Beechcraft Travelair Pilot Information Manual

Beechcraft Travelair Pilot Information Manual
Selkirk College IATPL Program Manual
Beech 95 Pilot Information Manual
For the exclusive use of students in the Selkirk College Professional Aviation Program
Copyright 2005 – revised 2010
Beech 95 POH Effective September 1, 2005
Appendix 14 - 1
Selkirk College IATPL Program Manual
Beech 95 POH Effective September 1, 2005
Appendix 14 - 2
Selkirk College IATPL Program Manual
Beech 95 POH Effective September 1, 2005
Appendix 14 - 3
Selkirk College IATPL Program Manual
Beechcraft Travelair Pilot Information Manual
The official Pilot Operating Handbook for the Beechcraft Travelair airplanes is in
the aircraft. This section of appendix 14 constitutes an information manual for students in
the Selkirk College Professional Aviation Program to use when learning to fly the
Travelair and for planning flights.
All information provided in this information manual is taken from the following
Beechcraft Publications:
1. Beechcraft Travelair D95A Owner’s Manual
2. Beechcraft Travelair E95 Owner’s Manual
3. Beechcraft Travelair Shop Manual
Copies of the above manuals are available in the Selair Resource Center.
This manual is also based on actual experience operating the airplanes for 25+
years at Selkirk College.
This Information Manual is for use with both GSAK and FXFG. GSAK is a 1965
D95A. FXFG is a 1968 E95. The procedures and performance of the two airplanes is
identical except where noted in this book. The two aircraft have very similar systems but
there are differences, especially in the electric and vacuum systems. This information
manual explains the differences.
This information manual has been organized according to the nine-section POH
format that has become the standard in the aviation industry. This should assist pilots to
locate the required information quickly and easily.
Beech 95 POH Effective September 1, 2005
Appendix 14 - 4
Selkirk College IATPL Program Manual
Contents:
General ................................................................................Section 1
Limitations ..........................................................................Section 2
Emergency Procedures........................................................Section 3
Normal Procedures..............................................................Section 4
Performance .......................................................................Section 5
Weight and Balance ............................................................Section 6
Airplane & Systems Description and Operation .................Section 7
Aircraft Handling, Servicing, and Maintenance .................Section 8
Supplements ........................................................................Section 9
Beech 95 POH Effective September 1, 2005
Appendix 14 - 5
Selkirk College IATPL Program Manual
Table of Contents:
Section 1 – General ............................................................................................................. 9
Three View...................................................................................................................... 9
Introduction ................................................................................................................... 10
Descriptive Data........................................................................................................ 10
GSAK.................................................................................................................... 10
FXFG (modified under STC: SA00722CH) ......................................................... 10
Symbols, Abbreviations and Terminology ................................................................... 13
Section 2– Limitations ...................................................................................................... 16
Introduction to Section 2 ............................................................................................... 16
Design Limitations ........................................................................................................ 16
Stall Speeds ................................................................................................................... 16
Airspeed Indicator Markings ........................................................................................ 18
Power Plant Limitations ................................................................................................ 18
Power Plant Instrument Markings ................................................................................ 19
Weight Limits ............................................................................................................... 19
Center of Gravity Limits ............................................................................................... 19
Maneuver Limits ........................................................................................................... 20
Flight Load Factor Limits ............................................................................................. 20
Kinds of Operation Limits ............................................................................................ 20
Fuel Limitations ............................................................................................................ 20
Other Limitations .......................................................................................................... 22
Flap Limitations ........................................................................................................ 22
Gear Limitations ....................................................................................................... 22
Cowl Flap Limitations .............................................................................................. 22
Placards ......................................................................................................................... 22
Section 3 – Emergency Procedures................................................................................... 23
Introduction to Section 3 ............................................................................................... 23
Airspeeds for Emergency Operation ............................................................................. 23
Emergency Checklists ................................................................................................... 23
Amplified Engine Failure Procedures ........................................................................... 23
Simulated Zero Thrust .............................................................................................. 24
Section 4 – Normal Procedures......................................................................................... 25
Introduction to Section 4 ............................................................................................... 25
Speeds for Normal Operation ....................................................................................... 25
Normal Checklists ......................................................................................................... 26
Amplified Procedures ................................................................................................... 26
Preflight..................................................................................................................... 26
Starting Engines ........................................................................................................ 26
Taxiing ...................................................................................................................... 26
Runup ........................................................................................................................ 27
Normal Takeoff ......................................................................................................... 27
Short Field Takeoff ................................................................................................... 28
Soft or Rough Field Takeoff ..................................................................................... 28
Climb......................................................................................................................... 28
Beech 95 POH Effective September 1, 2005
Appendix 14 - 6
Selkirk College IATPL Program Manual
Cruise ........................................................................................................................ 29
Holds ......................................................................................................................... 29
Stalls.......................................................................................................................... 30
Descent ...................................................................................................................... 30
Normal Approach and Landing ................................................................................ 30
Short Field Approach and Landing ........................................................................... 31
Soft or Rough Field Approach and Landing ............................................................. 31
Crosswind Landing ................................................................................................... 32
Balked Landing (IFR Missed Approach) .................................................................. 32
Section 5 – Performance ................................................................................................... 34
Introduction to Section 5 ............................................................................................... 34
Airspeed Calibration Chart ........................................................................................... 36
Time to Climb at Vy – Maximum Continuous Power .................................................. 43
Maximum Rate of Climb .............................................................................................. 45
Time, Fuel, and Distance to Climb (4200 lb) ............................................................... 46
Time, Fuel, and Distance to Climb (3500 lb) ............................................................... 47
Beech 95 Cruise Performance Chart ............................................................................. 48
B95 Cruise- 70% 2400 rpm .......................................................................................... 49
Single Engine Cruise Performance ............................................................................... 50
Section 6 – Weight and Balance ....................................................................................... 52
Introduction to Section 6 ............................................................................................... 52
Weight and Balance Procedure ................................................................................. 53
Weight Limits ........................................................................................................... 55
Center of Gravity Limits ........................................................................................... 55
Section 7 – Airplane Systems Description & Operation .................................................. 57
Introduction to Section 7 ............................................................................................... 57
Airframe ........................................................................................................................ 57
Cabin Doors and Windows ....................................................................................... 57
Baggage Compartments ............................................................................................ 57
Flight Controls .............................................................................................................. 58
Flaps .......................................................................................................................... 59
Control Locks............................................................................................................ 59
Power Plants.................................................................................................................. 60
Oil System ................................................................................................................. 60
Starters ...................................................................................................................... 60
Cowl Flaps ................................................................................................................ 61
Propellers ...................................................................................................................... 61
Fuel System ................................................................................................................... 62
Gear ............................................................................................................................... 64
Instrument Panel ........................................................................................................... 66
Ignition Panel ............................................................................................................ 66
Main Panel ................................................................................................................ 67
Pilot Sub-panel .......................................................................................................... 67
Power Gauge Panel ................................................................................................... 68
Center Console .......................................................................................................... 68
Power Plant Controls ............................................................................................ 68
Beech 95 POH Effective September 1, 2005
Appendix 14 - 7
Selkirk College IATPL Program Manual
Trim Control Wheels ............................................................................................ 68
Panel Light Rheostats ........................................................................................... 69
Alternate Air Controls........................................................................................... 69
Nose Gear Indicator .............................................................................................. 70
Engine Instrument Panel ........................................................................................... 70
Avionics Circuit Breaker Panel ................................................................................ 70
Avionics ........................................................................................................................ 71
HSI (PN101) ............................................................................................................. 71
RMI ........................................................................................................................... 71
Gyro Slaving System ................................................................................................ 71
Heater and Ventilation System ..................................................................................... 72
Electric System ............................................................................................................. 76
Alternators, Voltage Regulators, and Ammeters ...................................................... 76
Busses ....................................................................................................................... 77
Batteries .................................................................................................................... 77
Circuit breakers and Fused Switches ........................................................................ 77
Over-Voltage Warning.............................................................................................. 78
Alternator Out Lights ................................................................................................ 78
Vacuum System ............................................................................................................ 82
Brake System ................................................................................................................ 83
Cabin Ventilation .......................................................................................................... 84
Section 8 - Aircraft Handling, Servicing, and Maintenance ............................................. 86
Towing ...................................................................................................................... 86
CAUTION................................................................................................................. 86
External Power .......................................................................................................... 86
Landing Gear ............................................................................................................ 86
Brakes ....................................................................................................................... 86
Light Bulbs................................................................................................................ 87
Beech 95 POH Effective September 1, 2005
Appendix 14 - 8
Selkirk College IATPL Program Manual
Section 1 – General
Three View
Beech 95 POH Effective September 1, 2005
Appendix 14 - 9
Selkirk College IATPL Program Manual
Introduction
This handbook contains 9 sections including supplemental data supplied by
Beechcraft and Selkirk College.
Section 1 provides basic data and information of general interest. It also contains
definitions and explanations of symbols, abbreviations, and terminology commonly used.
Descriptive Data
Model D95A: Type Certificate 3A16 (GSAK)
Model E95: Type Certificate 3A16 (FXFG)
Engine:
Number of Engines ..........................................................................2
Engine Manufacturer ........................................................ Lycoming
Engine Model ................................................................ IO-360-B1B
Engine Type ................................... Normally aspirated, direct drive
.................................................Air-cooled, horizontally opposed
Horsepower rating ............................... 180 hp @ 2700 rpm, 29” MP
Propellers:
GSAK
Propeller Manufacturer .......................................................... Hartzel
Propeller Model ............................................................ HC-92WK-2
Propeller Type ..................... 2-blade, constant speed, full feathering
Propeller diameter ....................................................... 71 - 72 inches
FXFG (modified under STC: SA00722CH)
Propeller Manufacturer .......................................................... Hartzel
Propeller Model ........................... HC-C2YK-2CUF/FC7666C(B)-4
Propeller Type ..................... 2-blade, constant speed, full feathering
Propeller diameter .............................................................. 72 inches
Fuel Grade:
Approved Fuel Grades ............................................................. 91/96
........................................................................................ 100/130
........................................................................................ 115/145
........................................................................................... 100LL
Fuel Capacity:
Total Capacity ........................................................... 112 US gallons
Total useable fuel ...................................................... 106 US gallons
Main tanks ........................................................... 50 US gallons total
Main tanks ...................................................... 44 US gallons useable
Auxiliary tanks .................................................... 62 US gallons total
Beech 95 POH Effective September 1, 2005
Appendix 14 - 10
Selkirk College IATPL Program Manual
Auxiliary tanks ............................................... 62 US gallons useable
Nacelle tanks ................................INOPERATIVE – DO NOT USE
Note: takeoff is prohibited with less than 10 gallons in each main tank.
A yellow band on the fuel gauges, applicable only when main tanks are selected, marks
the minimum fuel for takeoff.
Beech 95 POH Effective September 1, 2005
Appendix 14 - 11
Selkirk College IATPL Program Manual
Oil Grade Specification:
MIL-L-6082 Aviation grade straight mineral oil: Use to replenish supply during first 25
hours or until oil consumption stabilizes whichever occurs later.
After oil consumption stabilizes use either:
MIL-L-2285 Ashless dispersant OIL.
MIL-L-22851 Ashless dispersant OIL.
Recommended Viscosity for temperature range:
Above 15 C........................................................................... SAE 50
-1 C to 32 C ........................................................................ SAE 40
-17 C to 21 C ....................................................................... SAE 30
Below -12 C ........................................................................ SAE 20
Note: In addition to the above single viscosity oils, multi-viscosity oils meeting MIL-L22851 are approved.
OIL Capacity:
Sump (each engine)............................................................... 7 quarts
Total (each engine) ............................................................... 8 quarts
Recommended minimum for takeoff ................................. 5.5 quarts
Minimum for safe operation ................................................. 2 quarts
Maximum Certified Weights:
Ramp .................................................................................... 4200 lbs
Takeoff ................................................................................. 4200 lbs
Landing ................................................................................ 4200 lbs
Weight in nose baggage compartment .................................... 270 lb
Weight in aft baggage compartment ...................................... 400 lbs
Cabin and Entry Dimensions:
Cabin length ............................................................................. 8.5 ft.
Cabin width .............................................................................. 3.5 ft.
Cabin height ........................................................................... 4.16 ft.
Passenger door size .......................................................... 36” by 37”
Baggage door size (GSAK) ...............................................................
Baggage door size (FXFG) ................................................................
Baggage compartment size (rear) ................................ 33.5 cubic ft.
Baggage compartment size (front) .................................. 12 cubic ft.
Wing Area and Loading:
Wing area ............................................................................. 199.2 ft2
Wing Loading at 4200 lb ...................................................21.1 lb/ft2
Power loading at 4200 lb .................................................. 11.7 lb/hp
Beech 95 POH Effective September 1, 2005
Appendix 14 - 12
Selkirk College IATPL Program Manual
Symbols, Abbreviations and Terminology
General Airspeed Terminology and Symbols
KCAS
KIAS
KTAS
Va
Vfe
Vle
Vlo
VNO
VNE
Vs
Vso
Vx
Vy
Vxse
Vyse
Vmc
Knots Calibrated Airspeed is indicated airspeed corrected for position and
instrument error and expressed in knots. Knots calibrated airspeed is equal
to KTAS in standard atmosphere at sea level.
Knots Indicated Airspeed is the airspeed shown on the airspeed indicator
and expressed in knots.
Knots True Airspeed is the airspeed expressed in knots relative to the
undisturbed air. This is KCAS corrected for altitude and temperature.
Maneuvering Speed is the maximum speed which you may use abrupt
control travel.
Maximum Flap Extended Speed is the highest speed permissible with
flaps extended.
