Manual:IP/DHCP Server

Manual:IP/DHCP Server
Manual:IP/DHCP Server
Manual:IP/DHCP Server
Applies to RouterOS: v3, v4, v5+
Summary
Standards: RFC 2131, RFC 3315, RFC 3633
Package: dhcp
The DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) is needed for easy distribution of IP addresses in a network. The
MikroTik RouterOS implementation includes both server and client parts and is compliant with RFC 2131.
The router supports an individual server for each Ethernet-like interface. The MikroTik RouterOS DHCP server
supports the basic functions of giving each requesting client an IP address/netmask lease, default gateway, domain
name, DNS-server(s) and WINS-server(s) (for Windows clients) information (set up in the DHCP networks
submenu)
In order DHCP server to work, you must set up also IP pools (do not include the DHCP server's own IP address into
the pool range) and DHCP networks.
It is also possible to hand out leases for DHCP clients using the RADIUS server, here are listed the parameters for
used in RADIUS server.
Access-Request:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
NAS-Identifier - router identity
NAS-IP-Address - IP address of the router itself
NAS-Port - unique session ID
NAS-Port-Type - Ethernet
Calling-Station-Id - client identifier (active-client-id)
Framed-IP-Address - IP address of the client (active-address)
Called-Station-Id - name of DHCP server
User-Name - MAC address of the client (active-mac-address)
Password - ""
Access-Accept:
• Framed-IP-Address - IP address that will be assigned to client
• Framed-Pool - ip pool from which to assign ip address to client
• Rate-Limit - Datarate limitation for DHCP clients. Format is: rx-rate[/tx-rate] [rx-burst-rate[/tx-burst-rate]
[rx-burst-threshold[/tx-burst-threshold] [rx-burst-time[/tx-burst-time][priority] [rx-rate-min[/tx-rate-min]]]]. All
rates should be numbers with optional 'k' (1,000s) or 'M' (1,000,000s). If tx-rate is not specified, rx-rate is as
tx-rate too. Same goes for tx-burst-rate and tx-burst-threshold and tx-burst-time. If both rx-burst-threshold and
tx-burst-threshold are not specified (but burst-rate is specified), rx-rate and tx-rate are used as burst thresholds. If
both rx-burst-time and tx-burst-time are not specified, 1s is used as default. Priority takes values 1..8, where 1
implies the highest priority, but 8 - the lowest. If rx-rate-min and tx-rate-min are not specified rx-rate and tx-rate
values are used. The rx-rate-min and tx-rate-min values can not exceed rx-rate and tx-rate values.
• Ascend-Data-Rate - tx/rx data rate limitation if multiple attributes are provided, first limits tx data rate, second rx data rate. If used together with Ascend-Xmit-Rate, specifies rx rate. 0 if unlimited
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Manual:IP/DHCP Server
2
• Ascend-Xmit-Rate - tx data rate limitation. It may be used to specify tx limit only instead of sending two
sequential Ascend-Data-Rate attributes (in that case Ascend-Data-Rate will specify the receive rate). 0 if
unlimited
• Session-Timeout - max lease time (lease-time)
Quick Setup Guide
RouterOS has built in command that lets you easily set up DHCP server. Lets say we want to configure DHCP server
on ether1 interface to lend addresses from 192.168.0.2 to 192.168.0.254 which belong to the 192.168.0.0/24
network. The gateway and DNS server is 192.168.0.1.
From /ip dhcp-server menu run setup command and follow instructions:
[[email protected]] ip dhcp-server> setup
Select interface to run DHCP server on
dhcp server interface: ether1
Select network for DHCP addresses
dhcp address space: 192.168.0.0/24
Select gateway for given network
gateway for dhcp network: 192.168.0.1
Select pool of ip addresses given out by DHCP server
addresses to give out: 192.168.0.2-192.168.0254
Select DNS servers
dns servers: 192.168.0.1
Select lease time
lease time: 3d
[[email protected]] ip dhcp-server>
The wizard has made the following configuration based on the answers above:
[[email protected]] ip dhcp-server> print
Flags: X - disabled, I - invalid
#
NAME
INTERFACE RELAY
0
dhcp1
ether1
0.0.0.0
ADDRESS-POOL LEASE-TIME ADD-ARP
dhcp_pool1
3d
no
[[email protected]] ip dhcp-server> network print
# ADDRESS
GATEWAY
DNS-SERVER
WINS-SERVER
0 192.168.0.0/24
192.168.0.1
192.168.0.1
DOMAIN
[[email protected]] ip dhcp-server> /ip pool print
# NAME
RANGES
0 dhcp_pool1
192.168.0.2-192.168.0.254
[[email protected]] ip dhcp-server>
Manual:IP/DHCP Server
3
IPv6
Starting from v5.8 RouterOS supports IPv6 prefix delegation according to RFC 3315 and RFC 3633.
