ev-97 eurostar sl microlight

ev-97 eurostar sl microlight
EV-97 EUROSTAR SL
MICROLIGHT
PILOT OPERATING HANDBOOK
POH/EUR/02
POH/EUR/02
Issue 5
Page 1 of 37
PILOT’S OPERATING HANDBOOK FOR AEROPLANE
EV-97 EuroStar SL Microlight
Model:
EV-97 Eurostar SL Microlight
Registration:
G-
Serial Nº:
This aeroplane must be operated in compliance with the information
and limitations contained herein.
This POH must be available on
board the aeroplane.
WARNING
This Aircraft is not fitted with a certified engine. A power failure can occur at any time.
Never fly over any area on to which a safe landing cannot be made in the event of an
engine failure
Flying in this and any aircraft can be dangerous either as the passenger or the pilot. You
agree to fly in this aircraft entirely at your own risk.
Any acute or long term medical conditions or the taking of any medications associated
with any acute or long term condition will increase your risk of flying in this aircraft safely
and may lead to you becoming incapacitated at the controls. This includes the taking of
any social or recreational drugs, alcohol, diving using an aqua lung , recent blood
donation, cold or flu, ear infection.
On board the aircraft please ensure that loose articles are secured before flight. Loose
items can jam the controls leading to a loss of control.
Stalling, spinning or any aerobatic manoeuvres during any stage of flight may lead to a
loss of control.
The parachute handle safety pin can be removed at the pilots discretion before flight.
Failure to do so may result in the pilots' inability to deploy the parachute due to
incapacity, adverse G and or aerodynamic forces resulting from mid air collision or loss of
control.
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AMENDMENT RECORD
Issue
Details of Change
1
2
3
4
5
Date
Initial issue
12 May 2014
Section 7.10 Electrical system. Pg. 33
Changes to distribution and services.
Included electric pre-start system
Section 7.10 Electrical System. pg. 33
Changes to the warning to prevent battery
discharge.
Changes to warning on pg 2.
Section 6.2 Permitted Cockpit Loads. Pg.
29. Changes to weight, balance and
weighing
General changes to Section 3Emergencies Pg 15.
POH/EUR/02
Authorised
27 August 2014
11 September
2015
18 December
2015
29 March 2016
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Table of Contents
AMENDMENT RECORD ............................................................................................................................................. 3
SECTION 1 – GENERAL INFORMATION AND TECHNICAL DATA ................................................................................. 6
1.1
INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................................... 6
1.2
CERTIFICATION BASIS ........................................................................................................................................... 6
1.3
WARNINGS, CAUTIONS AND NOTES ......................................................................................................................... 6
1.4
DESCRIPTIVE DATA .............................................................................................................................................. 6
1.4.1 Aircraft description .................................................................................................................................... 6
1.4.2 Technical Data ........................................................................................................................................... 7
1.4.3 Three-view drawing ................................................................................................................................... 7
SECTION 2 - LIMITATIONS ........................................................................................................................................ 8
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
2.10
2.11
2.12
2.13
2.14
2.15
2.16
INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................................... 8
AIRSPEED .......................................................................................................................................................... 8
AIRSPEED INDICATOR MARKINGS ............................................................................................................................ 8
POWERPLANT ..................................................................................................................................................... 9
POWER PLANT INSTRUMENT MARKINGS............................................................................................................... 10
MISCELLANEOUS INSTRUMENT MARKINGS.............................................................................................................. 10
WEIGHT .......................................................................................................................................................... 10
CENTRE OF GRAVITY .......................................................................................................................................... 10
APPROVED MANOEUVRES ................................................................................................................................... 11
MANOEUVRING LOAD FACTOR ............................................................................................................................ 11
CREW ............................................................................................................................................................. 12
KIND OF OPERATIONS ........................................................................................................................................ 12
FUEL ............................................................................................................................................................... 12
MAXIMUM PASSENGER SEATING.......................................................................................................................... 12
OTHER LIMITATIONS .......................................................................................................................................... 12
LIMITATION PLACARDS ....................................................................................................................................... 13
SECTION 3 - EMERGENCIES ..................................................................................................................................... 15
3.1
INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................................. 15
3.2
ENGINE FAILURES .............................................................................................................................................. 15
3.3
IN-FLIGHT RE-START .......................................................................................................................................... 16
3.4
SMOKE AND FIRE ............................................................................................................................................... 16
3.4.1 Fire on the ground:....................................................................................................................................... 16
3.4.2 Fire during take-off roll: ............................................................................................................................... 16
3.4.3 Fire during take-off (climb out): ................................................................................................................... 16
3.4.4 Fire in flight: ................................................................................................................................................. 17
3.5
GLIDE ............................................................................................................................................................. 17
3.6
EMERGENCY LANDINGS ...................................................................................................................................... 17
3.7
PRECAUTIONARY LANDING .................................................................................................................................. 17
3.8
LANDING WITH A FLAT TYRE................................................................................................................................. 18
3.9
LANDING WITH A DEFECTIVE LANDING GEAR ........................................................................................................... 18
2.10
RECOVERY FROM UNINTENTIONAL SPIN ................................................................................................................. 18
3.11
OTHER EMERGENCIES......................................................................................................................................... 18
3.11.1
Vibration .............................................................................................................................................. 18
3.11.2
Carburettor icing ................................................................................................................................. 18
SECTION 4 – NORMAL OPERATIONS....................................................................................................................... 19
4.1
INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................................. 19
4.2
ASSEMBLY AND DISASSEMBLY .............................................................................................................................. 19
4.3
PRE-FLIGHT INSPECTION ..................................................................................................................................... 19
4.4
NORMAL PROCEDURES ....................................................................................................................................... 22
4.4.1 Before entering cockpit ............................................................................................................................ 22
4.4.2 After entering cockpit .............................................................................................................................. 22
4.4.4 Engine Check ground run only ................................................................................................................. 23
4.4.5 Taxiing ..................................................................................................................................................... 23
4.4.6 Before take-off checks ............................................................................................................................. 23
4.4.8 Climb ........................................................................................................................................................ 24
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4.4.9 Cruise ....................................................................................................................................................... 24
4.4.10
Descent to land from base leg ............................................................................................................. 24
4.4.11
Check before landing ........................................................................................................................... 24
4.4.14
Landing ................................................................................................................................................ 24
4.4.15
Baulked landing ................................................................................................................................... 25
4.4.16
After landing ........................................................................................................................................ 25
4.4.17
Engine shutdown ................................................................................................................................. 25
4.4.18
Flight in rain......................................................................................................................................... 25
SECTION 5 - PERFORMANCE ................................................................................................................................... 26
5.1
5.2
1.3
5.4
5.5
5.9
5.10
5.11
5.12
5.13
5.14
INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................................. 26
AIRSPEED INDICATOR SYSTEM CALIBRATION. .......................................................................................................... 26
STALL SPEEDS ................................................................................................................................................... 27
TAKE-OFF PERFORMANCE ................................................................................................................................... 27
LANDING DISTANCES .......................................................................................................................................... 28
ENDURANCE..................................................................................................................................................... 28
ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS ON FLIGHT PERFORMANCE AND CHARACTERISTICS ............................................................... 28
DEMONSTRATED CROSSWIND PERFORMANCE ......................................................................................................... 28
CEILING ........................................................................................................................................................... 28
BEST RATE OF CLIMB SPEED ................................................................................................................................ 28
BEST GLIDE RATIO ............................................................................................................................................ 28
SECTION 6 – WEIGHT AND BALANCE ...................................................................................................................... 29
6.1
6.2
INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................................. 29
PERMITTED COCKPIT LOADS ................................................................................................................................ 29
SECTION 7 - AEROPLANE AND SYSTEMS DESCRIPTION ........................................................................................... 29
7.1
INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................................. 30
7.2
AIRFRAME ....................................................................................................................................................... 30
7.2.1 Fuselage ................................................................................................................................................... 30
7.2.2 Wing......................................................................................................................................................... 30
7.2.3 Horizontal tail unit (HTU) ......................................................................................................................... 30
7.2.4 Vertical tail unit (VTU) ............................................................................................................................. 30
7.2.5
Stall Warner ............................................................................................................................................ 30
7.2.6
Galaxy Ballistic Rescue System GRS 6 473 SD B2 ................................................................................... 30
7.3
COCKPIT CONTROLS ........................................................................................................................................... 31
7.4
LANDING GEAR ................................................................................................................................................. 31
7.5
SEATS AND SAFETY BELTS .................................................................................................................................... 31
7.6
BAGGAGE COMPARTMENT .................................................................................................................................. 31
7.7
CANOPY .......................................................................................................................................................... 32
8.8
POWER PLANT .................................................................................................................................................. 32
7.9
FUEL SYSTEM.................................................................................................................................................... 33
7.10
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM ........................................................................................................................................... 33
7.11
PITOT AND STATIC PRESSURE SYSTEMS .................................................................................................................. 34
7.12
ADJUSTABLE RUDDER PEDALS.............................................................................................................................. 34
SECTION 8 - AEROPLANE GROUND HANDLING AND MAINTENANCE. ..................................................................... 35
8.1
INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................................. 35
8.2
AIRCRAFT INSPECTION PERIODS ............................................................................................................................ 35
8.3
AIRCRAFT ALTERATIONS OR REPAIRS ...................................................................................................................... 35
8.4
GROUND HANDLING / ROAD TRANSPORT ............................................................................................................... 35
8.4.1 Towing ..................................................................................................................................................... 35
8.4.2 Parking and Tie-Down .............................................................................................................................. 36
8.4.3 Jacking ..................................................................................................................................................... 36
8.4.4 Levelling ................................................................................................................................................... 36
8.4.5 Road transport ......................................................................................................................................... 36
8.5
CLEANING AND CARE.......................................................................................................................................... 37
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SECTION 1 – GENERAL INFORMATION AND TECHNICAL DATA
1.1
Introduction
This Pilot’s Operating Handbook has been prepared to provide pilots with information
for the safe and efficient operation of the EV-97 EuroStar SL Microlight aeroplane. It
also contains supplemental data which may be found useful.