Maximum Landing Gear Extended Speed is the highest speed
permissible with landing gear extended
Maximum Landing Gear Operating Speed is the maximum speed at
which the gear position may be changed.
Maximum Structural Cruising Speed is the speed that should not be
exceeded except in smooth air, then only with caution.
Never Exceed Speed is the speed limit that may not be exceeded at any
time.
Stalling Speed or the minimum steady flight speed at which the airplane
is controllable in cruise configuration.
Stalling Speed or the minimum steady flight speed at which the airplane
is controllable in the landing configuration at the most forward center of
gravity.
Best Angle of Climb Speed is the speed that results in the greatest gain of
altitude in a given horizontal distance. Operation with all engines
Best Rate of Climb Speed is the speed that results in the greatest gain of
altitude in a given time.
Best Angle of Climb Speed on Single Engine is the speed that results in
the greatest gain of altitude in a given horizontal distance. Operation with
one engine only. Failed engine is feathered.
Best Rate of Climb Speed on Single Engine is the speed that results in the
greatest gain of altitude in a given time with one engine only. Failed engine
is feathered.
Minimum Single Engine Control Speed the minimum flight speed at which it is
possible to retain control of the aeroplane and maintain straight flight, through
the use of maximum rudder deflection and not more than 50 of bank, following
sudden failure of the critical engine.
Vmc is generally determined under the following conditions:
Beech 95 POH Effective September 1, 2005
Appendix 14 - 13
Selkirk College IATPL Program Manual
(a) all engines developing maximum rated power at the time of critical engine
failure;
(b) the aeroplane at minimum take-off weight and in a rearmost centre of
gravity; and
(c) landing gear retracted, flaps in take-off position, and the propeller of the
failed critical engine windmilling.
Vsse
Intentional One Engine Inoperative Speed - a speed above both (Vmc) and stall speed,
selected to provide a margin of lateral and directional control when one engine is
suddenly rendered inoperative. Intentional failing of one engine below this
speed is not recommended.
Meteorological Terminology
OAT
Outside Air Temperature is the free air static temperature. It is expressed
in degrees Celsius.
Standard
Standard Temperature is 15 C at sea level pressure altitude and decreases
Temperature 1.98 degrees per thousand feet.
Pressure
Pressure altitude is the altitude read from an altimeter when the altimeter
Altitude
barometric scale has been set to 29.92 inches of mercury.
Density
Density Altitude is pressure altitude corrected for non-standard air
Altitude
temperature.
Engine Power Terminology
BHP
Brake Horsepower is the power developed by the engine
RPM
Revolutions per Minute is engine speed.
Manifold
Is absolute pressure in the engine intake manifold in units of inches of
Pressure
mercury.
Airplane Performance and Flight Planning Terminology
Useable
Useable Fuel is the fuel available for flight planning
Fuel
Unusable
Unusable Fuel is the quantity of fuel that can not be safely used in flight.
Fuel
GPH
Gallons Per Hour is the amount of fuel in gallons consumed per hour.
NMPG
Nautical Miles per Gallon is the distance in nautical miles that can be
expected per gallon of fuel consumed at a specific engine power and or
flight configuration.
g
g is acceleration due to gravity
Beech 95 POH Effective September 1, 2005
Appendix 14 - 14
Selkirk College IATPL Program Manual
Weight and Balance Terminology
Reference Reference Datum is an imaginary vertical plane from which all horizontal
Datum
distances are measured for balance purposes.
Station
Station is a location along the airplane fuselage given in terms of the
distance from the reference datum.
Arm
Arm is the horizontal distance from the reference datum to the center of
gravity (C.G.) of an item.
Moment
Moment is the product of the weight of an item multiplied by its arm.
Center of
Center of Gravity (C.G.) is the point at which an airplane, or equipment,
Gravity
would balance if suspended. Its distance from the reference datum is found
by dividing the total moment by the total weight of the airplane.
C.G. Arm Center of Gravity Arm is the arm obtained by adding the airplanes
individual moments and dividing the sum by the total weight.
C.G.
Center of Gravity Limits are the extreme center of gravity locations within
Limits
which the airplane must be operated at a given weight.
Empty
Empty weight is the weight of the standard airframe plus any optional
Weight
equipment installed plus full oil.
Useful
Useful load is the difference between ramp weight and the empty weight.
Load
Ramp
Ramp weight is the maximum weight approved for ground maneuver. It
weight
includes the weight of start, taxi, and runup fuel.
Maximum Maximum Takeoff Weight is the maximum weight approved for the start of
Takeoff
the takeoff run.
Weight
Maximum Maximum Landing Weight is the maximum weight approved for the
Landing
landing touchdown.
Weight
Tare
Tare is the weight of chocks, blocks, stands, etc. used when weighing an
airplane, and is included in the scale reading. Tare is deducted from the
scale reading to obtain the actual (net) airplane weight.
Beech 95 POH Effective September 1, 2005
Appendix 14 - 15
Selkirk College IATPL Program Manual
Section 2– Limitations
Introduction to Section 2
Section 2 includes operating limitations, instrument markings, and basic placards
necessary for safe operation of the airplane, its engines, and systems. The limitations
included in this section are taken from the official operating manual in the airplane, the
shop manual, the Lycoming engine-operating manual, and other manufacturers
information sources.
The airspeeds in the airspeed limitations chart are based on airspeed calibration
data shown in section 5. This data has been gleaned from various sources within
Beechcraft documentation but may not be totally accurate.
Design Limitations
The following design speeds apply:
Speed
Vfe
Maximum flap extended
Vle
Maximum landing gear extended
Vmc
Minimum control speed
Vsse
Single engine safety speed
Vno
Maximum structural cruising speed (top of green arc)
Vne
Never exceed speed (red line)
KIAS
113
143
71
78
161
208
KCAS
113
143
69
75
161
208
Stall Speeds
Power-off Stall speeds with zero flaps and zero bank:
Weight
Stall Speed KIAS
Stall Speed KCAS
74
71
4200
72
70
4000
70
68
3800
68
66
3600
Power-off Stall speeds with 28 flaps and zero bank:
Weight
Stall Speed KIAS
Stall Speed KCAS
65
61
4200
65
60
4000
62
58
3800
61
57
3600
Do not open pilot storm window above 126 KIAS.
Do not open passenger door in flight.
Beech 95 POH Effective September 1, 2005
Appendix 14 - 16
Selkirk College IATPL Program Manual
Stall speed in a turn may be calculated based on Vsb = Vs/ Cos(b) where Vsb is stall
speed at a bank angle b.
Power-off Stall Speed at 4200lb, zero flap, Bank Angle b:
Bank angle 1/ Cos(b)
Vs indicated
Vs Calibrated
75
73
15
1.02
80
77
30
1.07
88
85
45
1.19
Power-off Stall Speed at 4200lb, full flap, Bank Angle b:
Bank angle 1/ Cos(b)
Vs indicated
Vs Calibrated
67
62
15
1.02
70
66
30
1.07
78
73
45
1.19
Maneuvering speed (Va):
This airplane is designed for normal operating limits of +4.4g and –3.0g pilot
induced loads in the clean configuration. It is limited to +2.0g and –0.0g pilot induced
loads with (any) flaps extended.
Maneuvering speed (clean) is defined as Va = 3.8 x Vs
Weight
Va KIAS
Va KCAS
139
139
4200
136
136
4000
132
132
3800
129
129
3600
Turbulence Speed
This airplane is designed to withstand vertical wind gust up to 45 feet per second.
In such gusts operating at high speed may exceed the airplanes design load factor but
operating at low speed will result in loss of control due to stall. It is recommended to
operate at Va in moderate or severe turbulence.
Beech 95 POH Effective September 1, 2005
Appendix 14 - 17
Selkirk College IATPL Program Manual
Airspeed Indicator Markings
Airspeed indicator markings and their color code significance are shown below.
Note that all speeds are calibrated speeds, even though they are painted on the airspeed
indicator.
Marking
White Arc
KCAS value of range
61 - 113
Green Arc
71 - 161
Yellow Arc
161 - 208
Red Line
Blue Line
208
94
Significance
Full Flap Operating Range: Lower limit is
maximum weight Vso, in landing
configuration. Upper limit is maximum
speed with flaps extended.
Normal Operating Range: Lower limit is
maximum weight Vs at most forward CG.
Upper limit is maximum structural cruising
speed.
Operations must be conducted with caution
and only in smooth air.
Maximum speed for all operations
Vyse at maximum weight and sea level.
Power Plant Limitations
Engine Manufacturer: Avco Lycoming
Engine Model: IO-360-B1B
Maximum rated Power: 180 BHP @ 2700 rpm for all operations
Engine Operating Limits for Takeoff and Continuous Operations:
Maximum engine speed: 2700 rpm
Maximum engine pressure: 29 inches of mercury
Fuel Grade: See fuel limitations
Oil Grade (Specifications):
................................................................................. MIL-L-6082
................................................................................. MIL-L-2285
............................................................................... MIL-L-22851
Propeller Manufacturer: Hartzell
Propeller Model Number: HC-92WK-2B
Propeller Pitch settings: 84.0 high - 14.0 low
Propeller Diameter: 71 to 72 inches
An operating manual supplement was issued on February 28, 1975 which specifies that
more than 23” Manifold Pressure may not be used below 2300 rpm.
Beech 95 POH Effective September 1, 2005
Appendix 14 - 18
Selkirk College IATPL Program Manual
Power Plant Instrument Markings
Power plant instrument markings and their color code significance are shown below:
Red Line
Green Arc
Red line
Instrument
Minimum
Normal
Maximum
Limit
Operating
Limit
Tachometer (GSAK)
2000 – 2700
2700
Tachometer (FXFG)
Red arc from 2000 to 2350 (avoid continuous operation between
2000 and 2350 rpm.
Manifold Pressure
Fuel Flow
Oil temperature
Oil Pressure
Cylinder Head
Temperature
Exhaust Gas
Temperature
Fuel Quantity
Suction / Pressure
25
Red Line. Maximum 2700 rpm
14.5 – 29
0 -17.8
140 - 245
65 - 85
200 – 500
Main: E = 3 gal
Aux: E = 0 gal
3.75
Main: >10
Aux: N/A
3.75 – 5.25
29
(10 psi)
245
85
500
5.25
Weight Limits
Maximum weight: 4200 lbs
Aft baggage limit: 400 lbs
Nose baggage limit: 270 lbs
Center of Gravity Limits
Center of gravity limits (gear extended):
Forward limit 75 inches aft of datum to gross weight of 3600 lbs, then straight-line
variation to 80.5 inches aft of datum at gross weight 4200 lbs.
Aft limit – 86 inches aft of datum at all weights
Beech 95 POH Effective September 1, 2005
Appendix 14 - 19
Selkirk College IATPL Program Manual
Maneuver Limits
This is a normal category airplane. Acrobatic maneuvers, including spins, prohibited.
Flight Load Factor Limits
At design gross weight:
Positive 4.4g; negative 3.0g (flaps up)
Positive 2.0g); negative 0.0g (flaps down)
Gust limits: positive 4.32g; negative 2.32g (flaps up)
Kinds of Operation Limits
These airplanes are equipped for day and night VFR and IFR operations. CAR 605.18
specifies the equipment that must be installed and serviceable for IFR operation.
Flight into known icing conditions is prohibited.
Fuel Limitations
Each airplane has four fuel tanks – two main tanks and two auxiliary fuel tanks. There is
one main tank and one auxiliary tank in each wing.
Beech 95 POH Effective September 1, 2005
Appendix 14 - 20
Selkirk College IATPL Program Manual
In addition, GSAK has two Nacelle tanks, one mounted in each engine nacelle. The
nacelle tanks are not serviceable and are not to be used.
Each airplane has two fuel quantity indicators. A switch on the pilot sub-panel selects
whether these gauges show quantity in the main tanks or auxiliary tanks. There is no
quantity indicator for the nacelle tanks.
Each airplane has two fuel selectors located between the pilot seats. Each selector can be
set to MAIN, AUX, CROSSFEED, or OFF. In addition GSAK has two additional
selectors just aft of the other selectors, which are for the nacelle tanks. Each nacelle tank
selector can be set to ON or OFF. When selected ON the nacelle tanks drain by gravity
into the main tanks.
WARNING: The nacelle tanks in GSAK are inoperative and the selectors must remain in
the OFF position to prevent any contamination from entering the main fuel tanks.
The left fuel selector provides fuel to the left engine and the right fuel selector provides
fuel to the right engine.
Total Capacity ........................................................... 112 US gallons
Total useable fuel ...................................................... 106 US gallons
Main tanks ........................................................... 50 US gallons total
Main tanks ...................................................... 44 US gallons useable
Auxiliary tanks .................................................... 62 US gallons total
Auxiliary tanks ............................................... 62 US gallons useable
Nacelle tanks ................................INOPERATIVE – DO NOT USE
Note: takeoff is prohibited with less than 10 gallons in each main tank.
A yellow band on the fuel gauges, applicable only when main tanks are selected, marks
the minimum fuel for takeoff.
Selecting CROSSFEED must only be done with one selector at a time. A mechanical
interconnect prevents selecting crossfeed on both selectors simultaneously.
When CROSSFEED is selected that engine takes fuel from the other engines fuel
selector. Therefore both engines are operating on the same fuel tank when crossfeed is
selected.
WARNING: Always switch the fuel quantity indicator to match the fuel selectors. Failure
to do so results in incorrect fuel quantity indications.
