973-23 Vibration
+
+
+
+
+
UL 1973-24 Shock
UL 1973-25 Crush
UL 1973-26 Steady Force
UL 1973-27 Impact
UL 1973-30 Mold Stress
2.4 Cradle to Cradle Certification
The AHI S20-P08F and S20-P080 Battery Stacks are Cradle to Cradle CertifiedTM Bronze 1 products.
The Cradle to Cradle Products Innovation Institute independently assesses and certifies products for
material health, material reutilization, renewable energy use and carbon management, water
stewardship, and social fairness. The M100-LS82P and M100-L082P battery modules contain 12 of
the S20-P08F Battery Stacks.
2.5 M100-LS82P Electromagnetic Compatibility
2.5.1 FCC
This device complies with part 15 of the FCC Rules. Operation is subject to the following two
conditions: (1) This device may not cause harmful interference, and (2) this device must accept any
interference received, including interference that may cause undesired operation.
Note: This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class A digital device,
pursuant to part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection
against harmful interference when the equipment is operated in a commercial environment. This
equipment generates, uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and used in
accordance with the instruction manual, may cause harmful interference to radio communications.
Operation of this equipment in a residential area is likely to cause harmful interference, in which case
the user will be required to correct the interference at his own expense.
2.5.2 CE
This product may cause interference if used in residential areas. Such use must be avoided unless the
user takes special measures to reduce electromagnetic emissions to prevent interference to the
reception of radio and television broadcasts.
1
Cradle to Cradle CertifiedTM is a certification mark licensed by the Cradle to Cradle Products Innovation Institute.
2
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3 Safety Information
Only qualified individuals are to install and service battery systems.
3.1 Electrical Hazards
Never place foreign objects or tools in or on the unit. The metal parts of the battery terminals are
always live. Electrical hazards exist in the voltage and current ranges that are found in battery systems
and associated electronics.
S-Line Battery Stack
WARNING: Connecting battery stacks in series can lead to dangerously high voltages.
When connecting unfused, S20 P080 stacks in parallel, Aquion recommends placing 20 A
branch fuses as close as possible to the battery stack positive (recommended) or negative
terminal.
3.2 Electrical Safety
S-Line Battery Stack
Aquion recommends fusing S20-P080 strings with a 1,000 V, 20 A fuse at the positive (+) lead of
each string of battery stacks (or on each individual battery stack if they are all connected in
parallel). The S20-P08F already contains an in-line, 1,000 V, 20 A Littelfuse SPF Series Solar
Protection Fuse; see www.littelfuse.com for full specifications. Additional fusing at each stack is
not necessary. If grounding is required, see Section 6.5.3.
M-Line Battery Module
Each battery module is fused to 240 A with 12 parallel 20 A fuses (one fuse per battery stack). The
maximum rated current of the module, 204 A, is less than the maximum fuse rating to allow for
internal energy redistribution.
3.3 Chemical Hazards
AHI battery materials are non-toxic and present no chemical hazards. The AHI electrolyte is sodiumsulfate-based saltwater with a neutral pH. In the unlikely event that the electrolyte comes in contact
with eyes or skin, thoroughly wash it out with water. Electrolyte residue on the battery terminal can be
wiped away with a cloth. A collection pan under the battery stack or module is not needed as the
electrolyte will not leak during normal operation, and any leaked electrolyte will not damage battery
surfaces or equipment. Refer to the SDS for additional information.
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3.4 Gas Emissions
The battery may emit trace amounts of gas H2, O2, CO2, and CO during normal operation. These
gasses are not accumulated in hazardous quantities if the batteries are ventilated according to the
guidelines in Section 5.2.3 of this manual. The battery has passed UL overcharge testing, which
includes monitoring for toxic vapors and combustible vapor concentrations. Overcharging the battery
will result in venting of non-hazardous gas, primarily composed of H2, O2, CO2, and CO, through the
pressure relief valve.
3.5 Weight Hazards
S-Line Battery Stack
The battery stack weighs 118 kg (260 lbs) and must be transported and handled with appropriate
precautions. A furniture dolly with an appropriate weight rating may be useful for transporting the
battery stack, though care should be taken not to tilt the stack more than fifteen (15) degrees.
M-Line Battery Module
The battery module weighs 1,504 kg (3,309 lbs) and must be transported and handled with
appropriate precautions. The use of forklift trucks and pallet jacks is recommended to move and
position battery modules.
3.6 Ingress Protection
The International Electrotechnical Commission publishes the International Protection (IP) Code, which
classifies the degrees of protection provided by electrical equipment enclosures against ingress of
solid particles and liquid.
Product
Solid Particle Protection Level 2a
Liquid Ingress Protection Level 2b IP code
Battery stack
Confirmed
Confirmed
IP22
Battery module
Confirmed
Not tested
IP2X
a
protected from ingress of objects greater than 12.5 mm, such as fingers or similar objects (IP##)
b
protected against harmful effects of ingress of dripping water when tilted up to 15 degrees, for a duration of 10 minutes or less (IP##)
3.7 Decommissioning Hazards
AHI batteries are non-toxic and non-corrosive. Do not dump into any sewers, on the ground, or into
any body of water where water runs off into open bodies of water. Dispose of according to all federal,
state, and local regulations.