1.2
Certification basis
The EV-97 EuroStar SL Microlight has been approved by UK Civil Aviation Authority
against the requirements of BCAR section S Issue 6 dated May 2013.
1.3
Warnings, cautions and notes
The following definitions apply to warnings, cautions and notes in the flight manual:
WARNING
Means that the non-observation of the corresponding procedure leads to an
immediate or significant degradation of the flight safety.
CAUTION
Means that the non-observation of the corresponding procedure leads to a minor or
possible long term degradation of the flight safety.
NOTE
Draws attention to any special item not directly related to safety, but which is
important or unusual.
1.4
Descriptive Data
1.4.1
Aircraft description
EV-97 EuroStar SL Microlight is an aircraft intended for recreational and touring flying
and is limited to non-aerobatic operations in Visual Meteorological Conditions(VMC). It
is a single engine, all metal, low-wing monoplane of semi-monocoque construction with
two side-by-side seats. The aeroplane is equipped with a fixed tricycle undercarriage
with a steerable nose wheel. Aerodynamic controls are of the conventional 3-axis type.
The power-plant is a ROTAX 912 UL (80 hp), four cylinder, four stroke engine fitted with
a gearbox having a reduction ratio of 2.27:1. The aircraft was approved with a
Woodcomp Klassic 170-3R 3 blade propeller. Other alternative propeller which may be
fitted is, Kiev 237/1700 3 blade propeller.
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1.4.2
Technical Data
Wing
Span
8.10
Area
9.84
Mean Aerodynamic Centre (MAC) 1.25
Wing Loading
45.7
m
m2
m
kg/m2
26.57 ft
105.92 ft2
4.10 ft
9.37 lb/ft2
Aileron area
0.21
m
2
2.26
ft2
Flap area
0.52
m2
5.60
ft2
5.98
1.08
2.48
m
m
m
19.62 ft
3.55 ft
8.12 ft
2.50
1.95
0.80
m
m2
m2
8.20 ft
20.99 ft2
8.60 ft2
1.28
1.02
0.43
m
m2
m2
4.21 ft
10.93 ft2
4.67 ft2
1.60
1.35
350
350
m
m
mm
mm
5.25
4.42
14
14
Fuselage
Length
Width
Height
Horizontal tail unit
Span
Area
Elevator area
Vertical tail unit
Height
Area
Rudder area
Landing gear
Wheel track
Wheel base
Main wheel diameter
Nose wheel diameter
1.4.3
POH/EUR/02
ft
ft
in
in
Three-view drawing
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SECTION 2 - LIMITATIONS
2.1
Introduction
Section 2 includes operating limitations, instrument markings and basic placards
necessary for the safe operation of the aircraft, its engine, standard systems and
standard equipment.
2.2
Airspeed
Airspeed limitations and their operational significances are shown below:
IAS
Speed
2.3
Remarks
Knots
VNE
Never exceed
speed
126
VA
Manoeuvring
speed
88
VFE
Maximum Flap.
Extending speed
67
Do not exceed this speed in
any operation.
Do not make full or abrupt
control movement above
this speed, because under
certain conditions the
aircraft may be overstressed
by full control movement.
Do not exceed this speed with
flaps extended.
Airspeed indicator markings
Airspeed indicator markings and their colour-code significances are shown below:
Marking
White
arc
Green
arc
Yellow
arc
Red
line
IAS value or range
Significance
Knots
32 – 67
Positive Flap Operating Range.
34 – 88
Normal Operating Range.
88 – 126
126
Manoeuvres must be conducted
with caution and only in smooth
air.
Maximum speed for all operations.
The lower end of the white arc is 1.1 VSO
The lower end of the green arc is 1.1 VS1
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2.4
Powerplant
Engine Model:
Engine Manufacturer:
ROTAX 912 UL
BRP – Powertrain GMBH
P
o
w
e
r
Max Take-off:
59.6 kW / 80 hp at 5800 rpm, max.5 minutes
Max.
Continuous:
56 kW / 75 hp at 5200 rpm
Cruising:
53 kW / 71 hp at 4800 rpm
E
n
g
i
n
e
Max. Take-off:
5800
rpm, max. 5 min.
Max.
Continuous:
4800
rpm
Cruising:
4600
rpm
Idling:
~1400
rpm
s
p
e
e
d
Cylinder
head
temp.
Coolant
temp.
Oil temp.
Minimum
60 °C
140 °F
Maximum 120 °C (1)
248 °F
Maximum 115 ºC (1) & (2)
239 °F
Minimum
122 °F
50 °C
Maximum 140 °C
284 °F
Optimum
194 - 230°F
90 – 110 °C
Maximum 7.0 bar
Oil
pressure
Minimum
1.5 bar
Optimum
1.5-4.0 bar
Fuel:
See 2.13 and (2)
Fuel Pressure
min. 0.15 bar, max. 0.4 bar
Oil:
Automotive engine oil of registered brand with gear
additives, but not aircraft oil (refer to engine Operator´s
Manual).
API classification SF or SG. (2)
(1) With 50/50 Ethylene Glycol/water coolant mix.
(2) Service Bulletin SB/EUR/006 Issue 1 is complied with.
WARNING
The Rotax 912 UL has not been certified as an aircraft engine and its failure
may occur at any time. The pilot is fully responsible for consequences of such
a failure. Never fly over an area on to which you cannot safely land in the
event of an engine failure.
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2.5
Power plant Instrument Markings
Analogue power plant instruments are installed in the EV-97 EuroStar SL (Microlight)
aeroplane, the following markings should be provided:
Minimum
Limit
1400
Engine speed (RPM)
Normal
Operating
1400-5200
Caution Range
Maximum Range
5200-5800
5800
Cylinder Head Temperature
(CHT) (1)
60 °C, 140 °F
60-100 °C
140-212 °F
100-120 °C
212-248 °F
120 °C
248 °F
Coolant Temperature
(CHT) (1)
60 °C, 140 °F
80-100 °C
176-212 °F
100-115 °C
212-239 °F
115 °C
239 °F
50-90 °C, 122-194 °F
110-140 °C, 230-284
°F
Oil Temperature
50 °C
122 °F
90-110 °C
194-230 °F
140 °C
284 °F
Oil Pressure
1.5 bar
1.5 - 4.0 bar
4.0 - 5.0 bar
7.0 bar
cold engine starting
Fuel Pressure
0.15 bar
0.2 – 0.3 bar
0.3 – 0.4 bar
0.4 bar
(1) When using 50/50 Ethylene Glycol/water coolant mix.