Beech 95 POH Effective September 1, 2005
Appendix 14 - 21
Selkirk College IATPL Program Manual
Other Limitations
Flap Limitations
Approved takeoff Range: 0 to 20
Approved landing Range: 0 to 29
Gear Limitations
Maximum gear operating speed: 143 KCAS
Maximum gear extension speed: 143 KCAS
Cowl Flap Limitations
Cowl flaps may be operated at any operational airspeed.
Placards
Beech 95 POH Effective September 1, 2005
Appendix 14 - 22
Selkirk College IATPL Program Manual
Section 3 – Emergency Procedures
Introduction to Section 3
Section 3 provides checklists and amplified procedures for coping with emergencies that
may occur. Emergencies caused by airplane or engine malfunctions are extremely rare if
proper inspections and maintenance are practiced. Enroute weather emergencies can be
minimized or eliminated by careful flight planning and good judgment when unexpected
weather is encountered. However, should an emergency arise, the basic guidelines
described in this section should be considered and applied as necessary to correct the
problem. Emergency procedures associated with ELT and other operational systems can
be found in section 9.
Airspeeds for Emergency Operation
Vgo (zero flap takeoff decision speed) ........................................... 89 KIAS
Vyse (sea level ................................................................................ 94 KIAS
Yyse (5,800 density altitude) .......................................................... 91 KIAS
Vxse (sea level) ............................................................................... 85 KIAS
Vxse (10,000 density altitude) ........................................................ 91 KIAS
Maneuvering speed:
4200 lb ............................................................................. 139 KCAS
3600 lb ............................................................................. 129 KCAS
Maximum glide (4200 lb, zero flap, zero wind) ........................... 103 KIAS
Emergency Checklists
All emergency checklists are provided in the aircraft operational checklist in each
airplane. Copies can be found in Appendix 1 of your Program Manual.
Amplified Engine Failure Procedures
An amplified discussion of considerations relating to engine failure is provided in the
FTM/IPM section of your Program Manual.
Prior to all takeoffs pilots should determine the single engine climb performance of the
airplane at the existing weight and altitude, using the charts in section 5. Based on the
single engine performance pilots should determine the course of action to be taken in the
event of an engine failure. In high weight and high altitude situations a Vgo speed will
not be available. In such cases the airplane is not able to safely continue a departure in the
Beech 95 POH Effective September 1, 2005
Appendix 14 - 23
Selkirk College IATPL Program Manual
event of an engine failure. Pilots who choose to operate under these weight and altitude
conditions
Simulated Zero Thrust
A manifold pressure of approximately 12 inches provides a level of thrust approximately
equal to a feathered propeller. During pilot training this value should be used rather than
actually feathering the engine for safety and wear and tear reasons.
Beech 95 POH Effective September 1, 2005
Appendix 14 - 24
Selkirk College IATPL Program Manual
Section 4 – Normal Procedures
Introduction to Section 4
Section 4 provides checklists and amplified procedures for the conduct of normal
operation. Normal procedures associated with systems can be found in section 9.
Speeds for Normal Operation
Unless otherwise noted, the following speeds are based on maximum weight of 4200
pounds and may be used for lesser weight.
Vr Flaps up ...................................................................................... 74 KIAS
Vr Flaps 20 .................................................................................... 71 KIAS
Takeoff decision speed (Vgo) ......................................................... 89 KIAS
Enroute Climb (flaps up) .................................................... 105 – 120 KIAS
Best rate of climb – sea level .......................................................... 95 KIAS
Best rate of climb – 20,000 ............................................................. 82 KIAS
Best angle of climb – sea level ....................................................... 73 KIAS
Best angle of climb – 20,000 .......................................................... 82 KIAS
Landing approach:
Normal approach, full flap .................................................. 80 KIAS at 50 ft agl
Normal approach, flaps up .................................................. 90 KIAS at 50 ft agl
Short field approach, full flap ............................................. 74 KIAS until flare
Balked Landing:
Maximum power flaps 20 ................................................. 80 KIAS
Maximum power flaps 0 ................................................... 95 KIAS
Maximum recommended turbulent air Penetration Speed:
4200 lb .............................................................................. 139 KIAS
3600 lb .............................................................................. 129 KIAS
Maximum Crosswind for landing: *
Full flap ................................................................................ 12 knots
Zero flap ............................................................................... 14 knots
* Crosswind limitations listed are based on CAR 523 minimum certification
requirements. Higher limits may be possible but have not been demonstrated.
Beech 95 POH Effective September 1, 2005
Appendix 14 - 25
Selkirk College IATPL Program Manual
Normal Checklists
All normal checklists are provided in the airplane. Copies are available in Appendix 1 of
your Program Manual.
Amplified Procedures
Preflight
Visually check airplane for general condition during preflight inspection. In cold weather
remove even small accumulations of frost, ice, or snow from the wing, tail, and control
surfaces. Also ensure control surfaces contain no internal accumulations of ice or debris.
Prior to flight ensure that the pitot heater is warm to the touch within 30 seconds after
turning on.
If night flight is planned check operation of all lights and make sure flashlight is
available.
Starting Engines
Either engine may be started first. Starts are conducted with the alternator for the engine
being started off.
If engines have not been operated for several hours and feel cool to the touch use the
Cold Engine Start checklist. Prime the engine using the electric fuel pump prior to
engaging the starter. In temperatures above 10 C approximately three seconds of fuel
flow with the mixture set to rich and the throttle set to ½ inch will be sufficient. Increase
priming progressively up to six seconds for temperature at -15 C. Guard against possible
engine fire for all cold engine starts when outside air temperature is below 0 C.
Once engine starts idle at less than 1000 rpm until oil pressure stabilizes. If engine was
cold prior to start continue to idle at 1000 rpm for two minutes before establishing normal
idle rpm.
If engines are warm to the touch use the Hot Engine Start checklist. Primer operation
should be kept to the minimum needed to confirm electric pumps are operating
(approximately one second.)
Normal idle rpm is 1300 rpm. Select normal idle rpm after oil pressure stabilizes and
engine is warm. Lower rpm should be used while taxiing.
Taxiing
Use rpm as needed to taxi. Avoid excessive use of brakes when taxiing.
Beech 95 POH Effective September 1, 2005
Appendix 14 - 26
Selkirk College IATPL Program Manual
Differential power is NOT normally needed to make turns. Avoid use of excessive
differential power when taxiing as it may damage the nose gear.
It is not usually necessary to lean the mixture while taxiing in these aircraft. However on
very hot days sparkplugs may become fouled during prolonged taxiing. It is acceptable to
pull the mixture controls back approximately one inch while taxiing but the mixture must
be returned to full rich prior to runup.
Taxiing on one engine is not recommended. In an emergency it is possible to taxi on one
engine, if possible avoid stopping once started in motion as the greatest stress to the nose
gear occurs when first beginning to move on one engine.
Runup
Runup procedure is conventional. Magneto and mixture operation are checked when
called for on the Runup checklist.
A mag drop of more than 125 is not acceptable. If the mag-drop is more than 125 but
generally smooth suspect a rich mixture. This is particularly likely in warm weather. Pull
back the mixture control by approximately one inch and repeat the magneto check. If the
drop is then within limits flight may be continued.
A mag-drop of more than 125 accompanied by rough engine operation may mean that a
spark plug has become fouled. To clear the fouled plug, increase rpm to 2200 then lean
the mixture until rpm drops 25 to 50 rpm. Allow the engine to run in the leaned condition
for one minute, then return the mixture to rich and reset rpm to 2000. Repeat the magneto
check. If the mag drop is now normal the flight may be continued. If the mag drop still
exceeds 125 after the above procedure has been completed repeat the clearing procedure
but with full throttle. If the mag drop still exceeds limits further attempts to clear the
plugs will likely be futile. The flight must be terminated and an AME will be required to
rectify the problem.
Normal Takeoff
All takeoffs are performed using full power. Full power should be maintained to at least
500 agl. Above 500 agl pilots may reduce power to normal climb power.
Normal takeoffs are conducted with zero flaps. Under normal wind conditions the nosewheel should be lifted off at 74 KIAS so that the airplane smoothly leaves the ground. It
is vital to accelerate as quickly as possible to Vy after takeoff. The gear should be
retracted upon passing 89 KIAS (Vgo) AND confirming a positive rate of climb.
Climb should be sustained at Vy until at least 500 ft agl. Above 500 ft the pilot may
accelerate to enroute climb speed when desired.
Beech 95 POH Effective September 1, 2005
Appendix 14 - 27
Selkirk College IATPL Program Manual
Short Field Takeoff
Short field takeoffs are performed with 20 flaps.
Taxi to obtain maximum possible runway length. If possible without damaging the
propellers hold the brakes and apply full power – check normal engine power indications.
Keep the airplane in a level attitude during the takeoff roll. Lift the nose-wheel at
71KIAS. Climb, until clear of any obstacle, at 78 KIAS. Retract the gear once positive
rate of climb is confirmed. Once clear of obstacles accelerate to Vy. Retract the flaps
once above 80 KIAS and well above of all obstacles (at least 100 feet above.)
NOTE: The normal Vgo speed of 89 KIAS DOES NOT apply during short field takeoff
procedure. The pilot must determine, based on actual obstacles, takeoff weight, density
altitude, etc., when or if continuation in the event of an engine failure is possible. In many
short field takeoff situations, if there is an obstacle to be cleared it is not possible to avoid
collision with the obstacle following an engine failure. Consequently takeoff under such
conditions, while not prohibited, is not recommended.
Soft or Rough Field Takeoff
Takeoff on a soft or rough field may require liftoff below Vmc. This procedure is
therefore not recommended.
For takeoff on a soft field it is recommended to use 20 flaps and liftoff at 71 to 74 KIAS
if possible. If liftoff must be made below 71 KIAS accelerate in ground effect to 71 KIAS
or above as quickly as possible. Be prepared for immediate reduction in power and
landing straight ahead should an engine fail below Vmc. Leave the gear extended until
positive climb is established.
Climb
After takeoff pilots should normally climb at Vy until at least 500 ft agl. Climb may be
continued above 500 ft at Vy at the pilot’s discretion.
Vx should be used if obstacles must be cleared. Extended climb at Vx requires careful
monitoring of engine temperature. Cowl flaps should be left open for climbs at Vx.
Above 500 agl climb power may be reduced to climb power, which is 25 inches manifold
pressure (or as available) and 2500 rpm.
Once above 500 ft agl pilots may climb at the enroute speed of 105 to 120 KIAS. Mixture
should be full rich in all climbs below 5000 ft asl. Cowl flaps should be set in accordance
with cylinder head temperature. Cowl flaps may be closed as long as CHT remains in the
normal operating range.
Beech 95 POH Effective September 1, 2005
Appendix 14 - 28
Selkirk College IATPL Program Manual
Above 5000 ft mixture may be leaned to obtain optimum engine efficiency according to
the markings provided on the fuel flow gauge (see below.)
Cruise
Cruise power should be set in accordance with the chart in Section 5. Maximum cruise
power setting is 75%. Recommended power setting is 70% or less.
The original propellers on FXFG have been replaced under an STC. The installed
propellers have an operating limitation between 2000 and 2350 rpm. You must avoid
continuous operation in this rpm range due to vibration. Therefore cruise rpm must be
kept to 2400 rpm or higher. To avoid confusion GSAK is operated the same way. The
cruise performance charts in section 5 reflect the limitation.
Mixture should be set using the fuel flow gauge, to the value from the B95 Cruise
Performance Chart (section 5) after manifold pressure and rpm are set. Once engine
temperatures stabilize mixture may be adjusted with the EGT to obtain maximum exhaust
gas temperature. On short flights (less than 15 minutes in cruise) it is not practical to use
the EGT.
Mixture should be set to full rich prior to performing maneuvers in which substantial
power changes will be required (e.g. stalls, steep turns, etc.) When practicing maneuvers
at density altitudes above 8000 feet it is acceptable to leave the mixtures slightly lean
from rich – move the levers back approximately ½ inch from full rich.
Holds
Due to the rpm limitation specified in STC SA00722CH rpm must remain above 2350.
Beech 95 POH Effective September 1, 2005
Appendix 14 - 29
Selkirk College IATPL Program Manual
Recommended hold speed is 120 KIAS. RPM should be set to 2400. Manifold pressure is
as required. The usual manifold pressure will be approximately 17” at sea level (exact
value depends on weight) and is higher at higher altitudes. Fuel flow should be set in
accordance with the cruise performance chart in section 5, or if pilot workload permits
can be adjusted to maximum EGT.
Stalls
The stall characteristics are conventional. An aural warning is provided, by an electric
stall horn, approximately 5 knots before the actual stall. An aerodynamic warning, caused
by a tail buffet, occurs just before the actual stall.
All practice stalls are to be conducted power off and in wings level straight flight.
Stalls must be initiated at an altitude such that recovery is accomplished by 2000 feet agl
or above.
When recovering from a stall great care must be taken when applying power if airspeed is
below Vmc. It is recommended to avoid application of full power until airspeed is above
Vmc.
If flaps are extended during the stall they should not be retracted until the stall has been
eliminated and the airspeed is above 80 KIAS.
Descent
Normally manifold pressure is reduced in descents in order to maintain a constant
indicated airspeed. It is acceptable to allow speed to increase during the descent provided
that airspeed limitations are not exceeded.
The mixture level should be advanced progressively as the descent continues to prevent
over-lean operation due to increasing air density. Mixture should be set to full rich prior
to increasing manifold pressure to stop a descent.
Normal Approach and Landing
Normal Approaches and landings may be completed with any amount of flaps desired.
Speed should be reduced from cruise to 120 KIAS well before final descent is initiated.
Pre-landing checklist should be completed prior to commencing final descent for landing.
All approaches should be initiated by extending the gear first. Flaps should then be
extended as desired once the airspeed is below Vfe.