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4 Transportation and Receipt of Product
4.1 Shipping
4.1.1 Shipping Hazards
The dense shipping configuration for 7 to 12 battery stacks has undergone International Safe Transit
Association (ISTA) 3B testing and ISTA 6B impact testing. ISTA 3B and 6B testing is pending for the
battery module.
4.1.2 Shipping Requirements
Battery stacks and modules shall not exceed fifteen (15) degrees of tilt angle during transportation
and placement. Aquion batteries should not be tipped for an extended period of time during shipping.
Ensure that this restriction is communicated to the shipper prior to transport.
4.2 Disassembly Hazards
WARNING: Do NOT attempt to disassemble battery stacks. Do NOT remove the nut on the
compression fixture on top of the stack. Battery stacks have been compressed to optimize
battery performance. Releasing this load could result in poor battery performance, permanent
damage to stack components, and/or injury.
4.3 Packaging
S-Line Battery Stack
Battery stacks arrive 12 or fewer to a pallet. They may be wrapped (U.S. shipments) or crated
(shipments outside the United States). Crated shipments include a Tip-N-Tell indicator and a
Drop-N-Tell indicator on the outside of the crate. Wrapped shipments have these indicators on
the outside of the wrapping.
M-Line Battery Module
Battery modules arrive wrapped and on a pallet. The Tip-N-Tell and Drop-N-Tell indicators are
affixed to the outside of the wrapping.
4.4 Delivery Inspection
Immediately upon delivery, inspect all hard goods for signs of damage or tipping during transit before
signing for the delivery. Any of the following MAY indicate damage during transport:
+ Damaged or torn packaging
+ Scraped or punctured product components
+ Tripped Tip-N-Tell indicator
5
+ Tripped Drop-N-Tell indicator
+ Leaking electrolyte (clear liquid)
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If you find damage, document any signs of damage on the bill of lading before accepting the shipment.
Separately document and photograph all damage, and make a claim with the carrier as soon as
possible. Contact your distributor immediately.
Slight bulges or depressions in the battery stack cases are normal. The battery stack cases are
intentionally flexible to accommodate compression of the electrode stack and normal variations in
internal pressure during operation. A slight concave deformation, or depression, in the sidewall of the
battery stack case is not unusual, especially in new batteries, and does not present an unsafe
condition. A convex deformation, or bulge, projecting no more than 10 mm from the sidewall of the
battery is also not unusual and does not present an unsafe condition. If a bulge projects more than
10 mm, do not place the battery in service, or remove it from service if already commissioned, and
contact Aquion technical support (see Section 11).
5 Installation
5.1 Unpacking
Unpack all items carefully and note quantities received. Battery stacks are shipped on pallets. All
accessories needed for installation and use are packed in boxes and secured to the pallet. Battery
modules are permanently fastened to pallets. Contact your authorized Aquion distributor if any items
are missing or damaged.
5.2 Site Requirements
5.2.1 Exposure and Enclosure
Battery stacks and modules should be installed indoors or enclosed from the elements. A fully sealed
enclosure is not necessary.
Install and operate battery stacks and modules out of direct exposure to sunlight. Prolonged exposure
to ultraviolet light may damage the polypropylene casing and reduce product lifetime.
5.2.2 Size and Weight
The battery stack weighs 118 kg (260 lbs), and the battery module weighs 1,504 kg (3,309 lbs).
Position battery stacks and modules only on surfaces appropriately rated for the product’s weight.
Ensure that the installation location is large enough to contain the battery product.
5.2.3 Ventilation
Per IBC and NFPA 1 guidelines, installations in enclosed spaces require ventilation equal to either six
(6) air changes per hour or ventilation at 1 cubic foot per minute (CFM) per square foot of room size.
5.2.4 Dryness
Install batteries in a dry environment only. Direct exposure of battery stacks or modules to water may
cause shorting. The units may be installed in humid or coastal regions with atmospheric salt.
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5.2.5 Ambient Temperature
Battery stacks and modules must be operated in temperatures between -5°C and 40°C on a 24-hour
average. Operation above or below these limits will cause advanced degradation of the battery
chemistry. Battery stacks and modules must be stored in temperatures between -10°C and 40°C.
Storage above or below these limits may permanently damage the batteries.
5.3 Moving
S-Line Battery Stack
Use proper lifting procedures and personal protective equipment when moving the S-Line
product. The S-Line product has been designed to be moved using the lifting eye and metal tierod that runs vertically through the center of the stack. Each shipment of six S-Line stacks
includes one lifting eye. The lifting eye screws onto the tie rod and can be used to move one stack
at a time. Use a crane, hoist, or similar device of appropriate load-bearing capacity to lift the
S-Line product vertically by the lifting eye threaded onto the tie-rod.