2.6
Miscellaneous instrument markings
• Fuel gauge (analogue) A fuel reserve of 11 litres (2.42 Imp. gals) is indicated
by yellow warning lamp if installed.
• Fuel gauge (Digital) The fuel quantity is displayed by a green bar plus an
indication of quantity in litres.
• In both cases this is a guide only use a dip stick to verify amount in tank.
2.7
Weight
Empty weight (standard equipment) approx. 288
kg
640
lbs
NOTE
Actual empty weight is stated in SECTION 6, par. 6.2
2.8
Max. take-off weight 472.5kg
1041lbs
Max landing weight
472.5kg
1041lbs
Max. weight of fuel
47kg
104 lbs
Max. baggage weight 15kg
33 lbs
Centre of Gravity
Empty aircraft C.G. position (standard)
18±2% MAC = 200 – 250 mm AOD
Operating C.G. range
20-34% MAC = 250 – 410 mm AOD
Datum is wing leading edge.
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2.9
Approved manoeuvres
Aeroplane Category: Normal; the EV-97 EuroStar SL Microlight aeroplane is approved
for normal and below listed manoeuvres:
•
•
•
•
Steep turns not exceeding 60° bank
Lazy eights
Chandelles
Stalls (except whip stalls)
All Manoeuvres must be carried out within the design envelope of the aircraft
WARNING
Aerobatics and intentional spins are prohibited
2.10
Manoeuvring Load Factor
EV-97
EUROSTAR SL
MICROLIGHT
FLIGHT
ENVELOPE
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2.11
Crew
Minimum Crew
Minimum Crew Weight
Maximum Crew Weight
1
55 kg, 121 lb
see 6.2
WARNING
Always comply with the maximum take-off weight of 472.5kg (1041 lbs)
2.12
Kind of Operations
Daytime VFR flights only.
WARNING
IFR flights and flights under icing conditions are prohibited.
Minimum instruments required for VFR flights:
(i) Airspeed indicator, marked in accordance with 2.3
(ii) Altimeter
(iii) Magnetic compass
(iv) Slip ball
2.13
Fuel
•
Premium or super unleaded automobile fuel to EN228, minimum RON 90.
•
AVGAS UL 91 Certified to ASTM D7547
•
AVGAS 100LL. The higher lead content in AVGAS can result in wear of valve
seats and increased combustion chamber deposits. Use AVGAS only if other
fuels are not available.
•
For other suitable fuel types, refer to the engine Operator’s Manual.
Fuel tank volume
65 litres
14.3 Imp. gals.
Unusable fuel quantity
2.9 litres
0.64 Imp. Gals.
Refer also to Engine Operators Manual and Rotax Service Instruction SI-912-016 R2
Use a dip stick to verify amount in tank.
2.14
Maximum Passenger Seating
Number of seats
2.15
2
Other Limitations
Smoking is not permitted on board.
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2.16
Limitation Placards
The owner of this aeroplane is responsible for the readability of placards during the
aircraft service life.
The following placards should be located on the aeroplane:
In view of the pilot:
Flight limited to daytime VFR non-icing conditions.
Aerobatics and intentional spinning are prohibited. This
aeroplane has not been approved to an internationally
recognised airworthiness standard.
AIRSPEEDS (IAS)
VNE (Never exceed speed)
VA (Maximum manoeuvring speed)
VFE (Flaps extended max. speed)
VSo (Stall speed, flaps extended)
126 Knots
88 Knots
70 Knots
29 Knots
ENGINE LIMITATIONS
Maximum take-off (max. 5 minutes)
5800 rpm
Max. continuous
4800 rpm
Idle
approx.1400 rpm
Max. CHT
120ºC
with 50/50
Max. coolant temp.
115ºC antifreeze mixture
Max. oil temp.
140ºC
Min. oil temp.
50ºC
Min. oil pressure
1.5 bar
Max. oil pressure
7.0 bar
Minimum fuel pressure
0.15 bar
Maximum fuel pressure
0.4 bar
LOAD LIMITS
Capacity 65 litres
Unusable fuel 2.9 litres
Maximum take-off weight
472.5 kg
Maximum empty weight
290.5 kg
Actual empty weight
____ kg
Max. baggage weight
15 kg
Minimum total occupant weight
55 kg
Maximum total occupant weight
172 kg
FUEL LIMITS
Cockpit Load including Baggage (Kg)
Maximum fuel Load (litres)
180
10
170
24
160
38
150
52
140 or less
Full fuel
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Adjacent to Oil Filler
Recommended Engine Oil
SAE 10W40 Semi Synthetic Engine Oil
that meets or exceeds JASO MA2, API SL,SAE 10W40
Adjacent to Parachute deployment handle:
WARNING - EMERGENCY PARACHUTE
To deploy pull (jerk) handle hard for at least 10 cm
Unapproved Equipment-see Pilots Operating Handbook
In the baggage area:
BAGGAGE MAX.
15 kg
On the rear area:
NOT TO BE USED FOR ADDITIONAL STORAGE
In view of both occupants:
CG LIMITS
OPERATING C.G. RANGE:
250 – 410 AOD
DATUM IS WING LEADING EDGE.
BEFORE TAKE OFF PUSH CANOPY HANDLE
UP TO CHECK CANOPY IS FULLY CLOSED
AND CHECK CANOPY OPEN WARNING
LIGHT IS OUT.
NO
SMOKING
CAUTION!
DANGER OF TRAPPING
FINGERS WHEN
CLOSING THE CANOPY
Adjacent to the fuel filler:
90 RON MINIMUM MOGAS UNLEADED TO EN 228,
AVGAS UL91 OR AVGAS 100LL*
PROLONGED USE OF AVGAS 100LL SHOULD BE AVOIDED.
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SECTION 3 - EMERGENCIES
3.1
Introduction
Section 3 provides checklists and detailed procedures for coping with various
emergencies that may occur. Emergencies caused by aircraft or engine malfunction are
extremely rare if proper pre-flight inspections and maintenance are practised.
However, should an emergency arise, the basic guidelines described in this section
should be considered and applied as necessary to correct the problem. It is normally
impractical to refer to this manual after the emergency has arisen; for this reason, pilots
are strongly advised to familiarise themselves with its contents before flight.
3.2
Engine failures
“Aviate/Navigate/Communicate” Make a Plan!
Engine failure during take-off run:
1.
2.
3.
Throttle
Ignition
Brake
- Close to idle
- Switch off
- Firmly as required
Engine failure after take-off:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Speed
Field selection
Landing area
Flaps
Fuel cock
Ignition
Safety harness
Master switch
- Stick forward, set best glide at 65 Knots.
- Land ahead into wing, DO NOT TURN BACK
- choose free area without obstacles; check for cables.
- Extend as needed.
- Shut off.
- Switch off.
- Tight. RT call if time
- Switch off before landing.
NOTE
In an emergency, the pilot’s priority is to land safely.
Engine failure in flight:
1. Speed
2. Field selection
3. Wind
4. Landing area
possible
5. Checks
6. T
7. I
8. F
9. F
10. S
- Stick forward, set best glide at 65 Knots
- Use the mnemonic SSSS’s Size, Shape, Surface, Etc.