IFR approaches are conducted at 105 KIAS with 20 flaps. Landing can be completed
without further flap extension.
For a landing with full flaps initiate VFR approaches at 105 KIAS with 10 flaps, then
100 KIAS with 20 flaps, then 94 KIAS with full flaps. Speed should remain at 94 KIAS
or above until landing is assured and then be reduced so that it is 80 KIAS at 50 feet agl.
Beech 95 POH Effective September 1, 2005
Appendix 14 - 30
Selkirk College IATPL Program Manual
For a landing with no flaps initiate VFR approaches at 120 KIAS, then reduce speed
progressively remaining at 94 KIAS or above until landing is assured and then be reduced
so that it is 90 KIAS at 50 feet agl.
Below 50 feet hold the airplane off just enough that the main wheels touchdown before
the nose-wheel. Throttle should be zero at the time of touchdown. Apply braking as
required without locking the wheels. Flaps should normally be left extended until the
landing roll is complete. If flaps must be retracted great care must be taken not to retract
the gear by mistake.
In the event of a crosswind apply aileron into the wind and hold the input after
touchdown. Use rudder to keep straight.
For landings with gusting winds speeds should be increased by half the gust. Do not
exceed flap-operating speeds.
For landing in a strong crosswind, land with zero flap if runway length is sufficient.
Short Field Approach and Landing
Short field landings are conducted with full flaps. Final descent should be initiated with
the gear then full flaps should be applied.
The speed at 50 ft agl should be 74 KIAS plus half the wind gust factor. Maintain this
speed until the flare.
It is recommended that when the pilot is not familiar with the short field landing
characteristics that 74 KIAS plus half the gust factor be established well before 50 ft agl
and a stabilized approach be flown.
After touchdown flaps must be retracted in order to maximize braking, however great
care must be taken not to retract the gear.
Apply maximum braking without locking the wheels. Hold the control column full aft
while braking.
Soft or Rough Field Approach and Landing
Soft or rough field landings are conducted with full flaps. Final descent should be
initiated with the gear then full flaps should be applied.
The speed at 50 ft agl should be 74 KIAS plus half the wind gust factor. Maintain this
speed until the flare.
Flare slightly higher than normal and hold the airplane off to land in slightly higher than
normal pitch attitude. No more than a slight amount of power should be on at touchdown.
After landing gently lower the nose-wheel to the ground.
Beech 95 POH Effective September 1, 2005
Appendix 14 - 31
Selkirk College IATPL Program Manual
If damage to the flaps is a concern, due to rocks and debris thrown up by the main
wheels, retract the flaps after landing. However, take great care not to retract the gear.
With the nose-wheel on the ground, keep the control column full aft during the landing
roll. Brake as needed (test brakes early on the landing roll) Do NOT attempt to keep the
nose-wheel off the ground for a prolonged period after landing.
On soft surfaces it is advisable to avoid coming to a complete stop, as greater propeller
wear will result when a stationary airplane starts to move.
Crosswind Landing
When landing in a strong crosswind use the minimum flap setting required for the field
length.
The wing low method of drift compensation is best. After touchdown maintain
directional control with rudder and keep the ailerons turned into the wind.
No specific crosswind limit has been established for landing in this airplane however
certification standards require a capability of 20% of stall speed, which is 12 knots with
full flaps and 14 knots with zero flaps. Stall speed is lower at reduced weight so it is not
certain that these values are achievable at lower weights.
Based on years of operational experience at Selkirk College we feel that a competent and
experienced Travelair pilot can safely achieve a crosswind limit of 15 knots.
Balked Landing (IFR Missed Approach)
In a balked landing (go around) apply full power and establish a climb. Immediately
reduce flaps to 20 degrees and retract gear once positive rate of climb is established; if
obstacles must be cleared during the go around climb at 78 KIAS or more with 20
degrees of flaps until clear of the obstacle. Once obstacles are cleared accelerate to Vy or
above retracting flaps to zero when airspeed is above 80 KIAS. Reduce power to climb
setting only once above 500 agl.
IFR missed approach procedure involves the same considerations as the Balked Landing
above. Generally missed approach is initiated from a speed well above 80KIAS and
obstacles are not a factor. If this is the case the procedure is simply – Full power, flaps
retract to 20 degrees, once positive rate of climb is established retract gear, confirm speed
is above 80KIAS and retract flaps to zero, climb at Vy or a higher speed is desired while
maintaining the required climb gradient of the procedure.
Single engine balked landing follows the same procedure as above but performance will
be marginal. In some cases it may not be possible to establish positive rate of climb
before retracting the gear. In such cases the pilot must determine that the airplane will not
Beech 95 POH Effective September 1, 2005
Appendix 14 - 32
Selkirk College IATPL Program Manual
strike the ground. Pilots should maintain situational awareness and realize that single
engine balked landing is not possible when above, or even near, the single engine service
ceiling. See single engine climb performance chart in section 5 for climb performance.
Beech 95 POH Effective September 1, 2005
Appendix 14 - 33
Selkirk College IATPL Program Manual
Section 5 – Performance
Introduction to Section 5
Performance data charts on the following pages are presented so that you may know what
to expect from the airplane under varying conditions, and also to facilitate the planning of
flights in detail and with reasonable accuracy.
The charts on the following pages have been prepared by the instructors of the
Selkirk College Aviation program to supplement the charts in the B-95 POH.
The following charts are provided:
Normal Takeoff Distance
Airspeed Calibration Chart
Normal Landing Distance
Accelerate Stop Distance
Accelerate Go Distance
Single Engine rate and gradient of Climb
Single Engine Ceilings
All the charts in this section were created based on the charts in the Beechcraft
Travelair D95A Owners Manual. It is however noted that the charts in the Beechcraft
Travelair E95 Owners Manual are identical.
The Normal takeoff chart is constructed based on the Beech charts, pages 6-2 and
6-3 of the POH. You will notice if you examine those charts that the chart for 20 MPH
wind is defective as it shows the takeoff distance to be less than the chart for 30 MPH
wind, therefore it was ignored in creating the graph shown here. Beech does not provide a
chart to allow for less than gross weight therefore a conservative estimate was applied in
creating this chart.
The Normal landing chart is constructed based on the Beech charts, pages 6-20
and 6-21. A conservative allowance for weight below 4200 was applied. It was assumed
that pilots would use the final approach speed of 80 knots at all weights.
The Accelerate stop distance chart was created by calculating the distance to
reach 35 feet agl (using the charts on pages 6-2 and 6-3.) It was assumed that a speed of
89 KIAS was reached at that point. A three second reaction time was added, with the
assumption that the airplane remained at 35 feet agl. The distance to land and stop was
then calculated based on the normal landing distance charts (pages 6-20 and 6-21.)
Beech 95 POH Effective September 1, 2005
Appendix 14 - 34
Selkirk College IATPL Program Manual
The term Vgo – for “Go Speed” is used in the ASD and AGD charts. This is the
speed below which the pilot is expected to reject the takeoff in the event of an engine
failure. At or above Vgo the pilot is assumed to continue the takeoff and perform the
engine failure drill (commonly called the CAPDIF drill.)
It is imperative that pilots recognize that the validity of the Vgo chart depends
upon correct rotation rate on takeoff. It is assumed that the pilot will start a slow, smooth
rotation at Vr so that the airplane accelerates continuously to, but not beyond Vy. If such
a procedure is followed the airplane will be approximately 35 feet agl at 89 KIAS and
will be accelerating. Obviously a pilot may inadvertently or intentionally rotate much
more rapidly than described here. In such a case the airplane may be much more than 35
feet agl upon reaching 89 KIAS. It is possible to trade altitude for airspeed, therefore it
may be possible to continue the takeoff below 89 KIAS in such a case, but it is
impossible to provide specific calculated guidance. A pilot facing such a “snap decision”
could easily make the wrong decision. Pilots planning an unusual rotation rate, such as on
a takeoff with a strong crosswind, are advised to consider switching from a planned Vgo
speed to a planned “go altitude” or some other suitable method of deciding when to
continue or reject a takeoff following an engine failure. (Note that the same situation
exists when practicing short field takeoffs on a runway that is long and unobstructed.)
The Accelerate go chart is based on the normal takeoff distance to 35 feet agl
(charts on pages 6-2 and 6-3.) The airplane is assumed to be at 89 KIAS with the gear
down. An engine failure then occurs and the airplane is assumed to perform as per the
Single Engine Emergency Rate of Climb chart (page 6-9) with gear down and propeller
windmilling, for 20 seconds. After 20 seconds it is assumed that the pilot will have
retracted the gear and feathered the propeller and performance is then based on the same
chart for a climb to 50 feet agl. If the calculation shows that the airplane would strike the
ground or descend to within 15 feet of the ground then the chart distance is grayed out,
meaning that Vgo is not a safe concept in that weight and density altitude combination. In
such cases a pilot must chose a minimum safe altitude (“Go Altitude”), rather than a Vgo
speed, to continue the takeoff. In such cases pilots should consult the Single Engine Rate
of Climb chart and consider all relevant factors and options before taking off.
More detailed discussion of the above considerations, including the option to
reject the takeoff and land straight ahead following an engine failure, can be found in the
FTM/IPM section of this Program Manual.
Beech 95 POH Effective September 1, 2005
Appendix 14 - 35
Selkirk College IATPL Program Manual
Airspeed Calibration Chart
The table below shows values of IAS/CAS pairs found in the official Beechcraft
documentation:
IAS
CAS
73.5
71.5
94
99
139
139
The above data was used to develop the following two tables. These are estimates only.
Estimated calibration table for flaps up:
IAS
70
80
90
100
CAS
68
77
86
95
110
105
Estimated calibration table for flaps extended:
IAS
60
70
80
90
100
CAS
56
66
77
88
99
Beech 95 POH Effective September 1, 2005
120
117
130
129
140
140
150
150
110
110
Appendix 14 - 36
Full power. Mixture leaned to appropriate fuel flow
Zero Flaps
Paved level dry runway
Retract gear at positive rate of climb
Cowl flaps open
Conditions:
Normal takeoff distance – B95
Example:
Density altitude = 5000 ft.
Weight = 3500 lb.
Headwind = 20 Knots
Results:
Ground roll = 1700
Distance to 50 feet = 2110
Selkirk College IATPL Program Manual
NOTES: Produced by Selkirk College based on approved POH.
For use by Selkirk College Professional Aviation students and instructors only.
Distances calculated with this chart are based on pages 6-2 and 6-3 of the Beechcraft Travelair D95A Owners
Manual.
Beech 95 POH Effective September 1, 2005
Appendix 14 - 37
Normal approach. Slow to 80 KIAS at or
before
50 feet agl.
Conditions:
Paved level dry runway
Normal Landing distance – B95
Example:
Density altitude = 5000 ft.
Weight = 3500 lb.
Headwind = 20 Knots
Results:
Ground roll = 1700
Distance to 50 feet = 2110
Selkirk College IATPL Program Manual
NOTES: Produced by Selkirk College based on approved POH.
For use by Selkirk College Professional Aviation students and instructors only.
Distances are based on Beechcraft Travelair D95A Owners Manual, charts on pages 6-20 and 6-21 (see
notes on page 34 of this appendix.
Beech 95 POH Effective September 1, 2005
Appendix 14 - 38
Vr, all weights – 74 KIAS
Vgo, all weights – 89 KIAS, or N/A (see notes)
AGD distance is to reach 50 feet or complete feathering
procedure whichever is reached last.
Graph gives minimum distance to 50’ agl following an engine failure at Vgo or
later
Normal takeoff procedure. Paved level dry runway.
Engine failure at Vgo with gear up
Full power on operating engine with mixture leaned to appropriate
fuel flow
Failed engine propeller feathered immediately.
Conditions:
Accelerate Go Distance – B95
Selkirk College IATPL Program Manual
NOTES: Produced by Selkirk College based on approved POH.
For use by Selkirk College Professional Aviation students and instructors only.
Distances calculated with this chart are an estimate based on the normal takeoff distance chart such that the
airplane is at 35’agl at 89KIAS, a 20 second time period is allowed to complete the engine failure drill during
which the assumed performance is gear down, propeller windmilling. A climb to 50 feet is then assumed based on
gear up and propeller feathered. The relevant charts are: Single Engine Emergency Rate of Climb chart (page 6-9)
and Normal Takeoff Distance (pages 6-2 and 6-3) Charts are in Beechcraft Travelair D95A Owner’s Manual.
Note that if calculations show that the airplane will strike the ground or come within 15 feet of the ground Vgo is
not considered to be a safe concept. In that situation pilots must determine a minimum safe altitude instead (refer
to single engine climb performance charts.) See notes on page 34 of this appendix.
Beech 95 POH Effective September 1, 2005
Appendix 14 - 39
Chart gives estimated distance to
89KIAS at 35 feet agl then land
and stop.
Vr, all weights – 74 KIAS
Vgo, all weights – 89 KIAS
Normal takeoff procedure and conditions.
Gear extended throughout takeoff and landing
Immediate reduction in power and landing following
engine failure at 89 KIAS.
Conditions:
Accelerate Stop dist. – B95
Selkirk College IATPL Program Manual
Produced by Selkirk College based on approved POH.
For use by Selkirk College Professional Aviation students and instructors only.
Distances calculated with this chart are an estimate based on the assumption that the airplane is at 35’agl at
89KIAS, a 3 second reaction time is assumed with no change in altitude. The stopping distance is then based
on the normal landing distance chart from 35 feet. Data was taken from pages 6-2, 6-3, 6-20 and 6-21 of the
Beechcraft Travelair D95A Owners Manual.