Starting from v5.9, DHCPv6 server configuration was moved to /ipv6 sub-menu. Read-more >>
General
Sub-menu: /ip dhcp-server
Property
Description
add-arp (yes | no; Default: no)
Whether to add dynamic ARP entry. If set to no either ARP mode should be enabled on that interface or
static ARP entries should be administratively defined in /ip arp submenu.
address-pool (string | static-only;
Default: static-only)
IP pool, from which to take IP addresses for the clients. If set to static-only, then only the clients that
have a static lease (added in lease submenu) will be allowed.
always-broadcast (yes | no;
Default: no)
Always send replies as broadcasts.
authoritative (after-10sec-delay | Whether the DHCP server is the only one DHCP server for the network:
after-2sec-delay | yes | no; Default:
• after-10sec-delay - to clients request for an address, dhcp server will wait 10 seconds and if
after-2sec-delay)
there is another request from the client after this period of time, then dhcp server will offer the address
to the client or will send DHCPNAK, if the requested address is not available from this server
• after-2sec-delay - to clients request for an address, dhcp server will wait 2 seconds and if there
is another request from the client after this period of time, then dhcp server will offer the address to
the client or will send DHCPNAK, if the requested address is not available from this server
• yes - to clients request for an address that is not available from this server, dhcp server will send
negative acknowledgment (DHCPNAK)
• no - dhcp server ignores clients requests for addresses that are not available from this server
boot-support (none | static |
dynamic; Default: static)
Support for BOOTP clients:
delay-threshold (time | none;
Default: none)
If secs field in DHCP packet is smaller than delay-threshold, then this packet is ignored. If set to none there is no threshold (all DHCP packets are processed)
interface (string; Default: )
Interface on which server will be running.
lease-time (time; Default: 72h)
The time that a client may use the assigned address. The client will try to renew this address after a half of
this time and will request a new address after time limit expires.
name (string; Default: )
Reference name
relay (IP; Default: 0.0.0.0)
The IP address of the relay this DHCP server should process requests from:
•
•
•
•
•
none - do not respond to BOOTP requests
static - offer only static leases to BOOTP clients
dynamic - offer static and dynamic leases for BOOTP clients
0.0.0.0 - the DHCP server will be used only for direct requests from clients (no DHCP really
allowed)
255.255.255.255 - the DHCP server should be used for any incomming request from a DHCP
relay except for those, which are processed by another DHCP server that exists in the /ip
dhcp-server submenu.
src-address (IP; Default: 0.0.0.0)
The address which the DHCP client must send requests to in order to renew an IP address lease. If there is
only one static address on the DHCP server interface and the source-address is left as 0.0.0.0, then the
static address will be used. If there are multiple addresses on the interface, an address in the same subnet
as the range of given addresses should be used.
use-radius (yes | no; Default: no)
Whether to use RADIUS server for dynamic leases
Manual:IP/DHCP Server
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Menu specific commands
Property
Description
setup () Start DHCP server setup wizard, which guides you through the steps to easily create all necessary configuration. Read more>>
Lease Store Configuration
Sub-menu: /ip dhcp-server config
This sub-menu allows to configure how often DHCP leases will be stored on disk. If they would be saved on disk on
every lease change, a lot of disk writes would happen which is very bad for Compact Flash (especially, if lease times
are very short). To minimize writes on disk, all changes are saved on disk every store-leases-disk seconds.
Additionally leases are always stored on disk on graceful shutdown and reboot.