NEVER LIFT S-LINE PRODUCTS BY THE TERMINALS OR ANY PART OTHER
THAN THE SUPPLIED LIFTING EYE THREADED ONTO THE TIE-ROD AS
THIS WILL VOID THE WARRANTY AND MAY CAUSE DAMAGE TO THE
PRODUCT AND/OR SIGNIFICANT INJURY.
No other component of the S-Line product is designed to support the weight
of the stack. Alternatively, use an appropriately sized hand truck to move
S-Line product(s), so long as the product is not tilted more than fifteen (15)
degrees. Position the stack on the hand truck so that the stack wiring faces
out, away from the upright frame of the hand truck.
M-Line Battery Module
The battery module must be transported and handled with appropriate precaution. The use of
forklift trucks and pallet jacks is recommended to move and position battery modules.
5.4 Placement
S-Line battery stacks and M-Line battery modules do not need any particular amount of clearance
between other stacks, modules, or other architectural features. Always follow local codes for aisle and
access requirements. Do not stack battery stacks or battery modules on top of each other. Do not
place other items on top of the battery stacks or battery modules.
The battery stacks and modules have been designed to be moved and installed in an upright position
(less than fifteen (15) degrees of tilt). Before moving and installing any S-Line or M-Line product,
ensure that the path from the site of product receipt to the installation site will not require tipping the
battery more than fifteen (15) degrees, and ensure that the installation location is level.
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6 Electrical Integration
6.1 Electrical Interfaces and Connections
S-Line Battery Stack
The connectors, found at the top of the battery stack, are as
follows:
− Negative (Black): Female Amphenol Helios H4 Connector
(H4CFC4DI)
+ Positive (Red): Male Amphenol Helios H4 Connector
(H4CMC4DI)
The following standard solar connectors are required to make connections to the S20-P08F and
S20-P080 battery stacks. Aquion Energy does not supply these parts. Mating connectors can be
purchased through Amphenol distributors worldwide. Find your nearest authorized distributor
here: http://www.amphenol-sine.com/Distributors_c_108.html.
Quantity
Part Name
Part Number
1
Solar Connector, Male
H4CMC4DI
1
Solar Connector, Female
H4CFC4DI
OR
1
Solar Connector, Mated Pair
H4CPC4DI
Crimping the Helios H4 connectors requires the H4 Crimp Tool and the H4 Universal Unlocking
Tool to disconnect the connectors.
8
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M-Line Battery Module
Aquion does not supply the required mating connectors listed below. These connectors and
cables can be purchased through Amphenol distributors worldwide. Find your nearest authorized
distributor at http://www.amphenol-sine.com/Distributors_c_108.html.
① Module Negative (-) Battery Terminal
P/N: Amphenol RADLOK RL9-100-101 Black
Pin #
Name
Wire Color
Description
1
BATT-
Black
Module Battery Negative Terminal
Mating P/N: Amphenol RADLOK Tubular Connector Black RL0-100-1-xxBK2
② Module Positive (+) Battery Terminal
P/N: Amphenol RADLOK RL9-100-101 Red
Pin #
Name
Wire Color
Description
1
BATT+
Red
Module Battery Positive Terminal
Mating P/N: Amphenol RADLOK Tubular Connector Red RL0-100-1-xxRE
③ 24V I/O IN
P/N: Amphenol SineCo MN41PW02Mxxx 4-pin MiniBOSS, Male Receptacle, External Threads
Pin #
Name
Wire Color
Description
1
24V_IO_NEG
Black
24 V I/O Negative
2
24V_IO_POS
White
24 V I/O Positive (for driving contactors)
3
INTLK_RLY_IN
Red
Interlock Relay In (normally open)
4
RLY_RTN_IN
Green
Interlock Relay Return In
Mating P/N: Amphenol SineCo MN47B4BC01Mxxx 4-pin MiniBOSS Cordset
2
xx and xxx represent designated cable length
9
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④ 24V I/O OUT
P/N: Amphenol SineCo MN44PW02Mxxx 4-pin MiniBOSS, Female Receptacle, Internal Threads
Pin #
Name
Wire Color
Description
1
24V_IO_NEG
Black
24 V I/O Negative
2
24V_IO_POS
White
24 V I/O Positive (for driving contactors)
3
INTLK_RLY_OUT
Red
Interlock Relay Out (normally open)
4
RLY_RTN_OUT
Green
Interlock Relay Return Out
Mating P/N: Amphenol SineCo MN47B4BC01Mxxx 4-pin MiniBOSS Cordset
⑤ CAN IN
P/N: Amphenol SineCo DeviceNet MN51PD01M005 Male Receptacle, External Threads
Pin #
Name
Wire Color
Description
1
CAN_GND
Bare
Isolated CAN Ground
2
24V_LOGIC_POS
Red
24 V Logic Positive
3
24V_LOGIC_NEG
Black
24 V Logic Negative
4
CAN_H
White
CAN High Signal
5
CAN_L
Blue
CAN Low Signal
Mating P/N: Amphenol SineCo DeviceNet MN57B4BD01Mxxx Patch Cable
⑥ CAN OUT
P/N: Amphenol SineCo DeviceNet MN54PD01M005 Female Receptacle, Internal Threads
Pin #
Name
Wire Color
Description
1
CAN_GND
Bare
Isolated CAN Ground
2
24V_LOGIC_POS
Red
24 V Logic Positive
3
24V_LOGIC_NEG
Black
24 V Logic Negative
4
CAN_H
White
CAN High Signal
5
CAN_L
Blue
CAN Low Signal
Mating P/N: Amphenol SineCo DeviceNet MN57B4BD01Mxxx Patch Cable with 120-ohm
Terminator (P/N P29319, Male)
⑦ EARTH GROUND LUG
P/N: Cooper Bussmann C1938
Mating P/N: Ground wire with 3/8" ring terminal
10
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6.2 Product Wiring Diagrams
S-Line Battery Stack
11
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M-Line Battery Module
12
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6.3 Racking/Scaling Systems
AHI battery modules are compatible with a variety of pallet racking solutions offered by vendors
around the world. They are designed to be racked in standard pallet racking or drive-in, edge-loaded
racking systems. Contact Aquion for more information.