Beech 95 POH Effective September 1, 2005
Appendix 14 - 40
Selkirk College IATPL Program Manual
Single Engine Rate of Climb
Single Engine Climb Gradient
Conditions:
Climb on single engine
Airspeed at Vyse
Propeller on failed engine feathered
Approximately 5 degrees bank toward operating engine
Note:
This chart is based on page 6-9 of the Beechcraft Travelair D95A Owners Manual
All IFR departure procedures require a minimum of 200 ft/Nm climb gradient. Some procedures require
more than 200 ft/Nm. Transport Canada regulations do NOT require single engine climb gradients for legal
IFR departures but the lack of such climb gradients should cause pilots to prepare alternate plans of action
in the event of an engine failure below MEA.
Beech 95 POH Effective September 1, 2005
Appendix 14 - 41
Selkirk College IATPL Program Manual
Single Engine Ceiling
Conditions:
All altitudes are ISA Density Altitudes
Altitude for 200 ft/Nm climb is with zero wind.
Beech 95 POH Effective September 1, 2005
Appendix 14 - 42
Selkirk College IATPL Program Manual
Beech 95 POH Effective September 1, 2005
Appendix 14 - 43
Selkirk College IATPL Program Manual
Time to Climb at Vy – Maximum Continuous Power
Conditions:
Weight 4200 lb
Airspeed Vy (see chart below)
Maximum continuous power
Beech 95 POH Effective September 1, 2005
Appendix 14 - 44
Selkirk College IATPL Program Manual
Maximum Rate of Climb
Conditions:
Weight 4200 lb
Maximum continuous power
Airspeed – Best rate as shown in upper part of graph, gives rate of climb shown in lower
part of graph
Beech 95 POH Effective September 1, 2005
Appendix 14 - 45
Selkirk College IATPL Program Manual
Time, Fuel, and Distance to Climb (4200 lb)
Conditions:
4200 lb
Gear and Flaps up
Power 25” x 2500 rpm to full throttle altitude, then full throttle
Mixture full rich below 5000, then leaned per schedule on fuel flow gauge
Standard temperature
Notes:
Add 2.5 gallons of fuel for engine start, taxi and takeoff allowance.
Increase time, fuel, and distance by 10% for each 10°C above standard temperature.
Distances shown are based on zero wind
Weight
Lb
Pressure
Altitude
Ft.
Temp
C
Climb
Speed
KIAS
Rate of
Climb
Fpm
4200
S.L,
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
10,000
11,000
12,000
13,000
14,000
15,000
16,000
17,000
18,000
15
13
11
9
7
5
3
1
-1
-3
-5
-7
-9
-11
-13
-15
-17
-19
-21
105
105
105
105
105
101
97
93
90
89
89
88
87
87
86
85
85
84
83
1005
955
905
855
805
755
705
655
605
556
506
456
406
356
306
256
206
156
106
Beech 95 POH Effective September 1, 2005
From Sea Level
Time
Min
0
1
2
3
4
6
7
9
10
12
14
16
18
21
25
28
31
38
48
Fuel
Used
Gallons
0.0
0.7
1.3
2.0
2.7
3.5
4.3
5.1
5.9
6.9
7.8
8.8
9.8
11.2
12.7
14.1
15.5
18.4
22.7
Distance
NM.
0
2
4
6
8
11
14
17
20
24
29
33
38
45
53
61
70
86
111
Appendix 14 - 46
Selkirk College IATPL Program Manual
Time, Fuel, and Distance to Climb (3500 lb)
Conditions:
3500 or less lb
Gear and Flaps up
Power 25” x 2500 rpm to full throttle altitude, then full throttle
Mixture full rich below 5000, then leaned per schedule on fuel flow gauge
Standard temperature
Notes:
Add 2.5 gallons of fuel for engine start, taxi and takeoff allowance.
Increase time, fuel, and distance by 10% for each 10°C above standard temperature.
Distances shown are based on zero wind
Interpolate between 3500 and 4200 pound charts as required
Weight
Lb
Pressure
Altitude
Ft.
Temp
C
Climb
Speed
KIAS
Rate of
Climb
Fpm
3500
Or less
S.L,
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
10,000
11,000
12,000
13,000
14,000
15,000
16,000
17,000
18,000
15
13
11
9
7
5
3
1
-1
-3
-5
-7
-9
-11
-13
-15
-17
-19
-21
105
105
105
105
105
101
97
93
90
89
89
88
87
87
86
85
85
84
83
1206
1156
1106
1056
1086
1000
950
900
846
757
707
657
606
557
507
457
366
180
120
Beech 95 POH Effective September 1, 2005
From Sea Level
Time
Min
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
10
12
13
15
18
20
23
26
31
40
Fuel
Used
Gallons
0.0
0.6
1.1
1.7
2.2
2.9
3.5
4.2
4.9
5.7
6.5
7.4
8.2
9.4
10.6
11.7
12.9
15.3
18.9
Distance
NM.
0
2
3
5
7
9
12
14
17
20
24
28
32
38
44
51
58
72
92
Appendix 14 - 47
Selkirk College IATPL Program Manual
Beech 95 Cruise Performance Chart
Fuel flow values are for two engines. MP means manifold pressure. TAS means true
airspeed, IAS means indicated airspeed.
The following chart was derived from charts in the POH combined with the power computer that comes
with the B-95. The TAS and IAS values were then adjusted downwards based on Selkirk College’s years of
experience operating the airplane. The resulting values are conservative compared to those from the POH
but we feel they are more representative of the actual performance of the airplane.
Density
Altitude
Sea
Level
2,000
4,000
6,000
8,000
10,000
12,000
45%
12.2 GPH
MP / rpm
TAS IAS
17.5 / 2400
120
120
17.1 / 2400
121 118
16.7 / 2400
122 115
16.3 / 2400
123 112
15.9 / 2400
124 110
15.5 / 2400
125 107
15.3 / 2400
126 105
55%
14.8 GPH
MP / rpm
TAS IAS
20.0 / 2400
134 134
20.8 / 2400
137 133
19.3 / 2400
138 130
18.8 / 2400
140 128
18.4 / 2400
142 126
18.2 / 2400
144 124
17.7 / 2400
146 121
65%
17.8 GPH
MP / rpm
TAS IAS
22.1 / 2400
145 145
21.7 / 2400
146 142
21.2 / 2400
149 140
20.7 / 2400
151 138
20.3 / 2400
154 137
19.7 / 2400
157 135
------------
70%
19.5 GPH
MP / rpm
TAS IAS
23.4 / 2400
149 149
22.8 / 2400
152 148
22.4 / 2400
155 146
21.9 / 2400
157 144
21.5 / 2400
160 142
-------------
75%
21.3 GPH
MP / rpm
TAS IAS
24.5 / 2450
154 154
24.0 / 2450
157 152
23.5 / 2450
160 151
23.0 / 2450
163 149
-------------
Full
Throttle
MP
-------------
21.1
-------------
-------------
18.7
29.0
27.0
25.1
23.3
21.6
To use the chart above you must convert your indicated cruising altitude to density
altitude. If your cruise altitude does not appear in the chart interpolate to get the correct
values.
Choose a percent power, for example 70% power. Then in the row corresponding to your
density altitude look up the MP, rpm, TAS, and IAS.
Beech 95 POH Effective September 1, 2005
Appendix 14 - 48
Selkirk College IATPL Program Manual
The following quick reference chart is posted on the instrument panel of the piston
simulators and is also on your quick reference sheet.
B95 Cruise- 70% 2400 rpm
Density
Alt
19.5 GPH
9.75 per eng
MP
TAS
Sea Level
2,000
3,000
4,000
5,000
6,000
7,000
8,000
9,000
10,000
IAS
23.4
149 149
22.8
152 148
22.9
153 147
22.4
155 146
22.2
156 145
21.9
157 144
21.7
158 143
21.5
160 142
Use 65% power
Use 65% power
Beech 95 POH Effective September 1, 2005
Appendix 14 - 49
Selkirk College IATPL Program Manual
Single Engine Cruise Performance
The Beech 95 operating manual does not contain any information on single engine cruise
performance. However you will have an opportunity to fly the airplane on one engine
during your training and should take note of the actual single engine cruise performance.
Our experience over the years is that full power or climb power is required to sustain safe
single-engine cruise and the indicated airspeed varies from 100 to 105 depending on
weight, altitude, and temperature.
Because single-engine cruise uses “climb power” and speed it is safe to set the mixture as
you would normally in a climb. We recommend using the climb performance fuel flow
chart on page 6-10 (copied on next page of this manual) For example, at 5000 fuel flow
would be 15.5 gph.
In summary, we recommend assuming 100 KIAS single engine (this is conservative)
calculate the TAS and assume 16 to 17 gph depending on altitude (use chart on 6-10 of
the POH). From this you can calculate your single engine endurance and range.
NOTE: The climb fuel flow values are printed on the face of the fuel flow gage, as you
can see in the photograph below.
Beech 95 POH Effective September 1, 2005
Appendix 14 - 50
Selkirk College IATPL Program Manual
Beech 95 POH Effective September 1, 2005
Appendix 14 - 51
Selkirk College IATPL Program Manual
Section 6 – Weight and Balance
Introduction to Section 6
Section 6 describes the procedures for establishing the basic empty weight and moment
of the airplane.
A weight and balance report for each airplane can be found in the Pilot Operating
Handbook in the airplane. The weight and balance report contains the actual weight,
moment and arm for the empty airplane. This data must be used when computing takeoff,
landing and zero fuel weight, moment and arm for the airplane.
Pilots must ensure that the airplane is loaded within the specified weight, arm and
moment limits throughout all flights. It is the responsibility of the pilot to ensure that the
airplane is loaded properly.
Beech 95 POH Effective September 1, 2005
Appendix 14 - 52
Selkirk College IATPL Program Manual
Weight and Balance Procedure
Take the basic empty weight, moment and arm from the weight and balance report in
your airplane’s POH. The empty weight is for zero fuel.
To the above data add the weight and moment for all pilots, passengers, baggage and
fuel. Enter this information on the Weight and Balance form. A sample is provided
below:
Item
Weight
Arm
Moment
Aircraft (reg. GSAK)
2939
Fuel – main tanks
200
75
15000
Fuel – aux tanks
300
93
27900
Pilots
400
85
34000
Passengers
140
136
5040
Cargo – area 1
50
31
1550
Cargo – area 2
50
150
7500
Ramp Weight
4079
Taxi fuel allowance
-15
84
-1260
Takeoff Weight
4064
79.7
323750
Fuel Consumed – mains
-100
75
-7500
Fuel consumed – aux
-75
93
-6975
Landing Weight
3889
79.5
309275
234020
325,010
The moment for fuel, pilots, passengers, and cargo is calculated by multiplying the
weight for each item by the arm. The arms can be found in the table below.
The moments for all items including the empty airplane are then added. In the sample the
total is 325,010. This gives the ramp weight and moment.
Beech 95 POH Effective September 1, 2005
Appendix 14 - 53
Selkirk College IATPL Program Manual
An allowance must then be made for taxi fuel and fuel used during the flight. 15 pounds
of fuel is typical for taxi allowance but more should be allowed if delays in departure are
expected. An average arm of 84 is used for taxi fuel allowance based on the pilot using
all four tanks for approximately equal time during startup and taxi. The moment for the
taxi fuel is calculated by multiplying -15 x 84 = -1260. This moment is then subtracted
from the ramp moment to give the value 323750. The takeoff cg position is then
determined by dividing the moment by the takeoff weight, in the example this is 323750
divided by 4064 = 79.7.
To allow for fuel used during the flight the weight of fuel used is subtracted and the
moment for the fuel is calculated and subtracted also. In the example 100 pounds of fuel
is used from the main tanks with a moment of –7500. The moment of 75 pounds of fuel
used from the aux tanks is –6975. The landing moment is therefore 309275. This moment
is then divided by the landing weight to get the landing cg position (309275 divided by
3889 = 79.5.)
Once the takeoff and landing weight and cg have been determined plot these values on
the chart of Figure 1 to ensure they are within limits.
Beech 95 POH Effective September 1, 2005
Appendix 14 - 54
Selkirk College IATPL Program Manual
The following table gives you the arms for pilots, passengers, and baggage. Note that the
passengers’ seats are on rails and can be adjusted forward or aft.
Item
Pilot and Copilot
Passengers – seat in forward position
Passengers – seat in aft position
Fuel – main tanks
Fuel – Aux tanks
Aft baggage area
Nose baggage compartment
If passenger seats are removed for baggage use:
Baggage ahead of spar
Baggage aft of spar
Arm
85
121
136
75
93
150
31
108
145
Weight Limits
Maximum weight: 4200 lbs
Aft baggage limit: 400 lbs
Nose baggage limit: 270 lbs
Center of Gravity Limits
Center of gravity limits (gear extended):
Forward limit 75 inches aft of datum to gross weight of 3600 lbs, then straight-line
variation to 80.5 inches aft of datum at gross weight 4200 lbs.
Aft limit – 86 inches aft of datum at all weights
Beech 95 POH Effective September 1, 2005
Appendix 14 - 55
Selkirk College IATPL Program Manual
Figure 1
The Travelair does not have a maximum landing weight. The Travelair also does
not have a published maximum zero fuel weight. As a result the Travelair weight and
balance is quite easy to calculate.
Note that the Main tanks are at 75 inches, which is the forward limit. Therefore
when you burn fuel from the main tanks cg always moves aft. Note also that the auxiliary
tanks are at 93 inches, which is behind the aft limit. Therefore when you burn fuel from
the aux tanks cg always moves forward. Be sure to check both takeoff and landing cg to
ensure you are within limits for both.