- Evaluate direction and velocity
- Set up a circuit pattern with key positions avoid S turns if
- TIFFS mnemonic…
- Throttle fully closed
- Ignition off Master off trip circuit breakers Master & Charge
- Flaps as required (Use full 50deg flap for final landing)
- Fuel tap turn off
- Secure all loose items, Tighten seat belts
Where time allows attempt to restart or fix the problem. Make a MAYDAY CALL
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3.3
In-Flight Re-start
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Speed
Altitude/Height
Landing area
Master switch
Fuel cock
Electric fuel pump
Choke
Throttle
Ignition
Starter
- Glide at 65 Knots
- Check
- Have a plan
- Check switches and Circuit Breakers are on
- Open
- Switch on if fitted
- As necessary (for cold engine)
- Set as required
- Switch on
- Turn key to start the engine
It is possible to restart the engine by diving the aircraft, a considerable airflow is needed
to start the propeller rotating. Ensure there is adequate height before starting this
procedure. Increase speed as necessary to start the prop rotating but do not exceed
Vne, Ensure items 4 to 9 above are followed.
WARNING
The loss of altitude during in-flight engine starting is about 1300 ft
and must be taken into consideration.
3.4
Smoke and fire
CAUTION
When abandoning the aircraft with the engine running! Make a MAYDAY CALL.
3.4.1 Fire on the ground:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Fuel cock
Throttle
Master switch & Circuit Breakers
Ignition
Abandon the aeroplane
- Shut off
- Open fully open to use up remaining fuel
- Switch off
- Switch off after engine stops
Extinguish fire if possible, or call the Emergency Services.
3.4.2 Fire during take-off roll:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Abort take-off
Master switch & Circuit Breakers
Fuel cock
Throttle
Ignition
Abandon the aeroplane
- Close throttle & brake hard until stopped
- Switch off
- Shut off
- Open fully open to use up remaining fuel
- switch off after engine stops
Extinguish fire if possible, or call the Emergency Services.
3.4.3 Fire during take-off (climb out):
1.
2
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Fuel cock
Master Switch & Circuit Breakers
Throttle
Speed
Ignition
If engine stops
After landing
- Shut off
- Switch off
- In order to descend close the throttle
- 65 Knots and initiate a side slip
- Leave on until landed
- Use engine failure plan as in 3.2
- Abandon the aeroplane
Extinguish fire if possible, or call the Emergency Services.
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3.4.4 Fire in flight:
1.
2
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Fuel cock
Master Switch & Circuit Breakers
Throttle
Speed
Ignition
If engine stops
After landing
- Shut off
- Switch off
- In order to descend close the throttle
- 65 Knots and initiate a side slip
- Leave on until landed
- Use engine failure plan as in 3.2
- Abandon the aeroplane
Extinguish fire if possible or call the Emergency Services.
NOTE
Estimated time to pump fuel out of carburettors at full power is 30 seconds.
3.4.5 Smoke in cabin
1.
2.
3.
Master Switch & Circuit Breakers
Vents
Aviate
- Switch Off
- Open, yaw aircraft to help remove fumes
- Fly the aircraft to a suitable landing area
Note: It is possible to try and establish the cause or find the faulty component by tripping
all of the circuit breakers and turning on one by one until the problem reoccurs. Start with
the Master and then one by one from left to right. This should be done with great caution,
if in any doubt just fly the aircraft and land as soon as possible. The engine will only stop if
the Ignition switch is turned to off.
3.5
Glide
Best glide:
1.
Speed
2.
Flaps
3.6
- 65 Knots
- Retracted
Emergency Landings
Emergency landings, in case of an emergency landing follow procedure 3.2 in case of
engine failure and 3.7 for a precautionary landing
3.7
Precautionary landing
A precautionary landing is generally carried out in the cases where the pilot may be
disorientated, the aircraft has no fuel reserve, or where bad weather or poor visibility
present severe flight hazards.
1.
Determine wind direction. Choose a suitable landing area.
2.
Make a PAN PAN call on the radio and report your position & intentions.
3.
Fly at 500 AGL into wind over the right-hand side of the chosen area with flaps
extended one notch 15deg at a speed of 65 knots to thoroughly inspect the area. Pay
particular attention to electricity or telephone cables running across the landing area;
these are often difficult to see.
4.
Fly a tight circuit around the field
5.
Fly at 300 AGL into wind over the right-hand side of the chosen area with flaps
extended by two notches 30deg at a speed of 65 knots to inspect the surface of the
field.
6.
Make an approach to land with flaps extended to 50deg full flap
7.
Use a powered approach for a short/soft field landing
8.
After stopping the aeroplane turn off all switches and circuit breakers, shut off the
fuel cock, Secure the aircraft, lock the canopy, notify the land owner.
NOTE
Watch the chosen area permanently during precautionary landing.
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3.8
Landing with a flat tyre
1.
During the landing hold off, hold the flat wheel/tyre off as long as possible using
the ailerons or elevator as required. Avoid grass if possible a hard surface is preferred.
2.
Maintain direction during the landing roll.
3.
Stop and inspect damage before further taxi
3.9
Landing with a defective landing gear
1.
2.
Establish contact with ATC and request a fly by for an inspection.
If the main landing gear is damaged, perform touch-down at the lowest speed
possible and attempt to maintain direction during the landing roll.
If the nose wheel is damaged, perform touch-down at the lowest speed possible
and hold the nose wheel over a runway using the elevator as long as possible.
It is the pilots choice whether to shut the engine down
3.
4.
2.10
Recovery from unintentional spin
WARNING
Intentional spins are prohibited! The procedure below is only for information.
The aircraft has no tendency to spontaneously enter an uncontrollable spin if normal
piloting techniques are used. However there is a tendency for a wing drop at the fully
developed stall if slightly out of balance.
The following standard procedure can be used to recover from an intentional spin:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
3.11
3.11.1
Throttle
- Reduced to idle
Control stick
- Ailerons/ Elevator centralised
Rotation
- Identify direction of rotation
Rudder pedals
- Apply full opposite rudder to rotation
Control stick
- Forward stick on elevator control as required to stop spin.
Rudder pedals
- immediately after rotation stops, centralise the rudder.
Recover from the dive, take care not to exceed VNE.
Other emergencies
Vibration
If any forced aircraft vibrations appear:
1.
2.
3.11.2
Adjust the engine speed to the setting at which the vibration is minimum.
Land as soon as possible; perform a precautionary landing if necessary.
Carburettor icing
The EV-97 EuroStar SL Microlight is supplied with a coolant carburettor heater
system which should prevent carburettor icing; however icing may be possible under
extreme conditions.
Certain weather conditions, particularly low temperatures and high humidity, give rise
to the risk of carburettor icing. The carburettor icing shows itself through a decrease
in engine power, rough running and an increase in engine temperatures.
To recover the engine power, the following procedure is recommended:
Speed
- 65 Knots
Throttle
- increase power
If possible, leave the icing area
Increase the engine power gradually to maximum power.
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If necessary make a precautionary landing, depending on the circumstances.
3.11.3.1
Canopy open in flight
The canopy is fitted with two latch system, the red warning lamp will extinguish only when
fully closed, two clicks. Do not fly the aircraft with the red light illuminated or if only on one
latch.
If the canopy opens in flight, it is unlikely to open fully as air resistance and reduced
pressure will hold it open by approximately 30cmts there will be an increase in noise and
some reduction in performance. Slow the aircraft down to 65kts and apply flaps return to
land or make a precautionary landing. If you have a passenger ask them to hold the
handle and if possible re-secure the canopy. It is not recommended to attempt to close
the canopy if you are alone as this may lead to loss of control.
SECTION 4 – NORMAL OPERATIONS
4.1
Introduction
Section 4 provides checklists and detailed procedures for normal operations.
Procedures for optional systems can be found in section 9.
4.2
Assembly and disassembly
For assembly and disassembly procedures refer to the Technical Description, Operating
and Maintenance Manual for the EV-97 EuroStar SL Microlight.
4.3
Pre-flight inspection
The pre-flight inspection is vitally important because incomplete or careless inspection
could cause an accident. The following pre-flight inspection procedure is recommended
by the aircraft manufacturer:
Before moving the aircraft carry out a fuel inspection, drain a small quantity into a glass
container and check for debris and water, if a small amount is found a further sample
can be obtained, if the problem continues seek advice.