6.4 Cabling Requirements
Maximum Path Length
DeviceNet Thin
DeviceNet Thick
(MN57B4BD02Mxxx)
(MN57B4BD01Mxxx)
14.6 m (48 ft)
73.2 m (240 ft)
6.5 Parallel Wiring
Always consult local code and regulations when wiring an electrical system. The following are only
select examples of how to wire together S-Line or M-Line products in parallel.
S-Line Battery Stack
S-Line Battery Stacks are designed to be connected in parallel
configurations. Aquion recommends monitoring for large systems of
battery stacks in parallel. Up to 192 battery stacks can be connected in
parallel if monitored by Aquion equipment (see Section 6.5.1). Contact
Aquion or your Aquion dealer for more details. Any parallel configuration
should use a standard solar combiner box with branch fuses (see figure).
Use wiring in accordance with local standards and codes. S20-P battery
stacks contain 20 A, Littelfuse SPF020 fuses on the positive terminal near
the bottom of the stack. (See www.littelfuse.com for fuse datasheet.)
Series configurations can cause the battery stacks to exceed their voltage limit, damaging the
battery and degrading its performance and life. If wiring battery stacks in series, monitor the
voltage of each battery stack and ensure it does not exceed its recommended maximum. Series
configurations should be reviewed by Aquion Energy or an authorized partner.
M-Line Battery Module
Unsensed, M100-L082P battery modules may be used in small parallel systems. Aquion
recommends using sensed, M100-LS82P battery modules for large parallel systems.
M100-LS82P battery modules require the Aquion BMS-200 Battery Monitoring System to
operate properly. Monitoring with the BMS-200 enables power control electronics to balance the
capacities and states of charge of the battery modules. Up to 16 M100-LS82P battery modules
may be connected in parallel if monitored by a BMS-200 (see Section 6.5.1).
M-Line Battery Modules may be operated in systems up to 1,000 Vdc. Contact Aquion for details.
14
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6.5.1 Monitoring
An Aquion BMS-200 can connect to as many as 16 Aquion sensing boards:
+ up to 16 Aquion SMI-100 Stack
Monitoring Interfaces, each connected
to as many as 12 battery stacks
- OR -
+ up to 16 M100-LS82P battery module
VIS boards daisy-chained together in a
string
The BMS communicates to the site controller via Modbus TCP/IP. Contact Aquion for details of the
communications protocol. For more information on the SMI-100 and BMS-200, download their
Product Specification Sheets, available at http://info.aquionenergy.com/download-specs.
6.5.2 Fuses and Breakers
Systems should be protected in accordance with local codes and regulations. Protection should follow
the rated current of the battery stacks, which is 17 A per stack or 204 A per module for systems wired
together in parallel.
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6.5.3 Grounding
S-Line Battery Stack
Ground Aquion battery stacks according to local codes. If grounding is required, the battery stacks
should be grounded by using the tie rod. The following parts and tools are recommended:
+ ring terminal (Morris Products 11072)
+ 10 AWG wire
+ nut (McMaster 93839A835)
+ standard wire crimper
Attach the ring terminals to the battery stacks, and then ground the stacks.
M-Line Battery Module
The battery module is equipped with a ⅜”-16 grounding lug. A properly sized ground wire, based
on local code and regulations, should be connected to this grounding lug and directly to the
system DC ground.
A DC contactor is installed on the positive (+) lead of each battery module. The DC contactor 24 V
coil voltage is supplied externally by the system. Therefore, the DC contactor operation can be
easily integrated into a system-level emergency stop (ESTOP) system to break down the series
voltage to <57.6 Vdc.
For systems equipped with an Aquion Battery Monitoring System, The DC contactor can be
commanded open by the Battery Monitoring System (BMS) if certain alarm limits are exceeded.
However, there will be a 1-second (adjustable) warning signal sent by both hardware and software
before the module contactor is opened. The hardware signal is a dry contact signal on the module
4 pin 24 V connector that can be sensed by the site controller. The software signal is a Modbus
command sent from the BMS to the site controller.