This sub-menu has only one configurable property:
Property
Description
store-leases-disk (time | immediately | never; Default: 5m) How frequently lease changes should be stored on disk
Networks
Sub-menu: /ip dhcp-server network
Property
Description
address (IP/netmask;
Default: )
the network DHCP server(s) will lend addresses from
boot-file-name (string;
Default: )
Boot file name
dhcp-option (string;
Default: )
Add additional DHCP options from option list.
dns-server (string;
Default: )
the DHCP client will use these as the default DNS servers. Two comma-separated DNS servers can be specified to
be used by DHCP client as primary and secondary DNS servers
domain (string; Default: )
The DHCP client will use this as the 'DNS domain' setting for the network adapter.
gateway (IP; Default:
0.0.0.0)
The default gateway to be used by DHCP Client.
netmask (integer: 0..32;
Default: 0)
The actual network mask to be used by DHCP client. If set to '0' - netmask from network address will be used.
next-server (IP; Default: IP address of next server to use in bootstrap.
)
ntp-server (IP; Default: ) the DHCP client will use these as the default NTP servers. Two comma-separated NTP servers can be specified to
be used by DHCP client as primary and secondary NTP servers
wins-server (IP; Default: The Windows DHCP client will use these as the default WINS servers. Two comma-separated WINS servers can
)
be specified to be used by DHCP client as primary and secondary WINS servers
Manual:IP/DHCP Server
5
Leases
Sub-menu: /ip dhcp-server lease
DHCP server lease submenu is used to monitor and manage server's leases. The issued leases are showed here as
dynamic entries. You can also add static leases to issue a particular client (identified by MAC address) the desired IP
address.
Generally, the DHCP lease it allocated as follows:
• an unused lease is in waiting state
• if a client asks for an IP address, the server chooses one
• if the client will receive statically assigned address, the lease becomes offered, and then bound with the respective
lease time
• if the client will receive a dynamic address (taken from an IP address pool), the router sends a ping packet and
waits for answer for 0.5 seconds. During this time, the lease is marked testing
• in case, the address does not respond, the lease becomes offered, and then bound with the respective lease time
• in other case, the lease becomes busy for the lease time (there is a command to retest all busy addresses), and the
client's request remains unanswered (the client will try again shortly)
A client may free the leased address. The dynamic lease is removed, and the allocated address is returned to the
address pool. But the static lease becomes busy until the client will reacquire the address.
Note: that the IP addresses assigned statically are not probed.
Properties
Property
Description
address (IP; Default: )
Specify ip address (or ip pool) for static lease. If set to 0.0.0.0 - pool from server will be used
address-list (string; Default: )
Address list to which address will be added if lease is bound.
always-broadcast (yes | no; Default: )
Send all repies as broadcasts
block-access (yes | no; Default: no)
Block access for this client
client-id (string; Default: )
If specified, must match DHCP 'client identifier' option of the request
lease-time (time; Default: 0s)
Time that the client may use the address. If set to 0s lease will never expire.
mac-address (MAC; Default: 00:00:00:00:00:00) If specified, must match the MAC address of the client
src-mac-address (MAC; Default: )
Source MAC address
use-src-mac (MAC; Default: )
Use this source MAC address instead
Read only properties
Manual:IP/DHCP Server
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Property
Description
active-address (IP)
Actual IP address for this lease
active-client-id (string) Actual client-id of the client
active-mac-address
(MAC)
Actual MAC address of the client
active-server (list)
Actual dhcp server, which serves this client
agent-circuit-id (string) Circuit ID of DHCP relay agent
agent-remote-id (string)
Remote ID, set by DHCP relay agent
blocked ( flag )
Whether the lease is blocked
expires-after (time)
Time until lease expires
host-name (text)
Shows host name option from last received DHCP request
radius (yes | no)
Shows, whether this dynamic lease is authenticated by RADIUS or not
rate-limit (string)
Sets rate limit for active lease. Format is: rx-rate[/tx-rate] [rx-burst-rate[/tx-burst-rate]
[rx-burst-threshold[/tx-burst-threshold] [rx-burst-time[/tx-burst-time]]]]. All rates should be numbers with
optional 'k' (1,000s) or 'M' (1,000,000s). If tx-rate is not specified, rx-rate is as tx-rate too. Same goes for
tx-burst-rate and tx-burst-threshold and tx-burst-time. If both rx-burst-threshold and tx-burst-threshold are not