The drain tap is located under the starboard side of the fuselage which is accessed by
lowering the flaps to 50deg and reaching in, the tap can be stiff to operate and is spring
loaded to ensure it stays closed. The sample is taken from the lowest part of the tank,
moving the aircraft before a sample is taken may disturb any water or debris.
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Open the canopy check that the ignition is switched off and the key is removed. Set
flaps to full 50deg. Cockpit checks, seat belt security and condition, seat covers, carpet
and panels secure, control sticks fittings and push rods free and secure, rudder pedals
secure and adjusted to pilots requirements, no leaking brake fluid. Set the trim to take
off position and hold the elevator to neutral against the stabulaitor the elevator trim tab
should be also in the neutral position (e.g. all level) make sure the trim tab moves
around this position up and down with free movement. Also see 16 below
1.
Wing
• Wing surfaces’ condition, top and bottom.
• Leading edge condition.
• Pitot tube condition.
2.
Wing tip
• Surface condition.
• Check of tips attachment.
3.
•
•
•
•
Aileron
Surface condition, top and bottom.
Attachment.
Play.
Free movement.
4.
Flap
• Surface condition, top and bottom.
• Attachment.
• Play
5.
Rear part of fuselage
• Surface condition, top and bottom.
6.
7.
Vertical tail unit
• Surface condition.
• Play in rudder hinge.
• Free rudder movement.
•
•
•
•
•
Horizontal tail unit
Surface condition, top and bottom.
Attachment.
Play in elevator hinge.
Free elevator movement.
Trim tab condition.
8.
see 5
9.
see 4
10.
see 3
11.
see 2
12.
see 1
13.
•
•
•
•
Landing gear
Check main and nose landing gear attachment
Check control of steerable nose wheel.
Condition of tyres
Condition and attachment of wheel spats (if fitted)
14.
•
•
•
•
Engine
Engine cowlings’ condition
Engine mount condition, inspect welded junctions for cracks.
Engine attachment check
Oil quantity check (between dipstick marks) *
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*In cases where the engine has not been run for some time, oil can drain
into the engine crankcase, making the oil tank level appear low. If the level
does appear low, first ensure ignition is off, then with the oil tank cap off
turn the propeller slowly in its normal direction, until oil is heard to gurgle
in the tank. The level can now be checked again the level should be half
way up the flat area of the dip stick. Replace the cap after checking.
•
•
•
•
Fuel and Electric system visual check
Fuel system draining
Other checks according to engine manufacturer instructions
Use the dip stick to check fuel quantity
CAUTION
If turning the engine by hand. Avoid excessive pressure on a blade tip and trailing
edge. The engine could rotate or even start causing injury, extreme care is need
during this procedure. The propeller must only be turned in an anti-clockwise
direction never clockwise, e.g in the normal direction of blade orientation.
15.
Propeller
• Propeller attachment
• Blades, Hub, Spinner condition
• Other checks according to propeller manufacturer instructions.
16.
•
•
•
•
Cockpit
Ignition
Master switch
Instruments
Fuel gauge
Controls
• Loose items
• Canopy
- switched off
- switched off
- check condition
- check fuel quantity (switch Master ON, then off again).
- visual check
- check correct function
- check play
- check flaps’ extension
- check full and free movement up to stops.
- properly stowed and secured.
- condition of attachment, cleanliness.
CAUTION!
When adjusting the brake pedals, if the plungers are not fully engaged in one of the three
holes in the plate, the pedal may rotate backwards and prevent rudder movement. See
Brake Pedal Adjustment section 9.2 in the EV-97 Eurostar SL Microlight Maintenance
Manual
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4.4
Normal procedures
4.4.1
Before entering cockpit
1.
2.
3.
4.
4.4.2
Aeroplane surface
Cockpit
Ignition - off.
Master switch off.
- check all covers removed. Including Pitot cover
- check items inside the cockpit stowed correctly.
After entering cockpit
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Rudder pedals
Brakes
Control stick
Trim
Flaps
Engine controls
Fuel cock
- free movement check.
- check function.
- check full and free movement.
- check lever movement.
- check function.
- throttle check friction set (check throttle closed)
- check turned on*
*It is recommended that the fuel cock be left on at all times.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
4.4.3
Circuit breakers
Master switch
Comms switch
Nesis glass display
Analogue
Fuel gauge
Ignition
Instruments, radios
Safety harness
Cockpit hatch
- press on master and charge
- turn on
- turn on
- wait for system to start acknowledge warning
- proceed as below
- fuel quantity check against dipped check
- key inserted but in off position
- must be turned off
- secure
- condition and canopy closed lamp off
Engine starting
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Fuel cock
- check open.
Throttle
- set as required cold or warm start
Check start up area
- free of obstructions and people.
Electric fuel pump
- switch on (if fitted) check fuel pressure, switch off
Start (COLD)
- push pre-start button for 5 secs with ignition off check
oil presser positive movement. This is not necessary if engine has already been
run.
6. Choke
- pull and hold on if engine is cold. Set throttle fully
closed.
7. Starter
- turn ignition key to start engine.
8. After starting
- slowly release choke and set throttle to idle.
9. Oil pressure
- within 10 sec. min. pressure.
10. Radios
- turn on and set frequency, transponder set to standby
11. Altimeter/s
- set as required QFE/QNH
12. Engine warm-up - according to 4.4.4.
CAUTION!
The starter should be activated for a maximum of 10 sec., followed by a 2 min.
pause for starter motor cooling.
After starting the engine, adjust the throttle for smooth running between 2000-2500
rpm. Check the oil pressure, which should increase within 10 sec. Increase the
engine speed after the oil pressure has reached 2 bars (29 psi) and is steady.
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4.4.4
Engine Check ground run only
Chock the main wheels before engine check. Initially warm up the engine at 2000 rpm
for two minutes then continue to 2500-2750 rpm until the oil temperature reaches 50°C
(122 °F). The warm up period depends on ambient air temperature.
Check both ignition circuits at 3500 - 4000 rpm. The engine speed drop with either
magneto switched off should not exceed 300 rpm. The maximum engine speed drop
difference between circuits A and B should be 120 rpm.
Idle speed should be no less than 1400rpm and max static power 4600rpm. The
throttle should be operated smoothly, check steady rpm change and smooth running
throughout this operation. Rough running should be avoided as this can lead to
damage, if rough running is detected the carburettors may need synchronising.
CAUTION
The engine check should be performed with the aircraft heading into wind and not
on loose terrain (the propeller may draw in debris which can damage the leading
edges of the blades).
4.4.5
Taxiing
The recommended taxiing speed is 8 knots or a steady walking pace. The aeroplane
can be steered by the steerable nose wheel. Hydraulic disc brakes are controlled by
toe levers on the top of the rudder pedals. Differential braking can also be used to aid
steering. During taxi to the hold the rudder pedal movement can be checked plus the
slip ball and DI/Compass
4.4.6
Before take-off checks
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Brakes - fully applied.
Controls
- full and free correct direction
Harness & hatches - Secure and hatches closed warning lamp off
Instruments
- all functioning and correctly set
Fuel
- tap open, pressure normal, quantity for flight, pump
on.
6.
Flaps
- take-off position – (one notch = 15º)
7.
Trim
- set to take of position 9in line with flap lever at one
notch
8.
All clear
- area clear for a run up
9.
Power
- Power checks run to full power if possible 4600rpm
min then to 3500 -4000 for a mag check, turn the key back two clicks note mag
drop, key back to both, after recovered rpm turn the key back one click again
note mag drop. Check all Ts&Ps are normal. Set throttle to minimum note idle
speed around 1400rpm. Increase power to smooth running setting.
10. Wind check
- ATC or wind sock
11. All clear
- check approach or as ATC
12. Eventualities
- plan any actions in event of a problem
4.4.7
Take-off
By gradually increasing power, set the aircraft in motion.
The aeroplane can be steered by the nose wheel and/or by its hydraulic brakes.
Slightly pull the stick back to take the load off the nose wheel. The aircraft takes-off at
a speed above 40 knots. Slightly push the stick until the safety climb speed of 54
knots has been reached. The Maximum Flap Extended speed is 70 knots. Refer to
para. 5.2.5 for optimum climbing speed.