7 Commissioning
7.1 Initial Charge
Aquion batteries are shipped at a very low state of charge (SOC). If the initial voltage is insufficient for
charging power electronics, the batteries can be charged using a battery charging device set to the
operating limits of the stacks or modules as defined the latest Product Specification Sheet, available at
http://info.aquionenergy.com/download-specs. Use only power supplies designed to charge
batteries. Most DC power supplies are not designed to charge batteries and lack sufficient reverse
current protection.
During its initial charge cycles, the battery may accept more energy than its nominal energy capacity
before it reaches its max voltage. This is the normal conditioning process that occurs in the battery. A
specific conditioning procedure is not required.
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7.2 Voltage Matching
S-Line Battery Stack
If stacks or series strings of stacks are to be wired in parallel, match the string voltages to within 5
Vdc. Take care when “live parallel bussing” batteries with unequal open circuit voltages. The high
impedance of the AHI battery limits its short-circuit current. However, the current created in this
situation may still be sufficient to cause an arc or blow a fuse.
7.3 Configuring Inverters and Charge Controllers
Aquion Energy works with nearly all off-the-shelf inverters and charge controllers designed for 48 V
residential energy storage systems. To set your specific equipment, use the information provided in
Section 8 of this manual. Aquion has also tested certain charge controllers and inverters to determine
their optimal setpoints. See Appendix A, Operational Settings for Power Control Electronics.
8 Operation
To maximize the performance and longevity of Aquion batteries, follow the operation guidance
presented below. Failure to operate the batteries within these limits may damage the batteries,
degrade their performance, shorten their life, and void the product warranty.
8.1 Operational Limits
8.1.1 Current
S-Line Battery Stack
S-Line Battery Stacks must be charged or discharged at no more than 17 A of current.
M-Line Battery Module
M-Line Battery Modules must be charged or discharged at no more than 204 A of current.
8.1.2 Voltage
Battery stacks and modules must be operated between 40 and 57.6 Vdc after initial charge.
8.1.3 Ambient Temperature
Battery stacks and modules must be operated in a 24-hour average ambient temperature
between -5°C and 40°C.
8.1.4 Configuration
Aquion recommends monitoring for large systems of battery stacks or modules connected in parallel.
When using Aquion monitoring equipment (see Section 6.5.1), up to 192 battery stacks or 16 battery
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modules per inverter or power control system can be connected in parallel. See Section 6.5 for
complete information on parallel wiring. M-Line Battery Modules may be operated in systems up to
1,000 Vdc.
8.2 Recommended Charge Profile
Aquion batteries can be charged using the same type of three-stage profile used for lead acid
batteries. Though not strictly correct for the AHI chemistry, the lead acid terminology (bulk,
absorption, float) is included for clarity. Unlike lead acid, AHI batteries do not require a float voltage, but
one is included to maintain a full state of charge.
S-Line Battery Stack
Aquion S-Line battery stacks should be charged using the following set points:
Max Current
17 A/stack
Max (Absorption) Voltage
57.6 V at 30°C average charge
(Absorption) Time at Max V
1 hour
Float Voltage
54.0 V, or 52.1 V if holding for >4 hours (UPS/grid-tied)
M-Line Battery Module
Battery modules must be charged or discharged with less than or equal to 204 A of current. There
is a 20 A fuse on each individual battery stack, and internal stack interactions may have up to 3 A of
impact in high-rate conditions. Battery modules should be charged using the following set points:
Max Current
204 A/module
Max (Absorption) Voltage
57.6 V at 30°C average charge
(Absorption) Time at Max V
1 hour
Float Voltage
54.0 V, or 52.1 V if holding for >4 hours (UPS/grid-tied)
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8.3 State of Charge
8.3.1 Partial State of Charge
AHI batteries can maintain a partial or low state of charge (SOC) without significant performance loss.
Periodically charging the battery to 100% SOC, known as an equalization charge, is not required to
maintain battery life. AHI batteries may be stored between 0% and 100% SOC for short periods. For
guidance on long-term storage, see Section 8.6.
8.3.2 Determining State of Charge
S-Line Battery Stack
The state of charge of an Aquion battery stack
can be estimated by measuring its open circuit
voltage (OCV). To measure the OCV, first
disconnect the battery stack or stacks from the
DC bus by either unplugging the H4 connectors
or powering down the system. Let the battery
stacks sit unpowered for at least three hours,
then measure the voltage between the positive
and negative terminals.
8.4 Discharging
S-Line Battery Stack
Battery stacks can be discharged at up to 17 A of current individually.
M-Line Battery Module
Battery modules can be discharged at up to 204 A of current per module.
8.5 Self-Discharge
The self-discharge of the Aquion AHI battery chemistry is closely related to the ambient temperature
at which the battery is held. Aquion batteries should be held within the temperature range outlined in
the Product Specification Sheet (available on the Aquion Energy Customer Portal at
http://info.aquionenergy.com/customer-portal). Aquion batteries exhibit the following capacity
losses due to self-discharge over the course of one (1) month:
+ at -5°C: <2%
+ at 10°C: 5%
+ at 30°C: 25%
+ at 40°C: > 35%
For the AHI battery chemistry, the capacity loss due to self-discharge is not irreversible. Capacity lost
over a month can be recovered simply by recharging the battery to 100% SOC.