Beech 95 POH Effective September 1, 2005
Appendix 14 - 56
Selkirk College IATPL Program Manual
Section 7 – Airplane Systems Description & Operation
Introduction to Section 7
To develop good flying technique you must first have a general working knowledge of
the several systems and accessories of your aircraft. Section 7 describes the aircraft
systems and their operation.
Airframe
The Travelair is an all-metal four-place low wing monoplane. The airframe is a
semimonocoque structure of aluminum, magnesium alloy, and alloy steel riveted and spot
welded for maximum strength. Structural components will withstand flight loads in
excess of the FAA requirements for “normal” category, under which the Model D95 and
E95 are certified.
Cabin Doors and Windows
Access to the main cabin is through the single entry door on the right side of the fuselage.
Access to the door is via a step at the trailing edge of the right wing and a walkway on the
top of the right wing and wing flap. It is safe to step on the marked walkway on the flap
only when the flap is retracted.
There is a storm window on the left side of the cabin through which the pilot can reach to
remove ice from the windshield in an emergency. The storm window must not be opened
in flight above 126 KIAS.
Storm Window
Baggage Compartments
There are two baggage compartments; one is in the nose cone, the other is in the main
cabin behind the passenger seats.
Beech 95 POH Effective September 1, 2005
Appendix 14 - 57
Selkirk College IATPL Program Manual
The nose baggage compartment can be accessed through a hatch on the right side of the
nose cone. Care must be taken to securely close this hatch before flight to prevent it
opening. If the hatch does open in flight the airplane will fly normally. A minor buffeting
and some noise may arise, but the pilot should avoid distraction from these and land
when safe to inspect for damage. A forced landing is NOT warranted.
The main baggage compartment has an access hatch on the right side of the fuselage just
behind the wing trailing edge.
A small hat rack above and behind the main baggage compartment can be used to store
light items.
The passenger seats can be removed to provide additional cargo carrying capacity.
All cargo, in all baggage areas, must be securely prevented from moving in flight.
Weight limitations for each baggage area are found in section 6.
View back through cabin shows main baggage compartment. Hat rack can be seen
above. ELT is mounted on the hat rack.
Flight Controls
The airplane has conventional flight controls consisting of a vertical fin with a rudder, a
horizontal stabilizer with an elevator and one aileron on each wing. In addition each wing
is equipped with a slotted fowler flap.
Beech 95 POH Effective September 1, 2005
Appendix 14 - 58
Selkirk College IATPL Program Manual
The controls are operated through push-pull rods and standards closed-circuit cable
systems.
The Selkirk College Travelairs are equipped with the optional dual control column and
dual rudder pedals. All four rudder pedals have master brake cylinders.
The rudder pedals can be folded down flat against the floor. It is extremely important to
confirm the rudder pedals in the upright (flight) position before each flight. Failure to do
so will compromise airplane control.
Each elevator and rudder is equipped with a trim tab. Trim wheels located on the Control
Console (see below) actuate the trim tabs through independent closed circuit cable
systems and a jackscrew arrangement. A trim tab position indicator is located adjacent to
each trim wheel. Rudder trim must be set to zero for all takeoffs. Elevator trim must be
set in the range marked for takeoff.
Aileron trimming is accomplished through a knob in the center of the control yoke hub.
This knob directly deflects the ailerons by applying tension to the aileron control cables.
I.E. there is no independent aileron trim circuit.
Flaps
The single slotted fowler flaps are operated through a system of flexible shafts and
jackscrew actuators driven by a reversible electric motor located under the front seat. On
the D95A two position lights on the left side of the control consol indicate flap position.
A red light illuminates when the flaps are fully extended and a green light illuminates
when the flaps are fully retracted. On the E95 a flap position gauge on the control console
displays the incremental flap positions from 0 to 28 . On all airplanes 10 and 20 flap
position marks are painted on the left flap allowing for setting of intermediate flap
increments when a flap position indicator is not available.
Setting flaps is done with a three-position switch on the left side of the control console.
The down position on the switch causes flaps to extend. Placing the switch in the middle
position stops flap motion, leaving the flaps at whatever value they currently have. The
up position causes the flaps to begin rising. Limit switches attached to the left flap
automatically shut off the flap motor when the flap reaches full up or full down.
Control Locks
At Selkirk College we use a red nylon strap to secure the aileron and elevator controls
between flights. The strap must be threaded through the two pilot seats and the two
control wheels so that the elevators and ailerons are in the neutral position. Properly
installed it must NOT be possible to sit in either pilot seat or to operate the airplane. This
is a legal requirement as it prevents any possibility of someone attempting to fly the
airplane with the control lock installed.
Beech 95 POH Effective September 1, 2005
Appendix 14 - 59
Selkirk College IATPL Program Manual
When removing the control lock pilots must hold the control column to prevent gravity
from “slamming” the column forward.
Power Plants
The Travelair is powered by two Lycoming IO-360-B1B engines rated at 180 BHP each,
at 2700 rpm and 29 inches of manifold pressure. The engines are approved for continuous
operation at full rated power. The four cylinder opposed air-cooled engines have direct
propeller drives and a compression ratio of 8.5:1. Pressure cowlings are used. A cowl flap
on the lower trailing edge of each cowling controls cooling. Fuel distribution is
accomplished with a constant-flow fuel injection system that incorporates a special
aerated nozzle at the intake port of each cylinder. Filtered induction system air is
obtained through a filtered air scoop on the lower front of the engine and directed to the
air throttle valve. A spring-loaded door on the bottom of the air box opens automatically
if the air scoop is blocked by impact ice or dirt. In addition an alternate air door on the aft
side of the air box can be activated by manual controls on the face of the center console.
Full dual ignition systems are used, with an ignition vibrator supplying starting voltage.
Each engine has an electric starter.
A 28-volt alternator mounted at the lower right side of each engine is driven by a belt and
pulley system.
An engine accessory box on the aft of each engine supports a propeller governor, vacuum
pump, and mechanical fuel pump.
Oil System
The engine oil system is of the full-pressure wet-sump type and has an 8-quart capacity.
For safe operation maintain a level of 5.5 quarts for normal operation. The absolute
minimum amount of oil required in the sump is 2 quarts.
Oil operating temperatures are controlled by an automatic thermostat by-pass control
incorporated in the engine oil passage of each system. The automatic by-pass control will
prevent oil from flowing through the cooler when operating temperatures are below
normal. The cooler is also bypassed if it becomes blocked.
If engine oil temperatures are consistently near the maximum normal operating value it
may mean that a higher viscosity oil grade is needed. See section 2 for approved oil
grades
Starters
Direct cranking electric starters are relay controlled and are energized by spring loaded
combination magneto/starter switches, located on the ignition panel. These spring-loaded
switches return to the both position when released.
Beech 95 POH Effective September 1, 2005
Appendix 14 - 60
Selkirk College IATPL Program Manual
Cowl Flaps
Airflow through the pressure cowling is controllable by cowl flaps mounted on the lower
trailing edge of each cowl. Each cowl flap is operated by an electric actuator, which can
fully open or close the cowl flap. Intermediate cowl flap positions are not possible. An
electric switch on the Pilot sub-panel controls each cowl flap. When the switch is down
the cowl flap is open, when up the cowl flap is closed. An amber light on the main panel
illuminates when either cowl flap is open.
Cowl flaps should be open for all ground operations and during takeoffs. In flight the
cowl flaps should be open if cylinder head temperature or oil temperature approach the
maximum normal operating values.
Consistent with engine temperature limits, closing the cowl flaps in cruise or climb will
improve performance.
Propellers
Each engine is equipped with a two-blade, constant-speed, full feathering propeller.
Propeller feathering is accomplished by pulling the propeller control past the detent to the
limit of travel. Un-feathering and restarting in flight is achieved by moving the propeller
control well into the governing range and following the engine restart in the air checklist.
Momentary use of the starter to initiate rotation is necessary only at low airspeeds.
Immediately after the engine starts the throttle and propeller controls should be adjusted
to prevent an engine over-speed condition.
FXFG has been modified under STC SA00722CH, which changed the original propeller
model. The propeller models are:
GSAK: Hartzell HC-92WK-2
FXFG: Hartzell HC-C2YK-2CUF/FC7666C(B)-4
Both propellers are 72” in diameter. But the HC-92WK-2 can legally be trimmed to 71”
while the HC-C2YK-2CUF/FC7666C(B)-4 may not be trimmed in the field.
The significant difference between the propellers is that the HC-C2YK2CUF/FC7666C(B)-4 has a restriction to avoid continuous operation between 2000 and
2350 rpm. Engine rpm may pass through this range as when necessary to speed up or
slow down but pilots must avoid prolonged flight within this rpm range.
The cruise performance charts in section 5 specify cruise at 2400 rpm or above to avoid
any conflict with the above restriction.
Procedures for feathering, unfeathering, propeller overspeed, and all other procedures are
identical for the two propeller installations.
Beech 95 POH Effective September 1, 2005
Appendix 14 - 61
Selkirk College IATPL Program Manual
Fuel System
The Travelair fuel system consists of a separate identical fuel supply system for each
engine. Each wing contains one Main tank and one Auxiliary tank (Aux.) GSAK is also
equipped with one nacelle tank in each wing but these are not serviceable and will not be
discussed here other than to say that the selectors for the nacelle tanks must be left in the
off position to prevent any contamination in the nacelle tanks from entering the Main
tanks.
The fuel tanks are lined with a rubberized fuel cell. These cells are quite sturdy under
normal service conditions but care must be taken to avoid puncturing the cell. Do not use
a dipstick to check fuel quantity; instead perform a visual check and crosscheck with the
fuel gauges and fueling records to determine the amount of fuel onboard. The Main tanks
are particularly easy to check visually. The auxiliary tanks slope, due to the wings
dihedral, so that no fuel is visible at the filler neck when the tank’s quantity drops below
¾ full.
Each fuel tank is filled through its own filler neck. The fuel caps have O-rings to prevent
water from entering the tanks. All fillers must be checked to confirm they are securely
closed before flight.
The Main fuel tanks hold 25 US-gallons with 22 gallons useable. The Main tanks must be
used for all takeoffs and landings. Main tanks should normally also be selected when
performing special flight maneuvers such as stalls.
The Auxiliary tanks hold 31 US-gallons with all 31 useable. The auxiliary tanks may be
used in normal climbs, cruise and descents. Auxiliary tanks should not be used when
performing steep turn, slips, stalls, or other unusual maneuvers unless they are at least ¾
full.
Fuel quantity is measured by a float type transmitter unit in each tank that sends a signal
to fuel gauges on the Power gauge panel (see below.) There are two fuel gauges,
controlled by a two-position switch on the Pilot sub-panel (see below.) The switch can be
set to Main or Aux and displays the quantity of the two main tanks or the two auxiliary
tanks respectively.
Each engine has an engine-driven fuel pump driven by the engine accessory box. The
engine-driven fuel pump supplies sufficient fuel to the engine for full power operation.
An electric boost pump for each engine supplies fuel pressure for starting and provides
for near maximum engine performance should the engine driven pump fail. The electric
boost pumps are used to prime the engine for starting and in emergencies, and should be
used for takeoff and landing. In extremely hot weather they should be employed for all
ground operations, takeoff, climb, and landing.
The electric boost pumps are located in the fuel lines between the fuel cells and the
engine such that fuel may be drawn from any tank using the boost pumps.
Beech 95 POH Effective September 1, 2005
Appendix 14 - 62
Selkirk College IATPL Program Manual
The fuel system has eight drains (plus two nacelle tank drains on GSAK.) On each wing
there is a Main tank drain, Auxiliary tank drain, fuel strainer drain, and fuel selector
(crossfeed) drain. The Main tank drain is directly below each main tank and removes
water that may have accumulated at the bottom of the Main fuel tank. The auxiliary tank
drain is located near the wing trailing edge just behind the main gear. It drains water and
other contaminants from the Auxiliary tanks. The fuel-strainer drain is just ahead of the
wheel well. It drains contaminants trapped in the fuel strainer, which is a cup-type
strainer in the main fuel line where contaminants heavier than water will settle out. The
fuel selector drain removes any contaminants that may accumulate in the sumps of the
fuel selectors. Regular checking of the drains is of utmost important to preventative
maintenance since contaminants will cause degraded engine performance.
Beech 95 POH Effective September 1, 2005
Appendix 14 - 63
Selkirk College IATPL Program Manual
The above diagram shows the location of all the fuel systems drains. It also shows vent
line routing and the location of all check valves.
Gear
The gear is electrically operated tricycle landing gear. The gear is operated through pushpull tubes by a reversible electric motor and actuator gearbox under the front seat. A twoposition landing gear switch located on the right hand side of the center console controls
the motor. Limit switches and a dynamic braking system automatically stop the retract
mechanism when the gear reaches its full up or full down position.
Beech 95 POH Effective September 1, 2005
Appendix 14 - 64
Selkirk College IATPL Program Manual
With the landing gear in the up position the wheels are completely enclosed by fairing
doors that are operated mechanically by the retraction and extension of the gear. After the
gear is lowered the main gear inboard fairing doors automatically close, producing extra
lift and reduced drag for takeoff and landing. Individual down-locks actuated by the
retraction system lock when the gear is fully extended. The linkage is also spring loaded
to the over-center position.
Two landing gear position lights, one red and one green, are located above the landing
gear switch. Two switches on the gear actuator (gearbox) activate the lights. The red light
indicates the gearbox has rotated to the full up position and the green light indicates the
gearbox is in the down position. In addition a mechanical indicator beneath the control
console, connected directly to the nose gear linkage, shows the position of the nose gear
at all times.