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WARNING
Take-off must be aborted if:
The engine is running rough.
Engine performance reduced.
The engine instruments’ values are beyond operational limits.
The engine choke is open
The crosswind velocity exceeds permitted limits.
Or if for any reason it is considered dangerous to proceed
4.4.8
Climb
1.
Throttle
2.
Climb Speed
3.
Flaps
4.
Trim
5.
Instruments
6.
Electric fuel pump
7.
Power
speed
- max. take-off power (max. 5 min.) 5800 rpm.
- max. continuous power (4800 rpm).
- Vy best climb speed 65 Knots
- Retract slowly above 300’ if positive rate of climb
- adjust as required
- CHT, oil temp. and pressure within limits.
- switch off and check fuel pressure remains in limits.
- reduce slightly if safe to do so maintain a safe clime
CAUTION!
If the cylinder head temperature or oil temperature exceeds its limit, reduce the
climb angle to increase airspeed.
4.4.9
Cruise
The EV-97 EuroStar SL Microlight flight characteristics are very forgiving within
permitted limits of airspeeds, configurations and CG range. The aircraft is very easy to
both control and manoeuvre. For more details about horizontal flight regimes, refer to
the Section 5.
4.4.10 Descent to land from base leg
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Throttle
- idle or as required for a decent
Speed
- reduce to flap speed Vf
Flaps
- set one stage 15deg
Trim
- as necessary.
Final
- approach at 55kts min with two or three stage flaps, increase
speed if gusty conditions. The aircraft can be side slipped in either direction with
caution.
6. Instruments
- check regularly within limits.
CAUTION!
When descending from high altitude, it is not advisable to reduce the throttle control
to minimum. Level off and run at normal power to warm the engine before
descending further
4.4.11
Check before landing
1.
2.
3.
4.
Fuel
Safety harness
Brakes
Landing area check
4.4.14
- fuel quantity check
- tightened
- check function
- correct runway or into wind
Landing
Reduce airspeed during the float, so that the touch down speed is minimum.
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Gradually pull back the stick after touch-down to hold the nose wheel just off as long
as possible. Straighten the nose wheel with the rudder pedals before the nose touches
to avoid loss of direction control.
4.4.15
Baulked landing
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
4.4.16
Throttle
Engine speed
Flaps
Climb out
Trim
Flaps
Trim
Instruments
Climb
- full.
- max.5800 rpm.
- once climbing set to the take-off position (first notch).
- at a minimum speed of 60 Knots.
- as necessary.
- retract at a height of 300 ft.
- adjust.
- within limits.
- at 65 Knots
After landing
1.
2.
3.
4.
4.4.17
Engine speed
Flaps
Trim
Electric fuel pump
- set as necessary for taxiing.
- retracted and locked.
- neutral position.
- switch off.
Engine shutdown
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
7.
Engine speed
Instruments
Radio + intercom
Ignition
Master switch
Fuel cock
- idle.
- engine instruments within limits.
- switch off.
- switch off.
- switch off.
- leave on.
CAUTION!
Rapid engine cooling should be avoided. such cooling is most likely to occur during
aircraft descent, taxiing, low engine rpm or at engine shutdown immediately after
landing. Under normal conditions the engine temperatures stabilise during descent and
taxiing at values suitable for stopping the engine by switching the ignition off. If
necessary, cool the engine at 2500 – 2750 rpm to stabilise the temperatures prior to
engine shut down.
4.4.18
Flight in rain
When flying in the rain, no additional precautions are required. Aircraft handling
and performance are not substantially changed.
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SECTION 5 - PERFORMANCE
5.1
Introduction
Section 5 provides approved data for airspeed calibration, stall speeds, take-off
performance and additional information useful for operation of the aeroplane.
The data in the charts has been computed from actual flight tests with the aircraft and
engine in good condition and using average piloting techniques.
If not stated otherwise, the performances given in this section are valid for the max.
take-off weight and flight under ISA conditions.
5.2
Airspeed Indicator System Calibration.
IAS
(Knots)
CAS
(Knots)
VSO
29
34
VFE
70
70
VA
88
86
VNE
126
121
POH/EUR/02
IAS
(knots)
31
35
39
43
48
52
56
61
65
67
70
74
78
83
87
91
96
100
103
104
109
113
117
122
126
127
130
135
139
142
Issue 5
CAS
(knots)
35
38
43
46
50
54
58
62
66
67
70
74
77
82
85
90
93
97
99
101
105
109
113
116
121
122
124
129
132
136
Page 26 of 37
1.3
Stall Speeds
Stall
type
Flap Setting
Retracted
Wings
level
stall
Take-off 15deg
Landing, 1st
notch 15deg
Landing, 2nd
notch 30deg
Retracted
Turning
flight
Take-off
Landing, 1st
notch 15deg
Landing, 2nd
notch 30deg
Power
Setting
(rpm)
Idle
4500
Idle
4500
Idle
4500
Idle
4500
Idle
4800
Idle
4800
Idle
4800
Idle
4800
Stall Speed
IAS
CAS
(Knots) (Knots)
31
35
31
35
30
35
30
35
29
34
29
34
29
34
29
34
32
36
30
35
32
36
27
32
32
36
27
32
32
36
27
32
There may be a height loss of 20 to 50 ft when stalled from level flight if normal recovery
procedure is initiated promptly.
There may be a height loss of approximately 30 ft when stalled from a co-ordinated turn at 30
degrees AOB, if normal recovery procedure is initiated promptly.
WARNING
A wing drop may be experienced if out of balance
5.4
Take-off performance
Take-off distances stated in the following table are valid at sea level and an ambient
temperature of 15 °C (59 °F).
Runway
Surface
CONCRETE
Take-off run
distance
[ft]
[m]
700
214
Take-off distance over
50 ft (15 m) obstacle
[ft]
1350
[m]
411
CAUTION
The above distances assume a dry flat firm runway of concrete or tarmac.
Greater take-off distances must be assumed for conditions which differ from
these in any way
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5.5
Landing distances
Landing distances stated in the following table are valid at sea level and ambient
temperature of 15 °C (59 °F).
Runway
surface
CONCRETE
Landing distance over Landing run distance
50 ft (15 m) obstacle
(braked)
[ft]
2373
[m]
723
[ft]
958
[m]
292
CAUTION!
The above distances assume a dry flat firm runway of concrete or tarmac.
Greater take-off distances must be assumed for conditions which differ from
these in any way
5.9
Endurance
The following give fuel consumptions, endurances and ranges for specific engine
speeds.
Fuel tank capacity
5.10
65 litres
2.9 unusable
Environmental Effects on Flight Performance and Characteristics
Flight performance and handling are not substantially affected by rain or the
accumulation of insects or moderate dirt on the aeroplane’s surface.
Flight in heavy rain should be avoided as this can cause propeller damage from rain
erosion. If such flight is unavoidable, reduce the engine speed to the minimum to
sustain safe flight.
5.11
Demonstrated crosswind performance
Max demonstrated cross wind velocity for take-off and landing
10 knots
Note: if exceeded it is possible to run out of aileron and/or rudder authority.
Max recommended head wind velocity for take-off and landing
5.12
23 knots
Ceiling
Service ceiling 16500 ft.
5.13
Best Rate of Climb Speed
65 knots Vy
5.14
Best Glide Ratio
14:1 in still air with engine off
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SECTION 6 – WEIGHT AND BALANCE
6.1
Introduction
This section details the payload range within which the aircraft G-____ may be safely
operated.
6.2
Permitted Cockpit Loads
Whenever the empty weight changes following periodic weight checks, modification
or repair, revised values for the Empty Weight must be entered in the table below.
This table is specific to the aeroplane to which this POH applies.
Procedure for weighing the aircraft are contained in the Maintenance Manual for the
EV-97 EuroStar SL Microlight.
The Basic Empty Weight (BEW) or Zero Fuel Weight (ZFW) is weight is the empty
weight of the aircraft with:
•
•
•
•
Required equipment fitted;
Unusable fuel only;
Full engine oil, engine coolant, and hydraulic fluid;
Fixed ballast.