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8.6 Long-Term Storage
If battery stacks or modules are to be stored for an extended period of time, remove all signal and
power connections to prevent unintended self-discharge and undetected ground faults. Keep any
grounding in place. To avoid permanent damage, store products in the following conditions:
+ between -10°C and 40°C
+ less than 50% SOC (<48 V)
8.7 Recycling and Disposal
AHI batteries are non-toxic and non-corrosive. Do not dump into any sewers, on the ground, or into
any body of water where water runs off into open bodies of water. Dispose of according to all federal,
state, and local regulations.
8.8 Record Keeping
Aquion Energy recommends maintaining proper system documentation records. These include a
single-line diagram of the complete system and a log documenting system settings (inverter, charge
controller, charge voltages, etc.).
Record
Description
Frequency
Single-line system diagram
Complete AC and DC system diagram
At installation or upon change
System component settings
Charge voltage and current settings
At installation or upon change
Aquion Energy recommends maintaining proper and regular operating records. These include battery
temperatures, maximum and minimum operating voltages, and maximum currents. Module-based
systems that include the Aquion Energy Battery Monitoring System (BMS) log this data automatically.
Measurement
Description
Frequency
Average battery temperature
Daily average temperature
Logged every 24 hours
Minimum battery voltage
Daily minimum voltage
Logged every 24 hours
Maximum battery voltage
Daily maximum voltage
Logged every 24 hours
Maximum battery current
Daily maximum current
Logged every 24 hours
9 Warranty
Please see the Terms and Conditions and/or separate warranty documentation for warranty
information.
10 Troubleshooting
10.1 No Stack Voltage
If a battery stack does not appear to be producing any voltage, the fuse may be blown. Perform a
continuity check between the top terminals and the terminals of the battery they connect to. Also
perform this check on installation and periodically throughout the battery's life.
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10.2 Voltage Drop Issues
Large voltage drops may manifest in the following ways:
+
+
+
+
flickering or dimming lights when large loads kick on
low battery state-of-charge faults on the inverter
increased runtime from the generator or grid
system blackouts
The following steps can address these symptoms:
+ Increase the minimum voltage setpoint on the inverter. Problems occurring primarily at a low state
of charge may prevent the voltage of the system from ever dropping below the operating voltage
of the inverter.
+ Reduce the size of large loads. Replace large loads with more efficient equipment, or introduce
soft starts for pumps and motors.
+ Add more batteries. Increasing the sizing of the energy storage system will decrease the voltage
drop of the system for a given load by sharing the current over a greater number of battery stacks.
Introducing a hybrid storage system with a higher power technology, like capacitors, is also an
option.
11 Technical Support
If you need technical support, visit us on our website at http://www.aquionenergy.com/support.
If you purchased your batteries from an authorized Aquion Energy dealer, please contact the dealer
for assistance.
If you require immediate assistance AND if you purchased your products directly from Aquion Energy,
call our support line at +1 412.904.6400. Please have your Aquion Energy order number ready.
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Appendix A: Operational Settings for Power Control
Electronics
The 48 V Aquion Energy battery is designed to be compatible with the majority of charge controllers
and inverters that are compatible with lead acid batteries. With the appropriate voltage, time, and
temperature compensation settings, the Aquion battery can use the common lead acid charge profile
of Bulk, Absorb, Float. The Aquion battery does not require a float current, as lead acid batteries do,
but there is a regulation voltage at which the battery can be held following its absorption charge cycle.
Different settings apply if the battery is to be used primarily in an off-grid application versus a grid-tied,
UPS-type application. The goal of off-grid, solar/battery charged applications is to charge the battery
as fast as possible when power is available. The grid-tied or UPS use case emphasizes providing
voltage settings that ensure the long-term life of the battery and maximum available energy when
required. To achieve this goal, the battery will use a lower float voltage or utilize silent mode settings.
The inverter settings in this appendix are recommendations only. They are intended to keep the
batteries within their operational limits (maximum voltage, maximum current, etc.). These settings can
be changed to optimize the performance of your particular system. Please contact Aquion Energy
support (see Section 11) for any further assistance.
A.1 Definitions
+ Bulk current – Maximum current at which the battery can be charged.
+ Absorption voltage – Voltage at which the battery can be maintained in the constant voltage
“absorption” stage of the charge profile. This condition allows the battery to charge at a faster
rate.
+ Absorption time – Length of time that the battery should be held at absorption voltage.
+ Hold (float) voltage – Voltage at which the battery can be held following the absorption stage. The
hold stage allows the battery to maintain a full state of charge when the system is generating
more power than is required by the system loads.
A.2 Voltage Limits vs. Temperature
The table below shows the maximum absorption and float voltages as a function of temperature. If
your power control electronics do not allow you to set temperature-compensation values, use 57.6 V
as the maximum absorption voltage.