To prevent accidental gear retraction on the ground a safety switch on the left main strut
breaks the control circuit whenever the strut is compressed by the weight of the airplane
and completes the circuit so the gear may be retracted, when the strut extends. Never rely
on the safety switch to keep the gear down while taxiing or on takeoff or landing
roll. Always check the position of the gear handle.
With the gear retracted, if either or both throttles are retarded below an engine setting
sufficient to sustain flight, a warning horn will sound an intermittent note. During singleengine operation, advancing the throttle of the inoperative engine enough to open the
horn switch will silence the horn.
The nose wheel assembly is made steerable through a spring-loaded linkage connected to
the rudder pedals. Retraction of the gear relieves the rudder pedals of their nose steering
load and centers the wheel, by a roller and slot arrangement, to ensure proper retraction in
the wheel well. A hydraulic dampener on the nose wheel strut compensates for the
inherent shimmy tendency of a pivoted nose wheel.
Wheels are carried by heat-treated tubular steel trusses and use Beech air-oil type shock
struts. Since the shock struts are inflated with both compressed nitrogen and hydraulic
fluid their correct inflation should be checked prior to each flight. Even brief taxiing with
a deflated strut can cause severe damage.
For manual operation of the landing gear (lowering only) a hand crank is located behind
the front seats. The crank, when engaged, drives the normal gear actuation system.
Main wheels are equipped with hydraulic disc brakes actuated by individual master
cylinders on the pilot and co-pilot rudder pedals. The hydraulic brake reservoir is
accessible from the nose baggage compartment and should be checked occasionally for
specified fluid level. The parking brake is set by a push-pull control below the pilot subpanel just left of the center console. Setting the control does not pressurize the brake
system, but simply closes a valve in the lines so that pressure built up by pumping the toe
Beech 95 POH Effective September 1, 2005
Appendix 14 - 65
Selkirk College IATPL Program Manual
pedals is retained and the brakes remain set. Pushing the control in opens the valve and
releases the brakes.
Instrument Panel
Ignition Panel
The ignition sub-panel is on the left sidewall just below the pilot’s storm window. This
panel contains a key operated battery switch, two combination magneto/starter knobs and
two alternator control switches. In addition the E95 (FXFG) has the outside air
temperature gauge mounted here also.
Beech 95 POH Effective September 1, 2005
Appendix 14 - 66
Selkirk College IATPL Program Manual
Photo shows ignition panel
on FXFG with OAT.
To right, only partly visible
in this photo, are the two
alternator switches and the
key activated battery
switch.
Main Panel
The main panel contains the primary flight instrument: ASI, AI, ALT, TC, HSI, and VSI.
Also mounted on the main panel are: DME control, GPS Annunciator, and on FXFG the
amber Cowl-Flap position light.
Pilot Sub-panel
The pilot sub-panel contains the RMI and second VOR/ILS indicator. The RMI is
equipped with a three-position switch labeled Nav1/GPS/Nav2. This is explained below
under avionics.
The above picture shows the switches and circuit breakers on the Pilot sub-panel.
The pilot side sub-panel also contains most system circuit breakers and control switches.
The circuit breakers are labeled. Most are of the type that can be manually pulled if
Beech 95 POH Effective September 1, 2005
Appendix 14 - 67
Selkirk College IATPL Program Manual
necessary. Most of the switches are fused. The magnitude of fusing is imprinted on the
tip of each switch. Should amperage exceed the value of the fuse the switch will move to
the off position. The switch cannot be reset. Pilots must not attempt to hold a switch with
a failed internal fuse in the on position.
On GSAK the pilot side sub-panel also contains the amber Cowl-Flap position light.
The sub-panel also contains the voltage-regulator switch. The voltage regulator is
explained in section 8, electric system.
Power Gauge Panel
The power gauge panel is just above the center console and power controls. It contains
the manifold pressure gauge, tachometer, fuel flow gauge, two ammeters and two fuel
quantity indicators.
The tachometer and manifold pressure gauges each have two needles labeled L and R for
the left and right engine respectively. The ammeters indicate amperage output from the
alternators in the range zero to fifty amps. The fuel quantity gauges are controlled by a
switch on the pilot sub-panel, as explained above under fuel system.
Center Console
The center console extends from the center of the instrument panel to the floor. At its top
are the engine power controls; propellers, throttles, and mixtures. The control yoke is
mounted below the engine power controls. The elevator and rudder trim actuator wheels
are mounted below the yoke. The aileron trim actuator is in the center of the control yoke.
Panel lighting knobs are adjacent to the elevator trim wheel. Alternate air knobs are on
the front of the lower section of the console. A nose gear position indicator is at the
bottom of the console.
Power Plant Controls
Propeller, throttle, and mixture control levers are grouped along the upper face of the
center console. Propeller levers are on the left, throttles in the middle and mixture
controls on the right. Each control has a unique shape and texture so that they can be
identified by touch.
The levers are connected to their respective units by flexible control cables routed
through the leading edge of each wing. A controllable friction lock on the console may be
tightened to prevent creeping.
Trim Control Wheels
Trim tabs are mounted on the rudder and elevators and are controlled by two manual
control wheels on the console. The vertical wheel controls the elevator trim. Rotating the
wheel forward applies nose-down trim; rotating the wheel backward applies nose-up trim.
A horizontal wheel just below the yoke attachment controls rudder trim. Rotating the
wheel to the left applies left rudder trim while rotating it to the right applies right rudder
trim.
Beech 95 POH Effective September 1, 2005
Appendix 14 - 68
Selkirk College IATPL Program Manual
The elevator and rudder trims use cables that are independent of the primary control
cables and thus provide a redundancy following failure of a primary control cable.
Lateral (aileron) trim is accomplished through a trimmer on the hub at the center of the
control yoke. This device applies tension directly to the aileron cables and displaces the
ailerons as needed to achieve trim.
Panel Light Rheostats
Three rheostat switches are located on the center console just below the rudder trim
wheel and to the right of the elevator trim wheel. These rheostat switches control the
brightness of the instrument panel post lights, backlighting on some gauges, etc. The left
switch controls the panel post lights and backlighting on those instruments so equipped.
This is the most important one to set for night flying. The right upper switch controls
backlight level on avionics making the buttons on the radios and audio panel easy to see.
The lower right knob controls the panel floodlight. This not an effective lighting system
so can usually be left off.
In addition to adjusting the panel lighting with the rheostat certain lights are individually
dimmable. The landing gear and flap position lights as well as the cowl flap light and the
over-voltage light each have a built in iris that can be adjusted to vary the light intensity
from full to almost zero. Rotating the housing of the light clockwise dims the light.
Rotating the housing counterclockwise brightens the light. The lights should be dimmed
for night operations to prevent distraction to the pilot. During daylight a dimmed light
may not be visible therefore pilots should test that all lights are visible by pressing to test
on the bulb. If the light is too dim to be easily seen the case should be rotated
counterclockwise until the light is easily visible.
Alternate Air Controls
Controls for alternate air are hand-operated push-pull type with center-button locks.
These are mounted on the lower face of the control console. Pulling the knobs out opens
the alternate air doors, and blocks the normal filtered air inlet. Thus the engine operates
on unfiltered air when alternate air is selected.
A slight loss of performance should be anticipated when operating on alternate air.
Beech 95 POH Effective September 1, 2005
Appendix 14 - 69
Selkirk College IATPL Program Manual
Nose Gear Indicator
A nose position indicator, picture above, is located at the bottom of the center console.
This indicator is mechanically linked to the nose wheel actuating mechanism and will
show the position of the nose wheel whether electric power is available or not. This
indicator does not directly indicate the position of either main gear leg, however in the
absence of a break in the mechanical linkage between the gearbox and the gear legs all
three gear-legs must be in the same position.
Engine Instrument Panel
The engine gauges are located on the right side of the instrument panel and consist of:
Oil Temperature Gauge
Cylinder Head Temperature Gauge
Exhaust Gas Temperature Gauge
Suction Gauge (GSAK) Pressure Gauge (FXFG)
In addition to the above engine gauges this panel also contains:
Fixed Card ADF
Vacuum Heading Indicator (not slaved)
Altimeter
Avionics Circuit Breaker Panel
The avionics circuit breaker panel is just below the avionics stack (described below.) It
contains all the circuit breakers for communications and navigation radios. These are resettable but not pullable type breakers.
In addition there are two switches labeled avionics master and emergency avionics
master. Either switch is capable of powering the avionics bus. The switches, when
activated, draw power from the main bus to activate the avionics bus, which is directly
behind the circuit breakers on the avionics circuit breaker panel.
Beech 95 POH Effective September 1, 2005
Appendix 14 - 70
Selkirk College IATPL Program Manual
While either switch may be used it is recommended to use the switch labeled avionics
master. Should all radios fail the emergency avionics switch may be used to eliminate the
possibility that the avionics master switch is not completing the circuit.
Avionics
The Selkirk College Travelairs both have identical avionics packages. All avionics radios
are in a “stack” between the Center Console and the Engine Instrument Panel. The stack,
from top to bottom, contains:
PM1000 Intercom
KMA 21 Audio panel with marker beacons
KLN90B GPS
KX 155 Navcom
KX 155 Navcom
KR 87 ADF
KT76A Transponder
In addition to the stacked radios listed above a KM64 DME and a GPS annunciator panel
are mounted on the left side of the Main instrument panel.
Navigation information is displayed on the following instruments:
PN101 HSI – located on Main panel
A standard VOR / ILS indicator – on the Pilot’s sub-panel
An RMI – on the Pilots sub-panel
HSI (PN101)
The PN101 is an electric horizontal situation indicator. The gyro is electrically powered
and mounted under the nose cone of the airplane.
A control panel below the HSI has two switches.
RMI
A fixed card ADF is mounted on the right engine instrument panel. The ADF signal is
processed here first, then transferred to the RMI.
The RMI heading information is processed initially in the HSI then sent to the RMI. Thus
the RMI is vulnerable to the failure of either of these two systems.
Gyro Slaving System
Beech 95 POH Effective September 1, 2005
Appendix 14 - 71
Selkirk College IATPL Program Manual
A gyro slaving unit is mounted in the fuselage just behind the aft cabin bulkhead. The
single unit provides magnetic information to the HSI and the RMI.
Heater and Ventilation System
The heater system consists of a 50,000 BTU combustion heater, an igniter unit, two fuel
pumps, a fuel filter, a shut-off valve, an electric ventilation air blower, and temperature
limiting thermostats.
Above picture shows heater as viewed with fiberglass nose cowl removed. Iris valve,
shown below, is also removed.
The pilot activates the heater by turning the three position switch on the pilot sub-panel to
Heater (up position) and pushing the cabin air T-handle all the way in. The switch can
also be set to Blower (down position), which activates the electric blower for cabin
ventilation but does not activate the heater.
Beech 95 POH Effective September 1, 2005
Appendix 14 - 72
Selkirk College IATPL Program Manual
Above picture shows “Heater switch” middle position is off; up is for heat and down is
for blower only.
It takes several seconds for warm air to be delivered after turning the heater on. If no
warm air arrives within one minute adjust the cabin heat knob (explained below) and the
adjustment of the cabin outlets (explained below.)
Picture shows controls below pilot sub-panel. T-handle labeled cabin air can be seen on
the left. Cabin heat knob controls thermostat. Note that defroster is pull for off but pilot
air is pull to increase.
Beech 95 POH Effective September 1, 2005
Appendix 14 - 73
Selkirk College IATPL Program Manual
Picture shows the iris valve that controls air
entering the heating chamber.
Picture shows iris valve close.
Air to be heated enters the heater through an iris valve in the nose of the airplane. This
valve is opened by pushing the Cabin Air “T-handle” below the pilot sub-panel all the
way in. A switch on the iris valve prevents both the heater and blower from operating if
the Cabin Air handle is pulled out more than half way. Pulling the cabin air handle out all
the way stops all airflow through the system preventing drafts in the cabin when the
heater is not in use.
With the iris valve open, ram air forces air through the heating system in flight; for
ground operation the ventilation air blower maintains airflow. A switch connected to the
nose landing gear actuation linkage ensures that the blower operates with the landing gear
down, the Heat and Blower switch on (up) and the Cabin Air control in at least half way.
The blower is shut off automatically when the gear is retracted and may be shut off
manually with the Heat and Blower switch (middle) or by pulling the Cabin Air control
out more than half way.
Beech 95 POH Effective September 1, 2005
Appendix 14 - 74
Selkirk College IATPL Program Manual
Above diagram shows how heater works. Note that combustion air enters through a
separate inlet (not through the iris valve.)
Outside air is heated in a shroud that surrounds the combustion chamber and from there is
collected in a plenum. Flexible ducts are then used to direct heated air to three cabin
outlets, the defroster on the dash, the pilot, and co-pilot outlets below the instrument
panel. A separate pull-push knob labeled controls each of these three outlets. The pilot air
and defroster knobs are below the pilot sub-panel and the co-pilot air knob is below the
panel on the right side.
A cycling thermostat mounted in the co-pilot air outlet, behind the instrument panel,
controls cabin temperature. The Cabin Temperature control knob, below the pilot side
sub-panel, sets this thermostat. Pushing the knob in sets a lower temperature and pulling
it out sets a higher temperature. The maximum temperature that can be set is 82 C.
For normal operation the cabin air knob (T-handle) should be all the way in (iris valve
fully open.) However, in very cold outside air temperatures the cabin may remain cold
even with the Cabin Temperature knob pulled all the way out. It is possible to obtain
more cabin heat, in this situation, by pulling the cabin air knob part way out, partially
closing the iris valve.
For safety, a normally open fuse in the heater discharge plenum will close, making the
system inoperative, if the temperature in the plenum exceeds 150 C. This fuse is located
on the upper bulkhead behind the instrument panel where it cannot be reached in flight. If
this fuse activates in flight have an AME repair the heater before further attempts to use
it.