The weight of non‐required, or optional, equipment may be excluded from the Basic
empty weight of an aircraft. The distinction between Required and Optional
equipment is clarified below.
Optional equipment is equipment that can be physically removed and whose removal
does not make the aircraft un‐airworthy. To be airworthy the aircraft must be in an
approved design configuration and able to be safely flown with the equipment
removed. Equipment that can be removed but must be replaced with something else
for the aircraft to remain airworthy is not normally considered optional equipment.
BASIC EMPTY WEIGHT =
ACTUAL EMPTY WEIGHT =
Kg
Kg
Maximum Permitted Crew Weight for given Baggage and Fuel Loads, kg. (AEW)
Date
Actual
Empty
weight
(AEW)
kg
Empty
CG
posn.
mm
AOD
FUEL LOAD
Fuel gauge
Fuel volume
Fuel weight
Approved
1
3/4
1/2
1/4
62 litres
45 kg
47litres
33kg
31 litres
22 kg
15 litres
11 kg
Date
Signature
max. 15kg
½ = 8 kg
None
B
A
G
G
A
G
E
max. 15kg
½ = 8 kg
None
max. 15kg
½ = 8 kg
None
max. 15kg
½ = 8 kg
None
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SECTION 7 - AEROPLANE AND SYSTEMS DESCRIPTION
7.1
Introduction
This section describes the aircraft, its systems and their operation.
7.2
Airframe
The EV-97 EuroStar SL Microlight airframe is a semi-monocoque construction,
formed with metal reinforcements, bulkheads and Duralumin skins.
7.2.1
Fuselage
The fuselage cross-section is rectangular in the lower section and semi-elliptical in
the upper section. The tail fin is an integral part of the fuselage. In the mid section
of the fuselage there is a two-man cockpit which is accessible by raising the onepart Perspex overlap canopy. The engine section in the nose is separated from the
crew by a firewall to which the engine mount is attached.
7.2.2
Wing
The rectangular wing is a mono-spar construction with an auxiliary (rear) spar for
the aileron and flap attachments; all the elements are riveted together. Fibre glass
wing tips are riveted to the ends of the wings.
7.2.3
Horizontal tail unit (HTU)
The rectangular HTU consists of a stabiliser and elevator with a trim tab. The semimonocoque construction of the HTU consists of Duralumin ribs, spar and skins.
7.2.4
Vertical tail unit (VTU)
The trapezoidal fin section of the VTU is mounted to the rear section of the
fuselage. The rudder is attached to the fin by two hinges. The frame of the VTU
consists of a formed metal sheet spar and a Duralumin skin.
7.2.5
Stall Warner
The port wing is fitted with a stall warner on the leading edge and is set to sound at
approximately 8 knots above the stall
7.2.6
Galaxy Ballistic Rescue System GRS 6 473 SD B2
The rocket engine and parachute is situated under the front scuttle and is designed
to fire through a break away panel. The parachute is attached at 3 points on the
fuselage, the first two being the port and starboard firewall cross-member, the third
point can be found on the port side behind the pilot’s seat. The red activation handle
is easily visible on the lower edge of the instrument panel next to the throttle.
WARNING
Before working on the aircraft, ensure that the safety locking pin is inserted in the parachute
deployment handle on the panel. If working on or near the parachute itself, ensure that the
transit safety pin is inserted. See Manual for Galaxy GRS assembly and use.
The parachute recovery system installation has been approved by BMAA on the basis that,
as far as is practicable to demonstrate, it will create no hazard to the aeroplane, its
occupant(s) or ground personnel whilst the system is not deployed; and that when properly
maintained, the risk of malfunction, deterioration or inadvertent deployment is minimised. The
BMAA has not approved the system itself or considered the circumstances, if any, in which it
might be deployed. The effectiveness of the system for the safe recovery of the aeroplane
has not been demonstrated.
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7.3
Cockpit Controls
Standard instruments and controls are shown below: This applies to both analogue and
digital panels, the picture shows analogue instruments where a digital panel is used a
backup ASI and Alt plus slip ball is fitted.
Instrument
panel
Throttle
BRS activation handle
Heater
Controls
Control stick
Choke
Fuel
Pre-start button
Rudder pedals
with toe brakes
Baggage
compartment
Fuel filler
Safety belt
Safety belt
Trim control
Flap control
7.4
Landing gear
The aeroplane has a fixed landing gear with a steerable nose wheel. The main
landing gear legs are compliant glass fibre providing good shock absorption. The
wheels are fitted with 400-6 (14 x 4) tyres and hydraulic disc brakes controlled by toe
brake levers on the pilot’s rudder pedals. The nose landing gear leg is a welded steel
tube construction and its suspension is rubber rope.
The nose wheel steering system is connected directly to the rudder control.
7.5
Seats and safety belts
The aeroplane has two side-by-side seats which are fixed, (non-adjustable). Each
seat is equipped with a four point safety belt attached to the fuselage at the side of
each seat and the side of the bulkhead behind the baggage compartment.
7.6
Baggage compartment
The baggage compartment is located behind the seats. Maximum baggage weight is
stated on the placard located near the baggage compartment.
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7.7
Canopy
The semi drop-shaped canopy consists of a composite frame on which is bonded the
organic glass canopy. The canopy is attached to the nose section of the fuselage by
two pins which make it possible for the canopy to be tilted forward. For easier
manipulation, the weight of the canopy is counter balanced by two gas struts which
allow it to open effortlessly. On the lower frame there are handles outside the
canopy. The canopy is equipped with a lock in the rear upper section of the frame.
Fig. Two-parts
cockpit canopy
3
1234-
1
2
front tilted canopy,
rear fixed canopy,
canopy lock,
fuel tank filler cap
4
Lock
The canopy is equipped with an automotive lock in the rear upper section of the frame.
Maintenance: Spray the lock with ACF 50 spray from time to time
Check:
Check the lock visually for deformations
Adjustment: Release the socket wrench screws, adjust lock position and tight the
socket wrench screws
The canopy lock has a micro switch which is connected to a red light on the instrument
panel to warn when the canopy is not securely closed.
Fig. Cockpit canopy lock
2
1 - inside lever
2 - outside lever (with a lock)
3 – Lock
3
1
8.8
Power plant
The standard power plant of the EV-97 EuroStar SL Microlight is the ROTAX 912 UL (80
hp) engine. The Rotax 912 is 4-stroke, 4 cylinder horizontally opposed, spark ignition
engine with one central camshaft-push-rod-OHV and the following features:
• Liquid cooled cylinder heads, ram-air cooled cylinders.
• Dry sump forced lubrication.
• Dual breakerless capacitor discharge ignition.
The engine is fitted with an electric starter, alternator and mechanical fuel pump. The
propeller is driven via a reduction gear with integrated shock absorber.
A number of different propellers have been shown to be suitable for the EuroStar SL,
these are:
• Kiev 273/1700 3 blade composite ground adjustable
• Woodcomp Klassic 170-3-R 3 blade composite ground adjustable
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7.9
Fuel system
The fuel system consists of a 65 litre (14.3 Imp. gals) tank, fuel cock, filter and
mechanical fuel pump on the engine. The tank is positioned in a separate space
behind the seats and has a drain sump and drain valve. The outlet is situated below
on the starboard side of the fuselage.
Fuel quantity is measured by a resistive float sensor located in the top of the tank.
The sensor indicates the relative quantity of fuel in the tank (the corresponding
quantity in litres is shown in table 6.2). and is displayed either on a separate fuel
gauge on the analogue panel or on the digital display as a guide only. It is
recommended that you always dip the tank and work on fuel burn of 15ltr per hour for
a safe operation.
WARNING
Verify fuel quantity before flight by using a dip stick or other means
7.10
Electrical system
The aeroplane is equipped with a 12v DC electrical system; most services use
aircraft frame return (-ve).
The engine does not require the aeroplane’s DC system to function, except for
starting. Its ignition system derives its power from an independent generator built into
the engine. Full details of the engine’s electrical system can be found in the Rotax
Operator’s Manual.