specified (but burst-rate is specified), rx-rate and tx-rate is used as burst thresholds. If both rx-burst-time and
tx-burst-time are not specified, 1s is used as default
server (string)
Server name which serves this client
status (waiting | testing |
authorizing | busy | offered |
bound)
Lease status:
•
•
•
•
•
•
waiting - not used static lease
testing - testing whether this address is used or not (only for dynamic leases) by pinging it with timeout of
0.5s
authorizing - waiting for response from radius server
busy - this address is assigned statically to a client or already exists in the network, so it can not be leased
offered - server has offered this lease to a client, but did not receive confirmation from the client
bound - server has received client's confirmation that it accepts offered address, it is using it now and will free
the address not later, than the lease time will be over
Menu specific commands
Property
Description
check-status (id) Check status of a given busy dynamic lease, and free it in case of no response
make-static (id)
Convert a dynamic lease to a static one
Alerts
Sub-menu: /ip dhcp-server alert
To find any rogue DHCP servers as soon as they appear in your network, DHCP Alert tool can be used. It will
monitor ethernet for all DHCP replies and check, whether this reply comes from a valid DHCP server. If reply from
unknown DHCP server is detected, alert gets triggered:
[[email protected]] ip dhcp-server alert>/log print
00:34:23 dhcp,critical,error,warning,info,debug dhcp alert on Public:
discovered unknown dhcp server, mac 00:02:29:60:36:E7, ip 10.5.8.236
[[email protected]] ip dhcp-server alert>
Manual:IP/DHCP Server
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When the system alerts about a rogue DHCP server, it can execute a custom script.
As DHCP replies can be unicast, rogue dhcp detector may not receive any offer to other dhcp clients at all. To deal
with this, rogue dhcp detector acts as a dhcp client as well - it sends out dhcp discover requests once a minute
Properties
Property
Description
alert-timeout (none | time;
Default: none)
Time, after which alert will be forgotten. If after that time the same server will be detected, new alert will be
generated. If set to none timeout will never expire.
interface (string; Default: )
Interface, on which to run rogue DHCP server finder.
on-alert (string; Default: )
Script to run, when an unknown DHCP server is detected.
valid-server (string; Default: )
List of MAC addresses of valid DHCP servers.
Read only properties
Property
Description
unknown-server (string) List of MAC addresses of detected unknown DHCP servers. Server is removed from this list after alert-timeout
Menu specific commands
Property
Description
reset-alert (id) Clear all alerts on an interface
DHCP Options
Sub-menu: /ip dhcp-server option
With help of DHCP Option list, it is possible to define additional custom options for DHCP Server to advertise.
According to the DHCP protocol, a parameter is returned to the DHCP client only if it requests this parameter,
specifying the respective code in DHCP request Parameter-List (code 55) attribute. If the code is not included in
Parameter-List attribute, DHCP server will not send it to the DHCP client.
Properties
Property
Description
code (integer:1..254; Default: ) dhcp option code. All codes are available at [1]
name (string; Default: )
Descriptive name of the option
value (string; Default: )
Parameter's value in form of a string. If the string begins with "0x", it is assumed as a hexadecimal value
Manual:IP/DHCP Server
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Example
Classless route adds specified route in clients routing table. In our example it will add dst-address=160.0.0.0/24
gateway=10.1.101.1
/ip
add
/ip
set
dhcp-server option
code=121 name=classless value=0x18A000000A016501000A016501
dhcp-server network
0 dhcp-option=classless
Result:
[[email protected]] /ip route> print
Flags: X - disabled, A - active, D - dynamic, C - connect, S - static, r - rip, b - bgp, o - ospf,
m - mme, B - blackhole, U - unreachable, P - prohibit
#
DST-ADDRESS
GATEWAY
DISTANCE
0 ADS
0.0.0.0/0
PREF-SRC
10.1.101.1
0
1 ADS
160.0.0.0/24
10.1.101.1
0
Configuration Examples
[ Top | Back to Content ]
References
[1] http:/ / www. iana. org/ assignments/ bootp-dhcp-parameters
Article Sources and Contributors
Article Sources and Contributors
Manual:IP/DHCP Server Source: http://wiki.mikrotik.com/index.php?oldid=22637 Contributors: Janisk, Marisb
Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
Image:Version.png Source: http://wiki.mikrotik.com/index.php?title=File:Version.png License: unknown Contributors: Normis
Image:Icon-note.png Source: http://wiki.mikrotik.com/index.php?title=File:Icon-note.png License: unknown Contributors: Marisb, Route
9
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