Ambient Temperature (°C)
Charge Phase
0
10
23
30
40
Absorption Voltage (V)
58.5
58.2
57.8
57.6
57.3
Float Voltage (V)
53.0
52.7
52.3
52.1
51.8
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A.3 How to Charge Aquion Batteries
All off-grid power control devices that have temperature compensation have a battery temperature
sensor accessory. Affix the battery temperature sensor to the side of the topmost battery in the
eight-battery stack. For groups of stacks, install the battery temperature sensor on the most central
stack. Aquion recommends that the sensor be attached with high-quality tape, in addition to any selfadhesive included with the sensor.
A.4 Temperature Compensation
The Aquion AHI battery is capable of operating at higher ambient temperatures than lead acid
batteries can. The reference temperature for the AHI battery is 30°C, rather than the 25°C typical of
lead acid technologies. Because most off-grid power electronics are designed to use 25°C as the
reference temperature and have varying temperature compensation functions, care must be taken
when selecting the appropriate charge settings for an AHI battery.
A.5 Device-Specific Settings by Manufacturer
This section suggests settings for several power control devices when they are connected to Aquion
batteries. All settings are for off-grid applications with battery stacks unless otherwise noted as being
for modules or for grid-tied or UPS applications. If your device is not shown, derive the settings from
the “Voltage Limits vs. Temperature” table above (Section A.2) or contact Aquion Energy technical
support for assistance (see Section 11). Settings may need to be adjusted for a specific installation’s
use, configuration, or operating environment. Contact Aquion Energy technical support for
assistance.
A.5.1 Morningstar ______________________________________________________________24
24
Sunsaver MPPT
Tristar TS-60 MPPT
24
A.5.2 MidNite __________________________________________________________________24
24
Classic
MidNite BRAT
25
A.5.3 Outback _________________________________________________________________25
25
Charge Controller Menu
FX Class Inverter Menu
25
Radian Class Inverter Menu
25
FLEXnet DC Menu
25
A.5.4 SMA ____________________________________________________________________26
26
Sunny Island
A.5.5 Schneider ________________________________________________________________26
26
Conext XW+
A.5.6 Studer ___________________________________________________________________26
26
Xtender
23
AQ-OP-00013_C.01
A.5.1 Morningstar
Several Morningstar charge controllers can be configured using their serial/Modbus adapter and the
MSView software. The charge controllers operate at different voltages (12, 24, or 48 V) depending on
the initial battery voltage when power is connected.
Sunsaver MPPT
Charge Settings
Absorption Voltage ...................................................................................... 14.4 V
Float Voltage .................................................................................................. 13.0 V
Disable Float .......................................................................................... unchecked
Float – Low Battery Threshold .................................................................. 12.0 V
Float – Cancel Threshold .................................................................................. 9 V
Time Before Float ........................................................................................ 60 min
Time Before Float – Low Battery ............................................................. 60 min
Time Unit Float Exit ................................................................................... 240 min
Equalize Voltage ..................................................................................14 (default)
Disable Equalize ........................................................................................ checked
Shared Settings
Temperature Compensation ................................................−1.25 mV/cell/°C
Tristar TS-60 MPPT
Charge Mode – PWM, Temp Comp, & Reminder
Absorption Voltage ...................................................................................... 14.4 V
Absorption Time .......................................................................................... 60 min
Enable Absorption Extension ................................................................... disable
Battery Temperature Compensation .................................−1.25 mV/cell/°C
Enable Battery Current Limit ................................................................... enable
Battery Current Limit ......................................17 A/stack -or- 204 A/module
Enable Battery Service Reminder .................................................... unchecked
Charge Mode – Float Settings
Enable Float ................................................................................................ checked
Float Voltage .................................................................................................. 13.0 V
Float Timeout ............................................................................................. 240 min
Enable Float Cancel ..................................................................................... disable
Charge Mode – Equalize & HVD Settings
Enable Equalize..................................................................................... unchecked
A.5.2 MidNite
Classic
T-Comp ..........................................................................................................................................................................................−1.25 mV/cell/°C
Equalization ............................................................................ equalization not needed; verify that CHARGE>EQ>AUTOEQ>AUTO = 0
Current Limit – CHARGE>LIMITS>Out Amps .............................................................................................17 A/stack -or- 204 A/module
Absorb Voltage – CHARGE>VOLTS>Absorb Volts .............................................................................................................................. 57.6 V*
Float Voltage – CHARGE>VOLTS>Float Volts .................................................................. 54.0 V if off-grid -or- 52.1 V if grid-tied/UPS
Absorb Time ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 60 min
* At 30°C; otherwise, refer to Section A.2.
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AQ-OP-00013_C.01
MidNite BRAT
S1-4 Battery 1 ................................................................................................... OFF
S1-5 Battery 2 .....................................................................................................ON
Settings are for off-grid and grid-tied/UPS applications.
A.5.3 Outback
Charge Controller Menu
Absorb Voltage ........................................................................................... 57.6 V*
Absorb Time ....................................................................................................... 1 hr
Float Voltage ........................... 54.0 V if off-grid -or- 52.1 V if grid-tied/UPS
ReBulk Voltage ..................................................................................................50 V
Output Current Limit ......................................17 A/stack -or- 204 A/module
Absorb End Amps ................................................ 2 A/stack -or- 24 A/module
* At 30°C; otherwise, refer to Section A.2.
FX Class Inverter Menu
Low Battery Cut-Out Voltage .......................................................................36 V
Low Battery Cut-In Voltage ..........................................................................40 V
Absorb Voltage ........................................................................................... 57.6 V*
Absorb Time ....................................................................................................... 1 hr
Float Voltage ........................... 54.0 V if off-grid -or- 52.1 V if grid-tied/UPS
Float Time ............................................................................................................ 4 hr
Re-Float Voltage...............................................................................................52 V
Equalize Voltage .................... 54.0 V if off-grid -or- 52.1 V if grid-tied/UPS
Equalize Time...................................................................................................... 0 hr
* At 30°C; otherwise, refer to Section A.2.
Radian Class Inverter Menu
Low Battery Cut-Out Voltage .......................................................................36 V
Low Battery Cut-In Voltage ...........................................................................40 V
Absorb Voltage ........................................................................................... 57.6 V*
Absorb Time ....................................................................................................... 1 hr
Float Voltage ........................... 54.0 V if off-grid -or- 52.1 V if grid-tied/UPS
Float Time ............................................................................................................ 4 hr
Re-Float Voltage...............................................................................................52 V
Equalize Voltage .................... 54.0 V if off-grid -or- 52.1 V if grid-tied/UPS
Equalize Time...................................................................................................... 0 hr
Grid-Tie Sell Voltage .................................................................................... 52.1 V
* At 30°C; otherwise, refer to Section A.2.
FLEXnet DC Menu
Battery Ah ..................................................... 51 Ah/stack -or- 612 Ah/module
Charged Voltage ...............................................................................................56 V
Charged Time ..................................................................................................... 1 hr
Charged Return Amps........................................ 2 A/stack -or- 24 A/module
Charge Factor (BCF) ........................................................................................... 99
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AQ-OP-00013_C.01
A.5.4 SMA
Sunny Island
221.02
221.03
222.01
222.02
222.03
222.04
222.05
222.06
222.07
222.08
222.09
222.10
222.11
224.01
224.02
224.03
BatCpyNom .................................. 51 Ah/stack -or- 612 Ah/module
BatVtgNom .........................................................................................48 V
BatChrgCurMax ................................17 A/stack -or- 204 A/module
AptTmBoost .................................................................................. 60 min
AptTmFul .............................................................................................. 1 hr
AptTmEqu ............................................................................................ 1 hr
CycTmFul ................................................................................... 180 days
CyCTmEqu ................................................................................. 180 days
ChrgVtgBoost ................................................................................ 2.4 V*
ChrgVtgFul ...................................................................................... 2.4 V*
ChrgVtgEqu .................................................................................... 2.4 V*
ChrgVtgFlo ............... 2.25 V if off-grid -or- 2.17 V if grid-tied/UPS
BatTmpCps ......................................................................... 1 mV/cell/°C
SilentEna ......................................................................................... enable
SilentTmFlo .......................................................................................... 4 hr
SilentTmMax ......................................................................................48 hr
Parameter numbers are for model Sixx48-US. Parameters 224.01–224.03 not applicable to non-U.S. models.
* At 30°C; otherwise, refer to Section A.2.
A.5.5 Schneider
Conext XW+
Batt Type ..................................................................................................... custom
Batt Capacity ............................................... 51 Ah/stack -or- 612 Ah/module
Max Charge Rate..............................................17 A/stack -or- 204 A/module
Charge Cycle................................................................................................ 3 stage
Float Voltage ........................... 54.0 V if off-grid -or- 52.1 V if grid-tied/UPS
Absorb Time .................................................................................................... 1 min
Bulk Voltage ................................................................................................. 57.6 V*
Absorption Voltage .................................................................................... 57.6 V*
Equalize .......................................................................................................... disable
Batt Temp Comp ....................................................................................30 mV/°C
* At 30°C; otherwise, refer to Section A.2.
A.5.6 Studer
Xtender
Parameter
1191
1108
1138
1139
1156
1157
1140
1109
1109
1110
Default
ON
46.3
60
-3
57.6
2
54.4
46.3
42
48
Unit
Description
Setting
dynamic low voltage compensation .............................................................................................. OFF
V
low voltage disconnection level ......................................................................................................... 36
A
maximum charge current ....................................................................... 17/stack -or- 204/module
mV/°C/cell battery temperature compensation ...........................................................................................–1.25
V
absorption voltage ............................................................................................................................. 57.6
hrs
absorption time .................................................................................................................................... 1 hr
V
float voltage.......................................................................54.0 if off-grid -or- 52.1 if grid-tied/UPS
V
battery undervoltage at no load......................................................................................................... 38
V
battery undervoltage at full load ........................................................................................................ 38
V
restart voltage ........................................................................................................................................ 42
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