DC Supply
A 7.5 amp hour Aliant X3 lithium iron phosphate battery is installed on the firewall
and receives charge from the engine’s alternator via an electronic rectifier/regulator
unit and a 30 amp fuse. The regulator is a switched mode unit and a large (22,000
μF) electrolytic capacitor is connected across its output to provide smoothing for
avionics and other services sensitive to electrical noise. It also protects services from
over-voltage in the event of battery disconnection.
WARNING
The battery will be damaged if allowed to completely discharge or if it is jump started.
Only use recommended charger. See battery manufacturers’ maintenance manual
Pull the "Master" and "Charge" Circuit breakers if the engine is not run for more than
48 hours to prevent the battery from becoming discharged.
An analogue or electronic voltmeter mounted on the instrument panel monitors the
battery voltage. Normal readings lie in the range 12 to 14.4 volts.
Distribution and Services
The battery is connected via a 30 amp circuit breaker to a +ve bus bar mounted
behind the instrument panel, and switched by the Master Switch. The bus bar feeds
all services via circuit breakers. The circuit breakers are designed to trip if there is an
overload on the circuit. To reset, push the circuit breaker in. If it trips again do not
reset
Electric Starter System
The high starter motor current is switched by a relay mounted on the firewall. The
starter relay is energised when the Master switch is ON and the starter key switch,
mounted on the instrument panel, is turned.
A warning lamp in the instrument panel, is connected to the starter relay secondary
and warns if the starter relay remains closed after the starter is released.
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Electric Pre-Start System
A pre-start button is provided on the panel to turn the engine over without starting it to
enable the pilot to check for positive oil pressure before starting the engine.
WARNING
Ensure prop is clear before use.
7.11
Pitot and Static Pressure Systems
The pitot-static head, sensing dynamic and static air pressures, is located under the
left half of the wing. Pressure is transmitted to individual instruments via flexible
plastic hoses. The system must be kept clear to ensure that it functions properly.
The lowest parts of the pitot and static hoses lie on the left hand side of the cockpit,
immediately in front of the seat. If water is visible in the hoses at these points,
disconnect them and blow into the pitot static head to clear the water.
CAUTION
Avoid blowing into the pitot static system with the hoses connected to the instruments this may cause instrument damage
7.12
Adjustable Rudder Pedals
At the base of each rudder pedal an adjustment mechanism permits the pedal to be
moved backwards or forward to accommodate different leg lengths. Pull the top of the
plunger’s lever to the left on the pilot side, or to the right on the co-pilot side, to withdraw
the plunger from one of the three holes in the plate. Move the rudder pedal to the desired
position, then release the plunger lever. Gently move the rudder pedal so that it locates in
the nearest hole. Check that the pedals are aligned when the rudder and nose wheel
point straight ahead.
WARNING
If the plungers are not fully engaged in one of the three holes in the plate, the pedal
may rotate backwards and prevent rudder movement.
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SECTION 8 - AEROPLANE GROUND HANDLING AND MAINTENANCE.
8.1
Introduction
This section contains recommended procedures for proper ground handling and servicing
of the aeroplane. It also identifies certain inspection and maintenance requirements which
must be followed if the aeroplane is to retain new-plane performance and dependability.
It is wise to follow a planned schedule of lubrication and preventive maintenance based
on climatic and flying conditions; this should be done according to the Maintenance
Manual for the EV-97 EuroStar SL Microlight.
8.2
Aircraft inspection periods
The frequency of checks and associated maintenance depends on operating
conditions and the overall condition of the aeroplane. The manufacturer recommends
that the minimum maintenance checks and periodic inspections be carried out as
follows:
a) After the first 25 ± 2 flight hours.
b) After every 50 ± 3 flight hours thereafter.
c) After every 100 ± 5 flight hours or annually, whichever occurs sooner.
Refer to the Rotax 912 Operator´s Manual for engine maintenance.
Maintain the prop according to its manual.
Refer to the Maintenance Manual for the EV-97 EuroStar SL Microlight for more
details about maintenance.
8.3
Aircraft alterations or repairs
It is essential that the relevant organisations BMAA or LAA and the aircraft manufacturer
LSA are contacted prior to any modifications to the aircraft to ensure that the
airworthiness of the aircraft is not invalidated.
If the aircraft weight could be affected by a modification, the aeroplane must be reweighed to record the new empty weight and cg. The Weight and Balance record /
Permitted Payload range table given in Section 6.2 and the Load Limits placard must
also be amended to reflect the change.
Refer to the Maintenance Manual for EV-97 EuroStar SL (Microlight) for aeroplane
repairs.
8.4
Ground handling / Road transport
8.4.1
Towing
It is easy to tow the aircraft a short distance by holding the prop blade at the root
since the aeroplane’s empty weight is low. The rear part of the fuselage in front
of the fin, and the wing roots are suitable surfaces to hold the airframe .
CAUTION!
Avoid excessive pressure at the aeroplane airframe - especially at the wing tips,
elevator, rudder, trim etc.
Handle the propeller by holding the blade root - never blade tip!
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8.4.2
Parking and Tie-Down
It is advisable to keep the aeroplane inside a hangar, or other safe area, having a stable
temperature, good ventilation, low humidity and a dust-free environment.
If the aeroplane is kept outside, it must be tethered to strong tie-down points, particularly
if it is to be left for some time. The aeroplane is equipped with mooring eyes located on
the lower surfaces of the wings.
Tie-Down Procedure:
1.
Check: master & battery circuit breakers are tripped, and ignition switch is off.
2.
Secure the control stick. It is not recommended to tie the sticks backwards, as
with the
elevator up, water can enter the trim cable exit point and eventually
corrode the trim cable. Use of a bungie rope tied between the two control sticks and
wrapped around the throttle stem is satifatory.
3.
Shut all the ventilation windows.
4.
Close and lock the cockpit.
5.
Tie down the aircraft to the ground by a rope passed through the tie-down eyes
located on the lower surfaces of the wing. It is also necessary to tie down the
nose wheel landing gear to a ground stake. Do not overtighten the ropes.
When parking for a long time, it is recommended that the cockpit canopy, and possibly
the whole aeroplane, be covered by a suitable cover. Take great care to ensure that:
• the internal surface of such covers are clean and cannot abrade the aeroplane’s
surface.
• the covers are pulled down taught to prevent wind induced flutter from damaging
the surface; use additional straps where necessary.
• the aeroplane is parked into the prevailing wind, or in the most sheltered area
available.
8.4.3
Jacking
Because the empty weight of this aircraft is relatively low, two people can lift the aircraft
easily. First prepare two suitable supports for the fuselage. It is possible to lift the
aircraft as follows:
• Push down on the rear part of the fuselage, just before the fin, to lift the front of
the aircraft. Then support the weight under the firewall.
• To jack the rear part of the aircraft, handle the fuselage near the auxiliary tail
skid, lift it upward and support it.
• To lift the wings, push from underneath the wings only at the main spar. Avoid
lifting the wings by means of handling the wing tips.
8.4.4
Levelling
Refer to the Maintenance Manual for the EV-97 EuroStar SL Microlight for more details
about levelling.
8.4.5
Road transport
The aircraft may be transported by loading on to a suitable car trailer, or a purpose built
aircraft trailer.
It is necessary to dismantle the wings before road transport. The aircraft and dismantled
wings should be fastened down securely to protect these parts against possible
damage.
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8.5
Cleaning and care
Use efficient cleaning detergents to clean the aircraft surface. Oil spots on the aircraft
surface (except the canopy!) may be cleaned with petrol.
Clean the canopy only by washing it with lukewarm water and detergent. Use either a
soft clean cloth, sponge or chamois leather.
CAUTION
Never clean the canopy dry and never use petrol or chemical solvents!
Upholstery and covers can be removed from the cockpit, brushed, and if necessary,
washed in lukewarm water with detergent. Dry the upholstery thoroughly before
reinstalling into the cockpit.
NOTE
In the case of long term parking, cover the canopy to protect the cockpit interior
from direct sunshine.
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