Fuel for the heater is drawn from the left main wing tank by two electric fuel pumps.
Only one pump operates during ground operations. The same switch that controls the
electric blower, for ground operations, accomplishes this.
The heater fuel line is equipped with a strainer that can be drained from the nose gear
compartment.
A spring-loaded electric solenoid closes when the heater is turned off, preventing fuel
from seeping into the heater.
The heater has an ignition unit that provides spark to initiate and sustain combustion. The
igniter unit requires a vibrator to provide interrupted current for the high voltage coil. The
vibrator unit has two sets of points that an AME can place into service; but there is no
provision for pilot selection of these points. If the heater fails to operate in flight it may
be due to the need to switch these points.
When not in use for heating the heater system can be used to deliver cool air to the cabin.
In flight, simply push the cabin air knob all the way in and open the pilot air, defroster,
Beech 95 POH Effective September 1, 2005
Appendix 14 - 75
Selkirk College IATPL Program Manual
and co-pilot air knobs as desired. Leave the heater switch in the off position. If on the
ground the electric switch can be place in the blower position.
The heater should be turned off for two minutes before landing so that it can cool down.
Alternatively the electric switch should be switched from Heat to Blower for two minutes
before turning the heater off (middle position of switch.)
Electric System
The electric system is direct current 24/28 volt electric system. There are two 50-amp
alternators and two 12-volt batteries connected in series to act as a single 24 volt 25 amp
hour battery.
The batteries are mounted below the nose baggage compartment. The alternators are belt
driven units attached to each engine.
Each airplane has two load meters (ammeters), one for each alternator. GSAK has a
single over-voltage light, and FXFG has two alternator-out lights, one for each alternator.
One voltage regulator that controls the field of both alternators maintains voltage in the
system. The aircraft are equipped with two voltage regulators and the pilot can choose
which one is activated with a switch on the pilot sub-panel. Normal practice is to
alternate use of the regulators to ensure that both remain serviceable. Flight with only one
serviceable voltage regulator is not prohibited, but eliminates the safety factor inherent in
a redundant electric system.
The voltage regulators draw current from the single circuit breaker labeled alternator field
Alternators, Voltage Regulators, and Ammeters
Each alternator has the capacity to provide 50 amps of electricity. The alternators deliver
power to the main bus through the two circuit breakers labeled left alternator and right
alternator respectively.
To protect the alternators from overheating do not use more than 45 amperes from either
alternator while operating on the ground at temperatures above 38 C or in flight at
altitudes above 14,000 feet with outside air temperature above 10 C.
The alternators are activated using the two switches on the ignition panel (see above.)
These switches take current provided by the voltage regulator and direct it to the chosen
alternator. On the E95 these switches also provide power to the alternator out lights
(explained below.)
The output from each alternator is displayed on the corresponding ammeter.
Beech 95 POH Effective September 1, 2005
Appendix 14 - 76
Selkirk College IATPL Program Manual
Each aircraft has two voltage regulators. The units on FXFG are combination voltage
regulators with built in over voltage sensors (explained below) while GSAK has a
separate over voltage relay that follows the regulators in the circuit (see electric diagram
below.) Only one voltage regulator is used at a time. If only one alternator switch is
turned on all the regulators output is sent to that alternator’s field. If both alternator
switches are on then the current is divided between the two alternator’s fields.
Because only one voltage regulator sustains the field of both alternators it is quite normal
for one alternator to produce more current than the other, i.e. for one ammeter to read
slightly higher than the other. As long as the lower alternator picks up the load when the
higher alternator is turned off operation is normal.
Certain emergency checklists call for the alternator circuit breakers to be pulled. Pilots
are cautioned that pulling the field circuit breaker will deactivate both alternators.
Busses
The Travelair has a main bus and an avionics bus. The main bus is behind the pilot’s subpanel and supports all system circuit breakers and fused switches. The avionics bus is
behind the avionics circuit breaker panel and supports all avionics circuit breakers.
The two alternators send current directly to the main bus through the two 50 amp circuit
breakers labeled left alternator and right alternator.
The avionics bus is fed through a switch that takes power directly from the main bus.
Two switches are provided to ensure redundancy (explained under Avionics Circuit
Breaker Panel).
Batteries
To increase battery capacity two 12-volt batteries are connected in series to act as a single
24-volt battery. These batteries are mounted in a battery box below the nose baggage
compartment. The battery box has a drain tube to carry away any fumes or liquids that
might accumulate in the battery box.
The combined battery unit has a capacity of 25-amp-hours. An electrical load analysis is
available in the approved aircraft POH that permits pilots to estimate how long the
battery can sustain the electric system in the event of inoperative alternators.
Circuit breakers and Fused Switches
Two types of circuit breakers can be found in the Travelair. One type, pictured below is
“pullable,” which means that the pilot can grasp the CB and pull it out, deactivating the
specified circuit. The other type of CB, also shown below is re-settable only. This type of
breaker will pop out when current in the circuit exceeds the specified amount but cannot
be pulled out by the pilot. Most avionics use this type of CB.
Beech 95 POH Effective September 1, 2005
Appendix 14 - 77
Selkirk College IATPL Program Manual
When amperage exceeds the values for which the circuit is designed an electric fire is
probable. Therefore pilots must never force circuit breakers in, or hold them in, under any
circumstance. If a circuit breaker pops out in flight it is best to leave it out unless the
circuit is absolutely necessary. If the circuit is necessary the CB may be reset ONCE and
only once. If it pops out a second time do not reset it.
The Travelair also uses a selection of fused switches. These save cockpit space by
eliminating the need to have a separate CB as well as a switch. The fused switches have
an internal fuse that activates above the specified amperage turning the switch off and
disabling the switch from further use. The embossed number on the tip of the switch,
which specifies the rated amperage, distinguishes the fused switches from non-fused
switches. If the fuse in the fused switch activates the switch becomes spring loaded to the
off position, and so cannot be turned on again. Any attempt to hold the switch in the on
position could cause a fire.
Over-Voltage Warning
The D95A (GSAK) has one over voltage relay and one over-voltage light that illuminates
when the over-voltage relay activates. The relay senses system voltage through the circuit
that powers the light (see diagram on following page.) The over-voltage relay activates
when system voltage exceeds approximately 32 volts. The relay blocks the field current
from reaching the alternators. Once the relay is open the over-voltage light illuminates.
The E95 (FXFG) is equipped with voltage regulators that have built in over voltage
protection. When the over voltage circuit senses a system voltage above 32 it prevents
further output from the regulator thereby shutting down the electric system. There is no
over voltage light in the E95 electric system (see the E95 electric diagram below.)
Following an over voltage the pilot will notice that both alternators have stopped working
(see alternator out lights below.) A trouble shooting procedure in the emergency checklist
allows the pilot to diagnose whether the over voltage protection was activated, the
voltage regulator failed, or both alternators simultaneously failed.
Following activation of the over-voltage relay, on either model aircraft, both ammeters
will read zero and the electric system will be operating on battery power. The pilot should
follow the provided checklist.
Alternator Out Lights
The E95 (FXFG) is equipped with two alternator-out lights, which are activated by two
alternator-out relays, one for each alternator. The relays close automatically when the
corresponding alternator output is zero. Power for the alternator out lights is provided
through the alternator switches, consequently the lights will illuminate only if the
alternator out relay is closed and the alternator switch is on.
Beech 95 POH Effective September 1, 2005
Appendix 14 - 78
Selkirk College IATPL Program Manual
Above picture shows alternator out lights on FXFG. The push to test button is between
the two lights.
A push to test button for the lights is provided. Note that the lights will only illuminate if
the alternator switch is in the on position and the battery switch is on.
Beech 95 POH Effective September 1, 2005
Appendix 14 - 79
Selkirk College IATPL Program Manual
Beech 95 POH Effective September 1, 2005
Appendix 14 - 80
Selkirk College IATPL Program Manual
Beech 95 POH Effective September 1, 2005
Appendix 14 - 81
Selkirk College IATPL Program Manual
Vacuum System
The D95A (GSAK) is equipped with two engine-driven vacuum pumps.
The E95 (FXFG) is equipped with two engine-driven pressure pumps.
These provide suction or pressure for the gyros in the attitude indicator and standby
heading indicator (on the engine instrument panel.) A gauge on the engine instrument
panel indicates the amount of suction/pressure provided as well as confirming that both
pumps are functional. Operationally the suction and pressure systems work the same. In
both systems one pump is adequate to power the instruments should the other pump fail.
Check valves prevent loss of pressure if one pump fails.
The diagram above shows the vacuum system in TD638 (GSAK.) Note that the vacuum
gauge shows the amount of suction inside the case of the attitude indicator. The standby
heading indicator has its own vacuum line that is not connected to the gauge. Note also
that air passes through a filter before entering both the attitude indicator and the heading
indicator. A plugged filter will render either instrument inoperative. In this system the
outflow air is “dumped” in the engine compartment, at the vacuum pump.
Beech 95 POH Effective September 1, 2005
Appendix 14 - 82
Selkirk College IATPL Program Manual
The diagram above shows the pressure system in TD711 (FXFG.) Note that the pressure
gauge shows the amount of pressure inside the case of the attitude indicator. The standby
heading indicator has its own pressure line that is not connected to the gauge. Each pump
has a filter (in the engine nacelle) through which the pump draws air. A plugged filter
will render the pump inoperative. In this system the outflow air is collected into a
common manifold and then “dumped” in the nose baggage compartment.
Brake System
The Travelair is equipped with hydraulic disc brakes on each main landing gear. The
brakes are individually controlled through toe pedals at the top of each rudder pedal.
Each of the four pedals has an independent master cylinder.
Beech 95 POH Effective September 1, 2005
Appendix 14 - 83
Selkirk College IATPL Program Manual
The diagram above shows only the left brake system; the right system is identical. All
four master cylinders are supplied from a common reservoir in the nose baggage
compartment. The fluid level in the reservoir should be checked regularly for appropriate
fluid level.
When any master cylinder is depressed, with the toe pedal, the hydraulic pressure is
directed to the corresponding brake line through a shuttle valve. The shuttle valve
prevents hydraulic pressure from one master cylinder from pressurizing the
corresponding cylinder on the other pilot’s pedal. This also ensures that the brake system
will continue to function should any master cylinder develop a leak.
Cabin Ventilation
Fresh air can be brought into the cabin in several different ways. When operating on the
ground the most effective method is to open the door, storm window and lift the two
emergency exits to the partially open position. In flight the above-mentioned portals
should be closed.
To admit fresh air to the cabin in flight use the overhead eyeball vents and/or the cabin
heater system, with the heat switch in the off (center) position. Using the heater to admit
cool air is explained above under heating system.
The four overhead eyeball vents admit air picked up from a scoop on the side of the tail
fin. The photograph below shows two of the four eyeball vents, as well as the push-pull
control knob that activates them.
Beech 95 POH Effective September 1, 2005
Appendix 14 - 84
Selkirk College IATPL Program Manual
To get cool air in the cabin pull the control knob out (forward) then rotate the desired
eyeball vents to the open position. Extra airflow is obtained if the outflow valve (rotary
knob in photograph above) is opened. The outflow allows air in the cabin to escape,
which is necessary if new air is to enter through the eyeball vents. Note that an always
open outflow vent below the pilots seat allows some air circulation even if the abovementioned outflow vent is closed.
Beech 95 POH Effective September 1, 2005
Appendix 14 - 85
Selkirk College IATPL Program Manual
Section 8 - Aircraft Handling, Servicing, and
Maintenance
Towing
To tow the Travel Air, attach the hand towbar to the tow lug on the nose gear lower
torque knee.
CAUTION
Do not push on propeller or control surfaces. Do not
place your weight on the horizontal stabilizers to raise
the nose wheel off the ground. When towing with a tug,
observe turn limits to prevent damage to the nose gear.
External Power
Before connecting an auxiliary power unit, turn off the battery and alternator switches
and any other electrically operated equipment. After the engines have been started and
the auxiliary power unit disconnected, the electrical system switches may be turned on
the and normal procedures resumed.
Landing Gear
The shock struts are filled with dry compressed air and hydraulic fluid. When the struts
are properly inflated, 3 inches of the piston will be exposed on the main strut and 3 1/2
inches of the piston will be visible on the nose strut. The inflation check should be made
with the airplane empty except for full fuel and oil.
Brakes
The ring-disc hydraulic brakes require no adjustments, since the pistons move to
compensate for lining wear. A clearance of 1/32 inch or less between the brake housing
and the torque flange indicates the need for lining replacement.
Discs should be checked for small nicks or sharp edges which could damage the brake
linings. Worn, dished or distorted brake discs, should be replaced. The fluid reservoir,
Beech 95 POH Effective September 1, 2005
Appendix 14 - 86
Selkirk College IATPL Program Manual
accessible through the forward baggage compartment, should be checked regularly and a
visible fluid level maintained on the dip stick at all time
Light Bulbs
Alternator out light
Cabin dome light
Compass light
1290-17
303
327
Cowl flap position light
Flap position light (TD638)
Pilot sub-panel lights
Center Console light
Glare shield instrument lights – TD638
Glare shield instrument lights – TD711
Ignition panel light
Post lights
Landing gear position lights
313
313
1819
Landing light
Taxi light
356, 327
4522
Nose gear position indicator light
O.A.T light
Overhead instrument light
Tail navigation light
Wing navigation lights
303
303
327
1203
1524
Beech 95 POH Effective September 1, 2005
1864
1820
327
327
4553, 4596
Appendix 14 - 87
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertising